WorldWideScience

Sample records for public cholesterol screening

  1. Cholesterol and public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRosa, J C

    1994-08-01

    Cholesterol lowering in both primary and secondary prevention has been clearly demonstrated to lower coronary morbidity and, in secondary prevention, to lower coronary mortality as well. Putative dangers of cholesterol lowering remain unproven. Population studies linking low cholesterol to noncoronary mortalities do not demonstrate cause-and-effect relations. In fact, based on current studies, the opposite is more likely to be the case. Neither gender nor age should automatically exclude persons from cholesterol screening. Drug intervention, however, should be used conservatively, particularly in young adults and the elderly. Drugs should be used only after diet and lifestyle interventions have failed. The evidence linking high blood cholesterol to coronary atherosclerosis and cholesterol lowering to its prevention is broad-based and definitive. Concerns about cholesterol lowering and spontaneously low cholesterols should be pursued but should not interfere with the implementation of current public policies to reduce the still heavy burden of atherosclerosis in Western society.

  2. Cholesterol Screening: A Practical Guide to Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingery, Paul M.

    1995-01-01

    Dry-chemistry cholesterol analysis has made screening feasible in a variety of settings. The article provides practical tips for the implementation of mass cholesterol screening using a portable dry-chemistry analyzer and discusses issues involved in conducting effective cholesterol screening programs from start to finish. (SM)

  3. Hypercholesterolemia: The Role of Schools in Cholesterol Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, James H.; Casler, Suzanne M.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors among children and adolescents, the pros and cons of cholesterol screening among youth, cholesterol assessments of at-risk youth, and the role of schools in cholesterol education and screening (focusing on comprehensive school health education and services). (SM)

  4. Public health aspects of serum cholesterol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Houterman (Saskia)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractIn the beginning of this century Anitschkow and De Langen started pioneering work concerning the relation between cholesterol and coronary heart disease. Both showed that there was a possible relation between cholesterol in the diet, blood cholesterol levels and atherosclerosis. It took

  5. Blood cholesterol : a public health perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuren, W.M.M.

    1995-01-01

    Changes in total cholesterol levels (TC) were studied using data from three epidemiological studies: about 30,000 men and women aged 37-43 were examined between 1974 and 1980 (CB Project), about 80,000 men aged 33-37 between 1981 and 1986 (RIFOH Project) and 42,000 men and women aged 20-59 from 1987

  6. Blood cholesterol, a public health perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuren, W.M.M.

    1995-01-01

    Changes in total cholesterol levels (TC) were studied using data from three epidemiological studies: about 30,000 men and women aged 37-43 were examined between 1974 and 1980 (CB Project), about 80,000 men aged 33-37 between 1981 and 1986 (RIFOH Project) and 42,000 men and women aged 20-59 from 1987

  7. Blood cholesterol screening in several environments using a portable, dry-chemistry analyzer and fingerstick blood samples. Lipid Research Clinics Cholesterol Screening Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, R H; Bachorik, P S; Roberts, K; Williams, O D; Gotto, A M

    1990-01-01

    A multicenter study of blood cholesterol screening was performed in several typical environments, such as community sites (shopping malls and a supermarket), health care sites, work sites, a blood bank and a school. Cholesterol was measured with a portable, dry-chemistry analyzer using capillary blood obtained by fingerstick. Data are reported from a total of 13,824 participants, spanning the entire age spectrum. Overall, 25% of screened subjects had blood cholesterol levels above the age-specific cutpoints used in the current study. Although in the aggregate this screening experience very closely approximates the expected level of referrals, the proportion of referred screened subjects differed significantly among the 5 types of screening environments and by gender. Follow-up telephone interviews indicated that 53% of referrals had initiated a physician contact. More than 75% of those who had seen a physician reported that the diagnosis of hypercholesterolemia had been confirmed, and almost 72% had been prescribed a diet. A large proportion of referred screened subjects reported having modified their diet, particularly when recommended to do so by a physician. This study has yielded encouraging evidence that physicians gave referred screened subjects appropriate initial advice for managing hypercholesterolemia. The new technology for blood cholesterol measurement evaluated in the current study has proven to be a feasible and reliable means for measuring blood cholesterol in typical screening settings.

  8. Naturally derived micelles for rapid in vitro screening of potential cholesterol-lowering bioactives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirana, Chandra; Rogers, Paul F; Bennett, Louise E; Abeywardena, Mahinda Y; Patten, Glen S

    2005-06-01

    A high plasma cholesterol level, especially low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, indicates increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Plasma cholesterol levels are influenced by diet and cholesterol biosynthesis, uptake, and secretion. Cholesterol uptake involves solubilization into complex phospholipid spherical bodies termed micelles that facilitate the transport of lipids through the gut brush border membrane into enterocytes. In vitro assays reported to date to determine potential cholesterol-lowering effects of various compounds require artificial micelle preparations that are elaborate and time-consuming to prepare. The aims of this study were to compare the efficacy of artificially prepared micelles with naturally derived micelles from pig's bile and to test their ability to assess potential inhibitors of cholesterol uptake. The suitability of pig's bile-derived micelles was tested both at the level of the micelle and at cellular uptake using cultured Caco-2 cells. Known cholesterol uptake inhibitors at the micelle (green tea catechins) and at the Caco-2 cell (beta-lactoglobulin-derived peptide, IIAEK) were used as reference inhibitory compounds. It was concluded that pig's bile was a rapid, reproducible, convenient, and cost-effective source of micelles for cholesterol micelle solubility and cellular uptake assay systems and is suitable for screening purposes focused on identifying potential cholesterol-lowering agents.

  9. Cholesterol lowering, low cholesterol, and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRosa, J C

    1993-10-01

    Cholesterol lowering in both primary and secondary prevention has been clearly demonstrated to lower coronary morbidity and, in secondary prevention, to lower coronary mortality as well. Putative dangers of cholesterol lowering remain unproven. Population studies linking low cholesterol to noncoronary mortalities do not demonstrate cause-and-effect relations. In fact, based on current studies, the opposite is more likely to be the case. Neither gender nor age should automatically exclude persons from cholesterol screening. Drug intervention, however, should be used conservatively, particularly in young adults and the elderly. Drugs should be used only after diet and lifestyle interventions have failed. The evidence linking high blood cholesterol to coronary atherosclerosis and cholesterol lowering to its prevention is broad-based and definitive. Concerns about cholesterol lowering and spontaneously low cholesterols should be pursued but should not interfere with the implementation of current public policies to reduce the still heavy burden of atherosclerosis in Western society.

  10. A genome-wide RNAi screen identifies regulators of cholesterol-modified hedgehog secretion in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reid Aikin

    Full Text Available Hedgehog (Hh proteins are secreted molecules that function as organizers in animal development. In addition to being palmitoylated, Hh is the only metazoan protein known to possess a covalently-linked cholesterol moiety. The absence of either modification severely disrupts the organization of numerous tissues during development. It is currently not known how lipid-modified Hh is secreted and released from producing cells. We have performed a genome-wide RNAi screen in Drosophila melanogaster cells to identify regulators of Hh secretion. We found that cholesterol-modified Hh secretion is strongly dependent on coat protein complex I (COPI but not COPII vesicles, suggesting that cholesterol modification alters the movement of Hh through the early secretory pathway. We provide evidence that both proteolysis and cholesterol modification are necessary for the efficient trafficking of Hh through the ER and Golgi. Finally, we identified several putative regulators of protein secretion and demonstrate a role for some of these genes in Hh and Wingless (Wg morphogen secretion in vivo. These data open new perspectives for studying how morphogen secretion is regulated, as well as provide insight into regulation of lipid-modified protein secretion.

  11. Screening and overdiagnosis : public health implications

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Overdiagnosis is the diagnosis of an abnormality that bears no substantial health hazard and no benefit for patients to be aware of. Resulting mainly from the use of increasingly sensitive screening and diagnostic tests, as well as broadened definitions of conditions requiring an intervention, overdiagnosis is a growing but still largely misunderstood public health issue. Fear of missing a diagnosis or of litigation, financial incentives or patient's need of reassurance are further causes ...

  12. [Is there a relationship between cholesterol reduction, low levels of cholesterol and mortality?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRosa, J C

    1995-01-01

    Cholesterol lowering in both primary and secondary prevention has been clearly demonstrated to lower coronary morbidity and, in secondary prevention, to lower coronary mortality as well. Putative dangers of cholesterol lowering remain unproven. Population studies linking low cholesterol to noncoronary mortalities do not demonstrate cause-and-effect relations. In fact, based on current studies, the opposite is more likely to be the case. Neither gender nor age should automatically exclude persons from cholesterol screening. Drug intervention, however, should be used conservatively, particularly in young adults and the elderly. Drugs should be used only after diet and lifestyle interventions have failed. The evidence linking high blood cholesterol to coronary atherosclerosis and cholesterol lowering to its prevention is broad-based and definitive. Concerns about cholesterol lowering and spontaneously low cholesterols should be pursued but should not interfere with the implementation of current public policies to reduce the still heavy burden of atherosclerosis in Western society.

  13. Public Awareness of Colorectal Cancer Screening: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Interventions for Increasing Screening Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno Garcia, Antonio Z.; Hernandez Alvarez Buylla, Noemi; Nicolas-Perez, David; Quintero, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer ranks as one of the most incidental and death malignancies worldwide. Colorectal cancer screening has proven its benefit in terms of incidence and mortality reduction in randomized controlled trials. In fact, it has been recommended by medical organizations either in average-risk or family-risk populations. Success of a screening campaign highly depends on how compliant the target population is. Several factors influence colorectal cancer screening uptake including sociodemographics, provider and healthcare system factors, and psychosocial factors. Awareness of the target population of colorectal cancer and screening is crucial in order to increase screening participation rates. Knowledge about this disease and its prevention has been used across studies as a measurement of public awareness. Some studies found a positive relationship between knowledge about colorectal cancer, risk perception, and attitudes (perceived benefits and barriers against screening) and willingness to participate in a colorectal cancer screening campaign. The mentioned factors are modifiable and therefore susceptible of intervention. In fact, interventional studies focused on average-risk population have tried to increase colorectal cancer screening uptake by improving public knowledge and modifying attitudes. In the present paper, we reviewed the factors impacting adherence to colorectal cancer screening and interventions targeting participants for increasing screening uptake. PMID:24729896

  14. Standards for Scoliosis Screening in California Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This publication is intended as a reference for school-level personnel, such as nurses, selected teachers, and administrators, on the procedures for initiating and maintaining a scoliosis screening program for girls in grade seven and boys in grade eight. It provides school personnel with a document that contains standards for school screening…

  15. The breast screening programme and misinforming the public

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl

    2011-01-01

    The information provided to the public by the NHS Breast Screening Programme has been criticized for lack of balance, omission of information on harms and substantially exaggerated estimates of benefit. These shortcomings have been particularly evident in the various invitation leaflets for breas...

  16. Private and public eugenics: genetic and screening in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiologists and geneticists claim that genetics has an increasing role to play in public health policies and programs in the future. Within this perspective, genetic testing and screening are instrumental in avoiding the birth of children with serious, costly or untreatable disorders. This paper

  17. How to Get Your Cholesterol Tested

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More How To Get Your Cholesterol Tested Updated:Apr 3,2017 Cholesterol plays a ... factors for heart disease and stroke . How is cholesterol tested? A cholesterol screening measures your level of ...

  18. Langmuir-Blodgett films of cholesterol oxidase and S-layer proteins onto screen-printed electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Juliana Aguilar; Ferraz, Helen Conceição; Alves, Tito Lívio Moitinho

    2014-04-01

    Stable Langmuir monolayers of cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) and S-layer proteins were produced at the water-air interface and subsequently transferred onto the surface of screen-printed carbon electrodes by the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. The modified electrode surface was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). AFM indicated the presence of deposited layers, showing reduction of surface roughness (RMS and Rt parameters). Significant changes in the shape of CVs were observed in modified electrodes compared to bare electrodes. The anodic peaks could be observed in cyclic voltammograms (CV), at a scan rate equal to 25 mV s-1, using electrodes with Z-type LB deposition. The presence of S-layer proteins in the ChOx LB film increases the oxidation peak intensity and reduces the oxidation potential. Altogether, these results demonstrate the feasibility of producing a cholesterol biosensor based on the immobilization of ChOx and S-layer proteins by LB technique.

  19. Rapid Diagnosis of 83 Patients with Niemann Pick Type C Disease and Related Cholesterol Transport Disorders by Cholestantriol Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Reunert

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Niemann Pick type C (NP-C is a rare neurodegenerative disorder caused by an impairment of intracellular lipid transport. Due to the heterogeneous clinical phenotype and the lack of a reliable blood test, diagnosis and therapy are often delayed for years. In the cell, accumulating cholesterol leads to increased formation of oxysterols that can be used as a powerful screening parameter for NP-C. In a large scale study, we evaluated the oxysterol cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol (c-triol as potential biomarker for a rapid diagnosis of NP-C. Using GC/MS, c-triol has been analyzed in 1902 plasma samples of patients with the suspicion for NP-C. Diagnosis in patients with elevated oxysterols was confirmed by genetic analysis. 71 new NP-C patients (69 NP-C1 and two NP-C2 and 12 Niemann Pick type A/B patients were identified. 24 new mutations in NPC1, one new mutation in NPC2 and three new mutations in the SMPD1 gene were found. Cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol was elevated in Niemann Pick type C1, type C2, type A/B and in CESD disease. No other study has ever identified so many NP-C patients, proving that c-triol is a rapid and reliable biomarker to detect patients with NP-C disease and related cholesterol transport disorders. It should replace the filipin test as the first-line diagnostic assay.

  20. Triglycerides-to-HDL cholesterol ratio as screening tool for impaired glucose tolerance in obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manco, Melania; Grugni, Graziano; Di Pietro, Mario; Balsamo, Antonio; Di Candia, Stefania; Morino, Giuseppe Stefano; Franzese, Adriana; Di Bonito, Procolo; Maffeis, Claudio; Valerio, Giuliana

    2016-06-01

    To identify metabolic phenotypes at increased risk of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in Italian overweight/obese children (n = 148, age 5-10 years) and adolescents (n = 531, age 10-17.9 year). Phenotypes were defined as follows: obesity by the 95th cut-points of the Center for Disease Control body mass index reference standards, impaired fasting glucose (fasting plasma glucose ≥100 mg/dl), high circulating triglycerides (TG), TG/HDL cholesterol ≥2.2, waist-to-height ratio (WTHR) >0.6, and combination of the latter with high TG or TG/HDL cholesterol ≥2.2. In the 148 obese children, TG/HDL-C ≥ 2.2 (OR 20.19; 95 % CI 2.50-163.28, p = 0.005) and the combination of TG/HDL-C ≥ 2.2 and WTHR > 0.60 (OR 14.97; 95 % CI 2.18-102.76, p = 0.006) were significantly associated with IGT. In the 531 adolescents, TG/HDL-C ≥ 2.2 (OR 1.991; 95 % CI 1.243-3.191, p = 0.004) and the combination with WTHR > 0.60 (OR 2.24; 95 % CI 1.29-3.87, p = 0.004) were associated with significantly increased risk of IGT. In the whole sample, having high TG levels according to the NIH National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute Expert Panel was not associated with an increased risk of presenting IGT. TG/HDL-C ratio can be useful, particularly in children, to identify obese young patients at risk of IGT. Its accuracy as screening tool in a general population needs to be verified. The combination of TG/HDL-C ratio and WTHR > 0.6 did not improve prediction. Having high TG according to the NIH definition was not associated with increased risk of developing IGT.

