WorldWideScience

Sample records for public counterparts private

  1. Private opportunity, public benefit?

    OpenAIRE

    John Hall

    1998-01-01

    The newly elected Labour government has pledged to ‘reinvigorate the Private Finance Initiative’, as part of the new emphasis on ‘public/private partnerships’ in the delivery of core public services. This article assesses the merits of using private finance to deliver public services against three criteria: whether it will lead to additional investment in social infrastructure, whether it represents good value for the taxpayer’s money and whether the use of private finance will reduce the pub...

  2. Private opportunity, public benefit?

    OpenAIRE

    John Hall

    1998-01-01

    The newly elected Labour government has pledged to ‘reinvigorate the Private Finance Initiative’, as part of the new emphasis on ‘public/private partnerships’ in the delivery of core public services. This article assesses the merits of using private finance to deliver public services against three criteria: whether it will lead to additional investment in social infrastructure, whether it represents good value for the taxpayer’s money and whether the use of private finance will reduce the pub...

  3. Public private partnerships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Sarmento, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Public-private partnerships (PPPs) are increasing in number worldwide and are used to build and manage large public infrastructure projects. In PPPs, the private sector plays a role in developing and maintaining public infrastructure and services, which is usually a public sector responsibility. Des

  4. Public private partnerships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Sarmento, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Public-private partnerships (PPPs) are increasing in number worldwide and are used to build and manage large public infrastructure projects. In PPPs, the private sector plays a role in developing and maintaining public infrastructure and services, which is usually a public sector responsibility.

  5. Public private partnerships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Sarmento, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Public-private partnerships (PPPs) are increasing in number worldwide and are used to build and manage large public infrastructure projects. In PPPs, the private sector plays a role in developing and maintaining public infrastructure and services, which is usually a public sector responsibility. Des

  6. Public-Private Partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helby Petersen, Ole

    This PhD dissertation studies national similarities and differences in policy and regulation of public-private partnerships (PPPs), with an empirical focus on Denmark and Ireland. The starting point and motivation for the study is the observation that whereas PPPs are often depicted in the academic...

  7. Public-Private Partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weihe, Gudrid

    There is a great deal of confusion about the meaning of the concept public-private partnership (PPP). Much is written on the subject but only rarely do authors give an adequate account of what they mean when they talk about PPP, nor do they acknowledge that there exist qualitatively different PPP...

  8. Public-Private Partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Martin; Jeppesen, S.

    2006-01-01

    Public-private partnerships in the environmental field have emerged as one option in the pursuit of sustainable development. So-called ‘Green Networks’, ‘Cleaner Production Centres’, ‘Waste Minimisation Clubs’ are among others highlighted as alternatives to governmental regulation. While being...

  9. Pharmaceutical Public-Private Partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagley, Constance; Tvarnø, Christina D.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a game theory and law-and-management analysis of for- profit pharmaceutical public-private partnerships, a complex type of legal arrangement in the highly regulated pharmaceutical industry. A pharmaceutical public-private partnership (PPPP) agreement is a legally binding con...

  10. Public Sector Unions and Privatization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Søren Kjær; Aaskoven, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    to substantially and significantly less privatization through the voucher market. By comparison, the estimated relationship between the relative number of public workers and privatization does not reach statistical significance. Features of the voucher market and qualitative evidence suggest that the union...

  11. Privatization and the Public Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Matthew T.

    2015-01-01

    After two centuries of public higher education in the United States, the covenant between public colleges and universities and the public that created and funded them is under strain. In a time of scarce resources and changing policy in many corners of the country and around the globe, privatization has emerged as a possible replacement for the…

  12. Markets & Myths: Autonomy in Public & Private Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Rubin Glass

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available

    School choice is the most controversial education policy issue of the 1990s. John Chubb and Terry Moe's Politics, Markets and America's Schools stimulated this investigation. They concluded that teacher and administrator autonomy was the most important influence on student achievement. They assumed that the organization of private schools offered greater autonomy resulting in higher student achievement and that the bureaucracy of public schools stifles autonomy limiting student achievement. The research undertaken here elaborates, elucidates, and fills in the framework of teacher and principal autonomy in public and private secondary schools. Interviews of more than thirty teachers and administrators in six high schools, observations, field notes, and analysis of documents collected in the field form the empirical base of this work. The sites included three private, independent, nondenominational secondary schools which are college preparatory and three public secondary schools noted for high graduation rates and offering numerous advanced placement courses.

    The feelings expressed by both public and private school participants in this study testify to equally high degrees of autonomy. Issues that emerged from data analysis in this study which mitigate and shape autonomy include the following: conflicting and contradictory demands, shared beliefs, layers of protection, a system of laws, funding constraints and matters of size of the institution. These issues challenge oversimplified assertions that differences of any importance exist between the autonomy experienced by professionals in public and private high schools. This study reveals the complexity of the concept of autonomy and challenges the myth that teachers and principals in private schools enjoy autonomy and freedom from democratic bureaucracy that their public school counterparts do not.

  13. Public and Private Sector IT Governance: Identifying Contextual Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Campbell

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights systemic contextual differences and the unique IT Governance issues that might arise in public and private sector organizations. Public sector organizations constitute a significant component of economic activity in most countries. Like their private sector counterparts, many public sector agencies are struggling to cope with reduced or inadequate IT budgets and are continuously looking for ways to extract maximum value from IT resources. While both sectors face similar managerial-level IT issues and challenges, we argue that there are systemic differences between private and public sector organizations suggesting that a one size fits all approach to IT Governance may not apply.

  14. Private Money, Public Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Andrew P.; McShane, Michael Q.

    2013-01-01

    It's no secret that states and the federal government have found themselves in a financial pinch when it comes to higher education. After years of recession and sluggish recovery, states have slashed per-pupil public spending on higher education by 14.6 percent since 2008. At the federal level, though money for Pell Grants has more than doubled…

  15. Private Money, Public Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Andrew P.; McShane, Michael Q.

    2013-01-01

    It's no secret that states and the federal government have found themselves in a financial pinch when it comes to higher education. After years of recession and sluggish recovery, states have slashed per-pupil public spending on higher education by 14.6 percent since 2008. At the federal level, though money for Pell Grants has more than doubled…

  16. Public Supervision over Private Relationships : Towards European Supervision Private Law?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherednychenko, O.O.

    2014-01-01

    The rise of public supervision over private relationships in many areas of private law has led to the development of what, in the author’s view, could be called ‘European supervision private law’. This emerging body of law forms part of European regulatory private law and is made up of contract-rela

  17. Public-private Partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodge, Graeme A.; Greve, Carsten; Boardman, Anthony E.

    2017-01-01

    Infrastructure PPPs are now main-stream. Both partnership language and its contractual forms have evolved over the past few decades, though. Compared to early optimistic promises, we now have a more nuanced and balanced view of what PPPs are and what they can achieve. Indeed, modern PPPs are tied...... experience in this context, particularly through the global financial crisis. It concludes that PPP can become an integrated part of infrastructure development around the world, assuming learning occurs from past experience. It presents several lessons on deepening partnerships; on the multiplicity...... of the PPP ‘model’ and its ingredients; on policy learning and on governing infrastructure in the medium term. And it also concludes that not only does the PPP brand today still offer manifold possibilities, even more public policy experimentation is currently warranted....

  18. Differences between Public and Private Universities' Fields of Study in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabossi, Marcelo Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The literature on private higher education has identified striking differences between the public and private sectors in terms of fields of study. For example, unlike their public counterparts, private universities have traditionally specialised in the social sciences and humanities. This paper explores the university market in Argentina to see if…

  19. Differences between Public and Private Universities' Fields of Study in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabossi, Marcelo Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The literature on private higher education has identified striking differences between the public and private sectors in terms of fields of study. For example, unlike their public counterparts, private universities have traditionally specialised in the social sciences and humanities. This paper explores the university market in Argentina to see if…

  20. 77 FR 30351 - Sec. 221 Public Private Partnerships Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... such a program be based on public- private partnership (PPP) principles and maximize the use of private... effective public-private partnership equipage incentive program. This notice is for the initial meeting. A...

  1. Balancing Public and Private Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn Scheltema

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary Sustainability Standards (VSS might develop into a viable alternative to public regulation. However, it turns on the (regulatory circumstances whether that holds true in practice. If public regulation on CSR topics is lacking, governments are unable to agree upon certain topics on a global level or diverging public regulation exists, VSS can be helpful to set global standards. Obviously, private standards will especially be helpful if they are commensurate with local public legislation (and e.g. treaties and/or are accepted by local governments. If one neglects this, numerous domestic structures might exist that frustrate VSS. Furthermore, governments have to remain vigilant as to whether these private regimes do not result in market disruption, consumer detriment or hamper trade. VSS might also compete with public arrangements which might limit the uptake of VSS. However, if public regulation exists VSS might be a viable alternative if compliance with not too compelling public norms by market participants is rather poor and the public policymaker is aiming to incentivize the better performing part of the market to embark on higher standards and thus only desires to regulate the less performing part of the market. However, of paramount importance is the effectiveness of VSS in order to be a viable alternative to public regulation. The effectiveness of VSS should be assessed using an integrated multi-disciplinary (comparative approach entailing legal, impact-assessment, legitimacy, governance and behavioural aspects. Only effective VSS in the aforementioned sense are a true alternative to public regulation.Beyond that, the legal perspective in connection with (the effectiveness of VSS is discussed, featuring FSC and UTZ Certified as an example. It is important from this perspective that VSS have a clear and sufficiently selective objective and sufficiently specific norms, are regularly evaluated, entail ‘conflict of law rules’ and

  2. Balancing Public and Private Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn Scheltema

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary Sustainability Standards (VSS might develop into a viable alternative to public regulation. However, it turns on the (regulatory circumstances whether that holds true in practice. If public regulation on CSR topics is lacking, governments are unable to agree upon certain topics on a global level or diverging public regulation exists, VSS can be helpful to set global standards. Obviously, private standards will especially be helpful if they are commensurate with local public legislation (and e.g. treaties and/or are accepted by local governments. If one neglects this, numerous domestic structures might exist that frustrate VSS. Furthermore, governments have to remain vigilant as to whether these private regimes do not result in market disruption, consumer detriment or hamper trade. VSS might also compete with public arrangements which might limit the uptake of VSS. However, if public regulation exists VSS might be a viable alternative if compliance with not too compelling public norms by market participants is rather poor and the public policymaker is aiming to incentivize the better performing part of the market to embark on higher standards and thus only desires to regulate the less performing part of the market. However, of paramount importance is the effectiveness of VSS in order to be a viable alternative to public regulation. The effectiveness of VSS should be assessed using an integrated multi-disciplinary (comparative approach entailing legal, impact-assessment, legitimacy, governance and behavioural aspects. Only effective VSS in the aforementioned sense are a true alternative to public regulation.Beyond that, the legal perspective in connection with (the effectiveness of VSS is discussed, featuring FSC and UTZ Certified as an example. It is important from this perspective that VSS have a clear and sufficiently selective objective and sufficiently specific norms, are regularly evaluated, entail ‘conflict of law rules’ and

  3. Public-private partnerships in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Grunert, Klaus G.; Bruun, Peter

    2004-01-01

    element of this project, this report presents an inventory of public-private partnerships in Denmark. More specifically, it provides an inventory of past, present and proposed research projects related to food quality and food safety involving both public and private partners. Furthermore it points...... to a number of opportunities for developing public-private partnerships....

  4. PRIVATE OR PUBLIC PENSION INSURANCE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogomil Manov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The most recent trends in population dynamics and increased longevity risk have provoked a rigorous debate whether the private or the public pension insurance system should be predominant. The public pension insurance is dominated by the state that guarantees its stability, but is often compared to a pyramid or a Ponzi scheme. The private pension insurance provides personal retirement accounts and proper ownership of the accumulated funds, but its sustainability during prolonged market crises and inadequate risk sharing are often questioned. In order to address the issue, this study analyzes and compares a large set of arguments and popular opinions in favour and against both pension models. As a result of the study, a conclusion is drawn stating that both types of pension insurance, despite of their positive and negative features have their essential role nowadays. This study is part of a growing set of articles on the feasibility of using a proper combination of the two pension models and will contribute to future research on the topic and might benefit policymakers in taking an appropriate decision.

  5. The Privatization of Public University Research Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Brinley

    2007-01-01

    Are we witnessing the privatization of public university research libraries? There is convincing evidence that, in an era of decreasing state support for public higher education, public universities have begun to resemble private universities, particularly in their sources of revenue. A number of indicators demonstrate that public universities,…

  6. The Challenge of Public-Private Partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodge, Graeme; Greve, Carsten

    . "The Challenge of Public - Private Partnerships" advances recent thought on PPPs in the areas of risk transfer, financial implications, contractual matters, politics, management and accountability. International case studies are presented from the United Kingdom, Europe, the US and Australasia......Public - Private Partnerships (PPPs) - co-operative institutional arrangements between public and private sector actors - are now an increasingly relevant and globally popular public policy option. The authors argue that even though PPPs are still evolving, there is now sufficient research to bring...

  7. Differentially Private Trajectory Data Publication

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Rui; Desai, Bipin C

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing prevalence of location-aware devices, trajectory data has been generated and collected in various application domains. Trajectory data carries rich information that is useful for many data analysis tasks. Yet, improper publishing and use of trajectory data could jeopardize individual privacy. However, it has been shown that existing privacy-preserving trajectory data publishing methods derived from partition-based privacy models, for example k-anonymity, are unable to provide sufficient privacy protection. In this paper, motivated by the data publishing scenario at the Societe de transport de Montreal (STM), the public transit agency in Montreal area, we study the problem of publishing trajectory data under the rigorous differential privacy model. We propose an efficient data-dependent yet differentially private sanitization algorithm, which is applicable to different types of trajectory data. The efficiency of our approach comes from adaptively narrowing down the output domain by building...

  8. Public Private Partnerships Applicability to Defence Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    Public Private Partnerships Applicability to Defence Procurement Jonathan Barnes KPMG Corporate Finance Report Documentation Page Report Date...25SEP2001 Report Type N/A Dates Covered (from... to) 25SEP2001 - 27SEP2001 Title and Subtitle Public Private Partnerships Applicability to Defence...unclassified Classification of Abstract unclassified Limitation of Abstract UU Number of Pages 6 kpmg Aim Provide an appreciation of: n Public Private Partnerships

  9. Comparing public and private sector switchers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg; Bozeman, Barry

    are related to sector switching and the pattern of sector switch, public to private versus private to public. We propose a life stage model arguing that people's needs change in different life stages of their lives. We further suggest that this can help explain why they switch sector. We use unique Danish...... labor market data that include information on all employees in Denmark (both private and public sector). The data are for the period 1980 to 2006, and this longitudinal database includes abundant information about job changes, including sector switching. Our findings indicate mixed support....... Finally, we find that people with more education are likely to switch from private to public sector....

  10. Public-Private Partnerships for Transport Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueroa, Maria Josefina; Greve, Carsten

    The provision of transport infrastructure and services creates fundamental value to society. With traditional sources of transport public funding running short, governments around the world are increasingly turning to public-private finance (PPPs) as a promising tool of public infrastructure...... of the public but of the private actor as well, to act perhaps motivated by corporate social responsibility, committing to bringing innovation and transparency in their efforts for advancing sustainability....

  11. Private and public patients in public hospitals in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmueli, Amir; Savage, Elizabeth

    2014-04-01

    The nature of the private-public mix in health insurance and in health care is a major issue in most health systems. To compare the hospitalization characteristics of private and public patients hospitalized in public hospitals. We focused on planned, overnight and same-day admissions, discharged during 2004-2005 from the public New South Wales hospitals, and run fixed-effects regressions in order to identify the effect of accommodation status (private/public) on the hospitalization characteristics. Private patients have one third less waiting days than public patients, and they are assigned higher urgency of admission. Length of stay and length of visit are both unrelated to the accommodation status, however, private patients tend to have more hours in ICU and more procedures performed during the hospitalization. In-hospital mortality and the number of transfers (wards) are not affected by the accommodation status. Private patients are treated differently than public patients in public hospitals, reinforcing the private health insurance-related inequity in inpatient care identified by others. Two health policy issues emerge from the findings: the role of private health insurance in the Australian socialized medicine system, and in particular, in the public hospitals; and the way public hospitals are reimbursed for private patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Public Incentives for Conservation on Private Land

    OpenAIRE

    Suter, Jordan; Sahan, Dissanayake; Lynne, Lewis

    2014-01-01

    Habitat destruction and fragmentation resulting from land development has motivated considerable public and private expenditures on land conservation initiatives. In addition to direct expenditures related to the procurement of conservation land, legislators have also put in place incentives aimed at encouraging private landowners to voluntarily donate conservation easements. Many landowners have taken advantage of these incentives, as private land held under conservation easement increased n...

  13. Public-private partnership in theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaž Vrhnjak

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: In political and other debates much of attention is paid to publicprivate partnerships (PPPs. These partnerships are perceived as a tool of meeting public demand by private supply. In theory there are at least four different forms of contract partnerships according to the amount of risks transferred to the private sector.Conclusions: Publicprivate partnerships are neither the only neither the preferred way of providing public service. On one hand they tend to lower financial burden of the public sector but on the other hand PPPs require complex ways of management and monitoring. It is highly important to consider specific circumstances of individual projects in question.

  14. Reputational Sanctions in Private and Public Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. van Erp (Judith)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis article analyses how reputation functions as a mechanism for social control in private and public regulation. It discusses three cases of private markets where reputation is a powerful and effective mechanism for social control. From the case studies, four characteristics of markets

  15. Privatization in a public leadership mixed duopoly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Fernanda A.; Ferreira, Flávio

    2016-06-01

    We consider domestic and international competitions with one public leader firm and one follower private firm, producing complementary goods and competing on prices. We compare the results obtained in both models. Furthermore, we examine the impacts of privatization on consumer surplus and on social welfare.

  16. Respondents report survey Public Private Partnerships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E-H. Klijn (Erik-Hans); J.F.M. Koppenjan (Joop); N. de Boer (Noortje)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Public private partnerships (PPP) have become a popular policy instrument in many Western European countries. Governments assume that the involvement of private actors in the provision of services, or in the realization of policy goals will increase quality and provide

  17. USAID Public-Private Partnerships Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This dataset brings together information collected since 2001 on PPPs that have been supported by USAID. For the purposes of this dataset a Public-Private...

  18. Conflicting logics in Public Private Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Helle Aarøe

    The article explores the interplay between conflicting logics, when private firms interact with potential public customers, as the firms aim to commercialize welfare innovations developed through Public Private Innovation (PPI) projects. Commercialization of welfare innovations in healthcare may ...... as there is an expressed need for these within the healthcare system. As such, the article contributes to institutional logics theory by addressing the call for research in conflicting logics.......The article explores the interplay between conflicting logics, when private firms interact with potential public customers, as the firms aim to commercialize welfare innovations developed through Public Private Innovation (PPI) projects. Commercialization of welfare innovations in healthcare may...... that they are faced with a NIH logic which is in conflict with their own market logic involving intensions to commercialize broadly within the healthcare system. The firms experience difficulties in commercializing and thus diffusing welfare innovations, which, for them, seem to be counter intuitive...

  19. Renegotiating Public-Private Partnerships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Sarmento, J.J.; Renneboog, Luc

    2017-01-01

    The renegotiations of public–private partnership (PPP) contracts are commonly considered to be one of the pitfalls of PPPs, as they tend to undermine their (ex ante) efficiency. A renegotiation occurs when specific events change the conditions of a concession, frequently leading to a financial claim

  20. Renegotiating Public-Private Partnerships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Sarmento, J.J.; Renneboog, Luc

    2017-01-01

    The renegotiations of public–private partnership (PPP) contracts are commonly considered to be one of the pitfalls of PPPs, as they tend to undermine their (ex ante) efficiency. A renegotiation occurs when specific events change the conditions of a concession, frequently leading to a financial claim

  1. Public Schools: Make Them Private.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Milton

    1997-01-01

    A voucher system enabling parents to choose freely the schools their children attend is the most feasible way to improve education. Vouchers will encourage privatization. That will unleash the drive, imagination, and energy of competitive free enterprise to revolutionize the education process. Government schools will be forced to improve to retain…

  2. Blogging how our private thoughts went public

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Kristin Roeschenthaler

    2014-01-01

    Public vs. private is an ongoing concern in communication. This book examines this phenomenon through self-representational writing and the philosophical lens of Hannah Arendt's public vs. private theory, the Boundary Management theory, and the Parasocial Framework theory to examine the first social networking platform: personal blogs. By starting with a look back at self-representational writing, the book also examines how much information individuals have shared with each other through this format historically.

  3. The Challenge of Public-Private Partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodge, Graeme; Greve, Carsten

    Public - Private Partnerships (PPPs) - co-operative institutional arrangements between public and private sector actors - are now an increasingly relevant and globally popular public policy option. The authors argue that even though PPPs are still evolving, there is now sufficient research to bring....... "The Challenge of Public - Private Partnerships" advances recent thought on PPPs in the areas of risk transfer, financial implications, contractual matters, politics, management and accountability. International case studies are presented from the United Kingdom, Europe, the US and Australasia...... international challenges for future PPPs. Re-examining the myriad meanings and definitions given to PPPs, and presenting a range of theories and frameworks to improve understanding of PPP events and outcomes, this book will be of great interest to those involved in public administration and public policy-making....

  4. Developing public private partnerships in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buser, Martine; Koch, Christian

    2005-01-01

    The establishment of private public partnerships in Denmark in relation to construction has been a long and reluctant process. In the spring of 2004 however the government launched an action plan and PPP arrangements are now emerging. A first wave of PPP arrangements started flourishing however...... these various sectors in producing present public services. The paper analyse the emergent network and the metagovernance frame. Examples of Danish PPP are given highlighting the role of the construction firms. The experiences illustrate the importance of recognizing public private partnerships as emergent...... of networking, learning and establishing of institutions. Drawing on new public management perspectives it is argued that the future model of public services is the network of a mixed set of players (private, voluntary and public). Such networks might be strong in combining forces and strength from...

  5. Public by Day, Private by Night: Examining the Private Lives of Kenya's Public Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangenge-Ouma, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the emergence of the public university in Kenya as a key provider of private higher education, characterised mainly by the phenomenon of the "private public university student." It probes the broader socio-economic reforms circumscribing the privatisation of Kenya's public universities and the local and global forces…

  6. Public by Day, Private by Night: Examining the Private Lives of Kenya's Public Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangenge-Ouma, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the emergence of the public university in Kenya as a key provider of private higher education, characterised mainly by the phenomenon of the "private public university student." It probes the broader socio-economic reforms circumscribing the privatisation of Kenya's public universities and the local and global…

  7. Private and public decisions in social dilemmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houser, Daniel; Montinari, Natalia; Piovesan, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Are selfish impulses less likely to be pursued when decisions are publicly observable? Is the presence of peers a potential solution to social dilemmas? In this paper we report data on the self-control decisions of children aged 6 to 11 who participated in games that require one to resist a selfish...... impulse for several minutes in order to benefit others. In Public Condition children make decisions in public view of the group of other participants, while in Private Condition they have the possibility to decide privately. We find that children aged 9 and higher are better able to resist selfish...... impulses in public environments. Younger children, however, display no such effect. Further, we find self-control substantially impacted by group size. When decisions are public, self-control is better in larger groups, while in private condition the opposite holds....

  8. Developing public private partnerships in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buser, Martine; Koch, Christian

    2005-01-01

    these various sectors in producing present public services. The paper analyse the emergent network and the metagovernance frame. Examples of Danish PPP are given highlighting the role of the construction firms. The experiences illustrate the importance of recognizing public private partnerships as emergent...

  9. Motivating the Private vs. Public Sector Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khojasteh, Mak

    1993-01-01

    A questionnaire on intrinsic/extrinsic rewards received 362 responses from 380 managers. Pay and security were greater motivators for private than for public sector managers. Recognition had higher motivating potential in the public sector. Both groups were motivated by achievement and advancement. (SK)

  10. PRIVATIZATION OF PUBLIC ENTERPRISES: WHICH WAY NIGERIA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Eseme GBEREVBIE

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Governments exist among others to implement policies for the enhancement of the living standard of citizens. To accomplish this goal, public enterprises are established to provide goods and services. With the use of secondary data, the paper examines privatization policy in Nigeria. It observed government interference, lack of transparency and accountability as the major hindrances to the successful implementation of the policy. The paper therefore recommends that for privatization to achieve its goals, government should stop interfering in the implementation of the policy and appoint people of credible character to manage the implementing agency of privatization in Nigeria.

  11. Privatization: The Challenge Ahead for Public Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAngelo, Linda

    This paper discusses privatization of public higher education, noting that some form of it exists on almost every college campus and that it is part of the wider movement toward less government. Four models of privatization are defined: public production with public finance; public production with private finance; private production with public…

  12. Comparing public and private sector switchers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg; Bozeman, Barry

    are related to sector switching and the pattern of sector switch, public to private versus private to public. We propose a life stage model arguing that people's needs change in different life stages of their lives. We further suggest that this can help explain why they switch sector. We use unique Danish......Sector switching is a new rising research area. Little is known about the motives and behaviors of those switching sectors. Using Person-Environment (P-E) fit theory, we seek to determine whether familiar demographic characteristics, including age, gender, having children and length of education...... labor market data that include information on all employees in Denmark (both private and public sector). The data are for the period 1980 to 2006, and this longitudinal database includes abundant information about job changes, including sector switching. Our findings indicate mixed support...

  13. Modern aspects of public private partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sladjana Benkovic

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of infrastructure is essential presumption for growth and development of relevant economic entities. The empirical evidence of private initiative importance and potentials in the establishment of cooperation with the public sector in infrastructure projects financing and operation refocused professional and academic attention on the studies of this phenomenon. The realm of the public private partnership (PPP became scientifically treated as an interdisciplinary skill based mostly on project financing, whilst practically it became almost mandatory method for economic prosperity. Practical problems in implementation appeared due to lack of knowledge and nonsystematic approach in researches of private public partnership. This paper presents theoretical and practical directions for actors in this cooperation, scoping for mobilization of assets and energy for development and facilitation, and advancing of project investments efficiency.

  14. Theorising Public and Private Spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Remina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The 19th century saw an expression of women’s ardent desire for freedom, emancipation and assertion in the public space. Women hardly managed to assert themselves at all in the public sphere, as any deviation from their traditional role was seen as unnatural. The human soul knows no gender distinctions, so we can say that women face the same desire for fulfillment as men do. Today, women are more and more encouraged to develop their skills by undertaking activities within the public space that are different from those that form part of traditional domestic chores. The woman of the 19th century felt the need to be useful to society, to make her contribution visible in a variety of domains. A woman does not have to become masculine to get power. If she is successful in any important job, this does not mean that she thinks like a man, but that she thinks like a woman. Women have broken through the walls that cut them off from public life, activity and ambition. There are no hindrances that can prevent women from taking their place in society.

  15. Private Goods and Public Bads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Edward F.

    1975-01-01

    The author of this article has developed a simple economic growth model which suggests that public concern for the environment increases as the quality of the environment, for any number of reasons, becomes worse. Using this model, the author believes that Earth Day, 1970, could have been predicted. (MA)

  16. Private Funds for Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addonizio, Michael F.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses sources of nontraditional revenue for public school systems: the result of donor activities (the solicitation of goods, services, and money via direct and indirect donations); enterprise activities (the selling or leasing of services or facilities); and shared or cooperative activities (pooling functions with other agencies or…

  17. Public And Private Leadership And Performance Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine (Mihaescu Demeter

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to make a comparing between the private and public leadership. We analyze (1 whether there are differences between public and private sector leadership based on some variables related to job complexity of a manager (including the managerial behaviour, job autonomy, and job clarity, decision-making vs policymaking process and the stakeholders vs political influence, and (2 to assess the degree of their effects on the managerial competences and performance management. Our study is conducted from the Romanian perspective on public organizations. As the methodology used, in order to identify the perception on political influence in Romanian public administration we conducted a survey among civil servants at central and local level. Our research is based on the empirical analysis of the relevant literature in public administration, leadership and organizational performance.

  18. Portugal's experience with public-private partnerships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Sarmento, J.J.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; Akintoye, A.; Beck, M.; Kumaraswamy, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper documents the Portuguese experience in Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs). Since 1993, Portugal has been using PPPs intensively, mainly for highway construction and in the health sector. This has enabled the country to close the infrastructure gap and avoid the budget constraints at the

  19. Commodity Administrative Manual. Public and Private Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This manual was developed for agencies receiving food commodities distributed to eligible schools and noneducational organizations by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) through the California State Department of Education's Office of Surplus Property. It covers rules, regulations, and forms for recipients who are public or private schools…

  20. Capturing Value from Public-Private Collaborations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reypens, C.; Lievens, A.; Blazevic, V.

    2016-01-01

    Although public-private collaborations offer opportunities to create unique value for a wide range of stakeholders, participating organizations often struggle to capture value from them. We focus on this challenge using a practice perspective and aim to understand how organizations attempt to captur

  1. Public-private partnerships for the unemployed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sol, E.

    2010-01-01

    Under new dimensions of individualisation, decentralisation and particularly marketisation, new forms of public-private partnerships between the actors involved in the employment services for the unemployed have emerged. This is because for-profit providers have now entered the arena of welfare to w

  2. Public/Private Partnerships for New Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matthew C.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how colleges can finance new construction projects during lean financial times by employing public/private partnerships in an off-balance sheet financing format. Construction planning of a new school parking deck is used to illustrate the process. Benefits of savings in operating costs, management fees, and other line-item expenses are…

  3. The private initiative in public infrastructure and public utilities concessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Expósito Vélez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the renewed and growing importance of the initiative of the private sector in developing public infrastructure and public utilities, especially as a consequence of the incentives created by the law, this study intends to address the various aspects of the new legal framework for the formation of concession contracts as a result of a particular initiative or idea and not as a product of the needs defined by the Administration, with a particular emphasis on the requirements for the formation of public works concessions, but without forgetting how the mechanism of private initiative applies to public utilities when they require a concession contract to be provided.

  4. The Private Value of Public Pensions

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantin Petrichev; Susan Thorp

    2007-01-01

    Individual retirement savings accounts are replacing or supplementing public basic pensions. However at decumulation, replacing the public pension with an equivalent private sector income stream may be costly. We value the Australian basic pension by calculating the wealth needed to generate an equivalent payment stream using commercial annuities or phased withdrawals, but still accounting for investment and longevity risks. At age 65, a retiree needs an accumulation of about 8.5 years earnin...

  5. Public-Private Partnerships In Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    khalid BOUTI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Extract:The current importance of public debt requires governments to increasingly shift towards Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs. They are long-term contracts of private financing method providing or contributing to public service. The payment is made by the public partner and/or users of the service.The World Health Organization (WHO defines this type of partnership as ‘‘a means to bring together a set of actors for the common goal of improving the health of populations based on mutually agreed roles and principles.’’Historically, the principle of PPP was established by the Private Finance Initiative (PFI, launched by the conservative government of John Major in 1992. It was from this moment that this model quickly spread to the rest of the world. In the mid-90s and from Australia, PPP agreement began to become part of the language of governments. In 1997, Labour with Tony Blair leading, strongly developed this management method, first and particularly in hospitals and then, in the entire public sector and spreading to the Royal Navy. Today, 10-15% of British public investments are made using PFI method....

  6. INVESTING OPPORTUNITIES THROUGH PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP IN MOLDAVIAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela POPA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studied the impact of a public-private partnership objectives and scope that are more beneficial for the community's private profit and social welfare for the public, in order to determine the next task: defining, identifyingfeatures and principles of public-private partnerships, identifying criteria for their classification, identification of objectives and benefits they can get a public private partnership, public private partnership development analysis inthe Republic of Moldova the importance of implementing this and proposed projects, identify gaps in regulation andproposing public private partnership for achieving performance in this direction.

  7. Public-Private Partnership in the EU Public Procurement Regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    My PhD research focuses on the relationship between the formation and operation of a Public-Private Partnership (PPP) and public procurement law as a legal framework for the award of the PPP contract. The complex nature of PPP projects including long term high value contracts, long award process...... to apply when awarding a Public-Private Partnership contract, as well as to analyse if a deregulation of PPP’s award framework could potentially resolve these potential legal challenges. The latter consideration of deregulation of PPP award framework is based on comparison of highly regulated European...

  8. Public Versus Private: Does It Matter for Water Conservation? Insights from California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallis, Giorgos; Ray, Isha; Fulton, Julian; McMahon, James E.

    2010-01-01

    This article asks three connected questions: First, does the public view private and public utilities differently, and if so, does this affect attitudes to conservation? Second, do public and private utilities differ in their approaches to conservation? Finally, do differences in the approaches of the utilities, if any, relate to differences in public attitudes? We survey public attitudes in California toward (hypothetical but plausible) voluntary and mandated water conservation, as well as to price increases, during a recent period of shortage. We do this by interviewing households in three pairs of adjacent public and private utilities. We also survey managers of public and private urban water utilities to see if they differ in their approaches to conservation and to their customers. On the user side we do not find pronounced differences, though a minority of customers in all private companies would be more willing to conserve or pay higher prices under a public operator. No respondent in public utility said the reverse. Negative attitudes toward private operators were most pronounced in the pair marked by a controversial recent privatization and a price hike. Nonetheless, we find that California’s history of recurrent droughts and the visible role of the state in water supply and drought management undermine the distinction between public and private. Private utilities themselves work to underplay the distinction by stressing the collective ownership of the water source and the collective value of conservation. Overall, California’s public utilities appear more proactive and target-oriented in asking their customers to conserve than their private counterparts and the state continues to be important in legitimating and guiding conservation behavior, whether the utility is in public hands or private.

  9. Public versus private: does it matter for water conservation? Insights from California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallis, Giorgos; Ray, Isha; Fulton, Julian; McMahon, James E

    2010-01-01

    This article asks three connected questions: First, does the public view private and public utilities differently, and if so, does this affect attitudes to conservation? Second, do public and private utilities differ in their approaches to conservation? Finally, do differences in the approaches of the utilities, if any, relate to differences in public attitudes? We survey public attitudes in California toward (hypothetical but plausible) voluntary and mandated water conservation, as well as to price increases, during a recent period of shortage. We do this by interviewing households in three pairs of adjacent public and private utilities. We also survey managers of public and private urban water utilities to see if they differ in their approaches to conservation and to their customers. On the user side we do not find pronounced differences, though a minority of customers in all private companies would be more willing to conserve or pay higher prices under a public operator. No respondent in public utility said the reverse. Negative attitudes toward private operators were most pronounced in the pair marked by a controversial recent privatization and a price hike. Nonetheless, we find that California's history of recurrent droughts and the visible role of the state in water supply and drought management undermine the distinction between public and private. Private utilities themselves work to underplay the distinction by stressing the collective ownership of the water source and the collective value of conservation. Overall, California's public utilities appear more proactive and target-oriented in asking their customers to conserve than their private counterparts and the state continues to be important in legitimating and guiding conservation behavior, whether the utility is in public hands or private.

  10. Channel One: When Private Interests and the Public Interest Collide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokhuis, Jason C.

    2008-01-01

    If the notion of public and private spheres seems somehow quaint or old-fashioned, the distinction between public and private corporations will be that much more obscure. Yet Channel One broadcasts in a public school classroom are indisputably the result of a contract between a private corporation (Alloy Media + Marketing) and a public corporation…

  11. Biosecurity in public and private office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbin, Artênio José Isper; Garbin, Cléa Adas Saliba; Arcieri, Renato Moreira; Crossato, Michel; Ferreira, Nelly Foster

    2005-06-01

    Biosecurity is currently a concern for all health-related services, including dentistry, since infection control has a relevant importance. In dental practice, health-related occupations have contact with a great number of individuals who are potentially capable to transmit pathogens. This study comprised a descriptive evaluation of the universal precaution measures for infection control adopted by dental practitioners working at public and private offices in the city of Araçatuba, SP. Data collection was performed by a quiz with questions about individual and collective protection equipments. The results showed that the use of caps was reported by 55% of the professionals working at the public sector and 90% for the private sector. The use of masks and gloves was reported by all professionals surveyed; nevertheless, glove change between patients was not reported by 40% of professionals working at the public sector. There were more flaws in public offices as to the use of protective barriers, since except for the use of gloves, gowns and masks, the frequency of use of those barriers was smaller than at private offices.

  12. Brazil's Mixed Public and Private Hospital System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Maureen; Penteado, Evandro; Malik, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    Brazil's hospital sector is vibrant and growing. Under the 1988 Brazilian constitution all citizens have the right to health care, anticipating the global commitment to Universal Health Care. Brazil's public sector prides itself on having one of the world's largest single payer health care systems, but complementing that is a significant and larger private sector that is seeing big increase in investment, utilization and prices. This article outlines the structure of the hospital system and analyzes the nature and direction of private health sector expansion. Twenty-six percent of Brazilians have private health insurance and although coverage is concentrated in the urban areas of the Southeastern part of the country, it is growing across the nation. The disease burden shift to chronic diseases affects the nature of demand and the directly affects overall health care costs, which are rising rapidly outstripping national inflation by a factor of 3. Increasingly costs will have to be brought under control to maintain the viability of the private sector. Adaption of integrated care networks and strengthening of the public reimbursement system represent important areas for improvement.

  13. Blurring of the public/private divide: the Canadian chapter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Colleen M; Thomas, Bryan

    2010-06-01

    Blurring of public/private divide is occurring in different ways around the world, with differential effects in terms of access and equity. In Canada, one pathway towards privatization has received particular attention: duplicative private insurance, allowing those with the financial means to bypass queues in the public system. We assess recent legal and policy developments on this front, but also describe other trends towards the blurring of public and private in Canada: the reliance on mandated private insurance for pharmaceutical coverage; provincial governments' reliance on public-private partnerships to finance hospitals; and the incorporation of for-profit clinics within the public health care system.

  14. PUBLIC-PRIVATE DISTINCTIONS AND STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan NICOLAE

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Public organizations are no longer synonymous with governmental agencies but include many for-profit service organizations as well as the third sector, which is made up of the private NPOs. Such diverse organizations. meet the publicness criterion to the extent that they cannot ignore publicness when dealing with development of strategy. Competitive models of strategic management have little use in organizations with significant degrees of publicness. Instead, a strategy should be sought which enhances cooperation and collaboration. Strategic management in public settings must identify the beliefs and demands of key stakeholders and deal with elaborate fictions held by these individuals to premise development and guide implementation. Strategic managers must carefully collaborate with their oversight body as they fashion a strategy.

  15. Nineteenth Century Public And Private Spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMA REMINA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to illustrate the public and private spheres. The former represents the area in which each of us carries out their daily activities, while the latter is mirrored by the home. Kate Chopin and Charlotte Perkins Gilman are two salient nineteenth-century writers who shape the everyday life of the historical period they lived in, within their literary works that shed light on the areas under discussion.

  16. The Basic Public Finance of Public-Private Partnerships

    OpenAIRE

    Engel, Eduardo M. R. A.; Fischer, Ronald D.; Galetovic, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Public-private partnerships (PPPs) have been justified because they release public funds or save on distortionary taxes. However, the resources saved by a government that does not finance the upfront investment are offset by giving up future revenue flows to the concessionaire. If a PPP can be justified on efficiency grounds, the PPP contract that optimally balances demand risk, userfee distortions and the opportunity cost of public funds has a minimum revenue guarantee and a revenue cap. The...

  17. The Basic Public Finance of Public-Private Partnerships

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo M.R.A. Engel; Ronald D. Fischer; Galetovic, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Public-private partnerships (PPPs) have been justified because they release public funds or save on distortionary taxes. However, the resources saved by a government that does not finance the upfront investment are offset by giving up future revenue flows to the concessionaire. If a PPP can be justified on efficiency grounds, the PPP contract that optimally balances demand risk, userfee distortions and the opportunity cost of public funds has a minimum revenue guarantee and a revenue cap. The...

