WorldWideScience

Sample records for public class passager

  1. Public bureaucracy and ruling classes in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Bresser-Pereira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil underwent industrialization and major economic development during the period that spanned 1930 to 1980 This is the period of strategic national development initiated by Getulio Vargas and taken up again after the crisis of the 1960s by the military regime that was in power. Throughout the entire period, public bureaucracy played a key role, always in consort with the industrial bourgeoisie. These two classes emerged as actors in political life as of the 1930s and - together with the workers who were minor partners - promoted the Brazilian industrial revolution. During the 1960s the radicalization of the Left and the right-wing alarmism which were both to a large extent stimulated by the Cuban revolution led to a military coup in which the bourgeoisie and the military joined interests with the United States. Nonetheless, both the bourgeoisie and public bureaucracy returned to a nationalist and developmentalist policy during the years that followed. Yet the major foreign debt crisis that took place during the 1980s led to the breaking apart of these alliances, and over the course of the decade, to the surrender to neo-liberalism coming from the North. At that moment, a disoriented public bureaucracy attempted to defend its own corporate interests. As of the 1990s, however, the sector involved itself in the State Administrative Reform of 1995; furthermore, neoliberalism, which then became the dominant current, went on to lose its hegemony over the following decade due to failure in promoting economic development. These two facts work, on the one hand, to re-establish new republican perspectives for public bureaucracy and, on the other, suggest that the renewed alliance of public bureaucracy and industrial bourgeoisie may again be turning into the nation's route to re-establishing economic development.

  2. Teaching the Public Relations Case Studies/Campaigns Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottone, Laura Perkins

    The public relations case studies/campaigns class entails teaching students how to die and then come back to life. As students must learn to take a critical look at complex public and social issues, teachers should create an environment in which the students feel comfortable with the process of psychological reconstruction. Students must be taught…

  3. A Measure of EFL Public Speaking Class Anxiety: Scale Development and Preliminary Validation and Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaikhong, Kriangkrai; Usaha, Siriluck

    2012-01-01

    The present study contributes to developing a Public Speaking Class Anxiety Scale (PSCAS) to measure anxiety in the EFL public speaking class in the Thai context. Items were adopted from previous scales: Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) by Horwitz et al. (1986); Personal Report of Communication Apprehension (PRCA-24) and Personal…

  4. In the Shadow of Celebrity? World-Class University Policies and Public Value in Higher Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremonini, Leon; Westerheijden, Donald F.; Benneworth, Paul Stephen; Dauncey, Hugh

    2014-01-01

    The growing popularity of the concept of world-class universities raises the question of whether investing in such universities is a worthwhile use of public resources. Does concentrating public resources on the most excellent universities improve the overall quality of a higher education system,

  5. Toastmaster's Inspired Pedagogical Changes: From a Speech Class into a Public Relations Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadinger, David

    2016-01-01

    Action research is used to view pedagogical changes, first in a speech class and then in a public relations course over a five-year period. The course instructor gained experience as a member of a Toastmasters International club and used Toastmasters-like activities, to revise content in the courses. Ultimately, students in the public relations…

  6. Politics, Religion and Morals: The Symbolism of Public Schooling for the Urban Middle-Class Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Emma E.

    2016-01-01

    Research points to sections of the middle-class repopulating the "ordinary" urban public school and whilst there are key differences in how they are navigating public school choices, from "seeking a critical mass" to resisting traditional methods of choice and going "against-the-grain", or collectively campaigning for…

  7. Economic performance and public concerns about social class in twentieth-century books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yunsong; Yan, Fei

    2016-09-01

    What is the association between macroeconomic conditions and public perceptions of social class? Applying a novel approach based on the Google Books N-gram corpus, this study addresses the relationship between public concerns about social class and economic conditions throughout the twentieth century. The usage of class-related words/phrases, or "literary references to class," in American English-language books is related to US economic performance and income inequality. The findings of this study demonstrate that economic conditions play a significant role in literary references to class throughout the century, whereas income inequality does not. Similar results are obtained from further analyses using alternative measures of class concerns as well as different corpora of English Fiction and the New York Times. We add to the social class literature by showing that the long-term temporal dynamics of an economy can be exhibited by aggregate class concerns. The application of massive culture-wide content analysis using data of unprecedented size also represents a contribution to the literature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Managerial performance and cost efficiency of Japanese local public hospitals: a latent class stochastic frontier model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besstremyannaya, Galina

    2011-09-01

    The paper explores the link between managerial performance and cost efficiency of 617 Japanese general local public hospitals in 1999-2007. Treating managerial performance as unobservable heterogeneity, the paper employs a panel data stochastic cost frontier model with latent classes. Financial parameters associated with better managerial performance are found to be positively significant in explaining the probability of belonging to the more efficient latent class. The analysis of latent class membership was consistent with the conjecture that unobservable technological heterogeneity reflected in the existence of the latent classes is related to managerial performance. The findings may support the cause for raising efficiency of Japanese local public hospitals by enhancing the quality of management. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Quantum first passage problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, N.

    1984-07-01

    Quantum first passage problem (QUIPP) is formulated and solved in terms of a constrained Feynman path integral. The related paradox of blocking of unitary evolution by continuous observation on the system implicit in QUIPP is briefly discussed. (author)

  10. Public Address, Cultural Diversity, and Tolerance: Teaching Cultural Diversity in Speech Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Marquita L.

    While speech instructors work to design appropriate diversity goals in the public speaking class, few have the training for such a task. A review of course objectives and assignments for the basic course may be helpful. Suggestions for instructors working to incorporate diversity in the basic course include: (1) recognize the dominance of the…

  11. CosmoQuest: Educating the Public (and Ourselves) With CosmoAcademy Online Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, M. R.; Gay, P.

    2016-12-01

    CosmoAcademy is a part of the CosmoQuest mission to educate the public about astronomy, planetary science, and similar subjects. Through short-duration online classes with small enrollment, we can cover many subjects of interest to the interested layperson, taught by experts. Typical CosmoAcademy classes consist of four hours of face-to-face time, and are limited to fewer than 20 students. This is in contrast to massive online classes such as MOOCs, which often replicate typical university courses, but which rarely allow student-instructor interaction. Additionally, we offer continuing-education classes for classroom teachers and other educators on similar subjects, to let them enrich their own teaching. WeBecause of the short classes, we can offer short classes both on standard topics (the Solar System planets, introduction to cosmology) and specific subjects relating to the news (LIGO, asteroid missions). The expert instructors may be graduate students, research professionals, or anyone with the technical background. We also offer classes to train instructors before they begin teaching. These professional development classes are designed to help those without classroom experience, but also support those who To make that work, we offer classes to train the instructors before they begin teaching, if they don't have the experience or just want to learn how to be more effective in the classroom.We will present CosmoAcademy's program, and explain what it offers both to people taking the class and those who might want to teach with us.

  12. Organizational Supports for Research Evidence Use in State Public Health Agencies: A Latent Class Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hengrui; Allen, Peg; Yan, Yan; Reis, Rodrigo S; Jacob, Rebekah R; Brownson, Ross C

    2018-05-30

    Use of research evidence in public health decision making can be affected by organizational supports. Study objectives are to identify patterns of organizational supports and explore associations with research evidence use for job tasks among public health practitioners. In this longitudinal study, we used latent class analysis to identify organizational support patterns, followed by mixed logistic regression analysis to quantify associations with research evidence use. The setting included 12 state public health department chronic disease prevention units and their external partnering organizations involved in chronic disease prevention. Chronic disease prevention staff from 12 US state public health departments and partnering organizations completed self-report surveys at 2 time points, in 2014 and 2016 (N = 872). Latent class analysis was employed to identify subgroups of survey participants with distinct patterns of perceived organizational supports. Two classify-analyze approaches (maximum probability assignment and multiple pseudo-class draws) were used in 2017 to investigate the association between latent class membership and research evidence use. The optimal model identified 4 latent classes, labeled as "unsupportive workplace," "low agency leadership support," "high agency leadership support," and "supportive workplace." With maximum probability assignment, participants in "high agency leadership support" (odds ratio = 2.08; 95% CI, 1.35-3.23) and "supportive workplace" (odds ratio = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.10-2.74) were more likely to use research evidence in job tasks than "unsupportive workplace." The multiple pseudo-class draws produced comparable results with odds ratio = 2.09 (95% CI, 1.31-3.30) for "high agency leadership support" and odds ratio = 1.74 (95% CI, 1.07-2.82) for "supportive workplace." Findings suggest that leadership support may be a crucial element of organizational supports to encourage research evidence use. Organizational supports such

  13. Class and narrative accrual: personal troubles and public issues in five vignettes.

    OpenAIRE

    Spokes, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    This paper develops Bruner’s (1991) notion of narrative accrual, in conjunction with ‘life-stories’ and ‘event-stories’, to focus on the accumulation of experiences as a contributor to working class identity. Situated between Mills’ (1959) personal troubles and public issues, and framed by Nouri and Helterline (1998) argument that identity is framed by social interaction with signification systems and other people, the author’s own experiences as an early career academic in two different Brit...

  14. Boundaries, transitions and passages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, Jan; van Doorn, Andrea J.; Pinna, Baingio; Wagemans, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Many pictures are approximately piecewise uniform quilts. The patches meet in transitional areas that have a vague, ribbon-like geometry. These borders may occasionally get lost and sometimes pick up again, creating a 'passage' that partly blends adjacent patches. This type of structure is widely

  15. The Northwest Passage Dispute

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burke, Danita Catherine

    2018-01-01

    This is an article written for the Oxford Research Group "Sustainable Security" series. It gives an overview of the dispute of the Northwest Passage and discusses factors which will contribute to the evolution of the dispute in the 21st century. This short contribution summarizes and adds to the ...... to the research recently published by the author through Palgrave Macmillan, Danita Catherine Burke, 2018, International Disputes and Cultural Ideas in the Canadian Arctic...

  16. 75 FR 73983 - Proposed Modification of the Salt Lake City, UT, Class B Airspace Area; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... of the Salt Lake City, UT, Class B Airspace Area; Public Meetings AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Class B airspace area at Salt Lake City, UT. The purpose of these meetings is to provide interested... Road, Ogden, UT, 84405. (2) The meeting on Tuesday, February 1, 2011, will be held in the Conference...

  17. Public Education: A Route into Lebanon’s Middle Class in the 1960s and Early 1970s

    OpenAIRE

    Youssef Zbib

    2014-01-01

    In Lebanon during the 1960s, public education became more accessible to members of the lower classes and different sectarian denominations, after a time when education had been, to a large extent, a privilege of upper- and middle-class Christians. This paper examines the socioeconomic conditions of public school teachers as a result of this process. Using Bourdieusian analysis, I argue that these teachers used cultural capital acquired through free education to become part of a rising profess...

  18. Public Education: A Route into Lebanon’s Middle Class in the 1960s and Early 1970s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Zbib

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In Lebanon during the 1960s, public education became more accessible to members of the lower classes and different sectarian denominations, after a time when education had been, to a large extent, a privilege of upper- and middle-class Christians. This paper examines the socioeconomic conditions of public school teachers as a result of this process. Using Bourdieusian analysis, I argue that these teachers used cultural capital acquired through free education to become part of a rising professional middle class. To a large extent, these teachers’ definition of their own social positions and roles was a result of their individual histories and internalized values.

  19. Alternatives and passages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansbøl, Mikala

    2010-01-01

    While much research into serious games focus on following teaching and/or learning activities, and particularly the human and institutional actors involved in these, the central actors of game based learning research (i.e. the games) seldom get much attention (unless the focus is so......-called "technological"). This brief positioning paper takes point of departure in an ongoing postdoc project following circulations and establishments of http://www.mingoville.com/ , which is a virtual universe with game based elements developed for beginning English teaching and learning.  The paper presents a Science...... and Technology Studies (STS) and Actor-Network-Theory (ANT) inspired approach to researching emerging passages between beginning English teaching and learning and Mingoville....

  20. Astronomy for Astronomical Numbers - Education and Public Outreach with Massive Open Online Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impey, C.; Buxner, S.; Wenger, M.; Formanek, M.

    2015-12-01

    Massive Open Online Classes (MOOCs) represent a powerful new mode of education and public outreach. While early hype has often given way to disappointment over the typically low completion rates, retaining the interest of free-choice learners is always a challenge, and the worldwide reach and low cost of of these online classes is a democratizing influence in higher education. We have used providers Udemy and Coursera to reach over 60,000 adults with an astronomy course that covers the recent research results across the subject from comets to cosmology. In addition to measures of participation, completion, and performance, we have administered surveys of the learners that measure science literacy, attitudes towards science and technology, and sources of information about science. Beyond the usual core of video lectures and quizzes, we have used peer reviewed writing assignments, observing project, and citizen science to create a richer learning environment. Research on MOOCs is still in its early stages, but we hope to learn what factors contribute most to student engagement and completion in these online settings.

  1. Algorithms for Brownian first-passage-time estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, Artur B.

    2009-09-01

    A class of algorithms in discrete space and continuous time for Brownian first-passage-time estimation is considered. A simple algorithm is derived that yields exact mean first-passage times (MFPTs) for linear potentials in one dimension, regardless of the lattice spacing. When applied to nonlinear potentials and/or higher spatial dimensions, numerical evidence suggests that this algorithm yields MFPT estimates that either outperform or rival Langevin-based (discrete time and continuous space) estimates.

  2. Périodiques scientifiques Les usagers du CERN entre passage au tout électronique et nouveau modèle de publication

    CERN Document Server

    Bessero, C

    2008-01-01

    Les usagers de la bibliothèque du CERN (Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire) représentent près de la moitié des physiciens des hautes énergies à travers le monde. Les spécificités de cette communauté expliquent sa rapide adoption du format électronique pour l'organisation de sa communication scientifique ; elles permettent également de comprendre l'émergence d'un nouveau modèle de publication en libre accès conçu à son intention. La bibliothèque se révèle être un partenaire indispensable à ces changements, notamment en raison de la constitution d'une collection complémentaire, adaptée à des besoins pointus et diversifiés dans les domaines connexes à la physique des hautes énergies.

  3. Interactional Strategies Used by Low Level Learners in Public Speaking Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Astutik

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This research article described the interactional strategies used by low learners in public speaking class. A qualitative study on whether or not low learners used the aspects of interactional strategies was the main focus. This paper also aimed to know what aspects mostly used and the factors that cause this problem. Observing and interviewing to six subjects regarding on the use of interactional strategies: exemplification, confirmation checks, comprehension checks, repetition, clarification requests, repetition requests, exemplification requests, and assistance appeal were carried out. Finding indicated that from six low learners, only two who did not apply interactional strategies in all situations. Four students have applied 3 – 4 interactional strategies in the case they were as the speaker. In another side, when they were the listeners, they did not apply the interactional strategies. The result showed that repetition was the interactional strategy mostly used by low learners. Nevertheless, the reason of using it was not proper reason. The further finding indicated some factors cause low learners did not use four interactional strategies such as fluency, grammar, lack of vocabulary and pronunciation in addition to the English practice merely in the formal situation.

  4. The Revealed Influence of Class, Race, and Ethnicity on Local Public-School Expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Byron W.; Saks, Daniel H.

    1985-01-01

    Findings include (1) poor and upper middle classes want to spend more on schools than the middle classes; (2) Blacks and ethnics of European stock want to spend more on schooling than other Americans; and (3) there is no difference in demands for school expenditures between Northern and Southern/Eastern European ethnics. (RM)

  5. Freebie Rhabdomyolysis: A Public Health Concern. Spin Class-Induced Rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogan, Maureen; Ledesma, Rudrick; Coffino, Alan; Chander, Praveen

    2017-04-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is a pathologic condition in which intracellular muscle constituents leak into the blood circulation. It is usually caused by muscle trauma. "Spinning" is an indoor form of cycling where participants use a special stationary exercise bicycle with a weighted flywheel and undergo high-intensity cycling classes focusing on endurance. There have been several case reports in the literature of exertional rhabdomyolysis following spin class. Our nephrology practices have diagnosed a number of cases of symptomatic patients presenting to our emergency departments following their first spin classes, with histories and creatinine phosphokinase levels diagnostic of exertional rhabdomyolysis. We present 3 unusual cases of exertional rhabdomyolysis, each occurring after a first spin class. In the first case, rhabdomyolysis developed following 15 minutes of spin class. In the second case, it occurred in a young individual who exercises regularly. In the third case, the patient developed biopsy-proved acute kidney injury secondary to exertional rhabdomyolysis and required hemodialysis. The high-intensity exercise associated with "spin class" comes with significant risks to newcomers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Unravelling public transport customer satisfaction and dissatisfaction dynamics in the high-end middle class market

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokonyama, Mathetha T

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent improvements to the public transport offerings available to South African commuters are managing to attract a small but loyal patronage from among the car-owning public. The improved services provide opportunities for studying...

  7. 77 FR 7025 - Safety Zones; America's Cup World Series, East Passage, Narragansett Bay, RI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ...-AA00 Safety Zones; America's Cup World Series, East Passage, Narragansett Bay, RI AGENCY: Coast Guard... the America's Cup World Series sailing vessel racing event. This safety zone is intended to safeguard...'s Cup-class races on the waters of the East Passage, Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island. Vessels will be...

  8. Students Opinions and Attitudes towards Physical Education Classes in Kuwait Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Heyam Reda; Mohammad, Mona Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    The aim of study was to investigate student opinion and attitude toward physical education classes. Two thousand seven hundred (2700) students answered the survey: 1239 (45.3%) were male students and 1497 (54.7%) were female from Kuwait six districts: Al_Hawalli, Al_Asimah, Al_Jahra, Al_Mobarak, Al_Farwniah, Al_Ahmadi. Weight Status was determined…

  9. A Public Relations Nightmare: ACLU Class Action Lawsuit Exposes Inaccurate and Inequitable High School Graduation Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Terri N.; Brown, Kathleen M.

    2010-01-01

    Florida's decision to equate a GED to a high school diploma undermines the attempt of No Child Left Behind to close the achievement gap, while infringing on the public's trust. Public trust fosters a culture of systemic equity and social justice, which are necessary for academic excellence (Byrk & Schneider, 2003). Florida's code of ethics for…

  10. Developing Public Mind Curriculum for Lower Secondary School Classes Using Contemplative Education Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srijumnong, Sirithorn; Sri-ampai, Pissamai; Chano, Jiraporn

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop a public mind curriculum with Contemplative Education and to study the effect of using the curriculum to enhance public minds. The study was carried out using the research and development process, consisting of three phases: investigating fundamental data, developing a curriculum, and evaluating the…

  11. Public foetal images and the regulation of middle-class pregnancy in the online media: a view from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, Catriona; Howell, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonography images and their derivatives have been taken up in a range of 'public' spaces, including medical textbooks, the media, anti-abortion material, advertising, the Internet and public health facilities. Feminists have critiqued the personification of the foetus, the bifurcation of the woman's body and the reduction of the pregnant woman to a disembodied womb. What has received less attention is how these images frequently intersect with race, class, gender and heteronormativity in the creation of idealised and normative understandings of pregnancy. This paper focuses on the discursive positioning of pregnant women as 'mothers' and foetuses as 'babies' in online media targeted at a South African audience, where race and class continue to intersect in complex ways. We show how the ontologically specific understandings of 'mummies' and 'babies' emerge through the use of foetal images to construct specific understandings of the 'ideal' pregnancy. In the process, pregnant women are made responsible for ensuring that their pregnancy conforms to these ideals, which includes the purchasing of the various goods advertised by the websites. Not only does this point to a commodification of pregnancy, but also serves to reinforce a cultural understanding of White, middle-class pregnancy as constituting the normative 'correct' form of pregnancy.

  12. Reference computations of public dose and cancer risk from airborne releases of uranium and Class W plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, V.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents ''reference'' computations that can be used by safety analysts in the evaluations of the consequences of postulated atmospheric releases of radionuclides from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site. These computations deal specifically with doses and health risks to the public. The radionuclides considered are Class W Plutonium, all classes of Enriched Uranium, and all classes of Depleted Uranium. (The other class of plutonium, Y, was treated in an earlier report.) In each case, one gram of the respirable material is assumed to be released at ground leveL both with and without fire. The resulting doses and health risks can be scaled to whatever amount of release is appropriate for a postulated accident being investigated. The report begins with a summary of the organ-specific stochastic risk factors appropriate for alpha radiation, which poses the main health risk of plutonium and uranium. This is followed by a summary of the atmospheric dispersion factors for unfavorable and typical weather conditions for the calculation of consequences to both the Maximum Offsite Individual and the general population within 80 km (50 miles) of the site

  13. Think Bubbles and Socrates: Teaching Critical Thinking to Millennials in Public Relations Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallent, Rebecca J.; Barnes, Justin J.

    2015-01-01

    Critical thinking skills are crucial in the public relations profession, but teaching these skills to the Millennial Generation is vastly different from previous generations. How can a professor get past No Child Left Behind's dependence on test review guides and "everybody wins" in getting students to think for themselves? Using the…

  14. A Comparison of Students in Single-Sex Classes and Coeducational Classes in High Poverty Public Elementary Schools in Mathematics and Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Ashley Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether any statistically significant differences in mathematics and reading academic achievement and academic gains of male and female students taught in single-sex classes existed when compared to male and female students taught in coeducational classes. This study reported findings from mathematics…

  15. Effect of Gender on Students' Emotion with Gender-Related Public Self-Consciousness as a Moderator in Mixed-Gender Physical Education Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Minkwon; Jeon, Hyunsoo; Kwon, Sungho

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates whether gender-related public self-consciousness moderates the relationship between students' gender and emotions in mixed-gender physical education classes. The Positive and Negative Affect Scales and the Gender-related Public Self-Consciousness Scale were administered to 380 middle-school students in South Korea.…

  16. Passage of American shad: paradigms and realities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Alex; Castro-Santos, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    Despite more than 250 years of development, the passage of American shad Alosa sapidissima at dams and other barriers frequently remains problematic. Few improvements in design based on knowledge of the swimming, schooling, and migratory behaviors of American shad have been incorporated into passage structures. Large-scale technical fishways designed for the passage of adult salmonids on the Columbia River have been presumed to have good performance for American shad but have never been rigorously evaluated for this species. Similar but smaller fishway designs on the East Coast frequently have poor performance. Provision of effective downstream passage for both juvenile and postspawning adult American shad has been given little consideration in most passage projects. Ways to attract and guide American shad to both fishway entrances and downstream bypasses remain marginally understood. The historical development of passage structures for American shad has resulted in assumptions and paradigms about American shad behavior and passage that are frequently unsubstantiated by supporting data or appropriate experimentation. We propose that many of these assumptions and paradigms are either unfounded or invalid and that significant improvements to American shad upstream and downstream passage can be made via a sequential program of behavioral experimentation, application of experimental results to the physical and hydraulic design of new structures, and controlled tests of large-scale prototype structures in the laboratory and field.

  17. The Effect of a High School Speech Course on Public Speaking Anxiety for Students in a College-Level Public Speaking Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Karen Hill

    2012-01-01

    Literature suggested public speaking is American's most feared activity. Additionally, the public speaking curriculum was removed from the K-12 school system after 2001. This study aimed to examine the effect of previous public speaking instruction, public speaking extra-curricular activity, gender, and self-esteem on public speaking anxiety…

  18. Moments of Meeting: Difficulties and Developments in Shared Attention, Interaction, and Communication with Children with Autism during Two Years of Music Therapy in a Public Preschool Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Geoffrey Prescott

    2010-01-01

    Drawing upon video recordings over two years, teacher interviews, school reports, and field notes, this practitioner research study described and analyzed 16 video excerpts from a music therapy group in a public preschool class serving 14 children with autism, for durations ranging from two to sixteen months. The research centered on three of the…

  19. Aquatic organism passage at road-stream crossings—synthesis and guidelines for effectiveness monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Robert L.; Dunham, Jason B.; Hansen, Bruce P.

    2012-01-01

    Restoration and maintenance of passage for aquatic organisms at road-stream crossings represents a major management priority, involving an investment of hundreds of millions of dollars (for example, U.S. Government Accounting Office, 2001). In recent years, passage at hundreds of crossings has been restored, primarily by replacing barrier road culverts with bridges or stream simulation culverts designed to pass all species and all life stages of aquatic life and simulate natural hydro-geomorphic processes (U.S. Forest Service, 2008). The current situation has motivated two general questions: 1. Are current design standards for stream simulation culverts adequately re-establishing passage for aquatic biota? and 2. How do we monitor and evaluate effectiveness of passage restoration? To address the latter question, a national workshop was held in March 2010, in Portland, Oregon. The workshop included experts on aquatic organism passage from across the nation (see table of participants, APPENDIX) who addressed four classes of methods for monitoring effectiveness of aquatic organism passage—individual movement, occupancy, demography, and genetics. This report has been written, in part, for field biologists who will be undertaking and evaluating the effectiveness of aquatic organism passage restoration projects at road-stream crossings. The report outlines basic methods for evaluating road-stream crossing passage impairment and restoration and discusses under what circumstances and conditions each method will be useful; what questions each method can potentially answer; how to design and implement an evaluation study; and points out the fundamental reality that most evaluation projects will require special funding and partnerships among researchers and resource managers. The report is organized into the following sections, which can be read independently: 1. Historical context: In this section, we provide a brief history of events leading up to the present situation

  20. Passage relevance models for genomics search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frieder Ophir

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a passage relevance model for integrating syntactic and semantic evidence of biomedical concepts and topics using a probabilistic graphical model. Component models of topics, concepts, terms, and document are represented as potential functions within a Markov Random Field. The probability of a passage being relevant to a biologist's information need is represented as the joint distribution across all potential functions. Relevance model feedback of top ranked passages is used to improve distributional estimates of query concepts and topics in context, and a dimensional indexing strategy is used for efficient aggregation of concept and term statistics. By integrating multiple sources of evidence including dependencies between topics, concepts, and terms, we seek to improve genomics literature passage retrieval precision. Using this model, we are able to demonstrate statistically significant improvements in retrieval precision using a large genomics literature corpus.

  1. Skeptical notes on a physics of passage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggett, Nick

    2014-10-01

    This paper investigates the mathematical representation of time in physics. In existing theories, time is represented by the real numbers, hence their formal properties represent properties of time: these are surveyed. The central question of the paper is whether the existing representation of time is adequate, or whether it can or should be supplemented: especially, do we need a physics incorporating some kind of "dynamical passage" of time? The paper argues that the existing mathematical framework is resistant to such changes, and might have to be rejected by anyone seeking a physics of passage. Then it rebuts two common arguments for incorporating passage into physics, especially the claim that it is an element of experience. Finally, the paper investigates whether, as has been claimed, causal set theory provides a physics of passage. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  2. A Case Study of Single-Sex Middle School Mathematics Classes in a Mixed-Sex Public School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasha, Fridah Singongi Silishebo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to (a) examine the main and interaction effects of gender, race and class-type on mathematics achievement, mathematics attitudes and sources of mathematics self-efficacy, (b) investigate teacher-student interactions in the single-sex mathematics classes and (c) investigate perspectives about single-sex…

  3. Brook trout passage performance through culverts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerig, Elsa; Castro-Santos, Theodore R.; Bergeron, Normand

    2016-01-01

    Culverts can restrict access to habitat for stream-dwelling fishes. We used passive integrated transponder telemetry to quantify passage performance of >1000 wild brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) attempting to pass 13 culverts in Quebec under a range of hydraulic and environmental conditions. Several variables influenced passage success, including complex interactions between physiology and behavior, hydraulics, and structural characteristics. The probability of successful passage was greater through corrugated metal culverts than through smooth ones, particularly among smaller fish. Trout were also more likely to pass at warmer temperatures, but this effect diminished above 15 °C. Passage was impeded at higher flows, through culverts with steep slopes, and those with deep downstream pools. This study provides insight on factors influencing brook trout capacity to pass culverts as well as a model to estimate passage success under various conditions, with an improved resolution and accuracy over existing approaches. It also presents methods that could be used to investigate passage success of other species, with implications for connectivity of the riverscape.

  4. Self-Help v State Intervention: The 1850 Public Libraries Act as a Reflection of Mid-Victorian Doctrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charing, Sarah

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the passage in the United Kingdom of the Public Libraries Act of 1850 and its reflections of social and political attitudes prevalent at the time, particularly laissez-faire and utilitarianism. Individualism, national education, and middle class concern for the poor are discussed. (60 references) (LRW)

  5. The Impacts of Budget Reductions on Indiana's Public Schools: The Impact of Budget Changes on Student Achievement, Personnel, and Class Size for Public School Corporations in the State of Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarman, Del W.; Boyland, Lori G.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, economic downturn and changes to Indiana's school funding have resulted in significant financial reductions in General Fund allocations for many of Indiana's public school corporations. The main purpose of this statewide study is to examine the possible impacts of these budget reductions on class size and student achievement. This…

  6. 77 FR 62461 - Implementing Public Safety Broadband Provisions of the Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... Wireless Broadband Network,'' ``Special Purpose Bankruptcy Remote Entity,'' ``Upper 700 MHz D Block license... definitions ``700 MHz Public/Private Partnership,'' ``Network Assets Holder,'' ``Network Sharing Agreement...,'' ``Public safety broadband network operator,'' ``Shared Wireless Broadband Network, '' ``Special Purpose...

  7. Insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel O.

    2000-01-01

    A fluid flow passage bridgepiece for insertion into an open-face fluid flow channel of a fluid flow plate is provided. The bridgepiece provides a sealed passage from a columnar fluid flow manifold to the flow channel, thereby preventing undesirable leakage into and out of the columnar fluid flow manifold. When deployed in the various fluid flow plates that are used in a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell, bridgepieces of this invention prevent mixing of reactant gases, leakage of coolant or humidification water, and occlusion of the fluid flow channel by gasket material. The invention also provides a fluid flow plate assembly including an insertable bridgepiece, a fluid flow plate adapted for use with an insertable bridgepiece, and a method of manufacturing a fluid flow plate with an insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece.

  8. First Passage Time Intervals of Gaussian Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Hector; Kawabata, Tsutomu; Mimaki, Tadashi

    1987-08-01

    The first passage time problem of a stationary Guassian process is theretically and experimentally studied. Renewal functions are derived for a time-dependent boundary and numerically calculated for a Gaussian process having a seventh-order Butterworth spectrum. The results show a multipeak property not only for the constant boundary but also for a linearly increasing boundary. The first passage time distribution densities were experimentally determined for a constant boundary. The renewal functions were shown to be a fairly good approximation to the distribution density over a limited range.

  9. First passage time probability in risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmeshu; Ariaratnam, S.T.

    1982-01-01

    Many natural phenomena are subject to uncertain fluctuations due to a variety of internal or external factors. These phenomena can be described using stochastic models. An important quantity of interest involves the time lapse before some variables reach unacceptable values: the first passage time. A related question pertains to the statistical distributions of the extreme values of these variables in a given period of time. The authors discuss some problems drawn from population ecology and environmental engineering to illustrate the usefulness of the first passage time concept

  10. RITES OF PASSAGE AND SUSTANABLE DEVELOPMENT IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    throughout the world experience and perform rites of passage in their different cultures ... The various stages of human development starting from birth, puberty ... one is momentary stripped of former self and status and recreate to something new ... culture of African and X-ray their attachment to their gods and supernatural ...

  11. Yakima Basin Fish Passage Project, Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    Implementation of the Yakima Basin Fish Passage Project -- Phase 2 would significantly improve the production of anadromous fish in the Yakima River system. The project would provide offsite mitigation and help to compensate for lower Columbia River hydroelectric fishery losses. The Phase 2 screens would allow greater numbers of juvenile anadromous fish to survive. As a consequence, there would be higher returns of adult salmon and steelhead to the Yakima River. The proposed action would play an integral part in the overall Yakima River anadromous fish enhancement program (fish passage improvement, habitat enhancement, hatchery production increases, and harvest management). These would be environmental benefits associated with implementation of the Fish Passage and Protective Facilities Phase 2 Project. Based on the evaluation presented in this assessment, there would be no significant adverse environmental impacts if the proposed action was carried forward. No significant adverse environmental effects have been identified from construction and operation of the Yakima Phase 2 fish passage project. Proper design and implementation of the project will ensure no adverse effects will occur. Based on the information in this environmental analysis, BPA's and Reclamation's proposal to construct these facilities does not constitute a major Federal action that could significantly affect the quality of the human environment. 8 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs

  12. Navigable windows of the Northwest Passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xing-he; Ma, Long; Wang, Jia-yue; Wang, Ye; Wang, Li-na

    2017-09-01

    Artic sea ice loss trends support a greater potential for Arctic shipping. The information of sea ice conditions is important for utilizing Arctic passages. Based on the shipping routes given by ;Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment 2009 Report;, the navigable windows of these routes and the constituent legs were calculated by using sea ice concentration product data from 2006 to 2015, by which a comprehensive knowledge of the sea ice condition of the Northwest Passage was achieved. The results showed that Route 4 (Lancaster Sound - Barrow Strait - Prince Regent Inlet and Bellot Strait - Franklin Strait - Larsen Sound - Victoria Strait - Queen Maud Gulf - Dease Strait - Coronation Gulf - Dolphin and Union Strait - Amundsen Gulf) had the best navigable expectation, Route 2 (Parry Channel - M'Clure Strait) had the worst, and the critical legs affecting the navigation of Northwest Passage were Viscount Melville Sound, Franklin Strait, Victoria Strait, Bellot Strait, M'Clure Strait and Prince of Wales Strait. The shortest navigable period of the routes of Northwest Passage was up to 69 days. The methods used and the results of the study can help the selection and evaluation of Arctic commercial routes.

  13. a Passage to the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-11-01

    derive its age and other characteristics. The second subject, to build and test an astronomical instrument, posed a welcome challenge to teams with a particular interest in technology. Some of the instruments were quite advanced; in France, for instance, the winning team built a working solar radio interferometer. In the same direction, but with a more theoretical touch, some teams chose the third subject, to design on paper an instrument for a future space mission to the outer Solar System for the exploration of Pluto and the newly discovered Transneptunian Objects. The last subject, which secured the first prize for the Dutch winning team, concerned the study of a hypothetical, stable planetary system around another star, its properties and the technical requirements for observing this system from the Earth. With the recent discovery of a planet around the nearby star 51 Pegasi, this theme has unexpectedly gained added relevance. During the past few weeks, the work by the teams was evaluated by specially established, national juries, consisting of scientists, educators and ministerial representatives (addresses below). The establishment of the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE) last year contributed to the Europe-wide interest in these matters and many EAAE members have been involved in the present contest, as participants or in its organisation. The national winners have now been selected; their names are listed below. In most countries, the award ceremonies have already taken place. Media Coverage The main event, i.e. the stay of the winning teams at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany) from November 14 - 20, 1995, will be covered by the various media in the appropriate ways. More information, including a detailed programme of the many (day and night) activities during this event, may be obtained at request from the ESO Education and Public Relations Department at the Headquarters. In this connection, ESO is also pleased to invite the media to

  14. The moral economy of contemporary working-class adolescence: managing symbolic capital in a French public 'Adolescent Centre'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutant, Isabelle; Eideliman, Jean-Sébastien

    2013-06-01

    Working-class adolescents of French urban peripheries are key figures in a new social debate that reactivates the nineteenth century spectre of 'dangerous' classes to be controlled. Since the 1990s, French social counselling has privileged two modalities of response: taking account of suffering and government by listening and speech. We hypothesize that the contemporary moral economy allows for social interactions that go beyond social control and institutional domination. This is partly because professionals engaged in this moral undertaking may keep a critical distance, and partly because the concerned populations aren't necessarily devoid of resources to advance their interests or incapable of resistance. The concept of moral economy, coupled with the ethnographic method, is heuristic for fully comprehending the complexity of these issues and their stakes. Our fieldwork was centred on a French Adolescent Centre in an impoverished commune in Paris's periphery, from January 2010 through March 2011. These institutions were established in the early 2000s to respond to adolescent 'suffering' by crossing social work and psychiatry. Adolescents, parents, and other institutions (especially schools) solicit the professionally diverse staff for assistance, which in turn may take on cases and/or make referrals to other support institutions. By paying attention to all the scenes upon which the story of a counselled adolescent evolves, and bearing more general social evolutions in mind by applying the concept of moral economy, we can consider the multiplicity of seemingly contradictory processes as a whole. We see the destabilization of parents and their loss of symbolic capital, partly due to the norms of contemporary parenthood and partly due to the stigmatization of working-class adolescence. But we also discern possibilities for expressing sentiments of injustice and humiliation, for increasing symbolic capital, and in some cases a reappropriation of the system

  15. Assembly of fibronectin into the extracellular matrix of early and late passage human skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    The specific binding of soluble 125 I-human plasma fibronectin ( 125 I-HFN-P) to confluent cultures of early and late passage human skin fibroblasts was investigated. Previous studies HFN-P bound to fibroblast cell layers indicated that HNF-P was present in the cultures in two separate pools, distinguishable on the basis of their solubility in 1% deoxycholate. Examination of the kinetics of 125 I-HFN-P binding to Pool I of early and late passage cultures revealed that both cultures required 2-4 h to approach steady-state conditions. Other kinetic studies showed that the rates of low of 125 I-HFN-P from either Pool I or Pool II were similar for both cultures. Further, Scatchard analysis revealed a single class of Pool I binding sites with apparent dissociation constants (K/sub d/) of 5.3 x 10 -8 M (early passage) and 4.2 x 10 -8 M (late passage). These results indicate that early and late passage cultures of human fibroblasts exhibit differences in the number of cell surface biding sites for soluble fibronectin, and in the extent to which they incorporate soluble fibronectin into the extracellular matrix. Parameters which affect the fibronectin matrix assembly system of human skin fibroblasts were also examined. In addition, several monoclonal anti-fibronectin antibodies were characterized and developed as experimental probes for fibronectin structure and function

  16. Trapped Ion Quantum Computation by Adiabatic Passage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Xuni; Wu Chunfeng; Lai, C. H.; Oh, C. H.

    2008-01-01

    We propose a new universal quantum computation scheme for trapped ions in thermal motion via the technique of adiabatic passage, which incorporates the advantages of both the adiabatic passage and the model of trapped ions in thermal motion. Our scheme is immune from the decoherence due to spontaneous emission from excited states as the system in our scheme evolves along a dark state. In our scheme the vibrational degrees of freedom are not required to be cooled to their ground states because they are only virtually excited. It is shown that the fidelity of the resultant gate operation is still high even when the magnitude of the effective Rabi frequency moderately deviates from the desired value.

  17. Tobacco Smoke Pollution in Hospitality Venues Before and After Passage of Statewide Smoke-Free Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buettner-Schmidt, Kelly; Boursaw, Blake; Lobo, Marie L; Travers, Mark J

    2017-03-01

    In 2012, North Dakota enacted a comprehensive statewide law prohibiting smoking in enclosed public places. Disparities in tobacco control exist in rural areas. This study's objective was to determine the extent to which the passage of a comprehensive, statewide, smoke-free law in a predominantly rural state influenced tobacco smoke pollution in rural and nonrural venues. A longitudinal cohort design study comparing the levels of tobacco smoke pollution before and after passage of the statewide smoke-free law was conducted in 64 restaurants and bars statewide in North Dakota. Particulate matter with a median aerodynamic diameter of <2.5 μm (a valid atmospheric marker of tobacco smoke pollution) was assessed. A significant 83% reduction in tobacco smoke pollution levels occurred after passage of the law. Significant reductions in tobacco smoke pollution levels occurred in each of the rural categories; however, no difference by rurality was noted in the analysis after passage of the law, in contrast to the study before passage. To our knowledge, this was the largest, single, rural postlaw study globally. A comprehensive statewide smoke-free law implemented in North Dakota dramatically decreased the level of tobacco smoke pollution in bars and restaurants. © 2016 The Authors. Public Health Nursing Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The passage and initial implementation of Oregon's Measure 44

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, L.; Glantz, S.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To prepare a history of the passage and early implementation of Ballot Measure 44, "An Act to Support the Oregon Health Plan", and tobacco control policymaking in Oregon. Measure 44 raised cigarette taxes in Oregon by US$0.30 per pack, and dedicated 10% of the revenues to tobacco control.
METHODS—Data were gathered from interviews with members of the Committee to Support the Oregon Health Plan, Measure 44's campaign committee, as well as with state and local officials, and tobacco control advocates. Additional information was obtained from public documents, internal memoranda, and news reports.
RESULTS—Although the tobacco industry outspent Measure 44's supporters 7 to 1, the initiative passed with 56% of the vote. Even before the election, tobacco control advocates were working to develop an implementation plan for the tobacco control programme. They mounted a successful lobbying campaign to see that the legislature did not divert tobacco control funds to other uses. They also stopped industry efforts to limit the scope of the programme. The one shortcoming of the tobacco control forces was not getting involved in planning the initiative early enough to influence the amount of money that was devoted to tobacco control. Although public health groups provided 37% of the money it cost to pass Measure 44, only 10% of revenues were devoted to tobacco control.
CONCLUSIONS—Proactive planning and aggressive implementation can secure passage of tobacco control initiatives and see that the associated implementing legislation follows good public health practice.


Keywords: advocacy; legislation; implementation; tobacco tax PMID:10599577

  19. Publicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Joan

    Publicity for preschool cooperatives is described. Publicity helps produce financial support for preschool cooperatives. It may take the form of posters, brochures, newsletters, open house, newspaper coverage, and radio and television. Word of mouth and general good will in the community are the best avenues of publicity that a cooperative nursery…

  20. The passage of Australia’s data retention regime: national security, human rights, and media scrutiny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Suzor

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2015, the Australian government passed the Telecommunications (Interception and Access Amendment (Data Retention Act, which requires ISPs to collect metadata about their users and store this metadata for two years. From its conception, Australia’s data retention scheme has been controversial. In this article we examine how public interest concerns were addressed in Australian news media during the Act’s passage. The Act was ultimately passed with bipartisan support, despite serious deficiencies. We show how the Act’s complexity seemed to limit engaged critique in the mainstream media and how fears over terrorist attacks were exploited to secure the Act’s passage through parliament.

  1. Gaetano Mosca e la teoria della classe politica (Gaetano Mosca and the theory of the ruling class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. BOBBIO

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Gaetano Mosca dedicated much of his life’s work to his theory of the ruling class, developing it in numerous publications. Despite his long meditation on the subject and subsequent revisions, however, Mosca never provided a systematic, properly articulated expose’ of his doctrine, in which the various components were logically arranged and examined from all points of view. The present article gathers together the scattered parts of Mosca’s theories into an organic whole, giving the reader an immediate and fairly precise idea of both the complexity of the research as well as the unfinished state in which the author left it. The author draws freely upon passages from Mosca’s various works in order to illustrate the following aspects of the ruling class: composition and formation; extension; renewal and replacement; organisation and means of exercising power.JEL: B31, B51, B52

  2. Translational science by public biotechnology companies in the IPO "class of 2000": the impact of technological maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamee, Laura; Ledley, Fred

    2013-01-01

    The biotechnology industry plays a central role in the translation of nascent biomedical science into both products that offer material health benefits and creating capital growth. This study examines the relationship between the maturity of technologies in a characteristic life cycle and value creation by biotechnology companies. We examined the core technology, product development pipelines, and capitalization for a cohort of biotechnology companies that completed an IPO in 2000. Each of these companies was well financed and had core technologies on the leading edge of biological science. We found that companies with the least mature technologies had significantly higher valuations at IPO, but failed to develop products based on these technologies over the ensuing decade, and created less capital growth than companies with more mature technologies at IPO. The observation that this cohort of recently public biotechnology companies was not effective in creating value from nascent science suggests the need for new, evidence-based business strategies for translational science.

  3. Improving hydroturbine pressures to enhance salmon passage survival and recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumbo, Bradly A. [U.S. Army Corp. of Engineers, Walla Walla, WA (United States); Ahmann, Martin L. [U.S. Army Corp. of Engineers, Walla Walla, WA (United States); Renholods, Jon F. [U.S. Army Corp. of Engineers, Walla Walla, WA (United States); Brown, Richard S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Colotelo, Alison H. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Deng, Zhiqun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-12-12

    This paper provides an overview of turbine pressure data collection and barotrauma studies relative to fish passage through large Kaplan turbines and how this information may be applied to safer fish passage through turbines. The specific objectives are to 1) discuss turbine pressures defined by Sensor Fish releases; 2) discuss what has been learned about pressure effects on fish and the factors influencing barotrauma associated with simulated turbine passage; 3) elucidate data gaps associated with fish behavior and passage that influence barotrauma during turbine passage; 4) discuss how the results of these studies have led to turbine design criteria for safer fish passage; and 5) relate this information to salmon recovery efforts and safer fish passage for Atlantic and Pacific salmonids.

  4. Condensation phenomena in a turbine blade passage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skillings, S.A.

    1989-02-01

    The mechanisms associated with the formation and growth of water droplets in the large low-pressure (LP) turbines used for electrical power generation are poorly understood and recent measurements have indicated that an unusually high loss is associated with the initial nucleation of these droplets. In order to gain an insight into the phenomena which arise in the turbine situation, some experiments were performed to investigate the behaviour of condensing steam flows in a blade passage. This study has revealed the fundamental significance of droplet nucleation in modifying the single-phase flow structure and results are presented which show the change in shock wave pattern when inlet superheat and outlet Mach number are varied. The trailing-edge shock wave structure appears considerably more robust towards variation of inlet superheat than purely one-dimensional considerations may suggest and the inadequacies of adopting a one-dimensional theory to analyse multi-dimensional condensing flows are demonstrated. Over a certain range of outlet Mach numbers an oscillating shock wave will establish in the throat region of the blade passage and this has been shown to interact strongly with droplet nucleation, resulting in a considerably increased mean droplet size. The possible implications of these results for turbine performance are also discussed. (author)

  5. On perpetual American put valuation and first-passage in a regime-switching model with jumps

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Z.; Pistorius, M. R.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of pricing a perpetual American put option in an exponential regime-switching L\\'{e}vy model. For the case of the (dense) class of phase-type jumps and finitely many regimes we derive an explicit expression for the value function. The solution of the corresponding first passage problem under a state-dependent level rests on a path transformation and a new matrix Wiener-Hopf factorization result for this class of processes.

  6. The microclimate within a Neolithic passage grave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klenz Larsen, Poul; Aasbjerg Jensen, Lars; Ryhl-Svendsen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Microclimate measurements in a Neolithic passage grave in Denmark have shown that natural ventilation through the open entrance destabilizes the relative humidity (RH), whereas a sealed entrance gives a much more stable RH, above 90%. Episodes of condensation occur on the stone surfaces in summer...... with too much ventilation and in winter with too little ventilation. Soil moisture measurements above, below, and beside the grave mound indicate that rainfall on the mound is not a significant source of moisture to the chamber, whereas the ground below the sealed chamber is constantly moist. The chamber...... can be kept dry all year by putting a moisture barrier membrane over the floor. Apart from the more variable climate within the open chamber, there is also a significant penetration of ozone, which is absent in the sealed chamber. The ozone may have deteriorated the folds of birch bark put between...

  7. Bird of passage recollections of a physicist

    CERN Document Server

    1985-01-01

    Here is the intensely personal and often humorous autobiography of one of the most distinguished theoretical physicists of his generation, Sir Rudolf Peierls. Born in Germany in 1907, Peierls was indeed a bird of passage," whose career of fifty-five years took him to leading centers of physics--including Munich, Leipzig, Zurich, Copenhagen, Cambridge, Manchester, Oxford, and J. Robert Oppenheimer''s Los Alamos. Peierls was a major participant in the revolutionary development of quantum mechanics in the 1920s and 1930s, working with some of the pioneers and, as he puts it, "some of the great characters" in this field. Originally published in 1988. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of- print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These paperback editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Libr...

  8. Critical behavior of the two-dimensional first passage time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chayes, J.T.; Chayes, L.; Durrett, R.

    1986-01-01

    We study the two-dimensional first passage problem in which bonds have zero and unit passage times with probability p and 1-p, respectively. We provide that as the zero-time bonds approach the percolation threshold p/sub c/, the first passage time exhibits the same critical behavior as the correlation function of the underlying percolation problem. In particular, if the correlation length obeys ξ(p)--chemical bondp-p/sub c/chemical bond/sup -//sup v/, then the first passage time constant satisfies μ(p)--chemical bondp-p/sub c/chemical bond/sup v/. At p/sub c/, where it has been asserted that the first passage time from 0 to x scales as chemical bondxchemical bond to a power psi with 0< psi<1, we show that the passage times grow like log chemical bondxchemical bond, i.e., the fluid spreads exponentially rapidly

  9. The future of fish passage science, engineering, and practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Ana T.; Lucas, Martyn C.; Castro-Santos, Theodore

    2018-01-01

    science today involves a wide range of disciplines from fish behaviour to socioeconomics to complex modelling of passage prioritization options in river networks. River barrier impacts on fish migration and dispersal are currently better understood than historically, but basic ecological knowledge......Much effort has been devoted to developing, constructing and refining fish passage facilities to enable target species to pass barriers on fluvial systems, and yet, fishway science, engineering and practice remain imperfect. In this review, 17 experts from different fish passage research fields (i...... underpinning the need for effective fish passage in many regions of the world, including in biodiversity hotspots (e.g., equatorial Africa, South-East Asia), remains largely unknown. Designing efficient fishways, with minimal passage delay and post-passage impacts, requires adaptive management and continued...

  10. Understanding the New Public Outlook on the Economy and Middle-Class Decline: How FDI Attitudes are caught in a Tentative Closing of the Canadian Mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Graves

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available While a single survey is a snapshot of a given moment in time, a series of surveys on the same topics over the years is akin to time-lapse photography, tracing the unfurling trends of public opinion. In examining the results of surveys conducted in recent decades by EKOS Research Associates on Canadians’ views of the economy, the prospects of the middle class, immigration and foreign trade, the time-lapse images show a dispiriting pessimism, especially among younger Canadians. For example, in 2002, nearly 70 per cent of Canadians surveyed described themselves as middle class. That figure dropped precipitously to just 47 per cent in 2015. Nearly half (46 per cent of those aged 25-44 said they were earning less in inflation-adjusted dollars last year than their fathers earned at the same age. Fewer than one in five Canadians believed their personal economic lot improved last year. Thirty-seven per cent of respondents said they had fallen behind economically in the last year and the last five years. When a society sees shared progress as an imperative, it is truly dismal that fewer than one in five Canadians thought things had improved for them last year. Just over a month and a half before the October 2015 federal election, a survey showed that restoring middle-class prosperity was the top issue for all demographic groups, standing at 35 per cent of respondents between the ages of 35 and 49 and 55 per cent among those aged 49 to 64. Accompanying this incipient uneasiness about the future of the middle class in Canada is a concomitant drawing inwards, a tendency towards parochialism about aspects of foreign trade and immigration, which may be perceived as threatening an economic future already considered to be tenuous. For example, support dropped dramatically (from 47 per cent the year before the 2008 recession to 25 per cent last year for the notion that Canadians, Americans and Mexicans should be free to work anywhere in North America. While

  11. Dependent Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasiunas, Vaidas; Mezini, Mira; Ostermann, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    of dependent classes and a machine-checked type soundness proof in Isabelle/HOL [29], the first of this kind for a language with virtual classes and path-dependent types. [29] T.Nipkow, L.C. Poulson, and M. Wenzel. Isabelle/HOL -- A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order Logic, volume 2283 of LNCS, Springer, 2002......Virtual classes allow nested classes to be refined in subclasses. In this way nested classes can be seen as dependent abstractions of the objects of the enclosing classes. Expressing dependency via nesting, however, has two limitations: Abstractions that depend on more than one object cannot...... be modeled and a class must know all classes that depend on its objects. This paper presents dependent classes, a generalization of virtual classes that expresses similar semantics by parameterization rather than by nesting. This increases expressivity of class variations as well as the flexibility...

  12. Fish Passage Center 2001 annual report.; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish Passage Center

    2002-01-01

    Extremely poor water conditions within the Columbia River Basin along with extraordinary power market conditions created an exceptionally poor migration year for juvenile salmon and steelhead. Monthly 2001 precipitation at the Columbia above Grand Coulee, the Snake River above Ice Harbor, and the Columbia River above The Dalles was approximately 70% of average. As a result the 2001 January-July runoff volume at The Dalles was the second lowest in Columbia River recorded history. As a compounding factor to the near record low flows in 2001, California energy deregulation and the resulting volatile power market created a financial crisis for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). Power emergencies were first declared in the summer and winter of 2000 for brief periods of time. In February of 2001, and on April 3, the BPA declared a ''power emergency'' and suspended many of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and Biological Opinion (Opinion) measures that addressed mainstem Columbia and Snake Rivers juvenile fish passage. The river and reservoir system was operated primarily for power generation. Power generation requirements in January through March coincidentally provided emergence and rearing flows for the Ives-Pierce Islands spawning area below Bonneville Dam. In particular, flow and spill measures to protect juvenile downstream migrant salmon and steelhead were nearly totally suspended. Spring and summer flows were below the Opinion migration target at all sites. Maximum smolt transportation was implemented instead of the Opinion in-river juvenile passage measures. On May 16, the BPA Administrator decided to implement a limited spill for fish passage at Bonneville and The Dalles dams. On May 25, a limited spill program was added at McNary and John Day dams. Spill extended to July 15. Juvenile migrants, which passed McNary Dam after May 21, experienced a noticeable, improved survival, as a benefit of spill at John Day Dam. The suspension of Biological Opinion

  13. Gender Differences in Implicit and Explicit Memory for Affective Passages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Leslie A.; Rabin, Laura; Vardy, Susan Bernstein.; Frohlich, Jonathan; Wyatt, Gwinne; Dimitri, Diana; Constante, Shimon; Guterman, Elan

    2004-01-01

    Thirty-two participants were administered 4 verbal tasks, an Implicit Affective Task, an Implicit Neutral Task, an Explicit Affective Task, and an Explicit Neutral Task. For the Implicit Tasks, participants were timed while reading passages aloud as quickly as possible, but not so quickly that they did not understand. A target verbal passage was…

  14. Teleportation of an Unknown Atomic State via Adiabatic Passage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    We propose a scheme for teleporting an unknown atomic state via adiabatic passage. Taking advantage of adiabatic passage, the atom has no probability of being excited and thus the atomic spontaneous emission is suppressed.We also show that the fidelity can reach 1 under certain condition.

  15. Unfrozen sea : sailing the northwest passage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byers, M.

    2007-01-01

    This article described the author's journey into the Canadian Arctic that documented the shrinking sea of Canada's Arctic region. It emphasized the loss of ecosystem and animal habitat. It addressed issues regarding Canada's claims of Arctic sovereignty over disputed waters, such as the Northwest Passage. In March 2006, the area covered during the winter by sea-ice was at an all-time low, namely 300,000 square kilometres less than the previous year. At this rate the Arctic could lose all of its sea-ice by 2030. The article also discussed phytoplankton in the Arctic which, removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere by photosynthesis. Since the waters they live in are so cold, the phytoplankton sink into the ocean depths when they die, without decomposing. The carbon they removed from the atmosphere remains at the bottom of the sea for hundreds of years. However, as water warms up, the activity of marine bacteria that feed on the dead plankton will increase, releasing carbon dioxide back into the atmosphere. Issues related to international shipping, navigation, ownership of Arctic islands, military presence and boats in the northern channels, and political promises with respect to the Canadian Coast Guard and northern waterways were also discussed. 1 fig

  16. 50 years of first-passage percolation

    CERN Document Server

    Auffinger, Antonio; Hanson, Jack

    2017-01-01

    First-passage percolation (FPP) is a fundamental model in probability theory that has a wide range of applications to other scientific areas (growth and infection in biology, optimization in computer science, disordered media in physics), as well as other areas of mathematics, including analysis and geometry. FPP was introduced in the 1960s as a random metric space. Although it is simple to define, and despite years of work by leading researchers, many of its central problems remain unsolved. In this book, the authors describe the main results of FPP, with two purposes in mind. First, they give self-contained proofs of seminal results obtained until the 1990s on limit shapes and geodesics. Second, they discuss recent perspectives and directions including (1) tools from metric geometry, (2) applications of concentration of measure, and (3) related growth and competition models. The authors also provide a collection of old and new open questions. This book is intended as a textbook for a graduate course or as a...