  1. Cholesterol Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Cholesterol Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Blood Cholesterol Formal name: Total Cholesterol Related tests: HDL Cholesterol , ...

  2. What's Cholesterol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray What's Cholesterol? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Cholesterol? Print A A ... thing for food to be low in it? Cholesterol and Your Body Cholesterol (say: kuh-LES-tuh- ...

  3. What's Cholesterol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? What's Cholesterol? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Cholesterol? A A A ... thing for food to be low in it? Cholesterol and Your Body Cholesterol (say: kuh-LES-tuh- ...

  4. 77 FR 42323 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment; Screening and Eviction for Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Screening and Eviction for Drug Abuse and Other... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment; Screening and Eviction for Drug Abuse and Other Criminal Activity AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Public...

  5. About Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More About Cholesterol Updated:Apr 3,2017 It may surprise you ... our bodies to keep us healthy. What is cholesterol and where does it come from? Cholesterol is ...

  6. Cholesterol Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/cholesterollevels.html Cholesterol Levels To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Cholesterol Test? Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance ...

  7. Low cholesterol and violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mufti, R M; Balon, R; Arfken, C L

    1998-02-01

    The association between violent behavior and low serum total cholesterol levels was examined in a psychiatric inpatient population with diverse diagnoses. The study used a case-control design to compare the cholesterol levels of patients in a long-term psychiatric hospital who had a history of seclusion or restraints (N = 20) and those who did not (N = 20). A low cholesterol level was defined as less than 180 mg/dL. A strong association was found between low cholesterol levels and violent behavior (odds ratio = 15.49), an association that was not due to age, race, sex, or diagnosis. The finding was consistent whether mean levels or dichotomized levels of cholesterol were examined. Physical health, cholesterol-lowering medication, current alcohol use, or unusual diets could not explain the results. However, the raw frequency of episodes of seclusion or restraint as an indicator of the frequency of violent behavior was not associated with cholesterol level. Dichotomizing cholesterol levels at 180 mg/dL yielded high sensitivity (90 percent) for predicting violent behavior but at the cost of low specificity (65 percent). The results support the hypothesis that an association exists between low cholesterol and violent behavior among psychiatric patients but argue against using cholesterol level as a screening tool for predicting violent behavior.

  8. An off-site screening process for the public in radiation emergencies and disasters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Seok Won; Ho, Ha Wi; Jin, Young Woo [National Radiation Emergency Medical Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    A contamination screening process for the local population in radiation emergencies is discussed. We present an overview of the relevant Korean governmental regulations that underpin the development of an effective response system. Moreover, case studies of foreign countries responding to mass casualties are presented, and indicate that responses should be able to handle a large demand for contamination screening of the local public as well as screening of the immediate victims of the incident. We propose operating procedures for an off-site contamination screening post operated by the local government for members of the public who have not been directly harmed in the accident. In order to devise screening categories, sorting strategies assessing contamination and exposure are discussed, as well as a psychological response system. This study will lead to the effective operation of contamination screening clinics if an accident occurs. Furthermore, the role of contamination screening clinics in the overall context of the radiation emergency treatment system should be clearly established.

  9. The breast screening programme and misinforming the public

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl

    2011-01-01

    about breast screening has had any impact on the contents of the new 2010 leaflet and on the 2010 Annual Review. We conclude that spokespeople for the Programme have stuck to the beliefs about benefit that prevailed 25 years ago. Concerns about over-diagnosis have not been addressed either and official...

  10. Cholesterol (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholesterol is a soft, waxy substance that is present in all parts of the body including the ... and obtained from animal products in the diet. Cholesterol is manufactured in the liver and is needed ...

  11. A community pharmacy-based cardiovascular screening service: views of service users and the public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Julia; Krska, Janet; Mackridge, Adam

    2012-10-01

    To determine whether pharmacy-based cardiovascular disease (CVD) screening reached the desired population, the local population's awareness of pharmacy screening and the views of service users and the general public about CVD screening. Pharmacy staff, located in one English Primary Care Trust providing a CVD screening service, issued questionnaires to service users who had undergone screening. Face-to-face street surveys were conducted with members of the general public within the vicinity of each participating pharmacy. A total of 259 people were screened within the first 6 months of service provision, 97 of whom (37.4%) completed the evaluation questionnaire. In addition, 261 non-service users participated in street surveys. Most respondents among both service users and non-users had at least one risk factor for cardiovascular disease, including smoking and lack of exercise. Responses to statements regarding CVD screening showed a high level of agreement with the need for screening in both groups. However, significantly more service users (90.7%) agreed that a pharmacy was a good place for screening compared to the non-users (77.4%; P service users agreed that screening should be only carried out by doctors (10.3 compared to 25.3% of non-users; P service users 96 (99.7%) had a positive experience of the screening service, agreeing that they were given enough time and pharmacists made them feel at ease. Only 9% of non-users were aware of the pharmacy service and, although the majority (78.4%) were willing to be screened at a pharmacy, this was significantly lower among males than females (69.9 compared to 82.7%; P service and by addressing concerns about privacy and confidentiality in promotional activities. © 2012 The Authors. IJPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  12. LBVS: an online platform for ligand-based virtual screening using publicly accessible databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Minghao; Liu, Zhihong; Yan, Xin; Ding, Qianzhi; Gu, Qiong; Xu, Jun

    2014-11-01

    Abundant data on compound bioactivity and publicly accessible chemical databases increase opportunities for ligand-based drug discovery. In order to make full use of the data, an online platform for ligand-based virtual screening (LBVS) using publicly accessible databases has been developed. LBVS adopts Bayesian learning approach to create virtual screening models because of its noise tolerance, speed, and efficiency in extracting knowledge from data. LBVS currently includes data derived from BindingDB and ChEMBL. Three validation approaches have been employed to evaluate the virtual screening models created from LBVS. The tenfold cross validation results of twenty different LBVS models demonstrate that LBVS achieves an average AUC value of 0.86. Our internal and external testing results indicate that LBVS is predictive for lead identifications. LBVS can be publicly accessed at http://rcdd.sysu.edu.cn/lbvs.

  13. Public support for neonatal screening for Pompe disease, a broad-phenotype condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weinreich Stephanie

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neonatal screening for Pompe disease has been introduced in Taiwan and a few U.S. states, while other jurisdictions including some European countries are piloting or considering this screening. First-tier screening flags both classic infantile and late-onset Pompe disease, which challenges current screening criteria. Previously, advocacy groups have sometimes supported expanded neonatal screening more than professional experts, while neutral citizens' views were unknown. This study aimed to measure support for neonatal screening for Pompe disease in the general public and to compare it to support among (parents of patients with this condition. The study was done in the Netherlands, where newborns are not currently screened for Pompe disease. Newborn screening is not mandatory in the Netherlands but current uptake is almost universal. Methods A consumer panel (neutral group and (parents of patients with Pompe disease (Pompe group were sent information and a questionnaire. Responses were analyzed of 555 neutral and 58 Pompe-experienced informants who had demonstrated sufficient understanding. Results 87% of the neutral group and 88% of the Pompe group supported the introduction of screening (95% CI of difference -10 to 7%. The groups were similar in their moral reasoning about screening and acceptance of false positives, but the Pompe-experienced group expected greater benefit from neonatal detection of late-onset disease. Multivariate regression analysis controlling for demographics confirmed that approval of the introduction of screening was independent of having (a child with Pompe disease. Furthermore, respondents with university education, regardless of whether they have (a child with Pompe disease, were more likely to be reluctant about the introduction of screening than those with less education, OR for approval 0.29 (95% CI 0.18 to 0.49, p Conclusions This survey suggests a rather high level of support for newborn

  14. Good vs. Bad Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Good vs. Bad Cholesterol Updated:Apr 3,2017 Cholesterol can't dissolve ... test . View an animation of cholesterol . LDL (Bad) Cholesterol LDL cholesterol is considered the “bad” cholesterol because ...

  15. Cholesterol and Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cholesterol.” What is dyslipidemia? Having abnormal levels of cholesterol or triglycerides is called dyslipidemia . A common dyslipidemia in the ... the levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides. When should my cholesterol levels be measured? Women ...

  16. High Blood Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. High Blood Cholesterol What is High Blood Cholesterol? What is Cholesterol? Cholesterol is a ... heart disease. If Your Blood Cholesterol Is Too High Too much cholesterol in your blood is called ...

  17. A genome-wide screen for interactions reveals a new locus on 4p15 modifying the effect of waist-to-hip ratio on total cholesterol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Surakka

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent genome-wide association (GWA studies described 95 loci controlling serum lipid levels. These common variants explain ∼25% of the heritability of the phenotypes. To date, no unbiased screen for gene-environment interactions for circulating lipids has been reported. We screened for variants that modify the relationship between known epidemiological risk factors and circulating lipid levels in a meta-analysis of genome-wide association (GWA data from 18 population-based cohorts with European ancestry (maximum N = 32,225. We collected 8 further cohorts (N = 17,102 for replication, and rs6448771 on 4p15 demonstrated genome-wide significant interaction with waist-to-hip-ratio (WHR on total cholesterol (TC with a combined P-value of 4.79×10(-9. There were two potential candidate genes in the region, PCDH7 and CCKAR, with differential expression levels for rs6448771 genotypes in adipose tissue. The effect of WHR on TC was strongest for individuals carrying two copies of G allele, for whom a one standard deviation (sd difference in WHR corresponds to 0.19 sd difference in TC concentration, while for A allele homozygous the difference was 0.12 sd. Our findings may open up possibilities for targeted intervention strategies for people characterized by specific genomic profiles. However, more refined measures of both body-fat distribution and metabolic measures are needed to understand how their joint dynamics are modified by the newly found locus.

  18. Large-scale virtual screening on public cloud resources with Apache Spark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuccini, Marco; Ahmed, Laeeq; Schaal, Wesley; Laure, Erwin; Spjuth, Ola

    2017-01-01

    Structure-based virtual screening is an in-silico method to screen a target receptor against a virtual molecular library. Applying docking-based screening to large molecular libraries can be computationally expensive, however it constitutes a trivially parallelizable task. Most of the available parallel implementations are based on message passing interface, relying on low failure rate hardware and fast network connection. Google's MapReduce revolutionized large-scale analysis, enabling the processing of massive datasets on commodity hardware and cloud resources, providing transparent scalability and fault tolerance at the software level. Open source implementations of MapReduce include Apache Hadoop and the more recent Apache Spark. We developed a method to run existing docking-based screening software on distributed cloud resources, utilizing the MapReduce approach. We benchmarked our method, which is implemented in Apache Spark, docking a publicly available target receptor against [Formula: see text]2.2 M compounds. The performance experiments show a good parallel efficiency (87%) when running in a public cloud environment. Our method enables parallel Structure-based virtual screening on public cloud resources or commodity computer clusters. The degree of scalability that we achieve allows for trying out our method on relatively small libraries first and then to scale to larger libraries. Our implementation is named Spark-VS and it is freely available as open source from GitHub (https://github.com/mcapuccini/spark-vs).Graphical abstract.

  19. Testing public health ethics: why the CDC's HIV screening recommendations may violate the least infringement principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Matthew W; Maman, Suzanne; Groves, Allison K; King, Elizabeth J; Wyckoff, Sarah C

    2011-01-01

    The CDC's HIV screening recommendations for health care settings advocate abandoning two important autonomy protections: (1) pretest counseling and (2) the requirement that providers obtain affirmative agreement from patients prior to testing. The recommendations may violate the least infringement principle because there is insufficient evidence to conclude that abandoning pretest counseling or affirmative agreement requirements will further the CDC's stated public health goals.

  20. Thyroid screening of members of the public for iodine isotopes with portable NaI detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, John G., E-mail: john@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ),Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    In the case of an accident in a nuclear power plant with radionuclide releases to the environment, members of the public with possible internal contamination with radioactive isotopes of iodine should be screened to identify cases where a more detailed evaluation and medical follow-up is necessary. Screening of large numbers of the public can be performed with a quick measuring protocol using hand held unshielded NaI based detectors giving results in cps. The screening geometry was simulated using the Monte Carlo code Visual Monte Carlo. The results show that for a geometry with the NaI detector near the skin in front of the thyroid, the interference of the gamma radiation coming from other radionuclides released in the accident either deposited in the lung or in the whole body is sufficiently low to allow thyroid screening criteria to be established. The screening criteria were developed using 5, 10 and 15 year old hybrid phantoms and for the adult male based on the ICRP reference voxel phantom. (author)

  1. Human health screening and public health significance of contaminants of emerging concern detected in public water supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Robert; Conerly, Octavia D; Sander, William; Batt, Angela L; Boone, J Scott; Furlong, Edward T; Glassmeyer, Susan T; Kolpin, Dana W; Mash, Heath E; Schenck, Kathleen M; Simmons, Jane Ellen

    2017-02-01

    The source water and treated drinking water from twenty five drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) across the United States were sampled in 2010-2012. Samples were analyzed for 247 contaminants using 15 chemical and microbiological methods. Most of these contaminants are not regulated currently either in drinking water or in discharges to ambient water by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) or other U.S. regulatory agencies. This analysis shows that there is little public health concern for most of the contaminants detected in treated water from the 25 DWTPs participating in this study. For vanadium, the calculated Margin of Exposure (MOE) was less than the screening MOE in two DWTPs. For silicon, the calculated MOE was less than the screening MOE in one DWTP. Additional study, for example a national survey may be needed to determine the number of people ingesting vanadium and silicon above a level of concern. In addition, the concentrations of lithium found in treated water from several DWTPs are within the range previous research has suggested to have a human health effect. Additional investigation of this issue is necessary. Finally, new toxicological data suggest that exposure to manganese at levels in public water supplies may present a public health concern which will require a robust assessment of this information.

  2. Human health screening and public health significance of contaminants of emerging concern detected in public water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Robert; Conerly, Octavia D.; Sander, William; Batt, Angela L.; Boone, J. Scott; Furlong, Edward T.; Glassmeyer, Susan T.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Mash, Heath

    2017-01-01

    The source water and treated drinking water from twenty five drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) across the United States were sampled in 2010–2012. Samples were analyzed for 247 contaminants using 15 chemical and microbiological methods. Most of these contaminants are not regulated currently either in drinking water or in discharges to ambient water by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) or other U.S. regulatory agencies. This analysis shows that there is little public health concern for most of the contaminants detected in treated water from the 25 DWTPs participating in this study. For vanadium, the calculated Margin of Exposure (MOE) was less than the screening MOE in two DWTPs. For silicon, the calculated MOE was less than the screening MOE in one DWTP. Additional study, for example a national survey may be needed to determine the number of people ingesting vanadium and silicon above a level of concern. In addition, the concentrations of lithium found in treated water from several DWTPs are within the range previous research has suggested to have a human health effect. Additional investigation of this issue is necessary. Finally, new toxicological data suggest that exposure to manganese at levels in public water supplies may present a public health concern which will require a robust assessment of this information.

  3. High Blood Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Cholesterol? To understand high blood cholesterol (ko-LES-ter- ... cholesterol from your body. What Is High Blood Cholesterol? High blood cholesterol is a condition in which ...

