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Sample records for public community mental

  1. Community Mental Health--in an Alternative School, in the Public Schools, and in the Kitchen!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Cindy; Page, John; Hail, Beth; Davis, Tiffany; Mitchell, Len

    2003-01-01

    Centerstone Community Mental Health, a private nonprofit agency based in Nashville, Tennessee, has responded to community needs by establishing new service programs to address them with whatever funding is available. Three described here are: an alternative school for students who cannot make it in public schools, school-based mental health…

  2. COMMUNITY MENTAL HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Saheb-Zamani

    1972-08-01

    Full Text Available Twenty to twenty-five years ago, the Community Mental Health Center (CHMC, had scarcely been heard of. Today, it is indeed a movement, and apparently widespread. A total of ten services considered to be necessary to provide adequate mental health services: (1 in patient, (2 out-patient, (3 partial hospitalization, (4 emergency, (5 consultation, (6 diagn1ostic, (7 rehabilitative, (8 precare and aftercare, (9 training, (10 research and evaluation services. This Concept of Community Mental Health would include as many community agents as possible in co-operative efforts. To the average educated layman, and, unfortunately to most mental health practitioners the community mental health care has become synonymous with the provision of mere psycho-therapy. The community mental health center has not succeeded in becoming inductor of catalytic agent in the growth of its patients, nor has it become significantly involved with the community as a scrcla1 system. These are grim facts. But new hope has begun to appear. It is contained in four revolutions now under way – revolutions in understanding, in research, in nu1ternal and child care and in education for mental health.

  3. Co-production of community mental health services: Organising the interplay between public services and civil society in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaeggemose, Ulla; Ankersen, Pia Vedel; Aagaard, Jørgen; Burau, Viola

    2017-07-02

    Co-production involves knowledge and skills based on both lived experiences of citizens and professionally training of staff. In Europe, co-production is viewed as an essential tool for meeting the demographic, political and economic challenges of welfare states. However, co-production is facing challenges because public services and civil society are rooted in two very different logics. These challenges are typically encountered by provider organisations and their staff who must convert policies and strategies into practice. Denmark is a welfare state with a strong public services sector and a relatively low involvement of volunteers. The aim of this study was to investigate how provider organisations and their staff navigate between the two logics. The present analysis is a critical case study of two municipalities selected from seven participating municipalities, for their maximum diversity. The study setting was the Community Families programme, which aim to support the social network of mental health users by offering regular contact with selected private families/individuals. The task of the municipalities was to initiate and support Community Families. The analysis built on qualitative data generated at the organisational level in the seven participating municipalities. Within the two "case study" municipalities, qualitative interviews were conducted with front-line co-ordinators (six) and line managers (two). The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded using the software program NVivo. The results confirm the central role played by staff and identify a close interplay between public services and civil society logics as essential for the organisation of co-production. Corresponding objectives, activities and collaborative relations of provider organisations are keys for facilitating the co-productive practice of individual staff. Organised in this way, co-production can succeed even in a mental health setting associated with social stigma

  4. Public perception of mental health in Iraq

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    Al-Hasoon Saad

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People who suffer from mental illness, the professionals who treat them, and indeed the actual concept of mental illness are all stigmatised in public perception and often receive very negative publicity. This paper looks at Iraq, which has a population of 30 million who are mainly Moslem. Mental health services and professionals have historically been sparse in Iraq with 1 psychiatrist per 300,000 before 2003 falling to 1 per million until recently and 1 primary care centre (40 Healthcare Workers including 4 General Practitioners to 35,000 population, compared with 1 GP per 1700 population in the UK. Methods We aimed to assess public attitudes and perceptions to mental illness. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire (additional file 1, which was designed specifically for Iraqi contexts and was made available in 2 languages. The survey was carried out in 500 participants' homes across 2 districts of Baghdad. Additional file 1 Public Perception of Mental Illness Questionnaire. Click here for file Results The response rate of the survey was 86.4%. The paper shows respondents views on the aetiology of mental illness, perceptions of people with mental illness and attitudes towards care and treatment of people with mental illness. Conclusions This survey of public attitudes towards mental illness in Iraq has shown that community opinion about the aetiology of mental illness is broadly compatible with scientific evidence, but understanding of the nature of mental illness, its implications for social participation and management remains negative in general.

  5. An Expanded Role for Public Schools: Community-Based Delivery of Comprehensive Health and Mental Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallory, Bruce L.; Cottom, Carolyn

    This paper proposes that local public schools assume the locus of responsibility for providing comprehensive health and mental health services for children and their families. Among the advantages of school based delivery systems are the universality of public education, the availability of physical and human resources, established funding…

  6. Annotated Bibliography on Inservice Training for Allied Professionals and Nonprofessionals in Community Mental Health. Public Health Service Publication No. 1901.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health Services and Mental Health Administration (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.

    This annotated bibliography presents 169 entries of materials published between 1960 and 1967 classified into the following sections: (1) Physicians--Roles and Continuing Education, (2) Nurses, (3) School Psychologists, (4) Teachers, Special Educators, (5) Clergy, (6) Social Work Technicians, Welfare Workers, (7) Police, (8) Mental Health Workers…

  7. [Anomie and public mental health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parales-Quenza, Carlos J

    2008-01-01

    This article uses the concept of anomie for understanding public mental-health issues and constructing strategies aimed at promoting health and preventing disease. Studying anomie involves many definitions and approaches; this article conceptualises anomie as dérréglement or derangement and as a total social fact as its effects and consequences are pervasive across all areas of human experience. The article suggests the pertinence of the concept to public health based on several authors' observations depicting Latin-America as being a set of anomic societies and Colombia as the extreme case. Current definitions of mental health in positive terms (not just as being the absence of mental illness) validate the need for considering anomie as an indicator of public mental health. The article proposes that if anomie expresses itself through rules as basic social structure components, then such rules should also be considered as the point of intervention in promoting mental health.

  8. Community and Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Harold W.

    This brief presentation describes public relations projects of Dubuque schools to popularize athletics. Among the activities cited which are used to promote community interest in sports events are public school-private school informal matches, talks, swim-a-thons, travel and adventure nights, class banquets with popular speakers, booster clubs,…

  9. Mental health nurses' contributions to community mental health care: An Australian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heslop, Brett; Wynaden, Dianne; Tohotoa, Jenny; Heslop, Karen

    2016-10-01

    Australian mental health policy is focused on providing mental health care in the community setting and community mental health teams provide services to clients in a shared model with primary care. The historical literature reports that community mental health nurses' experience high levels of stress and are often allocated the most complex and challenging clients managed by the team. Yet information on their specific roles remains limited. This paper reports on research conducted at one Australian public mental health service to identify the components of the community mental health nursing role and to quantify the time nurses spent in each component during the study period. Six focus groups were conducted with community mental health nurses to identify their perceived role within the team. Data analysis identified 18 components of which 10 were related to direct clinical contact with clients and eight covered administrative and care coordination activities. A data collection tool based on the findings of the focus groups was designed and nurses recorded workload data on the tool in 15-min intervals over a 4-week period. Seventeen nurses collected 1528 hours of data. Internal coordination of care was identified as the top workload item followed by clinical documentation and national data collection responsibilities supporting the complexity of the community mental health nursing role. The high rating attached to the internal coordination of care role demonstrates an important contribution that community mental health nurses make to the functioning of the team and the delivery of quality mental health care.

  10. Intersystem return on investment in public mental health: Positive externality of public mental health expenditure for the jail system in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jangho; Luck, Jeff

    2016-12-01

    This study examines the extent to which increased public mental health expenditures lead to a reduction in jail populations and computes the associated intersystem return on investment (ROI). We analyze unique panel data on 44 U.S. states and D.C. for years 2001-2009. To isolate the intersystem spillover effect, we exploit variations across states and over time within states in per capita public mental health expenditures and average daily jail inmates. Regression models control for a comprehensive set of determinants of jail incarcerations as well as unobserved determinants specific to state and year. Findings show a positive spillover benefit of increased public mental health spending on the jail system: a 10% increase in per capita public inpatient mental health expenditure on average leads to a 1.5% reduction in jail inmates. We also find that the positive intersystem externality of increased public inpatient mental health expenditure is greater when the level of community mental health spending is lower. Similarly, the intersystem spillover effect of community mental health expenditure is larger when inpatient mental health spending is lower. We compute that overall an extra dollar in public inpatient mental health expenditure by a state would yield an intersystem ROI of a quarter dollar for the jail system. There is significant cross-state variation in the intersystem ROI in both public inpatient and community mental health expenditures, and the ROI overall is greater for inpatient mental health spending than for community mental health spending. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. [Community integrated services for persons with mental illness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jung-Tai

    2007-10-01

    Anti-psychotic medications have changed the lives and treatment of persons with mental illness for the better since the social isolation of the 1950s and earlier. Community support programs break down barriers surrounding mental patients, but the stigma and negative attitudes about mental illness continue to block the development of community-based services. Individuals struggling to overcome a mental health issue find themselves facing a constant series of rejections and exclusions. Now that the Mental Health Law and Physically and Mentally Disabled Citizens Protection Act have been amended by The Legislative Yuan, the government will need to review the design of the Mental Health Care Network Project and to promote and facilitate friendly supportive communities for the mentally ill. All of us have to face these challenges to find a new balance between the civil rights of the public and the mentally ill. This paper examines issues concerning the gap between the development of the mental health system and the needs of patients and their families in the last two decades. The system often falls short of meeting needs. To meet the mental health needs of the people and make effective use of resources, changes must be made in the way services are designed, organized and delivered. The process of reforming mental health services, moreover, must not take money away from other services. Instead, changes must be made by reallocating funds. Following the revised Mental Health Law, the government should begin now to develop implementation planning guidelines to establish a comprehensive and integrated mental health services system, especially for the 80?% of patients with mild or moderate mental health problems who live in the community. We will monitor the process carefully, and ensure that patients and their families get the services they need, and help them remain in their communities as far as possible.

  12. From public mental health to community oral health: the impact of dental anxiety and fear on dental status.

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio eCrego; María eCarrillo; Jason Mathew Armfield; Martin eRomero

    2014-01-01

    Dental fear is a widely experienced problem. Through a 'vicious cycle dynamic', fear of dental treatment, lower use of dental services, and oral health diseases reinforce each other. Research on the antecedents of dental anxiety could help to break this cycle, providing useful knowledge to design effective community programs aimed at preventing dental fear and its oral health-related consequences. In this regard, frameworks that analyse the interplay between cognitive and psychosocial determi...

  13. From Public Mental Health to Community Oral Health: The Impact of Dental Anxiety and Fear on Dental Status

    OpenAIRE

    Crego, Antonio; Carrillo-Díaz, María; Armfield, Jason M.; Romero, Martín

    2014-01-01

    Dental fear is a widely experienced problem. Through a “vicious cycle dynamic,” fear of dental treatment, lower use of dental services, and oral health diseases reinforce each other. Research on the antecedents of dental anxiety could help to break this cycle, providing useful knowledge to design effective community programs aimed at preventing dental fear and its oral health-related consequences. In this regard, frameworks that analyze the interplay between cognitive and psychosocial determi...

  14. Team management in community mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, M

    2000-02-01

    The community mental health team is now the established model for mental health service delivery in the community. Managing CMHTs requires a diverse range of managerial skills, role clarity and authority. More research needs to be undertaken on the role and effectiveness of the CMHT manager.

  15. Psychology in the community: a community psychologist looks at 30 years in community mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, John R

    2008-01-01

    I review my 30 years in the community mental health field, emphasizing the personal and historical context that shaped this career. I especially highlight the origins of the values that guided significant career decisions, including family, neighborhood, religious and educational influences. The core guiding value was the belief that public service is both a privilege and an obligation, and that righting social injustice through such service is a noble calling. I trace the evolution of my thoughts and actions reflecting this value, from an early desire to "help children," through preparation to become a child psychologist, and ultimately to practice in a public community mental health setting and a career dedicated first to primary prevention and then to broader safety net services for those in need. I highlight a corresponding intellectual evolution as well, a progressive change in identity from "clinical psychologist in the community" to community psychologist.

  16. New Developments in Mental Health and Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Fazenda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The community mental health model implies a bio‐psycho‐social perspective of mental health/illness issues, as well as a set of values that advocate equity in service access, community treatment, respect for human rights, a recovery vision, promotion of independent living, social integration and user and family participation. In accordance with the priorities set by the European Union, mental health services must guarantee that these principles are applied in the prevention, treatment, rehabilitation and promotion of mental health. Inter‐sector cooperation is an essential part of developing transversal policies that ensure society’s involvement in mental health promotion. Advances in community mental health in‐ dicate the relevance of considering human rights both in policy development and in practice, of the recovery perspective and of the need to promote the participation of user and carer organizations.

  17. Experiencing community: perspectives of individuals diagnosed as having serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, Elizabeth; Gabrielian, Sonya; Brekke, Benjamin; Pahwa, Rohini; Daly, Kathleen A; Brekke, John S; Braslow, Joel T

    2013-07-01

    Community integration is recognized as a crucial component of recovery from serious mental illness. Although the construct of community integration can be measured with structured instruments, little is known about the subjective and experiential meaning of community and community involvement for persons with serious mental illness. In 2010, 30 individuals with serious mental illness treated in two public mental health clinics completed semistructured interviews that elicited the places and people that they associate with the experience of community and the larger meaning of community in their lives. Participants described four experiences as integral to their concepts of community: receiving help, minimizing risk, avoiding stigma, and giving back. Participants looked for communities that provide reliable support, and they described the need to manage community contact in order to protect themselves and others from their symptoms and from discrimination. Most participants experienced communities centered on mental health treatment or mentally ill peers as providing opportunities for positive engagement. The experience of having a serious mental illness shapes preferences for and perceptions of community in pervasive ways. Participants described community involvement not as a means to move away from illness experiences and identities but as a process that is substantially influenced by them. Mental health communities may help individuals with serious mental illness to both manage their illness and recognize and enjoy a sense of community. The findings indicate the need for further research on the relationship between community integration and outcome in serious mental illness.

  18. Community Mental Health Clinic Cost Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Healthcare Cost Report Information System (HCRIS) Dataset - Community Mental Health Center (CMHC). This data was reported on form CMS-2088-92. The data in this...

  19. Shared decision making in public mental health care: perspectives from consumers living with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woltmann, Emily M; Whitley, Rob

    2010-01-01

    Most theoretical and empirical work regarding decision making in mental health suggests that mental health consumers have better outcomes when their preferences are integrated into quality of life decisions. A wealth of research, however, indicates that providers have difficulty predicting what their clients' priorities are. This study investigates consumer decision-making preferences and understanding of construction of decisions in community mental health. People living with severe mental illness being treated in the public mental health care system (N=16) participated in qualitative interviews regarding case management decision making as a part of a larger study investigating a decision support system to facilitate shared decision making. Interviews were transcribed, coded, and cross-case thematic analyses were conducted. Mental health consumers generally endorse a "shared" style of decision making. When asked what "shared" means, however, consumers describe a two-step process which first prioritizes autonomy, and if that is not possible, defers to case managers' judgment. Consumers also primarily focused on the relationship and affective components of decision making, rather than information-gathering or deliberating on options. Finally, when disagreements arose, consumers primarily indicated they handled them. Mental health consumers may have a different view of decision making than the literature on shared decision making suggests. Mental health consumers may consciously decide to at least verbally defer to their case managers, and remain silent about their preferences or wishes.

  20. Career Guidance and Public Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Career guidance may have the potential to promote public health by contributing positively to both the prevention of mental health conditions and to population level well-being. The policy implications of this possibility have received little attention. Career guidance agencies are well placed to reach key target groups. Producing persuasive…

  1. Smoking, Mental Illness, and Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Judith J; Das, Smita; Young-Wolff, Kelly C

    2016-12-16

    Tobacco remains the leading preventable cause of death worldwide. In particular, people with mental illness are disproportionately affected with high smoking prevalence; they account for more than 200,000 of the 520,000 tobacco-attributable deaths in the United States annually and die on average 25 years prematurely. Our review aims to provide an update on smoking in the mentally ill. We review the determinants of tobacco use among smokers with mental illness, presented with regard to the public health HAVE framework of "the host" (e.g., tobacco user characteristics), the "agent" (e.g., nicotine product characteristics), the "vector" (e.g., tobacco industry), and the "environment" (e.g., smoking policies). Furthermore, we identify the significant health harms incurred and opportunities for prevention and intervention within a health care systems and larger health policy perspective. A comprehensive effort is warranted to achieve equity toward the 2025 Healthy People goal of reducing US adult tobacco use to 12%, with attention to all subgroups, including smokers with mental illness. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Public Health Volume 38 is March 20, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  2. Public school teachers’ perceptions about mental health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Amanda Gonçalves Simões; Estanislau, Gustavo; Brietzke, Elisa; Lefèvre, Fernando; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine public school teachers’ perceptions about general health and mental health, and the way in which they obtained this information. METHODS Qualitative research was conducted with 31 primary and secondary school teachers at a state school in the municipality of Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, in 2010. The teachers responded to a questionnaire containing open-ended questions about mental health and general health. The following aspects were evaluated: Teachers’ understanding of the terms “health and “mental health,” the relevance of the need for information on the subject, the method preferred for obtaining information, their experience with different media regarding such matters, and perceptions about the extent to which this available information is sufficient to support their practice. The data were processed using the Qualiquantisoft software and analyzed according to the Discourse of the Collective Subject technique. RESULTS From the teachers’ perspective, general health is defined as the proper physiological functioning of the body and mental health is related to the balance between mind and body, as a requirement for happiness. Most of the teachers (80.6%) showed great interest in acquiring knowledge about mental health and receiving educational materials on the subject. For these teachers, the lack of information creates insecurity and complicates the management of everyday situations involving mental disorders. For 61.3% of the teachers, television is the medium that provides the most information on the topic. CONCLUSIONS The data indicate that there is little information available on mental health for teachers, showing that strategies need to be developed to promote mental health in schools. PMID:26039397

  3. Public school teachers’ perceptions about mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Gonçalves Simões Soares

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To examine public school teachers’ perceptions about general health and mental health, and the way in which they obtained this information. METHODS Qualitative research was conducted with 31 primary and secondary school teachers at a state school in the municipality of Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, in 2010. The teachers responded to a questionnaire containing open-ended questions about mental health and general health. The following aspects were evaluated: Teachers’ understanding of the terms “health and “mental health,” the relevance of the need for information on the subject, the method preferred for obtaining information, their experience with different media regarding such matters, and perceptions about the extent to which this available information is sufficient to support their practice. The data were processed using the Qualiquantisoft software and analyzed according to the Discourse of the Collective Subject technique. RESULTS From the teachers’ perspective, general health is defined as the proper physiological functioning of the body and mental health is related to the balance between mind and body, as a requirement for happiness. Most of the teachers (80.6% showed great interest in acquiring knowledge about mental health and receiving educational materials on the subject. For these teachers, the lack of information creates insecurity and complicates the management of everyday situations involving mental disorders. For 61.3% of the teachers, television is the medium that provides the most information on the topic. CONCLUSIONS The data indicate that there is little information available on mental health for teachers, showing that strategies need to be developed to promote mental health in schools.

  4. Public attitudes toward mental illness in Africa and North America ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Public attitudes toward mental illness in Africa and North America. ... attitudes were generally more positive and less socially stigmatizing toward mental ... Cultural influences on these public attitudes are more likely important than language ...

  5. Cash planning in community mental health agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, E

    1976-01-01

    Community mental health agencies often receive funds from a number of different sources with varying restrictions. Cash planning can help them manage these funds properly and avoid serious problems. The use of a projected cash flow statement may even help produce additional income for them.

  6. [The Global Model of Public Mental Health and Recovery Mentors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Jean-François; Auclair, Émilie

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this paper is to revisit the Global Model of Public Mental Health (GMPMH) in light of the 4th Civic Forum. Recovery mentors of the University of Recovery chaired this public event, which was held in East-end Montreal, Canada, in 2016. The University of Recovery is a concept of co-learning among its members.Methods Being able to refer to international conventions and human rights standards is a key component of a genuine global approach that is supportive of individuals and communities in their quest for recovery and full citizenship. The GMPMH was inspired by the ecological approach in public health and health promotion programs, while adding to that approach the recovery mentors, as agents of mental health policies and legislation transformation. The GMPMH integrates recovery- and citizenship-oriented practices through the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion of the World Health Organization. Indeed, here the GMPMH is said to be global in that the supranational and individual levels reinforce each other, taking turns with a) a set of legal rules and international conventions on human rights, including those of disabled persons, and b) the active involvement and agency of recovery mentors who can evoke these rules and conventions as part of a plea for the recognition of their personal and collective capacity for change; they acted as tracers of recovery trajectories during the Civic Forum. The GMPMH was first published in 2009, and revisited in 2013. While this latter revision was based on the 3rd Civic Forum, in this paper we use the same approach to revisit the GMPMH as underpinned by the findings and recommendations of the 4th Civic Forum, which discussed questions related to work and employment.Results Updating the GMPMH in light of the Civic Forum underlines the need for a more inclusive type of governance regarding policy and systems transformation. Local communities and persons in recovery can reach each other to promote change and

  7. Community mental health in India: A rethink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynkran Jothy R

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community care of the chronic mentally ill has always been prevalent in India, largely due to family involvement and unavailability of institutions. In the 80s, a few mental health clinics became operational in some parts of the country. The Schizophrenia Research Foundation (SCARF, an NGO in Chennai had established a community clinic in 1989 in Thiruporur, which was functional till 1999. During this period various programmes such as training of the primary health center staff, setting up a referral system, setting up of a Citizen's Group, and self-employment schemes were initiated. It was decided to begin a follow up in 2005 to determine the present status of the schemes as well as the current status of the patients registered at the clinic. This we believed would lead to pointers to help evolve future community based programmes. Methods One hundred and eighty five patients with chronic mental illness were followed up and their present treatment status determined using a modified version of the Psychiatric and Personal History Schedule (PPHS. The resources created earlier were assessed and qualitative information was gathered during interviews with patient and families and other stakeholders to identify the reasons behind the sustenance or failure of these initiatives. Results Of the 185 patients followed up, 15% had continued treatment, 35% had stopped treatment, 21% had died, 12% had wandered away from home and 17% were untraceable. Of the patients who had discontinued treatment 25% were asymptomatic while 75% were acutely psychotic. The referral service was used by only 15% of the patients and mental health services provided by the PHC stopped within a year. The Citizen's group was functional for only a year and apart from chicken rearing, all other self-employment schemes were discontinued within a period of 6 months to 3 years. There were multiple factors contributing to the failure, the primary reasons being the

  8. Public beliefs about treatment and outcome of mental disorders: a comparison of Australia and Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshioka Kumiko; Christensen Helen; Nakane Yoshibumi; Jorm Anthony F; Griffiths Kathleen M; Wata Yuji

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Surveys of the public in a number of countries have shown poor recognition of mental disorders and beliefs about treatment that often diverge from those of health professionals. This lack of mental health literacy can limit the optimal use of treatment services. Australia and Japan are countries with very different mental health care systems, with Japan emphasising hospital care and Australia more oriented to community care. Japan is also more collectivist and Australia mo...

  9. Recent developments in community mental health: Relevance and relationship with the mental health care bill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Chadda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Community mental health refers to the treatment of persons with mental disorders in the community. In the earlier periods, treatment of patients with mental illness was limited to the mental hospitals or asylums. This paper traces the beginnings of community psychiatry in India from the time Dr. Vidya Sagar initiated his famous experiment of treating patients with mental illnesses along with family members in tents outside the mental hospital, Amritsar. It then discusses the role of the National Mental Health Program and the District Mental Health Program. The role of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disability in leading onto the development of the current Mental Health Care Bill, 2013 is discussed. Authors critically evaluate some of the merits and drawbacks of the Bill as related to recent developments in community mental health in India.

  10. Co-production of community mental health services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Væggemose, Ulla; Ankersen, Pia Vedel; Aagaard, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    Co-production involves knowledge and skills based on both lived experiences of citizens and professionally training of staff. In Europe, co-production is viewed as an essential tool for meeting the demographic, political and economic challenges of welfare states. However, co-production is facing ...... for facilitating the co-productive practice of individual staff. Organised in this way, co-production can succeed even in a mental health setting associated with social stigma and in a welfare state dominated by public services........ The study setting was the Community Families programme, which aim to support the social network of mental health users by offering regular contact with selected private families/individuals. The task of the municipalities was to initiate and support Community Families. The analysis built on qualitative data...

  11. Aftercare and Rehabilitation in a Community Mental Health Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoles, Pascal; Fine, Eric W.

    1971-01-01

    The community, state mental hospitals, and a community mental health center work together to provide an environment conducive to the continued well being of chronic mental patients in an area of West Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The authors describe a program that involves day care centers and the patients' everyday living. (Author)

  12. Mental health response to community disasters: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Carol S; Pfefferbaum, Betty

    2013-08-07

    Exposure to a disaster is common, and one-third or more of individuals severely exposed may develop posttraumatic stress disorder or other disorders. A systematic approach to the delivery of timely and appropriate disaster mental health services may facilitate their integration into the emergency medical response. To review and summarize the evidence for how best to identify individuals in need of disaster mental health services and triage them to appropriate care. Search of the peer-reviewed English-language literature on disaster mental health response in PsycINFO, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Academic Search Complete, and Google Scholar (inception to September 2012) and PILOTS (inception to February 2013), using a combination of subject headings and text words (Disasters, Natural Disasters, Mental Health, Mental Health Programs, Public Health Services, Mental Disorders, Mental Health Services, Community Mental Health Services, Emergency Services Psychiatric, Emotional Trauma, Triage, and Response). Unlike physical injuries, adverse mental health outcomes of disasters may not be apparent, and therefore a systematic approach to case identification and triage to appropriate interventions is required. Symptomatic individuals in postdisaster settings may experience new-onset disaster-related psychiatric disorders, exacerbations of preexisting psychopathology, and/or psychological distress. Descriptive disaster mental health studies have found that many (11%-38%) distressed individuals presenting for evaluation at shelters and family assistance centers have stress-related and adjustment disorders; bereavement, major depression, and substance use disorders were also observed, and up to 40% of distressed individuals had preexisting disorders. Individuals with more intense reactions to disaster stress were more likely to accept referral to mental health services than those with less intense reactions. Evidence-based treatments are available for

  13. Deinstitutionalization: Its Impact on Community Mental Health Centers and the Seriously Mentally Ill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliewer, Stephen P.; McNally Melissa; Trippany, Robyn L.

    2009-01-01

    Deinstitutionalization has had a significant impact on the mental health system, including the client, the agency, and the counselor. For clients with serious mental illness, learning to live in a community setting poses challenges that are often difficult to overcome. Community mental health agencies must respond to these specific needs, thus…

  14. Apartheid as a public mental health issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommisse, J

    1985-01-01

    The most serious hazard to the physical and mental health of the majority rural poor black population in South Africa is caused by the ruling wealthy white minority's policy of apartheid. Forced removals and dumping of millions of people into small, disconnected, barren, poor reserve areas, bereft of adequate medical, psychiatric and public health services (the 'final solution' of the 'native problem') causes widespread malnutrition, infectious and other diseases, and high mortality and mental-illness rates. Blacks and progressive whites are banned, terrorized, detained without trial, tortured, and murdered by the state; the Africans are not only disfranchised but are now also being denationalized and deprived of their ancient birthright to this richly-endowed part of Africa. Acceptance of this modern version of Naziism by the World Psychiatric Association and the World Medical Association, in the face of adequate information provided by the United Nations, its agency the World Health Organization, the American Psychiatric Association, and numerous other agencies and reports, needs urgent examination and decisive action.

  15. The role of the clergy in community mental health service: a critical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissonette, R

    1979-01-01

    Efforts to expand mental health manpower have taken three major directions: (1) increased use of consultation, (2) creating entirely new roles, and (3) offering training to persons engaged in roles or occupations presumably at strategic points of contact between the public and the mental health system (clergy, police, hairdressers, and bartenders). In this paper the role of modern clergy is examined along several dimensions in order to provide a more rational basis for determining their true potential as mental health service extenders or gatekeepers. Role aspects examined are: public acceptance, approachability, community stature, role separation, and professional identity. Clergy seem to be both appropriate and available as mental health resources.

  16. Public mental health. II: The psychological dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curle, A

    1997-01-01

    Alienation, which is the source of much violence, is widespread throughout the world, deriving from and connected with adverse social and economic conditions. It is a state of estrangement from society often associated with bitterness and resentment; these exacerbate conflict and lead to war and other types of violence. Alienation is the antithesis of compassion and other feelings on which the good society is based. It is partially maintained by a web of psychological falsehoods, knots, relating to: awareness, happiness, identity, permanence, separateness, guilt and inferiority, and violence. These knots foster confused thinking that makes us more vulnerable to alienation. Unravelling the knots and cutting through the web of psychological falsehoods helps to release the human potential for positive, peaceful and non-violent action. Medicine can best contribute to weakening wide-spread alienation through the development of public mental health, working at the interface with the social, economic and cultural actors in the development of civil society.

  17. Research priorities for public mental health in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsman, Anna K; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Aarø, Leif Edvard

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ROAdmap for MEntal health Research in Europe project aimed to create an integrated European roadmap for mental health research. Leading mental health research experts across Europe have formulated consensus-based recommendations for future research within the public mental health...... experts were involved in the priority setting process. RESULTS: Twenty priorities for public mental health research were identified through the consensus process. The research priorities were divided into summary principles-encompassing overall recommendations for future public mental health research...... in Europe-and thematic research priorities, including area-specific top priorities on research topics and methods. The priorities represent three overarching goals mirroring societal challenges, that is, to identify causes, risk and protective factors for mental health across the lifespan; to advance...

  18. The Greater Vancouver Mental Health Service Society: 20 years' experience in urban community mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladen-Dew, N; Bigelow, D A; Buckley, R; Bornemann, S

    1993-06-01

    Caring for people in the community with persistent and disabling mental illnesses presents a major challenge to government, planners and mental health professionals. The success with which mentally disabled people are integrated into community life says much about the society in which we live. This article describes the experience of the Greater Vancouver Mental Health Service Society in offering community-based mental health services to persons with schizophrenia and other major mental disorders over the past 20 years. The key to its success lies in a decentralized, relatively non hierarchical organizational structure which allows committed and skilled multidisciplinary teams to work with patients and their families in their community. The resulting services are fully integrated within the fabric of the community and are responsive to local needs. Partnerships among professionals, patients, families and community agencies result in work that is creative, productive and effective.

  19. Understanding the benefits and challenges of community engagement in the development of community mental health services for common mental disorders: lessons from a case study in a rural South African subdistrict site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Inge; Baillie, Kim; Bhana, Arvin

    2012-07-01

    Against the backdrop of a large treatment gap for mental disorders in low- to middle-income countries (LMICs), the 2007 Lancet series on global mental health calls for a scaling up of mental health services. Community participation is largely harnessed as one strategy to facilitate this call. Using a participatory implementation framework for the development of mental health services for common mental disorders (CMDs) in a rural subdistrict in South Africa as a case study, this study sought to understand the benefits and challenges of community participation beyond that of scaling up. Qualitative process evaluation involving interviews with service providers and users was employed. The results suggest that in addition to promoting mobilization of resources and actions for scaling up mental health services, community participation can potentially contribute to more culturally competent services and personal empowerment of recipients of care. In addition, community participation holds promise for engendering community-led public health actions to ameliorate some of the social determinants of mental ill health. Challenges include that community members involved in these activities are mainly marginalized women, who have limited power to achieve structural change, including cultural practices that may be harmful to the mental health of women and children. We conclude that in addition to contributing to scaling up mental health services, community participation can potentially promote the development of culturally competent mental health services and greater community control of mental health.

  20. The linkage of Baltimore's mental health and public health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, M T; Lambropoulos, A S; Williams-Glasser, G; Baron, S T; Birkmeyer, J

    1991-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine's The Future of Public Health calls for a strengthening of linkages between public health and mental health, with a view to integrating the functions at the service delivery level. This paper details the history of the mental health/public health interface in Baltimore, Maryland. In 1977, mental health and addiction services were merged into the Department of Health. More recently, in 1988 adult mental health services were split off into a quasi-public corporation. Children's mental health, however, was retained as a distinct service within the Department of Health in order to enhance coordination with other health services for children. Replication of such coordinated-care models is certainly feasible.

  1. Beyond attributions: Understanding public stigma of mental illness with the common sense model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Winnie W S; Chong, Eddie S K; Wong, Celia C Y

    2014-03-01

    The present study applied the common sense model (i.e., cause, controllability, timeline, consequences, and illness coherence) to understand public attitudes toward mental illness and help-seeking intention and to examine the mediating role of perceived controllability between causal attributions with public attitudes and help seeking. Based on a randomized household sample of 941 Chinese community adults in Hong Kong, results of the structural equation modeling demonstrated that people who endorsed cultural lay beliefs tended to perceive the course of mental illness as less controllable, whereas those with psychosocial attributions see its course as more controllable. The more people perceived the course of mental illness as less controllable, more chronic, and incomprehensible, the lower was their acceptance and the greater was mental illness stigma. Furthermore, those who perceived mental illness with dire consequences were more likely to feel greater stigma and social distance. Conversely, when people were more accepting, they were more likely to seek help for psychological services and felt a shorter social distance. The common sense model provides a multidimensional framework in understanding public's mental illness perceptions and stigma. Not only should biopsychosocial determinants of mental illness be advocated to the public, cultural myths toward mental illness must be debunked.

  2. Mental Health Literacy: Empowering the Community to Take Action for Better Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorm, Anthony F.

    2012-01-01

    For major physical diseases, it is widely accepted that members of the public will benefit by knowing what actions they can take for prevention, early intervention, and treatment. However, this type of public knowledge about mental disorders ("mental health literacy") has received much less attention. There is evidence from surveys in several…

  3. Existing public health surveillance systems for mental health in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Xiao, Shuiyuan

    2015-01-01

    Mental health is a challenging public health issue worldwide and surveillance is crucial for it. However, mental health surveillance has not been developed until recently in certain developed countries; many other countries, especially developing countries, have poor or even no health information systems. This paper presents surveillance related to mental health in China, a developing country with a large population of patients with mental disorders. Detailed information of seven relevant surveillance systems is introduced respectively. From the perspective of utilization, problems including accessibility, comprehensiveness and data quality are discussed. Suggestions for future development are proposed.

  4. Transformational Leadership Moderates the Relationship between Emotional Exhaustion and Turnover Intention among Community Mental Health Providers

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Amy E.; Miller, Elizabeth A.; Aarons, Gregory A

    2011-01-01

    Public sector mental health care providers are at high risk for burnout and emotional exhaustion which negatively affect job performance and client satisfaction with services. Few studies have examined ways to reduce these associations, but transformational leadership may have a positive effect. We examine the relationships between transformational leadership, emotional exhaustion, and turnover intention in a sample of 388 community mental health providers. Emotional exhaustion was positively...

  5. Forensic services, public mental health policy, and financing: charting the course ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinals, Debra A

    2014-01-01

    High-quality forensic evaluations can be critical for criminal cases brought before the court. In addition, forensic practitioners and mental health and forensic administrators have increasingly taken a broader view of the revolving door between the mental health and criminal justice systems. More attention is now paid to why individuals with mental disorders, including co-occurring substance use, come into the criminal justice system and the challenges that they face on re-entry into the community. In particular, individuals who receive care across civil, forensic, and correctional systems are at especially increased risk of disrupted health care access and coverage. With health care reform on the horizon, it is important to understand public financing and its impact on forensic services for this crossover population. This article is a review of historical and future trends in public mental health funding focused on Medicaid and other federal resources, the movement toward community-based services, and the impact of these areas on forensic practice and forensic systems. Tensions between recovery principles and legal mandates are also addressed as community services are emphasized, even in forensic contexts. This article calls forensic practitioners to action and offers suggested areas of focus for training to increase knowledge of public mental health funding, policy, and practice from a forensic perspective.

  6. Community College Student Mental Health: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Daniel Seth; Davison, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This study explores community college student mental health by comparing the responses of California community college and traditional university students on the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II (ACHA-NCHA II). Using MANOVA, we compared community college and traditional university students, examining…

  7. Public attitudes toward mental illness in Africa and North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Louis, K O; Roberts, P M

    2013-03-01

    Public attitudes toward mental illness in two widely disparate cultures, Canada and Cameroon, were compared using an experimental version of a survey instrument, the Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Mental Illness or POSHA-MI(e). 120 respondents rated POSHA-MI(e) items relating to mental illness on 1-9 equal appearing interval scales: 30 in English and 30 in French in both Cameroon and Canada. Additionally, 30 matched, monolingual English, American respondents were included as a comparison group. In Canada (and in the USA), attitudes were generally more positive and less socially stigmatizing toward mental illness than in Cameroon. Differences between countries were much larger than differences between language groups. Consistent with other research, beliefs and reactions of the public regarding mental illness reflect stigma, especially in Cameroon. Cultural influences on these public attitudes are more likely important than language influences. Results of this field test of the POSHA-MI(e), documenting differences in public attitudes toward mental illness in two divergent cultures, support its further development.

  8. Community mental health care worldwide: current status and further developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornicroft, Graham; Deb, Tanya; Henderson, Claire

    2016-10-01

    This paper aims to give an overview of the key issues facing those who are in a position to influence the planning and provision of mental health systems, and who need to address questions of which staff, services and sectors to invest in, and for which patients. The paper considers in turn: a) definitions of community mental health care; b) a conceptual framework to use when evaluating the need for hospital and community mental health care; c) the potential for wider platforms, outside the health service, for mental health improvement, including schools and the workplace; d) data on how far community mental health services have been developed across different regions of the world; e) the need to develop in more detail models of community mental health services for low- and middle-income countries which are directly based upon evidence for those countries; f) how to incorporate mental health practice within integrated models to identify and treat people with comorbid long-term conditions; g) possible adverse effects of deinstitutionalization. We then present a series of ten recommendations for the future strengthening of health systems to support and treat people with mental illness.

  9. The Impact of Economic Stress on Community Mental Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Brian J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Warns that community mental health services are threatened by reductions in federal support and increased numbers of clients. Reviews literature on the effect of adverse economic events on mental health. Identifies issues and answers for managing this dilemma including planning, financial diversification, and inter-agency cooperation. (Author/JAC)

  10. Public Relations for Community/Junior Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodress, Fred A.

    This monograph is a practical manual on public relations (PR) for community and junior colleges, containing numerous suggestions and recommendations for establishing and operating an effective public relations effort while avoiding PR pitfalls. An overview of the history of public relations in academe, the rationale underlying today's PR programs…

  11. Public stigma towards mental illness in the Greek culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzouvara, V; Papadopoulos, C

    2014-12-01

    Mental illness stigma negatively affects the lives of individuals with mental health disorders. Studies have indicated that the type and degree of stigma significantly varies across cultures. This study aimed to add to this body of knowledge by examining the prevalence and the type of mental illness stigma among individuals who identified themselves as Greek. It also examined the influence of a range of potential within-culture stigma moderating factors, including levels of previous experience with mental illness and mental illness knowledge. A cross-sectional quantitative design was employed, and 111 participants living in England and Greece were sampled through the snowball sampling technique. Stigma prevalence was measured using the 'Community Attitudes to Mental Illness' questionnaire. The findings revealed that participants showed a high degree of sympathy for people with mental illness but also considered them to be inferior and of a lower social class, and needing strict societal control. Higher stigma was significantly associated with being educated in England (instead of Greece), higher religiosity, lower knowledge levels and lower levels personal experience of mental illness. Targeted antistigma campaigns specifically tailored for the Greek culture are required in order to help reduce stigmatizing attitudes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Analysis of the relevance of public policy for mental health care in Costa Rica1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Martínez Esquivel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay seeks to answer the question what is the relevance of public policy in mental health care? Recently, the National Mental Health Policy was established in Costa Rica, but despite that was a step forward for the country, its real and effective implementation means a challenge. At present, health is seen as a historical process, affected by various social determinants that represent the possible reasons why people get sick. To address this reality, the Primary Health Care serve as one based on health promotion strategy in the implementation of public policies that direct the actions of the sector is one of its priority areas. From this perspective, mental health plays a major role in the welfare of the individual and the community. It is concluded that the development of a National Mental Health Policy represents a breakthrough for Costa Rica, but all health professionals should know and sensitize themselves and the public as to cater for the promotion of mental health and prevention of mental illness.

  13. Improving Coordination of Addiction Health Services Organizations with Mental Health and Public Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Erick G; Andrews, Christina; Harris, Lesley; Padwa, Howard; Kong, Yinfei; M S W, Karissa Fenwick

    2016-01-01

    In this mixed-method study, we examined coordination of mental health and public health services in addiction health services (AHS) in low-income racial and ethnic minority communities in 2011 and 2013. Data from surveys and semistructured interviews were used to evaluate the extent to which environmental and organizational characteristics influenced the likelihood of high coordination with mental health and public health providers among outpatient AHS programs. Coordination was defined and measured as the frequency of interorganizational contact among AHS programs and mental health and public health providers. The analytic sample consisted of 112 programs at time 1 (T1) and 122 programs at time 2 (T2), with 61 programs included in both periods of data collection. Forty-three percent of AHS programs reported high frequency of coordination with mental health providers at T1 compared to 66% at T2. Thirty-one percent of programs reported high frequency of coordination with public health services at T1 compared with 54% at T2. Programs with culturally responsive resources and community linkages were more likely to report high coordination with both services. Qualitative analysis highlighted the role of leadership in leveraging funding and developing creative solutions to deliver coordinated care. Overall, our findings suggest that AHS program funding, leadership, and cultural competence may be important drivers of program capacity to improve coordination with health service providers to serve minorities in an era of health care reform.

  14. Mental health system historians: adults with schizophrenia describe changes in community mental health care over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Catherine H; Leith, Jaclyn E; Osborn, Lawrence A; Greenberg, Sarah; Petrowski, Catherine E; Jesse, Samantha; Kraus, Shane W; May, Michael C

    2015-03-01

    This qualitative study examined changes in community mental health care as described by adults diagnosed with schizophrenia with long-term involvement in the mental health system to situate their experiences within the context of mental health reform movements in the United States. A sample of 14 adults with schizophrenia who had been consumers of mental health services from 12 to 40 years completed interviews about their hospital and outpatient experiences over time and factors that contributed most to their mental health. Overall, adults noted gradual changes in mental health care over time that included higher quality of care, more humane treatment, increased partnership with providers, shorter hospital stays, and better conditions in inpatient settings. Regardless of the mental health reform era in which they were hospitalized, participants described negative hospitalization experiences resulting in considerable personal distress, powerlessness, and trauma. Adults with less than 27 years involvement in the system reported relationships with friends and family as most important to their mental health, while adults with more than 27 years involvement reported mental health services and relationships with professionals as the most important factors in their mental health. The sample did not differ in self-reported use of services during their initial and most recent hospitalization experiences, but differences were found in participants' reported use of outpatient services over time. Findings underscore the importance of the lived experience of adults with schizophrenia in grounding current discourse on mental health care reform.

  15. Perceptions of the community on the pricing of community mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, J R; Ogden, D T

    1992-01-01

    In the past few years there has been a decrease in governmental support of Community Mental Health centers. Because of this, there has been some concern, on the part of Community Mental Health professionals, as to the overall impact of this decreased governmental support. Research has been conducted that speculates on how best to handle this mini-crisis. One article suggests moving to an overall marketing approach to help combat this dollar support decline (Day and Ford 1988). Others provide methods for surveying Community Mental Health users (Ludke, Curry & Saywell 1983). William Winston (1988) suggests an overall psychographic segmentation approach to developing market targets. There has also been research detailing promotional methods for expanded marketing coverage (Moldenhauer 1988), however little has been written defining the pricing impact on Community Mental Health services. This study addresses the perceptions of Community Mental Health Center users toward the price variable of the marketing mix.

  16. Community mental health nursing in Alberta, Canada: an oral history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschma, Geertje

    2012-01-01

    Community mental health nurses had a central role in the construction of new rehabilitative practices and community mental health services in the 1960s and 1970s. The purpose of this article is, first, to explore how nurses understood and created their new role and identity in the turbulent context of deinstitutionalization. The development of after care services for patients discharged from Alberta Hospital in Ponoka (AH-Ponoka), a large mental institution in Calgary, in the Canadian province of Alberta, will be used as a case study. I specifically focus on the establishment of outpatient services in a new psychiatric department at Foothills General Hospital in Calgary. Second, I examine how deinstitutionalization itself shaped community mental health nurses' work. Oral history interviews with nurses and other mental health professionals, who had a central role in this transformation process, provide a unique lens through which to explore this social change. The article concludes that new rehabilitative, community-based mental health services can better be understood as a transformation of former institutional practices rather than as a definite break with them.

  17. Effects of fiscal retrenchment on public mental health services for the chronic mentally ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surber, R W; Shumway, M; Shadoan, R; Hargreaves, W A

    1986-01-01

    In reviewing the public mental health services of 11 California counties during a period of fiscal retrenchment, we found several common trends: a greater focus on the severely mentally disabled; an increase in utilization of hospital-based care, residential treatment, day treatment, and case management services; and a decrease in the capacity of traditional outpatient services. Although the severely mentally disabled are receiving a higher priority for service, the findings imply that these service systems continue to inadequately address the need for long-term maintenance and supportive services to this population.

  18. Public stigma of mental illness in the United States: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcesepe, Angela M; Cabassa, Leopoldo J

    2013-09-01

    Public stigma is a pervasive barrier that prevents many individuals in the U.S. from engaging in mental health care. This systematic literature review aims to: (1) evaluate methods used to study the public's stigma toward mental disorders, (2) summarize stigma findings focused on the public's stigmatizing beliefs and actions and attitudes toward mental health treatment for children and adults with mental illness, and (3) draw recommendations for reducing stigma towards individuals with mental disorders and advance research in this area. Public stigma of mental illness in the U.S. was widespread. Findings can inform interventions to reduce the public's stigma of mental illness.

  19. Some implications of a community mental health model for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehryar, A; Khajavi, F

    The aim of this paper is to call attention to certain problems facing many developing countries which are bound to lead to further difficulties in psychosocial adjustment. Almost all these problems are inherent in the process of socioeconomic change, urbanization, and industrialization. These changes may not only lead to an increase in the rate of mental illness, but because of their impact on the basic family structure and living conditions, will result in a reduced tolerance of deviation on the part of the community. Moreover, the spread of public education and mass media is also likely to lead to a change in the expectations and attitudes of developing nations making it no longer possible to endure psychological suffering as part of one's destiny. Even the improvement of public health services leading to reduction of infant mortality and a rise in life expectancy may lead to a gross increase in demands for mental health services by the very young and the aged sections of the population. It is the contention of this paper that a community mental health model, with certain modifications to fit the local culture, will best serve the increasing mental health needs of developing nations. Of particular relevance are such aspects of the model as population and prevention orientation, community involvement, extension of prefessional resources through consultation, utilization of non-professional manpower, continuity and comprehensiveness of care as well as an open systems conceptualization of the whole process of the organization and delivery of mental health services. The latter approach will help bring about an integration of mental health services within the wider framework of human service agencies, e.g., public health, general and adult education, family planning, and community development.

  20. Identity theft in community mental health patients: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopp, Jonathon; Konrad, Shane; Yanofski, Jason; Everett, Anita

    2007-05-01

    Identity theft is a serious problem in the United States, and persons with enduring mental illnesses may be particularly vulnerable to becoming victims of this crime. Victims of identity theft experience a variety of consequences that include financial loss and serious emotional distress. Little is known about the impact of identity theft on individuals with mental illnesses. The two cases from a community mental health center presented in this article demonstrate many of the facets that may be associated with an increased risk for becoming the victim of identity theft. A summary of preventive steps as well as steps involved in resolving the crime once one has become a victim are presented.

  1. Availability and Accessibility of Treatment for Persons with Mental Illness Through a Community Mental Health Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shravya Raghunandan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes experiences in implementing a community mental health and development project in a rural district in southern India, including the  position of persons with mental illness when the project was initiated, the challenges the faced and the strategies that were developed to overcome these challenges. The authors conclude that when  services are locally available, persons with mental illness can be treated and rehabilitated within their own community. They can live with dignity and their rights are respected. There is a great need for inclusion of persons with mental illness in the existing developmental activities and in disabled persons’ organizations.doi 10.5463/DCID.v22i2.58

  2. Public mental health: the time is ripe for translation of evidence into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlbeck, Kristian

    2015-02-01

    Public mental health deals with mental health promotion, prevention of mental disorders and suicide, reducing mental health inequalities, and governance and organization of mental health service provision. The full impact of mental health is largely unrecognized within the public health sphere, despite the increasing burden of disease attributable to mental and behavioral disorders. Modern public mental health policies aim at improving psychosocial health by addressing determinants of mental health in all public policy areas. Stigmatization of mental disorders is a widespread phenomenon that constitutes a barrier for help-seeking and for the development of health care services, and is thus a core issue in public mental health actions. Lately, there has been heightened interest in the promotion of positive mental health and wellbeing. Effective programmes have been developed for promoting mental health in everyday settings such as families, schools and workplaces. New evidence indicates that many mental disorders and suicides are preventable by public mental health interventions. Available evidence favours the population approach over high-risk approaches. Public mental health emphasizes the role of primary care in the provision of mental health services to the population. The convincing evidence base for population-based mental health interventions asks for actions for putting evidence into practice. © 2015 World Psychiatric Association.

  3. Governance and mental health: contributions for public policy approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Castro, Lina; Arredondo, Armando; Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Blanca Estela; Hufty, Marc

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the conceptualization of the term governance on public mental health programs. METHODS In this systematic review, we analyzed the scientific literature published in the international scenario during 15 years (from 2000 to 2015). The databases analyzed were: Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO and PubMed. Governance and mental health were the descriptors. We included relevant articles according to our subject of study and levels of analysis: (i) the concept of governance in mental health; (ii) process and decision spaces; (iii) strategic and pertinent actors who operate in the functioning of the health system, and (iv) social regulations. We excluded letters to the editor, news articles, comments and case reports, incomplete articles and articles whose approach did not include the object of study of this review. RESULTS We have found five conceptualizations of the term governance on mental health in the area of provision policies and service organization. The agents were both those who offer and those who receive the services: we identified several social norms. CONCLUSIONS The concept of governance in mental health includes standards of quality and attention centered on the patient, and incorporates the consumers of mental healthcare in the decision-making process. PMID:28146159

  4. Predictors of recovery-oriented competencies among mental health professionals in one community mental health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuber, Jennifer; Rocha, Anita; Christian, Ann; Johnson, David

    2014-11-01

    A survey of 813 mental health professionals serving adults with severe mental illness clustered in 25 community mental health centers assessed the extent to which mental health professionals possess clinical competencies that support recovery and the predictors of these competencies. The results suggest there is room for improvement in recovery-oriented competencies. In-depth professional training in recovery, greater job variety, more years practicing in mental health, participation on an intensive case management team, and perceptions of workplace recovery culture were predictors of recovery-oriented competencies. Prioritization of on-going professional, worker retention, and management strategies that incorporate a team approach to treatment and improvements in workplace recovery culture may potentially increase recovery-oriented clinical practice.

  5. Peer review to ensure quality in forensic mental health publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felthous, Alan R; Wettstein, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    Peer reviewers have been called the gatekeepers of science. For journal publications in forensic psychiatry, as well as other disciplines, the purposes of peer review are to assist in the selection of manuscripts to publish, improve the quality of manuscripts before their publication, and promote the fairness of the process. In this article, we examine, in particular, characteristics of high-quality peer reviewers, selection of peer reviewers, recruitment and retention of peer reviewers, desired quality of peer-reviewer ratings, and the value of peer review. We conclude with specific, albeit largely untested, recommendations for improvements in peer review of forensic mental health publications.

  6. Empowerment and serious mental illness: treatment partnerships and community opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Patrick W

    2002-01-01

    The health goals of persons with serious mental illness are greatly improved when their personal power is advanced. Two targets of empowerment are discussed in this paper: treatment partnerships and community opportunities. Strategies that enhance treatment partnerships include provider endorsement of recovery rather than promoting an approach that suggests poor prognoses, treatment plans that are collaborative rather than unilateral decision making that is perceived as coercive, and treatment services provided in the person's community rather than geographically or psychological distant institutions. Approaches that focus on the person and treatment relationship are not sufficient however. Stigma and discrimination are significant barriers to the kind of community opportunities that are necessary to help people attain life goals. Communities that substitute stigmatizing attitudes and discriminatory behaviors with realistic views of mental illness are more likely to provide the kind of reasonable accommodations that some people need for work and independent living opportunities.

  7. Transformational leadership moderates the relationship between emotional exhaustion and turnover intention among community mental health providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Amy E; Miller, Elizabeth A; Aarons, Gregory A

    2013-08-01

    Public sector mental health care providers are at high risk for burnout and emotional exhaustion which negatively affect job performance and client satisfaction with services. Few studies have examined ways to reduce these associations, but transformational leadership may have a positive effect. We examine the relationships between transformational leadership, emotional exhaustion, and turnover intention in a sample of 388 community mental health providers. Emotional exhaustion was positively related to turnover intention, and transformational leadership was negatively related to both emotional exhaustion and turnover intention. Transformational leadership moderated the relationship between emotional exhaustion and turnover intention, indicating that having a transformational leader may buffer the effects of providers' emotional exhaustion on turnover intention. Investing in transformational leadership development for supervisors could reduce emotional exhaustion and turnover among public sector mental health providers.

  8. Continued Needs for Epidemiological Studies of Mental Disorders in the Community

    OpenAIRE

    Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Faravelli et al. [1, 2] present findings on the lifetime, point and 1-year prevalence of mental disorders from their recent Sesto Fiorentino community survey in Italy. The publication of these study findings occurs at a time where some researchers and journal editors seem to have come to the conclusion that there is currently no further need for such cross-sectional studies on the prevalence of mental disorders. In fact, there have been pleas for a pause of such studies [3]. Hig...

  9. [Work community--a threat and support to mental health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinokki, Marjo

    2010-01-01

    The absolute and relative amount of employees who have disability pensions due to mental disorders has increased over the last few decades. During the last ten years, both disability pensions and absences due to sickness have increased about 1.5-fold. The significance of a good work environment and community to an employee's mental health is and has been widely studied. Many of these studies have shown that poor organization and problems with social relationships and management at work may increase the probability of mental disorders. At the same time, a positive environment and atmosphere at work with suitable challenges for the employees can motivate them to commit to their work. This can increase the employees willingness to continue working until the proper retirement age and promote mental health.

  10. Developing community mental health services for children in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, A L; Lockhat, M R

    1997-11-01

    As a result of South Africa's Apartheid history, mental health care for black people, especially in rural areas, has been grossly inadequate and even non-existent in many areas. Children have been severely neglected in this regard. This paper describes an attempt by clinical psychologists to develop a community intervention programme for children with emotional problems. From their hospital base the authors set out, on a monthly basis, to outlying areas up to 250 km away to (1) train primary care nurses and other personnel in the basic techniques of identifying and dealing with uncomplicated psychological problems of childhood, and (2) render consultations to psychologically disturbed children. The paper argues the need to provide primary care workers with mental health skills and thus integrate childhood mental health care into the primary care structure. Such a move could make mental health care accessible to all inhabitants, thus deviating from the policies of the past.