  17. Upstream Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) passage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clay, C.H.

    1993-01-01

    Upstream salmon passage though a dam is discussed with respect to three main components: the fishway entrance, the fishway, and the exit. Design considerations and alternative types of components are presented. For fishway entrances, an important consideration is the positioning of the entrance as far upstream as the fish can swim with respect to obstacles. For powerhouses using water diverted from a river, the problem of leading fish past the powerhouse may be overcome by either installing a tailrace barrier or increasing the flow until the home stream odor is sufficient to attract fish. Swimming ability should be the first consideration in fishway design. Fishways with 50 cm drops per pool would be satisfactory in most cases. The problem of headwater fluctuation is overcome through careful fishway selection. Fish locks, hoists, and elevators are other alternatives to pool/weir fishways. The location for a fish exit must be decided on the basis of whether the fishway will be used only for upstream migrations. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  18. Physical education and student activity: evaluating implementation of a new policy in Los Angeles public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafleur, Mariah; Strongin, Seth; Cole, Brian L; Bullock, Sally Lawrence; Banthia, Rajni; Craypo, Lisa; Sivasubramanian, Ramya; Samuels, Sarah; García, Robert

    2013-02-01

    California law has standards for physical education (PE) instruction in K-12 public schools; audits found that the Los Angeles Unified School District did not enforce the standards. In 2009, the district adopted a PE policy to comply with these standards. This study aimed to evaluate the outcomes of the PE policy in district schools. PE class observations were conducted using the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time in the 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 school years in an income-stratified random sample of 34 elementary, middle, and high schools to assess changes in PE class size, class duration, and time students spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity. PE class duration increased in high-income elementary schools. Mean class size decreased in low-income middle schools. There was limited implementation of the PE policy 2 years after passage. Opportunities exist to continue monitoring and improving PE quantity and quality.

  19. Fish Passage Center 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeHart, Michele [Fish Passage Center of the Columbia Basin Fish & Wildlife Authority

    2008-11-25

    and McNary dams), whereas prior to 2005 spill was terminated at these projects after the spring period. In addition, the 2007 operations agreement provided regardless of flow conditions. For the first time spill for fish passage was provided in the low flow conditions that prevailed in the Snake River throughout the spring and summer migration periods. Gas bubble trauma (GBT) monitoring continued throughout the spill period. A higher incidence of rank 1, GBT signs were observed in late arriving steelhead smolts arriving after the 95% passage date had occurred. During this time dissolved gas levels were generally below the 110% water quality standard in the forebay where fish were sampled. This occurrence was due to prolonged exposure and extended travel times due to low migration flows. The 2007 migration conditions differed from any year in the historic record. The migration conditions combined low river flows in the Snake River with spill throughout the spring and summer season. The juvenile migration characteristics observed in 2007 were unique compared to past years in that high levels of 24 hour spill for fish passage were provided in low flow conditions, and with a delayed start to the smolt transportation program a smaller proportion of the total run being transported. This resulted in relatively high spring juvenile survival despite the lower flows. The seasonal spring average flow in the Snake River was 61 Kcfs much lower than the spring time average of 120 Kcfs that occurred in 2006. However juvenile steelhead survival through the Lower Granite to McNary reach in 2007 was nearly 70% which was similar to the juvenile steelhead survival seen in 2006 under higher migration flows. The low flows in the May-July period of 2007 were similar to the 2001 low flow year, yet survival for fall chinook juveniles in this period in 2007 was much higher. In 2001 the reach survival estimate for juvenile fall Chinook from Lower Granite to McNary Dam ranged from 0

  20. California's tobacco tax initiative: the development and passage of Proposition 99.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traynor, M P; Glantz, S A

    1996-01-01

    In this case study, we describe and analyze the development and passage of California's tobacco tax initiative, Proposition 99, the Tobacco Tax and Health Promotion Act of 1988. We gathered information from published reports, public documents, personal correspondence, internal memorandums, polling data, and interviews with representatives from organizations that participated in the Proposition 99 campaign. Proposition 99 passed as a result of the efforts of a coalition of voluntary health agencies, medical organizations, and environmental groups. They organized a long-term effort by conducting essential polling, planning strategies, gaining media exposure, developing a coalition, and running a successful campaign to enact the tax by shifting the venue from legislative to initiative politics. To build the coalition that was needed to pass Proposition 99, public health proponents enlisted the help of medical organizations in exchange for additional revenue to be allocated to medical services. By shifting the venue from the legislature to the general public, advocates capitalized on public concern about tobacco and for youth and took advantage of the tobacco industry's low credibility. The passage of Proposition 99, despite a massive campaign against it by the tobacco industry, represents a milestone in the tobacco control and public health fields. From its passage in 1988 through 1993, tobacco use in California declined by 27 percent, which is three times faster than the United States average. As a result, Proposition 99 has served as a national model for other states and the federal government. Although allocation of tobacco tax revenues specifically to health education and prevention was a primary goal during the development and passage of Proposition 99, when the venue shifted back to the legislature for implementation, medical organizations successfully advocated illegal diversions of Proposition 99 tobacco control and research funds to medical services

  1. Cutting Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Andrew

    1976-01-01

    Provides critical reviews of three books, "The Political Economy of Social Class", "Ethnicity: Theory and Experience," and "Ethnicity in the United States," focusing on the political economy of social class and ethnicity. (Author/AM)

  2. Excess bottom radon 222 distribution in deep ocean passages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmiento, J.L.; Broecker, W.S.; Biscaye, P.E.

    1978-01-01

    Radon 222 and STD profiles were obtained as part of the Geosecs program in the Vema Channel in the southwest Atlantic Ocean and in the Samoan, Clarion, and Wake Island passages in the Pacific Ocean. The standing crop of excess radon 222 is higher in the passages than at other nearby locations. The most likely explanation for this is that there is a high flux of radon 222 from the floor of the passages. Since much of the floor is covered with manganese nodules and encrustations, the high flux of radon 222 may be attributable to the high concentrations of radium 226 in the outer few millimeters of such deposits. Laboratory measurements of radon 222 emissivity from maganese encrustations obtained in Vema Channel support this hypothesis. The excess radon 222 in the Vema Channel and Wake Island Passage is found in substantial quantities at heights above bottom greatly exceeding the heights at which excess radon 222 is found in nonpassage areas. The horizontal diffusion of radon emanating from the walls of the passages is unlikely to be the cause of the observed concentrations because the ratio of wall surface area to water volume is very low. The profiles must therefore be a result of exceptionally high apparent vertical mixing in the passages. Further work is needed to determine the nature of this apparent vertical mixing. The excess radon 222 and STD data in all four passages have been fit with an empirical model in which it is assumed that the bouyancy flux is constant with distance above bottom. The fits are very good and yield apparent buoyancy fluxes that are between 1 and 3 orders of magnitude greater than those obtained at nearby stations outside the passages for three of the four passages

  3. Assessing the effect of physical activity classes in public spaces on leisure-time physical activity: "Al Ritmo de las Comunidades" A natural experiment in Bogota, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Andrea; Díaz, María Paula; Hayat, Matthew J; Lyn, Rodney; Pratt, Michael; Salvo, Deborah; Sarmiento, Olga L

    2017-10-01

    The Recreovia program provides free physical activity (PA) classes in public spaces in Bogota, Colombia. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the Recreovia program in increasing PA among users of nine parks in Bogota. This study was a natural experiment conducted between 2013 and 2015 in Bogota. Community members and park users living nearby three groups of parks were compared: Group 1 were parks implementing new Recreovias (n=3), Group 2 were control parks (n=3) without Recreovias, and Group 3 were parks with existing Recreovías. Individuals in the "intervention" group were exposed to newly implemented Recreovia programs in parks near their homes. Measurements were collected at baseline and 6-8months after the intervention started. A total of 1533 participants were enrolled in the study: 501 for the existing Recreovias (included in a cross-sectional assessment) and 1032 participants (from the new Recreovias and control parks) included in the cross-sectional and pre-post study. Most participants were low income females. Twenty-three percent of the intervention group started participating in the program. Users of existing Recreovias were significantly more active and less likely to be overweight/obese compared to new Recreovia users at baseline. No changes on PA were found when comparing the intervention and control groups. Recreovias may have potential for increasing PA at the population level in urban areas given their rapid scalability, the higher levels of PA observed among program users, and its potential to reach women, low-income, less educated populations, and the overweight and obese. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The relativistic titls of Giza pyramids' entrance-passages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboulfotouh, H.

    The tilts of Giza pyramids' entrance-passages have never been considered as if they were the result of relativistic mathematical equations, and never been thought to encode the Earth's obliquity parameters. This paper presents an attempt to retrieve the method of establishing the equations that the pyramids' designer used to quantify the entrance-passages' tilts of these architectonic masterpieces. It proves that the pyramids' designer was able to include the geographic, astronomical and time parameters in one relativistic equation, encoding the date of the design of the Giza pyramids in the tilt of the entrance passage of the great pyramid.

  5. Marine litter on the seafloor of the Faial-Pico Passage, Azores Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Yasmina; Pham, Christopher K

    2017-03-15

    Plastic pollution in the marine environment attracts much attention from both researchers and the general public. Plastic items and other debris are commonly observed everywhere in the ocean, from the surface down to the deep ocean floor. In this study, we analysed 45.2km of video footage, collected during 56 transects surveying the seafloor of the Faial-Pico Passage in order to quantify the abundance of marine litter and its interactions with benthic fauna. The footage was collected by a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) and a manned submersible at depths ranging between 40 and 525m. The mean litter density in the passage was 0.26±0.03 items·100m -1 (±SE) and was significantly higher between 151 and 250m compared to other depth strata. Overall, derelict fishing gear, mostly made of plastic, were the most common objects found on the seafloor, representing 64% of all items. Although we observed few evidence of direct deleterious effects by the litter, interactions with fauna were observed in more than half of the items. This study makes an important contribution in quantifying the abundance of marine litter on the seafloor of the Azores. The location of the Faial-Pico Passage, close to shore, makes it an appropriate site for long-term monitoring of litter on the seafloor and evaluate the efficiency of upcoming public policies aimed at reducing litter input into the oceans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Removal of cyanobacterial toxins by sediment passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruetzmacher, G.; Boettcher, G.; Chorus, I.; Bartel, H.

    2003-04-01

    Cyanbacterial toxins ("Cyanotoxins") comprise a wide range of toxic substances produced by cyanobacteria ("blue-green algae"). Cyanobacteria occur in surface water word wide and can be found in high concentrations during so-called algal blooms when conditions are favourable (e.g. high nutrient levels, high temperatures). Some cyanobacteria produce hepato- or neurotoxins, of which the hepatotoxic microcystins are the most common in Germany. The WHO guideline value for drinking water was set at 1 μg/L. However, maximum concentrations in surface water can reach 25 mg/L, so that a secure method for toxin elimination has to be found when this water is used as source water for drinking water production. In order to assess if cyanotoxins can be removed by sediment passage the German Federal Environmental Agency (UBA) conducted laboratory- and field scale experiments as well as observations on bank filtration field sites. Laboratory experiments (batch- and column experiments for adsorption and degradation parameters) were conducted in order to vary a multitude of experimental conditions. These experiments were followed by field scale experiments on the UBA's experimental field in Berlin. This plant offers the unique possibility to conduct experiments on the behaviour of various agents - such as harmful substances - during infiltration and bank filtration under well-defined conditions on a field scale, and without releasing these substances to the environment. Finally the development of microcystin concentrations was observed between infiltrating surface water and a drinking water well along a transsecte of observation wells. The results obtained show that infiltration and bank filtration normally seem to be secure treatment methods for source water contaminated by microcystins. However, elimination was shown to be difficult under the following circumstances: - dying cyanobacterial population due to insufficient light and / or nutrients, low temperatures or application of

  7. Culvert Length and Interior Lighting Impacts to Topeka Shiner Passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Culverts can act as barriers to fish passage for a number of reasons including insufficient water depth or excess velocity. In addition, concern is being raised over behavioral barriers where culvert conditions elicit an avoidance response that deter...

  8. Fish passage hydroelectric power plant Linne, Netherlands. Didson measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Keeken, O.A.; Griffioen, A.B.

    2011-11-01

    The hydroelectric power plant in the Dutch Maas River near Linne has a fish deflection and passage system. For this study, two evenings in the months of August and September 2011 were dedicated to examining the extent to which fish approached and used the fish passage system. To establish the swimming behavior of the fish, a high-resolution sonar (DIDSON) was used, which generates moving images of fish in turbid waters, to study their behavior. [nl

  9. An Economic Analysis of Container Shipping Through Canadian Northwest Passage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongqin Lu

    2014-12-01

    This paper considers Canada's sovereignty in matters of navigation over the waters at the Arctic Archipelago, in the form of a toll fee for passage usage. We concluded that the NWP has an advantage over the Panama Canal if it is open for free international passage, regardless of ship size. However, if it is not free, its advantages depend on its toll fee. The lower the toll fee is, the more advantages the NWP will boast.

  10. The future of fish passage science, engineering, and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ana T.; Lucas, Martyn C.; Castro-Santos, Theodore R.; Katopodis, Christos; Baumgartner, Lee J.; Thiem, Jason D.; Aarestrup, Kim; Pompeu, Paulo S.; O'Brien, Gordon C.; Braun, Douglas C.; Burnett, Nicholas J.; Zhu, David Z.; Fjeldstad, Hans-Petter; Forseth, Torbjorn; Rajarathnam, Nallamuthu; Williams, John G.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2018-01-01

    Much effort has been devoted to developing, constructing and refining fish passage facilities to enable target species to pass barriers on fluvial systems, and yet, fishway science, engineering and practice remain imperfect. In this review, 17 experts from different fish passage research fields (i.e., biology, ecology, physiology, ecohydraulics, engineering) and from different continents (i.e., North and South America, Europe, Africa, Australia) identified knowledge gaps and provided a roadmap for research priorities and technical developments. Once dominated by an engineering‐focused approach, fishway science today involves a wide range of disciplines from fish behaviour to socioeconomics to complex modelling of passage prioritization options in river networks. River barrier impacts on fish migration and dispersal are currently better understood than historically, but basic ecological knowledge underpinning the need for effective fish passage in many regions of the world, including in biodiversity hotspots (e.g., equatorial Africa, South‐East Asia), remains largely unknown. Designing efficient fishways, with minimal passage delay and post‐passage impacts, requires adaptive management and continued innovation. While the use of fishways in river restoration demands a transition towards fish passage at the community scale, advances in selective fishways are also needed to manage invasive fish colonization. Because of the erroneous view in some literature and communities of practice that fish passage is largely a proven technology, improved international collaboration, information sharing, method standardization and multidisciplinary training are needed. Further development of regional expertise is needed in South America, Asia and Africa where hydropower dams are currently being planned and constructed.

  11. Fire passage on geomorphic fractures in Cerrado: effect on vegetation

    OpenAIRE

    Otacílio Antunes Santana; José Marcelo Imaña Encinas; Flávio Luiz de Souza Silveira

    2017-01-01

    Geomorphic fracture is a natural geologic formation that sometimes forms a deep fissure in the rock with the establishment of soil and vegetation. The objective of this work was to analyze vegetation within geomorphic fractures under the effect of wildfire passage. The biometric variables evaluated before and after fire passage were: diameter, height, leaf area index, timber volume, grass biomass, number of trees and shrubs and of species. Results (in fractures) were compared to adjacent area...

  12. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Fish Passage through Bonneville Dam in 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Schilt, Carl R.; Kim, Jina; Johnson, Peter N.; Hanks, Michael E.; Patterson, Deborah S.; Skalski, John R.; Hedgepeth, J

    2005-12-22

    The Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers requested that the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conduct fish-passage studies at Bonneville Dam in 2004. These studies support the Portland District's goal of maximizing fish-passage efficiency (FPE) and obtaining 95% survival for juvenile salmon passing Bonneville Dam. Major passage routes include 10 turbines and a sluiceway at Powerhouse 1 (B1), an 18-bay spillway, and eight turbines and a sluiceway at Powerhouse 2 (B2). In this report, we present results of four studies related to juvenile salmonid passage at Bonneville Dam. The studies were conducted between April 15 and July 15, 2004, encompassing most of the spring and summer migrations. Studies included evaluations of (1) Project fish passage efficiency and other major passage metrics, (2) B2 fish guidance efficiency and gap loss, (3) smolt approach and fate at the B2 Corner Collector (B2CC), and (4) B2 vertical barrier screen head differential.

  13. Shape design of internal cooling passages within a turbine blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Grzegorz; Nowak, Iwona

    2012-04-01

    The article concerns the optimization of the shape and location of non-circular passages cooling the blade of a gas turbine. To model the shape, four Bezier curves which form a closed profile of the passage were used. In order to match the shape of the passage to the blade profile, a technique was put forward to copy and scale the profile fragments into the component, and build the outline of the passage on the basis of them. For so-defined cooling passages, optimization calculations were carried out with a view to finding their optimal shape and location in terms of the assumed objectives. The task was solved as a multi-objective problem with the use of the Pareto method, for a cooling system composed of four and five passages. The tool employed for the optimization was the evolutionary algorithm. The article presents the impact of the population on the task convergence, and discusses the impact of different optimization objectives on the Pareto optimal solutions obtained. Due to the problem of different impacts of individual objectives on the position of the solution front which was noticed during the calculations, a two-step optimization procedure was introduced. Also, comparative optimization calculations for the scalar objective function were carried out and set up against the non-dominated solutions obtained in the Pareto approach. The optimization process resulted in a configuration of the cooling system that allows a significant reduction in the temperature of the blade and its thermal stress.

  14. Flow in Rotating Serpentine Coolant Passages With Skewed Trip Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, David G.N.; Steuber, Gary

    1996-01-01

    Laser velocimetry was utilized to map the velocity field in serpentine turbine blade cooling passages with skewed trip strips. The measurements were obtained at Reynolds and Rotation numbers of 25,000 and 0.24 to assess the influence of trips, passage curvature and Coriolis force on the flow field. The interaction of the secondary flows induced by skewed trips with the passage rotation produces a swirling vortex and a corner recirculation zone. With trips skewed at +45 deg, the secondary flows remain unaltered as the cross-flow proceeds from the passage to the turn. However, the flow characteristics at these locations differ when trips are skewed at -45 deg. Changes in the flow structure are expected to augment heat transfer, in agreement with the heat transfer measurements of Johnson, et al. The present results show that trips are skewed at -45 deg in the outward flow passage and trips are skewed at +45 deg in the inward flow passage maximize heat transfer. Details of the present measurements were related to the heat transfer measurements of Johnson, et al. to relate fluid flow and heat transfer measurements.

  15. Proceedings of a workshop on American Eel passage technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Alexander J.

    2013-01-01

    Recent concerns regarding a decline in recruitment of American eels (Anguilla rostrata) have prompted efforts to restore this species to historic habitats by providing passage for both upstream migrant juveniles and downstream migrant adults at riverine barriers, including low-head and hydroelectric dams (Castonguay et al. 1994, Haro et al. 2000). These efforts include development of management plans and stock assessment reviews in both the US and Canada (COSEWIC 2006, Canadian Eel Working Group 2009, DFO 2010, MacGregor et al. 2010, ASMFC 2000, ASMFC 2006, ASMFC 2008, Williams and Threader 2007), which target improvement of upstream and downstream passage for eels, as well as identification and prioritization of research needs for development of new and more effective passage technologies for American eels. Traditional upstream fish passage structures, such as fishways and fish lifts, are often ineffective passing juvenile eels, and specialized passage structures for this species are needed. Although designs for such passage structures are available and diverse (Knights and White 1998, Porcher 2002, FAO/DVWK 2002, Solomon and Beach 2004a,b, Environment Agency UK 2011), many biologists, managers, and engineers are unfamiliar with eel pass design and operation, or unaware of the technical options available for upstream eel passage, Better coordination is needed to account for eel passage requirements during restoration efforts for other diadromous fish species. Also, appropriately siting eel passes at hydropower projects is critical, and siting can be difficult and complex due to physical restrictions in access to points of natural concentrations of eels, dynamic hydraulics of tailrace areas, and presence of significant competing flows from turbine outfalls or spill. As a result, some constructed eel passes are sited poorly and may pass only a fraction of the number of eels attempting to pass the barrier. When sited and constructed appropriately, however, eel passes

  16. Dimitri Mitropoulos: Lonesome passage to modern music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belonis Yanis

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available It is not widely known that Dimitri Mitropoulos first public appearances in Greece were as a composer. His early works (ca. 1912-1924, distinguished by the blend of elements of the late-romantic style with intensely impressionistic references, reflect the search for a personal, 'advanced' harmonic musical language. In his works written after 1924, Mitropoulos abandons tonality and adopts more modern idioms of composition (atonality and 12-tone method. He is the first Greek composer to follow the modern musical tendencies of Europe, when music by Manolis Kalomiris and the other composers of the Greek National School was dominant in Greece.

  17. First passage Brownian functional properties of snowmelt dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Ashutosh; Bandyopadhyay, Malay

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we model snow-melt dynamics in terms of a Brownian motion (BM) with purely time dependent drift and difusion and examine its first passage properties by suggesting and examining several Brownian functionals which characterize the lifetime and reactivity of such stochastic processes. We introduce several probability distribution functions (PDFs) associated with such time dependent BMs. For instance, for a BM with initial starting point x0, we derive analytical expressions for : (i) the PDF P(tf|x0) of the first passage time tf which specify the lifetime of such stochastic process, (ii) the PDF P(A|x0) of the area A till the first passage time and it provides us numerous valuable information about the total fresh water availability during melting, (iii) the PDF P(M) associated with the maximum size M of the BM process before the first passage time, and (iv) the joint PDF P(M; tm) of the maximum size M and its occurrence time tm before the first passage time. These P(M) and P(M; tm) are useful in determining the time of maximum fresh water availability and in calculating the total maximum amount of available fresh water. These PDFs are examined for the power law time dependent drift and diffusion which matches quite well with the available data of snowmelt dynamics.

  18. Dork Zabunyan, Passages de l'histoire

    OpenAIRE

    Morisset, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Dans les deux essais de ce petit livre, rassemblés pour entrer en résonnance selon le principe de la collection Faux raccord, Dork Zabunyan s'interroge sur la manière dont le cinéma peut contribuer à écrire l'histoire, à l'heure d'Internet et des vidéos postées par milliers. Il s'intéresse en particulier aux films qui racontent les révolutions du Printemps arabe. Dans le premier texte rédigé pour la publication, l'auteur aborde la question à partir du projet d'un réalisateur tunisien visant à...

  19. The proteomic dataset for bone marrow derived human mesenchymal stromal cells: Effect of in vitro passaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel T. Mindaye

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs have been in clinical trials for therapy. One major bottleneck in the advancement of BMSC-based products is the challenge associated with cell isolation, characterization, and ensuring cell fitness over the course of in vitro cell propagation steps. The data in this report is part of publications that explored the proteomic changes following in vitro passaging of BMSCs [4] and the molecular heterogeneity in cultures obtained from different human donors [5,6].The methodological details involving cell manufacturing, proteome harvesting, protein identification and quantification as well as the bioinformatic analyses were described to ensure reproducibility of the results.

  20. Flow characteristics in nuclear steam turbine blade passage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, H.J.; Yoon, W.H.; Kwon, S.B.

    1995-01-01

    The rapid expansion of condensable gas such as moist air or steam gives rise to nonequilibrium condensation. As a result of irreversibility of condensation process in the nuclear steam turbine blade passage, the entropy of the flow increases, and the efficiency of the turbine decreases. In the present study, in order to investigate the flow characteristics of moist air in two-dimensional turbine blade passage which is made from the configuration of the last stage tip section of the actual nuclear steam turbine moving blade, the static pressures along both pressure and suction sides of blade are measured by static pressure taps and the distribution of Mach number on both sides of the blade are obtained by using the measured static pressure. Also, the flow field is visualized by a Schlieren system. From the experimental results, the effects of the stagnation temperature and specific humidity on the flow properties in the two dimensional steam turbine blade passage are clearly identified

  1. Word classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2007-01-01

    in grammatical descriptions of some 50 languages, which together constitute a representative sample of the world’s languages (Hengeveld et al. 2004: 529). It appears that there are both quantitative and qualitative differences between word class systems of individual languages. Whereas some languages employ...... a parts-of-speech system that includes the categories Verb, Noun, Adjective and Adverb, other languages may use only a subset of these four lexical categories. Furthermore, quite a few languages have a major word class whose members cannot be classified in terms of the categories Verb – Noun – Adjective...... – Adverb, because they have properties that are strongly associated with at least two of these four traditional word classes (e.g. Adjective and Adverb). Finally, this article discusses some of the ways in which word class distinctions interact with other grammatical domains, such as syntax and morphology....

  2. Passage times of asymmetric anomalous walks with multiple paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caceres, Manuel O; Insua, G Liliana

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the transient and the long-time behaviour of asymmetric anomalous walks in heterogeneous media. Two types of disorder are worked out explicitly: weak and strong disorder; in addition, the occurrence of disordered multiple paths is considered. We calculate the first passage time distribution of the associated stochastic transport process. We discuss the occurrence of the crossover from a power law to an exponential decay for the long-time behaviour of the distribution of the first passage times of disordered biased walks

  3. FUNCTIONS OF VATA (BASED ON CHARAKA) A Passage from Vaatkalaakaleeyam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, A R

    1982-04-01

    The author has chosen 12(th) Chapter from the Sutra Sthana of this great epic containing 12,000 verses and passages which is replete with materials to revive the whole art of healing even if the whole medical literatures is lost. The passage puts in a nutshell the key role played by Vayu / Vata in the working of the tantra and yantra of the body. Though exploration of the humours is yet to be done by modern physiologists to explain the Ayurvedic Vata which is responsible to no less than 18 functions of the normal body mechanism.

  4. Class size versus class composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Sam

    Raising schooling quality in low-income countries is a pressing challenge. Substantial research has considered the impact of cutting class sizes on skills acquisition. Considerably less attention has been given to the extent to which peer effects, which refer to class composition, also may affect...... bias from omitted variables, the preferred IV results indicate considerable negative effects due to larger class sizes and larger numbers of overage-for-grade peers. The latter, driven by the highly prevalent practices of grade repetition and academic redshirting, should be considered an important...

  5. Planning Guide for Fish Passage at Pittsburgh District Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    attracted to a downstream flow at the entrance gate of the lift. 2) Immigrants pass around a moveable crowder that, when engaged, forces fish into the...might influence fish passage over a large number of sites. REFERENCES Bailey, M. M., J. J. Isely, and W. C. Bridges , Jr. 2004. Movement and

  6. Nonstationary Narrow-Band Response and First-Passage Probability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    1979-01-01

    The notion of a nonstationary narrow-band stochastic process is introduced without reference to a frequency spectrum, and the joint distribution function of two consecutive maxima is approximated by use of an envelope. Based on these definitions the first passage problem is treated as a Markov po...

  7. Universality for first passage percolation on sparse random graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhamidi, S.; Hofstad, van der R.W.; Hooghiemstra, G.

    2014-01-01

    We consider first passage percolation on the conguration model with n vertices, and general independent and identically distributed edge weights assumed to have a density. Assuming that the degree distribution satisfies a uniform X2 logX-condition, we analyze the asymptotic distribution for the

  8. Rites of passage and sustainable development in traditional Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study attempts to exhume the instrumentality of rites of passage with particular attention to puberty andmarriage rites in fostering and sustaining development. The study further proffers strategic choices for the retrieval of this integral part of African life for the moral development of the averageNigerian youth. The present ...

  9. First-Passage-Time Distribution for Variable-Diffusion Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Liberty; Gunaratne, Gemunu H.

    2017-05-01

    First-passage-time distribution, which presents the likelihood of a stock reaching a pre-specified price at a given time, is useful in establishing the value of financial instruments and in designing trading strategies. First-passage-time distribution for Wiener processes has a single peak, while that for stocks exhibits a notable second peak within a trading day. This feature has only been discussed sporadically—often dismissed as due to insufficient/incorrect data or circumvented by conversion to tick time—and to the best of our knowledge has not been explained in terms of the underlying stochastic process. It was shown previously that intra-day variations in the market can be modeled by a stochastic process containing two variable-diffusion processes (Hua et al. in, Physica A 419:221-233, 2015). We show here that the first-passage-time distribution of this two-stage variable-diffusion model does exhibit a behavior similar to the empirical observation. In addition, we find that an extended model incorporating overnight price fluctuations exhibits intra- and inter-day behavior similar to those of empirical first-passage-time distributions.

  10. readability of comprehension passages in junior high school (jhs)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CHARLES

    ... to enhance readability. Key Words: readability formulas, comprehension passages, Junior High School, .... Index has a manual version but in this study the electronic version was used. The ..... probably the majority of the people heard the news by word of mouth. A critical look ..... The Journal of Tourism Studies 9.2: 49-60.

  11. Universality for first passage percolation on sparse random graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhamidi, S.; Van Der Hofstad, R.W.; Hooghiemstra, G.

    2017-01-01

    We consider first passage percolation on the configuration model with n vertices, and general independent and identically distributed edge weights assumed to have a density. Assuming that the degree distribution satisfies a uniform X2 logX-condition, we analyze the asymptotic distribution for the

  12. Providing Aquatic Organism Passage in Vertically Unstable Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JanineM Castro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic organism passage barriers have been identified as one of the key impediments to recovery of salmonids and other migratory aquatic organisms in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. As such, state and federal agencies invest millions of dollars annually to address passage barriers. Because many barriers function as ad hoc grade control structures, their removal and/or replacement can unwittingly set off a cascade of effects that can negatively impact the very habitat and passage that project proponents seek to improve. The resultant vertical instability can result in a suite of effects that range from floodplain disconnection and loss of backwater and side channel habitat, to increased levels of turbidity. Risk assessment, including an evaluation of both the stage of stream evolution and a longitudinal profile analysis, provides a framework for determining if grade control is warranted, and if so, what type of structure is most geomorphically appropriate. Potential structures include placement of large wood and roughness elements, and constructed riffles, step-pools, and cascades. The use of structure types that mimic natural reach scale geomorphic analogues should result in improved aquatic organism passage, increased structural resilience, and reduced maintenance.

  13. Enloe Dam Passage Project, Volume I, 1984 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanning, M.L.

    1985-07-01

    This report discusses issues related to the provision of fish passage facilities at Enloe Dam and the introduction of anadromous salmonid fish to the upper Similkameen River basin. The species of fish being considered is a summer run of steelhead trout adapted to the upper Columbia basin. (ACR)

  14. Passage of sediment through flumes and over weirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.G.; Wijbenga, J.H.A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper reports on laboratory research on the sediment passage capability through long-throated flumes and broad-crested weirs with which the Froude number in the approach channel does not exceed 0.6 over a distance of about 20 times the water depth upstream of the structure. Design rules are

  15. Fire passage on geomorphic fractures in Cerrado: effect on vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otacílio Antunes Santana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Geomorphic fracture is a natural geologic formation that sometimes forms a deep fissure in the rock with the establishment of soil and vegetation. The objective of this work was to analyze vegetation within geomorphic fractures under the effect of wildfire passage. The biometric variables evaluated before and after fire passage were: diameter, height, leaf area index, timber volume, grass biomass, number of trees and shrubs and of species. Results (in fractures were compared to adjacent areas (control. The effect of wildfire passage on vegetation within geomorphic fractures was not significant because fire followed plant biomass bed and when it met the fracture (wetter, it changed from soil surface to canopy surface (jump fire effect, affecting without significance the number of plants or species; so, fracture could be plants refuge against fire passage. We could infer in our experimental model that quality of plant biomass bed could be more significant than quantity, and microclimate variability recruits plants to the refuge (geomorphic fracture.

  16. Australian experience of fish passage past instream structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, B.

    2008-01-01

    The growth in hydropower has resulted in the construction of various structures across rivers and streams, such as dams and weirs, which may impede essential fish movements and result in local extinctions of some fish species. When it is not practical to build instream structures that provide for fish passage, it may be appropriate to install some type of fishway. Site specific factors such as the fish species present, topography, flow characteristics and cost effectiveness will determine how best to provide for fish passage. The types of fishways suitable at small dams and weirs up to five metres high were described in this paper along with their benefits and effectiveness. The purpose was to provide simple and appropriate solutions that can improve the health of rivers considerably by managing the native aquatic habitat. The upstream passage past obstacles can be provided for through several types of fishways such as pool-type fishways, Denil fish passes, rock ramps, nature-like bypass channels, fish lifts or locks, collection and transportation facilities. In addition to environmental benefits, providing for fish passage can have long term social and economic benefits as well. 17 refs., 3 figs

  17. First-passage percolation on the random graph

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstad, van der R.W.; Hooghiemstra, G.; Van Mieghem, P.

    2001-01-01

    We study first-passage percolation on the random graph Gp(N) with exponentially distributed weights on the links. For the special case of the complete graph, this problem can be described in terms of a continuous-time Markov chain and recursive trees. The Markov chain X(t) describes the number of

  18. Safety class methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donner, E.B.; Low, J.M.; Lux, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    DOE Order 6430.1A, General Design Criteria (GDC), requires that DOE facilities be evaluated with respect to ''safety class items.'' Although the GDC defines safety class items, it does not provide a methodology for selecting safety class items. The methodology described in this paper was developed to assure that Safety Class Items at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are selected in a consistent and technically defensible manner. Safety class items are those in the highest of four categories determined to be of special importance to nuclear safety and, merit appropriately higher-quality design, fabrication, and industrial test standards and codes. The identification of safety class items is approached using a cascading strategy that begins at the 'safety function' level (i.e., a cooling function, ventilation function, etc.) and proceeds down to the system, component, or structure level. Thus, the items that are required to support a safety function are SCls. The basic steps in this procedure apply to the determination of SCls for both new project activities, and for operating facilities. The GDC lists six characteristics of SCls to be considered as a starting point for safety item classification. They are as follows: 1. Those items whose failure would produce exposure consequences that would exceed the guidelines in Section 1300-1.4, ''Guidance on Limiting Exposure of the Public,'' at the site boundary or nearest point of public access 2. Those items required to maintain operating parameters within the safety limits specified in the Operational Safety Requirements during normal operations and anticipated operational occurrences. 3. Those items required for nuclear criticality safety. 4. Those items required to monitor the release of radioactive material to the environment during and after a Design Basis Accident. Those items required to achieve, and maintain the facility in a safe shutdown condition 6. Those items that control Safety Class Item listed above

  19. Social Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aktor, Mikael

    2018-01-01

    . Although this social structure was ideal in nature and not equally confirmed in other genres of ancient and medieval literature, it has nevertheless had an immense impact on Indian society. The chapter presents an overview of the system with its three privileged classes, the Brahmins, the Kṣatriyas......The notions of class (varṇa) and caste (jāti) run through the dharmaśāstra literature (i.e. Hindu Law Books) on all levels. They regulate marriage, economic transactions, work, punishment, penance, entitlement to rituals, identity markers like the sacred thread, and social interaction in general...

  20. Formation of Hyaline Cartilage Tissue by Passaged Human Osteoarthritic Chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Vanessa J; Weber, Joanna F; Waldman, Stephen D; Backstein, David; Kandel, Rita A

    2017-02-01

    When serially passaged in standard monolayer culture to expand cell number, articular chondrocytes lose their phenotype. This results in the formation of fibrocartilage when they are used clinically, thus limiting their use for cartilage repair therapies. Identifying a way to redifferentiate these cells in vitro is critical if they are to be used successfully. Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) family members are known to be crucial for regulating differentiation of fetal limb mesenchymal cells and mesenchymal stromal cells to chondrocytes. As passaged chondrocytes acquire a progenitor-like phenotype, the hypothesis of this study was that TGFβ supplementation will stimulate chondrocyte redifferentiation in vitro in serum-free three-dimensional (3D) culture. Human articular chondrocytes were serially passaged twice (P2) in monolayer culture. P2 cells were then placed in high-density (3D) culture on top of membranes (Millipore) and cultured for up to 6 weeks in chemically defined serum-free redifferentiation media (SFRM) in the presence or absence of TGFβ. The tissues were evaluated histologically, biochemically, by immunohistochemical staining, and biomechanically. Passaged human chondrocytes cultured in SFRM supplemented with 10 ng/mL TGFβ3 consistently formed a continuous layer of articular-like cartilage tissue rich in collagen type 2 and aggrecan and lacking collagen type 1 and X in the absence of a scaffold. The tissue developed a superficial zone characterized by expression of lubricin and clusterin with horizontally aligned collagen fibers. This study suggests that passaged human chondrocytes can be used to bioengineer a continuous layer of articular cartilage-like tissue in vitro scaffold free. Further study is required to evaluate their ability to repair cartilage defects in vivo.

  1. Birthing Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... management options. Breastfeeding basics. Caring for baby at home. Birthing classes are not just for new parents, though. ... midwife. Postpartum care. Caring for your baby at home, including baby first aid. Lamaze One of the most popular birthing techniques in the U.S., Lamaze has been around ...

  2. A simple method to calculate first-passage time densities with arbitrary initial conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Markus; Ambjörnsson, Tobias; Lizana, Ludvig

    2016-06-01

    Numerous applications all the way from biology and physics to economics depend on the density of first crossings over a boundary. Motivated by the lack of general purpose analytical tools for computing first-passage time densities (FPTDs) for complex problems, we propose a new simple method based on the independent interval approximation (IIA). We generalise previous formulations of the IIA to include arbitrary initial conditions as well as to deal with discrete time and non-smooth continuous time processes. We derive a closed form expression for the FPTD in z and Laplace-transform space to a boundary in one dimension. Two classes of problems are analysed in detail: discrete time symmetric random walks (Markovian) and continuous time Gaussian stationary processes (Markovian and non-Markovian). Our results are in good agreement with Langevin dynamics simulations.

  3. THE APPLICATION OF KENDURI SKO LOCAL CULTURE AS LEARNING RESOURCES TO INCREASE HISTORY AWARENESS OF STUDENTS (CLASSROOM ACTION RESEARCH IN CLASS SOCIAL X, PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOL 2 KERINCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvetri Salvetri

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to overcome the lack of students’ history awareness through the application of local culture of Kenduri Sko as a learning resource. The research was conducted in class X IS 3 SMA Negeri 2 Kerinci. The method used is Classroom Action Research. The results showed that: (1 teachers have implemented learning in accordance with the design of learning; (2 learning history using local culture of Kenduri Sko as a learning resource has succeeded in increasing the awareness of learners' history that is knowledge and understanding of learners about cultural change, interest in history study, pride of local culture; (3 constraints faced by partner teachers is to measure the attitudes and behaviors of learners.

  4. Class prediction for high-dimensional class-imbalanced data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusa Lara

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of class prediction studies is to develop rules to accurately predict the class membership of new samples. The rules are derived using the values of the variables available for each subject: the main characteristic of high-dimensional data is that the number of variables greatly exceeds the number of samples. Frequently the classifiers are developed using class-imbalanced data, i.e., data sets where the number of samples in each class is not equal. Standard classification methods used on class-imbalanced data often produce classifiers that do not accurately predict the minority class; the prediction is biased towards the majority class. In this paper we investigate if the high-dimensionality poses additional challenges when dealing with class-imbalanced prediction. We evaluate the performance of six types of classifiers on class-imbalanced data, using simulated data and a publicly available data set from a breast cancer gene-expression microarray study. We also investigate the effectiveness of some strategies that are available to overcome the effect of class imbalance. Results Our results show that the evaluated classifiers are highly sensitive to class imbalance and that variable selection introduces an additional bias towards classification into the majority class. Most new samples are assigned to the majority class from the training set, unless the difference between the classes is very large. As a consequence, the class-specific predictive accuracies differ considerably. When the class imbalance is not too severe, down-sizing and asymmetric bagging embedding variable selection work well, while over-sampling does not. Variable normalization can further worsen the performance of the classifiers. Conclusions Our results show that matching the prevalence of the classes in training and test set does not guarantee good performance of classifiers and that the problems related to classification with class

  5. Coding Class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Hansbøl, Mikala

    Denne rapport rummer evaluering og dokumentation af Coding Class projektet1. Coding Class projektet blev igangsat i skoleåret 2016/2017 af IT-Branchen i samarbejde med en række medlemsvirksomheder, Københavns kommune, Vejle Kommune, Styrelsen for IT- og Læring (STIL) og den frivillige forening...... Coding Pirates2. Rapporten er forfattet af Docent i digitale læringsressourcer og forskningskoordinator for forsknings- og udviklingsmiljøet Digitalisering i Skolen (DiS), Mikala Hansbøl, fra Institut for Skole og Læring ved Professionshøjskolen Metropol; og Lektor i læringsteknologi, interaktionsdesign......, design tænkning og design-pædagogik, Stine Ejsing-Duun fra Forskningslab: It og Læringsdesign (ILD-LAB) ved Institut for kommunikation og psykologi, Aalborg Universitet i København. Vi har fulgt og gennemført evaluering og dokumentation af Coding Class projektet i perioden november 2016 til maj 2017...

  6. Anchoring effect on first passage process in Taiwan financial market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsing; Liao, Chi-Yo; Ko, Jing-Yuan; Lih, Jiann-Shing

    2017-07-01

    Empirical analysis of the price fluctuations of financial markets has received extensive attention because a substantial amount of financial market data has been collected and because of advances in data-mining techniques. Price fluctuation trends can help investors to make informed trading decisions, but such decisions may also be affected by a psychological factors-the anchoring effect. This study explores the intraday price time series of Taiwan futures, and applies diffusion model and quantitative methods to analyze the relationship between the anchoring effect and price fluctuations during first passage process. Our results indicate that power-law scaling and anomalous diffusion for stock price fluctuations are related to the anchoring effect. Moreover, microscopic price fluctuations before switching point in first passage process correspond with long-term price fluctuations of Taiwan's stock market. We find that microscopic trends could provide useful information for understanding macroscopic trends in stock markets.

  7. Simple relations between mean passage times and Kramers' stationary rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boilley, David; Jurado, Beatriz; Schmitt, Christelle

    2004-01-01

    The classical problem of the escape time of a metastable potential well in a thermal environment is generally studied by various quantities like Kramers' stationary escape rate, mean first passage time, nonlinear relaxation time, or mean last passage time. In addition, numerical simulations lead to the definition of other quantities as the long-time limit escape rate and the transient time. In this paper, we propose some simple analytical relations between all these quantities. In particular, we point out the hypothesis used to evaluate these various times in order to clarify their comparison and applicability, and show how average times include the transient time and the long-time limit of the escape rate

  8. Passages of high energy hadrons through atomic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalska-Gola, E.; Strugalski, Z.

    2001-01-01

    The subject matter in this paper are descriptions of more important results of investigations of the intranuclear matter properties by means of hadronic probes (pionic, e.g.). The projectile-nucleus collisions occurred in liquid xenon in the 180 litre xenon bubble chamber. The chamber in the experiments was practically a total 4π angle aperture for detection of the secondary products from the hadron-nucleus collision reactions. All the π +-0 mesons were practically registered with an efficiency near to 100 %. The hadron passages through nuclei (through layers of intranuclear matter) in their pure sort, when multiparticle creation does not occur, were observed. Conclusive information, obtained on the hadron passages, is presented here. It may be used for new nuclear power technology, in radioactive waste neutralization, in other works on intranuclear matter properties

  9. Effect of stress on turbine fish passage mortality estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggles, C.P.

    1993-01-01

    Tests were conducted with juvenile alewife to determine the effects of four experimental protocols upon turbine fish passage mortality estimates. Three protocols determined the effect of cumulative stresses upon fish, while the fourth determined the effect of long range truck transportation prior to release into the penstock or tailrace. The wide range in results were attributed to the presence or absence of additional stress factors associated with the experiments. For instance, fish may survive passage through a turbine, or non-turbine related stresses imposed by the investigator; however, when both are imposed, the cumulative stresses may be lethal. The impact of protocol stress on turbine mortality estimates becomes almost exponential after control mortality exceeds 10%. Valid turbine related mortalities may be determined only after stresses associated with experimental protocol are adequately reduced. This is usually indicated by a control mortality of less than 10%. 14 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  10. Entropy Minimization Design Approach of Supersonic Internal Passages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Sousa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fluid machinery operating in the supersonic regime unveil avenues towards more compact technology. However, internal supersonic flows are associated with high aerodynamic and thermal penalties, which usually prevent their practical implementation. Indeed, both shock losses and the limited operational range represent particular challenges to aerodynamic designers that should be taken into account at the initial phase of the design process. This paper presents a design methodology for supersonic passages based on direct evaluations of the velocity field using the method of characteristics and computation of entropy generation across shock waves. This meshless function evaluation tool is then coupled to an optimization scheme, based on evolutionary algorithms that minimize the entropy generation across the supersonic passage. Finally, we assessed the results with 3D Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes calculations.

  11. First-passage exponents of multiple random walks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Naim, E; Krapivsky, P L

    2010-01-01

    We investigate first-passage statistics of an ensemble of N noninteracting random walks on a line. Starting from a configuration in which all particles are located in the positive half-line, we study S n (t), the probability that the nth rightmost particle remains in the positive half-line up to time t. This quantity decays algebraically, S n (t)∼t -β n , in the long-time limit. Interestingly, there is a family of nontrivial first-passage exponents, β 1 2 N-1 ; the only exception is the two-particle case where β 1 = 1/3. In the N → ∞ limit, however, the exponents attain a scaling form, β n (N) → β(z) with z=(n-N/2)/√N. We also demonstrate that the smallest exponent decays exponentially with N. We deduce these results from first-passage kinetics of a random walk in an N-dimensional cone and confirm them using numerical simulations. Additionally, we investigate the family of exponents that characterizes leadership statistics of multiple random walks and find that in this case, the cone provides an excellent approximation.

  12. Benefits of fish passage and protection measures at hydroelectric projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cada, G.F.; Jones, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's Hydropower Program is engaged in a multi-year study of the costs and benefits of environmental mitigation measures at nonfederal hydroelectric power plants. An initial report (Volume 1) reviewed and surveyed the status of mitigation methods for fish passage, instream flows, and water quality; this paper focuses on the fish passage/protection aspects of the study. Fish ladders were found to be the most common means of passing fish upstream; elevators/lifts were less common, but their use appears to be increasing. A variety of mitigative measures is employed to prevent fish from being drawn into turbine intakes, including spill flows, narrow-mesh intake screens, angled bar racks, and lightor sound-based guidance measures. Performance monitoring and detailed, quantifiable performance criteria were frequently lacking at non-federal hydroelectric projects. Volume 2 considers the benefits and costs of fish passage and protection measures, as illustrated by case studies for which performance monitoring has been conducted. The report estimates the effectiveness of particular measures, the consequent impacts on the fish populations that are being maintained or restored, and the resulting use and non-use values of the maintained or restored fish populations

  13. Effects of hydroelectric turbine passage on fish early life stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cada, G.F.

    1991-01-01

    Turbine-passage mortality has been studied extensively for juveniles and adults of migratory fish species, but few studies have directly quantified orality of fish eggs and larvae. This paper provides an analysis of literature relating to component stresses of turbine passage (i.e., pressure changes, blade contact, and shear) which indicates that mortality of early life stages of fish would be relatively low at low-head, bulb turbine installations. The shear forces and pressure regimes normally experienced are insufficient to cause high mortality rates. The probability of contact with turbine blades is related to the size of the fish; less than 5% of entrained ichthyoplankton would be killed by the blades in a bulb turbine. Other sources of mortality (e.g., cavitation and entrainment of fish acclimated to deep water) are controlled by operation of the facility and thus are mitigable. Because turbine-passage mortality among fish early life stages can be very difficult to estimate directly, it may be more fruitful to base the need for mitigation at any given site on detailed knowledge of turbine characteristics and the susceptibility of the fish community to entrainment

  14. Is motivation important to brook trout passage through culverts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerig, Elsa; Castro-Santos, Theodore R.

    2017-01-01

    Culverts can restrict movement of stream-dwelling fish. Motivation to enter and ascend these structures is an essential precursor for successful passage. However, motivation is challenging to quantify. Here, we use attempt rate to assess motivation of 447 brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) entering three culverts under a range of hydraulic, environmental, and biological conditions. A passive integrated transponder system allowed for the identification of passage attempts and success of individual fish. Attempt rate was quantified using time-to-event analysis allowing for time-varying covariates and recurrent events. Attempt rate was greatest during the spawning period, at elevated discharge, at dusk, and for longer fish. It decreased during the day and with increasing number of conspecifics downstream of the culvert. Results also show a positive correlation between elevated motivation and successful passage. This study enhances understanding of factors influencing brook trout motivation to ascend culverts and shows that attempt rate is a dynamic phenomenon, variable over time and among individuals. It also presents methods that could be used to investigate other species’ motivation to pass natural or anthropogenic barriers.

  15. Impact of habitat-specific GPS positional error on detection of movement scales by first-passage time analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Williams

    Full Text Available Advances in animal tracking technologies have reduced but not eliminated positional error. While aware of such inherent error, scientists often proceed with analyses that assume exact locations. The results of such analyses then represent one realization in a distribution of possible outcomes. Evaluating results within the context of that distribution can strengthen or weaken our confidence in conclusions drawn from the analysis in question. We evaluated the habitat-specific positional error of stationary GPS collars placed under a range of vegetation conditions that produced a gradient of canopy cover. We explored how variation of positional error in different vegetation cover types affects a researcher's ability to discern scales of movement in analyses of first-passage time for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus. We placed 11 GPS collars in 4 different vegetative canopy cover types classified as the proportion of cover above the collar (0-25%, 26-50%, 51-75%, and 76-100%. We simulated the effect of positional error on individual movement paths using cover-specific error distributions at each location. The different cover classes did not introduce any directional bias in positional observations (1 m≤mean≤6.51 m, 0.24≤p≤0.47, but the standard deviation of positional error of fixes increased significantly with increasing canopy cover class for the 0-25%, 26-50%, 51-75% classes (SD = 2.18 m, 3.07 m, and 4.61 m, respectively and then leveled off in the 76-100% cover class (SD = 4.43 m. We then added cover-specific positional errors to individual deer movement paths and conducted first-passage time analyses on the noisy and original paths. First-passage time analyses were robust to habitat-specific error in a forest-agriculture landscape. For deer in a fragmented forest-agriculture environment, and species that move across similar geographic extents, we suggest that first-passage time analysis is robust with regard to

  16. 77 FR 28253 - Safety Zone; America's Cup World Series, East Passage, Narragansett Bay, RI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; America's Cup World Series, East Passage, Narragansett Bay, RI AGENCY: Coast Guard... navigable waters of the East Passage, Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, during the America's Cup World Series... rulemaking (NPRM) entitled ``Safety Zones; America's Cup World Series, East Passage, Narragansett Bay, RI...

  17. How science teachers balance religion and evolution in the science classroom: A case study of science classes in a Florida Public School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Pierre Dominique

    The purpose of this case study was to research how science teachers balance both religion and evolution in the science classroom with as little controversy as possible. In this study I attempted to provide some insight on how teachers are currently teaching evolution in their science classes in light of the religious beliefs of the students as well as their own. The case study was conducted in a school district in Florida where I attempted to answer the following questions: (a) How do science teachers in the Florida School District (FSD) approach the religion--evolution issue in preparing students for a career in a field of science? (b) How do science teachers in the FSD reconcile the subject of evolution with the religious views of their students? (c) How do science teachers in the FSD reconcile their own religious views with the teaching of evolution? (d) How do science teachers in the FSD perceive the relationship between religion and science? The data was collected through interviews with two high school teachers, and one middle school teacher, by observing each participant teach, by collecting site documents and by administering an exploratory survey to student volunteers. Analysis was conducted by open coding which produced four themes from which the research questions were answered and the survey answers were counted to produce the percentages displayed in the tables in chapter four. The teachers avoided discussion on religiously oriented questions or statements by the students and did not reveal their own religious orientation. The topic of microevolution appeared to reduce stress in the classroom environment, as opposed to addressing macroevolution.

  18. Using Telepresence to Connect and Engage Classes and the Public in the Exploration of Tamu Massif, the World's Largest Single Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanez-James, S. E.; Sager, W.

    2016-02-01

    Research published in 2013 showed that TAMU Massif, the largest mountain in the Shatsky Rise oceanic plateau, located approximately 1500 kilometers east of Japan, is the "World's Largest Single Volcano." This claim garnered widespread public interest and wonder concerning how something so big could remain so mysterious in the 21st century. This disconnect highlights the fact that oceans are still widely unexplored, especially the middle of the deep ocean. Because there is so much interest in TAMU Massif, a diverse outreach team lead by chief scientist Dr. William Sager from the University of Houston in partnership with the Texas State Aquarium and the Schmidt Ocean Institute (SOI) conducted a multifaceted ship-to-shore outreach project that included secondary school students, formal and informal educators, university students and professors, the aquarium and museum audience, and the general public. The objective was to work in conjunction with SOI and various other partners, including the Texas Regional Collaborative, the Aquarium of the Pacific, and the Houston Museum of Natural Science, to promote science and ocean literacy while inspiring future scientists - especially those from underserved and underrepresented groups - through ocean connections. Participants were connected through live ship-to-shore distance learning broadcasts of ongoing marine research and discovery of TAMU Massif aboard the R/V Falkor, allowing audiences to participate in real-time research and apply real world science to curriculum in the classrooms. These ship-to-shore presentations connected to existing curriculums and standards, lessons, and career interests of the students and educators with special teacher events and professional development workshops conducted from aboard the R/V Falkor.

  19. Do Class Size Effects Differ across Grades?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandrup, Anne Brink

    2016-01-01

    This paper contributes to the class size literature by analysing whether short-run class size effects are constant across grade levels in compulsory school. Results are based on administrative data on all pupils enrolled in Danish public schools. Identification is based on a government-imposed class size cap that creates exogenous variation in…

  20. THE 2011 PERIASTRON PASSAGE OF THE Be BINARY {delta} Scorpii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miroshnichenko, A. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, NC 27402-6170 (United States); Pasechnik, A. V. [Tuorla Observatory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-21500 Puekkioe (Finland); Manset, N. [CFHT Corporation, 65-1238 Mamalahoa Hwy, Kamuela, HI 96743 (United States); Carciofi, A. C. [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil); Rivinius, Th. [European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile); Stefl, S. [ESO/ALMA, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Gvaramadze, V. V. [Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Universitetskij Pr. 13, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Ribeiro, J. [Observatorio do Instituto Geografico do Exercito, Lisboa (Portugal); Fernando, A. [ATALAIA.org Group, Lisboa (Portugal); Garrel, T. [Observatoire de Juvignac, 19 avenue de Hameau du Golf F-34990, Juvignac (France); Knapen, J. H. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Buil, C. [Castanet Tolosan Observatory, 6 place Clemence Isaure F-31320 Castanet Tolosan (France); Heathcote, B. [Barfold Observatory, Glenhope, Victoria 3444 (Australia); Pollmann, E. [Emil-Nolde-Str. 12, D-51375, Leverkusen (Germany); Mauclaire, B. [Observatoire du Val d' Arc, route de Peynier F-13530, Trets (France); Thizy, O. [Shelyak Instruments, 1116 route de Chambery, F-38330, Saint-Ismier (France); Martin, J. [Barber Research Observatory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Illinois-Springfield, IL 62703 (United States); Zharikov, S. V. [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 877, Ensenada, 22800, Baja California (Mexico); Okazaki, A. T. [Faculty of Engineering, Hokkai-Gakuen University, Toyohira-ku, Sapporo 062-8605 (Japan); others, and

    2013-04-01

    We describe the results of the world-wide observing campaign of the highly eccentric Be binary system {delta} Scorpii 2011 periastron passage which involved professional and amateur astronomers. Our spectroscopic observations provided a precise measurement of the system orbital period at 10.8092 {+-} 0.0005 yr. Fitting of the He II 4686 A line radial velocity curve determined the periastron passage time on 2011 July 3, UT 9:20 with a 0.9-day uncertainty. Both these results are in a very good agreement with recent findings from interferometry. We also derived new evolutionary masses of the binary components (13 and 8.2 M{sub Sun }) and a new distance of 136 pc from the Sun, consistent with the HIPPARCOS parallax. The radial velocity and profile variations observed in the H{alpha} line near the 2011 periastron reflected the interaction of the secondary component and the circumstellar disk around the primary component. Using these data, we estimated a disk radius of 150 R{sub Sun }. Our analysis of the radial velocity variations measured during the periastron passage time in 2000 and 2011 along with those measured during the 20th century, the high eccentricity of the system, and the presence of a bow shock-like structure around it suggest that {delta} Sco might be a runaway triple system. The third component should be external to the known binary and move on an elliptical orbit that is tilted by at least 40 Degree-Sign with respect to the binary orbital plane for such a system to be stable and responsible for the observed long-term radial velocity variations.