  4. Direct Interactive Public Education by Breast Radiologists About Screening Mammography: Impact on Anxiety and Empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiyon; Hardesty, Lara A; Kunzler, Nathan M; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety has been called a "harm" of screening mammography. The authors provided direct, interactive education to lay audiences and measured these sessions' impact on anxiety and any increased understanding of breast cancer screening. Academic breast radiologist provided seven 1-hour sessions of structured lectures and question-and-answer periods. Lay language and radiologic images were used to discuss disease background, screening guidelines, and areas of debate. One hundred seventeen participants (mean age, 45 ± 15 years) completed voluntary, anonymous, institutional review board-approved pre and postsession questionnaires relaying their attitudes regarding screening and the impact of the sessions. Results are summarized descriptively. Mean reported anxiety regarding screening (on a scale ranging from 1-5; 1 = no anxiety) was 2.5 ± 1.3. Anxiety was attributed to unknown results (56.4%), anticipation of pain (21.8%), known risk factors (14.5%), general uncertainty (12.7%), waiting for results (9.1%), possibility of more procedures (3.6%), and personal breast cancer history (3.6%). Ninety-seven percent reported that immediate results would lower anxiety (78% of those women indicated a 75%-100% decrease in anxiety); 93% reported that radiologist consultation with images would lower anxiety (75.6% indicated a 75%-100% decrease in anxiety). After the lecture, women reported (on a scale ranging from 1-5) increased understanding of the topic (4.7 ± 0.6), encouragement to screen (4.6 ± 0.7), and reduced anxiety (4.0 ± 1.1). Ninety-seven percent to 100% provided correct responses to these questions: rationale for screening in the absence of family history, recall does not equate to cancer diagnosis, benefit of prior films, and continued importance of physical examination. Attendees of radiologist-provided direct public lectures reported decreased anxiety and improved knowledge regarding screening mammography. The resultant reduced anxiety ("harm") and educational

  5. Generic Screening Models for Assessing Exposures to the Public and ICRP Reference Animals and Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yankovich, Tamara L.; Proehl, Gerhard; Telleria, Diego [International Atomic Energy Agency, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Berkovskyy, Volodymyr [Ukrainian Radiation Protection Institute (RPI), 53, Melnikova Street, 04050, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    With the update of the IAEA Fundamental Safety Principles (SF-1) stating the objective to protect people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation, it has been necessary to update International Basic Safety Standards (BSS) on Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources and the underlying safety guides and technical documents to provide guidance on how this could be achieved in practice. The current paper provides an update on the status and plans to revise the IAEA Safety Report 'Generic Models for Use in Assessing the Impact of Discharges of Radioactive Substances to the Environment' (SRS 19) that was published in 2001. The models of SRS 19 (2001), which was focused on assessment of exposures to the public, is being expanded into three volumes that provide methodologies for screening assessments for the public, as well as for flora and fauna. The revised SRS 19 guide will ultimately facilitate the application of screening models for different levels of assessment using updated parameter values from database that have been developed as part of the IAEA's EMRAS (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) and EMRAS II international model validation programmes. The scope of the revised SRS 19 covers prospective screening assessment of doses to the representative person and Reference Animals and Plants (RAPs), and will provide simple and robust assessment methods for radiological assessment related to planning and design, applying a graded approach. Tabulated screening coefficients and environmental dilution factors will be included for 825 radionuclides. The screening coefficients are developed assuming equilibrium conditions; they can be used to assess radiological impacts arising from routine discharges of radionuclides to terrestrial and aquatic receptors for planned exposure situations. Volumes 1 and 2 of the revised SRS 19 are at an advanced stage of completion and are focused on 'Screening Assessment of Public

  6. Women and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Women and Cholesterol Updated:Apr 1,2016 The female sex hormone ... 2014. Related Sites Nutrition Center My Life Check Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol • Why Cholesterol Matters • Understand Your ...

  7. HDL Cholesterol Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities HDL Cholesterol Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... HDL; HDL-C Formal name: High-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Related tests: Cholesterol ; LDL Cholesterol ; Triglycerides ; Lipid Profile ; ...

  8. Cholesterol IQ Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cholesterol IQ Quiz Updated:Feb 2,2015 Begin the quiz Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol Introduction Good vs. Bad Cholesterol ...

  9. Cholesterol and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Cholesterol and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Cholesterol and ... child's risk of developing heart disease later. About Cholesterol Cholesterol is a waxy substance produced by the ...

  10. Lifestyle Changes and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Lifestyle Changes and Cholesterol Updated:Sep 26,2016 As part of a ... to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol • Why Cholesterol Matters • Understand Your ...

  11. Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol Updated:Apr 3,2017 Cholesterol can be both ... misconceptions about cholesterol. Click on each misconception about cholesterol to see the truth: My choices about diet ...

  12. Food combinations for cholesterol lowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harland, Janice I

    2012-12-01

    Reducing elevated LDL-cholesterol is a key public health challenge. There is substantial evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCT) that a number of foods and food components can significantly reduce LDL-cholesterol. Data from RCT have been reviewed to determine whether effects are additive when two or more of these components are consumed together. Typically components, such as plant stanols and sterols, soya protein, β-glucans and tree nuts, when consumed individually at their target rate, reduce LDL-cholesterol by 3-9 %. Improved dietary fat quality, achieved by replacing SFA with unsaturated fat, reduces LDL-cholesterol and can increase HDL-cholesterol, further improving blood lipid profile. It appears that the effect of combining these interventions is largely additive; however, compliance with multiple changes may reduce over time. Food combinations used in ten 'portfolio diet' studies have been reviewed. In clinical efficacy studies of about 1 month where all foods were provided, LDL-cholesterol is reduced by 22-30 %, whereas in community-based studies of >6 months' duration, where dietary advice is the basis of the intervention, reduction in LDL-cholesterol is about 15 %. Inclusion of MUFA into 'portfolio diets' increases HDL-cholesterol, in addition to LDL-cholesterol effects. Compliance with some of these dietary changes can be achieved more easily compared with others. By careful food component selection, appropriate to the individual, the effect of including only two components in the diet with good compliance could be a sustainable 10 % reduction in LDL-cholesterol; this is sufficient to make a substantial impact on cholesterol management and reduce the need for pharmaceutical intervention.

  13. A church-based cholesterol education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiist, W H; Flack, J M

    1990-01-01

    The leading cause of death among black people in the United States is coronary heart disease, accounting for about 25 percent of the deaths. The Task Force on Black and Minority Health formed by the Secretary of Health and Human Services in 1985 subsequently recommended increased efforts to reduce risk factors for coronary heart disease in the black population. A stated focus of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's National Cholesterol Education Program has been that of reaching minority groups. This report describes a pilot cholesterol education program conducted in black churches by trained members of those churches. Cholesterol screening, using a Reflotron, and other coronary heart disease risk factor screening was conducted in six churches with predominantly black members and at a neighborhood library. A total of 348 persons with cholesterol levels of 200 milligrams per deciliter (mg per dl) or higher were identified. At the time of screening, all were provided brief counseling on lowering their cholesterol and were given a copy of the screening results. Half of those identified, all members of one church, were invited to attend a 6-week nutrition education class of 1 hour each week about techniques to lower blood cholesterol. Information about cholesterol was also mailed to them. They were designated as the education group. Persons in the church were trained to teach the classes. A report of the screening results was sent to the personal physicians of the remaining 174 people in other churches who had cholesterol levels of 200 mg per dl or higher. This group served as a usual care comparison group.Six months after the initial screening, members of both groups were invited for followup screening.Among the 75 percent of the education group who returned for followup screening there was a 23.4 mg per dl (10 percent) decrease in the mean cholesterol level. Thirty-six percent of the usual care group returned for followup screening; their mean cholesterol

  14. Umbilical cord blood units for public storage donors screening for markers of infectious agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Smolyaninov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The screening of 3515 cord blood samples which had entered bank for public use for presence of markers of infectious agents was carried out. It was established that majority of cord blood units contain markers of cytomegalovirus and Toxoplasma (81% that is not a contraindication for storage and subsequent use of these samples. In 4.6% of cases umbilical cord blood units were subjected to disposal because of identification of viral hepatitis B and C, as well as Tr. pallidum markers, moreover, the largest share of the discarded units contained antibodies to HbscorAg – 71,3%. Inclusion of analysis on the presence of Anti-HBcor in the required laboratory screening of mothers-donors CB was proposed in order to reduce the percentage of discarded umbilical cord blood units for the public inventory.

  15. Storage and use of Newborn Screening Blood Specimens for Research: Assessing Public Opinion in Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Alexa; Petros, Michael; Charrow, Joel; Nash, Claudia; Wicklund, Catherine

    2015-06-01

    Storage and use of residual dried blood spots (DBS) from newborn screening (NBS) for research purposes has been a topic of elevated interest following high profile disputes between genetic privacy advocacy groups and state NBS programs. Our objective was to assess public opinion in Illinois regarding storage and use of residual DBS for research. Five hundred twenty-six Illinois residents completed a survey assessing attitudes about research uses for DBS, storage length, and consent issues. Over 80 % of respondents expressed agreement with questions regarding research uses of DBS. Eighty-three percent of respondents were in favor of storage for at least one year with 44 % favoring indefinite storage. Respondents with higher educational attainment were more likely to support research use of DBS and less likely to desire contact for each future study (P research or to favor long-term storage (P public health program. Trust in the public health service of NBS must be protected through transparency in the policy process.

  16. A Genome-Wide Screen for Interactions Reveals a New Locus on 4p15 Modifying the Effect of Waist-to-Hip Ratio on Total Cholesterol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Surakka, Ida; Isaacs, Aaron; Karssen, Lennart C.; Laurila, Pirkka-Pekka P.; Middelberg, Rita P. S.; Tikkanen, Emmi; Ried, Janina S.; Lamina, Claudia; Mangino, Massimo; Igl, Wilmar; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Lagou, Vasiliki; van der Harst, Pim; Mateo Leach, Irene; Esko, Tonu; Kutalik, Zoltan; Wainwright, Nicholas W.; Struchalin, Maksim V.; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Kangas, Antti J.; Viikari, Jorma S.; Perola, Markus; Rantanen, Taina; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Soininen, Pasi; Johansson, Asa; Soranzo, Nicole; Heath, Andrew C.; Papamarkou, Theodore; Prokopenko, Inga; Toenjes, Anke; Kronenberg, Florian; Doering, Angela; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Montgomery, Grant W.; Whitfield, John B.; Kahonen, Mika; Lehtimaki, Terho; Freimer, Nelson B.; Willemsen, Gonneke; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Palotie, Aarno; Sandhu, Manj S.; Waterworth, Dawn M.; Metspalu, Andres; Stumvoll, Michael; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Jula, Antti; Navis, Gerjan; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kyvik, Kirsten O.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Gyllensten, Ulf; Wilson, James F.; Rudan, Igor; Campbell, Harry; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Spector, Tim D.; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Salomaa, Veikko; Oostra, Ben A.; Raitakari, Olli T.; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Gieger, Christian; Jaervelin, Marjo-Riitta; Martin, Nicholas G.; Hofman, Albert; McCarthy, Mark I.; Peltonen, Leena; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Ripatti, Samuli

    2011-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association (GWA) studies described 95 loci controlling serum lipid levels. These common variants explain similar to 25% of the heritability of the phenotypes. To date, no unbiased screen for gene-environment interactions for circulating lipids has been reported. We screened for v

  17. A genome-wide screen for interactions reveals a new locus on 4p15 modifying the effect of waist-to-hip ratio on total cholesterol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Surakka (Ida); A.J. Isaacs (Aaron); L.C. Karssen (Lennart); P.-P.P. Laurila; R.P.S. Middelberg (Rita); E. Tikkanen (Emmi); J.S. Ried (Janina); C. Lamina (Claudia); M. Mangino (Massimo); W. Igl (Wilmar); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); V. Lagou (Vasiliki); P. van der Harst (Pim); I.M. Leach (Irene Mateo); T. Esko (Tõnu); Z. Kutalik (Zoltán); N.W. Wainwright (Nicholas); M.V. Struchalin (Maksim); A.-P. Sarin; A.J. Kangas (Antti); J. Viikari (Jorma); M. Perola (Markus); T. Rantanen (Taina); A.K. Petersen; P. Soininen (Pasi); A. Johansson (Åsa); N. Soranzo (Nicole); A.C. Heath (Andrew); T. Papamarkou (Theodore); I. Prokopenko (Inga); A. Tönjes (Anke); F. Kronenberg (Florian); A. Döring (Angela); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); J.B. Whitfield (John); M. Kähönen (Mika); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); N.B. Freimer (Nelson); G.A.H.M. Willemsen (Gonneke); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); A. Palotie (Aarno); M.S. Sandhu (Manj); D. Waterworth (Dawn); A. Metspalu (Andres); M. Stumvoll (Michael); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); A. Jula (Antti); G. Navis (Gerjan); C. Wijmenga (Cisca); B.H.R. Wolffenbuttel (Bruce); M.-R. Taskinen; M. Ala-Korpela (Mika); J. Kaprio (Jaakko); K.O. Kyvik (Kirsten Ohm); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); N.L. Pedersen (Nancy); U. Gyllensten (Ulf); J.F. Wilson (James); I. Rudan (Igor); H. Campbell (Harry); P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); T.D. Spector (Timothy); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); J.G. Eriksson (Johan); V. Salomaa (Veikko); B.A. Oostra (Ben); O. Raitakari (Olli); H.E. Wichmann (Heinz Erich); C. Gieger (Christian); M.R. Järvelin; N.G. Martin (Nicholas); A. Hofman (Albert); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); L. Peltonen (Leena Johanna); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); S. Ripatti (Samuli)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractRecent genome-wide association (GWA) studies described 95 loci controlling serum lipid levels. These common variants explain ~25% of the heritability of the phenotypes. To date, no unbiased screen for gene-environment interactions for circulating lipids has been reported. We screened for

  18. A Genome-Wide Screen for Interactions Reveals a New Locus on 4p15 Modifying the Effect of Waist-to-Hip Ratio on Total Cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surakka, I.; Isaacs, A.; Karssen, L. C.;

    2011-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association (GWA) studies described 95 loci controlling serum lipid levels. These common variants explain similar to 25% of the heritability of the phenotypes. To date, no unbiased screen for gene-environment interactions for circulating lipids has been reported. We screened fo...

  19. What Is Cholesterol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Cholesterol KidsHealth > For Teens > Cholesterol Print A A A ... High Cholesterol? en español ¿Qué es el colesterol? Cholesterol Is a Fat in the Blood Cholesterol (kuh- ...

  20. What Is Cholesterol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Cholesterol KidsHealth > For Teens > Cholesterol A A A What's ... High Cholesterol? en español ¿Qué es el colesterol? Cholesterol Is a Fat in the Blood Cholesterol (kuh- ...

  1. Relationship between serum cholesterol and body mass index in Nigeria schoolchildren aged 2-15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwaiwu, Obiyo; Ibe, Bede C

    2015-04-01

    Non-communicable disease is becoming a public health problem that it is already present in more affluent countries. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and total serum cholesterol with its lipoprotein fractions in children aged 2-15 years. Serum cholesterol was estimated using the enzymatic spectrophotometer cholesterol oxidase/peroxidase method. BMI was calculated as weight (kg)/height (m(2)). Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein were positively co-related with BMI (p < 0.05). Using linear regression, equations that can be used to predict serum total cholesterol from known BMI values were developed. There is a positive correlation between BMI and serum cholesterol. BMI which is non-invasive is recommended as a screening tool for cardiovascular risk in settings where serum cholesterol cannot be routinely estimated. © The Author [2015]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Cholesterol Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Pressure Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Program High Cholesterol Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir As ... the facts about high cholesterol [PDF-281K] . High Cholesterol in the United States 73.5 million adults ( ...

  3. Get Your Cholesterol Checked

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Checked Print This Topic En español Get Your Cholesterol Checked Browse Sections The Basics Overview Cholesterol Test ... How often do I need to get my cholesterol checked? The general recommendation is to get your ...