  18. PROJECT BONDS IN FINANCING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ovsiannykova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical principles concerning the financing of public private partnership' projects are deepened and practical recommendations for improving the procedure of raising funds for projects of public-private partnerships through the use project bonds are substantiated.

  19. PROJECT BONDS IN FINANCING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS IN UKRAINE

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The theoretical principles concerning the financing of public private partnership' projects are deepened and practical recommendations for improving the procedure of raising funds for projects of public-private partnerships through the use project bonds are substantiated.

  20. Publicprivate partnership : A critical discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johans Tveit Sandvin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Public-private partnerships have long been highly valued in Western welfare states, and the valuation of such cooperation has become even stronger in light of last year’s economic turbulence, particularly with voluntary non-profit organizations (VNPOs. At the same time, the voluntary sector is changing. The broad popular movements have generally declined in favour of more individual interests as the basis for forming VNPOs, and those organisations still involved in the provision of social services are becoming more and more similar to public service, due to requirements placed on them by the public sector. This is believed to have consequences for the value of such cooperation. If voluntary organisations in public services – or other private organisations for the matter – are becoming copies of public services, there is not much value to be gained from such cooperation, except for some financial gain.In this article, we argue that this conclusion is based on a rather narrow perception of public-voluntary cooperation. Research and debate on such cooperation are mainly preoccupied by what we call supplementary relations, in which voluntary organizations are assessed according to whether they can deliver cheaper or better services than the public sector. Based on an example of public-voluntary cooperation in preventive social work among young adults in Norway, the article show that public-voluntary collaboration can be truly valuable when it is based on a complimentary relation, in which parties collaborate because they command different resources equally important to the task at hand.

  1. Public-Private Partnership in the EU Public Procurement Regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    My PhD research focuses on the relationship between the formation and operation of a Public-Private Partnership (PPP) and public procurement law as a legal framework for the award of the PPP contract. The complex nature of PPP projects including long term high value contracts, long award process......, poses legal challenges for the procurement of PPP contracts. The overall research objective of my doctoral thesis is to analyse, clarify and discuss potential legal challenges resulting from European Union public procurement law - provided in Directive 2004/18/EC – which a public authority is obliged...... to apply when awarding a Public-Private Partnership contract, as well as to analyse if a deregulation of PPP’s award framework could potentially resolve these potential legal challenges. The latter consideration of deregulation of PPP award framework is based on comparison of highly regulated European...

  2. The Public-Private Partnership in ECEC Provision in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Peder

    2014-01-01

    This article seeks to answer three central questions pertaining to public-private partnership in early childhood education and care (ECEC provision) in Norway: How has public-private partnership developed during the last four decades? How is public-private partnership understood in Norwegian ECEC policy? What seem to be the future challenges in…

  3. Private security, public/private sector partnership, crime prevention, police, public safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ricardo Gómez Hecht

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current security environment in El Salvador is characterized by high levels of insecurity and criminality. Public authorities confronting this problem need to resort to new alternatives for solving or at least managing the situation. One of these alternatives is the public/private sector partnership in crime prevention which is a promising option. Research has analyzed the current state of the public/private sector partnership between the National Civil Police and Private Security Services in El Salvador, revealing among other things that this relationship is at an incipient stage, but has promising results.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v4i2.1759

  4. Dead public spaces - live private corners: (Recontextualization of musically public and private

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakovljević Rastko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The expressions of private and public musical life and experience are mostly discussed separately. This article joins these two concepts into one scope and surveys the identity of both. In ideal (utopian? traditional context between private and public music experience (life, the context shows ideal vitality and consistence, while in an 'irregular' context these two concepts begin to distance themselves, opening space for marginality or so called 'errors'. This article studies bagpipe tradition in Serbia, at different stages of its development and in different periods, specifically focusing on rural and urban contexts in diverse sociopolitical conditions. Although bagpipe tradition still exists in Serbia it is far removed from what it once was, and the idea is to represent the contexts of that process, private and public, sociopolitical, and marginal aspects, from the 19th century (or hypothetically before then until today.

  5. Public and Private Activity in Commercial TV Broadcasting

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Bodil O.; Keiding, Hans

    2006-01-01

    We consider a model of commercial television market, where private broadcasters coexist with a public television broadcaster. Assuming that the public TV station follows a policy of Ramsey pricing whereas the private stations are profit maximizers, we consider the equilibria in this market and compare with a situation where the public station is privatized and acts as another private TV broadcaster. A closer scrutiny of the market for commercial television leads to a distinction between targe...

  6. Private finance for adaptation: do private realities meet public ambitions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pauw, W.P.; Klein, R.J.T.; Vellinga, P.; Biermann, F.

    2016-01-01

    The private sector’s role in climate finance is increasingly subject to political and scientific debate. Yet there is poor empirical evidence of private engagement in adaptation and its potential contribution to the industrialised countries’ mobilisation of USD 100 billion of annual climate finance

  7. The privatepublic law divide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyldenløve Jeppesen-de Boer, Christina; Kronborg, Annette; Svendsen, Idamarie Leth

    2013-01-01

    to a particular societal institution. Marriage as an institution has been individualized and the goodness of the family has to relate to the well-being of the individuals instead. This article shows that within this historical development the private-public law divide has not been seriously challenged......In a Scandinavian perspective, the family and the individual have changed places during the 20th Century. Today, the law takes its starting point in the individual - not in the family. A consequence of this development is that it is no longer legally possible to relate the good family...

  8. Economic Public Private Partnerships for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Thomas C.; Kistler, Walter P.; Citron, Bob

    2008-01-01

    Space transportation has evolved to entrepreneurs offering affordable transportation services to LEO. Society expects space tourism to produce low costs quickly, but entrepreneurs need the larger commercial transportation markets to raise the private money to build the orbital vehicles. Early heavy cargo is the logistics model of remote bases on Earth and is likely to be similar for off planet remote bases. Public Private Partnerships (PPP), (Norment, 2006) and other alliances with governments offer new transportation markets and combines private funding with government markets to accelerate the movement of mankind into space, (Kistler, 2004a). Entrepreneurs bring change like a multitude of innovation, changes to the traditional aerospace industry status quo, commercial market forces and the lowering of the cost of transportation to orbit. Within PPPs, government stretches space budgets, increases vehicle innovation without cost and gains cost advantages of larger markets. Examples of PPPs show some opportunity for change in space commerce is possible, (Stainback, 2000 and Spekman, 2000). Some of the items entrepreneurs bring include innovation in hardware, a maturing of the normal market forces such as the pressures from buyers and sellers rather than those from government planners or from regulation. Launch costs are high, society wants orbital hotels and current/future markets are not emerging because of high transportation costs. The paper proposes a new approach with examples, because mankind has taken a long time to transition from expendable launch vehicles to newer more affordable launch innovation and may require the introduction of new innovative approaches.

  9. Public versus Private University Presidents Pay Levels and Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monks, James

    2007-01-01

    Existing studies examine the determinants of private university presidents' compensation, but ignore recent earnings differentials between public and private university presidents. This paper estimates that public university presidents earn approximately 50 percent less than comparable private university presidents. This salary discount is robust…

  10. Public versus Private Education in Hawaii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina Espiritu

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a time-series evidence on the timing and degree of feedback relationship between participation in education and income growth in Hawaii. Using the unrestricted vector autoregression approach and two related measures of linear dependence and feedback, the results suggest that across all educational levels, i.e., K-12 and tertiary, participation in public education could be a good predictor of income growth in Hawaii. However, decomposing the feedback effect by frequency suggests that the dominance of public education over private education in explaining the variation in income growth to be concentrated mainly on the short-run to medium-run for tertiary level and long-run to permanent effect for K-12 level. Hawaii state legislature and educators should perhaps take these results as a motivation not to ignore the problems plaguing Hawaii's public schools but should work towards greater improvement and support for public education given its predicted significant overall contribution to the Hawaiian economy.

  11. Public Private Partnership Benefits in Delivering Public Facilities in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapri M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of infrastructure in developing country such as Malaysia was increasingly founded by the Public–Private Partnership (PPP scheme. Collaboration with private sector has become popular as a means to improve the delivery of public facilities. Yet, empirical evidence on how PPP initiative has benefits the delivery of public facilities within Malaysia context is lagging. The purpose of this paper is to identify and assess the perception of stakeholders on the benefits of adopting PPP in delivering public facilities in Malaysia. Literature review was carried out to identify PPP benefits, which were then incorporated into the questionnaire. The mean score and mean score ranking was conducted to assess the agreement level of stakeholders towards the PPP benefits. The overall findings show that the implementation of PPP has benefitted the delivery of public facilities in both financial and non-financial aspects. From the analysis, improvement in service quality is perceived as the top advantage followed by innovation in design and transfer of risk. The findings provide more informed basis on the rationale of PPP implementation and its potential in improving the delivery of public facilities within Malaysia context.

  12. Evolutionary Game Analysis of the Supervision Behavior for Public-Private Partnership Projects with Public Participation

    OpenAIRE

    Congdong Li; Xiaoli Li; Yu Wang

    2016-01-01

    The public can directly or indirectly participate in the PPP (public-private partnership) projects and then has an impact on the project profit and public or private behavior. To explore the influence of the public participation of the PPP projects supervision behavior, this paper analyzes the mutual evolutionary regularity of the private sector and government supervision department and the influence of public participation level on public and private behavior based on evolutionary game theor...

  13. Nirvana Neighborhood: Public/private tensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Ardenghi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Our object of study is the neighborhood called Nirvana [in City Bell, district of La Plata], and our aim is to describe the traces left by the landscape dynamics which mark different historical periods, and to relate the concept of landscape with this neighborhood's current territorial configuration. Framed in Cultural Geography, we go back to Milton Santos, Paul Claval and Mario Margulis' perspective, from the category of landscape. The methodology used was qualitative, and it entailed observation and photographic records of the area, informal talks with neighbors, compilation of documents and journalistic material about the area, all of which allowed us to dig deep into what is "public" and what is "private" in this neighborhood, where and how the "outside" and the "inside" are established and to decide whether its aim is being an open and including landscape or if what they are actually after is pushing strangers away by means of invisible barriers

  14. Homeschooling, Virtual Learning, and the Eroding Public/Private Binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiger, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Regulators ubiquitously dichotomize schooling into two discrete sectors: "public" and "private". Although homeschooling is regulated in some contexts as a third sector, the general approach is to treat it as a species of private education by subjecting it to public regulation while simultaneously denying it public funds. But…

  15. Private versus Public Feedback - The Incentive Effects of Symbolic Awards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerhards, Leonie; Siemer, Neele

    We experimentally compare the incentive effects of rewarding individuals for outstanding performance publicly versus privately. We implement two real-effort tasks, which differ in how prestigious subjects perceive working on them. In both tasks private and public feedback similarly enhances...... experiment at a secondary school we furthermore compare the incentive effects of different forms of public recognition....

  16. Innovation embedded in entrepreneurs’ networks in private and public spheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøtt, Thomas; Cheraghi, Maryam; Rezaei, Shahamak;

    2014-01-01

    Global studies have found tendencies: traditional culture promotes entrepreneurs' networking in the private sphere, impeding innovation, whereas secular-rational culture facilitates networking in the public sphere, benefiting innovation. This embeddedness is here scrutinised in contrasting...... is negatively affected by private sphere networking and positively affected by public sphere networking, but innovation is less promoted by public sphere networking in China than in Denmark....

  17. Are Private Firms Really More Tax Aggressive Than Public Firms ?

    OpenAIRE

    Pierk, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    This paper tests the notion that private firms are more tax aggressive than public firms. Tax avoidance measures, e.g. effective tax rates, cannot be used to compare private and public firms when private and public firms have different levels of importance on financial accounting earnings (Hanlon and Heitzman 2010). To disentangle financial reporting incentives from tax aggressiveness, I use the fact that European groups must prepare two sets of financial statements: first, gro...

  18. Privatizing responsibility: public sector reform under neoliberal government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilcan, Suzan

    2009-08-01

    In light of public sector reforms in Canada and elsewhere, this paper focuses on the shift of emphasis from social to private responsibilities and raises new questions about the forces of private enterprise and market-based partnerships. Under neoliberal governmental agendas, privatizing responsibility links to three main developments: the reconsideration of the relations of public and private; the mobilization of responsible citizenship; and the formation of a cultural mentality of rule that works alongside these developments. The research for this article is based on extensive analysis of policy documents and public sector reform initiatives, as well as interviews with Canadian federal public service employees.

  19. Private Schools and Public Benefit: Fees, Fee Remissions, and Subsidies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The level of fee remissions offered by private schools bears upon the scope for relying on private schools to provide public benefit. Analyses of education voucher systems have generally ignored the possibility that they will partially crowd out school-financed fee remissions. Moreover, variation in fee remissions between private schools may be…

  20. Public and Private Activity in Commercial TV Broadcasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olai Hansen, Bodil; Keiding, Hans

    2006-01-01

    We consider a model of commercial television market, where private broadcasters coexist with a public television broadcaster. Assuming that the public TV station follows a policy of Ramsey pricing whereas the private stations are profit maximizers, we consider the equilibria in this market...... and compare with a situation where the public station is privatized and acts as another private TV broadcaster. A closer scrutiny of the market for commercial television leads to a distinction between target rating points, which are the prime unit of account in TV advertising, and net coverage, which...... is the final goal of advertisers. Working with net coverage as the fundamental concept, we exploit the models of competition between public and private price and quantity in order to show that privatization of the public TV station entails a welfare loss and results in TV advertising becoming more expensive...

  1. 78 FR 1918 - Public-Private Partnerships Public Meeting and Request for Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... on what should be included or excluded from such model public-private partnership (P3) contracts. The... Federal Highway Administration Public-Private Partnerships Public Meeting and Request for Comment AGENCY...: The USDOT/FHWA is tasked by MAP-21 to develop ``standard public-private partnership transaction...

  2. Judgments of damage to public versus private property in Chinese children at different historical times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinyin; Li, Dan; Liu, Junsheng; Chen, Huichang; Zhao, Siman

    2016-12-15

    This study examined children's judgments of damage to public versus private property in China at two historical times. Participants were two cohorts (1980 and 2012) of elementary school children at ages 7, 9, and 11 years. The children were administered paired stories that described a protagonist who damaged public or private property with a good or bad intention. The results showed that children in the 2012 cohort were less likely than their counterparts in the 1980 cohort to judge damage to public property as more culpable than damage to private property. The cohort differences were more evident in older children than in younger children. The results suggest that macro-level contexts may play an important role in shaping children's judgments.

  3. The fantasy world of private finance for transport via public private partnerships

    OpenAIRE

    Shaoul, Jean; Stafford, Anne; Stapleton, Pam

    2012-01-01

    In 1993, the British government turned to the private sector to finance much needed investment in public infrastructure and manage services under its Public Private Partnerships (PPP) policy (Edwards et al., 2004), with transport forming by far the largest component by value of the PPP programme. (...)

  4. The fantasy world of private finance for transport via public private partnerships

    OpenAIRE

    Shaoul, Jean; Stafford, Anne; Stapleton, Pam

    2012-01-01

    In 1993, the British government turned to the private sector to finance much needed investment in public infrastructure and manage services under its Public Private Partnerships (PPP) policy (Edwards et al., 2004), with transport forming by far the largest component by value of the PPP programme. (...)

  5. Water privatization and public health in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulreany, John P; Calikoglu, Sule; Ruiz, Sonia; Sapsin, Jason W

    2006-01-01

    This study had two objectives: (1) to determine what the public health and development literature has found regarding the public health outcomes of water privatization in Latin America and (2) to evaluate whether the benefits of water privatization, if any, outweigh the equity and justice concerns that privatization raises. Using a standard set of terms to search several databases, the authors identified and reviewed articles and other materials from public health and development sources that were published between 1995 and 2005 and that evaluated the public health effects of water privatizations in Latin America from 1989 to 2000, based on (1) access to water by the poor and/or (2) improvements in public health. Next, the authors examined the experiences of three cities in Bolivia (Cochabamba, El Alto, and La Paz) in order to illuminate further the challenges of water privatization. Finally, the authors considered the equity and justice issues raised by the privatization of water. The literature review raised persistent concerns regarding access to water by the poor under privatization. The review also suggested that the public sector could deliver public health outcomes comparable to those of the private sector, as measured by access rates and decreasing child mortality rates. In terms of social equity and justice, privatization marked a troubling shift away from the conception of water as a "social good" and toward the conception of water--and water management services--as commodities. Our results indicated there is no compelling case for privatizing existing public water utilities based on public health grounds. From the perspective of equity and justice, water privatization may encourage a minimalist conception of social responsibility for public health that may hinder the development of public health capacities in the long run.

  6. Social Justice and Education in the Public and Private Spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Sally; Taylor, Chris

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the complex relationship between social justice and education in the public and private spheres. The politics of education is often presented as a battle between left and right, the state and the market. In this representation, the public and the private spheres are neatly aligned on either side of the line of battle, and…

  7. An Excursion Into The Public-Private Partnership Jungle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelling, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    While the Private Finance Initiative (PFI) is doubtless the most visible Public-Private Partnership (PPP) in the public debate it is by no means the only one. A number of scholars have outlined the ambiguity of the PPP concept beyond PFIs and pointed to the multiplicity of differing types...

  8. STRATEGY OF PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS DEVELOPMENT IN CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya BYKOVA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The role of strategy of public-private partnerships development through information is examined. The informational nature measures, the implementation of which help to promote Ukrainian innovative products on foreign markets, are identified. The urgency of implementing the strategy of public-private partnerships to intensify foreign trade with innovative products in crisis period is substantiated.

  9. Anatomy of public-private partnerships : Creation, financing, and renegotiations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Sarmento, J.J.; Renneboog, Luc

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the main reasons why public-private partnerships (PPPs) are adopted as well as the possible disadvantages for the public and private sectors. By means of two case studies on bridge construction and railway infrastructure (Fertagus and Lusoponte), we elucidate how a PPP is structu

  10. Understanding Public-Private Collaboration Configurations for International Information Infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klievink, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Collaboration between the public and the private sector is seen as an instrument to make governance smarter, more effective, and more efficient. However, whereas there is literature on public-private collaboration, very little of it addresses how these collaborations can be shaped to make use of the

  11. Public Private Partnerships: deciphering meaning message and phenomenon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E-H. Klijn (Erik-Hans)

    2010-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ There is no doubt that Public private partnerships have been a dominant issue in governmental rhetoric’s but also in governmental practice. In many countries governments have turned to the idea of public private partnerships, or partnerships in general, as a vehicle

  12. Teachers’ organisational behaviour in public and private funded schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honingh, M.E.; Oort, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to compare teachers' organisational behaviour in publicly- and privately-funded schools in the Dutch Vocational Education and Training (VET) sector. Design/methodology/approach - A percentage of all middle managers in publicly and privately funded schools (72

  13. Teachers’ organisational behaviour in public and private funded schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honingh, M.E.; Oort, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to compare teachers' organisational behaviour in publicly- and privately-funded schools in the Dutch Vocational Education and Training (VET) sector. Design/methodology/approach - A percentage of all middle managers in publicly and privately funded schools (72 p

  14. Anatomy of public-private partnerships : Creation, financing, and renegotiations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Sarmento, J.J.; Renneboog, Luc

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the main reasons why public-private partnerships (PPPs) are adopted as well as the possible disadvantages for the public and private sectors. By means of two case studies on bridge construction and railway infrastructure (Fertagus and Lusoponte), we elucidate how a PPP is

  15. Public Private Partnerships: deciphering meaning message and phenomenon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E-H. Klijn (Erik-Hans)

    2010-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ There is no doubt that Public private partnerships have been a dominant issue in governmental rhetoric’s but also in governmental practice. In many countries governments have turned to the idea of public private partnerships, or partnerships in general, as a vehicle to

  16. Anatomy of public-private partnerships : Creation, financing, and renegotiations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Sarmento, J.J.; Renneboog, Luc

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the main reasons why public-private partnerships (PPPs) are adopted as well as the possible disadvantages for the public and private sectors. By means of two case studies on bridge construction and railway infrastructure (Fertagus and Lusoponte), we elucidate how a PPP is structu

  17. The "Big Bang" in Public and Private Faculty Salaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippner, Jennifer A.; Toutkoushian, Robert K.

    2015-01-01

    The gap between average faculty salaries at public and private institutions has been growing wider over the past 40 years, yet little is known about the nature and causes of the gap. This study uses data on more than 1,000 institutions to examine institutional average faculty salaries and how they have changed for public and private institutions.…

  18. Comparing Administrative Satisfaction in Public and Private Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkwein, James Fredericks; Parmley, Kelli

    2000-01-01

    Examined levels of administrator satisfaction at public and private institutions, using national data on university characteristics, state characteristics, and administrative satisfaction. Found hypothesized differences in satisfaction between administrators at public/private institutions were related only to extrinsic rewards. In both sectors,…

  19. Private Placement Debt Financing for Public Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Lance S.

    2010-01-01

    Private placement financing is a debt or capital lease obligation arranged between a municipality or a 501(c) (3) not-for-profit organization and a single sophisticated institutional investor. The investor can be a bank, insurance company, finance company, hedge fund, or high-net worth individual. Private placement financing is similar to…

  20. Corruption and ethical issues regarding public-private partnership

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The paper raises general questions about  ethical problems that taint public-private  partnership. Everybody talks about the  economical benefits of encouraging firms  to invest in the community using different  incentives offered by the public institutions.  In the same time, every day, newspapers  bring to our attention cases of misuse of  public resources for private gain or cases  of private investors who give bribes in order  to get a contract with a public institution.  The purpose of t...

  1. Athletic Trainer Services in Public and Private Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Alicia M; Pryor, Riana R; Vandermark, Lesley W; Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Casa, Douglas J

    2017-01-01

     The presence of athletic trainers (ATs) in secondary schools to provide medical care is crucial, especially with the rise in sports participation and resulting high volume of injuries. Previous authors have investigated the level of AT services offered, but the differences in medical care offered between the public and private sectors have not been explored.  To compare the level of AT services in public and private secondary schools.  Concurrent mixed-methods study.  Public and private secondary schools in the United States.  A total of 10 553 secondary schools responded to the survey (8509 public, 2044 private).  School administrators responded to the survey via telephone or e-mail. Descriptive statistics depict national data. Open-ended questions were evaluated through content analysis.  A greater percentage of public secondary schools than private secondary schools hired ATs. Public secondary schools provided a higher percentage of full-time, part-time, and clinic AT services than private secondary schools. Only per diem AT services were more frequent in the private sector. Regardless of the extent of services, reasons for not employing an AT were similar between sectors. Common barriers were budget, school size, and lack of awareness of the role of an AT. Unique to the public sector, remote location was identified as a challenge faced by some administrators.  Both public and private secondary schools lacked ATs, but higher percentages of total AT services and full-time services were available in the public sector. Despite differences in AT services, both settings provided a similar number of student-athletes with access to medical care. Barriers to hiring ATs were comparable between public and private secondary schools; however, remote location was a unique challenge for the public sector.

  2. Small Public Private Partnerships: The answer to local public and private needs, yet an ugly duckling?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2009-01-01

    Public Private Partnerships (PPP) are frequently mobilized as a purchasing form suitable for large infrastructure projects. And it is commonly assumed that transaction costs linked to the establishment of PPP make them prohibitive in small sizes. In a Danish context this has been safeguarded...... by the authorities, which recommend sizes over 13,5 million € (100 million DKr). PPP is here understood as Design, Build, Finance and Operate projects. The paper shows, when looking at Germany, Italy and United Kingdom, that small PPP (below 13,5 million €) are widespread in two investigated countries; United...

  3. Small Public Private Partnerships: The answer to local public and private needs, yet an ugly duckling?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2009-01-01

    Public Private Partnerships (PPP) are frequently mobilized as a purchasing form suitable for large infrastructure projects. And it is commonly assumed that transaction costs linked to the establishment of PPP make them prohibitive in small sizes. In a Danish context this has been safeguarded...... businesses and represent operable units for the clients and citizens. Cases are focused within education and healthcare. The analysis suggests that another type of economy apparently is in play. It is thus characteristic within education projects in UK that the largest portion of small PPPs are of a size...

  4. Impact of Performance Management in Public and Private Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidman, Ulrik; Andersen, Simon Calmar

    2014-01-01

    Recent theoretical developments suggest that management actions have different impacts on outcomes in public and private organizations. This proposition is important to public organizations’ widespread import of private sector management tools such as performance management. This article examines...... how performance management influences performance outcomes in otherwise similar public and private organizations. Showing that the factors expected to diminish the impact of performance management parallel the organizational characteristics of public organizations, we hypothesize that this type...... of management is less effective in public organizations. A difference-in-differences model based on survey data on management in Danish public and private schools, combined with administrative data of students’ test scores, confirms the hypothesis. The results have important implications for the transfer...

  5. PUBLIC ACCESS TO PRIVATE LAND IN SCOTLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Carey Miller

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to understand the radical reform of Scottish land law in its provision for a general right of public access to private land introduced in 2003 as part of land reform legislation, an important aspect of the initial agenda of the Scottish Parliament revived in 1999. The right is to recreational access for a limited period and the right to cross land. Access can be taken only on foot or by horse or bicycle. As a starting point clarification of the misunderstood pre-reform position is attempted. The essential point is that Scots common law does not give civil damages for a simple act of trespass (as English law does but only a right to obtain removal of the trespasser. Under the reforms the longstanding Scottish position of landowners allowing walkers access to the hills and mountains becomes a legal right. A critical aspect of the new right is that it is one of responsible access; provided a landowner co-operates with the spirit and system of the Act access can be denied on the basis that it is not being exercised responsibly. But the onus is on the landowner to show that the exercise of the right is not responsible.Although the right applies to all land a general exception protects the privacy of a domestic dwelling. Early case law suggests that the scope of this limit depends upon particular circumstances although reasonable 'garden ground' is likely to be protected. There are various particular limits such as school land.Compliance with the protection of property under the European Convention on Human Rights is discussed. The article emphasises the latitude, open to nations, for limitations to the right of ownership in land in the public interest. The extent of the Scottish access inroad illustrates this. This leads to the conclusion that 'land governance' – the subject of the Potchefstroom Conference at which the paper was initially presented – largely remains a matter for domestic law; the lex situs concept is alive

  6. Gender wage differentials in private and public sector jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweimuller, J; Winter-ebmer, R

    1994-07-01

    "In this study gender wage differentials in private and public sector jobs in Austria are calculated. Occupational attainment is considered as endogenous by the use of an ordered response model. Results show that wage discrimination is also present in the public sector, though on a lower level. Both in private firms and for public servants a substantial part of this unwarranted differential is due to unequal professional advancement." excerpt

  7. Do Private Schools Provide Competition for Public Schools?

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Minter Hoxby

    1994-01-01

    Arguments in favor of school choice depend on the idea that competition between schools improves the quality of education. However, we have almost no empirical evidence on whether competition actually affects school quality. In this study, I examine the effects of inter-school competition on public schools by using exogenous variation in the availability and costs of private school alternatives to public schools. Because low public school quality raises the demand for private schools as subst...

  8. Characteristics of the Public and Private Property Right

    OpenAIRE

    Titus CORLATEAN; Popescu-Cruceru, Anca; Aurel ASMARANDEI

    2012-01-01

    The national law contains provisions for both public property and private property. Public property belongs to the state or public administration units. Public property is also named state property. The definition of the property right must take into account both the general and specific aspects of this real right.

  9. PUBLIC AND PRIVATE PARTENERSHIP IN INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT: ESSENCE, EXPERIENCE, PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander E. Lantsov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infrastructure is of high importance for human society, so the state pay great attention to it. Characteristics inherent to infrastructure, its development, maintenance and consumption don’t always explain only the state involvement in the sector.The article considers preconditions and basis of private sector involvement in the process of infrastructure supply, experience of different countries, public and private sectors relationships in the matter and private sector effectiveness in infrastructure supply.

  10. PUBLIC AND PRIVATE PARTENERSHIP IN INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT: ESSENCE, EXPERIENCE, PROBLEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander E. Lantsov

    2014-01-01

    Infrastructure is of high importance for human society, so the state pay great attention to it. Characteristics inherent to infrastructure, its development, maintenance and consumption don’t always explain only the state involvement in the sector.The article considers preconditions and basis of private sector involvement in the process of infrastructure supply, experience of different countries, public and private sectors relationships in the matter and private sector effectiveness in infrast...

  11. Corruption and ethical issues regarding public-private partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca COBÂRZAN

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper raises general questions about ethical problems that taint public-private partnership. Everybody talks about the economical benefits of encouraging firms to invest in the community using different incentives offered by the public institutions. In the same time, every day, newspapers bring to our attention cases of misuse of public resources for private gain or cases of private investors who give bribes in order to get a contract with a public institution. The purpose of this paper is to synthesize our understanding of the entrepreneurial movement and analyze its implications for potential problems of corruption that can arise in the relation between the public and the private sector.a

  12. Corruption and Ethical Issues Regarding Public-Private Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca COBÂRZAN

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper raises general questions about  ethical problems that taint public-private  partnership. Everybody talks about the  economical benefits of encouraging firms  to invest in the community using different  incentives offered by the public institutions.  In the same time, every day, newspapers  bring to our attention cases of misuse of  public resources for private gain or cases  of private investors who give bribes in order  to get a contract with a public institution.  The purpose of this paper is to synthesize  our understanding of the entrepreneurial  movement and analyze its implications for  potential problems of corruption that can  arise in the relation between the public and the private sector.

  13. Project Management in Development Aid Industry – Public vs. Private

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simović Dragana

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relationship between the type of a development aid implementing organisation (public or private and the quality of project management in development aid. The author begins with main public administration considerations - how public aid administration is different from private and furthermore, how particular sectoral characteristics of organisations influence the quality of the management process. The article combines empirical findings on the differences between the public and private sector with a complex setting of development aid and main success factors in development aid activity, in order to determine whether for-profit or public companies are more likely to achieve better project management processes. The article identifies some indices that favorise private companies, and outlines further necessary steps that should be taken in order to broaden the argumentation and confirm or reject this assertion

  14. Public and private sector interactions: an economic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, A

    1986-01-01

    The debate about the public-private mix for health care has been dominated by rhetoric and the failure to evaluate the characteristics of the outcomes of public and private health care systems and to relate these to policy targets. After a brief analysis of the competing, liberal (conservative) and collectivist (socialist), objectives, the nature of the private health care sector in Britain is described and it is shown that growth has faltered due to cost containment problems. This outcome is the product of characteristics of the private health care system, paralleled precisely in the NHS: asymmetry information, monopoly power, moral hazard and third party pays. The final section discusses briefly some remedies for the inefficient and inequitable outcomes which are seen in all health care markets and it is argued that competition within public and private health care systems may enable each system type to achieve its own particular objectives more efficiently.

  15. Working together: public law enforcement and private security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harold T

    2010-01-01

    Private security forces, including hospital security professionals, provide a vast largely untapped resource for public law enforcement in a number of critical areas affecting society, the author points out. At the same time, police agencies in some communities have programs which can be used to provide additional training for private security officers.

  16. Privatization of Public Education: Panacea or Pandora's Box?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Kenneth R.

    1999-01-01

    The drive for privatizing public education comes from two different movements: load-shedding and outsourcing. Districts hope to reduce perceived labor problems, avoid managing "uninteresting" services, save money, and/or buy quick-fix education reform. Privatization of charter schools is becoming big business, but its cost-effectiveness…

  17. Achievement in Public and Private Secondary Education in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Laarhoven, Peter; Bakker, Bart; Dronkers, Jaap; Schijf, Hubert

    1987-01-01

    Recent research has claimed that American private high schools are more effective than public high schools. Two critical aspects of this research are at the center of this article: a) whether the short-term benefits of private schools which were found to exist persist over an extended period of

  18. Achievement in Public and Private Secondary Education in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Laarhoven, Peter; Bakker, Bart; Dronkers, Jaap; Schijf, Hubert

    1987-01-01

    Recent research has claimed that American private high schools are more effective than public high schools. Two critical aspects of this research are at the center of this article: a) whether the short-term benefits of private schools which were found to exist persist over an extended period of time

  19. Public and Private Schools: Evidence on Tuition Tax Credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catterall, James S.; Levin, Henry M.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the conclusion reached by Coleman, Hoffer and Kilgore in their report "Public and Private Schools" that tuition tax credits would increase minority and low-income family participation in private, secondary schools. The implications of estimates of enrollment changes from tuition tax credits are analyzed. (AM)

  20. Evaluation of Public Sector Contributions to Public-Private Partnership Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Mackie, Peter; Nellthorp, John; Laird, James

    2005-01-01

    The Bank requires that any public sector contribution to a collaborative effort between the public sector and private enterprises in the transport sector be analyzed and justified in economic terms. This Note will set out the basis for making such an analysis. The general principles underlying this analysis are that: 1) public contributions to public-private partnership (PPP) projects sho...

  1. Response of Foreign Private Investment to Public Debt in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emenike Kalu O.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the long-term relationship and dynamic short-term impact of public debt on foreign private investment for a developing country – Nigeria during the period 1962 to 2012. The paper deploys cointegration model to examine long-term relationship between the variables. The study also examines dynamic short-term impact and causality between public debt and foreign private investment using the VECM and Granger causality test. The study further examines the response paths of foreign private investment variable due to public debts shocks using variance decomposition. The results confirm absence of long-term relationship between public debt and foreign private investment in Nigeria. The results also show that external debt has negative impact on foreign private investment in the short-term. Finally, the results show that there is no causality between foreign private investment and public debt. The major economic implication of these findings is for debt management authorities to be conscious of growing external debts as it discourages foreign private investments into Nigeria.

  2. Private public diplomacy. The end of public hegemony over international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Melgar

    2014-09-01

    We could be witnessing a completely new model: a private public diplomacy that would be based on a sovereign states definitive withdrawal from their monopoly on international relations in favour of the private sector.

  3. 8 CFR 299.4 - Reproduction of Public Use Forms by public and private entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... or private entity. Forms printed or reproduced by public or private entities shall be: (1) In black... be replicated to mirror the authorized agency form. Each item must be printed on the same page in...

  4. The private-public literacy divide amid educational reform in Qatar: What does PISA tell us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheema, Jehanzeb R.

    2015-04-01

    The education system in Qatar comprises of both private schools, which receive money through student fees, and public schools, which are fully government-funded. In the mid-2000s, Qatar started its transition towards an independent school model with the aim of eventually converting all public schools into government-supported independent schools. The idea was to give public schools more autonomy in terms of hiring decisions, adoption of curriculum and textbooks, and budget spending, enabling them to emulate some of the private schools' strategies for turning out successful students. This study examines evidence from the 2006-2012 administrations of the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) in Qatar in order to evaluate whether or not recent educational reform efforts in this country have succeeded in bridging the literacy divide between private and public schools. The results, presented in a number of detailed tables and discussed in the last part of the article, indicate that there is a significant difference in key literacy skills between the two types of schools. Private schools were found to outperform their public counterparts in areas such as mathematics, reading and science, both before and after controlling for important student-level differences, and this gap has evidently persisted from 2006 to 2012.

  5. BETWEEN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE. WOMEN RULE MUNICIPALITIES IN TLAXCALA, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Vázquez-García

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For public / private dichotomy in Western thought, the power is exercised in the public while private space is maintained as a domestic, apolitical and non-theorized. By contrast, for feminists it is an area of power that must be studied. The aim of this paper is to analyze the link between the public and private sphere from depth interviews with 14 mayors from Tlaxcala, Mexico. It discusses the various pressures to which women are subjected to assume public office and their slim chances of a far-reaching political career. We conclude that the social relations of private sector are vital to facilitate the participation of women in the audience, making it necessary to include in the definition of democracy.

  6. PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP AS EFFECTIVE MECHANISM OF SPORTS INFRASTRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Moskvin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the current state of sports infrastructure in Russia and also explores the experience of using public-private partnership at Olympic facilities construction in Sochi.

  7. Determinants of Job Hopping Experience among Private and Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determinants of Job Hopping Experience among Private and Public Sector ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL ... This study investigated perceived organizational justice, job stress and job ...

  8. Comparing public and private hospital care service quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, D; O'Callaghan, M

    1998-01-01

    The study applies the principles behind the SERVQUAL model and uses Donabedian's framework to compare and contrast Malta's public and private hospital care service quality. Through the identification of 16 service quality indicators and the use of a Likert-type scale, two questionnaires were developed. The first questionnaire measured patient pre-admission expectations for public and private hospital service quality (in respect of one another). It also determined the weighted importance given to the different service quality indicators. The second questionnaire measured patient perceptions of provided service quality. Results showed that private hospitals are expected to offer a higher quality service, particularly in the "hotel services", but it was the public sector that was exceeding its patients' expectations by the wider margin. A number of implications for public and private hospital management and policy makers were identified.

  9. Implementation of a public-private partnership in local government ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Implementation of a public-private partnership in local government in Ghana: A study of Ga West ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... selected from the two study areas and primary data collected using one-on-one indepth interviews.

  10. Innovation embedded in entrepreneurs’ networks in private and public spheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøtt, Thomas; Cheraghi, Maryam; Rezaei, Shahamak

    2014-01-01

    Global studies have found tendencies: traditional culture promotes entrepreneurs' networking in the private sphere, impeding innovation, whereas secular-rational culture facilitates networking in the public sphere, benefiting innovation. This embeddedness is here scrutinised in contrasting...

  11. MARKETING FUNCTION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubiša Ćosić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Marketing function of an economicentity involves the usage of various marketing subfunctionssuch as marketing research, marketingapproach in product development, marketingplanning, marketing management, etc. Themarketing orientation of the economic entity isdirected by using those functions, eitherindividually or jointly. In terms of our public sectorand institutions, introduction and application ofmarketing as a kind of business philosophy are notyet enough widespread and used. This paper posesas imperative introduction of a marketing conceptand corresponding marketing sub-functions inpublic institutions, mainly in the field of public -private partnership. The direct relation andcooperation between public and private sector inthe projects of general and social interest that areimplemented by private partner in cooperation withpublic institution in the framework of private-publicpartnership reflects the significance of marketingfunction of public sector in this field.

  12. Public and Private Investment and Economic Growth in Namibia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to a redefinition of its role in the development process in many countries, under the guiding ...... Private Investment in Latin America, Economic Development and Cultural .... Does public investment enhance productivity growth in Mexico? A.

  13. Clients satisfaction of antenatal care services in public and private ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to be effective and educating pregnant women about planning for safe birth. ... Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional comparative study design was used to ... in public and private health facilities in Surulere local government, Lagos state.

  14. Some Salient Features of Guatemala's Public and Private School Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R. Ruano

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze the formulation and implementation of educational policy processes in relation to private schools in Guatemala. Specifically, how bilingual education is defined and implemented in the private education sector in Guatemala City where the largest number of privately run establishments exist. Given the great deficits in the provision of educational coverage in the public sector, there has been an explosive expansion of private institutions which have very different levels of quality. Through an analysis of the administrative processes within the Guatemalan Government in general and its Education Ministry in particular as well as of the governance arrangements existing in the private school sector, an overall view of the curricular and policy decisions taken by private schools in the formulation and implementation of bilingual education is presented. This study was based on a sample of six private schools which cater to higher income segments of Guatemala City’s student population. Some of the relevant findings of this study include, the existence of a situation of quasi autonomous institutional functioning of the private sector, extreme differentials in the quality of services provided, inadequate levels of teacher and school administrator’s training as well as lack of cooperation between public and private sector schools.