  1. THE 2011 PERIASTRON PASSAGE OF THE Be BINARY δ Scorpii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miroshnichenko, A. S.; Pasechnik, A. V.; Manset, N.; Carciofi, A. C.; Rivinius, Th.; Štefl, S.; Gvaramadze, V. V.; Ribeiro, J.; Fernando, A.; Garrel, T.; Knapen, J. H.; Buil, C.; Heathcote, B.; Pollmann, E.; Mauclaire, B.; Thizy, O.; Martin, J.; Zharikov, S. V.; Okazaki, A. T.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the results of the world-wide observing campaign of the highly eccentric Be binary system δ Scorpii 2011 periastron passage which involved professional and amateur astronomers. Our spectroscopic observations provided a precise measurement of the system orbital period at 10.8092 ± 0.0005 yr. Fitting of the He II 4686 Å line radial velocity curve determined the periastron passage time on 2011 July 3, UT 9:20 with a 0.9-day uncertainty. Both these results are in a very good agreement with recent findings from interferometry. We also derived new evolutionary masses of the binary components (13 and 8.2 M ☉ ) and a new distance of 136 pc from the Sun, consistent with the HIPPARCOS parallax. The radial velocity and profile variations observed in the Hα line near the 2011 periastron reflected the interaction of the secondary component and the circumstellar disk around the primary component. Using these data, we estimated a disk radius of 150 R ☉ . Our analysis of the radial velocity variations measured during the periastron passage time in 2000 and 2011 along with those measured during the 20th century, the high eccentricity of the system, and the presence of a bow shock-like structure around it suggest that δ Sco might be a runaway triple system. The third component should be external to the known binary and move on an elliptical orbit that is tilted by at least 40° with respect to the binary orbital plane for such a system to be stable and responsible for the observed long-term radial velocity variations.

  2. Reaction paths based on mean first-passage times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sanghyun; Sener, Melih K.; Lu Deyu; Schulten, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    Finding representative reaction pathways is important for understanding the mechanism of molecular processes. We propose a new approach for constructing reaction paths based on mean first-passage times. This approach incorporates information about all possible reaction events as well as the effect of temperature. As an application of this method, we study representative pathways of excitation migration in a photosynthetic light-harvesting complex, photosystem I. The paths thus computed provide a complete, yet distilled, representation of the kinetic flow of excitation toward the reaction center, thereby succinctly characterizing the function of the system

  3. Genre Analysis On Reading Passages Grade VII English Textbooks

    OpenAIRE

    Sukma, Ardini Nur

    2010-01-01

    Referring to the latest curriculum, School-Based Curriculum, every English textbook should provide genres based on the level of literacy of each grade. On this paper, I analyzed English textbooks published by Erlangga ?óÔé¼ÔÇ£ English on Sky (EOS), and by Pakar Raya -- Let?óÔé¼Ôäós Talk. This paper focuses on how are the reading passages of the textbooks compatible with ?óÔé¼?ôStandard Isi?óÔé¼?Ø?. Coinciding with the statement of the problems, the objectives of this paper are to describe the...

  4. First-passage time: a conception leading to superstatistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V.Ryazanov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available To describe the nonequilibrium states of a system we introduce a new thermodynamic parameter -- the lifetime (the first passage time of a system. The statistical distributions that can be obtained out of the mesoscopic description characterizing the behaviour of a system by specifying the stochastic processes are written. Superstatistics, introduced in [Beck C., Cohen E.G.D., Physica A, 2003, 322A, 267] as fluctuating quantities of intensive thermodynamical parameters, are obtained from statistical distribution with lifetime (random time to system degeneracy as thermodynamical parameter (and also generalization of superstatistics.

  5. Stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in Tm3+:YAG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, A. L.; Lauro, R.; Louchet, A.; Chaneliere, T.; Le Goueet, J. L.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the experimental demonstration of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in a Tm 3+ :YAG crystal. Tm 3+ :YAG is a promising material for use in quantum information processing applications, but as yet there are few experimental investigations of coherent Raman processes in this material. We investigate the effect of inhomogeneous broadening and Rabi frequency on the transfer efficiency and the width of the two-photon spectrum. Simulations of the complete Tm 3+ :YAG system are presented along with the corresponding experimental results

  6. An extraction machine for the passage of a chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponomarev, B Ia; Krupnik, V S; Krut, V S; Nenakhov, D F; Niugai, M V; Sagatov, B S

    1980-05-18

    The subject of the invention is the extraction machine for the passage of a chamber with a direct path of a narrow face and the reverse path of a wide face, comprising an actuation unit, a drive reducer, a shield and hydraulic jack for the control brush, is characterized in that for the purpose of insuring the effectiveness of the overlapping, the zones for the loading of the brushes are equipped with chains, whose one end is reinforced on it in a hinge-like fashion, and the other, on the reducer, with which one of the chains is connected to the hydraulic jack by the control brush.

  7. Flexible Word Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    • First major publication on the phenomenon • Offers cross-linguistic, descriptive, and diverse theoretical approaches • Includes analysis of data from different language families and from lesser studied languages This book is the first major cross-linguistic study of 'flexible words', i.e. words...... that cannot be classified in terms of the traditional lexical categories Verb, Noun, Adjective or Adverb. Flexible words can - without special morphosyntactic marking - serve in functions for which other languages must employ members of two or more of the four traditional, 'specialised' word classes. Thus......, flexible words are underspecified for communicative functions like 'predicating' (verbal function), 'referring' (nominal function) or 'modifying' (a function typically associated with adjectives and e.g. manner adverbs). Even though linguists have been aware of flexible world classes for more than...

  8. Do class size effects differ across grades?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nandrup, Anne Brink

    size cap that creates exogenous variation in class sizes. Significant (albeit modest) negative effects of class size increases are found for children on primary school levels. The effects on math abilities are statistically different across primary and secondary school. Larger classes do not affect......This paper contributes to the class size literature by analyzing whether short-run class size effects are constant across grade levels in compulsory school. Results are based on administrative data on all pupils enroled in Danish public schools. Identification is based on a government-imposed class...

  9. Wireless Sensor Network Deployment for Monitoring Wildlife Passages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Sanchez, Antonio-Javier; Garcia-Sanchez, Felipe; Losilla, Fernando; Kulakowski, Pawel; Garcia-Haro, Joan; Rodríguez, Alejandro; López-Bao, José-Vicente; Palomares, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are being deployed in very diverse application scenarios, including rural and forest environments. In these particular contexts, specimen protection and conservation is a challenge, especially in natural reserves, dangerous locations or hot spots of these reserves (i.e., roads, railways, and other civil infrastructures). This paper proposes and studies a WSN based system for generic target (animal) tracking in the surrounding area of wildlife passages built to establish safe ways for animals to cross transportation infrastructures. In addition, it allows target identification through the use of video sensors connected to strategically deployed nodes. This deployment is designed on the basis of the IEEE 802.15.4 standard, but it increases the lifetime of the nodes through an appropriate scheduling. The system has been evaluated for the particular scenario of wildlife monitoring in passages across roads. For this purpose, different schemes have been simulated in order to find the most appropriate network operational parameters. Moreover, a novel prototype, provided with motion detector sensors, has also been developed and its design feasibility demonstrated. Original software modules providing new functionalities have been implemented and included in this prototype. Finally, main performance evaluation results of the whole system are presented and discussed in depth. PMID:22163601

  10. Wireless Sensor Network Deployment for Monitoring Wildlife Passages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Vicente López-Bao

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs are being deployed in very diverse application scenarios, including rural and forest environments. In these particular contexts, specimen protection and conservation is a challenge, especially in natural reserves, dangerous locations or hot spots of these reserves (i.e., roads, railways, and other civil infrastructures. This paper proposes and studies a WSN based system for generic target (animal tracking in the surrounding area of wildlife passages built to establish safe ways for animals to cross transportation infrastructures. In addition, it allows target identification through the use of video sensors connected to strategically deployed nodes. This deployment is designed on the basis of the IEEE 802.15.4 standard, but it increases the lifetime of the nodes through an appropriate scheduling. The system has been evaluated for the particular scenario of wildlife monitoring in passages across roads. For this purpose, different schemes have been simulated in order to find the most appropriate network operational parameters. Moreover, a novel prototype, provided with motion detector sensors, has also been developed and its design feasibility demonstrated. Original software modules providing new functionalities have been implemented and included in this prototype. Finally, main performance evaluation results of the whole system are presented and discussed in depth.

  11. Intermediate-level crossings of a first-passage path

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, Uttam; Redner, S

    2015-01-01

    We investigate some simple and surprising properties of a one-dimensional Brownian trajectory with diffusion coefficient D that starts at the origin and: (i) is at X at time T, or (ii) first reaches X at time T. We determine the most likely location of the first-passage trajectory from (0, 0) to (X, T) and its distribution at any intermediate time t < T. A first-passage path typically starts out by being repelled from its final location when X 2 /DT ≪ 1. We also determine the distribution of times when the trajectory first crosses and last crosses an arbitrary intermediate position x < X. The distribution of first-crossing times may be unimodal or bimodal, depending on whether X 2 /DT ≪ 1 or X 2 /DT ≫ 1. The form of the first-crossing probability in the bimodal regime is qualitatively similar to, but more singular than, the well-known arcsine law. (paper)

  12. First passage time in a two-layer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.; Koplik, J.

    1995-01-01

    As a first step in the first passage problem for passive tracer in stratified porous media, we consider the case of a two-dimensional system consisting of two layers with different convection velocities. Using a lattice generating function formalism and a variety of analytic and numerical techniques, we calculate the asymptotic behavior of the first passage time probability distribution. We show analytically that the asymptotic distribution is a simple exponential in time for any choice of the velocities. The decay constant is given in terms of the largest eigenvalue of an operator related to a half-space Green's function. For the anti-symmetric case of opposite velocities in the layers, we show that the decay constant for system length L crosses over from L -2 behavior in the diffusive limit to L -1 behavior in the convective regime, where the crossover length L* is given in terms of the velocities. We also have formulated a general self-consistency relation, from which we have developed a recursive approach which is useful for studying the short-time behavior

  13. The Be Binary δ Scorpii and Its 2011 Periastron Passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroshnichenko, A. S.; Manset, N.; Pasechnik, A. V.; Carciofi, A. C.; Rivinius, Th.; Štefl, S.; Ribeiro, J. M.; Fernando, A.; Garrel, T.; Knapen, J. H.; Buil, C.; Heathcote, B.; Pollmann, E.; Thizy, O.; Eversberg, T.; Reinecke, N.; Martin, J.; Okazaki, A. T.; Gandet, T. L.; Gvaramadze, V. V.; Zharikov, S. V.

    2012-12-01

    δ Scorpii is an unusual Be binary system. The binarity was discovered by interferometry in the 1970's and only confirmed by radial velocity measurements during the periastron passage in September 2000, when the primary component became a Be star. The components brightness and mass suggest that both are normal B-type stars. However, the large orbital eccentricity (e = 0.94) is highly uncommon, as most such Be binaries have circular orbits. The orbital period, only recently constrained by interferometry at 10.81 years, needed confirmation from spectroscopy during the last periastron passage in July 2011. The periastron observing campaign that involved professionals and amateurs resulted in obtaining several hundreds of spectra during the period of a large radial velocity change compared to only thirty obtained in 2000. Along with a determination of the orbital period accurate to 3-4 days, the radial velocity curve was found to be more complicated than one expected from just a binary system. I will briefly review the primary's disk development followed by a discussion of the recent observations. Implications for the system properties and ideas for future observations will be presented.

  14. First passage time problems in time-dependent fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, J.E.; Havlin, S.; Weiss, G.H.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the simplest first passage time problems for random walks and diffusion processes on a line segment. When a diffusing particle moves in a time-varying field, use of the adjoint equation does not lead to any simplification in the calculation of moments of the first passage time as is the case for diffusion in a time-invariant field. We show that for a discrete random walk in the presence of a sinusoidally varying field there is a resonant frequency omega* for which the mean residence time on the line segment in a minimum. It is shown that for a random walk on a line segment of length L the mean residence time goes like L 2 for large L when omega omega*, but when omega = omega* the dependence is proportional to L. The results of our simulation are numerical, but can be regarded as exact. Qualitatively similar results are shown to hold for diffusion processes by a perturbation expansion in powers of a dimensionless velocity. These results are extended to higher values of this parameter by a numerical solution of the forward equation

  15. A differentiated plane wave: its passage through a slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannay, J H; Nye, J F

    2013-01-01

    Differentiating a monochromatic uniform plane electromagnetic wavefield with respect to its direction produces, from a field that is completely lacking in localized specific features, one that contains a straight vortex-like line, a ‘C-line’ of defined circular polarization. There is also a second separate C-line of opposite handedness; indeed, in a sense, a straight line of every polarization is realized. Because of its primitive construction it is analytically simple to study the passage of a differentiated wave obliquely through a plane interface into a medium of different refractive index, to trace its C-line. This was done in an earlier paper. Here we extend the method to passage through a parallel-sided transparent slab. There are multiple reflections within the slab, as in a Fabry–Pérot interferometer. The exiting wave, as a single differentiated plane wave, has a straight oblique C-line. Inside the slab, and in front of it, there is wave interference. The result is a coiled, helix-like, C-line in front of the slab and another inside it. The two coils wrap around separate hyperboloids of one sheet, like cooling towers. The emerging straight C-line is shifted (with respect to a C-line in a notional undisturbed incident plane wave) both in the plane of incidence and transversely to it, and the second C-line behaves similarly. The analysis is exact and could be extended in a straightforward way to a general stratified medium. (paper)

  16. Fish Passage Center : Fish Passage Center of the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority; Annual report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeHart, Michele

    1999-01-01

    The 1998 operations of the Columbia and Snake rivers system illustrated that there was potential flexibility in the operation of the hydrosystem to improve fish passage for juvenile salmon and increase the degree to which the NMS Biological Opinion measures could have been implemented successfully. This additional flexibility was not exercised. Some measures of the Biological Opinion were not implemented. The 1998 operation showed that the Hells Canyon Complex, operation, the Upper Snake River operation and Non-treaty storage operation could have provided flexibility to meet early spring and later summer flows

  17. An "expanded" class perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steur, Luisa Johanna

    2014-01-01

    Following the police raid on the ‘Muthanga’ land occupation by Adivasi (‘indigenous’) activists in Kerala, India, in February 2003, intense public debate erupted about the fate of Adivasis in this ‘model’ development state. Most commentators saw the land occupation either as the fight...... analysis, as elaborated in Marxian anthropology, this article provides an alternative to the liberal-culturalist explanation of indigenism in Kerala, arguing instead that contemporary class processes—as experienced close to the skin by the people who decided to participate in the Muthanga struggle......—were what shaped their decision to embrace indigenism....

  18. The 2011 Periastron Passage of the Be Binary δ Scorpii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroshnichenko, A. S.; Pasechnik, A. V.; Manset, N.; Carciofi, A. C.; Rivinius, Th.; Štefl, S.; Gvaramadze, V. V.; Ribeiro, J.; Fernando, A.; Garrel, T.; Knapen, J. H.; Buil, C.; Heathcote, B.; Pollmann, E.; Mauclaire, B.; Thizy, O.; Martin, J.; Zharikov, S. V.; Okazaki, A. T.; Gandet, T. L.; Eversberg, T.; Reinecke, N.

    2013-04-01

    We describe the results of the world-wide observing campaign of the highly eccentric Be binary system δ Scorpii 2011 periastron passage which involved professional and amateur astronomers. Our spectroscopic observations provided a precise measurement of the system orbital period at 10.8092 ± 0.0005 yr. Fitting of the He II 4686 Å line radial velocity curve determined the periastron passage time on 2011 July 3, UT 9:20 with a 0.9-day uncertainty. Both these results are in a very good agreement with recent findings from interferometry. We also derived new evolutionary masses of the binary components (13 and 8.2 M ⊙) and a new distance of 136 pc from the Sun, consistent with the HIPPARCOS parallax. The radial velocity and profile variations observed in the Hα line near the 2011 periastron reflected the interaction of the secondary component and the circumstellar disk around the primary component. Using these data, we estimated a disk radius of 150 R ⊙. Our analysis of the radial velocity variations measured during the periastron passage time in 2000 and 2011 along with those measured during the 20th century, the high eccentricity of the system, and the presence of a bow shock-like structure around it suggest that δ Sco might be a runaway triple system. The third component should be external to the known binary and move on an elliptical orbit that is tilted by at least 40° with respect to the binary orbital plane for such a system to be stable and responsible for the observed long-term radial velocity variations. This paper is partially based on observations obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique de France, and the University of Hawaii, the 2.2 m MPG telescope operated at ESO/La Silla under program IDs 086.A-9019 and 087.A-9005, the IAC80 telescope in the Spanish Observatorio del Teide

  19. [Social classes and poverty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benach, Joan; Amable, Marcelo

    2004-05-01

    Social classes and poverty are two key social determinants fundamental to understand how disease and health inequalities are produced. During the 90's in Spain there has been a notable oscillation in the inequality and poverty levels, with an increase in the middle of the decade when new forms of social exclusion, high levels of unemployment and great difficulties in accessing the labour market, especially for those workers with less resources, emerged. Today society is still characterized by a clear social stratification and the existence of social classes with a predominance of high levels of unemployment and precarious jobs, and where poverty is an endemic social problem much worse than the EU average. To diminish health inequalities and to improve the quality of life will depend very much on the reduction of the poverty levels and the improvement of equal opportunities and quality of employment. To increase understanding of how social class and poverty affect public health, there is a need to improve the quality of both information and research, and furthermore planners and political decision makers must take into account those determinants when undertaking disease prevention and health promotion.

  20. Movement of Water Across Passages Connecting Philippine Inland Sea Basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambert Anthony B Meñez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Advection of Pacific water to the inland seas is through a number of straits bordering the archipelago. Movement of water was demonstrated by temperature-salinity diagrams plotted for a number of stations situated along the various passages. As water from the Pacific flowed through the straits its characteristic T-S profile was modified as it mixed with waters of different properties. This was best seen along the San Bernardino-Verde Island transect where strong surface flow during the NE monsoon resulted in separation of profiles at the surface indicating dilution as water moved away from the source. For deeper water, the erosion of the subsurface salinity minimum and maximum representing the core of the intermediate waters showed transport. These waters were restricted by shallow sill along the eastern coast of the country and limited to a depth of 441m by the sill across the Mindoro Strait.

  1. Disintegration of swift carbon clusters during passage through matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, K.; Otteken, D.; Tuszynski, W.; Seidl, M.; Voit, H.

    2003-01-01

    Thin luminescent foils covered upstream with layers of Formvar or gold of various thicknesses were bombarded with C 8 clusters with energies between 5 and 10 MeV. The C 8 induced relative luminescence yield Φ 8 increases with growing layer thickness and approaches smoothly the value 8Φ 1 , i.e., the luminescence yield induced by eight well-separated C 1 cluster constituents. This is a clear demonstration of the gradual separation between the cluster constituents during the passage of the cluster through the layers. The layer thickness necessary to separate cluster constituents far enough to act as independent atomic ions with respect to the luminescence process was calculated. The result is that Formvar layers with a thickness of about 1150 nm or ≅250-nm-thick gold layers are necessary to establish this mutual independence of the cluster constituents. Both calculated values agree roughly with the layer thickness obtained from an extrapolation of the experimental data

  2. Adiabatic passage and ensemble control of quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leghtas, Z; Sarlette, A; Rouchon, P

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers population transfer between eigenstates of a finite quantum ladder controlled by a classical electric field. Using an appropriate change of variables, we show that this setting can be set in the framework of adiabatic passage, which is known to facilitate ensemble control of quantum systems. Building on this insight, we present a mathematical proof of robustness for a control protocol-chirped pulse-practised by experimentalists to drive an ensemble of quantum systems from the ground state to the most excited state. We then propose new adiabatic control protocols using a single chirped and amplitude-shaped pulse, to robustly perform any permutation of eigenstate populations, on an ensemble of systems with unknown coupling strengths. These adiabatic control protocols are illustrated by simulations on a four-level ladder.

  3. Spatial non-adiabatic passage using geometric phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benseny, Albert; Busch, Thomas [Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, Quantum Systems Unit, Okinawa (Japan); Kiely, Anthony; Ruschhaupt, Andreas [University College Cork, Department of Physics, Cork (Ireland); Zhang, Yongping [Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, Quantum Systems Unit, Okinawa (Japan); Shanghai University, Department of Physics, Shanghai (China)

    2017-12-15

    Quantum technologies based on adiabatic techniques can be highly effective, but often at the cost of being very slow. Here we introduce a set of experimentally realistic, non-adiabatic protocols for spatial state preparation, which yield the same fidelity as their adiabatic counterparts, but on fast timescales. In particular, we consider a charged particle in a system of three tunnel-coupled quantum wells, where the presence of a magnetic field can induce a geometric phase during the tunnelling processes. We show that this leads to the appearance of complex tunnelling amplitudes and allows for the implementation of spatial non-adiabatic passage. We demonstrate the ability of such a system to transport a particle between two different wells and to generate a delocalised superposition between the three traps with high fidelity in short times. (orig.)

  4. Consequences of the Solar System passage through dense interstellar clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Yeghikyan

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Several consequences of the passage of the solar system through dense interstellar molecular clouds are discussed. These clouds, dense (more than 100 cm-3, cold (10–50 K and extended (larger than 1 pc, are characterized by a gas-to-dust mass ratio of about 100, by a specific power grain size spectrum (grain radii usually cover the range 0.001–3 micron and by an average dust-to-gas number density ratio of about 10-12. Frequently these clouds contain small-scale (10–100 AU condensations with gas concentrations ranging up to 10 5 cm-3. At their casual passage over the solar system they exert pressures very much enhanced with respect to today’s standards. Under these conditions it will occur that the Earth is exposed directly to the interstellar flow. It is shown first that even close to the Sun, at 1 AU, the cloud’s matter is only partly ionized and should mainly interact with the solar wind by charge exchange processes. Dust particles of the cloud serve as a source of neutrals, generated by the solar UV irradiation of dust grains, causing the evaporation of icy materials. The release of neutral atoms from dust grains is then followed by strong influences on the solar wind plasma flow. The behavior of the neutral gas inflow parameters is investigated by a 2-D hydrodynamic approach to model the interaction processes. Because of a reduction of the heliospheric dimension down to 1 AU, direct influence of the cloud’s matter to the terrestrial environment and atmosphere could be envisaged.Key words. Interplanetary physics (heliopause and solar wind termination; interplanetary dust; interstellar gas

  5. Consequences of the Solar System passage through dense interstellar clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Yeghikyan

    Full Text Available Several consequences of the passage of the solar system through dense interstellar molecular clouds are discussed. These clouds, dense (more than 100 cm-3, cold (10–50 K and extended (larger than 1 pc, are characterized by a gas-to-dust mass ratio of about 100, by a specific power grain size spectrum (grain radii usually cover the range 0.001–3 micron and by an average dust-to-gas number density ratio of about 10-12. Frequently these clouds contain small-scale (10–100 AU condensations with gas concentrations ranging up to 10 5 cm-3. At their casual passage over the solar system they exert pressures very much enhanced with respect to today’s standards. Under these conditions it will occur that the Earth is exposed directly to the interstellar flow. It is shown first that even close to the Sun, at 1 AU, the cloud’s matter is only partly ionized and should mainly interact with the solar wind by charge exchange processes. Dust particles of the cloud serve as a source of neutrals, generated by the solar UV irradiation of dust grains, causing the evaporation of icy materials. The release of neutral atoms from dust grains is then followed by strong influences on the solar wind plasma flow. The behavior of the neutral gas inflow parameters is investigated by a 2-D hydrodynamic approach to model the interaction processes. Because of a reduction of the heliospheric dimension down to 1 AU, direct influence of the cloud’s matter to the terrestrial environment and atmosphere could be envisaged.

    Key words. Interplanetary physics (heliopause and solar wind termination; interplanetary dust; interstellar gas

  6. Fish ladders: safe fish passage or hotspot for predation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Antonio Agostinho

    Full Text Available Fish ladders are a strategy for conserving biodiversity, as they can provide connectivity between fragmented habitats and reduce predation on shoals that accumulate immediately below dams. Although the impact of predation downstream of reservoirs has been investigated, especially in juvenile salmonids during their downstream movements, nothing is known about predation on Neotropical fish in the attraction and containment areas commonly found in translocation facilities. This study analysed predation in a fish passage system at the Lajeado Dam on the Tocantins River in Brazil. The abundance, distribution, and the permanence (time spent of large predatory fish along the ladder, the injuries imposed by piranhas during passage and the presence of other vertebrate predators were investigated. From December 2002 to October 2003, sampling was conducted in four regions (downstream, along the ladder, in the forebay, and upstream of the reservoir using gillnets, cast nets and counts or visual observations. The captured fish were tagged with thread and beads, and any mutilations were registered. Fish, birds and dolphins were the main predator groups observed, with a predominance of the first two groups. The entrance to the ladder, in the downstream region, was the area with the highest number of large predators and was the only region with relevant non-fish vertebrates. The main predatory fish species were Rhaphiodon vulpinus, Hydrolycus armatus, and Serrasalmus rhombeus. Tagged individuals were detected predating along the ladder for up to 90 days. Mutilations caused by Serrasalmus attacks were noted in 36% of species and 4% of individuals at the top of the ladder. Our results suggested that the high density of fish in the restricted ladder environment, which is associated with injuries suffered along the ladder course and the presence of multiple predator groups with different predation strategies, transformed the fish corridor into a hotspot for

  7. Fish passage assessment of an advanced hydropower turbine and conventional turbine using blade-strike modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Z.; Carlson, T. J.; Dauble, D. D.; Ploskey, G. R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Hydropower is the largest renewable energy source in the world. However, in the Columbia and Snake River basins, several species of Pacific salmon and steelhead have been listed for protection under the Endangered Species Act due to significant declines of fish population. Dam operators and design engineers are thus faced with the task of making hydroelectric facilities more fish friendly through changes in hydro-turbine design and operation. Public Utility District No. 2 of Grant County, Washington, applied for relicensing from the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to replace the 10 turbines at Wanapum Dam with advanced hydropower turbines that were designed to increase power generation and improve fish passage conditions. We applied both deterministic and stochastic blade-strike models to compare fish passage performance of the newly installed advanced turbine to an existing turbine. Modeled probabilities were compared to the results of a large-scale live-fish survival study and a Sensor Fish study under the same operational parameters. Overall, injury rates predicted by the deterministic model were higher than experimental rates of injury, while those predicted by the stochastic model were in close agreement with experimental results. Fish orientation at the time of entry into the plane of the leading edges of the turbine runner blades was an important factor contributing to uncertainty in modeled results. The advanced design turbine had slightly higher modeled injury rates than the existing turbine design; however, no statistical evidence suggested significant differences in blade-strike injuries between the two turbines, thus the hypothesis that direct fish survival rate through the advanced hydropower turbine is equal to or higher than that for fish passing through the conventional turbine could not be rejected. (authors)

  8. Fish Passage Assessment of an Advanced Hydropower Turbine and Conventional Turbine Using Blade-Strike Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqun Deng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydropower is the largest renewable energy source in the world. However, in the Columbia and Snake River basins, several species of Pacific salmon and steelhead have been listed for protection under the Endangered Species Act due to significant declines of fish population. Dam operators and design engineers are thus faced with the task of making hydroelectric facilities more fish friendly through changes in hydro-turbine design and operation. Public Utility District No. 2 of Grant County, Washington, applied for relicensing from the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to replace the 10 turbines at Wanapum Dam with advanced hydropower turbines that were designed to increase power generation and improve fish passage conditions. We applied both deterministic and stochastic blade-strike models to compare fish passage performance of the newly installed advanced turbine to an existing turbine. Modeled probabilities were compared to the results of a large-scale live-fish survival study and a Sensor Fish study under the same operational parameters. Overall, injury rates predicted by the deterministic model were higher than experimental rates of injury, while those predicted by the stochastic model were in close agreement with experimental results. Fish orientation at the time of entry into the plane of the leading edges of the turbine runner blades was an important factor contributing to uncertainty in modeled results. The advanced design turbine had slightly higher modeled injury rates than the existing turbine design; however, no statistical evidence suggested significant differences in blade-strike injuries between the two turbines, thus the hypothesis that direct fish survival rate through the advanced hydropower turbine is equal to or higher than that for fish passing through the conventional turbine could not be rejected.

  9. A Virtual Class Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik; Ostermann, Klaus; Cook, William Randall

    2006-01-01

    Virtual classes are class-valued attributes of objects. Like virtual methods, virtual classes are defined in an object's class and may be redefined within subclasses. They resemble inner classes, which are also defined within a class, but virtual classes are accessed through object instances...... model for virtual classes has been a long-standing open question. This paper presents a virtual class calculus, vc, that captures the essence of virtual classes in these full-fledged programming languages. The key contributions of the paper are a formalization of the dynamic and static semantics of vc...

  10. Extended passaging increases the efficiency of neural differentiation from induced pluripotent stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koehler Karl R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs for the functional replacement of damaged neurons and in vitro disease modeling is of great clinical relevance. Unfortunately, the capacity of iPSC lines to differentiate into neurons is highly variable, prompting the need for a reliable means of assessing the differentiation capacity of newly derived iPSC cell lines. Extended passaging is emerging as a method of ensuring faithful reprogramming. We adapted an established and efficient embryonic stem cell (ESC neural induction protocol to test whether iPSCs (1 have the competence to give rise to functional neurons with similar efficiency as ESCs and (2 whether the extent of neural differentiation could be altered or enhanced by increased passaging. Results Our gene expression and morphological analyses revealed that neural conversion was temporally delayed in iPSC lines and some iPSC lines did not properly form embryoid bodies during the first stage of differentiation. Notably, these deficits were corrected by continual passaging in an iPSC clone. iPSCs with greater than 20 passages (late-passage iPSCs expressed higher expression levels of pluripotency markers and formed larger embryoid bodies than iPSCs with fewer than 10 passages (early-passage iPSCs. Moreover, late-passage iPSCs started to express neural marker genes sooner than early-passage iPSCs after the initiation of neural induction. Furthermore, late-passage iPSC-derived neurons exhibited notably greater excitability and larger voltage-gated currents than early-passage iPSC-derived neurons, although these cells were morphologically indistinguishable. Conclusions These findings strongly suggest that the efficiency neuronal conversion depends on the complete reprogramming of iPSCs via extensive passaging.

  11. Compliance Monitoring of Subyearling Chinook Salmon Smolt Survival and Passage at Bonneville Dam, Summer 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam; Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Woodley, Christa M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this compliance study was to estimate dam passage survival of subyearling Chinook salmon at Bonneville Dam during summer 2012, as required by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion. The study also estimated smolt passage survival from the forebay 2 km upstream of the dam to the tailrace 1 km below the dam, as well as forebay residence time, tailrace egress, and spill passage efficiency, as required in the 2008 Columbia Basin Fish Accords.

  12. On correlations between certain random variables associated with first passage Brownian motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearney, Michael J; Pye, Andrew J; Martin, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    We analyse how the area swept out by a Brownian motion up to its first passage time correlates with the first passage time itself, obtaining several exact results in the process. Additionally, we analyse the relationship between the time average of a Brownian motion during a first passage and the maximum value attained. The results, which find various applications, are in excellent agreement with simulations. (paper)

  13. J. B. S. Haldane's passage to India: reconfiguring science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gordon Mcouat

    2017-11-25

    Nov 25, 2017 ... the efforts to build a 'modern', democratic India emerging out of the ashes ... a postcolonial respect for traditional 'non-Western' values. Although his ..... Kolkata. Bhattacharya T. 2007 The sentinels of culture: class, education.

  14. Compliance Monitoring of Subyearling Chinook Salmon Survival and Passage at The Dalles Dam, Summer 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam; Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Woodley, Christa M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Johnson, Gary E.

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this compliance study was to estimate dam passage survival of subyearling Chinook salmon at The Dalles Dam during summer 2012. Under the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion, dam passage survival is required to be greater than or equal to 0.93 and estimated with a standard error (SE) less than or equal to 0.015. The study also estimated survival from the forebay 2 km upstream of the dam and through the tailrace to 2 km downstream of the dam, forebay residence time, tailrace egress time, spill passage efficiency (SPE), and fish passage efficiency (FPE), as required by the 2008 Columbia Basin Fish Accords.

  15. Behaviour and locomotor activity of a migratory catostomid during fishway passage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana T Silva

    Full Text Available Fishways have been developed to restore longitudinal connectivity in rivers. Despite their potential for aiding fish passage, fishways may represent a source of significant energetic expenditure for fish as they are highly turbulent environments. Nonetheless, our understanding of the physiological mechanisms underpinning fishway passage of fish is still limited. We examined swimming behaviour and activity of silver redhorse (Moxostoma anisurum during its upriver spawning migration in a vertical slot fishway. We used an accelerometer-derived instantaneous activity metric (overall dynamic body acceleration to estimate location-specific swimming activity. Silver redhorse demonstrated progressive increases in activity during upstream fishway passage. Moreover, location-specific passage duration decreased with an increasing number of passage attempts. Turning basins and the most upstream basin were found to delay fish passage. No relationship was found between basin-specific passage duration and activity and the respective values from previous basins. The results demonstrate that successful fishway passage requires periods of high activity. The resultant energetic expenditure may affect fitness, foraging behaviour and increase susceptibility to predation, compromising population sustainability. This study highlights the need to understand the physiological mechanisms underpinning fishway passage to improve future designs and interpretation of biological evaluations.

  16. Pigs in Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mette N.

    2017-01-01

    of public health, made me re-evaluate both what ‘public’ and what ‘health’ means in public health. In this commentary I provide a short personal account of that intellectual journey. I argue that entanglements between species make it urgent that public health scholars investigate the moral, socio......Animals are rare topics in public health science texts and speech despite the fact that animal bodies and lives are woven into the health of human populations, and vice versa. Years of ethnographic and documentary research – following pigs and their humans in and out of biomedical research – made......-economic, material, and bacterial passages between humans and animals that constitute the various publics of public health and profoundly shape the health of human and animal populations in a globalized world....

  17. The False Promise of Class-Size Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chingos, Matthew M.

    2011-01-01

    Class-size reduction, or CSR, is enormously popular with parents, teachers, and the public in general. Many parents believe that their children will benefit from more individualized attention in a smaller class and many teachers find smaller classes easier to manage. The pupil-teacher ratio is an easy statistic for the public to monitor as a…

  18. Gas explosion in a room with a window and passage to an adjacent room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polandov Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Some publications describe an effect, produced during a physical model experiment, when an adjacent gas-free room influences the gas explosion pressure in a room with a window. The explosion pressure in this case significantly exceeds (2.5 times the explosion pressure in a room without an adjacent room. This result has been confirmed by our studies. Based on other available information about the influence of the ignition point location on the explosion pressure in one room, it was suggested that this could be true for an explosion in two rooms. In our studies we used a test unit with two connected chambers, each having a volume of 1.125 m3. It turned out that this influence of the adjacent volume was not so unambiguous as it was described in those publications. It was found out that the maximum effect of explosion pressure amplification by the adjacent room is achieved, when the igniter is located in the chamber filled with a gas-air mixture in the area between the center of the chamber and the window (maximum amplification by more than 3 times. This effect is lower directly by the window (1.8 times and is practically absent in case of ignition within the area near the passage connecting the chamber with the adjacent room. This suggests that the effect discovered earlier is a special case of the general dependence of the gas explosion pressure in two chambers on the igniter location.

  19. RxClass

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The RxClass Browser is a web application for exploring and navigating through the class hierarchies to find the RxNorm drug members associated with each class....

  20. Stable isotope-labelled feed nutrients to assess nutrient-specific feed passage kinetics in ruminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warner, D.; Dijkstra, J.; Hendriks, W.H.; Pellikaan, W.F.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of digesta passage kinetics in ruminants is essential to predict nutrient supply to the animal in relation to optimal animal performance, environmental pollution and animal health. Fractional passage rates (FPR) of feed are widely used in modern feed evaluation systems and mechanistic

  1. Vascular smooth muscle cells exhibit a progressive loss of rigidity with serial culture passaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinardo, Carla Luana; Venturini, Gabriela; Omae, Samantha Vieira; Zhou, Enhua H; da Motta-Leal-Filho, Joaquim Maurício; Dariolli, Rafael; Krieger, José Eduardo; Alencar, Adriano Mesquita; Costa Pereira, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    One drawback of in vitro cell culturing is the dedifferentiation process that cells experience. Smooth muscle cells (SMC) also change molecularly and morphologically with long term culture. The main objective of this study was to evaluate if culture passages interfere in vascular SMC mechanical behavior. SMC were obtained from five different porcine arterial beds. Optical magnetic twisting cytometry (OMTC) was used to characterize mechanically vascular SMC from different cultures in distinct passages and confocal microscopy/western blotting, to evaluate cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix proteins. We found that vascular SMC rigidity or viscoelastic complex modulus (G) decreases with progression of passages. A statistically significant negative correlation between G and passage was found in four of our five cultures studied. Phalloidin-stained SMC from higher passages exhibited lower mean signal intensity per cell (confocal microscopy) and quantitative western blotting analysis showed a decrease in collagen I content throughout passages. We concluded that vascular SMC progressively lose their stiffness with serial culture passaging. Thus, limiting the number of passages is essential for any experiment measuring viscoelastic properties of SMC in culture.

  2. Dissolved Fe across the Weddell Sea and Drake Passage: impact of DFe on nutrient uptake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klunder, M.B.; Laan, P.; de Baar, H.J.W.; Middag, R.; Neven, I.; Van Ooijen, J.

    2014-01-01

    This manuscript reports the first full depth distributions of dissolved iron (DFe) over a high-resolution Weddell Sea and Drake Passage transect. Very low dissolved DFe concentrations (0.01-0.1 nM range) were observed in the surface waters of the Weddell Sea, and within the Drake Passage polar

  3. Dissolved Fe across the Weddell Sea and Drake Passage : Impact of DFe on nutrient uptake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klunder, M. B.; Laan, P.; De Baar, H. J. W.; Middag, R.; Neven, I.; Van Ooijen, J.

    2014-01-01

    This manuscript reports the first full depth distributions of dissolved iron (DFe) over a high-resolution Weddell Sea and Drake Passage transect. Very low dissolved DFe concentrations (0.01-0.1 nM range) were observed in the surface waters of the Weddell Sea, and within the Drake Passage polar

  4. "The Caterpillar": A Novel Reading Passage for Assessment of Motor Speech Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rupal; Connaghan, Kathryn; Franco, Diana; Edsall, Erika; Forgit, Dory; Olsen, Laura; Ramage, Lianna; Tyler, Emily; Russell, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: A review of the salient characteristics of motor speech disorders and common assessment protocols revealed the need for a novel reading passage tailored specifically to differentiate between and among the dysarthrias (DYSs) and apraxia of speech (AOS). Method: "The Caterpillar" passage was designed to provide a contemporary, easily read,…

  5. Introducing Intertextuality-Aware Instruction as a Novel Approach of Teaching Reading Passages in EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaghaninejad, Mohammad Saber

    2014-01-01

    This study was an attempt to investigate the possible effect of intertextuality-aware instruction of reading passages on a sample of intermediate EFL learners of both genders. First, the intertextuality deployed through the reading passages of the study's course-book was focused inspired by Fairclough's (192) framework in terms of genre, text…

  6. Bladed disc crack diagnostics using blade passage signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanachi, Houman; Liu, Jie; Banerjee, Avisekh; Koul, Ashok; Liang, Ming; Alavi, Elham

    2012-12-01

    One of the major potential faults in a turbo fan engine is the crack initiation and propagation in bladed discs under cyclic loads that could result in the breakdown of the engines if not detected at an early stage. Reliable fault detection techniques are therefore in demand to reduce maintenance cost and prevent catastrophic failures. Although a number of approaches have been reported in the literature, it remains very challenging to develop a reliable technique to accurately estimate the health condition of a rotating bladed disc. Correspondingly, this paper presents a novel technique for bladed disc crack detection through two sequential signal processing stages: (1) signal preprocessing that aims to eliminate the noises in the blade passage signals; (2) signal postprocessing that intends to identify the crack location. In the first stage, physics-based modeling and interpretation are established to help characterize the noises. The crack initiation can be determined based on the calculated health monitoring index derived from the sinusoidal effects. In the second stage, the crack is located through advanced detrended fluctuation analysis of the preprocessed data. The proposed technique is validated using a set of spin rig test data (i.e. tip clearance and time of arrival) that was acquired during a test conducted on a bladed military engine fan disc. The test results have demonstrated that the developed technique is an effective approach for identifying and locating the incipient crack that occurs at the root of a bladed disc.

  7. Does gently clearing the nasal passage affect odor identification?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell G. Spring

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Identifying scents in a wine’s bouquet is considered one of the most important steps in the process of wine tasting. An individual’s ability to successfully do this is dependent on the sense of smell; thus, altering the nasal microenvironment could have a powerful effect on the wine tasting experience. In the present study, we examined olfactory performance in healthy participants who cleared their nasal cavity before odorant presentations. Fifty undergraduate participants were assessed with a standardized test of olfaction requiring the recognition of a battery of odors. Half of these participants cleared mucus from their nasal cavities (by gently blowing their noses prior to the assessment. No difference was found in performance between those who cleared their nasal passages and those who did not. Further, data were not different than known population data from the test. These data suggest that gently clearing the nasal cavity before presentation of odorants bears no effect on the ability to perceive those odor qualities.

  8. Automatic system for monitoring fish passage at dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castignolles, Nathalie; Cattoen, Michel; Larinier, M.

    1994-09-01

    Devices called fishways or fish passes are constructed in rivers to help migratory fish get over obstacles (dams). There counting windows are used to monitor fish passage by video-based counting. Our goal is to design and construct a vision system to automate this process. Images are taken by a video camera fitted with an electronic shutter in a backlit fishway. They are stored on optical disks in real time but are processed in delayed time. Faced with high volumes of data, a compression is necessary and an electronic board has been designed to accomplish it in real time. The coding method used is based on a run description of binarized images. Then, a tracking process is implemented on a micro-computer to count the fish crossing the pass. It includes fish recognition, which is based on a Bayesian classification process. In order to reduce processing times, recognition operations (labelling, parameter extraction) are accomplished on coded images. Classification results are satisfactory and are improved by the temporal redundancy generated by the tracking process. Image processing time permits the user, on average, to process images faster than they have been stored. Thus there is no data accumulation. At the end of the processing it is possible to edit a result file, to choose a fish, view its crossing images and change its species if wrong.

  9. Left passage probability of Schramm-Loewner Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, M. N.

    2013-06-01

    SLE(κ,ρ⃗) is a variant of Schramm-Loewner Evolution (SLE) which describes the curves which are not conformal invariant, but are self-similar due to the presence of some other preferred points on the boundary. In this paper we study the left passage probability (LPP) of SLE(κ,ρ⃗) through field theoretical framework and find the differential equation governing this probability. This equation is numerically solved for the special case κ=2 and hρ=0 in which hρ is the conformal weight of the boundary changing (bcc) operator. It may be referred to loop erased random walk (LERW) and Abelian sandpile model (ASM) with a sink on its boundary. For the curve which starts from ξ0 and conditioned by a change of boundary conditions at x0, we find that this probability depends significantly on the factor x0-ξ0. We also present the perturbative general solution for large x0. As a prototype, we apply this formalism to SLE(κ,κ-6) which governs the curves that start from and end on the real axis.

  10. The passage of a diffusible indicator through a microvascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kislukhin Victor V

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim. (1 To develop a mathematical model of the passage of a diffusible indicator through microcirculation based on a stochastic description of diffusion and flow; (2 To use Goresky transform of the dilution curves of the diffusible indicators for the estimation of the permeability of a tissue-capillary barrier. The method. We assume that there are two causes for flow to be stochastic: (a All microvessels are divided between open and closed microvessels. There exists random exchange between the two groups. (b The flow through open microvessels is also random. We assume that each diffusing tracer has a probability to leave the intravascular space, and has a probability to return. We also assume that all considered processes are stationary (stability of microcirculation. Conclusion. (a The distribution of the time to pass microcirculation by diffusing indicator is given by a compound Poisson distribution; (b The permeability of tissue-capillary barrier can be obtained from the means, delay, and dispersions of the dilutions of intravascular and diffusing traces.

  11. MULTIAGENT PLANNING OF INTERSECTION PASSAGE BY AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Zikratov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose a traffic management system for autonomous vehicles that are agents at the intersection. In contrast to the known solutions based on the usage of semiautonomous control systems in assembly with the control unit, this algorithm is based on the principles of decentralized multiagent control. The best travel plan for intersection passage is produced by means of optimization methods jointly by all agents belonging to a dynamic collaboration of autonomous vehicles. The order of road intersection optimal for a given criterion is determined by the agents in the process of information exchange about themselves and environment. Our experiments show that this protocol can reduce significantly the traffic density as compared to the traditional systems of traffic management. Moreover, the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm increases with increasing density of road traffic. In addition, the absence of the critical object, that is the control unit, in the control system, reduces significantly the effectiveness of possible failures and hacker attacks on the intersection control system.

  12. Aging as a social form: the phenomenology of the passage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Alan

    2014-03-01

    If philosophers have discussed life as preparation for death, this seems to make aging coterminous with dying and a melancholy passage that we are condemned to survive. It is important to examine the discourse on aging and end of life and the ways various models either limit possibilities for human agency or suggest means of being innovative in relation to such parameters. I challenge developmental views of aging not by arguing for eternal life, but by using Plato's conception of form in conjunction with Simmel's work and Arendt's meditation on intergenerational solidarity, to evoke a picture of the subject as having capacities that offer avenues for improvisational action. This paper proposes a method for analyzing any social form as a problem-solving situation where the real "problem" is the fundamental ambiguity that inheres in the mix between the finite characteristics of the action and its infinite perplexity. I work through the most conventional chronological view of aging to show how it dramatizes a fundamental ethical collision in life that intensifies anxiety under many conditions, always raising the question of what is to be done with respect to contingency, revealing such "work" as a paradigm of the human condition.

  13. Topographic control of oceanic flows in deep passages and straits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, J. A.

    1998-08-01

    Saddle points between neighboring deep ocean basins are the sites of unidirectional flow from one basin to the next, depending on the source of bottom water. Flow in these sites appears to be topographically controlled so the interface between the bottom water and the water above adjusts itself to permit bottom water flow from the basin that contains a source of bottom water into the next. Examples in the Atlantic include flow in the Romanche Fracture Zone, the Vema Channel, the Ceara Abyssal Plain, the Anegada-Jungfern passage, and the Discovery Gap, but there are many more. Theoretical predictions of volume flux using a method that requires only conductivity-temperature-depth data archives and detailed knowledge of bathymetry near the saddle point are compared with volume flux estimates using current meters and/or geostrophic estimates for seven cases. The ratio of prediction to volume flux estimate ranges from 1.0 to 2.7. Some ocean straits that separate adjacent seas are also found to critically control bidirectional flows between basins. Theory of the influence of rotation on such critical flows is reviewed. Predictions of volume flux in eight cases are compared with ocean estimates of volume flux from traditional methods.

  14. Stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in physics, chemistry, and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitanov, Nikolay V.; Rangelov, Andon A.; Shore, Bruce W.; Bergmann, Klaas

    2017-01-01

    The technique of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP), which allows efficient and selective population transfer between quantum states without suffering loss due to spontaneous emission, was introduced in 1990 by Gaubatz et al.. Since then STIRAP has emerged as an enabling methodology with widespread successful applications in many fields of physics, chemistry, and beyond. This article reviews the many applications of STIRAP emphasizing the developments since 2001, the time when the last major review on the topic was written (Vitanov, Fleischhauer et al.). A brief introduction into the theory of STIRAP and the early applications for population transfer within three-level systems is followed by the discussion of several extensions to multilevel systems, including multistate chains and tripod systems. The main emphasis is on the wide range of applications in atomic and molecular physics (including atom optics, cavity quantum electrodynamics, formation of ultracold molecules, etc.), quantum information (including single- and two-qubit gates, entangled-state preparation, etc.), solid-state physics (including processes in doped crystals, nitrogen-vacancy centers, superconducting circuits, semiconductor quantum dots and wells), and even some applications in classical physics (including waveguide optics, polarization optics, frequency conversion, etc.). Promising new prospects for STIRAP are also presented (including processes in optomechanics, precision experiments, detection of parity violation in molecules, spectroscopy of core-nonpenetrating Rydberg states, population transfer with x-ray pulses, etc.).

  15. Spark PRM: Using RRTs within PRMs to efficiently explore narrow passages

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Kensen

    2014-05-01

    © 2014 IEEE. Probabilistic RoadMaps (PRMs) have been successful for many high-dimensional motion planning problems. However, they encounter difficulties when mapping narrow passages. While many PRM sampling methods have been proposed to increase the proportion of samples within narrow passages, such difficult planning areas still pose many challenges. We introduce a novel algorithm, Spark PRM, that sparks the growth of Rapidly-expanding Random Trees (RRTs) from narrow passage samples generated by a PRM. The RRT rapidly generates further narrow passage samples, ideally until the passage is fully mapped. After reaching a terminating condition, the tree stops growing and is added to the roadmap. Spark PRM is a general method that can be applied to all PRM variants. We study the benefits of Spark PRM with a variety of sampling strategies in a wide array of environments. We show significant speedups in computation time over RRT, Sampling-based Roadmap of Trees (SRT), and various PRM variants.

  16. Spark PRM: Using RRTs within PRMs to efficiently explore narrow passages

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Kensen; Denny, Jory; Amato, Nancy M.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 IEEE. Probabilistic RoadMaps (PRMs) have been successful for many high-dimensional motion planning problems. However, they encounter difficulties when mapping narrow passages. While many PRM sampling methods have been proposed to increase the proportion of samples within narrow passages, such difficult planning areas still pose many challenges. We introduce a novel algorithm, Spark PRM, that sparks the growth of Rapidly-expanding Random Trees (RRTs) from narrow passage samples generated by a PRM. The RRT rapidly generates further narrow passage samples, ideally until the passage is fully mapped. After reaching a terminating condition, the tree stops growing and is added to the roadmap. Spark PRM is a general method that can be applied to all PRM variants. We study the benefits of Spark PRM with a variety of sampling strategies in a wide array of environments. We show significant speedups in computation time over RRT, Sampling-based Roadmap of Trees (SRT), and various PRM variants.

  17. Evaluation of Fish Passage Conditions for Juvenile Salmonids Using Sensor Fish at Detroit Dam, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, Joanne P.

    2010-01-01

    Fish passage conditions through two spillways at Detroit Dam on the North Santiam River in Oregon were evaluated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Portland District, using Sensor Fish devices. The objective of the study was to describe and compare passage exposure conditions through Spillbay 3 and Spillbay 6 at 1.5- and 3.5-ft gate openings, identifying potential fish injury regions of the routes. The study was performed in July 2009, concurrent with HI-Z balloon-tag studies by Normandeau Associates, Inc. Sensor Fish and live fish were deployed at elevations approximately 3 ft above structure at depths determined using a computational fluid dynamics model. Data collected were analyzed to estimate (1) exposure conditions, particularly exposure to severe collision and shear events by passage route sub-regions; (2) differences in passage conditions between passage routes; and (3) relationships to live-fish injury and mortality data estimates.

  18. An experimental evaluation of passage-based process discovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, H.M.W.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; La Rosa, M.; Soffer, P.

    2013-01-01

    In the area of process mining, the ILP Miner is known for the fact that it always returns a Petri net that perfectly fits a given event log. Like for most process discovery algorithms, its complexity is linear in the size of the event log and exponential in the number of event classes (i.e.,

  19. Limites, passages et transformations en jeu dans l’architecture / Limits, passages and transformations involved in Architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younès, Chris

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La manière de tracer des limites et d’opérer des passages par transferts, incursions, interférences notamment, rend compte du mode d’expression propre à l’architecture et de sa façon d’agencer le stable et l’instable, le délimité et l’illimité, la mesure et l’incommensurable, la continuité et la discontinuité. L’art de les mettre en œuvre par le projet architectural, urbain et paysager est une des problématiques de recherche du laboratoire interdisciplinaire Gerjau (philosophie architecture urbain qui a conduit différentes études sur ce sujet et en particulier du point de vue des rapports entre nature et culture./The way in which limits are drawn and passageways are operated for transfers, incursions, and specially interferences, show how architecture has it’s own way of expression that deals with the stable and the unstable, the limited and the unlimited, etc.

  20. THE USE OF THE RITES OF PASSAGE DURING THE WORK WITH AT RISK ADOLESCENTS IN THE EXPERIENCE OF FOREIGN RESEARCHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Yuryevna Lebedeva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the views of foreign psycho-pedagogical researchers on a problem of the rite of passage as a tool of sewage for hostile aggression and spiritual and creativity actualization at risk adolescents. Special attention is drawn to the Western educators’ opinion on the usage of initiation in the temporary children’s associations for adolescents group-integration and the formation of valuable qualities of them. In the conclusion it is shown the perspectives of the application of this psychological and pedagogical technology in the modern Russian system of education.Purpose: analyze the views of the foreign researchers on the usage of the rite of passage (initiation to actualize the spiritual and creative potential at risk adolescents in the temporary children’s associations.Methodology: a large array of sources reflecting the pedagogical experience of the Euro-pean and American researchers of initiation phenomenon has been analyzed. The leading method of the pedagogical research is studying of the teaching staff’s working in Europe and in the United States. As the additional methods of the interpretation and synthesis of the results and the analysis of the publications of the foreign authors are used in the article.Results: on the basis of theoretical and empirical analysis identified that the experience of the modern foreign pedagogy can be applied to develop the educational programs of the actualization of spiritual and creative potential of at risk adolescents by a rite of passage in a temporary children’s associations in Russia, due to which the transformation of personality, the development of creative thinking and correction of aggressive impulses can be successfully achieved.Practical implications: the system of education.

  1. BioC-compatible full-text passage detection for protein-protein interactions using extended dependency graph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yifan; Arighi, Cecilia; Wu, Cathy H; Vijay-Shanker, K

    2016-01-01

    There has been a large growth in the number of biomedical publications that report experimental results. Many of these results concern detection of protein-protein interactions (PPI). In BioCreative V, we participated in the BioC task and developed a PPI system to detect text passages with PPIs in the full-text articles. By adopting the BioC format, the output of the system can be seamlessly added to the biocuration pipeline with little effort required for the system integration. A distinctive feature of our PPI system is that it utilizes extended dependency graph, an intermediate level of representation that attempts to abstract away syntactic variations in text. As a result, we are able to use only a limited set of rules to extract PPI pairs in the sentences, and additional rules to detect additional passages for PPI pairs. For evaluation, we used the 95 articles that were provided for the BioC annotation task. We retrieved the unique PPIs from the BioGRID database for these articles and show that our system achieves a recall of 83.5%. In order to evaluate the detection of passages with PPIs, we further annotated Abstract and Results sections of 20 documents from the dataset and show that an f-value of 80.5% was obtained. To evaluate the generalizability of the system, we also conducted experiments on AIMed, a well-known PPI corpus. We achieved an f-value of 76.1% for sentence detection and an f-value of 64.7% for unique PPI detection.Database URL: http://proteininformationresource.org/iprolink/corpora. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  2. Upper ocean response to the passage of two sequential typhoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Renhao; Li, Chunyan

    2018-02-01

    Two sequential typhoons, separated by five days, Chan-hom and Nangka in the summer of 2015, provided a unique opportunity to study the oceanic response and cold wake evolution. The upper ocean response to the passage of these two typhoons was investigated using multi-satellite, Argo float data and HYCOM global model output. The sea surface cooling (SSC) induced by Chan-hom was gradually enhanced along its track when the storm was intensified while moving over the ocean with shallow mixed layer. The location of maximum cooling of sea surface was determined by the storm's translation speed as well as pre-typhoon oceanic conditions. As a fast-moving storm, Chan-hom induced significant SSC on the right side of its track. Localized maximum cooling patches are found over a cyclonic eddy (CE). An analysis of data from Argo floats near the track of Chan-hom demonstrated that the mixed layer temperature (MLT) and mixed layer depth (MLD) had more variabilities on the right side than those on the left side of Chan-hom's track, while mixed layer salinity (MLS) response was different from those of MLT and MLD with an increase in salinity to the right side and a decrease in salinity to the left side of the track. Subsequently, because of the remnant effect of Chan-hom, the strong upwelling induced by Typhoon Nangka, the pre-existing CE as well as a slow translation speed (process. The enhancement of chlorophyll-a concentrations was also noticed at both the CE region and close to Chan-hom's track.