  4. Dietary Fat and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Dietary Fat and Cholesterol Posted under Health Guides . Updated 7 March 2017. + ... saturated fat found in red meat. What is cholesterol? Cholesterol is a fatlike substance that’s found in ...

  5. Causes of High Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Causes of High Cholesterol Updated:Jul 5,2017 If you have high ... and procedures related to heart disease and stroke. Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol • HDL, LDL, and Triglycerides • Causes ...

  6. High Blood Cholesterol Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Program Prevention and Management of High LDL Cholesterol: What You Can Do Recommend on ... like eating a healthy diet, can help prevent high cholesterol. High low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol increases ...

  7. Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol Updated:Jul 5,2017 How ... do you know about cholesterol? Here are some common misconceptions — and the truth. High cholesterol isn’t ...

  8. Disseminating perinatal depression screening as a public health initiative: a train-the-trainer approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segre, Lisa S; Brock, Rebecca L; O'Hara, Michael W; Gorman, Laura L; Engeldinger, Jane

    2011-08-01

    This case report describes the development and implementation of the Train-the-Trainer: Maternal Depression Screening Program (TTT), a novel approach to disseminating perinatal depression screening. We trained screeners according to a standard pyramid scheme of train-the-trainer programs: three experts trained representatives from health care agencies (the TTT trainers), who in turn trained their staff and implemented depression screening at their home agencies. The TTT trainers had little or no prior mental health experience so "enhanced" components were added to ensure thorough instruction. Although TTT was implemented primarily as a services project, we evaluated both the statewide dissemination and the screening rates achieved by TTT programs. Thirty-two social service or health agencies implemented maternal depression screening in 20 counties throughout Iowa; this reached 58.2% of the Iowa population. For the 16 agencies that provided screening data, the average screening rate (number of women screened/number eligible to be screened) for the first 3 months of screening was 73.2%, 80.5% and 79.0%. We compared screening rates of our TTT programs with those of Healthy Start, a program in which screening was established via an intensive consultation model. We found the screening rates in 62.5% of TTT agencies were comparable to those in Healthy Start. Our "enhanced" train-the-trainer method is a promising approach for broadly implementing depression-screening programs in agencies serving pregnant and postpartum women.

  9. Using Social Media to Characterize Public Sentiment Toward Medical Interventions Commonly Used for Cancer Screening: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metwally, Omar; Blumberg, Seth; Ladabaum, Uri; Sinha, Sidhartha R

    2017-06-07

    Although cancer screening reduces morbidity and mortality, millions of people worldwide remain unscreened. Social media provide a unique platform to understand public sentiment toward tools that are commonly used for cancer screening. The objective of our study was to examine public sentiment toward colonoscopy, mammography, and Pap smear and how this sentiment spreads by analyzing discourse on Twitter. In this observational study, we classified 32,847 tweets (online postings on Twitter) related to colonoscopy, mammography, or Pap smears using a naive Bayes algorithm as containing positive, negative, or neutral sentiment. Additionally, we characterized the spread of sentiment on Twitter using an established model to study contagion. Colonoscopy-related tweets were more likely to express negative than positive sentiment (negative to positive ratio 1.65, 95% CI 1.51-1.80, Pcancer screening. Given the growing use of social media, public health interventions to improve cancer screening should use the health perceptions of the population as expressed in social network postings about tests that are frequently used for cancer screening, as well as other people they may influence with such postings.

  10. [Screening on key techniques used for surveillance and disposal of public health emergencies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Q R; Yang, L; Ma, H Y; Xie, W Q; Cong, L M; Xu, L W

    2017-06-10

    Objective: To explore the key techniques used for surveillance and disposal of infectious diseases, food poisoning and hospital infection to improve the ability of surveillance and disposal on public health emergency. Methods: Framework on surveillance and disposal of infectious diseases, food poisoning and hospital infection was set up, based on literature review and expert group discussion. Delphi method and technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution comprehensive evaluation method were used for ordering preference by similarity, to screen key techniques set for surveillance and disposal of the above said events. Results: Framework to be used for selecting key techniques was designed, based on the classification of emergency events, processing cycle of emergency events and level of techniques. Twenty six public health experts were selected for a 2-round consultation, with their authority as 0.796. Ten key techniques with important significance for surveillance and disposal of infectious diseases, food poisoning and hospital infection were selected from each event. Among these key techniques, the early-warning system was recognized as the key technique, important for the surveillance and disposal of all three emergency events. Items as technology used for unknown pathogenic microorganism detection, personal protection, gene sequencing and tracing technology, microorganism molecular typing technology, nucleic acid detection technology etc. were the key techniques and need to develop for the surveillance and disposal of infectious diseases and iatrogenic infection. Data regarding key technologies on security and privacy, early warning and forecasting, field rapid detection were sorted out that all in need to improve the surveillance programs on disposal of infectious diseases and food poisoning. Data exchange appeared another key technique on infectious diseases, with toxin detection and other 5 techniques the key techniques for food poisoning

  11. Utilization of Professional Mental Health Services Related to Population-Level Screening for Anxiety, Depression, and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Among Public High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, John D; Le, Vi Donna; Baillargeon, Jacques; Temple, Jeff R

    2016-08-01

    This study examines results from three mental health screening measures in a cohort of adolescent public school students in seven public schools in Southeast Texas affiliated with the Dating it Safe study. We estimated the odds of receiving professional mental health treatment in the previous year given results from different mental health screening batteries: the CES-D 10 battery for depression screening, the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders, and the Primary Care Posttraumatic Stress Disorder screen. Overall, students with higher scores on screening instruments for depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and combinations of screening instruments were more likely to have sought past-year professional mental health treatment than non-symptomatic youth. However, the proportion of students screening positive and receiving professional treatment was low, ranging from 11 to 16 %. This study emphasizes the need for broader evaluation of population-based mental health screening among adolescents.

  12. HDL Cholesterol: How to Boost Your 'Good' Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    HDL cholesterol: How to boost your 'good' cholesterol Your cholesterol levels are an important measure of heart health. For HDL cholesterol, or "good" cholesterol, higher levels are better. By Mayo Clinic ...

  13. TriGlycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio compared with homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance indexes in screening for metabolic syndrome in the chinese obese children: a cross section study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jianfeng; Fu, Junfen; Jiang, Youyun; Dong, Guanping; Wang, Xiumin; Wu, Wei

    2015-09-28

    Metabolic Syndrome (MS) is prevalant in China, especially according to the pediatric obesity group. Based on the MS-CHN2012 definition for Chinese children and adolescents the need to explore and establish a convienent MS screening become imminent. This study aims to investigate the optimal cut-off values, compare the accuracy for the (TriGlycerides (TG) to High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C)) (TG/HDL-C) ratio and Homeostasis Model Assessment Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) indexs to identify Metabolic Syndrome in obese pediatric population in China. A total sample of 976 children (female 286 male 690, BMI > = 95 percentile) aged from 6-16 years underwent a medical assessment including a physical examination and investigations of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, insulin, glucose, and oral glucose tolerance test to identify the components of Metabolic Syndrome. The validity and accuracy between TG/HDL-C ratio and HOMA-IR were compared by Receiver Operating Characteristics analysis (ROC). TG/HDL-C ratio achieved a larger ROC Area under Curve (AUC = 0.843) than HOMA-IR indexes (0.640, 0.625 for HOMA1-IR, HOMA2-IR respectively) to screen for Metabolic Syndrome. The cut-off values for MS were: TG/HDL-C ratio > 1.25 (sensitivity: 80%; specificity: 75%), HOMA1-IR > 4.59 (sensitivity: 58.7%; specificity: 65.5%) and HOMA2-IR > 2.76 (sensitivity: 53.2%; specificity: 69.5%). The results kept robust after stratified by gender, age group and pubertal stage. TG/HDL-C ratio was a better indicator than the HOMA-IR to screen for a positive diagnosis for MS. Furthermore, the TG/HDL-C ratio was superior to the HOMA-IR indexes even after the control of possible confusions from the gender, age group and puberty stage. TG/HDL-C ratio proved a better index than HOMA-IR in screening for MS in obese children and adolescents. TG/HDL-C ratio has a discriminatory power in detecting potential MS in the Chinese obese pediatric

  14. Routine screening of harmful microorganisms in beach sands: implications to public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino, Raquel; Rodrigues, R.; Costa, I.; Carneiro, Carlos; Cunha, M.; Duarte, A.; Faria, N.; Ferriera, F.C.; Gargate, M.J.; Julio, C.; Martins, M.L.; Nevers, Meredith; Oleastro, M.; Solo-Gabriele, H.; Verissimo, C.; Viegas, C.; Whitman, Richard L.; Brandao, J.

    2014-01-01

    Beaches worldwide provide recreational opportunities to hundreds of millions of people and serve as important components of coastal economies. Beach water is often monitored for microbiological quality to detect the presence of indicators of human sewage contamination so as to prevent public health outbreaks associated with water contact. However, growing evidence suggests that beach sand can harbor microbes harmful to human health, often in concentrations greater than the beach water. Currently, there are no standards for monitoring, sampling, analyzing, or managing beach sand quality. In addition to indicator microbes, growing evidence has identified pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and fungi in a variety of beach sands worldwide. The public health threat associated with these populations through direct and indirect contact is unknown because so little research has been conducted relating to health outcomes associated with sand quality. In this manuscript, we present the consensus findings of a workshop of experts convened in Lisbon, Portugal to discuss the current state of knowledge on beach sand microbiological quality and to develop suggestions for standardizing the evaluation of sand at coastal beaches. The expert group at the “Microareias 2012” workshop recommends that 1) beach sand should be screened for a variety of pathogens harmful to human health, and sand monitoring should then be initiated alongside regular water monitoring; 2) sampling and analysis protocols should be standardized to allow proper comparisons among beach locations; and 3) further studies are needed to estimate human health risk with exposure to contaminated beach sand. Much of the manuscript is focused on research specific to Portugal, but similar results have been found elsewhere, and the findings have worldwide implications.

  15. Public support for neonatal screening for Pompe disease, a broad-phenotype condition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.S. Weinreich (Stephanie ); T. Rigter (Tessel); C.G. El (Carla); W.J. Dondorp (Wybo Jan); P.J. Kostense (Piet); A.T. van der Ploeg (Ans); A.J.J. Reuser (Arnold); M.C. Cornel (Martina); M.L.C. Hagemans (Marloes)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Neonatal screening for Pompe disease has been introduced in Taiwan and a few U.S. states, while other jurisdictions including some European countries are piloting or considering this screening. First-tier screening flags both classic infantile and late-onset Pompe disease,

  16. Cooking for Lower Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cooking for Lower Cholesterol Updated:Oct 28,2016 A heart-healthy eating ... content was last reviewed on 04/21/2014. Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol • Why Cholesterol Matters • Understand Your ...

  17. Peptide mediators of cholesterol efflux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bielicki, John K.; Johansson, Jan

    2013-04-09

    The present invention provides a family of non-naturally occurring polypeptides having cholesterol efflux activity that parallels that of full-length apolipoproteins (e.g., Apo AI and Apo E), and having high selectivity for ABAC1 that parallels that of full-length apolipoproteins. The invention also provides compositions comprising such polypeptides, methods of identifying, screening and synthesizing such polypeptides, and methods of treating, preventing or diagnosing diseases and disorders associated with dyslipidemia, hypercholesterolemia and inflammation.

  18. Peptide mediators of cholesterol efflux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielicki, John K.; Johansson, Jan

    2013-04-09

    The present invention provides a family of non-naturally occurring polypeptides having cholesterol efflux activity that parallels that of full-length apolipoproteins (e.g., Apo AI and Apo E), and having high selectivity for ABAC1 that parallels that of full-length apolipoproteins. The invention also provides compositions comprising such polypeptides, methods of identifying, screening and synthesizing such polypeptides, and methods of treating, preventing or diagnosing diseases and disorders associated with dyslipidemia, hypercholesterolemia and inflammation.

  19. Reverse cholesterol transport revisited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Astrid; E; van; der; Velde

    2010-01-01

    Reverse cholesterol transport was originally described as the high-density lipoprotein-mediated cholesterol flux from the periphery via the hepatobiliary tract to the intestinal lumen, leading to fecal excretion. Since the introduction of reverse cholesterol transport in the 1970s, this pathway has been intensively investigated. In this topic highlight, the classical reverse cholesterol transport concepts are discussed and the subject reverse cholesterol transport is revisited.

  20. Assessment of screening practices for gestational hyperglycaemia in public health facilities: a descriptive study in Bangalore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giridhara R. Babu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Screening and timely treatment of gestational hyperglycaemia (GH is proved to be beneficial and improves maternal and foetal health outcomes. To understand screening practices, we explored the knowledge and perceptions of doctors working in public health facilities in Bangalore, India. We also studied participation factors by examining whether undergoing glucose estimation tests affects morning sickness in pregnant women. Design and Methods. We aimed to understand the screening practices and knowledge of doctors. A semi-structured questionnaire was self-administered by the 50 participant doctors, selected from the sampling frame comprising of all the doctors working in public health facilities. We included 105 pregnant women for baseline assessment, in whom a well-structured questionnaire was used. Results. We reported that gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM screening was done in nearly all the health centres (96%. However, only 12% of the doctors could provide all components of GDM diagnosis and management correctly and 46% would diagnose by using a random blood glucose test. A majority (92% of the doctors had poor knowledge (68% about the cut-off values of glucose tests. More than 80% of pregnant women experienced some discomfort mostly due to rapid ingestion glucose in short span of time. Conclusions. Our study established that screening for GH is done in most public health facilities. Nonetheless, knowledge of doctors on the glucose tests and their interpretation needs improvement. Re-orientation trainings of the doctors can improve their knowledge and thereby can efficiently screen for GH. Further, adequate planning prior to the tests can aid successful completion of them.

  1. Healthy Dietary Fats Help Beat High Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. "Saturated fat increases LDL -- bad cholesterol -- which is a major cause of artery-clogging plaque and cardiovascular disease," he said. In clinical trials, reducing use ...

  2. Cholesterol testing and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholesterol test results; LDL test results; VLDL test results; HDL test results; Coronary risk profile results; Hyperlipidemia- ... Some cholesterol is considered good and some is considered bad. Different blood tests can be done to measure each ...

  3. Controlling Cholesterol with Statins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Controlling Cholesterol with Statins Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... not, the following tips can help keep your cholesterol in check: Talk with your healthcare provider about ...

  4. Cholesterol - drug treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000314.htm Cholesterol - drug treatment To use the sharing features on ... treatment; Hardening of the arteries - statin Statins for Cholesterol Statins reduce your risk of heart disease, stroke, ...

  5. High blood cholesterol levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000403.htm High blood cholesterol levels To use the sharing features ... stroke, and other problems. The medical term for high blood cholesterol is lipid disorder, hyperlipidemia, or hypercholesterolemia. ...