  15. Private vs. public self-consciousness and self-discrepancies

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background We studied the relationships of self-discrepancies with private and public self-consciousness. It was postulated that private self-consciousness is more strongly related to actual–ideal discrepancy than to actual–ought discrepancy, and that the latter is more strongly related to public self-consciousness. Participants and procedure The sample consisted of 71 students aged 19-25, who completed the Self-Consciousness Scale and the DRP procedure for measuring self-...

  16. After the reform : Change in Dutch public and private organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieto Morales, F.; Wittek, R.P.M.; Heyse, L.

    Proponents of new public management (NPM) expect public organizations to become more flexible and adaptive after administrative reforms, effectively showing convergence with patterns of organizational change in the private sector. This "convergence argument" is tested with a sample of 61 public and

  17. After the reform : Change in Dutch public and private organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieto Morales, F.; Wittek, R.P.M.; Heyse, L.

    2013-01-01

    Proponents of new public management (NPM) expect public organizations to become more flexible and adaptive after administrative reforms, effectively showing convergence with patterns of organizational change in the private sector. This "convergence argument" is tested with a sample of 61 public and

  18. Market Positioning of Public and Private Universities:Students Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-Kahar ADAM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper concentrates on universities strategies for admitting students and the rate at which private sector universities expand in today’s higher educational setups. This paper answers the following question: to what extend are the public universities different from the private universities? In an attempt to find the answers, the whole study is developedtowards students’ perception of the universities positioning in terms of what they are offering to the customers, through what they prompt people to apply for admission? Therefore, thispaper looks at the prevailing admission strategies and potential students’ entry requirements at both public and private universities to determine the theoretical systems that are used by these universities in competition for customers (students. A quantitative survey of students in both public and private universities in Ghana was undergone In all, a total number of 255 questionnaires were printed. Only 187 were answered and returned out of 200 distributed questionnaires to the public sector universities whereas 55 questionnaires were distributed to the private sector students and 51 were answered and returned. This research was based on sampling data collection methods. The findings show that there are three categories of universities such as Publicly/Fully Independent Chartered Universities, Privately Owned Universities and Personal/Sole Proprietorship University Colleges. All these affect students’ choices for admission application. The findings clearly indicate that both public and private universitiespurposes are related using Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Coefficient formulae to that of the sole proprietorship colleges. Also, the admission requirement strategies differ between public and private universities.

  19. Public-private interactions in global food safety governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Fu

    2014-01-01

    In response to an apparent decline in global food safety, numerous public and private regulatory initiatives have emerged to restore public confidence. This trend has been particularly marked by the growing influence of private regulators such as multinational food companies, supermarket chains and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), who employ private standards, certification protocols, third-party auditing, and transnational contracting practices. This paper explores how the structure and processes of private food safety governance interact with traditional public governance regimes, focusing on Global Good Agricultural Practices (GlobalGAP) as a primary example of the former. Due to the inefficiency and ineffectiveness of public regulation in the face of global problems, private governance in food safety has gradually replaced states' command-and-control regulation with more flexible, market-oriented mechanisms. The paper concludes by emphasizing the importance of constructive regime interaction instead of institutional boundary building to global food safety governance. Public and private ordering must each play a role as integral parts of a larger, dynamic and evolving governance complex.

  20. The differences in job satisfaction among employees in public and private enterprises in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snežana Mihajlov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show the sector differences in job satisfaction among employees in Serbian enterprises. Based on the empirical and theoretical findings, it was shown that the employees in public enterprises in Serbia are more satisfied with their job than their counterparts in the private sector, which presents a general trend characteristic of countries where research of this type was carried out. In addition, it was pointed out to the general trend in preference of the employment of employees in public enterprises, that is, the abandonment of the private sector of the economy. It was shown that the effects of the economic crisis in the country, together with incomplete adjustment to the new market conditions in the field of labour and employment relations, determine job certainty as one of the most important factors in shaping employee satisfaction which contributes to decision making about staying in or leaving an organization.

  1. The differences in job satisfaction among employees in public and private enterprises in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snežana Mihajlov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show the sector differences in job satisfaction among  employees in Serbian enterprises. Based on the empirical and theoretical findings, it was shown that the employees in public enterprises in Serbia are more satisfied with their job than their counterparts in the private sector, which presents a general trend characteristic of countries where research of this type was carried out. In addition, it was pointed out to the general trend in preference of the employment of employees in public enterprises, that is, the abandonment of the private sector of the economy. It was shown that the effects of the economic crisis in the country, together with incomplete adjustment to the new market conditions in the field of labour and employment relations, determine job certainty as one of the most important factors in shaping employee satisfaction which contributes to decision making about staying in or leaving an organization.

  2. Private Arbitration of Incidental Public Law Issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2009-01-01

     The article discusses the incidental public law issues which can arise in an arbitration case, e.g. concerning power, heating, natural gas and other public facility legislation, national or Community legal restrictive trade practices law, and rules on state administration approval of the terms...... by arbitration, and where the award is nullifiable only if its findings are in violation of public policy, the ordre public. The article relies on UNCITRAL's Model Arbitration Law, the new Danish arbitration act (DAA), national European case law, and literature and case law of the European Court....

  3. Private versus Public Feedback - The Incentive Effects of Symbolic Awards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerhards, Leonie; Siemer, Neele

    subjects' performance compared to the control treatment. Also high ability and a positive interim feedback increase performance. Competitive preferences matter only in the less prestigious task. Subjects' gender and overconfidence can in neither of the tasks explain performance. In a supplementary field......We experimentally compare the incentive effects of rewarding individuals for outstanding performance publicly versus privately. We implement two real-effort tasks, which differ in how prestigious subjects perceive working on them. In both tasks private and public feedback similarly enhances...... experiment at a secondary school we furthermore compare the incentive effects of different forms of public recognition....

  4. Public-Private Partnership for Regional Development of Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea ZAMFIR

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the public-private partnership as a possible solution for regional development of renewable energy. Firstly, the study reveals the strong connection between renewable energy and sustainable regional development, and secondly, the study discloses some reasons for developing renewable energy through public-private partnerships in Romania’s regions. The findings of this study reveal that there is a strong need for a renewable energy partnership between public authorities, business community and civil society in order to achieve the regional development of renewable energy. The results of this study may be used for upcoming research in the area of implementing renewable energy projects through public-private partnerships in order to achieve sustainable regional development.

  5. Public versus Private: Evidence on Health Insurance Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Cristian; Schott, Whitney

    2012-01-01

    This paper models health insurance choice in Chile (public versus private) as a dynamic, stochastic process, where individuals consider premiums, expected out-of pocket costs, personal characteristics and preferences. Insurance amenities and restrictions against pre-existing conditions among private insurers introduce asymmetry to the model. We confirm that the public system services a less healthy and wealthy population (adverse selection for public insurance). Simulation of choices over time predicts a slight crowding out of private insurance only for the most pessimistic scenario in terms of population aging and the evolution of education. Eliminating the restrictions on pre-existing conditions would slightly ameliorate the level (but not the trend) of the disproportionate accumulation of less healthy individuals in the public insurance program over time. PMID:22374192

  6. Private market PPP versus innovative public market procurement practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korthals Altes, W.K.

    2014-01-01

    Public contracts between contracting authorities and economic operators take place in a context in which initiative rests with a contracting authority publishing a contract notice defining content and scope of the contract. Many innovative contracting practices, described as public-private partnersh

  7. Privatization and 'Agentification' of Public Services Delivery in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    seriane.camara

    2009-05-14

    May 14, 2009 ... Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa, 2008 .... between public and private sector organizations in public services delivery .... assets. Land survey. Municipal land. Sanitation. Town cleaning .... depending on circumstance and may include executive share ..... DOL Contract No.

  8. Democracy, redistributive taxation and the private provision of public goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The paper studies in a simple, Downsian model of political competition the private provision of public goods embedded in a system of democracy and redistributive taxation. Results show that the positive effect of inequality on production of public goods, to which Olson (1965) pointed, is weakened...

  9. Democracy, Redistributive Taxation and the Private Provision of Public Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas

    The paper studies in a simple, Downsian model of political competition how the private provision of public goods is affected when it is embedded in a system of democracy and redistributive taxation. Results show that the positive effect of inequality on public goods production, which Olson (1965...

  10. [Public interactions, private censorship: the case of Facebook].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Sergio Amadeu da

    2015-12-01

    Facebook is examined as a transnational online social networking platform where public discussions and interactions take place. The study surveys the private control of cultural and political expressions exercised by the platform's managers, which can be defined as private censorship. Cases of removal of content are presented and Facebook's political control policies discussed. The article also shows how Facebook rules display highly discretionary components and an aesthetic that can be portrayed as a kind of biopolitics of the information-age society.

  11. HRM in private and public organizations in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berber Nemanja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human resource management (HRM is a management concept which obtains many practices and activities. Although there is a substantial literature on HRM in the private sector, the practice of HRM in the public sector is still scarce. In the private sector, HRM is found as a factor for gaining competitive advantage, especially if HR practices are implemented in the way of high-performing working practice (HPWP. In the public sector, HRM is seen as paternalistic management, with the standardization of employment practices, collective bargaining and working practices that emphasize equal opportunities for employees. The goal of this research is to explore the characteristics and differences between HRM practice in organizations from the private and public sector. The subject of the research is HRM practice (staffing, training and development, compensation and benefits, and industrial relation and communication in the private and public organizations in the Republic of Serbia. The methodology of the paper includes exploration of the available literature on the theme and statistical analysis of the differences between HR practices in organizations from the private and public sector. The research is based on the HR data gathered in the second CRANET research round in Serbia, performed in 2015.

  12. We do not recognise anything 'private': public interest and private law under the socialist legal tradition and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Mańko

    2015-01-01

    In line with Lenin’s famous quote that Bolsheviks "do not recognise anything private" and that private law must be permeated with public interest, the private (civil) law of the USSR and other countries of the Soviet bloc, including Poland underwent reform aimed at furthering the public interest at

  13. Factors Influencing the Private Involvement in Urban Rail Public-Private Partnership Projects in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjian Ke

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Private investors have been encouraged to participate in the development and operation of urban rail projects in China through Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs, given the fact that subnational governments are suffering from urgent development demands and severe fiscal pressure. However, there is no formal assessment to determine the private involvement in a PPP project. This problem is particularly critical in the sector of urban rail, in which the huge investment cannot rely on the private sector alone. This study hence aimed to uncover and identify the influencing factors. Multiple research methods, including content analysis, case study and focus group discussion were adopted to achieve the research purpose. Seven types of influencing factors were identified, including project financial model, government fiscal commitment, risk allocation, public accountability, efficiency considerations, policy and regulations, and organisational marketing strategies. The findings add to the current knowledge base by uncovering the drivers behind private involvement in a PPP project. They are also beneficial for industry practitioners as a basis/checklist to determine the private involvement.

  14. Thinking and acting strategically: promoting integrated solid waste management and corporate responsibility through a public private partnership; the case of Altamira, Tamaulipas, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Bernhard Bösl; Alejandro von Bertrab; Juan David Hernández; Axel Macht

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an assessment of a public private partnerships (PPP) among the German Technical Cooperation (GTZ), the Municipality of Altamira, Tamaulipas, Mexico and private counterparts BASF Mexicana and Terminal de LNG de Altamira (TLA). The municipality of Altamira, located in the urban-industrial hub of southern Tamaulipas, Mexico, faces important challenges in the field of urban public service delivery, particularly waste management, due to a high demographic growth rate and chro...

  15. Improving Sustainability Performance for Public-Private-Partnership (PPP Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyin Shen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Improving sustainability performance in developing infrastructure projects is an important strategy for pursuing the mission of sustainable development. In recent years, the business model of public-private-partnership (PPP is promoted as an effective approach in developing infrastructure projects. It is considered that the distribution of the contribution on project investment between private and public sectors is one of the key variables affecting sustainability performance of PPP-type projects. This paper examines the impacts of the contribution distribution between public and private sectors on project sustainability performance. A model named the sustainability performance-based evaluation model (SPbEM is developed for assisting the assessment of the level of sustainability performance of PPP projects. The study examines the possibility of achieving better sustainability through proper arrangement of the investment distribution between the two primary sectors in developing PPP-type infrastructure projects.

  16. Public private co-operation in urban regeneration investment planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    Increasing renovation costs and ever more limited public funding for urban regeneration in combination with a political desire to stimulate the development of a sense of ownership in urban regeneration neighbourhoods has brought about a growing interest in attracting private sector funding......' rationalities, and developers have limited knowledge of urban regeneration programs. Nevertheless, there is ample evidence that developers possess crucial competences in relation to the urban regeneration processes, for instance to establish a shared vision of a neighbourhood amongst different local actors...... involved, to negotiate with private as well as public parts, and - most importantly - to 'sell' the project to the right investors. Hence, there are several reasons for the public planners to increase the engagements with private developers in the urban regeneration. Compared to international research...

  17. Organizational climate: Comparing private and public hospitals within professional roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Rojas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the organizational climate differences within professional roles in private and public hospitals. We focused on how physicians, administrative, healthcare and non-healthcare staff either in the public or in the private perceived their work environment and each organizational climate dimension. Data came from organizational-climate questionnaires administered in 2010 and 2012 to 19616 and 1276 health employees in public and private hospitals in the Tuscany Region respectively. We applied exploratory factoranalysis to verify the validity and internal consistency between items in the questionnaire and t-test, one-way analysis of variance to compare mean perceptions regarding to the dimensions across different groups of respondents. We measured four dimensions: “training opportunities”, “managerial tools”, “organization” and “management & leadership style” and overall job satisfaction. Hospital status in the professional roles was found significant in the staff's perceptions (p≤0.05.

  18. Public investment does not crowd out private supply of environmental goods on private land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, David H; Kyle, Garreth; Morris, William K; Smith, F Patrick

    2014-04-01

    In landscapes where private land tenure is prevalent, public funds for ecological landscape restoration are sometimes spent subsidising the revegetation of cleared land, and the protection of remnant vegetation from livestock. However, the total area treated may be unclear because such projects are not always recorded, and landholders may undertake similar activities without subsidisation. In the absence of empirical data, in the state of Victoria, Australia, a reporting assumption has been employed that suggests that wholly privately funded sites match publicly subsidised sites on a hectare for hectare basis (a so-called "x2" assumption). Conversely, the "crowding out" theory of investment in public goods such as environmental benefits suggests that public investment may supplant private motivation. Using aerial photography we mapped the extent of revegetation, native vegetation fencing and restoration on 71 representative landholdings in rural south-eastern Australia. We interviewed each landholder and recorded the age and funding model of each site. Contrary to the local "x2" reporting assumption, about 75% of the total area of the 412 sites was from subsidised sites, and that proportion was far higher for the period after 1997. However, rather than displacing unsubsidised activity, our modelling showed that landholders who had recently been subsidised for a project were more likely to have subsequently completed unsubsidised work. This indicates that, at least in terms of medium-term economic impact, the large increase in public subsidies did not diminish privately funded activity, as might be expected according to the theory of crowding out.

  19. Public and Private Posture : Zadie Smith

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heynders, Odile

    2016-01-01

    This chapter will focus on Smith’s posture, and in particular on how her public position and literary work negotiate issues such as identification, celebrity, style and authenticity. First, the paradox of the ‘celebrity authority’ will be examined, followed by a Derrida-inspired analysis of Smith’s

  20. The paradoxes of small Public Private Partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Jensen, Jesper Ole

    that the largest portion of small PPPs are of a size below 5,4 million roughly reflecting the lower limit of obligatory tendering according to EU-law. Among these there are indeed a good portion of “real” PPPs. It appears that local public units endeavour in PPPs because they are attracted by the innovation...

  1. [Public and private in times of the pest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caponi, S

    1999-01-01

    The paper explores how Hannah Arendt's oppositions public-private and intimate-social can be used as an analytical tool to better understand a very concrete, extreme situation: the state of emergency triggered when an epidemiological outbreak hits a city, totally altering its inhabitants lives. Studied observation of what specific individuals (be they imagined or real) feel and think during times of epidemic is an underutilized tool that may prove helpful in studying epidemics themselves. Focusing on Camus' "The pest" and events in the city of Oran, the article looks at how victims of the plague felt about their public or private lives and their intimate and social ties.

  2. An Excursion Into The Public-Private Partnership Jungle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelling, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    While the Private Finance Initiative (PFI) is doubtless the most visible Public-Private Partnership (PPP) in the public debate it is by no means the only one. A number of scholars have outlined the ambiguity of the PPP concept beyond PFIs and pointed to the multiplicity of differing types...... and classifications. Following, the article first of all identifies the emergence of two dimensions that are differently emphasized by the proposed PPP definitions (1) the co-responsibility dimension and (2) the relational governance dimension. Second, the arti-cle finds two differing approaches within each dimension...

  3. Research using blogs for data: public documents or private musings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastham, Linda A

    2011-08-01

    Nursing and other health sciences researchers increasingly find blogs to be valuable sources of information for investigating illness and other human health experiences. When researchers use blogs as their exclusive data source, they must discern the public/private aspects inherent in the nature of blogs in order to plan for appropriate protection of the bloggers' identities. Approaches to the protection of human subjects are poorly addressed when the human subject is a blogger and the blog is used as an exclusive source of data. Researchers may be assisted to protect human subjects via a decisional framework for assessing a blog author's intended position on the public/private continuum.

  4. PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP AS A MECHANISM TO REDUCE SOCIAL RISKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Oleynik

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of public-private partnership in the overall development of the country and its regions is determined in the article. The opinions of foreign and domestic scientists on the interpretation of the concept of PPP are analyzed, the main causes and social factors in favor of the introduction of PPP in Ukraine are determined. Singled out the main components of the PPP in the social sphere, including: public-regulation, public policy, transparency and accountability of PPP, financing and benefits of the project, the division of responsibilities between the public and private partners, taking into account the interests of consumers. Author determined the main provisions of the law of Ukraine “On Public Private Partnership”. The essence of social risk factors that cause them, their main features are determined. Differentiated concept of social risk and social insurance risk, the role of insurance in PPP agreements and key factors for cooperation between the state and the insurance segment are determined. Risk sharing agreement between the parties to the PPP when the state is a partner insurance company or other private partner is demonstrated.

  5. Alternative solutions for public and private catastrophe funding in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gruber

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of natural hazards as well as their frequency of occurrence during the last decades have increased decisively. Therefore, the public as well as the private sector are expected to react to this development by providing sufficient funds, in particular for the improvement of protection measures and an enhanced funding of damage compensation for affected private individuals, corporate and public entities.

    From the public stance, the establishment of an appropriate regulatory environment seems to be indispensable. Structural and legal changes should, on the one hand, renew and improve the current distribution system of public catastrophe funds as well as the profitable investment of these financial resources, and on the other hand, facilitate the application of alternative mechanisms provided by the capital and insurance markets.

    In particular, capital markets have developed alternative risk transfer and financing mechanisms, such as captive insurance companies, risk pooling, contingent capital solutions, multi-trigger products and insurance securitisation for hard insurance market phases. These instruments have already been applied to catastrophic (re-insurance in other countries (mainly the US and off-shore domiciles, and may contribute positively to the insurability of extreme weather events in Austria by enhancing financial capacities. Not only private individuals and corporate entities may use alternative mechanisms in order to retain, thus, to finance certain risks, but also public institutions.

    This contribution aims at analysing potential solutions for an improved risk management of natural hazards in the private and the public sector by considering alternative mechanisms of the capital and insurance markets. Also the establishment of public-private-partnerships, which may contribute to a more efficient cat funding system in Austria, is considered.

  6. Alternative solutions for public and private catastrophe funding in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, M.

    2008-07-01

    The impacts of natural hazards as well as their frequency of occurrence during the last decades have increased decisively. Therefore, the public as well as the private sector are expected to react to this development by providing sufficient funds, in particular for the improvement of protection measures and an enhanced funding of damage compensation for affected private individuals, corporate and public entities. From the public stance, the establishment of an appropriate regulatory environment seems to be indispensable. Structural and legal changes should, on the one hand, renew and improve the current distribution system of public catastrophe funds as well as the profitable investment of these financial resources, and on the other hand, facilitate the application of alternative mechanisms provided by the capital and insurance markets. In particular, capital markets have developed alternative risk transfer and financing mechanisms, such as captive insurance companies, risk pooling, contingent capital solutions, multi-trigger products and insurance securitisation for hard insurance market phases. These instruments have already been applied to catastrophic (re-)insurance in other countries (mainly the US and off-shore domiciles), and may contribute positively to the insurability of extreme weather events in Austria by enhancing financial capacities. Not only private individuals and corporate entities may use alternative mechanisms in order to retain, thus, to finance certain risks, but also public institutions. This contribution aims at analysing potential solutions for an improved risk management of natural hazards in the private and the public sector by considering alternative mechanisms of the capital and insurance markets. Also the establishment of public-private-partnerships, which may contribute to a more efficient cat funding system in Austria, is considered.

  7. Mapping private-public-partnership in health organizations: India experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayan Chakravarty

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The dream of universal health care demands a much larger and wider approach, engaging not just the public but also the private sector. This paper has attempted mapping the present public-private partnership scenario in India using the WHO health system functions framework, giving an insight into the nature and extent of challenge of the present dominant model. A systematic review methodology was adopted to identify published literature on private-public partnership in India. From an initial pool of 785 articles were identified. Finally a total of 29 published articles meeting the inclusion criteria were included. The descriptive framework of Health system functions by WHO (2000, were used to analyze the data. All papers which were considered for the study were segregated based on the 4 prime health system functions: Financing; Management of non-financial inputs; Health service delivery and Oversight. The literature review reveals that more than half of the papers (51.72% selected for the study were focused on health service delivery functions and quite thin literature were available for other 3 functions, which includes financing, management of non-financial inputs and oversight functions as per WHO. This finding raise an important question if the genesis of most of the public-private partnerships is out of the inability of the public sector in reaching out to a particular target group by virtue of its geographical position or difficulty in working with high risk groups. Considering the limitations of the present model of engagement of private and public sectors, it demands for an alternative model of engagement where the mutual strength that exists with each one of the partners, could be harnessed and complemented. An alternate model is to engage in tri-partite partnership (TPP between the government, non-government and the corporates.

  8. Public-private partnerships in urban regeneration areas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael Tophøj; Aunsborg, Christian

    2006-01-01

    The paper focuses formal as well as informal public-private partnerships (PPP) in Danish urban regeneration areas. The concept ‘urban regeneration areas’ was introduced in the 2003 Planning Act as old, remaining industrial areas within the city boundaries by now were recognized as an ressource...

  9. Optimal Provision of Infrastructure Using Public-Private Partnership Contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, G.; Ruys, P.H.M.; Talman, A.J.J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with the optimal provision of infrastructure by means of public-private partnership contracts.In the economic literature infrastructure is characterized as a large, indivisible and non-rival capital good that produces services for its users.Users can be both consumers and producers.

  10. Public-Private Partnerships : Risk Allocation and Value for Money

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Sarmento, J.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the allocation and valuation of public-private partnerships (PPPs). First, the paper discusses why governments pursue PPPs and how value for money (VfM) is achieved. Second, the paper reviews the principles of risk allocation and valuation from an academic and pu

  11. The Portuguese Experience with Public-Private Partnerships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Sarmento, J.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: This paper documents the Portuguese experience in Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs). Since 1993, Portugal has been using PPPs intensively, mainly for highway construction and in the health sector. This has enabled the country to close the infrastructure gap and avoid the budget constraint

  12. Quantum Key Distribution Protocol with Private-Public Key

    OpenAIRE

    Serna, Eduin H.

    2009-01-01

    A quantum cryptographic protocol based in public key cryptography combinations and private key cryptography is presented. Unlike the BB84 protocol [1] and its many variants [2,3] two quantum channels are used. The present research does not make reconciliation mechanisms of information to derive the key. A three related system of key distribution are described.

  13. Public-private partnerships as facilitators of environmental improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Søren; Lehmann, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Public-private partnerships in the environmental field have emerged as one option in the pursuit of sustainable development in different contexts. So-called ?Green Networks?, ?Cleaner Production Centres?, ?Waste Minimisation Clubs? are among others highlighted as alternatives to (governmental...

  14. How do governments support the development of Public Private Partnerships?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verhoest, Koen; Petersen, Ole Helby; Scherrer, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Taking an institutional perspective, in this article we develop an index of the governmental support for public private partnership (PPP) — a ‘PPP Governmental Support Index’ (GSI) — which aims to measure the extent to which national governments provide an institutional framework that is either...

  15. Public-Private Partnerships : Risk Allocation and Value for Money

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Sarmento, J.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    This paper reviews the literature on the allocation and valuation of public-private partnerships (PPPs). First, the paper discusses why governments pursue PPPs and how value for money (VfM) is achieved. Second, the paper reviews the principles of risk allocation and valuation from an academic and

  16. Public-Private Partnerships : Risk Allocation and Value for Money

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Sarmento, J.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the allocation and valuation of public-private partnerships (PPPs). First, the paper discusses why governments pursue PPPs and how value for money (VfM) is achieved. Second, the paper reviews the principles of risk allocation and valuation from an academic and

  17. The Portuguese Experience with Public-Private Partnerships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Sarmento, J.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: This paper documents the Portuguese experience in Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs). Since 1993, Portugal has been using PPPs intensively, mainly for highway construction and in the health sector. This has enabled the country to close the infrastructure gap and avoid the budget

  18. Optimal Provision of Infrastructure Using Public-Private Partnership Contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, G.; Ruys, P.H.M.; Talman, A.J.J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with the optimal provision of infrastructure by means of public-private partnership contracts.In the economic literature infrastructure is characterized as a large, indivisible and non-rival capital good that produces services for its users.Users can be both consumers and producers.

  19. Public-Private Partnerships for Clean Energy Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-09-01

    As part of its mission, CEMI builds partnerships around strategic priorities to increase U.S. clean energy manufacturing competitiveness. This requires an “all-hands-on-deck” approach that involves the nation’s private and public sectors, universities, think tanks, and labor leaders working together.

  20. Public-Private Partnership as Incentive Institution of Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena S. Averkieva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The interaction system of national public and private sectors institutions is becoming increasingly important in the conditions that characterize the current stage of economic development (such as globalization and post-industrialization trends, geopolitical threats, transformation of production and financial processes. Instability and the dependence of national economies from external environment factors, exposure to systemic crises increase the vulnerability of national business and require the state institutions’ activation in order to support and promote national business initiatives. In these circumstances, one of the most adequate to modern realities forms of entrepreneurial activity stimulation is the public-private partnership model, which proved to be highly effective, both in foreign countries and in Russia. The author reveals potential of public-private partnership as an institution to stimulate entrepreneurial activity by analyzing features of its organizational and management mechanism in the Russian Federation. The practical aspects of the introduction of the public-private partnership model are studied on the example of the Rostov region. The author shows that the implemented programs to encourage entrepreneurship through PPP projects have a positive effect, but at the same time remain a number of problems in the development of the business sector in Russia. The improving ways of the interaction mechanism between government and business at the regional level are identified based on the assessing results of the PPP level in Russia as a whole and in separate regions, implemented by the Association "Center for PPP development".

  1. Waste water treatment through public-private partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpintero, Samuel; Petersen, Ole Helby

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the experience of the regional government of Aragon (Spain) that has extensively used public-private partnerships for the construction and operation of waste water treatment plants. The paper argues that although overall the implementation of this PPP program might be considered...

  2. Ecological responsibility of business as public-private partnership element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Potravniy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article the questions of social and ecological responsibility of business are considered within the public-private partnership mechanism framework. Methods of the ecological significant project economic regulation are shown in wildlife management and environment protection sphere.

  3. PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS IN IMPLEMENTATION OF GERBANGMASTRA PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Ode Mustafa Muchtar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This research attempts to describe and analyze the effect of public-private partnerships and community participation on successful of the implementation of Gerbangmastra program in Kolaka regency of South East Sulawesi Province. This study is conducted using a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods. This paper finds that public-private partnerships affect the community participation and successful of the implementation of Gerbangmastra program. It also uncovers that community participation affects the successful of the implementation of Gerbangmastra program. Furthermore, it reveals that the implementation of public-private partnership that are supported by community participation have an impact on the successful of the implementation of Gerbangmastra program.Keywords: Public-private partnerships, community participation, Gerbangmastra programJEL classifications: H80, O21.AbstrakPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan dan menganalisis pengaruh kemitraan pemerintah-swasta dan partisipasi dari masyarakat terhadap keberhasilan pelaksanaan program Gerbangmastra di Kabupaten Kolaka Propinsi Sulawesi Tenggara. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan kombinasi metode kuantitatif yaitu metode regresi analisis jalur dan kualitatif berupa metode deskriptif analitik. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kemitraan antara pemerintah-swasta memiliki pengaruh terhadap partisipasi masyarakat dan keberhasilan pelaksanaan program Gerbangmastra. Sementara itu partisipasi dari masyarakat berpengaruh terhadap keberhasilan pelaksanaan program Gerbangmastra. Pelaksanaan kemitraan pemerintah-swasta yang didukung oleh partisipasi masyarakat berpengaruh terhadap keberhasilan pelaksanaan program Gerbangmastra di daerah tersebut.Kata kunci: Kemitraan pemerintah-swasta, partisipasi masyarakat, program GerbangmastraJEL classifications: H80, O21.

  4. Portugal’s experience with public-private partnerships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, Luc; Miranda Sarmento, J.J.; Akintoye, Akintola; Beck, Matthias; Kumaraswamy, Mohan

    2015-01-01

    This paper documents the Portuguese experience in Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs). Since 1993, Portugal has been using PPPs intensively, mainly for highway construction and in the health sector. This has enabled the country to close the infrastructure gap and avoid the budget constraints at the m

  5. Public-Private Partnership and Infrastructural Development in Nigerian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduwaiye, R. O.; Sofoluwe, A. O.; Bello, T. O.; Durosaro, I. A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the degree to which Public-Private Partnership (PPP) services are related to infrastructural development in Nigerian Universities. The research design used was descriptive survey method. The population for the study encompassed all the 20 universities in South-west Nigeria. Stratified random sampling was used to select 12…

  6. Lost in diffusion? Democratic accountability in public-private partnerships

    OpenAIRE

    Willems, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: In academic literature and in the popular press complex forms of governance such as public-private partnerships (PPPs) are very often associated with democratic deficits due to a shortfall in accountability. Although this negative outlook on democratic accountability in PPPs is almost a self-evident truth, it remains insufficiently supported by empirical research.

  7. Public-Private Partnerships and Sustainable Agricultural Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Castle

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture in Africa is not sustainable because average yields have been stagnating for decades due to underinvestment, especially in the development of agricultural markets, crop improvement and the sustainable management of agricultural systems. Low public sector funding for agricultural research and lack of incentives for the private sector to operate in areas where there is no market largely explain the yield gap in many food-importing developing countries. Yet, there are effective ways in which the public and the private sector could work together and jointly improve agricultural sustainability in poor countries. The public sector provides a favorable institutional environment for the development of agricultural markets and investment in rural infrastructure, facilitates local business development and funds research with local relevance. The private sector, in return, brings its considerable expertise in product development and deployment. This article illustrates how new forms of public-private partnerships (PPPs for agricultural development can work in challenging environments. It discusses three promising examples of PPPs in which the Syngenta Foundation for Sustainable Agriculture (SFSA is actively involved, and shows that an experimental approach can sometimes be more effective than social planning in efforts to achieve sustainable agriculture.

  8. The Perfect Storm and the Privatization of Public Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    2006-01-01

    During the last quarter of a century, public higher education institutions have found themselves buffeted by a perfect storm. This storm has led to discussions about the privatization of those institutions, which has implications for their ability to improve, or at least maintain, their quality and their accessibility to students from all…

  9. Public-Private Partnerships : Risk Allocation and Value for Money

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Sarmento, J.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the allocation and valuation of public-private partnerships (PPPs). First, the paper discusses why governments pursue PPPs and how value for money (VfM) is achieved. Second, the paper reviews the principles of risk allocation and valuation from an academic and pu

  10. The Portuguese Experience with Public-Private Partnerships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Sarmento, J.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: This paper documents the Portuguese experience in Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs). Since 1993, Portugal has been using PPPs intensively, mainly for highway construction and in the health sector. This has enabled the country to close the infrastructure gap and avoid the budget constraint

  11. Public private co-operation in urban regeneration investment planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    Increasing renovation costs and ever more limited public funding for urban regeneration in combination with a political desire to stimulate the development of a sense of ownership in urban regeneration neighbourhoods has brought about a growing interest in attracting private sector funding. Previ...

  12. Public and Private Self-Consciousness: Assessment and Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenigstein, Allen; And Others

    1975-01-01

    A scale was constructed to assess individual differences in self-consciousness. Norms and test-retest reliability are presented. Factor analysis of the scale revealed that self-consciousness has three components: public, private, and social anxiety. The relationships among these three factors are examined. (Author)

  13. Evolutionary Game Analysis of the Supervision Behavior for Public-Private Partnership Projects with Public Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congdong Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The public can directly or indirectly participate in the PPP (public-private partnership projects and then has an impact on the project profit and public or private behavior. To explore the influence of the public participation of the PPP projects supervision behavior, this paper analyzes the mutual evolutionary regularity of the private sector and government supervision department and the influence of public participation level on public and private behavior based on evolutionary game theory. The results show that the supervision strategy is not chosen when the supervision cost of government supervision department is greater than the supervision benefit; it can make private sector consciously provide the high-quality public products/services with the improvement of public participation level. Therefore, the government should reduce the cost of public participation and improve the public participation level and influence through the application of the Internet, big data, and other advanced technologies, in order to restrain the behavior of the private sector and improve the supervision efficiency.

  14. Private Giving Crowding Government Funding in Public Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Thomas Sav

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Private giving and government funding are critical revenue sources for public colleges and universities. If increased private giving reduces government funding, then that type and extent of crowding out carries important managerial and public policy implications. Approach: The study used a government funding reaction function and an instrumental variable approach to empirically estimate the potential for crowding out. Results: The study examined the extent to which private giving reduces or crowds out state government funding of public colleges and universities. Government free riding was at question and investigated to determine how active it is in terms of private donations partially or wholly displacing state government funding. The findings suggested that the rate of crowding out was 43% on the dollar. That compares to the 45% political substitution of the 1960’s but is much diminished from the 1980’s dollar for dollar crowding out. Those are aggregate comparisons for all public institutions. A disaggregated approach in this study additionally revealed that doctoral universities were victims of the same 43% crowd out but that at two other levels, master degree granting and associate degree granting colleges, there was the opposite effect of crowding in. Those colleges received state funding augmentations of 32-92% on their dollar of privately provided donations. Conclusion/Recommendations: The study’s finding of the existence of both crowding out and crowding in can carry important policy implications for college and university funding. Future managerial and public policy decision making should take that into account. However, political sustainability and economy wide and localized effects over time of crowding out and in could prove fruitful avenues of inquiry for future research.

  15. A systematic framework for infrastructure development through public private partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueqing Zhang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Public–private partnerships (PPPs play an important role in bringing private sector competition to public monopolies in infrastructure development and service provision and in merging the resources of both public and private sectors to better serve the public needs. However, in worldwide practices, there are mixed results, substantial controversy, criticism and conflict over PPPs. This paper proposes a systematic framework for the delivery of public works and services through PPPs in general. Justified by public procurement principles, aimed at a public–private win–win solution, and based on worldwide best industrial practices and lessons from unsuccessful projects, this framework integrates the four broadly divided stages that repeat over time: (1 design of a workable concession, (2 competitive concessionaire selection, (3 financial regulation, and (4 periodic reconcession and rebidding. The four-stage framework takes into account the requirements of public services, realignment of responsibility and reward among multiple participants in PPPs, the monopolistic rights of the concessionaire, and the wide range of risks and uncertainties in the long concession period. Varying competition elements are incorporated in each of the four stages for continuous performance improvement in the delivery of public works and services. The design of the right concession forms the base on which other stages are implemented in addition to planning the project and allocating risks for enhanced efficiency. The financial regulation allows the government to address changing conditions and to regulate the concession for efficient operation with due discretion, whereas the competitive concessionaire selection and periodic reconcession and rebidding play critical roles in achieving innovation, efficiency and cost effectiveness through direct competition rather than government discretionary intervention.

  16. The Privatization of Public Enterprises in the United Kingdom, 1979–1987

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auger, J.F.

    2010-01-01

    How do states have privatized public enterprises? In the book The Official History of Privatization, David Parker, a notorious economist of regulation and privatization, shed light on a country at the forefront of economic reforms, the United Kingdom.

  17. Public-private partnership models in France and in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demotes-Mainard, Jacques; Canet, Emmanuel; Segard, Lionel

    2006-01-01

    The workshop entitled "Public-Private partnerships models in Europe-- comparison between France and European countries" brought together representatives of academia and industry, of national or European health research programs, of regional or national public-private partnership (PPP) initiatives, and of biotechnology with the following objectives: sharing a common vision on the needs, expectations and challenges of public-private partnership, based on the analysis of actual and original cases, and of new initiatives on public-private partnership, drawing conclusions and identifying key success factors, identifying trails for progress and drawing recommendations. The major event in this field is a European public-private partnership initiative between pharmaceutical industry (European Federation of Pharmaceultical Industry and Associations, EFPIA) and the European Commission (DG Research--health priority) resulting in the European Technology Platform project "Innovative Medicines Initiative" (IMI). Its architecture is based on the identification of the main bottlenecks to the development of innovative treatments (predictive pharmacology and toxicology, identification and validation of biomarkers, patients' recruitment, risk evaluation, and cooperation with the regulatory authorities). Simultaneously, initiatives both at the national and regional levels also foster PPP in the therapeutic field. Regional competitivity clusters acting in the biomedical sector, and national PPP calls such as the ANR (National Research Agency) RIB (Research and Innovation in Biotechnology) call are incentives for PPP projects. These regional and national PPP levels help public and private partners to further build consortia able to compete for EU-level calls, thus acting as incubators for EU PPP projects. In spite of incentives and of the regional and national structuring of PPP, weaknesses in the French system are linked to its fragmentation--multiple transfer agencies, multiple

  18. Potential follow-up increases private contributions to public goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Todd; Ternovski, John; Yoeli, Erez

    2016-05-10

    People contribute more to public goods when their contributions are made more observable to others. We report an intervention that subtly increases the observability of public goods contributions when people are solicited privately and impersonally (e.g., mail, email, social media). This intervention is tested in a large-scale field experiment (n = 770,946) in which people are encouraged to vote through get-out-the-vote letters. We vary whether the letters include the message, "We may call you after the election to ask about your voting experience." Increasing the perceived observability of whether people vote by including that message increased the impact of the get-out-the-vote letters by more than the entire effect of a typical get-out-the-vote letter. This technique for increasing perceived observability can be replicated whenever public goods solicitations are made in private.

  19. The productivity of public and private sector in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Pater

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the article a concept of comparing public and private sector effectiveness is presented. It is based on an analysis of the productivity of capital and labour in both sectors. For this purpose, the authors build growth model in the general and intensive form, taking into account public and private sectors and their relationships in terms of gross value of fixed assets, and employment. Empirical analysis is carried out using a panel model for Polish provinces in the years 2002-2009. The analysis show that the size of the public sector in terms of labour and capital is negatively correlated with Gross Domestic Product and gross value added per employee. Research has shown that the productivity in the two sectors is different. The private sector has a higher productivity of both labour and capital in comparison to the public sector. The authors are of the opinion that the analysis in terms of labour and capital in both sectors substantially complements the more common approach aimed at measuring the effectiveness of public sector from the point of view of expenditures. Proposed analysis has the advantage that it expresses two sectors, which use different accounting categories, in the same economic terms – productivity.