  11. Mental Health Promotion in Public Health: Perspectives and Strategies From Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Martin E.P.; Peterson, Christopher; Diener, Ed; Zack, Matthew M.; Chapman, Daniel; Thompson, William

    2011-01-01

    Positive psychology is the study of what is “right” about people—their positive attributes, psychological assets, and strengths. Its aim is to understand and foster the factors that allow individuals, communities, and societies to thrive. Cross-sectional, experimental, and longitudinal research demonstrates that positive emotions are associated with numerous benefits related to health, work, family, and economic status. Growing biomedical research supports the view that positive emotions are not merely the opposite of negative emotions but may be independent dimensions of mental affect. The asset-based paradigms of positive psychology offer new approaches for bolstering psychological resilience and promoting mental health. Ultimately, greater synergy between positive psychology and public health might help promote mental health in innovative ways. PMID:21680918

  12. Routine Violence Risk Assessment in Community Forensic Mental Healthcare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, Rob H. S.; Hooijschuur, Alex; van Os, Titus W. D. P.; Savenije, Wim; Wiersma, Durk

    2010-01-01

    We developed a method for periodic monitoring of violence risk, as part of routine community forensic mental healthcare. The feasibility of the method was tested, as well as its predictive validity for violent and risk enhancing behavior in the subsequent months. Participants were 83 clients who rec

  13. Assertive community treatment for elderly people with severe mental illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Stobbe (Jolanda); N.C.L. Mulder (Niels); B.J. Roosenschoon (Bert); M. Depla (Marja); H. Kroon (Hans)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Adults aged 65 and older with severe mental illnesses are a growing segment of the Dutch population. Some of them have a range of serious problems and are also difficult to engage. While assertive community treatment is a common model for treating difficult to engage severe m

  14. Mental health law in the community: thinking about Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Peter; Jenkins, Rachel; Kiima, David

    2011-09-13

    The new United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities creates a new paradigm for mental health law, moving from a focus on institutional care to a focus on community-based services and treatment. This article considers implementation of this approach in Africa.

  15. Mental health law in the community: thinking about Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlett, Peter; Jenkins, Rachel; Kiima, David

    2011-01-01

    The new United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities creates a new paradigm for mental\\ud health law, moving from a focus on institutional care to a focus on community-based services and treatment. This\\ud article considers implementation of this approach in Africa.

  16. Providing nursing leadership in a community residential mental health setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Frances A; Bamford, Anita

    2011-07-01

    The worldwide burden of mental illness is increasing. Strong leadership is increasingly emerging as a core component of good mental health nursing. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the ways in which nurses can provide strong and consistent leadership in a values-based practice environment that embodies respect for individuals' dignity and self-determination within a community residential mental health service, which provides a structural foundation for effective action. This is accomplished through the presentation of two vignettes, which highlight how the seemingly impossible becomes possible when an economic paradigm such as agency theory is exchanged for a sociological and psychological paradigm found in leadership as stewardship at the point of service. It is through stronger nursing leadership in mental health that stigma and discrimination can be reduced and better access to treatments and services can be gained by those with mental illness. Nurse leadership in mental health services is not new, but it is still relatively uncommon to see residential services for "high needs" individuals being led by nurses. How nurses meet the challenges faced by mental health services are often at the heart of effective leadership skills and strategies.

  17. Motivational Interviewing Approach Used by a Community Mental Health Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sharon Chay Huang; Lee, Mindy Wen Hui; Lim, Gentatsu Tan Xiong; Leong, Joseph Jern-Yi; Lee, Cheng

    2015-12-01

    The current study aimed to (a) evaluate the effectiveness of motivational interviewing, as applied by a community mental health team (CMHT) based in Singapore; (b) reduce hospital admissions and length of hospital stay; and (c) improve global functioning and satisfaction of individuals with mental illness. The current study used a quasi-experimental method. A convenience sample of 120 participants was selected from the caseload of the CMHT. Participants received motivational interviewing sessions at least once every month for 1 year. Data on the number of hospital admissions, length of hospitalization, Global Assessment of Functioning, and patient satisfaction were collected at baseline and 6 and 12 months. Participants who underwent the CMHT services with motivational interviewing were more compliant to treatment, resulting in significant reduction in hospitalization and improvement in functionality. Motivational interviewing is effective in facilitating better illness management for patients in the community. Adoption of the motivational interviewing approach may potentially provide significant benefits for psychiatric support services in the community.

  18. Public Stigma against People with Mental Illness in Jimma Town, Southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reta, Yared; Tesfaye, Markos; Girma, Eshetu; Dehning, Sandra; Adorjan, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Stigma towards people with mental illness (PWMI) can result in low self-esteem and isolation and threaten employment. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the magnitude of public stigma against PWMI and factors associated with it among Jimma town residents. A community-based, cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted in adult residents of Jimma town. Data were collected among 820 randomly selected residents with the interviewer-administered Community Attitudes toward the Mentally Ill (CAMI) scale. Linear regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of stigma against PWMI. A total of 444 (54%) of the 820 respondents were females, and the mean (SD) age was 35 (8.5) years. The minimum and maximum possible values on each CAMI subscale were 10 and 50, respectively. The respondents had high scores for a stigmatizing attitude towards PWMI across all the subscales, as indicated by the mean (SD) scores: authoritarianism, 27.17 (4.96); social restrictiveness, 32.41 (4.20); benevolence, 35.34 (4.42); and community-based mental health ideology, 33.95 (5.82). Compared to housewives, private organization employees showed more autocratic and socially restrictive views (std. β = 1.12, Pstigma score than married people (std. β = -0.20, Pstigma score (std. β = -0.12, Pstigma score was observed among participants with no relationship with PWMI than among those with PWMI in their neighborhood (std. β = 0.08, Pstigma attached to PWMI at the community level.

  19. Recovery practice in community mental health teams: national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leamy, M; Clarke, E; Le Boutillier, C; Bird, V; Choudhury, R; MacPherson, R; Pesola, F; Sabas, K; Williams, J; Williams, P; Slade, M

    2016-10-01

    There is consensus about the importance of 'recovery' in mental health services, but the link between recovery orientation of mental health teams and personal recovery of individuals has been underresearched. To investigate differences in team leader, clinician and service user perspectives of recovery orientation of community adult mental health teams in England. In six English mental health National Health Service (NHS) trusts, randomly chosen community adult mental health teams were surveyed. A random sample of ten patients, one team leader and a convenience sample of five clinicians were surveyed from each team. All respondents rated the recovery orientation of their team using parallel versions of the Recovery Self Assessment (RSA). In addition, service users also rated their own personal recovery using the Questionnaire about Processes of Recovery (QPR). Team leaders (n = 22) rated recovery orientation higher than clinicians (n = 109) or patients (n = 120) (Wald(2) = 7.0, P = 0.03), and both NHS trust and team type influenced RSA ratings. Patient-rated recovery orientation was a predictor of personal recovery (b = 0.58, 95% CI 0.31-0.85, Pservice users have less positive views on recovery orientation. Increasing recovery orientation may support personal recovery. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  20. Recovery practice in community mental health teams: national survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leamy, M.; Clarke, E.; Le Boutillier, C.; Bird, V.; Choudhury, R.; MacPherson, R.; Pesola, F.; Sabas, K.; Williams, J.; Williams, P.; Slade, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background There is consensus about the importance of ‘recovery’ in mental health services, but the link between recovery orientation of mental health teams and personal recovery of individuals has been underresearched. Aims To investigate differences in team leader, clinician and service user perspectives of recovery orientation of community adult mental health teams in England. Method In six English mental health National Health Service (NHS) trusts, randomly chosen community adult mental health teams were surveyed. A random sample of ten patients, one team leader and a convenience sample of five clinicians were surveyed from each team. All respondents rated the recovery orientation of their team using parallel versions of the Recovery Self Assessment (RSA). In addition, service users also rated their own personal recovery using the Questionnaire about Processes of Recovery (QPR). Results Team leaders (n = 22) rated recovery orientation higher than clinicians (n = 109) or patients (n = 120) (Wald(2) = 7.0, P = 0.03), and both NHS trust and team type influenced RSA ratings. Patient-rated recovery orientation was a predictor of personal recovery (b = 0.58, 95% CI 0.31–0.85, P<0.001). Team leaders and clinicians with experience of mental illness (39%) or supporting a family member or friend with mental illness (76%) did not differ in their RSA ratings from other team leaders or clinicians. Conclusions Compared with team leaders, frontline clinicians and service users have less positive views on recovery orientation. Increasing recovery orientation may support personal recovery. PMID:27340113

  1. The Impact of Integrating Crisis Teams into Community Mental Health Services on Emergency Department and Inpatient Demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jespersen, Sean; Lawman, Bronwyn; Reed, Fiona; Hawke, Kari; Plummer, Virginia; Gaskin, Cadeyrn J

    2016-12-01

    This investigation focused on the impact of integrating crisis team members into community mental health services on emergency department and adult mental health inpatient unit demand within an Australian public health service. Mixed methods were used including (a) the comparison of service use data with that of two other comparable services (both of which had community-based crisis teams), (b) surveys of (i) patients and carers and (ii) staff, and (c) focus groups with staff. The numbers of emergency department presentations with mental health conditions and adult mental health inpatient separations increased 13.9 and 5.7 %, respectively, from FY2006/07 to FY2012/13. Between the three services, there were minimal differences in the percentages of presentations with mental health conditions, the distribution of mental health presentations across a 24-h period, and the triage categories assigned to these patients. Survey participants reported that patients used the emergency department due to the urgency of situations, perceptions that gaining access to mental health services would take less time, and the unavailability of mental health services when help is needed. Staff identified several issues (e.g. inappropriate referrals) that may be unnecessary in increasing emergency department demand. The integration of crisis team members into community mental health services does not seem to have produced an increase in emergency department admissions or inpatient separations beyond what might be expected from population growth. The potential may exist, however, to reduce emergency department admissions through addressing the issue of inappropriate referrals.

  2. Developing an Operational Mental Health Center with Service Provisions for the Public School System. Maxi II Practicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatoul, Warren P.

    The purpose of the practicum was to develop an effective relationship between a community mental health center and the public schools. To highlight the potential effectiveness of such a relationship, the practicum involved specific provisions for services to classes of socially maladjusted and/or emotionally disturbed children. The results of the…

  3. Association between public views of mental illness and self-stigma among individuals with mental illness in 14 European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Evans-Lacko, S.; Brohan, E.; Mojtabai, R.; Thornicroft, G

    2012-01-01

    Background. Little is known about how the views of the public are related to self-stigma among people with mental health problems. Despite increasing activity aimed at reducing mental illness stigma, there is little evidence to guide and inform specific anti-stigma campaign development and messages to be used in mass campaigns. A better understanding of the association between public knowledge, attitudes and behaviours and the internalization of stigma among people with mental health problems...

  4. Equity, public policy and outpatient specialty mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoca, E

    1993-01-01

    This study provides evidence on the role of the public sector in the allocation of ambulatory specialty mental health services across income groups in the adult population. Results suggest that in the early to mid-1980s, the tax and transfer system effectively lowered the price of services to the poor and the rich, thus causing the highest use by persons at the extreme ends of the income distribution. High utilization at the low end of the income scale can be largely attributed to publicly provided insurance. A comparison of demand prior to the Medicaid cuts brought on by the Omnibus Budget and Reconciliation Act (OBRA) of 1981 with post-OBRA estimates reveals the extreme sensitivity of demand to changes in coverage. Among upper income groups the results imply that the implicit price of specialty mental health care falls as income rises. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that the government's exclusion of health benefits and expenditures from taxation effectively lowers the price of medical services to individuals in high marginal income tax brackets. It also suggests that recent proposals to limit the tax exclusion of employer-paid premiums may lead to a more equitable distribution of resources in the specialty mental health sector.

  5. Restructuring public mental health and substance abuse service systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbole, A; Temkin, T; Cradock, C

    1998-01-01

    The authors originally circulated the concepts in this proposal during May 1995. The purpose was to support an open, public dialogue regarding the restructuring of the mental health and substance abuse services in Illinois in anticipation of Medicaid funding changes. Restructuring mental health and substance abuse service systems should follow certain key principles. These principles are applicable to other states, particularly those large in territory and population. The authors propose the temporary use of multiple managed care companies serving as administrative services only (ASO) organizations, each of whom would have responsibility for a given geographic portion of a state. The role of the ASOs would be to organize providers into networks on a regional basis and transfer managed care expertise in financing and clinical management to the relevant state departments and provider groups. Changes in the service delivery system would be phased in over time with reorganization of key components of the system during each phase. Where the provision of mental health, substance abuse, and social services is split among multiple state agencies, these agencies would be merged to achieve unified funding and administrative efficiency. Patients and advocacy organizations would play a key role in overseeing and shaping system restructuring at all levels, including a governmental board reporting to the governor, overseeing ASO organizations' operations and assuring quality and access at the provider level. The authors propose funding of public behavioral health services through use of a tiered, integrated funding model.

  6. An experience of community mental health program in rural areas of Jharkhand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantna Kumari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the present era, mental disability is a major public health problem in the society. Many of the mental disabilities are correctable if detected early. Objectives: To assess the prevalence and pattern of mental disability. Materials and Methods: Community-based cross-sectional study. Patients of all age groups in the age range of 0-60 years were randomly selected from 10 blocks of 2 districts, viz., Ranchi and Hazaribagh. Thirty villages from each block were taken for the study. The study was conducted by making house-to-house visits, interviewing and examining all the individuals in the families selected using pre-tested questionnaire. Statistical Analysis: It was done by the proportions. Results and Conclusion: The prevalence of mental disability was found higher among males (67.9% than among females (32.1%. The prevalence rate was higher among the productive groups and among individuals with low socioeconomic status. There is scope of community-based rehabilitation of the mentally disabled.

  7. Mental health first aid responses of the public: results from an Australian national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitchener Betty A

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of mental disorders is so high that members of the public will commonly have contact with someone affected. How they respond to that person (the mental health first aid response may affect outcomes. However, there is no information on what members of the public might do in such circumstances. Methods In a national survey of 3998 Australian adults, respondents were presented with one of four case vignettes and asked what they would do if that person was someone they had known for a long time and cared about. There were four types of vignette: depression, depression with suicidal thoughts, early schizophrenia, and chronic schizophrenia. Verbatim responses to the open-ended question were coded into categories. Results The most common responses to all vignettes were to encourage professional help-seeking and to listen to and support the person. However, a significant minority did not give these responses. Much less common responses were to assess the problem or risk of harm, to give or seek information, to encourage self-help, or to support the family. Few respondents mentioned contacting a professional on the person's behalf or accompanying them to a professional. First aid responses were generally more appropriate in women, those with less stigmatizing attitudes, and those who correctly identified the disorder in the vignette. Conclusions There is room for improving the range of mental health first aid responses in the community. Lack of knowledge of mental disorders and stigmatizing attitudes are important barriers to effective first aid.

  8. Attitudes of Community-Living Staff Members toward Persons with Mental Retardation, Mental Illness, and Dual Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, David; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Attitudes of 340 staff members in 120 community living programs for people with mental retardation, mental illness, and dual diagnosis were assessed using the Community Living Attitudes Scale, a measure of attitudes toward inclusion. Findings identified attitudinal differences toward inclusion between managers and staff and between those working…

  9. Governance and mental health: contributions for public policy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Castro, Lina; Arredondo, Armando; Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Blanca Estela; Hufty, Marc

    2017-01-30

    To analyze the conceptualization of the term governance on public mental health programs. In this systematic review, we analyzed the scientific literature published in the international scenario during 15 years (from 2000 to 2015). The databases analyzed were: Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO and PubMed. Governance and mental health were the descriptors. We included relevant articles according to our subject of study and levels of analysis: (i) the concept of governance in mental health; (ii) process and decision spaces; (iii) strategic and pertinent actors who operate in the functioning of the health system, and (iv) social regulations. We excluded letters to the editor, news articles, comments and case reports, incomplete articles and articles whose approach did not include the object of study of this review. We have found five conceptualizations of the term governance on mental health in the area of provision policies and service organization. The agents were both those who offer and those who receive the services: we identified several social norms. The concept of governance in mental health includes standards of quality and attention centered on the patient, and incorporates the consumers of mental healthcare in the decision-making process. Analizar la conceptualización del término gobernanza en las políticas de salud mental. En esta revisión sistemática se analizó literatura científica publicada en el ámbito internacional durante 15 años (de 2000 hasta 2015). Las bases de datos analizadas fueron: Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO y PubMed. Los descriptores fueron gobernanza y salud mental. Fueron incluidos artículos relevantes de acuerdo a nuestro objeto de estudio y niveles de análisis: (i) concepto de gobernanza en salud mental; (ii) proceso y espacios de decisión; (iii) actores estratégicos y de interés que intervienen en el funcionamiento del sistema de salud, y (iv) normas sociales. Se excluyeron cartas al editor, noticias, comentarios y reporte de caso

  10. A web-based information system for a regional public mental healthcare service network in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshiura, Vinicius Tohoru; de Azevedo-Marques, João Mazzoncini; Rzewuska, Magdalena; Vinci, André Luiz Teixeira; Sasso, Ariane Morassi; Miyoshi, Newton Shydeo Brandão; Furegato, Antonia Regina Ferreira; Rijo, Rui Pedro Charters Lopes; Del-Ben, Cristina Marta; Alves, Domingos

    2017-01-01

    Regional networking between services that provide mental health care in Brazil's decentralized public health system is challenging, partly due to the simultaneous existence of services managed by municipal and state authorities and a lack of efficient and transparent mechanisms for continuous and updated communication between them. Since 2011, the Ribeirao Preto Medical School and the XIII Regional Health Department of the Sao Paulo state, Brazil, have been developing and implementing a web-based information system to facilitate an integrated care throughout a public regional mental health care network. After a profound on-site analysis, the structure of the network was identified and a web-based information system for psychiatric admissions and discharges was developed and implemented using a socio-technical approach. An information technology team liaised with mental health professionals, health-service managers, municipal and state health secretariats and judicial authorities. Primary care, specialized community services, general emergency and psychiatric wards services, that comprise the regional mental healthcare network, were identified and the system flow was delineated. The web-based system overcame the fragmentation of the healthcare system and addressed service specific needs, enabling: detailed patient information sharing; active coordination of the processes of psychiatric admissions and discharges; real-time monitoring; the patients' status reports; the evaluation of the performance of each service and the whole network. During a 2-year period of operation, it registered 137 services, 480 health care professionals and 4271 patients, with a mean number of 2835 accesses per month. To date the system is successfully operating and further expanding. We have successfully developed and implemented an acceptable, useful and transparent web-based information system for a regional mental healthcare service network in a medium-income country with a decentralized

  11. Fiscal decentralization of public mental health care and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation program on chronic mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, R G; Gaynor, M

    1994-01-01

    Organizational change for local mental health systems has been advanced as an important aspect of improving the performance of public mental health systems. Fiscal decentralization is a central element of many proposals for organizational change. We employ data from the states of Ohio and Texas to examine some of the consequences of fiscal decentralization of public mental health care. The data analysis shows that local mental health systems respond to financial incentives, even when they are modest; that fiscal decentralization leads to increased fiscal effort by localities; and that decentralization also results in greater inequality in service between poorer and wealthier localities.

  12. Community Support as a Moderator of Postdisaster Mental Health Symptoms in Urban and Nonurban Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Jenny S.; Price, Matthew; Gros, Kirstin Stauffacher; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We examined the association between disaster exposure, community support, and mental health outcomes in urban and nonurban participants of Galveston and Chambers counties after Hurricane Ike. The moderating effect of community support was evaluated as a protective factor relative to postdisaster mental health. Methods A representative population-based sample of 157 urban and 714 nonurban adults were interviewed 12 to 17 months after the hurricane about their mental health functioning, disaster exposure, and perceptions of community support. A series of multiple regressions demonstrated that disaster exposure was associated with mental health outcomes for both groups. The strength of the association varied across population samples. Results Community support moderated the association between interpersonal effects of the disaster and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression outcomes in nonurban participants and the association between property damage and PTSD in urban participants. Conclusions Community support played a larger role in reducing PTSD and depression symptoms associated with the interpersonal effects of a disaster in the nonurban sample only. Communities may play a more beneficial role in the recovery process in nonurban areas that have elevated levels of injury or death attributed to a disaster. PMID:24274123

  13. Public Stigma of Mental Illness in the United States: A Systematic Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Parcesepe, Angela M.; Cabassa, Leopoldo J.

    2013-01-01

    Public stigma is a pervasive barrier that prevents many individuals in the U.S. from engaging in mental health care. This systematic literature review aims to: (1) evaluate methods used to study the public’s stigma toward mental disorders, (2) summarize stigma findings focused on the public’s stigmatizing beliefs and actions and attitudes toward mental health treatment for children and adults with mental illness, and (3) draw recommendations for reducing stigma towards individuals with mental...

  14. Talking about Mental Illness: A Guide for Developing an Awareness Program for Youth. Community Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001

    This guide contains all of the information, support and tools that community members need to implement "Talking About Mental Illness" in their community--an awareness program proven to be effective in bringing about positive change in young people's knowledge about mental illness, and in reducing stigma that surrounds mental illness. The…

  15. Engaging communities to improve mental health in African and African Caribbean groups: a qualitative study evaluating the role of community well-being champions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, Nadia; Pizzolati, Micol; Gillard, Steve

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade, Britain has undergone reforms to promote engagement in local structures of governance. These reforms have encouraged the promotion of active citizenship and have been central to the government's public service modernisation agenda. This article presents the findings from a study evaluating a pilot outreach intervention which adopted a community engagement model to address the mental health needs of African and African Caribbean groups, which entailed a partnership between faith-based organisations, local public services and community organisations to co-produce the pilot project. Lay people were trained to raise awareness about mental health among these communities in South London. Between 2012 and 2013, a qualitative participatory approach was used to evaluate the pilot project, which enabled a researcher to take part in the engagement phase of the pilot project, and the project co-ordinators to be involved in the research process. Semi-structured, one-to-one interviews were carried out with 13 community and well-being champions (CWBCs) recruited from African and African Caribbean communities (seven male and six female). This study examines the impact of the relationship between the intervention and community through the participants' engagement in the pilot outreach project and the action undertaken as champions. We found that although CWBCs used circles of influence to share ideas about mental health and well-being and to encourage change, they encountered resistance on the part of the people they engaged with, which resulted from a lack of knowledge about mental health, taboos and ascribed stigma. We argue that CWBCs acted as healthy examples to communicate mental health knowledge to those approached, but that they needed to be equipped with bespoke communication skills to be able to talk about such sensitive issues as mental health. © 2015 The Authors. Health and Social Care in the Community Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Community mental health nurses' perspectives of recovery-oriented practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, J; Marshall-Lucette, S

    2012-05-01

    Recovery-oriented practice, an approach aligned towards the service user perspective, has dominated the mental health care arena. Numerous studies have explored service users' accounts of the purpose, meaning and importance of 'recovery'; however, far less is known about healthcare staff confidence in its application to care delivery. A self-efficacy questionnaire and content analysis of nursing course documents were used to investigate a cohort of community mental health nurses' recovery-oriented practice and to determine the extent to which the current continuing professional development curriculum met their educational needs in this regard. Twenty-three community mental health nurses completed a self-efficacy questionnaire and 28 course documents were analysed. The findings revealed high levels of nurses' confidence in their understanding and ability to apply the recovery model and low levels of confidence were found in areas of social inclusion. The content analysis found only one course document that used the whole term 'recovery model'. The findings suggest a gap in the nurses' perceived ability and confidence in recovery-oriented practice with what is taught academically. Hence, nursing education needs to be more explicitly focused on the recovery model and its application to care delivery.

  17. 75 FR 10561 - Request for Public Comment: Community Development Financial Institutions Fund, Community...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... Community Development Financial Institutions Fund Request for Public Comment: Community Development Financial Institutions Fund, Community Development Financial and Technical Assistance Awards, Native Initiatives, and Bank Enterprise Awards AGENCY: Community Development Financial Institutions Fund,...

  18. Receptivity of Community Residents to Tenants of Community Mental Health Residences as Neighbours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubry, Tim; And Others

    Using a theoretical model developed from Ajzen's and Fishbein's (1980) theory of reasoned action, researchers investigated the neighboring intentions of community residents toward mentally disabled individuals. A random sample of 345 residents in Winnipeg, Canada, responded to a survey by mail. Questionnaires were randomly assigned one of eight…

  19. Lessons Learned From a Community-Based Participatory Research Mental Health Promotion Program for American Indian Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Sarah E; Golden, Shannon L; Arnold, Elizabeth Mayfield; Maynor, Rhonda F; Bryant, Alfred; Freeman, V Kay; Bell, Ronny A

    2016-05-01

    Background American Indian (AI) youth have the highest rates of suicide among racial/ethnic minority groups in the United States. Community-based strategies are essential to address this issue, and community-based participatory research (CBPR) offers a model to engage AI communities in mental health promotion programming. Objectives This article describes successes and challenges of a CBPR, mixed-method project, The Lumbee Rite of Passage (LROP), an academic-community partnership to develop and implement a suicide prevention program for Lumbee AI youth in North Carolina. Method LROP was conducted in two phases to (1) understand knowledge and perceptions of existing mental health resources and (2) develop, implement, and evaluate a cultural enrichment program as a means of suicide prevention. Discussion/Results LROP implemented an effective community-academic partnership by (1) identifying and understanding community contexts, (2) maintaining equitable partnerships, and (3) implementing a culturally tailored research design targeting multilevel changes to support mental health. Strategies formed from the partnership alleviated challenges in each of these key CBPR concept areas. Conclusions LROP highlights how a CBPR approach contributes to positive outcomes and identifies opportunities for future collaboration in a tribal community. Using culturally appropriate CBPR strategies is critical to achieving sustainable, effective programs to improve mental health of AI youth. © 2016 Society for Public Health Education.

  20. Developing an enforceable "right to treatment" theory for the chronically mentally disabled in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordwind, B L

    1982-01-01

    Historical developments, mental health approaches, and applicable legal authorities are examined in arguing a legal basis for pursuing greater treatment benefits for chronically mentally disabled persons in the community. Mental health lawyers have traditionally been concerned with patients' right to treatment while in the hospital. Lawyers are called on to examine the plight of (and to extend advocacy for) the chronically mentally disabled in the community.

  1. Association between public views of mental illness and self-stigma among individuals with mental illness in 14 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Lacko, S; Brohan, E; Mojtabai, R; Thornicroft, G

    2012-08-01

    Little is known about how the views of the public are related to self-stigma among people with mental health problems. Despite increasing activity aimed at reducing mental illness stigma, there is little evidence to guide and inform specific anti-stigma campaign development and messages to be used in mass campaigns. A better understanding of the association between public knowledge, attitudes and behaviours and the internalization of stigma among people with mental health problems is needed. This study links two large, international datasets to explore the association between public stigma in 14 European countries (Eurobarometer survey) and individual reports of self-stigma, perceived discrimination and empowerment among persons with mental illness (n=1835) residing in those countries [the Global Alliance of Mental Illness Advocacy Networks (GAMIAN) study]. Individuals with mental illness living in countries with less stigmatizing attitudes, higher rates of help-seeking and treatment utilization and better perceived access to information had lower rates of self-stigma and perceived discrimination and those living in countries where the public felt more comfortable talking to people with mental illness had less self-stigma and felt more empowered. Targeting the general public through mass anti-stigma interventions may lead to a virtuous cycle by disrupting the negative feedback engendered by public stigma, thereby reducing self-stigma among people with mental health problems. A combined approach involving knowledge, attitudes and behaviour is needed; mass interventions that facilitate disclosure and positive social contact may be the most effective. Improving availability of information about mental health issues and facilitating access to care and help-seeking also show promise with regard to stigma.

  2. Situated Motives of Lay Participants in Community Collaboratives for Children's Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Deborah Anne

    2016-02-01

    Publicly funded programs in many industrialized countries increasingly require the participation of citizens. In this article, I explore the "situated motives" of family members who participated alongside professionals in implementing children's mental health programs in two communities in the United States. I conducted in-depth interviews with family members and observed monthly meetings of Community Collaboratives to assess how family members understood their participation. The inductive data analysis demonstrates that family members participated (a) as a therapeutic outlet, (b) to pay it forward, (c) to gain new skills, (d) to have a voice, and/or (e) to empower the community. I then use Giddens' concepts of "life politics" and "emancipatory politics" to explore how these accounts variously reflected lay members' orientations as consumers, empowered individuals, and/or citizen advocates. In the absence of articulated and specific objectives for family participation, these "situated motives" were salient and had implications for how policy was implemented.

  3. Public stigma against people with mental illness in the Gilgel Gibe Field Research Center (GGFRC) in Southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girma, Eshetu; Tesfaye, Markos; Froeschl, Guenter; Möller-Leimkühler, Anne Maria; Müller, Norbert; Dehning, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Public understanding about mental illnesses and attitudes towards people with mental illness (PWMI) play a paramount role in the prevention and treatment of mental illness and the rehabilitation of PWMI. The aim of this study was to measure public stigma against PWMI and the factors associated with stigma in the Gilgel Gibe Field Research Center (GGFRC) in Southwest Ethiopia. This community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted from June to August 2012 among 845 randomly selected respondents by using the Community Attitudes towards the Mentally Ill (CAMI) scale, an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Data was entered with EPI-DATA and then exported to STATA for analysis. Simple descriptive and linear regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of stigma against PWMI. Of the total of 845 respondents, 68.17% were from rural districts. The mean stigma score was 2.62 on a 5-point score. The majority of the respondents (75.27%) believed that mental illness can be cured. Stress, poverty, and rumination were the most often perceived causes of mental illness. Rural residents had significantly higher stigma scores (std. β = 0.61, Pstigma (std. β = -0.14, Pstigma (std. β = 0.07, Pstigma levels. The study found a more undermining but less avoidant attitude towards PWMI. Rural residents showed higher levels of stigma. Stigma against PWMI was lower in people with an explanatory concept about the causes of mental illness and a higher level of education. Information, education, and communication about the causes, signs, and nature of mental illnesses would help to reduce stigma.

  4. Public mental health research in Europe : A systematic mapping for the ROAMER project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forsman, A.K.; Ventus, D.B.J.; van der Feltz, C.M.; Wahlbeck, K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: As part of the ROAMER (ROAdmap for MEntal health Research in Europe) project, aiming to create an integrated European roadmap for mental health research, we set out to map the hitherto unmapped territory of public mental health research in Europe. Methods: Five electronic databases

  5. Involving the public in mental health and learning disability research: Can we, should we, do we?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, C; Holt, J

    2017-10-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: UK health policy is clear that researchers should involve the public throughout the research process. The public, including patients, carers and/or local citizens can bring a different and valuable perspective to the research process and improve the quality of research undertaken. Conducting health research is demanding with tight deadlines and scarce resources. This can make involving the public in research very challenging. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This is the first time the attitudes of researchers working in mental health and learning disability services towards PPI have been investigated. The principles of service user involvement in mental health and learning disability services may support PPI in research as a tool of collaboration and empowerment. This article extends our understanding of the cultural and attitudinal barriers to implementing PPI guidelines in mental health and learning disability services. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Researchers in mental health and learning disability services need to champion, share and publish effective involvement work. Structural barriers to PPI work should be addressed locally and successful strategies shared nationally and internationally. Where PPI guidelines are being developed, attention needs to be paid to cultural factors in the research community to win "hearts and minds" and support the effective integration of PPI across the whole research process. Introduction Patient and public involvement (PPI) is integral to UK health research guidance; however, implementation is inconsistent. There is little research into the attitudes of NHS health researchers towards PPI. Aim This study explored the attitude of researchers working in mental health and learning disability services in the UK towards PPI in health research. Method Using a qualitative methodology, semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of eight researchers. A

  6. Community mental health service: an experience from the East Lille, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Luc Roelandt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 30 years in the Eastern Lille Public Psychiatric sector, there had been progressive development of set up in community psychiatry. This innovative set up conforms to WHO recommendations. The essential priority is to avoid resorting to traditional hospitalisation, and integrating the entire health system into the city, via a network involving all interested partners: users, carers, families and elected representatives. The ambition of this socially inclusive service is to ensure the adaptation and non-exclusion of persons requiring mental health care and to tackle stigma and discrimination. It gives a new perception to psychiatry that is innovative and experimental, and observing human rights, i.e. citizen psychiatry. This experiment also provides lesson to India for effective implementation of its national mental health program.

  7. Mental health consumer and caregiver perceptions of stigma in Australian community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Kathy; Fejzic, Jasmina; Mey, Amary; Fowler, Jane L; Kelly, Fiona; McConnell, Denise; Hattingh, Laetitia; Wheeler, Amanda J

    2014-09-01

    The stigma of mental illness can be a barrier to effective medication management in the community pharmacy setting. This article explored mental health consumers' or caregivers' experiences of stigma in Australian community pharmacies. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with a purposive sample of consumers or caregivers (n = 74). Interview transcripts were analysed using a general inductive approach. Stigma presented a barrier to effective mental health management. Self-stigma impeded consumers' community pharmacy engagement. Positive relationships with knowledgeable staff are fundamental to reducing stigma. Findings provide insight into the stigma of mental illness in community pharmacies. © The Author(s) 2013.

  8. Parenting style, resilience, and mental health of community-dwelling elderly adults in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhong, Xue; Wu, Daxing; Nie, Xueqing; Xia, Jie; Li, Mulei; Lei, Feng; Lim, Haikel A; Kua, Ee-Heok; Mahendran, Rathi

    2016-01-01

    .... The current study sought to explore the relationships among mental resilience, perceptions of parents' parenting style, and depression and anxiety among community-dwelling elderly adults in China...

  9. Rehabilitation of the disabled mentally III in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizur, Avner

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the latest developments in the area of rehabilitation of disabled mentally ill patients. Rehabilitation is a comprehensive and multi-disciplinary treatment. It involves a wide variety of interventions. These interventions are designed to enable the client to integrate into the normal life of the community and to improve his quality of life. This review discusses the different approaches and their effectiveness. The approaches that are described include comprehensive psychiatric, psycho-social and psycho-educational interventions including family therapy, training in social skills, and vocational intervention in programs and services in the community. The approaches that have been shown to be the most effective in controlled studies include: follow-up psychiatric drug treatment, individual and family psycho-educational treatment; social skills training; community sheltered-housing facilities and vocational rehabilitation programs. It has been emphasized that the effectiveness of treatment is conditional not only on the client's resilience and a comprehensive and multidisciplinary treatment approach, but also on the community financial resources and the level of training of the professionals.

  10. 40 CFR 300.155 - Public information and community relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public information and community...) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES... community relations. (a) When an incident occurs, it is imperative to give the public prompt,...

  11. Ranking Institutional Settings Based on Publications in Community Psychology Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason, Leonard A.; Pokorny, Steven B.; Patka, Mazna; Adams, Monica; Morello, Taylor

    2007-01-01

    Two primary outlets for community psychology research, the "American Journal of Community Psychology" and the "Journal of Community Psychology", were assessed to rank institutions based on publication frequency and scientific influence of publications over a 32-year period. Three specific periods were assessed (1973-1983, 1984-1994, 1995-2004).…

  12. [Mental Health Promotion Among the Chronic Disabled Population in the Community].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui-Chuan; Wang, Li-Hua; Chang, Hsiu-Ju

    2015-08-01

    Societal ageing and the rising prevalence of chronic disease are important causes that underlie the growth in the number of disabled individuals. The disease-induced psychological distress experienced by this population not only decreases quality of life but also increases demand for healthcare. The healthcare policy for the disabled population currently focuses on community healthcare. Therefore, developing appropriate programs to promote mental health among the disabled population in community settings is a critical issue. The present paper reviews current mental health promotion initiatives that target the disabled population in the community and addresses mental healthcare issues that are prevalent among the chronically disabled; strategies of mental health promotion that use music therapy, reminiscence therapy, and horticultural therapy; and the roles and responsibilities of community professionals in mental healthcare. We offer these perspectives as a reference to promote mental health and to establish holistic community healthcare for chronically disabled individuals.

  13. The Impacts of Free Public Internet Access on Public Library Patrons and Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertot, John Carlo; McClure, Charles R.; Jaeger, Paul T.

    2008-01-01

    Public libraries have evolved into a primary source of Internet access in many communities, generating wide-ranging impacts in the communities that public libraries serve. Based on the findings of the 2007 Public Libraries and the Internet study, this article examines the ways in which the Internet access delivered by public libraries affects…

  14. The Impacts of Free Public Internet Access on Public Library Patrons and Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertot, John Carlo; McClure, Charles R.; Jaeger, Paul T.

    2008-01-01

    Public libraries have evolved into a primary source of Internet access in many communities, generating wide-ranging impacts in the communities that public libraries serve. Based on the findings of the 2007 Public Libraries and the Internet study, this article examines the ways in which the Internet access delivered by public libraries affects…

  15. Living to the fullest! Mindfulness-based interventions as public mental health interventions for depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pots, Wendy Theresia Maria

    2016-01-01

    Interventions that are easily available, attractive and feasible help to broaden the effect public mental health interventions can have on depression. In this thesis, a specific subset of Mindfulness-based Interventions (MBIs) as public mental health interventions for people with mild to moderate de

  16. Living to the fullest! Mindfulness-based interventions as public mental health interventions for depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pots, Wendy Theresia Maria

    2016-01-01

    Interventions that are easily available, attractive and feasible help to broaden the effect public mental health interventions can have on depression. In this thesis, a specific subset of Mindfulness-based Interventions (MBIs) as public mental health interventions for people with mild to moderate de

  17. Brokering Community Engagement: Proactive Strategies for Supporting Indigenous Australians with Mental Health Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayers, Jan Maree; Hunt, Glenn E; Cleary, Michelle; Burmeister, Oliver K

    2016-12-01

    This qualitative study explored the experiences of mental health employees working with Indigenous clients living with mental illness. Interviews were conducted with 20 mental health workers to identify strategies they adopt to facilitate community engagement with Indigenous clients. Using a thematic analysis approach, 'Brokering community engagement' was the umbrella theme from which two subthemes related to community engagement for the service and clients emerged (1) enabling connections -community and family; and (2) recovery and reconnecting with community. Participant insights enabled a deeper understanding of the role of community in the recovery process for Indigenous clients and highlight the importance of community engagement as a primary, yet multifaceted strategy used by mental health workers in the communities they serve.

  18. "Community" as a Guiding Theme for the Public Speaking Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson-Lepper, Tammy

    2012-01-01

    First-year students at many universities find themselves in new communities, with little understanding of how their new university, city, academic, or career communities function. Developing a student's sense of community can have long-term benefits. Using the theme of "Community" in the basic public speaking course provides students with…

  19. Melding Infant Mental Health and Multisystemic Therapy Approaches to Community-Based Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Jay C.; Carubia, Beau A.; Murgolo, Marisa A.; Carter, Debbie R.; Frankel, Karen A.

    2013-01-01

    A recent partnership between the Irving Harris Program in Child Development and Infant Mental Health and the Community Based Psychiatry Program at University of Colorado Hospital joined two different approaches to child mental health treatment: infant mental health and multisystemic therapy (MST). This article illustrates the compatibility of…

  20. Compositional, Contextual, and Collective Community Factors in Mental Health and Well-Being in Australian Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jessica; Ward, Bernadette M.; Snow, Pamela; Kippen, Sandra; Judd, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    There are disproportionately higher and inconsistently distributed rates of recorded suicides in rural areas. Patterns of rural suicide are well documented, but they remain poorly understood. Geographic variations in physical and mental health can be understood through the combination of compositional, contextual, and collective factors pertaining to particular places. The aim of this study was to explore the role of “place” contributing to suicide rates in rural communities. Seventeen mental health professionals participated in semi-structured in-depth interviews. Principles of grounded theory were used to guide the analysis. Compositional themes were demographics and perceived mental health issues; contextual themes were physical environment, employment, housing, and mental health services; and collective themes were town identity, community values, social cohesion, perceptions of safety, and attitudes to mental illness. It is proposed that connectedness may be the underlying mechanism by which compositional, contextual, and collective factors influence mental health and well-being in rural communities. PMID:26848083

  1. Public beliefs about treatment and outcome of mental disorders: a comparison of Australia and Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshioka Kumiko

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surveys of the public in a number of countries have shown poor recognition of mental disorders and beliefs about treatment that often diverge from those of health professionals. This lack of mental health literacy can limit the optimal use of treatment services. Australia and Japan are countries with very different mental health care systems, with Japan emphasising hospital care and Australia more oriented to community care. Japan is also more collectivist and Australia more individualist in values. These differences might influence recognition of disorders and beliefs about treatment in the two countries. Methods Surveys of the public were carried out in each country using as similar a methodology as feasible. In both countries, household interviews were carried out concerning beliefs in relation to one of four case vignettes, describing either depression, depression with suicidal thoughts, early schizophrenia or chronic schizophrenia. In Australia, the survey involved a national sample of 3998 adults aged 18 years or over. In Japan, the survey involved 2000 adults aged between 20 and 69 from 25 regional sites spread across the country. Results The Japanese public were found to be more reluctant to use psychiatric labels, particularly for the depression cases. The Japanese were also more reluctant to discuss mental disorders with others outside the family. They had a strong belief in counsellors, but not in GPs. They generally believe in the benefits of treatment, but are not optimistic about full recovery. By contrast, Australians used psychiatric labels more often, particularly "depression". They were also more positive about the benefits of seeking professional help, but had a strong preference for lifestyle interventions and tended to be negative about some psychiatric medications. Australians were positive about both counsellors and GPs. Psychiatric hospitalization and ECT were seen negatively in both countries

  2. Attitude about mental illness of health care providers and community leaders in rural Haryana, North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshal Ramesh Salve

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attitude about mental illness determines health seeking of the people. Success of National Mental Health Programme (NMHP is dependent on attitude about mental illness of various stakeholders in the programme. Material & Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was carried out in Ballabgarh block of Faridabad district in Haryana. We aimed to study attitude about mental illness of various stakeholders of health care providers (HCP, community leaders in rural area of Haryana, north India. Study area consisting of five Primary Health Centers (PHCs serving 2,12,000 rural population. All HCP working at PHCs, Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA and community leaders in study area were approached for participation. Hindi version of Opinion about Mental illness Scale for Chinese Community (OMICC was used to study attitude. Results: In total, 467 participants were participated in the study. Of which, HCP, ASHAs and community leaders were 81 (17.4%, 145 (31.0% and 241 (51.6% respectively. Community members reported socially restrictive, pessimistic and stereotyping attitude towards mentally ill person. ASHA and HCP reported stereotyping attitude about person with mental illness. None of the stakeholders reported stigmatizing attitude. Conclusion: Training programme focusing on spectrum of mental illness for HCP and ASHA working in rural area under NMHP programme is needed. Awareness generation of community leaders about bio-medical concept of mental illness is cornerstone of NMHP success in India.

  3. A Phenomenological Study: Community Mental Health Centers Leaders Influence on Clinician Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Beth B.

    2011-01-01

    Some clinical leaders of community mental health centers are not aware of successful methods for supporting and empowering staff to be more effective, specifically when the staff is experiencing change because of new health information technology. Clinical leaders in community mental health face similar management issues as do other business,…

  4. Quality or quantity? Exploring the relationship between Public Open Space attributes and mental health in Perth, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Jacinta; Wood, Lisa J; Knuiman, Matthew; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2012-05-01

    Mental health is a public health priority globally. Public Open Space (POS) may enhance mental health by facilitating contact with nature and the development of supportive relationships. Despite growing interest in the influence of the built environment on mental health, associations between POS attributes and mental health remain relatively unexplored. In particular, few studies have examined the relative effects of the quantity and quality of POS within a neighbourhood on mental health. Guided by a social-ecological framework, this study investigated the relationship between POS attributes (i.e., quantity and quality) and better mental health (i.e., low risk of psychological distress) in residents of new housing developments in the Perth metropolitan area, Western Australia. The extent to which relationships between POS attributes and mental health were confounded by psychosocial factors (e.g., social support, sense of community) and frequent use of POS was also explored. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional survey (n = 911), a POS audit, and Geographical Information Systems, and was analysed using logistic regression. Approximately 80% of survey participants were at low risk of psychological distress. Residents of neighbourhoods with high quality POS had higher odds of low psychosocial distress than residents of neighbourhoods with low quality POS. This appeared to be irrespective of whether or not they used POS. However, the quantity of neighbourhood POS was not associated with low psychological distress. From a mental health perspective, POS quality within a neighbourhood appears to be more important than POS quantity. This finding has policy implications and warrants further investigation.

  5. The SAFE project: community-driven partnerships in health, mental health, and education to prevent early school failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, D L

    1997-11-01

    This article presents a case study of an innovative school-based health and mental health project that prevents early school failure in one county in Oklahoma. Success is attributed to social work development of broad-based partnerships involving families, schools, communities, and public policy officials. Citizen-driven, these partnerships have meshed previously fixed institutional boundaries in health, mental health, and education to prevent early school failure. The article describes school-family partnerships that form the core of the project's service intervention model. Statistics on service activities and outcomes are presented, along with a discussion of lessons learned for implementation of the project.

  6. Evaluation of a Mental Illness Awareness Week program in public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, J; Coverdale, J H; Bushong, C P

    1990-03-01

    The authors evaluated the impact of a Mental Illness Awareness Week program on the attitudes of adolescents attending public school toward seeking help for mental health problems and toward psychiatrists. Most students involved in the program liked it and indicated that they were interested in learning more about mental health topics. Students in the program showed more favorable attitudes toward seeking help and toward psychiatrists than a comparison group of students who did not participate in the program. The authors discuss the evidence for enduring effects of the program. The results support continued development of Mental Illness Awareness Week programs for adolescents in the public schools.

  7. Perception and attitude towards mental illness in an urban community in South Delhi - A community based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshal Salve

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mental illness have been largely ignored or neglected because of a community′s perception and attached social stigma. Materials and Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in an urban community in South Delhi to study perception and attitude of the community about towards mental illness. An adult member in household selected by systematic random sampling was interviewed using semi-structured interview schedule for perception about mental illness and 34 item Opinion about Mental Illness for Chinese Community (OMICC scale Results: A total of 100 adults were interviewed. Mean age of the participants was 35.8 (SD: 12.6 years. Living without tension and satisfaction in routine life were identified as indicators of healthy mental status. Change in the behavior was perceived as the most common symptom of mental illness. Although mental stress was identified as the most common cause of mental illness, 25% attributed it to evil spirits. Keeping surroundings friendly and sharing problems with others were identified as - important preventive measures against mental illness. Mental illness was perceived as treatable; 12% preferred treatment from Tantric/Ojha. Community showed negative attitude for stereotyping, restrictiveness, and pessimistic prediction domains of OMICC scale with mean score of 4.5 (SD: 0.2, 3.9 (SD: 0.9, and 3.8 (SD: 0.4, respectively, with no statistically significant difference across age, sex, and literacy. Conclusion: Study observed lack of awareness regarding bio-medical concept of mental illness with socially restrictive, stereotyping, pessimistic, and non-stigmatizing attitude toward mental illness in the capital city.

  8. Measuring the Impact of Programs that Challenge the Public Stigma of Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Patrick W.; Shapiro, Jenessa R.

    2010-01-01

    Public stigma robs people with mental illnesses from rightful opportunities related to work and other important life goals. Advocates have developed anti-stigma programs meant to address the prejudice and discrimination associated with these conditions. Evidence is now needed to make sense of program impact; this paper looks at measurement issues related to stigma change. Community based participatory research is central to this research and includes the involvement of a diverse collection of stakeholders in all phases of evaluation. Investigators should be cautious about measures vis-à-vis social desirability effects and should directed by social validity of targeted audiences. Conceptual domains with some research support that correspond with assessments include behavior, penetration, psychological perspective, knowledge, and physiological/information processes. These issues are summarized as ten recommendations for evaluation of anti-stigma programs. PMID:20674114

  9. WITHDRAWN: Assertive community treatment for people with severe mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Max; Lockwood, Austin

    2011-04-13

    Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) was developed in the early 1970s as a response to the closing down of psychiatric hospitals. ACT is a team-based approach aiming at keeping ill people in contact with services, reducing hospital admissions and improving outcome, especially social functioning and quality of life. To determine the effectiveness of Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) as an alternative to i. standard community care, ii. traditional hospital-based rehabilitation, and iii. case management. For each of the three comparisons the main outcome indices were i. remaining in contact with the psychiatric services, ii. extent of psychiatric hospital admissions, iii. clinical and social outcome and iv. costs. Electronic searches of CINAHL (1982-1997), the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Register of trials (1997), EMBASE (1980-1997), MEDLINE (1966-1997), PsycLIT (1974-1997) and SCISEARCH (1997) were undertaken. References of all identified studies were searched for further trial citations. The inclusion criteria were that studies should i. be randomised controlled trials, ii. have compared ACT to standard community care, hospital-based rehabilitation, or case management and iii. have been carried out on people with severe mental disorder the majority of whom were aged from 18 to 65. Studies of ACT were defined as those in which the investigators described the intervention as "Assertive Community Treatment" or one of its synonyms. Studies of ACT as an alternative to hospital admission, hospital diversion programmes, for those in crisis, were excluded. The reliability of the inclusion criteria were evaluated. Three types of outcome data were available: i. categorical data, ii. numerical data based on counts of real life events (count data) and iii. numerical data collected by standardised instruments (scale data). Categorical data were extracted twice and then cross-checked. Peto Odds Ratios and the number needed to treat (NNT) were calculated. Numerical count data

  10. Mental Health Disorders. Adolescent Health Highlight. Publication #2013-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphey, David; Barry, Megan; Vaughn, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Mental disorders are diagnosable conditions characterized by changes in thinking, mood, or behavior (or some combination of these) that can cause a person to feel stressed out and impair his or her ability to function. These disorders are common in adolescence. This "Adolescent Health Highlight" presents the warning signs of mental disorders;…

  11. Public Opinion Poll on Community Priorities: Sacramento

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra Health Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to measure public perceptions, opinions and priorities as they pertain to youth issues in Sacramento for the purposes of further developing public and private youth programming and public policy in the Sacramento region. By presenting a "statistically reliable" profile of public opinion on youth issues,…

  12. Law, public policy and mental health in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippel, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    The first part of this article describes regulatory interventions, drawn from different Canadian jurisdictions, designed to reduce worker exposure to psychosocial hazards, including occupational violence, and to protect workers' mental health. It also addresses legislative provisions providing workers' compensation for mental health problems and regulatory provisions supporting the return to work of those who have been absent from work because of work-related mental health problems. The second part of the article, relying on illustrations from case law in which workers' compensation claims for mental health problems have been accepted, examines ways in which law and policy can actually contribute directly or indirectly to behaviours that may lead to increasing illness and disability associated with mental health problems. Copyright © 2011 Longwoods Publishing.

  13. Dengue Disease Risk Mental Models in the City of Dhaka, Bangladesh: Juxtapositions and Gaps Between the Public and Experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar-Chowdhury, Parnali; Haque, C Emdad; Driedger, S Michelle

    2016-05-01

    Worldwide, more than 50 million cases of dengue fever are reported every year in at least 124 countries, and it is estimated that approximately 2.5 billion people are at risk for dengue infection. In Bangladesh, the recurrence of dengue has become a growing public health threat. Notably, knowledge and perceptions of dengue disease risk, particularly among the public, are not well understood. Recognizing the importance of assessing risk perception, we adopted a comparative approach to examine a generic methodology to assess diverse sets of beliefs related to dengue disease risk. Our study mapped existing knowledge structures regarding the risk associated with dengue virus, its vector (Aedes mosquitoes), water container use, and human activities in the city of Dhaka, Bangladesh. "Public mental models" were developed from interviews and focus group discussions with diverse community groups; "expert mental models" were formulated based on open-ended discussions with experts in the pertinent fields. A comparative assessment of the public's and experts' knowledge and perception of dengue disease risk has revealed significant gaps in the perception of: (a) disease risk indicators and measurements; (b) disease severity; (c) control of disease spread; and (d) the institutions responsible for intervention. This assessment further identifies misconceptions in public perception regarding: (a) causes of dengue disease; (b) dengue disease symptoms; (c) dengue disease severity; (d) dengue vector ecology; and (e) dengue disease transmission. Based on these results, recommendations are put forward for improving communication of dengue risk and practicing local community engagement and knowledge enhancement in Bangladesh.

  14. Evaluating the Mental Health Training Needs of Community-based Organizations Serving Refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Anne Simmelink

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory study examines the mental health knowledge and training needs of refugee-serving community based organizations in a Midwestern state. A survey was administered to 31 staff members at 27 community based organizations (CBOs to assess the ability of staff to recognize and screen for mental health symptoms that may interfere with successful resettlement. Of the 31 respondents 93.5% (n=29 see refugees with mental health issues and 48.4% (n=15 assess refugees for mental health symptoms – primarily through informal assessment. Mainstream organizations were more likely than ethnic organizations to have received training related to the mental health needs of refugees. Results indicate that while refugee led CBOs recognize mental health symptoms of refugees they may be less likely to assess mental health symptoms and refer for treatment. Policy recommendations for improving CBO services to refugees are offered.

  15. Evaluating community-based public health leadership training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceraso, Marion; Gruebling, Kirsten; Layde, Peter; Remington, Patrick; Hill, Barbara; Morzinski, Jeffrey; Ore, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    Addressing the nation's increasingly complex public health challenges will require more effective multisector collaboration and stronger public health leadership. In 2005, the Healthy Wisconsin Leadership Institute launched an annual, year-long intensive "community teams" program. The goal of this program is to develop collaborative leadership and public health skills among Wisconsin-based multisectoral teams mobilizing their communities to improve public health. To measure the scope of participation and program impacts on individual learning and practice, including application of new knowledge and collective achievements of teams on coalition and short-term community outcomes. End-of-year participant program evaluations and follow-up telephone interviews with participants 20 months after program completion. Community-based public health leadership training program. Sixty-eight participants in the Community Teams Program during the years 2006 to 2007 and 2007 to 2008. Professional diversity of program participants; individual learning and practice, including application of new knowledge; and collective achievements of teams, including coalition and short-term community outcomes. Participants in the Community Teams Program represent a diversity of sectors, including nonprofit, governmental, academic, business, and local public health. Participation increased knowledge across all public health and leadership competency areas covered in the program. Participating teams reported outcomes, including increased engagement of community leadership, expansion of preventive services, increased media coverage, strengthened community coalitions, and increased grant funding. Evaluation of this community-based approach to public health leadership training has shown it to be a promising model for building collaborative and public health leadership skills and initiating sustained community change for health improvement.

  16. Profile of Community Mental Health Service Needs in the Moretele District (North-West Province) in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modiba, Precious; Schneider, Helen; Porteus, Kimberly; Gunnarson, Veronica

    2001-12-01

    BACKGROUND: The emergence of democracy in South Africa led to a need to transform all public structures, including the health care system. The aim has been to transform these structures in order to bring them in line with the new culture of human rights. Transformation of the whole health care system is motivated by a number of key objectives, which include achieving equity in resource allocation and health service delivery, developing primary health care infrastructure and decentralising services to promote community participation. AIMS OF THE STUDY: In the context of de-institutionalising mental health services in South Africa, this study aimed to investigate community mental health service needs of mental health service users and that of their families in the Moretele district, North-West province, South Africa. METHODS: The study was conducted in three clinics situated in three different communities in the Moretele district. Data collection consisted of : 147 clinical record reviews, 105 interviews with patients followed by a joint interview with a family member, 83 interviews with caregivers and eight interviews with community key informants (traditional healers, a civic leader, a councillor, a retired teacher, and a physician). RESULTS: The majority of service users were males (54%). The mean age was 41 years and 63% had completed primary schooling.Patients were recorded as having only one of two primary diagnoses, namely schizophrenia (57%) or epilepsy (41%). However, a review of prescribed drugs and caregiver interviews showed that there was a presence of mood disorders among service users. The local hospital was service users primary entry point into the mental health care system, followed by traditional healers (30%). Interviews with service users, service providers and caregivers reveal limited knowledge of patient illness. Nevertheless, service users who had epilepsy were more likely to provide details of their illness than those with mental illness

  17. Community Care for People with Mental Retardation in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosen, Anton

    1988-01-01

    Services for people with mental retardation in the Netherlands are examined, with emphasis on normalization, placement options including group homes and institutionalization, guidance for families through the Social Pedological Service, and the care of mental illness in mentally retarded persons through special diagnostic and treatment centers.…

  18. Bridging Schools and Community: Helpful Public Relations Guidelines for Principals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania School Boards Association, New Cumberland.