  6. Cholesterol oxides inhibit cholesterol esterification by lecithin: cholesterol acyl transferase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder de Carvalho Pincinato

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol oxides are atherogenic and can affect the activity of diverse important enzymes for the lipidic metabolism. The effect of 7β-hydroxycholesterol, 7-ketocholesterol, 25-hydroxycholesterol, cholestan-3β,5α,6β-triol,5,6β-epoxycholesterol, 5,6α-epoxycholesterol and 7α-hydroxycholesterol on esterification of cholesterol by lecithin:cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT, EC 2.3.1.43 and the transfer of esters of cholesterol oxides from high density lipoprotein (HDL to low density lipoproteins (LDL and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL by cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP was investigated. HDL enriched with increasing concentrations of cholesterol oxides was incubated with fresh plasma as source of LCAT. Cholesterol and cholesterol oxides esterification was followed by measuring the consumption of respective free sterol and oxysterols. Measurements of cholesterol and cholesterol oxides were done by gas-chromatography. 14C-cholesterol oxides were incorporated into HDL2 and HDL3 subfractions and then incubated with fresh plasma containing LCAT and CETP. The transfer of cholesterol oxide esters was followed by measuring the 14C-cholesterol oxide-derived esters transferred to LDL and VLDL. All the cholesterol oxides studied were esterified by LCAT after incorporation into HDL particles, competing with cholesterol by LCAT. Cholesterol esterification by LCAT was inversely related to the cholesterol oxide concentration. The esterification of 14C-cholesterol oxides was higher in HDL3 and the transfer of the derived esters was greater from HDL2 to LDL and VLDL. The results suggest that cholesterol esterification by LCAT is inhibited in cholesterol oxide-enriched HDL particles. Moreover, the cholesterol oxides-derived esters are efficiently transferred to LDL and VLDL. Therefore, we suggest that cholesterol oxides may exert part of their atherogenic effect by inhibiting cholesterol esterification on the HDL surface and thereby disturbing

  7. Public attitudes towards genomic risk profiling as a component of routine population screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, S G; Wilson, B J; Craigie, S M; Etchegary, H; Castle, D; Carroll, J C; Potter, B K; Lemyre, L; Little, J

    2013-10-01

    Including low penetrance genomic variants in population-based screening might enable personalization of screening intensity and follow up. The application of genomics in this way requires formal evaluation. Even if clinically beneficial, uptake would still depend on the attitudes of target populations. We developed a deliberative workshop on two hypothetical applications (in colorectal cancer and newborn screening) in which we applied stepped, neutrally-framed, information sets. Data were collected using nonparticipant observation, free-text comments by individual participants, and a structured survey. Qualitative data were transcribed and analyzed using thematic content analysis. Eight workshops were conducted with 170 individuals (120 colorectal cancer screening and 50 newborn screening for type 1 diabetes). The use of information sets promoted informed deliberation. In both contexts, attitudes appeared to be heavily informed by assessments of the likely validity of the test results and its personal and health care utility. Perceived benefits included the potential for early intervention, prevention, and closer monitoring while concerns related to costs, education needs regarding the probabilistic nature of risk, the potential for worry, and control of access to personal genomic information. Differences between the colorectal cancer and newborn screening groups appeared to reflect different assessments of potential personal utility, particularly regarding prevention.

  8. What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean Updated:Apr 3,2017 Keeping your ... content was last reviewed on 04/21/2014. Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol Introduction Good vs. Bad Cholesterol ...

  9. Home-Use Tests - Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Procedures In Vitro Diagnostics Home Use Tests Cholesterol Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... a home-use test kit to measure total cholesterol. What cholesterol is: Cholesterol is a fat (lipid) ...

  10. Direct Interactive Public Education by Breast Radiologists About Screening Mammography: Impact on Anxiety and Empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiyon; Hardesty, Lara A; Kunzler, Nathan M; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B

    2016-11-01

    Anxiety has been called a "harm" of screening mammography. The authors provided direct, interactive education to lay audiences and measured these sessions' impact on anxiety and any increased understanding of breast cancer screening. Academic breast radiologist provided seven 1-hour sessions of structured lectures and question-and-answer periods. Lay language and radiologic images were used to discuss disease background, screening guidelines, and areas of debate. One hundred seventeen participants (mean age, 45 ± 15 years) completed voluntary, anonymous, institutional review board-approved pre and postsession questionnaires relaying their attitudes regarding screening and the impact of the sessions. Results are summarized descriptively. Mean reported anxiety regarding screening (on a scale ranging from 1-5; 1 = no anxiety) was 2.5 ± 1.3. Anxiety was attributed to unknown results (56.4%), anticipation of pain (21.8%), known risk factors (14.5%), general uncertainty (12.7%), waiting for results (9.1%), possibility of more procedures (3.6%), and personal breast cancer history (3.6%). Ninety-seven percent reported that immediate results would lower anxiety (78% of those women indicated a 75%-100% decrease in anxiety); 93% reported that radiologist consultation with images would lower anxiety (75.6% indicated a 75%-100% decrease in anxiety). After the lecture, women reported (on a scale ranging from 1-5) increased understanding of the topic (4.7 ± 0.6), encouragement to screen (4.6 ± 0.7), and reduced anxiety (4.0 ± 1.1). Ninety-seven percent to 100% provided correct responses to these questions: rationale for screening in the absence of family history, recall does not equate to cancer diagnosis, benefit of prior films, and continued importance of physical examination. Attendees of radiologist-provided direct public lectures reported decreased anxiety and improved knowledge regarding screening mammography. The resultant reduced anxiety ("harm") and educational

  11. [Nutritional status and screen time among public school students in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcellos, Marcelo Barros de; Anjos, Luiz Antonio dos; Vasconcellos, Mauricio Teixeira Leite de

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess nutritional status, sedentary behavior (TV, computer, and videogame time and screen time as the sum of these first three) and physical activity using a questionnaire with youth (10 to 18 years of age) enrolled in public schools in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Anthropometry (body mass and stature), sedentary behavior, and information on physical activity were obtained in a probability sample of 10 to 18 year-old students (n = 328; 108 boys) stratified by school and selected in two stages (classes and students). Low height for age did not appear as a problem, but 25.7% of the youth presented excess weight (18% overweight and 7.7% obese). Total screen time did not differ between the sexes, but boys spent more time playing videogames than girls, regardless of age, while girls watched more TV. Boys spent twice as much time as girls of all ages in physical activity (three times more in the ≥ 14 year-old group). Screen time was significantly associated with excess weight. In conclusion, public school youth in Niterói show high prevalence rates of excess weight associated with inadequate lifestyle.

  12. AMIGAS: Building a Cervical Cancer Screening Intervention for Public Health Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Judith Lee; Wilson, Katherine M.; Orians, Carlyn E.; Byrd, Theresa L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Many barriers to cervical cancer screening for Hispanic women have been documented, but few effective interventions exist. The Community Preventive Services Task Force recommends increasing cervical cancer screening through various methods. Building on this evidence, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded the research and testing phases for an evidence-based and theoretically grounded intervention designed to increase cervical cancer screening among never and rarely screened Hispanic women of Mexican descent. In this article, we describe the development process of the AMIGAS (Ayudando a las Mujeres con Información, Guía, y Amor para su Salud) intervention, highlight the integration of scientific evidence and community-based participatory research principles, and identify opportunities for dissemination, adaptation, and implementation of this intervention. Methods The AMIGAS team was a collaboration among researchers, promotoras (community health workers), and program administrators. The multiyear, multiphase project was conducted in Houston, Texas; El Paso, Texas; and Yakima, Washington. The team completed several rounds of formative research, designed intervention materials and methodology, conducted a randomized controlled trial, created a guide for program administrators, and developed an intervention dissemination plan. Results Trial results demonstrated that AMIGAS was successful in increasing cervical cancer screening among Hispanic women. Adaptation of AMIGAS showed minimal reduction of outcomes. Dissemination efforts are underway to make AMIGAS available in a downloadable format via the Internet. Conclusions Developing a community-based intervention that is evidence-based and theoretically grounded is challenging, time-intensive, and requires collaboration among multiple disciplines. Inclusion of key stakeholders—in particular program deliverers and administrators—and planning for dissemination and translation to practice are

  13. Overdiagnosis in publicly organised mammography screening programmes: systematic review of incidence trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2009-01-01

    . DATA SOURCES: PubMed (April 2007), reference lists, and authors. Review methods One author extracted data on incidence of breast cancer (including carcinoma in situ), population size, screening uptake, time periods, and age groups, which were checked independently by the other author. Linear regression...

  14. War trauma and torture experiences reported during public health screening of newly resettled Karen refugees: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Tonya L; Shannon, Patricia J; Vinson, Gregory A; Letts, James P; Dwee, Ehtaw

    2015-04-08

    Karen refugees have suffered traumatic experiences that affect their physical and mental health in resettlement. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends assessing traumatic histories and mental health symptoms during initial public health screening. This article reports the traumatic experiences that Karen refugees were able to describe during a short screening and contributes knowledge to existing human rights documentation systems. Four semi-structured and open-ended items asked about lifetime experiences of war trauma and torture. Interviews were completed with adult, Karen refugees during their initial public health screening. Experiences of war trauma and torture were coded using the extensive Human Rights Information and Documentation (HURIDOCS) Micro-thesauri coding system. Additional codes were created to describe experiences not captured by existing codes. Over 85% of 179 Karen people interviewed experienced life-threatening war trauma. All participants who reported war trauma or torture stories were able to describe at least one event. New war trauma codes proposed include: widespread community fear, systematic destruction/burning of house or village, exposure to dead bodies, orphaned in the context of war, injury caused by a landmine, fear of Thai police or deportation from Thailand, and harm or killings in the context of war. New torture codes include: forced portering; forced to be a human landmine sweep; forced to be a soldier, including child soldier; forced contact with a dead body; and removal of the eyes. Karen refugees were able to report traumatic experiences in the context of a brief health screening. The findings confirm existing reports of human rights violations against Karen people and suggest that additional codes be added to the HURIDOCS Micro-thesauri system that is used by torture treatment centers. Understanding the nature of traumatic experiences of this group is important for health providers working

  15. Cholesterol Check (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-09-10

    High blood cholesterol is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. This podcast discusses the importance of a healthy diet and regular cholesterol screening.  Created: 9/10/2015 by MMWR.   Date Released: 9/10/2015.

  16. Screening College Students for Hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigel, Harris C.

    1992-01-01

    Describes one college's mandatory mass cholesterol screening for new students. Each year, over 30 beginning students with unknown hypercholesterolemia were detected. The program suggests that mass screening efficiently and economically identifies students who would benefit from cholesterol reduction, a modifiable risk in coronary artery disease.…

  17. Regulation of cholesterol homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wulp, Mariëtte Y M; Verkade, Henkjan J; Groen, Albert K

    2013-04-10

    Hypercholesterolemia is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It is caused by a disturbed balance between cholesterol secretion into the blood versus uptake. The pathways involved are regulated via a complex interplay of enzymes, transport proteins, transcription factors and non-coding RNA's. The last two decades insight into underlying mechanisms has increased vastly but there are still a lot of unknowns, particularly regarding intracellular cholesterol transport. After decades of concentration on the liver, in recent years the intestine has come into focus as an important control point in cholesterol homeostasis. This review will discuss current knowledge of cholesterol physiology, with emphasis on cholesterol absorption, cholesterol synthesis and fecal excretion, and new (possible) therapeutic options for hypercholesterolemia.

  18. Newborn Hearing Screening in a Public Maternity Ward in Curitiba, Brazil: Determining Factors for Not Retesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Idalina; Ribas, Angela; Kozlowski, Lorena; Willig, Mariluci; Berberian, Ana Paula

    2016-10-01

    Introduction Law 12.303/10 requires hearing screening in newborns before hospital discharge to detect possible hearing problems within the first three months after birth. If the newborn fails the test or presents signs of risk for hearing loss, it must undergo a retest and monitoring during the first year of life. In practice, this often does not happen. Objective To identify, in a group of mothers of children with risk factors for hearing loss, the determining reasons for non-compliance with the auditory retest. Method This is a cross-sectional quantitative study. For data collection, we handed a semi-structured questionnaire to 60 mothers of babies at risk for hearing loss who did not attend the hearing retest after hospital discharge. The questionnaire investigated their age, education, marital status, level of knowledge about the hearing screening, and reasons for non-compliance with the retest. We compared and analyzed data using the Chi-square test at a significance level of 0.05%. Results Our study found that 63% of the respondents were unaware of the hearing screening and most did not receive guidance on testing during prenatal care; 30% of participants stated forgetting as the reason for not attending the retest. There was no significant relationship between age, education, and marital status regarding knowledge about the test and the non-compliance with the retest. Conclusion Identified as the most significant determining factors for non-compliance with the newborn hearing screening retest were the surveyed mothers' forgetting the date, and their ignorance as to the importance of retesting.

  19. Newborn Hearing Screening in a Public Maternity Ward in Curitiba, Brazil: Determining Factors for Not Retesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz, Idalina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Law 12.303/10 requires hearing screening in newborns before hospital discharge to detect possible hearing problems within the first three months after birth. If the newborn fails the test or presents signs of risk for hearing loss, it must undergo a retest and monitoring during the first year of life. In practice, this often does not happen. Objective To identify, in a group of mothers of children with risk factors for hearing loss, the determining reasons for non-compliance with the auditory retest. Method This is a cross-sectional quantitative study. For data collection, we handed a semi-structured questionnaire to 60 mothers of babies at risk for hearing loss who did not attend the hearing retest after hospital discharge. The questionnaire investigated their age, education, marital status, level of knowledge about the hearing screening, and reasons for non-compliance with the retest. We compared and analyzed data using the Chi-square test at a significance level of 0.05%. Results Our study found that 63% of the respondents were unaware of the hearing screening and most did not receive guidance on testing during prenatal care; 30% of participants stated forgetting as the reason for not attending the retest. There was no significant relationship between age, education, and marital status regarding knowledge about the test and the non-compliance with the retest. Conclusion Identified as the most significant determining factors for non-compliance with the newborn hearing screening retest were the surveyed mothers' forgetting the date, and their ignorance as to the importance of retesting.

  20. Ovarian Cancer Screening Pilot Trial In High Risk Women — EDRN Public Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: No proven ovarian cancer (OC) screening strategy exists for women who are at increased risk for the disease. A risk of ovarian cancer algorithm (ROCA) using serial CA125 values have previously shown greater positive predictive value (PPV) and sensitivity than a single CA125 in screening women at general population risk. We hypothesized that using ROCA would yield a reasonable PPV for ovarian cancer screening in a cohort at increased risk. METHODS: Between 7/2001 and 9/2006, 25 sites (14 CGN, 3 ovarian SPOREs, 1 EDRN, 7 others) prospectively enrolled patients. Inclusion criteria included: among self, 1st degree and 2nd degree relatives in same lineage either (i) BRCA 1/2 mutation, or (ii) two of OC or early onset (age 1% to ultrasound (US) and risk > 10% additionally to a gynecologic oncologist. Objectives included PPV for study indicated surgery, sensitivity, and compliance. Sample size was chosen to observe 8 OC endpoints with a power of 80% to rule out PPV < or = 10% if the true PPV = 20%.

  1. Seeing through the public health smoke-screen in drug policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csete, Joanne; Wolfe, Daniel

    2017-03-23

    In deliberations on drug policy in United Nations fora, a consensus has emerged that drug use and drug dependence should be treated primarily as public health concerns rather than as crimes. But what some member states mean by "public health approach" merits scrutiny. Some governments that espouse treating people who use drugs as "patients, not criminals" still subject them to prison-like detention in the name of drug-dependence treatment or otherwise do not take measures to provide scientifically sound treatment and humane social support to those who need them. Even drug treatment courts, which the U.S. and other countries hold up as examples of a public health approach to drug dependence, can serve rather to tighten the hold of the criminal justice sector on concerns that should be addressed in the health sector. The political popularity of demonisation of drugs and visibly repressive approaches is an obvious challenge to leadership for truly health-oriented drug control. This commentary offers some thoughts for judging whether a public health approach is worthy of the name and cautions drug policy reformers not to rely on facile commitments to health approaches that are largely rhetorical or that mask policies and activities not in keeping with good public health practise.