  20. PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS IN FUNCTION OF RAPID ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubiša Vladušić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains a review of themost important characteristics of public-privatepartnerships, explaining mutual adjustment ofpublic and private sectors goals during theimplementation of a particular public project. Inaddition, this paper outlines the benefits of publicprivatepartnership through redefining governmentrole in economy ensuring the necessary efficiencyand productivity in the management of publicgoods. The author specially noted that forsuccessful development of public-privatepartnership it is necessary for all stakeholders to beadequately involved in the process and to clearlyrecognize the possibility of better and higherquality in realization of their own interests bydefining the contractual assumptions of riskdiversification. The author also points out that inexplaining the concept of public-privatepartnership it is necessary to distinguish betweenthis kind of contractual relationship and thetraditional ways of providing public services,privatization and concessions. The circumstancessuggest that the experience in strategic merger ofpublic and private sectors in developed countries ispositive and that these processes in countries intransition are delayed both in view of legal aspectand application in practice. The author believesthat not only the legal solutions but also newprocedures and regulations as well as mechanismsfor effective implementation of models of publicprivatepartnership will be of great importance forfurther economic development of the countries intransition.

  1. Successful public-private partnerships: The NYPD shield model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadeo, Vincent; Iannone, Stephen

    2017-12-01

    This article will identify the challenges that post 9/11 law enforcement faces regarding privatepublic partnerships and describe in detail the NYPD Shield programme, created to combat those challenges. Recommendations made by the 911 Commission included the incorporation of the private sector into future homeland security strategies. One such strategy is NYPD Shield. This programme is a nationally recognized award-winning public-private partnership dedicated to providing counterterrorism training and information sharing with government agencies, non-government organizations, private businesses, and the community. Information is shared through several platforms that include a dedicated website, instruction of counterterrorism training curricula, e-mail alerts, intelligence assessments and the hosting of quarterly conferences. This article also details how the NYPD Shield is providing its successful template to other law enforcement agencies enabling them to initiate similar programmes in their respective jurisdictions, and in doing so joining a National Shield Network.

  2. Democracy, Redistributive Taxation and the Private Provision of Public Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas

    The paper studies in a simple, Downsian model of political competition how the private provision of public goods is affected when it is embedded in a system of democracy and redistributive taxation. Results show that the positive effect of inequality on public goods production, which Olson (1965......) pointed to, is weakened and might even be reversed in this context. Also, the median voter may choose a negative tax rate, even if he is poorer than the mean, in order to stimulate public goods production. The relevance of the model is illustrated with an application to the finance of higher education....

  3. Mechanisms in the privatization process of public education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Díez Pampliega

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The situation in the district of Puente de Vallecas (Madrid, Spani can be taken as an example of the progressive development of private schools held by public funds at the expense of the public schools network. This situation is the result of different mechanisms: first, the lost perception of education as a common good; second, the neglect of the right to free compulsory education in all schools supported by public funds; and third, the unfair distribution of students from economic and cultural disadvantaged backgrounds.

  4. Public-private partnerships in urban regeneration areas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael Tophøj; Aunsborg, Christian

    2006-01-01

    into housing while neighbouring noisy industries go on. Beyond this, from a municipal point of view there are several public interests to manage when old, remaining industrial areas face re-development. The motive of the municipal council can either be regulative (safeguarding certain financial or other public......The paper focuses formal as well as informal public-private partnerships (PPP) in Danish urban regeneration areas. The concept ‘urban regeneration areas’ was introduced in the 2003 Planning Act as old, remaining industrial areas within the city boundaries by now were recognized as an ressource...

  5. Comparing public and private hospitals in China: evidence from Guangdong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Karen; Lu, Mingshan; Li, Congdong; Wang, Jian; Yang, Zhe; Zhang, Jing; Quan, Hude

    2010-03-23

    The literature comparing private not-for-profit, for-profit, and government providers mostly relies on empirical evidence from high-income and established market economies. Studies from developing and transitional economies remain scarce, especially regarding patient case-mix and quality of care in public and private hospitals, even though countries such as China have expanded a mixed-ownership approach to service delivery. The purpose of this study is to compare the operations and performance of public and private hospitals in Guangdong Province, China, focusing on differences in patient case-mix and quality of care. We analyze survey data collected from 362 government-owned and private hospitals in Guangdong Province in 2005, combining mandatorily reported administrative data with a survey instrument designed for this study. We use univariate and multi-variate regression analyses to compare hospital characteristics and to identify factors associated with simple measures of structural quality and patient outcomes. Compared to private hospitals, government hospitals have a higher average value of total assets, more pieces of expensive medical equipment, more employees, and more physicians (controlling for hospital beds, urban location, insurance network, and university affiliation). Government and for-profit private hospitals do not statistically differ in total staffing, although for-profits have proportionally more support staff and fewer medical professionals. Mortality rates for non-government non-profit and for-profit hospitals do not statistically differ from those of government hospitals of similar size, accreditation level, and patient mix. In combination with other evidence on health service delivery in China, our results suggest that changes in ownership type alone are unlikely to dramatically improve or harm overall quality. System incentives need to be designed to reward desired hospital performance and protect vulnerable patients, regardless of

  6. Comparing public and private hospitals in China: Evidence from Guangdong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhe

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature comparing private not-for-profit, for-profit, and government providers mostly relies on empirical evidence from high-income and established market economies. Studies from developing and transitional economies remain scarce, especially regarding patient case-mix and quality of care in public and private hospitals, even though countries such as China have expanded a mixed-ownership approach to service delivery. The purpose of this study is to compare the operations and performance of public and private hospitals in Guangdong Province, China, focusing on differences in patient case-mix and quality of care. Methods We analyze survey data collected from 362 government-owned and private hospitals in Guangdong Province in 2005, combining mandatorily reported administrative data with a survey instrument designed for this study. We use univariate and multi-variate regression analyses to compare hospital characteristics and to identify factors associated with simple measures of structural quality and patient outcomes. Results Compared to private hospitals, government hospitals have a higher average value of total assets, more pieces of expensive medical equipment, more employees, and more physicians (controlling for hospital beds, urban location, insurance network, and university affiliation. Government and for-profit private hospitals do not statistically differ in total staffing, although for-profits have proportionally more support staff and fewer medical professionals. Mortality rates for non-government non-profit and for-profit hospitals do not statistically differ from those of government hospitals of similar size, accreditation level, and patient mix. Conclusions In combination with other evidence on health service delivery in China, our results suggest that changes in ownership type alone are unlikely to dramatically improve or harm overall quality. System incentives need to be designed to reward desired hospital

  7. Privatization and the Public Good: Public Universities in the Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Matthew T.

    2014-01-01

    "Public education is in crisis--and it has been for some time. The problem is, no one can agree on the problem, and when there is no agreement on the problem, developing solutions is nearly impossible." Thus writes Matthew T. Lambert in this study of present-day public higher education, which is currently plagued by momentous challenges.…

  8. Public private partnership as a last resort for traditional public procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojović Viktorija

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses recent changes in the way public services are delivered A marked increase in the cooperation between the public and private sector in the realization of complex projects, mostly concerning development of infrastructure, is the main characteristic of present-day developing economies. The creation of new, innovative agreements is driven by the limitation of public funds and an ever-growing demand for an increase in the quality of public services. Looking upon the western economies experience alternatives to the traditional public sector procurement are identified in the public/private partnership. The public/private partnership can be seen as one component in the rearrangement of the public sector with a management culture that focuses on the citizen or customer. Also included in this are accountability for results, investigation of a wide variety of alternative service delivery mechanisms, and competition between public and private bodies for contracts to deliver services consistent with cost recovery and the achievement of value for money. The partnership can be realized through an array of models and in this paper priority is given to the DBFO (design-build-finance-operate model, due to its importance in implementation. The DBFO model is considered to be a synonym for the public/private partnership, as it is the most suitable for complex projects and gains the most benefits.

  9. Privatization Financing Alternatives: Blending Private Capital and Public Resources for a Successful Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BT Oakley; JH Holbrook; L Scully; MR Weimar; PK Kearns; R DiPrinzio

    1998-10-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) launched the Contract Reform Initiative in 1994 in order to improve the effectiveness and effkiency of managing major projects and programs. The intent of this initiative is to help DOE harness both technical and market forces to reduce the overall cost of accomplishing DOE's program goals. The new approach transfers greater risk to private contractors in order to develop incentives that align contractor performance with DOE's objectives. In some cases, this goal can be achieved through public-private partnerships wherein the govermhent and the contractor share risks associated with a project in a way that optimizes its economics. Generally, this requires that project risks are allocated to the party best equipped to manage and/or underwrite them. While the merits of privatization are well documented, the question of how privatized services should be financed is often debated. Given the cost of private sector equity and debt, it is difficult to ignore the lure of the government's "risk free" cost of capital. However, the source of financing for a project is an integral part of its overall risk allocation, and therefore, participation by the government as a financing source could alter the allocation of risks in the project, diminishing the incentive structure. Since the government's participation in the project's financing often can be a requirement for financial feasibility, the dilemma of structuring a role for the government without undermining the success of the project is a common and difficult challenge faced by policymakers around the world. However, before reverting to a traditional procurement approach where the government enters into a cost-plus risk profile, the government should exhaust all options that keep the private entity at risk for important aspects of the project. Government participation in a project can include a broad range of options and can be applied with precision to bridge a

  10. Social economy partnerships and the public/private cleavages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joxerramon Bengoetxea

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Public/Private Partnerships can be seen as one particular topos where the divide between the public domain, all levels of the Public Administration and the private initiative and private property is turned into a joint venture rather than a confrontation or a cleavage. Some of the possible combinations of public and private and where public/private partnerships might fit are displayed analytically. The importance of political theory or ideology in conceiving the relationships between ‘public’ and ‘private’, and the conceptions of a market economy as opposed to a social market economy cannot be exaggerated enough, but equally important are the legal or regulatory framework and the underlying dominant legal culture and legal principles, and of course the economic and financial situation. Public/private partnerships thrive in some conditions, but seem to wane in others, and the current predicament is not favourable, taking into account that only the regulatory framework is supportive of these ventures. Los partenariados público-privados se pueden entender como un espacio particular, en el que el sector público, todos los niveles de la administración pública, y la iniciativa privada y la propiedad privada, abordan una empresa conjunta, en lugar mantener posturas contrapuestas. Se muestran algunas de las posibles combinaciones del sector público y privado, en las que tendrían cabida los partenariados público/privados. Es patente la importancia de la teoría o la ideología política para entender las relaciones entre lo público y lo privado, y las concepciones de una economía de mercado frente a una economía social, pero tampoco se puede negar la importancia del marco legal o reglamentario y la cultura jurídica dominante subyacente, y los principios jurídicos, sin olvidar la situación económica y financiera. Los partenariados público-privados prosperan en algunas condiciones, pero no lo hacen siempre, y la situación econ

  11. 45 CFR 400.61 - Services to public/private RCA recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Services to public/private RCA recipients. 400.61... Refugee Cash Assistance § 400.61 Services to public/private RCA recipients. (a) Services provided to recipients of refugee cash assistance in the public/private RCA program may be provided by the...

  12. PUBLIC AND PRIVATE IN THE ANTHROPOLOGY OF HANNAH ARENDT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAELA MORARIU

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the ancient and modern meanings of the “public” and the “private” spaces – carefully analyzed by Hannah Arendt in The Human Condition –, and on the way in which these meanings appeared, also on how they reflect themselves in establishing the relation public-private. The perspectives of the relation between “public” and “private” shade away the tendency of “being together”, alienating the public space from that spectacular attribute of the commonly shared deliberations, bringing the decisions towards an absolute sovereignty. Whereas in the ancient Greece the question of the conflict between the “public” and the “private” has appeared, through the shading of the private sphere and through the over-bidding of the public one, in the Western exegesis the inability to make a distinction between the public and the private did not have the same explanations, but it is rather based on an interpretation and transfer gap. The author acknowledges the decline of the “public” to its extinction in the totalitarianisms of the 20th century, as being due to the modern loss of the meaning and practice of the political action.

  13. Nursing organizational climates in public and private hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, I García; Castillo, R F; Santa-Bárbara, E S

    2014-06-01

    Researchers study climate to gain an understanding of the psychological environment of organizations, especially in healthcare institutions. Climate is considered to be the set of recurring patterns of individual and group behaviour in an organization. There is evidence confirming a relationship between ethical climate within organizations and job satisfaction. The aim of this study is to describe organizational climate for nursing personnel in public and private hospitals and to confirm the relationships among the climate variables of such hospitals. A correlational study was carried out to measure the organizational climate of one public hospital and two private hospitals in Granada. The Work Environment Scale was used for data collection. The Work Environment Scale includes 10 scales, ranging from 0 to 9, which were used to evaluate social, demographic and organizational climate variables. In this study, 386 subjects were surveyed in three hospitals. A total of 87% of the participants were female and 16% were male. Most participants were nurses (65.6%), followed by nursing aides (20%), and technicians (14.4%). The results obtained reflected different patterns of organizational climate formation, based on hospital type (i.e. public or private) within the Spanish context. Most of the dimensions were below the midpoint of the scale. In conclusion, in public hospitals, there is a greater specialization and the organizational climate is more salient than in the private hospitals. In addition, in the public hospitals, the characteristics of the human resources and their management can have a significant impact on the perception of the climate, which gives greater importance to the organizational climate as decisive of the ethical climate. © The Author(s) 2013.

  14. Public Policy Exceptions in European Private Law : A New Research Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colombi Ciacchi, Aurelia

    2014-01-01

    Public policy exceptions arguably exist in all fields of private and commerciallaw, not only in private international law but also in substantive law. In substantive private law, the term 'public policy exception' could be used to indicate general illegality rules that make an act of private

  15. Public or private water management: Experience from different European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackerbauer, Johann

    2008-11-01

    Faced with liberalisation proposals and an increasing internationalisation of water resource management, the question arises as to how a change of the regulatory framework would affect the market structure and the supply conditions in this area. While the term "privatisation" relates to the ownership structure of the providers, the term "liberalisation" implies extensive free market ideas. Privatisation involves the outsourcing of public services from the public authorities to a privately organised organisation. Through this, however, nothing needs to change in terms of the market or the intensity of competition for the commodity in question. Within the framework of privatisation it can also occur that the public monopoly is only transferred to a private monopoly. The term "liberalisation" in addition refers to the basic regulatory constraints: liberalisation signifies the cessation of limitations to competition and supply monopolies, and open competition between several suppliers for the consumers. In the EU-15, the only country where the provision of operational services in the water supply has been totally passed to the private sector is the UK, but this is only true for UK and Wales. Another singular case is France, where there is a mix of mainly private operating companies and municipalities which have divided the regional supply areas among themselves. In six other EU-15 countries where some privatisation took place, either the municipalities or (majority) publicly owned companies are controlling water supply. In the remaining seven countries, the water supply is organised by municipality companies only. In an international comparison, there are three basic models for the regulation of natural monopolies in the public water supply: the Anglo-Saxon, the French and the German model. The delimitation between supervisory bodies and operations in the water supply is strongest in the first model and weakest in the last. This has led to three basic types of

  16. Public/private information sharing in healthcare fraud investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, J G

    1999-01-01

    Private insurers have good reason, both in their private interest and in the public interest, for pursuing and rooting out fraud in the healthcare system; moreover, they often have sophisticated data systems, substantial investigative information, and management expertise that can be useful to prosecutors. It makes sense, as a public policy matter, to undertake steps to encourage insurers to be aggressive in pursuing legitimate fraud cases, and to provide a framework for effective cooperation and information sharing with law enforcement. At the same time, prosecutors are responsible for enforcing equal justice under the law; thus, any such relationship must be handled in an appropriate manner, with safeguards to protect privacy and the reputation of investigative subjects. While the courts have not yet explored many of the relevant legal and factual issues in this area, the author surveys existing guidance under governing laws and policies applicable to state and federal prosecutors, and suggests techniques to prevent inappropriate communication or use of such information.

  17. Jurisdictional Competition Between Private and Public Sector Auditors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov Jeppesen, Kim

    2012-01-01

    . In Denmark, the competitive relation has led to a jurisdictional dispute between public and private sector auditors in which the former have developed a special qualification for public sector auditors. The paper analyses the development of this qualification using Abbott's (1988) theory of the system...... of professions, thus focusing on how the involved groups have attempted to build networks of support for their competing jurisdictional claims of expertise. The case contributes to knowledge about the potential for development of a distinct public sector auditor identity. The case suggests that to develop...... such an identity and gain professional recognition, public sector auditors need to convince parliaments, standard-setting bodies and universities that a public sector auditing qualification serves as a solution to some of their problems, too....

  18. COLLECTIVE BARGAINING DYNAMICS IN THE NIGERIAN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam A. Gbajumo-Sheriff (Mrs.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to examine the dynamics of collective bargaining machinery in both the public and private sectors in Nigeria; with a view to bringing to the fore the peculiarities associated with both sectors with regard to the practice of bargaining. To achieve this objective, the paper adopts a theoretical approach. The author observes that the practice of industrial relations as a discipline and that of collective bargaining in particular emanated from the private sector the world over. Thus, much of the practices of public sector collective bargaining are modelled after the private sector collective bargaining. However, in Nigeria, the obverse is the case as collective bargaining gained its root in the public sector owing to the near absence of private sector at the turn of the century. However, in Nigeria, the public sector pays lip-service to the collective bargaining machinery. Governments at all levels (Federal, State and Local have continued to set aside collective bargaining and to give wage awards to score political points in spite of its commitment to the ILO Convention 98 to freely bargain with workers. The State or the government in the course of regulating wages and employment terms and conditions revert to the use of wage commissions. Thus, wage determination is by fiat. This preference for wage commissions can at best be regarded as a unilateral system as collective bargaining is relegated to the background.Wage tribunals or commissions offer little opportunity for workers’ contribution in the determination of terms and conditions of employment and can hardly be viewed as bilateral or tripartite. Thus, the State preference for wage commissions is anti-collective bargaining. In spite of Nigeria’s commitment to Conventions of the ILO with particular reference to such Conventions as 87 of 1948 and 98 of 1949 which provide for freedom of association and the right of workers to organize and bargain collectively

  19. Renegotiation of transportation public-private partnerships: The US experience

    OpenAIRE

    Gifford, Jonathan; Bolaños, Lisardo; Daito, Nobuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Public-private partnerships (P3s) typically rely on long-term contracts between participants. When conditions arise that fall outside the expectations embodied in the contract, one party may seek to renegotiate the contract terms. Globally, the frequency of P3 contract renegotiations has been sufficient to raise questions regarding why these events occur and what their consequences are for the projects and society. The literature highlights four relevant causes behind renegotiation occurrence...

  20. Public private partnerships for emergency obstetric care: Lessons from Maharashtra

    OpenAIRE

    Sarika Chaturvedi; Bharat Randive

    2011-01-01

    Background: The National Rural Health Mission of India advocates public private partnerships (PPPs) to meet its "service guarantee" of Emergency obstetric care (EmOC) provision. The Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) has a provision of Rs. 1500 for contracting in obstetric specialists. Objectives: The study aimed to understand the issues in the design and implementation of the PPPs for EmOC under the JSY in Maharashtra and how they affect the availability of EmOC services to women. Materials and Me...

  1. Prioritizing lean management practices in public and private hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Matloub; Malik, Mohsin

    2016-05-16

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to prioritize 21 healthcare wastes in public and private hospitals of United Arab Emirates (UAE). Design/methodology/approach - Seven healthcare wastes linked with lean management are further decomposed in to sub-criteria and to deal with this complexity of multi criteria decision-making process, analytical hierarchical process (AHP) method is used in this research. Findings - AHP framework for this study resulted in a ranking of 21 healthcare wastes in public and private hospitals of UAE. It has been found that management in private healthcare systems of UAE is putting more emphasis on the inventory waste. On the other hand, over processing waste has got highest weight in public hospitals of UAE. Research limitations/implications - The future directions of this research would be to apply a lean set of tools for the value stream optimization of the prioritized key improvement areas. Practical implications - This is a contribution to the continuing research into lean management, giving practitioners and designers a practical way for measuring and implementing lean practices across health organizations. Originality/value - The contribution of this research, through successive stages of data collection, measurement analysis and refinement, is a set of reliable and valid framework that can be subsequently used in conceptualization, prioritization of the waste reduction strategies in healthcare management.

  2. Managing the relational character of public-private partnership contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Predrag

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A public-private partnership contract has the character of a relational contract. Relational contracts are incomplete agreements governing transactions where the contracting parties have mutually agreed that it is impossible or economically inefficient to contractually define ex ante possible difficulties and contingencies in the contract implementation, nor the difficulties and contingencies underlying the ex post control of contract performance by a third entity (court or arbitration. Considering the methodology of managing relational contracts, it is essential that the theory of relational contracts does not advocate for the establishment of relational contracts as a separate category of contracts, with specifically designated contractual instruments. This theory defines the relational contract as a category which legitimizes 'the relational mode' of a particular contract. The methodology of relational contracts is important for contracts on public-private partnership as it ensures that the contractual relationship is aligned with the changes in the immediate environment where the PPP contract operates. The aforementioned alignment has two aspects. The first one is the ex ante aspect of the alignment which is primarily aimed at preventing the detrimental effect of such alignment to the public partner's interests. Therefore, the intent to prevent such an effect shall be taken into account when defining the criteria for the selection of the most favorable private partner and the best offer. At the same time, it is essential to establish verifiable standards for measuring the private partner performance in the phase of contract implementation. For this goal to be achieved, it is crucial to specify the subject matter of the private partner's obligations, to establish the priority rank of PPP project objectives, to elaborate on the specific requirements governing the eligibility of private partners to participate in the bidding process, to specify

  3. Public-Private Partnerships and Sustainable Regional Innovation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Martin; Christensen, Per; Johnson, Bjørn

    in this connection, and their roles (if any) are still somewhat unclear. So, the question is: What is or could be the role of universities in P3s? A third mission of universities, often referred to as ‘outreach’, is increasingly coming into focus. One aspect of the third mission is the role universities is or may...... be playing in public-private partnerships for sustainable development, and the links and benefits this may provide towards universities fulfilling their first (science) and second (education) missions. In this paper, the first part is dedicated to the discussion and clarification of the concept of public...

  4. The Public Market Equivalent and Private Equity Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten; Jagannathan, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    betas due to changes in financial leverage, operating leverage, or the nature of the business are automatically taken into account; (2) the public market index used in evaluations should be the one that best approximates the wealth portfolio of the investor considering the PE investment opportunity.......The authors show that the public market equivalent approach is equivalent to assessing the performance of private equity (PE) investments using Rubinstein’s dynamic version of the CAPM. They developed two insights: (1) one need not compute betas of PE investments, and any changes in PE cash flow...

  5. The Development of Public-private Partnerships in the Region in Terms of Global Economic Slowdown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakulin Serhij

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to develop scientifically grounded methodological tools of public-private partnerships in the region in terms of slowing economic globalization. According to this goal, organizes interaction of the government and businesses in the implementation of public-private partnerships; the mechanism for implementation of public-private partnerships in the Kharkiv region; the model of economic management in the region using a public-private partnership.

  6. Recruitment for Competencies in Public and Private Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Codruța OSOIAN

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to attract highly skilled human resources is dependent on the employee recruitment process implemented by organizations, which plays an important role for their competitiveness on the market. As the concern for the success of the recruitment process in public sectors is becoming more salient, the present study compares the use of recruitment practices in public and private sectors through a survey applied to 97 organizations. It also explores the outcomes in terms of quantity and quality of applications received when using various recruitment methods. Common points and differences were identified. Internal recruitment methods and e-recruitment based on job posting on the website of the organization are favored regardless of the type of organization (private or public. The differences weight mostly against public sector as public institutions use less often the recommendations received from acquaintances and networks, post fewer job adds on specialized online job boards, get fewer direct applications from candidates, and participate less often in job fairs. The largest number of applications is received through the use of online job boards, job posting on the website of the hiring organization and job advertising in written press. On the other hand, internal recruitment is perceived to result in attracting the highest quality applications.  

  7. Public-Private Partnerships as Hybrid Organizational Drivers of Innovation in the Public Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Sofie

    framework, which can be used to investigate the potential for innovation in different PPP types across sectors. The last decades have seen sequential waves of public sector reforms, which have resulted in an increased hybridity in the public sector, where ideas, goals and tools from hierarchy, market...... in the organizational form of PPPs provide different mixes of coordination mechanisms for public-private innovation. The paper investigates three PPP types, Long-term Infrastructure Partnerships (LTICs), Public-Private Service Partnerships (PPSPs) and Public-Private Innovation Partnerships (PPIPs), and shows how...... collaboration, and LTICs are mostly coordinated through competition, though each PPP type displays a specific mix of both competition and collaboration. The article provides a conceptually based explanation for the various degree of innovation in different PPP types displayed in current empirical investigations...

  8. Productivity Analysis of Public and Private Airports: A Causal Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasigh, Bijan; Gorjidooz, Javad

    2007-01-01

    Around the world, airports are being viewed as enterprises, rather than public services, which are expected to be managed efficiently and provide passengers with courteous customer services. Governments are, increasingly, turning to the private sectors for their efficiency in managing the operation, financing, and development, as well as providing security for airports. Operational and financial performance evaluation has become increasingly important to airport operators due to recent trends in airport privatization. Assessing performance allows the airport operators to plan for human resources and capital investment as efficiently as possible. Productivity measurements may be used as comparisons and guidelines in strategic planning, in the internal analysis of operational efficiency and effectiveness, and in assessing the competitive position of an airport in transportation industry. The primary purpose of this paper is to investigate the operational and financial efficiencies of 22 major airports in the United States and Europe. These airports are divided into three groups based on private ownership (7 British Airport Authority airports), public ownership (8 major United States airports), and a mix of private and public ownership (7 major European Union airports. The detail ownership structures of these airports are presented in Appendix A. Total factor productivity (TFP) model was utilized to measure airport performance in terms of financial and operational efficiencies and to develop a benchmarking tool to identify the areas of strength and weakness. A regression model was then employed to measure the relationship between TFP and ownership structure. Finally a Granger causality test was performed to determine whether ownership structure is a Granger cause of TFP. The results of the analysis presented in this paper demonstrate that there is not a significant relationship between airport TFP and ownership structure. Airport productivity and efficiency is

  9. 77 FR 42801 - Public Private Partnerships Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ...The FAA is conducting a public meeting on August 7 regarding program design and implementation of an equipage incentives program for commercial aircraft and general aviation to equip their aircraft with Next Generation Air Transportation (NextGen) capabilities, pursuant to the FAA's authority in the FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012 (sec. 221). The purpose of this meeting is to serve as an information sharing session.

  10. Private vs. public self-consciousness and self-discrepancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Falewicz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background We studied the relationships of self-discrepancies with private and public self-consciousness. It was postulated that private self-consciousness is more strongly related to actual–ideal discrepancy than to actual–ought discrepancy, and that the latter is more strongly related to public self-consciousness. Participants and procedure The sample consisted of 71 students aged 19-25, who completed the Self-Consciousness Scale and the DRP procedure for measuring self-discrepancies. Results The results did not confirm the hypotheses, but revealed a correlation between actual–ideal discrepancy and social anxiety. It also turned out that private self-consciousness negatively correlates with the time of rating ideal-self attributes and positively with the time of rating ought-self attributes. Conclusions Self-consciousness may be related not so much to the size of self-discrepancies as to the accessibility of the content of each self-standard. The results are also consistent with the sequence of studies that challenge the central thesis of Higgins’s theory concerning the specific relationship between actual-ought discrepancy and anxiety.

  11. Equitable Financial Evaluation Method for Public-Private Partnership Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KE Yongjian; LIU Xinping; WANG Shouqing

    2008-01-01

    The feasibility study of a public-private partnership (PPP) project is regarded as one of the critical factors for successful implementation,but unfortunately the common financial evaluation methods currently used only represent the benefits of the private sector.There is,therefore,an urgent need to develop an equitable financial evaluation method for PPP projects.This paper presents a comprehensive literature review that examines international practices.An equitable financial evaluation method was then developed taking into account the inherent characteristics of PPP projects using six separate indicators and Monte Carlo simulations.The result for a bridge project in Romania shows that the method combines the viewpoints of all the relevant stakeholders to achieve an equitable financial evaluation of PPP projects.

  12. Umbilical cord blood banks. Ethical aspects. Public versus private banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar Lucea, Justo

    2012-01-01

    The creation of umbilical cord blood (UCB) banks raises interesting medical, social, economic and ethical issues. This paper reviews the ethical problems specifically. In this respect, it evaluates: a) whether there are advantages to the use of UCB compared to bone marrow, b) whether or not it is ethical to create UCB banks, c) whether their creation is ethically acceptable in terms of their clinical usefulness or d) the use made of them for therapeutic purposes, and finally e) whether their creation is ethically justified from a cost/profitability point of view. We focus primarily on evaluating the ethical controversy between public and private banks, particularly on whether it is ethical to bank autologous blood in private UCB banks, on the basis of its limited possibilities for use by the cord blood donor. We can conclude that, from an ethical point of view, autologous blood banks have limited acceptance among specialised researchers, scientific societies and other public institutions. Therefore, we believe that it is ethically more acceptable to support the creation of public UCB banks for medical and social reasons and, above all, based on the principle of justice and human solidarity. Nevertheless, there is no definitive ethical argument why a couple, according to their autonomy and freedom, cannot bank their child's UCB in a private bank. An equally acceptable solution could be the creation of mixed banks, such as that proposed by the Virgin Health Bank or like the Spanish system where autologous samples can be stored in public banks but with the proviso that if at any time the stored sample is required by any person other than the donor, it would have to be given to them.

  13. Public Service Motivation and Attraction to Public Versus Private Sector Employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Jin

    2013-01-01

    of economics, political science, and law, this article tests (1) the relationship between PSM and attraction to public versus private sector employment, and (2) the moderating effect on this relationship of students’ academic field of study (i.e., their profession once graduated). Overall, results underscore...... the multidimensionality of the PSM construct, as the PSM dimension of “public interest” is positively associated with attraction to public sector employment and negatively associated with attraction to private sector employment, while the PSM dimension of “compassion” is unrelated to both. Importantly, however...

  14. Good legal governance in authoritative public-private partnerships. Conceptualising legitimate partnerships with public authority

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heldeweg, M.A.; Sanders, M.P.T.

    2013-01-01

    The discourse on Public Private Partnerships (PPP) is focused most on Procurement or on what we name ‘Market-PPP’. Placing PPP in the shift from government to governance calls for attention especially to those PPP, which are geared to exercise public legal powers. These ‘Authoritative PPP’ are most

  15. Good legal governance in authoritative public-private partnerships. Conceptualising legitimate partnerships with public authority

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heldeweg, Michiel A.; Sanders, Maurits

    2013-01-01

    The discourse on Public Private Partnerships (PPP) is focused most on Procurement or on what we name ‘Market-PPP’. Placing PPP in the shift from government to governance calls for attention especially to those PPP, which are geared to exercise public legal powers. These ‘Authoritative PPP’ are most

  16. 45 CFR 400.59 - Eligibility for the public/private RCA program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility for the public/private RCA program. 400.59 Section 400.59 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE... RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Refugee Cash Assistance § 400.59 Eligibility for the public/private RCA program....

  17. Leveraging public private partnerships to innovate under challenging budget times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portilla, Lili M; Rohrbaugh, Mark L

    2014-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH), academic medical centers and industry have a long and productive history in collaborating together. Decreasing R&D budgets in both the private and public sector have made the need for such collaborations paramount to reduce the risk of further declines in the number of innovative drugs reaching the market to address pressing public health needs. Doing more with less has forced both industry and public sector research institutions (PSRIs) to leverage resources and expertise in order to de-risk projects. In addition, it provides an opportunity to envision and implement new approaches to accomplish these goals. We discuss several of these innovative collaborations and partnerships at the NIH that demonstrate how the NIH and industry are working together to strengthen the drug development pipeline.

  18. Stabilization Operations Beyond Government: Joint Venture Public-Private Partnerships in Iraq and Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Defense Intelligence Agency. This article won the inaugural young Professionals in Foreign Policy Essay competition. Joint Venture Public-Private...Beyond Government: Joint Venture Public-Private Partnerships in Iraq and Afghanistan 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER... joint venture public-private partnerships hold the best possibility to achieve the goals of A Unique Private Sector Methodology Eurasia Group brings

  19. Public-private partnerships for long-term success. Implementation of public construction projects in public-private partnerships; Mit PPP zu nachhaltigem Erfolg. Partnerschaftliche Realisierung oeffentlicher Bauaufgaben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simsch, Gerd; Glock, Christian; Herzog, Kati [Bilfinger Berger Hochbau GmbH, Frankfurt (Germany); Prein, Sascha [bauperformance GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Public private partnerships necessitate a comprehensive life cycle assessment, which makes them increasingly important as models of sustainability for public building owners. This is proved by the advantages in terms of efficiency and by the fact that two PPP projects received an award (''Guetesiegel nachhaltiges Bauen''). (orig.)

  20. CARACAS: PRIVATIZATION AND RE- SIGNIFICATION OF PUBLIC SPACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GÓMEZ HERRERA CARMEN HELENA

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Caracas. The Theme of this Paper is the privatization of space and re-signification of the public domain in a space-time urban analysis of the development of the actual urban fabric. The analysis is based on concepts as the metamorphosis of the inhabited space and the different space categories for understanding a social context of social exclusion. This social- space- time construction leads to identifying a particular urban environment, based on privatization of public space, disaffiliated modes of public life and great social disparities. The periodization which gives an understandable overview of the transformations in the socio-political and economical spheres, and clarifies the structure of relationships among the actors involved in the processes, resulting mainly in social inequalities, increased market forces, withdrawal of governments and previous authoritarian regimes. The analysis focus also on three selected main state built urban typologies: the Avenue Parisian, social housing blocks and urban highways. These examples which denote the social processes of adaptation, distortion and integration of imported models and structures to the local context and indicate changes of function through time.

  1. Belle II public and private cloud management in VMDIRAC system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzymkowski, Rafa; Hara, Takanori; Belle computing Group, II

    2015-12-01

    The role of cloud computing technology in the distributed computing for HEP experiments grows rapidly. Some experiments (Atlas, BES-III, LHCb) already exploit private and public cloud resources for the data processing. Future experiments such as Belle II or upgraded LHC experiments will largely rely on the availability of cloud resources and therefore their computing models have to be adjusted to the specific features of cloud environment, in particular to the on-demand computing paradigm. Belle II experiment at SuperKEKB will start physics run in 2017. Belle II computing requirements are challenging. The data size at the level of hundred PB is expected after several years of operation, around 2020. The baseline solution selected for distributed processing is the DIRAC system. DIRAC can handle variety of computing resources including Grids, Clouds and independent clusters. Cloud resources can be connected by VMDIRAC module through public interfaces. In particular the mechanism of dynamic activation of new virtual machines with reserved job slots for new tasks in case of an increasing demand for computing resources is introduced. This work is focused on VMDIRAC interaction with public (Amazon EC2) and private (CC1) cloud. The solution applied by Belle II experiment and the experience from Monte Carlo production campaigns will be presented. Updated computation costs for different use cases will be shown.

  2. Landmark Law Provides Equal Safeguards to Public,Private Property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI XIN

    2007-01-01

    @@ After more than a quarter-century of market-oriented economic policies and unprecedented economic growths,China on March 15, 2007enacted its first law that provides equal legal safeguards to both public and private properties. The 247-article People's Republic of China Property Law, which is due to come into effect as of October 1, 2007, stipulates that "the property of the State, the collecfive, the individual and other obligees shall be protected by law, and no units or individuals may infringe upon it".

  3. Living ‘private life in the public gaze’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    and the next generation. Profound implications of these findings for psychosocial services for mixed couples and their children are lastly discussed. *Singla, R. (2015) “Intermarriage, Mixed Parenting, Promoting mental health and wellbeing: Crossover Love Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan......Living ‘private life in the public gaze’: Multiethnic/visibly ethnically mixed couples in Denmark This paper deals with the subjective experiences of the mixed couples’ lives, both in the country of native partner and in the diasporic spouse’s country of origin. Despite increasing numbers...

  4. Public-Private Investment Partnerships: Efficiency Estimation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Valeryevich Trynov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on assessing the effectiveness of investment projects implemented on the principles of public-private partnership (PPP. This article puts forward the hypothesis that the inclusion of multiplicative economic effects will increase the attractiveness of public-private partnership projects, which in turn will contribute to the more efficient use of budgetary resources. The author proposed a methodological approach and methods of evaluating the economic efficiency of PPP projects. The author’s technique is based upon the synthesis of approaches to evaluation of the project implemented in the private and public sector and in contrast to the existing methods allows taking into account the indirect (multiplicative effect arising during the implementation of project. In the article, to estimate the multiplier effect, the model of regional economy — social accounting matrix (SAM was developed. The matrix is based on the data of the Sverdlovsk region for 2013. In the article, the genesis of the balance models of economic systems is presented. The evolution of balance models in the Russian (Soviet and foreign sources from their emergence up to now are observed. It is shown that SAM is widely used in the world for a wide range of applications, primarily to assess the impact on the regional economy of various exogenous factors. In order to clarify the estimates of multiplicative effects, the disaggregation of the account of the “industry” of the matrix of social accounts was carried out in accordance with the All-Russian Classifier of Types of Economic Activities (OKVED. This step allows to consider the particular characteristics of the industry of the estimated investment project. The method was tested on the example of evaluating the effectiveness of the construction of a toll road in the Sverdlovsk region. It is proved that due to the multiplier effect, the more capital-intensive version of the project may be more beneficial in

  5. Waste water treatment through public-private partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpintero, Samuel; Petersen, Ole Helby

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the experience of the regional government of Aragon (Spain) that has extensively used public-private partnerships for the construction and operation of waste water treatment plants. The paper argues that although overall the implementation of this PPP program might be considered...... allocation of some tasks. The paper also illustrates two features of this PPP program that arguably have strongly influenced its successful implementation: The mitigation of demand risk and the rigorous estimations of demand carried out by the regional government...

  6. Institutional regime of public-private participation in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Schiavi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently enacted legislation on Public Private Partnerships in Uruguay provides a new institutional framework for the designing, structuring and subscription of contracts in ppp projects. Among its provisions, the new statute allocates competences to different administrative bodies for the execution, regulation and control of PPP s. Later administrative regulations were also adopted to facilitate the implementation and execution of this type of contracts. The present article studies these reforms, in order to provide a better understanding of the role played by the Technical Commission of the PPP Unit.

  7. Managing the financial challenges of public-private collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, R

    1995-01-01

    With the growing emphasis on Medicaid managed care waivers as a method for states to constrain healthcare cost overruns (see also State Policy Review on page 63), new and creative pricing techniques for carve-out and carve-in programs will be a key to their success. The author builds on his experience in developing a Medicaid behavioral healthcare carve-out in Massachusetts to illustrate some basic principles in the pricing and management of such public-private collaborations. These collaborative systems should be based on specific actuarial models, plans for enhanced access to services and the need to change incrementally in the context of the political process.

  8. No Policy for Public Private Partnership? PPP, Collaboration and Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup Christensen, Lene; Greve, Carsten

    infrastructure projects and public service provision contracts in the transport sector within roads and busses, bridges and tunnels, rail, airports and aviation and harbors. The projects will be categorized in relation to organizational and financial models and it leads to a. discussion of types of policy...... choices across the sector and the reasons behind whether or not PPP was chosen. The final part of the paper presents an institutional historical account of the Danish case, and focuses on the more general question of how PPP policy planning evolves. There is no direct step from privatization...