  3. Jinneography: Post-Soviet passages of traumatic exemplarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigi, Khashayar

    2016-04-01

    While Russia has historically and geographically close ties with Islam, the second most-practiced religion in its vast territories, the collapse of the USSR changed the terms of this relationship in significant ways. One key shift is the emergence of new immigration patterns between Russia and former Soviet states. Traversing distant lands from the peripheries of the Caucasus and Central Asia to mainland Russia in search of work, migrants have come to recognize each other as fellow Muslims dispersed in a theological geography on the ruins of the universal comradeship dreamed by the Soviet utopia. I propose to study the Islamic pedagogical practice of ibra in the context of sociohistorical dynamics of education and migration between Russia and Central Asia to further locate and analyze this shift in relation to current debates on post-Soviet subjectivity. By discussing the case of a spirit possession of a Tajik national performed in Russia, I argue that the collective participation in the session pedagogically invokes, ciphers, and extends the post-Soviet terrains of history as ibra, or exemplary passage of worldly events. To do so, I first locate the Quranic concept of ibra as a pedagogical paradigm in Islamic traditions as well as an ethnographic lens in the context of educational campaigns for the Muslims of Eurasia and then apply the concept to my analysis of the possession session in order to show that in the ritualistic incarnations of ghosts, or jinns, the civil war of Tajikistan and its continuing cycle of terror is ciphered into a desire for learning, as well as a focus on approximation to the divine. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Ebola virus genome plasticity as a marker of its passaging history: a comparison of in vitro passaging to non-human primate infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R Kugelman

    Full Text Available To identify polymorphic sites that could be used as biomarkers of Ebola virus passage history, we repeatedly amplified Ebola virus (Kikwit variant in vitro and in vivo and performed deep sequencing analysis of the complete genomes of the viral subpopulations. We then determined the sites undergoing selection during passage in Vero E6 cells. Four locations within the Ebola virus Kikwit genome were identified that together segregate cell culture-passaged virus and virus obtained from infected non-human primates. Three of the identified sites are located within the glycoprotein gene (GP sequence: the poly-U (RNA editing site at position 6925, as well as positions 6677, and 6179. One site was found in the VP24 gene at position 10833. In all cases, in vitro and in vivo, both populations (majority and minority variants were maintained in the viral swarm, with rapid selections occurring after a few passages or infections. This analysis approach will be useful to differentiate whether filovirus stocks with unknown history have been passaged in cell culture and may support filovirus stock standardization for medical countermeasure development.

  5. Streaks of Life: The Introduction and Translation of a Passage from the Autobiography of Ethel Smyth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Dragičević

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the translated passage, taken from the autobiography of Ethel Smyth, Streaks of Life, the author writes about the position of women in music, her own position—that of a female composer in the early 20th century England. The author speaks of terror and the patronizing diction of patriarchal society. She continues with a critique of media representations, but mostly focuses on difficulties in the attempts to place one’s (woman’s artwork in public space. Despite the fact that she was romantically involved with women throughout her life and wrote about them in her other autobiographical texts, she refuses to connect lesbian identity with her work—perhaps the reason lies in the ‘safety’ of being in a closet, or because of her perceived irrelevance of lesbian identities towards artist’s output. What she emphasizes more is a woman’s perspective—reasonably so, since she was deeply involved with the suffrage movement. In her descriptions, she considers economic and political contexts of the First World War era, which gave the opportunity of holding a (temporary job for women—both in factories and in orchestras. At the end, she returns to specifics of women’s position in society, and calls for a rebellion against the tyranny of the patriarchy.

  6. Edwin Austin Abbey's The Passage of the Hours: Astronomy as History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, P. L.

    2016-01-01

    The Passage of the Hours (1909-1911) in the Pennsylvania State Capitol at Harrisburg is one of the most original and least known astronomical ceilings in the United States. Designed by the American artist Edwin Austin Abbey (1852-1911) to complement the Italian Renaissance style architecture of the House of Representatives, the mural combines two classical traditions of representing the night sky: a celestial map with the constellations of the zodiac and the personifications of the Hours. Set in a shallow dome twenty-four feet in diameter, Abbey's constellation figures float in a dazzling firmament where the Milky Way streams between the Sun and the Moon. The artist placed the Horae of Greek mythology around the dome's circumference in the position of the numbers on an astronomical clock. In the tradition of Italian Renaissance architecture, the celestial ceiling in the House of Representatives was part of an iconographic program affirming the cosmological origin of a polity. The astronomical theme relates to Abbey's murals in the House Chamber of the first public reading of the Declaration of Independence in 1776 from David Rittenhouse's observatory in Philadelphia, which the astronomer constructed to study the transit of Venus in 1769. The artist included a portrait of Rittenhouse holding his telescope among the worthies in the adjacent mural of The Apotheosis of Pennsylvania. Contemporary as well as historical events encouraged Abbey's use of astronomical imagery: the depiction of a comet may record the much-anticipated return of Halley's Comet in 1910.

  7. Physical passaging of embryoid bodies generated from human pluripotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Young Son

    Full Text Available Spherical three-dimensional cell aggregates called embryoid bodies (EBs, have been widely used in in vitro differentiation protocols for human pluripotent stem cells including human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs. Recent studies highlight the new devices and techniques for hEB formation and expansion, but are not involved in the passaging or subculture process. Here, we provide evidence that a simple periodic passaging markedly improved hEB culture condition and thus allowed the size-controlled, mass production of human embryoid bodies (hEBs derived from both hESCs and hiPSCs. hEBs maintained in prolonged suspension culture without passaging (>2 weeks showed a progressive decrease in the cell growth and proliferation and increase in the apoptosis compared to 7-day-old hEBs. However, when serially passaged in suspension, hEB cell populations were significantly increased in number while maintaining the normal rates of cell proliferation and apoptosis and the differentiation potential. Uniform-sized hEBs produced by manual passaging using a 1∶4 split ratio have been successfully maintained for over 20 continuous passages. The passaging culture method of hEBs, which is simple, readily expandable, and reproducible, could be a powerful tool for improving a robust and scalable in vitro differentiation system of human pluripotent stem cells.

  8. Adam Smith on public expenditure and taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício C. Coutinho

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents Adam Smith’s view on taxation and public expenditure, by means of an almost literal reading of the Wealth of Nations famous passages on the "duties of the sovereign" and on the "maxims of taxation". Contrarily to the commonest usage of these passages, we will show that their core is the preoccupation with the public expenditure soaring and the defence of decentralisation. Furthermore and also contrarily to the existing interpretations we defend the non-existence of any contradiction between Smith’s income and price theory (and the incidence hypothesis, provided due attention is paid to the guiding role of the "maxims".

  9. Migratory delay leads to reduced passage success of Atlantic salmon smolts at a hydroelectric dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyqvist, Daniel; Greenberg, L.; Goerig, E.; Calles, O.; Bergman, E.; Ardren, William R.; Castro-Santos, Theodore R.

    2017-01-01

    Passage of fish through hydropower dams is associated with mortality, delay, increased energy expenditure and migratory failure for migrating fish and the need for remedial measures for both upstream and downstream migration is widely recognised. A functional fish passage must ensure safe and timely passage routes that a substantial portion of migrating fish will use. Passage solutions must address not only the number or percentage of fish that successfully pass a barrier, but also the time it takes to pass. Here, we used radiotelemetry to study the functionality of a fish bypass for downstream-migrating wild-caught and hatchery-released Atlantic salmon smolts. We used time-to-event analysis to model the influence of fish characteristics and environmental variables on the rates of a series of events associated with dam passage. Among the modelled events were approach rate to the bypass entry zone, retention rates in both the forebay and the entry zone and passage rates. Despite repeated attempts, only 65% of the tagged fish present in the forebay passed the dam. Fish passed via the bypass (33%), via spill (18%) and via turbines (15%). Discharge was positively related to approach, passage and retention rates. We did not detect any differences between wild and hatchery fish. Even though individual fish visited the forebay and the entry zone on multiple occasions, most fish passed during the first exposures to these zones. This study underscores the importance of timeliness to passage success and the usefulness of time-to-event analysis for understanding factors governing passage performance.

  10. Monitoring of Subyearling Chinook Salmon Survival and Passage at Bonneville Dam, Summer 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate dam passage and route specific survival rates for subyearling Chinook salmon smolts to a primary survival-detection array located 81 km downstream of the dam, evaluate a BGS located in the B2 forebay, and evaluate effects of two spill treatments. The 2010 study also provided estimates of forebay residence time, tailrace egress time, spill passage efficiency (SPE), and spill + B2 Corner Collector (B2CC) efficiency, as required in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords. In addition, the study estimated forebay passage survival and survival of fish traveling from the forebay entrance array, through the dam and downstream through 81 km of tailwater.

  11. Attracting higher income class to public transport in socially clustered cities. The case of Caracas. / Atracción del mayor nivel de ingresos al transporte público en las ciudades socialmente segregadas. El caso de Caracas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flórez, Josefina

    2000-03-01

    people to metro and metro-bus. Also, since the inauguration of the metro, a strong advertising of the service has been promoting its use and creating a different civic behaviour of the system's users. It is well known in Caracas that local people are much more civilised when underground". The aim of the paper is to provide a quantitative explanation of the phenomenon, identifying the sociological variables that have induced the observed changes in modal choice for the higher income class and establishing the influence of the promotion of the metro and metro-bus services in this behaviour. The analysis of the data collected by CA Metro on modal split by income show the existence of a strong correlation between the quality of public transport and the income distribution of users, which can not be explained by tariffs only. The series of data collected over the years allow an econometric analysis of the evolution of the trend. A series of interviews with metro and metro-bus managers, as well as sociologists and social psychologists have helped identify the sociological variables with the highest influence in the travel behaviour of high income population and those quality attributes of metro and metro-bus with most attractiveness. The results could be indicative on how successful policies to induce a change in modal choice from cars to public transport could be implemented even in cities where social segregation is extreme. /En Caracas, como en la mayoría de las ciudades socialmente segregadas, la distribución modal del transporte está muy relacionada con los ingresos. El objetivo de este trabajo es proporcionar una explicación cuantitativa del fenómeno, identificar de las variables sociológicas que han provocado los cambios observados en la elección entre modos de transporte para la clase de ingresos más altos y establecer la influencia de la promoción del metro y de autobús de metro en este comportamiento. El análisis de los datos recogidos por CA Metro sobre

  12. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Distribution at Lookout Point Dam, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Royer, Ida M.; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.; Trott, Donna M.; Ploskey, Gene R.

    2011-07-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at Lookout Point Dam (LOP) on the Middle Fork Willamette River. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE). The goal of the study was to provide fish passage and distribution data to support decisions on long-term measures to enhance downstream passage at LOP and others dams in USACE’s Willamette Valley Project in response to the listing of Upper Willamette River Spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Upper Willamette River steelhead (O. mykiss) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. During the year-long study period - February 1, 2010 to January 31, 2011the objectives of the hydroacoustic evaluation of fish passage and distribution at LOP were to: 1. Estimate passage rates, run timing, horizontal distribution, and diel distribution at turbine penstock intakes for smolt-size fish. 2. Estimate passage rates, run timing and diel distribution at turbine penstock intakes for small-size fish. 3. Estimate passage rates and run timing at the regulating outlets for smolt-size fish. 4. Estimate vertical distribution of smolt-size fish in the forebay near the upstream face of the dam. The fixed-location hydroacoustic technique was used to accomplish the objectives of this study. Transducers (420 kHz) were deployed in each penstock intake, above each RO entrance, and on the dam face; a total of nine transducers (2 single-beam and 7 split-beam) were used. We summarize the findings from the hydroacoustic evaluation of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at LOP during February 2010 through January 2011 as follows. • Fish passage rates for smolt-size fish (> ~90 mm) were highest during December-January and lowest in mid-summer through early fall. • During the entire study period, an estimated total of 142,463 fish ± 4,444 (95% confidence interval) smolt

  13. Fish Passage Assessment: Big Canyon Creek Watershed, Technical Report 2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, Richard

    2004-02-01

    This report presents the results of the fish passage assessment as outlined as part of the Protect and Restore the Big Canyon Creek Watershed project as detailed in the CY2003 Statement of Work (SOW). As part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (FWP), this project is one of Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) many efforts at off-site mitigation for damage to salmon and steelhead runs, their migration, and wildlife habitat caused by the construction and operation of federal hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River and its tributaries. The proposed restoration activities within the Big Canyon Creek watershed follow the watershed restoration approach mandated by the Fisheries and Watershed Program. Nez Perce Tribal Fisheries/Watershed Program vision focuses on protecting, restoring, and enhancing watersheds and treaty resources within the ceded territory of the Nez Perce Tribe under the Treaty of 1855 with the United States Federal Government. The program uses a holistic approach, which encompasses entire watersheds, ridge top to ridge top, emphasizing all cultural aspects. We strive toward maximizing historic ecosystem productive health, for the restoration of anadromous and resident fish populations. The Nez Perce Tribal Fisheries/Watershed Program (NPTFWP) sponsors the Protect and Restore the Big Canyon Creek Watershed project. The NPTFWP has the authority to allocate funds under the provisions set forth in their contract with BPA. In the state of Idaho vast numbers of relatively small obstructions, such as road culverts, block thousands of miles of habitat suitable for a variety of fish species. To date, most agencies and land managers have not had sufficient, quantifiable data to adequately address these barrier sites. The ultimate objective of this comprehensive inventory and assessment was to identify all barrier crossings within the watershed. The barriers were then prioritized according to the

  14. Temporary Restoration of Bull Trout Passage at Albeni Falls Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paluch, Mark; Scholz, Allan; McLellan, Holly [Eastern Washington University Department of Biology; Olson, Jason [Kalispel Tribe of Indians Natural Resources Department

    2009-07-13

    This study was designed to monitor movements of bull trout that were provided passage above Albeni Falls Dam, Pend Oreille River. Electrofishing and angling were used to collect bull trout below the dam. Tissue samples were collected from each bull trout and sent to the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service Abernathy Fish Technology Center Conservation Genetics Lab, Washington. The DNA extracted from tissue samples were compared to a catalog of bull trout population DNA from the Priest River drainage, Lake Pend Oreille tributaries, and the Clark Fork drainage to determine the most probable tributary of origin. A combined acoustic radio or radio tag was implanted in each fish prior to being transported and released above the dam. Bull trout relocated above the dam were able to volitionally migrate into their natal tributary, drop back downstream, or migrate upstream to the next dam. A combination of stationary radio receiving stations and tracking via aircraft, boat, and vehicle were used to monitor the movement of tagged fish to determine if the spawning tributary it selected matched the tributary assigned from the genetic analysis. Seven bull trout were captured during electrofishing surveys in 2008. Of these seven, four were tagged and relocated above the dam. Two were tagged and left below the dam as part of a study monitoring movements below the dam. One was immature and too small at the time of capture to implant a tracking tag. All four fish released above the dam passed by stationary receivers stations leading into Lake Pend Oreille and no fish dropped back below the dam. One of the radio tags was recovered in the tributary corresponding with the results of the genetic test. Another fish was located in the vicinity of its assigned tributary, which was impassable due to low water discharge at its mouth. Two fish have not been located since entering the lake. Of these fish, one was immature and not expected to enter its natal tributary in the fall of 2008. The other

  15. Downstream fish passage guide walls: A hydraulic scale model analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Kevin; Towler, Brett; Haro, Alexander J.; Ahlfeld, David P.

    2018-01-01

    Partial-depth guide walls are used to improve passage efficiency and reduce the delay of out-migrating anadromous fish species by guiding fish to a bypass route (i.e. weir, pipe, sluice gate) that circumvents the turbine intakes, where survival is usually lower. Evaluation and monitoring studies, however, indicate a high propensity for some fish to pass underneath, rather than along, the guide walls, compromising their effectiveness. In the present study we evaluated a range of guide wall structures to identify where/if the flow field shifts from sweeping (i.e. flow direction primarily along the wall and towards the bypass) to downward-dominant. Many migratory fish species, particularly juveniles, are known to drift with the flow and/or exhibit rheotactic behaviour during their migration. When these behaviours are present, fish follow the path of the flow field. Hence, maintaining a strong sweeping velocity in relation to the downward velocity along a guide wall is essential to successful fish guidance. Nine experiments were conducted to measure the three-dimensional velocity components upstream of a scale model guide wall set at a wide range of depths and angles to flow. Results demonstrated how each guide wall configuration affected the three-dimensional velocity components, and hence the downward and sweeping velocity, along the full length of the guide wall. In general, the velocities produced in the scale model were sweeping dominant near the water surface and either downward dominant or close to the transitional depth near the bottom of the guide wall. The primary exception to this shift from sweeping do downward flow was for the minimum guide wall angle tested in this study (15°). At 15° the flow pattern was fully sweeping dominant for every cross-section, indicating that a guide wall with a relatively small angle may be more likely to produce conditions favorable to efficient guidance. A critical next step is to evaluate the behaviour of migratory fish as

  16. Europa Passage, Hamburg. Pumps ensure thermal comfort at all levels; Die Europa Passage in Hamburg. Pumpen sorgen fuer Komfort auf allen Ebenen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teders, Klaus

    2009-07-01

    The Europa Passage at Hamburg is a new shopping mall located directly on the Binnenalster river. It was constructed in 2006 and has 30,000 m{sup 2} of shop floor on five levels, which makes it one of Germany's biggest shopping malls. It is frequented every day by up to 40,000 visitors and more than 50,000 visitors on saturdays. In order to ensure optimum comfort even in peak times, the passage is equipped with state-of-the-art technical facilities. Energy-efficient pumps ensure reliable supply of all technical facilities. (orig.)

  17. Delayed Release from Proactive Interference with Meaningful Material: How Much Do We Remember After Reading Brief Prose Passages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Gary B.; Robbins, Donald

    1977-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted, investigating the buildup of and the release from proactive interference, in which the stimulus materials were brief prose passages about specific topics. Each passage was followed by a multiple-choice test, and then a final test on all the passages read was given. Implications of the data for standardized tests…

  18. Rediscovering Rites of Passage: Education, Transformation, and the Transition to Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Adam Lertzman

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on rites of passage as a model for wilderness programs. It draws on my experience in the field, particularly with Native youth in a community-based program called "Rediscovery." The Rediscovery program is discussed, along with concepts of traditional indigenous knowledge and education. Foundational concepts of rites of passage are described in terms of their relevance to youth, outdoor education, and the Rediscovery program in particular. Using Rediscovery as a model, rites of passage are put forward as an educational process for youth from various cultural backgrounds. In this context, the purpose of education is to cultivate self-knowledge and to foster core personal development: the making of whole human beings. The paper closes with a reflection on my work with traditional indigenous people and the significance of rites of passage for education, cultural transformation, and the transition to ecological sustainability.

  19. Apparent seed digestibility and germination of seeds after passage through the digestive system of northern bobwhite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limited information is available regarding the digestibility or germination of seed after the passage through the digestive system of northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), especially of plants associated with the sand sagebrush (Artemisia filifolia)-mixed prairie community. Thus, our objectives...

  20. Mechanical properties of cancer cells depend on number of passages: Atomic force microscopy indentation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokukin, Maxim E.; Guz, Natalia V.; Sokolov, Igor

    2017-08-01

    Here we investigate one of the key questions in cell biology, if the properties of cell lines depend on the number of passages in-vitro. It is generally assumed that the change of cell properties (phenotypic drift) is insignificant when the number of passages is low (cell body and parameters of the pericellular brush layer from indentation force curves, which are recorded by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM). Using this method, we tested the change of the cell properties of human cancer breast epithelial cell line, MCF-7 (ATCC® HTB-22™), within the passages between 2 and 10. In contrast to the previous expectations, we observed a substantial transient change of the elastic modulus of the cell body during the first four passages (up to 4 times). The changes in the parameters of the pericellular coat were less dramatic (up to 2 times) but still statistically significant.

  1. Perfil da publicação científica brasileira sobre a temática da classe hospitalar Profile of Brazilian scientific publications on the subject of hospital shooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Santana Soares e Barros

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi descrever o perfi l da publicação científi ca brasileira sobre a temática da escolarização em hospitais, iniciativa justifi cada a partir do reconhecimento da importância da produção científi ca na legitimação e consolidação de uma nova área do saber. Foram analisados 47 artigos publicadosem periódicos científi cos entre os anos de 1997 e 2008. Tratou-se, basicamente, de um estudo de avaliação do Estado do Conhecimento (ou Estado da Arte de uma área de interesse crescente dentro da Educação Especial: a escolarização de crianças hospitalizadas e/ou doentes crônicas, designada pelo MEC segundo o termo Classe Hospitalar. Do ponto de vista do corpus empírico, tratou-se de uma pesquisa documental, alicerçada metodologicamente na Análise de Conteúdo. Os artigos da amostra foram quantifi cados e qualifi cados segundo o tipo de investimento empírico predominante, quais fossem: ensaio, relato de experiência, relatos de pesquisa original (pesquisa com desenho de investigação ou revisão de literatura. Buscou-se, também, identifi car se o periódico ao qual o artigo pertencia encontrava-se indexado em bases de dados: SciELO, Edubase, Bireme e catálogo do INEP. Descreveu-se, ainda, a distribuição dos artigos por área de conhecimento e por instituições de onde provinham. Os principais resultados obtidos revelaram que dos 47 artigos analisados 22 foram classifi cados como sendo oriundos de pesquisa original, apenas dois periódicos encontravam-se indexados em todas as bases de dados consideradas em relevância e as publicações foram originadas, em sua grande parte, da atividade de pesquisadores estabelecidos em instituições federais de ensino superior.The aim of this paper was to describe the profi le of Brazilian scientifi c publications on the topic of education in hospitals, an initiative justifi ed since the recognition of the importance of scientifi c output in legitimizing and

  2. Knotting probabilities after a local strand passage in unknotted self-avoiding polygons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szafron, M L; Soteros, C E

    2011-01-01

    We investigate, both theoretically and numerically, the knotting probabilities after a local strand passage is performed in an unknotted self-avoiding polygon (SAP) on the simple cubic lattice. In the polygons studied, it is assumed that two polygon segments have already been brought close together for the purpose of performing a strand passage. This restricts the polygons considered to those that contain a specific pattern called Θ at a fixed location; an unknotted polygon containing Θ is called a Θ-SAP. It is proved that the number of n-edge Θ-SAPs grows exponentially (with n) at the same rate as the total number of n-edge unknotted SAPs (those with no prespecified strand passage structure). Furthermore, it is proved that the same holds for subsets of n-edge Θ-SAPs that yield a specific after-strand-passage knot-type. Thus, the probability of a given after-strand-passage knot-type does not grow (or decay) exponentially with n. Instead, it is conjectured that these after-strand-passage knot probabilities approach, as n goes to infinity, knot-type dependent amplitude ratios lying strictly between 0 and 1. This conjecture is supported by numerical evidence from Monte Carlo data generated using a composite (aka multiple) Markov chain Monte Carlo BFACF algorithm developed to study Θ-SAPs. A new maximum likelihood method is used to estimate the critical exponents relevant to this conjecture. We also obtain strong numerical evidence that the after-strand-passage knotting probability depends on the local structure around the strand-passage site. If the local structure and the crossing sign at the strand-passage site are considered, then we observe that the more 'compact' the local structure, the less likely the after-strand-passage polygon is to be knotted. This trend for compactness versus knotting probability is consistent with results obtained for other strand-passage models; however, we are the first to note the influence of the crossing-sign information. We

  3. Rough passage in USA for first breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, C.

    1975-01-01

    The present status of the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) programme in the USA is reviewed, including administrative and technical problems. This programme is stated to be the highest priority energy research and development project supported by public funds, estimated at present to cost more than 10,000 million dollars, but it is beset by difficulties and criticism. (U.K.)

  4. Fish passage at road crossings: an annotated bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynette Anderson; Mason. Bryant

    1980-01-01

    A report of special interest to fishery biologists, resource managers, hydrologists, and road engineers, this bibliography lists publications pertinent to road crossings of salmon and trout streams. Topics include bridge and culvert installation, design criteria, mechanics, hydraulics, and economics, as well as their biological effects.

  5. Differentiation potential of STRO-1+ dental pulp stem cells changes during cell passaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ruoning

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs can be driven into odontoblast, osteoblast, and chondrocyte lineages in different inductive media. However, the differentiation potential of naive DPSCs after serial passaging in the routine culture system has not been fully elucidated. Results DPSCs were isolated from human/rat dental pulps by the magnetic activated cell sorting based on STRO-1 expression, cultured and passaged in the conventional culture media. The biological features of STRO-1+ DPSCs at the 1st and 9th passages were investigated. During the long-term passage, the proliferation ability of human STRO-1+ DPSCs was downregulated as indicated by the growth kinetics. When compared with STRO-1+ DPSCs at the 1st passage (DPSC-P1, the expression of mature osteoblast-specific genes/proteins (alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoprotein, osterix, and osteopontin, odontoblast-specific gene/protein (dentin sialophosphoprotein and dentin sialoprotein, and chondrocyte-specific gene/protein (type II collagen was significantly upregulated in human STRO-1+ DPSCs at the 9th passage (DPSC-P9. Furthermore, human DPSC-P9 cells in the mineralization-inducing media presented higher levels of alkaline phosphatase at day 3 and day 7 respectively, and produced more mineralized matrix than DPSC-P9 cells at day 14. In vivo transplantation results showed that rat DPSC-P1 cell pellets developed into dentin, bone and cartilage structures respectively, while DPSC-P9 cells can only generate bone tissues. Conclusions These findings suggest that STRO-1+ DPSCs consist of several interrelated subpopulations which can spontaneously differentiate into odontoblasts, osteoblasts, and chondrocytes. The differentiation capacity of these DPSCs changes during cell passaging, and DPSCs at the 9th passage restrict their differentiation potential to the osteoblast lineage in vivo.

  6. Mussel Spat Ropes Assist Redfin Bully Gobiomorphus huttoni Passage through Experimental Culverts with Velocity Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D. Tonkin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of mussel spat rope for enabling the passage of redfin bully Gobiomorphus huttoni through culverts, which create velocity barriers, was trialled in the laboratory. No fish were able to access the un-roped control pipes whereas 52% successfully negotiated the pipes in the rope treatments. The success of fish ascending treatment pipes suggests mussel spat rope may be effective for enabling the passage of this and other similar fish species through otherwise impassable culverts with velocity barriers.

  7. Experimental study of the influence of flow passage subtle variation on mixed-flow pump performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Hao; Cao, Shuliang

    2014-05-01

    In the mixed-flow pump design, the shape of the flow passage can directly affect the flow capacity and the internal flow, thus influencing hydraulic performance, cavitation performance and operation stability of the mixed-flow pump. However, there is currently a lack of experimental research on the influence mechanism. Therefore, in order to analyze the effects of subtle variations of the flow passage on the mixed-flow pump performance, the frustum cone surface of the end part of inlet contraction flow passage of the mixed-flow pump is processed into a cylindrical surface and a test rig is built to carry out the hydraulic performance experiment. In this experiment, parameters, such as the head, the efficiency, and the shaft power, are measured, and the pressure fluctuation and the noise signal are also collected. The research results suggest that after processing the inlet flow passage, the head of the mixed-flow pump significantly goes down; the best efficiency of the mixed-flow pump drops by approximately 1.5%, the efficiency decreases more significantly under the large flow rate; the shaft power slightly increases under the large flow rate, slightly decreases under the small flow rate. In addition, the pressure fluctuation amplitudes on both the impeller inlet and the diffuser outlet increase significantly with more drastic pressure fluctuations and significantly lower stability of the internal flow of the mixed-flow pump. At the same time, the noise dramatically increases. Overall speaking, the subtle variation of the inlet flow passage leads to a significant change of the mixed-flow pump performance, thus suggesting a special attention to the optimization of flow passage. This paper investigates the influence of the flow passage variation on the mixed-flow pump performance by experiment, which will benefit the optimal design of the flow passage of the mixed-flow pump.

  8. Comparison of the surface contamination of class A shielded containment gloves and a standard shielded containment - professional practices evaluation radiopharmacy Public assistance Marseille hospitals; Comparaison de la contamination de surface des gants d'une enceinte blindee de classe A et d'une enceinte blindee Standard - EPP radiopharmacie APHM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, V.; Giraud, F.; Pisano, P.; Guillet, B. [CHU Nord, Marseille, Service de radiopharmacie, 13 (France); CHU Timone, service de radiopharmacie, 13 - Marseille (France)

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: The pole of Pharmacy of 'Assistance Publique des Hopitaux de Marseille' initiated a process of evaluation of professional practice. The two functional units of radiopharmacy are involved by comparing the surface contamination of gloves of a class A cell and a standard shielded cell, both in class D premises. Conclusions: In a shielded Class A cell placed in class D premises, there is microbial contamination of gloves probably due to the introduction of not disinfected equipment. In a standard shielded cell where contamination is most important, gloves cleaning should be performed several times during the workday, at least every four hours with a surface bactericidal and fungicidal agent. (N.C.)

  9. Class 1 Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A "Class 1" area is a geographic area recognized by the EPA as being of the highest environmental quality and requiring maximum protection. Class I areas are areas...

  10. PRCR Classes and Activities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Cary, North Carolina — This data is specific to Parks and Recreation classes, workshops, and activities within the course catalog. It contains an entry for upcoming classes.*This data set...

  11. Review of mitigation methods for fish passage, instream flows, and water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Railsback, S.F.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on current environmental mitigation practices at nonfederal hydropower projects. Information was obtained from project operators on dissolved oxygen (DO) mitigation, instream flows, upstream fish passage facilities, and downstream fish passage facilities. The most common method for DO mitigation is the use of spill flows, which are costly because of lost power generation. DO concentrations are commonly monitored, but biological effects of DO mitigation are not. At many projects, instream flow requirements have been set without reference to formalized methods. About half of the projects with instream flow requirements monitor flow rates, but few monitor fish populations to verify that instream flows are effective. Angled bar racks are the most commonly used downstream fish passage devices and fish ladders are the most commonly used upstream fish passage devices. Fish passage rates or populations have been monitored to verify the effectiveness of passage mitigation at few projects. This analysis is the first phase of an evaluation of the costs, benefits, and effectiveness of mitigation measures

  12. Walla Walla River Fish Passage Operations Project : Annual Progress Report October 2007 - September 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronson, James P.; Duke, Bill; Loffink, Ken

    2008-12-30

    In the late 1990s, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, along with many other agencies, began implementing fisheries restoration activities in the Walla Walla Basin. An integral part of these efforts is to alleviate the inadequate fish migration conditions in the basin. Migration concerns are being addressed by removing diversion structures, constructing fish passage facilities, implementing minimum instream flow requirements, and providing trap and haul efforts when needed. The objective of the Walla Walla River Fish Passage Operations Project is to increase the survival of migrating adult and juvenile salmonids in the Walla Walla River basin. The project is responsible for coordinating operation and maintenance of ladders, screen sites, bypasses, trap facilities, and transportation equipment. In addition, the project provides technical input on passage and trapping facility design, operation, and criteria. Operation of the various passage facilities and passage criteria guidelines are outlined in an annual operations plan that the project develops. Beginning in March of 2007, two work elements from the Walla Walla Fish Passage Operations Project were transferred to other projects. The work element Enumeration of Adult Migration at Nursery Bridge Dam is now conducted under the Walla Walla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation Project and the work element Provide Transportation Assistance is conducted under the Umatilla Satellite Facilities Operation and Maintenance Project. Details of these activities can be found in those project's respective annual reports.

  13. Effect of electric barrier on passage and physical condition of juvenile and adult rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layhee, Megan J.; Sepulveda, Adam; Shaw, Amy; Smuckall, Matthew; Kapperman, Kevin; Reyes, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Electric barriers can inhibit passage and injure fish. Few data exist on electric barrier parameters that minimize these impacts and on how body size affects susceptibility, especially to nontarget fish species. The goal of this study was to determine electric barrier voltage and pulse-width settings that inhibit passage of larger bodied rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (215–410 mm fork length) while allowing passage of smaller bodied juvenile rainbow trout (52–126 mm) in a static laboratory setting. We exposed rainbow trout to 30-Hz pulsed-direct current voltage gradients (0.00–0.45 V cm−1) and pulse widths (0.0–0.7 ms) and recorded their movement, injury incidence, and mortality. No settings tested allowed all juveniles to pass while impeding all adult passage. Juvenile and adult rainbow trout avoided the barrier at higher pulse widths, and fewer rainbow trout passed the barrier at 0.7-ms pulse width compared to 0.1 ms and when the barrier was turned off. We found no effect of voltage gradient on fish passage. No mortality occurred, and we observed external bruising in 5 (7%) juvenile rainbow trout and 15 (21%) adult rainbow trout. This study may aid managers in selecting barrier settings that allow for increased juvenile passage.

  14. Time Perspective and Emotion Regulation as Predictors of Age-Related Subjective Passage of Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Marc; Rudolph, Tina; Linares Gutierrez, Damisela; Winkler, Isabell

    2015-01-01

    Hardly any empirical work exists concerning the relationship between the intra-individually stable time perspective relating to the past, present, and future and the subjective speed of time passing in everyday life. Moreover, studies consistently show that the subjective passage of time over the period of the last ten years speeds up as we get older. Modulating variables influencing this phenomenon are still unknown. To investigate these two unresolved issues, we conducted an online survey with n = 423 participants ranging in age between 17 and 81 assessing trait time perspective of the past, present, and future, and relating these subscales with a battery of measures pertaining to the subjective passage of time. Moreover, the subjective passage of time as an age-dependent variable was probed in relationship to emotion awareness, appraisal and regulation. Results show how present hedonism is linked with having fewer routines in life and a faster passage of the last week; the past negative perspective is related to time pressure, time expansion and more routine; a pronounced future perspective is related to a general faster passage of time. Importantly, increased emotion regulation and a balanced time perspective are related to a slower passage of the last ten years. These novel findings are discussed within models of time perception and the time perspective. PMID:26694439

  15. Time Perspective and Emotion Regulation as Predictors of Age-Related Subjective Passage of Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Marc; Rudolph, Tina; Linares Gutierrez, Damisela; Winkler, Isabell

    2015-12-17

    Hardly any empirical work exists concerning the relationship between the intra-individually stable time perspective relating to the past, present, and future and the subjective speed of time passing in everyday life. Moreover, studies consistently show that the subjective passage of time over the period of the last ten years speeds up as we get older. Modulating variables influencing this phenomenon are still unknown. To investigate these two unresolved issues, we conducted an online survey with n = 423 participants ranging in age between 17 and 81 assessing trait time perspective of the past, present, and future, and relating these subscales with a battery of measures pertaining to the subjective passage of time. Moreover, the subjective passage of time as an age-dependent variable was probed in relationship to emotion awareness, appraisal and regulation. Results show how present hedonism is linked with having fewer routines in life and a faster passage of the last week; the past negative perspective is related to time pressure, time expansion and more routine; a pronounced future perspective is related to a general faster passage of time. Importantly, increased emotion regulation and a balanced time perspective are related to a slower passage of the last ten years. These novel findings are discussed within models of time perception and the time perspective.

  16. Time Perspective and Emotion Regulation as Predictors of Age-Related Subjective Passage of Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Wittmann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hardly any empirical work exists concerning the relationship between the intra-individually stable time perspective relating to the past, present, and future and the subjective speed of time passing in everyday life. Moreover, studies consistently show that the subjective passage of time over the period of the last ten years speeds up as we get older. Modulating variables influencing this phenomenon are still unknown. To investigate these two unresolved issues, we conducted an online survey with n = 423 participants ranging in age between 17 and 81 assessing trait time perspective of the past, present, and future, and relating these subscales with a battery of measures pertaining to the subjective passage of time. Moreover, the subjective passage of time as an age-dependent variable was probed in relationship to emotion awareness, appraisal and regulation. Results show how present hedonism is linked with having fewer routines in life and a faster passage of the last week; the past negative perspective is related to time pressure, time expansion and more routine; a pronounced future perspective is related to a general faster passage of time. Importantly, increased emotion regulation and a balanced time perspective are related to a slower passage of the last ten years. These novel findings are discussed within models of time perception and the time perspective.

  17. Diametric growth and time of passage of Minquartia guianensis after logging at Tapajós National Forest, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia Grazielle Carvalho Andrade

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Minquartia guianensis Aubl. (acariquara occurs at Acre, Amazonas, Roraima, Pará and Amapá states, with a great market demand and utility in the Amazon region. It is used mainly in civil construction due to its high durability and singular beauty, because of reentrances in its trunk, resulting in high market value. Most of used trees present small diameters, what is a critical factor for their management and commercialization. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate M. guianensis diametric growth and cutting cycle through the analysis of time of passage among diameter classes, 31 years after logging, at Tapajós National Forest, Pará State, Brazil. Five treatments were established and in each one 12 permanent sample plots of 0.25 ha were installed. All trees with diameter at 1.3 m above ground level (DBH ≥ 5 cm were measured from 1981 to 2012. Trees with DBH ≤ 50 cm have potential to be managed, due to the growth stagnation presented in larger diameter classes. These results may support silvicultural decisions to sustainable management.

  18. Class Notes for "Class-Y-News."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Judy L.

    1991-01-01

    A self-contained class of students with mild to moderate disabilities published a monthly newsletter which was distributed to students' families. Students became involved in writing, typing, drawing, folding, basic editing, and disseminating. (JDD)

  19. Classed identities in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Jay, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    peer-reviewed The central argument of this thesis is that social class remains a persistent system of inequality in education, health, life chances and opportunities. Therefore class matters. But why is it that so little attention has been paid to class in the psychological literature? Three papers are presented here which draw together theoretical advances in psychological understandings of group processes and sociological understandings of the complexity of class. As western labour marke...

  20. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Distribution at Detroit Dam, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Fenton; Royer, Ida M.; Johnson, Gary E.; Ham, Kenneth D.

    2012-11-15

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at Detroit Dam (DET) on the North Santiam River, Oregon for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to provide data to support decisions on long-term measures to enhance downstream passage at DET and others dams in USACE’s Willamette Valley Project. This study was conducted in response to regulatory requirements necessitated by the listing of Upper Willamette River Spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Upper Willamette River steelhead (O. mykiss) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. The goal of the study was to provide information of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at DET from February 2011 through February 2012. The results of the hydroacoustic study provide new and, in some cases, first-ever data on passage estimates, run timing, distributions, and relationships between fish passage and environmental variables at the dam. This information will inform management decisions on the design and development of surface passage and collection devices to help restore Chinook salmon populations in the North Santiam River watershed above DET. During the entire study period, an estimated total of 182,526 smolt-size fish (±4,660 fish, 95% CI) passed through turbine penstock intakes. Run timing peaked in winter and early spring months. Passage rates were highest during late fall, winter and early spring months and low during summer. Horizontal distribution for hours when both turbine units were operated simultaneously indicated Unit 2 passed almost twice as much fish as Unit 1. Diel distribution for smolt-size fish during the study period was fairly uniform, indicating fish were passing the turbines at all times of the day. A total of 5,083 smolt-size fish (± 312 fish, 95% CI) were estimated passed via the spillway when it was open between June 23 and September 27, 2011. Daily passage was low at the spillway during the June-August period, and

  1. The Cultures of Social Class and Religious Educational Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpin, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    Although social class impacts the assumptions, values, and normative practices of Religious Education, the lack of public discourse on class diminishes awareness of and critical reflection on this impact. This article describes social class as a largely unarticulated and embodied performance of identity inflected through hierarchical practices of…

  2. Loosely coupled class families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2001-01-01

    are expressed using virtual classes seem to be very tightly coupled internally. While clients have achieved the freedom to dynamically use one or the other family, it seems that any given family contains a xed set of classes and we will need to create an entire family of its own just in order to replace one...... of the members with another class. This paper shows how to express class families in such a manner that the classes in these families can be used in many dierent combinations, still enabling family polymorphism and ensuring type safety....

  3. Primary care pediatrics and public health: meeting the needs of today's children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Alice A; Etzel, Ruth A; Chilton, Lance A; Watson, Camille; Gorski, Peter A

    2012-12-01

    The proportion of children suffering from chronic illnesses--such as asthma and obesity, which have significant environmental components--is increasing. Chronic disease states previously seen only in adulthood are emerging during childhood, and health inequalities by social class are increasing. Advocacy to ensure environmental health and to protect from the biological embedding of toxic stress has become a fundamental part of pediatrics. We have presented the rationale for addressing environmental and social determinants of children's health, the epidemiology of issues facing children's health, recent innovations in pediatric medical education that have incorporated public health principles, and policy opportunities that have arisen with the passage of the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

  4. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Distribution at Lookout Point Dam, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Royer, Ida M.; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.; Trott, Donna M.; Ploskey, Gene R.

    2012-05-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at Lookout Point Dam (LOP) on the Middle Fork Willamette River for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE), to provide data to support decisions on long-term measures to enhance downstream passage at LOP and others dams in USACE's Willamette Valley Project. This study was conducted in response to the listing of Upper Willamette River Spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Upper Willamette River steelhead (O. mykiss) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. We conducted a hydroacoustic evaluation of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at LOP during February 2010 through January 2011. Findings from this 1 year of study should be applied carefully because annual variation can be expected due to variability in adult salmon escapement, egg-to-fry and fry-to-smolt survival rates, reservoir rearing and predation, dam operations, and weather. Fish passage rates for smolt-size fish (> {approx}90 mm and < 300 mm) were highest during December-January and lowest in mid-summer through early fall. Passage peaks were also evident in early spring, early summer, and late fall. During the entire study period, an estimated total of 142,463 fish {+-} 4,444 (95% confidence interval) smolt-size fish passed through turbine penstock intakes. Of this total, 84% passed during December-January. Run timing for small-size fish ({approx}65-90 mm) peaked (702 fish) on December 18. Diel periodicity of smolt-size fish showing crepuscular peaks was evident in fish passage into turbine penstock intakes. Relatively few fish passed into the Regulating Outlets (ROs) when they were open in summer (2 fish/d) and winter (8 fish/d). Overall, when the ROs were open, RO efficiency (RO passage divided by total project passage) was 0.004. In linear regression analyses, daily fish passage (turbines and ROs combined) for smolt-size fish was significantly related to

  5. High-flow, low-head pumps provide safe passage for Pacific salmon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2004-01-01

    The installation of 29 ultra-low head, high capacity submersible pump and auxiliary equipment at the Rocky Reach Dam in Washington State to allow juvenile salmon safe passage on their journey down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean is described. The reputed cost of the project is US$160 million; its purpose is to get juvenile salmon safely around the Rocky Reach Dam without interfering with the dam's original mission of generating electric power. The project is the most expensive fish bypass on any Columbia River dam. Getting the salmon safely around the dam is intended to reduce the impact of hydroelectric power projects on the basin's salmon stocks which are now estimated at less than 10 per cent of their historic size, despite major hatchery programs. The Columbia River has the second largest volume flow of any river in the United States, and millions of people depend on it for employment in water-related industries, and for transportation. The new horizontally installed propeller pump was developed by ITT Flygt; it utilizes planetary gear reduced to match the motor speed with the propeller rpm. Each 90 kW propeller pump has a flow rate of seven cubic meters per second at a head of 0.55 metres. The auxiliary equipment includes 10 racks of flap gates to prevent reverse flow, electric controls, remote supervision, testing, installation and maintenance facilities. It is anticipated that the new bypass will allow the Chelan County Public Utility Department, owners of the facility, to phase out all current spills, except for a 16 per cent spill for 40 days each spring for Sockeye salmon which tend to travel too deep to use the bypass. Prior to installation of this new facility, 60 to 70 per cent of average daily flow in the spring and summer had to be sacrificed to accommodate all species of salmon and steelhead, with corresponding losses of power generating capacity

  6. Walla Walla River Fish Passage Operations Program, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronson, James P. (Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Department of Natural Resources, Pendleton, OR); Duke, Bill B. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Pendleton, OR)

    2006-02-01

    In the late 1990s, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, along with many other agencies, began implementing fisheries restoration activities in the Walla Walla Basin. An integral part of these efforts is to alleviate the inadequate fish migration conditions in the basin. The migration concerns are being addressed by removing diversion structures, constructing fish passage facilities, implementing minimum instream flow requirements, and providing trap and haul efforts when needed. The objective of the Walla Walla River Fish Passage Operations Project is to increase the survival of migrating adult and juvenile salmonids in the Walla Walla River basin. The project is responsible for coordinating operation and maintenance of ladders, screen sites, bypasses, trap facilities, and transportation equipment. In addition, the project provides technical input on passage criteria and passage and trapping facility design and operation. Operation of the various passage facilities and passage criteria guidelines are outlined in an annual operations plan that the project develops. During the 2004-2005 project year, there were 590 adult summer steelhead, 31 summer steelhead kelts (Oncorhynchus mykiss), 70 adult bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus); 80 adult and 1 jack spring Chinook (O. tshawytscha) enumerated at the Nursery Bridge Dam fishway video counting window between December 13, 2004, and June 16, 2005. Summer steelhead and spring chinook were observed moving upstream while bull trout were observed moving both upstream and downstream of the facility. In addition, the old ladder trap was operated by ODFW in order to enumerate fish passage. Of the total, 143 adult summer steelhead and 15 summer steelhead kelts were enumerated at the west ladder at Nursery Bridge Dam during the video efforts between February 4 and May 23, 2005. Operation of the Little Walla Walla River

  7. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage at The Dalles Dam Spillway, 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Khan, Fenton; Skalski, John R.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Serkowski, John A.

    2007-05-24

    The objective of this study was to determine detailed vertical, horizontal, intensive, and diel distributions of juvenile salmonid passage at the spillway at The Dalles Dam from April 12 to July16, 2006. These data are being applied in the Spillway Improvements Program to position release pipes for direct injury and mortality studies and to provide baseline data for assessment of the vortex suppression devices scheduled for deployment in 2007. We estimated fish distributions from hydroacoustic data collected with split-beam transducers arrayed across Bays 1 through 9 and 14. Spill at ~20 kcfs per bay was bulked at Bays 1-6, although the other bays were opened at times during the study to maintain a 40% spill percentage out of total project discharge. The vertical distribution of fish was skewed toward the surface during spring, but during summer, passage peaked at 2-3 m above the spillway ogee. Fish passage rates (number per hour) and fish densities (number per kcfs) were highest at Bay 6, followed by passage at Bay 5. This result comports with spillway horizontal distribution data from radio telemetry and hydroacoustic studies in 2004. The vertical and horizontal distribution of fish passage at bays 5 and 6 was much more variable during spring than summer and more variable at bay 5 than bay 6. Diel distribution data revealed that fish passage was highest during 0600-0700 h in spring; otherwise passage was reasonably uniform on a diel basis. This study substantiates the purpose of the spillway vortex suppression device to re-distribute downstream migrants away from Bay 6 toward Bays 1-5.

  8. Tamsulosin and the spontaneous passage of ureteral stones in children: A multi-institutional cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasian, Gregory E.; Cost, Nicholas G.; Granberg, Candace F.; Pulido, Jose E.; Rivera, Marcelino; Schwen, Zeyad; Schulte, Marion; Fox, Janelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Tamsulosin is associated with increased passage of ureteral stones in adults, but its effectiveness in children is uncertain. We determined the association between tamsulosin and the spontaneous passage of ureteral stones in children. Methods We performed a multi-institutional retrospective cohort study of children ≤ 18 years who presented between 2007 and 2012 with a ureteral stone ≤ 10 mm and were managed with tamsulosin or oral analgesics alone. The outcome was spontaneous stone passage defined as radiographic clearance and/or patient report of passage. Subjects prescribed tamsulosin were matched with subjects prescribed analgesics alone using nearest neighbor propensity score matching to adjust for treatment selection. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between tamsulosin and spontaneous passage of ureteral stones, adjusting for stone size and location. Results Of 449 children with ureteral stones, 334 were eligible for inclusion, and complete data were available for 274 children from 4 institutions (99 tamsulosin; 175 analgesics alone). Following case matching, there were no differences in patient age, gender, weight, height, stone size, or stone location between the 99 subjects prescribed tamsulosin and the 99 propensity-score matched subjects prescribed analgesics alone. In the tamsulosin cohort, 55% of ureteral stones passed versus 44% in the analgesics alone cohort (p = 0.03). In multivariate analysis adjusting for stone size and location, tamsulosin was associated with spontaneous passage of ureteral stones (OR 3.31; 95% CI 1.49–7.34). Conclusions The odds of spontaneous passage of ureteral stones were higher in children prescribed tamsulosin versus analgesics alone. PMID:24518765

  9. Tamsulosin and spontaneous passage of ureteral stones in children: a multi-institutional cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasian, Gregory E; Cost, Nicholas G; Granberg, Candace F; Pulido, Jose E; Rivera, Marcelino; Schwen, Zeyad; Schulte, Marion; Fox, Janelle A

    2014-08-01

    Tamsulosin is associated with increased passage of ureteral stones in adults but its effectiveness in children is uncertain. We determined the association between tamsulosin and the spontaneous passage of ureteral stones in children. We performed a multi-institutional retrospective cohort study of patients 18 years or younger who presented between 2007 and 2012 with ureteral stones up to 10 mm and who were treated with tamsulosin or oral analgesics alone. The outcome was spontaneous stone passage, defined as radiographic clearance and/or patient report of passage. Subjects prescribed tamsulosin were matched with subjects prescribed analgesics alone, using nearest neighbor propensity score matching to adjust for treatment selection. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between tamsulosin and spontaneous passage of ureteral stones, adjusting for stone size and location. Of 449 children with ureteral stones 334 were eligible for inclusion, and complete data were available for 274 patients from 4 institutions (99 receiving tamsulosin, 175 receiving analgesics alone). Following case matching, there were no differences in age, gender, weight, height, stone size or stone location between the 99 subjects prescribed tamsulosin and the 99 propensity score matched subjects prescribed analgesics alone. In the tamsulosin cohort 55% of ureteral stones passed, compared to 44% in the analgesics alone cohort (p=0.03). In multivariate analysis adjusting for stone size and location tamsulosin was associated with spontaneous passage of ureteral stones (OR 3.31, 95% CI 1.49-7.34). The odds of spontaneous passage of ureteral stones were greater in children prescribed tamsulosin vs analgesics alone. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Fish passage post-construction issues: analysis of distribution, attraction and passage efficiency metrics at the Baguari Dam fish ladder to approach the problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gustavo Martins da Silva

    Full Text Available Fish passages are considered the oldest management tool used to minimize the impact of blocking fish migratory routes by hydroelectric power plants. However, fish passages are being installed without specific criteria in Brazil, with severe consequences to the conservation of the local fish fauna. Therefore, basic data gathered for fish passages already constructed could contribute to define operational rules, in addition to offer subsidies to decision-making and design of future facilities. Thus, the fish ladder of Baguari Dam was evaluated regarding temporal distribution, attraction, and ascension of the local fish fauna. A total of 20 fish samples were conducted immediately downstream of the dam and inside the fish ladder, from January 2010 to June 2011. Seasonal variation in fish abundance and richness was registered below the dam and inside the passage, with higher number of migratory fish in the reproductive season (Kruskall-Wallis, p = 0.04 and p = 0.05. Furthermore, higher concentration of migratory allochthonous and non-migratory species was registered for the spill bay (Wilcoxon, p = 0.009 and p = 0.006 compared to the tailrace, where the fish ladder entrance is located. This result suggests low efficiency of the attraction system of the mechanism during the reproductive period. Once entering the fish ladder, migratory species apparently ascend the facility due to the similar distribution throughout different stretches. Generally, the results showed that an operational rule for the Baguari Dam fish ladder should consider running the facility only during the reproductive period, unless the objectives of the passage are well defined. The attraction system must be more precisely evaluated, using technologies such as radiotelemetry. Similarly, fish ascension also should be better analyzed to evaluate the time spent to ascend and its influence in the reproductive biology of the species using the ladder. Pit-tag system could be used to

  11. Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010-11 (ECLS-K:2011). User's Manual for the ECLS-K:2011 Kindergarten Data File and Electronic Codebook, Public Version. NCES 2015-074

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourangeau, Karen; Nord, Christine; Lê, Thanh; Sorongon, Alberto G.; Hagedorn, Mary C.; Daly, Peggy; Najarian, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    This manual provides guidance and documentation for users of the kindergarten (or base year) data of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010-11 (ECLS-K:2011). It begins with an overview of the ECLS-K:2011. Subsequent chapters provide details on the study data collection instruments and methods; the direct and indirect…

  12. Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010-11 (ECLS-K:2011). User's Manual for the ECLS-K:2011 Kindergarten-First Grade Data File and Electronic Codebook, Public Version. NCES 2015-078

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourangeau, Karen; Nord, Christine; Lê, Thanh; Wallner-Allen, Kathleen; Hagedorn, Mary C.; Leggitt, John; Najarian, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    This manual provides guidance and documentation for users of the longitudinal kindergarten-first grade (K-1) data file of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010-11 (ECLS-K:2011). It mainly provides information specific to the first-grade rounds of data collection. Data for the ECLS-K:2011 are released in both a…

  13. Synthesis of downstream fish passage information at projects owned by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in the Willamette River Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Amy C.; Kock, Tobias J.; Hansen, Gabriel S.

    2017-08-07

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) operates the Willamette Valley Project (Project) in northwestern Oregon, which includes a series of dams, reservoirs, revetments, and fish hatcheries. Project dams were constructed during the 1950s and 1960s on rivers that supported populations of spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), winter steelhead (O. mykiss), and other anadromous fish species in the Willamette River Basin. These dams, and the reservoirs they created, negatively affected anadromous fish populations. Efforts are currently underway to improve passage conditions within the Project and enhance populations of anadromous fish species. Research on downstream fish passage within the Project has occurred since 1960 and these efforts are documented in numerous reports and publications. These studies are important resources to managers in the Project, so the USACE requested a synthesis of existing literature that could serve as a resource for future decision-making processes. In 2016, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted an extensive literature review on downstream fish passage studies within the Project. We identified 116 documents that described studies conducted during 1960–2016. Each of these documents were obtained, reviewed, and organized by their content to describe the state-of-knowledge within four subbasins in the Project, which include the North Santiam, South Santiam, McKenzie, and Middle Fork Willamette Rivers. In this document, we summarize key findings from various studies on downstream fish passage in the Willamette Project. Readers are advised to review specific reports of interest to insure that study methods, results, and additional considerations are fully understood.