  2. Cholesterol - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your doctor; What to ask your doctor about cholesterol ... What is my cholesterol level? What should my cholesterol level be? What are HDL ("good") cholesterol and LDL ("bad") cholesterol? Does my cholesterol ...

  3. National Cholesterol Education Month

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-09-01

    Do you know your cholesterol numbers? Your doctor can do a simple test to check your cholesterol levels and help you make choices that lower your risk for heart disease and stroke.  Created: 9/1/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/9/2009.

  4. Cost-effectiveness of HPV-based cervical cancer screening in the public health system in Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Nicole G; Mvundura, Mercy; Jeronimo, Jose; Holme, Francesca; Vodicka, Elisabeth; Kim, Jane J

    2017-06-15

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing (versus Papanicolaou (Pap)-based screening) for cervical cancer screening in Nicaragua. A previously developed Monte Carlo simulation model of the natural history of HPV infection and cervical cancer was calibrated to epidemiological data from Nicaragua. Cost data inputs were derived using a micro-costing approach in Carazo, Chontales and Chinandega departments; test performance data were from a demonstration project in Masaya department. Nicaragua's public health sector facilities. Women aged 30-59 years. Screening strategies included (1) Pap testing every 3 years, with referral to colposcopy for women with an atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or worse result ('Pap'); (2) HPV testing every 5 years, with referral to cryotherapy for HPV-positive eligible women (HPV cryotherapy or 'HPV-Cryo'); (3) HPV testing every 5 years, with referral to triage with visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) for HPV-positive women ('HPV-VIA'); and (4) HPV testing every 5 years, with referral to Pap testing for HPV-positive women ('HPV-Pap'). Reduction in lifetime risk of cancer and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER; 2015 US$ per year of life saved (YLS)). HPV-based screening strategies were more effective than Pap testing. HPV-Cryo was the least costly and most effective strategy, reducing lifetime cancer risk by 29.5% and outperforming HPV-VIA, HPV-Pap and Pap only, which reduced cancer risk by 19.4%, 12.2% and 10.8%, respectively. With an ICER of US$320/YLS, HPV-Cryo every 5 years would be very cost-effective using a threshold based on Nicaragua's per capita gross domestic product of US$2090. Findings were robust across sensitivity analyses on test performance, coverage, compliance and cost parameters. HPV testing is very cost-effective compared with Pap testing in Nicaragua, due to higher test sensitivity and the relatively lower number of visits required. Increasing

  5. What Causes High Blood Cholesterol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes High Blood Cholesterol? Many factors can affect the cholesterol levels in your blood. You can control some ... but not others. Factors You Can Control Diet Cholesterol is found in foods that come from animal ...

  6. Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000787.htm Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol To use the sharing features on this page, ... are medicines that help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol . Too much cholesterol in your blood can stick ...

  7. Screening for Familial Hypercholesterolemia in Children: What Can We Learn From Adult Screening Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, Lidewij; McBride, Colleen M; Cornel, Martina C; Duquette, Debra; Qureshi, Nadeem

    2015-10-26

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), an autosomal dominant atherosclerotic disease, is a common monogenic subtype of cardiovascular disease. Patients with FH suffer an increased risk of early onset heart disease. Early identification of abnormally elevated cholesterol signpost clinicians to interventions that will significantly decrease risk of related morbidity and mortality. Cascade genetic testing can subsequently identify at-risk relatives. Accordingly, a number of screening approaches have been implemented for FH in countries including the UK and the Netherlands. However, incomplete identification of cases remains a challenge. Moreover, the potential for early intervention is now raising questions about the value of implementing universal cholesterol screening approaches that focus on children. In this report, we briefly discuss the potential benefit of such screening. Additionally, we submit that ever increasing genome technological capability will force a discussion of including genetic tests in these screening programs. We discuss the opportunities and challenges presented by such an approach. We close with recommendations that the success of such screening endeavors will rely on a better integrated practice model in public health genomics that bridges stakeholders including practitioners in primary care, clinical genetics and public health.

  8. Screening for Familial Hypercholesterolemia in Children: What Can We Learn From Adult Screening Programs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidewij Henneman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH, an autosomal dominant atherosclerotic disease, is a common monogenic subtype of cardiovascular disease. Patients with FH suffer an increased risk of early onset heart disease. Early identification of abnormally elevated cholesterol signpost clinicians to interventions that will significantly decrease risk of related morbidity and mortality. Cascade genetic testing can subsequently identify at-risk relatives. Accordingly, a number of screening approaches have been implemented for FH in countries including the UK and the Netherlands. However, incomplete identification of cases remains a challenge. Moreover, the potential for early intervention is now raising questions about the value of implementing universal cholesterol screening approaches that focus on children. In this report, we briefly discuss the potential benefit of such screening. Additionally, we submit that ever increasing genome technological capability will force a discussion of including genetic tests in these screening programs. We discuss the opportunities and challenges presented by such an approach. We close with recommendations that the success of such screening endeavors will rely on a better integrated practice model in public health genomics that bridges stakeholders including practitioners in primary care, clinical genetics and public health.

  9. Regulation of cholesterol homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wulp, Mariette Y. M.; Verkade, Henkjan J.; Groen, Albert K.

    2013-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It is caused by a disturbed balance between cholesterol secretion into the blood versus uptake. The pathways involved are regulated via a complex interplay of enzymes, transport proteins, transcription factors and

  10. Cholesterol and Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can I make to reduce my risk of cardiovascular disease? • Is there medication that can help reduce my cholesterol ... It also helps your body make vitamin D and produces the bile that helps you ...

  11. Cholesterol in unusual places

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucerka, N; Nieh, M P; Marquardt, D; Harroun, T A; Wassail, S R; Katsaras, J, E-mail: John.Katsaras@nrc.gc.ca, E-mail: Norbert.Kucerka@nrc.gc.ca

    2010-11-01

    Cholesterol is an essential component of mammalian cells, and is required for building and maintaining cell membranes, regulating their fluidity, and possibly acting as an antioxidant. Cholesterol has also been implicated in cell signaling processes, where it has been suggested that it triggers the formation of lipid rafts in the plasma membrane. Aside from cholesterol's physiological roles, what is also becoming clear is its poor affinity for lipids with unsaturated fatty acids as opposed to saturated lipids, such as sphingomyelin with which it forms rafts. We previously reported the location of cholesterol in membranes with varying degrees of acyl chain unsaturation as determined by neutron diffraction studies (Harroun et al 2006 Biochemistry 45, 1227; Harroun et al 2008 Biochemistry 47, 7090). In bilayers composed of phosphatidylcholine (PC) molecules with a saturated acyl chain at the sn-1 position or a monounsaturated acyl chain at both sn-1 and sn-2 positions, cholesterol was found in its much-accepted 'upright' position. However, in dipolyunsaturated 1,2-diarachidonyl phosphatidylcholine (20:4-20:4PC) membranes the molecule was found sequestered in the center of the bilayers. In further experiments, mixing l-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (16:0-18:1 PC) with 20:4-20:4PC resulted in cholesterol reverting to its upright orientation at approximately 40 mol% 16:0-18:1 PC. Interestingly, the same effect was achieved with only 5 mol% 1,2-dimyristoyl phosphatidylchoile (14:0-14:0PC).

  12. MD-2 binds cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soo-Ho; Kim, Jungsu; Gonen, Ayelet; Viriyakosol, Suganya; Miller, Yury I

    2016-02-19

    Cholesterol is a structural component of cellular membranes, which is transported from liver to peripheral cells in the form of cholesterol esters (CE), residing in the hydrophobic core of low-density lipoprotein. Oxidized CE (OxCE) is often found in plasma and in atherosclerotic lesions of subjects with cardiovascular disease. Our earlier studies have demonstrated that OxCE activates inflammatory responses in macrophages via toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4). Here we demonstrate that cholesterol binds to myeloid differentiation-2 (MD-2), a TLR4 ancillary molecule, which is a binding receptor for bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and is indispensable for LPS-induced TLR4 dimerization and signaling. Cholesterol binding to MD-2 was competed by LPS and by OxCE-modified BSA. Furthermore, soluble MD-2 in human plasma and MD-2 in mouse atherosclerotic lesions carried cholesterol, the finding supporting the biological significance of MD-2 cholesterol binding. These results help understand the molecular basis of TLR4 activation by OxCE and mechanisms of chronic inflammation in atherosclerosis.

  13. LDL cholesterol: controversies and future therapeutic directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridker, Paul M

    2014-08-16

    Lifelong exposure to raised concentrations of LDL cholesterol increases cardiovascular event rates, and the use of statin therapy as an adjunct to diet, exercise, and smoking cessation has proven highly effective in reducing the population burden associated with hyperlipidaemia. Yet, despite consistent biological, genetic, and epidemiological data, and evidence from randomised trials, there is controversy among national guidelines and clinical practice with regard to LDL cholesterol, its measurement, the usefulness of population-based screening, the net benefit-to-risk ratio for different LDL-lowering drugs, the benefit of treatment targets, and whether aggressive lowering of LDL is safe. Several novel therapies have been introduced for the treatment of people with genetic defects that result in loss of function within the LDL receptor, a major determinant of inherited hyperlipidaemias. Moreover, the usefulness of monoclonal antibodies that extend the LDL-receptor lifecycle (and thus result in substantial lowering of LDL cholesterol below the levels achieved with statins alone) is being assessed in phase 3 trials that will enrol more than 60,000 at-risk patients worldwide. These trials represent an exceptionally rapid translation of genetic observations into clinical practice and will address core questions of how low LDL cholesterol can be safely reduced, whether the mechanism of LDL-cholesterol lowering matters, and whether ever more aggressive lipid-lowering provides a safe, long-term mechanism to prevent atherothrombotic complications.

  14. Cholesterol through the Looking Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiana, Ika; Luu, Winnie; Stevenson, Julian; Cartland, Sian; Jessup, Wendy; Belani, Jitendra D.; Rychnovsky, Scott D.; Brown, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    How cholesterol is sensed to maintain homeostasis has been explained by direct binding to a specific protein, Scap, or through altering the physical properties of the membrane. The enantiomer of cholesterol (ent-cholesterol) is a valuable tool in distinguishing between these two models because it shares nonspecific membrane effects with native cholesterol (nat-cholesterol), but not specific binding interactions. This is the first study to compare ent- and nat-cholesterol directly on major molecular parameters of cholesterol homeostasis. We found that ent-cholesterol suppressed activation of the master transcriptional regulator of cholesterol metabolism, SREBP-2, almost as effectively as nat-cholesterol. Importantly, ent-cholesterol induced a conformational change in the cholesterol-sensing protein Scap in isolated membranes in vitro, even when steps were taken to eliminate potential confounding effects from endogenous cholesterol. Ent-cholesterol also accelerated proteasomal degradation of the key cholesterol biosynthetic enzyme, squalene monooxygenase. Together, these findings provide compelling evidence that cholesterol maintains its own homeostasis not only via direct protein interactions, but also by altering membrane properties. PMID:22869373

  15. Potent and selective mediators of cholesterol efflux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bielicki, John K; Johansson, Jan

    2015-03-24

    The present invention provides a family of non-naturally occurring polypeptides having cholesterol efflux activity that parallels that of full-length apolipoproteins (e.g., Apo AI and Apo E), and having high selectivity for ABAC1 that parallels that of full-length apolipoproteins. The invention also provides compositions comprising such polypeptides, methods of identifying, screening and synthesizing such polypeptides, and methods of treating, preventing or diagnosing diseases and disorders associated with dyslipidemia, hypercholesterolemia and inflammation.

  16. Mental Health Screening Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Releases & Announcements Public Service Announcements Partnering with DBSA Mental Health Screening Center These online screening tools are not ... you have any concerns, see your doctor or mental health professional. Depression This screening form was developed from ...

  17. Using publicly reported nursing-sensitive screening indicators to measure hospital performance : the Netherlands experience in 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stalpers, Dewi; Van Der Linden, Dimitri; Kaljouw, Marian J.; Schuurmans, Marieke J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Deliberate screening allows detection of health risks that are otherwise not noticeable and allows expedient intervention to minimize complications and optimize outcomes, especially during critical events like hospitalization. Little research has evaluated the usefulness of screening per

  18. Cholesterol and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelton, Kristine; Freeman, Michael R; Solomon, Keith R

    2012-12-01

    Prostate cancer risk can be modified by environmental factors, however the molecular mechanisms affecting susceptibility to this disease are not well understood. As a result of a series of recently published studies, the steroidal lipid, cholesterol, has emerged as a clinically relevant therapeutic target in prostate cancer. This review summarizes the findings from human studies as well as animal and cell biology models, which suggest that high circulating cholesterol increases risk of aggressive prostate cancer, while cholesterol lowering strategies may confer protective benefit. Relevant molecular processes that have been experimentally tested and might explain these associations are described. We suggest that these promising results now could be applied prospectively to attempt to lower risk of prostate cancer in select populations.

  19. Cholesterol Check (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-09-10

    Heart disease and stroke are among the leading causes of death in the U.S. One of the main risk factors is high blood cholesterol. In this podcast, Dr. Carla Mercado discusses the importance of a healthy diet and regular screening to prevent high blood cholesterol.  Created: 9/10/2015 by MMWR.   Date Released: 9/10/2015.

  20. Cholesterol and myelin biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saher, Gesine; Simons, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    Myelin consists of several layers of tightly compacted membranes wrapped around axons in the nervous system. The main function of myelin is to provide electrical insulation around the axon to ensure the rapid propagation of nerve conduction. As the myelinating glia terminally differentiates, they begin to produce myelin membranes on a remarkable scale. This membrane is unique in its composition being highly enriched in lipids, in particular galactosylceramide and cholesterol. In this review we will summarize the role of cholesterol in myelin biogenesis in the central and peripheral nervous system.

  1. Orbitofrontal cholesterol granuloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, L P; McNab, A A

    2005-02-01

    Cholesterol granuloma of the orbital bones is a rare but readily recognisable condition. It is an osteolytic lesion with a granulomatous reaction surrounding cholesterol crystals, old haemorrhage and a fibrous capsule. There is a male preponderance and it usually occurs in young or middle-aged men. It is treatable with drainage and curettage via an orbitotomy, and craniotomy or wide bone removal is almost never required. Six cases of this condition were reviewed to highlight the typical clinical presentation, computed tomography and magnetic resonance results, and surgical management.

  2. Demographic, knowledge, attitudinal, and accessibility factors associated with uptake of cervical cancer screening among women in a rural district of Tanzania: Three public policy implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyimo Frida S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer is an important public health problem worldwide, which comprises approximately 12% of all cancers in women. In Tanzania, the estimated incidence rate is 30 to 40 per 100,000 women, indicating a high disease burden. Cervical cancer screening is acknowledged as currently the most effective approach for cervical cancer control, and it is associated with reduced incidence and mortality from the disease. The aim of the study was to identify the most important factors related to the uptake of cervical cancer screening among women in a rural district of Tanzania. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted with a sample of 354 women aged 18 to 69 years residing in Moshi Rural District. A multistage sampling technique was used to randomly select eligible women. A one-hour interview was conducted with each woman in her home. The 17 questions were modified from similar questions used in previous research. Results Less than one quarter (22.6% of the participants had obtained cervical cancer screening. The following characteristics, when examined separately in relation to the uptake of cervical cancer screening service, were significant: husband approval of cervical cancer screening, women's level of education, women's knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention, women's concerns about embarrassment and pain of screening, women's preference for the sex of health provider, and women's awareness of and distance to cervical cancer screening services. When examined simultaneously in a logistic regression, we found that only knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention (OR = 8.90, 95%CI = 2.14-16.03 and distance to the facility which provides cervical cancer screening (OR = 3.98, 95%CI = 0.18-5.10 were significantly associated with screening uptake. Conclusions Based on the study findings, three recommendations are made. First, information about cervical cancer must be presented to women. Second, public education of

  3. Intestinal cholesterol transport: Measuring cholesterol absorption and its reverse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakulj, L.