  9. What Drives Private and Public Merger Waves in Europe?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, Jan; Blunck, Benjamin

    What drives merger waves? Harford 2005 argues that mergers are an efficient response to economic shocks to an industry, whereas Rhodes-Kropf, Robinson & Viswanathan 2005 argues that merger waves are driven by overvaluation of the acquiring firm, and to a lesser extent, the target firm. Both paper...... significant differences between driving forces for listed firms and for private firms. Public or listed firm mergers and acquisitions are primarily driven by overvaluation or behavioural factors, whereas private transactions are driven by economic factors.......What drives merger waves? Harford 2005 argues that mergers are an efficient response to economic shocks to an industry, whereas Rhodes-Kropf, Robinson & Viswanathan 2005 argues that merger waves are driven by overvaluation of the acquiring firm, and to a lesser extent, the target firm. Both papers...... are based on empirical analyses of listed US firms. This paper presents additional evidence of merger waves in the European Union (EU). The use of European data allows a more detailed analysis, since firm level data is available for both listed as well as private transactions. This analysis reveals...

  10. The economics of infrastructure finance: Public-private partnerships versus public provision

    OpenAIRE

    Engel, Eduardo M. R. A.; Fischer, Ronald D.; Galetovic, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    We examine the economics of infrastructure finance, focusing on public provision and Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs). We show that project finance is appropriate for PPP projects, because there are few economies of scope and because assets are project specific. Furthermore, we suggest that the higher cost of finance of PPPs is not an argument in favour of public provision, since it appears to reflect the combination of deficient contract design and the cost-cutting incentives embedded in P...

  11. The economics of infrastructure finance: Public-private partnerships versus public provision

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo M.R.A. Engel; Ronald D. Fischer; Galetovic, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    We examine the economics of infrastructure finance, focusing on public provision and Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs). We show that project finance is appropriate for PPP projects, because there are few economies of scope and because assets are project specific. Furthermore, we suggest that the higher cost of finance of PPPs is not an argument in favour of public provision, since it appears to reflect the combination of deficient contract design and the cost-cutting incentives embedded in P...

  12. A Winning Framework for Public-Private Partnerships : Lessons from 60-plus IFC Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Florizone, Richard; Carter, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    Despite global financial uncertainty and increased public mistrust of business, partnerships between the public and private sectors have continued to grow- driven by governments' need to access external financing and expertise, by the private sector's search for new opportunities, and by governments' desire to grow the private sector. This report addresses the critical question: how can th...

  13. ALGORITHM FOR PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS AS A FORM OF BUSINESS IN THE ENVIRONMENT NATIONAL PARKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleb A. Sobolev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the current state ofthe public-private partnership in Russia;the algorithm of partnership betweenthe government and the private sectorto develop the business environment ofnational parks. Identified as particularactivities of protected areas, taking into account national and international practices;Consider their relationship and cooperation with public or private entities.

  14. A Winning Framework for Public-Private Partnerships : Lessons from 60-plus IFC Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Florizone, Richard; Carter, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    Despite global financial uncertainty and increased public mistrust of business, partnerships between the public and private sectors have continued to grow- driven by governments' need to access external financing and expertise, by the private sector's search for new opportunities, and by governments' desire to grow the private sector. This report addresses the critical question: how can th...

  15. The operations and effectiveness of public and private provision of solid waste collection services in Kampala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katusiimeh, M.W.; Mol, A.P.J.; Burger, C.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper compares the operations and discusses the effectiveness of public and private sector provision of solid waste collection in Kampala, Uganda. Household data suggest that the private sector is more effective than the public sector. Private sector companies provide services like container pr

  16. 34 CFR 300.325 - Private school placements by public agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Private school placements by public agencies. 300.325... Programs, and Educational Placements Development of Iep § 300.325 Private school placements by public... child to, a private school or facility, the agency must initiate and conduct a meeting to develop an IEP...

  17. Public-private provision of protection measures against natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, M.

    2009-04-01

    Natural hazards threaten human lives as well as economic values of a society. Due to an increasing population density, augmenting property holdings in congested areas as well as higher frequencies of catastrophic events, the damage potential associated with natural hazards is growing. In order to safeguard societal assets against this threat, active and passive protection measures can be established. While passive protection measures provide for this type of risk by means of thorough land use planning, active protection measures aim at improving safety through technical or biological protective systems and structures. However, these provisions are costly and need to be handled prudentially. In most European countries protection measures against natural hazards are provided by the public. Specific governmental funds have been set up for the establishment of preventive systems as well as for damage compensation payments after the occurrence of catastrophic events. Though, additional capital is urgently needed in order to facilitate the realisation of all necessary projects in this field and to provide for maximal safety. One potential solution for such financial deficiencies can be found in Public Private Partnerships (PPP). PPPs have been implemented as attractive concepts for the funding of diverse projects in the fields of e.g. road construction, municipal, health and social services. In principle, they could also provide alternative funding solutions for the establishment of crucial protective infrastructure in respect of natural hazards, adding private financial means to the currently available public funds. Thereby, the entire capacities for catastrophe funding could be enhanced. Beside PPPs, also alternative funding mechanisms such as the emission of catastrophe bonds, contingent credit lines or leasing arrangements may enhance available capacities for the financing of protection measures. This contribution discusses innovative solutions for the funding of

  18. Private and Public Investment in Malaysia: A Panel Time-series Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sallahuddin Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Public capital hypothesis explains that a positive relationship exists between private and public investment. This paper examines the validity of the hypothesis by using a panel time series analysis on four sectors of the Malaysian economy (agriculture, industry and trade, transportation and communication, and construction. Panel co-integration analysis is used to prove the relationship between private domestic investment and public investment by using panel data for the period of 1976–2006. Two interaction variables, public investment and gross domestic product and investment and privatization policy were included as independent variables to take into account the influence of gross domestic product and privatization policy on the effect of public investment on private investment. Results of the study indicate that public investment has positive effect on private investment in all the three sectors except agricultural sector, suggesting that government expenditure encourage more private investment if focus is given towards productive expenditure.

  19. Accessibility of private and public aspects of traits descriptive of oneself and others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrozinski, Blazej; Karylowski, Jerzy J

    2011-12-01

    Previous research has shown that compared to mental representations of others, mental representations of ourselves are characterized by relatively greater accessibility of private, unobservable content, as opposed to content that is public and observable. Are those differences preserved when individuals focus on their own public selves and/or on private selves of others? Participants were asked to make social judgments involving traits that, in their view, were highly descriptive of either public or private selves of themselves, their best friend, or an acquaintance. Results demonstrated that highly self-descriptive traits were more accessible in social judgments involving individuals' private rather than public selves. This was true not only for traits descriptive of one's private self but also for traits descriptive of one's public self. Furthermore, other-descriptive traits, including traits that were highly descriptive of representations of private selves of others, were more accessible in social judgments involving public rather than private selves.

  20. Education in the Direction of Public-Private Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Suely Siqueira Eiras

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The process of the neoliberalism reveals, at its more intense moment, the submission of all the levels of the life human being the mercantile transactions, the capitalist inclination to the world-wide trading. In this manner, the neoliberal proposals objectify, over all, the creation of an only feeling to guarantee the success of its ideals of globalization, free-economy and State minimum, not inhibit the social politics, but partnership of the market. Amongst the artifices used for the neoliberal proposers, placed the Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs with which this article concerns. From the conceptualization and characterization of the instrument Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs, national and European projects, developed through the PPPs, had been analyzed. The subjects of these projects involve Technology of Computer science and Communication and eLearning (education + technology + in the distance. Reflections had evidenced that the partnerships between governments and multinationals companies can lead to a loss of control on the part of the State on the educational formation of the citizens and the loss of identity of its resumes. The explanation for this phenomenon happens of the trend to the globalization. On the other hand, these partnerships bring profits politicians to the governments and economic to the companies.

  1. Public private partnerships for emergency obstetric care: Lessons from Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarika Chaturvedi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The National Rural Health Mission of India advocates public private partnerships (PPPs to meet its "service guarantee" of Emergency obstetric care (EmOC provision. The Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY has a provision of Rs. 1500 for contracting in obstetric specialists. Objectives: The study aimed to understand the issues in the design and implementation of the PPPs for EmOC under the JSY in Maharashtra and how they affect the availability of EmOC services to women. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study using the rapid assessment approach was conducted in Ahmednagar district of Maharashtra spanning 1-year duration ending in June 2009. Primary data were obtained through interviews with women, providers, and administrators at various levels. Data were analyzed thematically. Results: The PPP scheme for EmOC is restricted to deliveries by Caesarean section. The administrators prefer subsidization of costs for services in private facilities to contracting in. There are no PPPs executed in the study district. This study identifies barriers to women in accessing the benefit and the difficulties faced by administrators in implementing the scheme. Conclusion: The PPPs for EmOC under the JSY have minimally influenced the out-of-pocket payments for EmOC. Infrastructural inadequacies and passive support of the implementers are major barriers to the implementation of contracting-in model of PPPs. Capacities in the public health system are inadequate to design and manage PPPs.

  2. Public private partnerships for emergency obstetric care: lessons from maharashtra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Sarika; Randive, Bharat

    2011-01-01

    The National Rural Health Mission of India advocates public private partnerships (PPPs) to meet its "service guarantee" of Emergency obstetric care (EmOC) provision. The Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) has a provision of Rs. 1500 for contracting in obstetric specialists. The study aimed to understand the issues in the design and implementation of the PPPs for EmOC under the JSY in Maharashtra and how they affect the availability of EmOC services to women. A cross-sectional study using the rapid assessment approach was conducted in Ahmednagar district of Maharashtra spanning 1-year duration ending in June 2009. Primary data were obtained through interviews with women, providers, and administrators at various levels. Data were analyzed thematically. The PPP scheme for EmOC is restricted to deliveries by Caesarean section.The administrators prefer subsidization of costs for services in private facilities to contracting in. There are no PPPs executed in the study district. This study identifies barriers to women in accessing the benefit and the difficulties faced by administrators in implementing the scheme. The PPPs for EmOC under the JSY have minimally influenced the out-of-pocket payments for EmOC. Infrastructural inadequacies and passive support of the implementers are major barriers to the implementation of contracting-in model of PPPs. Capacities in the public health system are inadequate to design and manage PPPs.

  3. Transformational Leadership Type in Public and Private Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Rus

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The issue concerning leadership is a very complex one, that is why taking into the account theplurity of styles already existent many times it was asked the questions: „What type of leadership isnecessary?”. By asking this question, we are thinking of a person responsible with organizing or coordinatingwork or the ones hired to do this, to think of what people want, to solve the management problems in group.This study is intended as a comparison of the two types of leadership (transformational vs. transactional interms of employee performance in public and private organizations. To measure performance and chose twoindicators: satisfaction and productivity. This study falls into the category of research studies the type ofdriving through subordinates with both theoretical and practical implications. The efficiency of this type ofleadership has been demonstrated by studies especially in the political and military and very few studies havebeen made in industrial .Type of transformational leadership is better than transactional perceived astransformational leaders are closer to the needs of employees and continuously investigate these necessities.This paper presents a practical validity as advising managers to develop a transformational type of leadership,both public and private organizations, leads to better performance. Also open new avenues of research,among which we can mention: study the impact of organizational culture on the adoption of transformationaltype vs transactional type; decision-making mechanisms in the type of transformational leadership; initiatetraining programs to develop a transformational type of leadership.

  4. Reclaiming public space: designing for public interaction with private devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Hansen, Thomas Riisgaard; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    . In this paper we explore the implications of interacting in public space and how technology can be rethought to not only act as personal devices, but be the tool to reclaim the right and possibility to interact in public spaces. We introduce information exchange, social support and regulation as three central......Public spaces are changing from being ungoverned places for interaction to be more formalized, controlled, less interactive, and designed places aimed at fulfilling a purpose. Simultaneously, new personal mobile technology aims at providing private individual spaces in the public domain...... design challenges when designing for public interaction....

  5. Drawing the Line: On the Public/Private Distinction in Debates on New Modes of Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tholen, J.H.M.M.

    2016-01-01

    Privatization, output steering, and other measures that are often collectively referred to as New Public Management have been broadly commented on in recent years. Critiques of New Public Management lament a diminishing publicness and an erosion of the public/private distinction. On closer inspectio

  6. Between Public - Private Partnerships and public finance in the public infrastructure sector: The water and sanitation sector in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fjona Zeneli

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available It’s known in the literature that public-private partnerships (PPPs are one the main instruments that permit private collaboration in projects that are public otherwise. It’s also clear that their implementation is different depending on the rules of the countries, their market level of acceptance etc. The first objective of this paper is to revise PPPs projects in the water sector in Albania, seen in the context of alternative financing ways for joint-stock companies of Albanian water sector, due to the nature of the market (a developing emerging market, in the context of bad financial times after 2008 (the start of the international financial crisis. The second objective is to describe the development of the Albanian legislation for management contracts introduced for the first time in the waters and sanitation sector in 2004 and privatization practices in public sector. The main conclusion is that in the developing markets creating possibilities for private sector participation in the infrastructure public services (especially in the drinking water and sanitation sector will be seen with skepticism because of failed previous privatization practices or the sensitivity degree of the water sector related to the penetration level of private factor in the sector. Public finance will be explored as a convenient alternative.

  7. Ex ante and ex post control of the public interest in public-private partnership agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirić Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the provisions of public-private partnership agreement (hereinafter: the 'PPP' in the context of control of the public interest in the process of preparing and implementing PPP projects. PPP agreements are a mechanism for defining rights and obligations of public and private partners in the process of realization of a particular PPP project. In spite of being defined as partnership, public and private interests largely remain competitive. However, in case it is not possible to achieve both interests at the same time, the public interest is deemed to have priority. The proper implementation of the supremacy of public interests over the private ones calls for an appropriate contractual definition of conditions and manner for such implementation. The methodology for exercising control of the public interest in PPP projects through agreements on public-private partnership has two aspects. The first aspect is to provide verifiable parameters of legal, economic and technological conditions, as well as the procedure for selecting the best bid for the realization of public-private partnership (ex ante methodological aspect; these conditions are the basis for future PPP agreement. Ex ante methodology has to provide instruments for control of the public interest through pre-established mechanisms aimed at verifying whether the private partner has fulfilled the agreement. If such verification is not possible or if it is considered unreasonable (either financially or otherwise, it may raise an issue whether the public-private partnership is an adequate modality for implementation of the project aimed at promoting the public interest; it further implies that the public partner should resort to other options (employing 'internal' resources or taking a loan for financing the projects of public interests. The second aspect is that the PPP agreements are to provide for the proper implementation of the elements that ensure some flexibility in

  8. Empirical Approaches of the Public-Private Partnership in the Services of Public Utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucica Matei

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper approaches from a theoretical and empirical perspective the public-private partnership in Romania with special reference to the services of public utility. The premises for the approach are as follows: 1. The economic-social development and the reform of the public sector in the world, with the corresponding budgetary constraints and cutting off the number of jobs in the public sector represent dimensions of the development of the change management, known on world level since the ’80s period. These issues have created the conditions and opportunities for new economic, managerial, social, political concepts and theories of law and have “invented” new models of public services to which specific models of management correspond. The theory is enriched with new dimensions switching from an immediate conception of the public sector reform and public services reform – that can be temporarily delimited in a political mandate – to a conception based on stages, with rules that are well thought, accepted and understood by all the involved actors (politicians, users-citizens, suppliers. 2. The development of the adequate institutional context for the promotion of the public-private partnership simultaneously with the stable, coherent legal context inscribes in extremely diverse backgrounds, differing from country to country and awarding a different place to the intervention of the public power, within the framework of the capacity building process. Therefore, the models promoted by the developed countries can be considered experiences, varying from a public service to another, from a city to another or from country to country, requiring contextual, cultural, economic, social adjustments. 3. The public authority through the public-private partnership seeks an improvement of the public service quality and the private operator seeks a profit proportional with the capital invested, with his competencies and risks. The diversity of the

  9. PUBLIC AND PRIVATE HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS IN MALAYSIA: COMPETING, COMPLEMENTARY OR CROSSBREEDS AS EDUCATION PROVIDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Wan Chang Da

    2007-01-01

    Delivery of higher education used to be exclusive to the public sector in Malaysia. However, legislative changes made in 1996 led to the coexistence of public and private higher education institutions. In 2007, there were 20 public universities compared to more than 500 private institutions, of which 30 are currently categorised as universities or university colleges. Looking at their respective roles as higher education providers, public and private institutions display characteristics of be...

  10. Public-private or private-private energy partnerships? Toward good energy governance in regional and local green gas projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heldeweg, M.A.; Sanders, M.P.T.; Harmsen, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background An important avenue toward a proper ‘energy transition’ through regional and local projects is for government to collaborate with private sector organizations. In the energy sector, these latter organizations are often already involved in private-private partnerships for collaboration tow

  11. Public, private and personal: qualitative research on policymakers' opinions on smokefree interventions to protect children in 'private' spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouch, Gareth; Thomson, George; Wilson, Nick; Hudson, Sheena; Edwards, Richard; Gifford, Heather; Lanumata, Tolotea

    2010-12-31

    Governments use law to constrain aspects of private activities for purposes of protecting health and social wellbeing. Policymakers have a range of perceptions and beliefs about what is public or private. An understanding of the possible drivers of policymaker decisions about where government can or should intervene for health is important, as one way to better guide appropriate policy formation. Our aim was to identify obstacles to, and opportunities for, government smokefree regulation of private and public spaces to protect children. In particular, to seek policymaker opinions on the regulation of smoking in homes, cars and public parks and playgrounds in a country with incomplete smokefree laws (New Zealand). Case study, using structured interviews to ask policymakers (62 politicians and senior officials) about their opinions on new smokefree legislation for public and private places. Supplementary data was obtained from the Factiva media database, on the views of New Zealand local authority councillors about policies for smokefree outdoor public places. Overall, interviewees thought that government regulation of smoking in private places was impractical and unwise. However, there were some differences on what was defined as 'private', particularly for cars. Even in public parks, smoking was seen by some as a 'personal' decision, and unlikely to be amenable to regulation. Most participants believed that educative, supportive and community-based measures were better and more practical means of reducing smoking in private places, compared to regulation. The constrained view of the role of regulation of smoking in public and private domains may be in keeping with current political discourse in New Zealand and similar Anglo-American countries. Policy and advocacy options to promote additional smokefree measures include providing a better voice for childrens' views, increasing information to policymakers about the harms to children from secondhand smoke and the

  12. Public and private donor financing for health in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, L M

    1991-06-01

    Among the many variables that influence the outcome of national health status in both developed and developing countries, the availability and efficiency of financing is critical. For 148 developing countries, annual public and private expenditures from domestic sources (1983) were estimated to be approximately $100 billion. For the United States alone, annual public and private costs for medical care are almost five times larger ($478 billion, 1988). In contrast to domestic expenditures, the total flow of donor assistance for health in 1986 was estimated to be $4 billion, approximately 5% of total current domestic expenditures by developing countries. Direct donor assistance for development purposes by the United States Government approximates 0.5% of the US federal budget (1988). Approximately 10% of all United States development assistance is allocated for health, nutrition, and population planning purposes. While the total health sector contribution is on the order of $500 million annually, the US contribution represents about 13% of health contributions by all external donors. In sub-Saharan Africa, all donor health allocations only reach 3.4% of total development assistance. While available data suggest that private and voluntary organizations contribute approximately 20% of total global health assistance, data reporting methods from private agencies are not sufficiently specific to provide accurate global estimates. Clearly, developing countries as a whole are dependent on the efficient use of their own resources because external financing remains a small fraction of total domestic financing. Nevertheless, improvement in health sector performance often depends on the sharing of western experience and technology, services available through external donor cooperation. In this effort, the available supply of donor financing for health is not restricted entirely by donor policy, but also by the official demand for external financing as submitted by developing

  13. Educating the future public health workforce: do schools of public health teach students about the private sector?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkow, Lainie; Traub, Arielle; Howard, Rachel; Frattaroli, Shannon

    2013-01-01

    Recent surveys indicate that approximately 40% of graduates from schools of public health are employed within the private sector or have an employer charged with regulating the private sector. These data suggest that schools of public health should provide curricular opportunities for their students--the future public health workforce--to learn about the relationship between the private sector and the public's health. To identify opportunities for graduate students in schools of public health to select course work that educates them about the relationship between the private sector and public health. We systematically identified and analyzed data gathered from publicly available course titles and descriptions on the Web sites of accredited schools of public health. Data were collected in the United States. The sample consisted of accredited schools of public health. Descriptions of the number and types of courses that schools of public health offer about the private sector and identification of how course descriptions frame the private sector relative to public health. We identified 104 unique courses with content about the private sector's relationship to public health. More than 75% of accredited schools of public health offered at least 1 such course. Nearly 25% of identified courses focused exclusively on the health insurance industry. Qualitative analysis of the data revealed 5 frames used to describe the private sector, including its role as a stakeholder in the policy process. Schools of public health face a curricular gap, with relatively few course offerings that teach students about the relationship between the private sector and the public's health. By developing new courses or revising existing ones, schools of public health can expose the future public health workforce to the varied ways public health professionals interact with the private sector, and potentially influence students' career paths.

  14. Restructuring Public Action in Rome. Neoliberalization and the Relationships between Public and Private Actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Iacovino

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the changes in public action that have occurred over the last twenty years in the city of Rome, focusing on two case studies which represent an example of policy restructuring and depict the new role attributed to private initiative and investments, to the detriment of public roles and public property. The paper debates the interpretive utility of the concept of neoliberalization for under?standing these processes of change. The first case study regards the privatization of a public utility in charge with providing water and energy; the second one focuses on the valorization of a public real?estate property. Both cases highlight processes of marketization and commodification, depicting a neoliberal mode of public action, widely regarded as the obvious response to the inefficiencies of more traditional administrative action. The theoretical con?ceptualization of neoliberalization allows one to approach these changes as part of a more organized and coherent framework, and as important moments in the neoliberalization process in Rome. The contextual?ly specific and path?dependent form of this process can be better understood by looking at the strong alli?ance between political and private actors, in particular, those who are linked to real estate and land prop?erties. This strategic relationship, in existence since the end of the 19th century, keeps on shaping public action and influencing political decisions

  15. AMERICAN AND ITALIAN PERSPECTIVES ON PUBLIC AND PRIVATE EDUCATION CHOICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tateo Armando

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This work is based on the analysis of the public and private support to education and human capital development in two specific national contexts: the U.S. and Italy. Recent researches have firmly demonstrated the value of higher levels of education for socio-economic development, poverty reduction, higher incomes, employment and eliminating child labour, gender equality. The increased competition and globalization of economic activity, acceleration in technological and scientific knowledge, information revolution and more recently the worldwide economic recession continue to raise the value of education and training in preparing individuals for future employment, upgrading skills for greater workplace mobility, and underpinning wealth creation and economic development through human capital formation. The International Labour Organization (2010 has pointed out the key role played by higher levels of education and skills training in employment and social protection policies. In the Western world, the education industry is complex and diverse. It combines a dominant public sector of schools and universities and community colleges which educate the majority of students; a varied private sector mainly consists of nonprofit organizations that encompass some of the world's most elite education and scientific institutes. The importance of education for economic growth and development is well documented from a historical and economic standpoints. In this research we examine some evolving relationships between the marketplace, the state, and education institutions, knowing that the context of these relations has evolved strikingly in recent years, which have seen three major developments: a growing system differentiation, changing governance patterns, and a diminished direct involvement of governments in the funding and provision of education. Therefore, we are interested in understanding on one hand the possible evolution of the studied phenomenon, and

  16. Managing water services: the battle between private and public sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Rosa Acevedo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the commercialization of water and the arguments it is based on. More specifically this investigation seeks to answer the following questions: Are there economic interests behind this discourse? How is the market of water being structured? The method of research utilized was based on documents and bibliographies. The principal results of the survey were: 1 the process of commercialization of water is based on the following principles: the economic value of water b the effectiveness of the marketing mechanism to optimize the distribution and efficient use of water; c the superiority of private investment over the public investment as a motor of economic and social development; d the necessity of liberalization of national markets; e water as a necessity and not as a right; 2 specialists in the area believe that strong interests exist behind the commercialization of this asset, especially on the part of transnational companies and international financial institutions. 3 the results of these privatizations have been very negative for the societies where they have taken place.

  17. Eliminating canine rabies: the role of public-private partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Louise

    2013-05-01

    Canine rabies has been eliminated from industrialized countries, but infected dogs remain the principal source of human infections in the developing world. Despite the availability of effective tools for prevention and post-exposure prophylaxis, canine rabies inflicts a heavy burden on the poorest people of Africa, Asia and Latin America, resulting in more than 60,000 deaths each year. Public-private partnerships offer a new approach to the challenge of eliminating canine rabies in the developing world, by bringing together stakeholders to share responsibilities and reduce costs. The leading partnership for rabies control, the Partners for Rabies Prevention, is an informal international group that includes representatives of major health organizations (WHO, PAHO, FAO, OIE), the European Commission, universities, nongovernmental organizations, the human and animal health industries, and private global health institutions. This article describes how the Partners for Rabies Prevention is working toward the global elimination of canine rabies. It forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on the elimination of canine rabies.

  18. ADVANTAGES AND RISKS OF USING THE PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabau-Popa Liviu Mihai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the advantages and risks of the public-private partnership in realizing the public investments in Romania. Public-private partnerships refer to the forms of cooperation between public authorities and private entities and target the regulation of the design, financing, construction, operation, rehabilitation, development, rental and transfer of any public work, asset or public service. It is a formula agreed by the public authorities by which the solving of public problems of general interest is “commissioned” by attracting entrepreneurs from the private sector. One of the main arguments for supporting the public-private partnerships in case of public investment projects is the transfer of the managerial competencies and of the know-how from the private partner to the public one. One of the main risks of the public-private partnerships is related to the temptation of using the private-public partnerships as a means of eluding the budgetary pressure, which may lead to their inadequate use.

  19. The public-private wage gap in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel N. Foguel

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available As mudanças que vêm ocorrendo no emprego público no Brasil acarretam diversos custos para os trabalhadores que saem desse setor. Neste trabalho investigamos a magnitude da perda salarial que os trabalhadores realocados do setor público para o privado podem experimentar. Utilizando os microdados da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (Pnad/IBGE de 1995, calculamos os hiatos salariais bruto e controlado entre esses setores. Os resultados obtidos mostram que esses hiatos salariais são relativamente altos, embora significativamente menores quando utilizamos a segunda medida. Essa última constatação indica a existência de diferenças na composição da força de trabalho entre os dois setores. De fato, os trabalhadores empregados no setor público tendem a ser em média mais escolarizados, mais velhos e possuírem maior tempo de experiência no trabalho do que os trabalhadores empregados no setor privado. Outra constatação importante é a presença de uma significativa heterogeneidade dentro do setor público: o hiato salarial é maior para os empregados na esfera federal, decrescendo para os níveis estadual e municipal.Recent changes in public employment in Brazil generate costs to workers that leave this sector. In this study we investigate the wage loss that leaving public employees may experience if they were absorbed by the private sector. Using microdata from the Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios of 1995, we calculate the gross and controlled wage gaps between the two sectors. The results show that both wage gaps are relatively high, although significantly lower for the second measure. The latter indicates the presence of important differences in the composition of the labor force between the two sectors. In fact, public employees tend to be on average better educated, older and have longer tenure than the workers in the private sector. Also, the study shows that there is a significant heterogeneity within the

  20. Living ‘private life in the public gaze’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    Living ‘private life in the public gaze’: Multiethnic/visibly ethnically mixed couples in Denmark This paper deals with the subjective experiences of the mixed couples’ lives, both in the country of native partner and in the diasporic spouse’s country of origin. Despite increasing numbers...... in the present study. The former is illustrated through an awareness of the discrimination processes they face in different social domains such as the labour market, the stereotypical views of family members, negative attitudes of personnel in the children’s day care institutions, curious questions, while...... and the next generation. Profound implications of these findings for psychosocial services for mixed couples and their children are lastly discussed. *Singla, R. (2015) “Intermarriage, Mixed Parenting, Promoting mental health and wellbeing: Crossover Love Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan...

  1. Strategic defensiveness: public and private responses to group criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornsey, Matthew J; Frederiks, Elisha; Smith, Joanne R; Ford, Lindsay

    2007-12-01

    This paper explores the strategic processes associated with responding to group criticism. In Experiment 1, Australians received criticism of their country from either an in-group or an out-group member. When participants believed their evaluations of the criticisms were private, they reported being more defensive when criticized by an out-group relative to an in-group member. However, this intergroup sensitivity effect disappeared on some measures when participants were led to believe their evaluations of the criticisms could be seen by an in-group audience. In Experiment 2, which focused on participants' identity as social science students, the attenuation of the intergroup sensitivity effect emerged only when the in-group audience was relatively high-status. Furthermore, in both experiments, increased reports of defensiveness in public only occurred in response to an in-group critic and not to an out-group critic. Theoretical and practical implications for intergroup and intragroup communication are discussed.

  2. Private Challenges to Public Dominance: The Resurgence of Private Education in the Pearl River Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Ka-Ho

    1997-01-01

    Examines the policy context in which private education has emerged in post-Mao China. Uses three case studies of private schools/colleges to explore how intellectuals and educators in the Pearl River Delta (Guangdong province) have persevered to assert their academic independence, offer a new agenda for education, and redefine the private-public…

  3. GLOBAL PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP: AN ANALOGICAL REASONING MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuk KIM

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to introduce a new strategic direction for the multinational pharmaceutical companies in terms of the access to essential, life-saving medicines. The multinational pharmaceutical companies have been severely criticized by their various stakeholders because of their business models, particularly because of the stringent patent protection on the pharmaceutical products. The multinational pharmaceutical companies should find a new strategic direction to balance their R&D-intensive, expensive business with the access to essential, lifesaving medicines since favorable public relations are critical for the multinational pharmaceutical companies to maintain their profitable business. This paper adopts an Analogical Reasoning Model (ARM to propose a new strategic direction for the multinational pharmaceutical companies in an effort to balance their expensive business with the enhanced social responsibility. In essence, the ARM helps the multinational pharmaceutical companies formulate viable strategies that can realize a win-win situation not only for their stakeholders but also for the pharmaceutical companies themselves. The ARM is constructed, analyzing the food and beverage industry as a source environment, and suggests a comprehensive, industry-wide, multi-stakeholder public-private partnership, led not by the public sector but by the multinational pharmaceutical companies.

  4. PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS - SOLUTION OR VICTIM OF THE CURRENT ECONOMIC CRISIS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MINA Laura

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available It is already a well known fact that public-private partnerships (PPPs are considered to be a solution for world wide governments facing insufficient public budgets. In the context of the current economic crisis, many voices promote public-private part

  5. Evaluating the wage differential between public and private sectors in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daulins Emilio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses a rotating panel of households to analyze wage differentials between public and private sectors in Brazil. Focusing on the transition of individuals between jobs available in the public and private sectors and controlling for individual time invariant characteristics, we find evidence of small wage differentials in favor of the public sector.

  6. Public Private Partnership a využití v oblasti dopravy

    OpenAIRE

    Trunkát, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The theme of my thesis is mutual cooperation between public and private sector called Public Private Partnership. The theoretical part explains the concept of Public Private Partnership, its history, pros and cons which this partnership bears, and branches in which PPP is used. In the second part two case studies of pilot projects in transport infrastructure in Czech Republic are analyzed. The goal is to analyze the application of PPP in these projects and in one unsuccessful project...

  7. When America Makes, America Works: A Successful Public Private 3D Printing (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    With the combined and integrated public and private investments, America Makes is establishing a culture of collaboration that is developing into...AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0190 WHEN AMERICA MAKES, AMERICA WORKS: A SUCCESSFUL PUBLIC-PRIVATE 3D PRINTING (POSTPRINT) Ed Morris and Rob...WHEN AMERICA MAKES, AMERICA WORKS: A SUCCESSFUL PUBLIC-PRIVATE 3D PRINTING (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-12-2-7230 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  8. INVESTIGATING THE PATIENT SATISFACTION WITHIN ROMANIAN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE HOSPITALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihoc Florin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Although it is not commonly accepted within healthcare services industry, the importance of marketing is more and more recognized nowadays by the organizations activating in the field. Current perception resides in a series of factors as: ethical aspects involved in the delivery process; special characteristics of the market; particular profile and behavior of the consumers of healthcare services and probably because of the inadequate understanding of the marketing role in the life of an organization. A deep analysis in the field of healthcare services will emphasize not only its complexity, but also its interdisciplinary feature under many aspects, as it is an area where many fields of interest are intersecting, both economic and social. It also reveals a particular field of study with many particular features - considered a sensitive field (Popa and Vladoi 2010: 232. Generated using the SERVQUAL model, the data presented in the paper are the result of a quantitative research designed to measure and compare the patient/client satisfaction degree for public and private medical services provided by the Romanian hospitals. The aim of the research is to identify and to measure the gap that appears between the patient/client’ expectations and perceptions regarding the delivered services; to identify the potential profile of the private Romanian hospitals’ clients regarding the demographic features and also to pin-point correlations between the image created in the mind of the Romanian patients/clients and the type of medical services (public or private they were using. We consider that the results of this research are valuable for the managers of the medical units in order to initiate series of actions aiming to improve the quality of their services and, as a result the patient/clients’ satisfaction degree. Later being one of the most important performance indicators of an organization that activates in a highly competitive business

  9. A Level Field for Private and Public Hospitals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China will encourage more private and foreign investment in hospitals and clinics The State Council on December 3 announced new policies to encourage private and foreign capital in China’s medical sector to meet the country’s

  10. The Public Good in English Private School Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyask, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    There exist some rare private schools that attempt to mitigate the anti-democratic qualities of the private schooling sector in England. This article reports on a study of private schools that aim to promote equality and participation through some aspects of their operations. It considers to what extent the governance structures within the schools…

  11. The Public Good in English Private School Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyask, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    There exist some rare private schools that attempt to mitigate the anti-democratic qualities of the private schooling sector in England. This article reports on a study of private schools that aim to promote equality and participation through some aspects of their operations. It considers to what extent the governance structures within the schools…

  12. From Public to Private Sector: Motives and Explanations for Sector Switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg

    2014-01-01

    Sector switching is interesting in relation to understanding how to get and keep people working in the public sector as well as to understand public and private differences. This paper focuses on why public employees leave public organizations to work in the private sector. We use a design studying...... higher educated Danish employees who recently worked in the state, comparing those who shift job to another public organization with those who switch to the private sector. We focus on different motives for job shifts which may influence sector switching such as salary, job security, organizational...... characteristics and public service motivation....

  13. Managing across Public­Private Partnerships: A Review of Implementation in China and Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loo-See Beh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Public-private partnership is about governance in the contemporary public service and public interest in public administration with the participation of private sector in the market economy in establishing strategic partnerships in responsible economic management of public services. This article provides an overview of the implementation of public-private partnerships and how these evidences have been managed across China (including Hong Kong SAR and Australia. It also depicts the key challenges of managing them in both countries given their different stages of maturity in implementation framework of regulation and evaluation.

  14. Analytical Review on Transportation Public Private Partnerships Failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsin Ali Soomro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Governments around the globe are embracing Public Private Partnerships (PPPs to overcome financial and technical deficit and to provide public infrastructure on faster pace. However, PPPs are complex institutional arrangements involving many players from diversified fields and thus bringing more risk to the project. Numerous researches had been conducted to investigate potential risks and success factors for establishing PPPs. But, as appetite for transportation PPPs is increasing around the globe, more problems and partnership failures are being witnessed. Existence of such failures and faults, despite of the availability of scientific protocols, motivate the authors to investigate transportation PPPs failures in past two decades. The investigation led to the identification of forty eight potential failure reasons, responsible for transportation PPPs. The identification of “potential failure reasons” was made possible through thirty five transportation PPPs case studies. The investigation through case studies reveals that the adoption of PPPs in different regions was motivated by specific reasons besides fundamental financial and technical concerns. These specific reasons had played important roles in the project success and failure. This paper discusses the global trend of transportation PPPs in different economies with evidence of potential failure reasons and their causal relationships

  15. Role of public-private partnership in micronutrient food fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannar, M G Venkatesh; van Ameringen, Marc

    2003-12-01

    Iron, iodine, and vitamin A deficiencies prevent 30% of the world's population from reaching full physical and mental potential. Fortification of commonly eaten foods with micronutrients offers a cost-effective solution that can reach large populations. Effective and sustainable fortification will be possible only if the public sector (which has the mandate and responsibility to improve the health of the population), the private sector (which has experience and expertise in food production and marketing), and the social sector (which has grass-roots contact with the consumer) collaborate to develop, produce, and promote micronutrient-fortified foods. Food fortification efforts must be integrated within the context of a country's public health and nutrition situation as part of an overall micronutrient strategy that utilizes other interventions as well. Identifying a set of priority actions and initiating a continuous dialogue between the various sectors to catalyze the implementation of schemes that will permanently eliminate micronutrient malnutrition are urgently needed. The partners of such a national alliance must collaborate closely on specific issues relating to the production, promotion, distribution, and consumption of fortified foods. Such collaboration could benefit all sectors: National governments could reap national health, economic, and political benefits; food companies could gain a competitive advantage in an expanding consumer marketplace; the scientific, development, and donor communities could make an impact by achieving global goals for eliminating micronutrient malnutrition; and by demanding fortified foods, consumers empower themselves to achieve their full social and economic potential.

  16. The Public Health Innovation Model: Merging Private Sector Processes with Public Health Strengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, Cameron; Payne, Hannah; Hanson, Carl L; Barnes, Michael D; Davis, Siena F; Manwaring, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Public health enjoyed a number of successes over the twentieth century. However, public health agencies have arguably been ill equipped to sustain these successes and address the complex threats we face today, including morbidity and mortality associated with persistent chronic diseases and emerging infectious diseases, in the context of flat funding and new and changing health care legislation. Transformational leaders, who are not afraid of taking risks to develop innovative approaches to combat present-day threats, are needed within public health agencies. We propose the Public Health Innovation Model (PHIM) as a tool for public health leaders who wish to integrate innovation into public health practice. This model merges traditional public health program planning models with innovation principles adapted from the private sector, including design thinking, seeking funding from private sector entities, and more strongly emphasizing program outcomes. We also discuss principles that leaders should consider adopting when transitioning to the PHIM, including cross-collaboration, community buy-in, human-centered assessment, autonomy and creativity, rapid experimentation and prototyping, and accountability to outcomes.

  17. Public funding and private investment for R&D: a survey in China's pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Lan; Chen, Zi-Ya; Lu, Deng-Yu; Hu, Hao; Wang, Yi-Tao

    2014-06-13

    In recent years, China has experienced tremendous growth in its pharmaceutical industry. Both the Chinese government and private investors are motivated to invest into pharmaceutical research and development (R&D). However, studies regarding the different behaviors of public and private investment in pharmaceutical R&D are scarce. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the current situation of public funding and private investment into Chinese pharmaceutical R&D. The primary data used in the research were obtained from the China High-tech Industry Statistics Yearbook (2002-2012) and China Statistical Yearbook of Science and Technology (2002-2012). We analyzed public funding and private investment in five aspects: total investment in the industry, funding sources of the whole industry, differences between provinces, difference in subsectors, and private equity/venture capital investment. The vast majority of R&D investment was from private sources. There is a significantly positive correlation between public funding and private investment in different provinces of China. However, public funding was likely to be invested into less developed provinces with abundant natural herbal resources. Compared with the chemical medicine subsector, traditional Chinese medicine and biopharmaceutical subsectors obtained more public funding. Further, the effect of the government was focused on private equity and venture capital investment although private fund is the mainstream of this type of investment. Public funding and private investment play different but complementary roles in pharmaceutical R&D in China. While being less than private investment, public funding shows its significance in R&D investment. With rapid growth of the industry, the pharmaceutical R&D investment in China is expected to increase steadily from both public and private sources.