  14. Different effects of resveratrol on early and late passage mesenchymal stem cells through β-catenin regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Dong Suk; Choi, Yoorim; Choi, Seong Mi [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 PLUS Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Kwang Hwan [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin Woo, E-mail: ljwos@yuhs.ac [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 PLUS Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-27

    Resveratrol is a sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) activator and can function as an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant factor. In mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), resveratrol enhances the proliferation and differentiation potential and has an anti-aging effect. However, contradictory effects of resveratrol on MSC cultures have been reported. In this study, we found that resveratrol had different effects on MSC cultures according to their cell passage and SIRT1 expression. Resveratrol enhanced the self-renewal potential and multipotency of early passage MSCs, but accelerated cellular senescence of late passage MSCs. In early passage MSCs expressing SIRT1, resveratrol decreased ERK and GSK-3β phosphorylation, suppressing β-catenin activity. In contrast, in late passage MSCs, which did not express SIRT1, resveratrol increased ERK and GSK-3β phosphorylation, activating β-catenin. We confirmed that SIRT1-deficient early passage MSCs treated with resveratrol lost their self-renewal potential and multipotency, and became senescent due to increased β-catenin activity. Sustained treatment with resveratrol at early passages maintained the self-renewal potential and multipotency of MSCs up to passage 10. Our findings suggest that resveratrol can be effectively applied to early passage MSC cultures, whereas parameters such as cell passage and SIRT1 expression must be taken into consideration before applying resveratrol to late passage MSCs. - Highlights: • Resveratrol enhances self-renewal potential and multipotency of early passage MSCs. • Resveratrol accelerates the cellular senescence of late passage MSCs. • The effects of resveratrol on MSCs are dependent on the presence of SIRT1. • SIRT1 modulates ERK/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling. • Sustained resveratrol treatment maintains MSC stemness up to P10.

  15. Effect of passage number on cellular response to DNA-damaging agents: Cell survival and gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang-Liu, C.M.; Woloschak, G.E.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of different passage numbers on plating efficiency, doubling time, cell growth, and radiation sensitivity was assessed in Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells. Changes in gene expression after UV or γ-ray irradiation at different passage numbers were also examined. The SHE cells were maintained in culture medium for up to 64 passages. Cells were exposed to 60 Co γ rays or 254-nm UV radiation. Differential display of cDNAs and northern blots were used for the study of gene expression. With increasing passage number, SHE cells demonstrated decreased doubling time, increased plating efficiency, and a decreased yield in the number of cells per plate. Between passages 41 and 48 a crisis period was evident during which time cell growth in high serum was no longer optimal, and serum concentrations were reduced to maintain cell growth. Sensitivity to ionizing radiation was no different between early- and intermediate-passage cells. However, after UV exposure at low passages (passage 3), confluent cells were more sensitive to the killing effects of UV than were log-phase cells. At intermediate passages (passages 43, 48), confluent cells were slightly more radioresistant than were log-phase cells. By passage 64, however, both confluent and log-phase cells showed similar patterns of UV sensitivity. Expression of γ-actin, PCNA, and p53 transcripts did not change following UV exposure. p53 mRNA was induced following γ-ray exposure of the intermediate (passage 45) epithelial cells. The observed differences in radiation sensitivity associated with increasing passage number may be influenced by radiation-induced gene expression. The authors are conducted experiments to identify these genes

  16. Centrifugation assay for measuring adhesion of serially passaged bovine chondrocytes to polystyrene surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, David S; Hitchins, Victoria M; Vegella, Thomas J; Malinauskas, Richard A; Ferlin, Kimberly M; Fisher, John P; Frondoza, Carmelita G

    2012-07-01

    A major obstacle in chondrocyte-based therapy for cartilage repair is the limited availability of cells that maintain their original phenotype. Propagation of chondrocytes as monolayer cultures on polystyrene surfaces is used extensively for amplifying cell numbers. However, chondrocytes undergo a phenotypic shift when propagated in this manner and display characteristics of more adherent fibroblastic cells. Little information is available about the effect of this phenotypic shift on cellular adhesion properties. We evaluated changes in adhesion property as bovine chondrocytes were serially propagated up to five passages in monolayer culture using a centrifugation cell adhesion assay, which was based on counting of cells before and after being exposed to centrifugal dislodgement forces of 120 and 350 g. Chondrocytes proliferated well in a monolayer culture with doubling times of 2-3 days, but they appeared more fibroblastic and exhibited elongated cell morphology with continued passage. The centrifugation cell adhesion assay showed that chondrocytes became more adhesive with passage as the percentage of adherent cells after centrifugation increased and was not statistically different from the adhesion of the fibroblast cell line, L929, starting at passage 3. This increased adhesiveness correlated with a shift to a fibroblastic morphology and increased collagen I mRNA expression starting at passage 2. Our findings indicate that the centrifugation cell adhesion assay may serve as a reproducible tool to track alterations in chondrocyte phenotype during their extended propagation in culture.

  17. Downstream passage of fish larvae and eggs through a small-sized reservoir, Mucuri river, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo S. Pompeu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In South America, one important symptom of the failure of fish passages to sustain fish migratory recruitment is the inability of eggs and larvae to reach the nurseries. This is especially so when the breeding areas are located upstream of a reservoir, and the floodplain is downstream of the dam. Therefore, the transport of fish larvae and eggs across reservoir barriers is a key factor in the development of effective conservation strategies. In this paper, we evaluate the potential for migratory fish larvae and egg transportation across a small size reservoir in eastern Brazil. We sampled fish daily between 15th October 2002 and 15th February 2003 (spawning period in the Mucuri River, immediately upstream of the reservoir and downstream of the Santa Clara Power Plant dam. Our study was the first to indicate the possibility of successful larval passage through the reservoir of a hydroelectric reservoir and dam in South America, and showed that the passage of migratory fish larvae was associated significantly with residence time of water in the reservoir. The relatively short water residence time and elevated turbidity of the Santa Clara's reservoir waters during the rainy season certainly contributed to the successful passage, and can be considered as key factors for a priori evaluations of the feasibility of a downstream larval passage.

  18. Quality of Vision in Eyes With Epiphora Undergoing Lacrimal Passage Intubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Shizuka; Inoue, Yasushi; Ochi, Shintaro; Takai, Yoshihiro; Maeda, Naoyuki; Nishida, Kohji

    2017-09-01

    To investigate visual function and optical quality in eyes with epiphora undergoing lacrimal passage intubation. Prospective case series. Thirty-four eyes of 30 patients with lacrimal passage obstruction were enrolled. Before and 1 month after lacrimal passage intubation, functional visual acuity (FVA), higher-order aberrations (HOAs), lower tear meniscus, and tear clearance were assessed. An FVA measurement system was used to examine changes in continuous visual acuity (VA) over time, and visual function parameters such as FVA, visual maintenance ratio, and blink frequency were obtained. Sequential ocular HOAs were measured for 10 seconds after the blink using a wavefront sensor. Aberration data were analyzed in the central 4 mm for coma-like, spherical-like, and total HOAs. Fluctuation and stability indices of the total HOAs over time were calculated. Lower tear meniscus was assessed by anterior segment optical coherence tomography. After lacrimal passage intubation, visual function significantly improved, as indicated by improved FVA (P = .003) and visual maintenance ratio (P function and optical quality via patency of the lacrimal passage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A semi-automated method of monitoring dam passage of American Eels Anguilla rostrata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Stuart A.; Aldinger, Joni L.

    2014-01-01

    Fish passage facilities at dams have become an important focus of fishery management in riverine systems. Given the personnel and travel costs associated with physical monitoring programs, automated or semi-automated systems are an attractive alternative for monitoring fish passage facilities. We designed and tested a semi-automated system for eel ladder monitoring at Millville Dam on the lower Shenandoah River, West Virginia. A motion-activated eel ladder camera (ELC) photographed each yellow-phase American Eel Anguilla rostrata that passed through the ladder. Digital images (with date and time stamps) of American Eels allowed for total daily counts and measurements of eel TL using photogrammetric methods with digital imaging software. We compared physical counts of American Eels with camera-based counts; TLs obtained with a measuring board were compared with TLs derived from photogrammetric methods. Data from the ELC were consistent with data obtained by physical methods, thus supporting the semi-automated camera system as a viable option for monitoring American Eel passage. Time stamps on digital images allowed for the documentation of eel passage time—data that were not obtainable from physical monitoring efforts. The ELC has application to eel ladder facilities but can also be used to monitor dam passage of other taxa, such as crayfishes, lampreys, and water snakes.

  20. Environmental mitigation at hydroelectric projects. Volume 2, Benefits and costs of fish passage and protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N.; Sommers, G.L. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cada, G.F.; Jones, D.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dauble, D.D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Hunt, R.T. [Hunt (Richard) Associates, Inc., Concord, NH (United States); Costello, R.J. [Northwest Water Resources Advisory Services (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This study examines envirorunental mitigation practices that provide upstream and downstream fish passage and protection at hydroelectric projects. The study includes a survey of fish passage and protection mitigation practices at 1,825 hydroelectric plants regulated by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) to determine frequencies of occurrence, temporal trends, and regional practices based on FERC regions. The study also describes, in general terms, the fish passage/protection mitigation costs at 50 non-Federal hydroelectric projects. Sixteen case studies are used to examine in detail the benefits and costs of fish passage and protection. The 16 case studies include 15 FERC licensed or exempted hydroelectric projects and one Federally-owned and-operated hydroelectric project. The 16 hydroelectric projects are located in 12 states and range in capacity from 400 kilowatts to 840 megawatts. The fish passage and protection mitigation methods at the case studies include fish ladders and lifts, an Eicher screen, spill flows, airburst-cleaned inclined and cylindrical wedgewire screens, vertical barrier screens, and submerged traveling screens. The costs, benefits, monitoring methods, and operating characteristics of these and other mitigation methods used at the 16 case studies are examined.

  1. Establishment of an attenuated strain of porcine parvovirus by serial passage at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisaki, Y; Murakami, Y; Suzuki, H

    1982-01-01

    To prepare a live virus vaccine strain for the prevention of porcine parvovirus infection, the 90HS strain, isolated from the brain of a stillborn porcine fetus, was subjected to the first 45 serial passages in swine kidney established (ESK) cells of porcine kidney origin at 30-35 degrees C and to the 46th and later serial passages in the same cells as these at 32 degrees C. When swine were inoculated with the strain at the 38th passage level possessing such properties as expressed with rct/37+ and rct/40-, they presented viremia, virus discharge, and the transmission of virus to other swine. When swine were inoculated with the strain at the 54th and 55th passage level possessing such properties as expressed with rct/37- and rct/40-, they failed to exhibit viremia, virus discharge, and the transmission of virus to other swine, but retained for a long time hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody which had been produced after inoculation. A low virulent variant strain was obtained after 54 serial passages at low temperature. It was called the HT- strain.

  2. Class, Culture and Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrits, Gitte Sommer

    2013-01-01

    Even though contemporary discussions of class have moved forward towards recognizing a multidimensional concept of class, empirical analyses tend to focus on cultural practices in a rather narrow sense, that is, as practices of cultural consumption or practices of education. As a result......, discussions within political sociology have not yet utilized the merits of a multidimensional conception of class. In light of this, the article suggests a comprehensive Bourdieusian framework for class analysis, integrating culture as both a structural phenomenon co-constitutive of class and as symbolic...... practice. Further, the article explores this theoretical framework in a multiple correspondence analysis of a Danish survey, demonstrating how class and political practices are indeed homologous. However, the analysis also points at several elements of field autonomy, and the concluding discussion...

  3. Class network routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanot, Gyan [Princeton, NJ; Blumrich, Matthias A [Ridgefield, CT; Chen, Dong [Croton On Hudson, NY; Coteus, Paul W [Yorktown Heights, NY; Gara, Alan G [Mount Kisco, NY; Giampapa, Mark E [Irvington, NY; Heidelberger, Philip [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D [Mount Kisco, NY; Takken, Todd E [Mount Kisco, NY; Vranas, Pavlos M [Bedford Hills, NY

    2009-09-08

    Class network routing is implemented in a network such as a computer network comprising a plurality of parallel compute processors at nodes thereof. Class network routing allows a compute processor to broadcast a message to a range (one or more) of other compute processors in the computer network, such as processors in a column or a row. Normally this type of operation requires a separate message to be sent to each processor. With class network routing pursuant to the invention, a single message is sufficient, which generally reduces the total number of messages in the network as well as the latency to do a broadcast. Class network routing is also applied to dense matrix inversion algorithms on distributed memory parallel supercomputers with hardware class function (multicast) capability. This is achieved by exploiting the fact that the communication patterns of dense matrix inversion can be served by hardware class functions, which results in faster execution times.

  4. Culture and social class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yuri

    2017-12-01

    A large body of research in Western cultures has demonstrated the psychological and health effects of social class. This review outlines a cultural psychological approach to social stratification by comparing psychological and health manifestations of social class across Western and East Asian cultures. These comparisons suggest that cultural meaning systems shape how people make meaning and respond to material/structural conditions associated with social class, thereby leading to culturally divergent manifestations of social class. Specifically, unlike their counterparts in Western cultures, individuals of high social class in East Asian cultures tend to show high conformity and other-orientated psychological attributes. In addition, cultures differ in how social class impacts health (i.e. on which bases, through which pathways, and to what extent). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Publicity and public relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosha, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses approaches to using publicity and public relations to meet the goals of the NASA Space Grant College. Methods universities and colleges can use to publicize space activities are presented.

  6. Semantic Analysis of Virtual Classes and Nested Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1999-01-01

    Virtual classes and nested classes are distinguishing features of BETA. Nested classes originated from Simula, but until recently they have not been part of main stream object- oriented languages. C++ has a restricted form of nested classes and they were included in Java 1.1. Virtual classes...... classes and parameterized classes have been made. Although virtual classes and nested classes have been used in BETA for more than a decade, their implementation has not been published. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of virtual classes and nested classes by presenting...

  7. Class in disguise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Stine Thidemann; Prieur, Annick

    This paper asks how class can have importance in one of the worlds’ most equal societies: Denmark. The answer is that class here appears in disguised forms. The field under study is a city, Aalborg, in the midst of transition from a stronghold of industrialism to a post industrial economy. The pa....... The paper also raises questions about how sociological discourses may contribute to the veiling of class....

  8. Spin-Label CW Microwave Power Saturation and Rapid Passage with Triangular Non-Adiabatic Rapid Sweep (NARS) and Adiabatic Rapid Passage (ARP) EPR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittell, Aaron W.; Hyde, James S.

    2015-01-01

    Non-adiabatic rapid passage (NARS) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was introduced by Kittell, A.W., Camenisch, T.G., Ratke, J.J. Sidabras, J.W., Hyde, J.S., 2011 as a general purpose technique to collect the pure absorption response. The technique has been used to improve sensitivity relative to sinusoidal magnetic field modulation, increase the range of inter-spin distances that can be measured under near physiological conditions, and enhance spectral resolution in copper (II) spectra. In the present work, the method is extended to CW microwave power saturation of spin-labeled T4 Lysozyme (T4L). As in the cited papers, rapid triangular sweep of the polarizing magnetic field was superimposed on slow sweep across the spectrum. Adiabatic rapid passage (ARP) effects were encountered in samples undergoing very slow rotational diffusion as the triangular magnetic field sweep rate was increased. The paper reports results of variation of experimental parameters at the interface of adiabatic and non-adiabatic rapid sweep conditions. Comparison of the forward (up) and reverse (down) triangular sweeps is shown to be a good indicator of the presence of rapid passage effects. Spectral turning points can be distinguished from spectral regions between turning points in two ways: differential microwave power saturation and differential passage effects. Oxygen accessibility data are shown under NARS conditions that appear similar to conventional field modulation data. However, the sensitivity is much higher, permitting, in principle, experiments at substantially lower protein concentrations. Spectral displays were obtained that appear sensitive to rotational diffusion in the range of rotational correlation times of 10−3 to 10−7 s in a manner that is analogous to saturation transfer spectroscopy. PMID:25917132

  9. Genetic diversity of chicken anemia virus following cell culture passaging in MSB-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasmah, M S; Omar, A R; Wan, K F; Hair-Bejo, M; Aini, I

    2004-01-01

    It has been shown that a chicken anemia virus (CAV) isolates which had undergone 60 passages in MSB-1 cells (SMSC-1/P60, 3-1/P60) acquired 33-66 nucleotide substitutions at the coding region resulting in 13-16 amino acid changes as compared to the CAV isolates passaged only 5 times in MSB-1 cells (SMSC-1 and 3-1) (Chowdhury et al., Arch. Virol. 148, 2437-2448, 2003). In this study we found that a low CAV (BL-5) and a high CAV passage (BL-5/P90) differed by only 15 nucleotide substitutions resulting in 11 amino acid changes. Phylogenetic analysis based on VP1 also revealed that both isolates were close to each other but not to other CAV isolates from Malaysia, namely SMSC-1 and 3-1.

  10. Predictions of first passage times in sparse discrete fracture networks using graph-based reductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, J.; Hagberg, A.; Srinivasan, G.; Mohd-Yusof, J.; Viswanathan, H. S.

    2017-12-01

    We present a graph-based methodology to reduce the computational cost of obtaining first passage times through sparse fracture networks. We derive graph representations of generic three-dimensional discrete fracture networks (DFNs) using the DFN topology and flow boundary conditions. Subgraphs corresponding to the union of the k shortest paths between the inflow and outflow boundaries are identified and transport on their equivalent subnetworks is compared to transport through the full network. The number of paths included in the subgraphs is based on the scaling behavior of the number of edges in the graph with the number of shortest paths. First passage times through the subnetworks are in good agreement with those obtained in the full network, both for individual realizations and in distribution. Accurate estimates of first passage times are obtained with an order of magnitude reduction of CPU time and mesh size using the proposed method.

  11. An interaction scenario of the galaxy pair NGC 3893/96 (KPG 302): A single passage?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabbasov, R. F.; Rosado, M. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico (UNAM), A.P. 70-264,04510 México D.F. (Mexico); Klapp, J., E-mail: ruslan.gabb@gmail.com [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera México-Toluca S/N, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, 52750 Estado de México (Mexico)

    2014-05-20

    Using the data obtained previously from Fabry-Perot interferometry, we study the orbital characteristics of the interacting pair of galaxies KPG 302 with the aim to estimate a possible interaction history, the conditions necessary for the spiral arm formation, and initial satellite mass. We found by performing N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of the interaction that a single passage can produce a grand design spiral pattern in less than 1 Gyr. Although we reproduce most of the features with the single passage, the required satellite to host mass ratio should be ∼1:5, which is not confirmed by the dynamical mass estimate made from the measured rotation curve. We conclude that a more realistic interaction scenario would require several passages in order to explain the mass ratio discrepancy.

  12. Rites of Passage and their Role in the Socializationof the Spartan Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metaxia Papapostolou; Pantelis Konstantinakos; Costas Mountakis; Kostas Georgiadis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the role of rites of passage in the socialization of Spartan youth. Methodologically, our discussion will be based upon a ancient literary sources, in particular Plutarch, Xenophon and Pausanias, b interdisciplinary approaches initiated by modern historians and sociologists, and c archaeological evidence. Discussion will begin with an overview of the ancient Spartan educational system and, in particular, an assessment of the evidence for the participation of both boys and girls in festivals. It is concluded that the Spartans incorporated a system of rites of passage in their educational programme with the aim to achieving the greatest levels of socialization of their youth, both boys and girls, the main reason for which was the important role that kinetic activities played in the context of rites of passage.

  13. Survival and Passage of Juvenile Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Passing through Bonneville Dam, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Woodley, Christa M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Kim, Jin A.; Royer, Ida M.; Batten, George W.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Carpenter, Scott M.; Etherington, D. J.; Faber, Derrek M.; Fischer, Eric S.; Fu, Tao; Hennen, Matthew J.; Mitchell, Tyler; Monter, Tyrell J.; Skalski, John R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Zimmerman, Shon A.

    2011-12-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and subcontractors conducted an acoustic-telemetry study of juvenile salmonid fish passage and survival at Bonneville Dam in 2010. The study was conducted to assess the readiness of the monitoring system for official compliance studies under the 2008 Biological Opinion and Fish Accords and to assess performance measures including route-specific fish passage proportions, travel times, and survival based upon a single-release model. This also was the last year of evaluation of effects of a behavioral guidance device installed in the Powerhouse 2 forebay. The study relied on releases of live Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System tagged smolts in the Columbia River and used acoustic telemetry to evaluate the approach, passage, and survival of passing juvenile salmon. This study supports the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers continual effort to improve conditions for juvenile anadromous fish passing through Columbia River dams.

  14. First Passage Moments of Finite-State Semi-Markov Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warr, Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cordeiro, James [Air Force Research Lab. (AFRL), Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States)

    2014-03-31

    In this paper, we discuss the computation of first-passage moments of a regular time-homogeneous semi-Markov process (SMP) with a finite state space to certain of its states that possess the property of universal accessibility (UA). A UA state is one which is accessible from any other state of the SMP, but which may or may not connect back to one or more other states. An important characteristic of UA is that it is the state-level version of the oft-invoked process-level property of irreducibility. We adapt existing results for irreducible SMPs to the derivation of an analytical matrix expression for the first passage moments to a single UA state of the SMP. In addition, consistent point estimators for these first passage moments, together with relevant R code, are provided.

  15. Stationary Probability and First-Passage Time of Biased Random Walk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jing-Wen; Tang Shen-Li; Xu Xin-Ping

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the stationary probability and first-passage time of biased random walk on 1D chain, where at each step the walker moves to the left and right with probabilities p and q respectively (0 ⩽ p, q ⩽ 1, p + q = 1). We derive exact analytical results for the stationary probability and first-passage time as a function of p and q for the first time. Our results suggest that the first-passage time shows a double power-law F ∼ (N − 1) γ , where the exponent γ = 2 for N < |p − q| −1 and γ = 1 for N > |p − q| −1 . Our study sheds useful insights into the biased random-walk process. (paper)

  16. Survival and Passage of Juvenile Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Passing Through Bonneville Dam, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Woodley, Christa M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Kim, Jin A.; Royer, Ida M.; Batten, George W.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Carpenter, Scott M.; Etherington, D. J.; Faber, Derrek M.; Fischer, Eric S.; Fu, Tao; Hennen, Matthew J.; Mitchell, T. D.; Monter, Tyrell J.; Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Zimmerman, Shon A.

    2012-09-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and subcontractors conducted an acoustic-telemetry study of juvenile salmonid fish passage and survival at Bonneville Dam in 2010. The study was conducted to assess the readiness of the monitoring system for official compliance studies under the 2008 Biological Opinion and Fish Accords and to assess performance measures including route-specific fish passage proportions, travel times, and survival based upon a single-release model. This also was the last year of evaluation of effects of a behavioral guidance device installed in the Powerhouse 2 forebay. The study relied on releases of live Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System tagged smolts in the Columbia River and used acoustic telemetry to evaluate the approach, passage, and survival of passing juvenile salmon. This study supports the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers continual effort to improve conditions for juvenile anadromous fish passing through Columbia River dams.

  17. Survival and Passage of Juvenile Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Passing through Bonneville Dam, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Batten, G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cushing, Aaron W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kim, Jin A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Gary E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Skalski, J. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Townsend, Richard L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Seaburg, Adam [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weiland, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Woodley, Christa M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hughes, James S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carlson, Thomas J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carpenter, Scott M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Deng, Zhiqun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Etherington, D. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fischer, Eric S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fu, Tao [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Greiner, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hennen, Matthew J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Martinez, Jayson J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mitchell, T. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rayamajhi, Bishes [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zimmerman, Shon A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and subcontractors conducted an acoustic-telemetry study of juvenile salmonid fish passage and survival at Bonneville Dam in 2011. The study was conducted to assess the readiness of the monitoring system for official compliance studies under the 2008 Biological Opinion and Fish Accords and to assess performance measures including route-specific fish passage proportions, travel times, and survival based upon a virtual/paired-release model. The study relied on releases of live Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System tagged smolts in the Columbia River and used acoustic telemetry to evaluate the approach, passage, and survival of passing juvenile salmon using a virtual release, paired reference release survival model. This study supports the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ continual effort to improve conditions for juvenile anadromous fish passing through Columbia River dams.

  18. Analysis of conditions favourable for small vertical axis wind turbines between building passages in urban areas of Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Muhammad Rizwan; Riaz, Fahid; Nabi, Zahid

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents the analysis of installing the vertical axis wind turbines between the building passages on an island in Stockholm, Sweden. Based on the idea of wind speed amplification due to the venture effect in passages, practical measurements were carried out to study the wind profile for a range of passage widths in parallel building passages. Highest increment in wind speed was observed in building passages located on the periphery of sland as wind enters from free field. Wind mapping was performed in the island to choose the most favourable location to install the vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT). Using the annual wind speed data for location and measured amplification factor, energy potential of the street was calculated. This analysis verified that small vertical axis wind turbines can be installed in the passage centre line provided that enough space is provided for traffic and passengers.

  19. Walla Walla River Fish Passage Operations Program, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, Brian C. (Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Department of Natural Resources, Pendleton, OR); Duke, Bill B. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Pendleton, OR)

    2004-02-01

    In the late 1990's, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, along with many other agencies, began implementing fisheries restoration activities in the Walla Walla Basin. An integral part of these efforts is to alleviate the inadequate migration conditions in the basin. The migration concerns are being addressed by removing diversion structures, constructing fish passage facilities, implementing minimum instream flow measures, and initiating trap and haul efforts. The objective of the Walla Walla River Fish Passage Operations Project is to increase the survival of migrating adult and juvenile salmonids in the basin. The project is responsible for coordinating operation and maintenance of ladders, screen sites, bypasses, trap facilities, and transportation equipment. In addition, the project provides technical input on passage criteria and passage and trapping facility design and operation. Operation of the various passage facilities and passage criteria guidelines are outlined in an annual operations plan that the project develops. During the 2000-2001 project year, there were 624 summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), 24 bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), and 47 spring chinook (O. tshawytscha) counted at the Nursery Bridge Dam adult trap between December 27, 2000 and June 7, 2001. The Little Walla Walla River juvenile trap was not operated this year. The project transported 1600 adult spring chinook from Ringold Springs Hatchery to the South Fork Walla Walla Brood Holding Facility and outplanted 1156 for natural spawning in the basin. The project also provided equipment for transportation of juveniles captured during the construction fish salvage at Nursery Bridge Dam.

  20. Walla Walla River Fish Passage Operations Program, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronson, James P. (Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Department of Natural Resources, Pendleton, OR); Duke, Bill B. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Pendleton, OR)

    2004-03-01

    In the late 1990's, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, along with many other agencies, began implementing fisheries restoration activities in the Walla Walla Basin. An integral part of these efforts is to alleviate the inadequate fish migration conditions in the basin. The migration concerns are being addressed by removing diversion structures, constructing fish passage facilities, implementing minimum instream flow requirements, and initiating trap and haul efforts. The objective of the Walla Walla River Fish Passage Operations Project is to increase the survival of migrating adult and juvenile salmonids in the Walla Walla River basin. The project is responsible for coordinating operation and maintenance of ladders, screen sites, bypasses, trap facilities, and transportation equipment. In addition, the project provides technical input on passage criteria and passage and trapping facility design and operation. Operation of the various passage facilities and passage criteria guidelines are outlined in an annual operations plan that the project develops. During the 2002-2003 project year, there were 545 adult summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), 29 adult bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus); 1 adult and 1 jack spring chinook (O. tshawytscha) enumerated at the Nursery Bridge Dam fishway adult trap between January 1 and June 23, 2003. Summer steelhead and spring chinook were observed moving upstream while bull trout were observed moving both upstream and downstream of the facility. Operation of the Little Walla Walla River juvenile trap for trap and haul purposes was not necessary this year. The project transported 21 adult spring chinook from Ringold Springs Hatchery and 281 from Threemile Dam to the South Fork Walla Walla Brood Holding Facility. Of these, 290 were outplanted in August for natural spawning in the basin.

  1. Neutron Imaging for Selective Laser Melting Inconel Hardware with Internal Passages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramel, Terri L.; Norwood, Joseph K.; Bilheux, Hassina

    2014-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing is showing great promise for the development of new innovative designs and large potential life cycle cost reduction for the Aerospace Industry. However, more development work is required to move this technology into space flight hardware production. With selective laser melting (SLM), hardware that once consisted of multiple, carefully machined and inspected pieces, joined together can be made in one part. However standard inspection techniques cannot be used to verify that the internal passages are within dimensional tolerances or surface finish requirements. NASA/MSFC traveled to Oak Ridge National Lab's (ORNL) Spallation Neutron Source to perform some non-destructive, proof of concept imaging measurements to assess the capabilities to understand internal dimensional tolerances and internal passages surface roughness. This presentation will describe 1) the goals of this proof of concept testing, 2) the lessons learned when designing and building these Inconel 718 test specimens to minimize beam time, 3) the neutron imaging test setup and test procedure to get the images, 4) the initial results in images, volume and a video, 4) the assessment of using this imaging technique to gather real data for designing internal flow passages in SLM manufacturing aerospace hardware, and lastly 5) how proper cleaning of the internal passages is critically important. In summary, the initial results are very promising and continued development of a technique to assist in SLM development for aerospace components is desired by both NASA and ORNL. A plan forward that benefits both ORNL and NASA will also be presented, based on the promising initial results. The initial images and volume reconstruction showed that clean, clear images of the internal passages geometry are obtainable. These clear images of the internal passages of simple geometries will be compared to the build model to determine any differences. One surprising result was that a new cleaning

  2. Fish passage mitigation of impacts from hydroelectric power projects in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cada, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    Obstruction of fish movements by dams continues to be the major environmental issue facing the hydropower industry in the US. Dams block upstream migrations, which can cut off adult fish form their historical spawning grounds and severely curtail reproduction. Conversely, downstream-migrating fish may be entrained into the turbine intake flow and suffer turbine-passage injury or mortality. Hydroelectric projects can interfere with the migrations of a wide variety of fish. Maintenance, restoration or enhancement of populations of these species may require the construction of facilities to allow for upstream and downstream fish passage. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), by law, must give fish and wildlife resources equal consideration with power production in its licensing decisions, must be satisfied that a project is consistent with comprehensive plans for a waterway (including fisheries management plans), and must consider all federal and state resource agency terms and conditions for the protection of fish and wildlife. As a consequence, FERC often requires fish passage mitigation measures as a condition of the hydropower license when such measures are deemed necessary for the protection of fish. Much of the recent research and development efforts of the US Department of Energy's Hydropower Program have focused on the mitigation of impacts to upstream and downstream fish passage. This paper descries three components of that effort: (1) a survey of environmental mitigation measures at hydropower sites across the country; (2) a critical review of the effectiveness of fish passage mitigation measures at 16 case study sites; and (3) ongoing efforts to develop new turbine designs that minimize turbine-passage mortality

  3. Attracting higher income class to public transport in socially clustered cities. The case of Caracas. / Atracción del mayor nivel de ingresos al transporte público en las ciudades socialmente segregadas. El caso de Caracas.

    OpenAIRE

    Flórez, Josefina

    2000-01-01

    In Caracas, as in most socially clustered cities, modal split is highly related to income. High income population is mostly car dependant, while lower income people are captive of public transport. This typical situation is explained by world-wide social values and fashion but also by the fact that new, segregated residential areas for the upper social levels have been located in areas poorly served by public transport, creating a dependency on the private car. It is not surprising that, duri...

  4. Connection between optimal control theory and adiabatic-passage techniques in quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assémat, E.; Sugny, D.

    2012-08-01

    This work explores the relationship between optimal control theory and adiabatic passage techniques in quantum systems. The study is based on a geometric analysis of the Hamiltonian dynamics constructed from Pontryagin's maximum principle. In a three-level quantum system, we show that the stimulated Raman adiabatic passage technique can be associated to a peculiar Hamiltonian singularity. One deduces that the adiabatic pulse is solution of the optimal control problem only for a specific cost functional. This analysis is extended to the case of a four-level quantum system.

  5. An Incidence Loss Model for Wave Rotors with Axially Aligned Passages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxson, Daniel E.

    1998-01-01

    A simple mathematical model is described to account for the losses incurred when the flow in the duct (port) of a wave rotor is not aligned with the passages. The model, specifically for wave rotors with axially aligned passages, describes a loss mechanism which is sensitive to incident flow angle and Mach number. Implementation of the model in a one-dimensional CFD based wave rotor simulation is presented. Comparisons with limited experimental results are consistent with the model. Sensitivity studies are presented which highlight the significance of the incidence loss relative to other loss mechanisms in the wave rotor.

  6. Speeding up the first-passage for subdiffusion by introducing a finite potential barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palyulin, Vladimir V; Metzler, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    We show that for a subdiffusive continuous time random walk with scale-free waiting time distribution the first-passage dynamics on a finite interval can be optimized by introduction of a piecewise linear potential barrier. Analytical results for the survival probability and first-passage density based on the fractional Fokker–Planck equation are shown to agree well with Monte Carlo simulations results. As an application we discuss an improved design for efficient translocation of gradient copolymers compared to homopolymer translocation in a quasi-equilibrium approximation. (fast track communications)

  7. Spontaneous passage of long, sharp gastrointestinal foreign body in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Vilvapathy Senguttuvan; Ansari, Mohammed Gaffoor; Suresh, Ramasamy; Easwaran, Bettaiyagowder

    2015-01-19

    Foreign body (FB) ingestion is a common problem in children. Up to 90% of these FBs pass spontaneously. FBs reaching the stomach usually pass out spontaneously. Exceptions to this spontaneous passage include a long FB that cannot cross the pylorus, duodenum or ileocaecal junction. We present a case of a 9-year boy who accidentally ingested a long paper pin, which spontaneously passed in 26 h. This case is being reported to highlight the successful spontaneous passage of a 4 cm long sharp foreign body in a child. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  8. Acoustic Telemetry Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Survival Proportions at John Day Dam, 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiland, Mark A.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Hughes, James S.; Deng, Zhiqun; Fu, Tao; Kim, Jin A.; Johnson, Gary E.; Fischer, Eric S.; Khan, Fenton; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Faber, Derrek M.; Carter, Kathleen M.; Boyd, James W.; Townsend, Richard L.; Skalski, J. R.; Monter, Tyrell J.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Wilberding, Matthew C.; Meyer, Matthew M.

    2011-09-28

    The overall purpose of the acoustic telemetry study at JDA during 2009 was to determine the best configuration and operation for JDA prior to conducting BiOp performance standard tests. The primary objective was to determine the best operation between 30% and 40% spill treatments. Route-specific and JDA to TDA forebay survival estimates, passage distribution, and timing/behavior metrics were used for comparison of 30% to a 40% spill treatments. A secondary objective was to evaluate the performance of TSWs installed in spill bays 15 and 16 and to estimate fish survival rates and passage efficiencies under 30% and 40% spill-discharge treatments each season.

  9. Acoustic Telemetry Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Survival at John Day Dam, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiland, Mark A.; Woodley, Christa M.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Hughes, James S.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Kim, Jin A.; Deng, Zhiqun; Fu, Tao; Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Wagner, Katie A.; Fischer, Eric S.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Batten, G.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Carpenter, Scott M.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Elder, T.; Etherington, D. J.; Johnson, Gary E.; Khan, Fenton; Miracle, Ann L.; Mitchell, T. D.; Prather, K.; Rayamajhi, Bishes; Royer, Ida; Seaburg, Adam; Zimmerman, Shon A.

    2013-06-21

    This report presents survival, behavioral, and fish passage results for tagged yearling Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead as part of a survival study conducted at John Day Dam during spring 2011. This study was designed to evaluate the passage and survival of yearling Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead to assist managers in identifying dam operations for compliance testing as stipulated by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion and the 2008 Columbia Basin Fish Accords. Survival estimates were based on a paired-release survival model.

  10. Acoustic Telemetry Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Survival at John Day Dam, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiland, Mark A.; Woodley, Christa M.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Hughes, James S.; Kim, Jin A.; Deng, Zhiqun; Fu, Tao; Fischer, Eric S.; Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Wagner, Katie A.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Miller, Benjamin L.; Miracle, Ann L.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Royer, Ida M.; Khan, Fenton; Cushing, Aaron W.; Etherington, D. J.; Mitchell, T. D.; Elder, T.; Batton, George; Johnson, Gary E.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2013-05-01

    This report presents survival, behavioral, and fish passage results for yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon smolts and juvenile steelhead tagged with JSATS acoustic micro-transmitters as part of a survival study conducted at John Day Dam during 2010. This study was designed to evaluate the passage and survival of yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead to assist managers in identifying dam operations for compliance testing as stipulated by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion and the 2008 Columbia Basin Fish Accords. Survival estimates were based on a single-release survival estimate model.

  11. Teaching Social Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tablante, Courtney B.; Fiske, Susan T.

    2015-01-01

    Discussing socioeconomic status in college classes can be challenging. Both teachers and students feel uncomfortable, yet social class matters more than ever. This is especially true, given increased income inequality in the United States and indications that higher education does not reduce this inequality as much as many people hope. Resources…

  12. Generalized Fourier transforms classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Svend; Møller, Steen

    2002-01-01

    The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory...

  13. Cutting Class Harms Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lewis A., III

    2012-01-01

    An accessible business school population of undergraduate students was investigated in three independent, but related studies to determine effects on grades due to cutting class and failing to take advantage of optional reviews and study quizzes. It was hypothesized that cutting classes harms exam scores, attending preexam reviews helps exam…

  14. Classes of modules

    CERN Document Server

    Dauns, John

    2006-01-01

    Because traditional ring theory places restrictive hypotheses on all submodules of a module, its results apply only to small classes of already well understood examples. Often, modules with infinite Goldie dimension have finite-type dimension, making them amenable to use with type dimension, but not Goldie dimension. By working with natural classes and type submodules (TS), Classes of Modules develops the foundations and tools for the next generation of ring and module theory. It shows how to achieve positive results by placing restrictive hypotheses on a small subset of the complement submodules, Furthermore, it explains the existence of various direct sum decompositions merely as special cases of type direct sum decompositions. Carefully developing the foundations of the subject, the authors begin by providing background on the terminology and introducing the different module classes. The modules classes consist of torsion, torsion-free, s[M], natural, and prenatural. They expand the discussion by exploring...

  15. Phase Variation Analysis of Coxiella burnetii during Serial Passage in Cell Culture by Use of Monoclonal Antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Hotta, Akitoyo; Kawamura, Midori; To, Ho; Andoh, Masako; Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Fukushi, Hideto; Hirai, Katsuya

    2002-01-01

    Antigenic changes in Coxiella burnetii Nine Mile strain phase I during serial passages in cell culture were analyzed with three groups of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against lipopolysaccharide. The MAbs of group 1 did not react with organisms that were passaged over five times, and the MAbs of group 2 did not react with organisms that were passaged over eight times. The MAbs of group 3 reacted with organisms passaged up to 15 times but did not react with phase II cells. These results suggest...

  16. Phase Variation Analysis of Coxiella burnetii during Serial Passage in Cell Culture by Use of Monoclonal Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Akitoyo; Kawamura, Midori; To, Ho; Andoh, Masako; Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Fukushi, Hideto; Hirai, Katsuya

    2002-01-01

    Antigenic changes in Coxiella burnetii Nine Mile strain phase I during serial passages in cell culture were analyzed with three groups of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against lipopolysaccharide. The MAbs of group 1 did not react with organisms that were passaged over five times, and the MAbs of group 2 did not react with organisms that were passaged over eight times. The MAbs of group 3 reacted with organisms passaged up to 15 times but did not react with phase II cells. These results suggest that C. burnetii could be differentiated into four phase states during phase variation. PMID:12117996

  17. A New Conservative Cold Front? Democrat and Republican Responsiveness to the Passage of the Affordable Care Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen L. Morgan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Through an analysis of the 2004 through 2014 General Social Survey (GSS, this article demonstrates that the 2010 passage of the Affordable Care Act (ACA decreased support for spending on health among Democrats, Independents, and Republicans, contrary to the conjecture that a rigid partisanship equilibrium has taken hold among voters in the United States. Instead, only a partisan deflection is present, with spending preferences declining more for Republicans than for Democrats, and with Independents in between. Through supplemental analysis of the GSS panel data, as well as comparative analysis of other GSS items on national spending preferences, government responsibility, and confidence in leaders, this article also undermines support for an alternative explanation that cannot be entirely eliminated from plausibility, which is that the identified period effect that emerged in 2010 and persisted through 2014 is a response to the Great Recession and resulting deficit spending by the federal government. Implications for public opinion research are discussed, lending support to current models of thermostat effects and policy-specific political mood from the political science literature, which are informed by an older literature on weather fronts in public opinion that originated in the sociology literature.

  18. Investigation of the potential for mutational resistance to XF-73, retapamulin, mupirocin, fusidic acid, daptomycin, and vancomycin in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates during a 55-passage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, David J; Robbins, Marion; Rhys-Williams, William; Love, William G

    2011-03-01

    XF-73 is a dicationic porphyrin drug with rapid Gram-positive antibacterial activity currently undergoing clinical trials for the nasal decolonization of Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In multistep (55-passage) resistance selection studies in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of XF-73, retapamulin, mupirocin, fusidic acid, and vancomycin against four Network on Antimicrobial Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus MRSA strains, there was no >4-fold increase in the MIC for XF-73 after 55 passages. In contrast, there was an increase in the MICs for retapamulin (from 0.25 μg/ml to 4 to 8 μg/ml), for mupirocin (from 0.12 μg/ml to 16 to 512 μg/ml), for fusidic acid (from 0.12 μg/ml to 256 μg/ml), and for vancomycin (from 1 μg/ml to 8 μg/ml in two of the four strains tested). Further investigations using S. aureus NRS384 (USA300) and daptomycin demonstrated a 64-fold increase in the MIC after 55 passages (from 0.5 μg/ml to 32 μg/ml) with a >4-fold increase in the MIC obtained after only five passages. Sequencing analysis of selected isolates confirmed previously reported point mutations associated with daptomycin resistance. No cross-resistance to XF-73 was observed with the daptomycin-resistant strains, suggesting that whereas the two drugs act on the bacterial cell membrane, their specific site of action differs. XF-73 thus represents the first in a new class of antibacterial drugs, which (unlike the comparator antibiotics) after 55 passages exhibited a ≤4-fold increase in MIC against the strains tested. Antibacterial drugs with a low propensity for inducing bacterial resistance are much needed for the prevention and treatment of multidrug-resistant bacteria both within and outside the hospital setting.

  19. First-passage time in a bistable potential with colored noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez-Piscina, L.; Maria Sancho, J.; Javier de la Rubia, F.; Lindenberg, K.; Tsironis, G.P.

    1989-01-01

    A precise digital simulation of a bistable system under the effect of colored noise is carried out. A set of data for the mean first-passage time is obtained. The results are interpreted and compared with presently available theories, which are revisited following a new insight. Discrepancies that have been discussed in the literature are understood within our framework

  20. The first-passage area for drifted Brownian motion and the moments of the Airy distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearney, Michael J; Majumdar, Satya N; Martin, Richard J

    2007-01-01

    An exact expression for the distribution of the area swept out by a drifted Brownian motion till its first-passage time is derived. A study of the asymptotic behaviour confirms earlier conjectures and clarifies their range of validity. The analysis leads to a simple closed-form solution for the moments of the Airy distribution. (fast track communication)

  1. Effects of passage barriers on demographics and stability properties of a virtual trout populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bret Harvey; Steven Railsback

    2011-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation is widely assumed to have negative effects on populations and communities, but some effects of fragmentation are subtle, difficult to measure and not always negative. For stream fish, barriers to upstream passage, such as waterfalls or culverts with perched outlets, are a common cause of fragmentation. We explored the effects of barriers on a...

  2. Evolutionary characteristics of morbilliviruses during serial passages in vitro: Gradual attenuation of virus virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fuxiao; Wu, Xiaodong; Li, Lin; Zou, Yanli; Liu, Shan; Wang, Zhiliang

    2016-08-01

    The genus Morbillivirus is classified into the family Paramyxoviridae, and is composed of 6 members, namely measles virus (MV), rinderpest virus (RPV), peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (PPRV), canine distemper virus (CDV), phocine distemper virus (PDV) and cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV). The MV, RPV, PPRV and CDV have been successfully attenuated through their serial passages in vitro for the production of live vaccines. It has been demonstrated that the morbilliviral virulence in animals was progressively attenuated with their consecutive passages in vitro. However, only a few reports were involved in explanation of an attenuation-related mechanism on them until many years after the establishment of a quasispecies theory. RNA virus quasispecies arise from rapid evolution of viruses with high mutation rate during genomic replication, and play an important role in gradual loss of viral virulence by serial passages. Here, we overviewed the development of live-attenuated vaccine strains against morbilliviruses by consecutive passages in vitro, and further discussed a related mechanism concerning the relationship between virulence attenuation and viral evolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Autobiographical Memory Retrieval and Hippocampal Activation as a Function of Repetition and the Passage of Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Nadel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple trace theory (MTT predicts that hippocampal memory traces expand and strengthen as a function of repeated memory retrievals. We tested this hypothesis utilizing fMRI, comparing the effect of memory retrieval versus the mere passage of time on hippocampal activation. While undergoing fMRI scanning, participants retrieved remote autobiographical memories that had been previously retrieved either one month earlier, two days earlier, or multiple times during the preceding month. Behavioral analyses revealed that the number and consistency of memory details retrieved increased with multiple retrievals but not with the passage of time. While all three retrieval conditions activated a similar set of brain regions normally associated with autobiographical memory retrieval including medial temporal lobe structures, hippocampal activation did not change as a function of either multiple retrievals or the passage of time. However, activation in other brain regions, including the precuneus, lateral prefrontal cortex, parietal cortex, lateral temporal lobe, and perirhinal cortex increased after multiple retrievals, but was not influenced by the passage of time. These results have important implications for existing theories of long-term memory consolidation.

  4. Understanding the Microstructure and Macrostructure of Passages among Chinese Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Lap-yan; Ho, Connie Suk-han; Wong, Yau-kai; Chan, David Wai-ock; Chung, Kevin Kien-hoa

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the microstructure and macrostructure of passages is important for reading comprehension. What cognitive-linguistic skills may contribute to understanding these two levels of structures has rarely been investigated. The present study examined whether some word-level and text-level cognitive-linguistic skills may contribute…

  5. Digital passages. Moroccan-Dutch youths performing diaspora, gender and youth cultural identities across digital space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leurs, K.H.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/343295334

    2012-01-01

    Digital Passages considers how the relations between gender, diaspora and youth culture are digitally articulated by Moroccan-Dutch youths between the age of 12 and 18 years old. Combining new media, gender and postcolonial theory, a transdisciplinary analysis is carried out of a young

  6. Impact of the vibrations on the environment caused by passages of trains at variable speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kożuch Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with negative environmental impact caused by the passages of different kinds of trains at variable speed. The study is based on the measurement results which took place in Poland in 2013 on the railway line no. 4. The effect of the traction unit – Pendolino (EMU 250 on the vibration climate was analysed. The impact of passages of new trains was compared to currently operated rolling stock. The speed of trains was varying between 40 and 250 km/h. Vibration measurements were conducted by stuff of an accredited Laboratory of Structural Mechanics at Cracow University of Technology (Accreditation No. AB 826. The influence of the indicated vibrations due to passages of the trains on the building in the neighbourhood of the line was investigated. The vibration assessment was done for horizontal components of vibrations according to Polish standard code. Assessment of environmental impact was presented by indicator of perceptibility of vibration through construction (WODB, which refers to the Scales of Dynamic Influences (SDI scales. The limits specified by standards in any of the passages have not been exceeded. The change of speed or rolling stock resulted in a change in the characteristic of the vibration spectrum.

  7. Nonlinear Stimulated Raman Exact Passage by Resonance-Locked Inverse Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorier, V.; Gevorgyan, M.; Ishkhanyan, A.; Leroy, C.; Jauslin, H. R.; Guérin, S.

    2017-12-01

    We derive an exact and robust stimulated Raman process for nonlinear quantum systems driven by pulsed external fields. The external fields are designed with closed-form expressions from the inverse engineering of a given efficient and stable dynamics. This technique allows one to induce a controlled population inversion which surpasses the usual nonlinear stimulated Raman adiabatic passage efficiency.

  8. Word Recognition Subcomponents and Passage Level Reading in a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Junko

    2013-01-01

    Despite the growing number of studies highlighting the complex process of acquiring second language (L2) word recognition skills, comparatively little research has examined the relationship between word recognition and passage-level reading ability in L2 learners; further, the existing results are inconclusive. This study aims to help fill the…

  9. Rites of Passage: A Comparison of US, Malaysian and Brazilian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Sherri Nevada; de Souza, Luciana Karine; Jafaar, Jas

    2010-01-01

    This study compares the life events perceived as "rites of passage" from adolescence to adulthood by respondents between the ages of 14 and 23 in 3 countries and discusses the possible influences of culture and globalization on these perceptions. Participants include: (1) 250 adolescents from the US (125 males and 125 females); (2) 191…

  10. Rapid adiabatic passage in quantum dots: Influence of scattering and dephasing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuh, K.; Jahnke, F.; Lorke, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical investigations for the realization of population inversion of semiconductor quantum dot ground-state transitions by means of adiabatic passage with chirped optical pulses are presented. While the inversion due to Rabi oscillations depends sensitively on the resonance condition...... to describe carrier scattering and dephasing in the corresponding simulations and allow to quantify the conditions to simultaneously invert an ensamble of quantum dots....

  11. Evaluation of Fish Passage at Whitewater Parks Using 2D and 3D Hydraulic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardee, T.; Nelson, P. A.; Kondratieff, M.; Bledsoe, B. P.

    2016-12-01

    In-stream whitewater parks (WWPs) are increasingly popular recreational amenities that typically create waves by constricting flow through a chute to increase velocities and form a hydraulic jump. However, the hydraulic conditions these structures create can limit longitudinal habitat connectivity and potentially inhibit upstream fish migration, especially of native fishes. An improved understanding of the fundamental hydraulic processes and potential environmental effects of whitewater parks is needed to inform management decisions about Recreational In-Channel Diversions (RICDs). Here, we use hydraulic models to compute a continuous and spatially explicit description of velocity and depth along potential fish swimming paths in the flow field, and the ensemble of potential paths are compared to fish swimming performance data to predict fish passage via logistic regression analysis. While 3d models have been shown to accurately predict trout movement through WWP structures, 2d methods can provide a more cost-effective and manager-friendly approach to assessing the effects of similar hydraulic structures on fish passage when 3d analysis in not feasible. Here, we use 2d models to examine the hydraulics in several WWP structures on the North Fork of the St. Vrain River at Lyons, Colorado, and we compare these model results to fish passage predictions from a 3d model. Our analysis establishes a foundation for a practical, transferable and physically-rigorous 2d modeling approach for mechanistically evaluating the effects of hydraulic structures on fish passage.

  12. Implicit and Explicit Memory for Affective Passages in Temporal Lobectomy Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Leslie A.; Rabin, Laura; Vardy, Susan Bernstein; Frohlich, Jonathan; Porter, Gwinne Wyatt; Dimitri, Diana; Cofer, Lucas; Labar, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Eighteen temporal lobectomy patients (9 left, LTL; 9 right, RTL) were administered four verbal tasks, an Affective Implicit Task, a Neutral Implicit Task, an Affective Explicit Task, and a Neutral Explicit Task. For the Affective and Neutral Implicit Tasks, participants were timed while reading aloud passages with affective or neutral content,…

  13. Statistics of the first passage time of Brownian motion conditioned by maximum value or area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearney, Michael J; Majumdar, Satya N

    2014-01-01

    We derive the moments of the first passage time for Brownian motion conditioned by either the maximum value or the area swept out by the motion. These quantities are the natural counterparts to the moments of the maximum value and area of Brownian excursions of fixed duration, which we also derive for completeness within the same mathematical framework. Various applications are indicated. (paper)

  14. The Use of Organizational Strategies to Improve Memory for Prose Passages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Mark

    1986-01-01

    Examined effects of enforced organizational strategies on the memory of older adults for textual material. Young and old adults sorted scrambled sentences of a prose passage into the correct order. When older adults were required to make an in-depth analysis to sort material, their incidental memory for textual information was approximately equal…

  15. Extreme value theory, Poisson-Dirichlet distributions, and first passage percolation on random networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhamidi, S.; Van der Hofstad, R.; Hooghiemstra, G.

    2010-01-01

    We study first passage percolation (FPP) on the configuration model (CM) having power-law degrees with exponent ? ? [1, 2) and exponential edge weights. We derive the distributional limit of the minimal weight of a path between typical vertices in the network and the number of edges on the

  16. Statistical Analysis of the First Passage Path Ensemble of Jump Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kleist, Max; Schütte, Christof; Zhang, Wei

    2018-02-01

    The transition mechanism of jump processes between two different subsets in state space reveals important dynamical information of the processes and therefore has attracted considerable attention in the past years. In this paper, we study the first passage path ensemble of both discrete-time and continuous-time jump processes on a finite state space. The main approach is to divide each first passage path into nonreactive and reactive segments and to study them separately. The analysis can be applied to jump processes which are non-ergodic, as well as continuous-time jump processes where the waiting time distributions are non-exponential. In the particular case that the jump processes are both Markovian and ergodic, our analysis elucidates the relations between the study of the first passage paths and the study of the transition paths in transition path theory. We provide algorithms to numerically compute statistics of the first passage path ensemble. The computational complexity of these algorithms scales with the complexity of solving a linear system, for which efficient methods are available. Several examples demonstrate the wide applicability of the derived results across research areas.

  17. Numerical modeling of the 1964 Alaska tsunami in western Passage Canal and Whittier, Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Nicolsky

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A numerical model of the wave dynamics in Passage Canal, Alaska during the Mw 9.2 megathrust earthquake is presented. During the earthquake, several types of waves were identified at the city of Whittier, located at the head of Passage Canal. The first wave is thought to have been a seiche, while the other two waves were probably triggered by submarine landslides. We model the seiche wave, landslide-generated tsunami, and tectonic tsunami in Passage Canal and compute inundation by each type of wave during the 1964 event. Modeled results are compared with eyewitness reports and an observed inundation line. Results of the numerical experiments let us identify where the submarine landslides might have occurred during the 1964 event. We identify regions at the head and along the northern shore of Passage Canal, where landslides triggered a wave that caused most of the damage in Whittier. An explanation of the fact that the 1964 tectonic tsunami in Whittier was unnoticed is presented as well. The simulated inundation by the seiche, landslide-generated tsunami, and tectonic tsunami can help to mitigate tsunami hazards and prepare Whittier for a potential tsunami.

  18. The frontal structure in Drake Passage based on the data of the section in January 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarakanov, Roman

    2014-05-01

    The frontal structure in the region of Drake Passage is investigated on the basis of data of Absolute Dynamic Topography (ADT) of French agency CLS (DT-Global-MADT-Upd product, http://aviso.oceanobs.com), and CTD- and SADCP-measurements along the hydrophysical section carried out across the passage from Smith Isl. (just to the east of the Hero F.Z.) to the Cape Horn onboard R/V "Akademik Ioffe" in January 2010. The investigation was similar to the analysis performed on the basis of data of the section carried out two weeks earlier onboard the same vessel south of Africa. Fine-jet structure of the ACC was detected in Drake Passage as well as to the south of Africa where twelve ACC jets were found. Eleven jets of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) were revealed in Drake Passage. These were five jets of the Subantarctic Current (the band of Subantarctic Front), four jets of the South Polar Current (the band of Polar Front), and two jets of the South Antarctic Current (the band of Southern ACC Front). Two jets of the South Antarctic Current were joined in a single "super-jet" according to the velocity measurements in the section. The others were manifested by the local velocity maxima in the surface layer.

  19. First-passage time asymptotics over moving boundaries for random walk bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloothaak, F.; Zwart, B.; Wachtel, V.

    2017-01-01

    We study the asymptotic tail probability of the first-passage time over a moving boundary for a random walk conditioned to return to zero, where the increments of the random walk have finite variance. Typically, the asymptotic tail behavior may be described through a regularly varying function with

  20. The Zenith Passage of the Sun at the Mesoamerican Sites of Tula and Chichen Itza

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Using software SunCalc.org we can easily observe the alignments of buildings along the direction of the sunset on the day of the zenith passage of the sun, at two Mesoamerican sites. These sites are those of Tula and Chichen Itza.