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal cholesterol transport might serve as an attractive future target for cardiovascular disease reduction, provided that underlying molecular mechanisms are more extensively elucidated, combined with improved techniques to measure changes in cholesterol fluxes and their possible anti-atherosc

  4. Screening mammography: update and review of publications since our report in the New England Journal of Medicine on the magnitude of the problem in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleyer, Archie

    2015-08-01

    After a half century of clinical trials, expansive observations, vigorous advocacy and debate, screening mammography could not be in a more controversial condition, especially the potential harm of overdiagnosis. Despite a simple rationale (catch the cancer early and either prevent death or at least decrease the amount of therapy needed for cure), the estimates to date of overdiagnosis rates are conflicting and the interpretations complex. Since the author's 2012 publication in the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM), the peer-reviewed publications on overdiagnosis caused by screening mammography are reviewed and the NEJM analyses updated with three additional calendar years of results. The recent peer-reviewed medical literature on screening mammography induced overdiagnosis of breast cancer has increased exponentially, nearly 10-fold in 10 years. The average estimate of overdiagnosis is about 30%, but the range extends from 0% to 70+%. An update of the NEJM report estimates that in the US, 78,000 women and 30%-31% of those diagnosed with breast cancer at the age of 40 years or older during 2011 were overdiagnosed. Until we have better screening procedures that identify who really has cancer and needs to be treated, the risk of overdiagnosis relative to the benefit of screening merits more effective public and professional education. Radiologists, pathologists, and other professionals involved with screening mammography should recognize that the potential harm of overdiagnosis is downplayed or not discussed with the patient and family, despite agreement that the objective is informed choice. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Transintestinal cholesterol efflux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Astrid E.; Brufau, Gemma; Groen, Albert K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review Regulation of cholesterol homeostasis is a complex interplay of a multitude of metabolic pathways situated in different organs. The liver plays a central role and has received most attention of the research community. In this review, we discuss recent progress in the understanding

  6. Cholesterol: Up in Smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raloff, Janet

    1991-01-01

    Discussed is the contribution cooked meat makes to air pollution. The dozens of compounds, including cholesterol, that are released when a hamburger is grilled are described. The potential effects of these emissions on humans and the urban environment are discussed. (KR)

  7. Regulation of cholesterol homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wulp, Mariette Y. M.; Verkade, Henkjan J.; Groen, Albert K.

    2013-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It is caused by a disturbed balance between cholesterol secretion into the blood versus uptake. The pathways involved are regulated via a complex interplay of enzymes, transport proteins, transcription factors and non-codin

  8. Cholesterol levels in fragile X syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Levin, Rebecca; Shah, Haroon; Mathur, Shaguna; Darnell, Jennifer C; Ouyang, Bichun

    2015-02-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is associated with intellectual disability and behavioral dysfunction, including anxiety, ADHD symptoms, and autistic features. Although individuals with FXS are largely considered healthy and lifespan is not thought to be reduced, very little is known about the long-term medical health of adults with FXS and no systematically collected information is available on standard laboratory measures from metabolic screens. During the course of follow up of a large cohort of patients with FXS we noted that many patients had low cholesterol and high density lipoprotein (HDL) values and thus initiated a systematic chart review of all cholesterol values present in charts from a clinic cohort of over 500 patients with FXS. Total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and HDL were all significantly reduced in males from the FXS cohort relative to age-adjusted population normative data. This finding has relevance for health monitoring in individuals with FXS, for treatments with cholesterol-lowering agents that have been proposed to target the underlying CNS disorder in FXS based on work in animal models, and for potential biomarker development in FXS.

  9. Cholesterol transport in model membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Sumit; Porcar, Lionel; Butler, Paul; Perez-Salas, Ursula

    2010-03-01

    Physiological processes distribute cholesterol unevenly within the cell. The levels of cholesterol are maintained by intracellular transport and a disruption in the cell's ability to keep these normal levels will lead to disease. Exchange rates of cholesterol are generally studied in model systems using labeled lipid vesicles. Initially donor vesicles have all the cholesterol and acceptor vesicles are devoid of it. They are mixed and after some time the vesicles are separated and cholesterol is traced in each vesicle. The studies performed up to date have significant scatter indicating that the methodologies are not consistent. The present work shows in-situ Time-Resolved SANS studies of cholesterol exchange rates in unsaturated PC lipid vesicles. Molecular dynamics simulations were done to investigate the energetic and kinetic behavior of cholesterol in this system. This synergistic approach will provide insight into our efforts to understand cholesterol traffic.

  10. Public awareness of colon cancer screening among the general population: A study from the Western Region of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Khayyat, Yasir Mohammed; Ibrahim, Ezzeldin Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Screening for colon cancer aims at early detection and prompt treatment of the disease. Prior knowledge of the disease will contribute to increased participation. However, barriers to performing screening are not known. Methods: A survey using a questionnaire was presented to patients attending the Outpatient Department of a tertiary hospital in the Western Region of Saudi Arabia, to evaluate the background knowledge of colon cancer screening, the diagnostic methods used for that ...

  11. Cholesterol excretion and colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broitman, S A

    1981-09-01

    Populations consuming diets high in fat and cholesterol exhibit a greater incidence of colon cancer than those consuming less fat and cholesterol. Lowering elevated serum cholesterol levels experimentally or clinically is associated with increased large-bowel tumorigenesis. Thus, cholesterol lost to the gut, either dietary or endogenously synthesized, appears to have a role in large-bowel cancer. Whether the effect(s) is mediated by increases in fecal bile acid excretion or some other mechanism is not clear.

  12. Determination of Cholesterol Content in Vegetable Oil for Rapid Screening Waste Oil%快速测定植物油胆固醇含量在地沟油筛查中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何文绚; 方润; 李艳霞; 郑声西; 林捷

    2015-01-01

    采用皂化气相色谱氢火焰离子检测器法测试了多个植物油样品,发现胆固醇峰被干扰比较严重,很难得出植物油与地沟油胆固醇含量的界定值。采用SPE进行样品前处理,对SPE处理条件进行优化,得出优化条件为称样量0.25 g ,20 mL 0.6%乙醚-正己烷(V/V)作为淋洗液,20 mL 15%乙醚-正己烷(V/V)作为洗脱液。用SPE气相色谱氢火焰离子检测器法分析了84个植物油样品和13个地沟油样品中胆固醇含量,测定结果表明,植物油胆固醇含量与地沟油胆固醇含量有明显区别,所有植物油胆固醇含量都小于50μg/g,13个地沟油样中11个样胆固醇含量大于50μg/g。因此,采用上述植物油胆固醇测定方法,胆固醇含量超过50μg/g可判定为疑似地沟油,反之不成立。本方法在0~760 mg/L浓度范围内相关系数R2=0.9999,方法检出限为6. 0μg/g,两个浓度水平(17.7和695 mg/L)的相对标准偏差分别为1.6%和1.5%,回收率为103%。%The contents of cholesterol in a number of vegetable oils were determined by saponification-gas chromatography ( FID) . There was quite a large possibility that cholesterol peak was seriously interfered by saponification-gas chromatography ( FID) , so it was difficult to set a cholesterol content value to differentiate vegetable oil from waste oil. Solid phase extraction ( SPE) sample pretreatment was chosen and the process conditions were optimized. The optimal conditions were as follows:0. 25 g of oil samples, 20 mL of 0. 6%ethyl ether-hexane ( V/V) as eluent ( get rid of fatty acid glycerides) and 20 mL of 15% ethyl ether-hexane ( V/V) as eluent ( obtain cholesterol) . An obvious cholesterol-content-difference between vegetable oils and waste oils was found by SPE-GC. The detected cholesterol contents in 84 vegetable oil samples were all less than 50 μg/g and the contents of 11 waste oil samples among the 13 waste oils were greater than 50 μg/g. Therefore, cholesterol content in

  13. Effect of public knowledge, attitudes, and behavior on willingness to undergo colorectal cancer screening using the health belief model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid A Almadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Success of colorectal cancer (CRC screening is dependent in part on the proportion of uptake by the targeted population. We aimed in this study to identify factors that were associated with willingness to undergo CRC screening based on the health belief model (HBM. Patients and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study among citizens of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Demographic data collected included gender, age, education, marital status, employment status, a history of CRC in the family or knowing a friend with CRC, as well as income. A questionnaire was developed in Arabic based on the HBM and included enquiries on knowledge about CRC symptoms and risk factors, types of CRC screening tests, perceived risk of CRC, previously undergoing CRC screening, intent to undergo CRC screening, perceived barriers to CRC screening, perceived severity of CRC, as well as attitudes toward CRC and its screening. Results: Five hundred participants were included. The mean age was 41.0 years (SD 10.7. Males were 50% and only 6.7% of those between 50 and 55 years of age had undergone CRC screening. Of those surveyed, 70.7% were willing to undergo CRC screening. Also, 70.5% thought that CRC is curable, 73.3% believed it was preventable, whereas 56.7% thought it was a fatal disease. Neither gender, level of education, occupation, income, marital status, nor general knowledge about CRC was found to be associated with the willingness to undergo CRC screening. Recognizing that colonoscopy was a screening test (OR 1.55, 95% CI; 1.04-2.29 was associated with a strong desire to undergo CRC screening while choosing a stool-based test was associated with not willing to undergo CRC screening (OR 0.59, 95%CI; 0.38-0.91. Conclusion: We found that the majority of those interviewed were willing to undergo CRC screening and identified a number of barriers as well as potential areas that could be targeted in the promotion of CRC screening uptake if such a national

  14. Readiness and capacity of librarians in public libraries to implement a breast cancer outreach and screening campaign in medically underserved communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goytia, Elliott J; Rapkin, Bruce; Weiss, Elisa S; Golub, David; Guzman, Vivian; O'Connor, Maureen

    2005-11-01

    Community-based partnerships are an important means of addressing cancer health disparities in medically underserved communities. Public libraries may be ideal partners in this effort. To assess the readiness and capacity of a public library system to implement cancer recruitment and outreach campaigns, 58 librarians in the Queens Borough Public Library System in New York completed self-administered questionnaires before and after a training on breast health, cancer, and screening. Results indicate that they are interested in participating in a cancer outreach campaign and feel it is a critical need in their community. Many librarians lacked the knowledge about cancer and cancer information resources needed to participate optimally. Nevertheless, librarians provide a cultural bridge to medically underserved communities. Partnering with a public library system to improve access to care has great potential, yet a number of challenges need to be overcome.

  15. US Army Public Health Command’s (Prov) (Formly USACHPPM) Process to Screen Chemicals in Support of DoD’s CMRM Emerging Contaminants Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    US Army Public Health Command’s (Prov) (Formly USACHPPM) Process to Screen Chemicals in Support of DoD’s CMRM Emerging Contaminants Program...CMRM Emerging Contaminants Program 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER...Occupational Health • DoD Instruction 5000.2 Operation of the Defense Acquisition System • DoD Instruction 4715.18 Emerging Contaminants (EC

  16. Cholesterol crystal embolism (atheroembolism)

    Science.gov (United States)

    VENTURELLI, CHIARA; JEANNIN, GUIDO; SOTTINI, LAURA; DALLERA, NADIA; SCOLARI, FRANCESCO

    2006-01-01

    Cholesterol crystal embolism, known as atheroembolic disease, is caused by showers of cholesterol crystals from an atherosclerotic plaque that occludes small arteries. Embolization can occur spontaneously or as an iatrogenic complication from an invasive vascular procedure (angiography or vascular surgery) and after anticoagulant therapy. The atheroembolism can give rise to different degrees of renal impairment. Some patients show a moderate loss of renal function, others severe renal failure requiring dialysis. Renal outcome can be variable: some patients deteriorate or remain on dialysis, some improve and some remain with chronic renal impairment. Clinically, three types of atheroembolic renal disease have been described: acute, subacute or chronic. More frequently a progressive loss of renal function occurs over weeks. Atheroembolization can involve the skin, gastrointestinal system and central nervous system. The diagnosis is difficult and controversial for the protean extrarenal manifestations. In the past, the diagnosis was often made post-mortem. In the last 10 yrs, awareness of atheroembolic renal disease has improved. The correct diagnosis requires the clinician to be alert. The typical patient is a white male aged >60 yrs with a history of hypertension, smoking and arterial disease. The presence of a classic triad (precipitating event, renal failure and peripheral cholesterol crystal embolization) suggests the diagnosis. This can be confirmed by a biopsy of the target organs. A specific treatment is lacking; however, it is an important diagnosis to make because an aggressive therapeutic approach can be associated with a more favorable clinical outcome. PMID:21977265

  17. Cholesterol binding to ion channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena eLevitan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies demonstrated that membrane cholesterol is a major regulator of ion channel function. The goal of this review is to discuss significant advances that have been recently achieved in elucidating the mechanisms responsible for cholesterol regulation of ion channels. The first major insight that comes from growing number of studies that based on the sterol specificity of cholesterol effects, show that several types of ion channels (nAChR, Kir, BK, TRPV are regulated by specific sterol-protein interactions. This conclusion is supported by demonstrating direct saturable binding of cholesterol to a bacterial Kir channel. The second major advance in the field is the identification of putative cholesterol binding sites in several types of ion channels. These include sites at locations associated with the well-known cholesterol binding motif CRAC and its reversed form CARC in nAChR, BK, and TRPV, as well as novel cholesterol binding regions in Kir channels. Notably, in the majority of these channels, cholesterol is suggested to interact mainly with hydrophobic residues in non-annular regions of the channels being embedded in between transmembrane protein helices. We also discuss how identification of putative cholesterol binding sites is an essential step to understand the mechanistic basis of cholesterol-induced channel regulation. Clearly, however, these are only the first few steps in obtaining a general understanding of cholesterol-ion channels interactions and their roles in cellular and organ functions.

  18. A practice guideline revisited: screening for hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littenberg, B

    1995-06-15

    In 1993, the Clinical Efficacy Assessment Subcommittee began evaluation of new topics and reevaluation of previous guidelines on common screening tests, which were published in Annals of Internal Medicine between 1988 and 1990 and republished as a collection in 1991 (Eddy DM, ed. Common Screening Tests. Philadelphia: American College of Physicians; 1991). Of the 11 guidelines contained in Common Screening Tests, only 3 (for breast, colon, and cholesterol screening) will be published with new data supporting new recommendations. Dr. Littenberg's analysis of the evidence that has appeared since the publication of the original paper on screening for hypertension (Littenberg B, Garber AM, Sox HC. Screening for Hypertension. Ann Intern Med. 1990;112:192-202) presents a new format for updating Clinical Efficacy Assessment Project (CEAP) guidelines that have not been altered by new evidence. This "updated guideline" reports on new published studies and its analysis affirms the approved American College of Physicians recommendations of 1990. The Clinical Efficacy Assessment Subcommittee carried out the Internal and external review procedures that are used for all CEAP guidelines. The plan is to keep all American College of Physicians guidelines updated in this way on a regular basis. Direct any comments or suggestions to Director, Scientific Policy, American College of Physicians, 6th Street at Race, Philadelphia, PA 19106.