    Public relations guidelines for school principals are offered in this handbook, with an emphasis on improving student achievement and internal and external communication. Six chapters discuss the principal's public relations role, internal communication, securing and maintaining community involvement, school publications, media relations, and…

  19. Group therapy in public mental health services: approaches, patients and group therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorentzen, S; Ruud, T

    2014-04-01

    Group therapy is used extensively within public mental health services, but more detailed knowledge is needed. All 25 health authorities in Norway were invited to describe their groups: theory, primary tasks, interventions, structure, patients and therapists. Four hundred twenty-six groups, 296 in community mental health centres and 130 in hospitals, were categorized into nine types, based on theoretical background. Psychodynamic groups were most frequent, followed by cognitive-behavioural, psycho-educative, social skills/coping and art/expressive groups. Weekly sessions of 90 min and treatment duration 12 months was most frequent. Main diagnosis for 2391 patients: depression (517), personality disorder (396), schizophrenia/psychosis (313) and social phobia (249). Patients with depression or personality disorder were mostly in psychodynamic groups, psychosis/bipolar disorder in psycho-educative groups. Cognitive-behavioural groups were used across several diagnoses. Most therapists were nurses, only 50% had a formal training in group therapy. There is a plethora of groups, some based on one theoretical school, while others integrate theory from several 'camps'. Patients with similar diagnosis were offered different group approaches, although some trends existed. More research evidence from regular clinical groups is needed, and clinician-researcher networks should be developed. More group therapists with formal training are needed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Community Attitude and Associated Factors towards People with Mental Illness among Residents of Worabe Town, Silte Zone, Southern Nation's Nationalities and People's Region, Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asres Bedaso

    Full Text Available Mental illnesses worldwide are accompanied by another pandemic, that of stigma and discrimination. Public understanding about mental illnesses and attitudes towards people with mental illness play a paramount role in the prevention and treatment of mental illness and the rehabilitation of people with mental illness.To assess community attitude and associated factors towards people with mental illness.Community based cross-sectional study was conducted from April 28 to May 28, 2014. Quantitative data were collected through interview from 435 adults selected using simple random sampling. Data were collected using community attitude towards mentally ill (CAMI tool to assess community attitude towards people with mental illness and associated factors. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of community attitude towards people with mental illness and the level of significance association was determined by beta with 95% confidence interval and P less than 0.05.The highest mean score was on social restrictiveness subscale (31.55±5.62. Farmers had more socially restrictive view (β = 0.291, CI [0.09, 0.49] and have less humanistic view towards mentally ill (β = 0.193, CI [-0.36, -0.03]. Having mental health information had significantly less socially restrictive (β = -0.59, CI [-1.13, -0.05] and less authoritarian (β = -0.10, CI [-1.11, -0.06] view towards mentally ill but respondents who are at university or college level reported to be more socially restrictive (β = 0.298, CI [0.059, 0.54]. Respondents whose age is above 48 years old had significantly less view of community mental health ideology (β = -0.59, CI [-1.09, -0.08].Residents of Worabe town were highly socially restrictive but less authoritarian. There was high level of negative attitude towards people with mental illness along all the subscales with relative variation indicating a need to develop strategies to change negative attitude attached to

  1. Mental Health Perceptions and Practices of a Cree Community in Northern Ontario: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danto, David; Walsh, Russ

    2017-01-01

    This project is a qualitative study of the mental health perceptions and practices of one Aboriginal community in the northern Ontario James and Hudson Bay region. Despite a shared history of trauma and oppression with the other five Cree communities in this area, as well as an added trauma of natural disaster and subsequent relocation, this community has been reported to have markedly lower rates of mental health services utilization and suicide. Interviews with eight community leaders and mental health services providers were conducted and analyzed in order to identify the features that distinguish this community. In line with recent recommendations for culturally sensitive and community-compatible research methods, participants' narratives were organized in terms of the "medicine wheel" of traditional healing. Results showed strong connection to the land and traditions, openness to both traditional and Christian spirituality, community engagement, and shared parenting as strengths valued by a majority of participants.

  2. The Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project - a community-level, public health initiative to build community disaster resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenman, David; Chandra, Anita; Fogleman, Stella; Magana, Aizita; Hendricks, Astrid; Wells, Ken; Williams, Malcolm; Tang, Jennifer; Plough, Alonzo

    2014-08-19

    Public health officials need evidence-based methods for improving community disaster resilience and strategies for measuring results. This methods paper describes how one public health department is addressing this problem. This paper provides a detailed description of the theoretical rationale, intervention design and novel evaluation of the Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project (LACCDR), a public health program for increasing community disaster resilience. The LACCDR Project utilizes a pretest-posttest method with control group design. Sixteen communities in Los Angeles County were selected and randomly assigned to the experimental community resilience group or the comparison group. Community coalitions in the experimental group receive training from a public health nurse trained in community resilience in a toolkit developed for the project. The toolkit is grounded in theory and uses multiple components to address education, community engagement, community and individual self-sufficiency, and partnerships among community organizations and governmental agencies. The comparison communities receive training in traditional disaster preparedness topics of disaster supplies and emergency communication plans. Outcome indicators include longitudinal changes in inter-organizational linkages among community organizations, community member responses in table-top exercises, and changes in household level community resilience behaviors and attitudes. The LACCDR Project is a significant opportunity and effort to operationalize and meaningfully measure factors and strategies to increase community resilience. This paper is intended to provide public health and academic researchers with new tools to conduct their community resilience programs and evaluation research. Results are not yet available and will be presented in future reports.

  3. One-year reciprocal relationship between community participation and mental wellbeing in Australia: a panel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ning; Berry, Helen L; O'Brien, Léan V

    2015-03-01

    The links between social capital and mental wellbeing are established but the direction of the social capital-wellbeing relationship is rarely systematically examined. This omission undermines the validity of social capital as a basis for health interventions. The aim of this paper was to explore the short-term (one-year) reciprocal relationship between community participation - an important component of social capital - and mental wellbeing. We used nationally representative Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey data, 2005-11. The HILDA Survey is an annual cohort study from which was extracted a sub-sample of panel data (the same people participating across multiple waves) enabling us to use fixed effects regression methods to model the longitudinal association of mental health and participation controlling for individual heterogeneity. The results showed that better mental wellbeing in one year was generally related to more community participation the next year, while greater past community participation was linked to better mental wellbeing the next year independent of (i) initial mental wellbeing, (ii) multiple potentially confounding factors and (iii) unobserved and time-constant heterogeneity. Political participation was marginally related to worse mental health in both directions. The results also showed that the association between community participation and mental wellbeing the next year is weaker for those with poor initial wellbeing than for initially healthier respondents. Our findings may inform the trial and scientific evaluation of programs aimed at increasing informal social connectedness and civic engagement to promote mental wellbeing.

  4. Levels of stigma among community mental health staff in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Li, Juan; Thornicroft, Graham; Huang, Yuanguang

    2014-08-13

    Stigma and discrimination are widely experienced by people with mental illness, even in healthcare settings. The purposes of this study were to assess mental health stigma among community mental health staff in Guangzhou, China and in doing so also to assess the psychometric properties of the Reported and Intended Behaviour Scale (RIBS) - Chinese version. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken among 214 community mental health staff in Guangzhou from September to November, 2013. The Mental Health Knowledge Schedule (MAKS) and RIBS were administered together with the Mental Illness: Clinicians' Attitudes Scale (MICA) to evaluate staff stigma from the perspective of knowledge, attitudes and behaviour. The total scores of RIBS, MAKS and MICA were (11.97 ± 3.41), (16.80 ± 5.39) and (51.69 ± 6.94) respectively. Female staff members were more willing to contact people with mental illness than males (t(212) = -2.85,P = 0.005) and had more knowledge about mental illness (t(212) = -2.28,P = 0.024). The Chinese version of RIBS had good internal consistency (alpha = 0.82), test-retest reliability (r = 0.68,P stigma toward people with mental illness among community mental health staff in Guangzhou, China. There are slightly gender differences in discriminatory behaviours and stigma related knowledge of mental illness among community mental health staff, with female staff in general less stigmatising. Accordingly, anti-stigma programmes should be established among healthcare staff. In addition, the Chinese version of RIBS is a reliable, valid and acceptable measure which can be used to assess the willingness of participants to contact people with mental illness in future anti-stigma campaigns.

  5. Predictors of consumer satisfaction in community mental health center services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Minji; Barrett, Hope; Talbert, Jeffery

    2014-11-01

    Kentucky Department for Behavioral Health Developmental and Intellectual Disabilities conducted a survey to evaluate consumers' satisfaction with services delivered at the Community Mental Health Centers (CMHCs) in Kentucky. The survey was administered at outpatient clinics operated by fourteen CMHCs in 2010. The purpose of this study was to identify factors that predict whether clients will respond that they were "generally satisfied" with services received from CMHCs. A logistic regression model was developed using respondents' characteristics and their responses to survey questions. Survey questions were grouped into seven core domains: general satisfaction, access, quality, participation in treatment planning, outcomes, functioning, and social connectedness. In result, responses to domains of access, quality and participation in treatment planning significantly affected clients' perception of general satisfaction. Respondents who positively assessed those domains of services were more likely to answer that they were generally satisfied with services. Based on the analysis in this report, improvement in certain domains of services, especially access, quality and participation in treatment planning could increase the level of positive responses in general satisfaction.

  6. Costs to Community Mental Health Agencies to Sustain an Evidence-Based Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roundfield, Katrina D; Lang, Jason M

    2017-09-01

    Dissemination of evidence-based practices (EBPs) has become a priority in children's mental health services. Although implementation approaches and initiatives are proliferating, little is known about sustainment of EBPs, but evidence suggests that most EBPs are not sustained for more than a few years. Cost is the most frequently cited barrier to sustainment, yet very little is known about these costs. This study provides a method for quantifying incremental costs of an EBP compared with usual care and preliminary data on the costs in staff time, lost revenue, and other expenses of sustaining an EBP (trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy [TF-CBT]) in community mental health settings. Fourteen community mental health agencies (CMHAs) completed a measure developed for this study to collect administrative data on implementation costs to sustain TF-CBT. Survey items captured activities that were related specifically to TF-CBT and that would not otherwise be conducted for usual care, such as TF-CBT training. Staff time in hours was converted to monetary estimates. Costs varied widely across agencies. Preliminary results indicated that agencies spent on average $65,192 per year (2014 U.S.$) on incremental costs for TF-CBT sustainment (excluding costs of external trainers and other support); the average incremental cost per client was $1,896. The costs to sustain the EBP suggest that maintaining an EBP is a financial burden for CMHAs and that these costs can be a potential barrier to broader EBP uptake. Implications for public policy include providing reimbursement rates and financial incentives to offset potential implementation costs and promote sustainment of EBPs.

  7. Facilitators and barriers to doing workplace mental health research: Case study of acute psychological trauma in a public transit system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links, Paul S; Bender, Ash; Eynan, Rahel; O'Grady, John; Shah, Ravi

    2016-03-10

    The Acute Psychological Trauma (APT) Study was a collaboration between an acute care hospital, a specialized multidisciplinary program designed to meet the mental health needs of injured workers, and a large urban public transit system. The overall purpose was to evaluate a Best Practices Intervention (BPI) for employees affected by acute psychological trauma compared to a Treatment as Usual (TAU) group. The specific purpose is to discuss facilitators and barriers that were recognized in implementing and carrying out mental health research in a workplace setting. Over the course of the APT study, a joint implementation committee was responsible for day-to-day study operations and made regular observations on the facilitators and barriers that arose throughout the study. The facilitators to this study included the longstanding relationships among the partners, increased recognition for the need of mental health research in the workplace, and the existence of a community advisory committee. The significant barriers to doing this study of mental health research in the workplace included differences in organizational culture, inconsistent union support, co-interventions, and stigma. Researchers and funding agencies need to be flexible and provide additional resources in order to overcome the barriers that can exist doing workplace mental health research.

  8. Severe and persistent mental illness: a useful definition for prioritizing community-based mental health service interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parabiaghi, Alberto; Bonetto, Chiara; Ruggeri, Mirella; Lasalvia, Antonio; Leese, Morven

    2006-06-01

    There is a lack of consensus on the identification of seriously mentally ill patients (SMI). This study investigates the external and predictive validity of an operationalized definition for the severity and persistency of mental illness applied to a sample of service users attending a community mental health service. The definition is based on the fulfilment of dysfunction (GAF or = 2 yrs) criteria. The study was conducted with a two-year longitudinal design. External and predictive validity of the SMI definition were assessed against the diagnosis of psychosis. Our data show evidence for an overall high predictive and external validity of the SMI definition and high sensitivity in predicting those with high burden of mental illness. In order to identify people with high levels of psychiatric burden, the SMI working definition seems to be more useful than that simply based on diagnostic criteria.

  9. Stigma in patients with schizophrenia receiving community mental health care: a review of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestdagh, Annelien; Hansen, Bart

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review is to identify consistent themes among the qualitative literature on stigma as experienced by patients with schizophrenia receiving community mental health care. With the treatment focus of schizophrenia nowadays shifting more and more towards community-based mental health care, professionals need to be aware of the increased vulnerability of their clients in their social environment as a result of stigma towards their disease. In-depth knowledge on stigma is critical in order to offer a dignifying community mental health care. A systematic search of the qualitative literature in Web of Science, PubMed, PsycINFO and Francis was performed to review the subjective experiences and ideas on stigma in outpatients with schizophrenia. Three major themes were identified in 18 studies and need to be taken into consideration when implementing an adequate community mental health care: (i) the continuing existence of stigma inherent in the health care setting, (ii) the importance of relational aspects of stigma encounters in daily life and (iii) the significance of the behavioural aspects related to previous stigma experiences and beliefs among patients. Despite much effort in community treatment, patients still experience stigma and discrimination. Community mental health care professionals should not only be aware of structural problems in mental health care, but should also pay considerable attention towards the relational and behavioural aspects in their clients' life concerning stigma. Furthermore, they have the crucial role in the community to raise awareness about stigma in order to increase their clients' acceptance in society.

  10. Public stigma against people with mental illness in the Gilgel Gibe Field Research Center (GGFRC in Southwest Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshetu Girma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Public understanding about mental illnesses and attitudes towards people with mental illness (PWMI play a paramount role in the prevention and treatment of mental illness and the rehabilitation of PWMI. The aim of this study was to measure public stigma against PWMI and the factors associated with stigma in the Gilgel Gibe Field Research Center (GGFRC in Southwest Ethiopia. METHODS: This community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted from June to August 2012 among 845 randomly selected respondents by using the Community Attitudes towards the Mentally Ill (CAMI scale, an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Data was entered with EPI-DATA and then exported to STATA for analysis. Simple descriptive and linear regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of stigma against PWMI. RESULTS: Of the total of 845 respondents, 68.17% were from rural districts. The mean stigma score was 2.62 on a 5-point score. The majority of the respondents (75.27% believed that mental illness can be cured. Stress, poverty, and rumination were the most often perceived causes of mental illness. Rural residents had significantly higher stigma scores (std. β = 0.61, P<0.001. A statistically significant inverse relationship was found between the level of education and degree of stigma (std. β = -0.14, P<0.01, while higher income was significantly associated with more stigma (std. β = 0.07, P<0.05. Respondents with higher scores for perceived supernatural causes (std. β = -0.09, P<0.01 and perceived psychosocial and biological causes (std. β = -0.14, P<0.001 had significantly lower stigma levels. CONCLUSIONS: The study found a more undermining but less avoidant attitude towards PWMI. Rural residents showed higher levels of stigma. Stigma against PWMI was lower in people with an explanatory concept about the causes of mental illness and a higher level of education. Information, education, and communication about the

  11. Geographic Access to Specialty Mental Health Care Across High- and Low-Income US Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Janet R; Allen, Lindsay; Clennon, Julie; Ji, Xu; Druss, Benjamin G

    2017-05-01

    With the future of the Affordable Care Act and Medicaid program unclear, it is critical to examine the geographic availability of specialty mental health treatment resources that serve low-income populations across local communities. To examine the geographic availability of community-based specialty mental health treatment resources and how these resources are distributed by community socioeconomic status. Measures of the availability of specialty mental health treatment resources were derived using national data for 31 836 zip code tabulation areas from 2013 to 2015. Analyses examined the association between community socioeconomic status (assessed by median household income quartiles) and resource availability using logistic regressions. Models controlled for zip code tabulation area-level demographic characteristics and state indicators. Dichotomous indicators for whether a zip code tabulation area had any (1) outpatient mental health treatment facility (more than nine-tenths of which offer payment arrangements for low-income populations), (2) office-based practice of mental health specialist physician(s), (3) office-based practice of nonphysician mental health professionals (eg, therapists), and (4) mental health facility or office-based practice (ie, any community-based resource). Of the 31 836 zip code tabulation areas in the study, more than four-tenths (3382 of 7959 [42.5%]) of communities in the highest income quartile (mean income, $81 207) had any community-based mental health treatment resource vs 23.1% of communities (1841 of 7959) in the lowest income quartile (mean income, $30 534) (adjusted odds ratio, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.50-2.03). When examining the distribution of mental health professionals, 25.3% of the communities (2014 of 7959) in the highest income quartile had a mental health specialist physician practice vs 8.0% (637 of 7959) of those in the lowest income quartile (adjusted odds ratio, 3.04; 95% CI, 2.53-3.66). Similarly, 35.1% of the

  12. Stigma, discrimination, treatment effectiveness, and policy: public views about drug addiction and mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Colleen L; McGinty, Emma E; Pescosolido, Bernice A; Goldman, Howard H

    2014-10-01

    Public attitudes about drug addiction and mental illness were compared. A Web-based national survey (N=709) was conducted to compare attitudes about stigma, discrimination, treatment effectiveness, and policy support in regard to drug addiction and mental illness. Respondents held significantly more negative views toward persons with drug addiction. More respondents were unwilling to have a person with drug addiction marry into their family or work closely with them. Respondents were more willing to accept discriminatory practices against persons with drug addiction, more skeptical about the effectiveness of treatments, and more likely to oppose policies aimed at helping them. Drug addiction is often treated as a subcategory of mental illness, and insurance plans group them together under the rubric of "behavioral health." Given starkly different public views about drug addiction and mental illness, advocates may need to adopt differing approaches to reducing stigma and advancing public policy.

  13. An Informal Online Learning Community for Student Mental Health at University: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Derek; Tangney, Brendan

    2008-01-01

    As a potential solution to increasing demands on mental health services at universities, this project seeks to develop an informal online learning community for mental health support and education. Students' use of the Internet and Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), especially to access health information, provides a supporting…

  14. Modified Therapeutic Community Treatment for Offenders with Co-Occurring Disorders: Mental Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Christopher J.; Sacks, Stanley; McKendrick, Karen; Banks, Steven; Sacks, Joann Y.; Stommel, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines outcomes 12 months post-prison release for offenders with co-occurring disorders (n = 185) randomly assigned to either a mental health control treatment (C) or a modified therapeutic community (E). Significant between-group differences were not found for mental health measures, although improvements were observed for each…

  15. Innovative Approaches Address Aging and Mental Health Needs in LGBTQ Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy-Ellis, Charles P; Ator, Michael; Kerr, Christopher; Milford, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    LGBTQ older adults have higher levels of psychological distress as compared to older adults in general. They also experience multiple barriers to accessing equitable, culturally competent mental health and aging services because of their distinct histories and particular social contexts. This article discusses this lack of access to services, and highlights an innovative way mental health services are being delivered in LGBTQ communities.

  16. In the Wake of Hurricane Katrina: Delivering Crisis Mental Health Services to Host Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbley, Aretha Faye

    2007-01-01

    Throughout the country and especially in Texas, local communities opened their arms to hurricane Katrina evacuees. Like the federal government, emergency health and mental health entities were unprepared for the massive numbers of people needing assistance. Mental health professionals, though armed with a wealth of crisis intervention information,…

  17. Community mental health services and the elderly: retrenchment or expansion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, J H; Fox, P J; Estes, C L

    1986-01-01

    Data gathered from a recent survey of CMHC's suggest that the elderly are increasing their utilization of CMHC services. As more responsibility for mental health services is shifted to the states, a commitment to mental health services for the elderly increasingly becomes an issue of state discretion, and of state finances. This makes it probable that accessibility to mental health services for the elderly will become more variable and problematic on a national basis. This is especially important in light of data that indicates an increasing awareness by CMHC's of the mental health needs of the elderly.

  18. Mapping the terrain: A conceptual schema for a mental health medication support service in community pharmacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scahill, Shane; Fowler, Jane L; Hattingh, H Laetitia; Kelly, Fiona; Wheeler, Amanda J

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Mental health–related problems pose a serious issue for primary care, and community pharmacy could make a significant contribution, but there is a dearth of information. Methods: This article reports synthesis of the literature on mental health interventions across a range of pharmacy models, and pharmacy services in contexts beyond mental health. To best inform the design of a community pharmacy medication support intervention for mental health consumers, the literature was reported as a conceptual schema and subsequent recommendations for development, implementation and evaluation of the service. A broad conceptualisation was taken in this review. In addition to mental health and community pharmacy literature, policy/initiatives, organisational culture and change management principles, and evaluative processes were reviewed. Key words were selected and literature reviews undertaken using EMBASE, PubMed, CINAHL and Web of Science. Results: Recommendations were made around: medication support intervention design, consumer recruitment, implementation in community pharmacy and evaluation. Surprisingly, there is a scarce literature relating to mental health interventions in community pharmacy. Even so, findings from other pharmacy models and broader medicines management for chronic illness can inform development of a medication support service for mental health consumers. Key learnings include the need to expand medicines management beyond adherence with respect to both intervention design and evaluation. Conclusion: The conceptual framework is grounded in the need for programmes to be embedded within pharmacies that are part of the health system as a whole. PMID:26770802

  19. Mapping the terrain: A conceptual schema for a mental health medication support service in community pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scahill, Shane; Fowler, Jane L; Hattingh, H Laetitia; Kelly, Fiona; Wheeler, Amanda J

    2015-01-01

    Mental health-related problems pose a serious issue for primary care, and community pharmacy could make a significant contribution, but there is a dearth of information. This article reports synthesis of the literature on mental health interventions across a range of pharmacy models, and pharmacy services in contexts beyond mental health. To best inform the design of a community pharmacy medication support intervention for mental health consumers, the literature was reported as a conceptual schema and subsequent recommendations for development, implementation and evaluation of the service. A broad conceptualisation was taken in this review. In addition to mental health and community pharmacy literature, policy/initiatives, organisational culture and change management principles, and evaluative processes were reviewed. Key words were selected and literature reviews undertaken using EMBASE, PubMed, CINAHL and Web of Science. Recommendations were made around: medication support intervention design, consumer recruitment, implementation in community pharmacy and evaluation. Surprisingly, there is a scarce literature relating to mental health interventions in community pharmacy. Even so, findings from other pharmacy models and broader medicines management for chronic illness can inform development of a medication support service for mental health consumers. Key learnings include the need to expand medicines management beyond adherence with respect to both intervention design and evaluation. The conceptual framework is grounded in the need for programmes to be embedded within pharmacies that are part of the health system as a whole.

  20. Stigma in patients with schizophrenia receiving community mental health care: a review of qualitative studies

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Bart; Mestdagh, Annelien

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this review is to identify consistent themes among the qualitative literature on stigma as experienced by community mental health patients with schizophrenia. With the treatment focus of schizophrenia nowadays shifting more and more towards community-based mental health care, professionals need to be aware of the increased vulnerability of their clients in their social environment as a result of stigma towards their disease. In-depth knowledge on stigma is cr...

  1. Evaluation of the Mental Healthiness Aging Initiative: community program to promote awareness about mental health and aging issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanjani, Faika; Kruger, Tina; Murray, Deborah

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the Mental Healthiness Aging Initiative, designed to promote community awareness and knowledge about mental health and aging issues. This study occurred during 2007-2009 in 67 of 120 counties in Kentucky. A rural region (11 counties) received the intervention, consisting of focus groups, Extension Agent training, and television-based social marketing campaign. Partial-intervention counties (29 counties) received only the television-based social marketing campaign. The control counties (27 counties) received no intervention activities. Results indicated that the intervention counties agreed more with being able to assist elder adults with a potential mental illness. Also, the intervention counties understood the risk of consuming alcohol and medications better, but had a poorer recognition of drinking problems in elder adults. These findings need to be considered within study limitations, such as measurement error, degree of intervention exposure, and regional differences across intervention groups. The study demonstrates that community interventions on mental health awareness and knowledge are feasible within majority rural regions, with Extension Agents being gatekeepers, for promoting positive messages about mental health and aging issues.

  2. Using Community Forums to Enhance Public Engagement in Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.C. Monroe; A. Oxarart; L. McDonell; R. Plate

    2009-01-01

    As environmental issues become more complex, the public may be less interested in becoming knowledgeable enough to participate in decision-making. Yet its input can be critically important in some community-based issues. A community forum is one tool designed to provide information, enable participants to ask questions to experts and create an open atmosphere for...

  3. A framework for current public mental health care practice in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janse Van Rensburg, A B

    2007-11-01

    One of the main aims of the new Mental Health Care Act, Act No. 17 of 2002 (MHCA) is to promote the human rights of people with mental disabilities in South Africa. However, the upholding of these rights seems to be subject to the availability of resources. Chapter 2 of the MHCA clarifies the responsibility of the State to provide infrastructure and systems. Chapters 5, 6 and 7 of the Act define and regulate the different categories of mental health care users, clarify the procedures around these categories and spell out mental health practitioners' roles and responsibilities in this regard. Also according to the National Health Act No. 61 of 2003, the State remains the key role player in mental health care provision, being responsible for adequate mental health infrastructure and resource allocation. Due to "limited resources" practitioners however often work in environments where staff ratios may be fractional of what should be expected and in units of which the physical structure and security is totally inadequate. The interface between professional responsibility of clinical workers versus the inadequacy of clinical interventions resulting from infrastructure and staffing constraints needs to be defined. This paper considered recent legislation currently relevant to mental health care practice in order to delineate the legal, ethical and labour framework in which public sector mental health practitioners operate as state employees. These included the Mental Health Care Act, No.17 of 2002; the National Health Act, No. 61 of 2003 and the proposed Traditional Health Practitioners Act, No. 35 of 2004. Formal legal review of and advice on this legislation as it pertains to public sector mental health practitioners as state employees, is necessary and should form the basis of the principles and standards for care endorsed by organized mental health care practitioner groups such as the South African Society of Psychiatrists (SASOP).

  4. Use of the community assessment for public health emergency response to conduct community health assessments for public health accreditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Ashley M; Vagi, Sara; Horney, Jennifer A

    2014-01-01

    A community health assessment (CHA) is a collaborative process of collecting and analyzing data to learn about the health status of a community. Community health assessments are also a requirement of public health accreditation for state and local health departments and of the Affordable Care Act for nonprofit hospitals. One element of a CHA is primary data collection. This article describes the use of the Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) method for primary data collection to meet public health accreditation requirements in 2 case study communities--Nashua, New Hampshire, and Davidson County, North Carolina; CASPER is a flexible and efficient method for the collection of population-based primary data in an urban or rural setting.

  5. California K-12 Schools and Communities Collaborate to Support Student Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodbridge, Michelle W.; Goldweber, Asha; Yu, Jennifer; Golan, Shari; Stein, Bradley D.

    2013-01-01

    Across the education, public health, and human and social services areas, there is renewed interest in bringing agency representatives together to work on the promotion of student mental health and wellness. One of the aims of California's Prevention and Early Intervention (PEI) K-12 Student Mental Health (SMH) initiative funded under Proposition…

  6. Madness or sadness? Local concepts of mental illness in four conflict-affected African communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ventevogel, P.; Jordans, M.; Reis, R.; de Jong, J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Concepts of ‘what constitutes mental illness’, the presumed aetiology and preferred treatment options, vary considerably from one cultural context to another. Knowledge and understanding of these local conceptualisations is essential to inform public mental health programming and policy.

  7. Medical diplomacy and global mental health: from community and national institutions to regional centers of excellence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Neil Krishan; Kohrt, Brandon A

    2013-12-01

    We explore how regional medical diplomacy can increase funding for global mental health initiatives. Interventions for infectious diseases have dominated medical diplomacy by focusing on security concerns. The global mental health movement has adopted similar strategies, but unsuccessfully since mental illnesses do not cause international epidemics. Instead, realpolitik arguments may increase funding by prioritizing economic productivity and regional diplomacy based on cultural ties to advance mental health services and research at the community level. In South Asia, initiatives to train personnel and provide refugee services offer a foundation for regional centers of excellence. This model can be expanded elsewhere.

  8. An Informatics Approach to Establishing a Sustainable Public Health Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriseman, Jeffrey Michael

    2012-01-01

    This work involved the analysis of a public health system, and the design, development and deployment of enterprise informatics architecture, and sustainable community methods to address problems with the current public health system. Specifically, assessment of the Nationally Notifiable Disease Surveillance System (NNDSS) was instrumental in…

  9. Success indicators for integrating mental health interventions with community-based rehabilitation projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Shoba; Boyce, William F; Ramani, Sudha; Underhill, Chris

    2008-12-01

    Community interventions for people with physical disabilities and for people with mental illness have evolved following similar trajectories, although at different periods of time. This study develops and tests indicators for successful integration of community-based rehabilitation (CBR)-mental health and development (MHD) services. An in-depth study was conducted of two organizations in Sri Lanka and India that successfully integrated CBR and MHD services as well as two organizations in Nepal and Bangladesh, which were planning integration. Interviews and focus groups were used to gather nonconfidential information. The study suggests many benefits of integration and several indicators of readiness: willingness to work with mentally ill people, a basic understanding of the mental health concept and mental illness problems, a match of context and strategy between current CBR activities and proposed MHD activities, stability of basic resources and infrastructure in the organization. A second set of indicators determined the long-term viability of an integrated CBR-MHD approach: ability to strategize and plan a mental health programme, ability to network with stakeholders effectively, ability to make use of resources efficiently. A major finding of the study was the need for training in the practical aspects of integration of mental health interventions with CBR. Tool sets are available that can be used by donors and by local organizations for assessing needs and readiness as well as developing viable strategies for the integration of community-based mental health interventions into existing CBR work.

  10. [Social capital and mental health in low income urban communities in Santiago, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poblete, Fernando C; Sapag, Jaime C; Bossert, Thomas J

    2008-02-01

    Many studies suggest that social capital, defined as those intangible resources of a society or community (trust, participation and reciprocity), that might facilitate collective action, can be associated with positive health effects. To explore the relationship between social capital an the level of mental health, in urban communities of Santiago, Chile. In a qualitative-quantitative cross-sectional design, two low income neighborhoods in the municipality of Puente Alto were selected. Interviews to key agents and focus groups, as well as surveys (407) to adults from a representative random sample of households, were conducted, measuring social capital, using a locally devised questionnaire and mental health using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12 instrument). A qualitative analysis based on the grounded theory and a quantitative analysis through correlations and simple and logistic regression models were applied. The quantitative analysis found an association between female gender, education and having a chronic disease, with low levels of mental health. At the same time, the trust component of social capital might be associated with a better mental health status. Qualitatively, all the components of social capital were identified as important for a better mental health. This study suggests the existence of a positive relationship between social capital and mental health. Developing trust in a community might be a useful tool to work in mental health at the community level.

  11. Beyond the biomedical: community resources for mental health care in rural Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medhin Selamu

    Full Text Available The focus of discussion in addressing the treatment gap is often on biomedical services. However, community resources can benefit health service scale-up in resource-constrained settings. These assets can be captured systematically through resource mapping, a method used in social action research. Resource mapping can be informative in developing complex mental health interventions, particularly in settings with limited formal mental health resources.We employed resource mapping within the Programme for Improving Mental Health Care (PRIME, to systematically gather information on community assets that can support integration of mental healthcare into primary care in rural Ethiopia. A semi-structured instrument was administered to key informants. Community resources were identified for all 58 sub-districts of the study district. The potential utility of these resources for the provision of mental healthcare in the district was considered.The district is rich in community resources: There are over 150 traditional healers, 164 churches and mosques, and 401 religious groups. There were on average 5 eddir groups (traditional funeral associations per sub-district. Social associations and 51 micro-finance institutions were also identified. On average, two traditional bars were found in each sub-district. The eight health centres and 58 satellite clinics staffed by Health Extension Workers (HEWs represented all the biomedical health services in the district. In addition the Health Development Army (HDA are community volunteers who support health promotion and prevention activities.The plan for mental healthcare integration in this district was informed by the resource mapping. Community and religious leaders, HEWs, and HDA may have roles in awareness-raising, detection and referral of people with mental illness, improving access to medical care, supporting treatment adherence, and protecting human rights. The diversity of community structures will be

  12. Beyond the biomedical: community resources for mental health care in rural Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selamu, Medhin; Asher, Laura; Hanlon, Charlotte; Medhin, Girmay; Hailemariam, Maji; Patel, Vikram; Thornicroft, Graham; Fekadu, Abebaw

    2015-01-01

    The focus of discussion in addressing the treatment gap is often on biomedical services. However, community resources can benefit health service scale-up in resource-constrained settings. These assets can be captured systematically through resource mapping, a method used in social action research. Resource mapping can be informative in developing complex mental health interventions, particularly in settings with limited formal mental health resources. We employed resource mapping within the Programme for Improving Mental Health Care (PRIME), to systematically gather information on community assets that can support integration of mental healthcare into primary care in rural Ethiopia. A semi-structured instrument was administered to key informants. Community resources were identified for all 58 sub-districts of the study district. The potential utility of these resources for the provision of mental healthcare in the district was considered. The district is rich in community resources: There are over 150 traditional healers, 164 churches and mosques, and 401 religious groups. There were on average 5 eddir groups (traditional funeral associations) per sub-district. Social associations and 51 micro-finance institutions were also identified. On average, two traditional bars were found in each sub-district. The eight health centres and 58 satellite clinics staffed by Health Extension Workers (HEWs) represented all the biomedical health services in the district. In addition the Health Development Army (HDA) are community volunteers who support health promotion and prevention activities. The plan for mental healthcare integration in this district was informed by the resource mapping. Community and religious leaders, HEWs, and HDA may have roles in awareness-raising, detection and referral of people with mental illness, improving access to medical care, supporting treatment adherence, and protecting human rights. The diversity of community structures will be used to support

  13. Policing, Community Fragmentation, and Public Health: Observations from Baltimore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Marisela B

    2016-04-01

    Studies show that policing, when violent, and community fragmentation have a negative impact on health outcomes. This current study investigates the connection of policing and community fragmentation and public health. Using an embedded case study analysis, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 African-American female and male residents, ages 21-64 years of various neighborhoods of high arrest rates and health and socioeconomic depravation in Baltimore City, MD. Baltimore residents' perceptions of policing, stress, community fragmentation, and solutions are presented. Analysis of the perceptions of these factors suggests that violent policing increases community fragmentation and is a public health threat. Approaches to address this public health threat are discussed.

  14. Views on nurse prescribing: a survey of community mental health nurses in the Republic of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, J; Bergin, M; Gooney, M; Jones, A

    2009-02-01

    A nurse prescribing scheme has recently been implemented within the Republic of Ireland. This paper reports on the views of community mental health nurses on nurse prescribing just prior to the implementation of the scheme. Data were gathered through a 13-item questionnaire administered to 103 members of the Association of Community Mental Health Nurses in Ireland. Results indicated a distinct difference of view between male and female community mental health nurses, with female nurses having greater reservations towards the desirability of nurse prescribing in relation to educational preparation and impact on professional relationships. Overall, only 17% of respondents favoured being supervised in their prescribing practice by their consultant psychiatrist. The paper concludes that there is ambivalence towards prescribing in this important group of nurses which may need to be taken into account if nurse prescribing is to be successfully implemented within the Irish mental health service context.

  15. Can Grief be a Mental Disorder?: An Exploration of Public Opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Lauren J; Penman, Emma L; Prigerson, Holly G; Hewitt, Lauren Y

    2015-08-01

    Despite growing empirical evidence, the distinction between normal and pathological grief remains controversial. Few studies have investigated public attitudes towards distinguishing normal from pathological grief. An international sample of 348 participants from a wide range of cultures was asked if certain expressions of grief could be considered a mental disorder and to explain their answer. Analysis revealed that the majority (74.7%) agreed that grief could be considered a mental disorder. The presence of pervasive distress, of harm to self and/or others, functional impairment, and persistent grief were described as the circumstances under which grief can be a mental disorder. Reasons grief is not a mental disorder were that it is normal, temporary, in response to an event, and that efforts to include it in diagnostic manuals will lead to medicalization and stigma. The investigation of public norms informs the inclusion of pathological grief in diagnostic nosology.

  16. Opportunities and challenges for public libraries to enhance community resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veil, Shari R; Bishop, Bradley Wade

    2014-04-01

    This study bridges a gap between public library and emergency management policy versus practice by examining the role of public libraries in the community resource network for disaster recovery. Specifically, this study identifies the opportunities and challenges for public libraries to fulfill their role as a FEMA-designated essential community organization and enhance community resilience. The results indicate there are several opportunities for libraries to enhance community resilience by offering technology resources and assistance; providing office, meeting, and community living room space; serving as the last redundant communication channel and a repository for community information and disaster narratives; and adapting or expanding services already offered to meet the changing needs of the community. However, libraries also face challenges in enhancing community resilience, including the temptation to overcommit library capacity and staff capability beyond the library mission and a lack of long-term disaster plans and collaboration with emergency managers and government officials. Implications for library and emergency management practice and crisis research are discussed. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  17. The Detrimental Impact of Maladaptive Personality on Public Mental Health: A Challenge for Psychiatric Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Hengartner, Michael Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Experts in personality psychology and personality disorders have long emphasized the pervasive and persistent detrimental impact of maladaptive personality traits on mental health and functioning. However, in routine psychiatric practice, maladaptive personality is readily ignored and personality traits are seldom incorporated into clinical guidelines. The aim of this narrative review is to outline how pervasively personality influences public mental health and how personality thereby challen...

  18. The detrimental impact of maladaptive personality on public mental health: a challenge for psychiatric practice

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Pascal Hengartner

    2015-01-01

    Experts in personality psychology and personality disorders have long emphasised the pervasive and persistent detrimental impact of maladaptive personality traits on mental health and functioning. However, in routine psychiatric practice maladaptive personality is readily ignored and personality traits are seldom incorporated into clinical guidelines. The aim of this narrative review is to outline how pervasively personality influences public mental health and how personality thereby challeng...

  19. Public stigma associated with mental illnesses in Pakistani university students: a cross sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Muhammad; Ghulam, Hamzah; Wajih Ullah, Muhammad; Zubair Tariq, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Background. The objectives of the study were to explore the knowledge and attitudes of Pakistani university students toward mental illnesses. People with mental illnesses are challenged not only by their symptoms but also by the prejudices associated with their illness. Acknowledging the stigma of mental illness should be the first essential step toward devising an appropriate treatment plan. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the University of Punjab, Lahore, CMH Lahore Medical and Dental College, Lahore, and University of Sargodha, Sub-campus Lahore, from February to May 2014. The self-administered questionnaire consisted of three sections: demographics, general knowledge of psychiatric illnesses, and Community Attitudes towards Mental Illnesses (CAMI) Scale. The questionnaire was distributed to 650 participants enrolled in different disciplines (Social Sciences, Medicine and Formal Sciences). Results. Response rate was 81% (527/650 respondents). Mean age was 20.98 years. Most of the students (331, 62.8%) had an urban background and studied Social Sciences (238, 45.2%). Four hundred and eighteen respondents (79.3%) considered religion very important and most respondents considered psychiatrists (334, 63.4%) and spiritual leaders (72, 13.7%) to be best able to treat mental illnesses. One hundred and sixty nine respondents (32.1%) considered black magic to be a cause of mental illness. Only 215 (41%) respondents had ever read an article on mental illnesses. Multiple regression analysis revealed study discipline, exposure, perceived causes of mental illnesses and superstitions to be significantly associated with attitudes towards mental illnesses (p < .05). Conclusion. Although low awareness and exposure were found in this sample of Pakistani university students, their attitude towards mental illnesses was generally positive. Most respondents gave supernatural explanations for mental illnesses but only a few believed that spiritual leaders can play a

  20. Public stigma associated with mental illnesses in Pakistani university students: a cross sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Waqas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The objectives of the study were to explore the knowledge and attitudes of Pakistani university students toward mental illnesses. People with mental illnesses are challenged not only by their symptoms but also by the prejudices associated with their illness. Acknowledging the stigma of mental illness should be the first essential step toward devising an appropriate treatment plan.Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the University of Punjab, Lahore, CMH Lahore Medical and Dental College, Lahore, and University of Sargodha, Sub-campus Lahore, from February to May 2014. The self-administered questionnaire consisted of three sections: demographics, general knowledge of psychiatric illnesses, and Community Attitudes towards Mental Illnesses (CAMI Scale. The questionnaire was distributed to 650 participants enrolled in different disciplines (Social Sciences, Medicine and Formal Sciences.Results. Response rate was 81% (527/650 respondents. Mean age was 20.98 years. Most of the students (331, 62.8% had an urban background and studied Social Sciences (238, 45.2%. Four hundred and eighteen respondents (79.3% considered religion very important and most respondents considered psychiatrists (334, 63.4% and spiritual leaders (72, 13.7% to be best able to treat mental illnesses. One hundred and sixty nine respondents (32.1% considered black magic to be a cause of mental illness. Only 215 (41% respondents had ever read an article on mental illnesses. Multiple regression analysis revealed study discipline, exposure, perceived causes of mental illnesses and superstitions to be significantly associated with attitudes towards mental illnesses (p < .05.Conclusion. Although low awareness and exposure were found in this sample of Pakistani university students, their attitude towards mental illnesses was generally positive. Most respondents gave supernatural explanations for mental illnesses but only a few believed that spiritual leaders can

  1. Community Attitudes towards Culture-Influenced Mental Illness: Scrupulosity vs. Nonreligious OCD among Orthodox Jews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirutinsky, Steven; Rosmarin, David H.; Pargament, Kenneth I.

    2009-01-01

    Culture may particularly influence community attitudes towards mental illness, when the illness itself is shaped by a cultural context. To explore the influence of culture-specific, religious symptoms on Orthodox Jewish community attitudes, the authors compared the attitudes of 169 Orthodox Jews, who randomly viewed one of two vignettes describing…

  2. A Community-Engaged Research Approach to Improve Mental Health Among Latina Immigrants: ALMA Photovoice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Georgina; Della Valle, Pamela; Paraghamian, Sarah; Page, Rachel; Ochoa, Janet; Palomo, Fabiana; Suarez, Emilia; Thrasher, Angela; Tran, Anh N; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2016-05-01

    Recent Latina immigrants are at increased risk of poor mental health due to stressors associated with adapting to life in the United States. Existing social and health care policies often do not adequately address the mental health concerns of new Latino populations. Amigas Latinas Motivando el Alma, a community-partnered research project, seeks to improve immigrant Latinas' mental health outcomes. Using Photovoice methodology, promotoras (lay health advisors) reflected on community factors affecting mental health through photography and guided discussion. Discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded using content analysis to identify salient themes. Promotoras reviewed codes to develop themes that they presented in community forums to reach local policy makers and to increase community awareness. These forums included an exhibit of the promotoras' photographs and discussion of action steps to address community concerns. Themes included transitioning to life in the United States, parenting, education, and combating racism. Nearly 150 stakeholders attended the community forums and proposed responses to promotoras' photographic themes. Our findings suggest that Photovoice provides an opportunity for Latinas and the larger community to identify issues that they find most important and to explore avenues for action and change by creating sustainable partnerships between the community and forum attendees.

  3. Outpatient Mental Health and the Dual-Diagnosis Patient: Utilization of Services and Community Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Lucy; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Differences in service utilization and community adjustment between community mental health clients with and without substance abuse disorders were studied for 144 outpatients, 37 percent of whom had dual diagnoses (substance abuse and another disorder). The association of dual diagnosis with poor service use and adjustment is discussed. (SLD)

  4. An Innovative Child CBT Training Model for Community Mental Health Practitioners in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manassis, Katharina; Ickowicz, Abel; Picard, Erin; Antle, Beverley; McNeill, Ted; Chahauver, Anu; Mendlowitz, Sandra; Monga, Suneeta; Adler-Nevo, Gili

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for children has been shown efficacious, but community access to it is often limited by the lack of trained therapists. This study evaluated a child, CBT-focused, 20-session weekly group supervision seminar with a didactic component which was provided to community mental health practitioners by…

  5. Cancer and common mental disorders in the community: Results of the Israel-World Mental Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ora Nakash

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: To study common mental disorders (CMD and other mental health-related variables among community residents with active cancer, cancer survivors and cancer-free respondents. Methods: Data were extracted from the Israeli component of the 28-country World Mental Health Survey. The sample included 165 respondents who reported ever having cancer and 2,282 cancer-free respondents, all aged 39 years and older. The WHO/Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI was used to determine the prevalence rate of CMD. Emotional distress (ED was ascertained with the GHQ-12. Also, respondents were asked about sleep disturbances and mental health service utilization. Results: Respondents with active cancer were more likely to endorse CMD in the past year than cancer-free respondents, 22.1% SE = 6.1 and 7.2% SE = 2.5, respectively (adjusted odds ratio = 2.6, 95% CI 1.2-5.6; to have higher ED scores, M = 27.1 SE = 1.3 and M = 19.8 SE = 0.3, respectively (Wald F = 16.7, p < 0.001; and higher prevalence rates of sleep disturbances, 64.7% SE = 6.5% and 31.5% SE = 4.6%, respectively (adjusted odds ratio = 2.1, 95% CI 1.1-3.9. Cancer survivors did not significantly differ from cancer-free respondents on the study variables. Despite the emotional toll, there were no differences in mental health service utilization among the three cancer groups. Conclusions: Respondents with active cancer residing in the community show enhanced psychopathology. Study findings highlight a double need: to adequately assess mental health problems in persons with cancer and to bridge the treatment gap.

  6. Additional funding mechanisms for Public Hospitals in Greece: the case of Chania Mental Health Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether the long term lease of public hospital owned land could be an additional financing mechanism for Greek public (mental) health hospitals. Methods We performed a financial analysis of the official 2008 data of a case - study hospital (Mental Health Hospital of Chania). We used a capital budgeting approach to investigate whether value is created for the public hospital by engaging its assets in a project for the development of a private renal dialysis Unit. Results The development of the private unit in hospital owned land is a good investment decision, as it generates high project Net Present Value and Internal Rate of Return. When the project commences generating operating cash flows, nearly €400.000 will be paid annually to the Mental Health Hospital of Chania as rent, thereby gradually decreasing the annual deficit of the hospital. Conclusions Revenue generated from the long term lease of public hospital land is crucial to gradually eliminate hospital deficit. The Ministry of Health should encourage similar forms of Public Private Partnerships in order to ensure the sustainability of public (mental) hospitals. PMID:21067580

  7. Additional funding mechanisms for Public Hospitals in Greece: the case of Chania Mental Health Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golna Christina

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To investigate whether the long term lease of public hospital owned land could be an additional financing mechanism for Greek public (mental health hospitals. Methods We performed a financial analysis of the official 2008 data of a case - study hospital (Mental Health Hospital of Chania. We used a capital budgeting approach to investigate whether value is created for the public hospital by engaging its assets in a project for the development of a private renal dialysis Unit. Results The development of the private unit in hospital owned land is a good investment decision, as it generates high project Net Present Value and Internal Rate of Return. When the project commences generating operating cash flows, nearly €400.000 will be paid annually to the Mental Health Hospital of Chania as rent, thereby gradually decreasing the annual deficit of the hospital. Conclusions Revenue generated from the long term lease of public hospital land is crucial to gradually eliminate hospital deficit. The Ministry of Health should encourage similar forms of Public Private Partnerships in order to ensure the sustainability of public (mental hospitals.

  8. NASA and Public Libraries: Enhancing STEM Literacy in Underserved Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenbery, P.; LaConte, K.; Harold, J. B.; Randall, C.

    2016-12-01

    NASA research programs are helping humanity understand the origin and evolution of galaxies, stars, and planets, and defining the conditions necessary to support life beyond Earth. The Space Science Institute's (SSI) National Center for Interactive Learning (NCIL) was recently funded by NASA`s Science Mission Directorate (SMD) to develop and implement a project called NASA@ My Library: A National Earth and Space Science Initiative That Connects NASA, Public Libraries and Their Communities. As places that offer their services for free, public libraries have become the "public square" by providing a place where members of a community can gather for information, educational programming, and policy discussions. Libraries are developing new ways to engage their patrons in STEM learning, and NCIL's STAR Library Education Network (STAR_Net) has been supporting their efforts for the last eight years, including through a vibrant community of practice that serves both librarians and STEM professionals. Project stakeholders include public library staff, state libraries, the earth and space science education community at NASA, subject matter experts, and informal science educators. The project will leverage high-impact SMD and library events to catalyze partnerships through dissemination of SMD assets and professional development. It will also develop frameworks for public libraries to increase STEM interest pathways in their communities (with supports for reaching underserved audiences). This presentation will summarize the key activities and expected outcomes of the 5-year project.

  9. Mental health as an advocacy priority in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Anand

    2014-05-01

    This column reviews the evolution of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) mental health advocacy in relation to modern mental health advocacy efforts. In addition to developments in organized psychiatry (e.g., American Psychiatric Association's LGBT caucus), grassroots LGBT community initiatives are playing an important role (e.g., Trevor Project providing crisis intervention/suicide prevention services to LGBT youth, face-to-face mental health services in LGBT community centers). Studies have found that LGBT individuals are at increased risk for mental health problems (e.g., depression, anxiety, substance misuse, suicidal ideation, self-harm). Mental health advocacy in the LGBT community has been slowed by the long-standing association of the concept of homosexuality with psychopathology in mainstream psychiatry (e.g., homosexuality was only removed from the DSM in 1973, ego dystonic homosexuality still appears in the ICD-10). However, positive developments in LGBT mental health advocacy have been fostered by the proposed minority stress model (i.e., that elevated risk of mental illness in LGBT individuals is a consequence of a hostile stressful environment). A particularly encouraging initiative is the It Gets Better Project, in which thousands of videos, some by prominent individuals, have been posted online to send a message of hope to LGBT youth facing harassment and low self-esteem.

  10. Public stigma against family members of people with mental illness: findings from the Gilgel Gibe Field Research Center (GGFRC), Southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girma, Eshetu; Möller-Leimkühler, Anne Maria; Müller, Norbert; Dehning, Sandra; Froeschl, Guenter; Tesfaye, Markos

    2014-02-21

    Public stigma against family members of people with mental illness is a negative attitude by the public which blame family members for the mental illness of their relatives. Family stigma can result in self social restrictions, delay in treatment seeking and poor quality of life. This study aimed at investigating the degree and correlates of family stigma. A quantitative cross-sectional house to house survey was conducted among 845 randomly selected urban and rural community members in the Gilgel Gibe Field Research Center, Southwest Ethiopia. An interviewer administered and pre-tested questionnaire adapted from other studies was used to measure the degree of family stigma and to determine its correlates. Data entry was done by using EPI-DATA and the analysis was performed using STATA software. Unadjusted and adjusted linear regression analysis was done to identify the correlates of family stigma. Among the total 845 respondents, 81.18% were female. On a range of 1 to 5 score, the mean family stigma score was 2.16 (± 0.49). In a multivariate analysis, rural residents had significantly higher stigma scores (std. β = 0.43, P mental illness increased, the stigma scores decreased significantly. High supernatural explanation of mental illness was significantly correlated with lower stigma among individuals with lower level of exposure to people with mental illness (PWMI). On the other hand, high exposure to PWMI was significantly associated with lower stigma among respondents who had high education. Stigma scores increased with increasing income among respondents who had lower educational status. Our findings revealed moderate level of family stigma. Place of residence, perceived signs and explanations of mental illness were independent correlates of public stigma against family members of people with mental illness. Therefore, mental health communication programs to inform explanations and signs of mental illness need to be implemented.

  11. Community collaboration as a disaster mental health competency: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebowitz, Adam Jon

    2015-02-01

    Disasters impact the mental health of entire communities through destruction and physical displacement. There is growing recognition of the need for disaster mental health competencies. Professional organizations such as the AAFP and the ASPH recommend engaging with communities in equal partnership for their recovery. This systematic study was undertaken for the purpose of reviewing published disaster medicine competencies to determine if core competencies included community cooperation and collaboration. A search of Internet databases was conducted using major keywords "disaster" and "competencies". Articles eligible contained laundry lists of basic core competency curriculum beyond emergency response. Data were qualitatively analyzed to identify types of competencies, and the degree of community cooperation. A total of 12 studies were reviewed. Only one study listed competencies specifying community cooperation, although others refer indirectly to it. Findings suggest competency-based education programs could do more to educate future disaster health professionals about the importance of community collaboration.

  12. Mental health first aid training for the Chinese community in Melbourne, Australia: effects on knowledge about and attitudes toward people with mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Daniel FK

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate in members of the Chinese community in Melbourne the impact of Mental Health First Aid (MHFA training on knowledge about mental disorders and on attitudes to people with mental illness. The hypotheses were that at the end of the training participants would have increased knowledge of mental disorders and related treatments, and decreased negative attitudes towards people with mental disorders. Methods Respondents were 108 participants of three MHFA training workshops for the Chinese community in Melbourne conducted by a qualified MHFA trainer. Participants completed the research questionnaire prior to the commencement of the training (pre-test and at its completion (post-test. The questionnaires assessed participants' ability to recognize a mental disorder (depression and schizophrenia described in the vignettes, knowledge about the professional help and treatment, and negative attitudes towards people with mental illness. Results Between pre- and post-test there was significant improvement in the recognition of mental disorders, beliefs about treatment became more concordant with health professionals, and negative attitudes reduced. Conclusion The MHFA training course for general members of the Chinese community in Melbourne produced significant positive change in the level of mental health literacy and reductions in stigmatizing attitudes. The evidence from this study, together with the accumulated evidence of the benefits of MHFA training in the general Australian community, suggests that this approach should be scaled up to a level where it can have an impact on the whole of the Chinese community in Australia.

  13. Inclusion of people with mental retardation and other developmental disabilities in communities of faith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Jeannine; Polloway, Edward A; Smith, J David

    2006-04-01

    Our focus in this paper is on efforts to include persons with developmental disabilities in faith communities. We provide a review of the relevant literature on religious participation and faith communities for persons with disabilities and blend the limited data available on these topics with the perspectives of individuals whose efforts focus on these concerns. Topics explored are the implications of being part of the faith community in terms of its impact on quality of life, the barriers to inclusion in such communities, strategies for overcoming these barriers, and special considerations for adults with mental retardation or other developmental disabilities. Discussion of the implications for enhancing inclusion in faith communities is provided.

  14. Beacon communities' public health initiatives: a case study analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoudi, Barbara L; Marcial, Laura H; Haque, Saira; Bailey, Robert; Chester, Kelley; Cunningham, Shellery; Riley, Amanda; Soper, Paula

    2014-01-01

    The Beacon Communities for Public Health (BCPH) project was launched in 2011 to gain a better understanding of the range of activities currently being conducted in population- and public health by the Beacon Communities. The project highlighted the successes and challenges of these efforts with the aim of sharing this information broadly among the public health community. The Beacon Community Program, designed to showcase technology-enabled, community-based initiatives to improve outcomes, focused on: building and strengthening health information technology (IT) infrastructure and exchange capabilities; translating investments in health IT to measureable improvements in cost, quality, and population health; and, developing innovative approaches to performance measurement, technology, and care delivery. Four multimethod case studies were conducted based on a modified sociotechnical framework to learn more about public health initiative implementation and use in the Beacon Communities. Our methodological approach included using document review and semistructured key informant interviews. NACCHO Model Practice Program criteria were used to select the public health initiatives included in the case studies. Despite differences among the case studies, common barriers and facilitators were found to be present in all areas of the sociotechnical framework application including structure, people, technology, tasks, overarching considerations, and sustainability. Overall, there were many more facilitators (range = 7-14) present for each Beacon compared to barriers (range = 4-6). Four influential promising practices were identified through the work: forging strong and sustainable partnerships; ensuring a good task-technology fit and a flexible and iterative design; fostering technology acceptance; and, providing education and demonstrating value. A common weakness was the lack of a framework or model for the Beacon Communities evaluation work. Sharing a framework or approach

  15. Service and infrastructure needs to support recovery programmes for Indigenous community mental health consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayers, Jan M; Cleary, Michelle; Hunt, Glenn E; Burmeister, Oliver K

    2017-04-01

    Mental health is a major concern in Indigenous communities, as Indigenous people experience poorer health outcomes generally, and poorer social and emotional well-being throughout their lives, compared to non-Indigenous populations. Interviews were conducted with 20 mental health workers from a housing assistance programme for Indigenous clients with mental illness. Service and infrastructure needs identified to support clients were classified under the following overarching theme 'supports along the road to recovery'. Subthemes were: (i) It is OK to seek help; (ii) linking in to the local community; (iii) trusting the workers; and (iv) help with goal setting and having activities that support their achievement. This paper highlights the importance of targeted housing and accommodation support programmes for Indigenous people to prevent homelessness, and the essential services and infrastructure required to support Indigenous clients' mental health needs. These insights may inform service review, workforce development, and further research.