  18. Opportunities and challenges for drug development: public-private partnerships, adaptive designs and big data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktay Yildirim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Drug development faces the double challenge of increasing costs and increasing pressure on pricing. To avoid that lack of perceived commercial perspective will leave existing medical needs unmet, pharmaceutical companies and many other stakeholders are discussing ways to improve the efficiency of drug Research & Development. Based on an international symposium organized by the Medical School of the University of Duisburg-Essen (Germany and held in January 2016, we discuss the opportunities and challenges of three specific areas, i.e. public-private partnerships, adaptive designs and big data. Public-private partnerships come in many different forms with regard to scope, duration and type and number of participants. They range from project-specific collaborations to strategic alliances to large multi-party consortia. Each of them offers specific opportunities and faces distinct challenges. Among types of collaboration, investigator-initiated studies are becoming increasingly popular but have legal, ethical and financial implications. Adaptive trial designs are also increasingly discussed. However, adaptive should not be used as euphemism for the repurposing of a failed trial; rather it requires carefully planning and specification before a trial starts. Adaptive licensing can be a counter-part of adaptive trial design. The use of Big Data is another opportunity to leverage existing information into knowledge useable for drug discovery and development. Respecting limitations of informed consent and privacy is a key challenge in the use of Big Data. Speakers and participants at the symposium were convinced that appropriate use of the above new options may indeed help to increase the efficiency of future drug development.

  19. Initial lessons from public-private partnerships in drug and vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, C; Berkley, S

    2001-01-01

    In recent years, venture capital approaches have delivered impressive results in identifying and funding promising health discoveries and bringing them to market. This success has inspired public sector experiments with "social venture capital" approaches to address the dearth of affordable treatment and prevention for diseases of the developing world. Employing the same focus on well-defined and measurable objectives, and the same type of connections to pool and deploy resources as their for-profit counterparts, social venture capitalists seek to use the tools and incentives of capitalism to solve one of its biggest failures: the lack of drugs and vaccines for diseases endemic to low-income populations. As part of a larger trend of partnerships emerging in health product donation and distribution, public-private partnerships for pharmaceutical development have led research and development (R&D) efforts to generate more accessible and efficacious products for diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis, and AIDS. In this article, three R&D-focused partnerships are explored: the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative; the Medicines for Malaria Venture; and the newly formed Global Alliance for TB Drug Development. The article highlights key elements essential to the success of these ventures.

  20. Public private partnerships in solid waste management – case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Parmezani Munhoz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes two public notices for PPP (Public-Private Partnerships - Law 11.079/2004 for solid waste management and verifies the suitability of these contracts to the new guidelines of Law 12.305/2010 - National Solid Waste Policy - PNRS. The online versions of 2 public notices and draft PPP Contracts, recently signed in the city of São Carlos and the Metropolitan Area of Belo Horizonte and Colar Metropolitano were analyzed. The mapping of the performance indicators of these documents was carried out according to 4 criteria: (a minimization of waste in landfills, (b recovery and valorization of solid waste (recycling, composting, etc.; (c pickers inclusion; and (d social participation. The results indicate that the analyzed contracts meet only part of the guidelines set by PNRS, mainly the eradication of the dumps and the final disposal of waste in landfills. The main object of these contracts remains linked to the old paradigm of waste management: collection and transportation of waste and operation of landfills. To meet the waste minimization policies, there are financial incentives that reward the reduction in the final disposal in landfills. However, there are no fixed contractual targets for the minimization of waste at landfills. If waste minimization policies, like reverse logistics and responsibility shared are implemented by the government, the contracts have clauses allowing periodic reviews for gradual adjustments, ensuring the economic and financial balance of the contract. It is yet to determine the efficiency of these mechanisms to meet the guidelines of PNRS, in the curse of the concession.

  1. Public and private health insurance in Germany: the ignored risk selection problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunow, Martina; Nuscheler, Robert

    2014-06-01

    We investigate risk selection between public and private health insurance in Germany. With risk-rated premiums in the private system and community-rated premiums in the public system, advantageous selection in favor of private insurers is expected. Using 2000 to 2007 data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP), we find such selection. While private insurers are unable to select the healthy upon enrollment, they profit from an increase in the probability to switch from private to public health insurance of those individuals who have experienced a negative health shock. To avoid distorted competition between the two branches of health care financing, risk-adjusted transfers from private to public insurers should be instituted.

  2. PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP IN THE CONTEXT OF EVOLUTION OF PUBLIC CONSCIOUSNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey E. Berezin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to study the evolution of social consciousness in the Russian Federation, determining the relationship of the change of paradigm of economic development and the evolution of society, with the development of the Institute for public-private partnership (PPP. The result of this research is to identify the prospects of building in Russia a socially oriented economy, the definition of performance indicators of state economic policy, which promotes the use of PPPs

  3. Public versus Private Incentives to Invest in Green Roofs: A Cost Benefit Analysis for Flanders.

    OpenAIRE

    Claus, Karla; Rousseau, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    By means of a cost benefit analysis, we compare public and private incentives to invest in extensive green roofs in urban areas. From the comparison of these public and private incentives we find that subsidies for green roofs are socially desirable and that subsidies are actually needed to convince potential private investors to construct green roofs. Specifically, we estimate the costs and benefits associated with an investment project in Groot-Bijgaarden (Belgium) where a real estate inves...

  4. Anatomy of Public-Private Partnerships : Their Creation, Financing, and Renegotiations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Sarmento, J.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: This paper presents the main reasons why public-private partnerships (PPPs) are adopted as well as the possible disadvantages for the public and private sectors. By means of two case studies on bridge construction and railway infrastructure (Fertagus and Lusoponte), we elucidate how a PPP

  5. RISK ASSESSMENT MODELS OF PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP IN THE ROAD SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    V. V. Gasilov; D. V. Shitikov

    2013-01-01

    This article studies the main potential models of public-private partnership; it gives evaluation of risks for these models, considering their distribution between members of partnership. It offers the mechanism of making an optimal choice of a public-private partnership model for projects of transport system development.

  6. RISK ASSESSMENT MODELS OF PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP IN THE ROAD SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Gasilov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the main potential models of public-private partnership; it gives evaluation of risks for these models, considering their distribution between members of partnership. It offers the mechanism of making an optimal choice of a public-private partnership model for projects of transport system development.

  7. Job Satisfaction and Burnout among Greek Early Educators: A Comparison between Public and Private Sector Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Zachopoulou, Evridiki; Grammatikopoulos, Vasilios

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine perceived levels of burnout and job satisfaction of Greek early educators, across public and private sector. One hundred and seventy eight childhood educators participated in the study. 108 were working in the public sector, 67 in private sector, whereas three did not respond. Participants were…

  8. An Investigation of the Dayton Regional STEM School Public-Private Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Kimberly S.

    This dissertation study documents in-depth the exploration of the Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) between the Dayton Regional STEM School (DRSS) and their industry partners as well as the establishment of a framework for evaluating and assessing PPPs. The public-private partnership agreements were studied in order to answer the over-arching research question: How is an effective public-private partnership established, assessed, and evaluated in education? A descriptive case study methodology was used to study DRSS' public-private partnership agreements to determine if goals and objectives were established and whether or not the partnerships met those goals and objectives. This case study also included the development and testing of a proposed evaluation framework that will allow for consistent, systematic inquiry that can produce defensible assertions regarding the assessment and evaluation of public-private partnerships in education. Results of the case study support the findings that utilization of an evaluation framework can serve to make public-private partnerships more successful. Results also indicated that establishment of goals and objectives enable effective evaluation for informal partnerships but could not be definitively stated for formal partnerships due to the lack of data points. The data from this case study revealed many emergent themes that should be considered in the development of future public-private partnerships. Overall this study contributes to the growing body of knowledge for public-private partnerships in education.

  9. To privatize or not? Addressing public values in a semiprivatized prison system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynaers, A.; Paanakker, H.

    2016-01-01

    Through public-private partnerships (PPPs), the Dutch government is experimenting with private sector involvement in its prison system. Although considered a promising alternative to traditional public procurement in terms of efficiency and effectiveness, there is a paucity of empirical data on the

  10. An Investigation of Conflict Management in Public and Private Sector Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Siraj ud; Khan, Bakhtiar; Rehman, Rashid; Bibi, Zainab

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to gain an insight into the conflict management in public and private sector universities in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. To achieve the earlier mentioned purpose, survey method was used with the help of questionnaire. In this research, impact of university type (public and private sector) was examined on the conflict…

  11. The impact of ICT in public and private universities in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nour, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the impacts of ICT in public and private Sudanese universities. We verify the first and third hypotheses that the use of ICT facilitates connection, networks and collaboration within public and private universities in Sudan, with local, regional and international institutions. We

  12. Pupil Control Ideology and Behavior as Predictors of Environmental Robustness: Public and Private Schools Compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunenburg, Fred C.

    1991-01-01

    Questionnaires examined differences between public and private schools regarding teachers' pupil control ideology and behavior. Teachers and students completed three survey instruments. Only pupil control ideology differed significantly between public and private schools. Pupil control behavior was the best predictor of environmental robustness.…

  13. Balancing between feasibility and relationship. Interventions to prevent dysfunctionality of conflict in public private partnership projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lousberg, L.H.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Research shows that there are many bottle-necks in Public Private Partnership (PPP) Projects in Dutch spatial development. Due to the specific properties of Public Private Partnerships, these bottle-necks can lead to dysfunctional conflicts which are damaging the project. Hence the question is: how

  14. Balancing between feasibility and relationship : interventions to prevent dysfunctionality of conflict in public private partnership projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lousberg, L.H.M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Research shows that there are many bottle-necks in Public Private Partnership (PPP) Projects in Dutch spatial development. Due to the specific properties of Public Private Partnerships, these bottle-necks can lead to dysfunctional conflicts which are damaging the project. Hence the question is: how

  15. Public-Private Partnerships in College Student Housing: Lessons from Three Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Kevin R.; Ryder, Andrew J.; DeVita, James M.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the increasing popularity of public-private partnerships, empirical research about the origins, models, and long-term outcomes of this approach to financing, constructing, and managing college student housing is scant. In this study, we sought to investigate the origins, models, and outcomes of public-private partnerships in college…

  16. How to create a public-private partnership: a replicable project associated with business continuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Daniel

    2010-07-01

    In an age of political turmoil and mistrust of governments, having an outlet for creative problem solving that involves all aspects of communities during disasters is critical. Additionally, there is a need for outlets that save taxpayer money for particular projects, such as road construction or infrastructure protection. Public-private partnerships are one way to accomplish these goals. Utilised correctly, a public-private partnership is a win-win situation for all participants. This paper will make the case for the continued support from all sectors for public-private partnerships. A description of public-private partnerships will be given to show the broad spectrum of opportunities for such a partnership. In addition, a case study of a public-private partnership called SAFER Santa Rosa is explored as the programme is oriented towards disasters, but keeps the community engaged all year round. Finally, an example is presented of an initiative that not only exemplifies the spirit of public-private partnerships, but has attracted international recognition because it is simple, replicable, cost-effective and valuable to both the private sector and the public sector. The Business Emergency Response Toolkit bag is a true public-private success story. It is hoped that the reader will be able to replicate the ideas discussed herein in their own community.

  17. The Impact of Private Sector Competition on Public Schooling in Kuwait: Some Socio-Educational Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shehab, Ali Jasem

    2010-01-01

    With the diminishing model of the welfare state, public education in Kuwait is facing the challenges of the competition of private schools, while the private sector has always struggled against the monopolistic power of the public schools that educate a broad spectrum of K-12 students. This article presents estimates of the effect of private…

  18. Public and Private School Performance in Nepal: An Analysis Using the SLC Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Amrit

    2015-01-01

    Using data from the survey of the Ministry of Education, Nepal-2005 for School Leaving Certificate Exam, this paper analyzes public and private school performance in Nepal. The ordinary least square estimates suggest that private school students perform better than public school students. However, the problem of self-selection bias arises, as…

  19. A Regional Study of Attitudes toward Public Schools, Private Schools and Tuition Tax Credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, John H.; Woodson, Marvin C., Jr.

    A questionnaire survey of 982 people in 4 shopping malls in the Piedmont region of South Carolina sought to assess public attitudes about the quality of public and private schools, proposed federal tuition tax credit legislation, tax support for private schools, and outcomes should tuition tax credits be adopted. Respondents were asked to "grade"…

  20. Anatomy of Public-Private Partnerships : Their Creation, Financing, and Renegotiations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Sarmento, J.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: This paper presents the main reasons why public-private partnerships (PPPs) are adopted as well as the possible disadvantages for the public and private sectors. By means of two case studies on bridge construction and railway infrastructure (Fertagus and Lusoponte), we elucidate how a PPP

  1. The Impact of Private Sector Competition on Public Schooling in Kuwait: Some Socio-Educational Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shehab, Ali Jasem

    2010-01-01

    With the diminishing model of the welfare state, public education in Kuwait is facing the challenges of the competition of private schools, while the private sector has always struggled against the monopolistic power of the public schools that educate a broad spectrum of K-12 students. This article presents estimates of the effect of private…

  2. The Equity Impact of Public Finance of Private Education Provision in Cote d'Ivoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellariou, Chris; Patrinos, Harry Anthony

    2009-01-01

    The equity effects of public subsidization of private schools in Cote d'Ivoire are analyzed. The subsidy per student in private (and public) schools increases as one goes to higher household per capita expenditure groups. Students from families in the highest expenditure quartile receive twice the subsidy received by students from families in the…

  3. Private and public incomes in dehesas and coniferous forests in Andalusia, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paola Ovando; Pablo Campos; Jose L. Oviedo; Alejandro Caparrós

    2015-01-01

    We apply an ecosystem accounting system to estimate the total social income accrued from private and public products in a group of agroforestry farms in Andalusia (Spain). We provide bio-physical and economic indicators for two contrasting farm types, a sub-group of 15 publicly owned coniferous forests and a sub-group of 24 privately owned dehesa farms. Total social...

  4. The impact of ICT in public and private universities in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nour, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the impacts of ICT in public and private Sudanese universities. We verify the first and third hypotheses that the use of ICT facilitates connection, networks and collaboration within public and private universities in Sudan, with local, regional and international institutions. We

  5. Private and Public Self-Consciousness in Clinical and Non-Clinical Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Patricia Ann; Deluty, Robert H.

    1987-01-01

    Explored private and public self-consciousness as measured by two subscales of Self-Consciousness Scale. Results from study of 60 college students support assumption that private and public subscales measure relatively stable traits. Psychiatric patient subjects (N=120) in second study differed from undergraduates in first study in strength of…

  6. Public and Private School Performance in Nepal: An Analysis Using the SLC Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Amrit

    2015-01-01

    Using data from the survey of the Ministry of Education, Nepal-2005 for School Leaving Certificate Exam, this paper analyzes public and private school performance in Nepal. The ordinary least square estimates suggest that private school students perform better than public school students. However, the problem of self-selection bias arises, as…

  7. Public-private partnerships in China's urban water sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Lijin; Mol, Arthur P J; Fu, Tao

    2008-06-01

    During the past decades, the traditional state monopoly in urban water management has been debated heavily, resulting in different forms and degrees of private sector involvement across the globe. Since the 1990s, China has also started experiments with new modes of urban water service management and governance in which the private sector is involved. It is premature to conclude whether the various forms of private sector involvement will successfully overcome the major problems (capital shortage, inefficient operation, and service quality) in China's water sector. But at the same time, private sector involvement in water provisioning and waste water treatments seems to have become mainstream in transitional China.

  8. Effectiveness of Contemporary Public-Private Partnerships for Large Scale Infrastructure in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Bosso, Doran Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Increasingly, states are relying on creative financing and asset management to maintain and improve the nationâ s transportation infrastructure since budgetary challenges constrain potential options. One method of tapping into alternative sources of capital is the public-private partnership (PPP or P3). A public-private partnership is a long-term contractual agreement in which the public sector authority assigns a traditionally public responsibility (such as operations and/or financing) to t...

  9. Equal opportunities in the public and private sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Monica Ardeleanu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Equal opportunities are a goal to achieve in Romania at the legislative and institutional/ organizational level.In terms of legislation Romania has made progress, but the institutional mechanisms of the government dealing with gender equality issues are not functioning properly, are not generating a concreate impact on the equal opportunities for women and men.For this reason there is no specific and significant political commitmentto these issue of gender equality in Romania. Gender discrimination is addressed both by anti-discrimination and equal opportunities laws.Equality,fairness and non-discrimination in the workplace environment are present as objective requirements of economic, social and ethical behavior that goes beyond the labor market. Theoretically, on the labor market , both public and private sectors do not accept direct or indirect discrimination at the workplace, espeially during the process of recruitment , training , development, promotion, establishment, payment of the salary and benefits. In practice , the legislation regarding the equal opportunities and equal treatment it is not respected by the employers all the time.Promotion of the policies at the national and organizational level, focused on ensuring equal opportunities , will enhance the social cohesion of the population that will generate economic growrh overall.

  10. Addressing conflicts of interest in Public Private Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Many articles have been written on conflicts of interests (COIs) in fields such as medicine, business, politics, public service and education. With the growing abundance of Public Private Partnerships (PPPs), often involving complex relationships among the partners, it is important to understand how COIs can be mitigated and managed in PPPs. Discussion We wanted to study PPPs, particularly in the areas of global health and agriculture, but discovered no single source of information available to identify and compare various approaches for avoiding and managing COIs in PPPs. This is a significant gap, especially for those wishing to study, compare and strengthen existing COI policies related to PPPs. In order to bridge this gap, we reviewed how PPPs currently address COIs and highlight what might be considered good practice in developing COI policies. We reviewed the online COI policies of 10 PPPs in global health and agriculture, and interviewed two global health PPP chief executives. Summary Based on our review of policies and interviews, we conclude that there exists a range of good practices including attention to accountability and governance, acknowledgement and disclosure, abstention and withdrawal, reporting and transparency, and independent monitoring. There appears to be a need for PPPs to interact closely and learn from each other on these parameters and to also place more emphasis on independent external monitoring of COIs as a means of strengthening their major social objectives on which their activities are largely predicated. We also recommend the establishment of a web based database, which would serve as a forum to discuss COI issues and how they can be resolved. PMID:20615242

  11. Addressing conflicts of interest in Public Private Partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omobowale, Emmanuel B; Kuziw, Michael; Naylor, Melinda Treurnicht; Daar, Abdallah S; Singer, Peter A

    2010-07-08

    Many articles have been written on conflicts of interests (COIs) in fields such as medicine, business, politics, public service and education. With the growing abundance of Public Private Partnerships (PPPs), often involving complex relationships among the partners, it is important to understand how COIs can be mitigated and managed in PPPs. We wanted to study PPPs, particularly in the areas of global health and agriculture, but discovered no single source of information available to identify and compare various approaches for avoiding and managing COIs in PPPs. This is a significant gap, especially for those wishing to study, compare and strengthen existing COI policies related to PPPs. In order to bridge this gap, we reviewed how PPPs currently address COIs and highlight what might be considered good practice in developing COI policies. We reviewed the online COI policies of 10 PPPs in global health and agriculture, and interviewed two global health PPP chief executives. Based on our review of policies and interviews, we conclude that there exists a range of good practices including attention to accountability and governance, acknowledgement and disclosure, abstention and withdrawal, reporting and transparency, and independent monitoring. There appears to be a need for PPPs to interact closely and learn from each other on these parameters and to also place more emphasis on independent external monitoring of COIs as a means of strengthening their major social objectives on which their activities are largely predicated. We also recommend the establishment of a web based database, which would serve as a forum to discuss COI issues and how they can be resolved.

  12. Addressing conflicts of interest in Public Private Partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daar Abdallah S

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many articles have been written on conflicts of interests (COIs in fields such as medicine, business, politics, public service and education. With the growing abundance of Public Private Partnerships (PPPs, often involving complex relationships among the partners, it is important to understand how COIs can be mitigated and managed in PPPs. Discussion We wanted to study PPPs, particularly in the areas of global health and agriculture, but discovered no single source of information available to identify and compare various approaches for avoiding and managing COIs in PPPs. This is a significant gap, especially for those wishing to study, compare and strengthen existing COI policies related to PPPs. In order to bridge this gap, we reviewed how PPPs currently address COIs and highlight what might be considered good practice in developing COI policies. We reviewed the online COI policies of 10 PPPs in global health and agriculture, and interviewed two global health PPP chief executives. Summary Based on our review of policies and interviews, we conclude that there exists a range of good practices including attention to accountability and governance, acknowledgement and disclosure, abstention and withdrawal, reporting and transparency, and independent monitoring. There appears to be a need for PPPs to interact closely and learn from each other on these parameters and to also place more emphasis on independent external monitoring of COIs as a means of strengthening their major social objectives on which their activities are largely predicated. We also recommend the establishment of a web based database, which would serve as a forum to discuss COI issues and how they can be resolved.

  13. Utilization of dental health services by Danish adolescents attending private or public dental health care systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Petersen, Poul Erik; Bastholm, Annelise

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of the study were: 1) to describe the choice of dental care system among 16-year-olds, 2) to describe the utilization of dental services among 16-17-year-olds enrolled in either public or private dental care systems, and to compare the dental services provided by the alternative...... systems. The study comprised 1,245 adolescents from 3 municipalities; the historical cohort study design was applied; and data were collected from dental records (public dental service) and dental claims (private practice). At age 16, 12% preferred being enrolled in the private practice system, while 88......% remained in the public dental care system. During the 2-year study period the attendance rate was 99% for the public system, while 90% attended the private practice system (Pdental services were provided more frequently by the public than the private system (P

  14. Product development public-private partnerships for public health: a systematic review using qualitative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pinho Campos, Katia; Norman, Cameron D; Jadad, Alejandro R

    2011-10-01

    Almost a decade ago, public health initiated a number of innovative ventures to attract investments from multinational drug companies for the development of new drugs and vaccines to tackle neglected diseases (NDs). These ventures - known as product development public-private partnerships (PD PPPs) - represent the participation of the public and private actors toward the discovery and development of essential medicines to reduce the suffering of over one billion people worldwide living with NDs. This systematic review aimed to identify empirical-based descriptive articles to understand critical elements in the partnership process, and propose a framework to shed light on future guidelines to support better planning, design and management of existing and new forms of PPPs for public health. Ten articles met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed and synthesized using qualitative content analysis. The findings show that the development stage of PD PPPs requires a careful initiation and planning process including discussion on values and shared goals, agreement on mutual interests & equality of power relation, exchange of expertise & resources, stakeholder engagement, and assessment of the local health capacity. The management stage of PD PPPs entails transparency, extensive communication and participatory decision-making among partner organizations. This review illustrates the difficulties, challenges and effective responses during the partnering process. This model of collaboration may offer a way to advance population health at present, while creating streams of innovation that can yield future social and financial dividends in enhancing the public's health more widely.

  15. Policy Pathways: Joint Public-Private Approaches for Energy Efficiency Finance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    This Policy Pathway outlines, through the experiences and lessons learned from country examples, the critical elements to put in place a public-private partnership to finance energy efficiency. It focuses on three mechanisms - dedicated credit lines, risk guarantees, and energy performance service contracts and presents the planning, implementing, monitoring, and evaluating phases of implemention. Accelerating and scaling up private investment in energy efficiency is crucial to exploit the potential of energy efficiency. However many barriers remain to private investment such as access to capital, uncertainty of future energy prices, transaction costs, perceived higher risk, and lack of knowledge. As part of the IEA 25 Energy Efficiency Policy Recommendations, the IEA recommends that governments support private investment in energy efficiency. A joint public-private approach can use public finance and regulatory policy to support the scaling up of private investment in energy efficiency.

  16. Prioritizing Public- Private Partnership Models for Public Hospitals of Iran Based on Performance Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Asghari Jaafarabadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study was conducted to scrutinize Public- Private Partnership (PPP models in public hospitals of different countries based on performance indicators in order to se-lect appropriated models for Iran hospitals.Methods: In this mixed (quantitative-qualitative study, systematic review and expert panel hasbeen done to identify varied models of PPP as well as performance indicators. In the second stepwe prioritized performance indicator and PPP models based on selected performance indicatorsby Analytical Hierarchy process (AHP technique. The data were analyzed by Excel 2007 andExpert Choice11 software’s.Results: In quality – effectiveness area, indicators like the rate of hospital infections(100%, hospital accidents prevalence rate (73%, pure rate of hospital mortality (63%, patientsatisfaction percentage (53%, in accessibility equity area indicators such as average inpatientwaiting time (100% and average outpatient waiting time (74%, and in financial – efficiency area,indicators including average length of stay (100%, bed occupation ratio (99%, specific incometo total cost ratio (97% have been chosen to be the most key performance indicators. In the prioritizationof the PPP models clinical outsourcing, management, privatization, BOO (build, own,operate and non-clinical outsourcing models, achieved high priority for various performance indicatorareas.Conclusion: This study had been provided the most common PPP options in the field of public hospitals and had gathered suitable evidences from experts for choosing appropriate PPP option for public hospitals. Effect of private sector presence in public hospital performance, based on which PPP options undertaken, will be different.

  17. Public-private partnerships (PPPs) in local services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpintero, Samuel; Petersen, Ole Helby

    2016-01-01

    Local governments are increasingly utilising the public–private partnership (PPP) model as a means of organising service delivery in the public–private domain. This article examines the experiences with construction and operation of 131 PPP wastewater treatment plants in the region of Aragon, Spain...

  18. Public accountability of transnational private regulation: chimera or reality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtin, D.; Senden, L.

    2011-01-01

    The legitimacy of transnational private regulation is contested where authority is exercised by private actors adopting rules and being involved in processes of implementation and enforcement. We eschew a general discussion of legitimacy in this context in favour of the more manageable

  19. The Impact of Electricity Sector Privatization on Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Eiras, Martin; Rossi, Martín

    2008-01-01

    We use province-level data for Argentina to test for the causal relation between electricity distribution and health. We are interested in the impact of privatization on two output measures, incidence of low birth weight and child mortality rates caused by food poisoning. Privatization improves s...

  20. Working paper on public steering of privately owned sports facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Evald Bundgård

    This short paper discusses how municipalities can steer privately owned sports facilities. Firstly I analyse why steering of privately owned facilities is an interesting subject. Secondly I discuss what the advantages and drawbacks of using different approaches for steering sports facilities are....

  1. Private Education Provision and Public Finance: The Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrinos, Harry Anthony

    2013-01-01

    One of the key features of the Dutch education system is freedom of education--freedom to establish schools and organize teaching. Almost 70% of schools in the Netherlands are administered by private school boards, and all schools are government funded equally. This allows school choice. Using an instrument to identify private school attendance,…

  2. The Impact of Electricity Sector Privatization on Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Eiras, Martin; Rossi, Martín

    2008-01-01

    We use province-level data for Argentina to test for the causal relation between electricity distribution and health. We are interested in the impact of privatization on two output measures, incidence of low birth weight and child mortality rates caused by food poisoning. Privatization improves...

  3. Private well water in Colorado: collaboration, data use, and public health outreach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Eric M; Van Dyke, Mike; Kuhn, Stephanie; Mitchell, Jane; Dalton, Hope

    2015-01-01

    As a result of participating in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Private Well Initiative and Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (Tracking), the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment was able to inventory private well water quality data, prioritize potential health concerns associated with drinking water from these wells, and create a Web portal for sharing public health information regarding private well water. The Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment collaborated with a local health department to pilot the project prior to a public implementation. Approximately 18 data sets were identified and inventoried. The Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment also participated in development and pilot testing of best practices for display of well water quality data with other Tracking states. Available data sets were compiled and summarized, and the data made available on the Colorado Tracking portal using geographic information system technology to support public health outreach regarding private wells.

  4. Cream skimming and hospital transfers in a mixed public-private system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Terence C; Haisken-DeNew, John P; Yong, Jongsay

    2015-05-01

    The increasing prominence of the private sector in health care provision has generated considerable interest in understanding its implications on quality and cost. This paper investigates the phenomenon of cream skimming in a mixed public-private hospital setting using the novel approach of analysing hospital transfers. We analyse hospital administrative data of patients with ischemic heart disease from the state of Victoria, Australia. The data set contains approximately 1.77 million admission episodes in 309 hospitals, of which 132 are public hospitals, and 177 private hospitals. We ask if patients transferred between public and private hospitals differ systematically in the severity and complexity of their medical conditions; and if so, whether utilisation also differs. We find that patients with higher disease severity are more likely to be transferred from private to public hospitals whereas the opposite is true for patients transferred to private hospitals. We also find that patients transferred from private to public hospitals stayed longer and cost more than private-to-private transfer patients, after controlling for patients' observed health conditions and personal characteristics. Overall, the evidence is suggestive of the presence of cream skimming in the Victorian hospital system, although we cannot conclusively rule out other mechanisms that might influence hospital transfers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Dietary habits and physical activity levels in Jordanian adolescents attending private versus public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayyem, R F; Al-Hazzaa, H M; Abu-Mweis, S S; Bawadi, H A; Hammad, S S; Musaiger, A O

    2014-07-08

    The present study examined differences in dietary habits and physical activity levels between students attending private and public high schools in Jordan. A total of 386 secondary-school males and 349 females aged 14-18 years were randomly recruited using a multistage, stratified, cluster sampling technique. Dietary habits and physical activity level were self-reported in a validated questionnaire. The prevalence of obesity was significantly higher among adolescents in private (26.0%) than in public schools (16.7%). The frequency of breakfast intake was significantly higher among adolescents in private schools, whereas French fries and sweets intake was significantly higher in public schools. Television viewing showed a significant interaction with school type by sex. A higher rate of inactivity was found among students attending private schools. Despite a slightly better overall dietary profile for students in private schools, they had a higher rate of overweight and obesity compared with those in public schools.

  6. How a new 'public plan' could affect hospitals' finances and private insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Allen; DaVanzo, Joan E; El-Gamil, Audrey M; Berger, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    Two key health reform bills in the House of Representatives and Senate include the option of a "public plan" as an additional source of health coverage. At least initially, the plan would primarily be structured to cover many of the uninsured and those who now have individual coverage. Because it is possible, and perhaps even likely, that this new public payer would pay less than private payers for the same services, such a plan could negatively affect hospital margins. Hospitals may attempt to recoup losses by shifting costs to private payers. We outline the financial pressures that hospitals and private payers could experience under various assumptions. High uninsured enrollment in a public plan would bolster hospital margins; however, this effect is reversed if the privately insured enter a public plan in large proportions, potentially stressing the hospital industry and increasing private insurance premiums.

  7. Coverage of abortion controversial in both public and private plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollom, T

    1996-09-01

    During 1995-96, 17 of 50 US states used their own resources, either voluntarily or under state court order, to pay for all or most abortions for low-income women. Alaska, Maryland, New York, and Washington are the only states to voluntarily pay for these abortions. Anti-choice legislators in California, Illinois, New York, and West Virginia tried unsuccessfully to cut funding for these abortions. Arkansas is the only state to circumvent direct payment for abortions for low-income women. Alabama, Mississippi, and South Dakota still are not complying with the court order but remain in the Medicaid program. Massachusetts has passed legislation to allow health insurance to cover abortions for state and city employees, thereby undoing a 17-year ban on the use of public funds for abortions for employees or their spouses. On the other hand, Virginia's governor has unilaterally, via an executive order, eliminated health insurance coverage for most abortions for state employees and their dependents. Anti-choice legislators have shepherded legislation that prohibit private insurance coverage for abortion unless women pay an extra premium in Idaho, Kentucky, Missouri, and North Dakota. Legislators in Illinois and Minnesota have passed state subsidized health care reform programs that exclude abortion from coverage except when the mother's life is endangered. There appears to be a loophole in the MinnesotaCare program that allows women to obtain state-financed abortions for other reasons, so antifunding lawmakers will introduce a bill in 1997 to close the loophole. The loophole is a result of a conflict between state and federal laws as a result of a 1995 federal waiver granted to Minnesota. The waiver allows pregnant women who earn up to 275% of the federal poverty level to be eligible for either MinnesotaCare or Medicaid. Abortion-rights legislators find MinnesotaCare's exclusion of abortion coverage to be a violation of the court order. They plan to submit a bill in 1997 to

  8. Ethics in public health research: masters of marketing: bringing private sector skills to public health partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Valerie A; Garbrah-Aidoo, Nana; Scott, Beth

    2007-04-01

    Skill in marketing is a scarce resource in public health, especially in developing countries. The Global Public-Private Partnership for Handwashing with Soap set out to tap the consumer marketing skills of industry for national handwashing programs. Lessons learned from commercial marketers included how to (1) understand consumer motivation, (2) employ 1 single unifying idea, (3) plan for effective reach, and (4) ensure effectiveness before national launch. After the first marketing program, 71% of Ghanaian mothers knew the television ad and the reported rates of handwashing with soap increased. Conditions for the expansion of such partnerships include a wider appreciation of what consumer marketing is, what it can do for public health, and the potential benefits to industry. Although there are practical and philosophical difficulties, there are many opportunities for such partnerships.

  9. Where Do We Stand on Transport Infrastructure Deregulation and Public-Private Partnership?

    OpenAIRE

    Estache, Antonio; Serebrisky, Tomás

    2004-01-01

    The evolution of transport public-private partnerships (PPPs) in developing and developed countries since the early 1990s seems to be following a similar path: private initiatives work for a while but after a shock to the sector takes place the public sector returns as regulator, owner or financier; after a while the public sector runs into problems and eventually finds a hybrid solution t...

  10. Public private partnership in free trade zone project of Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卓拉

    2014-01-01

    Free trade zone is a commonly used method in developing countries to generate economic growth, to at ract foreign direct investment, to increase employment and to improve living conditions. The progres of Mongolian FTZ projects is far behind schedule due to lack of financial resources. This paper analyses the pos ibility of private sector participation and gives some suggestions for finding an appropriate model of private sector participation on FTZ projects in Mongolia.

  11. [The role of private insurance in public health care systems: conceptual framework and policies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, M

    2001-01-01

    The structure of the health care system ans specifically the type and amount of the public and private mix is not a closed issue. This article provides and update of the arguments that justify public intervention in health, and emphasizes the failures of the private insurance market that call for mandatory universal health insurance, although that does not necessarily mean that state has to be the insurer. The relationship between both sectors and the variables determining the relative level of expenditure in both are also analyzed. Following the literature on the public provision of private goods, the level of expenditure in a democracy is seen to depend on the preferences of the median voter, where private insurance usually tops up public insurance. The key variable determining the decision to buy additional private insurance is the difference in quality, defined broadly, between both sectors. Concerning policies, the appropriateness of fiscal incentives to promote the uptake of private insurance is discussed and it is concluded that there is no clear evidence of its suitability. Also, it is argued that models in which the public and private sectors appear totally segregated or totally integrated are preferable to intermediate models, in which both sectors appear combined. Medical coverage bought by an informed agent in exchange for a capitation payment seems a better way to integrate the private sector than through a system of vouchers.

  12. Do children in private Schools learn more than in public Schools? Evidence from Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Wendelspiess Chávez Juárez, Florian

    2010-01-01

    In this study I try to answer the question whether private schools do better in the human capital accumulation process than public schools in Mexico. The analysis is based on panel data including out-of-school cognitive skill tests, which allows dealing with some potential endogeneity problems due to the selection process into private schools. The absolute advantage of private school graduates in cognitive skills disappears once controlling for the selection bias, where no positive eect is fo...

  13. Measuring the effects of reducing subsidies for private insurance on public expenditure for health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Terence Chai

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of reducing subsidies for private health insurance on public sector expenditure for hospital care. An econometric framework using simultaneous equation models is developed to analyse the interrelated decisions on the intensity and type of health care use and private insurance. The framework is applied to the context of the mixed public-private system in Australia. The simulation projections show that reducing premium subsidies is expected to generate net cost savings. This arises because the cost savings achieved from reducing subsidies are larger than the potential increase in public expenditure on hospital care. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Segregation and the gender wage gaps in the private and the public sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten; Larsen, Mona; Stage Thomsen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the relation between segregation and the gender wage gap in the public and the private sectors in Denmark from 2002 to 2012. The analysis shows that male–female differences in the share of females in occupations, industries,establishments and job cells (occupations within...... establishments) constitute 46% of the raw gender wage gap in the private sector, while segregation in t he public sector accounts for as much as 63 %. Segregation thus plays a substantially more important role in accounting for the gender wage gap in the public sector than in the private sector. While...... the importance of segregation for wage formation decreased substantially in the public sector over time, it only decreased slightly in the private sector. Although the remaining gender wage gap, after controlling for segregation, is close to zero in the public sector, a substantial within-job cell differential...

  15. Segregation and the gender wage gaps in the private and the public sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten; Larsen, Mona; Stage Thomsen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    establishments) constitute 46% of the raw gender wage gap in the private sector, while segregation in t he public sector accounts for as much as 63 %. Segregation thus plays a substantially more important role in accounting for the gender wage gap in the public sector than in the private sector. While...... the importance of segregation for wage formation decreased substantially in the public sector over time, it only decreased slightly in the private sector. Although the remaining gender wage gap, after controlling for segregation, is close to zero in the public sector, a substantial within-job cell differential......This paper examines the relation between segregation and the gender wage gap in the public and the private sectors in Denmark from 2002 to 2012. The analysis shows that male–female differences in the share of females in occupations, industries,establishments and job cells (occupations within...

  16. Differences in public and private health services in a rural district of Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljunid, S M; Zwi, A B

    1996-12-01

    A cross-sectional study, comparing the nature of services in 15 private clinics and 6 public health facilities, was undertaken in a rural district of Malaysia. Semi-structured interviews and observations using check-lists were employed. Public health facilities were run by younger doctors (mean age = 31.1 years), supported mostly by trained staff. The private clinics were run by older doctors (mean age = 41.2 years) who had served the district for much longer (8.9 years vs 1.5 years) but were supported by less well trained staff. The curative services were the main strength of the private clinics but their provision of preventive care was less comprehensive and of inferior quality. Private clinics were inclined to provide more expensive diagnostic services than the public facilities. 'Short hours' private clinics had very restricted opening hours and offered limited range of services.

  17. United States private schools have higher rates of exemptions to school immunization requirements than public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jana; Tserenpuntsag, Boldtsetseg; McNutt, Louise-Anne; Halsey, Neal

    2014-07-01

    To compare medical, religious, and personal belief immunization exemption rates between private and public schools in US. Exemption rates were calculated using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention School Immunization Assessment Surveys for the 2009-2010 school year excluding states with incomplete survey data. Standardized exemption rates weighted on enrollments in public and private schools were calculated. Differences in exemption rates between public and private schools were tested using Wilcoxon signed rank test. The overall state exemption rate was higher in US private than public schools, 4.25% (SD 4.27) vs 1.91% (1.67), P = .0001 and private schools had higher exemption rates for all types of exemptions; medical 0.58% (0.71) vs 0.34% (0.34) respectively (P = .0004), religious 2.09% (3.14) vs 0.83% (1.05) respectively (P = .0001), and personal belief 6.10% (4.12) vs 2.79% (1.57), respectively (P = .006). Overall exemption rates were significantly higher in states that allowed personal belief exemptions. Exemption rates were significantly higher in US private than in public schools. Children attending private schools may be at higher risk of vaccine-preventable diseases than public school children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Controversies in hybrid banking: attitudes of Swiss public umbilical cord blood donors toward private and public banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manegold, Gwendolin; Meyer-Monard, Sandrine; Tichelli, André; Granado, Christina; Hösli, Irene; Troeger, Carolyn

    2011-07-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) stored in public inventories has become an alternative stem cell source for allogeneic stem cell transplantation. The potential use of autologous UCB from private banks is a matter of debate. In the face of the limited resources of public inventories, a discussion on "hybrid" public and private UCB banking has evolved. We aimed to explore the attitudes of the donating parents toward public and private UCB banking. A standardized, anonymous questionnaire was sent to the most recent 621 public UCB donors including items regarding satisfaction with recruitment process, the need for a second consent before release of the UCB unit for stem cell transplantation, and the donors' views on public and private UCB banking. Furthermore, we asked about their views on UCB research. Of the questionnaires, 48% were returned, and 16% were lost due to mail contact. Of our donors, 95% would donate to the public bank again. As much as 35% of them were convinced that public banking was useful. Whereas 27% had never heard about private UCB banking, 34% discussed both options. Nearly 70% of donors opted for public banking due to altruism and the high costs of private banking. Of our public UCB donors, 81% stated that they did not need a re-consent before UCB release for stem cell transplantation. In case of sample rejection, 53.5% wanted to know details about the particular research project. A total of 9% would not consent. Almost all donors would choose public banking again due to altruism and the high costs of private banking. Shortly after donation, mail contact with former UCB donors was difficult. This might be a relevant issue in any sequential hybrid banking.