  1. Reinventing the MBA as a Rite of Passage for a Boundaryless Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelan, Elisabeth; Jones, Rachel Dunkley

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore whether the rite of passage is still a useful model with which to conceptualise the MBA in the era of the boundaryless career. Design/methodology/approach: The paper examines the formative experiences of full-time MBA students at an elite business school, using in-depth qualitative interviews. Through a…

  2. Heat transfer in rotating serpentine passages with trips normal to the flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, J. H.; Johnson, B. V.; Graziani, R. A.; Yeh, F. C.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of buoyancy and Coriolis forces on heat transfer in turbine blade internal coolant passages. The experiments were conducted with a large scale, multipass, heat transfer model with both radially inward and outward flow. Trip strips on the leading and trailing surfaces of the radial coolant passages were used to produce the rough walls. An analysis of the governing flow equations showed that four parameters influence the heat transfer in rotating passages: coolant-to-wall temperature ratio, Rossby number, Reynolds number, and radius-to-passage hydraulic diameter ratio. The first three of these four parameters were varied over ranges which are typical of advanced gas turbine engine operating conditions. Results were correlated and compared to previous results from stationary and rotating similar models with trip strips. The heat transfer coefficients on surfaces, where the heat increased with rotation and buoyancy, varied by as much as a factor of four. Maximum values of the heat transfer coefficients with high rotation were only slightly above the highest levels obtained with the smooth wall model. The heat transfer coefficients on surfaces, where the heat transfer decreased with rotation, varied by as much as a factor of three due to rotation and buoyancy. It was concluded that both Coriolis and buoyancy effects must be considered in turbine blade cooling designs with trip strips and that the effects of rotation were markedly different depending upon the flow direction.

  3. World class manufacturing in metallurgical enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    B. Gajdzik

    2013-01-01

    World Class Manufacturing (WCM) assumes increase of efficiency of the company by elimination of all the losses, wastage and dangers of safety. In ArcelorMittal the concept of WCM is implemented in particular enterprises within the capital group. In this publication the activities conducted in some of those enterprises are described.

  4. World class manufacturing in metallurgical enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gajdzik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available World Class Manufacturing (WCM assumes increase of efficiency of the company by elimination of all the losses, wastage and dangers of safety. In ArcelorMittal the concept of WCM is implemented in particular enterprises within the capital group. In this publication the activities conducted in some of those enterprises are described.

  5. Social Class Dialogues and the Fostering of Class Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Meredith

    2015-01-01

    How do critical pedagogies promote undergraduate students' awareness of social class, social class identity, and social class inequalities in education? How do undergraduate students experience class consciousness-raising in the intergroup dialogue classroom? This qualitative study explores undergraduate students' class consciousness-raising in an…

  6. Meridional contrasts in productivity changes driven by the Cenozoic opening of Drake Passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnadieu, Y.; Ladant, J. B.; Bopp, L.; Wilson, P. A.; Lear, C. H.

    2017-12-01

    The progressive opening of Drake Passage across the Eocene and the Oligocene occurs contemporaneously to the long-term global cooling of the late Eocene, which culminated with the Eocene-Oligocene glaciation of Antarctica. Atmospheric pCO2 decline during the late Eocene is thought to have played a major role in the climatic shifts of the Eocene-Oligocene boundary, yet reasons behind CO2 variations remain obscure. Changes in marine productivity affecting the biological oceanic carbon pump represent a possible cause. Here, we explore whether and how the opening of Drake Passage may have affected the marine biogeochemistry, and in particular paleoproductivity changes, with the use of a fully coupled atmosphere-ocean-biogeochemical model (IPSL-CM5A). We find that the simulated changes to Drake Passage opening exhibit a uniform decrease in the low latitudes while the high latitude response is more spatially heterogeneous. Mechanistically, the low latitude productivity decrease is a consequence of the dramatic reorganization of the ocean circulation when Drake Passage opens, as the shift from a well ventilated to a swampier ocean drives nutrient depletion in the low latitudes. In the high latitudes, the onset of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the model exerts a strong control both on nutrient availability but also on regions of deep water formation, which results in non-uniform patterns of productivity change in the Southern Ocean. The qualitative agreement between geographically diverse long-term paleoproductivity records and the simulated variations suggests that the opening of Drake Passage may contribute to part of the long-term paleoproductivity signal recorded in the data.

  7. Bathymetry and oceanic flow structure at two deep passages crossing the Lomonosov Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björk, Göran; Jakobsson, Martin; Assmann, Karen; Andersson, Leif G.; Nilsson, Johan; Stranne, Christian; Mayer, Larry

    2018-01-01

    The Lomonosov Ridge represents a major topographical feature in the Arctic Ocean which has a large effect on the water circulation and the distribution of water properties. This study presents detailed bathymetric survey data along with hydrographic data at two deep passages across the ridge: a southern passage (80-81° N), where the ridge crest meets the Siberian continental slope, and a northern passage around 84.5° N. The southern channel is characterized by smooth and flat bathymetry around 1600-1700 m with a sill depth slightly shallower than 1700 m. A hydrographic section across the channel reveals an eastward flow with Amundsen Basin properties in the southern part and a westward flow of Makarov Basin properties in the northern part. The northern passage includes an approximately 72 km long and 33 km wide trough which forms an intra-basin in the Lomonosov Ridge morphology (the Oden Trough). The eastern side of the Oden Trough is enclosed by a narrow and steep ridge rising 500-600 m above a generally 1600 m deep trough bottom. The deepest passage (the sill) is 1470 m deep and located on this ridge. Hydrographic data show irregular temperature and salinity profiles indicating that water exchange occurs as midwater intrusions bringing water properties from each side of the ridge in well-defined but irregular layers. There is also morphological evidence that some rather energetic flows may occur in the vicinity of the sill. A well expressed deepening near the sill may be the result of seabed erosion by bottom currents.

  8. A comparison of metrics to evaluate the effects of hydro-facility passage stressors on fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colotelo, Alison H.; Goldman, Amy E.; Wagner, Katie A.; Brown, Richard S.; Deng, Z. Daniel; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2017-03-01

    Hydropower is the most common form of renewable energy, and countries worldwide are considering expanding hydropower to new areas. One of the challenges of hydropower deployment is mitigation of the environmental impacts including water quality, habitat alterations, and ecosystem connectivity. For fish species that inhabit river systems with hydropower facilities, passage through the facility to access spawning and rearing habitats can be particularly challenging. Fish moving downstream through a hydro-facility can be exposed to a number of stressors (e.g., rapid decompression, shear forces, blade strike and collision, and turbulence), which can all affect fish survival in direct and indirect ways. Many studies have investigated the effects of hydro-turbine passage on fish; however, the comparability among studies is limited by variation in the metrics and biological endpoints used. Future studies investigating the effects of hydro-turbine passage should focus on using metrics and endpoints that are easily comparable. This review summarizes four categories of metrics that are used in fisheries research and have application to hydro-turbine passage (i.e., mortality, injury, molecular metrics, behavior) and evaluates them based on several criteria (i.e., resources needed, invasiveness, comparability among stressors and species, and diagnostic properties). Additionally, these comparisons are put into context of study setting (i.e., laboratory vs. field). Overall, injury and molecular metrics are ideal for studies in which there is a need to understand the mechanisms of effect, whereas behavior and mortality metrics provide information on the whole body response of the fish. The study setting strongly influences the comparability among studies. In laboratory-based studies, stressors can be controlled by both type and magnitude, allowing for easy comparisons among studies. In contrast, field studies expose fish to realistic passage environments but the comparability is

  9. Optimizing UML Class Diagrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergievskiy Maxim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of object-oriented development technologies rely on the use of the universal modeling language UML; class diagrams play a very important role in the design process play, used to build a software system model. Modern CASE tools, which are the basic tools for object-oriented development, can’t be used to optimize UML diagrams. In this manuscript we will explain how, based on the use of design patterns and anti-patterns, class diagrams could be verified and optimized. Certain transformations can be carried out automatically; in other cases, potential inefficiencies will be indicated and recommendations given. This study also discusses additional CASE tools for validating and optimizing of UML class diagrams. For this purpose, a plugin has been developed that analyzes an XMI file containing a description of class diagrams.

  10. Classes of Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Introduction Types of Heart Failure Classes of Heart Failure Heart Failure in Children Advanced Heart Failure • Causes and ... and Advanced HF • Tools and Resources • Personal Stories Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor Use these questions ...

  11. Generalized Fourier transforms classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Svend; Møller, Steen

    2002-01-01

    The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory foll...... follows that integral transform with kernels which are products of a Bessel and a Hankel function or which is of a certain general hypergeometric type have inverse transforms of the same structure....

  12. Nordic Walking Classes

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2015-01-01

    Four classes of one hour each are held on Tuesdays. RDV barracks parking at Entrance A, 10 minutes before class time. Spring Course 2015: 05.05/12.05/19.05/26.05 Prices 40 CHF per session + 10 CHF club membership 5 CHF/hour pole rental Check out our schedule and enroll at: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Nordic%20Walking/NewForm.aspx? Hope to see you among us! fitness.club@cern.ch

  13. Single-Sex Classes in Two Arkansas Elementary Schools: 2008-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotsky, Sandra; Denny, George; Tschepikow, Nick

    2010-01-01

    Interest in single-sex classes continues to grow in the United States, but there has been little research at the elementary level in this country or elsewhere to help guide educators' decision-making about the overall value of single-sex classes in public schools and the specific value of single-sex classes in public schools for increasing boy's…

  14. The Gentrification of Public Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattalo, Patrick

    1992-01-01

    Notes that public welfare agencies are serving middle-class Americans. Examines six factors that may contribute to gentrification of public welfare agencies: growing demands for services from nontraditional clients; restructuring of public welfare's service delivery system; declining resources; increasing emphasis on child protective services;…

  15. Mean pulmonary 99mTc-pertechnetate passage time. Its correlation with hemodynamic parameters in primary and secondary pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinitsyn, V.E.; Sergienko, V.B.; Ostroumov, E.N.; Mareev, V.Yu.

    1991-01-01

    Diagnostic value of mean pulmonary 99m Tc-pertechnetate passage time was studied in 27 patients with different types of hypertension disturbances. It was shown that the parameters of mean indicator passage time can be used for noninvasive determination of diastolic pressure in pulmonary artery

  16. Readability Levels of the Reading Passages in the ITED: Final Report. Iowa Testing Programs Research Report. Number 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Robert

    The readability level of passages from three subtests of the Iowa Tests of Educational Development (ITED), Forms X-6 and Y-6, were compared with the readability level of passages selected from the Des Moines Resister, Reader's Digest, Time, Newsweek, Saturday Review, and 18 high school textbooks from the fields of social studies, science, and…

  17. Sherlock Holmes and the Strange Case of the Missing Attribution: A Historical Note on "The Grandfather Passage"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Jamie; Fisher, Jamie L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In 1963, Charles Van Riper published "My Grandfather," a short reading passage that has evolved into a ubiquitous metric of reading ability and speech intelligibility. In this historical note, we describe several heretofore unacknowledged similarities between "The Grandfather Passage" (Darley, Aronson, & Brown, 1975) and a portion of "The…

  18. Compliance Monitoring of Yearling Chinook Salmon and Juvenile Steelhead Survival and Passage at Bonneville Dam, Spring 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalski, John R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam; Ploskey, Gene R.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-06-07

    The study was designed to estimate dam passage survival at Bonneville Dam as stipulated by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion (BiOp) and to provide additional fish passage performance measures at that site as stipulated in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords.

  19. Compliance Monitoring of Yearling Chinook Salmon and Juvenile Steelhead Survival and Passage at John Day Dam, Spring 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam; Weiland, Mark A.; Woodley, Christa M.; Hughes, James S.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-06-01

    The study was designed to estimate dam passage survival at John Day Dam as stipulated by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion (BiOp) and to provide additional fish passage performance measures at that site as stipulated in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords.

  20. Compliance Monitoring of Yearling Chinook Salmon and Juvenile Steelhead Survival and Passage at John Day Dam, Spring 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam; Weiland, Mark A.; Woodley, Christa M.; Hughes, James S.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-02-01

    The study was designed to estimate dam passage survival at John Day Dam as stipulated by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion (BiOp) and to provide additional fish passage performance measures at that site as stipulated in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords.

  1. Compliance Monitoring of Yearling Chinook Salmon and Juvenile Steelhead Survival and Passage at Bonneville Dam, Spring 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam; Ploskey, Gene R.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-03-01

    The study was designed to estimate dam passage survival at Bonneville Dam as stipulated by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion (BiOp) and to provide additional fish passage performance measures at that site as stipulated in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords.

  2. Validation of a Functional Pyelocalyceal Renal Model for the Evaluation of Renal Calculi Passage While Riding a Roller Coaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Marc A; Wartinger, David D

    2016-10-01

    The identification and evaluation of activities capable of dislodging calyceal renal calculi require a patient surrogate or validated functional pyelocalyceal renal model. To evaluate roller coaster facilitation of calyceal renal calculi passage using a functional pyelocalyceal renal model. A previously described adult ureteroscopy and renoscopy simulator (Ideal Anatomic) was modified and remolded to function as a patient surrogate. Three renal calculi of different sizes from the patient who provided the original computed tomographic urograph on which the simulator was based were used. The renal calculi were suspended in urine in the model and taken for 20 rides on the Big Thunder Mountain Railroad roller coaster at Walt Disney World in Orlando, Florida. The roller coaster rides were analyzed using variables of renal calculi volume, calyceal location, model position on the roller coaster, and renal calculi passage. Sixty renal calculi rides were analyzed. Independent of renal calculi volume and calyceal location, front seating on the roller coaster resulted in a passage rate of 4 of 24. Independent of renal calculi volume and calyceal location, rear seating on the roller coaster resulted in a passage rate of 23 of 36. Independent of renal calculi volume in rear seating, calyceal location differed in passage rates, with an upper calyceal calculi passage rate of 100%; a middle calyceal passage rate of 55.6%; and a lower calyceal passage rate of 40.0%. The functional pyelocalyceal renal model serves as a functional patient surrogate to evaluate activities that facilitate calyceal renal calculi passage. The rear seating position on the roller coaster led to the most renal calculi passages.

  3. Virulence-associated genome mutations of murine rotavirus identified by alternating serial passages in mice and cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsugawa, Takeshi; Tatsumi, Masatoshi; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki

    2014-05-01

    Although significant clinical efficacy and safety of rotavirus vaccines were recently revealed in many countries, the mechanism of their attenuation is not well understood. We passaged serially a cell culture-adapted murine rotavirus EB strain in mouse pups or in cell cultures alternately and repeatedly and fully sequenced all 11 genes of 21 virus samples passaged in mice or in cell cultures. Sequence analysis revealed that mouse-passaged viruses that regained virulence almost consistently acquired four kinds of amino acid (aa) substitutions in VP4 and substitution in aa 37 (Val to Ala) in NSP4. In addition, they gained and invariably conserved the 3' consensus sequence in NSP1. The molecular changes occurred along with the acquisition of virulence during passages in mice and then disappeared following passages in cell cultures. Intraperitoneal injection of recombinant NSP4 proteins confirmed the aa 37 site as important for its diarrheagenic activity in mice. These genome changes are likely to be correlated with rotavirus virulence. Serial passage of a virulent wild-type virus in vitro often results in loss of virulence of the virus in an original animal host, while serial passage of a cell culture-adapted avirulent virus in vivo often gains virulence in an animal host. Actually, live attenuated virus vaccines were originally produced by serial passage in cell cultures. Although clinical efficacy and safety of rotavirus vaccines were recently revealed, the mechanism of their attenuation is not well understood. We passaged serially a murine rotavirus by alternating switch of host (mice or cell cultures) repeatedly and sequenced the eleven genes of the passaged viruses to identify mutations associated with the emergence or disappearance of virulence. Sequence analysis revealed that changes in three genes (VP4, NSP1, and NSP4) were associated with virulence in mice. Intraperitoneal injection of recombinant NSP4 proteins confirmed its diarrheagenic activity in mice

  4. Virulence-Associated Genome Mutations of Murine Rotavirus Identified by Alternating Serial Passages in Mice and Cell Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, Masatoshi; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although significant clinical efficacy and safety of rotavirus vaccines were recently revealed in many countries, the mechanism of their attenuation is not well understood. We passaged serially a cell culture-adapted murine rotavirus EB strain in mouse pups or in cell cultures alternately and repeatedly and fully sequenced all 11 genes of 21 virus samples passaged in mice or in cell cultures. Sequence analysis revealed that mouse-passaged viruses that regained virulence almost consistently acquired four kinds of amino acid (aa) substitutions in VP4 and substitution in aa 37 (Val to Ala) in NSP4. In addition, they gained and invariably conserved the 3′ consensus sequence in NSP1. The molecular changes occurred along with the acquisition of virulence during passages in mice and then disappeared following passages in cell cultures. Intraperitoneal injection of recombinant NSP4 proteins confirmed the aa 37 site as important for its diarrheagenic activity in mice. These genome changes are likely to be correlated with rotavirus virulence. IMPORTANCE Serial passage of a virulent wild-type virus in vitro often results in loss of virulence of the virus in an original animal host, while serial passage of a cell culture-adapted avirulent virus in vivo often gains virulence in an animal host. Actually, live attenuated virus vaccines were originally produced by serial passage in cell cultures. Although clinical efficacy and safety of rotavirus vaccines were recently revealed, the mechanism of their attenuation is not well understood. We passaged serially a murine rotavirus by alternating switch of host (mice or cell cultures) repeatedly and sequenced the eleven genes of the passaged viruses to identify mutations associated with the emergence or disappearance of virulence. Sequence analysis revealed that changes in three genes (VP4, NSP1, and NSP4) were associated with virulence in mice. Intraperitoneal injection of recombinant NSP4 proteins confirmed its

  5. Walla Walla River Fish Passage Operations Program, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronson, James P. (Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Department of Natural Resources, Pendleton, OR)

    2004-12-01

    In the late 1990s, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, along with many other agencies, began implementing fisheries restoration activities in the Walla Walla Basin. An integral part of these efforts is to alleviate the inadequate fish migration conditions in the basin. The migration concerns are being addressed by removing diversion structures, constructing fish passage facilities, implementing minimum instream flow requirements, and providing trap and haul efforts when needed. The objective of the Walla Walla River Fish Passage Operations Project is to increase the survival of migrating adult and juvenile salmonids in the Walla Walla River basin. The project is responsible for coordinating operation and maintenance of ladders, screen sites, bypasses, trap facilities, and transportation equipment. In addition, the project provides technical input on passage criteria and passage and trapping facility design and operation. Operation of the various passage facilities and passage criteria guidelines are outlined in an annual operations plan that the project develops. During the 2003-2004 project year, there were 379 adult summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), 36 adult bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus); 108 adult and 3 jack spring chinook (O. tshawytscha) enumerated at the Nursery Bridge Dam fishway video counting window between December 21, 2003, and June 30, 2004. Summer steelhead and spring chinook were observed moving upstream while bull trout were observed moving both upstream and downstream of the facility. In addition, the old ladder trap was operated by the WWBNPME project in order to radio tag spring chinook adults. A total of 2 adult summer steelhead, 4 bull trout, and 23 adult spring chinook were enumerated at the west ladder at Nursery Bridge Dam during the trapping operations between May 6 and May 23, 2004. Operation of the Little Walla Walla

  6. Dosimetric characteristics of PASSAG as a new polymer gel dosimeter with negligible toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhood, Bagher; Abtahi, Seyed Mohammad Mahdi; Geraily, Ghazale; Ghorbani, Mehdi; Mahdavi, Seied Rabi; Zahmatkesh, Mohammad Hasan

    2018-06-01

    Despite many advantages of polymer gel dosimeters, their clinical use is only not realized now. Toxicity of polymer gel dosimeters can be considered as one of their main limitations for use in routine clinical applications. In the current study, a new polymer gel dosimeter is introduced with negligible toxicity. For this purpose, 2-Acrylamido-2-Methy-1-PropaneSulfonic acid (AMPS) sodium salt monomer was replaced instead of acrylamide monomer used in PAGAT gel dosimeter by using %6 T and %50 C to the gel formula and the new formulation is called PASSAG (Poly AMPS Sodium Salt and Gelatin) polymer gel dosimeter. The irradiation of gel dosimeters was carried out using a Co-60 therapy machine. MRI technique was used to quantify the dose responses of the PASSAG gel dosimeter. Then, the MRI responses (R2) of the gel dosimeter was analyzed at different dose values, post-irradiation times, and scanning temperatures. The results showed that the new gel formulation has a negligible toxicity and it is also eco-friendly. In addition, carcinogenicity and genetic toxicity tests are negative for the monomer used in PASSAG. The radiological properties of PASSAG gel dosimeter showed that this substance can be considered as a soft tissue/water equivalent material. Furthermore, dosimetric evaluation of the new polymer gel dosimeter revealed an excellent linear R2-dose response in the evaluated dose range (0-15 Gy). The R2-dose sensitivity and dose resolution of PASSAG gel dosimeter were 0.081 s-1Gy-1 (in 0-15 Gy dose range) and 1 Gy (in 0-10 Gy dose range), respectively. Moreover, it was shown that the R2-dose sensitivity and dose resolution of the new gel dosimeter improves over time after irradiation. It was also found that the R2 response of the PASSAG gel dosimeter has less dependency to the 18, 20, and 24 °C scanning temperature in comparison to that of room temperature (22 °C).

  7. Three Dimensional Viscous Flow Field in an Axial Flow Turbine Nozzle Passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristic, D.; Lakshminarayana, B.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this investigation is experimental and computational study of three dimensional viscous flow field in the nozzle passage of an axial flow turbine stage. The nozzle passage flow field has been measured using a two sensor hot-wire probe at various axial and radial stations. In addition, two component LDV measurements at one axial station (x/c(sum m) = 0.56) were performed to measure the velocity field. Static pressure measurements and flow visualization, using a fluorescent oil technique, were also performed to obtain the location of transition and the endwall limiting streamlines. A three dimensional boundary layer code, with a simple intermittency transition model, was used to predict the viscous layers along the blade and endwall surfaces. The boundary layers on the blade surface were found to be very thin and mostly laminar, except on the suction surface downstream of 70% axial chord. Strong radial pressure gradient, especially close to the suction surface, induces strong cross flow components in the trailing edge regions of the blade. On the end-walls the boundary layers were much thicker, especially near the suction corner of the casing surface, caused by secondary flow. The secondary flow region near the suction-casing surface corner indicates the presence of the passage vortex detached from the blade surface. The corner vortex is found to be very weak. The presence of a closely spaced rotor downstream (20% of the nozzle vane chord) introduces unsteadiness in the blade passage. The measured instantaneous velocity signal was filtered using FFT square window to remove the periodic unsteadiness introduced by the downstream rotor and fans. The filtering decreased the free stream turbulence level from 2.1% to 0.9% but had no influence on the computed turbulence length scale. The computation of the three dimensional boundary layers is found to be accurate on the nozzle passage blade surfaces, away from the end-walls and the secondary flow region. On

  8. Strategic Passages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    against such system is essential. Procrastination here canl he fatal; a-third-countrv inolvement, however, there is a hea v cost for reactiin preniat...examination of contemporat iews of global and naval based coninand, W’ w oqna thl . and tactical lrategv, a reasonable undersandine of those attributes autonomy ...Requirements and Assessment Office PROGRAM PROJECT TASK WORK UNIT NSTL, Mississippi 39529-5004 ELEMENT NO. NO. NO NO -. 82759N 11 TITLE (Include Security

  9. Coolant Passage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom I.-P. Shih

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Computations were performed to study the three-dimensional flow and heat transfer in a U-shaped duct of square cross section with inclined ribs on two opposite walls under rotating and non-rotating conditions. Two extreme limits in the Reynolds number (25,000 and 350,000 were investigated. The rotation numbers investigated are 0, 0.24, and 0.039. Results show rotation and the bend to reinforce secondary flows that align with it and to retard those that do not. Rotation was found to affect significantly the flow and heat transfer in the bend even at a very high Reynolds number of 350,000 and a very low Rotation number of 0:039. When there is no rotation, the flow and heat transfer in the bend were dominated by rib-induced secondary flows at the high Reynolds number limit and by bend-induced pressure-gradients at the low Reynolds number limit. Long streaks of reduced surface heat transfer occur in the bend at locations where streamlines from two contiguous secondary flows merge and then flow away from the surface. The location and size of these streaks varied markedly with Reynolds and rotation numbers.

  10. Translation in ESL Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Imola Katalin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of translation in foreign language classes cannot be dealt with unless we attempt to make an overview of what translation meant for language teaching in different periods of language pedagogy. From the translation-oriented grammar-translation method through the complete ban on translation and mother tongue during the times of the audio-lingual approaches, we have come today to reconsider the role and status of translation in ESL classes. This article attempts to advocate for translation as a useful ESL class activity, which can completely fulfil the requirements of communicativeness. We also attempt to identify some activities and games, which rely on translation in some books published in the 1990s and the 2000s.

  11. 34 CFR 106.34 - Access to classes and schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... coeducational elementary or secondary school may provide nonvocational single-sex classes or extracurricular... of the excluded sex, a substantially equal coeducational class or extracurricular activity in the... school or coeducational school. (2) Exception. A nonvocational public charter school that is a single...

  12. MIDDLE CLASS MOVEMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. K. Sravana Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The middle class is placed between labour and capital. It neither directly awns the means of production that pumps out the surplus generated by wage labour power, nor does it, by its own labour, produce the surplus which has use and exchange value. Broadly speaking, this class consists of the petty bourgeoisie and the white-collar workers. The former are either self-employed or involved in the distribution of commodities and the latter are non-manual office workers, supervisors and profession...

  13. Talking Class in Tehroon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian; Rezakhani, Khodadad

    2016-01-01

    Persian, like any other language, is laced with references to class, both blatant and subtle. With idioms and metaphors, Iranians can identify and situate others, and thus themselves, within hierarchies of social status and privilege, both real and imagined. Some class-related terms can be traced...... back to medieval times, whereas others are of modern vintage, the linguistic legacy of television shows, pop songs, social media memes or street vernacular. Every day, it seems, an infectious set of phrases appears that make yesterday’s seem embarrassingly antiquated....

  14. BEHAVIOR AND CYTOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF Metarhizium anisopliae and Metarhizium flavoviride AFTER PASSAGE IN Chrysomya albiceps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Marlon Carneiro Feijó

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae and Metarhizium flavoviride var. flavoviride are entomopathogenic fungi with proved action against several species of insects. In this work, the behavior and cytology of the M. anisopliae var. anisopliae (PL43 and M. flavoviride var. flavoviride (CG291 were evaluated after the passage in eggs, larvae and adults Chrysomya albiceps, an important causer of secondary myiais. The experiment was carried out under an acclimatized environment's humidity and temperature of 60 ± 10% and 28 ± 1oC. The most expressive results of the biological parameters studied (percentage of germination, quantity of conidia, quantity and diameter of colonies were reached from re-isolated fungi of larvae. No significant differences were observed in the cytological aspects of the life cycle of the fungi post-passage in eggs, larvae and adults. These results suggest the possibility of the use of the fungi in the control of C. albiceps fly.

  15. A model for the mechanism of strand passage by DNA gyrase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampranis, S C; Bates, A D; Maxwell, A

    1999-01-01

    this mechanism by probing the topology of the bound DNA segment at distinct steps of the catalytic cycle. We propose a model in which gyrase captures a contiguous DNA segment with high probability, irrespective of the superhelical density of the DNA substrate, setting up an equilibrium of the transported segment......The mechanism of type II DNA topoisomerases involves the formation of an enzyme-operated gate in one double-stranded DNA segment and the passage of another segment through this gate. DNA gyrase is the only type II topoisomerase able to introduce negative supercoils into DNA, a feature that requires...... the enzyme to dictate the directionality of strand passage. Although it is known that this is a consequence of the characteristic wrapping of DNA by gyrase, the detailed mechanism by which the transported DNA segment is captured and directed through the DNA gate is largely unknown. We have addressed...

  16. Rumen passage kinetics of forage and concentrate derived fiber in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krämer, Monika; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2013-01-01

    , were used in a completely randomized block experiment. Treatments differed in forage type (corn silage versus grass silage) and forage:concentrate ratio (50:50 versus 75:25 on organic matter basis). Fiber passage kinetics were studied based on rumen evacuations and on marker excretion profiles in feces....... The forage type itself (corn silage and grass silage) rather than ration composition seemed to determine the total tract retention time of forage fiber......Rumen passage kinetics of forage and concentrate fiber were analyzed to determine intrinsic feed effects and extrinsic ration effects on the retention time of fiber in the rumen. Sixteen Danish Holstein cows (557 + 37 kg body weight, 120 + 21 days in milk, mean + SD), 8 fitted with ruminal cannulas...

  17. Fish passage hydroelectric power plant Linne, Netherlands. Didson measurements; Vispassage waterkrachtcentrale Linne. Didson metingen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Keeken, O.A.; Griffioen, A.B. [Institute for Marine Resources and Ecosystem Studies IMARES, Wageningen UR, IJmuiden (Netherlands)

    2011-11-15

    The hydroelectric power plant in the Dutch Maas River near Linne has a fish deflection and passage system. For this study, two evenings in the months of August and September 2011 were dedicated to examining the extent to which fish approached and used the fish passage system. To establish the swimming behavior of the fish, a high-resolution sonar (DIDSON) was used, which generates moving images of fish in turbid waters, to study their behavior. [Dutch] Bij de waterkrachtcentrale in de Maas bij Linne is een visafweer- en geleidingssysteem aangelegd. In deze studie werd op twee avonden verdeeld over de maanden augustus en september 2011 gekeken in hoeverre vissen het visgeleidingssysteem benaderden en gebruikten. Voor het vaststellen van het zwemgedrag van de vissen is gebruik gemaakt van de DIDSON, een hoge resolutie sonar waarmee bewegende beelden kunnen worden gemaakt van vis in troebel water om het gedrag te bestuderen.

  18. Quantum state engineering with flux-biased Josephson phase qubits by rapid adiabatic passages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, W.; Huang, J. S.; Shi, X.; Wei, L. F.

    2010-09-01

    In this article, the scheme of quantum computing based on the Stark-chirped rapid adiabatic passage (SCRAP) technique [L. F. Wei, J. R. Johansson, L. X. Cen, S. Ashhab, and F. Nori, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.100.113601 100, 113601 (2008)] is extensively applied to implement quantum state manipulations in flux-biased Josephson phase qubits. The broken-parity symmetries of bound states in flux-biased Josephson junctions are utilized to conveniently generate the desirable Stark shifts. Then, assisted by various transition pulses, universal quantum logic gates as well as arbitrary quantum state preparations can be implemented. Compared with the usual π-pulse operations widely used in experiments, the adiabatic population passages proposed here are insensitive to the details of the applied pulses and thus the desirable population transfers can be satisfyingly implemented. The experimental feasibility of the proposal is also discussed.

  19. Quantum state engineering with flux-biased Josephson phase qubits by rapid adiabatic passages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie, W.; Huang, J. S.; Shi, X.; Wei, L. F.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the scheme of quantum computing based on the Stark-chirped rapid adiabatic passage (SCRAP) technique [L. F. Wei, J. R. Johansson, L. X. Cen, S. Ashhab, and F. Nori, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 113601 (2008)] is extensively applied to implement quantum state manipulations in flux-biased Josephson phase qubits. The broken-parity symmetries of bound states in flux-biased Josephson junctions are utilized to conveniently generate the desirable Stark shifts. Then, assisted by various transition pulses, universal quantum logic gates as well as arbitrary quantum state preparations can be implemented. Compared with the usual π-pulse operations widely used in experiments, the adiabatic population passages proposed here are insensitive to the details of the applied pulses and thus the desirable population transfers can be satisfyingly implemented. The experimental feasibility of the proposal is also discussed.

  20. First Passage Probability Estimation of Wind Turbines by Markov Chain Monte Carlo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sichani, Mahdi Teimouri; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2013-01-01

    Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation has received considerable attention within the past decade as reportedly one of the most powerful techniques for the first passage probability estimation of dynamic systems. A very popular method in this direction capable of estimating probability of rare events...... of the method by modifying the conditional sampler. In this paper, applicability of the original SS is compared to the recently introduced modifications of the method on a wind turbine model. The model incorporates a PID pitch controller which aims at keeping the rotational speed of the wind turbine rotor equal...... to its nominal value. Finally Monte Carlo simulations are performed which allow assessment of the accuracy of the first passage probability estimation by the SS methods....

  1. Genotypic and serotypic stability of Campylobacter jejuni strains during in vitro and in vivo passage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Eva M.; Engberg, J.; Fussing, V.

    2001-01-01

    The stability of four typing methods and the sero- and genotypic stability of three Campylobacter jejuni strains were evaluated after subculturing 50 times in triplicate and after colonising mice for up to 26 days. The employed methods were Penner heat-stable serotyping; automated ribotyping (Ribo......Printing) using HaeIII restriction enzyme; pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using SmaI, SalI and KpnI; and random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD) using primers 1254, 1281 and HLWL85. No changes in any of the DNA profiles or in the reactions to heat-stable antigens were identified among...... these strains after the in vitro and in vivo passages. However, one isolate became untypeable with RAPD after passage in one of the mice. In addition, eleven other C. jejuni strains of four different serotypes were subcultured ten times to screen for instability. Neither of these showed instability using PFGE...

  2. Stimulated adiabatic passage in a dissipative ensemble of atoms with strong Rydberg-state interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrosyan, David; Molmer, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    We study two-photon excitation of Rydberg states of atoms under stimulated adiabatic passage with delayed laser pulses. We find that the combination of strong interaction between the atoms in Rydberg state and the spontaneous decay of the intermediate exited atomic state leads to the Rydberg exci...... for deterministic creation and, possibly, extraction of Rydberg atoms or ions one at a time. The sympathetic monitoring via decay of ancilla particles may find wider applications for state preparation and probing of interactions in dissipative many-body systems.......We study two-photon excitation of Rydberg states of atoms under stimulated adiabatic passage with delayed laser pulses. We find that the combination of strong interaction between the atoms in Rydberg state and the spontaneous decay of the intermediate exited atomic state leads to the Rydberg...

  3. First passage times for multiple particles with reversible target-binding kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenkov, Denis S.

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the first passage problem for multiple particles that diffuse towards a target, partially adsorb there, and then desorb after a finite exponentially distributed residence time. We search for the first time when m particles undergoing such reversible target-binding kinetics are found simultaneously on the target that may trigger an irreversible chemical reaction or a biophysical event. Even if the particles are independent, the finite residence time on the target yields an intricate temporal coupling between particles. We compute analytically the mean first passage time (MFPT) for two independent particles by mapping the original problem to higher-dimensional surface-mediated diffusion and solving the coupled partial differential equations. The respective effects of the adsorption and desorption rates on the MFPT are revealed and discussed.

  4. Effect of Multiple Turbine Passage on Juvenile Snake River Salmonid Survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, Kenneth D.; Anderson, James J.; Vucelick, Jessica A.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes a study conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to identify populations of migrating juvenile salmonids with a potential to be impacted by repeated exposure to turbine passage conditions. This study is part of a research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Wind/Hydropower Program. The program's goal is to increase hydropower generation and capacity while enhancing environmental performance. Our study objective is to determine whether the incremental effects of turbine passage during downstream migration impact populations of salmonids. When such a potential is found to exist, a secondary objective is to determine what level of effect of passing multiple turbines is required to decrease the number of successful migrants by 10%. This information will help identify whether future laboratory or field studies are feasible and design those studies to address conditions that present the greatest potential to improve dam survival and thus benefit fish and power generation

  5. Data of piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting of a bridge undergoing vibration testing and train passage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Cahill

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article is in relation to the research article “Vibration energy harvesting based monitoring of an operational bridge undergoing forced vibration and train passage” Cahill et al. (2018 [1]. The article provides data on the full-scale bridge testing using piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters on Pershagen Bridge, Sweden. The bridge is actively excited via a swept sinusoidal input. During the testing, the bridge remains operational and train passages continue. The test recordings include the voltage responses obtained from the vibration energy harvesters during these tests and train passages. The original dataset is made available to encourage the use of energy harvesting for Structural Health Monitoring.

  6. Monitoring of Juvenile Subyearling Chinook Salmon Survival and Passage at John Day Dam, Summer 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiland, Mark A.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Hughes, James S.; Woodley, Christa M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.

    2012-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate dam passage survival of subyearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha; CH0) at John Day Dam (JDA) during summer 2010. This study was conducted by researchers from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in collaboration with the Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission (PSMFC) and the University of Washington (UW). The study was designed to estimate the effects of 30% and 40% spill treatment levels on single release survival rates of CH0 passing through two reaches: (1) the dam, and 40 km of tailwater, (2) the forebay, dam, and 40 km of tailwater. The study also estimated additional passage performance measures which are stipulated in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords.

  7. First passage time for a diffusive process under a geometric constraint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateishi, A A; Michels, F S; Dos Santos, M A F; Lenzi, E K; Ribeiro, H V

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the solutions, survival probability, and first passage time for a two-dimensional diffusive process subjected to the geometric constraints of a backbone structure. We consider this process governed by a fractional Fokker–Planck equation by taking into account the boundary conditions ρ(0,y;t) = ρ(∞,y;t) = 0, ρ(x, ± ∞;t) = 0, and an arbitrary initial condition. Our results show an anomalous spreading and, consequently, a nonusual behavior for the survival probability and for the first passage time distribution that may be characterized by different regimes. In addition, depending on the choice of the parameters present in the fractional Fokker–Planck equation, the survival probability indicates that part of the system may be trapped in the branches of the backbone structure. (paper)

  8. Dynamical aspects on FEL interaction in single passage and storage ring devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dattoli, G.; Renieri, A. [ENEA, Frascati (Italy)

    1995-12-31

    The dynamical behaviour of the free-electron lasers is investigated using appropriate scaling relations valid for devices operating in the low and high gain regimes, including saturation. The analysis is applied to both single passage and storage ring configurations. In the latter case the interplay between the interaction of the electron bean with the laser field and with the accelerator environment is investigated. In particular we discuss the effect of FEL interaction on the microwave instability.

  9. Authorities to Use US Military Force Since the Passage of the 1973 War Powers Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    same outcome with the promise of using overwhelming force similar to a strategy of annihilation employed during the Second World War ...the Passage of the 1973 War Powers Resolution Approved by: ______ ____________________________, Monograph Director Robert T. Davis II, PhD...Why does the United States not wage war as it did during World War II? Understanding the authorities granted to the branches of the US government is

  10. Scaling of the first-passage time of biased diffusion on hierarchical comb structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Zhifang; Tao Ruibao.

    1989-12-01

    Biased diffusion on hierarchical comb structures is studied within an exact renormalization group scheme. The scaling exponents of the moments of the first-passage time for random walks are obtained. It is found that the scaling properties of the diffusion depend only on the direction of bias. In this particular case, the presence of bias may give rise to a new multifractality. (author). 7 refs, 2 figs

  11. C-E1 fusion protein synthesized by rubella virus DI RNAs maintained during serial passage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzeng, W.-P.; Frey, Teryl K.

    2006-01-01

    Rubella virus (RUB) replicons are derivatives of the RUB infectious cDNA clone that retain the nonstructural open reading frame (NS-ORF) that encodes the replicase proteins but not the structural protein ORF (SP-ORF) that encodes the virion proteins. RUB defective interfering (DI) RNAs contain deletions within the SP-ORF and thus resemble replicons. DI RNAs often retain the 5' end of the capsid protein (C) gene that has been shown to modulate virus-specific RNA synthesis. However, when replicons either with or without the C gene were passaged serially in the presence of wt RUB as a source of the virion proteins, it was found that neither replicon was maintained and DI RNAs were generated. The majority DI RNA species contained in-frame deletions in the SP-ORF leading to a fusion between the 5' end of the C gene and the 3' end of the E1 glycoprotein gene. DI infectious cDNA clones were constructed and transcripts from these DI infectious cDNA clones were maintained during serial passage with wt RUB. The C-E1 fusion protein encoded by the DI RNAs was synthesized and was required for maintenance of the DI RNA during serial passage. This is the first report of a functional novel gene product resulting from deletion during DI RNA generation. Thus far, the role of the C-E1 fusion protein in maintenance of DI RNAs during serial passage remained elusive as it was found that the fusion protein diminished rather than enhanced DI RNA synthesis and was not incorporated into virus particles

  12. Knowledge exchange for efficient passage of fish in the southern hemispere (KEEPFISH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkes, M. A.; Aarestrup, Kim; Jepsen, Niels

    The decline of freshwater fish biodiversity is proceeding at an alarming and persistent rate. Given that most fish must undertake some form of migration in order to complete their life-cycle, of particular concern is the proliferation of hydropower schemes that block migration routes, as well as ...... passage science and policy. This will be achieved through systematic review, expert consultation, ecological modelling, postgraduate training programmes, networking and stakeholder engagement using a novel combination of approaches....

  13. Passage Key Inlet, Florida; CMS Modeling and Borrow Site Impact Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Impact Analysis by Kelly R. Legault and Sirisha Rayaprolu PURPOSE: This Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note (CHETN) describes the...driven sediment transport at Passage Key Inlet. This analysis resulted in issuing a new Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) permit to...Funding for this study was provided by the USACE Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Program, a Navigation Research, Development, and Technology Portfolio

  14. Processing of false belief passages during natural story comprehension: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandylaki, Katerina D; Nagels, Arne; Tune, Sarah; Wiese, Richard; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Kircher, Tilo

    2015-11-01

    The neural correlates of theory of mind (ToM) are typically studied using paradigms which require participants to draw explicit, task-related inferences (e.g., in the false belief task). In a natural setup, such as listening to stories, false belief mentalizing occurs incidentally as part of narrative processing. In our experiment, participants listened to auditorily presented stories with false belief passages (implicit false belief processing) and immediately after each story answered comprehension questions (explicit false belief processing), while neural responses were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). All stories included (among other situations) one false belief condition and one closely matched control condition. For the implicit ToM processing, we modeled the hemodynamic response during the false belief passages in the story and compared it to the hemodynamic response during the closely matched control passages. For implicit mentalizing, we found activation in typical ToM processing regions, that is the angular gyrus (AG), superior medial frontal gyrus (SmFG), precuneus (PCUN), middle temporal gyrus (MTG) as well as in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) billaterally. For explicit ToM, we only found AG activation. The conjunction analysis highlighted the left AG and MTG as well as the bilateral IFG as overlapping ToM processing regions for both implicit and explicit modes. Implicit ToM processing during listening to false belief passages, recruits the left SmFG and billateral PCUN in addition to the "mentalizing network" known form explicit processing tasks. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Stability of carbon-bearing phases in coal on the passage of weak electric current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivnyak, G.G.; Sobolev, V.V.; Baskevich, A.S.

    2012-01-01

    According to data of the electron paramagnetic resonance, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray analysis, and other methods, mobile radicals and gas have formed in coal on the passage of weak electric current. The quantum-mechanical estimation of the stability of coal organic mass components under the action of weak electric current is offered. It is established that the hydrocarbon and carbon chains are the most probable phase which is destroyed the first.

  16. Evaluation of intrusion sensors and video assessment in areas of restricted passage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, C.E.; Ringler, C.E.

    1996-04-01

    This report discusses an evaluation of intrusion sensors and video assessment in areas of restricted passage. The discussion focuses on applications of sensors and video assessment in suspended ceilings and air ducts. It also includes current and proposed requirements for intrusion detection and assessment. Detection and nuisance alarm characteristics of selected sensors as well as assessment capabilities of low-cost board cameras were included in the evaluation

  17. Sensor Fish: an autonomous sensor package for characterizing complex flow fields and fish passage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Zhiqun; Martinez, Jayson J.; Lu, Jun

    2016-10-04

    Fish passing through dams or other hydraulic structures may be injured or killed despite advances in turbine design, project operations, and other fish bypass systems. The Sensor Fish (SF) device is an autonomous sensor package that characterizes the physical conditions and stressors to which fish are exposed during passage through hydro facilities. It was designed to move passively as a neutrally buoyant object through severe hydraulic environments, while collecting high-resolution sensor data. Since its first generation1, the SF device has been successfully deployed in many fish passage studies and has evolved to be a major tool for characterizing fish passage conditions during fish passage in the Columbia River Basin. To better accelerate hydropower development, the U.S. Department of Energy Water Power Program provided funding to develop a new generation (Gen 2 SF) to incorporate more capabilities and accommodate a wider range of users over a broader range of turbine designs and operating environments. The Gen 2 SF (Figure 1) is approximately the size and density of a yearling salmon smolt and is nearly neutrally buoyant. It contains three-dimensional (3D) rotation sensors, 3D linear acceleration sensors, a pressure sensor, a temperature sensor, a 3D orientation sensor, a radiofrequency (RF) transmitter, and a recovery module2. A low-power microcontroller collects data from the sensors and stores up to 5 min of data on internal flash memory at a sampling frequency of 2048 Hz. The recovery module makes the SF positively buoyant after a pre-programmed period of time, causing it to float to the surface for recovery.

  18. [Growing up as a migrant, rites of passage in the Maghreb].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touhami, Fatima; Rizzi, Alice Titia; Moro, Marie Rose

    In a context of migration, some parents experience difficulties in passing on their culture and their knowledge, which makes it difficult to achieve reciprocal recognition and to establish a feeling of filiation and heritage. In this context, maintaining the rites of passage enables their symbolic effectiveness and creativity to be maintained. Circumcision, in particular, is a key stage of this process in the Maghreb. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of Serial Passage on the Characteristics and Chondrogenic Differentiation of Canine Umbilical Cord Matrix Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Lee

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are often known to have a therapeutic potential in the cell-mediated repair for fatal or incurable diseases. In this study, canine umbilical cord MSCs (cUC-MSCs were isolated from umbilical cord matrix (n = 3 and subjected to proliferative culture for 5 consecutive passages. The cells at each passage were characterized for multipotent MSC properties such as proliferation kinetics, expression patterns of MSC surface markers and self-renewal associated markers, and chondrogenic differentiation. In results, the proliferation of the cells as determined by the cumulative population doubling level was observed at its peak on passage 3 and stopped after passage 5, whereas cell doubling time dramatically increased after passage 4. Expression of MSC surface markers (CD44, CD54, CD61, CD80, CD90 and Flk-1, molecule (HMGA2 and pluripotent markers (sox2, nanog associated with self-renewal was negatively correlated with the number of passages. However, MSC surface marker (CD105 and pluripotent marker (Oct3/4 decreased with increasing the number of subpassage. cUC-MSCs at passage 1 to 5 underwent chondrogenesis under specific culture conditions, but percentage of chondrogenic differentiation decreased with increasing the number of subpassage. Collectively, the present study suggested that sequential subpassage could affect multipotent properties of cUC-MSCs and needs to be addressed before clinical applications.

  20. Gamma emitters in lichens and mosses from lands along the Northwest Passage (Arctic)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cwanek, A.; Lokas, E.; Mietelski, J.W. [The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, E. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Olech, M.A. [Institute of Botany, Jagiellonian University, Zdzislaw Czeppe Department of Polar Research and Documentation, Kopernika 27, 31-501 Krakow (Poland)

    2014-07-01

    The Northwest Passage in the Arctic is a sea rout from Greenland through the straits of the Canadian Arctic to the Bering Strait. The passage can only by navigated during the short polar summer, the rest of the year it is entirely frozen. For many years lands (islands and peninsulas) along it were not accessible from the sea for sampling of lichens and mosses due the ice covering it even in summer or due to serious danger of collision with massive ice pack. In last summers it become available for travel even using small yacht 'Marguerite' with the French-Polish crew (capt. Janusz Kurbiel, Joelle Kurbiel, Maria Olech, Tomasz Kosinski), which crossed the Northern Passage within 28 days, reaching the Bering Strait on 16 September 2012. Samples of lichens and mosses were collected in this expedition from coastal zones of western Greenland, north Canada and Alaska. They were collected in several locations on islands and peninsulas along the rout. After identification of species samples are dried, homogenized and analyzed by means of low background gamma spectrometry in aim of determination of gamma emitters, mostly the {sup 137}Cs, activity. The measurements are in initial state during writing this abstract. They scheduled for first half of 2014. Next we intend to do radiochemical analysis for determination {sup 238,239,240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 90}Sr. This measurement will start before September 2014, so initial results will be also presented. (authors)

  1. Trypanosoma cruzi: strain selection by diferent schedules of mouse passage of an initially mixed infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria P. Deane

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available From an initial double infection in mice, established by simultaneous and equivalent inocula of bloodstream forms of strains Y and F of Trypanosoma cruzi, two lines were derived by subinoculations: one (W passaged every week, the other (M every month. Through biological and biochemical methods only the Y strain was identified at the end of the 10th and 16th passages of line W and only the F strain at the 2nd and 4th passages of line M. The results illustrate strain selection through laboratory manipulation of initially mixed populations of T. cruzi.De uma infecção inicialmente dupla em camundongo, estabelecida por inóculo simultaneo e equivalente de formas sanguíneas das cepas Y e F de Trypanosoma cruzi, duas linhagens foram originadas por subinoculações: uma (W passada casa semana, a outra (M cada mês. Por métodos biológicos e bioquímicos apenas a cepa Y foi identificada ao fim a 10a. e 16a. passagens da linhagem W e apenas a cepa F na 2a. e 4a.passagens de linhagem M. Os resultados demonstram a seleção de cepas através de manipulação em laboratorio de populações inicialmente mistas de T. cruzi.

  2. Australian experience of providing for fish passage at small instream structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, B. [Forest Hill, Victoria (Australia)

    2006-07-01

    Various instream structures have been constructed in Australia as a result of increasing agricultural activities. However, even small structures such as culverts and stream gauging stations can restrict essential fish movements and result in the extinction of local fish species. This paper discussed methods of modifying and designing new structures to ensure adequate fish passage. It was suggested that instream structures can provide for fish passage through the provision of bridges, or through the use of low profile structures for small weirs. Recommendations for site-specific instream structures included an assessment of fish species, topography, flow characteristics and cost effectiveness. Solutions for reducing the impact of small instream barriers to fish movement were also discussed. Provision for fish passage is an important consideration for planners and designers of dams. Legislation is now in place to ensure a planning and approval process prior to the commencement of construction and operation. It was concluded that significant works are now being undertaken to restore fish migration pathways caused by barriers that restrict fish movement. However, monitoring is needed to ensure that designs operate effectively. 17 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Australian experience of providing for fish passage at small instream structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, B.

    2006-01-01

    Various instream structures have been constructed in Australia as a result of increasing agricultural activities. However, even small structures such as culverts and stream gauging stations can restrict essential fish movements and result in the extinction of local fish species. This paper discussed methods of modifying and designing new structures to ensure adequate fish passage. It was suggested that instream structures can provide for fish passage through the provision of bridges, or through the use of low profile structures for small weirs. Recommendations for site-specific instream structures included an assessment of fish species, topography, flow characteristics and cost effectiveness. Solutions for reducing the impact of small instream barriers to fish movement were also discussed. Provision for fish passage is an important consideration for planners and designers of dams. Legislation is now in place to ensure a planning and approval process prior to the commencement of construction and operation. It was concluded that significant works are now being undertaken to restore fish migration pathways caused by barriers that restrict fish movement. However, monitoring is needed to ensure that designs operate effectively. 17 refs., 3 figs

  4. Synthesis of juvenile lamprey migration and passage research and monitoring at Columbia and Snake River Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Weiland, Lisa K.; Christiansen, Helena E.

    2016-01-01

    We compiled and summarized previous sources of data and research results related to the presence, numbers, and migration timing characteristics of juvenile (eyed macropthalmia) and larval (ammocoetes) Pacific lamprey Entosphenus tridentatus, in the Columbia River basin (CRB). Included were data from various screw trap collections, data from historic fyke net studies, catch records of lampreys at JBS facilities, turbine cooling water strainer collections, and information on the occurrence of lampreys in the diets of avian and piscine predators. We identified key data gaps and uncertainties that should be addressed in a juvenile lamprey passage research program. The goal of this work was to summarize information from disparate sources so that managers can use it to prioritize and guide future research and monitoring efforts related to the downstream migration of juvenile Pacific lamprey within the CRB. A common finding in all datasets was the high level of variation observed for CRB lamprey in numbers present, timing and spatial distribution. This will make developing monitoring programs to accurately characterize lamprey migrations and passage more challenging. Primary data gaps centered around our uncertainty on the numbers of juvenile and larval present in the system which affects the ability to assign risk to passage conditions and prioritize management actions. Recommendations include developing standardized monitoring methods, such as at juvenile bypass systems (JBS’s), to better document numbers and timing of lamprey migrations at dams, and use biotelemetry tracking techniques to estimate survival potentials for different migration histories.

  5. High-resolution modeling assessment of tidal stream resource in Western Passage of Maine, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Taiping; Feng, Xi; Xue, Huijie; Kilcher, Levi

    2017-04-01

    Although significant efforts have been taken to assess the maximum potential of tidal stream energy at system-wide scale, accurate assessment of tidal stream energy resource at project design scale requires detailed hydrodynamic simulations using high-resolution three-dimensional (3-D) numerical models. Extended model validation against high quality measured data is essential to minimize the uncertainties of the resource assessment. Western Passage in the State of Maine in U.S. has been identified as one of the top ranking sites for tidal stream energy development in U.S. coastal waters, based on a number of criteria including tidal power density, market value and transmission distance. This study presents an on-going modeling effort for simulating the tidal hydrodynamics in Western Passage using the 3-D unstructured-grid Finite Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM). The model domain covers a large region including the entire the Bay of Fundy with grid resolution varies from 20 m in the Western Passage to approximately 1000 m along the open boundary near the mouth of Bay of Fundy. Preliminary model validation was conducted using existing NOAA measurements within the model domain. Spatial distributions of tidal power density were calculated and extractable tidal energy was estimated using a tidal turbine module embedded in FVCOM under different tidal farm scenarios. Additional field measurements to characterize resource and support model validation were discussed. This study provides an example of high resolution resource assessment based on the guidance recommended by the International Electrotechnical Commission Technical Specification.

  6. The Effect of Visual Advance Organizer and Types of Passages on EFL Learners’ Listening Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Reza Kiany

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Testing the comprehension of spoken language is of primary importance. A lot of factors may affect the performance of EFL learners on listening comprehension tests, among which are the use of visual advance organizers, and types of listening passages (dialogues or monologues. As B-Ikeguchi (1997 states a few studies have been carried out on the effects of these factors on EFL learners’ listening comprehension with controversial results. And even fewer studies have concentrated on the effects of these factors on EFL learners’ performance on listening comprehension tests, which is the purpose of this study. In the present study, 180 advanced EFL learners were randomly selected by administering the Oxford Placement Test (OPT. The subjects were randomly assigned to three groups each consisting of 60 students. As far as the performance of subjects on listening comprehension test was concerned, the following results were obtained: 1 There was a significant difference between the presence vs. lack of visual advance organizer; 2 There was a significant difference between the uses of short-interval vs. long-interval advance organizer; 3 There was a significant difference between different types of listening passages (dialogues vs. monologues; and 4 There was no significant interaction between the use of visual advance organizer and  different types of listening passages.

  7. Chimera grids in the simulation of three-dimensional flowfields in turbine-blade-coolant passages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, M. A.; Rimlinger, M. J.; Shih, T. I.-P.; Civinskas, K. C.

    1993-01-01

    When computing flows inside geometrically complex turbine-blade coolant passages, the structure of the grid system used can affect significantly the overall time and cost required to obtain solutions. This paper addresses this issue while evaluating and developing computational tools for the design and analysis of coolant-passages, and is divided into two parts. In the first part, the various types of structured and unstructured grids are compared in relation to their ability to provide solutions in a timely and cost-effective manner. This comparison shows that the overlapping structured grids, known as Chimera grids, can rival and in some instances exceed the cost-effectiveness of unstructured grids in terms of both the man hours needed to generate grids and the amount of computer memory and CPU time needed to obtain solutions. In the second part, a computational tool utilizing Chimera grids was used to compute the flow and heat transfer in two different turbine-blade coolant passages that contain baffles and numerous pin fins. These computations showed the versatility and flexibility offered by Chimera grids.