  16. Role for Occupational Therapy in Community Mental Health: Using Policy to Advance Scholarship of Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffey, Lisa; Burson, Kathrine A; Januszewski, Celeste; Pitts, Deborah B; Preissner, Katharine

    2015-01-01

    Occupational therapists must be aware of professional and policy trends. More importantly, occupational therapists must be involved in efforts to influence policy both for the profession and for the people they serve (Bonder, 1987). Using the state of Illinois as an example, this article reviews the policies and initiatives that impact service decisions for persons with psychiatric disabilities as well as the rationale for including occupational therapy in community mental health service provision. Despite challenges in building a workforce of occupational therapists in the mental health system, this article makes the argument that the current climate of emerging policy and litigation combined with the supporting evidence provides the impetus to strengthen mental health as a primary area of practice. Implications for scholarship of practice related to occupational therapy services in community mental health programs for individuals with psychiatric disability are discussed.

  17. Immigrant Mental Health, A Public Health Issue: Looking Back and Moving Forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha George

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Mental Health Commission of Canada’s (MHCC strategy calls for promoting the health and wellbeing of all Canadians and to improve mental health outcomes. Each year, one in every five Canadians experiences one or more mental health problems, creating a significant cost to the health system. Mental health is pivotal to holistic health and wellbeing. This paper presents the key findings of a comprehensive literature review of Canadian research on the relationship between settlement experiences and the mental health and well-being of immigrants and refugees. A scoping review was conducted following a framework provided by Arskey and O’Malley (Int J Soc Res Methodol 8:19–32, 2005. Over two decades of relevant literature on immigrants’ health in Canada was searched. These included English language peer-reviewed publications from relevant online databases Medline, Embase, PsycInfo, Healthstar, ERIC and CINAHL between 1990 and 2015. The findings revealed three important ways in which settlement affects the mental health of immigrants and refugees: through acculturation related stressors, economic uncertainty and ethnic discrimination. The recommendations for public health practice and policy are discussed.

  18. Programa de suporte comunitário: alternativa para o trabalho do adulto deficiente mental Assessment of a community support work program for mentally retarded adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Aparecida Campanha Araújo

    2006-08-01

    . Seven steps leading to the organization of the proposed group were implemented: 1 starting the team; 2 defining community needs; 3 identifying team members; 4 starting the planning meeting; 5 defining the mission of the community program planning group; 6 evaluating the opportunity to change; 7 proposing objectives and activities. The results showed that the objectives proposed were partially met. However, great difficulties were observed in group maintenance. The proposal had to be interrupted before the end of the program. The reasons for such difficulties were analyzed and publication and discussion of the concept of community program planning teams was proposed to meet the needs involved in supporting the work of mentally retarded adults. It was also proposed that the procedure be replicated in different communities, to control for local variables, and as an incentive to the development of new work groups.

  19. [Fifty years of public service for Quebec community psychiatry services. Part I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesage, Alain

    2015-01-01

    This essay comprises 2 parts. It aims to recognize the public service of psychiatrists of the Département de psychiatrie de l'Université de Montréal who served at the provincial level of the Ministry of Health and Social Services for deinstitutionalisation of policies and organisation of services, at the service of people with severe mental disorders. First with Dr. Camille Laurin post-face of the 1962 book Les fous crient au secours! (Mentally ill patients cry for help); then the insight on the latest phase of differentiated specialised clinics by Dr. Denis Lazure, who participated in 1962 to the Bédard, Lazure, Roberts commission that launched community psychiatry, but who will also be Social Affairs Minister in the late '70 s; Dr. Arthur Amyot will sail through the budgetary issues when in the beginning of the '80s the mental health directorate was under Social Affairs; Dr. Luc Blanchet will be associated to a rich production of interdisciplinary reports by the advisory Mental Health Committee until its dismissal in 2003; and finally, Dr. André Delorme, who probably has the record of longevity at the head of the mental health directorate, transferred in 2003 under the deputy minister for medical and university affairs.The essay will propose since the beginning a grid or referential of four health services analysis. First; the arguments for community care by British and Italian psychiatrists and researchers, Thornicroft and Tansella. Second; system issues of mental health reforms proposed by Canadian psychiatric nurse and researcher Paula Goering. Third; the model of socio-political regulation of health system proposed by the Université de Montréal' health administration researcher Dr. André-Pierre Contandriopoulos; and Fourth; the structural tension between the medical and social sector signaled by the American medical sociologist, Leutz.The same phases of deinstitutionalization in other countries as UK, took place as followed: a) the asylum phase

  20. Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HCTT-CHE

    2011-04-14

    The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster—readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that—help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners' (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. While the purpose of the CAT is to further prepare the community for an influenza pandemic, its framework is an extension of the traditional all-hazards approach to planning and preparedness. As such, the information gathered by the tool is useful in preparation for most widespread public health emergencies. This tool is primarily intended for use by those involved in healthcare emergency preparedness (e.g., community planners, community disaster preparedness coordinators, 9-1-1 directors, hospital emergency preparedness coordinators). It is divided into sections based on the core agency partners, which may be involved in the community's influenza pandemic influenza response.

  1. Mental health leadership and patient access to care: a public-private initiative in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Christopher Paul; Fine, Jennifer; Mayers, Pat; Naidoo, Shan; Zabow, Tuviah

    2017-01-01

    Mental health leadership is a critical component of patient access to care. More specifically, the ability of mental health professionals to articulate the needs of patients, formulate strategies and engage meaningfully at the appropriate level in pursuit of resources. This is not a skill set routinely taught to mental health professionals. A public-private mental health leadership initiative, emanating from a patient access to care programme, was developed with the aim of building leadership capacity within the South African public mental health sector. The express aim was to equip health care professionals with the requisite skills to more effectively advocate for their patients. The initiative involved participants from various sites within South Africa. Inclusion was based on the proposal of an ongoing "project", i.e. a clinician-initiated service development with a multidisciplinary focus. The projects were varied in nature but all involved identification of and a plan for addressing an aspect of the participants' daily professional work which negatively impacted on patient care due to unmet needs. Six such projects were included and involved 15 participants, comprising personnel from psychiatry, psychology, occupational therapy and nursing. Each project group was formally mentored as part of the initiative, with mentors being senior professionals with expertise in psychiatry, public health and nursing. The programme design thus provided a unique practical dimension in which skills and learnings were applied to the projects with numerous and diverse outcomes. Benefits were noted by participants but extended beyond the individuals to the health institutions in which they worked and the patients that they served. Participants acquired both the skills and the confidence which enabled them to sustain the changes that they themselves had initiated in their institutions. The initiative gave impetus to the inclusion of public mental health as part of the curriculum

  2. Challenging the public stigma of mental illness: a meta-analysis of outcome studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Patrick W; Morris, Scott B; Michaels, Patrick J; Rafacz, Jennifer D; Rüsch, Nicolas

    2012-10-01

    Public stigma and discrimination have pernicious effects on the lives of people with serious mental illnesses. Given a plethora of research on changing the stigma of mental illness, this article reports on a meta-analysis that examined the effects of antistigma approaches that included protest or social activism, education of the public, and contact with persons with mental illness. The investigators heeded published guidelines for systematic literature reviews in health care. This comprehensive and systematic review included articles in languages other than English, dissertations, and population studies. The search included all articles from the inception of the databases until October 2010. Search terms fell into three categories: stigma, mental illness (such as schizophrenia and depression), and change program (including contact and education). The search yielded 72 articles and reports meeting the inclusion criteria of relevance to changing public stigma and sufficient data and statistics to complete analyses. Studies represented 38,364 research participants from 14 countries. Effect sizes were computed for all studies and for each treatment condition within studies. Comparisons between effect sizes were conducted with a weighted one-way analysis of variance. Overall, both education and contact had positive effects on reducing stigma for adults and adolescents with a mental illness. However, contact was better than education at reducing stigma for adults. For adolescents, the opposite pattern was found: education was more effective. Overall, face-to-face contact was more effective than contact by video. Future research is needed to identify moderators of the effects of both education and contact.

  3. Why Provide Music Therapy in the Community for Adults With Mental Health Problems?

    OpenAIRE

    Helen Odell-Miller

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes music therapy within a community mental health setting for adults using a care programme approach in England. It describes the setting, and emphasises the importance of multidisciplinary teamwork in order to enable music therapy to be effective. It provides some statistics and descriptive clinical information which demonstrate the efficacy of music therapy for adults with long-term mental health problems, and argues that music therapy should be a priority for this client ...

  4. Making evidence-based lifestyle modification programs available in community mental health centers: why so slow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwastiak, Lydia

    2015-04-01

    Lifestyle modification programs to promote healthy diet and physical fitness should be an integral component of the treatment provided in community mental health centers. Over 50% of adults with serious mental illness are obese. Persons with schizophrenia consume more calories and saturated fats, on average, than the general population, while fewer than 20% engage in regular physical activity. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  5. Evaluation of a community-based mental health drug and alcohol nurse in the care of people living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J; Hamilton, A; Nunn, R; Crock, L; Frecker, J; Burk, N

    2009-03-01

    There is a growing need for advanced practice mental health and drug and alcohol nursing roles in the care of people living with HIV/AIDS; however, limited publications address these domains. This study evaluated a community-based mental health drug and alcohol nurse role caring for people living with HIV/AIDS (Mental Health D&A Nurse) in a large not-for-profit district nursing organization providing care to people living with HIV/AIDS in an Australian city. Outcomes from a client assessment and 6-8-week follow-up by the Mental Health D&A Nurse are presented as captured by the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS 21), Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST), Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HONOS) and WHOQoL BREF. Mean scores and caseness were analysed, and significant differences were found on the 'impairment' and 'social problems' subscales of the HONOS. Results of semi-structured interviews with clients describe effective and supportive mental health care and health-promoting education following visits by the Mental Health D&A Nurse. These positive findings support continuing implementation of the role within this community setting and indicate that even greater benefits will ensue as the role develops further. Findings are of interest to clinicians and policy makers seeking to implement similar roles in community-based HIV/AIDS care.

  6. Evaluation of Mental Health First Aid training with members of the Vietnamese community in Melbourne, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorm Anthony F

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this project was to investigate in members of the Vietnamese community in Melbourne the impact of Mental Health First Aid (MHFA training on attitudes to people with mental illness and on knowledge about mental disorders. Our hypotheses were that at the end of the training participants would have increased knowledge of mental disorders and their treatments, and decreased negative attitudes towards people with mental disorders. Methods Respondents were 114 participants in two-day MHFA training workshops for the Vietnamese community in Melbourne conducted by two qualified MHFA trainers. Participants completed the research questionnaire prior to the commencement of the training (pre-test and at its completion (post-test. The questionnaires assessed negative attitudes towards people with mental illness (as described in four vignettes, ability to recognise the mental disorders described in the vignettes, and knowledge about how to assist someone with one of these disorders. Responses to open-ended questions were content analysed and coded. To evaluate the effect of the training, answers to the structured questions and to the coded open-ended questions given at pre- and post-test were compared using McNemar tests for dichotomous values and Wilcoxon tests for other scores. Results Between pre- and post-test there was significant improvement in recognition of mental disorders; more targeted and appropriate mental health first aid responses, and reduction in inappropriate first aid responses; and negative attitudes to the people described in the vignettes declined significantly on many items of the stigma scale. Conclusion A two-day, MHFA training course for general members of the Vietnamese community in Melbourne demonstrated significant reductions in stigmatising attitudes, improved knowledge of mental disorders and improved knowledge about appropriate forms of assistance to give to people in the community with mental

  7. Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ORAU' s Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education (HCTT-CHE)

    2011-04-14

    The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster - readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that - help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. This tool has been reviewed by a variety of key subject matter experts from federal, state, and local agencies and organizations. It also has been piloted with various communities that consist of different population sizes, to include large urban to small rural communities.

  8. Urinary incontinence, mental health and loneliness among community-dwelling older adults in Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stickley, Andrew; Santini, Ziggi Ivan; Koyanagi, Ai

    2017-01-01

    Background Urinary incontinence (UI) is associated with worse health among older adults. Little is known however, about its relation with loneliness or the role of mental health in this association. This study examined these factors among older adults in Ireland. Methods Data were analyzed from...... frequency of UI and activity limitations due to UI were both significantly associated with loneliness prior to adjustment for mental disorders, neither association remained significant after adjustment for both depression and anxiety. Conclusion UI is associated with higher odds for loneliness among older...... community-dwelling adults but this association is largely explained by comorbid mental health problems, in particular, depression....

  9. Effecting Successful Community Re-Entry: Systems of Care Community Based Mental Health Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Rebecca I.; Fette, Claudette; Scaffa, Marjorie E.

    2005-01-01

    The need for system reform for child and adolescent mental health services, long recognized as a vital issue, continues to challenge mental health professionals. While past legislation has not adequately addressed the issues, the 2003 President's New Freedom Commission may begin to reorient mental health systems toward recovery. Supported by this…

  10. Peer employees' and clinicians' perceptions of public mental illness stigma and discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromwall, Layne K; Holley, Lynn C; Kondrat, David C

    2012-09-01

    Stigma and discrimination against people with mental illnesses are serious problems that can lead to many negative effects. This study examined providers' awareness of consumers' daily lived experience of discrimination. We surveyed 51 peer employees and 52 licensed clinicians to learn how they viewed the extent of public stigma and discrimination. Clinicians, women, and those who had observed a friend with a mental illness treated unfairly perceived significantly higher levels of public discrimination than did their counterparts (adjusted R² = .399, p discrimination were more strongly affected by personal contact. Mental health providers are uniquely situated to help consumers deal with the effects of discrimination and should incorporate this issue into their clinical practice. Further research should examine the reasons for differences in perception and how these differences relate to provider behavior and consumer outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. An Assessment of a Freshmen Learning Community at a Rural, Public Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenstein, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    The problem facing many higher education institutions is the ability to engage freshmen students during the first semester of college in order to sustain their enrollment. This study assessed the effectiveness of a freshmen learning community as a retention strategy at a small, rural, and public community college. The purpose of this ex post facto…

  12. Impacts of family and community violence exposure on child coping and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Esror Tamim; Shapiro, Ester R; Wainwright, Laurel D; Carter, Alice S

    2015-02-01

    An ecological stress process model was employed to explore relations between children's exposures to family and community violence and child mental health, and emotionally-regulated coping (ERC) as a protective factor among Latino, European-American, and African-American school-aged children (n = 91; girls, n = 50[54 %]) living in single-parent families who were either homeless and residing in emergency shelters or housed but living in poverty. Mothers reported domestic violence experiences and their child's history of physical/sexual abuse, community violence exposures, and mental health. Children reported on exposure to community violence, internalizing symptoms, and coping. The mental health impacts of multi-level violence exposures and ERC as a moderator of associations between violence exposures and child mental health was tested with structural equation modeling. Family abuse was uniquely associated with PTSD, and community violence with anxiety and aggression. Latent interaction tests revealed that ERC moderated relations between family abuse and anxiety, aggression and PTSD. Emotionally-regulated coping appears to play a protective role for children's mental health in contexts of violence exposure, offering opportunities for intervention and prevention.

  13. Allocation of Public Resources for Psychological Therapy between Types of Mental Health Condition: Towards Structural Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tustin, Don

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses issues of allocating public resources efficiently between mental health conditions that are associated with different levels of disability, and presents an adaptation of an established framework to help decision-making in this area. The adapted framework refers to psychological interventions that are universal, indicated,…

  14. Family group conferences in public mental health care : An exploration of opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Gideon; Schout, Gert

    2011-01-01

    Family group conferences are usually organized in youth care settings, especially in cases of (sexual) abuse of children and domestic violence. Studies on the application of family group conferences in mental health practices are scarce, let alone in a setting even more specific, such as public ment

  15. staff/bed and staff/patient ratios in south african public sector mental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    service levels; numbers of psychiatric beds; and numbers of patients who attend ... staff at all levels of public sector health care in South Africa. The information ..... distribution,''3 have been a cause of concern in recent South. African mental ...

  16. Family group conferences in public mental health care : An exploration of opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Gideon; Schout, Gert

    2011-01-01

    Family group conferences are usually organized in youth care settings, especially in cases of (sexual) abuse of children and domestic violence. Studies on the application of family group conferences in mental health practices are scarce, let alone in a setting even more specific, such as public ment

  17. Family group conferences in public mental health care : An exploration of opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Gideon; Schout, Gert

    Family group conferences are usually organized in youth care settings, especially in cases of (sexual) abuse of children and domestic violence. Studies on the application of family group conferences in mental health practices are scarce, let alone in a setting even more specific, such as public

  18. Satisfaction with mental health services in a Latin American community of carers of patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caqueo-Urízar, Alejandra; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, José

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study is to compare levels of satisfaction with Mental Health Services in a sample of 41 relatives of patients with schizophrenia, users of the Mental Health Public Service in the city of Arica, Chile. Of this sample, 18 participated in a group family intervention and 23 did not. Overall, the total sample of relatives expressed satisfaction with the Mental Health Service. However, in the compound satisfaction measure (patient's evolution and satisfaction with the mental health service), there were significant differences between caregivers who participated in the psycho-educative multifamily intervention and those who did not. The control group was more satisfied with the care provided by mental health services. The experimental group reported greater satisfaction in the area of patient's evolution. This result is of special interest since it indicates that psycho-educational programs increase relatives' satisfaction with the patient's evolution and also has positive consequences for the relationship between patients and their relatives.

  19. Factors predicting drop-out in community mental health centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reneses, Blanca; Muñoz, Elena; López-Ibor, Juan José

    2009-10-01

    This study aimed to identify treatment, therapist and patient factors associated with dropping out of treatment in four outpatient mental health services. The experimental group comprised all 789 individuals who attended for the first time the mental health services during one year and dropped out of treatment in the same year or during the two following ones. The control group consisted of the same number of individuals, chosen at random from patients who, in the same year, attended for the first time the services and did not subsequently drop out of treatment. The overall drop-out rate was 33.2%. According to logistic regression analysis, the predictive factors of dropping out were: being treated in a particular centre, the involvement of more than one therapist in treatment, having no previous history of psychiatric disorders, being young and being male.

  20. Community perceptions of mental health needs: a qualitative study in the Solomon Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silove Derrick

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychosocial and mental health needs in the aftermath of conflict and disaster have attracted substantial attention. In the Solomon Islands, the conceptualisation of mental health, for several decades regarded by policy makers as primarily a health issue, has broadened and been incorporated into the national development and social policy agendas, reflecting recognition of the impact of conflict and rapid social change on the psychosocial wellbeing of the community as a whole. We sought to understand how mental health and psychosocial wellbeing were seen at the community level, the extent to which these issues were identified as being associated with periods of 'tension', violence and instability, and the availability of traditional approaches and Ministry of Health services to address these problems. Methods This article reports the findings of qualitative research conducted in a rural district on the island of Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands. Key informant interviews were conducted with community leaders, and focus groups were held with women, men and young people. Wellbeing was defined broadly. Results Problems of common concern included excessive alcohol and marijuana use, interpersonal violence and abuse, teenage pregnancy, and lack of respect and cooperation. Troubled individuals and their families sought help for mental problems from various sources including chiefs, church leaders and traditional healers and, less often, trauma support workers, health clinic staff and police. Substance-related problems presented special challenges, as there were no traditional solutions at the individual or community level. Severe mental illness was also a challenge, with few aware that a community mental health service existed. Contrary to our expectations, conflict-related trauma was not identified as a major problem by the community who were more concerned about the economic and social sequelae of the conflict. Conclusion

  1. Student Decisions to Attend Public Two-Year Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreno, Yvette; Traut, Carol Ann

    2012-01-01

    This study examined reasons for student choice of a specific community college. The site of the study is a west Texas public, two-year institution with 4,674 students, full- and part-time, as of fall 2008. The top six reasons for selection were transferability of courses, available academic programs and quality, campus location, cost, available…

  2. Environmental Sustainability Practices in Selected Publicly Supported Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posey, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods research study was to examine the environmental sustainability practices used at publicly supported community, junior, and technical college campuses in the eleven states accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools' Commission on Colleges. The Sustainability Assessment Questionnaire was emailed…

  3. School Public Relations: Communicating to the Community. Fastback 182.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinder, J. A.

    To help school administrators, this handbook suggests guidelines for establishing a school public relations (PR) program and offers techniques used by schools to communicate with the community. The introductory section stresses the need for school PR, given recent political, financial, and demographic changes. The second section outlines a master…

  4. Environmental Sustainability Practices in Selected Publicly Supported Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posey, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods research study was to examine the environmental sustainability practices used at publicly supported community, junior, and technical college campuses in the eleven states accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools' Commission on Colleges. The Sustainability Assessment Questionnaire was emailed…

  5. Health risks and changes in self-efficacy following community health screening of adults with serious mental illnesses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith A Cook

    Full Text Available Physical health screenings were conducted by researchers and peer wellness specialists for adults attending publicly-funded community mental health programs. A total of 457 adults with serious mental illnesses attended health fairs in 4 U.S. states and were screened for 8 common medical co-morbidities and health risk factors. Also assessed were self-reported health competencies, medical conditions, and health service utilization. Compared to non-institutionalized U.S. adults, markedly higher proportions screened positive for obesity (60%, hypertension (32%, diabetes (14%, smoking (44%, nicotine dependence (62%, alcohol abuse (17%, drug abuse (11%, and coronary heart disease (10%. A lower proportion screened positive for hyperlipidemia (7%. Multivariable random regression analysis found significant pre- to post-screening increases in participants' self-rated abilities for health practices, competence for health maintenance, and health locus of control. Screening identified 82 instances of undiagnosed diabetes, hypertension or hyperlipidemia, and 76 instances where these disorders were treated but uncontrolled. These results are discussed in the context of how this global public health approach holds promise for furthering the goal of integrating health and mental health care.

  6. Mental illness stigma and suicidality: the role of public and individual stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oexle, N; Waldmann, T; Staiger, T; Xu, Z; Rüsch, N

    2016-12-06

    Suicide rates are increased among unemployed individuals and mental illness stigma can contribute to both unemployment and suicidality. Persons with mental illness perceive negative attitudes among the general public and experience discrimination in their everyday life (=public stigma components) potentially leading to self-stigma and anticipated discrimination (=individual stigma components). Previous research found evidence for an association between aspects of mental illness stigma and suicidality, but has not yet clarified the underlying pathways explaining how different stigma components interact and contribute to suicidal ideation. Public and individual stigma components and their association with suicidal ideation were examined among 227 unemployed persons with mental illness. A path model linking public stigma components (experienced discrimination, perceived stigma) with suicidal ideation, mediated by individual stigma components (anticipated discrimination, self-stigma), was examined using structural equation modelling within Mplus. Our sample was equally split in terms of gender, on average 43 years old and about half reported no suicidal ideation during the past 30 days. In bivariate analyses all stigma components were significantly associated with suicidal ideation. In the path model and controlling for symptoms, the association between experienced discrimination and suicidal ideation was fully mediated by anticipated discrimination and self-stigma. Perceived stigma's contribution to suicidal ideation was fully mediated by anticipated discrimination, but not by self-stigma. In general, programmes addressing multiple stigma components seem to be most effective in improving suicide prevention. Besides interventions targeting negative attitudes and discriminating behaviours of the general public, programmes to support persons with mental illness in coping with perceived and experienced stigma could improve suicide prevention. Future studies should test

  7. Racial/Ethnic Minority Children’s Use of Psychiatric Emergency Care in California’s Public Mental Health System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Lonnie R.; Masland, Mary C.; Libby, Anne M.; Wallace, Neal; Fawley, Kya

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We examined rates and intensity of crisis services use by race/ethnicity for 351174 children younger than 18 years who received specialty mental health care from California’s 57 county public mental health systems between July 1998 and June 2001. Methods. We used fixed-effects regression for a controlled assessment of racial/ethnic disparities in children’s use of hospital-based services for the most serious mental health crises (crisis stabilization services) and community-based services for other crises (crisis intervention services). Results. African American children were more likely than were White children to use both kinds of crisis care and made more visits to hospital-based crisis stabilization services after initial use. Asian American/Pacific Islander and American Indian/Alaska Native children were more likely than were White children to use hospital-based crisis stabilization services but, along with Latino children, made fewer hospital-based crisis stabilization visits after an initial visit. Conclusions. African American children used both kinds of crisis services more than did White children, and Asian Americans/Pacific Islander and American Indians/Alaska Native children visited only when they experienced the most disruptive and troubling kind of crises, and made nonrecurring visits. PMID:18048783

  8. Mediators of the Relation Between Community Violence and Sexual Risk Behavior Among Adults Attending a Public Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Theresa E; Walsh, Jennifer L; Carey, Michael P

    2016-07-01

    Prior research shows that violence is associated with sexual risk behavior, but little is known about the relation between community violence (i.e., violence that is witnessed or experienced in one's neighborhood) and sexual risk behavior. To better understand contextual influences on HIV risk behavior, we asked 508 adult patients attending a publicly funded STI clinic in the U.S. (54 % male, M age = 27.93, 68 % African American) who were participating in a larger trial to complete a survey assessing exposure to community violence, sexual risk behavior, and potential mediators of the community violence-sexual risk behavior relation (i.e., mental health, substance use, and experiencing intimate partner violence). A separate sample of participants from the same trial completed measures of sexual behavior norms, which were aggregated to create measures of census tract sexual behavior norms. Data analyses controlling for socioeconomic status revealed that higher levels of community violence were associated with more sexual partners for men and with more episodes of unprotected sex with non-steady partners for women. For both men and women, substance use and mental health mediated the community violence-sexual risk behavior relation; in addition, for men only, experiencing intimate partner violence also mediated this relation. These results confirm that, for individuals living in communities with high levels of violence, sexual risk reduction interventions need to address intimate partner violence, substance use, and mental health to be optimally effective.

  9. Review on the Evaluation System of Public Safety Carrying Capacity about Small Town Community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming; SUN; Tianyu; ZHU

    2014-01-01

    Recently,small town community public safety problem has been increasingly highlighted,but its research is short on public safety carrying capacity. Through the investigation and study of community public safety carrying capacity,this paper analyzes the problem of community public safety in our country,to construct index evaluation system of public safety carrying capacity in small town community. DEA method is used to evaluate public safety carrying capacity in small town community,to provide scientific basis for the design of support and standardization theory about small town community in public safety planning.

  10. The detrimental impact of maladaptive personality on public mental health: a challenge for psychiatric practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pascal Hengartner

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Experts in personality psychology and personality disorders have long emphasised the pervasive and persistent detrimental impact of maladaptive personality traits on mental health and functioning. However, in routine psychiatric practice maladaptive personality is readily ignored and personality traits are seldom incorporated into clinical guidelines. The aim of this narrative review is to outline how pervasively personality influences public mental health and how personality thereby challenges common psychiatric practice. A comprehensive search and synthesis of the scientific literature demonstrates that maladaptive personality traits and personality disorders, in particular high neuroticism and negative affectivity, first, are risk factors for divorce, unemployment and disability pensioning; second, relate to the prevalence, incidence and co-occurrence of common mental disorders; third, impair functioning, symptom remission and recovery in co-occurring common mental disorders; and fourth, predispose to treatment resistance, non-response and poor treatment outcome. In conclusion, maladaptive personality is not only involved in the development and course of mental disorders, but also predisposes to chronicity and re-occurrence of psychopathology and reduces the efficacy of psychiatric treatments. The pernicious impact of maladaptive personality on mental health and functioning demands that careful assessment and thorough consideration of personality should be compulsory in psychiatric practice.

  11. The Detrimental Impact of Maladaptive Personality on Public Mental Health: A Challenge for Psychiatric Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengartner, Michael Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Experts in personality psychology and personality disorders have long emphasized the pervasive and persistent detrimental impact of maladaptive personality traits on mental health and functioning. However, in routine psychiatric practice, maladaptive personality is readily ignored and personality traits are seldom incorporated into clinical guidelines. The aim of this narrative review is to outline how pervasively personality influences public mental health and how personality thereby challenges common psychiatric practice. A comprehensive search and synthesis of the scientific literature demonstrates that maladaptive personality traits and personality disorders, in particular high neuroticism and negative affectivity, first, are risk factors for divorce, unemployment, and disability pensioning; second, relate to the prevalence, incidence, and co-occurrence of common mental disorders; third, impair functioning, symptom remission, and recovery in co-occurring common mental disorders; and fourth, predispose to treatment resistance, non-response and poor treatment outcome. In conclusion, maladaptive personality is not only involved in the development and course of mental disorders but also predisposes to chronicity and re-occurrence of psychopathology and reduces the efficacy of psychiatric treatments. The pernicious impact of maladaptive personality on mental health and functioning demands that careful assessment and thorough consideration of personality should be compulsory in psychiatric practice.

  12. Is the Community Attitudes towards the Mentally Ill scale valid for use in the investigation of European nurses' attitudes towards the mentally ill? A confirmatory factor analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Roisin; Scott, Philomena Anne; Cocoman, Angela; Chambers, Mary; Guise, Veslemøy; Välimäki, Maritta; Clinton, Gerard

    2012-02-01

    This study aimed to assess the construct validity of the Community Attitudes towards the Mentally Ill scale in the investigation of European nurses' attitudes towards mental illness and mental health patients. The harbouring of negative attitudes by nurses towards any patient can have implications for recovery. To gather robust evidence upon which to base information and education aimed at fostering acceptance, support and general positivity towards people with mental health illness, a valid and reliable system of data collection is required. A confirmatory factor analysis of both the original Community Attitudes towards the Mentally Ill scale and two modified versions of the scale were carried out during May - June 2007 using a data set representing the responses of 858 European nurses to the scale. Data were subjected to three different confirmatory factor analyses using Maximum Likelihood estimation in the software package, Analysis of Moment Structures 7. A number of absolute, relative and incremental fit statistics were used to assess the fit of the original Community Attitudes towards the Mentally Ill scale and two modified versions to the European nursing data. A modification of the scale was found to be most suitable for use in the investigation of European nurses' attitudes towards mental illness and people with mental illness. Further research is recommended to develop a valid and reliable research tool to specifically measure the attitudes of 'nurses' working across different mental healthcare facilities towards this vulnerable patient group. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Data Publication: The Role of Community-Based, Disciplinary Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Kerstin; Hsu, Leslie

    2013-04-01

    Data publication is increasingly recognized as a new paradigm to achieve broad and open access to data for their re-use while ensuring proper citation and attribution of the data to their creator. Current models of data publication include special data journals, institutional repositories, and programmatic or disciplinary repositories. This presentation focuses on the critical role that community-based disciplinary repositories should play, using the example of the IEDA data facility (www.iedadata.org). Disciplinary repositories ensure that data publication is successfully implemented and adopted by the science community, so that it can fulfill its promise to advance data reuse, enhance reproducibility of scientific results, and offer new opportunities for scientific discoveries. Disciplinary repositories are ideally poised to address the challenges that can lead to 'data reuse failure' (Rees 2010), which in turn obstruct the successful development and implementation of new data infrastructures for the sciences. Among these challenges are: professional motivation for investigators to publish the data; effort and economic burden of publication; discovery and long-term accessibility of data; adequate documentation of data provenance (measured parameters, uncertainty, reproducibility, materials, methods, data manipulation); and usability (file formats, interfaces to software tools for data analysis, visualization, modeling). The relevant function of a disciplinary repository is to coordinate and bridge the needs of its community with recognized requirements for data curation and demands of evolving technologies. IEDA meets that function, gathering regular guidance from the community, developing community-approved best practices and guidelines; providing guidance and tools to investigators that facilitate the process of data publication; and performing data quality control. IEDA's sustainable infrastructure supports the discovery and access of the data, and IEDA

  14. Parenting style, resilience, and mental health of community-dwelling elderly adults in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xue; Wu, Daxing; Nie, Xueqing; Xia, Jie; Li, Mulei; Lei, Feng; Lim, Haikel A; Kua, Ee-Heok; Mahendran, Rathi

    2016-07-08

    Given the increasing elderly population worldwide, the identification of potential determinants of successful ageing is important. Many studies have shown that parenting style and mental resilience may influence mental health; however, little is known about the psychological mechanisms that underpin this relationship. The current study sought to explore the relationships among mental resilience, perceptions of parents' parenting style, and depression and anxiety among community-dwelling elderly adults in China. In total, 439 community-dwelling elderly Chinese adults aged 60-91 years completed the Personal and Parents' Parenting Style Scale, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, and Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. Elderly adults whose parents preferred positive and authoritative parenting styles had higher levels of mental resilience and lower levels of depression and anxiety. Elderly adults parented in the authoritarian style were found to have higher levels of depression and anxiety, with lower mental resilience. The findings of this study provide evidence related to successful ageing and coping with life pressures, and highlight the important effects of parenting on mental health. The results suggest that examination of the proximal determinants of successful ageing is not sufficient-distal factors may also contribute to the 'success' of ageing by modifying key psychological dispositions that promote adaptation to adversity.

  15. Stakeholders' perspectives on community-based participatory research to enhance mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Andrew D; Byrd, Ronald; Claggett, Eddrena; DeVeaux, Sandra; Perkins, Reno; Huang, Cindy; Sernyak, Michael J; Steiner, Jeanne L; Cole, Robert; LaPaglia, Donna M; Bailey, Margaret; Buchanan, Candace; Johnson, Avon; Kaufman, Joy S

    2014-12-01

    Historically, consumers of mental health services have not been given meaningful roles in research and change efforts related to the services they use. This is quickly changing as scholars and a growing number of funding bodies now call for greater consumer involvement in mental health services research and improvement. Amidst these calls, community-based participatory research (CBPR) has emerged as an approach which holds unique promise for capitalizing on consumer involvement in mental health services research and change. Yet, there have been few discussions of the value added by this approach above and beyond that of traditional means of inquiry and enhancement in adult mental health services. The purpose of this paper is to add to this discussion an understanding of potential multilevel and multifaceted benefits associated with consumer-involved CBPR. This is accomplished through presenting the first-person accounts of four stakeholder groups who were part of a consumer-involved CBPR project purposed to improve the services of a local community mental health center. We present these accounts with the hope that by illustrating the unique outcomes associated with CBPR, there will be invigorated interest in CBPR as a vehicle for consumer involvement in adult mental health services research and enhancement.

  16. Does community care work? A model to evaluate the effectiveness of mental health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovaglio Piergiorgio

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of community Mental Health Departments in Lombardy (Italy, and analyse the eventual differences in outcome produced by different packages of care. The survey was conducted in 2000 on 4,712 patients treated in ten Mental Health Departments. Patients were assessed at least twice in a year with HoNOS (Health of the Nation Outcome Scales. Data on treatment packages were drawn from the regional mental health information system, which includes all outpatient and day-care contacts, as well as general hospital and inpatient admissions provided by Mental Health Departments. Multilevel growth models were used for outcomes statistical analysis, expressed in terms of change of the total HoNOS score. On the whole, Mental Health Departments were effective in reducing HoNOS scores. The main predictor of improvement was treatment, while length of care, gender and diagnosis were weaker predictors. After severity adjustment, some packages of care proved more effective than others. Appropriate statistical methods, comprehensive treatment descriptions and routine outcome assessment tools are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of community mental health services in clinical settings.

  17. Tackling community integration in mental health home visit integration in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raitakari, Suvi; Haahtela, Riikka; Juhila, Kirsi

    2016-09-01

    Integration - and its synonym inclusion - is emphasised in the western welfare states and in the European Union in particular. Integration is also a central topic in the social sciences and in current mental health and homelessness research and practice. As mental healthcare has shifted from psychiatric hospitals to the community, it has inevitably become involved with housing and integration issues. This article explores how community integration is understood and tackled in mental health floating support services (FSSs) and, more precisely, in service user-practitioner home visit interaction. The aim, through shedding light on how the idea of integration is present and discussed in front-line mental health practices, is to offer a 'template' on how we might, in a systematic and reflective way, develop community integration research and practice. The analysis is based on ethnomethodological and micro-sociological interaction research. The research settings are two FSSs located in a large Finnish city. The data contain 24 audio-recorded and transcribed home visits conducted in 2011 and 2012 with 16 different service users. The study shows how the participants in service user-practitioner interaction give meaning to community integration and make decisions about how it should (or should not) be enhanced in each individual case. This activity is called community integration work in action. Community integration work in action is based on various dimensions of integration: getting out of the house, participating in group activities and getting along with those involved in one's life and working life. Additionally, the analysis demonstrates how community integration work is accomplished by discursive devices (resistance, positioning, excuses and justifications, delicacy and advice-giving). The article concludes that community integration is about interaction: it is not only service users' individual challenge but also a social challenge, our challenge.

  18. Economic hardships in adulthood and mental health in Sweden. the Swedish National Public Health Survey 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahnquist Johanna

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Possible accumulative effects of a combined economic hardship's measure, including both income and non-income related economic hardships measures, on mental health has not been well investigated. The aim of this paper was to investigate; (i independent associations between multiple measures of economic hardships and mental health problems, and (ii associations between a combined economic hardships measure and mental health problems. Methods We analysed data from the 2009 Swedish National Survey of Public Health comprising a randomly selected representative national sample combined with a randomly selected supplementary sample from four county councils and three municipalities consisting of 23,153 men and 28,261 women aged 16-84 years. Mental health problems included; psychological distress (GHQ-12, severe anxiety and use of antidepressant medication. Economic hardship was measured by a combined economic hardships measure including low household income, inability to meet expenses and lacking cash reserves. Results The results from multivariate adjusted (age, country of birth, educational level, occupational status, employment status, family status and long term illness logistic regression analysis indicate that self-reported current economic difficulties (inability to pay for ordinary bills and lack of cash reserves, were significantly associated with both women's and men's mental health problems (all indicators, while low income was not. In addition, we found a statistically significant graded association between mental health problems and levels of economic hardships. Conclusions The findings indicate that indicators of self-reported current economic difficulties seem to be more strongly associated with poor mental health outcomes than the more conventional measure low income. Furthermore, the likelihood of mental health problems differed significantly in a graded fashion in relation to levels of economic hardships.

  19. Testing a health impact assessment tool by assessing community opinion about a public park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengpraprom, Sarunya; Bualert, Surat; Sithisarankul, Pornchai

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess a health impact assessment (HIA) tool to determine the perceived health impact by the public of a public park. The authors conducted a cross-sectional study from March to April, 2011, using this HIA questionnaire to collect data and through focus group discussions. We also assessed community concerns about the park and obtained recommendations of how to mitigate possible negative aspects of the parks. Four aspects were listed as possible benefits of the park: physical, mental, social, and spiritual health. The negative aspects mentioned by participants were that a park could be a potential place of assembly for teenagers, a place for theft and crime and accidents among children. The HIA tool used for this research seemed appropriate. The next challenge is to use this tool to assess a more controversial project.

  20. Context matters: community characteristics and mental health among war-affected youth in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S; McBain, Ryan; Newnham, Elizabeth A; Brennan, Robert T

    2014-03-01

    Worldwide, over one billion children and adolescents live in war-affected settings. At present, only limited research has investigated linkages between disrupted social ecology and adverse mental health outcomes among war-affected youth. In this study, we examine three community-level characteristics - social disorder and collective efficacy within the community, as reported by caregivers, and perceived stigma as reported by youth - in relation to externalizing behaviors and internalizing symptoms among male and female former child soldiers in postconflict Sierra Leone. A total of 243 former child soldiers (30% female, mean age at baseline: 16.6 years) and their primary caregivers participated in interviews in 2004 and 2008, as part of a larger prospective cohort study of war-affected youth in Sierra Leone. Two-point growth models were estimated to examine the relationship between community-level characteristics and externalizing and internalizing outcomes across the time points. Both social disorder within the community, reported by caregivers, and perceived stigma, reported by youth, positively covaried with youths' externalizing and internalizing scores - indicating that higher levels of each at baseline and follow-up were associated with higher levels of mental health problems at both time points (p mental health outcomes was nonsignificant (p > .05). This study offers a rare glimpse into the role that the postconflict social context plays in shaping the mental health among former child soldiers. Results indicate that both social disorder and perceived stigma within the community demonstrate an important relationship to externalizing and internalizing problems among adolescent ex-combatants. Moreover, these relationships persisted over a 4-year period of follow-up. These results underscore the importance of the postconflict social environment and the need to develop postconflict interventions that address community-level processes in addition to the needs

  1. Utilisation of community pharmacists by the general public in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Siew Siang; Lim, Kien Ping; Lee, Hong Gee

    2013-02-01

    The study was conducted to assess how the general public in the Klang Valley, Malaysia, utilised community pharmacists. This was a prospective observational study which documented interactions between community pharmacists and their customers. A researcher was stationed in 10 participating community pharmacies around the Klang Valley to observe and record all the interactions, using a structured data-collection form. KEYS FINDINGS: Interactions between 1914 customers and the pharmacists of the 10 community pharmacies were recorded. A total of 2199 requests were made by these customers. The main types of request were for medications by brand name (32.2%), advice on minor health problems (25.9%) and for health supplements (11.7%). Only 65 prescriptions were received by the community pharmacies; that is, fewer than two prescriptions per pharmacy per day. The pharmacists provided counselling for only 54.4% of the requests where a medication or health supplement was dispensed. Counselling by pharmacist was significantly associated with the type of request (P Malaysia was to purchase a particular medication. Few prescriptions were filled at community pharmacies in Malaysia, indicating the under-utilisation of community pharmacists as a safety net for prescribed medications in primary care. © 2012 The Authors. IJPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  2. Developing community mental health services for indigenous people of northern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, J A

    1991-01-01

    Inadequacies of three common models of mental health service delivery have been presented but each of these can contribute to an adequate system if the approach aims at the totality of mental health care. The key to service delivery and the provision of services in the local community by adequately trained and supervised mental health workers familiar with the culture and language and who are involved with other community workers in an inter-agency process. A major and the most important part of the work occurs in this level. This front line work must have the back-up and support of the system which has three roots. The clinical root is that of a support team of professionals, the local nursing station, hospital and the tertiary institutions. The second root is in training and education by recognized courses and other resources and the third in an adequate administration in which the indigenous population has been put in control.

  3. Providing mental health services to older people living in rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Allan V; Scogin, Forrest R; Burgio, Louis D; Morthland, Martin P; Ford, Bryan K

    2007-01-01

    Rural dwelling elders who experience mental health problems often have difficulty finding help since rural communities often lack adequate mental health service providers. This paper reports on the initial phase of a 5-year, interdisciplinary clinical research study that is testing the effectiveness of providing a home delivered, therapeutic psychosocial intervention, aimed at improving the emotional wellbeing and the quality of life of medically frail elders who live in rural communities. In the early phases of this study, the clinical research team encountered a number of interesting and often unanticipated challenges as it attempted to recruit study participants and provide services to them. In this article, we examine these challenges and share what we have learned so far about providing mental health services to elderly persons living in rural environments.

  4. Clinical Problems in Community Mental Health Care for Patients with Severe Borderline Personality Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Koekkoek; B. van Meijel; A. Schene; G. Hutschemaekers

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this research was to assess the problems that professionals perceive in the community mental health care for patients with severe borderline personality disorder that do not fit into specialized therapy. A group of national experts (n = 8) participated in a four-phase Delphi-procedu

  5. Screening for Osteoporosis in Community-Dwelling Adults with Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Carl V., Jr.; Snyder, Clint W.; Zyzanski, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    Osteoporosis screening of 107 adults, ages 40 to 60, with mental retardation who attended community-based training centers found 21 percent had osteoporosis and 34 percent had osteopenia. The most significant predictor of lower bone mineral densities were Down syndrome, mobility status, and race. (Contains references.) (Author/DB)

  6. Toward Family and Community: Mental Retardation Services in Massachusetts, New England, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braddock, David; Hemp, Richard

    1997-01-01

    Current trends in mental retardation services in Massachusetts were investigated using the New England region, the state of Michigan, and the United States as comparative frames of reference. Massachusetts' movement toward reducing reliance on state institutions, reallocating funding, and developing community services and family support is…

  7. Ethical Issues and Considerations for Working with Community College Students with Severe and Persistent Mental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Perry C.; Abbassi, Amir

    2010-01-01

    Students with severe and persistent mental illnesses (e.g., schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders; moderate to severe mood, anxiety, dissociative, eating, or personality disorders) are attending community colleges in increasing numbers. Their need for counseling services presents counseling centers with unique ethical issues to consider. This…

  8. Impact of Maltreatment on Children Served in Community Mental Health Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walrath, Christine M.; Ybarra, Michele L.; Sheehan, Angela K.; Holden, E. Wayne; Burns, Barbara J.

    2006-01-01

    Despite a decline in the incidence of child abuse over the last decade, victimization rates remain troubling. This study used a subset of data from the national evaluation of the Comprehensive Community Mental Health Services for Children and Their Families Program to investigate and compare the demographic, psychosocial, and service use…

  9. Predicting initial client engagement with community mental health services by routinely measured data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeg, Diana; van de Goor, Ien; Garretsen, Henk

    2015-01-01

    Engagement is a determinant of how well a person will respond to professional input. This study investigates whether, in practice, routinely measured data predict initial client engagement with community mental health services. Engagement, problem severity, client characteristics, and duration before the first contact were measured at team entrance with clients (n = 529) of three community mental health teams. Regression analysis was used to predict engagement. Gender, age, referrer, having children, having a partner, and ethnicity showed a minor relationship with engagement. Higher problem severity measured by the team members with the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales, being referred for having psychiatric problems and/or causing severe and long-lasting trouble (as 'assessed' by the often non-professional referrer), and a longer duration between enrollment and the first conversation with a client, were indicative for a lower engagement. The final model explained 19.2 % of the variance in engagement. It can be concluded that initial client engagement with community mental health services can be predicted, in part, by routinely measured data. The findings can be used by community mental healthcare teams to create an awareness system.

  10. Community Mental Health Service Providers' Codes of Ethics and the "Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacc, Nicholas A.; Juhnke, Gerald A.; Nilsen, Keith A.

    2001-01-01

    Compares the codes of ethics of 13 professional organizations for community mental health service providers. Results suggest that only two of the codes of ethics address many of the "Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing." Provides implications and recommendations for professional organizations. (Contains 20 references and…

  11. The Relationship between Caregiver Capacity and Intensive Community Treatment for Children with a Mental Health Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Richard A.; Jordan, Neil; Rhee, Yong Joo; McClelland, Gary M.; Lyons, John S.

    2009-01-01

    We studied 9,220 children referred to a comprehensive mental health crisis stabilization program to examine the impact of caregiver capacity on crisis worker decisions to refer children for intensive community-based treatment as opposed to inpatient psychiatric hospitalization. Due to the different role of caregivers in the child welfare system,…

  12. Urban and non-urban differences in community living and participation among individuals with serious mental illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Greg; Brusilovskiy, Eugene; Salzer, Mark S

    2017-03-01

    Despite a wealth of studies examining the relationship between urbanicity (i.e., living in an urban area) and psychological distress, there is a paucity of research examining the relationship between urbanicity, community living, and community participation of adults with serious mental illnesses. This study addresses this knowledge gap by assessing urban and non-urban differences in community participation, sense of community, mental health stigma, and perceptions of the neighborhood environment among individuals with serious mental illnesses living independently throughout the United States. A total of 300 individuals with serious mental illnesses recruited from 21 outpatient mental health service organizations in 15 states completed a phone survey about their community living and participation experiences. Urbanicity was examined at two spatial scales (block group and county), and independent-samples t-tests were employed to assess urban and non-urban differences in community living and participation variables. Levels of community participation and perceptions of neighborhood quality and crime were higher in urban block groups; sense of community was higher in urban counties; and perceptions of mental health stigma were higher in non-urban counties. Results inform the methodological literature on best practices for assessing urbanicity, as well as interventions aimed at increasing community participation and improving aspects of the built and social environment that affect individuals who experience mental health distress.

  13. Development of Community Mental Health Services: The Case of Emilia‐Romagna Italian Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Fioritti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Italian psychiatry has gained International attention after its radical reform of 1978, which established the progressive closure of mental hospitals and the establishment of community services throughout the country. However it is technically inappropriate to talk about Italian psychiatry as the devolution process has transferred to the regions all competences about policy, planning and evaluating health services. This explains the variety of “community psychiatries” that can be found along the peninsula and the reasons of interest that can arise from their comparison. The development of community psychiatry in Emilia‐Romagna, a region of 4 million inhabitants in Northern Italy, has proceeded through two partially overlapping phases of deinstitutionalization (1978‐1997 and development of integrated mental health departments (1990‐2008. The analysis of raw data about allocation of resources and professional capital development give way to tentative comparisons with the current Portuguese situation of implementation of a similar reform. In 2006 the regional Council launched a three year project aimed at rethinking the welfare system and the integration of social and health services, considering the dramatic social and demographic changes occurring in the region. This project has implied also a three year process of redrafting mental health policy finalised in the Emilia‐Romagna Mental Health Action Plan 2009‐2011 approved by the council in March 2009. It basically follows two strategies: integration of health and social services and further qualification of health services. The former is pursued through a reshaping of the planning and commissioning bodies of both health and social services, previously separated and now merging. They are taking responsibility on many issues related to mental health care, such as prevention, mental health promotion, supported employment, supported housing, subsidies, self‐help. The improvement of

  14. Mental health impacts of racial discrimination in Australian culturally and linguistically diverse communities: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdinand, Angeline S; Paradies, Yin; Kelaher, Margaret

    2015-04-18

    Racial discrimination denies those from racial and ethnic minority backgrounds access to rights such as the ability to participate equally and freely in community and public life, equitable service provision and freedom from violence. Our study was designed to examine how people from racial and ethnic minority backgrounds in four Australian localities experience and respond to racial discrimination, as well as associated health impacts. Data were collected from 1,139 Australians regarding types of racial discrimination experienced, settings for these incidents, response mechanisms and psychological distress as measured by the Kessler 6 (K6) Psychological Distress Scale. Age, education, religion, gender, visibility and rurality were all significantly associated with differences in the frequency of experiencing racial discrimination. Experiencing racial discrimination was associated with worse mental health. Mental health impacts were not associated with the type of discriminatory experience, but experiencing racial discrimination in shops and in employment and government settings was associated with being above the threshold for high or very high psychological distress. One out of twelve response mechanisms was found to be associated with lower stress following a discriminatory incident. Study results indicate that poorer mental health was associated with the volume of discrimination experienced, rather than the type of experience. However, the impact of experiencing discrimination in some settings was shown to be particularly associated with high or very high psychological distress. Our findings suggest that interventions designed to prevent the occurrence of racism have more potential to increase mental health in racial and ethnic minority communities than interventions that work with individuals in response to experiencing racism.

  15. Predicting Adaptive Functioning of Mentally Retarded Persons in Community Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, John T.; Thompson, Joy C.

    1980-01-01

    The impact of a variety of individual, residential, and community variables on adaptive functioning of 369 retarded persons (18 to 73 years old) was examined using a multiple regression analysis. Individual characteristics (especially IQ) accounted for 21 percent of the variance, while environmental variables, primarily those related to…

  16. Barriers and facilitators of a healthy lifestyle among persons with serious and persistent mental illness: perspectives of community mental health providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibbin, Christine L; Kitchen, Katherine A; Wykes, Thomas L; Lee, Aaron A

    2014-07-01

    The investigators used qualitative methods to examine perspectives of community mental health professionals on obesity management in adults with serious mental illness (SMI). Data from 5 focus groups were subjected to constant comparison analysis and grounded theory. Results showed that influences at individual, social, community, and societal levels impact development and maintenance of obesity. Mental health providers desired a collaborative relationship with health promotion program staff. They also believed that frequent, group-based health promotion should include participation incentives for adults with SMI and should occur over durations of at least 6-months to achieve improved health outcomes for this population.

  17. Community Gardens as Health Promoters: Effects on Mental and Physical Stress Levels in Adults with and without Mental Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugrahaning Sani Dewi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on psychological and physical effects of stress while performing community garden activities of various intensity levels. The aim of this study was to determine the psychological and physical effects in adults with (case group and without (control group mental disabilities. Salivary α-amylase (sAA levels and the stress response scale (SRS-18 were used for the psychological analysis (n = 42. For physical assessment (n = 13, electrocardiogram (ECG, surface electromyogram (sEMG, and respiration rate were continuously measured while performing the activities using a multichannel telemetry system. The results showed that following the activities, the case group exhibited decreasing sAA levels while control group exhibited increasing sAA levels. However, both groups exhibited lower SRS-18 results following the activities. Compared with the control group, the case group had a significantly lower increase in the ratio of the heart rate (IRHR (5.5% during low-intensity work (filling pots with soil, but a significantly higher IRHR (16.7% during high-intensity work (turning over soil. The case group experienced significantly higher levels of fatigue during high-intensity work (digging than during the rest condition. These findings indicate that appropriate workload allocation, according to health, is necessary in the community garden setting because reducing the intensity of work assignments for people with mental disabilities will reduce their physical stress.

  18. Factors influencing the career choice and retention of community mental health workers in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyapong, Vincent I O; Osei, Akwasi; Farren, Conor K; McAuliffe, Eilish

    2015-07-09

    Whilst there have been several studies exploring retention in health workers, little is known about health workers engaged in the provision of mental health services and the factors that affect their recruitment and retention. The objective of this research was to examine the views of stakeholders about the factors which influence career choices and retention of community mental health workers (CMHWs) in Ghana. We administered three separate, self-administered, semi-structured questionnaires to 11 psychiatrists, 29 health policy directors and 164 CMHWs across Ghana, including 71 (43.3%) community psychiatric nurses (CPNs), 19 (11.6%) clinical psychiatric officers (CPOs) and 74 (45.1%) community mental health officers (CMHOs). Overall, 34 (20.7%) of all CMHWs chose to work in mental health because of the job prospects in mental healthcare. Overall, 12 (16.2%) CMHOs, 1 (5.3%) CPO and 20 (28.2%) CPNs reported they had considered leaving the mental health profession because of the stigma, with 4 (36.4%) psychiatrists and 12 (41.4%) health policy coordinators also reporting that they knew some CMHWs who had considered leaving the mental health profession because of stigma. Similarly, 16 (21.6%) CMHOs, 4 (22.1%) CPOs and 38 (53.5%) CPNs said they had considered leaving the mental health profession because of concerns about risk. Furthermore, 6 (54.5%) psychiatrists and 3 (10.3%) health policy directors said they knew some CMHWs who had considered leaving the mental health profession because of concerns about risk. Overall, 61 (37.2%) of CMHWs reported that they have considered leaving the mental health profession for other reasons other than stigma and risk including the following: the lack of support, respect and recognition from healthcare managers, lack of opportunities for professional development and poor conditions of service including low salaries, lack of office and personal accommodation and lack of risk allowance and transportation as well as poor inter

  19. Community attitudes and social distance towards the mentally ill in South Sudan: a survey from a post-conflict setting with no mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayazi, Touraj; Lien, Lars; Eide, Arne; Shadar, Elizabeth Joseph Shadar; Hauff, Edvard

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates attitudes and social distance towards the mentally ill in a post-conflict, low-income country. A cross-sectional community survey (n = 1,200) was conducted in South Sudan. Associations between various sociodemographic variables and attitudes toward/social distance from the mentally ill were investigated. The regression analysis showed that lower levels of education were positively associated with social distance, and Christian or Muslim beliefs, compared with traditional beliefs, were negatively associated with social distance. Familiarity with mental illness or psychological distress was not significantly associated with social distance. Participants who endorsed community-oriented attitudes (rather than hospital/drug-oriented attitudes) about health care for the mentally ill were more likely show a decreased social distance. Participants who believed that the mentally ill were dangerous had higher scores on the social distance scale. A high level of stigma towards the mentally ill exists in South Sudan, especially in the rural areas. Alongside efforts to build up mental health services in South Sudan, the existing stigma needs to be addressed. Information regarding the role of the community both in preventing mental illnesses and in service delivery should be prioritised.