  19. 34 CFR 675.22 - Employment provided by a Federal, State, or local public agency, or a private nonprofit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... public agency, or a private nonprofit organization. 675.22 Section 675.22 Education Regulations of the..., State, or local public agency, or a private nonprofit organization. (a) If a student is employed by a Federal, State, or local public agency, or a private nonprofit organization, the work that the...

  20. Bundling the procurement of sports infrastructure projects : How neither public nor private actors really benefit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hurk, M.

    2016-01-01

    Public-private partnerships for infrastructure development are often conceived as puzzling governance tools. A peculiar case in Belgium has been the procurement of multiple similar projects to single private sector partners who design, build, finance and maintain infrastructure for a fixed

  1. How Do Private Sector Schools Serve the Public Good by Fostering Inclusive Service Delivery Models?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Martin; Tichy, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Conversations about promoting educational reforms that redress educational inequities often ignore private schools as irrelevant. Yet pursuits of inclusivity in private sector schools serve the public interest. This article focuses on how the system of Catholic schools in the Archdiocese of St. Louis has been purposefully striving for 2 decades to…

  2. Analysis of Quality in Public and Private Universities in Bangladesh and USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Quamrul H.

    2014-01-01

    To meet the growing need for increased capacity in higher education, the government of Bangladesh encouraged development of private universities in 1992. Currently, there are sixty private universities, thirty-four public universities and three international universities in Bangladesh. Although the increased number of universities has provided…

  3. Multiple Choice: How Public School Leaders in New Orleans' Saturated Market View Private School Competitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbar, Huriya; Li, Dongmei M.

    2016-01-01

    School choice policies, such as charter schools and vouchers, are in part designed to induce competition between schools. While several studies have examined the impact of private school competition on public schools, few studies have explored school leaders' perceptions of private school competitors. This study examines the extent to which public…

  4. 24 CFR 1006.335 - Use of nonprofit organizations and public-private partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of nonprofit organizations and... Requirements § 1006.335 Use of nonprofit organizations and public-private partnerships. (a) Nonprofit organizations. The DHHL must, to the extent practicable, provide for private nonprofit organizations...

  5. Contemporary Issues in Indian Higher Education: Privatization, Public and Household Expenditures and Student Loan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraisamy, P.; Duraisamy, Malathy

    2016-01-01

    Privatization of higher education in India is the outcome of increased demand, especially from the growing middle-income families, and the inability of state governments to step up public funding for higher education. This has resulted in rising enrolment in private unaided institutions, which increased from 25 percent in 2000-2001 to 58 percent…

  6. ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROJECTS OF PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS IN INVESTMENT AND CONSTRUCTION SPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natal'ya V Gorodnova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the economic instability the problem of development of mechanisms of integration of state and private business became even more important. The paper presents the evaluation of the effectiveness of public-private partnerships (PPPs. It is concluded that adoption of the new Federal law on PPP will increase the efciency of interaction between participants in PPP projects

  7. The End of Public Schools? The Corporate Reform Agenda to Privatize Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hursh, David

    2017-01-01

    In this speech, Hursh shows how public education in the United States is undergoing profound changes. Education policy has been hijacked by the unelected and unaccountable corporate reformers who aspire to overhaul the education system through a corporate model of privatization and market competition. They aim to privatize education through…

  8. Public Infrastructure, Location of Private Schools and Primary School Attainment in an Emerging Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sarmistha

    2010-01-01

    The paper argues that access to public infrastructure plays a crucial role on the presence of private schools in a community, as it could not only minimise the cost of production, but also ensure a high return to private investment. Results using community, school and child/household-level PROBE survey data from five north Indian states provide…

  9. Does Private School Competition Improve Public School Performance? The Case of Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Amrit

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the survey of the Ministry of Education, Nepal-2005 for school leaving certificate (SLC) exam, this paper attempts to estimate the impact of private school competition on public school performance for the case of Nepal. The study uses the number of private schools in the neighborhood as a measure of competition. The identification…

  10. Public and Private Provision of Higher Education in Malaysia: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Roy; Yussof, Ishak

    2005-01-01

    A sample of public universities and private colleges are compared in terms of their enrolments, costs, facilities and quality of provision. The purpose is to illuminate an important policy issue for Malaysia and to contribute to the general debate on the role of the private sector in the provision of higher education. The general findings are that…

  11. Culture Shock in Public-Private Partnerships: Examining P3 from Cultural Persective in Hungary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regeczi, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Ask for a definition of the word public-private partnership in a room filled with people from different cultures, and their answers may differ remarkably. The American of the group might refer to privatization and contracting out of traditional government services. A Dutch person might think of a

  12. Public and Private Provision of Higher Education in Malaysia: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Roy; Yussof, Ishak

    2005-01-01

    A sample of public universities and private colleges are compared in terms of their enrolments, costs, facilities and quality of provision. The purpose is to illuminate an important policy issue for Malaysia and to contribute to the general debate on the role of the private sector in the provision of higher education. The general findings are that…

  13. Living apart together: the relationship between public and private international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.M. de Boer

    2010-01-01

    There have been times when public and private international law were closely related. As a means to solve conflicts of sovereign jurisdiction, conflicts law used to be considered as an integral part of the law of nations. Even after Savigny shifted the focus of private international law from the spa

  14. Patterns and Correlates of Tic Disorder Diagnoses in Privately and Publicly Insured Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olfson, Mark; Crystal, Stephen; Gerhard, Tobias; Huang, Cecilia; Walkup, James T.; Scahill, Lawrence; Walkup, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the prevalence and demographic and clinical correlates of children diagnosed with Tourette disorder, chronic motor or vocal tic disorder, and other tic disorders in public and private insurance plans over the course of a 1-year period. Method: Claims were reviewed of Medicaid (n = 10,247,827) and privately (n =…

  15. US Government Information: Selected Current Issues in Public Access vs. Private Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of the dissemination of government information focuses on the debate concerning public versus private access to government information; efforts of the National Technical Information Service (NTIS); electronic access and the need for printed documents; and joint efforts between government agencies and the private sector to charge for…

  16. Culture Shock in Public-Private Partnerships: Examining P3 from a Cultural Perspective in Hungary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regeczi, David

    2004-01-01

    Ask for a definition of the word public-private partnership in a room filled with people from different cultures, and their answers may differ remarkably. The American of the group might refer to privatization and contracting out of traditional government services. A Dutch person might think of a ne

  17. Contemporary Issues in Indian Higher Education: Privatization, Public and Household Expenditures and Student Loan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraisamy, P.; Duraisamy, Malathy

    2016-01-01

    Privatization of higher education in India is the outcome of increased demand, especially from the growing middle-income families, and the inability of state governments to step up public funding for higher education. This has resulted in rising enrolment in private unaided institutions, which increased from 25 percent in 2000-2001 to 58 percent…

  18. Bundling the procurement of sports infrastructure projects : How neither public nor private actors really benefit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hurk, M.

    2016-01-01

    Public-private partnerships for infrastructure development are often conceived as puzzling governance tools. A peculiar case in Belgium has been the procurement of multiple similar projects to single private sector partners who design, build, finance and maintain infrastructure for a fixed period—bu

  19. Does Private School Competition Improve Public School Performance? The Case of Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Amrit

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the survey of the Ministry of Education, Nepal-2005 for school leaving certificate (SLC) exam, this paper attempts to estimate the impact of private school competition on public school performance for the case of Nepal. The study uses the number of private schools in the neighborhood as a measure of competition. The identification…

  20. Differences in essential newborn care at birth between private and public health facilities in eastern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Waiswa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Uganda and elsewhere, the private sector provides an increasing and significant proportion of maternal and child health services. However, little is known whether private care results in better quality services and improved outcomes compared to the public sector, especially regarding care at the time of birth. Objective: To describe the characteristics of care-seekers and assess newborn care practices and services received at public and private facilities in rural eastern Uganda. Design: Within a community-based maternal and newborn care intervention with health systems strengthening, we collected data from mothers with infants at baseline and endline using a structured questionnaire. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate data analysis comparing nine newborn care practices and three composite newborn care indicators among private and public health facilities was conducted. Results: The proportion of women giving birth at private facilities decreased from 25% at baseline to 17% at endline, whereas overall facility births increased. Private health facilities did not perform significantly better than public health facilities in terms of coverage of any essential newborn care interventions, and babies were more likely to receive thermal care practices in public facilities compared to private (68% compared to 60%, p=0.007. Babies born at public health facilities received an average of 7.0 essential newborn care interventions compared to 6.2 at private facilities (p<0.001. Women delivering in private facilities were more likely to have higher parity, lower socio-economic status, less education, to seek antenatal care later in pregnancy, and to have a normal delivery compared to women delivering in public facilities. Conclusions: In this setting, private health facilities serve a vulnerable population and provide access to service for those who might not otherwise have it. However, provision of essential newborn care practices was

  1. Building Social Infrastructure through Public-Private Partnerships: The Case of Student Housing in Public Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Bruce Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Evaluations of Public-Private Partnership arrangements as alternatives to traditional government procurement methods for the delivery of public infrastructure projects have been anecdotal at best. This paper proposes a framework to evaluate a public university's infrastructure asset management performance and a specific measure based on a new…

  2. DESIGNING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP FOR BONTANG INDUSTRIAL ESTATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adjie Pamungkas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Bontang Local Government has planned Bontang Industrial Estate (BIE to accommodate oil, gas, condensate and other industries.  The estate will need investment for about IDR. 2.27 Trillion while the total annual local government budget is near to IDR 2 Trillion. Moreover, the estate has to be operated in a business manner while the local government officers have a culture in non-profit organisation as part of bureaucracy. However, the BIE feasibility study 2013 has determined that the estate will generate economic multipliers boosting the city development.  Therefore, a partnership among government and private parties should be determined and accommodated in a proper cooperation arrangement. To design the partnership, we review literature, interview related private parties and confirm opinions of the private parties to the governments. A content analysis was used to assess information from the interviews. Considering the final outputs, BIE should be organised by a pure private enterprise or Ltd. to ensure the economic viable of the estate. The Ltd. is a partnership among the government and private parties via shareholders. The government can still hold a majority share with special arrangement in investment scheme. For the initial investments, the government can use its assets valued as 51% of total share while private parties can inject cash money equal to 49% of the total.  With this capital arrangement, the estate can be operated with initial investment for about IDR. 267.11 Billion on 244.97 Ha land. This initial investment can be profitable with IDR. 650 Billion NPV, 19.93% IRR and 13.95 year PP.Bontang Local Government has planned Bontang Industrial Estate (BIE to accommodate oil, gas, condensate and other industries.

  3. Understanding Higher Education Institutions' Publicness: Do Public Universities Produce More Public Outcomes than Private Universities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Joo

    2017-01-01

    Higher education institutions produce a broad array of public outcomes. However, little is known about the varying levels of their contribution to the public good and what explains the variation among institutions. This study uses the theory of organisational publicness and examines how these institutions' ownership status and resource publicness…

  4. PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP IN SOCIOECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE MUSEUMS: UNUSED MODERNIZATION RESOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Polyanskova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Public-private partnership practically in all developed and developing countries of the world is recognized as the effective mechanism of social and economic tasks realization of society and state. The most popular use of the economic cooperation tools between business and government in areas such as the creation and modernization of infrastructure, transport infrastructure, road construction, municipal services (housing and communal services, the military-industrial complex, less social infrastructure. A large number of scientific, educational, recommendatory, reference and other books of domestic and foreign authors is developed for each of the called directions, various models of projects implementation of public-private partnership are developed and perfected. Unfortunately, to the sphere of culture it isn't paid due attention. State-private and municipal and private partnership in practice are quite successfully used for increase of efficiency of activity of establishments and objects of culture, but this positive experience isn't systematized and not fixed anywhere, the conceptual model of public-private partnership projects in culture is also not developed. Thus, a research objective is to design initiatives development and offers on modernization of the culture sphere on the basis of instruments of public-private partnership. The subject of the study is a set of administrative, economic and legal relations arising in the implementation of projects in the sphere of the Samara region culture on the basis of public-private partnerships. This article presents the results of a public-private partnerships study as uninvolved resource of the culture sphere modernization and the public-private partnership model developed by authors for projects in this sphere.

  5. Mediatized religion and the public/private boundaries: a theoretical and critical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Mauro Sá Martino

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This text outlines how mediatization has enabled religion to redefine its boundaries between the public and the private. Drawing mainly on bibliographical research, supported by empirical studies, the argument unfolds in three main aspects: (1 the communication dimension of religion itself as a prerrogative of its presence in public space; (20 the shifting of mediatized religion between public and private from the point of view of secularization; (3 the mediatized visibility of religion as a strategy to thrive on public affairs. Finally, the paper assets a critical reflection on the place of religion in public discussions.

  6. Bilevel Programming Model of Private Capital Investment in Urban Public Transportation: Case Study of Jinan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunqiang Xue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing public transportation subsidies have created fiscal pressures for governments. To ease this financial pressure, Chinese government strongly encourages private capital investment in public transportation. However, previous private capital investments in public transportation operations have largely failed, mainly due to low ticket fares that cannot support sustainable operations. To address this issue, several previous research projects have developed methods to facilitate private capital investment. The majority of the research focuses on qualitative analysis and value for money analysis. Our research proposed a new method of private capital investment in public transportation operations based on the concept of “passenger value.” The feasibility of the proposed method of private investment was analyzed quantitatively by constructing a bilevel programming model. The model was verified based on a sample analysis of Jinan city traffic. Results showed that effective private capital investment increases the total societal benefit from the public transportation system and additionally that the investment method considering “passenger value” is superior to the traditional one. A quantitative tool was provided by the model to evaluate private capital investment effects, design investment policies, and develop further research.

  7. Stunting and weight statuses of adolescents differ between public and private schools in urban Gambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juwara, Alimatou; Huang, Nicole; Chien, Li-Ying; Chen, Hsin-Jen

    2016-07-01

    This study assessed the disparity in nutritional status of adolescents between public and private schools in urban Gambia. This is a school-based cross-sectional study in six private and six public upper basic schools in urban Gambia. This study recruited 491 students from public and 469 students from private schools (13-15 years of age). The prevalence of stunting (WHO height-for-age Z school students and 4.5 % for private schools. After adjustment for children's sex, age, and family socioeconomic status, the differences in prevalence of stunting and underweight were significant between public and private schools. Private school students are more likely to be overweight/obese (WHO BMI-for-age Z > +1SD) (OR = 2.85, 95 % CI 1.55-5.22), but less likely to be thin (BMI-for-age Z school students. Children from lower income families had lower odds for overweight/obese than normal weight, compared to those from higher income families (OR = 0.34 [0.15-0.76]). Public and private schools in urban regions of the Gambia may face different nutritional challenges due to differences in school environment and resources.

  8. Comparative Study on Educational Management in Public and Private Institutions in the Twin Cities of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan Muhammad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research paper is to compare the quality of education delivered at the undergraduate level in the public and private institutions of the Twin Cities (Islamabad and Rawalpindi in Pakistan. Data is collected with the help of questionnaires from 246 students. The data was collected from three public and three private educational institutions of the Twin Cities, and the age of students ranged from 18 to 27 years. The research instrument used in this paper is the independent sample t-test to find the difference between the three private and three public educational institutions selected in Rawalpindi and Islamabad in terms of different variables that are very important in measuring the quality of education. For analysis, Levene’s test was adopted, which reflects the variations in educational quality with respect to academic staff availability in the twin cities. The differences in close supervision of students by academic staff between public and private sector educational institutions were also analysed, and the results reflected a difference between private and public educational institutions with respect to close supervision of students. The results also highlighted the factors that are involved in higher performance of students in private institutes as compared to that of students in public institutes. These factors can be implemented in the public sector to increase student performance.

  9. Implementation of Strategies to Leverage Public and Private Resources for National Security Workforce Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-04-01

    This report documents implementation strategies to leverage public and private resources for the development of an adequate national security workforce as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), being performed under a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. There are numerous efforts across the United States to develop a properly skilled and trained national security workforce. Some of these efforts are the result of the leveraging of public and private dollars. As budget dollars decrease and the demand for a properly skilled and trained national security workforce increases, it will become even more important to leverage every education and training dollar. This report details some of the efforts that have been implemented to leverage public and private resources, as well as implementation strategies to further leverage public and private resources.

  10. Public-private Partnership in the Context of Realisation of the State Financial Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostapenko Victoriia M.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the result of the study the article analyses modern tendencies of development of economy of Ukraine. It marks out problems connected with realisation of the state financial policy. It considers the essence of the state financial policy, its directions (such as budget-tax and monetary-credit, structural components and tasks. It emphasises the place of the public-private partnership as an instrument of realisation of the financial policy. It justifies tasks in the process of realisation of goals of the modern financial policy, which could be carried out with the help of the public-private partnership. The prospect of further studies in this direction is formation of practical recommendations on the use of the public-private partnership in the process of realisation of the state financial policy. Further improvement of the public-private partnership is connected with development of efficient mechanisms of its introduction and optimisation of its financial structure.

  11. Are public officials really less satisfied than private sector workers?A comparative study in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Borges

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to compare the public and private sectors with regard to satisfaction at work. We conducted a survey with 670 professionals from both sectors in Brazil. The results of variance analysis confirm previous researches indicating that public officials are less satisfied with their work than private sector workers. However, this result does not repeat when we evaluate the satisfaction dimensions. For instance, public officials reported being more satisfied than private sector workers with regard to social environment and work stability. Unexpectedly, the results suggest that there is no difference between these sectors when we analyze the satisfaction with supervision. Therefore, this article is relevant for Brazilian managers, by offering an empirical research on the distinction between public and private. The article also discusses the theoretical implications, since Brazilian findings do not completely support the international literature.

  12. Transparency in public-private partnerships : Not so bad after all?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynaers, Anne Marie; Grimmelikhuijsen, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Scholars' criticism of transparency in public-private partnerships (PPPs) often focuses on 'external' transparency, that is, the extent to which internal information is visible to the outside world. However, to achieve external transparency, internal transparency - the availability and inferability

  13. Book Review: Regulating Private Tutoring for Public Good: Policy Options for Supplementary Education in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Marimuthu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Book Review Regulating Private Tutoring for Public Good: Policy Options for Supplementary Education in Asia By Mark Bray and Ora Kwo (2014, 93pp. ISBN: 978-988-17852-9-9, Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre.

  14. 76 FR 66932 - The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Announces the Initiation of a Public Private Industry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... promising opportunities based on nanotechnology from academic research to the clinical environment; 4... Initiation of a Public Private Industry Partnership on Translation of Nanotechnology in Cancer (TONIC) To Promote Translational Research and Development Opportunities of Nanotechnology-Based Cancer...

  15. Why students of public and private schools in Costa Rica obtain different academic achievement?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gregorio Giménez; Geovanny Castro Aristizábal

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we use the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition methodology, applied to the pisa 2012 database, in order to identify the causes of the differences in academic results between public and private Costa Rican schools...

  16. Public-private partnerships in urban regeneration projects: Organizational form or managerial capacity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B. Kort (Michiel); E-H. Klijn (Erik-Hans)

    2011-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Urban regeneration companies (URCs) are public-private entities appearing across Europe. They are created specifically to manage and implement more effectively urban regeneration projects. Core ideas behind the establishment of these newly emerging partnerships aim to

  17. Private medical services in the Italian public hospitals: the case for improving HRM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pietro, Carlo

    2006-08-22

    This study explores how Italian public hospitals can use private medical activities run by their employed physicians as a human resources management (HRM) tool. It is based on field research in two acute-care hospitals and a review of Italian literature and laws. The Italian National Health Service (NHS) allows employed physicians to run private, patient-funded activities ("private beds", surgical operations, hospital outpatient clinics, etc.). Basic regulation is set at the national level, but it can be greatly improved at the hospital level. Private activities, if poorly managed, can damage efficiency, equity, quality of care, and public trust in the NHS. On the other hand, hospitals can also use them as leverage to improve HRM, with special attention to three issues: (1) professional evaluation, development, and training; (2) compensation policies; (3) competition for, and retention of, professionals in short supply. The two case studies presented here show great differences between the two hospitals in terms of regulation and organizational solutions that have been adopted to deal with such activities. However, in both hospitals, private activities do not seem to benefit HRM. Private activities are not systematically considered in compensation policies. Moreover, private revenues are strongly concentrated in a few physicians. Hospitals use very little of the information provided by the private activities to improve knowledge management, career development, or training planning. Finally, hospitals do not use private activities management as a tool for competing in the labor market for health professionals who are in short supply.

  18. Bundling and unbundling in public-private partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpintero, Samuel; Petersen, Ole Helby

    2015-01-01

    Public–private partnership (PPP) projects may be organized in a variety of ways, depending on the level of integration of the so-called Special Purpose Vehicle. Based on the analyses of four major PPP light rail projects in Spain, this article outlines two fundamentally different models...

  19. National varieties of public-private partnerships (PPPs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van den Hurk, Martijn; Brogaard, Lena; Lember, Veiko

    2016-01-01

    Most countries that have adopted the public–private partnership (PPP) model as a means of implementing infrastructure projects have launched dedicated supporting units to guide policy development and stimulate project implementation. This paper draws on the theoretical notion of PPP-enabling fields...

  20. Challenges to Public-Private Transport Infrastructure Development in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    values from Instituto Nacional de Estadistica y Geografia (INEGI), accessed on 2 October 2011. http://www.inegi.org.mx/default.aspx? 28 Loftus-Otway...Working Papers on Insurance and Private Pensions, No. 32 (2009). DOI:10.1787/227416754242 Instituto Nacional de Estadistica y Geografia (INEGI) [National

  1. The Role of Private Sector Management in Public Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Denis P.

    1994-01-01

    The school system's uniformity is clearly a liability in the modern era. Today's schools need entrepreneurship, not change by rule, regulation, and statute. The central issue of entrepreneurship is not risk-taking, but innovative, implementation methods. Eventually, using private contractors to improve the management of instructional services will…

  2. Private provision of public information in tuna fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bush, Simon R.; Bailey, Megan; Zwieten, van Paul; Kochen, Momo; Wiryawan, Budy; Doddema, Mandy; Mangunsong, Stephani C.

    2017-01-01

    Private enumeration of landings data and traceability is an emerging phenomena in developing world tuna fisheries. The general goal of these systems is to facilitate compliance with mandatory market requirements such as the European Union’s Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated fisheries regulation,

  3. an examination of risk allocation preferences in public-private ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chikara Onda

    private sector capital and efficiency gains by allocating risks to the party best able to manage them optimally.1 Proponents of the PPP model believe that a genuine ... (directly or indirectly) from the asset rather than the infrastructure asset that ... A party must be willing to accept a risk based on risk pricing and subsequent.

  4. Public-Private Partnership and Indian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiji, O.

    2014-01-01

    Today the requirements in higher education are vast and majority of the population in the country cannot afford higher education as their per capita income is very low. Neither the government nor the private sector alone can cater to the requirements of higher education. It is in this context, one should look at the scope, feasibility,…

  5. A Feasibility Study of Public Private Partnership in Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Sustainable Ethiopia's Coffee Quality Improvement. Programme ... Sukumar Nachiappan -M.Tech, Lecturer, Department of Textile Engineering,. Faculty of ... new dynamics have catalysed a new way of working with the private sector. Therefore .... and customer satisfaction so that eventually it is a consistent and desirable.

  6. Public-private partnerships in China's urban water sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhong, L.; Mol, A.P.J.; Fu, T.

    2008-01-01

    During the past decades, the traditional state monopoly in urban water management has been debated heavily, resulting in different forms and degrees of private sector involvement across the globe. Since the 1990s, China has also started experiments with new modes of urban water service management an

  7. Constraints, Challenges and Prospects of Public-Private Partnership ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hanumantp

    millennium development goals (MDGs) if it continues ... In theory this ... administered to 466 respondents (251 health workers and 215 community members), selected ... PPP refers to the establishment of on-going relationship ... to that the new PATHS-2 program has sensitized the Enugu State ..... More jobs in the private.

  8. The Role of Private Sector Management in Public Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Denis P.

    1994-01-01

    The school system's uniformity is clearly a liability in the modern era. Today's schools need entrepreneurship, not change by rule, regulation, and statute. The central issue of entrepreneurship is not risk-taking, but innovative, implementation methods. Eventually, using private contractors to improve the management of instructional services will…

  9. When America Makes, America Works A Successful Public Private 3D Printing (Additive Manufacturing) Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    development. The Public-Private Partnership— A Model for Innovation A combined public and private investment is the most efficient and effective...investment roadmap. This business model aligns well with the DoD’s Better Buying Power 3.0 initiative to increase the productivity of industry... business and part manufacturer Ox- ford Performance Materials (OPM), demonstrated a high- performance polymer as a viable material choice for air and

  10. Public private partnership - a way of overcoming the budget process investment restrictions in european transport infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Cernaianu, Nicolae; Achim, Marian Lucian

    2010-01-01

    One of the ways to overcome, to some extent, the budgetary restrictions on the state's financial resources for investment in transport infrastructure is a public-private partnership. Thus, we considered it useful to express our own opinions as well as reiterating the presentation of world and European experiences by experts in the field of benefits and risks of public-private partnership, and the study which useful lessons can be drawn. We are not just for copying or taking of these experienc...

  11. PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP AS FUNDING MECHANISMS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE RAILWAYS

    OpenAIRE

    Pashchenko, Y.; Korin, M.

    2015-01-01

    The paper found that the implementation of the priority areas of railway infrastructure, defined transport strategy Ukraine requires significant funding required amounts which are absent in Railways and the state budget of Ukraine. It was determined that one of the effective tools of financial security of railroad infrastructure is a mechanism of public-private partnerships. Based on this the essence of public-private partnership, its main characteristics and forms of implementation. Deals wi...

  12. Evaluation of theory of mind: A study with students from public and private schools

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues,Marisa Cosenza; Pelisson, Maíze Carla Costa; Silveira,Flávia Fraga; Ribeiro, Nathalie Nehmy; Silva, Renata de Lourdes Miguel da

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the development of the theory of mind in preschool children aged 4 and 5 years old, along with potential interactions among gender, age and whether children were from private or public schools. A total of 178 children (91 students from public schools and 87 from private schools) participated in the study. After securing ethical compliance with applicable guidelines, we applied the Theory-of-Mind-Scale. There was no evidence of differences regarding gender (p< 0.38). Differ...

  13. Public-Private Partnerships in Chronic Disease Prevention-Part 6

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-06

    This podcast is the sixth of a seven part series discussing public health partnerships with the private sector. In this segment, CDC's Elizabeth Majestic and Georgia State University's Michael Eriksen discuss whether the tobacco industry has forfeited its opportunity to participate in traditional public-private partnerships.  Created: 4/6/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/6/2009.

  14. Risk Allocation in Public Private Partnership (PPP) Project: A Review on Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Alkaf Abd Karim

    2011-01-01

    It is important for the public and private sectors to establish effective risk allocation strategies for Public-Private Partnership (PPP) projects. According to Malaysia’s PPP Guideline, one of the key feature or characteristics is to optimal sharing of risk whereby risk is allocated to the party who is the best able to manage. This mean that in PPP itself, it emphasis risk allocation in construction project. This paper presents on reviewing the risk factors of PPP construction project by map...

  15. Variation in Prices of Cardiovascular Drugs in Public and Private Pharmacies in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Shiva Raj Mishra; Nirajan Kandel; Narayan Subedi; Vishnu Khanal

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Higher price of cardiovascular drugs is one of the reasons for high out-of-pocket expenditure in cardiovascular care. The objective of the study was to determine the price variation in commonly available cardiovascular drugs between public and private hospital pharmacies in Nepal. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 3 public and 3 private pharmacies in tertiary-level hospitals in Nepal. The price was recorded for the list of drugs commonly available in those pharm...

  16. The Impact of Charter Schools on Public and Private School Enrollments. Policy Analysis. No. 707

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddin, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Charter schools are publicly funded schools that have considerable independence from public school districts in their curriculum development and staffing decisions, and their enrollments have increased substantially over the past two decades. Charter schools are changing public and private school enrollment patterns across the United States. This…

  17. Beyond the Consumer: Parents, Privatization, and Fundraising in US Urban Public Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posey-Maddox, Linn

    2016-01-01

    Given recent budgetary gaps in public education, many civic and educational leaders have relied upon private sources of funding for US public schools, including funds raised by parents. Yet parents' role as economic actors in public education has been largely unexplored. Drawing from a qualitative study of parent engagement, fundraising, and…

  18. The Private Lives of Public Officials: Can the Right of Privacy Survive the First Amendment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKerns, Joseph P.

    The right of privacy versus the public's right to know as protected by the First Amendment is discussed in this paper. A formula is suggested based on Alexander Meiklejohn's interpretation that information about any individual, either a public official or a private person, would be protected as part of the public domain of knowledge if it is…

  19. Comparison of organizational learning capabilities of the personnel in public and private sector hospitals of Kermanshah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homayoun Abbasi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hospitals are among the most interactive organizations in which the rate of knowledge transfer and learning is considerably high. The investigation of the level of organizational learning between public and private sector hospitals can be useful for managers to select proper organizational learning strategies aiming at improving service delivery and organizational behaviour (1. This study was carried out to compare the organizational learning capabilities of the personnel in public and private sector hospitals of Kermanshah. Methods: This descriptive survey was performed on the personnel in public and private sector hospitals of Kermanshah. According to Krejcie and Morgan’s table, 175 employees were selected via stratified random sampling from 6 public and 2 private hospitals. The instrument for gathering data was Organizational Learning Capability Questionnaire (OLCQ by Gomez et al. (2005 (2. Data were analysed by inferential statistics (K-S test, Levene’s test, t-test, one-way ANOVA using SPSS software (version 20.00. Results: The level of organizational learning capabilities of personnel was higher in the private hospitals than in public hospitals, indicating a statistically significant difference between them (T (26= 11.779, P0.01، F (3, 68 = 1.859. Conclusion: With regard to the higher average of knowledge transfer and integration than the other capabilities in public and private hospitals, it seems that the managers of hospitals should make use of this component to promote the organizational knowledge of the personnel and improve other organizational learning capabilities too.

  20. [Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents of public and private schools. Salta City, Argentina, 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotthelf, Susana Judith; Jubany, Lilian Laura

    2010-10-01

    South America is now at a stage of epidemiological transition, changing the condition of high prevalence of underweight and stunting, to a scene marked by increases in obesity that accompanies chronic diseases, such us cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer. Surveillance of risk factors associated with them is considered a priority. To establish the prevalence of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease in adolescents in public and private schools in the city of Salta, and observe the socioeconomic characteristics and presence of cardiovascular risk factors in parents. Cross-sectional design, adolescents aged 16 to 20 years of public and private schools. Anthropometric, biochemical, food, social, lifestyle and family history variables. Adolescents of private schools had higher average values of cholesterol, LDL and glucose. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in public schools was 15% and 14.2% in private, and of hypertension 11.3% and 12.2%, respectively. It was noted higher consumption of sweets, sodas and juices; 35.1% and 42.5% of adolescents in public and private schools, did not perform physical activity, 14.2% and 27.1% smoked and 66.2% and 54.7%, respectively, consumed alcohol at weekend. The prevalence of obesity in mothers of public school students was significantly higher. There is evidence of the emergence of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease in adolescents with different characteristics as belonging to public or private schools, but both groups involved in an unhealthy family environment.

  1. Does Ownership Matter? Employee Selection Practices in Private and Public Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Codruţa OSOIAN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The continuous need to adapt to the dynamics of the environment requires employers from both public and private sectors to select qualified human resources. It is people who lead the organization towards performance, and selecting competent employees is critical for competitive success. The paper is focused on the job selection practices implemented by hiring organizations in a developing country. Due to the differences that exist regarding the employee selection policy between public and private organizations, the paper aims to understand the characteristics of the job selection process according to the ownership of the employer agent. Based on a quantitative survey applied on 64 companies, the results analyze the main selection stages implemented in private vs. public sector employers in a developing country. While in private companies the most frequently used selection stages are the job selection interview, CVs screening and trial period, in public institutions the hiring process is based on the job selection interview, written knowledge tests, and practical tests. Compared to private companies, in public institutions the written knowledge tests rank a higher position in the selection stages hierarchy, but the private employers rely more on CVs screening stage than public institutions. Emphasis is laid on understanding the reasons leading to variations in job selection practices according to the ownership of the employing agent. The predictive validity of the job selection stages implemented by the companies is also discussed.

  2. Public-Private Partnerships and the Role of Universities in "Sustainable Development"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Martin; Christensen, Per; Hansen, Jens Aage

    2006-01-01

    The notion of Public-Private Partnerships has on several occasions been heralded as one of the pivotal mechanisms for a move towards more sustainable societies. Through such partnerships it is suggested that major stakeholders (governments, NGOs, international organisations, and the private sector......) can address common societal aims while utilising each others' specific strengths and compensating own weaknesses. In this context, what is or could be the role of universities? This paper addresses the concept of public-private partnerships and discusses the role of universities if and when actively...

  3. Comparison of patients' experiences in public and private primary care clinics in Malta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullicino, Glorianne; Sciortino, Philip; Calleja, Neville; Schäfer, Willemijn; Boerma, Wienke; Groenewegen, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Demographic changes, technological developments and rising expectations require the analysis of public-private primary care (PC) service provision to inform policy makers. We conducted a descriptive, cross-sectional study using the dataset of the Maltese arm of the QUALICOPC Project to compare the PC patients' experiences provided by public-funded and private (independent) general practitioners in Malta. Seven hundred patients from 70 clinics completed a self-administered questionnaire. Direct logistic regression showed that patients visiting the private sector experienced better continuity of care with more difficulty in accessing out-of-hours care. Such findings help to improve (primary) healthcare service provision and resource allocation.

  4. Public-Private Partnerships and the Role of Universities in "Sustainable Development"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Martin; Christensen, Per; Hansen, Jens Aage

    2006-01-01

    The notion of Public-Private Partnerships has on several occasions been heralded as one of the pivotal mechanisms for a move towards more sustainable societies. Through such partnerships it is suggested that major stakeholders (governments, NGOs, international organisations, and the private sector......) can address common societal aims while utilising each others' specific strengths and compensating own weaknesses. In this context, what is or could be the role of universities? This paper addresses the concept of public-private partnerships and discusses the role of universities if and when actively...

  5. Crowd-sourcing delivery system innovation: A public-private solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Shantanu; Chen, Christopher; Tanio, Craig P

    2015-03-01

    We propose the establishment of a public-private approach which creates and maintains a "delivery systems innovations knowledge management system" to define, describe, and assess novel delivery approaches. The public sector could provide the foundational technology, resources and convening power for this innovations database. The private sector would contribute practical innovations that could guide annual strategic planning and implementation. A crowd-sourced effort would jump start delivery system reform. We believe that providing a comprehensive knowledge resource will not stifle competition or private sector opportunities but rather augment and speed the application of effective innovation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Blurring Public and Private Sociology: Challenging an Artificial Division

    OpenAIRE

    Kate Butler

    2009-01-01

    This article encourages sociologists to take a hybrid approach to the incorporation of public sociology into the discipline. The idea of public sociology rests upon a double conversation between sociologists as public actors, and the involvement of the 'extra-academic' world into the dialogue. However, the separation of public sociology from professional sociology is artificial. The division of labour between those working solely in academia, and those reaching out to the public at large is i...

  7. Public-private sector interactions and the demand for supplementary health insurance in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bíró, Anikó; Hellowell, Mark

    2016-07-01

    We examine the demand for private health insurance (PHI) in the United Kingdom and relate this to changes in the supply of public and private healthcare. Using a novel collection of administrative, private sector and survey data, we re-assess the relationships between the quality and availability of public and private sector inpatient care, and the demand for PHI. We find that PHI coverage in the United Kingdom is positively related to the median of the region- and year-specific public sector waiting times. We find that PHI prevalence ceteris paribus increases with being self-employed and employed, while it decreases with having financial difficulties. In addition, we highlight the complexities of inter-sectoral relations and their impact on PHI demand. Within a region, we find that an increase in private healthcare supply is associated with a decrease in public sector waiting times, implying lower PHI demand. This may be explained by the usage of private facilities by NHS commissioners. These results have important implications for policymakers interested in the role of private healthcare supply in enhancing the availability of and equitable access to acute inpatient care.

  8. Public vs private administration of rural health insurance schemes: a comparative study in Zhejiang of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoyuan; Mao, Zhengzhong; Rechel, Bernd; Liu, Chaojie; Jiang, Jialin; Zhang, Yinying

    2013-07-01

    Since 2003, China has experimented in some of the country's counties with the private administration of the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS), a publicly subsidized health insurance scheme for rural populations. Our study compared the effectiveness and efficiency of private vs public administration in four counties in one of China's most affluent provinces in the initial stage of the NCMS's implementation. The study was undertaken in Ningbo city of Zhejiang province. Out of 10 counties in Ningbo, two counties with private administration for the NCMS (Beilun and Ninghai) were compared with two others counties with public administration (Zhenhai and Fenghua), using the following indicators: (1) proportion of enrollees who were compensated for inpatient care; (2) average reimbursement-expense ratio per episode of inpatient care; (3) overall administration cost; (4) enrollee satisfaction. Data from 2004 to 2006 were collected from the local health authorities, hospitals and the contracted insurance companies, supplemented by a randomized household questionnaire survey covering 176 households and 479 household members. In our sample counties, private administration of the NCMS neither reduced transaction costs, nor improved the benefits of enrollees. Enrollees covered by the publicly administered NCMS were more likely to be satisfied with the insurance scheme than those covered by the privately administered NCMS. Experience in the selected counties suggests that private administration of the NCMS did not deliver the hoped-for results. We conclude that caution needs to be exercised in extending private administration of the NCMS.

  9. The ELENA Programme in the Province of Chieti - A Public Private Partnership Best Practice Improving Energy Efficiency of Buildings and Public Lighting Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fecondo, Pierluigi; Moca, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    Public Private Partnership initiatives and models are proven, scalable and internationally-recognized procurement methods for reducing the operating costs and improve environmental quality of public bodies...