  8. Diversity of bacterioplankton in the surface seawaters of Drake Passage near the Chinese Antarctic station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Mengxin; Li, Zhao; Wang, Wei; Sun, Mi

    2015-07-01

    The determination of relative abundances and distribution of different bacterial groups is a critical step toward understanding the functions of various bacteria and its surrounding environment. Few studies focus on the taxonomic composition and functional diversity of microbial communities in Drake Passage. In this study, marine bacterioplankton communities from surface seawaters at five locations in Drake Passage were examined by 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses. The results indicated that psychrophilic bacteria were the most abundant group in Drake Passage, and mainly made up of Bacillus, Aeromonas, Psychrobacter, Pseudomonas and Halomonas. Diversity analysis showed that surface seawater communities had no significant correlation with latitudinal gradient. Additionally, a clear difference among five surface seawater communities was evident, with 1.8% OTUs (only two) belonged to Bacillus consistent across five locations and 71% OTUs (80) existed in only one location. However, the few cosmopolitans had the largest population sizes. Our results support the hypothesis that the dominant bacterial groups appear to be analogous between geographical sites, but significant differences may be detected among rare bacterial groups. The microbial diversity of surface seawaters would be liable to be affected by environmental factors. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. A proteomics analysis for certain signature proteins of rabbit lacrimal passages after 125I seeds brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dandan; Liu Lin; Gao Shi; Qi Liangchen; Ma Qingjie; Jin Longyun

    2010-01-01

    To search for certain signature proteins and the expression profiles in lacrimal passage stenosis, rabbit models of lacrimal passage stenosis were treated by 125 I seed brachytherapy. All the signature proteins were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis, and identified by mass spectrometry. The results show that the up-regulated proteins are peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase A (PPIase A), and epidermal fatty acid-binding protein (E-FABP), while the down-regulated proteins are myosin light chain 1 (isomer of skeletal muscle), myosin light polypeptide 6 (isomer 1 of smooth muscle and non-muscle), myosin light chain 1 (isomer of slow-twitch muscle A), isomer 2 of ERC protein 2, and α-crystalline family protein. The proteins may play a role in healing the wound and regulating synaptic active zone of neurons due to correlation to cell apoptosis, proliferation and migration of smooth muscle cell. These provide molecular mechanism for preventing stenosis and restenosis of lacrimal passage. (authors)

  10. Effect of Tamsulosin on Stone Passage for Ureteral Stones: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ralph C; Smith-Bindman, Rebecca; Whitaker, Evans; Neilson, Jersey; Allen, Isabel Elaine; Stoller, Marshall L; Fahimi, Jahan

    2017-03-01

    Tamsulosin is recommended for patients receiving a diagnosis of a ureteral stone less than 10 mm who do not require immediate urologic intervention. Because of conflicting results from recent meta-analyses and large randomized controlled trials, the efficacy of tamsulosin is unclear. We perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the effect of tamsulosin on stone passage in patients receiving a diagnosis of ureteral stone. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL databases were searched without language restriction through November 2015 for studies assessing the efficacy of tamsulosin and using a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial design. Meta-analysis was conducted with a random-effects model and subgroup analyses were conducted to determine sources of heterogeneity. Eight randomized controlled trials (N=1,384) contained sufficient information for inclusion. The pooled risk of stone passage in the tamsulosin arm was 85% versus 66% in the placebo arm, but substantial heterogeneity existed across trials (I 2 =80.2%; Ptamsulosin (risk difference=22%; 95% confidence interval 12% to 33%; number needed to treat=5). The meta-analysis of the small stone subgroup (Tamsulosin significantly improves stone passage in patients with larger stones, whereas the effect of tamsulosin is diminished in those with smaller stones, who are likely to pass their stone regardless of treatment. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A new technique for assessing fish passage survival at hydro power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heisey, P.G.; Mathur, D.; D'Allesandro, L.

    1993-01-01

    The HI-Z Turb'N Tag recovery method is presented as a new technique that has been successfully used at ten hydropower stations to determine turbine or spillway passage survival of fish. According to this technique, fish are tagged with the Turb'N Tag, which is pear-shaped, made of inflatable latex, and ca 35 mm long and 13 mm wide. The tag is designed to inflate after passage through the turbine, where it then floats the fish to the surface where it can be easily spotted and netted. One tag is sufficient to retrieve fish less than 18 cm long, while three tags may be needed for fish longer than 30 cm. In tests, fish were recovered in under 10 minutes from the tailrace after being tagged and released into a turbine. The tag allowed over 90% recovery of fish in most tests. The technique had minimal effect on the well-being of both hardy and sensitive species and provided an opportunity to examine recovered fish for injuries and retain them up to 72 h to assess possible delayed effects. The technique overcomes most of the logistical problems associated with conventional methods (netting, radio telemetry, mass mark-recapture) to determine turbine passage survival. The technique can also be used to assess effects of spill and fish bypass structures. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  12. Mean first passage time for random walk on dual structure of dendrimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Guan, Jihong; Zhou, Shuigeng

    2014-12-01

    The random walk approach has recently been widely employed to study the relations between the underlying structure and dynamic of complex systems. The mean first-passage time (MFPT) for random walks is a key index to evaluate the transport efficiency in a given system. In this paper we study analytically the MFPT in a dual structure of dendrimer network, Husimi cactus, which has different application background and different structure (contains loops) from dendrimer. By making use of the iterative construction, we explicitly determine both the partial mean first-passage time (PMFT, the average of MFPTs to a given target) and the global mean first-passage time (GMFT, the average of MFPTs over all couples of nodes) on Husimi cactus. The obtained closed-form results show that PMFPT and EMFPT follow different scaling with the network order, suggesting that the target location has essential influence on the transport efficiency. Finally, the impact that loop structure could bring is analyzed and discussed.

  13. Evaluation of Behavioral Guidance Structure on Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Survival at Bonneville Dam in 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, Derrek M.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Deng, Zhiqun; Hughes, James S.; Kim, Jin A.; Fu, Tao; Fischer, Eric S.; Monter, Tyrell J.; Skalski, J. R.

    2011-03-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted an acoustic-telemetry study at Bonneville Dam in 2009 to evaluate the effects of a behavioral guidance structure (BGS) in the Bonneville Dam second powerhouse forebay on fish passage and survival through the second powerhouse (B2), the dam as a whole, and through the first powerhouse and spillway combined. The BGS was deployed to increase the survival of fish passing through B2 by increasing the percentage of outmigrating smolts entering the B2 Corner Collector (B2CC)—a surface flow outlet known to be a relatively benign route for downstream passage at this dam. The study relied on releases of live Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System tagged smolts in the Columbia River and used acoustic telemetry to evaluate the approach, passage, and survival of passing juvenile salmon. Study results indicated that having turbine 11 in service is important for providing flow conditions that are comparable to those observed in pre-BGS years (2004 and 2005) and in 2008. This study supports the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers continual effort to improve conditions for juvenile anadromous fish passing through Columbia River dams.

  14. Second class weak currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delorme, J.

    1978-01-01

    The definition and general properties of weak second class currents are recalled and various detection possibilities briefly reviewed. It is shown that the existing data on nuclear beta decay can be consistently analysed in terms of a phenomenological model. Their implication on the fundamental structure of weak interactions is discussed [fr

  15. World Class Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rosalita

    1998-01-01

    School communities are challenged to find ways to identify good teachers and give other teachers a chance to learn from them. The New Mexico World Class Teacher Project is encouraging teachers to pursue certification by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards. This process sharpens teachers' student assessment skills and encourages…

  16. EPA Web Training Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheduled webinars can help you better manage EPA web content. Class topics include Drupal basics, creating different types of pages in the WebCMS such as document pages and forms, using Google Analytics, and best practices for metadata and accessibility.

  17. Class Actions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2009-01-01

    The article deals with the relatively new Danish Act on Class Action (Danish: gruppesøgsmål) which was suggested by The Permanent Council on Civil procedure (Retsplejerådet) of which the article's author is a member. The operability of the new provisions is illustrated through some wellknown Danish...

  18. Coming out in Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    This article shares how the author explained her trans status to her students. Everyone has been extremely supportive of her decision to come out in class and to completely mask the male secondary-sex characteristics, especially in the workplace. The department chair and the faculty in general have been willing to do whatever they can to assist…

  19. Working Together in Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pateşan Marioara

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The scores obtained by the military students are very important as a lot of opportunities depend on them: the choice of the branch, selection for different in and off-campus activities, the appointment to the workplace and so on. A qualifier, regardless of its form of effective expression, can make a difference in a given context of issuing a value judgment, in relation to the student's performance assessment. In our research we tried to find out what motives students, what determines them to get actively involved in the tasks they are given and the ways we can improve their participation in classes and assignments. In order to have an educated generation we need to have not only well prepared teachers but ones that are open-minded, flexible and in pace with the methodological novelties that can improve the teaching learning process in class. Along the years we have noticed that in classes where students constituted a cohesive group with an increasing degree of interaction between members, the results were better than in a group that did not appreciate team-work. In this article we want to highlight the fact that a teacher can bring to class the appropriate methods and procedures can contribute decisively to the strengthening of the group cohesion and high scores.

  20. A passage retrieval method based on probabilistic information retrieval model and UMLS concepts in biomedical question answering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrouti, Mourad; Ouatik El Alaoui, Said

    2017-04-01

    Passage retrieval, the identification of top-ranked passages that may contain the answer for a given biomedical question, is a crucial component for any biomedical question answering (QA) system. Passage retrieval in open-domain QA is a longstanding challenge widely studied over the last decades. However, it still requires further efforts in biomedical QA. In this paper, we present a new biomedical passage retrieval method based on Stanford CoreNLP sentence/passage length, probabilistic information retrieval (IR) model and UMLS concepts. In the proposed method, we first use our document retrieval system based on PubMed search engine and UMLS similarity to retrieve relevant documents to a given biomedical question. We then take the abstracts from the retrieved documents and use Stanford CoreNLP for sentence splitter to make a set of sentences, i.e., candidate passages. Using stemmed words and UMLS concepts as features for the BM25 model, we finally compute the similarity scores between the biomedical question and each of the candidate passages and keep the N top-ranked ones. Experimental evaluations performed on large standard datasets, provided by the BioASQ challenge, show that the proposed method achieves good performances compared with the current state-of-the-art methods. The proposed method significantly outperforms the current state-of-the-art methods by an average of 6.84% in terms of mean average precision (MAP). We have proposed an efficient passage retrieval method which can be used to retrieve relevant passages in biomedical QA systems with high mean average precision. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Adeus à classe trabalhadora?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Eley

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available No início da década de 1980, a política centrada em classes da tradição socialista estava em crise, e comentadores importantes adotaram tons apocalípticos. No final da década, a esquerda permanecia profundamente dividida entre os advogados da mudança e os defensores da fé. Em meados dos anos 1990, os primeiros tinham, de modo geral, ganhado a batalha. O artigo busca apresentar essa mudança contemporânea não como a 'morte da classe', mas como o desa­parecimento de um tipo particular de ­sociedade de classes, marcado pelo ­processo de formação da classe trabalhadora entre os anos 1880 e 1940 e pelo alinhamento político daí resultante, atingindo seu apogeu na construção social-democrata do acordo do pós-guerra. Quando mudanças de longo prazo na economia se combinaram com o ataque ao keynesianismo na política de recessão a partir de meados da década de 1970, a unidade da classe trabalhadora deixou de estar disponível da forma antiga e bastante utilizada, como o terreno natural da política de esquerda. Enquanto uma coletividade dominante da classe trabalhadora entrou em declínio, outra se corporificou de modo lento e desigual para tomar o lugar daquela. Mas a unidade operacional dessa nova agregação da classe trabalhadora ainda está, em grande parte, em formação. Para recuperar a eficácia política da tradição socialista, alguma nova visão de agência política coletiva será necessária, uma visão imaginativamente ajustada às condições emergentes da produção e acumulação capitalista no início do século XXI.

  2. Adam Smith on public expenditure and taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício C. Coutinho

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents Adam Smith’s view on taxation and public expenditure, by means of an almost literal reading of the Wealth of Nations famous passages on the “duties of the sovereign” and on the “maxims of taxation”. Contrarily to the commonest usage of these passages, we will show that their core is the preoccupation with the public expenditure soaring and the defence of decentralisation. Furthermore – and also contrarily to the existing interpretations – we defend the non-existence of any contradiction between Smith’s income and price theory (and the incidence hypothesis, provided due attention is paid to the guiding role of the “maxims”.

  3. Social praxis, party, and class relations today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egni Malo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Today’s political sociologists are once again interested in the study of the crisis of mass-based parties, anti-politics and anti-parliamentarism, crisis in the authority of the political class, prevailing corporate interests within republican institutions, and populism. Political sociology however, takes the party, as a construct of political sociology alone, without consideration upon its militancy and action, as the party, which objectifies the foundation of a State, and as a result the party becomes, simply an historical category. We approach the problem of the modern state from many angles; analysing the nature of a political party as such; the ideological dangers of determinism and spontaneism which a party necessarily must struggle with; the type of non-administrative internal regime which is necessary for a party to be effective and so on. The problem we seek to elaborate is the specific character of the collective action that makes possible the passage from a sectored, corporate and subordinate role of purely negative opposition, to a leading role of conscious action towards not merely a partial adjustment within the system, but posing the issue of the State in its entirety. In developing this theme – as a study of the real relations between the political party, the classes and the State – a two-fold consideration is devoted to the study of Machiavelli and Marx: first from the angle of the real relations between the two, as thinkers of revolutionary politics, of action; and secondly from a perspective which would derive from the Marxist doctrines an articulated system of contemporary politics, as found in The Prince.

  4. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage at The Dalles Dam Sluiceway, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Khan, Fenton; Hedgepeth, J; Mueller, Robert P.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Serkowski, John A.; Skalski, John R.

    2006-06-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District engaged the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate fish passage at The Dalles Dam powerhouse in 2005. The goal of the study was to provide information on smolt passage that will inform decisions on long-term measures and operations to enhance sluiceway passage and reduce turbine passage to improve smolt survival at the dam. The study addressed one of the main programs dedicated to improving juvenile salmonid survival at The Dalles Dam: Surface Flow Bypass. The study objectives (see below) were met using a combination of hydroacoustic and hydraulic data. The study incorporated fixed-location hydroacoustic methods across the entire powerhouse, with especially intense sampling using multiple split-beam transducers at all sluiceway portals. We did not sample fish passage at the spillway in 2005. In the sluiceway nearfield, we used an acoustic camera to track fish movements. The fish data were interpreted with hydraulic data from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Fish passage data were collected in the framework of an “experiment” using a randomized block design (3-day treatments; two treatments) to compare two sluiceway operational configurations: Sluice 2+5 and Sluice 2+19 (six gates open for each configuration). Total project outflow was 76% of the 10-year average for spring and 71% of the 10-year average for summer. Based on these findings, we make the following recommendations: 1) The sluice should be operated 24 h/d from April until November. 2) Open six rather than three sluice gates to take advantage of the maximum hydraulic capacity of the sluiceway. 3) Open the three gates above the western-most operating main turbine unit and the three gates at MU 8 where turbine passage rates are relatively high. 4) Operate the turbine units below open sluice gates as a standard fish operations procedure. 5) Develop hydraulic and entrance enhancements to the sluiceway to tap the potential of The

  5. Characterization of Fish Passage Conditions through a Francis Turbine, Spillway, and Regulating Outlet at Detroit Dam, Oregon, Using Sensor Fish, 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, Joanne P.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2011-05-06

    Fish passage conditions through two spillways, a Francis turbine, and a regulating outlet (RO) at Detroit Dam on the North Santiam River in Oregon were evaluated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Portland District, using Sensor Fish devices. The objective of the study was to describe and compare passage exposure conditions, identifying potential fish injury regions within the routes. The study was performed in July, October, and December 2009 concurrent with HI-Z balloon-tag studies by Normandeau Associates, Inc. Sensor Fish data were analyzed to estimate 1) exposure conditions, particularly exposure to severe strike, collision, and shear events by passage route sub-regions; 2) differences in passage conditions between passage routes; and 3) relationships to live-fish injury and mortality data estimates. Comparison of the three passage routes evaluated at Detroit Dam indicates that the RO passage route through the 5-ft gate opening was relatively the safest route for fish passage under the operating conditions tested; turbine passage was the most deleterious. These observations were supported also by the survival and malady estimates obtained from live-fish testing. Injury rates were highest for turbine and spillway passage. However, none of the passage routes tested is safe for juvenile salmonid passage.

  6. Passage of stable isotope-labeled grass silage fiber and fiber-bound protein through the gastroinstestinal tract of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warner, D.; Dijkstra, J.; Hendriks, W.H.; Pellikaan, W.F.

    2013-01-01

    Fractional passage rates are required to predict nutrient absorption in ruminants but data on nutrient-specific passage kinetics are largely lacking. With the use of the stable isotope ratio (d) as an internal marker, we assessed passage kinetics of fiber and fiber-bound nitrogen (N) of

  7. Storytelling in EFL Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Bala

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Storytelling is one of the oldest ways of education and oral tradition that is continuously being used to transfer the previous nation‘s cultures, tradition and customs. It constructs a bridge between the new and the old. Storytelling in EFL classes usually provides a meaningful context, interesting atmosphere and is used as a tool to highly motivate students. Although it seems to be mostly based on speaking, it is used to promote other skills such as writing, reading, and listening. Storytelling is mainly regarded to be grounded on imitation and repetition; nevertheless many creative activities can be implemented in the classroom since this method directs learners to use their imaginations. This study discusses the importance of storytelling as a teaching method, and it outlines the advantages of storytelling in EFL classes.

  8. Queen elizabeth class battleships

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Les

    2010-01-01

    The 'ShipCraft' series provides in-depth information about building and modifying model kits of famous warship types. Lavishly illustrated, each book takes the modeller through a brief history of the subject class, highlighting differences between sister-ships and changes in their appearance over their careers. This includes paint schemes and camouflage, featuring colour profiles and highly detailed line drawings and scale plans. The modelling section reviews the strengths and weaknesses of available kits, lists commercial accessory sets for super-detailing of the ships, and provides hints on modifying and improving the basic kit. This is followed by an extensive photographic survey of selected high-quality models in a variety of scales, and the book concludes with a section on research references - books, monographs, large-scale plans and relevant websites.This volume covers the five ships of the highly successful Queen Elizabeth class, a design of fast battleship that set the benchmark for the last generati...

  9. World Class Facilities Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmstrøm, Ole Emil; Jensen, Per Anker

    2013-01-01

    Alle der med entusiasme arbejder med Facilities Management drømmer om at levere World Class. DFM drømmer om at skabe rammer og baggrund for, at vi i Danmark kan bryste os at være blandt de førende på verdensplan. Her samles op på, hvor tæt vi er på at nå drømmemålet.......Alle der med entusiasme arbejder med Facilities Management drømmer om at levere World Class. DFM drømmer om at skabe rammer og baggrund for, at vi i Danmark kan bryste os at være blandt de førende på verdensplan. Her samles op på, hvor tæt vi er på at nå drømmemålet....

  10. Storytelling in EFL Classes

    OpenAIRE

    Emine Bala

    2015-01-01

    Storytelling is one of the oldest ways of education and oral tradition that is continuously being used to transfer the previous nation‘s cultures, tradition and customs. It constructs a bridge between the new and the old. Storytelling in EFL classes usually provides a meaningful context, interesting atmosphere and is used as a tool to highly motivate students. Although it seems to be mostly based on speaking, it is used to promote other skills such as writing, reading, and listening. Storytel...

  11. Esmeraldas-Class Corvettes,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-25

    The series of ships, named after all the provinces of Ecuador , include: --CA 11 ESMERALDAS, laid down 27 September 1979, launched 11 October 1980... LOJA , laid down 25 March 1981, launched 27 February 1982; fitting out at CNR Ancona. The building program, on schedule so far, calls for the entire class...built and are still building in 16 units for foreign navies (Libya, Ecuador , Iraq) with four possible armament alternatives. In particular, they

  12. Student perceptions and lessons learned from flipping a masters level public health course | Perceptions des étudiants et leçons tirées d’une classe inversée pour un cours de maîtrise en santé environnementale et professionnelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay P. Galway

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The flipped classroom instructional model has emerged as an alternative to conventional lecture-based teaching that has dominated higher education for decades. In 2013, a cohort of graduate-level public health students participated in a flipped environmental and occupational health course. We present the design, implementation, and evaluation of this course. Using data collected from a post-course survey, focus group sessions, and classroom observation, we examine student perceptions of the flipped classroom instructional model and synthesize lessons learned from flipping the classroom more broadly. Post-course survey data indicate that students had generally positive perceptions towards the flipped classroom instructional model. Four major themes emerged from the focus group data in relation to perceptions of the flipped classroom: knowledge application, content delivery, innovation, and connecting the online and in-class components. These results are promising and suggest that this approach warrants further consideration and research. Le modèle pédagogique de la classe inversée a émergé comme solution de rechange à l’enseignement traditionnel par cours magistraux qui a dominé l’éducation supérieure pendant des décennies. En 2013, une cohorte d’étudiants en santé publique aux cycles supérieurs a participé à un cours inversé sur la santé environnementale et professionnelle. Nous présentons la conception, la mise en œuvre et l’évaluation de ce cours. À l’aide de données recueillies par l’entremise d’un sondage après le cours, lors de séances de discussion en groupe et d’observation en classe, nous examinons les perceptions qu’ont les étudiants du modèle pédagogique de la classe inversée et résumons les leçons tirées qui sont pertinentes pour les cours inversés en général. Les données du sondage réalisé après le cours indiquent que les étudiants avaient des perceptions pour la plupart

  13. Natural Propagation and Habitat Improvement, Volume 1, Oregon, Supplement B, White River Falls Fish Passage, 1983 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1984-04-01

    White River Falls are located in north central Oregon approximately 25 miles south of the City of The Dalles. The project site is characterized by a series of three natural waterfalls with a combined fall of 180 ft. In the watershed above the falls are some 120 miles of mainstem habitat and an undetermined amount of tributary stream habitat that could be opened to anadromous fish, if passage is provided around the falls. The purpose of this project is to determine feasibility of passage, select a passage scheme, and design and construct passage facilities. This report provides information on possible facilities that would pass adult anadromous fish over the White River Falls. 25 references, 29 figures, 12 tables. (ACR)

  14. Pathos and the Mundane in the Symbolic Space of 1956 Revolution: the Case of Corvin-passage, Budapest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ágnes Erőss

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Corvin passage is one of the most important symbolic spaces of 1956 revolution in Hungary. The majority of armed conflicts took place in Budapest, where the largest resistance group had to battle against Soviet tanks in the neighbourhood of the Corvin Passage. This study aims to highlight the fact that, even though a general shift has taken place from the pre-1990 policy to ‘forget’ to today’s established remembrance practices, the Corvin Passage still does not have a prominent position as a major historic site. Our research is based on a study of relevant national and international literature, on an analysis of documents relating to tourism site management, on historical sources related to the Corvin Passage, and on a content analysis of guide-books and websites. The authors would tribute to 70 anniversary of treading out of Hungarian revolution and war of independence with this paper.

  15. Monitoring of Juvenile Yearling Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Survival and Passage at John Day Dam, Spring 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiland, Mark A.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Hughes, James S.; Woodley, Christa M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.

    2012-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare dam passage survival, at two spill treatment levels, of yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead smolts at John Day Dam during spring 2010. The two treatments were 30% and 40% spill out of total project discharge. Under the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion (BiOp), dam passage survival should be greater than or equal to 0.96 and estimated with a standard error (SE) less than or equal 0.015. The study also estimated forebay residence time, tailrace egress time, and spill passage efficiency (SPE), as required in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords. However, by agreement among the stakeholders, this study was not an official BiOp compliance test because the long-term passage measures at John Day Dam have yet to be finalized and another year of spill-treatment testing was desired.

  16. First Passage Time for Tempered Stable Process and Its Application to Perpetual American Option and Barrier Option Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young Shin

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we will discuss an approximation of the characteristic function of the first passage time for a Levy process using the martingale approach. The characteristic function of the first passage time of the tempered stable process is provided explicitly or by an indirect numerical method. This will be applied to the perpetual American option pricing and the barrier option pricing. Numerical illustrations are provided for the calibrated parameters using the market call and put prices.

  17. The Effect of Bad Human Activities on Marine Life as Portrayed in Sammy's Adventure: the Secret Passage

    OpenAIRE

    LATHIFAH, ISNA NUR

    2015-01-01

    Keywords: ecocriticism, bad humans activities, marine life, Sammy's Adventure: the Secret Passage movie. The balance of marine life is often damaged by irresponsible humans who do not care about their environment. This problem has inspired some works to criticize humans' reckless behavior toward environment, especially ocean. Sammy's Adventure: the Secret Passage is one of the examples that have been created to criticize the bad human activities in the ocean. This research applies ecocritici...

  18. Survival and Passage of Yearling and Subyearling Chinook Salmon and Juvenile Steelhead at McNary Dam, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, James S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weiland, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Woodley, Christa M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ploskey, Gene R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carpenter, Scott M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hennen, Matthew J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fischer, Eric S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Batton, George [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carlson, Thomas J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cushing, Aaron W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Deng, Zhiqun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Etherington, D. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fu, Tao [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Greiner, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ingraham, John M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kim, Jin A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Li, Xi [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Martinez, Jayson J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mitchell, T. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rayamajhi, Bishes [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Seaburg, Adam [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Skalski, J. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Townsend, Richard L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wagner, Katie A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zimmerman, Shon A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-12-23

    The study was designed to evaluate the passage and survival of yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead at McNary Dam as stipulated by the 2008 Biological Opinion and Fish Accords and to assess performance measures including route-specific fish passage proportions, travel times, and survival based upon a virtual/paired-release model. This study supports the USACE’s continual effort to improve conditions for juvenile anadromous fish passing through Columbia River dams.

  19. Size matters. The width and location of a ureteral stone accurately predict the chance of spontaneous passage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jendeberg, Johan; Geijer, Haakan; Alshamari, Muhammed; Liden, Mats [Oerebro University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Oerebro (Sweden); Cierzniak, Bartosz [Oerebro University, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Oerebro (Sweden)

    2017-11-15

    To determine how to most accurately predict the chance of spontaneous passage of a ureteral stone using information in the diagnostic non-enhanced computed tomography (NECT) and to create predictive models with smaller stone size intervals than previously possible. Retrospectively 392 consecutive patients with ureteric stone on NECT were included. Three radiologists independently measured the stone size. Stone location, side, hydronephrosis, CRP, medical expulsion therapy (MET) and all follow-up radiology until stone expulsion or 26 weeks were recorded. Logistic regressions were performed with spontaneous stone passage in 4 weeks and 20 weeks as the dependent variable. The spontaneous passage rate in 20 weeks was 312 out of 392 stones, 98% in 0-2 mm, 98% in 3 mm, 81% in 4 mm, 65% in 5 mm, 33% in 6 mm and 9% in ≥6.5 mm wide stones. The stone size and location predicted spontaneous ureteric stone passage. The side and the grade of hydronephrosis only predicted stone passage in specific subgroups. Spontaneous passage of a ureteral stone can be predicted with high accuracy with the information available in the NECT. We present a prediction method based on stone size and location. (orig.)

  20. Passage and survival probabilities of juvenile Chinook salmon at Cougar Dam, Oregon, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeman, John W.; Evans, Scott D.; Haner, Philip V.; Hansel, Hal C.; Hansen, Amy C.; Smith, Collin D.; Sprando, Jamie M.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes studies of juvenile-salmon dam passage and apparent survival at Cougar Dam, Oregon, during two operating conditions in 2012. Cougar Dam is a 158-meter tall rock-fill dam used primarily for flood control, and passes water through a temperature control tower to either a powerhouse penstock or to a regulating outlet (RO). The temperature control tower has moveable weir gates to enable water of different elevations and temperatures to be drawn through the dam to control water temperatures downstream. A series of studies of downstream dam passage of juvenile salmonids were begun after the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration determined that Cougar Dam was impacting the viability of anadromous fish stocks. The primary objectives of the studies described in this report were to estimate the route-specific fish passage probabilities at the dam and to estimate the survival probabilities of fish passing through the RO. The first set of dam operating conditions, studied in November, consisted of (1) a mean reservoir elevation of 1,589 feet, (2) water entering the temperature control tower through the weir gates, (3) most water routed through the turbines during the day and through the RO during the night, and (4) mean RO gate openings of 1.2 feet during the day and 3.2 feet during the night. The second set of dam operating conditions, studied in December, consisted of (1) a mean reservoir elevation of 1,507 ft, (2) water entering the temperature control tower through the RO bypass, (3) all water passing through the RO, and (4) mean RO gate openings of 7.3 feet during the day and 7.5 feet during the night. The studies were based on juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) surgically implanted with radio transmitters and passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. Inferences about general dam passage percentage and timing of volitional migrants were based on surface-acclimated fish released in the reservoir. Dam passage and apparent

  1. Tamsulosin does not increase 1-week passage rate of ureteral stones in ED patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, David A; Ross, Michael A; Hollander, Jay B; Ziadeh, James; Chen, Charity; Jackson, Raymond E; Swor, Robert A

    2015-12-01

    The objective of the study is to determine if tamsulosin initiated in the emergency department (ED) decreases the time to ureteral stone passage at 1 week or time to pain resolution, compared to placebo. We performed a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of tamsulosin vs placebo in ED patients with ureterolithiasis on computed tomography. Patients were identified and enrolled between April 2007 and February 2009 and were randomized to either 0.4 mg of tamsulosin or placebo for 1 week. We contacted participants using a telephone survey on post-ED visit days 1, 2, 3, and 7. The primary outcome was time to stone passage, with secondary outcomes being maximum pain score and amount of pain medication required. Of the 127 patients enrolled during this study, 15 were lost to follow-up, and 12 required surgical interventions before the 7-day mark, leaving 100 patients for analysis. Of the 100 patients, 53 received tamsulosin and 47 received placebo. There was no difference between groups in percentage of male, mean age, initial serum creatinine, average stone size, stone location, and history of prior stone. The probability that the patient did not pass a stone at 7 days was not different between tamsulosin and placebo, 62.1% (95% confidence interval, 49.1%-75.1%) vs 54.4% (95% confidence interval, 40.3%-68.6%; P = .58). There was no significant difference in the high pain score (P = .12) or hydrocodone/acetaminophen intake (P = .76) between treatment groups at any of the time points. This study reveals no difference in the proportion of stone passage or high pain score and pain medication utilization at 7 days between tamsulosin and placebo. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparative Study of Barotrauma Risk during Fish Passage through Kaplan Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richmond, Marshall C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Hydrology Group; Romero-Gomez, Pedro [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Hydrology Group; Serkowski, John A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Hydrology Group; Rakowski, Cynthia L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Hydrology Group; Graf, Michael J. [Voith Hydro, York, PA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Rapid pressure changes in hydroelectric turbine flows can cause barotrauma that can be hazardous to the passage of fish, in particular migratory juvenile salmonids. Although numerous laboratory tests have evaluated the effect of rapid decompression in fish species of relevance, numerical modeling studies offer the advantage of predicting, for new turbine designs, the potential risks of mortality and injury from rapid pressure change during turbine passage. However, rapid pressure change is only one of several hydraulic risks encountered by fish during turbine passage in addition to blade strike, shear, and turbulence. To better understand the role of rapid pressure changes, the present work focuses on the application of a computational fluid dynamics based method for evaluating the risk of pressure-related mortality to fish passing through an early 1960s era original hydroelectric Kaplan turbine at Wanapum Dam (Columbia River, Washington), and a modern advanced Kaplan turbine installed in 2005. The results show that the modeling approach acceptably reproduced the nadir pressure distributions compared to field data previously collected at the site using an autonomous sensor. Our findings show that the new advanced-design unit performs better, in terms of reduced barotrauma risk to fish from exposure to low pressures, than the original turbine unit. The outcomes allow for comparative analyses of turbine designs and operations prior to installation, an advantage that can potentially be integrated in the process of designing new turbine units to achieve superior environmental performance. Overall, the results show that modern turbine designs can achieve the multiple objectives of increasing power generation, lowering cavitation potential, and reducing barotrauma risks to passing fish.

  3. The use of rites of passage in strengthening the psychosocial wellbeing of orphaned children in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamuku, Masego; Daniel, Marguerite

    2012-10-01

    Children who have been bereaved in the context of AIDS may experience many challenges to their psychosocial wellbeing. Programmes to help orphaned children are usually anchored in child rights. As the individual focus of rights-based approaches is inept in African collectivist culture, NGOs tend to make use of group approaches in psychosocial support programmes. One orphan-strengthening programme in Botswana, called the Ark for Children, uses rites of passage and rites of affirmation as part of a therapeutic retreat. This study explored how rites of passage and rites of affirmation contribute to psychosocial strengthening of orphaned children in Botswana. Ten orphaned children were involved in five rounds of data collection during a 16-day therapeutic retreat; and eight social workers answered questions on the effectiveness of the therapy. A supplementary document analysis was also completed, which included retreat reports since 2001 and correspondence from community-based support workers and graduates of the programme. Participants reported that the rites used during the retreat helped them to commit to therapeutic transformation. During a retreat, all the participants witness and support each individual going through each rite - a process reported to foster and strengthen group formation. It was documented that the symbols used as part of the themed rites of affirmation are used by participants for years afterwards as reminders of their transformation and commitment to the group. We conclude that rites of passage can provide a powerful tool to help children commit to therapeutic transformation, build the supportive group, and enable the community to recognise and affirm that the children return as changed individuals and members of the group.

  4. A fungal pathogen of amphibians, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, attenuates in pathogenicity with in vitro passages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhammer, Penny F; Lips, Karen R; Burrowes, Patricia A; Tunstall, Tate; Palmer, Crystal M; Collins, James P

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory investigations into the amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), have accelerated recently, given the pathogen's role in causing the global decline and extinction of amphibians. Studies in which host animals were exposed to Bd have largely assumed that lab-maintained pathogen cultures retained the infective and pathogenic properties of wild isolates. Attenuated pathogenicity is common in artificially maintained cultures of other pathogenic fungi, but to date, it is unknown whether, and to what degree, Bd might change in culture. We compared zoospore production over time in two samples of a single Bd isolate having different passage histories: one maintained in artificial media for more than six years (JEL427-P39), and one recently thawed from cryopreserved stock (JEL427-P9). In a common garden experiment, we then exposed two different amphibian species, Eleutherodactylus coqui and Atelopus zeteki, to both cultures to test whether Bd attenuates in pathogenicity with in vitro passages. The culture with the shorter passage history, JEL427-P9, had significantly greater zoospore densities over time compared to JEL427-P39. This difference in zoospore production was associated with a difference in pathogenicity for a susceptible amphibian species, indicating that fecundity may be an important virulence factor for Bd. In the 130-day experiment, Atelopus zeteki frogs exposed to the JEL427-P9 culture experienced higher average infection intensity and 100% mortality, compared with 60% mortality for frogs exposed to JEL427-P39. This effect was not observed with Eleutherodactylus coqui, which was able to clear infection. We hypothesize that the differences in phenotypic performance observed with Atelopus zeteki are rooted in changes of the Bd genome. Future investigations enabled by this study will focus on the underlying mechanisms of Bd pathogenicity.

  5. A fungal pathogen of amphibians, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, attenuates in pathogenicity with in vitro passages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny F Langhammer

    Full Text Available Laboratory investigations into the amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd, have accelerated recently, given the pathogen's role in causing the global decline and extinction of amphibians. Studies in which host animals were exposed to Bd have largely assumed that lab-maintained pathogen cultures retained the infective and pathogenic properties of wild isolates. Attenuated pathogenicity is common in artificially maintained cultures of other pathogenic fungi, but to date, it is unknown whether, and to what degree, Bd might change in culture. We compared zoospore production over time in two samples of a single Bd isolate having different passage histories: one maintained in artificial media for more than six years (JEL427-P39, and one recently thawed from cryopreserved stock (JEL427-P9. In a common garden experiment, we then exposed two different amphibian species, Eleutherodactylus coqui and Atelopus zeteki, to both cultures to test whether Bd attenuates in pathogenicity with in vitro passages. The culture with the shorter passage history, JEL427-P9, had significantly greater zoospore densities over time compared to JEL427-P39. This difference in zoospore production was associated with a difference in pathogenicity for a susceptible amphibian species, indicating that fecundity may be an important virulence factor for Bd. In the 130-day experiment, Atelopus zeteki frogs exposed to the JEL427-P9 culture experienced higher average infection intensity and 100% mortality, compared with 60% mortality for frogs exposed to JEL427-P39. This effect was not observed with Eleutherodactylus coqui, which was able to clear infection. We hypothesize that the differences in phenotypic performance observed with Atelopus zeteki are rooted in changes of the Bd genome. Future investigations enabled by this study will focus on the underlying mechanisms of Bd pathogenicity.

  6. A computational fluid dynamics modeling study of guide walls for downstream fish passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Kevin; Towler, Brett; Haro, Alexander J.; Ahlfeld, David P.

    2017-01-01

    A partial-depth, impermeable guidance structure (or guide wall) for downstream fish passage is typically constructed as a series of panels attached to a floating boom and anchored across a water body (e.g. river channel, reservoir, or power canal). The downstream terminus of the wall is generally located nearby to a fish bypass structure. If guidance is successful, the fish will avoid entrainment in a dangerous intake structure (i.e. turbine intakes) while passing from the headpond to the tailwater of a hydroelectric facility through a safer passage route (i.e. the bypass). The goal of this study is to determine the combination of guide wall design parameters that will most likely increase the chance of surface-oriented fish being successfully guided to the bypass. To evaluate the flow field immediately upstream of a guide wall, a parameterized computational fluid dynamics model of an idealized power canal was constructed in © ANSYS Fluent v 14.5 (ANSYS Inc., 2012). The design parameters investigated were the angle and depth of the guide wall and the average approach velocity in the power canal. Results call attention to the importance of the downward to sweeping flow ratio and demonstrate how a change in guide wall depth and angle can affect this important hydraulic cue to out-migrating fish. The key findings indicate that a guide wall set at a small angle (15° is the minimum in this study) and deep enough such that sweeping flow dominant conditions prevail within the expected vertical distribution of fish approaching the structure will produce hydraulic conditions that are more likely to result in effective passage.

  7. The Passage of Time and its Enemies: an Introduction to Time and Reality II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Boccardi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This essay is a critical introduction to the second part of the special issue Time and Reality. The volume contains responses to papers appeared in the first part, as well as many original articles. The aim of this introduction is to frame these works within the general arena of the philosophy of time, highlighting a number of recurrent themes. A central theme that emerges is a difficulty in pinning down the ontological structure underlying dynamicity and passage without postulating a primitive notion of transiency that is conceptually independent from the instantiation of tense properties. I argue that this has far reaching implications.

  8. Stimulated Raman adiabatic passage from an atomic to a molecular Bose-Einstein condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drummond, P.D.; Kheruntsyan, K.V.; Heinzen, D.J.; Wynar, R.H.

    2002-01-01

    The process of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) provides a possible route for the generation of a coherent molecular Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) from an atomic BEC. We analyze this process in a three-dimensional mean-field theory, including atom-atom interactions and nonresonant intermediate levels. We find that the process is feasible, but at larger Rabi frequencies than anticipated from a crude single-mode lossless analysis, due to two-photon dephasing caused by the atomic interactions. We then identify optimal strategies in STIRAP allowing one to maintain high conversion efficiencies with smaller Rabi frequencies and under experimentally less demanding conditions

  9. A study on labelled 14C-lecithine regarding the placental passage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosspietzsch, R.; Klink, F.; Oberheuser, F.; Klitzing, L. von; Endell, W.

    1976-01-01

    Because of the clinical and biochemical state of a 26 years old patient an erythroblastosis was expected. Continuous controls revealed that delivery in the 36th week of pregnancy was necessary. A therapeutic research with lecithine through the maternal circulation in this special case was carried out in order to prevent a respiratory distress syndrome of the premature infant. No diaplacental passage was shown at the evaluation of the lecithine concentration in the umbilical artery, the umbilical vene and in the fetal urine. (orig.) [de

  10. Distribution of oxygen isotopes in the water masses of Drake Passage and the South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Michael P.; Grose, Katie E.; McDonagh, Elaine L.; Heywood, Karen J.; Frew, Russell D.; Dennis, Paul F.

    1999-09-01

    Measurements of the ratio of stable isotopes of oxygen (18O and 16O) from samples collected on World Ocean Circulation Experiment sections SR1b (eastern Drake Passage) and A11 (Punta Arenas to Cape Town) are used, together with hydrographic data, to deduce information about the formation and variability of South Atlantic and Southern Ocean water masses. The Drake Passage surface waters south of the Polar Front (PF) are isotopically light (δ18O around -0.4‰) owing to the influence of meteoric waters. The salinity and δ18O of the A11 surface waters yield an apparent freshwater end-member which is much isotopically lighter than the local precipitation, thus advection of these waters from farther south dominates over local effects in determining the surface water properties. The Drake Passage section shows unusual proximity of the two main fronts of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (the PF and Subantarctic Front (SAF)), and we observe cold, fresh, and isotopically light water derived from the temperature-minimum Winter Water at the SAF. This water is of the correct density to freshen the intermediate water north of the SAF and thus play a role in the formation of the comparatively fresh Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) of the South Atlantic. This confirms the role of Antarctic water in forming the South Atlantic variety of AAIW. Across the A11 section the oxygen isotope and salinity data at the AAIW core show very similar traces, with waters in the Malvinas Current loop showing lowest values of both. At the eastern boundary of the South Atlantic, the input of Red Sea Water from east of South Africa is observed via the presence of anomalously isotopically heavy AAIW. We deduce potentially significant temporal variability in the isotopic composition of Weddell Sea Deep Water (WSDW) by comparing the Drake Passage data to earlier data covering the outflow of the Weddell Sea. The A11 data show WSDW consistent with such variability, indicating that its effects could

  11. Oscillating-flow loss test results in rectangular heat exchanger passages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, J. Gary

    1991-01-01

    Test results of oscillating flow losses in rectangular heat exchanger passages of various aspect ratios are given. This work was performed in support of the design of a free-piston Stirling engine (FPSE) for a dynamic space power conversion system. Oscillating flow loss testing was performed using an oscillating flow rig, which was based on a variable stroke and variable frequency linear drive motor. Tests were run over a range of oscillating flow parameters encompassing the flow regimes of the proposed engine design. Test results are presented in both tabular and graphical form and are compared against analytical predictions.

  12. Risk assessment for fish passage through small, low-head turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnpenny, A.W.H.; Clough, S.; Hanson, K.P.; Ramsay, R.; McEwan, D.

    2000-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study to improve the accuracy of prediction methods for fish fatalities for small-head Francis and Kaplan propeller turbine designs and gives details of computational fluid dynamic modelling to estimate pressure fluxes and shear stresses. Biological data is reviewed, and the STRIKER Excel spreadsheet model is used to predict death caused by pressure flux, shear turbulence, and blade strike. Field validation is discussed, and drawings of the Francis 1 and Kaplan 1 turbines, results of the fish passage trials, and STRIKER instructions and sample runs are presented in the appendices.

  13. Risk assessment for fish passage through small, low-head turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnpenny, A.W.H.; Clough, S.; Hanson, K.P.; Ramsay, R.; McEwan, D.

    2000-01-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study to improve the accuracy of prediction methods for fish fatalities for small-head Francis and Kaplan propeller turbine designs and gives details of computational fluid dynamic modelling to estimate pressure fluxes and shear stresses. Biological data is reviewed, and the STRIKER Excel spreadsheet model is used to predict death caused by pressure flux, shear turbulence, and blade strike. Field validation is discussed, and drawings of the Francis 1 and Kaplan 1 turbines, results of the fish passage trials, and STRIKER instructions and sample runs are presented in the appendices

  14. Passage des Gravilliers, Paris, 1er juin 2009: entre champ visuel et territoire sonore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghislaine Perichet

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available À défaut d’enquêter sur le lieu dans la perspective d’y trouver l’indice qui détourne l’attention, plus que chercher d’autres espaces, c’est au gré de mes déambulations que je tente un « être-là », une présence au lieu, à l’espace que je traverse en même temps qu’il me parle et me touche. Au passage des Gravilliers, placé au centre du dispositif d’enregistrement de l’image panoramique autour duquel s’enroulait l’architecture et déambulaient les personnages, mon corps s’avérait l’élément catalyseur à l’origine de la représentation. Quelle place aujourd’hui réserver au visiteur qui expérimente Passage des Gravilliers, le dispositif de mise en scène de l’image en mouvement imaginé pour tenter de restituer le temps d’une expérience, l’histoire à même de s’inventer, entre champ visuel et territoire sonore ? RESUMO Evito investigar o lugar com o objetivo de encontrar o índice que desvia a atenção, mais do que buscar outros espaços, é isto que procuro com minhas andanças. Busco um “estar lá”. A presença de um lugar que eu cruzo ao mesmo tempo em que ele me atravessa. A travessa Passage des Gravilliers está colocada no centro do dispositivo de gravação da imagem panorâmica que se desenrola em torno da arquitetura e do passear dos personagens, meu corpo é o catalisador por trás do espetáculo. Que lugar se reserva hoje para o visitante experimenta a obra Passage des Gravilliers, dispositivo encenado de imagem em movimento, concebido para tentar restaurar o tempo de uma experiência, a própria história para inventar, entre o campo visual e o território sonoro? PALAVRAS-CHAVE Experiência, panorâmica, campo visual, território sonoro, performance, dispositivos de encenação.

  15. Modelling of Conveyor Belt Passage by Driving Drum Using Finite Element Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoleta Mikušová

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The finite element methods are used in many disciplines by the development of products, typically in mechanical engineering (for example in automotive industry, biomechanics, etc.. Some modern programs of the finite element's methods have specific tools (electromagnetic, fluid and structural simulations. The finite elements methods allow detailed presentation of structures by bending or torsion, complete design, testing and optimization before the prototype production. The aims of this paper were to the model of conveyor belt passage by driving drum. The model was created by the program Abaqus CAE. The created model presented data about forces, pressures, and deformation of the belt conveyor.

  16. Automatic construction of a recurrent neural network based classifier for vehicle passage detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnaev, Evgeny; Koptelov, Ivan; Novikov, German; Khanipov, Timur

    2017-03-01

    Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) are extensively used for time-series modeling and prediction. We propose an approach for automatic construction of a binary classifier based on Long Short-Term Memory RNNs (LSTM-RNNs) for detection of a vehicle passage through a checkpoint. As an input to the classifier we use multidimensional signals of various sensors that are installed on the checkpoint. Obtained results demonstrate that the previous approach to handcrafting a classifier, consisting of a set of deterministic rules, can be successfully replaced by an automatic RNN training on an appropriately labelled data.

  17. Robust refocusing of 13C magnetization in multidimensional NMR experiments by adiabatic fast passage pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweckstetter, Markus; Holak, Tad A.

    1999-01-01

    We show that adiabatic fast passage (AFP) pulses are robust refocusing elements of transverse 13 C magnetization in multidimensional NMR experiments. A pair of identical AFP pulses can refocus selected parts or a complete 13 C chemical shift range in 13 C spectra. In the constant time 13 C- 1 H HSQC, replacement of attenuated rectangular pulses by selective AFP pulses results in a sensitivity enhancement of up to a factor of 1.8. In the 3D CBCA(CO)NH the signal-to-noise ratio is increased by a factor of up to 1.6

  18. Successful repair of injury to the eyelid, lacrimal passage, and extraocular muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah, Shreya Mehul

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Injury is a known cause of monocular blindness. Ocular trauma may affect lacrimal canaliculi and the extraocular muscle. We report this case as it includes injury to lid, lacrimal canaliculi and inferior rectus. Case description: A 25-year-old male presented with an injury caused by a sharp object that resulted in a conjunctival tear, lid tear involving the lacrimal canal, and rupture of the inferior rectus muscle. All of the structures were repaired successfully during a single procedure. Conclusion: An extraocular injury involving the conjunctiva, lid, lacrimal passages, and extraocular muscles can be repaired successfully during a single procedure.

  19. First-passage time asymptotics over moving boundaries for random walk bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Sloothaak, F.; Zwart, B.; Wachtel, V.

    2017-01-01

    We study the asymptotic tail probability of the first-passage time over a moving boundary for a random walk conditioned to return to zero, where the increments of the random walk have finite variance. Typically, the asymptotic tail behavior may be described through a regularly varying function with exponent -1/2, where the impact of the boundary is captured by the slowly varying function. Yet, the moving boundary may have a stronger effect when the tail is considered at a time close to the re...

  20. Survival and Passage of Yearling and Subyearling Chinook Salmon and Steelhead at The Dalles Dam, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Skalski, J. R.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Deng, Zhiqun; Fischer, Eric S.; Hughes, James S.; Khan, Fenton; Kim, Jin A.; Townsend, Richard L.

    2011-12-01

    The acoustic telemetry study reported here was conducted by researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the University of Washington (UW) for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE). The purpose of the study was to estimate dam passage survival and other performance measures for yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon and steelhead at The Dalles Dam as stipulated by the 2008 Biological Opinion on operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) and 2008 Columbia Basin Fish Accords.

  1. A Passage to Infinity Medieval Indian Mathematics from Kerala and Its Impact

    CERN Document Server

    Joseph, George Gheverghese

    2009-01-01

    This book traces the first faltering steps taken in the mathematical theorisation of infinity which marks the emergence of modern mathematics. It analyses the part played by Indian mathematicians through the Kerala conduit, which is an important but neglected part of the history of mathematics. Passage to Infinity: Medieval Indian Mathematics from Kerala and its Impact begins with an examination of the social origins of the Kerala School and proceeds to discuss its mathematical genesis as well as its achievements. It presents the techniques employed by the School to derive the series expansion

  2. Generation of four-atom Greenberger—Horn—Zeilinger state via adiabatic passage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chun-Ling; Chen Mei-Feng

    2013-01-01

    We propose a scheme to generate a Greenberger—Horn—Zeilinger (GHZ) state of four atoms trapped in a two-mode optical cavity via an adiabatic passage. The scheme is robust against moderate fluctuations of the experimental parameters. Numerical calculations show that the excited probabilities of both the cavity modes and the atoms are tiny and depend on the pulse peaks of the classical laser fields. For certain decoherence due to the atomic spontaneous emission and the cavity decay, there exits a range of pulse peaks to get a high fidelity. (general)

  3. Some remarks on first passage of Levy processes, the American put and pasting principles

    OpenAIRE

    Alili, L.; Kyprianou, A. E.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide, with the help of a fluctuation identity, a generic link between a number of known identities for the first passage time and overshoot above/below a fixed level of a Lévy process and the solution of Gerber and Shiu [Astin Bull. 24 (1994) 195–220], Boyarchenko and Levendorskiǐ [Working paper series EERS 98/02 (1998), Unpublished manuscript (1999), SIAM J. Control Optim. 40 (2002) 1663–1696], Chan [Original unpublished manuscript (2000)], Avram, Chan a...

  4. Female listeners’ autonomic responses to dramatic shifts between loud and soft music/sound passages: a study of heavy metal songs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Han eCheng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Although music and the emotion it conveys unfold over time, little is known about how listeners respond to shifts in musical emotions. A special technique in heavy metal music utilizes dramatic shifts between loud and soft passages. Loud passages are penetrated by distorted sounds conveying aggression, whereas soft passages are often characterized by a clean, calm singing voice and light accompaniment. The present study used heavy metal songs and soft sea sounds to examine how female listeners’ respiration rates and heart rates responded to the arousal changes associated with auditory stimuli. The high-frequency power of heart rate variability (HF-HRV was used to assess cardiac parasympathetic activity. The results showed that the soft passages of heavy metal songs and soft sea sounds expressed lower arousal and induced significantly higher HF-HRVs than the loud passages of heavy metal songs. Listeners’ respiration rate was determined by the arousal level of the present music passage, whereas the heart rate was dependent on both the present and preceding passages. Compared with soft sea sounds, the loud music passage led to greater deceleration of the heart rate at the beginning of the following soft music passage. The sea sounds delayed the heart rate acceleration evoked by the following loud music passage. The data provide evidence that sound-induced parasympathetic activity affects listener’s heart rate in response to the following music passage. These findings have potential implications for future research of the temporal dynamics of musical emotions.

  5. Public Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Rutgers, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    administration is approached in terms of processes guided or restricted by public values and as public value creating: public management and public policy-making are both concerned with establishing, following and realizing public values. To study public values a broad perspective is needed. The article suggest......This article provides the introduction to a symposium on contemporary public values research. It is argued that the contribution to this symposium represent a Public Values Perspective, distinct from other specific lines of research that also use public value as a core concept. Public...... a research agenda for this encompasing kind of public values research. Finally the contributions to the symposium are introduced....

  6. Class impressions : Higher social class elicits lower prosociality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Doesum, Niels J.; Tybur, Joshua M.; Van Lange, Paul A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Social class predicts numerous important life outcomes and social orientations. To date, literature has mainly examined how an individual's own class shapes interactions with others. But how prosocially do people treat others they perceive as coming from lower, middle, or higher social classes?

  7. Class Action and Class Settlement in a European Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2013-01-01

    The article analyses the options for introducing common European rules on class action lawsuits with an opt-out-model in individual cases. An analysis is made of how the risks of misuse of class actions can be prevented. The article considers the Dutch rules on class settlements (the WCAM procedure...

  8. Provision of Ubiquitous Tourist Information in Public Transport Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Carmelo R.; Pérez, Ricardo; Alayón, Francisco; Quesada-Arencibia, Alexis; Padrón, Gabino

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines an information system for tourists using collective public transport based on mobile devices with limited computation and wireless connection capacities. In this system, the mobile device collaborates with the vehicle infrastructure in order to provide the user with multimedia (visual and audio) information about his/her trip. The information delivered, adapted to the user preferences, is synchronized with the passage of vehicles through points of interest along the route, for example: bus stops, tourist sights, public service centres, etc.

  9. Passage-Based Bibliographic Coupling: An Inter-Article Similarity Measure for Biomedical Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rey-Long

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical literature is an essential source of biomedical evidence. To translate the evidence for biomedicine study, researchers often need to carefully read multiple articles about specific biomedical issues. These articles thus need to be highly related to each other. They should share similar core contents, including research goals, methods, and findings. However, given an article r, it is challenging for search engines to retrieve highly related articles for r. In this paper, we present a technique PBC (Passage-based Bibliographic Coupling) that estimates inter-article similarity by seamlessly integrating bibliographic coupling with the information collected from context passages around important out-link citations (references) in each article. Empirical evaluation shows that PBC can significantly improve the retrieval of those articles that biomedical experts believe to be highly related to specific articles about gene-disease associations. PBC can thus be used to improve search engines in retrieving the highly related articles for any given article r, even when r is cited by very few (or even no) articles. The contribution is essential for those researchers and text mining systems that aim at cross-validating the evidence about specific gene-disease associations. PMID:26440794

  10. First-passage dynamics of linear stochastic interface models: numerical simulations and entropic repulsion effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Markus

    2018-03-01

    A fluctuating interfacial profile in one dimension is studied via Langevin simulations of the Edwards–Wilkinson equation with non-conserved noise and the Mullins–Herring equation with conserved noise. The profile is subject to either periodic or Dirichlet (no-flux) boundary conditions. We determine the noise-driven time-evolution of the profile between an initially flat configuration and the instant at which the profile reaches a given height M for the first time. The shape of the averaged profile agrees well with the prediction of weak-noise theory (WNT), which describes the most-likely trajectory to a fixed first-passage time. Furthermore, in agreement with WNT, on average the profile approaches the height M algebraically in time, with an exponent that is essentially independent of the boundary conditions. However, the actual value of the dynamic exponent turns out to be significantly smaller than predicted by WNT. This ‘renormalization’ of the exponent is explained in terms of the entropic repulsion exerted by the impenetrable boundary on the fluctuations of the profile around its most-likely path. The entropic repulsion mechanism is analyzed in detail for a single (fractional) Brownian walker, which describes the anomalous diffusion of a tagged monomer of the interface as it approaches the absorbing boundary. The present study sheds light on the accuracy and the limitations of the weak-noise approximation for the description of the full first-passage dynamics.