  20. Public discourse on mental health and psychiatry: Representations in Swedish newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Mass media plays a central role in shaping public discourse on health and illness. In order to examine media representations of mental health and expert knowledge in this field, two major Swedish daily newspapers from the year 2009 were qualitatively analysed. Drawing on the theory of social representations, the analysis focused on how issues concerning mental health and different perspectives are represented. The results show how the concept of mental illness is used in different and often taken-for-granted ways and how the distinction between normal and pathological is a central underlying question. Laypersons' perspectives are supplemented by views of professionals in the newspapers, where signs of confidence and dependence on expert knowledge are juxtaposed with critique and expressions of distrust. The newspaper discourse thus has salient argumentative features and the way that conflicts are made explicit and issues concerning authoritative knowledge are addressed indicates ambivalence towards the authoritative role of expert knowledge concerning mental health. In this way, the newspapers provide a complex epistemic context for everyday sense-making that can be assumed to have implications for relations between laypersons and professionals in the field of mental health.

  1. Public Relations in the Community College: How to Start up an Operation, Determine the Program, and Master the Skills of Community College Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Richard L., Ed.

    This nine-chapter manual provides a practical guide to community college public relations (PR) for PR officers with expanding responsibilities. Chapter I explores the philosophy of community college public relations, considering the issue of community, the role of the PR director, and potential problem areas. Chapters II and III provide guidelines…

  2. The challenge of inclusion in mental health: an analysis of a community center and its work with social bonds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ardila-Gómez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Social inclusion is a key component of transformations in mental health care, because it takes into account the benefits of community life for both those with mental illness and the other members of the community. In order to understand the scope of inclusion within mental health, 45 participants of a community center linked to a psychiatric hospital discharge program which explicitly seeks to provide social inclusion were interviewed. The possible changes in social relationships between users and other community members based in their sustained daily interactions in the community center were explored. Results suggest that the building of social bonds, as part of informal support networks, is one of the benefits of attending the community center. Positive changes in ideas regarding people with “mental illness” were also observed, although these ideas seemed to be more connected to the notion of integration than to social inclusion.

  3. [The challenge of inclusion in mental health: an analysis of a community center and its work with social bonds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila-Gómez, Sara; Hartfiel, María Isabel; Fernández, Marina A; Ares Lavalle, Guadalupe; Borelli, Mariana; Stolkiner, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    Social inclusion is a key component of transformations in mental health care, because it takes into account the benefits of community life for both those with mental illness and the other members of the community. In order to understand the scope of inclusion within mental health, 45 participants of a community center linked to a psychiatric hospital discharge program which explicitly seeks to provide social inclusion were interviewed. The possible changes in social relationships between users and other community members based in their sustained daily interactions in the community center were explored. Results suggest that the building of social bonds, as part of informal support networks, is one of the benefits of attending the community center. Positive changes in ideas regarding people with "mental illness" were also observed, although these ideas seemed to be more connected to the notion of integration than to social inclusion.

  4. Democratic Public Discourse in the Coming Autarchic Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe-Ilie Farte

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to tackle the problem of living together – as dignified human beings – in a certain territory in the field of social philosophy, on the theoretical grounding ensured by some remarkable exponents of the Austrian School − and by means of the praxeologic method. Because political tools diminish the human nature not only of those who use them, but also of those who undergo their effects, people can live a life worthy of a human being only as members of some autarchic or self-governing communities. As a spontaneous order, every autarchic community is inherently democratic, inasmuch as it makes possible free involvement, peaceful coordination, free expression and the free reproduction of ideas. The members of autarchic communities are moral individuals who avoid aggression, practice self-control, seek a dynamical efficiency and establish (together with their fellow human beings a democratic public discourse.

  5. California K-12 School and Community Collaborations: Facilitators, Challenges, and Impact on Student Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodbridge, Michelle W.; Yu, Jennifer; Goldweber, Asha; Golan, Shari; Stein, Bradley D.

    2015-01-01

    Across the education, public health, and human and social services arenas, there has been renewed interest in bringing agency representatives together to work on the promotion of student mental health and wellness. When effective, it is believed that collaboration among agencies can build cross-system partnerships, improve referral processes and…

  6. Understanding community psychosocial needs after disasters: Implications for mental health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silove Derrick

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The psychosocial impact of disasters has attracted increasing attention. There is little consensus, however, about what priorities should be pursued in relation to mental health interventions, with most controversy surrounding the relevance of traumatic stress to mental health. The present overview suggests that acute traumatic stress may be a normative response to life threat which tends to subside once conditions of safety are established. At the same time, there is a residual minority of survivors who will continue to experience chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and their needs can be easily overlooked. The ADAPT model offers an expanded perspective on the psychosocial systems undermined by disasters, encompassing threats to safety and security; interpersonal bonds; systems of justice; roles and identities; and institutions that promote meaning and coherence. Social reconstruction programs that are effective in repairing these systems maximize the capacity of communities and individuals to recover spontaneously from various forms of stress. Within that broad recovery context, clinical mental health services can focus specifically on those psychologically disturbed persons who are at greatest survival risk. Only a minority of persons with acute traumatic stress fall into that category, the remainder comprising those with severe behavioural disturbances arising from psychosis, organic brain disorders, severe mood disorders and epilepsy. Establishing mental health services that are community-based, family-focused and culturally sensitive in the post-emergency phase can create a model that helps shape future mental health policy for countries recovering from disaster.

  7. Television and the promotion of mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Milošević Ljiljana

    2011-01-01

    Current media campaigns, realized within national campaigns and actions on mental health prevention and promotion, are considered in this paper, in the context of expert public relation, as well as the whole society, towards mental health. Mental health promotion is determined as a range of activities by which individuals, community and society are being enabled to take control over mental health determinants and to improve it, but also as an action for improvement of mental health posi...

  8. Television and the promotion of mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Milošević Ljiljana

    2011-01-01

    Current media campaigns, realized within national campaigns and actions on mental health prevention and promotion, are considered in this paper, in the context of expert public relation, as well as the whole society, towards mental health. Mental health promotion is determined as a range of activities by which individuals, community and society are being enabled to take control over mental health determinants and to improve it, but also as an action for improvement of mental health posi...

  9. Longitudinal Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response to Wildfire, Bastrop County, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Katie R; Feldt, Bonnie A; Zane, David F; Haywood, Tracy; Jones, Russell W; Horney, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    On September 4, 2011, a wildfire ignited in Bastrop County, Texas, resulting in losses of 34,068 acres of land and 1,645 homes and 2 deaths. At the request of the Texas Department of State Health Services Health Service Region 7 and the Bastrop County Office of Emergency Management, Community Assessments for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) were conducted in the weeks following the wildfire and again 3.5 years later to assess both the immediate and long-term public health and preparedness impacts of the wildfire. The objective of these assessments was to learn more about the trajectory of disaster recovery, including rebuilding, evacuation, household emergency planning, and mental and physical health outcomes among both adults and children. In 2015, households exposed to the 2011 wildfires were significantly more likely to have established a family meeting place and evacuation route, to have confidence in the local government's ability to respond to disaster, and to report symptoms of depression and higher stress. Longitudinal assessments using the CASPER method can provide actionable information for improved planning, preparedness, and recovery to public health and emergency management agencies and community residents.

  10. Factors influencing mental health providers' intention to use telepsychotherapy in First Nations communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monthuy-Blanc, Johana; Bouchard, Stéphane; Maïano, Christophe; Séguin, Monique

    2013-04-01

    Telemental health is the use of information and communications technologies and broadband networks to deliver mental health services and support wellness. Although numerous studies have demonstrated the efficiency and utility of telemental health, certain barriers may impede its implementation, including the attitudes of mental health service providers. The current study draws on the technology acceptance model (TAM) to understand the role of mental health service providers' attitudes and perceptions of telemental health (psychotherapy delivered via videoconferencing) on their intention to use this technology with their patients. A sample of 205 broadly defined mental health service providers working on 32 First Nations reserves in the province of Quebec completed the questionnaire adapted to assess TAM for telepsychotherapy. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling provided evidence for the factor validity and reliability of the TAM in this sample. The key predictor of the intention to use telepsychotherapy was not mental health providers' attitude toward telepsychotherapy, nor how much they expected this service to be complicated to use, but essentially how useful they expect it to be for their First Nations patients. If telemental health via videoconferencing is to be implemented in First Nations communities, it is essential to thoroughly demonstrate its utility to mental health providers. Perceived usefulness will have a positive impact on attitudes toward this technology, and perceived ease of use will positively influence perceived usefulness. Cultural issues specific to the populations receiving telemental health services may be more efficiently addressed from the angle of perceived usefulness.

  11. Developing quality indicators for family support services in community team-based mental health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serene Olin, S; Kutash, Krista; Pollock, Michele; Burns, Barbara J; Kuppinger, Anne; Craig, Nancy; Purdy, Frances; Armusewicz, Kelsey; Wisdom, Jennifer; Hoagwood, Kimberly E

    2014-01-01

    Quality indicators for programs integrating parent-delivered family support services for children's mental health have not been systematically developed. Increasing emphasis on accountability under the Affordable Care Act highlights the importance of quality-benchmarking efforts. Using a modified Delphi approach, quality indicators were developed for both program level and family support specialist level practices. These indicators were pilot tested with 21 community-based mental health programs. Psychometric properties of these indicators are reported; variations in program and family support specialist performance suggest the utility of these indicators as tools to guide policies and practices in organizations that integrate parent-delivered family support service components.

  12. Breaking ground: combining community service, critical thinking, and writing in a mental health clinical course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, D; Schlotman, E; Siwinski-Hebel, S

    1997-04-01

    This article describes the experience of a team of nursing educators who, over the course of 2 years, redesigned the delivery of an undergraduate nursing clinical course to reflect the changing face of mental health care near the turn of this century. Case studies of student learning experiences show the value of nontraditional clinical settings such as homeless shelters to the professional growth and training of nursing students. Recommendations offer practical advice for combining nontraditional community-based clinical experiences with critical thinking exercises as key components of the mental health clinical course delivery.

  13. Recovery Communities of Practice: An Innovative Strategy for Mental Health System Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piat, Myra; Briand, Catherine; Bates, Eloise; Labonté, Lise

    2016-01-01

    This column describes the development of a "community of practice" (CoP) in Quebec, which was implemented in 2012 to promote recovery-oriented practices in mental health care. A group of diverse stakeholders work together to share and transfer knowledge; support diverse practices, strategies, and solutions; develop a culture of collaboration; mobilize opportunities for quality improvement; and influence decision-making bodies. Recent efforts have been successful: the provision of recovery-oriented services is the primary focus of the 2015-2020 Quebec Mental Health Action Plan.

  14. Burnout and Self-Reported Quality of Care in Community Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyers, Michelle P.; Fukui, Sadaaki; Rollins, Angela L.; Firmin, Ruth; Gearhart, Timothy; Noll, James P.; Williams, Stacy; Davis, C.J.

    2014-01-01

    Staff burnout is widely believed to be problematic in mental healthcare, but few studies have linked burnout directly with quality of care. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between burnout and a newly developed scale for quality of care in a sample of community mental health workers (N=113). The Self-Reported Quality of Care scale had three distinct factors (Client-Centered Care, General Work Conscientiousness, and Low Errors), with good internal consistency. Burnout, particularly personal accomplishment, and to a lesser extent depersonalization, were predictive of overall self-reported Quality of Care, over and above background variables. PMID:24659446

  15. Service users' expectations of treatment and support at the Community Mental Health Centre in their recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biringer, Eva; Davidson, Larry; Sundfør, Bengt; Ruud, Torleif; Borg, Marit

    2016-08-03

    Focus on service users' needs, coping and empowerment, user involvement, and comprehensiveness are supposed to be key elements of the Community Mental Health Centres in Norway. Taking a user-oriented approach means acknowledging the individual's own expectations, aims and hopes. However, studies that have investigated service users' expectations of treatment and support at Community Mental Health Centres are hard to find. The aim of the study was therefore to explore service users' expectations at the start of treatment at a Community Mental Health Centre. Within a collaborative framework, taking a hermeneutic-phenomenological approach, ten service users participated in in-depth interviews about their expectations, hopes and aims for treatment and recovery. The participants sought help due to various mental health issues that had interfered with their lives and created disability and suffering. A data-driven stepwise approach in line with thematic analysis was used. The study was approved by the Norwegian Social Science Data Services. The following four main themes representing participants' expectations at the start of treatment were elicited: hope for recovery, developing understanding, finding tools for coping and receiving counselling and practical assistance. Participants' expectations about treatment were tightly interwoven with their personal aims and hopes for their future life, and expectations were often related to practical and financial problems, the solution of which being deemed necessary to gain a safe basis for recovery in the long run. The transferability of the results may be limited by the small number of participants. The study emphasises how important it is that service users' personal aims and expectations guide the collaborative treatment process. In addition to providing treatment aimed at improving symptoms, Community Mental Health Centres should take a more comprehensive approach than today by providing more support with family issues

  16. A Two-Year Multidisciplinary Training Program for the Frontline Workforce in Community Treatment of Severe Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruud, Torleif; Flage, Karin Blix; Kolbjørnsrud, Ole-Bjørn; Haugen, Gunnar Brox; Sørlie, Tore

    2016-01-01

    Since 1999, a national two-year multidisciplinary onsite training program has been in operation in Norway. The program trains frontline workforce personnel who provide community treatment to people with severe mental illness. A national network of mental health workers, consumers, caregivers, and others providing or supporting psychosocial treatment and rehabilitation for people with severe mental illness has organized local onsite part-time training programs in collaboration with community mental health centers (CMHCs), municipalities, and primary care providers. CMHC and primary care staff are trained together to increase collaboration. Nationwide dissemination has continued, with new local programs established every year. Evaluations have shown that the program is successful.

  17. 社区居民心理健康预警及干预机制探讨%Early warning and intervention mechanism for mental health of community residents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟文娟; 王仕关; 桂艳

    2009-01-01

    心理卫生问题已成为公共卫生问题和突出的社会问题.社区居民心理健康预警及干预机制,是应对社区居民心理健康问题的有效机制.建议:重视并建立社区心理服务机构,完善社区心理卫生服务机构及职能,建立有效的社区心理健康卫生服务预警及治疗机制,加强健康教育、健康促进及心理卫生知识宣传工作,贯彻心理卫生工作的三级预防及三级功能方针.由此,预防社区居民心理疾病的产生,提高社区居民心理健康水平,促进我国社区精神卫生服务的建设及发展.%Mental health has emerged an outstanding problem in public health and a social problem as welL Early warning and intervention mechanism for mental health of community residents serves an effective mechanism to combat mental problems for such a population. Recommendation: Emphasize and build mental health service institutions in communities, and improve their functionality, establish an effective early warning and intervention mechanism for community mental health services in communities, enhance health education, health promotion and mental health knowledge education, and carry out the tertiary prevention and tertiary functionality principles for mental health. These measures can prevent community residents from mental illness, improve their mental health, and promote the development of mental health services in Chinas communities.

  18. Defining the activities of publicness for Korea's public community hospitals using the Delphi method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kunsei; Kim, Hyun Joo; You, Myoungsoon; Lee, Jin-Seok; Eun, Sang Jun; Jeong, Hyoseon; Ahn, Hye Mi; Lee, Jin Yong

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to identify which activities of a public community hospital (PHC) should be included in their definition of publicness and tries to achieve a consensus among experts using the Delphi method. We conduct 2 rounds of the Delphi process with 17 panel members using a developed draft of tentative activities for publicness including 5 main categories covering 27 items. The questions remain the same in both rounds and the applicability of each of the 27 items to publicness is measured on a 9-point scale. If the participants believe government funding is needed, we ask how much they think the government should support each item on a 0% to 100% scale. After conducting 2 rounds of the Delphi process, 22 out of the 27 items reached a consensus as activities defining the publicness of the PHCs. Among the 5 major categories, in category C, activities preventing market failure, all 10 items were considered activities of publicness. Nine of these were evaluated as items that should be compensated at 100% of total financial loss by the Korean government. Throughout results, we were able to define the activities of the PCH that encompassed its publicness and confirm that there are "good deficits" in the context of the PCHs. Thus, some PCH deficits are unavoidable and not wasted as these monies support a necessary role and function in providing public health. The Korean government should therefore consider taking actions such as exempting such "good deficits" or providing additional financial aid to reimburse the PHCs for "good deficits."

  19. Impact of perceived HIV stigma within men who have sex with men community on mental health of seropositive MSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Eddie S K; Mak, Winnie W S; Tam, Terence C Y; Zhu, Chen; Chung, Rita W Y

    2017-01-01

    Emerging evidence has suggested that seropositive men who have sex with men (MSM) do not only face biased treatment from the general public but also from members of the MSM community. We conceptualized such biases perpetuated within the MSM community as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in-group stigma. This study examined the pathways by which perceived HIV in-group stigma impacted the mental health of seropositive MSM in Hong Kong. Internalized HIV stigma, serostatus disclosure concerns, and negative reactions towards HIV stigma were hypothesized as intermediate factors. Based on 100 Chinese seropositive MSM who were on antiretroviral therapy, results of a path analysis partially supported our hypotheses. Only negative reactions towards HIV stigma within the MSM community was a significant intermediate factor. The findings highlight the importance of understanding seropositive MSM's different reactions to HIV stigma perpetuated within the MSM community. On top of stigma reduction research, further research may explore ways that help seropositive MSM cope with HIV in-group stigma and foster resilience.

  20. Implementing a Public Health Approach to Addressing Mental Health Needs in a University Setting: Lessons and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcover, Jason; Mays, Sally; McCarthy, Amy

    2015-01-01

    The mental health needs of college students are placing increasing demands on counseling center resources, and traditional outreach efforts may be outdated or incomplete. The public health model provides an approach for reaching more students, decreasing stigma, and addressing mental health concerns before they reach crisis levels. Implementing a…

  1. Implementing a Public Health Approach to Addressing Mental Health Needs in a University Setting: Lessons and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcover, Jason; Mays, Sally; McCarthy, Amy

    2015-01-01

    The mental health needs of college students are placing increasing demands on counseling center resources, and traditional outreach efforts may be outdated or incomplete. The public health model provides an approach for reaching more students, decreasing stigma, and addressing mental health concerns before they reach crisis levels. Implementing a…

  2. Public Knowledge and Assessment of Child Mental Health Problems: Findings from the National Stigma Study-Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescosolido, Bernice A.; Jensen, Peter S.; Martin, Jack K.; Perry, Brea L.; Olafsdottir, Sigrun; Fettes, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    The study examines the general public's perceptions of, and response to, mental disorders in children by using the National Stigma Study-Children. Results concluded that lack of knowledge, skepticism, and misinformed beliefs are the reasons for low utilization rates for children's mental health problems.

  3. The mental health of children of migrant workers in Beijing: the protective role of public school attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qin; Li, Hong; Zou, Hong; Cross, Wendi; Bian, Ran; Liu, Yan

    2015-08-01

    The present study aims to understand the mental health status of an understudied group of migrant children - children of migrant workers in China. A total of 1,466 children from Beijing participated in the study that compared migrant children (n = 1,019) to their local peers (n = 447) in public and private school settings. Results showed that overall, migrant children reported more internalizing and externalizing mental health problems and lower life satisfaction than local peers. However, public school attendance served as a protective factor for migrant children's mental health. The mental health status of migrant children attending public schools, including externalizing problems as well as friend and school satisfaction, was not different from local children. In addition, our data indicates that the protective effect of public school attendance for migrant children may be even more salient among girls than boys, and for younger children than older children.

  4. Community energy systems and the law of public utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Nebraska governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitiled ''Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities--Volume One: An Overview.'' This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  5. Public health and health education in faith communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatters, L M; Levin, J S; Ellison, C G

    1998-12-01

    This special issue of Health Education & Behavior is devoted to broadly examining the interconnections among public health, health education, and faith-based communities. In addition to a focus on questions related to the practice of public health and health education within religious settings (e.g., program development, implementation, and evaluation), the articles in this issue examine a broad range of both substantive and methodological questions and concerns. These articles include contributions that address (1) various theoretical and conceptual issues and frameworks explaining the relationships between religious involvement and health; (2) substantive reviews of current research in the area; (3) individual empirical studies exploring the associations between religious involvement and health attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors; (4) evaluations of health education programs in faith communities; and (5) religious institutions and their contributions to the development of health policy. The articles comprising the issue are selective in their coverage of the field and provide different and complementary perspectives on the connections between religious involvement and health. It is hoped that this approach will appeal to a broad audience of researchers, practitioners, policy makers, and others from health education, public health, and related social and behavioral science disciplines.

  6. The politics of public engagement – Reclaiming community?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Clancy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the tension between the rhetoric and reality of public engagement, seen through the eyes of a practitioner who has worked in both the arenas of community activism and as a public engagement broker within a UK Russell Group university over the course of the last 15 years. This has coincided with the rise to prominence of public engagement as a means of re-energising the debate about the University as an ‘ethical beacon’ and as an agent of civic and social life. This renewed engagement with ‘the public’ has created many powerful research programmes, conferences, debates, resources and toolkits, has fostered organisations and influenced policy. But has it maintained a focus on ‘community’ as a means of understanding and listening to real people, on the ground, and the issues and concerns that animate and concern them? And how far has ‘community’ been squeezed out because it is no longer part of the prevailing political discourse, supplanted by the more broadly interpreted - and possibly more palatable - concept of ‘public’? Suggestions are offered to counter possible ambivalence on the behalf of universities with regard to engaging in ‘deep’ community engagement through both historical and new articulations of adult education and democracy.

  7. A randomised controlled trial linking mental health inpatients to community smoking cessation supports: A study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clancy Richard

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental health inpatients smoke at higher rates than the general population and are disproportionately affected by tobacco dependence. Despite the advent of smoke free policies within mental health hospitals, limited systems are in place to support a cessation attempt post hospitalisation, and international evidence suggests that most smokers return to pre-admission smoking levels following discharge. This protocol describes a randomised controlled trial that will test the feasibility, acceptability and efficacy of linking inpatient smoking care with ongoing community cessation support for smokers with a mental illness. Methods/Design This study will be conducted as a randomised controlled trial. 200 smokers with an acute mental illness will be recruited from a large inpatient mental health facility. Participants will complete a baseline survey and will be randomised to either a multimodal smoking cessation intervention or provided with hospital smoking care only. Randomisation will be stratified by diagnosis (psychotic, non-psychotic. Intervention participants will be provided with a brief motivational interview in the inpatient setting and options of ongoing smoking cessation support post discharge: nicotine replacement therapy (NRT; referral to Quitline; smoking cessation groups; and fortnightly telephone support. Outcome data, including cigarettes smoked per day, quit attempts, and self-reported 7-day point prevalence abstinence (validated by exhaled carbon monoxide, will be collected via blind interview at one week, two months, four months and six months post discharge. Process information will also be collected, including the use of cessation supports and cost of the intervention. Discussion This study will provide comprehensive data on the potential of an integrated, multimodal smoking cessation intervention for persons with an acute mental illness, linking inpatient with community cessation support. Trial Registration

  8. Breakdown of continuity in public mental healthcare in the Netherlands: a longitudinal case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Wierdsma

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Continuity of care for long-term service-dependent patients in the public mental health system requires intensive collaboration between all agencies involved. Understanding the ways in which various aspects of continuity of care interact may reveal help to find out more about how care de­livered over time improves outcomes. Case study: Based on medical records, an addicted couple was monitored for number and type of contacts with health and social services. Over the years, 81 social workers or nurses, spread over 25 health and social services, have been involved in the rehabilitation process. Breakdown of continuity of care is linked to lack of information, missing procedures and guidelines, fragile relationships with the patient, and a reluctant public health approach. Conclusion: Prominent among relevant factors is the absence of protocols governing the transfer of patients between the various links in the continuum of mental healthcare services. High-quality follow-up after admission is partly a matter of professional principle in ensuring that problems in the chain of services are discussed. Case presen­tation in psychiatric journals should give syste­matic at­ten­tion to sources of error in continuity of mental health­care.

  9. The Mental Health of Children of Migrant Workers in Beijing: The Protective Role of Public School Attendance

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Qin; Li, Hong; Zou, Hong; Cross, Wendi; Bian, Ran; Liu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to understand the mental health status of an understudied group of migrant children—children of migrant workers in China. A total of 1466 children from Beijing participated in the study that compared migrant children (n = 1019) to their local peers (n = 447) in public and private school settings. Results showed that overall, migrant children reported more internalizing and externalizing mental health problems and lower life satisfaction than local peers. However, public...

  10. Depression, a Hidden Mental Health Disparity in an Asian Indian Immigrant Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lisa R.; Mann, Semran K.; Montgomery, Susanne B.

    2015-01-01

    Cultural influences are deeply rooted, and continue to affect the lives of Asian-Indian (AI) immigrants living in Western culture. Emerging literature suggests the powerful nature of traditions and culture on the lives, mental and physical health of AI immigrants, particularly women. The purpose of this study was to explore depression among AI women in Central California (CC). This mixed-methods research was conducted in collaboration with the CC Punjabi community and the support of local religious leaders. All interviews were conducted in Punjabi and English. Whenever possible we utilized validated scales aligned with emerging themes from the qualitative data, which also provided contextualization to survey responses. In all we conducted 11 key informant interviews, four focus groups (n = 47) and a rigorously developed anonymous survey (n = 350). Social dynamics and traditional expectations including gendered roles significantly affected mental health among women participants. Subgroups along the lines of language choice (Punjabi vs. English) experience and report depression differently in part due to the highly stigmatized nature of mental health issues in this model minority community. The findings of this study highlight the importance of utilizing mixed methods to access hard to reach populations regarding sensitive topics such as mental health. PMID:26703654

  11. Comparative analysis of two community stressors' long-term mental health effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dew, M.A.; Bromet, E.J.; Schulberg, H.C.

    1987-04-01

    The investigation directly compared the long-term mental health consequences of two community-wide stressors, the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear accident and widespread unemployment due to layoff, in demographically comparable samples of women. Results showed a marked degree of similarity in the stressors' effects: Levels of subclinical symptomatology were elevated to similar degrees in each sample during the year following stressor onset, and symptom levels remained elevated in each sample 2 to 3 1/2 years later. Moreover, variables identified as predictors of enduring psychological distress were virtually identical for the two samples. Additional analyses revealed that the mental health status of unemployed husbands mediated the negative psychological effects of layoff on their wives. Implications of these results for understanding the long-term consequences of exposure to community-wide stress are discussed.

  12. A voucher system that enables persons with severe mental illness to purchase community support services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsch, E F

    1992-11-01

    Fragmentation in the delivery of community support services is often identified as a major barrier to persons with severe mental illness, preventing them from living productive lives in the community. In Nassau County, New York, in 1989 a voucher process was created to allow service users to develop individualized support networks by purchasing services directly and by pooling funds to start new services. The voucher process is part of an intensive case management program. Goals set in the individual service plans of users guide voucher purchases. The local Mental Health Association manages funds based on a bank credit card model. The user, the case manager, and a staff member from an agency designated by the user review expenditures quarterly. The first year of operation is described, and suggestions for developing a voucher process, such as the need for extensive retraining of users and providers, are offered.

  13. [Evaluation of mental and communication functions in mapuche and non mapuche elderly subjects in rural communities in Southern Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mella, Rebeca; Alvear, María; Carrillo, Berta; Caire, Victor

    2003-11-01

    The main predictors of functional impairment in the elderly are alterations in mental or communication functions. To study mental and communication functions in rural elderly subjects of Mapuche and non Mapuche origin. Elderly subjects coming from a rural Mapuche community and a non Mapuche community were studied. Subjects were interviewed at their homes. The communication and mental function assessments of the Functional Autonomy Measurement System were applied. Fifty one Mapuche and 49 non Mapuche subjects with a mean age of 71 +/- 7 and 74 +/- 8 years respectively, were studied. Fifty four percent were female and 31% were illiterate. Twenty six percent had impairment in mental functions. The item with the highest difficulty was memory. The visual function was the most severely impaired among communication items. Mapuche elderly subjects had significantly higher degrees of impairment in mental and communication functions. There is a higher degree of mental and communication impairment among rural Mapuche elderly subjects than in their non Mapuche counterparts.

  14. Physical and Mental Health Problems of the Elderly in a Rural Community of Sepang, Selangor

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of aging population is increasing not only in developed countries, but also in developing countries like Malaysia. The aim of this study was: (1) to determine the prevalence of physical and mental health problems, and (2) to determine the association of these health problems with socio demographic factors among the elderly in a rural community in Sepang, Selangor. A cross sectional study design was used. Five out of nine villages were selected via random sampling. The elderly i...

  15. Development and community-based validation of eight item banks to assess mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterham, Philip J; Sunderland, Matthew; Carragher, Natacha; Calear, Alison L

    2016-09-30

    There is a need for precise but brief screening of mental health problems in a range of settings. The development of item banks to assess depression and anxiety has resulted in new adaptive and static screeners that accurately assess severity of symptoms. However, expansion to a wider array of mental health problems is required. The current study developed item banks for eight mental health problems: social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, drug use, psychosis and suicidality. The item banks were calibrated in a population-based Australian adult sample (N=3175) by administering large item pools (45-75 items) and excluding items on the basis of local dependence or measurement non-invariance. Item Response Theory parameters were estimated for each item bank using a two-parameter graded response model. Each bank consisted of 19-47 items, demonstrating excellent fit and precision across a range of -1 to 3 standard deviations from the mean. No previous study has developed such a broad range of mental health item banks. The calibrated item banks will form the basis of a new system of static and adaptive measures to screen for a broad array of mental health problems in the community.

  16. Building on mental health training for law enforcement: strengthening community partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jorien; Ahalt, Cyrus; Hagar, Randall; Arroyo, William

    2017-09-11

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe the current state of law enforcement training related to the high number of interactions with persons with mental illness, and to recommend next steps in preparing law enforcement to effectively meet this challenge. Design/methodology/approach The authors reviewed the current literature on relevant law enforcement training programs, focusing primarily on crisis intervention team (CIT) training, and used the case example of California to identify opportunities to improve and enhance law enforcement preparedness for the challenge of responding to persons with mental illness. Findings Broad-based community partnerships working together to develop programs that meet the local needs of both those with mental illness and law enforcement, the availability of mental health treatment centers with no-refusal policies, and a coordinating person or agency to effectively liaise among stakeholders are critical enhancements to CIT training. Originality/value As increasing attention is paid to adverse interactions between police and vulnerable populations, this paper identifies policies that would build on existing training programs to improve police responses to persons with mental illness.

  17. Interactions Between Alternative Therapies and Mental Health Services in Public Hospitals of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Saizar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the authors describe the phenomenon of therapeutic complementarity between alternatives therapies and biomedicine in public hospitals of Buenos Aires (Argentina. They contextualize the phenomenon in a global and local field. Features specific to Argentina make this phenomenon interesting. The first of these is that biomedicine is the only type of medicine that is legally authorized to act on the body; nevertheless, alternative practices have flourished not only in the private health sector but also in the public hospitals run by the state. A second feature refers to the alternative practices in the Mental Health Area that bring about a singular interaction between two different therapeutic models. Based on a qualitative study in public hospitals, the authors look into the reasons that generate the phenomenon, underlining the forms in which it expresses itself and the complexity of a field under construction that implies the resignification of the concepts related to health and disease.

  18. Identification of the mental workload of public employees in the administrative sector at a public university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontag, Andressa Aline; Vilagra, José Mohamud; Moreira, Helenara Salvati Bertolossi; Moro, Antônio Renato Pereira; Cruz, Roberto Moraes; Reis, Pedro Ferreira; Galvão, Isabele Maia

    2012-01-01

    In the workplace there are risk factors that can overwhelm the health of the worker causing physical and psychological disorders. Among these disorders, is occupational stress. Thus, this research proposes to measure the mental workload of job stress from the identification of demand, control and social support. It is an observational cross-sectional epidemiological character, performed with the Rectory office workers at the State University of West Paraná (Unioeste). Data collection was due to the application of the "Job Stress Scale" (JSS) and in its reduced version adapted to Portuguese. The survey sample consisted of 44 individuals. Statistical analysis was correlated inversely with medium intensity (r = -0.404) between age and social support. For males was found between control and age (r = 0.603). According to the data obtained, we conclude that most workers are exposed to passive work, leading to loss of skills or disinterest in the job. This study highlights the importance of research in the area and the need for new actions that change the conditions of stress at work.

  19. Community mental health nurses speak out: the critical relationship between emotional wellbeing and satisfying professional practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jayln; Glass, Nel

    2006-10-01

    The article reports on selected findings of a research study concerning emotional wellbeing and professional nursing practice (Rose 2002). It highlights the relationship between community mental health nurses' and emotional wellbeing, and their capacity to provide satisfying professional nursing practice (Rose 2002). The notion of emotional wellbeing, factors that impacted upon the participants' emotional wellbeing, and the relationship of emotional wellbeing to professional practice were revealed in the study. These findings were based on a qualitative critical feminist research inquiry and specifically, interviews with five women community mental health nurses in Australia. Whilst complex, emotional wellbeing was found to be both implicitly and explicitly linked to the participants intertwined personal and professional experiences. Four key components were identified: the nebulous notion; the stress relationship; the mind, body, spirit connection; and, inner sense of balance. In terms of emotional wellbeing and professional practice, three themes were revealed. These were: being able to speak out (or not); being autonomous (or not) and being satisfied (or not). The authors argue that the emotional wellbeing of nurses working in community mental health settings is critical to satisfying professional practice. Furthermore nursing work involves emotional work which impacts on one's emotional wellbeing and emotional wellbeing is integrally linked to professional practice. It is recommended that health organisations must be pro-active in addressing the emotional needs of nurses to ensure the delivery of health care that is aligned to professional practice. This approach will ensure nurses will feel more recognised and validated in terms of their nursing practice.

  20. Community mental health in two sectors: County Caroni and St. George East--an evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, V

    1986-01-01

    An evaluation of the community mental health program in Trinidad in two sectors with differing sociological backgrounds is made. Results showed that both sectors had regular outpatient clinics, outpatient group psychotherapy, and mental health officers partly community based. County Caroni had a low admission rate to St. Ann's Hospital, an ongoing education programme, an outpatient club, and an Extended Care Centre with Day Care Centre. The predominant illnesses seen in County Caroni were Alcoholism in the males and Depression and Anxiety States in the females. In St. George East, there was a higher admission rate to St. Ann's Hospital. The education program was irregular. There was an Extended Care Centre in Tacarigua half of which was allocated to psychiatric patients and a Day Care Centre at the Tumpuna Rehabilitation Centre. The most frequent illnesses in St. George East were Schizophrenia and Alcoholism in the males, and Schizophrenia and Depression with equal frequency in the females. The results indicated that the specific needs of each sector were different--hence the need for different approaches. The difficulties of implementing the Community Mental Health programme are discussed.

  1. Leading indicators of community-based violent events among adults with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dorn, R A; Grimm, K J; Desmarais, S L; Tueller, S J; Johnson, K L; Swartz, M S

    2017-05-01

    The public health, public safety and clinical implications of violent events among adults with mental illness are significant; however, the causes and consequences of violence and victimization among adults with mental illness are complex and not well understood, which limits the effectiveness of clinical interventions and risk management strategies. This study examined interrelationships between violence, victimization, psychiatric symptoms, substance use, homelessness and in-patient treatment over time. Available data were integrated from four longitudinal studies of adults with mental illness. Assessments took place at baseline, and at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 24, 30 and 36 months, depending on the parent studies' protocol. Data were analysed with the autoregressive cross-lag model. Violence and victimization were leading indicators of each other and affective symptoms were a leading indicator of both. Drug and alcohol use were leading indicators of violence and victimization, respectively. All psychiatric symptom clusters - affective, positive, negative, disorganized cognitive processing - increased the likelihood of experiencing at least one subsequent symptom cluster. Sensitivity analyses identified few group-based differences in the magnitude of effects in this heterogeneous sample. Violent events demonstrated unique and shared indicators and consequences over time. Findings indicate mechanisms for reducing violent events, including trauma-informed therapy, targeting internalizing and externalizing affective symptoms with cognitive-behavioral and psychopharmacological interventions, and integrating substance use and psychiatric care. Finally, mental illness and violence and victimization research should move beyond demonstrating concomitant relationships and instead focus on lagged effects with improved spatio-temporal contiguity.

  2. The relationship between parental religiosity and mental health of pre-adolescents in a community sample: the TRAILS study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagt-Jelsma, W. van der; Vries-Schot, M. de; Jong, R de; Verhulst, F.C.; Ormel, J.; Veenstra, R.; Swinkels, S.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between parental religiosity, parental harmony on the subject of religiosity, and the mental health of pre-adolescents. In a community-based sample of 2,230 pre-adolescents (10-12 years), mental health problems were assessed using self-report

  3. The relationship between parental religiosity and mental health of pre-adolescents in a community sample : The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Jagt-Jelsma, Willeke; de Vries-Schot, Margreet; de Jong, Rint; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Veenstra, Rene; Swinkels, Sophie; Buitelaar, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between parental religiosity, parental harmony on the subject of religiosity, and the mental health of pre-adolescents. In a community-based sample of 2,230 pre-adolescents (10-12 years), mental health problems were assessed using self-report

  4. Self-Stigma and Quality of Life among People with Mental Illness Who Receive Compulsory Community Treatment Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, James

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the relationship between self-stigma and quality of life over a one year time period for 71 people with mental illness who were receiving compulsory community mental health treatment. It was hypothesized that, over time, self-stigma would have the direct effect of eroding quality of life among people with…

  5. Self-Stigma and Quality of Life among People with Mental Illness Who Receive Compulsory Community Treatment Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, James

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the relationship between self-stigma and quality of life over a one year time period for 71 people with mental illness who were receiving compulsory community mental health treatment. It was hypothesized that, over time, self-stigma would have the direct effect of eroding quality of life among people with…

  6. The Difficulties Encountered by the Mothers Having Children with Mental Disabilities or Autism in Participating to Community Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayyare, Begüm Çapa; Akçin, Nur; Fakultesi, Atatürk Egitim; Bolumu, Ozel Egitim; Kampusu, Goztepe

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the difficulties encountered by the mothers having children with mental disabilities or autism in participating to community life. The participants were 21 mothers who have mentally handicapped child and 21 mothers who have child with autism from Istanbul, Turkey. Data was collected through semi-structured…

  7. Identifying barriers to mental health system improvements: an examination of community participation in assertive community treatment programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakefield Patricia A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integrating the best available evidence into program standards is essential if system-wide improvements in the delivery of community-based mental health services are to be achieved. Since the beginning of the Assertive Community Treatment (ACT program movement, program standards have included a role for the community. In particular, ACT program standards have sought to ensure that members of the local community are involved in governance and that former clients participate in service delivery as "Peer Support Specialists". This paper reports on the extent to which ACT program standards related to community participation have been implemented and identifies barriers to full compliance. Methods Qualitative and quantitative data were collected through a telephone survey of ACT Program Coordinators in Ontario, Canada, using a census sample of the existing 66 ACT programs. A thematic approach to content analysis was used to analyze respondents' qualitative comments. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 and included means, frequencies, independent t-tests and Pearson Correlations. Results An 85% response rate was achieved. Of the 33 program standards, the two that received the lowest perceived compliance ratings were the two standards directly concerning community participation. Specifically, the standard to have a functioning Community Advisory Body and the standard requiring the inclusion of a Peer Support Specialist. The three major themes that emerged from the survey data with respect to the barriers to fully implementing the Community Advisory Body were: external issues; standard related issues; and, organizational/structural related issues. The three major themes concerning barriers to implementing the Peer Support Specialist role were: human resource related issues; organizational/structural related issues; and, standard related issues. Conclusions The reasons for low compliance of ACT programs with community

  8. Implementation of a mental health medication management intervention in Australian community pharmacies: Facilitators and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattingh, H Laetitia; Kelly, Fiona; Fowler, Jane; Wheeler, Amanda J

    Community pharmacists are in an ideal position to promote and provide mental health medication management services. However, formalised or structured pharmacy services to support consumers with mental health conditions are scarce. Australian mental health consumers indicated a need for targeted community pharmacy mental health services which presented an opportunity to develop an intervention that were integrated with remunerated professional services. The study aimed to pilot a mental health medication management intervention in Australian community pharmacies. Pharmacists worked in partnership with consumers, carers and mental health workers over three to six months to set and support achievement of individual goals related to medicines use, physical health and mental wellbeing. This paper provides a comparison of community pharmacies that successfully delivered the intervention with those that did not and identifies facilitators and challenges to service implementation. One hundred pharmacies opted to pilot the delivery of the intervention in three Australian states (Queensland, Western Australia and northern New South Wales). Of those, 55 successfully delivered the intervention (completers) whilst 45 were unsuccessful (non-completers). A mixed methods approach, including quantitative pharmacy surveys and qualitative semi-structured interviews, was used to gather data from participating pharmacies. Following intervention development, 142 pharmacists and 21 pharmacy support staff attended training workshops, received resource kits and ongoing support from consumer and pharmacist mentors throughout intervention implementation. Baseline quantitative data was collected from each pharmacy on staff profile, volume of medicines dispensed, the range of professional services delivered and relationships with health professionals. At the completion of the study participants were invited to complete an online exit survey and take part in a semi-structured interview that

  9. Women creating public art and community, 2000-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Anne; Egan, Irene M

    2015-03-01

    This narrative describes a series of 15 short-term public art projects that were part of a program for women and girls in Lowell, Massachusetts, a mid-size city in the United States. The projects were designed to give public space to women's stories and perspectives by exhibiting their creative art in response to suggested themes. A few thousand women and girls representing diverse age and cultural groups created art based on their lived experiences. The organizers of the program met people in comfortable settings, tailored their art-making approaches to particular groups, and used inclusive processes in developing and executing the program. Program successes and challenges were related to the organizational structure of the art projects, the annual themes and art media, the extent of outreach and support, the process of creation, and the impact of art exhibits. Using community psychology and feminist frameworks, authors reflect on the projects and their relevance across contexts, highlight key organizing strategies, and identify ways the project represents community psychology in action.

  10. Occupational therapists in Community Mental Health Teams for older people in England: findings from a five year research programme

    OpenAIRE

    Abendstern, Michele; Tucker, Susan; Wilberforce, Mark; Jasper, Rowan; Challis, David

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This English study is the first to focus on the contribution of occupational therapists to the work of community mental health teams for older people. Method: A mixed methods study comprising: a national survey of community mental health team managers, caseload audit, qualitative interviews, and a practitioner survey; provided information on team membership and functions, user characteristics, accounts of occupational therapists’ roles and experiences, and work characteristics. ...

  11. Children forgotten in hot cars: a mental models approach for improving public health messaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Castle A; Grundstein, Andrew J

    2017-08-09

    On average, in the USA, 37 young children die every year due to vehicular heatstroke. Additionally, over half of these incidents occur when a parent/caregiver forgets a child in a vehicle. While various governmental and child safety advocacy groups have worked to raise awareness about these tragedies, rigorous studies have yet to be conducted that examine the current understanding and effectiveness of this public health messaging. This study will employ a mental models approach in order to identify differences that exist between experts' and parents'/caregivers' knowledge and beliefs surrounding the topic of children forgotten in hot cars. We interviewed a diverse set of 25 parents/caregivers and seven experts in order to construct and explore these mental models. A comparative analysis was conducted, and three key differences were observed between these mental models. Unlike the experts, the parents/caregivers in the study emphasised perceived lifestyle factors (eg, low-income parent) as important elements in increasing an individual's likelihood of forgetting a child in a car. Importantly, the parents/caregivers primarily obtained information from news reports, while experts believed public health campaigns would reach more parents/caregivers. Lastly, while experts stressed that this tragedy could happen to anyone, most parents/caregivers failed to acknowledge that they could forget their own child in a car. To confront this denial, future public health messaging must strive to engage and reach all parents/caregivers. This can be accomplished using a multifaceted messaging strategy that includes personalising core messaging, providing additional resources to media outlets and building rapport between key partners. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. False Balance in Public Health Reporting? Michele Bachmann, the HPV Vaccine, and "Mental Retardation".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ryan J; Tandoc, Edson C; Hinnant, Amanda

    2017-02-01

    This content analysis of media coverage of Michele Bachmann's erroneous comments that the HPV vaccine causes mental retardation explores the relationship between truth-telling (the presentation of accurate information) and balance (presenting opposing perspectives of an issue equally and legitimately) in public health reporting. Of 200 articles analyzed, about 50% provided correction and about 40% provided a counterpoint. We also found that health reporters tended to engage in truth-telling and balance more than political reporters. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  13. Composing a core set of performance indicators for public mental health care: a modified Delphi procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauriks, Steve; de Wit, Matty A S; Buster, Marcel C A; Arah, Onyebuchi A; Klazinga, Niek S

    2014-09-01

    Public mental health care (PMHC) systems are responsible for the wellbeing of vulnerable groups that cope with complex psychosocial problems. This article describes the development of a set of performance indicators that are feasible, meaningful, and useful to assess the quality of the PMHC system in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Performance indicators were selected from an international inventory and presented to stakeholders of the PMHC system in a modified Delphi procedure. Characteristics of indicators were judged individually, before consensus on a core set was reached during a plenary discussion. Involving stakeholders at early stages of development increases support for quality assessment.

  14. Increasing US health plan coverage for exercise programming in community mental health settings for people with serious mental illness: a position statement from the Society of Behavior Medicine and the American College of Sports Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Sarah I; Jerome, Gerald J; Schneider, Kristin L; Craft, Lynette L; Buman, Matthew P; Stoutenberg, Mark; Daumit, Gail L; Bartels, Stephen J; Goodrich, David E

    2016-09-01

    Adults with serious mental illness die more than 10 years earlier than the average American. Premature mortality is due to the high prevalence of preventable diseases including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Poor lifestyle behaviors including lack of exercise and physical inactivity contribute to the epidemic levels of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease observed among adults with serious mental illness. Not surprisingly, people with serious mental illness are among the most costly consumers of health services due to increased visits for poorly managed mental and physical health. Recent studies have demonstrated that exercise interventions based on community mental health settings can significantly improve physical and mental health in people with serious mental illness. However, current funding regulations limit the ability of community mental health settings to offer exercise programming services to people with serious mental illness. Policy efforts are needed to improve the dissemination and sustainability of exercise programs for people with serious mental illness.

  15. Joint working in community mental health teams: implementation of an integrated care pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Gwyneth; Huby, Guro; McDade, Lian; McKechnie, L

    2004-11-01

    Abstract Integration of community mental health services is a key policy objective that aims to increase quality and efficiency of care. Integrated care pathways (ICPs) are a mechanism designed to formalise multi-agency working at an operational level and are currently being applied to mental health services. Evidence regarding the impact of this tool to support joint working is mixed, and there is limited evidence regarding the suitability of ICPs for complex, community-based services. The present study was set in one primary care trust (PCT) in Scotland that is currently implementing an ICP for community mental health teams (CMHTs) across the region. The aim of the study was to investigate professionals' experiences and views on the implementation of an ICP within adult CMHTs in order to generate learning points for other organisations which are considering developing and implementing such systems. The study used qualitative methods which comprised of individual interviews with three CMHT leaders and two service development managers, as well as group interviews with members of four adult CMHTs. Data was analysed using the constant comparison method. Participants reported positive views regarding joint working and the role of an ICP in theory. However, in practice, teams were not implementing the ICP. Lack of integration at higher organisational levels was found to create conflicts within the teams which became explicit in response to the ICP. Implementation was also hindered by lack of resources for ongoing support, team development and change management. In conclusion, the study suggests that operational systems such as ICPs do not address and cannot overcome wider organisational barriers to integration of mental health services. Integrated care pathways need to be developed with strategic input as well as practitioner involvement and ownership. Team development, education about integration and change management are essential if ICPs are to foster and support

  16. Spanish validation of the social stigma scale: Community Attitudes towards Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Susana; Martínez-Zambrano, Francisco; Vila-Badia, Regina; Arenas, Oti; Casas-Anguera, Emma; García-Morales, Esther; Villellas, Raúl; Martín, José Ramón; Pérez-Franco, María Belén; Valduciel, Tamara; García-Franco, Mar; Miguel, Jose; Balsera, Joaquim; Pascual, Gemma; Julia, Eugènia; Casellas, Diana; Haro, Josep Maria

    2016-01-01

    The stigma against people with mental illness is very high. In Spain there are currently no tools to assess this construct. The aim of this study was to validate the Spanish version of the Community Attitudes towards Mental Illness questionnaire in an adolescent population, and determining its internal consistency and temporal stability. Another analysis by gender will be also performed. A translation and back-translation of the Community Attitudes towards Mental Illness was performed. A total of 150 students of between 14 and 18 years-old were evaluated with this tool in two stages. Internal consistency was tested using Cronbach α; and intraclass correlation coefficient was used for test-retest reliability. Gender-stratified analyses were also performed. The Cronbach α was 0.861 for the first evaluation and 0.909 for the second evaluation. The values of the intraclass correlation coefficient ranged from 0.775 to 0.339 in the item by item analysis, and between 0.88 and 0.81 in the subscales. In the segmentation by gender, it was found that girls scored between 0.797 and 0.863 in the intraclass correlation coefficient, and boys scored between 0.889 and 0.774. In conclusion, the Community Attitudes towards Mental Illness is a reliable tool for the assessment of social stigma. Although reliable results have been found for boys and girls, our results found some gender differences in the analysis. Copyright © 2014 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. Forty Days after the Great East Japan Earthquake: Field Research Investigating Community Engagement and Traumatic Stress Screening in a Post-Disaster Community Mental Health Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuerk, Peter W.; Hall, Brian; Nagae, Nobukazu; McCauley, Jenna L.; Yoder, Matthew; Rauch, Sheila A.M.; Acierno, Ron; Dussich, John

    2016-01-01

    The current paper describes the results of posttraumatic stress educational outreach and screening offered to 141 citizens of Japan who attended a public-service mental health training regarding post-disaster coping 40 days after a 6.8 Richter Scale earthquake, local and regional deaths, and an ongoing nuclear radiation threat. Attendees were given access to anonymous questionnaires that were integrated into the training as a tool to help enhance mental health literacy and bridge communication gaps. Questionnaires were turned in by a third of those in attendance. Among respondents, multiple exposures to potentially-traumatic events were common. More than a quarter of respondents met criteria for probable PTSD. Physical health and loss of sense of community were related to PTSD symptoms. Associations and diagnosis rates represented in these data are not generalizable to the population as a whole or intended for epidemiological purposes; rather, they are evidence of a potentially useful approach to post-disaster clinical screening, education, and engagement. Results are presented in the context of previous findings in Japan and ecologically-supportive post-disaster field research is discussed. PMID:23977819

  18. Mechanisms of change in cognitive therapy for major depressive disorder in the community mental health setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crits-Christoph, Paul; Gallop, Robert; Diehl, Caroline K; Yin, Seohyun; Gibbons, Mary Beth Connolly

    2017-06-01

    This study examined the relation of change in theory-relevant cognitive variables to depressive symptom change over the course of cognitive therapy, as well as the specificity of change mechanisms to cognitive therapy as compared with dynamic therapy. There were 237 adult outpatients who were randomized to either cognitive (n = 119) or dynamic (n = 118) therapy for major depressive disorder in a community mental health setting. Assessments of compensatory skills (Ways of Responding Community Version and Self-Report Version), dysfunctional attitudes (Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale), and depressogenic schemas (Psychological Distance Scaling Task) were obtained at baseline and months 1, 2, and 5 following baseline. Primary outcome was measured using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. Across both therapy conditions, change in all 3 cognitive domains was associated with concurrent change in depressive symptoms. After controlling for other cognitive variables, increased interconnectedness of the positive achievement-related schema was significantly associated with concurrent symptom change in cognitive (rp = .26, p therapy (rp = .08, p = .29). Increases in positive compensatory skills were associated with subsequent change in depressive symptoms in cognitive therapy (rp = -.36, p = .003), but not in dynamic therapy (rp = .11, p = .386). Results provide support for the compensatory skills model of cognitive therapy (CT) within a community mental health setting. Additional research is necessary to understand other possible mechanisms of change in CT in the community setting. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Children's exposure to community and war violence and mental health in four African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Holly; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2015-12-01

    In this article we review the mental health consequences of children's exposure to community and war violence (ETV) in four African countries: South Africa, Sierra Leone, Gambia and Rwanda. A focus on Africa is particularly pressing because of children's high levels of community and war ETV in countries therein. Regions of Africa present important macro-contexts for understanding children's various types of violence exposure amidst war and economic disadvantage. Findings of the review across 20 quantitative studies from 2004 to 2015 indicate consistent associations between exposure to war and community violence and children's symptoms of Post-traumatic Stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and aggression. School climate and family support mitigate these ETV influences upon children: however, more research is needed on the buffering effects of such resources. The effects of war violence are mediated by perceived discrimination in communities post-conflict. We integrate findings across studies to synthesize knowledge on children's ETV in Africa around a model of its correlates, mediators, and moderators in relation to mental health. Emerging research points to avenues for prevention and future inquiry.

  20. Development and evaluation of a youth mental health community awareness campaign – The Compass Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Meredith G

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early detection and treatment of mental disorders in adolescents and young adults can lead to better health outcomes. Mental health literacy is a key to early recognition and help seeking. Whilst a number of population health initiatives have attempted to improve mental health literacy, none to date have specifically targeted young people nor have they applied the rigorous standards of population health models now accepted as best practice in other health areas. This paper describes the outcomes from the application of a health promotion model to the development, implementation and evaluation of a community awareness campaign designed to improve mental health literacy and early help seeking amongst young people. Method The Compass Strategy was implemented in the western metropolitan Melbourne and Barwon regions of Victoria, Australia. The Precede-Proceed Model guided the population assessment, campaign strategy development and evaluation. The campaign included the use of multimedia, a website, and an information telephone service. Multiple levels of evaluation were conducted. This included a cross-sectional telephone survey of mental health literacy undertaken before and after 14 months of the campaign using a quasi-experimental design. Randomly selected independent samples of 600 young people aged 12–25 years from the experimental region and another 600 from a comparison region were interviewed at each time point. A series of binary logistic regression analyses were used to measure the association between a range of campaign outcome variables and the predictor variables of region and time. Results The program was judged to have an impact on the following variables, as indicated by significant region-by-time interaction effects (p Conclusion We believe this is the first study to apply the rigorous standards of a health promotion model including the use of a control region to a mental health population intervention. The

  1. Public access to community documents: a fundamental human right?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy W. Davis

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a marked difference between the culture of open government in some Member States, particularly Sweden, and the culture of secrecy in Britain. Recent calls for a uniform interpretation of the law regarding public access to documents held by the Community Institutions seem to suggest that a Swedish-style right of access should be adopted at EU level, on the grounds that public access to government-held information is a fundamental human right. To date, however, it seems that insufficient arguments have been advanced in order to justify this particular claim. Notable constitutional lawyers remain sceptical, as do some Member State governments. Furthermore, in the absence of a convincing philosophical justification for the claim, a situation may be created in which certain people are said to enjoy a fundamental human right, not because they are human beings, but by virtue of their status as citizens or residents of an EU Member State. This appears to be counter-intuitive, if it is accepted that fundamental human rights should be enjoyed by all and should therefore be justified on the basis of universally-shared fundamental values. It therefore seems that further explanation of the importance of public access to documents is required, and further justification of the claim that this is, or should be regarded as, a fundamental human right.