  10. Quantifying a Financially Sustainable Strategy of Public Transport: Private Capital Investment Considering Passenger Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunqiang Xue

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Releaving traffic congestion by developing public transport as an alternative mode of travel is a common practice all over the world. However, the increasing public transport subsidies have created a financial burden for governments. Encouragingly, private capital supplies an opportunity for public transport in sustainable finance. Previous research mainly focuses on qualitative analysis and money-for-value (MFV analysis. In this paper, a new investment model is proposed based on the concept ‘passenger value’, and a bi-level programming model (BLPM is constructed as a quantitative analysis tool. The upper target of BLPM is the total surplus (including the value of time (VOT of passengers of the public transport system and the upper constraint is the ticket price. The lower target of BLPM is passenger’s surplus, the lower constraints are service capability and the lowest return rate of the private sector. The public transport of Jinan City, China is taken as a case to quantify the impacts of private capital investment in public transport. Results show that the proposed investment model considering passenger value is superior to the traditional one, and effective private capital investment could increase the total societal benefit of the transportation system. The proposed investment strategy satisfies economic viability and is a financially sustainability strategy. Additionally, travelers should be encouraged to use public transport through improving the service quality and passenger returns. Only in this way can the success rate of the private sector investment in public transport be improved efficiently.

  11. Quality of inpatient care in public and private hospitals in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannan-Eliya, Ravindra P; Wijemanne, Nilmini; Liyanage, Isurujith K; Dalpatadu, Shanti; de Alwis, Sanil; Amarasinghe, Sarasi; Shanthikumar, Shivanthan

    2015-03-01

    To compare the quality of inpatient clinical care in public and private hospitals in Sri Lanka. A retrospective, cross-sectional comparison was done of inpatient quality, in a sample of 11 public and 10 private hospitals in three of 25 districts. Data were collected for 55 quality indicators from medical records of 2523 public and 1815 private inpatient admissions. These covered treatment of asthma, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), childbirth and five other conditions, along with outcome indicators, and medicine prescribing indicators. Overall quality scores were better in the public sector than the private sector (77 vs 69%). Performance was similar for management of AMI and childbirth and somewhat better in the private sector for management of asthma. The public sector performed better in those indicators that are not constrained by resources (94 vs 81%), but worse in indicators that are highly resource intensive (10 vs 31%). Quality was comparable in assessment and investigation, but the public sector performed better in treatment and management (70 vs 62%) and drug prescribing (68 vs 60%), and modestly worse in terms of outcomes (92 vs 97%). For a range of indicators where comparisons were possible, quality of inpatient clinical care in Sri Lanka was comparable to levels reported from upper-middle income Asian countries, and often approaches that in developed countries, although the findings cannot be generalized. Quality in the public sector is better than in the private sector in many areas, despite spending being substantially less. Quality in public hospitals is resource constrained, and needs greater government investment for improvement, but when resource limitations are not critical, the public sector appears able to deliver equal or better quality than the private sector. Overall similarities in quality between the two sectors suggest the importance of physician training and other factors. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The

  12. Public-private partnership role in increasing the quality of the health insurance services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan CONSTANTINESCU

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In a context in which the social politics tend to become an optimization instrument for adapting the social security system to the market’s forces, and the talk of some analysts about reinventing the European social model, the partnership between the public sector and the private one in the social domain presumes, besides a tight collaboration, a combination of advantages specific to the private sector, more competitive and efficient, with the ones from the public sector, more responsible toward the society regarding the public money spending. The existence of the private health insurances cannot be tied, causally, to a social politics failure, reason for which they don’t intend, usually, to replace the public insurances, but rather, to offer a complementary alternative for them. In such a context, the public-private partnership’s goal regards both increasing the insurant’s satisfaction and increasing his/her access degree to services, and increasing the investments profitability made by the insurant and insurer. We are facing thus a mixed competitive system that combines the peculiarities of the public and private sectors. Interesting is the fact that, although the different meanings for the quality term may generate some problems regarding implementing quality management in the two health insurance sectors, the experts in the area reckon that establishing a good relationship between public buyers and private providers of healthcare can reduce the costs of public health programs. An essential condition for operating efficiently the partnership model is defining correctly the basic medical services packet financed by the public budget. Which doesn’t exclude the possibility of administrating by the private insurers, the sums of money gathered from the employees and employers contributions to the health fund, as a recently initiated project of law intends to do in Romania.

  13. Development of Public and Private Sector Partnership: Managerial Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zivile Tuncikiene

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A partnership between different sectors fundamentally becomes an essential strategic tool in pursuit of the growth in the quality of social life and thus a sustainable development of a state. The value created by collaborate activities of companies and institutions, while increasing the capacity to fulfil social needs, depends on managerial abilities of institutions. Subsequent to analysis of both theoretical and practical aspects of public–private partnership and its management, the research aims to present milestones pertaining to the development of the latter. The tasks for achieving goals are as follow: the analysis of the concept of public–private partnership, the examination of the partnership principles and forms, the analysis of management models, the study of legal and administrative partnership aspects, the evaluation of key partnership problems and the search of their solutions.

  14. Public-Private Partnerships in Defense Acquisition Programs-Defensible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    result in PPP implementation (for example, a leasing plan for air tankers in 2001 and a private- sector solution instead of a Joint Simulation System...PPP partner (assuming that PPP mode is selected) would be responsible for providing a turnkey aircrew training facility, including acquiring a fleet of...providing the RSAF with a true turnkey program—everything from courseware to cockpits—that will serve the Republic and its pilot trainees for the

  15. Introducing Partnering in Denmark – Lessons Learned Applying Public Private Partnerships as an Innovation Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Sten; Olsen, Ib Steen

    The purpose of this paper is to review practical experiences using public private partnership as an innovation platform in the construction sector. There is a growing attention to the importance of construction innovation as a means to securing the quality of the built environment as well....... Furthermore it was decided to anchor the development work in a public private partnership, in which the state as client should collaborate with private architects, engineers, contractors and suppliers. The guidelines for this partnership interaction were prepared in accordance with the long Danish tradition...... work and 4)dissemination and implementation. Lessons learned through the experimental cases are discussed, and the applicability of PPP as an approach to innovation in construction is evaluated. Keywords: public private partnership, partnering, experimental projects, innovation process...

  16. The private sector's role in public sector genetically engineered crop projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potrykus, Ingo

    2010-11-30

    There is widespread interest within academia to work on public good genetically engineered (GE) projects to the benefit of the poor, especially to use GE-technology to contribute to food security. Not a single product from this work has reached the market. The major cause is GE-regulation, which prevents use of the technology for public good beyond proof-of-concept (Potrykus, I. (2010) Lessons from the Humanitarian Golden Rice project: Regulation prevents development of public good GE-products (these Proceedings)). There is, however, another key problem responsible for the lack of deployment of public good GE-plants: the public sector is incompetent and disinterested for work beyond proof-of-concept, and has neither capability nor funding to develop GE-plant products and introduce them to growers and consumers. The private sector has the expertise for both and in the right circumstances can be ready to support the public sector in public good enterprises. Public-private-partnerships are the best solution so far, to advance exploitation of GE-technology to the benefit of the poor. Public-private-partnerships are viable, however, only, if there is mutual interest from the private sector and initiative and funding from the public sector.

  17. Constitutional and administrative law comments on public-private partnerships in urban development: Experiences from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hobma, F.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Public-private partnership agreements can be seen as government making use of private law to achieve planning objectives. Public-private partnerships (PPP’s) have extensively been used in urban development projects during the past few decades in the Netherlands (and elsewhere around the globe). A lo

  18. 78 FR 52601 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    .... Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting on Arbitration... Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL) Public Meeting on Arbitration, to take place on... Legal Adviser, Private International Law, Officer of the Legal Adviser. BILLING CODE 4710-08-P ...

  19. Constitutional and administrative law comments on public-private partnerships in urban development: Experiences from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hobma, F.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Public-private partnership agreements can be seen as government making use of private law to achieve planning objectives. Public-private partnerships (PPP’s) have extensively been used in urban development projects during the past few decades in the Netherlands (and elsewhere around the globe). A

  20. Constitutional and administrative law comments on public-private partnerships in urban development: Experiences from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hobma, F.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Public-private partnership agreements can be seen as government making use of private law to achieve planning objectives. Public-private partnerships (PPP’s) have extensively been used in urban development projects during the past few decades in the Netherlands (and elsewhere around the globe). A lo

  1. Variation in Prices of Cardiovascular Drugs in Public and Private Pharmacies in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Raj Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Higher price of cardiovascular drugs is one of the reasons for high out-of-pocket expenditure in cardiovascular care. The objective of the study was to determine the price variation in commonly available cardiovascular drugs between public and private hospital pharmacies in Nepal. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 3 public and 3 private pharmacies in tertiary-level hospitals in Nepal. The price was recorded for the list of drugs commonly available in those pharmacies. A total of 23 drugs were selected for data collection. The price was recorded based on the payment receipt and price reported by surrogate customers. We defined the price variation as the difference between price of cardiovascular drugs between public hospital and private pharmacy. The price variation was expressed as percentage. Results: Price of Amlodipine 5 mg was higher by 667% in private pharmacy nearby Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital (TUTH compared to that of TUTH pharmacy. Price of Enalapril 5 mg was higher by 14.47% in Manmohan Cardio Thoracic and Vascular Transplant Centre (MCVTC compared to nearby private pharmacy. We observed that the price of cardiovascular drugs varied significantly between hospital and private retail pharmacies in TUTH (P < .001 and MCVTC (P < .001. Conclusion: For most of the cardiovascular drugs, the price in private retail pharmacies were significantly higher than in hospital pharmacies. Future steps should be taken to establish and run own pharmacies in hospitals which would reduce the cost of medicine and thereby, increase access to medicine.

  2. Variation in Prices of Cardiovascular Drugs in Public and Private Pharmacies in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Raj Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Higher price of cardiovascular drugs is one of the reasons for high out-of-pocket expenditure in cardiovascular care. The objective of the study was to determine the price variation in commonly available cardiovascular drugs between public and private hospital pharmacies in Nepal. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 3 public and 3 private pharmacies in tertiary-level hospitals in Nepal. The price was recorded for the list of drugs commonly available in those pharmacies. A total of 23 drugs were selected for data collection. The price was recorded based on the payment receipt and price reported by surrogate customers. We defined the price variation as the difference between price of cardiovascular drugs between public hospital and private pharmacy. The price variation was expressed as percentage. Results: Price of Amlodipine 5 mg was higher by 667% in private pharmacy nearby Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital (TUTH compared to that of TUTH pharmacy. Price of Enalapril 5 mg was higher by 14.47% in Manmohan Cardio Thoracic and Vascular Transplant Centre (MCVTC compared to nearby private pharmacy. We observed that the price of cardiovascular drugs varied significantly between hospital and private retail pharmacies in TUTH ( P < .001 and MCVTC ( P < .001. Conclusion: For most of the cardiovascular drugs, the price in private retail pharmacies were significantly higher than in hospital pharmacies. Future steps should be taken to establish and run own pharmacies in hospitals which would reduce the cost of medicine and thereby, increase access to medicine.

  3. Variation in Prices of Cardiovascular Drugs in Public and Private Pharmacies in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Shiva Raj; Kandel, Nirajan; Subedi, Narayan; Khanal, Vishnu

    2015-01-01

    Higher price of cardiovascular drugs is one of the reasons for high out-of-pocket expenditure in cardiovascular care. The objective of the study was to determine the price variation in commonly available cardiovascular drugs between public and private hospital pharmacies in Nepal. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 3 public and 3 private pharmacies in tertiary-level hospitals in Nepal. The price was recorded for the list of drugs commonly available in those pharmacies. A total of 23 drugs were selected for data collection. The price was recorded based on the payment receipt and price reported by surrogate customers. We defined the price variation as the difference between price of cardiovascular drugs between public hospital and private pharmacy. The price variation was expressed as percentage. Price of Amlodipine 5 mg was higher by 667% in private pharmacy nearby Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital (TUTH) compared to that of TUTH pharmacy. Price of Enalapril 5 mg was higher by 14.47% in Manmohan Cardio Thoracic and Vascular Transplant Centre (MCVTC) compared to nearby private pharmacy. We observed that the price of cardiovascular drugs varied significantly between hospital and private retail pharmacies in TUTH (P drugs, the price in private retail pharmacies were significantly higher than in hospital pharmacies. Future steps should be taken to establish and run own pharmacies in hospitals which would reduce the cost of medicine and thereby, increase access to medicine.

  4. PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS (PPPs AND CONCESSIONS OF PUBLIC SERVICES IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. G. Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the current regulation of public-private partnerships (PPPs and concessions of public services inBrazil. Under the Brazilian Constitution, certain public utility services and infrastructure works must be provided or built either directly by the government or through a government franchise. Such franchise takes the form of either concessions or PPPs. The difference between the two is based on the form of government contribution. PPPs are concessions in which part or all of the concessionaire’s compensation is paid by the government and does not come directly from the revenue gained through the service or work at issue. These contractual arrangements are available and actually employed throughout all government levels inBrazil. Most of the government activity in these areas in the past 20 years has adopted a concession or PPP format. By analyzing the main features of the Brazilian concession and PPP system, this paper aims to offer the international reader an introductory view of the legal framework behind most large-scale investments in Brazilian infrastructure. 

  5. Provision of Private Care by Doctors Employed in Public Health Institutions: Ethical Considerations and Implications for Clinical Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbassat, Jochanan

    2015-06-01

    This paper summarizes the difficulties that may emerge when the same care-provider attends to private and public patients within the same or different clinical settings. First, I argue that blurring the boundaries between public and private care may start a slippery slope leading to "black" under-the-table payments for preferential patient care. Second, I question whether public hospitals that allow their doctors to attend to private patients provide an appropriate learning environment for medical students and residents. Finally, I propose a way to both maintain the advantages of private care and avoid its negative consequences: complete separation between the public and the private health care systems.

  6. Factors Influencing the Choice of a Public or Private Health Institution for Childbirth in Chandigarh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trusty Khumukcham

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Knowledge of factors affecting the choice of place for delivery may help in developing a user friendly maternity program. Hence, this study aimed at finding out factors influencing women’s choice about the type of health institutions for delivery. Materials and methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in selected communities of Chandigarh city in India during 2010-11. A consecutive sample of 300 women (150 in public and 150 in private institutions who had delivered a baby in previous three months were interviewed using a pre-tested interview schedule. Chi square test was used to find association of socio-demographic, maternal, and institutional factors with the type of institution selected for delivery. Results: Women from lower socio-economic status delivered more frequently in public sector institutions (47.3% than in private institutions (16.7%  (p<0.01. In private institutions 30% of the women were delivered through Caesarean Section compared to 17.3% in public institutions (p<0.05. Physical infrastructure was better in private institutions. Cost was lower in public (Rs. 4,630 than in private institutions (Rs 21,676. Most women were satisfied with quality of care received in public and private institutions. However, some reported that public institution staff needs to be more polite. Quality of infrastructure in health facility, quality of care, and socio-economic status were associated with the choice of institution for delivery. Conclusions: Public sector health institutions are a major source of maternity care in Chandigarh, hence, care providers should be trained in handling clients gently. Regulations for adherence to protocols, e.g., indications for Caesarean Section and fee structure etc. need to be implemented in private institutions.

  7. A Level Field for Private and Public Hospitals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN XINZHEN

    2010-01-01

    @@ The State Council on December 3 announced new policies to encourage private and foreign capital in China's medical sector to meet the country's diversifying demands on health care. The new policies, dubbed the "guideline to encourage and lead social capital to sponsor health-care institutes," stipulated that social capital should enjoy preferential treatment as China adjusts its medical resources, and social capital will be encouraged to participate in restructuring the hospital system. As an added bonus, overseas investments are being welcomed to sponsor hospitals and the process of involving more foreign investors will be further simplified in the coming years.

  8. Public and private in the post-soviet area: the problem of demarcation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Zaidel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the problem of determination of public and private in the post­soviet area. Formation of these spheres should be a logical conclusion of successful transformation and modernization process in ex­soviet republics and getting all spheres of civil life out of the state control. Historical specific is underlined; it is given the determination and main characteristics of public and private. It is given two main approaches’ ways of interpretation the phenomena and formation of public sphere according to H. Arendt and Ju. Hubermas. The specific of formation and demarcation of public and private spheres in the post­soviet area is analyzed. The boundaries between public and private spheres were deformed by the soviet state and communist society. As a result it was built hierarchical relations among the state, society and ruler; it is typical for power centralized societies. The determining factor of institutional heritage in the processes of state­making is underlined. The deformation of division of state, public and private spheres is caused by combining of traditional and modern institutes and practices; as a result social practices that are against of logic of modern society slow down the development of market­oriented economy and modernization of institutions.

  9. PUBLIC AND PRIVATE HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS IN MALAYSIA: COMPETING, COMPLEMENTARY OR CROSSBREEDS AS EDUCATION PROVIDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Chang Da

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Delivery of higher education used to be exclusive to the public sector in Malaysia. However, legislative changes made in 1996 led to the coexistence of public and private higher education institutions. In 2007, there were 20 public universities compared to more than 500 private institutions, of which 30 are currently categorised as universities or university colleges. Looking at their respective roles as higher education providers, public and private institutions display characteristics of being substitutes while at the same time serving complementary roles to one another. This dichotomy between public and private higher education institutions can, in fact, be seen as inclining towards a hybrid model that allows both to operate within a single system of higher education provision in the country. Such a hybrid model is evident in how the clientele is being divided between public and private higher institutions. It is also evident in the different roles played by the respective faculty members as well as in the programmes being made available in either type of institutions.

  10. The entrepreneurial state debunking public vs. private sector myths

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzucato, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    This new bestseller from leading economist Mariana Mazzucato – named by the ‘New Republic’ as one of the ‘most important innovation thinkers’ today – is stirring up much-needed debates worldwide about the role of the State in innovation. Debunking the myth of a laggard State at odds with a dynamic private sector, Mazzucato reveals in case study after case study that in fact the opposite situation is true, with the private sector only finding the courage to invest after the entrepreneurial State has made the high-risk investments. Case studies include examples of the State’s role in the ‘green revolution’, in biotech and pharmaceuticals, as well as several detailed examples from Silicon Valley. In an intensely researched chapter, she reveals that every technology that makes the iPhone so ‘smart’ was government funded: the Internet, GPS, its touch-screen display and the voice-activated Siri. Mazzucato also controversially argues that in the history of modern capitalism the State has not on...

  11. PROBLEMS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir B. Zotov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Public-private partnership (PPP is a complex mechanism, which includes a variety of industry legislation, which together form a system of legislative regulation of relations at the interaction of private and public parties in the realization of long-term capital-intensive investment projects for the development of public infrastructure. The article describes the current state of PPP in the Russian Federation, the analysis of the main problems and needs integrated action (regulatory, institutional and investment to improve and develop this project.

  12. Exploring options to strengthen Canada’s Capacity for public-private partnerships

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Calvin Su Chi

    2007-01-01

    Canada’s public infrastructure is ageing and the cost of replacing this infrastructure run in the order of hundreds of billions of dollars. Public-private partnerships (P3s) are long-term partnering arrangements between the public and private sector for infrastructure delivery and provide one viable method for Canadian governments to address this challenge. This study explores options to strengthen Canada’s organizational capacity for P3s, so that it may optimize the use of this procurement m...

  13. Public-private partnerships and responsibility under international law: a global health perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Clarke

    2014-01-01

    Partnerships between the public and private sectors are an increasingly accepted method to deal with pressing global issues, such as those relating to health. Partnerships, comprised of states and international organizations (public sector) and companies, non-governmental organizations, research ins

  14. Impact of Public and Private Transfers on Poverty and Inequality: Evidence from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den M.M.; Nguyen Viet Cuong, N.

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the extent to which public and private transfers affected poverty and inequality in Vietnam in the mid-2000s. It finds that the impact of public transfers on poverty was negligible, due to the low coverage of the poor and the relatively small amounts transferred. Moreover,

  15. Leadership and Decision-Making Practices in Public versus Private Universities in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulfqar, A.; Valcke, M.; Devos, G.; Tuytens, M.; Shahzad, A.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study is to examine differences in leadership and decision-making practices in public and private universities in Pakistan, with a focus on transformational leadership (TL) and participative decision-making (PDM). We conducted semi-structured interviews with 46 deans and heads of department from two public and two private…

  16. Privatization Influences and Strategic Enrollment Management Decisions in Public Research Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Bradley; Harris, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    Given the current economics of public higher education, enrollment management plays an increasingly significant role in institutional strategy. This qualitative case study explores three leading public universities to understand the dynamics at work. Each institution's relationship with the state, desire for a private enrollment model, and growing…

  17. Emerging Metagovernance as an Institutional Framework for Public Private Partnership Network in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buser, Martine; Koch, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Implementing private public partnerships in Denmark has been a long and reluctant process. PPP developed among municipalities from the late nineties, but was halted because of a scandal in 2002. In 2004 the government launched an action plan, and PPP are emerging again. Drawing on new public...... employment relations are surfacing. PPPs are thus emergent political arenas....

  18. Climate Profile and OCBs of Teachers in Public and Private Schools of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Pooja; Rastogi, Renu

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This research aims to assess the significant differences in the climate profile and organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) of teachers working in public and private schools of India. Design/methodology/approach: The sample comprised of 100 teachers, out of which 50 teachers were from public school and 50 teachers were from private…

  19. Public-Private Partnerships for Health Promotion: The Experiences of the S[superscript 5] Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, J.; Hellard, M. E.; Lim, M. S.; Dixon, H.; Wakefield, M.; Aitken, C. K.

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing emphasis on involving the private sector in public health to harness the considerable resources and skills of the business world to address significant health issues. While such collaboration should be encouraged, the involvement of business in public health campaigns can raise unexpected challenges when the approaches and…

  20. Comparing public and private sector employees' innovative behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bysted, Rune; Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg

    2015-01-01

    Innovation is argued to be of key importance in the public sector. Little is known about possible sector differences in innovative behaviour. The stereotype in literature is that public employees are less innovative. We analyse whether sector is associated with innovative behaviour and the influe...

  1. TRANSPORTATION BOT SCHEMES FOR PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTOR FINANCING SCENARIO ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Hung WEI

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Transportation Build-Operate-Transfer financing projects have larger payment risks and failure possibilities than other financing projects, and these factors are essential to financing scenarios. The changes of financing scenarios not only affect private sectors' financing process but the conflict between private sectors and banks. This study broadly reviews relevant factors affecting BOT financing strategies, interviews relevant experts and then uses scenario analysis to design a questionnaire to find out the most important factors affecting BOT financing. The findings of this study are four major factors affecting public and private financing scenarios. In this paper, we also propose some suggestions as possible complements to public and private sector financing strategies.

  2. Variation in exemptions to school immunization requirements among New York State private and public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yun-Kuang; Nadeau, Jessica; McNutt, Louise-Anne; Shaw, Jana

    2014-12-12

    School immunization requirements have ensured high vaccination rates and have helped to control vaccine-preventable diseases. However, vaccine exemptions have increased in the last decade. This study compared New York State private versus public schools with respect to medical and religious exemption rates. This retrospective study utilizes New York State Department of Health Immunization Survey data from the 2003 through 2012 academic years. Schools were categorized as private or public, the former further categorized by religious affiliation. Rates of medical and religious vaccine exemptions were compared by school category. From 2003 to 2012, religious exemptions increased in private and public schools from 0.63% to 1.35% and 0.17% to 0.29% (Spearman's R: 0.89 and 0.81), respectively. Among private schools, increases in religious exemption rates during the study period were observed in Catholic/Eastern Orthodox, Protestant/Other Christian, Jewish, and secular schools (Spearman's R=0.66, 0.99, 0.89, and 0.93), respectively. Exemption rate ratios in private schools compared to public schools were 1.39 (95% CI 1.15-1.68) for medical and 3.94 (95% CI: 3.20-4.86) for religious exemptions. Among private school students, all school types except for Catholic/Eastern Orthodox and Episcopal affiliates were more likely to report religious exemptions compared to children in public schools. Medical and religious exemption rates increased over time and higher rates were observed among New York State private schools compared to public schools. Low exemption rates are critical to minimize disease outbreaks in the schools and their community. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Financing and planning of public and private not-for-profit hospitals in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ceri R; McKee, Martin

    2004-03-01

    While much has been written about health care financing in Europe in recent years, discussion has almost entirely focused on revenue. In contrast, there has been remarkably little written on financing of capital investment in European health care systems. Yet major changes are underway in several countries, in particular involving new forms of public-private partnerships (PPP). At the same time, there is growing recognition of the way in which the inherited structure of the health care delivery system constrains the system's ability to adapt to changing circumstances. This paper reports the results of a survey undertaken among key informants in the member states of the European Union to begin to ascertain existing practices and future plans in relation to hospital planning and financing amongst public and private not-for-profit hospitals. The locus of hospital planning decisions reflect the constitutional framework of the country involved, and thus the emphasis on national or local plans. There has been an expansion of private sector involvement, with four basic models identified: private loans direct to the hospital; private loans to a regional health body; a PPP where the private sector's role is to build, design and operate the non-clinical functions of the hospital; and, finally, a PPP, where the private sector's involvement also includes management of the clinical functions of the hospital. It is too early to say whether these approaches will be more successful than the models they are replacing.

  4. High Blood Pressure among Students in Public and Private Schools in Maceio, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo S Ferreira

    Full Text Available The prevalence of hypertension in childhood is increasing, and investigation of its distribution is important for planning timely interventions. This study assessed the prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP and associated factors in students between 9 and 11 years of age enrolled in public and private schools in Maceió, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was performed in a probabilistic sample of students (10.3 ± 0.5 years. The students were selected from a systematic sampling of 80 schools (40 public and 40 private. To maintain similar proportions of students existing in public and private schools in Maceió, 21 and 14 students were randomly selected from each public and private school, respectively. The prevalence ratio (PR was estimated using Poisson regression. A total of 1,338 students were evaluated (800 from public schools and 538 from private schools. No differences were observed between school types in terms of student age and gender (p > 0.05. The prevalence of obesity (19.9% vs. 9.0%; PR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.67-2.92 and hypertension (21.2% vs. 11.4%; PR = 1.86; 95% CI = 1.45-2.40 were higher in private schools. The association between high blood pressure and type of school (public or private remained statistically significant even after adjustment for obesity (PR = 1.53; 95% CI = 1.19-1.97.(a students from private schools have higher socioeconomic status, BMI, and HBP prevalence compared to those of public school; (b among the evaluated students, the prevalence of obesity only partially explained the higher prevalence of high blood pressure among students from private schools. Other factors related to lifestyle of children from private schools may explain the higher prevalence of HBP. This results show the need to implement measures to promote healthy lifestyles in the school environment, since children with HBP are more likely to become hypertensive adults. Therefore, early detection and intervention in children with HBP is an important

  5. High Blood Pressure among Students in Public and Private Schools in Maceió, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Haroldo S; Lúcio, Glícia Maris A; Assunção, Monica L; Silva, Bárbara Coelho V; Oliveira, Juliana S; Florêncio, Telma Maria M T; Geraldes, Amandio Aristides R; Horta, Bernardo L

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of hypertension in childhood is increasing, and investigation of its distribution is important for planning timely interventions. This study assessed the prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP) and associated factors in students between 9 and 11 years of age enrolled in public and private schools in Maceió, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was performed in a probabilistic sample of students (10.3 ± 0.5 years). The students were selected from a systematic sampling of 80 schools (40 public and 40 private). To maintain similar proportions of students existing in public and private schools in Maceió, 21 and 14 students were randomly selected from each public and private school, respectively. The prevalence ratio (PR) was estimated using Poisson regression. A total of 1,338 students were evaluated (800 from public schools and 538 from private schools). No differences were observed between school types in terms of student age and gender (p > 0.05). The prevalence of obesity (19.9% vs. 9.0%; PR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.67-2.92) and hypertension (21.2% vs. 11.4%; PR = 1.86; 95% CI = 1.45-2.40) were higher in private schools. The association between high blood pressure and type of school (public or private) remained statistically significant even after adjustment for obesity (PR = 1.53; 95% CI = 1.19-1.97). (a) students from private schools have higher socioeconomic status, BMI, and HBP prevalence compared to those of public school; (b) among the evaluated students, the prevalence of obesity only partially explained the higher prevalence of high blood pressure among students from private schools. Other factors related to lifestyle of children from private schools may explain the higher prevalence of HBP. This results show the need to implement measures to promote healthy lifestyles in the school environment, since children with HBP are more likely to become hypertensive adults. Therefore, early detection and intervention in children with HBP is an important action

  6. Public-private Partnerships in Micro-finance: Should NGO Involvement be Restricted?

    OpenAIRE

    Roy Chowdhury, Prabal; Roy, Jaideep

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines public-private partnerships in micro-finance, whereby NGOs can help in channelizing credit to the poor, both in borrower selection, as well as in project implementation. We argue that a distortion may arise out of the fact that the private partner, i.e. the NGO, is a motivated agent. We find that whenever the project is neither too productive, nor too unproductive, reducing such distortion requires unbundling borrower selection and project implementati...

  7. Public-private Partnerships in Micro-finance: Should NGO Involvement be Restricted?

    OpenAIRE

    Roy Chowdhury, Prabal; Roy, Jaideep

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines public-private partnerships in micro-finance, whereby NGOs can help in channelizing credit to the poor, both in borrower selection, as well as in project implementation. We argue that a distortion may arise out of the fact that the private partner, i.e. the NGO, is a motivated agent. We find that whenever the project is neither too productive, nor too unproductive, reducing such distortion requires unbundling borrower selection and project implementati...

  8. Motivational Need Hierarchy of Employees in Public and Private Commercial Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Hasebur Rahman; Sheikh M. Nurullah

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a theoretical-empirical reflection about concepts, models, and practices of Maslow’s Model of Need-Hierarchy in public and private commercial banks in Bangladesh. The empirical part of this study, comprising 130 samples, has been collected through a structured questionnaire. The study reveals that employees of commercial banks have high use of lower level needs and moderate use of upper level needs. The study also reveals employees of private commercial banks have a sligh...

  9. Effects of Public Compensation for Disaster Damages on Private Insurance and Forest Management Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Marielle Brunette; Stephane Couture

    2007-01-01

    Politicians have a tendency to compensate victims of natural disasters. This article explores the impact of such public relief programmes on a non-industrial private forest owner’s insurance expenditures or on forest management activities. We develop a theoretical model of insurance demand or forest management activities in a risky context with a finite number of states of nature and a loss proportional to the forest value. The model predicts the optimal private expenditures of insurance and ...

  10. Knowledge sharing in public-private partnerships in life science: An open science perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Jiménez, Óscar David; Aibar Puentes, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    Resultados preliminares sobre la adopción de prácticas de ciencia abierta en partenariados público-privados en Ciencias de la Vida. Resultats preliminars sobre l'adopció de pràctiques de ciència oberta a partenariats publico-privats en Ciències de la Vida. Preliminary results on the adoption of open science practices in public-private partnerships in Life Sciences.

  11. Rethinking the private-public mix in health care: analysis of health reforms in Israel during the last three decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filc, Dani; Davidovitch, Nadav

    2016-10-01

    To analyse the process of health care privatization using the case of Israeli health care reforms during the last three decades. We used mixed methods including quantitative analysis of trends in health expenditures in Israel and qualitative critical analysis of documents describing the main health reforms. Israel epitomizes how boundaries between the private and public sector become blurred when health care services are subject to privatization, both of finance and supply. Additionally, the continuous growth of public-private relationships in health care results in systems that lack both equity and efficiency. More than three decades of experience show that such private-public partnerships increase both inequality and inefficiency. While most discussion surrounding the private-public mix in health care focuses on financing infrastructure, in Israel, the public-private mix has become a central way of financing and delivering services, making its damaging influence more pervasive. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. A Comparison of Customers` Satisfaction with Aerobics and Bodybuilding in Public and Private Gyms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Abbas Afsanepurak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to compare the customers` satisfaction with aerobics and bodybuilding in public and private gyms in Kermanshah-Iran. It was descriptive-survey research. The statistical population were all female private and public customers in aerobics and bodybuilding gyms in Kermanshah. The study sample was 250 female athletes. In order to gather data, a researcher- made questionnaire with the reliability (α = 0.81 was administered.In order to analyze the data, we applied descriptive statistics and inferential statistics including Kolmogrov - Smirnov, t-independent and Friedman rank tests. Data analysis showed that customer satisfaction results between private and public aerobics and bodybuilding gyms for women were significantly different (p0.05. Private gyms and public priorities in terms of customer satisfaction were satisfaction with trainers and gym personnel, satisfaction with the equipment andphysical environment of the gyms, social satisfaction, and satisfaction with services and cultural facilities in the gym. Overall customer satisfaction in the private gyms was higher than public gyms.

  13. Public-private partnerships in translational medicine: concepts and practical examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luijten, Peter R; van Dongen, Guus A M S; Moonen, Chrit T; Storm, Gert; Crommelin, Daan J A

    2012-07-20

    The way forward in multidisciplinary research according to former NIH's director Elias Zerhouni is to engage in predictive, personalized, preemptive and participatory medicine. For the creation of the optimal innovation climate that would allow for such a strategy, public-private partnerships have been widely proposed as an important instrument. Public-private partnerships have become an important instrument to expedite translational research in medicine. The Netherlands have initiated three large public-private partnerships in the life sciences and health area to facilitate the translation of valuable basic scientific concepts to new products and services in medicine. The focus of these partnerships has been on drug development, improved diagnosis and regenerative medicine. The Dutch model of public-private partnership forms the blueprint of a much larger European initiative called EATRIS. This paper will provide practical examples of public-private partnerships initiated to expedite the translation of new technology for drug development towards the clinic. Three specific technologies are in focus: companion diagnostics using nuclear medicine, the use of ultra high field MRI to generate sensitive surrogate endpoints based on endogenous contrast, and MRI guidance for High Intensity Focused Ultrasound mediated drug delivery.

  14. Who's that sleeping in my bed? Potential and actual utilization of public and private in-patient beds in Irish acute public hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Jacqueline; Wiley, Miriam

    2010-10-01

    To examine the impact of the unusual public/private mix on public and private in-patient bed utilization within Irish acute public hospitals. Data from the Department of Health and Children and the Hospital In-Patient Enquiry were used to estimate and compare potential and actual utilization of public and private designated in-patient beds in 54 acute public hospitals from 2000 to 2004. Private in-patients used more bed days than were potentially available to them in 14.1% of hospital-year observations. The equivalent figure for public in-patients was 12.6%. Although the prevalence of excess utilization of private beds was relatively small, it did increase over the study period. Hospitals with excess private utilization were characterized by a relatively low proportion of private- or non-designated beds despite their patient profile being broadly similar to that of hospitals where there was no excess private utilization. Despite policies designed to limit private practice in Irish acute public hospitals, some hospitals have apparently been able to overcome these restrictions. In a system where financial incentives to treat private patients exist both for consultants and hospitals, it is not clear whether this excess private practice in public hospitals reflects a more efficient utilization of resources (when demand from public patients is low) or the displacement of public patients in favour of private patients. However, that a smaller number on hospital waiting lists possess private health insurance provides some support for the displacement hypothesis. Thus, it appears that policy-makers may need to reconsider attempts to ensure an appropriate division of acute public hospital resources between public and private patients.

  15. Comparison of Academic Achievements of Public and Private ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The data of 344 public group and 89(because the admission quota was only 20% ... of the college (Accounting, Business Administration and Information Systems and ... The study used quantitative data as its major source of information even ...

  16. Public Private Participation : A case-study of public-private participation to promote environmental technology development by SMEs in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Bothma, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    With the increasing understaning of the need for sustainable development, many are finding that existing systems of governance are not sufficiently complex to solve the environmental crisis (see Glasbergen, 2011; Brown et al., 2009). As a result, the recent years has seen the rise of public-private participation, strengthened by the endorsement of the concept by the World Summit for Sustainable Development in Johannesburg in 2002 (Andonova, 2010). In Europe, the concept of collaboration betwe...

  17. High rates of adherence and treatment success in a public and public-private HIV clinic in India: potential benefits of standardized national care delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heylen Elsa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The massive scale-up of antiretroviral treatment (ART access worldwide has brought tremendous benefit to populations affected by HIV/AIDS. Optimising HIV care in countries with diverse medical systems is critical; however data on best practices for HIV healthcare delivery in resource-constrained settings are limited. This study aimed to understand patient characteristics and treatment outcomes from different HIV healthcare settings in Bangalore, India. Methods Participants from public, private and public-private HIV healthcare settings were recruited between 2007 and 2009 and were administered structured interviews by trained staff. Self-reported adherence was measured using the visual analogue scale to capture adherence over the past month, and a history of treatment interruptions (defined as having missed medications for more than 48 hours in the past three months. In addition, CD4 count and viral load (VL were measured; genotyping for drug resistance-associated mutations was performed on those who were in virological failure (VL > 1000 copies/ml. Results A total of 471 individuals were included in the analysis (263 from the public facility, 149 from the public-private facility and 59 from the private center. Private facility patients were more likely to be male, with higher education levels and incomes. More participants reported ≥ 95% adherence among public and public-private groups compared to private participants (public 97%; private 88%; public-private 93%, p Conclusions Adherence and treatment success was significantly higher among patients from public and public-private settings compared with patients from private facilities. These results suggest a possible benefit of the standardized care delivery system established in public and public-private health facilities where counselling by a multi-disciplinary team of workers is integral to provision of ART. Strengthening and increasing public-private partnerships can

  18. The Role and Significance of Public-Private Partnerships in the Republic of Croatia: Selected Examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Barković

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A public-private partnership is a long-term contractual partner relationship between the public and private sector which may involve financing, design, construction, operation and/or maintenance of infrastructure and/or provision of services by the private sector which is traditionally procured and provided by the public sector. This model is gaining popularity in our modern age when governments are facing the challenge of protecting the public interest on one hand and meeting different (individualized needs of the citizens on the other. Citizens´ expectations are rising together with the demand for better quality and more affordable public services. Moreover, the confidence citizens have in their government and leaders depends to a large extent on the quality of the services they provide. Therefore, the role and significance of public-private partnership is becoming increasingly important, as can be seen from contemporary academic works dealing with law and economics that discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this public policy model. The purpose of this paper is to offer a short theoretical insight into the role and significance of the publicprivate partnership, especially in Croatia. In this paper several examples of the applied models of public-private partnership in the Republic of Croatia will be presented. There are also suggestions based on theoretical and practical analysis, especially from a legal and institutional point of view, of how to improve the application of this model in order to ensure a more efficient and effective way of providing public products and services.

  19. The role of tourism public-private partnerships in regional development: a conceptual model proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Franco

    Full Text Available Tourism is characterized as being a sector that stands out as one of the business activities with the greatest potential for worldwide expansion, and as an engine for economic growth. If at the national level, the appeal of tourism is significant, on the local level this sector presents itself as an essential tool in regional development, as a means to avoid regional desertification and stagnation, stimulating the potential of more undeveloped regions. In such a competitive sector as tourism, companies should develop synergies and achieve competitive advantage. In this context, public-private partnerships play an important role in regional development. The aim of this paper is to present a theoretical context that combines different concepts and elements to explain and understand the public-private partnership phenomenon in tourism. A conceptual model of the role of public-private partnerships will be proposed in order to contribute to successful regional development.

  20. Identification of Strategies to Leverage Public and Private Resources for National Security Workforce Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-02-01

    This report documents the identification of strategies to leverage public and private resources for the development of an adequate national security workforce as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP).There are numerous efforts across the United States to develop a properly skilled and trained national security workforce. Some of these efforts are the result of the leveraging of public and private dollars. As budget dollars decrease and the demand for a properly skilled and trained national security workforce increases, it will become even more important to leverage every education and training dollar. The leveraging of dollars serves many purposes. These include increasing the amount of training that can be delivered and therefore increasing the number of people reached, increasing the number and quality of public/private partnerships, and increasing the number of businesses that are involved in the training of their future workforce.