  11. Fish as vectors in the dispersal of Bythotrephes cederstroemi: Diapausing eggs survive passage through the gut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarnagin, S.T.; Swan, B.K.; Kerfoot, W.C.

    2000-01-01

    1. Bythotrephes cederstroemi (Crustacea: Onychopoda: Cercopagidae) is an introduced invertebrate predator currently spreading through the Laurentian Great Lakes region of North America. We examined a previously unsuspected way in which B. cederstroemi may be dispersed by fish by their consumption of diapausing eggs. 2. Ninety-four percentage of the mature B. cederstroemi diapausing eggs consumed by fish were egested apparently intact. This proportion is considerably above previous estimates for the ephippial eggs of Daphnia. The hatching success of diapausing eggs was compared among four categories: (a) eggs released naturally by B. cederstroemi (control, 73% hatched (b) eggs released during 'stressful confinement' (46% hatched) (c) eggs dissected from dead females (13% hatched) and (d) eggs recovered from faecal pellets following consumption by fish (viable gut passage experiment, 41% hatched). 3. Samples of small fish and B. cederstroemi were collected simultaneously. Examination of gut contents revealed that fish contained B. cederstroemi diapausing eggs and that B. cederstroemi bearing resting eggs were consumed selectively over those without eggs. Moreover, fish selected B. cederstroemi bearing mature rather than immature diapausing eggs. 4. The fact that diapausing eggs survive gut passage is important for the dispersal of B. cederstroemi. Fish often move between the pelagic and littoral zones of lakes and may thus disperse diapausing eggs widely. Fish may also move between lakes connected by river systems and can be caught and passively dispersed by anglers or piscivorous birds. Our results demonstrate the potential for fish to act as vectors in the spread of B. cederstroemi.

  12. Passage-restricted differentiation potential of mesenchymal stem cells into cardiomyocyte-like cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fabao; Li Li; Fang Bo; Zhu Dingliang; Yang Huangtian; Gao Pingjin

    2005-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have limited ability to differentiate into cardiomyocytes and the factors affect this process are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the passage (P)-related transdifferentiation potential of MSCs into cardiomyocyte-like cells and its relationship to the proliferation ability. After 5-azacytidine treatment, only P4 but not P1 and P8 rat bone marrow MSCs (rMSCs) showed formation of myotube and expressed cardiomyocyte-associated markers. The growth property analysis showed P4 rMSCs had a growth-arrest appearance, while P1 and P8 rMSCs displayed an exponential growth pattern. When the rapid proliferation of P1 and P8 rMSCs was inhibited by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine, a mitosis inhibitor, only P1, not P8 rMSCs, differentiated into cardiomyocyte-like cells after 5-azacytidine treatment. These results demonstrate that the differentiation ability of rMSCs into cardiomyocytes is in proliferation ability-dependent and passage-restricted patterns. These findings reveal a novel regulation on the transdifferentiation of MSCs and provide useful information for exploiting the clinical therapeutic potential of MSCs

  13. Male adolescent rites of passage: positive visions of multiple developmental pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, William S

    2004-12-01

    Unlike the separation-based, stereotyped views of boys' developmental movement into adulthood, this paper will argue that there are more modern and relational models, as well as multiple pathways, for young males to journey through such rites of passage. Indeed, it will be suggested and supported by both qualitative and quantitative data that the more classic models depend on a "boy code" of traumatic separation from mother and the feminine, a process that is not only negative rather than positive in its developmental trajectory, but also likely to create a premature traumatic separation, leaving boys at risk for emotional maladjustment, everyday sadness, increased incidence of depression and the potential for violence toward the self, suicide, as well as violence toward others. More-positive visions and versions of male rites of passage will be posited and described. The definition of emotional "resilience" during this significant period will be re-addressed as one of "healthy vulnerability," sustained through connection to loving adults, rather than a classic belief in stoicism and release from relational ties. Attachment theory will be brought to bear and the desperate yearnings of adolescent males not only for connection to adult mentors, but also for non-romanticized friendships with adolescent females, will be discussed. Finally, the understanding and substitution of these new, more positive, developmental pathways will be linked to the prevention of violence.

  14. Veganism as status passage: the process of becoming a vegan among youths in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Christel L; Rönnlund, Ulla; Johansson, Gunnar; Dahlgren, Lars

    2003-08-01

    In a town in northern Sweden, 3.3% of the 15-year-old adolescents were vegans in 1996. This study describes the process of becoming a vegan among adolescents and interprets the informants' descriptions by constructing categories, which later on were related to relevant theories. Group interviews were conducted with three vegans and in-depth interviews were performed with three other vegan adolescents. The methodology was grounded theory and the adolescents' perceptions were analyzed in the framework of symbolic interactionism. Three types of vegans were identified: the Conformed Vegan, the Organized Vegan, and the Individualistic Vegan. The decision to become a vegan was reported to be influenced by perceived internal reasons such as ethics, health, distaste for meat, and preference for vegetarian food. In addition, friends, family, school, media, and music influenced the decision to become a vegan. The perceived consequences of becoming a vegan were positive as well as negative and differed between the three types of vegans. Veganism as a new type of status passage with specific characteristics was illustrated. No modifications or new properties were discovered that add to the theory of status passage which indicates that the general model is applicable also in a vegan context.

  15. Pre-History Of The Concepts Underlying Stimulated Raman Adiabatic Passage (STIRAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shore, B.W.

    2013-01-01

    This tutorial review discusses some of the work that preceded development, twenty-five years ago, of the stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) technique, now widely used in the controlled coherent dynamics of three-state systems, noting how the use of time-dependent adiabatically-evolving population-trapping dark states made possible the robust and highly-efficient population transfer between quantum states that first popularized STIRAP. Preceding the history discussion is a tutorial definition of STIRAP and its necessary and sufficient ingredients — understanding that has led to applications well beyond those of the original quantum systems. This review also discusses the relationship between STIRAP and two related procedures: chirped Raman adiabatic passage (RCAP or CHIRAP) and electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) with slow and captured light. It concludes with a brief discussion of ways in which contemporary STIRAP has extended the original concept and enlarged the definition, beyond that of simple quantum systems to classical macroscopic devices. Appendices offer further details. The presentation emphasizes theory but with illustrations of experimental results. (author)

  16. Geomagnetic, ionospheric and cosmic ray variations around the passages of different magnetic clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maercz, F.

    1992-01-01

    Thirty-four interplanetary magnetic clouds have been divided into two groups on the basis of Wilson's (J.geophys. Res. 95, 215, 1990) classification: NS clouds (whose B z near cloud onset at Earth is directed northward, and soon after B z is turning southward) and SN clouds (those with an opposite behaviour with respect to B z ). Using the days of cloud onsets as key days, geomagnetic, ionospheric and cosmic ray data have been analysed by the superposed epoch analysis method for passages of both NS and SN clouds. On the basis of the daily ΣK p values, geomagnetic activity is found to suddenly increase in the vicinity of both types of cloud passages. Afterwards, the variation shown by the geomagnetic indices is found to differ for NS clouds in comparison with SN clouds. Namely, on average the recovery to a normal activity level is much slower for NS clouds. Similarly, the enhancements in the ionospheric absorption of radio waves (the so-called ''after-effects'') are found to show different signatures according to cloud type, an interpretation also valid for variations in cosmic ray intensity. The latter results are based on analyses of neutron monitor counts observed at two stations (Apatity: 67 N; and Moscow: 55 o N). (author)

  17. High passage MIN6 cells have impaired insulin secretion with impaired glucose and lipid oxidation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Cheng

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by the inability of beta-cells to secrete enough insulin to maintain glucose homeostasis. MIN6 cells secrete insulin in response to glucose and other secretagogues, but high passage (HP MIN6 cells lose their ability to secrete insulin in response to glucose. We hypothesized that metabolism of glucose and lipids were defective in HP MIN6 cells causing impaired glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS. HP MIN6 cells had no first phase and impaired second phase GSIS indicative of global functional impairment. This was coupled with a markedly reduced ATP content at basal and glucose stimulated states. Glucose uptake and oxidation were higher at basal glucose but ATP content failed to increase with glucose. HP MIN6 cells had decreased basal lipid oxidation. This was accompanied by reduced expressions of Glut1, Gck, Pfk, Srebp1c, Ucp2, Sirt3, Nampt. MIN6 cells represent an important model of beta cells which, as passage numbers increased lost first phase but retained partial second phase GSIS, similar to patients early in type 2 diabetes onset. We believe a number of gene expression changes occurred to produce this defect, with emphasis on Sirt3 and Nampt, two genes that have been implicated in maintenance of glucose homeostasis.

  18. Effects of the nasal passage on forced oscillation lung function measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Chuong; Krüger, Karl; Vollmer, Thomas; Winter, Stefan; Penzlin, Bernhard; Lehmann, Sylvia; Leonhardt, Steffen; Misgeld, Berno

    2017-11-27

    The forced oscillation technique (FOT) is a non-invasive pulmonary function test which is based on the measurement of respiratory impedance. Recently, promising results were obtained by the application of FOT on patients with respiratory failure and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). By using a nasal mask instead of a mouthpiece, the influences of the nasal passage and upper shunt alter the measured mechanical impedance. In this paper, we investigated the effects of the nasal passage and mask on FOT measurements from eight healthy subjects. A method for flow correction has been developed, which contains a pressure-flow characteristics compensation of the undetermined flow leakage at the face-mask interface. Impedance calculation and parameter estimation were performed in the frequency domain using fast Fourier transform (FFT). Average nasal parameters were Rnaw=4.07 cmH2O/l/s for resistance and Lnaw=0.0183 cmH2O/l/s2 for inertance. On average, the nasal resistance corresponds to 65.85% of the total resistance.

  19. The Effect of an Externally Attached Neutrally Buoyant Transmitter on Mortal Injury during Simulated Hydroturbine Passage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Richard S.; Pflugrath, Brett D.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Deng, Zhiqun

    2012-02-03

    On their seaward migration, juvenile salmonids commonly pass hydroelectric dams. Fish passing through hydroturbines experience a rapid decrease in pressure as they pass by the turbine blade and the severity of this decompression can be highly variable. This rapid decrease in pressure can result in injuries such as swim bladder rupture, exophthalmia, and emboli and hemorrhaging in the fins and tissues. However, recent research indicates that the presence of a telemetry tag (acoustic, radio, inductive) implanted inside the coelom of a juvenile salmon increases the likelihood that the fish will be injured or die during turbine passage. Thus, previous research conducted using telemetry tags implanted into the coelom of fish may have been inaccurate. Thus, a new technique is needed to provide unbiased estimates of survival through turbines. This research provides an evaluation of the effectiveness of a neutrally buoyant externally attached acoustic transmitter. Both nontagged fish and fish tagged with a neutrally buoyant external transmitter were exposed to a range of rapid decompressions simulating turbine passage. Juvenile Chinook salmon tagged with a neutrally buoyant externally attached acoustic transmitter did not receive a higher degree of barotrauma than their nontagged counterparts. We suggest that future research include field-based comparisons of survival and behavior among fish tagged with a neutrally buoyant external transmitter and those internally implanted with transmitters.

  20. Simultaneous measurement of passage through the restriction point and MCM loading in single cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håland, T. W.; Boye, E.; Stokke, T.; Grallert, B.; Syljuåsen, R. G.

    2015-01-01

    Passage through the Retinoblastoma protein (RB1)-dependent restriction point and the loading of minichromosome maintenance proteins (MCMs) are two crucial events in G1-phase that help maintain genome integrity. Deregulation of these processes can cause uncontrolled proliferation and cancer development. Both events have been extensively characterized individually, but their relative timing and inter-dependence remain less clear. Here, we describe a novel method to simultaneously measure MCM loading and passage through the restriction point. We exploit that the RB1 protein is anchored in G1-phase but is released when hyper-phosphorylated at the restriction point. After extracting cells with salt and detergent before fixation we can simultaneously measure, by flow cytometry, the loading of MCMs onto chromatin and RB1 binding to determine the order of the two events in individual cells. We have used this method to examine the relative timing of the two events in human cells. Whereas in BJ fibroblasts released from G0-phase MCM loading started mainly after the restriction point, in a significant fraction of exponentially growing BJ and U2OS osteosarcoma cells MCMs were loaded in G1-phase with RB1 anchored, demonstrating that MCM loading can also start before the restriction point. These results were supported by measurements in synchronized U2OS cells. PMID:26250117

  1. Passage-Based Bibliographic Coupling: An Inter-Article Similarity Measure for Biomedical Articles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rey-Long Liu

    Full Text Available Biomedical literature is an essential source of biomedical evidence. To translate the evidence for biomedicine study, researchers often need to carefully read multiple articles about specific biomedical issues. These articles thus need to be highly related to each other. They should share similar core contents, including research goals, methods, and findings. However, given an article r, it is challenging for search engines to retrieve highly related articles for r. In this paper, we present a technique PBC (Passage-based Bibliographic Coupling that estimates inter-article similarity by seamlessly integrating bibliographic coupling with the information collected from context passages around important out-link citations (references in each article. Empirical evaluation shows that PBC can significantly improve the retrieval of those articles that biomedical experts believe to be highly related to specific articles about gene-disease associations. PBC can thus be used to improve search engines in retrieving the highly related articles for any given article r, even when r is cited by very few (or even no articles. The contribution is essential for those researchers and text mining systems that aim at cross-validating the evidence about specific gene-disease associations.

  2. Toxicity and oxidative stress of canine mesenchymal stromal cells from adipose tissue in different culture passages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arícia Gomes Sprada

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Stem cells in regenerative therapy have received attention from researchers in recent decades. The culture of these cells allows studies about their behavior and metabolism. Thus, cell culture is the basis for cell therapy and tissue engineering researches. A major concern regarding the use of cultivated stem cell in human or veterinary clinical routine is the risk of carcinogenesis. Cellular activities require a balanced redox state. However, when there is an imbalance in this state, oxidative stress occurs. Oxidative stress contributes to cytotoxicity, which may result in cell death or genomic alterations, favoring the development of cancer cells. The aim of this study was to determine whether there are differences in the behavior of cultured mesenchymal stem cells from canine adipose tissue according to its site of collection (omentum and subcutaneous evaluating the rate of proliferation, viability, level of oxidative stress and cytotoxicity over six passages. For this experiment, two samples of adipose tissue from subcutaneous and omentum where taken from a female dog corpse, 13 years old, Pitbull. The results showed greater levels of oxidative stress in the first and last passages of both groups, favoring cytotoxicity and cell death.

  3. Passage rates in poultry digestion using stable isotope markers and INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunkley, C.S.; Kim, W.K.; Ricke, S.C.; James, W.D.; Ellis, W.C.; McReynolds, J.L.; Kubena, L.F.; Nisbet, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    A method has been developed for the study of passage rates and mean residence times (MRT) of test rations through the gastrointestinal tracts of layer hens. The use of rare earth elements as stable indigestible markers monitored by neutron activation analysis has been previously demonstrated in numerous species. In this study hafnium was used to mark corn and alfalfa rations as well as a combination ration made up of 90% alfalfa and 10% corn. The primary goal of the study was to evaluate the potential for use of rare earth stable markers in poultry digestion and to determine efficiency of meal marking, optimum exposure rates and determination limits for use in the design of future experimental protocols. Three groups of 10 hens each were fed a particular marked meal with fecal droppings monitored for 24 hours. The hens were sacrificed after a second dosed feeding and a delay of two or seven hours, and digesta was collected from each portion of the gastrointestinal tract. Fecal dry matter as well as digesta collected was then prepared for analysis and the elemental concentrations of hafnium were measured with instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Element adsorption on alfalfa was far less efficient than on the corn ration, limiting the applicability of much of the alfalfa data to digestion studies. Passage rate curves were prepared for corn. The marker was found to primarily concentrate in the ileum at both sacrifice times. (author)

  4. Right of innocent passage of ships carrying ultra-hazardous cargoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa Ferro, M.

    2006-01-01

    The analysis carried out in this paper suggests that coastal states would probably fail to persuade an international tribunal of the existence of the right to deny passage of ships carrying ultra-hazardous cargoes through their territorial seas, much less through their exclusive economic zones. The same applies to the obligation to provide (or right to require) prior notification of such passage. This may partly explain why no international litigation concerning these issues has so far taken place, even though there have been a number of conflicts between coastal states and shipping states, widely published in the media. Still, evidence suggests that officers at the head of authorities in several coastal states, often non legal experts, firmly believe in the existence of these rights and obligations, at least insofar as concerns the territorial sea; The gap between the law and practice seems to be widening. At the same time, several states are clearly pursuing a policy of pushing for an evolution of customary law, either by claiming that this evolution has already taken place, or that the letter of this or that treaty already allows for claims. It would not be surprising if this strategy should succeed eventually. For the time being, however, one must not be too hasty to confuse diplomatic concessions with an evolution of the law. (author)

  5. Digestion and passage of tropical forages in swamp buffaloes and cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, P.M.

    1990-01-01

    The digestion of tropical forages in buffaloes and Brahman cross-bred cattle has been studied in five experiments. The differences in relative voluntary intake between species were not consistent, but evidence was found that cattle fed some diets could not maintain optimal microbial fibrolytic activity because of low rumen ammonia levels. However, there was little evidence of a major differential response between breeds to urea or protein supplements. Buffaloes exhibited a faster passage of rumen fluid, accompanied in some experiments by a faster passage of particulate digesta from the reticulorumen. This was associated in one experiment with stronger ruminal contractions and extended rumination. A hypothesis to explain the variability in relative intake between species is presented. This links the higher intake by buffaloes to the relative rate of digestion of particles in the rumen, and postulates that the animal/plant species interaction results from the outflow to the intestines of microbial protein attached to small particles of differing fermentable fibre content. (author). 23 refs, 4 figs, 6 tabs

  6. Passaged adult chondrocytes can form engineered cartilage with functional mechanical properties: a canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kenneth W; Lima, Eric G; Bian, Liming; O'Conor, Christopher J; Jayabalan, Prakash S; Stoker, Aaron M; Kuroki, Keiichi; Cook, Cristi R; Ateshian, Gerard A; Cook, James L; Hung, Clark T

    2010-03-01

    It was hypothesized that previously optimized serum-free culture conditions for juvenile bovine chondrocytes could be adapted to generate engineered cartilage with physiologic mechanical properties in a preclinical, adult canine model. Primary or passaged (using growth factors) adult chondrocytes from three adult dogs were encapsulated in agarose, and cultured in serum-free media with transforming growth factor-beta3. After 28 days in culture, engineered cartilage formed by primary chondrocytes exhibited only small increases in glycosaminoglycan content. However, all passaged chondrocytes on day 28 elaborated a cartilage matrix with compressive properties and glycosaminoglycan content in the range of native adult canine cartilage values. A preliminary biocompatibility study utilizing chondral and osteochondral constructs showed no gross or histological signs of rejection, with all implanted constructs showing excellent integration with surrounding cartilage and subchondral bone. This study demonstrates that adult canine chondrocytes can form a mechanically functional, biocompatible engineered cartilage tissue under optimized culture conditions. The encouraging findings of this work highlight the potential for tissue engineering strategies using adult chondrocytes in the clinical treatment of cartilage defects.

  7. First-passage Probability Estimation of an Earthquake Response of Seismically Isolated Containment Buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahm, Dae-Gi; Park, Kwan-Soon; Koh, Hyun-Moo

    2008-01-01

    The awareness of a seismic hazard and risk is being increased rapidly according to the frequent occurrences of the huge earthquakes such as the 2008 Sichuan earthquake which caused about 70,000 confirmed casualties and a 20 billion U.S. dollars economic loss. Since an earthquake load contains various uncertainties naturally, the safety of a structural system under an earthquake excitation has been assessed by probabilistic approaches. In many structural applications for a probabilistic safety assessment, it is often regarded that the failure of a system will occur when the response of the structure firstly crosses the limit barrier within a specified interval of time. The determination of such a failure probability is usually called the 'first-passage problem' and has been extensively studied during the last few decades. However, especially for the structures which show a significant nonlinear dynamic behavior, an effective and accurate method for the estimation of such a failure probability is not fully established yet. In this study, we presented a new approach to evaluate the first-passage probability of an earthquake response of seismically isolated structures. The proposed method is applied to the seismic isolation system for the containment buildings of a nuclear power plant. From the numerical example, we verified that the proposed method shows accurate results with more efficient computational efforts compared to the conventional approaches

  8. Migratory behavior of adult sea lamprey and cumulative passage performance through four fishways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Santos, Theodore R.; Shi, Xiaotao; Haro, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    This article describes a study of PIT-tagged sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) ascending four fishways comprising three designs at two dams on the Connecticut River, USA. Migration between dams was rapid (median migration rate = 23 km·day−1). Movement through the fishways was much slower, however (median = 0.02–0.33 km·day−1). Overall delay at dams was substantial (median = 13.6–14.6 days); many fish failed to pass (percent passage ranged from 29% to 55%, depending on fishway), and repeated passage attempts compounded delay for both passers and failers. Cox regression revealed that fishway entry rates were influenced by flow, temperature, and diel cycle, with most lampreys entering at night and at elevated flows, but with no apparent effect of sex or length. Overall delay was influenced by slow movement through the fishways, but repeated failures were the primary factor determining delay. These data suggest that although some lamprey were able to pass fishways, they did so with difficulty, and delays incurred as they attempted to pass may act to limit their distribution within their native range.

  9. Teachers, Social Class and Underachievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Mairead; Gazeley, Louise

    2008-01-01

    Addressing the "the social class attainment gap" in education has become a government priority in England. Despite multiple initiatives, however, little has effectively addressed the underachievement of working-class pupils within the classroom. In order to develop clearer understandings of working-class underachievement at this level,…

  10. Mapping the Social Class Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toubøl, Jonas; Grau Larsen, Anton

    2017-01-01

    This article develops a new explorative method for deriving social class categories from patterns of occupational mobility. In line with Max Weber, our research is based on the notion that, if class boundaries do not inhibit social mobility then the class categories are of little value. Thus...

  11. A multi-year analysis of passage and survival at McNary Dam, 2004-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Noah S.; Walker, C.E.; Perry, R.W.

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed 6 years (2004–09) of passage and survival data collected at McNary Dam to determine how dam operations and environmental conditions affect passage and survival of juvenile salmonids. A multinomial logistic regression was used to examine how environmental variables and dam operations relate to passage behavior of juvenile salmonids at McNary Dam. We used the Cormack-Jolly-Seber release-recapture model to determine how the survival of juvenile salmonids passing through McNary Dam relates to environmental variables and dam operations. Total project discharge and the proportion of flow passing the spillway typically had a positive effect on survival for all species and routes. As the proportion of water through the spillway increased, the number of fish passing the spillway increased, as did overall survival. Additionally, survival generally was higher at night. There was no meaningful difference in survival for fish that passed through the north or south portions of the spillway or powerhouse. Similarly, there was no difference in survival for fish released in the north, middle, or south portions of the tailrace. For subyearling Chinook salmon migrating during the summer season, increased temperatures had a drastic effect on passage and survival. As temperature increased, survival of subyearling Chinook salmon decreased through all passage routes and the number of fish that passed through the turbines increased. During years when the temporary spillway weirs (TSWs) were installed, passage through the spillway increased for spring migrants. However, due to the changes made in the location of the TSW between years and the potential effect of other confounding environmental conditions, it is not certain if the increase in spillway passage was due solely to the presence of the TSWs. The TSWs appeared to improve forebay survival during years when they were operated.

  12. Millennial-scale ocean current intensity changes off southernmost Chile and implications for Drake Passage throughflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, F.; Arz, H. W.; Kilian, R.; Baeza Urrea, O.; Caniupan, M.; Kissel, C.; Lange, C.

    2012-04-01

    The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) plays an essential role in the thermohaline circulation and global climate. Today a large volume of ACC water passes through the Drake Passage, a major geographic constrain for the circumpolar flow. Satellite tracked surface drifters have shown that Subantarctic Surface water of the ACC is transported northeastward across the Southeast Pacific from ~53°S/100°W towards the Chilean coast at ~40°S/75°W where surface waters bifurcate and flow northward into the Peru Chile Current (PCC) finally reaching the Eastern Tropical Pacific, and southwards into the Cape Horn Current (CHC). The CHC thus transports a significant amount of northern ACC water towards the Drake Passage and reaches surface current velocities of up to 35 cm/s within a narrow belt of ~100-150 km width off the coast. Also at deeper water levels, an accelerated southward flow occurs along the continental slope off southernmost South America that likewise substantially contributes to the Drake Passage throughflow. Here we report on high resolution geochemical and grain-size records from core MD07-3128 (53°S; 1032 m water depth) which has been retrieved from the upper continental slope off the Pacific entrance of the Magellan Strait beneath the CHC. Magnetic grain-sizes and grain-size distributions of the terrigenous fraction reveal large amplitude changes between the Holocene and the last glacial, as well as millennial-scale variability (most pronounced during Marine Isotope Stage). Magnetic grain-sizes, silt/clay ratios, fine sand contents, sortable silt contents, and sortable silt mean grain-sizes are substantially higher during the Holocene suggesting strongly enhanced current activity. The high absolute values imply flow speeds larger than 25 cm/s as currently observed in the CHC surface current. Furthermore, winnowing processes through bottom current activity and changes in the availability of terrigenous material (ice-sheet extension and related supply of

  13. Pseudo Class III malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadia M. Al-Hummayani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of deep anterior crossbite is technically challenging due to the difficulty of placing traditional brackets with fixed appliances. This case report represents a none traditional treatment modality to treat deep anterior crossbite in an adult pseudo class III malocclusion complicated by severely retruded, supraerupted upper and lower incisors. Treatment was carried out in 2 phases. Phase I treatment was performed by removable appliance “modified Hawley appliance with inverted labial bow,” some modifications were carried out to it to suit the presented case. Positive overbite and overjet was accomplished in one month, in this phase with minimal forces exerted on the lower incisors. Whereas, phase II treatment was performed with fixed appliances (braces to align teeth and have proper over bite and overjet and to close posterior open bite, this phase was accomplished within 11 month.

  14. [Economy class syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morio, Hiroshi

    2003-10-01

    Economy class syndrome is venous thromboembolism following air travel. This syndrome was firstly reported in 1946, and many cases have been reported since 1990s. Low air pressure and low humidity in the aircraft cabin may contribute to the mechanism of this syndrome. Risk factors for venous thrombosis in the plane were old age, small height, obesity, hormonal therapy, malignancy, smoking, pregnancy or recent parturition, recent trauma or operation, chronic disease and history of venous thrombosis. In Japan, the feminine gender is also risk factor though reason was not well known. For prophylaxis, adequate fluid intake and leg exercise are recommended to all passengers. For passengers with high risk, prophylactic measures such as compression stockings, aspirin or low molecular weight heparin should be considered.

  15. Network class superposition analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl A B Pearson

    Full Text Available Networks are often used to understand a whole system by modeling the interactions among its pieces. Examples include biomolecules in a cell interacting to provide some primary function, or species in an environment forming a stable community. However, these interactions are often unknown; instead, the pieces' dynamic states are known, and network structure must be inferred. Because observed function may be explained by many different networks (e.g., ≈ 10(30 for the yeast cell cycle process, considering dynamics beyond this primary function means picking a single network or suitable sample: measuring over all networks exhibiting the primary function is computationally infeasible. We circumvent that obstacle by calculating the network class ensemble. We represent the ensemble by a stochastic matrix T, which is a transition-by-transition superposition of the system dynamics for each member of the class. We present concrete results for T derived from boolean time series dynamics on networks obeying the Strong Inhibition rule, by applying T to several traditional questions about network dynamics. We show that the distribution of the number of point attractors can be accurately estimated with T. We show how to generate Derrida plots based on T. We show that T-based Shannon entropy outperforms other methods at selecting experiments to further narrow the network structure. We also outline an experimental test of predictions based on T. We motivate all of these results in terms of a popular molecular biology boolean network model for the yeast cell cycle, but the methods and analyses we introduce are general. We conclude with open questions for T, for example, application to other models, computational considerations when scaling up to larger systems, and other potential analyses.

  16. Damascus steel ledeburite class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, D. A.; Arkhangelsky, L. B.; Plotnikova, N. V.

    2017-02-01

    Discovered that some of blades Damascus steel has an unusual nature of origin of the excess cementite, which different from the redundant phases of secondary cementite, cementite of ledeburite and primary cementite in iron-carbon alloys. It is revealed that the morphological features of separate particles of cementite in Damascus steels lies in the abnormal size of excess carbides having the shape of irregular prisms. Considered three hypotheses for the formation of excess cementite in the form of faceted prismatic of excess carbides. The first hypothesis is based on thermal fission of cementite of a few isolated grains. The second hypothesis is based on the process of fragmentation cementite during deformation to the separate the pieces. The third hypothesis is based on the transformation of metastable cementite in the stable of angular eutectic carbide. It is shown that the angular carbides are formed within the original metastable colony ledeburite, so they are called “eutectic carbide”. It is established that high-purity white cast iron is converted into of Damascus steel during isothermal soaking at the annealing. It was revealed that some of blades Damascus steel ledeburite class do not contain in its microstructure of crushed ledeburite. It is shown that the pattern of carbide heterogeneity of Damascus steel consists entirely of angular eutectic carbides. Believe that Damascus steel refers to non-heat-resistant steel of ledeburite class, which have similar structural characteristics with semi-heat-resistant die steel or heat-resistant high speed steel, differing from them only in the nature of excess carbide phase.

  17. Understanding Class in Contemporary Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrits, Gitte Sommer

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that claims about the death of class and the coming of the classless society are premature. Such claims are seldom genuinely empirical, and the theoretical argument often refers to a simple and therefore easily dismissible concept of class. By rejecting the concept of class...... altogether, sociological theory runs the risk of loosing the capacity for analysing stratification and vertical differentiation of power and freedom, which in late modernity seem to be a of continuing importance. Hence, I argue that although class analysis faces a number of serious challenges, it is possible...... to reinvent class analysis. The sociology of Pierre Bourdieu in many ways introduces an appropriate paradigm, and the paper therefore critically discusses Bourdieu's concept of class. Since the "Bourdieuan" class concept is primarily epistemological, i.e. a research strategy more than a theory, empirical...

  18. Trump Voters and the White Working Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen L. Morgan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the claim that white working-class voters were a crucial block of support for Trump in the 2016 presidential election, this article offers two sets of results. First, self-reports of presidential votes in 2012 and 2016 from the American National Election Studies show that Obama-to-Trump voters and 2012 eligible nonvoters composed a substantial share of Trump’s 2016 voters and were disproportionately likely to be members of the white working class. Second, when county vote tallies in 2012 and 2016 are merged with the public-use microdata samples of the 2012-to-2016 American Community Surveys, areal variations across 1,142 geographic units that sensibly partition the United States show that Trump’s gains in 2016 above Romney’s performance in 2012 are strongly related to the proportion of the voting population in each area that was white and working class. Taken together, these results support the claim that Trump’s appeal to the white working class was crucial for his victory.

  19. Effective conductivity, dielectric constant, and diffusion coefficient of digitized composite media via first-passage-time equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torquato, S.; Kim, I.C.; Cule, D.

    1999-01-01

    We generalize the Brownian motion simulation method of Kim and Torquato [J. Appl. Phys. 68, 3892 (1990)] to compute the effective conductivity, dielectric constant and diffusion coefficient of digitized composite media. This is accomplished by first generalizing the first-passage-time equations to treat first-passage regions of arbitrary shape. We then develop the appropriate first-passage-time equations for digitized media: first-passage squares in two dimensions and first-passage cubes in three dimensions. A severe test case to prove the accuracy of the method is the two-phase periodic checkerboard in which conduction, for sufficiently large phase contrasts, is dominated by corners that join two conducting-phase pixels. Conventional numerical techniques (such as finite differences or elements) do not accurately capture the local fields here for reasonable grid resolution and hence lead to inaccurate estimates of the effective conductivity. By contrast, we show that our algorithm yields accurate estimates of the effective conductivity of the periodic checkerboard for widely different phase conductivities. Finally, we illustrate our method by computing the effective conductivity of the random checkerboard for a wide range of volume fractions and several phase contrast ratios. These results always lie within rigorous four-point bounds on the effective conductivity. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  20. 42 CFR 416.185 - Process for establishing a new class of new technology IOLs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Process for establishing a new class of new technology IOLs. (a) Announcement of deadline for requests for... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Process for establishing a new class of new technology IOLs. 416.185 Section 416.185 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT...

  1. Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout Habitat/Passage Improvement Project, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, Sheryl

    2004-01-01

    The construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams completely and irrevocably blocked anadromous fish migrations to the Upper Columbia River. Historically this area hosted vast numbers of salmon returning to their natal waters to reproduce and die. For the native peoples of the region, salmon and steelhead were a principle food source, providing physical nourishment and spiritual sustenance, and contributing to the religious practices and the cultural basis of tribal communities. The decaying remains of spawned-out salmon carcasses contributed untold amounts of nutrients into the aquatic, aerial, and terrestrial ecosystems of tributary habitats in the upper basin. Near the present site of Kettle Falls, Washington, the second largest Indian fishery in the state existed for thousands of years. Returning salmon were caught in nets and baskets or speared on their migration to the headwater of the Columbia River in British Columbia. Catch estimates at Kettle Falls range from 600,000 in 1940 to two (2) million around the turn of the century (UCUT, Report No.2). The loss of anadromous fish limited the opportunities for fisheries management and enhancement exclusively to those actions addressed to resident fish. The Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout Habitat/Passage Improvement Project is a mitigation project intended to enhance resident fish populations and to partially mitigate for anadromous fish losses caused by hydropower system impacts. This substitution of resident fish for anadromous fish losses is considered in-place and out-of-kind mitigation. Upstream migration and passage barriers limit the amount of spawning and rearing habitat that might otherwise be utilized by rainbow trout. The results of even limited stream surveys and habitat inventories indicated that a potential for increased natural production exists. However, the lack of any comprehensive enhancement measures prompted the Upper Columbia United Tribes Fisheries Center (UCUT), Colville Confederated

  2. Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout Habitat/Passage Improvement Project, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, Sheryl

    2003-01-01

    The construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams completely and irrevocably blocked anadromous fish migrations to the Upper Columbia River. Historically this area hosted vast numbers of salmon returning to their natal waters to reproduce and die. For the native peoples of the region, salmon and steelhead were a principle food source, providing physical nourishment and spiritual sustenance, and contributing to the religious practices and the cultural basis of tribal communities. The decaying remains of spawned-out salmon carcasses contributed untold amounts of nutrients into the aquatic, aerial, and terrestrial ecosystems of tributary habitats in the upper basin. Near the present site of Kettle Falls, Washington, the second largest Indian fishery in the state existed for thousands of years. Returning salmon were caught in nets and baskets or speared on their migration to the headwater of the Columbia River in British Columbia. Catch estimates at Kettle Falls range from 600,000 in 1940 to two (2) million around the turn of the century (UCUT, Report No.2). The loss of anadromous fish limited the opportunities for fisheries management and enhancement exclusively to those actions addressed to resident fish. The Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout Habitat/Passage Improvement Project is a mitigation project intended to enhance resident fish populations and to partially mitigate for anadromous fish losses caused by hydropower system impacts. This substitution of resident fish for anadromous fish losses is considered in-place and out-of-kind mitigation. Upstream migration and passage barriers limit the amount of spawning and rearing habitat that might otherwise be utilized by rainbow trout. The results of even limited stream surveys and habitat inventories indicated that a potential for increased natural production exists. However, the lack of any comprehensive enhancement measures prompted the Upper Columbia United Tribes Fisheries Center (UCUT), Colville Confederated

  3. Evaluation of Fish Passage Sites in the Walla Walla River Basin, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamness, Mickie A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2008-08-29

    In 2008, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated the Hofer Dam fish screen and provided technical assistance at two other fish passage sites as requested by the Bonneville Power Administration, the Walla Walla Watershed Council, or the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation. Evaluation of new sites such as Hofer Dam focuses on their design, construction, operation, and maintenance to determine if they effectively provide juvenile salmonids with safe passage through irrigation diversions. There were two requests for technical assistance in 2008. In the first, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation requested an evaluation of the Nursery Bridge fish screens associated with the fish ladder on the east side of the Walla Walla River. One set of brushes that clean the screens was broken for an extended period. Underwater videography and water velocity measurements were used to determine there were no potential adverse effects on juvenile salmonids when the west set of screens was clean enough to pass water normally. A second request, received from the National Marine Fisheries Service and the Walla Walla Watershed Council, asked for evaluation of water velocities through relatively new head gates above and adjacent to the Eastside Ditch fish screens on the Walla Walla River. Water moving through the head gates and not taken for irrigation is diverted to provide water for the Nursery Bridge fish ladder on the east side of the river. Elevations used in the design of the head gates were incorrect, causing excessive flow through the head gates that closely approached or exceeded the maximum swimming burst speed of juvenile salmonids. Hofer Dam was evaluated in June 2008. PNNL researchers found that conditions at Hofer Dam will not cause impingement or entrainment of juvenile salmonids but may provide habitat for predators and lack strong sweeping flows to encourage juvenile salmonid passage downstream. Further evaluation of

  4. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage at The Dalles Dam in 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Hanks, Michael E.; Khan, Fenton; Cook, Chris B.; Hedgepeth, J; Mueller, Robert P.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Sargeant, Susan L.; Serkowski, John A.; Skalski, John R.

    2005-06-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District engaged the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate juvenile salmon passage at The Dalles Dam in 2004 to inform decisions about long-term measures and operations to enhance sluiceway and spill passage and reduce turbine passage to improve smolt survival at the dam. PNNL used fixed-location hydroacoustic sampling across the entire project, especially at the sluiceway and spillway, using multiple split-beam transducers at selected locations. At the sluiceway nearfield, we used an acoustic camera to track fish. The fish data were interpreted and integrated with hydraulic data from a CFD model and in-field ADCP measurements. Two sluiceway operations were compared: West only (SL 1) vs. West+East (SL 1 + SL 18). Based on our findings, we concluded that The Dalles Dam sluiceway has the potential to be highly efficient and effective at passing juvenile salmonids. This potential could be tapped with hydraulic and entrance enhancements to the sluiceway. We recommended the following: (1) six rather than three sluice gates should be opened to take advantage of the maximum hydraulic capacity of the sluiceway. (2) The turbine units below open sluice gates should be operated as a standard fish operations procedure. (3) In 2005, the Corps and fisheries agencies should consider operating sluice gates in one or more of the following combinations of six gates: (a) SL 1-1, 1-2, 1-3 and SL 18-1, 18-2, 18-3 (repeat 2004 operation), (b) SL 1-1, 1-2, 1-3 and SL 11-1, 11-2, 11-3, or (c) SL 1-1, 1-2, 1-3 and SL 2-1, 2-2, 2-3. The following elements for surface flow bypasses which should be considered during design of any sluiceway enhancements at The Dalles Dam: (1) form an extensive surface flow bypass flow net (surface bypass discharge greater than {approx}7% of total project discharge), (2) create a gradual increase in water velocity approaching the surface flow bypass (ideally, acceleration < 1 m/s/m), (3) make water

  5. Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout : Habitat/Passage Improvement Project Annual Report 2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sear, Sheri

    2001-02-01

    Lake Franklin D. Roosevelt was created with the completion of the Grand Coulee Dam in 1942. The lake stretches 151 miles up-stream to the International border between the United States and Canada at the 49th parallel. Increased recreational use, subsistence and sport fishing has resulted in intense interest and possible exploitation of the resources within the lake. Previous studies of the lake and its fishery have been limited. Early studies indicate that natural reproduction within the lake and tributaries are not sufficient to support a rainbow trout (Onchoryhnchus mykiss) fishery (Scholz et. al., 1988). These studies indicate that the rainbow trout population may be limited by lack of suitable habitat for spawning and rearing (Scholz et. al., 1988). The initial phase of this project (Phase I, baseline data collection- 1990-91) was directed at the assessment of limiting factors such as quality and quantity of available spawning gravel, identification of passage barriers, and assessment of other limiting factors. Population estimates were conducted using the Seber/LeCren removal/depletion method. After the initial assessment of stream parameters, several streams were selected for habitat/passage improvement projects (Phase II, implementation-1992-96). At the completion of project habitat improvements, the final phase (Phase III, monitoring) began. This phase will assess changes and gauge the success achieved through the improvements. The objective of the project is to correct passage barriers and improve habitat conditions of selected tributaries to Lake Roosevelt for adfluvial rainbow trout that utilize tributary streams for spawning and rearing. Streams with restorable habitats were selected for improvements. Completion of improvement efforts should increase the adfluvial rainbow trout contribution to the resident fishery in Lake Roosevelt. Three co-operating agencies, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (CCT), the Spokane Tribe of Indians (STI

  6. Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout : Habitat/Passage Improvement Project Annual Report 1999.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Charles D.

    2000-02-01

    Lake Franklin D. Roosevelt was created with the completion of the Grand Coulee Dam in 1942. The lake stretches 151 miles up-stream to the International border between the United States and Canada at the 49th parallel. Increased recreational use, subsistence and sport fishing has resulted in intense interest and possible exploitation of the resources within the lake. Previous studies of the lake and its fishery have been limited. Early studies indicate that natural reproduction within the lake and tributaries are not sufficient to support a rainbow trout (Onchoryhnchus mykiss) fishery (Scholz et. al., 1988). These studies indicate that the rainbow trout population may be limited by lack of suitable habitat for spawning and rearing (Scholz et. al., 1988). The initial phase of this project (Phase I, baseline data collection- 1990-91) was directed at the assessment of limiting factors such as quality and quantity of available spawning gravel, identification of passage barriers, and assessment of other limiting factors. Population estimates were conducted using the Seber/LeCren removal/depletion method. After the initial assessment of stream parameters, several streams were selected for habitat/passage improvement projects (Phase II, implementation-1992-96). At the completion of project habitat improvements, the final phase (Phase III, monitoring) began. This phase will assess changes and gauge the success achieved through the improvements. The objective of the project is to correct passage barriers and improve habitat conditions of selected tributaries to Lake Roosevelt for adfluvial rainbow trout that utilize tributary streams for spawning and rearing. Streams with restorable habitats were selected for improvements. Completion of improvement efforts should increase the adfluvial rainbow trout contribution to the resident fishery in Lake Roosevelt. Three co-operating agencies, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (CCT), the Spokane Tribe of Indians (STI

  7. Short communication: Comparison of 3 solid digesta passage markers in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C; Hristov, A N

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the usefulness of acid-detergent fiber-bound (15)N [acid detergent insoluble (ADI)-(15)N] as a solid digesta passage marker in dairy cows compared with chromium (Cr) and ytterbium (Yb) (as labeled fiber or forage, respectively). Intrinsically (ADI-(15)N) or extrinsically (Cr, Yb) labeled alfalfa hay was pulse-dosed intraruminally to 7 lactating dairy cows. Following marker administration, spot fecal samples were collected for up to 72 h for marker analyses. Urine and milk samples were also collected and analyzed for Yb and Cr. Fecal marker excretion data were processed using 2-compartment mathematical age-dependent/age-independent (Gn→G1) models. The rate of passage of the marker in the first, age-dependent compartment tended to be slower for Yb compared with Cr and ADI-(15)N, which resulted in a trend for longer mean retention time (MRT) in this compartment when Yb was used as a marker (19.0 h) compared with Cr and ADI-(15)N (14.5 and 13.9h, respectively). The rate constant of marker disappearance for the second or age-independent compartment tended to be greater for Yb compared with Cr and ADI-(15)N, which led to a shorter MRT of Yb in this compartment (15.6) versus ADI-(15)N (32.1) and Cr (24.8h). The cumulative MRT was greater for ADI-(15)N versus Cr and Yb (46.0, 39.3, and 34.4h, respectively). Total MRT of marker tended to be greater for ADI-(15)N than for Yb (46.6 vs. 36.6h, respectively). Urine and milk analyses data suggested no measurable losses of Yb along the digestive tract, but about 0.79% of Cr dosed intraruminally was secreted or excreted in milk and urine in the 48-h period following marker administration. Collectively, this study confirmed previous observations that ADI-(15)N can be used reliably as a solid digesta passage marker for ruminants, producing pre-duodenal and total-tract retention times similar to that of Cr-labeled fiber. Retention time in the age-independent compartment was underestimated when Yb was used as

  8. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage at The Dalles Dam in 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Hanks, Michael E.; Khan, Fenton; Cook, Chris B.; Hedgepeth, J.; Mueller, Robert P.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Sargeant, Susan L.; Serkowski, John A.; Skalski, John R.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District engaged the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate juvenile salmon passage at The Dalles Dam in 2004 to inform decisions about long-term measures and operations to enhance sluiceway and spill passage and reduce turbine passage to improve smolt survival at the dam. PNNL used fixed-location hydroacoustic sampling across the entire project, especially at the sluiceway and spillway, using multiple split-beam transducers at selected locations. At the sluiceway nearfield, we used an acoustic camera to track fish. The fish data were interpreted and integrated with hydraulic data from a CFD model and in-field ADCP measurements. Two sluiceway operations were compared: West only (SL 1) vs. West+East (SL 1 + SL 18). Based on our findings, we concluded that The Dalles Dam sluiceway has the potential to be highly efficient and effective at passing juvenile salmonids. This potential could be tapped with hydraulic and entrance enhancements to the sluiceway. We recommended the following: (1) six rather than three sluice gates should be opened to take advantage of the maximum hydraulic capacity of the sluiceway. (2) The turbine units below open sluice gates should be operated as a standard fish operations procedure. (3) In 2005, the Corps and fisheries agencies should consider operating sluice gates in one or more of the following combinations of six gates: (a) SL 1-1, 1-2, 1-3 and SL 18-1, 18-2, 18-3 (repeat 2004 operation), (b) SL 1-1, 1-2, 1-3 and SL 11-1, 11-2, 11-3, or (c) SL 1-1, 1-2, 1-3 and SL 2-1, 2-2, 2-3. The following elements for surface flow bypasses which should be considered during design of any sluiceway enhancements at The Dalles Dam: (1) form an extensive surface flow bypass flow net (surface bypass discharge greater than ∼7% of total project discharge), (2) create a gradual increase in water velocity approaching the surface flow bypass (ideally, acceleration 3 m/s) to entrain the subject juvenile

  9. Exploring social class: voices of inter-class couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Teresa; Melendez-Rhodes, Tatiana; Althusius, Erin; Hergic, Sara; Sleeman, Gillian; Ton, Nicky Kieu My; Zimpfer-Bak, A J

    2013-01-01

    Social class is not often discussed or examined in-depth in couple and family therapy research and literature even though social class shapes familial relationships and is considered an important variable in marital satisfaction. In this qualitative study, we explored the perceptions of eight couples who made lasting commitments across class lines by asking them about the impact of their social class backgrounds on their relationships. Three categories of themes emerged including: (a) differences and similarities in values and attitudes toward education, work, money, and class awareness/classism, (b) relationship issues involving families of origin, friends, and class-based couple conflict, and (c) differences in economic resources, social capital and privileges/opportunities. Implications for assessment and treatment of couples are included. © 2012 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  10. Public lighting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The function of public lighting and the relationship between public lighting and accidents are considered briefly as aspects of effective countermeasures. Research needs and recent developments in installation and operational described. Public lighting is an efficient accident countermeasure, but

  11. Os rituais de passagem segundo adolescentes Los rituales de pasaje según adolescentes Passage rituals according to adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto da Silva Brêtas

    2008-01-01

    adolescents' impressions about what could represent a passage ritual. METHODS: This descriptive study was performed with 751 adolescents, of both genders, with ages between 12 and 20 years, who attended three public primary and secondary level schools in the Santo Eduardo region in the municipality of Embu, Sao Paulo state. RESULTS: After the content analysis, the following categories were revealed: physical changes; psychological changes (subcategories: responsibility, experiences, conflicts; social changes (subcategories: social identity, social body, interrelationships; sexual behavior (subcategories: sexual interest; sexual intercourse; traumatic factors (subcategories: feeling of lost, mourning for the lost childhood; independence. CONCLUSION: The passage rituals are directly related to the body changes, a product of adolescence, which are marking and significant occurrences in one's life.

  12. The Interactive Class of SFL for seniors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia E. Pérez-Naranjo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this article is to reflect on the potential of the interactive class for E/LE (Spanish as Foreign Language learning by older adults, inserted in the courses offered by the Universidad de Oriente. Older people request the service mainly as an instrumental need: to learn the language in order to cover basic communication needs in personal, educational and public areas. Teaching programs are designed from the guidelines of the Common European Framework of Reference for Language, the Curricular Plan of Cervantes Institute and the contributions of Cuban pedagogy. Interactive class is assumed for the prospects it offered to enhance learning, being a developer process through which cooperation and empathy is encouraged, participation is energized and the tension is reduced when errors take place. This purpose is achieved gradually and patiently, attending to the psychosocial characteristics of the person concerned and the psychopedagogical intervention.

  13. A STUDY ON STUDENTS’ DIRECT LISTENING STRATEGIES IN COMPREHENDING A PASSAGE AT THE SECOND GRADE STUDENTS OF SMAN OLAHRAGA RIAU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurniawan Kurniawan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to identify the students’ directlistening strategies in comprehending a passage at the second grade students ofSMAN Olahraga Riau. The design of this research was survey attitudes andpractices. Sample of the research was 50 students at the second grade students ofSMAN Olahraga Riau. The instrument that was used was questionnaire. Thequestionnaire was design the students’ direct listening. The questionnaire wasanalyzed by using descriptive statistics and Likert scale. The result of analyzingdata in terms of memory strategy, the students’ mean score was 3.99 in moderatelevel. In terms of cognitive strategy, the students’ mean score was 3.74 inmoderate level, while in terms of compensation strategy, the students had meanscore 3.86 in moderate level. In conclusion, the students were interested usingmemory strategy as the main direct strategy in comprehending a passage at thesecond grade students of SMAN Olahraga Riau.Keywords : Direct Listening Strategy, Comprehension, and Passage

  14. Prediction of the relationship between flow of tubular pump and differential pressure within inlet passage with CFD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Y H; Cheng, B

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of flow of tubular pump, in which the differential pressure of two measuring points within inlet passage is replaced by the mean differential pressure of two specified section of inlet passage to calibrate the relationship between flow and differential pressure, is developed. The numerical simulation on differential pressure of two measuring points within inlet passage, which is started before the pump set test, is carried out with the standard k-ε turbulence model and SIMPLEC algorithm. The comparison of the relationships between flow and differential pressure fitted respectively with the data from numerical simulation and pump set test shows that the calibration accuracy about two different sources of data is nearly same. The conclusion can be drawn that the calibration of the relationship between flow and differential pressure with CFD is feasible. The CFD-based flow measurement method, as a more simple and convenient way, can be applied in tubular pumps.

  15. Analysis of cosmic ray atmosphere passage in the light of scaling violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlykin, A.D.; Kuzina, N.P.

    1981-01-01

    The multigroup method has been used to analyze the passage of cosmic rays through the Earth atmosphere. Initial spectra of Nikolsky, Rayan and Grigorov are used in calculations. Differential energy spectra of electrons, photons on different depths in the atmosphere and hadrons at the mountain and sea level for the energy range of 10 11 -10 14 eV, are presented. The comparison of calculations with experiments shows that the cross section of the interaction of cosmic rays with the atmosphere rises in the manner of ln 2 E depending on energy. Cross section growth is largely conditioned by processes with high inelasticity. Interaction multiplicity grows in the manner of Esup(1/4). Scaling in the fragmentation range of inclusion spectra of secondary particles is violated [ru

  16. Improved efficiency of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in photoassociation of a Bose-Einstein condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackie, Matt; Suominen, Kalle-Antti; Haerkoenen, Kari; Collin, Anssi; Javanainen, Juha

    2004-01-01

    We theoretically examine Raman photoassociation of a Bose-Einstein condensate, revisiting stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP). Due to collisional mean-field shifts, efficient molecular conversion requires strong coupling and low density, either of which can bring about rogue photodissociation to noncondensate modes. We demonstrate explicitly that rogue transitions are negligible for low excited-state fractions and photodissociation that is slower than the STIRAP time scale. Moreover, we derive a reduced-parameter model of collisions, and thereby find that a gain in the molecular conversion efficiency can be obtained by adjusting the atom-atom scattering length with off-resonant magnetoassociation. This gain saturates when the atom-atom scattering length is tuned to a specific fraction of either the molecule-molecule or atom-molecule scattering length. We conclude that a fully optimized STIRAP scheme may offer the best chance for achieving coherent conversion from an atomic to a molecular condensate with photoassociation

  17. Change of digesta passage rate in dairy cows after different acute stress situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bertoni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Six dairy cows received 3 treatments after morning meal, in a double Latin square design. Treatments were ACTH challenge (SYN, hoof trimming (TRIM and saline (CTR. Measurements included: plasma cortisol and metabolic profile during the 24 h after treatments; the rate of digesta passage, faecal dry matter and pH. Both acute stress situations vs CTR caused a rapid and similar rise in plasma cortisol (P<0.001, while plasma glucose increased only in response to TRIM. Plasma concentrations of urea and BHB were increased for several hours after both stress situations. Most importantly, the transit time of digesta was reduced with SYN and TRIM (P<0.05. Our data demonstrate a reduced forestomach motility during acute stress and confirm a possible negative linkage between stress and gut functions, perhaps independent of diet composition. The mechanism seems linked to increased ACTH or cortisol rather than corticotrophin-releasing factor.

  18. Optimum conditions for producing Cs2 molecular condensates by stimulated Raman adiabatic passage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Zhifang; Li Weidong; Wang Lirong; Xiao Liantuan; Jia Suotang

    2009-01-01

    The optimum conditions for producing Cs 2 molecular condensates from Cs atomic condensates with high transfer efficiency by stimulated Raman adiabatic passage are presented. Under the extended 'two-photon' resonance condition, including the two-photon process, the mean-field correction, and the tunneling coupling between two upper excited molecular levels, a high and stable conversion efficiency is realized. The high conversion efficiency could be achieved by following two methods under experimentally less demanding conditions (relatively small effective Rabi frequency for pump laser pulse). One is adjusting the detuning difference between two laser pulses for same effective Rabi frequencies with up to 87.2% transfer efficiency. Another one is adjusting the effective Rabi frequency, the detuning of dump laser for given effective Rabi frequency, and the detuning of pump laser with up to 80.7% transfer efficiency.

  19. Mean first-passage time of an asymmetric bistable system driven by colour-correlated noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiao-Yan; Xu Wei

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of every parameter (including p, q,r, λ,τ) on the mean first-passage time (MFPT) is investigated in an asymmetric bistable system driven by colour-correlated noise. The expression of MFPT has been obtained by applying the steepest-descent approximation. Numerical results show that (1) the intensity of multiplicative noise p and the intensity of additive noise q play different roles in the MFPT of the system, (2) suppression appears on the curve of the MFPT with small λ (e.g. λ< 0.5) but there is a peak on the curve of the MFPT when λ is big (e.g.λ> 0.5), and (3) with different values of r (e.g. r = 0.1, 0.5, 1.5), the effort of τ on the MFPT is diverse.

  20. Optimizing Hydro Power Turbines in Order to Secure the Passage of Fishes in Khuzestan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moona Mohammadi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays,it is important to consider environmental issues,as ecological problems and their severe effect intensify in Iran,particularly in Khuzestan province.The environmental effects of hydroelectric plants are highly regarded due to their significant impact on an extensive area.The lack of safe path for fish passing through the turbines is one of these damages. In order to deal with these challenges,researchers are trying to optimize hydro power turbines.In this optimization,old runners were replaced,while conditions of fish passing through the turbines and fish survival have been improved.Considering the existence of six hydroelectric power plants in Khuzestan province,it would be possible to conduct optimization or constructing studies with a fish-friendly approach for the safe passage of fishes to slightly reduce the extent of environmental damages.