  2. Mental health care professionals' experiences with the discharge planning process and transitioning patients attending outpatient clinics into community care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noseworthy, Ann Marie; Sevigny, Elizabeth; Laizner, Andrea M; Houle, Claudine; La Riccia, Pina

    2014-08-01

    Health care reform promotes delivery of mental health care in the community. Outpatient mental healthcare professionals (HCPs) are pressured to discharge patients. This study's purpose: to understand the experience and perceptions of mental HCPs with discharge planning and transitioning patients into community care. Twelve HCPs participated in semi-structured qualitative interviews. Three main categories: engaging in the discharge planning process, making the transition smooth, and guiding values emerged. A conceptual framework was created to explain the phenomenon. HCPs valued strengthening partnerships and building relationships to ensure smooth transition. Sufficient resources and trust imperative for safe patient discharge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The role of the community mental health nurse in Botswana: The needs and problems of carers of schizophrenic clients in the community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kgosidintsi

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the role of the psychiatric/community mental health nurse in the context of primary health care in which mental health is an integral part of the general health care system and in a specific socio-economic background. Nine (9 community mental health nurses who graduated from a local training program for community mental health nurses at post basic level, twenty five (25 carers responsible for daily care and welfare of schizophrenic clients from rural, semi-rural, urban and semi-urban areas country wide participated in the study. The study was exploratory and both qualitative and quantitative data was collected using semi structured interviews, unstructured observation and documentary search methods were used. Data analysis for both qualitative and quantitative data was done through simple frequency counts.

  4. Mental health problems of young refugees: duration of settlement, risk factors and community-based interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durà-Vilà, Glòria; Klasen, Henrika; Makatini, Zethu; Rahimi, Zohreh; Hodes, Matthew

    2013-10-01

    Little is known about the characteristics of young psychologically-distressed refugees in mental health services, and how they vary according to the duration of settlement. This study of 102 young refugees referred to a community-based mental health service describes past adversities and current circumstances, referral problems, service utilization and treatment outcomes using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The more recently-arrived refugees had significantly higher levels of close exposure to war and violence, were more likely to have suffered separation from immediate family and to have insecure legal status. Those refugees settled longer were significantly more likely to be referred because of conduct problems while there was a trend in recent arrivals to present with internalizing pathology. A comparison of the teachers' and parents' mean SDQ scores of the study's young refugees sample and a national study representative of Great Britain as a whole showed that young refugees have higher scores in total problem and all subscales scores than the British scores. Community-based mental health services for young refugees appeared effective - significant improvement was found in SDQ scores for the sub-group (n = 24) who took up the treatments offered. The implications are discussed for service development and practitioners.

  5. Education for community mental health nurses: a summary of the key debates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenchard, Steve; Burnard, Philip; Coffey, Michael; Hannigan, Ben

    2002-04-01

    A wide range of post-qualifying education courses exist for community mental health nurses (CMHNs) working in the UK. 'Specialist practitioner' courses emphasize shared learning between CMHNs and members of other community nursing branches. These programmes typically include course content drawing on the social and behavioural sciences, as well as on material more tailored to the clinical needs of practitioners. Such courses and their predecessors have been subject to criticism, however. Courses have been described as anachronistic, and failing to take account of recent advances in treatment modalities. In addition concerns about the generic focus of some programmes have also been raised. Educational alternatives, such as programmes preparing nurses and other mental health workers to provide 'psycho-social interventions' have, correspondingly, become increasingly popular. In this paper we explore some of the debates surrounding the education of CMHNs, and explore the context in which CMHNs work and in which educational programmes are devised. We consider the multidisciplinary environment in which CMHNs practise, the differing client groups with which CMHNs work, the developing policy framework in which mental health care is provided, demands for more user-responsive education, and the relationship between higher educational institutions and health care providers. We conclude the paper with a series of questions for CMHN educators and education commissioners.

  6. Treat and Teach Our Students Well: College Mental Health and Collaborative Campus Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Nancy S; Alderman, Tracy; Schneiber, Katharina; Swerdlow, Neal R

    2016-09-01

    This article presents a selective review of best practices for the psychiatric care of college student populations. It describes psychiatric advances in evidence-based practice for college students and offers a brief compendium for college health practitioners. College mental health services are delivered in a specialized milieu, designed to address many of the unique needs of college students and to support their successful scholastic advancement and graduation. Practical steps for implementing these best practices within the college community setting are identified, with a focus on the initial student evaluation, risk assessment, treatment planning and goal setting, and steps to optimize academic functioning during psychopharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatment. At the center of these practices is the use of a collaborative team and psychoeducation that engages students to actively learn about their mental health. By applying common sense and evidence-based practices within interdisciplinary and student-centered services, college communities can effectively meet the mental health needs of their students and empower them to reach their educational goals.

  7. The effects of terrorism on adult mental health: a public health preparedness approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameera S. Karnik

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is a disruptive man--‐made disaster event challenging human health and wellbeing. It is a hostile activity which brings about much casualty, even death. It not only causes physical casualties but also brings about psychological morbidity and can lead to long term mental disorders. The effects of terrorist attacks on people’s psychological health covers a wide range such as acute stress symptoms to long term disorders like Post--‐traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. The psychological disorder due to traumatic distress is treated with psychotherapies such as psychosocial intervention, psychological debriefing, psychological first aid care, psychological counseling services, and psychoeducation. Government is supporting state and local public health departments to develop efficient public health preparedness planning programs in case of emergency situations. There are some newer approaches working towards enhancing health security and managing responses to a psychological impact of a disaster event like a terrorist attack.

  8. Designing a 100-unit Residential Complex with Public and Mental Health Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Gholizadeh Maktoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study first discuses different climate conditions in Iran and traditional methods of architecture in these places as well as importance of identification and evaluation of these methods. Then, designing methods of residential complexes on the basis of components and conditions of the favorite climate will be closely taken into consideration. Finally, the impact of different methods and techniques of designing on society’s mental and public health will be examined. Accordingly, designing a 100-unit residential complex with open and local green spaces, dense neighborhoods with mixed land uses, physical and visual access to the nature, creation of cultural-social-business and entertainment opportunities adjacent to the residential complex, reducing car dependency in combination with walking, strategies of improving public health in designing residential complexes and architecture in Yazd city are used. Consequently, a few strategies are provided for enhancement of citizens’ health and development of this type of architecture.

  9. Where is the evidence supporting public service announcements to eliminate mental illness stigma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Patrick W

    2012-01-01

    Advocates and social marketers have used substantial resources to develop public service announcements (PSAs) as a lead strategy in public education and awareness campaigns meant to eliminate stigma associated with mental illness. Evaluations of PSAs are needed to determine whether this is a good investment. The author notes that very few studies have been reported in the peer-reviewed medical and psychological research literature addressing this question. Reports of government contractors suggest that PSAs have some effect as measured by population penetration, but such data provide no meaningful evidence about the impact of PSAs, such as real-world change in prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behaviors. The author considers reasons for the limited impact of PSAs and proposes that social marketing campaigns could enhance their impact by targeting local groups.

  10. PA30 Why specialist community public health nurses should work in end of life care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Sandy

    2015-04-01

    Overview of roots of public health nursing in UK. Specialist Community Public Health Nurses, formerly known as Health Visitors, have been responding to key health priorities in the United Kingdom for the past 150 years. The profession emerged in response to the appalling poverty and high infant mortality rates which characterised nineteenth century Victorian slums, and transformed itself in the twentieth century to provide family welfare "from the cradle to the grave", including social and mental health. Acheson's 1998 definition of public health as "the organised application of resources to achieve the greatest health for the greatest number", dominated practice and preceded The New NHS: Modern and Dependable (1997) which put public health at the top of the agenda. The new approach meant crossing traditional boundaries and putting the 'community' at the centre of healthcare through empowerment. Throughout these changes, the underpinning principles have remained the same, including the search for health needs, stimulation of awareness of health needs, influence on policies affecting health and facilitation of health-enhancing activities. To learn from other public health professionals. Literature review. Specialist Community Public Health Nurses with an interest and experience in end of life care, can apply these same principles to the new public health approach to death and dying, searching for death and dying needs whilst stimulating an awareness. This would lead to exerting influence on policies affecting death and dying and facilitating health-enhancing activities. The public health approach is new to palliative and end of life care so it makes sense to learn from those professionals who have a long history of successfully responding, adapting to change, rising to contemporary challenges and harnessing opportunities. Understanding of how and when the public health agenda emerged. Other professionals have skills we need. © 2015, Published by the BMJ Publishing

  11. Public beliefs about causes and risk factors for mental disorders: a comparison of Japan and Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakane Hideyuki

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surveys of the public in a range of Western countries have shown a predominant belief in social stressors as causes of mental disorders. However, there has been little direct cross-cultural comparison. Here we report a comparison of public beliefs about the causes of mental disorders in Japan and Australia. Methods Surveys of the public were carried out in each country using as similar a methodology as feasible. In both countries, household interviews were carried out concerning beliefs about causes and risk factors in relation to one of four case vignettes, describing either depression, depression with suicidal thoughts, early schizophrenia or chronic schizophrenia. In Japan, the survey involved 2000 adults aged between 20 and 69 from 25 regional sites spread across the country. In Australia, the survey involved a national sample of 3998 adults aged 18 years or over. Results In both countries, both social and personal vulnerability causes were commonly endorsed across all vignettes. The major differences in causal beliefs were that Australians were more likely to believe in infection, allergy and genetics, while Japanese were more likely to endorse "nervous person" and "weakness of character". For risk factors, Australians tended to believe that women, the young and the poor were more at risk of depression, but these were not seen as higher risk groups by Japanese. Conclusion In both Japan and Australia, the public has a predominant belief in social causes and risk factors, with personal vulnerability factors also seen as important. However, there are also some major differences between the countries. The belief in weakness of character as a cause, which was stronger in Japan, is of particular concern because it may reduce the likelihood of seeking professional help and support from others.

  12. [The psychopathology of bilingual children in a sample of a Community Mental Health Center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, J; Christodoulou, A; Paleologou, M; Vlassopoulos, M; Lazaratou, H; Anagnostopoulos, Dc; Ploumpidis, D N

    2009-07-01

    Thoughts and views of one's internal self can be materialized via verbal symbols. Therefore literal people can use these verbal symbols as a means of recording their ideas and experiences in order for them to be passed on and read by others. Evidently the abovementioned mental operations can be reflected in speech and language. It is not yet known whether bilingualism is the sum of two monolingual situations or whether they coexist. The way each language is organized is also not known, neither are the psychological operations that may influence the organization of each language, memory and the relationship with each language. During childhood and adolescence, language is a very important tool via which one communicates, materializes emotional behavior and organizes oneself. Linguistic development and identity formation both follow a parallel and connected line in view of the internal psychological organization. However, in the bilingual person, this relationship is influenced both by the two different cultural stimuli and by the two different linguistic stimuli (i.e. language). However, in the case where children grow up in a bilingual environment there are some particularities and special issues affecting these children. Under such circumstances, the accomplishment of the feeling of coherence and stability of the self becomes an even more difficult task for the child. Nowadays, in Greek reality, the phenomenon of bilingualism tends to be associated with economic immigration. In the sample used, five fourths of children consist of children coming from families of economic immigrants. The composition of the student population in Greece is characterized by linguistic and cultural polymorphism. The presence and existence of a large number of immigrants has changed the setting in Greece in many regions of the country and in turn, the composition of the school population. Any public school allover in Greece consists, among others, of children coming from families of

  13. 12 CFR 208.22 - Community development and public welfare investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Community development and public welfare...) Investments and Loans § 208.22 Community development and public welfare investments. (a) Definitions. For... Reserve Act (12 U.S.C. 338a), or a community development investment under Regulation Y (12 CFR...

  14. A Multi-Level Examination of Stakeholder Perspectives of Implementation of Evidence-Based Practices in a Large Urban Publicly-Funded Mental Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beidas, Rinad S; Stewart, Rebecca E; Adams, Danielle R; Fernandez, Tara; Lustbader, Susanna; Powell, Byron J; Aarons, Gregory A; Hoagwood, Kimberly E; Evans, Arthur C; Hurford, Matthew O; Rubin, Ronnie; Hadley, Trevor; Mandell, David S; Barg, Frances K

    2016-11-01

    Our goal was to identify barriers and facilitators to the implementation of evidence-based practices from the perspectives of multiple stakeholders in a large publicly funded mental health system. We completed 56 interviews with three stakeholder groups: treatment developers (n = 7), agency administrators (n = 33), and system leadership (n = 16). The three stakeholder groups converged on the importance of inner (e.g., agency competing resources and demands, therapist educational background) and outer context (e.g., funding) factors as barriers to implementation. Potential threats to implementation and sustainability included the fiscal landscape of community mental health clinics and an evolving workforce. Intervention characteristics were rarely endorsed as barriers. Inner context, outer context, and intervention characteristics were all seen as important facilitators. All stakeholders endorsed the importance of coordinated collaboration across stakeholder groups within the system to successfully implement evidence-based practices.

  15. The fall and rise of TQM at a public mental health hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowanec, G D

    1996-01-01

    Public mental health care is undergoing a period of fundamental change as it attempts to adapt to an environment characterized by increasing fiscal constraints, the need to demonstrate effectiveness of services, and consumer empowerment. Total quality management (TQM) provides a framework that enables mental health care to meet these demands. The author provides his perspective on a public, multipurpose psychiatric hospital's (Georgia Regional Hospital at Augusta) experience in making the transition from quality assurance to TQM. Successful implementation of TQM rests on clinical staff's viewing TQM as a useful mechanism for achieving agreed-on patient/customer goals. Staff cannot simply do what they have been doing, but now do it better; there needs to be an understanding of what "better" means. TQM'S INTRODUCTION AND REINTRODUCTION: When first introduced in 1992, TQM was viewed by staff as the latest variant of quality assurance--and was therefore unsuccessful. When reintroduced in 1993, TQM contributed to the development of a psychosocial rehabilitation program. The staff's active involvement in establishing patient-specific goals was critical to the program's success. The hospital's Performance Improvement Committee has spearheaded the monitoring of treatment programs and the development of critical paths. In developing critical paths, the treatment team sets goals for patients' improvement both within the hospital and postdischarge and for treatment processes. The keys to a successful TQM program are effective leadership, a clear organizational mission, customer-oriented performance goals, staff empowerment, and the application of the scientific method to the workings of the organization.

  16. Why Provide Music Therapy in the Community for Adults With Mental Health Problems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Odell-Miller

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes music therapy within a community mental health setting for adults using a care programme approach in England. It describes the setting, and emphasises the importance of multidisciplinary teamwork in order to enable music therapy to be effective. It provides some statistics and descriptive clinical information which demonstrate the efficacy of music therapy for adults with long-term mental health problems, and argues that music therapy should be a priority for this client group. To support these points of view, the article includes a case study showing a psychoanalytically informed approach in music therapy. This paper was given as a keynote address at the 1994 Australian Conference of Music Therapy.

  17. Continuity of Depressive Disorders From Childhood and Adolescence to Adulthood: A Naturalistic Study in Community Mental Health Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo, Juan J.; Muñoz-Lorenzo, Laura; Blasco-Fontecilla, Hilario; Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; García-Nieto, Rebeca; Dervic, Kanita; Oquendo, Maria A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine and compare rates of homotypic continuity of childhood- and adolescent-onset depression into adulthood. Method: This was a naturalistic, prospective cohort study of children and adolescents receiving psychiatric care at all community mental health centers in Madrid, Spain, from January 1986 to December 2007. Data were obtained from a regional registry wherein all psychiatric visits to public mental health centers are recorded. Patients received their first diagnosis of an ICD-10 F32 or F33 depressive disorder between 6 and 17 years of age and were at least 20 years old at the time of their last visit. Subjects whose first diagnosis was in childhood (aged 6–12 years: depressed-child group) and subjects whose first diagnosis was in adolescence (aged 13–17 years: depressed-adolescent group) were compared in terms of demographic characteristics, psychiatric comorbidity, and rates of homotypic continuity in adulthood. Results: Five hundred twenty-eight patients with depressive disorders met inclusion criteria. The depressed-adolescent group had a higher proportion of girls (60.3%) compared to the depressed-child group, but did not differ on other demographic or clinical variables. Most subjects who later received treatment in adult mental health facilities (n = 243; 57.2%; 95% CI, 50.9–57.2) continued to be diagnosed with a depressive disorder. High rates of anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, personality disorders, and psychotic disorders in adulthood were observed among subjects from both groups. The absence of psychiatric comorbidity prior to age 18 years was associated with homotypic continuity of depressive disorder into adulthood. Conclusions: Subjects with adolescent-onset depression and subjects without comorbid psychiatric disorders in youth appear to have a higher level of homotypic continuity into adulthood. Both children and adolescents with depressive disorders are at risk for other psychiatric disorders in adulthood. PMID

  18. Public Library Provision for Black and Minority Ethnic Communities--Where Are We in 2009?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, John

    2009-01-01

    This article assesses developments in public library provision for Black and minority ethnic [BME] communities in the UK since the publication in 1969 of the results of research into the needs of "Indian and Pakistani communities". It includes a brief discussion of some major societal issues, and then sets public library services in this context.…

  19. White-less Public Schools in White-ful Communities: Dejected or Segregated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahungu, Athanase

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to explore issues in resistance to the public school system in urban communities, and in particular, Chicago, Illinois. Data from the Chicago Public Schools' (CPS) School and Citywide Reports (CPS, 2007) were analyzed to assess the disconnect between urban communities and public education. Although the city is 42%…

  20. A Community Publication and Dissemination System for Hydrology Education Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddell, B. L.

    2015-12-01

    Hosted by CUAHSI and the Science Education Resource Center (SERC), federated by the National Science Digital Library (NSDL), and allied with the Water Data Center (WDC), Hydrologic Information System (HIS), and HydroShare projects, a simple cyberinfrastructure has been launched for the publication and dissemination of data and model driven university hydrology education materials. This lightweight system's metadata describes learning content as a data-driven module with defined data inputs and outputs. This structure allows a user to mix and match modules to create sequences of content that teach both hydrology and computer learning outcomes. Importantly, this modular infrastructure allows an instructor to substitute a module based on updated computer methods for one based on outdated computer methods, hopefully solving the problem of rapid obsolescence that has hampered previous community efforts. The prototype system is now available from CUAHSI and SERC, with some example content. The system is designed to catalog, link to, make visible, and make accessible the existing and future contributions of the community; this system does not create content. Submissions from hydrology educators are eagerly solicited, especially for existing content.

  1. Promotion, prevention and protection: interventions at the population- and community-levels for mental, neurological and substance use disorders in low- and middle-income countries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petersen, Inge; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Semrau, Maya; Barry, Margaret M; Chisholm, Dan; Gronholm, Petra; Egbe, Catherine O; Thornicroft, Graham

    2016-01-01

    In addition to services within the health system, interventions at the population and community levels are also important for the promotion of mental health, primary prevention of mental, neurological and substance use (MNS...

  2. Integrating Primary Care Into Community Mental Health Centers: Impact on Utilization and Costs of Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupski, Antoinette; West, Imara I; Scharf, Deborah M; Hopfenbeck, James; Andrus, Graydon; Joesch, Jutta M; Snowden, Mark

    2016-11-01

    This evaluation was designed to assess the impact of providing integrated primary and mental health care on utilization and costs for outpatient medical, inpatient hospital, and emergency department treatment among persons with serious mental illness. Two safety-net, community mental health centers that received a Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Primary and Behavioral Health Care Integration (PBHCI) grant were the focus of this study. Clinic 1 had a ten-year history of providing integrated services whereas clinic 2 began integrated services with the PBHCI grant. Difference-in-differences (DID) analyses were used to compare individuals enrolled in the PBHCI programs (N=373, clinic 1; N=389, clinic 2) with propensity score-matched comparison groups of equal size at each site by using data obtained from medical records. Relative to the comparison groups, a higher proportion of PBHCI clients used outpatient medical services at both sites following program enrollment (p<.003, clinic 1; p<.001, clinic 2). At clinic 1, PBHCI was also associated with a reduction in the proportion of clients with an inpatient hospital admission (p=.04) and a trend for a reduction in inpatient hospital costs per member per month of $217.68 (p=.06). Hospital-related cost savings were not observed for PBHCI clients at clinic 2 nor were there significant differences between emergency department use or costs for PBHCI and comparison groups at either clinic. Investments in PBHCI can improve access to outpatient medical care for persons with severe mental illness and may also curb hospitalizations and associated costs in more established programs.

  3. Supporting mental health in South African HIV-affected communities: primary health care professionals' understandings and responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Rochelle Ann

    2015-09-01

    How do practitioners respond to the mental distress of HIV-affected women and communities? And do their understandings of patients' distress matter? The World Health Organization (WHO) along with advocates from the Movement for Global Mental Health (MGMH) champion a primary mental health care model to address burgeoning mental health needs in resource-poor HIV-affected settings. Whilst a minority of studies have begun to explore interventions to target this group of women, there is a dearth of studies that explore the broader contexts that will likely shape service outcomes, such as health sector dynamics and competing definitions of mental ill-health. This study reports on an in-depth case study of primary mental health services in a rural HIV-affected community in Northern KwaZulu-Natal. Health professionals identified as the frontline staff working within the primary mental health care model (n = 14) were interviewed. Grounded thematic analysis of interview data highlighted that practitioners employed a critical and socially anchored framework for understanding their patients' needs. Poverty, gender and family relationships were identified as intersecting factors driving HIV-affected patients' mental distress. In a divergence from existing evidence, practitioner efforts to act on their understandings of patient needs prioritized social responses over biomedical ones. To achieve this whilst working within a primary mental health care model, practitioners employed a series of modifications to services to increase their ability to target the sociostructural realities facing HIV-affected women with mental health issues. This article suggests that beyond attention to the crucial issues of funding and human resources that face primary mental health care, attention must also be paid to promoting the development of policies that provide practitioners with increased and more consistent opportunities to address the complex social realities that frame the mental distress

  4. Evolution of public and non-profit funding for mental health research in France between 2007 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandré, Coralie; Prigent, Amélie; Kemel, Marie-Louise; Leboyer, Marion; Chevreul, Karine

    2015-12-01

    Since 2007, actions have been undertaken in France to foster mental health research. Our objective was to assess their utility by estimating the evolution of public and non-profit funding for mental health research between 2007 and 2011, both in terms of total funding and the share of health research budgets. Public and non-profit funding was considered. Core funding from public research institutions was determined through a top-down approach by multiplying their total budget by the ratio of the number of psychiatry-related publications to the total number of publications focusing on health issues. A bottom-up method was used to estimate the amount of project-based grants and funding by non-profit organizations, which were directly contacted to obtain this information. Public and non-profit funding for mental health research increased by a factor of 3.4 between 2007 and 2011 reaching €84.8 million, while the share of health research funding allocated to mental health research nearly doubled from 2.2% to 4.1%. Public sources were the main contributors representing 94% of the total funding. Our results have important implications for policy makers, as they suggest that actions specifically aimed at prioritizing mental health research are effective in increasing research funding. There is therefore an urgent need to further undertake such actions as funding in France remains particularly low compared to the United Kingdom and the United States, despite the fact that the epidemiological and economic burden represented by mental disorders is expected to grow rapidly in the coming years.

  5. Unlocking patients with mental disorders who were in restraints at home: a national follow-up study of China's new public mental health initiatives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Guan

    Full Text Available In 2005, China implemented a demonstration program known as "686" to scale-up nation-wide basic mental health services designed to improve access to evidence-based care and to promote human rights for people with severe mental disorders. As part of the 686 Program, teams "unlocked" and provided continuous mental health care to people with severe mental disorders who were found in restraints and largely untreated in their family homes. We implemented a nation-wide two-stage follow-up study to measure the effectiveness and sustainability of the "unlocking and treatment" intervention and its impact on the well-being of patients' families.266 patients unlocked from 2005 in "686" demonstration sites across China were recruited in Stage One of the study in 2009. In 2012, 230 of the 266 cases were re-interviewed (the Stage Two study. Outcome measures included the patient medication adherence and social functioning, family burden ratings, and relocking rate. We utilized pre-post tests to analyze the changes over time following the unlocking efforts.96% of patients were diagnosed with schizophrenia. Prior to unlocking, their total time locked ranged from two weeks to 28 years, with 32% having been locked multiple times. The number of persons regularly taking medicines increased from one person at the time of unlocking to 74% in 2009 and 76% in 2012. Pre-post tests showed sustained improvement in patient social functioning and significant reductions in family burden. Over 92% of patients remained free of restraints in 2012.Practice-based evidence from our study suggests an important model for protecting the human rights of people with mental disorders and keeping them free of restraints can be achieved by providing accessible, community based mental health services with continuity of care. China's "686" Program can inform similar efforts in low-resource settings where community locking of patients is practiced.

  6. Engaging Communities using a MOOC combined with Public Library Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, S. A.; Mooney, M. E.; Morrill, J.; Handlos, Z.; Morrill, S.

    2015-12-01

    A massive open online course, or MOOC, is an noncredit education activity that delivers learning content to anyone with access to the Internet. Individual courses are generally free of charge, while a certificate can have small costs. The University of Wisconsin-Madison has exploring the use of MOOC as part of its Wisconsin Idea. In the 2015, a series of MOOCs focusing on the environment were offered via Coursera. One of those MOOCS was "Changing Weather and Climate of the Great Lakes Region." This 4-week course features a new season each week through short lectures and activities covering Great Lakes weather, observed changes in the climate, and societal impacts of climate change. (https://www.coursera.org/course/greatlakesclimate) The MOOC conveyed information from NOAA's National Weather Service (NWS) Weather-Ready Nation initiative as well as findings from the recent National Climate Assessment and the Wisconsin Initiative on Climate Change Impacts (WICCI). The course was organized by members of the Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences and the Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies; material included discussion, videos for lectures as well as guest lecturers. There were also weekly visits by the course team to 21 public libraries throughout the state of WI. The library collaboration as facilitated by WiLS (Wisconsin Library Services - wils.org), who organized the application and selection process. The public libraries hosted local residents and course instructors in discussions of course content in the context of their communities as well as strategies to mitigate the climate change impacts. This presentation will discuss the public library discussions experience and the our evaluation of the impact of including a face-to-face component in the MOOC activity on engagement and learning.

  7. Public interest and private concern: the role of family carers for people suffering mental illness in the twenty first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Robert; Leggatt, Margaret; Crowe, Jim

    2010-04-01

    This paper looks to examine the emerging role of carers as essential components in the management of individuals affected by severe mental illness in the context of modern legal and health policy environments. Cultural and legal concepts of confidentiality within the doctor-patient relationship are complex. Increasingly, evidence is recognizing the essential role of carers in the quality management of individuals affected by severe mental illness and this emphasis is being further supported by innovative health policy and legislation. A public health definition for the role of carers may be a more appropriate way to consider their role in mental health management strategies.

  8. Political-economic and professionalistic barriers to community control of mental health services: a commentary on Nassi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, P

    1978-10-01

    Nassi (1978) described the limits of community control in community mental health centers. This problem can be further understood by exploring the growth of professional dominance and psychiatric expansionism in the 1960s. One consequence was a 'social movement' ideology which psychologized political and economic phenomena, while actually opposing any effective mobilization for community control. Professionals have largely remained unaware and/or unresponsive to these tendencies. Likewise, they have failed to grasp the system of chaos which characterizes mental health policy in the U. S. Mental health care is increasingly falling under professional medical control, State-sponsored rationalization and efficiency planning, and private-profit concerns such as insurance companies and nursing homes. In this way, professionalism and capitalism coincide in their efforts to further their own efforts, while stemming community control in favor of social control.

  9. Innovations on a shoestring: a study of a collaborative community-based Aboriginal mental health service model in rural Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Douglas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Collaborative, culturally safe services that integrate clinical approaches with traditional Aboriginal healing have been hailed as promising approaches to ameliorate the high rates of mental health problems in Aboriginal communities in Canada. Overcoming significant financial and human resources barriers, a mental health team in northern Ontario is beginning to realize this ideal. We studied the strategies, strengths and challenges related to collaborative Aboriginal mental health care. Methods A participatory action research approach was employed to evaluate the Knaw Chi Ge Win services and their place in the broader mental health system. Qualitative methods were used as the primary source of data collection and included document review, ethnographic interviews with 15 providers and 23 clients; and 3 focus groups with community workers and managers. Results The Knaw Chi Ge Win model is an innovative, community-based Aboriginal mental health care model that has led to various improvements in care in a challenging rural, high needs environment. Formal opportunities to share information, shared protocols and ongoing education support this model of collaborative care. Positive outcomes associated with this model include improved quality of care, cultural safety, and integration of traditional Aboriginal healing with clinical approaches. Ongoing challenges include chronic lack of resources, health information and the still cursory understanding of Aboriginal healing and outcomes. Conclusions This model can serve to inform collaborative care in other rural and Indigenous mental health systems. Further research into traditional Aboriginal approaches to mental health is needed to continue advances in collaborative practice in a clinical setting.

  10. The efficacy of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy as a public mental health intervention for adults with mild to moderate depressive symptomatology: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy T M Pots

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Although there has been growing evidence for the efficacy of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT for different clinical populations, its effectiveness as a public mental health intervention has not been studied. The present study evaluates a community-based MBCT intervention for adults with mild to moderate depressive symptomatology in a large multi-site, pragmatic randomized controlled trial. METHOD: The participants with mild to moderate depressive symptomatology were recruited from the general population and randomized to the MBCT intervention (n = 76 or to a waiting list control group (n = 75. Participants completed measures before and after the intervention. Participants in the experimental condition also completed these measures at a 3-month follow-up. RESULTS: In the experimental condition significant reductions in depression, anxiety, and experiential avoidance, and improvements in mindfulness and emotional- and psychological mental health were found, compared to the waiting list (effect sizes Cohen's d = 0.31-0.56. These effects were sustained at the 3-month follow-up. The likelihood of a clinically significant change in depressive symptoms was significantly higher for the MBCT group [odds ratio (OR 3.026, p<0.01 at post-treatment; NNT = 5.10]. DISCUSSION: MBCT as a public mental health intervention for adults with mild to moderate depressive symptoms seems effective and applicable in a natural setting. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Nederlands Trial Register NTR2096.

  11. Shared decision making in Swedish community mental health services - an evaluation of three self-reporting instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, David; Schön, Ulla-Karin; Nyholm, Maria; Grim, Katarina; Svedberg, Petra

    2017-04-01

    Despite the potential impact of shared decision making on users satisfaction with care and quality in health care decisions, there is a lack of knowledge and skills regarding how to work with shared decision making among health care providers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of three instruments that measure varied dimensions of shared decision making, based on self-reports by clients, in a Swedish community mental health context. The study sample consisted of 121 clients with experience of community mental health care, and involved in a wide range of decisions regarding both social support and treatment. The questionnaires were examined for face and content validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability and construct validity. The instruments displayed good face and content validity, satisfactory internal consistency and a moderate to good level of stability in test-retest reliability with fair to moderate construct correlations, in a sample of clients with serious mental illness and experience of community mental health services in Sweden. The questionnaires are considered to be relevant to the decision making process, user-friendly and appropriate in a Swedish community mental health care context. They functioned well in settings where non-medical decisions, regarding social and support services, are the primary focus. The use of instruments that measure various dimensions of the self-reported experience of clients, can be a key factor in developing knowledge of how best to implement shared decision making in mental health services.

  12. A interface entre as políticas públicas de saúde mental e promoção da saúde The interface between the mental health and health promotion public policies

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    Juliana Reale Caçapava

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem por objetivo analisar as estratégias de produção de cuidado em saúde mental de um Centro de Convivência e Cooperativa (CECCO - serviço da rede de atenção à saúde mental do município de São Paulo - na perspectiva de seu alinhamento às políticas de saúde mental e promoção da saúde, verificando as potencialidades da interação entre elas, no cotidiano das práticas de saúde. A análise baseou-se no material empírico obtido por meio de entrevista semiestruturada junto ao gerente do serviço estudado, assim como nos achados da literatura e nos documentos oficiais do Ministério da Saúde. Verificou-se que, por meio de ações intersetoriais, que visam ao fortalecimento da participação social, do empoderamento de indivíduos e comunidade e da equidade, o CECCO articula pressupostos da saúde mental e da promoção da saúde, produzindo autonomia e cidadania e tornando-se um lugar que constrói sentido de vida às pessoas.This study aimed at analyzing the mental health care production strategies of a 'Centro de Convivência e Cooperativa' (CECCO - a service of the mental health care network of the city of São Paulo - in the perspective of their alignment with the mental health and health promotion public policies, verifying the potentialities of the interaction between them in the health practices' daily routine. The analysis was based on the empirical material obtained by a qualitative research, through a semi-structured interview with the health service's manager, as well as on the literature's findings and on the official documents of the Ministry of Health. It was observed that, through intersectorial actions aiming at the strengthening of social participation, of the empowerment of individuals and community and of equity, CECCO articulates the presuppositions of mental health and of health promotion, producing autonomy and citizenship and becoming a place that constructs life's meaning to people.

  13. Management of The Government for Public Facilities in The New Rural Communities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张中平

    2016-01-01

    The new rural community is the product of the process of urbanization that farmers turned to the public to realize the important field. However, the government start to manage the he new rural community from the most closely facilities of public services of residents' daily life,.this article include three aspects, first is that public service facilities of government have many issues for the new rural community,second is that reasons for these problems,third is that some measures can address these problems , hoping to make the new rural community public services have been further developed.

  14. How Community Organizations Promote Continuity of Care for Young People with Mental Health Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polgar, By Michael F.; Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Morrissey, Joseph P.

    2014-01-01

    Young people between the ages of 16 and 25 who experience mental health problems experience transitions and need help from a variety of organizations. Organizations promote continuity of care by assisting young adults with developmental, service, and systemic transitions. Providers offer specific services to help transitions and also form cooperative relationships with other community organizations. Results from a survey of 100 service providers in one community describe organizational attributes and practices which are associated with continuity of care in a regional system for young adults. Data analyses show that full-service organizations which practice cultural competence offer more specific services that foster continuity of care. Larger, full-service organizations are also more likely to have more extensive and collaborative inter-organizational networks that help young adults continue care over time within the regional system of care. PMID:24833485

  15. How Community Organizations Promote Continuity of Care for Young People with Mental Health Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polgar, Michael F; Cabassa, Leopoldo J; Morrissey, Joseph P

    2016-04-01

    Young people between the ages of 16 and 25 who experience mental health problems experience transitions and need help from a variety of organizations. Organizations promote continuity of care by assisting young adults with developmental, service, and systemic transitions. Providers offer specific services to help transitions and also form cooperative relationships with other community organizations. Results from a survey of 100 service providers in one community describe organizational attributes and practices which are associated with continuity of care in a regional system for young adults. Data analyses show that full-service organizations which practice cultural competence offer more specific services that foster continuity of care. Larger, full-service organizations are also more likely to have more extensive and collaborative inter-organizational networks that help young adults continue care over time within the regional system of care.

  16. Modeling community-based, self-help mental health rehabilitation reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Robbie

    2007-01-01

    The research used supported collaborative inquiry in participative action research to record the effectiveness of peer support and narrative therapy, in an indigenous-informed community of belonging, or open urban tribe. There were three objectives: (i) to identify the active attributes of consciousness among those living with intellectual disability and/or mental illness, which can be acknowledged, nurtured and developed to strengthen their balanced self-awareness, and assist them in taking more responsibility for their lives; (ii) to identify how these aspects of self awareness can be used to inform improved individual and group empowerment and improved rehabilitation practice, in communities of inter-subjective relationship and belonging, and; (iii) by exploring collaborative engagement with 'the system' which serves these two groups, to identify how they can more effectively be empowered to manage the planning, policies, programs and service delivery which largely determine their quality of life. The research also seeks to clarify how this person-valuing approach can be applied, in a self-help, peer-supported, community-based rehabilitation system. People living with mental illness and/or intellectual disability experience improved quality of life and self-determining sense of self when they are included in mixed open urban tribes, or communities of belonging. The predominant way this comes about is through the diverse shared metaphors of being which the participants provide for each other, through their energy of life and testimonies of experience which give each other encouragement and stimulation, generating motivation and strengthened intention for life. It is not the cognitive or social ability to perform particular skills in individual or group exchange that determines the impact of this open urban tribal model; it is more the spirit and essence of the people, and their way of exchanging loving interaction and generous caring, listening and feedback that

  17. Community Care and the Location and Governance of Risk in Mental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Warner

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of risk is now central to all areas of health and social welfare in the UK, although its exact character in relation to different groups varies. It has been argued that risk in mental health has been characterised by a preoccupation with the perceived risk of violence to others posed by those experiencing mental distress, particularly since the implementation of community care policies in the 1990s. The present paper draws on qualitative materials from semi-structured interviews with thirty-nine mental health social workers to demonstrate the significance for policy and practice of identifying where professionals see risk as being located. In the present study, three key sites were identified: firstly, risk was located in dangerous individuals, where the concept "high-risk" was particularly closely identified with young Black men with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Secondly, social workers located risk in within-subject entities such as active psychotic illness, when it was the symptom rather than the whole individual that was subject to surveillance and control. Thirdly, social workers located risk in social context and regarded risk in multidimensional ways compared to their psychiatric colleagues. The paper highlights how a theory of risk location can be a useful conceptual tool. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0601310

  18. Cumulative violence exposure, emotional nonacceptance, and mental health symptoms in a community sample of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundermann, Jane M; Chu, Ann T; DePrince, Anne P

    2013-01-01

    Women exposed to more types of violence (e.g., emotional, physical, or sexual violence)--referred to here as cumulative violence exposure--are at risk for more severe mental health symptoms compared to women who are exposed to a single type of violence or no violence. Women exposed to violence may also experience greater emotional nonacceptance compared to women with no exposure to violence. Emotional nonacceptance refers to an unwillingness to experience emotional states, including cognitive and behavioral attempts to avoid experiences of emotion. Given the links between cumulative violence exposure, emotional nonacceptance, and mental health symptoms among female victims of violence, the current study tested victims' emotional nonacceptance as a partial mediator between cumulative violence exposure and the severity of 3 types of symptoms central to complex trauma responses: depression, dissociation, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. A non-treatment-seeking community sample of women (N = 89; M age = 30.70 years) completed self-report questionnaires and interviews. Bootstrap procedures were then used to test 3 mediation models for the separate predictions of depression, dissociation, and PTSD symptoms. Results supported our hypotheses that emotional nonacceptance would mediate the relationship between women's cumulative violence exposure and severity for all symptom types. The current findings highlight the role that emotional nonacceptance may play in the development of mental health symptoms for chronically victimized women and point to the need for longitudinal research in such populations.

  19. Mental health and primary care: an experience with community health agents in Salvador-BA

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    Noêmia Aragão Casais

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To share an experience of a link between primary care and mental health by means of matrix support. Method: A survey conducted from March to December 2007, in Pernambués neighborhood, District of Cabula-beiru, in Salvador - Bahia. The shared knowledge construction was carried out by residents of the Multidisciplinary Residency Program in Health from the Nucleus of Mental Health, State University of Bahia, with Community Health Agents (ACS. Meetings, discussions and domiciliary visits were applyed as sharing technics and tools with phonographic recording, photographic register and report. The obtained information were evaluated regarding their content and were divided into stages and categories. Results: We determined the following stages by means of the technique: approach, ties’ strengthening, teamwork and conclusion. The results were analyzed based on the ACS’ everyday interactivity for cooperation, thus obtaining the development of a critical spirit in the assesment of the relationship between primary care and mental health. Final Considerations: The exchange of experiences produced significant learning, besides health promotion for all those involved in the process: ACS, families cared for and residents.

  20. Test - retest reliability of two instruments for measuring public attitudes towards persons with mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leufstadius Christel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has identified stigmatization as a major threat to successful treatment of individuals with mental illness. As a consequence several anti-stigma campaigns have been carried out. The results have been discouraging and the field suffers from lack of evidence about interventions that work. There are few reports on psychometric data for instruments used to assess stigma, which thus complicates research efforts. The aim of the present study was to investigate test-retest reliability of the Swedish versions of the questionnaires: FABI and "Changing Minds" and to examine the internal consistency of the two instruments. Method Two instruments, fear and behavioural intentions (FABI and "Changing Minds", used in earlier studies on public attitudes towards persons with mental illness were translated into Swedish and completed by 51 nursing students on two occasions, with an interval of three weeks. Test-retest reliability was calculated by using weighted kappa coefficient and internal consistency using the Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Results Both instruments attain at best moderate test-retest reliability. For the Changing Minds questionnaire almost one fifth (17.9% of the items present poor test-retest reliability and the alpha coefficient for the subscales ranges between 0.19 - 0.46. All of the items in the FABI reach a fair or a moderate agreement between the test and retest, and the questionnaire displays a high internal consistency, alpha 0.80. Conclusions There is a need for development of psychometrically tested instruments within this field of research.

  1. Public knowledge, attitudes, social distance and reported contact regarding people with mental illness 2009-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, C; Robinson, E; Evans-Lacko, S; Corker, E; Rebollo-Mesa, I; Rose, D; Thornicroft, G

    2016-08-01

    To investigate whether public knowledge, attitudes, desire for social distance and reported contact in relation to people with mental health problems have improved in England during the Time to Change (TTC) programme to reduce stigma and discrimination 2009-2015. Using data from an annual face-to-face survey of a nationally representative sample of adults, we analysed longitudinal trends in the outcomes with regression modelling using standardised scores of the measures overall and by age and gender subgroups. There were improvements in all outcomes. The improvement for knowledge was 0.17 standard deviation units in 2015 compared to 2009 (95% CI 0.10, 0.23); for attitudes 0.20 standard deviation units (95% CI 0.14, 0.27) and for social distance 0.17 standard deviation units (95% CI 0.11, 0.24). Survey year for 2015 vs. 2009 was associated with a higher likelihood of reported contact (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.13, 1.53). Statistically significant interactions between year and age suggest the campaign had more impact on the attitudes of the target age group (25-45) than those aged over 65 or under 25. Women's reported contact with people with mental health problems increased more than did men's. The results provide support for the effectiveness of TTC. © 2016 The Authors. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Patient Perceptions of Prejudice and Discrimination by Health Care Providers and its Relationship with Mental Disorders: Results from the 2012 Canadian Community Health-Mental Health Survey Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Kirsten; Palis, Heather; Oviedo-Joekes, Eugenia

    2016-04-01

    Using data from a nationally representative survey, the Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health, this secondary analysis aimed to determine the prevalence of perceived prejudice by health care providers (HCPs) and its relationship with mental disorders. Respondents accessing HCPs in the prior year were asked if they experienced HCP prejudice. A hypothesis driven multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between type of mental disorders and HCP prejudice. Among the 3006 respondents, 10.9 % perceived HCP prejudice, 62.4 % of whom reported a mental disorder. The adjusted odds of prejudice was highest for respondents with anxiety (OR 3.12; 95 % CI 1.60, 6.07), concurrent mood or anxiety and substance disorders (OR 3.08; 95 % CI 1.59, 5.95) and co-occurring mood and anxiety disorders (OR 2.89; 95 % CI 1.68, 4.97) compared to respondents without any mental disorders. These findings are timely for informing discussions regarding policies to address HCP prejudice towards people with mental disorders.

  3. Pasung: Physical restraint and confinement of the mentally ill in the community

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    Diatri Hervita

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical restraint and confinement (pasung by families of people with mental illness is known to occur in many parts of the world but has attracted limited investigation. This preliminary observational study was carried out on Samosir Island in Sumatra, Indonesia, to investigate the nature of such restraint and confinement, the clinical characteristics of people restrained, and the reasons given by families and communities for applying such restraint. Methods The research method was cross-sectional observational research in a natural setting, carried out during a six-month period of working as the only psychiatrist in a remote district. Results Fifteen cases of pasung, approximately even numbers of males and females and almost all with a diagnosis of schizophrenia were identified. Duration of restraint ranged from two to 21 years. Discussion and Conclusion The provision of basic community mental health services, where there were none before, enabled the majority of the people who had been restrained to receive psychiatric treatment and to be released from pasung.

  4. Pasung: Physical restraint and confinement of the mentally ill in the community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minas, Harry; Diatri, Hervita

    2008-01-01

    Background Physical restraint and confinement (pasung) by families of people with mental illness is known to occur in many parts of the world but has attracted limited investigation. This preliminary observational study was carried out on Samosir Island in Sumatra, Indonesia, to investigate the nature of such restraint and confinement, the clinical characteristics of people restrained, and the reasons given by families and communities for applying such restraint. Methods The research method was cross-sectional observational research in a natural setting, carried out during a six-month period of working as the only psychiatrist in a remote district. Results Fifteen cases of pasung, approximately even numbers of males and females and almost all with a diagnosis of schizophrenia were identified. Duration of restraint ranged from two to 21 years. Discussion and Conclusion The provision of basic community mental health services, where there were none before, enabled the majority of the people who had been restrained to receive psychiatric treatment and to be released from pasung. PMID:18554420

  5. Factors associated with use of community mental health services by schizophrenia patients using multilevel analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Patricia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persons with schizophrenia and related disorders may be particularly sensitive to a number of determinants of service use, including those related with illness, socio-demographic characteristics and organizational factors. The objective of this study is to identify factors associated with outpatient contacts at community mental health services of patients with schizophrenia or related disorders. Methods This cross-sectional study analyzed 1097 patients. The main outcome measure was the total number of outpatient consultations during one year. Independent variables were related to socio-demographic, clinical and use of service factors. Data were collected from clinical records. Results The multilevel linear regression model explained 46.35% of the variance. Patients with significantly more contacts with ambulatory services were not working and were receiving welfare benefits (p = 0.02, had no formal education (p = 0.02, had a global level of severity of two or three (four being the most severe (p Conclusions As expected, the variables that explained the use of community service could be viewed as proxies for severity of illness. The most surprising finding, however, was that a group of four psychiatrists was also independently associated with use of ambulatory services by patients with schizophrenia or related disorders. More research is needed to carefully examine how professional support networks interact to affect use of mental health.

  6. Mental Health Treatment Seeking Among Veteran and Civilian Community College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortney, John C; Curran, Geoffrey M; Hunt, Justin B; Lu, Liya; Eisenberg, Daniel; Valenstein, Marcia

    2017-08-01

    A Web-based survey examined treatment seeking among community college students to inform the design of engagement interventions. Veteran and civilian community college students (N=765) were screened for mental disorders and reported perceptions of treatment need, effectiveness, and stigma, as well as service use. Regression analysis identified predictors of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy use. Of the 511 students who screened positive for a current mental disorder or reported a perceived need for treatment (149 veterans and 362 civilians), 30% reported past-year use of psychotropic medications. Predictors were perceived treatment need (odds ratio [OR]=7.81, p<.001) and the perception that psychotropic medications are effective (OR=3.38, p=.012). Eleven percent of participants reported past-year psychotherapy use, and predictors were a positive screen for posttraumatic stress disorder (OR=2.78, p=.04) and poorer financial status. Modifiable barriers, including perceived need for and effectiveness of treatment, were correlated with pharmacotherapy use and should be targeted by engagement interventions.

  7. The Delphi Method : methodological issues arising from a study examining factors influencing the publication or non-Publication of mental health nursing research

    OpenAIRE

    Ashmore, Russell; Flanagan, Tracy; McInnes, Doug; Banks, David

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The paper describes how the classic Delphi method can be adapted and structured to ensure that specific research questions are clearly addressed. \\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach – As part of a larger mixed method project, a modified Delphi study was undertaken to explore factors influencing publication and non-publication of mental health nursing research. \\ud \\ud Findings - This paper reports brief findings from the Delphi study. However, its main focus is the methodological is...

  8. The roles of individual and organizational factors in burnout among community-based mental health service providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Amy E; Albanese, Brian J; Shapiro, Nicole M; Aarons, Gregory A

    2014-02-01

    Public-sector mental health care providers are at high risk for burnout, which negatively affects not only provider well-being but also the quality of services for clients and the functioning of organizations. This study examines the influence of demographics, work characteristic, and organizational variables on levels of burnout among child and adolescent mental health service providers operating within a public-sector mental health service system. Additionally, given the dearth of research examining differences in burnout levels among mental health subdisciplines (e.g., social work, psychology, marital and family therapy) and mental health programs (e.g., outpatient, day treatment, wraparound, case management), analyses were conducted to compare levels of burnout among multiple mental health disciplines and program types. Surveys were completed by 285 providers across 49 mental health programs in a large urban public mental health system. Variables representing dimensions of organizational climate and transformational leadership accounted for the greatest amount of variance in provider reported burnout. Analyses demonstrated significantly lower levels of depersonalization among wraparound providers compared to traditional case managers. Age was the only demographic variable related to burnout. Additionally, no significant effects were found for provider discipline or for agency tenure and caseload size. Results suggest the need to consider organizational development strategies aimed at creating more functional and less stressful climates and increasing levels of transformational leadership behaviors in order to reduce levels of burnout among clinicians working in public mental health settings for youth and families. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Public facility planning in urban villagers' community based on Public Participation GIS: a case study of Wuhan new urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Zeng, Zheng; Yu, Yang

    2009-10-01

    As a unique group in China's urbanization, "urban villager" is the concern of various parties of the society. From "farmers" to "urban residents", urban villagers' means of production and life style change dramatically. At present, public facility planning in urban villagers' community always fail to meet their particular demands. Taking PPGIS as an instrument, the paper analyzes the present status of public facilities in urban villagers' community and the new demand on public facilities from the changing production means and life style. The purpose is to put forward suggestions for public facility setting in urban villagers' community and offer theoretic guidance and proposal for Wuhan new urban areas. PPGIS is gradually being applied to social science researches in recent years. Through the integrated platform, it can achieve the objective of communication, coordination, cooperation and collaboration of different interests. In this research, ephemeral mapping, sketch mapping, scale mapping and aerial photographs are used to acquire spatial data of public facilities and attribute data of urban villagers in their community. Through the comparison of data, the research shows that while urban villagers in Wuhan new urban areas gradually accept city life, they inevitably maintain certain rural habits and customs. Therefore, the public facility planning in this particular kind of communities can neither be treated equal as countryside facility planning, nor simply adopt the practice in urban residential areas' planning; rather the planning system should take into account facilities of different categories at all levels, communities of different types and residential groups.

  10. Recovery Assessment Scale: Testing validity with Portuguese community-based mental health organization users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge-Monteiro, Maria F; Ornelas, José H

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop the Portuguese version of the Recovery Assessment Scale (RAS-P), and to assess the validity of the findings using the revised test, with 213 users from 5 nonprofit community-based mental health organizations. Participants in the assessment completed a self-reported survey investigating their sense of personal recovery, personal empowerment, capabilities achievement, psychiatric symptoms' frequency, and demographic data. Evidence from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses using the 24-item version of the test, validated a 4-factor structure for the RAS-P model based on the dimensions of Personal Goals and Hope, Managing Help Needs, Supportive Interpersonal Relationships, and Life Beyond Symptoms, consistent with components of the recovery process. Convergent and discriminant validity was also achieved using bivariate correlation coefficients among the 4 subscales' scores, between the overall scale and the subscales, and in relation to external variables. Findings allowed for the interpretation that the RAS-P is measuring a particular psychological construct, which is different from symptoms of the mental illness. A hypothesized significant association with personal empowerment and with capabilities achievement was demonstrated. Positive association was also found between participants' use of recovery-oriented services such as independent housing or supported employment programs. The RAS-P scores also revealed excellent internal consistency for the overall scale (α = .90), and good consistency for the subscales (>.75), which attest to its precision in measurement. In conclusion, the study proved the RAS-P a reliable and useful tool in the context of the community mental health practice.

  11. Trial of an electronic decision support system to facilitate shared decision making in community mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woltmann, Emily M; Wilkniss, Sandra M; Teachout, Alexandra; McHugo, Gregory J; Drake, Robert E

    2011-01-01

    Involvement of community mental health consumers in mental health decision making has been consistently associated with improvements in health outcomes. Electronic decision support systems (EDSSs) that support both consumer and provider decision making may be a sustainable way to improve dyadic communication in a field with approximately 50% workforce turnover per year. This study examined the feasibility of such a system and investigated proximal outcomes of the system's performance. A cluster randomized design was used to evaluate an EDSS at three urban community mental health sites. Case managers (N=20) were randomly assigned to the EDSS-supported planning group or to the usual care planning group. Consumers (N=80) were assigned to the same group as their case managers. User satisfaction with the care planning process was assessed for consumers and case managers (possible scores range from 1 to 5, with higher summary scores indicating more satisfaction). Recall of the care plan was assessed for consumers. Linear regression with adjustment for grouping by worker was used to assess satisfaction scores. A Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to examine knowledge of the care plan. Compared with case managers in the control group, those in the intervention group were significantly more satisfied with the care planning process (mean ± SD score=4.0 ± .5 versus 3.3 ± .5; adjusted p=.01). Compared with consumers in the control group, those in the intervention group had significantly greater recall of their care plans three days after the planning session (mean proportion of plan goals recalled=75% ± 28% versus 57% ± 32%; p=.02). There were no differences between the clients in the intervention and control groups regarding satisfaction. This study demonstrated that clients can build their own care plans and negotiate and revise them with their case managers using an EDSS.

  12. Stressors, moderators and stress outcomes: findings from the All-Wales Community Mental Health Nurse Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D; Burnard, P; Coyle, D; Fothergill, A; Hannigan, B

    2000-12-01

    The All-Wales Community Mental Health Nurse Stress Study was the largest study undertaken in the UK to date to investigate stress, burnout and coping amongst the CMHN workforce. The aim of the study was to examine the variety, frequency and severity of stressors, to describe coping strategies used to reduce work-based stress, and to determine stress outcomes. Questionnaires were sent out to 614 CMHNs from ten NHS Trusts throughout Wales. The response rate was 49% (n = 301). The measures used included the Maslach Human Services Survey, the CPN Stress Questionnaire, the Psychnurse Methods of Coping Questionnaire, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the General Health Questionnaire GHQ-12. Community mental health nurses indicated that trying to maintain a good quality service in the midst of long waiting lists, poor resources, and having too many interruptions while trying to work in the office were particularly stressful items. The coping strategies that CMHNs utilized the most were having a stable home life and looking forward to going home at the end of the day, having outside interests and hobbies and talking to people that they got on well with. Forty per cent of CMHNs tended to view themselves negatively, feeling that others did not hold much respect for them. The GHQ-12 measure indicated that 35% of CMHNs had crossed a threshold of psychiatric caseness. Measured against a normative sample of mental health workers, 51% of CMHNs were experiencing high levels of long-term emotional exhaustion. Twenty-four per cent were suffering from high levels of depersonalization burnout and were not relating well to clients, whilst 14% were experiencing severe long-term feelings of lack of personal accomplishment. The results from the study provided us with a picture of stress and coping in CMHNs in Wales. Addressing these factors may help to reduce levels of experienced stress and burnout.

  13. "What's Wrong with the Seed?" A Comparative Examination of an Empowering Community-Centered Approach to Recovery in Community Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge-Monteiro, Maria F; Ornelas, José H

    2016-10-01

    This cross-sectional group comparison aimed to examine whether personal empowerment, recovery and community integration were associated with the individual's participation in an empowering community-centered model of intervention. Ninety-three participants from an empowering community-centered community mental health organization were compared with a matched group of individuals from standard interventions of four equivalent organizations. Results showed that participants taking advantage of the empowering community-centered approach were more involved in high recovery-oriented programs; and attained higher levels of personal goals and hope, empowerment, and of community integration. An involvement in high recovery-oriented programs (supported employment or independent housing) revealed improved outcomes for the individual. In conclusion, the findings suggested a transformative impact of the empowering community-centered model both at the individual and the program level by altering the resource accessibility and social conditions for people who experience mental illness. The implications of findings for transforming community mental health practice are discussed in detail.

  14. Recognizing the Symptoms of Mental Illness following Concussions in the Sports Community: A Need for Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolovec-Vranic, Jane; Zhang, Stanley; Wong, Hatty; Lam, Emily; Jing, Rowan; Russell, Kelly; Cusimano, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the awareness of concussion-related symptoms amongst members of the sports community in Canada. A cross-sectional national electronic survey was conducted. Youth athletes, parents, coaches and medical professionals across Canada were recruited through mailing lists from sports-related opt-in marketing databases. Participants were asked to identify, from a list of options, the symptoms of a concussion. The proportion of identified symptoms (categorized as physical, cognitive, mental health-related and overall) as well as participant factors associated with symptom recognition were analyzed. The survey elicited 6,937 responses. Most of the respondents (92.1%) completed the English language survey, were male (57.7%), 35-54 years of age (61.7%), with post-secondary education (58.2%), or high reported yearly household income (>$80,000; 53.0%). There were respondents from all provinces and territories with the majority of respondents from Ontario (35.2%) or British Columbia (19.1%). While participants identified most of the physical (mean = 84.2% of symptoms) and cognitive (mean = 91.2% of symptoms), they on average only identified 53.5% of the mental health-related symptoms of concussions. Respondents who were older, with higher education and household income, or resided in the Northwest Territories or Alberta identified significantly more of the mental health-related symptoms listed. While Canadian youth athletes, parents, coaches and medical professionals are able to identify most of the physical and cognitive symptoms associated with concussion, identification of mental health-related symptoms of concussion is still lagging.

  15. Recognizing the Symptoms of Mental Illness following Concussions in the Sports Community: A Need for Improvement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Topolovec-Vranic

    Full Text Available To evaluate the awareness of concussion-related symptoms amongst members of the sports community in Canada.A cross-sectional national electronic survey was conducted. Youth athletes, parents, coaches and medical professionals across Canada were recruited through mailing lists from sports-related opt-in marketing databases. Participants were asked to identify, from a list of options, the symptoms of a concussion. The proportion of identified symptoms (categorized as physical, cognitive, mental health-related and overall as well as participant factors associated with symptom recognition were analyzed.The survey elicited 6,937 responses. Most of the respondents (92.1% completed the English language survey, were male (57.7%, 35-54 years of age (61.7%, with post-secondary education (58.2%, or high reported yearly household income (>$80,000; 53.0%. There were respondents from all provinces and territories with the majority of respondents from Ontario (35.2% or British Columbia (19.1%. While participants identified most of the physical (mean = 84.2% of symptoms and cognitive (mean = 91.2% of symptoms, they on average only identified 53.5% of the mental health-related symptoms of concussions. Respondents who were older, with higher education and household income, or resided in the Northwest Territories or Alberta identified significantly more of the mental health-related symptoms listed.While Canadian youth athletes, parents, coaches and medical professionals are able to identify most of the physical and cognitive symptoms associated with concussion, identification of mental health-related symptoms of concussion is still lagging.

  16. Comparing perceived public stigma and personal stigma of mental health treatment seeking in a young adult sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Eric R; Paves, Andrew P

    2014-09-30

    Perceived public stigma regarding seeking mental health treatment can be a barrier to accessing services for young adults. While factors associating with personal stigma regarding how one would view and treat others have been identified, the discrepancies between perceived and personal stigma have received less research attention. We designed the current study to expand on previous research and examine the discrepancies between perceived public stigma and personal stigma among a sample of 386 primarily White and Asian college students. Participants completed surveys of mental health symptoms, treatment experience and attitudes, perceived public, and personal stigma. Overall, participants generally reported greater perceived public stigma than personal stigma; an effect that was particularly evident for women and those with mental health symptoms. The majority of participants disagreed with items assessing personal stigma. Negative attitudes toward treatment and anxiety symptoms associated with perceived public stigma, while male gender, Asian ethnicity, and negative attitudes toward treatment associated with personal stigma. Findings have implications for interventions and marketing programs to help change perceptions about mental health stigma to encourage utilization of services for those young people who could benefit from care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The University of Washington's Community-Oriented Public Health Practice program and Public Health-Seattle & King County partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Peter J; Hartfield, Karen; Nicola, Bud; Bogan, Sharon L

    2014-01-01

    The Community-Oriented Public Health Practice (COPHP) program, a 2-year in-residence MPH degree program in the University of Washington School of Public Health, has partnered with Public Health-Seattle & King County (PHSKC) since 2002 to create a mutually beneficial set of programs to improve teaching and address community-based public health problems in a practice setting. The COPHP program uses a problem-based learning approach that puts students in small groups to work on public health problems. Both University of Washington-based and PHSKC-based faculty facilitate the classroom work. In the first year for students, COPHP, in concert with PHSKC, places students in practicum assignments at PHSKC; in the second year, students undertake a master's project (capstone) in a community or public health agency. The capstone project entails taking on a problem in a community-based agency to improve either the health of a population or the capacity of the agency to improve population health. Both the practicum and the capstone projects emphasize applying classroom learning in actual public health practice work for community-based organizations. This partnership brings PHSKC and COPHP together in every aspect of teaching. In essence, PHSKC acts as the "academic health department" for COPHP. There are detailed agreements and contracts that guide all aspects of the partnership. Both the practicum and capstone projects require written contracts. The arrangements for getting non-University of Washington faculty paid for teaching and advising also include formal contracts.

  18. Task shifting – Ghana's community mental health workers’ experiences and perceptions of their roles and scope of practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent I. O. Agyapong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Because of the absence of adequate numbers of psychiatrists, the bulk of mental health care at the community level in Ghana is provided by community mental health workers (CMHWs. Objective: To examine the role and scope of practice of CMHWs in Ghana from their own perspectives and to make recommendations to improve the care they provide. Design: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 164 CMHWs from all the 10 administrative regions of Ghana, comprising 71 (43.3% community psychiatric nurses (CPNs, 19 (11.6% clinical psychiatric officers (CPOs, and 74 (45.1% community mental health officers (CMHOs. Results: Overall, only 39 (23.8% CMHWs worked closely with psychiatrists, 64 (39% worked closely with social workers, 46 (28% worked closely with psychologists and 13 (7.9% worked closely with occupational therapists. A lower proportion of CMHOs worked closely with psychiatrists, psychologists, and social workers compared with CPOs and CPNs. There was no significant difference in the proportion of the different CMHW types who expressed confidence in their ability to diagnose any of the commonly named mental health conditions except personality disorders. However, a lower proportion of CMHOs than CPOs and CPNs expressed confidence in their ability to treat all the disorders. The CMHWs ranked schizophrenia as the most frequently treated mental health condition and there was no statistically significant difference in the reported frequency with which the three groups of CMHWs treated any of the mental health conditions. Conclusions: Mental health policy makers and coordinators need to thoroughly review the training curriculum and also evaluate the job descriptions of all CMHWs in Ghana to ensure that they are consistent with the demands and health-care needs of patients they care for in their communities. For example, as CMHOs and CPNs prescribe medication even though they are not expected to do so, it may be worth exploring the merits of

  19. "Symptoms of something all around us": Mental health, Inuit culture, and criminal justice in Arctic communities in Nunavut, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrazzi, Priscilla; Krupa, Terry

    2016-09-01

    Rehabilitation-oriented criminal court mental health initiatives to reduce the number of people with mental illness caught in the criminal justice system exist in many North American cities and elsewhere but not in the mainly Inuit Canadian Arctic territory of Nunavut. This study explores whether the therapeutic aims of these resource-intensive, mainly urban initiatives can be achieved in criminal courts in Nunavut's resource constrained, culturally distinct and geographically remote communities. A qualitative multiple-case study in the communities of Iqaluit, Arviat and Qikiqtarjuaq involved 55 semi-structured interviews and three focus groups with participants representing four sectors essential to these initiatives: justice, health, community organizations and community members. These interviews explored whether the therapeutic jurisprudence (TJ) principles that guide criminal court mental health initiatives and the component objectives of these principles could be used to improve the criminal court response to people with mental illness in Nunavut. Interviews revealed 13 themes reflecting perceptions of Inuit culture's influence on the identification of people with mental illness, treatment, and collaboration between the court and others. These themes include cultural differences in defining mental illness, differences in traditional and contemporary treatment models, and the importance of mutual cultural respect. The findings suggest Inuit culture, including its recent history of cultural disruption and change, affects the vulnerability of Nunavut communities to the potential moral and legal pitfalls associated with TJ and criminal court mental health initiatives. These pitfalls include the dominance of biomedical approaches when identifying a target population, the medicalization of behaviour and culture, the risk of "paternalism" in therapeutic interventions, and shortcomings in interdisciplinary collaboration that limit considerations of Inuit culture. The

  20. The relation between social network site usage and loneliness and mental health in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarts, S; Peek, S T M; Wouters, E J M

    2015-09-01

    Loneliness is expected to become an even bigger social problem in the upcoming decades, because of the growing number of older adults. It has been argued that the use of social network sites can aid in decreasing loneliness and improving mental health. The purpose of this study was to examine whether and how social network sites usage is related to loneliness and mental health in community-dwelling older adults. The study population included community-dwelling older adults aged 60 and over residing in the Netherlands (n = 626) collected through the LISS panel (www.lissdata.nl). Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses, adjusted for potentially important confounders, were conducted in order to investigate the relation between social network sites usage and (emotional and social) loneliness and mental health. More than half of the individuals (56.2%) reported to use social network sites at least several times per week. Social network sites usage appeared unrelated to loneliness in general, and to emotional and social loneliness in particular. Social network sites usage also appeared unrelated to mental health. Several significant associations between related factors and the outcomes at hand were detected. In this sample, which was representative for the Dutch population, social network sites usage was unrelated to loneliness and/or mental health. The results indicate that a simple association between social network site usage and loneliness and mental health as such, cannot automatically be assumed in community-dwelling older adults. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. The Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project — A Community-Level, Public Health Initiative to Build Community Disaster Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Eisenman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Public health officials need evidence-based methods for improving community disaster resilience and strategies for measuring results. This methods paper describes how one public health department is addressing this problem. This paper provides a detailed description of the theoretical rationale, intervention design and novel evaluation of the Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project (LACCDR, a public health program for increasing community disaster resilience. The LACCDR Project utilizes a pretest–posttest method with control group design. Sixteen communities in Los Angeles County were selected and randomly assigned to the experimental community resilience group or the comparison group. Community coalitions in the experimental group receive training from a public health nurse trained in community resilience in a toolkit developed for the project. The toolkit is grounded in theory and uses multiple components to address education, community engagement, community and individual self-sufficiency, and partnerships among community organizations and governmental agencies. The comparison communities receive training in traditional disaster preparedness topics of disaster supplies and emergency communication plans. Outcome indicators include longitudinal changes in inter-organizational linkages among community organizations, community member responses in table-top exercises, and changes in household level community resilience behaviors and attitudes. The LACCDR Project is a significant opportunity and effort to operationalize and meaningfully measure factors and strategies to increase community resilience. This paper is intended to provide public health and academic researchers with new tools to conduct their community resilience programs and evaluation research. Results are not yet available and will be presented in future reports.

  2. The Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project — A Community-Level, Public Health Initiative to Build Community Disaster Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenman, David; Chandra, Anita; Fogleman, Stella; Magana, Aizita; Hendricks, Astrid; Wells, Ken; Williams, Malcolm; Tang, Jennifer; Plough, Alonzo

    2014-01-01

    Public health officials need evidence-based methods for improving community disaster resilience and strategies for measuring results. This methods paper describes how one public health department is addressing this problem. This paper provides a detailed description of the theoretical rationale, intervention design and novel evaluation of the Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project (LACCDR), a public health program for increasing community disaster resilience. The LACCDR Project utilizes a pretest–posttest method with control group design. Sixteen communities in Los Angeles County were selected and randomly assigned to the experimental community resilience group or the comparison group. Community coalitions in the experimental group receive training from a public health nurse trained in community resilience in a toolkit developed for the project. The toolkit is grounded in theory and uses multiple components to address education, community engagement, community and individual self-sufficiency, and partnerships among community organizations and governmental agencies. The comparison communities receive training in traditional disaster preparedness topics of disaster supplies and emergency communication plans. Outcome indicators include longitudinal changes in inter-organizational linkages among community organizations, community member responses in table-top exercises, and changes in household level community resilience behaviors and attitudes. The LACCDR Project is a significant opportunity and effort to operationalize and meaningfully measure factors and strategies to increase community resilience. This paper is intended to provide public health and academic researchers with new tools to conduct their community resilience programs and evaluation research. Results are not yet available and will be presented in future reports. PMID:25153472

  3. Engaging cultural resources to promote mental health in Dutch LSES neighborhoods: study of a community-based participatory media project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knibbe, Mare; de Vries, Marten; Horstman, Klasien

    2015-09-28

    Community-based participatory media projects form a promising new strategy for mental health promotion that can help address the mental health-gap identified by the World Health Organization. (2008b) mhGAP, Mental Health Gap Action Programme: Scaling Up Care for Mental, Neurological and Substance Use Disorders. World Health Organization, Geneva. In this article we present an ethnographic study about a participatory media project that was developed to promote mental health in selected Dutch low socio-economic status neighborhoods. Through narrowcastings (group film viewings), participant observation and interviews we mapped the ways in which the media project effected and facilitated the collective sense-making process of the audience with regard to sources of stress impacting mental health and opportunities for action. These determinants of mental health are shaped by cultural dimensions, since the cultural context shapes everyday experiences of stress as well as the resources and skills to manage them. Our analysis shows that the media project engaged cultural resources to challenge stressful social scripts. We conclude that more attention should be paid to cultural narratives in a community to understand how health promotion strategies can support social resilience.

  4. [Art, mental health, and public healthcare: profile of a care culture in the history of São Paulo city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvanese, Ana Tereza Costa; D'Oliveira, Ana Flávia Pires Lucas; Lima, Elizabeth Maria Freire de Araújo; Pereira, Lygia Maria de França; Nascimento, Ana Paula; Nascimento, Andréia de Fátima

    2016-01-01

    By studying the inclusion of artistic and cultural activities in the care provided throughout the history of public mental healthcare in greater São Paulo, Brazil, we can better understand and characterize the practices adopted in the Psychosocial Care Centers in the city today. Experiments carried out between the 1920s and 1990s are investigated, based on bibliographic research. The contemporary data were obtained from research undertaken at 126 workshops at 21 Psychosocial Care Centers in the same city between April 2007 and April 2008. The findings indicate that the current trend in mental healthcare, whose clinical perspective spans the realms of art and mental health and has territorial ramifications, has maintained some of the features encountered in earlier mental healthcare experiments.

  5. The Public Stigma of Mental Illness: What Do We Think; What Do We Know; What Can We Prove?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescosolido, Bernice

    2015-01-01

    By the 1990s, sociology faced a frustrating paradox. Classic work on mental illness stigma and labeling theory reinforced that the “mark” of mental illness created prejudice and discrimination for individuals and family members. Yet that foundation, coupled with deinstitutionalization of mental health care, produced contradictory responses. Claims that stigma was dissipating were made, while others argued that intervention efforts were needed to reduce stigma. While signaling the critical role of theory-based research in establishing the pervasive effects of stigma, both claims directed resources away from social science research. Yet the contemporary scientific foundation underlying both claims was weak. A reply came in a resurgence of research directed toward mental illness stigma nationally and internationally, bringing together researchers from different disciplines for the first time. The author reports on the general population’s attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral dispositions that targeted public stigma and implications for the next decade of research and intervention efforts. PMID:23325423

  6. Interrelation of Sport Participation, Physical Activity, Social Capital and Mental Health in Disadvantaged Communities: A SEM-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlier, Mathieu; Van Dyck, Delfien; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Babiak, Kathy; Willem, Annick

    2015-01-01

    The Health through Sport conceptual model links sport participation with physical, social and psychological outcomes and stresses the need for more understanding between these outcomes. The present study aims to uncover how sport participation, physical activity, social capital and mental health are interrelated by examining these outcomes in one model. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in nine disadvantaged communities in Antwerp (Belgium). Two hundred adults (aged 18-56) per community were randomly selected and visited at home to fill out a questionnaire on socio-demographics, sport participation, physical activity, social capital and mental health. A sample of 414 adults participated in the study. Structural Equation Modeling analysis showed that sport participation (β = .095) and not total physical activity (β = .027) was associated with better mental health. No association was found between sport participation and community social capital (β = .009) or individual social capital (β = .045). Furthermore, only community social capital was linked with physical activity (β = .114), individual social capital was not (β = -.013). In contrast, only individual social capital was directly associated with mental health (β = .152), community social capital was not (β = .070). This study emphasizes the importance of sport participation and individual social capital to improve mental health in disadvantaged communities. It further gives a unique insight into the functionalities of how sport participation, physical activity, social capital and mental health are interrelated. Implications for policy are that cross-sector initiatives between the sport, social and health sector need to be supported as their outcomes are directly linked to one another.

  7. Interrelation of Sport Participation, Physical Activity, Social Capital and Mental Health in Disadvantaged Communities: A SEM-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlier, Mathieu; Van Dyck, Delfien; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Babiak, Kathy; Willem, Annick

    2015-01-01

    Background The Health through Sport conceptual model links sport participation with physical, social and psychological outcomes and stresses the need for more understanding between these outcomes. The present study aims to uncover how sport participation, physical activity, social capital and mental health are interrelated by examining these outcomes in one model. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in nine disadvantaged communities in Antwerp (Belgium). Two hundred adults (aged 18–56) per community were randomly selected and visited at home to fill out a questionnaire on socio-demographics, sport participation, physical activity, social capital and mental health. A sample of 414 adults participated in the study. Results Structural Equation Modeling analysis showed that sport participation (β = .095) and not total physical activity (β = .027) was associated with better mental health. No association was found between sport participation and community social capital (β = .009) or individual social capital (β = .045). Furthermore, only community social capital was linked with physical activity (β = .114), individual social capital was not (β = -.013). In contrast, only individual social capital was directly associated with mental health (β = .152), community social capital was not (β = .070). Conclusion This study emphasizes the importance of sport participation and individual social capital to improve mental health in disadvantaged communities. It further gives a unique insight into the functionalities of how sport participation, physical activity, social capital and mental health are interrelated. Implications for policy are that cross-sector initiatives between the sport, social and health sector need to be supported as their outcomes are directly linked to one another. PMID:26451731

  8. Disseminating Evidence-Based Practices for Adults with PTSD and Severe Mental Illness in Public-Sector Mental Health Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frueh, B. Christopher; Grubaugh, Anouk L.; Cusack, Karen J.; Elhai, Jon D.

    2009-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains largely untreated among adults with severe mental illnesses (SMI). The treatment of psychotic symptoms usually takes precedence in the care of adults with SMI. Such oversight is problematic in that PTSD in SMI populations is common (19%-43%), contributes a significant illness burden, and hinders mental…

  9. Evidence-Based Services in a Statewide Public Mental Health System: Do the Services Fit the Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Jason; Becker, Kimberly D.; Daleiden, Eric L.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the degree to which a literature review of evidence-based services identified services appropriate for the actual problems of youth involved in intensive public mental health services. The diagnostic profiles and specific intervention targets reported by treatment providers were coded to determine whether a relevant empirically…

  10. 76 FR 44958 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement-Quarterly Publication of a “Corrections Mental Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    .... Only questions received by 12 p.m. (EDT) on August 19, 2011 will be answered. Authority: Public law 93... at http://www.nicic.gov . All technical or programmatic questions concerning this announcement should... numbers of persons with mental illness have found their way into all areas of the criminal justice...

  11. Breaking through Marginalisation in Public Mental Health Care with Family Group Conferencing : Shame as Risk and Protective Factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Gideon; Schout, Gert

    2013-01-01

    From January 2011 until December 2012, forty Family Group Conferences (FGCs) will be studied in the public mental health care (PMHC) setting in the province of Groningen, the Netherlands. Research should yield an answer to whether FGCs are valuable for clients in PMHC as a means to generate social s

  12. Breaking through marginalisation in public mental health care with Family Group Conferencing: shame as risk and protective factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Gideon de; Schout, Gert

    2013-01-01

    From January 2011 until December 2012, forty Family Group Conferences (FGCs) will be studied in the public mental health care (PMHC) setting in the province of Groningen, the Netherlands. Research should yield an answer to whether FGCs are valuable for clients in PMHC as a means to generate social s

  13. Achieving Continuity of Care: Facilitators and Barriers in Community Mental Health Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Ian Rees

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The integration of mental health and social services for people diagnosed with severe mental illness (SMI has been a key aspect of attempts to reform mental health services in the UK and aims to minimise user and carer distress and confusion arising from service discontinuities. Community mental health teams (CMHTs are a key component of UK policy for integrated service delivery, but implementing this policy has raised considerable organisational challenges. The aim of this study was to identify and explore facilitators and barriers perceived to influence continuity of care by health and social care professionals working in and closely associated with CMHTs. Methods This study employed a survey design utilising in-depth, semi-structured interviews with a proportionate, random sample of 113 health and social care professionals and representatives of voluntary organisations. Participants worked in two NHS Mental Health Trusts in greater London within eight adult CMHTs and their associated acute in-patient wards, six local general practices, and two voluntary organisations. Results Team leadership, decision making, and experiences of teamwork support were facilitators for cross boundary and team continuity; face-to-face communication between teams, managers, general practitioners, and the voluntary sector were facilitators for information continuity. Relational, personal, and longitudinal continuity were facilitated in some local areas by workforce stability. Barriers for cross boundary and team continuity were specific leadership styles and models of decision making, blurred professional role boundaries, generic working, and lack of training for role development. Barriers for relational, personal, and longitudinal continuity were created by inadequate staffing levels, high caseloads, and administrative duties that could limit time spent with users. Incompatibility of information technology systems hindered information

  14. Ethical aspects of public health legislation: the Mental Health Care Bill, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thippeswamy, Harish; Goswami, Kausik; Chaturvedi, Santosh

    2012-01-01

    A legal framework is essential to promote and safeguard the interests of persons with mental illness. Since the Indian Lunacy Act, 1912, mental health legislation has come a long way. Currently efforts are underway to modify the existing Mental Health Act taking into account the resolutions under the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The proposed Mental Health Care Bill, 2011 incorporates promising modifications, like "caregiver", "nominated representative", "consent", "support" for decision making, and "advance directive" for persons with mental illness in its rubric, which seems potentially beneficial to the patients. The proposed new bill should facilitate and strengthen a mental health policy which provides acceptable, accessible, and equitable mental health care. A law becomes meaningful when it is realistic, implementable and ethical in provisions. In this comment, we take a critical look at the proposed 'The Mental Health Care Bill, 2011' through the lens of ethical principles.

  15. Public and Tribal Community College Institutional Review Boards: A National Descriptive Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocean, Mia; Hirschi, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    It is currently unknown how many Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) exist at community colleges. This study investigates the percentage of public and Tribal community colleges that have active IRBs. It also examines the potential relationships between states that allow community colleges to confer baccalaureate degrees, or that have articulation…

  16. A devolved model for public involvement in the field of mental health research: case study learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moule, Pam; Davies, Rosie

    2016-12-01

    Patient and public involvement in all aspects of research is espoused and there is a continued interest in understanding its wider impact. Existing investigations have identified both beneficial outcomes and remaining issues. This paper presents the impact of public involvement in one case study led by a mental health charity conducted as part of a larger research project. The case study used a devolved model of working, contracting with service user-led organizations to maximize the benefits of local knowledge on the implementation of personalized budgets, support recruitment and local user-led organizations. To understand the processes and impact of public involvement in a devolved model of working with user-led organizations. Multiple data collection methods were employed throughout 2012. These included interviews with the researchers (n = 10) and research partners (n = 5), observation of two case study meetings and the review of key case study documentation. Analysis was conducted in NVivo10 using a coding framework developed following a literature review. Five key themes emerged from the data; Devolved model, Nature of involvement, Enabling factors, Implementation challenges and Impact. While there were some challenges of implementing the devolved model it is clear that our findings add to the growing understanding of the positive benefits research partners can bring to complex research. A devolved model can support the involvement of user-led organizations in research if there is a clear understanding of the underpinning philosophy and support mechanisms are in place. © 2015 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. THE OTHER SIDE OF THE REVOLVING DOOR: COMMUNITY SUPPORT AND MENTAL HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luísa Horn de Castro Silveira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Psychiatric Reform has, as a fundamental principle, the treatment carried out outside the hospital, considering that the hospitalization should be an option only when the extra-hospital resources are not effective enough. However, multiple psychiatric readmissions are still frequent. The present study focuses on what happens outside of the hospital doors, analyzing elements of the community life of people who suffer from mental disorders,questioning if those experiences are related to the frequent necessity of hospitalization. Therefore, the perception of community support was investigated in patients with a high number of readmissions, in comparison with patients in their first hospitalization, in a general hospital in Porto Alegre (Brazil. The results showed that the community is a powerful source of help in crisis situations; nevertheless, the readmitted patients have weaker social bonds and a longer distance from the Atenção Básica (Primary Care, in comparison with the other group. For that reason, the family becomes the main source of support, what leads to an overburden for the relatives, and the hospital acquires a special status for these people, who see the hospital as the only alternative in a situation of crisis.

  18. [The Discursive Analysis of Mental Health Promotion Efforts Targeting Community-Dwelling Young Adults at High Risk of Mental Illness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiung, Der-Yun; Yang, Tzu-Ching; Ma, Wei-Fen

    2015-08-01

    The mental health of adolescents and young adults is an issue of concern worldwide due to the increase in violent incidents that have been perpetrated by members of this age group. Young people at high-risk of mental disability are easily ignored. Therefore, social tensions in society have increased due to safety issues arising from the problems that are associated with mental disabilities in this population. This paper discusses the importance of early identification and early prevention of mental disabilities in high-risk young people, defines high-risk mental illness, and identifies the various subcategories of mental diseases. Based on our review of the literature, the present paper suggests targeting young people in high-risk categories with health promotion that addresses the following six health-promotion lifestyle habits: engaging in regular exercise, eating a balanced diet, managing stress, engaging in social relationships, taking responsibility for personal health, and fulfilling self-actualization. This discursive analysis discusses these strategies as safe and sustained interventions for adolescents and young adults that may improve self-awareness and thus maintain health and enhance opportunities to promote an ideal health status.

  19. Longitudinal Relationships between Neurocognition, Theory of Mind, and Community Functioning in Outpatients with Serious Mental Illness (SMI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Elizabeth A.; Liu, Nancy H.; Tarasenko, Melissa; Davidson, Charlie A.; Spaulding, William D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between neurocognition, theory of mind, and community functioning in a sample of 43 outpatients with serious mental illness (SMI). Relationships between baseline values and changes over time were analyzed using multilevel modeling. Results showed that: 1. Neurocognition and theory of mind were each associated with community functioning at baseline. 2. Community functioning improved over approximately 12 months of treatment. 3. Greater improvement in neurocognition over time predicted higher rates of improvement in community functioning. 4. Theory of mind did not predict change in community functioning after controlling for neurocognition. 5. The effect of change in neurocognition on community functioning did not depend on the effect of baseline neurocognition. This study provides empirical support that individuals with SMI may experience improvement in community functioning, especially when they also experience improvement in neurocognition. Limitations and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:23995035

  20. Assertive community treatment for people with severe mental illness: the effect on hospital use and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salkever, D; Domino, M E; Burns, B J; Santos, A B; Deci, P A; Dias, J; Wagner, H R; Faldowski, R A; Paolone, J

    1999-06-01

    To determine the effect of the Program for Assertive Community Treatment (PACT) model on psychiatric inpatient service use in a population of non-emergency psychiatric patients with severe chronic mental illness, and to test for variations in this effect with program staffing levels and patient characteristics such as race and age. Data are taken from a randomized trial of PACT in Charleston, South Carolina for 144 patients recruited from August 1989 through July 1991. Subjects were randomly assigned either to one of two PACT programs or to usual care at a local mental health center. Effects on hospital use were measured over an 18-month follow-up period via multiple regression analysis. Data were obtained from Medicaid claims, chart reviews, subject, case manager, and family interviews; searches of the computerized patient and financial databases of the South Carolina Department of Mental Health and relevant hospitals; and searches of the hard copy and computerized financial databases of the two major local hospitals providing inpatient psychiatric care. PACT participants were about 40 percent less likely to be hospitalized during the follow-up period. The effect was stronger for older patients. Lower PACT client/staff ratios also reduced the risk of hospitalization. No evidence of differential race effects was found. Given some hospital use, PACT did not influence the number of days of use. Controlling for other covariates, PACT significantly reduces hospitalizations but the size of this effect varies with patient and program characteristics. This study shows that previous results on PACT can be applied to non-emergency patients even when the control condition is an up-to-date CMHC office-based case management program.

  1. Prevalence of nail biting and its association with mental health in a community sample of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanizadeh Ahmad

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study evaluates onychophagia or nail biting (NB prevalence and association with mental health of a community sample of children from Shiraz, Iran. Findings The parents of 743 primary school children, selected by random sampling, reported NB behavior of their children and themselves. Children's mental health problem was assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. 22.3% (95% CI: 19.3 to 25.3 of children had NB behavior in the last three months (girls: 20.1% (95% CI: 15.9 to 24.2. The rate in boys was 24.4% (95% CI: 20.1 to 28.7. 36.8% of the children with NB had at least one family member with nail biting. Older age was associated with a higher prevalence of NB while a higher score on the prosocial score was associated with a lower prevalence of NB. Conclusions NB is a very common behavior in both genders in children and their family members. Children with NB have less prosocial ability than those without it.

  2. Physical and Mental Health Problems of the Elderly in a Rural Community of Sepang, Selangor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidik, Sherina Mohd; Rampal, Lekhraj; Afifi, Mustaqim

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of aging population is increasing not only in developed countries, but also in developing countries like Malaysia. The aim of this study was: (1) to determine the prevalence of physical and mental health problems, and (2) to determine the association of these health problems with socio demographic factors among the elderly in a rural community in Sepang, Selangor. A cross sectional study design was used. Five out of nine villages were selected via random sampling. The elderly in the selected villages were interviewed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire which included the GDS-30, ECAQ and Barthel Index. Out of 263 elderly residents (6.2% of the total population), 223 agreed to participate in the study giving a response rate of 84.8%. The mean age of the respondents was 69.7 + 6.8 years with a median of 68 years. The prevalence of physical health problems such as chronic illness and functional dependence were 60.1% and 15.7%, respectively. While the prevalence of mental health problems such as depression and cognitive impairment were 7.6% and 22.4%, respectively. Among the health problems studied, depression was found to be significantly associated with unemployment (p<0.05), where as cognitive impairment was significantly associated with age, gender, ethnicity, marital status and level of education (p<0.05). PMID:22977360

  3. Disease Burden Among Individuals with Severe Mental Illness in a Community Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughman, Kristin R; Bonfine, Natalie; Dugan, Sara E; Adams, Richard; Gallagher, Mary; Olds, R Scott; Piatt, Elizabeth; Ritter, Christian

    2016-05-01

    This study examines the prevalence of comorbid physical health conditions within a community sample of individuals with severe mental illness (SMI), compares them to a matched national sample without SMI, and identifies which comorbidities create the greatest disease burden for those with SMI. Self-reported health status, co-morbid medical conditions and perceived disease burden were collected from 203 adults with SMI. Prevalence of chronic health conditions was compared to a propensity-matched sample without SMI from the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication (NCS-R). Compared to NCS-R sample without SMI, our sample with SMI had a higher prevalence of seven out of nine categories of chronic health conditions. Chronic pain and headaches, as well as the number of chronic conditions, were associated with increased disease burden for individuals with SMI. Further investigation of possible interventions, including effective pain management, is needed to improve the health status of this population.

  4. Clinical supervision in a UK military Department of Community Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, Matthew I; Whybrow, D; Greenberg, N; Gould, M

    2013-12-01

    Recent service developments in the NHS on the provision of talking therapies such as the Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) initiative have made the compliance with clinical supervision (CS) inherent among its service guidelines. This paper presents the findings of an audit, measuring compliance with CS among clinicians providing psychological therapies within a military Department of Community Mental Health. Adherence to the recommended monthly supervision and the presence of an indate CS contract were audited on two separate occasions over 2 years by analysing the departmental electronic CS database. Compliance rates were found to be lower than the Defence guidelines, which are already modest in their expectations compared with IAPT CS standards. Potential reasons are hypothesised including high levels of staff rotation, other military commitments, clinicians not keeping up-to-date records and the pressures of meeting performance indicators on other clinical issues. Proposals for improving the uptake of CS are suggested along with areas for further research.

  5. Service user experience of adapted dialectical behaviour therapy in a community adult mental health setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSherry, Pamela; O'Connor, Caroline; Hevey, David; Gibbons, Pat

    2012-12-01

    Dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT), a skill-based cognitive behavioural treatment, is increasingly used in the treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD). The study examined service users' perspective on the effectiveness of an adapted DBT programme, delivered within a community adult mental health setting. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with eight participants with a diagnosis of BPD about their experience of the programme. Thematic analysis focused on two key themes: evaluation of therapy and treatment impact. Therapy-specific factors and personal challenges emerged as important themes. Treatment impact raised issues relating to a renewed sense of identity and changes in daily life. The study describes the positive and negative experiences of service users with BPD attending an adapted DBT programme.

  6. Professional attitudes regarding the sexual abuse of children: comparing police, child welfare and community mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trute, B; Adkins, E; MacDonald, G

    1992-01-01

    A survey was completed involving three of the key professional groups engaged in the investigation and treatment of child sexual abuse. Police, child welfare and community mental health in a large, rural geographic area in Canada completed attitudinal items relating to professional response to child sexual abuse. An empirical scale was created which was comprised of three orthogonal factors, each with acceptable levels of internal consistency: 1) Beliefs in regard to the extensiveness and seriousness of the issue; 2) treatment versus punishment priority; and 3) view regarding identity of those who perpetrate child sexual abuse. Important gender differences were found across professional groupings in attitude toward sexual abuse. Greatest difference in attitude between service sectors was tied to emphasis placed on treatment versus punishment as a primary aspect of professional intervention. Significant differences were found between child welfare and police, the two service sectors most needing a coordinated approach during the "investigative phase" of professional intervention.

  7. Mental health status of vulnerable tsunami-affected communities: a survey in Aceh Province, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Renato; Bernatsky, Sasha; Reyes, Rosalie; de Jong, Kaz

    2007-06-01

    The authors determined the prevalence of severe emotional distress and depressive symptoms using the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist-25 (HSCL; Derogatis, Lipman, Rickels, Uhlenhuth, & Covi, 1974) in tsunami-affected communities that had experienced armed conflict arising from the ongoing independence movement in Aceh Province, Indonesia. We also evaluated determinants of severe emotional distress. The data were collected for the purposes of a mental health assessment. In our sample (N = 262), 83.6% demonstrated severe emotional distress, and 77.1% demonstrated depressive symptoms. In multivariate regression models, severe emotional distress was positively associated with the number of tsunami-related deaths among household members. Our data suggests a need for effective interventions in this vulnerable population.

  8. Public health accreditation and metrics for ethics: a case study on environmental health and community engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernheim, Ruth Gaare; Stefanak, Matthew; Brandenburg, Terry; Pannone, Aaron; Melnick, Alan

    2013-01-01

    As public health departments around the country undergo accreditation using the Public Health Accreditation Board standards, the process provides a new opportunity to integrate ethics metrics into day-to-day public health practice. While the accreditation standards do not explicitly address ethics, ethical tools and considerations can enrich the accreditation process by helping health departments and their communities understand what ethical principles underlie the accreditation standards and how to use metrics based on these ethical principles to support decision making in public health practice. We provide a crosswalk between a public health essential service, Public Health Accreditation Board community engagement domain standards, and the relevant ethical principles in the Public Health Code of Ethics (Code). A case study illustrates how the accreditation standards and the ethical principles in the Code together can enhance the practice of engaging the community in decision making in the local health department.

  9. The social and community opportunities profile social inclusion measure: Structural equivalence and differential item functioning in community mental health residents in Hong Kong and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxley, Peter John; Chan, Kara; Chiu, Marcus; Ma, Yanni; Gaze, Sarah; Evans, Sherrill

    2016-03-01

    China's future major health problem will be the management of chronic diseases - of which mental health is a major one. An instrument is needed to measure mental health inclusion outcomes for mental health services in Hong Kong and mainland China as they strive to promote a more inclusive society for their citizens and particular disadvantaged groups. To report on the analysis of structural equivalence and item differentiation in two mentally unhealthy and one healthy sample in the United Kingdom and Hong Kong. The mental health sample in Hong Kong was made up of non-governmental organisation (NGO) referrals meeting the selection/exclusion criteria (being well enough to be interviewed, having a formal psychiatric diagnosis and living in the community). A similar sample in the United Kingdom meeting the same selection criteria was obtained from a community mental health organisation, equivalent to the NGOs in Hong Kong. Exploratory factor analysis and logistic regression were conducted. The single-variable, self-rated 'overall social inclusion' differs significantly between all of the samples, in the way we would expect from previous research, with the healthy population feeling more included than the serious mental illness (SMI) groups. In the exploratory factor analysis, the first two factors explain between a third and half of the variance, and the single variable which enters into all the analyses in the first factor is having friends to visit the home. All the regression models were significant; however, in Hong Kong sample, only one-fifth of the total variance is explained. The structural findings imply that the social and community opportunities profile-Chinese version (SCOPE-C) gives similar results when applied to another culture. As only one-fifth of the variance of 'overall inclusion' was explained in the Hong Kong sample, it may be that the instrument needs to be refined using different or additional items within the structural domains of inclusion.

  10. Perception of human rights temperature of community in persons with severe mental illnesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnadin Shibu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the rights of persons with mental illnesses (PwMI are protected by law in India, human rights of PwMI is being violated in many ways. There is dearth of literature on the human rights of PwMI in India. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted to understand the perceived human rights temperature of community in PwMI. Data were collected from PwMI (diagnosed with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and schizoaffective disorder, and symptomatically stable for 3 years seeking outpatient psychiatric treatment from private psychiatric hospitals and clinics in Kozhikode (Calicut district of Kerala state, India. Data were collected using “Taking the Human Rights Temperature of Your Community” which was modified and validated in Indian population and a sociodemographic schedule which was prepared by the researchers. Results: The majority were males (54.2%. Mean duration of illness as 10.42 ± 6.43 years. Mean score of the human rights temperature was 68.31 ± 5.95. Perceived major concerns in the areas of career opportunity (59.5%, discrimination in hiring for work (61.3%, help and care in development of PwMI (64.5%, equal opportunity to avail treatment and cost incurred in it (60.5%, involvement in decision making (46.7%, and responsiveness of the community when any rights violation happens (44.9%. Conclusion: Human rights of PwMI are a major concern. Functioning of the mental health authority and legal aid clinics has to be strengthened to address rights issues of PwMI.

  11. Community How To Guide On Underage Drinking Prevention: Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Governors' Highway Safety Representatives.

    Targeting public policy is a necessary part of a successful underage drinking prevention effort. This guide details how coalitions and organizations can effectively work to change public policies that impact underage drinking. The booklet first explains the elements of public policy including laws, regulations, and the policies and practices of…

  12. Reflections and Challenges for the Public Administration Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouckaert, Geert

    2013-01-01

    The question of whether the field of public administration education is prepared for the future of the public sector in Europe is a complex one, which needs to be unpacked to give a grounded answer. Unpacking this question means that there needs to be discussions on not just what educating the field of public administration means, but also…

  13. An Investigation into the Public Health Roles of Community Learning Disability Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafuba, Kay; Gates, Bob

    2015-01-01

    International studies have shown poor uptake of public health initiatives by people with learning disabilities. In addition, studies have shown that people with learning disabilities experience poor access to public health services. The contribution of community learning disability nurses in meeting the public health needs of people with learning…

  14. Mental health care in Italy: organisational structure, routine clinical activity and costs of a community psychiatric service in Lombardy region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattore, G; Percudani, M; Pugnoli, C; Contini, A; Beecham, J

    2000-01-01

    The Magenta Community Mental Health Centre (CMHC) is the public agency responsible for providing adult psychiatric care to about 85,000 adult residents. In 1995, it had 1,145 clients and incurred costs of Euro 1.9 millions. Average cost per patient and per adult resident were Euro 1,661 and Euro 22.2, respectively. These values mask large variation across diagnosis: while patients with schizophrenia and related disorders had an average cost of Euro 3,771, those with neurotic and related disorders had an average cost of Euro 439. Patients with schizophrenia and related disorders (28% of the patients) absorbed about 60% of total costs and made extensive use of several types of services (hospital, outpatient, domiciliary, social and rehabilitative care). Since integrating different types of services is the key element of Italian psychiatric care, the new fee-for-service system adopted by the NHS to fund providers does not appear appropriate, particularly for schizophrenic patients.

  15. Quality of mental health care at a student-run clinic: care for the uninsured exceeds that of publicly and privately insured populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Kate M; Meah, Yasmin S; Chow, Andrew; Tornheim, Jeffrey; Rolon, Omayra; Thomas, David C

    2011-10-01

    Diagnosing and treating depression in a primary care practice is an important, yet difficult task, especially for safety-net practices serving the uninsured. In the United States healthcare system, there is a mismatch between the need for mental health care and access to services. This disparity is most striking among the uninsured. Mental health disorders are more prevalent among the uninsured, and even when diagnosed with mental illness, they are less likely to obtain necessary treatment than insured patients. Given the increasing burden of depression on society, growing numbers of uninsured and negative repercussions of untreated mental illness, improvements in screening and management protocols are becoming more important in primary care practices serving this population. The quality of depression treatment at commercial and public insurance plans in New York City (NYC) and New York State (NYS) were compared to that of the East Harlem Health Outreach Partnership (EHHOP), the student-run clinic of the Mount Sinai School of Medicine. Based on the comparison, the study made recommendations for an integrated, on-site mental health service program at the community health clinic. A cohort of 49 depressed patients were evaluated and treated at the EHHOP clinic. The quality of the mental health care was evaluated according to variables from the Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS). Indicators of quality included demographics, method of diagnosis, type of pharmacological treatment, referral to specialty care, patient adherence to follow-up care and adherence to pharmacologic treatment. When compared to insured patients in NYS, more EHHOP patients had the appropriate number of physician contacts after being diagnosed with depression than patients with commercial health plans (P = 0.008) and Medicaid (P = 0.09). Similarly, a greater number of EHHOP patients had better acute phase (P = 0.001; P = 0.096) and continuous phase (P = 0.049; P

  16. An analysis of topic areas and topic trends in the Community Mental Health Journal from 1965 through 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lounsbury, J W; Roisum, K G; Pokorny, L; Sills, A; Meissen, G J

    1979-01-01

    A content analysis of all (N = 604) published articles in the Community Mental Health Journal from 1965 through 1977 was performed (a) to provide a cross-sectional view of the community mental health field, and (b) to identify topic trends over time. Sixty-one content categories were used to classify topic areas. Results revealed major and growing emphases on organizing for the delivery and measuring of the effects of mental health service systems. Topics found to be increasing in relative frequency over time included training, measurement and research methodology, and intervention; those decreasing included planning and needs assessment, therapy, and suicide. Topic areas were compared with key characteristics of the field. Topic trends were interpreted in terms of open systems theory.

  17. Organizational Barriers to Adopting an Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention in Community-Based Mental Health Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, David A; Wolf Adelv Unegv Waya, Silver; Dulmus, Catherine N

    2012-06-01

    This paper examines two factors related to successfully implementing a brief alcohol screening throughout all community-based mental health organizations. The first issue is related to an organization's internal structures, such as culture and climate that can impede evidenced-based practice implementation. There is literature suggesting that organizational culture and climate affect decisions about whether evidence-based practices are adopted and implemented within health care agencies. Following this literature review on organizational barriers, the history and successes of adopting an alcohol screening and brief intervention are reviewed. Studying, identifying, and understanding the organizational factors associated with the successful dissemination and implementation of best practices throughout community-based mental health organizations would contribute to increasing the likelihood that an alcohol screening and brief intervention are implemented throughout mental health organizations.

  18. Identifying community risk factors for HIV among South African adolescents with mental health problems: a qualitative study of parental perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagee, Ashraf; Donenberg, Geri; Davids, Alicia; Vermaak, Redwaan; Simbayi, Leickness; Ward, Catherine; Naidoo, Pamela; Mthembu, Jacky

    2014-01-01

    High risk sexual behaviour, alcohol and drug use, and mental health problems combine to yield high levels of HIV-risk behaviour among adolescents with mental health problems. In South Africa, little research has been conducted on parental perspectives of HIV-risk among this population. We conducted a series of focus group discussions with 28 mothers of adolescents receiving services at two mental health clinics in South Africa to identify, from their perspectives, the key community problems facing their children. Participants indicated that HIV remained a serious threat to their adolescent children's well-being, in addition to substance abuse, early sexual debut, and teenage pregnancy. These social problems were mentioned as external to their household dynamics, and thus seemingly beyond the purview of the parent-adolescent relationship. These data have implications for the design of family-based interventions to ameliorate the factors associated with HIV-risk among youth receiving mental health services.

  19. Informing the development of services supporting self-care for severe, long term mental health conditions: a mixed method study of community based mental health initiatives in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Gillard

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Supporting self-care is being explored across health care systems internationally as an approach to improving care for long term conditions in the context of ageing populations and economic constraint. UK health policy advocates a range of approaches to supporting self-care, including the application of generic self-management type programmes across conditions. Within mental health, the scope of self-care remains poorly conceptualised and the existing evidence base for supporting self-care is correspondingly disparate. This paper aims to inform the development of support for self-care in mental health by considering how generic self-care policy guidance is implemented in the context of services supporting people with severe, long term mental health problems. Methods A mixed method study was undertaken comprising standardised psychosocial measures, questionnaires about health service use and qualitative interviews with 120 new referrals to three contrasting community based initiatives supporting self-care for severe, long term mental health problems, repeated nine months later. A framework approach was taken to qualitative analysis, an exploratory statistical analysis sought to identify possible associations between a range of independent variables and self-care outcomes, and a narrative synthesis brought these analyses together. Results Participants reported improvement in self-care outcomes (e.g. greater empowerment; less use of Accident and Emergency services. These changes were not associated with level of engagement with self-care support. Level of engagement was associated with positive collaboration with support staff. Qualitative data described the value of different models of supporting self-care and considered challenges. Synthesis of analyses suggested that timing support for self-care, giving service users control over when and how they accessed support, quality of service user-staff relationships and decision

  20. A community-based participatory research partnership to reduce vehicle idling near public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghbalnia, Cynthia; Sharkey, Ken; Garland-Porter, Denisha; Alam, Mohammad; Crumpton, Marilyn; Jones, Camille; Ryan, Patrick H

    2013-05-01

    The authors implemented and assessed the effectiveness of a public health initiative aimed at reducing traffic-related air pollution exposure of the school community at four Cincinnati public schools. A partnership was fostered with academic environmental health researchers and community members. Anti-idling campaign materials were developed and education and training were provided to school bus drivers, students, parents, and school staff. Pledge drives and pre- and posteducation assessments were documented to measure the effectiveness of the program. After completing the educational component of the public health initiative, bus drivers (n = 397), community members (n = 53), and staff (n = 214) demonstrated significantly increased knowledge about the health effects of idling (p community-driven public health initiative can be effective in both 1) enhancing community awareness about the benefits of reducing idling vehicles and 2) increasing active participation in idling reduction. The partnership initially developed has continued to develop toward a sustainable and growing process.

  1. Posttraumatic stress disorder: An exploratory study examining rates of trauma and PTSD and its effect on client outcomes in community mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yellowlees Peter

    2005-04-01

    specific implications for service delivery, and raise issues of efficiency and effectiveness of resource use in achieving successful outcomes in public mental health services for clients with co-morbid PTSD. Further research with a more rigorous design is needed to test these preliminary findings within Australian Community Mental Health Services.

  2. Consequences of interaction of functional, somatic, mental and social problems in community-dwelling older people.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne H van Houwelingen

    Full Text Available This study explores the combination of four common health problems in older people and whether problems on four domains result in an additional effect on indicators of poor health. For this purpose, a total of 2681 participants (32% male, mean age 82 years of the Integrated Systematic Care for Older People (ISCOPE study were screened on the presence of health problems on four domains (functional, somatic, mental, social with the postal ISCOPE questionnaire. Extensive interview data on health indicators were obtained at baseline and at 12-months follow-up, including disability (Groningen Activities Restriction Scale, GARS, cognitive function (Mini-Mental State Examination, MMSE, depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale-15, GDS, loneliness (loneliness scale of De Jong Gierveld, and health-related quality of life (EQ-5D. General practitioner (GP contact time (min/year was estimated via GP electronic medical records. Of the study population, 9% had no health problems according to the screening, 8% had problems on one domain, 27% on two, 38% on three and 18% on four domains. At baseline, the number of health domains with problems was associated with poorer scores on the GARS, the MMSE, the GDS-15, the loneliness scale, the EQ-5D and with more GP contact time (p <0.001. Problems on all four domains had an additional negative effect on these health indicators (all pinteraction <0.001. At follow-up, an increased number of domains with problems was associated with an increased decline in health indicators (all p<0.001 and with an additional negative effect on GP contact time of the presence of problems on all four domains (pinteraction <0.001. We conclude that combinations of functional, somatic, mental and social problems are associated with poor health indicators in community-dwelling older people. Since problems on four domains have an additional effect on health, individuals with combined functional, somatic, mental and social problems could

  3. VA Community Mental Health Service Providers' Utilization of and Attitudes toward Telemental Health Care: The Gatekeeper's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, John Paul; Farmer, Mary Sue; Head, Katharine J.; Fortney, John; Teal, Cayla R.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Mental health (MH) providers in community-based outpatient clinics (CBOCs) are important stakeholders in the development of the Veterans Health Administration (VA) telemental health (TMH) system, but their perceptions of these technologies have not been systematically examined. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the…

  4. School Nurse Workload: A Scoping Review of Acute Care, Community Health, and Mental Health Nursing Workload Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endsley, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this scoping review was to survey the most recent (5 years) acute care, community health, and mental health nursing workload literature to understand themes and research avenues that may be applicable to school nursing workload research. The search for empirical and nonempirical literature was conducted using search engines such as…

  5. Mental Health Facilitator (MHF) Service Implementation in Schools in Malawi, Africa: A Strategy for Increasing Community Human Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Melissa; Hinkle, J. Scott; Schweiger, Wendi; Henderson, Donna

    2016-01-01

    The Mental Health Facilitator (MHF) program utilizes a population-based curriculum and has been implemented in Malawi for the past seven years. This article reports findings from an ethnographic study that explored how 40 MHF stakeholders have experienced the MHF program. This transdisciplinary program is a 30-hour training in community mental…

  6. Randomized Trial of the Availability, Responsiveness and Continuity (ARC) Organizational Intervention for Improving Youth Outcomes in Community Mental Health Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glisson, Charles; Hemmelgarn, Anthony; Green, Philip; Williams, Nathaniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The primary objective of the study was to assess whether the Availability, Responsiveness and Continuity (ARC) organizational intervention improved youth outcomes in community based mental health programs. The second objective was to assess whether programs with more improved organizational social contexts following the 18-month ARC…

  7. Associations Between Gender and Obesity Among Adults with Mental Illnesses in a Community Health Screening Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonikas, Jessica A; Cook, Judith A; Razzano, Lisa A; Steigman, Pamela J; Hamilton, Marie M; Swarbrick, Margaret A; Santos, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    The prevalence of obesity and its associations with gender, clinical factors, and medical co-morbidities were examined among 457 adults attending public mental health programs in 4 U.S. states. BMI was measured directly and other information was gathered by interview. Over half (59%, n = 270) were obese including 18% (n = 83) who were morbidly obese. In hierarchical ordinary least squares regression analysis controlling for demographic, psychiatric, medical, smoking, and health insurance statuses, women were significantly more likely to be obese than men. Obesity also was more likely among those who were younger and not high school graduates, those with diabetes or hypertension, and those who did not smoke tobacco. Interaction effects were found between gender and diabetes, hypertension, tobacco smoking, education, race, and age. The high prevalence of obesity among women, coupled with interactions between gender and other factors, suggest that targeted approaches are needed to promote optimal physical health in this population.

  8. Shared decision-making in mental health care—A user perspective on decisional needs in community-based services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Grim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Shared decision-making (SDM is an emergent research topic in the field of mental health care and is considered to be a central component of a recovery-oriented system. Despite the evidence suggesting the benefits of this change in the power relationship between users and practitioners, the method has not been widely implemented in clinical practice. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate decisional and information needs among users with mental illness as a prerequisite for the development of a decision support tool aimed at supporting SDM in community-based mental health services in Sweden. Methods: Three semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted with 22 adult users with mental illness. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using a directed content analysis. This method was used to develop an in-depth understanding of the decisional process as well as to validate and conceptually extend Elwyn et al.'s model of SDM. Results: The model Elwyn et al. have created for SDM in somatic care fits well for mental health services, both in terms of process and content. However, the results also suggest an extension of the model because decisions related to mental illness are often complex and involve a number of life domains. Issues related to social context and individual recovery point to the need for a preparation phase focused on establishing cooperation and mutual understanding as well as a clear follow-up phase that allows for feedback and adjustments to the decision-making process. Conclusions and Implications for Practice: The current study contributes to a deeper understanding of decisional and information needs among users of community-based mental health services that may reduce barriers to participation in decision-making. The results also shed light on attitudinal, relationship-based, and cognitive factors that are important to consider in adapting SDM in the mental health system.

  9. Public-Private Honors Success at Community Colleges of Spokane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author explores the steep budget cuts in recent years, and how this has affected the number of honors students that can be served at community colleges in the United States. This was true in Spokane, Washington, where, prior to working with "American Honors," community colleges had struggled for many years to provide…

  10. Enabling occupational participation and social inclusion for people recovering from mental ill-health through community gardening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatley, Elise; Fortune, Tracy; Williams, Anne E

    2015-12-01

    There is a need for mental health practitioners to understand how inclusive environments that enable participation can be developed. This paper presents the findings from an ethnographic exploration of Mind 'Sprout', a supported community garden situated in inner-city Melbourne. The study explored how this community development project created a socially inclusive environment, and enabled occupational participation among people recovering from mental ill-health. Consistent with the ethos of ethnography, data were collected through participant observation and asking questions of people as they participated at 'Sprout'. Six individual interviews and review of organisational documents were also conducted. Qualitative analysis was used to identify the understandings of how the Sprout community was created and experienced by its members. Three interrelated themes were revealed: Sprout community garden enabled social inclusion and occupational participation by creating community, creating a flexible environment that supports participation and creating a learning environment. The way Sprout operated enabled its members to participate together in occupation and to interact socially within the garden community and beyond as part of the local community. Sprout has developed a philosophy of active participation. The findings point to the opportunities that community development projects offer for creating environments that enable participation and social inclusion. They also suggest that an opportunity exists for occupational therapists to broaden their practise by leading or collaborating in these projects. © 2015 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  11. Predictors of clinician use of exposure therapy in community mental health settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker-Haimes, Emily M; Okamura, Kelsie H; Wolk, Courtney Benjamin; Rubin, Ronnie; Evans, Arthur C; Beidas, Rinad S

    2017-06-01

    Exposure therapy is recognized as the key component of cognitive-behavioral treatment for anxiety. However, exposure is the least used evidence-based treatment in community mental health settings and is the most challenging technique for clinicians to adopt within the context of effectiveness and implementation trials. Little work has examined clinician and organizational characteristics that predict use of exposure, which is important for identifying implementation strategies that may increase its use. In a large sample of community health clinicians (N=335) across 31 clinical practice sites, this study characterized clinician and organizational predictors of exposure use and relaxation for anxiety. Mixed effects regression analyses indicated that both clinician attitudes and an organization's implementation climate may be important levers for interventions seeking to increase clinician exposure use. Greater clinician use of relaxation strategies was also associated with less exposure use. Results point to important implications for implementing cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety, including de-emphasizing relaxation and attending to organizational climate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Making in-roads across the youth mental health landscape in Singapore: the Community Health Assessment Team (CHAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Lye Yin; Tay, Eugene; Lee, Yi Ping; Lee, Helen; Verma, Swapna

    2016-04-01

    Adolescence and early adulthood is marked by physical, emotional and psychological changes, and is the peak onset of mental disorders. Internationally, one-fifth of children and adolescents have serious mental health problems, yet services catering to them are scarce. Locally, traditional mental health services are associated with much stigma. In 2009, the Community Health Assessment Team (CHAT), a youth-focused outreach and assessment service, was set up to address service gaps and care barriers. CHAT's key offering is a free and confidential mental health assessment service to facilitate help-seeking individuals between the ages of 16 and 30 gain access to early treatment. Young persons' profile and assessment outcomes were collected and entered into a database. Between May 2009 and March 2013, CHAT received 601 referrals: 40.1% (241/601) from young persons themselves and 40.9% (246/601) from school or community counsellors. 79.2% (313/395) of those assessed had mental health issues. 61.5% (243/395) were referred to specialist clinics and 28.6% (113/395) to school or community counsellors. There is a steady increase in our referrals; majority are self-referred or referred from school and community counsellors. This attests to the success of our general outreach and targeted capacity-building efforts. Cognizant of young persons' distress, CHAT continues to work with downstream services for continuity of care, which also presents opportunities to consolidate and expand our network of specialist and community partners. Future directions seek to address current challenges: having a mobile platform to complement our face-to-face assessments, and building collaborations to provide holistic services for young persons. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. The Impacts of Exposure to Environmental Risk on Physical and Mental Health in a Small Geographic Community in Houston, TX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansom, Garett; Parras, Juan; Parras, Ana; Nieto, Yudith; Arellano, Yvette; Berke, Philip; McDonald, Thomas; Shipp, Eva; Horney, Jennifer A

    2017-08-01

    Previous research has shown that communities with low average socioeconomic status (SES) and majority minority populations are more likely to be exposed to industrial buildings, waste facilities, and poor infrastructure compared to white communities with higher average SES. While some studies have demonstrated linkages between exposures to specific environmental contaminates within these communities and negative health outcomes, little research has analyzed the effects of environmental contaminants on the mental and physical health of these populations. A cross-sectional survey collected data from residents of Manchester, a small neighborhood in Houston, TX, that is characterized by industrial sites, unimproved infrastructure, nuisance flooding, and poor air quality. Our study (N = 109) utilized the 12 item Short Form Health Survey version 2 (SF12v2) to assess the general mental and physical health of the community. The community as a whole had reduced physical health scores compared to U.S. national averages. The time residents had lived in the neighborhood was also correlated with a reported reduction in physical health scores (r2 = 0.136; p-value <0.001). The association between time lived in the neighborhood and poorer health scores remained after adjusting for age, race, and gender (coef = -0.27, p-value <0.001). Mental health scores were within national averages and time spent living in the neighborhood did not appear to negatively impact respondent's mental health scores. These findings point to the need for more research to determine the potential for additive physical and mental health impacts in long-term residents in neighborhoods characterized by environmental justice issues.

  14. Community health needs assessment in Wake County, North Carolina: partnership of public health, hospitals, academia, and other stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano-Sobsey, Edie; Ledford, Sue Lynn; Decosimo, Kasey; Horney, Jennifer A

    2014-01-01

    Hospitals and other health care agencies are required to conduct a community health needs assessment (CHNA) every 3 years to obtain information about the health needs and concerns of the population. In 2013, to avoid duplication of efforts and to achieve a more comprehensive CHNA, Wake County Human Services, WakeMed Health and Hospitals, Duke Raleigh Hospital, Rex Healthcare, Wake Health Services, United Way of the Greater Triangle, and the North Carolina Institute for Public Health partnered to conduct a joint assessment for Wake County. Information was collected from the community through opinion surveys and focus groups. To understand the social, economic, and health status of Wake County residents, statistics were also collected from state, county, and local sources. Analysis of all data sources allowed 9 areas of community concern to be identified. Five community forums were held simultaneously at locations in east, south, west, north, and central Wake County to inform residents about the main findings of the assessment and to prioritize the 9 areas of concern. The top 3 priority areas identified were poverty and unemployment, health care access and utilization, and mental health and substance use. Results may not be generalizable to counties in North Carolina that are more rural or to counties outside North Carolina. The success of this unique collaborative process provides further opportunity for the project partners and other organizations to coordinate action plans, pool resources, and jointly address the priorities of this assessment over the next 3 years.

  15. "We never was happy living like a Whiteman" : mental health disparities and the postcolonial predicament in American Indian communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gone, Joseph P

    2007-12-01

    In the context of increasing attention to disparities in health status between U.S. ethnoracial groups, this article examines the dilemma of divergent cultural practices for redressing disparities in mental health status in American Indian communities. Drawing upon an ethnographic interview with a tribal elder from a northern Plains Indian reservation, a prototypical discourse of distress is presented and analyzed as one exemplar of the divergence between the culture of the clinic and the culture of the community. Situated in the context of continuing power asymmetries between tribal nations and the U.S. federal government, the implications of this cultural divergence for the efforts of mental health professionals, practitioners, and policymakers are identified as a predicament that only the conventions and commitments of a robust community psychology have the potential to resolve.

  16. Community-based mental health support for orphans and vulnerable children in South Africa: A triangulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marais, Lochner; Sharp, Carla; Pappin, Michelle; Rani, Kholisa; Skinner, Donald; Lenka, Molefi; Cloete, Jan; Serekoane, Joe

    2014-01-01

    Community-based care is receiving increasing global attention as a way to support children who are orphaned or vulnerable due to the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Using both qualitative and quantitative methodology, this study assesses community-based responses to the well-being of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) and compares these responses with the actual mental health of OVC in order to evaluate the South African government's approach of funding community-based organisations (CBOs) that support and care for OVC. The study results show that the activities of CBOs mainly extend government services and address poverty. Although this should not be seen as insignificant, the paper argues that CBOs give very little attention to the mental health of OVC.

  17. Errorless learning for training individuals with schizophrenia at a community mental health setting providing work experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Robert S; Liberman, Robert P; Becker, Deborah R; Drake, Robert E; Sugar, Catherine A; Green, Michael F

    2009-07-01

    The effects of errorless learning (EL) on work performance, tenure, and personal well-being were compared with conventional job training in a community mental health fellowship club offering 12-week time-limited work experience. Participants were 40 clinically stable schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder outpatients randomly assigned to EL vs conventional instruction (CI) at a thrift-type clothing store. EL participants received training on how to perform their assigned job tasks based on principles of EL, such as error reduction and automation of task performance. CI participants received training common to other community-based entry-level jobs that included verbal instruction, a visual demonstration, independent practice, and corrective feedback. Participants were scheduled to work 2 hours per week for 12 weeks. For both groups, job training occurred during the first 2 weeks at the worksite. Work performance (assessed using the Work Behavior Inventory, WBI) and personal well-being (self-esteem, job satisfaction, and work stress) were assessed at weeks 2, 4, and 12. Job tenure was defined as the number of weeks on the job or total number of hours worked prior to quitting or study end. The EL group performed better than the CI group on the Work Quality Scale from the WBI, and the group differences were relatively consistent over time. Results from the survival analyses of job tenure revealed a non-significant trend favoring EL. There were no group differences on self-esteem, job satisfaction, or work stress. The findings provide modest support for the extensions of EL to community settings for enhancing work performance.

  18. Community residential facilities in mental health services: A ten-year comparison in Lombardy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbato, Angelo; Civenti, Graziella; D'Avanzo, Barbara

    2017-06-01

    Residential mental health services grew steadily since 2000 in Italy. A reorganisation of residential facilities was implemented in 2007 in Lombardy, introducing supported housing in addition to staffed facilities. We compare the provision and characteristics of residential facilities in the 2007 and 2016. In 2007 there were 3462 beds (35.9/100,000 population) in 276 facilities. In 2016 beds were 4783 (47.8/100,000) in 520 facilities. The increase were unevenly distributed in the public and private sector, and the overall increase was due to a higher increase in the private sector. 72% of beds were in highly supervised facilities in 2007 and 66% in 2016. The public sector managed more facilities with a rehabilitation goal, while the private sector more for long-term accommodation. Mean numbers of beds were higher in facilities managed by the private sector in both years. The 2007 reorganisation and the stop to opening new facilities in the last years were not enough to correct the imbalance between highly supervised and flexible solutions. A wider and more diverse offer might have triggered off an increased demand, rather than a more rational use. Given the costs of highly staffed facilities, and the risk of reproducing custodial models, close evaluation of the use of residential facilities should inform policies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Clase social: entre los alcances y limitaciones de la salud mental laboral y la salud pública/Social class: between the scope and limitations of mental health at work and public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luz A F Pérez; Jairo E G Luna

    2014-01-01

      This essay arises a thesis on the failure of traditional theoretical models that address mental health at work, presented from a public health perspective on the subject in order to propose in this...

  20. In the shadow of a new smoke free policy: A discourse analysis of health care providers' engagement in tobacco control in community mental health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The prevalence of tobacco use among individuals with mental illness remains a serious public health concern. Tobacco control has received little attention in community mental health despite the fact that many individuals with mental illness are heavy smokers and experience undue tobacco-related health consequences. Methods This qualitative study used methods of discourse analysis to examine the perceptions of health care providers, both professionals and paraprofessionals, in relation to their roles in tobacco control in the community mental health system. Tobacco control is best conceptualised as a suite of policies and practices directed at supporting smoke free premises, smoking cessation counselling and limiting access to tobacco products. The study took place following the establishment of a new policy that restricted tobacco smoking inside all mental health facilities and on their grounds. Ninety one health care providers participated in open-ended interviews in which they described their role in tobacco control. The interview data were analyzed discursively by asking questions such as: what assumptions underlie what is being said about tobacco? Results Five separate yet overlapping discursive frames were identified in which providers described their roles. Managing a smoke free environment emphasised the need to police and monitor the smoke free environment. Tobacco is therapeutic was a discourse that underscored the putative value of smoking for clients. Tobacco use is an individual choice located the decision to smoke with individual clients thereby negating a role in tobacco control for providers. It's someone else's role was a discourse that placed responsibility for tobacco control with others. Finally, the discourse of tobacco control as health promotion located tobacco control in a range of activities that are used to support the health of clients. Conclusions This study provides insights into the complex factors that shape tobacco control

  1. Outcomes from consumer-operated and community mental health services: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Steven P; Silverman, Carol J; Temkin, Tanya L

    2011-08-01

    Hierarchically organized board-and-staff-run consumer-operated service programs (COSPs) are viewed as organizations that promote recovery while working in concert with community mental health agencies (CMHAs). This study's objective was to determine the effectiveness of such combined services for people with serious mental illness. A board-and-staff-run consumer-operated drop-in center and colocated CMHA provided the context for the randomized clinical trial. In a weighted sample, 139 new clients seeking help from the CMHA were randomly assigned to agency-only service or to a combination of COSP and CMHA services. Client-members were assessed at baseline and eight months on a measure of symptom severity and on four recovery-focused outcome measures: personal empowerment, self-efficacy, independent social integration, and hopelessness. All scales used have high reliability and well-established validity. Differences in outcome by service condition were evaluated with multivariate analysis of covariance via dummy variable regression. Change scores on the five outcomes were the dependent variables. The covariates for the multivariate analysis included baseline status on each outcome measure and service condition between-group demographic differences. Results indicated that significant changes in three recovery-focused outcomes were associated with service condition across time: social integration (pempowerment (p<.006), and self-efficacy (p<.001). All changes favored the CMHA-only condition. Neither symptomology nor hopelessness differed by service condition across time. Hierarchically organized board-and-staff-run COSPs combined with CMHA service may be less helpful than CMHA service alone.

  2. Community action success in public health: are we using a ruler to measure a sphere?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutilier, M A; Rajkumar, E; Poland, B D; Tobin, S; Badgley, R F

    2001-01-01

    The Community Action and Public Health study explored how Ontario public health practitioners interpret and implement guidance in community action. In-depth interviews were conducted with 107 public health professionals and community members in 6 Ontario health units. This report briefly describes the study methods and presents results pertaining to the measurement of success based on interviews with 67 public health professionals. Data substantiate the view that evaluation methodologies employing quantitative measures of epidemiological outcomes inadequately capture "success" in community action, possibly attributable to an unproductive dichotomization of "process" and "outcome". Results suggest two kinds of "success": a) changes related to stated goals and targets; and b) more iterative and process-oriented changes, including necessary but often undocumented shifts in relationships, structures, social conditions and processes. In order to legitimize and validate results that might otherwise pass unrecognized, we suggest a methodology that records project "milestones" as successes in their own right.

  3. 76 FR 18757 - Monthly Public Meetings of the Local Government Advisory Committee's Small Community Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... AGENCY Monthly Public Meetings of the Local Government Advisory Committee's Small Community Advisory... Advisory Committee Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Local Government Advisory Committee's... the Local Government Advisory Committee. BILLING CODE 6560-50-P...

  4. Socio-semantic Networks of Research Publications in the Learning Analytics Community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fazeli, Soude; Drachsler, Hendrik; Sloep, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Fazeli, S., Drachsler, H., & Sloep, P. B. (2013, April). Socio-semantic Networks of Research Publications in the Learning Analytics Community. Presentation at the Learning Analystic and Knowelege (LAK13), Leuven, Belgium.

  5. Abstinence and Use of Community-Based Cessation Treatment After a Motivational Intervention Among smokers with Severe Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferron, Joelle C; Devitt, Timothy; McHugo, Gregory J; A Jonikas, Jessica; Cook, Judith A; Brunette, Mary F

    2016-05-01

    Motivational interventions help people with mental illness try to quit smoking, but few studies have evaluated factors associated with this groups' cessation with community treatment. We examined predictors of abstinence after a brief motivational intervention among smokers with severe mental illness. Education, stage of change post intervention, and use of cessation treatment predicted any 1-week period of self-reported abstinence over 6 months (29%). Cessation treatment mediated the relationship between stage of change and abstinence. Because treatment was the key modifiable predictor of abstinence, future research should establish strategies that improve motivation for, access to, and retention in cessation treatment. Clinical Trials Identifier NCT01412866.

  6. A Randomized Control Trial of a Community Mental Health Intervention for Military Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    this study for this reporting period. 15. SUBJECT TERMS- Mental health literacy , Mental Health First Aid (MHFA), curriculum adaptation 16. SECURITY...resilience training, Combat & Operational Stress First Aid and suicide prevention gatekeeper training by providing a mental health literacy component that is...Sense organ Respiratory Nervous system Musculoskeletal Digestive Intentional injuries Diabetes Disability-adjusted life years lost Premature Death

  7. The Mental Health of Young Offenders Serving Orders in the Community: Implications for Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Dianna T.; Lennings, Christopher J.; Nelson, Paul K.

    2007-01-01

    Young offenders internationally have a higher incidence of mental health problems compared with adolescents in the general population. Mental health issues, particularly comorbid presentations, affect the response to and outcome of rehabilitation and hence recidivism of offending. Most information on the mental health of young offenders has…

  8. Domiciliary mental health care program in community settings: Is it is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Domiciliary mental health care is defined as care and support of clients with acute ... to provide family education on mental health promotion and care in the home; ... clinicians or the senior psychiatric mental health nurses working at St. John ...

  9. Mental disorders, psychological symptoms and quality of life 8 years after an earthquake: findings from a community sample in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priebe, Stefan; Marchi, Fabio; Bini, Lucia; Flego, Martina; Costa, Ana; Galeazzi, Gian

    2011-07-01

    Various studies assessed mental disorders and psychological symptoms following natural disasters, including earthquakes. Yet, samples were often non-representative, and the periods of time between earthquake and assessments were usually short. This study aims to assess the prevalence of mental disorders, level of psychological symptoms and subjective quality of life in a random sample in a rural region in Italy 8 years after an earthquake. Using a random sampling method, a pool of potential participants of working age who had experienced the earthquake were identified 8 years after the earthquake. They were sequentially approached until the target sample of 200 was reached. Mental disorders were assessed on the MINI, psychological symptoms on the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), and subjective quality of life on the Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life (MANSA). 200 people were interviewed, and the response rate of contacted people was 43%. In the MINI, 15 participants (7.5%) had any type of mental disorder; 5 participants had PTSD at any time since the earthquake, and 1 participant at the time of the interview. Symptom levels were low (Global Severity Index of BSI mean = 0.29, SD = 0.30; IES total mean = 0.40, SD = 3.33) and subjective quality of life (MANSA mean = 5.26, SD = 0.59) was in a positive range. The distribution of mental health outcomes made it difficult to explore factors associated with them. There is no evidence that the earthquake had a negative impact on the mental health of the affected population years later. Possible reasons include the relatively weak nature of the earthquake, strong community support that helped overcome mental distress, the long period of time (8 years) between the occurrence of the earthquake and the study, and a capacity of people to maintain or restore mental health after a natural disaster in the long term.

  10. Occupy Public Education: A Community's Struggle for Educational Resources in the Era of Privatization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, Gabriel Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    This case study investigates globalization and its growing impact on public school services to disenfranchised urban communities. Using a combination of periodicals, internal documents, and observations from the author, the research provides a narrative analysis of relations between community leaders of a low-income, Mexican immigrant community…

  11. Public health impact of community-based nutrition and lifestyle interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijden, M.W.; Kok, F.J.

    2005-01-01

    Community-based interventions have increasingly received attention since researchers and public health professionals have come to acknowledge the importance of an environment that makes the healthy choice the easy choice. All stakeholders including the target community are involved to achieve change

  12. Public Art Education in Brunei Darussalam: The Cultural Language of Community Murals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kong

    2014-01-01

    Two mural projects in Brunei offer insight into the specific and universal aspects of public art education and community art making. This article describes how the author used his initiative and experience as a muralist to plan and implement two community art research projects in Bandar Seri Begwan, the capital of Brunei Darussalam. A premise of…

  13. Connection and Community: Diné College Emphasizes Real-World Experience in Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The Summer Research Enhancement Program (SREP) at Diné College provides students with a solid foundation of public health research methods and includes a hands-on internship in their home community to test their newly acquired skills while enhancing the communities' health. Focusing on health issues prioritized by Navajo health leaders, from…

  14. Public health impact of community-based nutrition and lifestyle interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijden, M.W.; Kok, F.J.

    2005-01-01

    Community-based interventions have increasingly received attention since researchers and public health professionals have come to acknowledge the importance of an environment that makes the healthy choice the easy choice. All stakeholders including the target community are involved to achieve change

  15. Public Marketing: An Alternative Policy Decision-Making Idea for Small Cities. Community Development Research Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, James; And Others

    The concept of public marketing presents a strategy for the systems approach to community development that would facilitate the community decision making process via improved communication. Basic aspects of the social marketing process include: (1) product policy; (2) channels of distribution; (3) pricing (perceived price vs quality and quantity…

  16. An Assessment of Campus Police Departments across Mississippi's Public Community and Junior Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, Brad D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to provide an assessment of campus police departments throughout the 15 public community and junior colleges in Mississippi. This research could provide Mississippi community and junior college administrators the opportunity to observe and appraise the overall safety of their respective campuses in comparison to safety…

  17. Women, Poverty, and Public Policy: A Community-Based Model for Collaborative Outreach Scholarship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleiter, Mary Kay; Rhoades, Katherine A.; Statham, Anne

    2004-01-01

    The Women and Poverty Public Education Initiative (WPPEI), established by the University of Wisconsin Women's Studies Consortium Outreach Office in 1994, developed a collaborative outreach scholarship model that paired women from the poverty community with women's studies faculty from universities in eight Wisconsin communities to study the…

  18. Performance of Maryland Community College Transfer Students at Public Four-Year College and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryland Higher Education Commission, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This data report provides statistics about the number and percentage of Maryland community college students, who earned a bachelor's degree from a public four-year campus in the state within a specified period of years. These students are: (1) Community college students who transferred during the 2004-2005 academic year who received a bachelor's…

  19. Rural Public Libraries as Community Change Agents: Opportunities for Health Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Mary Grace; Miller, David

    2016-01-01

    Rural residents are at a disadvantage with regard to health status and access to health promotion activities. In many rural communities, public libraries offer support through health information provision; there are also opportunities for engagement in broader community health efforts. In a collaborative effort between an academic researcher and a…

  20. Rural Public Libraries as Community Change Agents: Opportunities for Health Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Mary Grace; Miller, David

    2016-01-01

    Rural residents are at a disadvantage with regard to health status and access to health promotion activities. In many rural communities, public libraries offer support through health information provision; there are also opportunities for engagement in broader community health efforts. In a collaborative effort between an academic researcher and a…

  1. Community Reinforcement and the Dissemination of Evidence-Based Practice: Implications for Public Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milford, Jaime L.; Austin, Julia L.; Smith, Jane Ellen

    2007-01-01

    The Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA) and Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) are both highly effective and empirically validated psychosocial approaches to the treatment of addictions whose unique designs may help achieve certain public health objectives. Literature will be reviewed to examine the potential impact of CRA and…

  2. A cost analysis of implementing a behavioral weight loss intervention in community mental health settings: Results from the ACHIEVE trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Ellen M; Jerome, Gerald J; Dalcin, Arlene T; Gennusa, Joseph V; Goldsholl, Stacy; Frick, Kevin D; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Appel, Lawrence J; Daumit, Gail L

    2017-06-01

    In the ACHIEVE randomized controlled trial, an 18-month behavioral intervention accomplished weight loss in persons with serious mental illness who attended community psychiatric rehabilitation programs. This analysis estimates costs for delivering the intervention during the study. It also estimates expected costs to implement the intervention more widely in a range of community mental health programs. Using empirical data, costs were calculated from the perspective of a community psychiatric rehabilitation program delivering the intervention. Personnel and travel costs were calculated using time sheet data. Rent and supply costs were calculated using rent per square foot and intervention records. A univariate sensitivity analysis and an expert-informed sensitivity analysis were conducted. With 144 participants receiving the intervention and a mean weight loss of 3.4 kg, costs of $95 per participant per month and $501 per kilogram lost in the trial were calculated. In univariate sensitivity analysis, costs ranged from $402 to $725 per kilogram lost. Through expert-informed sensitivity analysis, it was estimated that rehabilitation programs could implement the intervention for $68 to $85 per client per month. Costs of implementing the ACHIEVE intervention were in the range of other intensive behavioral weight loss interventions. Wider implementation of efficacious lifestyle interventions in community mental health settings will require adequate funding mechanisms. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  3. Preferences for Internet-Based Mental Health Interventions in an Adult Online Sample: Findings From an Online Community Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterham, Philip J; Calear, Alison L

    2017-06-30

    Despite extensive evidence that Internet interventions are effective in treating mental health problems, uptake of Internet programs is suboptimal. It may be possible to make Internet interventions more accessible and acceptable through better understanding of community preferences for delivery of online programs. This study aimed to assess community preferences for components, duration, frequency, modality, and setting of Internet interventions for mental health problems. A community-based online sample of 438 Australian adults was recruited using social media advertising and administered an online survey on preferences for delivery of Internet interventions, along with scales assessing potential correlates of these preferences. Participants reported a preference for briefer sessions, although they recognized a trade-off between duration and frequency of delivery. No clear preference for the modality of delivery emerged, although a clear majority preferred tailored programs. Participants preferred to access programs through a computer rather than a mobile device. Although most participants reported that they would seek help for a mental health problem, more participants had a preference for face-to-face sources only than online programs only. Younger, female, and more educated participants were significantly more likely to prefer Internet delivery. Adults in the community have a preference for Internet interventions with short modules that are tailored to individual needs. Individuals who are reluctant to seek face-to-face help may also avoid Internet interventions, suggesting that better implementation of existing Internet programs requires increasing acceptance of Internet interventions and identifying specific subgroups who may be resistant to seeking help.

  4. Attitude towards Community Building in Association of Southeast Asian Nations: A Public Opinion Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Ravichandran Moorthy; Guido Benny

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) envisioned an integrated regional community by the year 2015, following the European Union model. However, unlike the European Community which was formed after years of discussion at different levels of society, institutions and government, ASEAN was rather quick to conceptualize this initiative, without seeking the feedbacks for the public. Consequently, ASEAN Community initiative has been criticized for being elitist in i...

  5. Using environmental public health tracking to identify community targets for public health actions in childhood lead poisoning in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berney, Dawn; Camponeschi, Jenny; Coons, Marjorie; Creswell, Paul D; Schirmer, Joe; Walsh, Reghan

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to improve the ability of local public health departments to target resources to the highest need regions, the Wisconsin Environmental Public Health Tracking (WI EPHT) Program worked to enhance its public portal to benefit the Wisconsin Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program (WCLPPP) and other programs. The WI EPHT Program conducted this enhancement in collaboration with WCLPPP. The WI EPHT enhanced public portal is the next phase of Wisconsin's ongoing efforts in environmental public health tracking. As part of this process, this new mapping application includes mapping capacity that provides information on childhood lead testing and results at county and census tract levels in Wisconsin. The WI EPHT Program will update its public portal to have the capability to map data at a subcounty level (ie, census tract or zip code) for some data topics when such data are available. This tool is available to local public health departments and other public health organizations throughout Wisconsin as a resource to identify communities most affected by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's new guidelines with regard to childhood lead poisoning. The collaboration between WI EPHT and WCLPPP on updating and enhancing the portal exemplifies the power of environmental health data to inform a more accurate understanding of public health problems.

  6. Public perceptions of risk in criminality: the effects of mental illness and social disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nee, Claire; Witt, Clare

    2013-10-30

    We examined how different types of mental illness elicited varying levels of predicted criminality and compared this with factors which might also elicit a negative response, specifically, a criminal history and social disadvantage. A sample of 243 participants undertook an anonymous, online experiment. Each participant was exposed to one of six vignettes: three involved mental illness (schizophrenia, depression/anxiety, or alcohol dependency); two in which socio-economic background was manipulated; and a control. The impact of mental illness, history of criminality and social disadvantage on the likelihood that the character in the vignette would commit future crime, and levels of sympathy, trust and potential for rehabilitation in the character were measured. Age and personal experience of mental illness and/or criminal behaviour in the participants was also examined. The sample were significantly more likely to think that a character would 'possibly' commit future crime if he had mental illness in comparison to the control, but crimes were expected to be minor. Significantly more discriminatory behaviour was reported towards the character with no mental illness but a disadvantaged background. Familiarity ameliorated this effect. Prejudice towards those with a criminal past and a disadvantaged background may be stronger than prejudice against those with mental illnesses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Participation in design between public sector and local communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Zander, Pär-Ola

    2015-01-01

    -win situations, rather than to maximize participation; to work with motivation for long-term projects across municipality and communities; to identify and work with early movers, and not just representative citizens; and to create space for local municipal agencies to develop bottom-up technological solutions...

  8. The Managerial Roles of Public Community College Chief Academic Officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Philip; Murray, John P.; Olivarez, Arturo, Jr.

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the managerial roles of the community college Chief Academic Officer (CAO). Findings indicated that (1) CAOs placed the most importance on the roles of leader, liaison, and disseminator; (2) managers with more years of experience tended to emphasize the liaison role most; and (3) CAOs over 40 placed the most importance on…

  9. Community Participation in Local Governments: Public Consulting and Transparency in Gaza Strip, Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Ali Enshassi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to identify and examine the community participation strategies concerning consultation and information disclosure and to identify and evaluate major barriers to community participation development. A questionnaire survey was developed to elicit the perceptions of the municipality’s officials (top management and/or mayors of the selected sample of Gaza Strip municipalities regarding community participation practice. The results indicated that there is a weak transparency (information disclosure and community consultation in the municipalities of Gaza Strip. The findings revealed that, the major barriers of information disclosure approach are due to legal challenges, public awareness, lack of community members’ skills and knowledge and social factors. In addition, the major barriers of community consultation are mainly due to lack of community members’ skills and knowledge, lack of social capital and trust of local people in their leaders, political, economic challenges, community culture and municipality council awareness. It is recommended to expand the scope of public participation and developing strategies that maximize citizen input in community development activities in local governments of Gaza Strip. The findings can assist in identifying new directions for enhancing public participation in Gaza Strip local governments

  10. Governance Factors Affecting Community Participation In Public Development Projects In Meru District In Arusha In Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Estomih Muro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to have a fresh look at the local governance status through exploring governance factors affecting community participation in public development projects. The study also has investigated the actors and factors shaping participation as well as causes for non-participation. For the purpose of the study six wards within two divisions of Poli and Mbuguni and Meru district headquarters were selected. In the wards a total of 80 respondents from among the community members were interviewed through a structured questionnaire. Others were Village chairman Village Executive Officers Ward Executive Officers and Councilors were also interviewed and involved in the FGD. Data were analyzed using SPSS. Simple descriptive statistics and cross tabulation and figures were used in the analysis. The analysis showed that the communities were participated in the public development projects and people were participating through financial material and labor contribution to the public development projects. The analysis also showed that the government supported the ongoing public development projects including through provision of fund and expertise. The study showed the benefit of community participation in the development projects or programs like ownership of the projects and enjoying the benefits accrued from the projects. The study also indicated that there is significant change in terms of governance as influencers of community participation in public development projects. Despite the fortunes study showed some challenges found in wards and villages being the incidence of corruptions and misuse of public resources which were mentioned to slow community participation in public development projects. It was therefore concluded that adhering to the good governance principles contribute positively towards community participation in public development projects.

  11. [Common mental disorders and social support in a rural community in Zona da Mata, Pernambuco State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Albanita Gomes da; Ludermir, Ana Bernarda

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of common mental disorders and the association with social support in a community located in the Zona da Mata, a sugar cane plantation area in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. A household survey was carried out and the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20), the Medical Outcomes Study, and socioeconomic questions were administered to all residents over 19 years of age. Total prevalence of common mental disorders was 36.0%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that individuals with low social support had twice the probability of suffering from common mental disorders (OR: 2.09; 95%CI: 1.35-3.24) as compared to those with greater support, even after adjusting for age, schooling, and work force participation. The results show the importance of investments in social support networks to promote interactions between individuals and increase individuals' self-confidence and power to deal with problems.

  12. Impact of short term yoga intervention on mental well being of medical students posted in community medicine: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Bansal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: High level of stress, anxiety and depression is seen among medical students. Aims: To assess the impact of brief structured yoga intervention on mental well being of MBBS students. Materials and Methods: The participants consisted of 82 MBBS students of 3 rd semester in the age group of 18-23 years. The students were assessed at baseline and at the end of one month of specific yoga intervention by using General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28. Results: The students reported improvement in general and mental well being following the intervention and difference was found to be highly significant. Conclusion: A short term specific yoga intervention may be effective in improving general and mental well being in MBBS students. It is feasible and practical to include yoga practice in block postings of community medicine.

  13. Systematic review of mental health and well-being outcomes following community-based obesity prevention interventions among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoare, Erin; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Skouteris, Helen; Millar, Lynne; Nichols, Melanie; Allender, Steven

    2015-01-05

    This paper aimed to systematically evaluate the mental health and well-being outcomes observed in previous community-based obesity prevention interventions in adolescent populations. Systematic review of literature from database inception to October 2014. Articles were sourced from CINAHL, Global Health, Health Source: Nursing and Academic Edition, MEDLINE, PsycARTICLES and PsycINFO, all of which were accessed through EBSCOhost. The Cochrane Database was also searched to identify all eligible articles. PRISMA guidelines were followed and search terms and search strategy ensured all possible studies were identified for review. Intervention studies were eligible for inclusion if they were: focused on overweight or obesity prevention, community-based, targeted adolescents (aged 10-19 years), reported a mental health or well-being measure, and included a comparison or control group. Studies that focused on specific adolescent groups or were treatment interventions were excluded from review. Quality of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines. Primary outcomes were measures of mental health and well-being, including diagnostic and symptomatic measures. Secondary outcomes included adiposity or weight-related measures. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria; one reported anxiety/depressive outcomes, two reported on self-perception well-being measures such as self-esteem and self-efficacy, and four studies reported outcomes of quality of life. Positive mental health outcomes demonstrated that following obesity prevention, interventions included a decrease in anxiety and improved health-related quality of life. Quality of evidence was graded as very low. Although positive outcomes for mental health and well-being do exist, controlled evaluations of community-based obesity prevention interventions have not often included mental health measures (n=7). It is recommended that future interventions

  14. Systematic review of mental health and well-being outcomes following community-based obesity prevention interventions among adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoare, Erin; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Skouteris, Helen; Millar, Lynne; Nichols, Melanie; Allender, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This paper aimed to systematically evaluate the mental health and well-being outcomes observed in previous community-based obesity prevention interventions in adolescent populations. Setting Systematic review of literature from database inception to October 2014. Articles were sourced from CINAHL, Global Health, Health Source: Nursing and Academic Edition, MEDLINE, PsycARTICLES and PsycINFO, all of which were accessed through EBSCOhost. The Cochrane Database was also searched to identify all eligible articles. PRISMA guidelines were followed and search terms and search strategy ensured all possible studies were identified for review. Participants Intervention studies were eligible for inclusion if they were: focused on overweight or obesity prevention, community-based, targeted adolescents (aged 10–19 years), reported a mental health or well-being measure, and included a comparison or control group. Studies that focused on specific adolescent groups or were treatment interventions were excluded from review. Quality of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcomes were measures of mental health and well-being, including diagnostic and symptomatic measures. Secondary outcomes included adiposity or weight-related measures. Results Seven studies met the inclusion criteria; one reported anxiety/depressive outcomes, two reported on self-perception well-being measures such as self-esteem and self-efficacy, and four studies reported outcomes of quality of life. Positive mental health outcomes demonstrated that following obesity prevention, interventions included a decrease in anxiety and improved health-related quality of life. Quality of evidence was graded as very low. Conclusions Although positive outcomes for mental health and well-being do exist, controlled evaluations of community-based obesity prevention interventions have

  15. Mental disorders and health care seeking in Bandiagara: a community survey in the Dogon Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carta, M G; Coppo, P; Carpiniello, B; Mounkuoro, P P

    1997-05-01

    A two-level community study was carried out among the Peul and Dogon populations of the Bandiagara plateau (Mali). For the purpose of the study the Questionnaire pour le depistage en santé mentale (QDSM), a 23-item screening questionnaire derived from the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ), was adapted and validated; internal consistency and accuracy were evaluated. In the first phase of the study, 466 subjects randomly selected on a residential basis were evaluated by means of the QDSM. In the second phase all subjects who were "positive" at the screening, as well as a sample who were "negative", were examined by means of a semistructured interview. When necessary, clinical and laboratory investigations were performed. The estimated prevalence of psychiatric cases was 6.4%. A significant risk was associated with age and education. Somatic diseases frequently associated with psychiatric disorders were genitourinary tract disorders, tuberculosis and disabling cardiopathies. The main factor determining the seeking of medical help either through traditional of conventional health systems was the presence of a somatic disorder. The presence of a true minor psychiatric disorder, however, was often associated with divining practices.

  16. Risk assessment and management: a community forensic mental health practice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Teresa; Simmons, Warren; Gregory, Esther

    2002-12-01

    In Victoria, the Crimes (Mental Impairment and Unfitness to be Tried) Act (1997) reformed legal practice in relation to the detention, management and release of persons found by a court to be not guilty on the grounds of insanity or unfit to be tried. This Act provides a legal structure for such 'forensic patients' to move from secure inpatient facilities into the community. This new legislative landscape has generated challenges for all stakeholders and has provided the impetus for the development of a risk assessment and management model. The key components of the model are the risk profile, assessment and management plan. The discussion comprises theory, legislation, practice implications and limitations of the model. Practice implications concern the provision of objective tools, which identify risk and document strategic interventions to support clinical management. Some of the practice limitations include the model's applicability to risk assessment and management and its dependence on a mercurial multi-service interface in after-hours crisis situations. In addition to this, the paper articulates human limitations implicit in the therapeutic relationship that necessarily underpins the model. The paper concludes with an exploration of the importance of evaluative processes as well as the need for formal support and education for clinicians.

  17. A Review of Public Community College Financing: A Report of the Committee to Study Community College Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waren, B.; And Others

    The Illinois Board of Higher Education appointed a committee to study: (1) the development and the advantage and disadvantages of the present system of financing; (2) the financial systems of other states with highly developed public educational (community college) systems; (3) the major alternative schemes of financing for the future; and (4)…

  18. Adult Learning, Public Policy, and the "Great Community."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Steven

    1981-01-01

    Whether the new classroom clientele--adult learners--ought to accept the study of public policy as a legitimate part of the curriculum is seen as a policy question as important to the solution of social problems as it is to the future of people as learners and as citizens. (MLW)

  19. Community College Journalism Professors Should Underscore Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, David L.

    1993-01-01

    Examines the importance of including instruction in public relations (PR) in journalism curricula. Discusses common misconceptions regarding PR, the evolution of the field, and the social science aspects and ultimate goals of PR. Indicates that it is important to provide students with a balanced introduction to PR. (MAB)

  20. Public Relations Opportunities for Schools Utilizing Innovations in Virtual Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Frances L.; Matt, John J.

    2013-01-01

    With the dawn of the Information Age, schools, along with other organizations, must take note of the varied ways individuals and groups in society are communicating. Today, with the many forms of communication, most information is made public in real time. In a qualitative national study in the United States, respondents identified positive and…

  1. Community College Journalism Professors Should Underscore Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, David L.

    1993-01-01

    Examines the importance of including instruction in public relations (PR) in journalism curricula. Discusses common misconceptions regarding PR, the evolution of the field, and the social science aspects and ultimate goals of PR. Indicates that it is important to provide students with a balanced introduction to PR. (MAB)

  2. Integrating Local Public Health Agencies into the Homeland Security Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    public health needs that require attention (such as poor prenatal health, teen pregnancy , and sexually transmitted diseases) it is not difficult to...Security objectives. It also assumes that war and terrorism are the sole results of poor health, nutrition , and housing, while ignoring other

  3. Examining Community-Engaged Scholarship in Public Administration Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norvell, Katrina Herndon

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to broaden the understanding of the role that academic professions play in shaping the values and attitudes of faculty toward CES. This study explored faculty perceptions regarding the factors that encourage or dissuade them in the pursuit of CES within public administration programs. As a framework for research, a conceptual…

  4. Mental health, well-being, and poverty: A study in urban and rural communities in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepomuceno, Bárbara Barbosa; Cardoso, Antonio Alan Vieira; Ximenes, Verônica Morais; Barros, João Paulo Pereira; Leite, Jáder Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes the relations between mental health and well-being in urban and rural contexts marked by poverty. The analysis takes as its basis a quantitative research conducted with 417 adult inhabitants of two communities, one rural and the other urban, in Northeastern Brazil. The data were constructed using questionnaires composed of sociodemographic data, the Personal Wellbeing Index and Self Report Questionnaire (SRQ-20) scales. We found significant differences between the inhabitants of the rural and urban communities regarding well-being and the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD), with a higher average well-being score in the rural context; the urban sample had a higher average regarding the prevalence of CMD. The variable income significantly influenced the SRQ-20 average scores; the same was not observed with well-being scores. Besides, it was observed that there is a negative correlation with well-being and CMD.

  5. Outsourcing mental health care services? The practice and potential of community-based farms in psychiatric rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iancu, Sorana C; Zweekhorst, Marjolein B M; Veltman, Dick J; van Balkom, Anton J L M; Bunders, Joske F G

    2015-02-01

    Psychiatric rehabilitation supports individuals with mental disorders to acquire the skills needed for independent lives in communities. This article assesses the potential of outsourcing psychiatric rehabilitation by analysing care farm services in the Netherlands. Service characteristics were analysed across 214 care farms retrieved from a national database. Qualitative insights were provided by five case descriptions, selected from 34 interviews. Institutional care farms were significantly larger and older than private care farms (comprising 88.8% of all care farms). Private, independent care farms provide real-life work conditions to users who are relatively less impaired. Private, contracted care farms tailor the work activities to their capacities and employ professional supervisors. Institutional care farms accommodate for the most vulnerable users. We conclude that collaborations with independent, contracted and institutional care farms would provide mental health care organizations with a diversity in services, enhanced community integration and a better match with users' rehabilitation needs.

  6. Social capital in Japan: What characteristics do public health nurses see in their communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hikaru; Kawaharada, Mariko; Shindo, Yukari; Tanaka, Rie; Nakajima, Ayaka; Nimura, Yuki

    2017-07-13

    A concept of social capital that accounts for a community's cultural background and incorporates social capital into public health nursing practice are needed. This study aimed to describe the characteristics of social capital in the context of public health nursing in Japan. The study interviewed 11 veteran public health nurses from five municipalities across Japan and undertook a qualitative research analysis. A digital voice recorder was used to collect qualitative data by using a background data sheet and semistructured interviews. Trustworthiness in interpreting the data was ensured by conducting 13 additional interviews with residents and collating the two sets of results. All the participants were female: 10 were veterans with ≥15 years' experience. Nine worked in management. The methods yielded six categories: (i) the richness of the interactions among the residents; (ii) the community residents who showed concern for those in need; (iii) community civic activities; (iv) the residents' willingness to contribute to the community; (v) the health promotion volunteers who work alongside the public health nurses; and (vi) an enriched community environment. The results contribute to an understanding of social capital in the context of public health nursing activities and further research on social capital. It also is discussed how social capital can be incorporated into public health nursing activities in the future. © 2017 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  7. Evaluation of community mental health services: comparison of a primary care mental health team and an extended day hospital service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secker, J; Gulliver, P; Peck, E; Robinson, J; Bell, R; Hughes, J

    2001-11-01

    Alongside mental health policies emphasising the need to focus on people experiencing serious, long-term problems, recent general healthcare policy is leading to the development in the UK of a primary care-led National Health Service. While most primary care-led mental health initiatives have focused on supporting general practitioners (GPs) in managing milder depression and anxiety, this article describes an evaluation comparing primary care-based and secondary care-based services for people with serious long-term problems. A survey of service users was carried out at three points in time using three measures: the Camberwell Assessment of Need, the Verona Satisfaction with Services Scales and the Lancashire Quality of Life Profile. Staff views were sought at two time intervals and carers' views were obtained towards the end of the 2-year study period. The results indicate that both services reduced overall needs and the users' need for information. The primary care service also reduced the need for help with psychotic symptoms whereas the secondary care service reduced users' need for help with benefits and occupation. There were no major differences in terms of satisfaction or quality of life. Primary care-based services therefore appear to have the potential to be as effective as more traditional secondary care services. However, a more comprehensive range of services is required to address the whole spectrum of needs, a conclusion supported by the views of staff and carers.

  8. Integrated Pharmacies at Community Mental Health Centers: Medication Adherence and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, W Abel; Gorman, Jack M; Odorzynski, Melissa; Peterson, Mark J; Clayton, Carol

    2016-11-01

    Patients receiving psychiatric services at community mental health centers (CMHCs) are often prescribed medication that is critical to the treatment of behavioral health conditions, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, anxiety, and depression. Previous studies have shown correlation between rates of medication adherence and risk of hospitalization, but potential differences in medication adherence and other outcomes for patients of CMHCs by pharmacy type have not been widely studied. To determine potential benefits of placing a pharmacy within a mental health service delivery setting on both adherence to medication and health outcomes. A retrospective cohort analysis of medication adherence rates, hospital and emergency department (ED) use, and related costs between patients of CMHCs was conducted using integrated pharmacies versus community pharmacies. Data were from Medicaid claims paid by Southwest Michigan Behavioral Health for all (behavioral and nonbehavioral) inpatient and outpatient services as well as pharmacy prescriptions filled from April 1, 2014, through April 30, 2015. The primary study analysis was composed of an adult dataset representing persons served from 1 of the 2 CMHCs who had filled at least 2 prescriptions for a specific medication from 1 of 2 Genoa pharmacies located in a CMHC during the study period. Each unique patient dataset in the treatment group was matched to a corresponding control patient dataset prescribed the same medication using a modified version of the Gale-Shapley algorithm. The primary analysis compared medication possession ratio, which is a measure of adherence that indicates gaps or oversupply in a patient's medication use history. Statistical tests were performed using the R statistical programming language and Microsoft Excel. Patients using pharmacies integrated within the CMHCs had higher medication adherence rates, lower rates of hospitalization, and lower ED use than those filling their prescriptions at

  9. New roles for pharmacists in community mental health care: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Valera, Maria; Chen, Timothy F; O'Reilly, Claire L

    2014-10-21

    Medicines are a major treatment modality for many mental illnesses, and with the growing burden of mental disorders worldwide pharmacists are ideally positioned to play a greater role in supporting people with a mental illness. This narrative review aims to describe the evidence for pharmacist-delivered services in mental health care and address the barriers and facilitators to increasing the uptake of pharmacist services as part of the broader mental health care team. This narrative review is divided into three main sections: (1) the role of the pharmacist in mental health care in multidisciplinary teams and in supporting early detection of mental illness; (2) the pharmacists' role in supporting quality use of medicines in medication review, strategies to improve medication adherence and antipsychotic polypharmacy, and shared decision making; and (3) barriers and facilitators to the implementation of mental health pharmacy services with a focus on organizational culture and mental health stigma. In the first section, the review presents new roles for pharmacists within multidisciplinary teams, such as in case conferencing or collaborative drug therapy management; and new roles that would benefit from increased pharmacist involvement, such as the early detection of mental health conditions, development of care plans and follow up of people with mental health problems. The second section describes the impact of medication review services and other pharmacist-led interventions designed to reduce inappropriate use of psychotropic medicines and improve medication adherence. Other new potential roles discussed include the management of antipsychotic polypharmacy and involvement in patient-centered care. Finally, barriers related to pharmacists' attitudes, stigma and skills in the care of patients with mental health problems and barriers affecting pharmacist-physician collaboration are described, along with strategies to reduce mental health stigma.

  10. New Roles for Pharmacists in Community Mental Health Care: A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rubio-Valera

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Medicines are a major treatment modality for many mental illnesses, and with the growing burden of mental disorders worldwide pharmacists are ideally positioned to play a greater role in supporting people with a mental illness. This narrative review aims to describe the evidence for pharmacist-delivered services in mental health care and address the barriers and facilitators to increasing the uptake of pharmacist services as part of the broader mental health care team. This narrative review is divided into three main sections: (1 the role of the pharmacist in mental health care in multidisciplinary teams and in supporting early detection of mental illness; (2 the pharmacists’ role in supporting quality use of medicines in medication review, strategies to improve medication adherence and antipsychotic polypharmacy, and shared decision making; and (3 barriers and facilitators to the implementation of mental health pharmacy services with a focus on organizational culture and mental health stigma. In the first section, the review presents new roles for pharmacists within multidisciplinary teams, such as in case conferencing or collaborative drug therapy management; and new roles that would benefit from increased pharmacist involvement, such as the early detection of mental health conditions, development of care plans and follow up of people with mental health problems. The second section describes the impact of medication review services and other pharmacist-led interventions designed to reduce inappropriate use of psychotropic medicines and improve medication adherence. Other new potential roles discussed include the management of antipsychotic polypharmacy and involvement in patient-centered care. Finally, barriers related to pharmacists’ attitudes, stigma and skills in the care of patients with mental health problems and barriers affecting pharmacist-physician collaboration are described, along with strategies to reduce mental health stigma.

  11. Systematic review of mental health and well-being outcomes following community-based obesity prevention interventions among adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Hoare, Erin; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Skouteris, Helen; Millar, Lynne; Nichols, Melanie; Allender, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This paper aimed to systematically evaluate the mental health and well-being outcomes observed in previous community-based obesity prevention interventions in adolescent populations. Setting Systematic review of literature from database inception to October 2014. Articles were sourced from CINAHL, Global Health, Health Source: Nursing and Academic Edition, MEDLINE, PsycARTICLES and PsycINFO, all of which were accessed through EBSCOhost. The Cochrane Database was also searched to id...

  12. Integrating public health and community development to tackle neighborhood distress and promote well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Manuel; Morello-Frosch, Rachel

    2014-11-01

    Recently there have been calls for public health to reconnect to urban planning in ways that emphasize the impact of place on health and that address fundamental causes of poor health, such as poverty, social inequality, and discrimination. Community developers have realized that poor health limits individuals' and communities' economic potential and have begun to integrate into their work such neighborhood health issues as access to fresh food and open space. In this article we review recent shifts in the community development field and give examples of programs that operate at the intersection of community development, public health, and civic engagement. For example, in Sacramento, California, the Building Healthy Communities program successfully promoted the creation of community gardens and bike paths and the redevelopment of brownfields. A major housing revitalization initiative in San Francisco, California, known as Sunnydale-Velasco, is transforming the city's largest public housing site into a mixed-income community that provides existing residents with new housing, infrastructure, services, and amenities. These examples and others illustrate the need to identify and make use of interdisciplinary approaches to ensure that all places are strong platforms for economic mobility, full democratic participation, and community health.

  13. Building sustainable community partnerships into the structure of new academic public health schools and programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaughan, Monica; Gillman, Laura B; Boumbulian, Paul; Davis, Marsha; Galen, Robert S

    2011-01-01

    We describe and assess how the College of Public Health at the University of Georgia, established in 2005, has developed formal institutional mechanisms to facilitate community-university partnerships that serve the needs of communities and the university. The College developed these partnerships as part of its founding; therefore, the University of Georgia model may serve as an important model for other new public health programs. One important lesson is the need to develop financial and organizational mechanisms that ensure stability over time. Equally important is attention to how community needs can be addressed by faculty and students in academically appropriate ways. The integration of these 2 lessons ensures that the academic mission is fulfilled at the same time that community needs are addressed. Together, these lessons suggest that multiple formal strategies are warranted in the development of academically appropriate and sustainable university-community partnerships.

  14. Increased Mental Health Treatment Financing, Community-Based Organization's Treatment Programs, and Latino-White Children's Financing Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Lonnie R; Wallace, Neal; Cordell, Kate; Graaf, Genevieve

    2017-09-01

    Latino child populations are large and growing, and they present considerable unmet need for mental health treatment. Poverty, lack of health insurance, limited English proficiency, stigma, undocumented status, and inhospitable programming are among many factors that contribute to Latino-White mental health treatment disparities. Lower treatment expenditures serve as an important marker of Latino children's low rates of mental health treatment and limited participation once enrolled in services. We investigated whether total Latino-White expenditure disparities declined when autonomous, county-level mental health plans receive funds free of customary cost-sharing charges, especially when they capitalized on cultural and language-sensitive mental health treatment programs as vehicles to receive and spend treatment funds. Using Whites as benchmark, we considered expenditure pattern disparities favoring Whites over Latinos and, in a smaller number of counties, Latinos over Whites. Using segmented regression for interrupted time series on county level treatment systems observed over 64 quarters, we analyzed Medi-Cal paid claims for per-user total expenditures for mental health services delivered to children and youth (under 18 years of age) during a study period covering July 1, 1991 through June 30, 2007. Settlement-mandated Medicaid's Early Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment (EPSDT) expenditure increases began in the third quarter of 1995. Terms were introduced to assess immediate and long term inequality reduction as well as the role of culture and language-sensitive community-based programs. Settlement-mandated increased EPSDT treatment funding was associated with more spending on Whites relative to Latinos unless plans arranged for cultural and language-sensitive mental health treatment programs. However, having programs served more to prevent expenditure disparities from growing than to reduce disparities. EPSDT expanded funding increased proportional

  15. Think of your art-eries: arts participation, behavioural cardiovascular risk factors and mental well-being in deprived communities in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renton, A; Phillips, G; Daykin, N; Yu, G; Taylor, K; Petticrew, M

    2012-09-01

    To investigate the association of participation in arts and cultural activities with health behaviours and mental well-being in low-income populations in London. Cross-sectional, community-based observational study. Data were taken from the cross-sectional baseline survey of the Well London cluster randomized trial, conducted during 2008 in 40 of the most deprived census lower super output areas in London (selected using the English Indices of Multiple Deprivation). Multiple imputation was used to account for missing data in the Well London survey. Descriptive statistics and regression analyses were used to examine the association between participation in arts and cultural activities and physical activity (meeting target of five sessions of at least 30 min of moderate-intensity physical activity per week), healthy eating (meeting target of at least five portions of fruit or vegetables per day) and mental well-being (Hope Scale score; feeling anxious or depressed). This study found that levels of arts and cultural engagement in low-income groups in London are >75%, but this is well below the national average for England. Individuals who were more socially disadvantaged (unemployed, living in rented social housing, low educational attainment, low disposable income) were less likely to participate in arts or cultural activities. Arts participation was strongly associated with healthy eating, physical activity and positive mental well-being, with no evidence of confounding by socio-economic or sociodemographic factors. Neither positive mental well-being nor social capital appeared to mediate the relationship between arts participation and health behaviours. This study suggests that arts and cultural activities are independently associated with health behaviours and mental well-being. Further qualitative and prospective intervention studies are needed to elucidate the nature of the relationship between health behaviours, mental well-being and arts participation. If arts

  16. Have Broad-Based Community and Professional Education Programs Influenced Mental Health Literacy and Treatment Seeking of those with Major Depression and Suicidal Ideation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldney, Robert D.; Fisher, Laura J.

    2008-01-01

    "Mental health literacy" is the knowledge and beliefs about mental disorders that aid in their recognition, management, or prevention; it is also a determinant of help seeking. As such, it is presumed to be important in community suicide prevention programs. In Australia there have been a number of government, professional, and…

  17. Relationships between Self-efficacy and Collective Efficacy at the Family/Community Level and Mental Health among Families of Special Olympics Athletes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arai, Hirokazu

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between perceptions of self-efficacy and collective efficacy at the family/community level and mental health status among the families...

  18. Community-scale solar photovoltaics: housing and public development examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komoto, K.

    2008-03-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 10 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at community-scale photovoltaics. The mission of the Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to enhance the international collaboration efforts which accelerate the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. The aim of Task 10 is stated as being to enhance the opportunities for wide-scale, solution-oriented application of photovoltaics in the urban environment. This report provides examples of housing developments and incorporated townships that have integrated multiple stakeholder values into business solutions. The authors are of the opinion that builders, developers, architects and engineers need to consider orientation, aesthetics, load diversity, energy efficiency, grid infrastructure and end use. Residential and commercial building owners or occupants need to consider the design of electric services relative to loads, green image, and economic opportunities such as feed-in tariffs. Local government should give preference to granting permission to high-performance building projects. It is suggested that the finance and insurance sector consider the operational savings in overall debt allowances. System manufacturers and integrators should develop standardised systems. In the emerging PV community market, utilities are quickly gaining awareness of business opportunities. The need for professionals and skilled labour is quoted as having grown as drastically as the PV market itself.

  19. Patterns of Intergroup Contact in Public Spaces: Micro-Ecology of Segregation in Australian Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Priest

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of public spaces can promote social cohesion and facilitate interpersonal interactions within the community. However, the ways racial and ethnic groups interact in public spaces can also reflect and influence informal segregation in the wider community. The present study aimed to examine patterns of intergroup contact within public spaces in Victoria, Australia through short-term observation in four localities. Data were collected on within-group, intergroup and absence of contact for people from minority and majority groups. A total of 974 contacts were observed. Findings indicate that in the observed public spaces, people from visible minority groups tended to have no contact with others or to interact with people from other ethnic/racial groups. In contrast, those from the majority group tended to interact predominately with other majority group members. This suggests that majority group members are more likely to ‘self-segregate’ in public spaces than those from minority groups.

  20. Relationships of perceived public stigma of mental illness and psychosis-like experiences in a non-clinical population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Yin-Ju; Kao, Yu-Chen; Liu, Yia-Ping; Chang, Hsin-An; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Lu, Chien-Wen; Lin, Shwu-Jon; Loh, Ching-Hui

    2015-02-01

    Studies on the association between psychopathology, perceived public stigma, and labeling in mental illness have focused primarily on severe but rare mental disorders, especially schizophrenia, or other clinically defined psychotic disorders. Although evidence is mounting that psychosis-like experiences show high prevalence in the general population and lead to an increased risk of psychotic disorders, little is known about how psychosis-like experiences independently affect perceived public stigma in the non-clinical population. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between psychosis-like experiences and perceived public stigma in a non-clinical sample. For this cross-sectional study, we recruited 524 individuals (239 male, 285 female) who had no lifetime history of psychiatric disorder. Participants completed questionnaires that asked for sociodemographic and clinical information, a measure of perceived public stigma (Perceived Psychiatric Stigma Scale [PPSS]), and two measures of psychosis-like experiences (Peters et al. Delusions Inventory [PDI]; Cardiff Anomalous Perceptions Scale [CAPS]). Of the sociodemographic characteristics analyzed in this study-gender, age, education level, marital status, and religion-only age simultaneously influenced PPSS, PDI, and CAPS scores. As hypothesized, perceived public stigma was positively correlated with measures of psychosis-like experiences, even after controlling for age. Furthermore, the perceived stigma was more strongly associated with delusion proneness than with anomalous perceptual experiences. The association between psychopathology and perceived public stigma appears to extend beyond clinically defined psychosis to more common psychosis-like experiences in a sample drawn from the general Han Chinese population.