  19. Characterization of placental cholesterol transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie L; Wassif, Christopher A; Vaisman, Boris

    2008-01-01

    Patients with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) are born with multiple congenital abnormalities. Postnatal cholesterol supplementation is provided; however, it cannot correct developmental malformations due to in utero cholesterol deficit. Increased transport of cholesterol from maternal to fetal...... circulation might attenuate congenital malformations. The cholesterol transporters Abca1, Abcg1, and Sr-b1 are present in placenta; however, their potential role in placental transport remains undetermined. In mice, expression analyses showed that Abca1 and Abcg1 transcripts increased 2-3-fold between...... embryonic days 13.5 and 18.5 in placental tissue; whereas, Sr-b1 expression decreased. To examine the functional role of Abca1, Abcg1 and Sr-b1 we measured the maternal-fetal transfer of (14)C-cholesterol in corresponding mutant embryos. Disruption of either Abca1 or Sr-b1 decreased cholesterol transfer...

  20. Cholesterol metabolism in Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasinska, Joanna M; Hayden, Michael R

    2011-09-06

    The CNS is rich in cholesterol, which is essential for neuronal development and survival, synapse maturation, and optimal synaptic activity. Alterations in brain cholesterol homeostasis are linked to neurodegeneration. Studies have demonstrated that Huntington disease (HD), a progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disorder resulting from polyglutamine expansion in the huntingtin protein, is associated with changes in cellular cholesterol metabolism. Emerging evidence from human and animal studies indicates that attenuated brain sterol synthesis and accumulation of cholesterol in neuronal membranes represent two distinct mechanisms occurring in the presence of mutant huntingtin that influence neuronal survival. Increased knowledge of how changes in intraneuronal cholesterol metabolism influence the pathogenesis of HD will provide insights into the potential application of brain cholesterol regulation as a therapeutic strategy for this devastating disease.

  1. Cholesterol Embolism: An Overlooked Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinem Nihal ESATOĞLU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute renal failure following angiography is usually due to radiocontrast nephropathy; however, cholesterol embolism should be kept in mind when making the differential diagnosis. Cholesterol embolism is a multisystem disease, usually seen in elderly men who have severe atherosclerosis. In this case report, we describe a patient with cholesterol embolism who had a typical clinical history of progressive renal failure. We hope that this case report will emphasize the importance of this overlooked syndrome.

  2. [The real measurement of non-HDL-cholesterol: Atherogenic cholesterol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, Jesús; Hernández-Mijares, Antonio; Ascaso, Juan F; Blasco, Mariano; Brea, Angel; Díaz, Ángel; González-Santos, Pedro; Mantilla, Teresa; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Pintó, Xavier

    Lowe density lipoproteins (LDL) are the causal agent of cardiovascular diseases. In practice, we identify LDL with cholesterol transported in LDL (cLDL). So, cLDL has become the major target for cardiovascular prevention. Howewer, we have progressive evidences about the role of triglycerides rich lipoproteins, particularly those very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) in promotion and progression of atherosclerosis, that leads cholesterol in VLDL and its remanents as a potential therapeutic target. This feature is particularly important and of a great magnitude, in patients with hypertiglyceridemia. We can to considere, that the non-HDL cholesterol -cLDL+cVLDL+c-remmants+Lp(a)- is the real measurement of atherogenic cholesterol. In addition, non-HDL-cholesterol do not show any variations between postprandial states. In fact, non-HDL-cholesterol should be an excellent marker of atherogenic cholesterol, and an major therapeutic target in patients with atherogenic dyslipidaemia. According with different clinical trials and with the epidemiological and mendelian studies, in patients with high cardiovascular risk, optimal level of cLDL will be under 70mg/dl, and under 100 ng/dl for non-HDL-cholesterol; and in high risk patients, 100mg/dl and 130mg/dl, respectively. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  3. BiebBeep: An Interactive Screen for Supporting Public Library 2.0 Information and Social Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanis, Marije; Meys, Wouter; Groen, Maarten; Veenstra, Mettina; Slakhorst, Wout

    2011-01-01

    This video presents BiebBeep, an interactive touchscreen system that has been developed with the aim to support information and social services for the New Library in Almere, The Netherlands. The constantly updated information displayed on the interactive screen concerns not only the library itself,

  4. A complete process for production of flexible large area polymer solar cells entirely using screen printing-First public demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Jørgensen, Mikkel; Norrman, Kion;

    2009-01-01

    , complete processing in air using commonly available screen printing, and finally, simple mechanical encapsulation using a flexible packaging material and electrical contacting post-production using crimped contacts. We detail the production of more than 2000 modules in one production run and show...

  5. High levels of confusion for cholesterol awareness campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Danika V

    2008-09-15

    Earlier this year, two industry-sponsored advertising campaigns for cholesterol awareness that target the general public were launched in Australia. These campaigns aimed to alert the public to the risks associated with having high cholesterol and encouraged cholesterol testing for wider groups than those specified by the National Heart Foundation. General practitioners should be aware of the potential for the two campaigns to confuse the general public as to who should be tested, and where. The campaign sponsors (Unilever Australasia and Pfizer) each have the potential to benefit by increased market share for their products, and increased profits. These disease awareness campaigns are examples of what is increasingly being termed "condition branding" by pharmaceutical marketing experts.

  6. HDL (Good), LDL (Bad) Cholesterol and Triglycerides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More HDL (Good), LDL (Bad) Cholesterol and Triglycerides Updated:Jul 5,2017 Cholesterol isn’t just ... Your Cholesterol Score Explained What Are High Blood Cholesterol and Triglycerides? How Can I Improve My Cholesterol? | Spanish What ...

  7. What Do My Cholesterol Levels Mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... results: total cholesterol, LDL (“bad”) and HDL (“good”) cholesterol, and triglycerides (blood fats). What should my total cholesterol level ... I Improve My Cholesterol? What Are High Blood Cholesterol and Triglycerides? What Is High Blood Pressure? How Can I ...

  8. Prevention and Treatment of High Cholesterol (Hyperlipidemia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... too many lipids (fats) in it, i.e., cholesterol and triglycerides. In hypercholesterolemia, there’s too much LDL (bad) cholesterol ... Your Cholesterol Score Explained What Are High Blood Cholesterol and Triglycerides? How Can I Improve My Cholesterol? | Spanish What ...

  9. HDL cholesterol: atherosclerosis and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bochem, A.E.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the Western world. Myocardial infarction and stroke are the result of a compromised blood flow which may result from cholesterol accumulation in the vessel wall due to high plasma levels of LDL cholesterol. High plasma levels of HDL

  10. DoD Needs to Improve Screening and Access Controls for General Public Tenants Leasing Housing on Military Installations (REDACTED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    UNDER SECRETARY OF DEFENSE POLICY ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF THE AIR FORCE (FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT AND COMPTROLLER) NAVAL INSPECTOR GENERAL AUDITOR GENERAL ...Installations ( Report No. DODIG-2016-072) We are providing this report for your review and comment. DoD security officials did not properly screen general ... generally accepted government auditing standards. We considered management comments on a draft of this report when preparing the final report . DoD

  11. Awareness of general public towards cancer prostate and screening practice in Arabic communities: a comparative multi-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafa, Mostafa A; Rabah, Danny M; Wahdan, Iman H

    2012-01-01

    The current study aimed at exploring the knowledge and beliefs of men aged forty years and over towards prostate cancer screening and early detection in three Arab countries. The field work was conducted in three countries; Saudi Arabia, Egypt and Jordan, during the period February through December 2011. Our target population were men aged 40 years and over. It was a population-based cross sectional study comprising 400 subjects at each site. In addition to socio-demographic data, history of the present and past medical illness, practice history of prostatic cancer examination, family history of cancer prostate; participants were inquired about their knowledge and attitude towards prostate cancer and screening behavior using two different likert scales. The percentage of participants who practiced regular prostate check up ranged from 8-30%. They had poor knowledge and fair attitude towards prostate cancer screening behavior, where the mean total knowledge score was 10.25±2.5, 10.76±3.39 and 11.24±3.39 whereas the mean total attitude score was 18.3±4.08, 20.68±6.4 and 17.96±5.3 for Saudi Arabia, Egypt and Jordan respectively. The respondents identified the physicians as the main sources of this information (62.4%), though they were not the main motives for regular checkup. Knowledge was the only significant predictor for participants' attitude in the multiple regression models. Participants' attitudes depends mainly on level of knowledge and quantity of information provided to the patients and their families. Such attitudes should rely on a solid background of proper information and motivation from physicians to enhance and empower behaviors towards prostate cancer screening practices.

  12. The yield and feasibility of integrated screening for TB, diabetes and HIV in four public hospitals in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerene, Degu; Hiruy, Nebiyu; Jemal, Ilili; Gebrekiros, Wondimu; Anteneh, Tadesse; Habte, Dereje; Melese, Muluken; Suarez, Pedro; Sangiwa, Gloria

    2017-03-01

    Our objective was to demonstrate the feasibility of integrated care for TB, HIV and diabetes mellitus (DM) in a pilot project in Ethiopia. Healthcare workers in four hospitals screened patients with TB for HIV and DM; patients with HIV for DM and TB; and patients with DM for TB. Fasting and random plasma glucose (RPG) tests were used to confirm the diagnosis of DM. We used screening checklists for TB and DM, and additional risk scoring criteria to identify patients at risk of DM. Of 3439 study participants, 888 were patients with DM, 439 patients with TB and 2112 from HIV clinics. Six of the patients with DM had TB of whom five were already on treatment; and 141 (32.4%) patients with TB had DM, of whom only five were previously diagnosed with DM. Symptomatic patients and those with a risk score of 5 or more were about three times more likely to have abnormal blood glucose level. Of 2075 HIV patients with RPG determined, only 31 (1.5%) had abnormal RPG. Tri-directional screening was feasible for detecting and managing previously undiagnosed TB and DM. More work is needed to better understand the interaction between HIV and DM.

  13. Top Five Lifestyle Changes to Reduce Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Top 5 lifestyle changes to improve your cholesterol Lifestyle changes can help reduce cholesterol, keep you off cholesterol-lowering medications or enhance the effect of your medications. Here are five lifestyle ...

  14. Understand Your Risk for High Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aortic Aneurysm More Understand Your Risk for High Cholesterol Updated:Apr 1,2016 LDL (bad) cholesterol is ... content was last reviewed on 04/21/2014. Cholesterol Guidelines: Putting the pieces together Myth vs. Truth – ...

  15. Estimations of cholesterol, triglycerides and fractionation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimations of cholesterol, triglycerides and fractionation of lipoproteins in serum samples of some Nigerian female subjects. ... low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) ... Article Metrics.

  16. Cholesterol metabolism and colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broitman, S A; Cerda, S; Wilkinson, J

    1993-01-01

    While epidemiologic and concordant experimental data indicate a direct relationship between dietary fat (and presumably caloric) intake and the development of colon cancer, the effect of dietary cholesterol on this disease is still not clear. However, there appears to be a developing literature concerning an inverse relationship between serum and plasma cholesterol levels, and the risk for colon cancer. Findings that low serum cholesterol levels are apparent as early as ten years prior to the detection of colon cancer implies that sub clinical disease is probably not involved initially in this process. The possibility of low serum cholesterol as a bio-marker was considered in epidemiologic studies which focused upon obese men with lower than normal serum cholesterol levels who were found to be at increased risk to colon cancer. While the relationship between low serum cholesterol and colonic or intestinal cholesterol metabolism is presently not understood, current genetic studies provide a promising though as yet unexplored potential association. Alterations which occur during the developmental progression of colonic cancer include changes in chromosome 5, which also carries two genes vital to the biosynthesis and regulation of systemic and cellular cholesterol metabolism, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase, and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCoA R). Regulation of cholesterol metabolism in intestinal cells in vivo and in vitro varies from that seen in normal fibroblasts or hepatocytes in terms of exogenous sources of cholesterol and how these sources regulate internal synthesis. Colonic cancer cells have been used to assess small bowel enterocyte cholesterol metabolism, which has been possible because of their ability to differentiate in culture, however information regarding true colonic enterocyte cholesterol metabolism is relatively scarce. Colonic cancer cells have been shown to possess a diminished or nonexistent ability to use

  17. Can pharmacy assistants play a greater role in public health programs in community pharmacies? Lessons from a chlamydia screening study in Canberra, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeks, Louise S; Cooper, Gabrielle M; Currie, Marian J; Martin, Sarah J; Parker, Rhian M; Del Rosario, Rendry; Hocking, Jane S; Bowden, Francis J

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the engagement of pharmacy assistants (PA) in public health service provision. To explore the experiences of PA participating in a study to determine whether a cash reward, offered to consumers and pharmacy businesses, increased participation in community pharmacy-based chlamydia screening. PA experience of the study education and training package, participant recruitment and conducting screening (providing information about chlamydia, specimen collection and handling urine samples) were evaluated using knowledge assessment, a questionnaire and focus groups. Twenty PA participated in the study: 15 (75%) completed all education and training components, 20 (100%) completed the questionnaire and 10 (50%) attended a focus group. PA rated all education and training components as effective (mean visual analog scale scores >8.5). Most PA (13/18, 72.2%) did not support/were unsure about continuing the program, citing the 25% repeat testing rate (presumed to relate to the cash reward) and privacy/confidentiality issues as reasons. Qualitative analysis suggested that minimizing repeat testing, improved workload management and recognition of, and remuneration for, education and training would make this model more acceptable to PA. Findings from this study support the assertion that PA can play a significant role in public health initiatives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Prenatal screening and genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alderson, P; Aro, A R; Dragonas, T

    2001-01-01

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we...... examine definitions of the relevant concepts in order to illustrate this point. The concepts are i) prenatal, ii) genetic screening, iii) screening, scanning and testing, iv) maternal and foetal tests, v) test techniques and vi) genetic conditions. So far, prenatal screening has little connection...... with precisely defined genetics. There are benefits but also disadvantages in overstating current links between them in the term genetic screening. Policy making and professional and public understandings about screening could be clarified if the distinct meanings of prenatal screening and genetic screening were...

  19. A Finger-Stick Whole-Blood HIV Self-Test as an HIV Screening Tool Adapted to the General Public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prazuck, Thierry; Karon, Stephen; Gubavu, Camelia; Andre, Jerome; Legall, Jean Marie; Bouvet, Elisabeth; Kreplak, Georges; Teglas, Jean Paul; Pialoux, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, the French Health Authority approved the use of HIV self-tests in pharmacies for the general public. This screening tool will allow an increase in the number of screenings and a reduction in the delay between infection and diagnosis, thus reducing the risk of further infections. We previously compared 5 HIV-self test candidates (4 oral fluid and one whole blood) and demonstrated that the whole blood HIV test exhibited the optimal level of performance (sensitivity/specificity). We studied the practicability of an easy-to-use finger-stick whole blood HIV self-test "autotest VIH®", when used in the general public. This multicenter cross-sectional study involved 411 participants from the Parisian region (AIDES and HF association) between April and July 2014 and was divided into 2 separate studies: one evaluating the capability of participants to obtain an interpretable result using only the information notice, and a second evaluating the interpretation of test results, using a provided chart. A total of 411 consenting participants, 264 in the first study and 147 in the second, were included. All participants were over 18 years of age. In the first study, 99.2% of the 264 participants correctly administered the auto-test, and 21.2% needed, upon their request, telephone assistance. Ninety-two percent of participants responded that the test was easy/very easy to perform, and 93.5% did not find any difficulty obtaining a sufficient good quantity of blood. In the second study, 98.1% of the 147 participants correctly interpreted the results. The reading/interpretation errors concerned the negative (2.1%) or the indeterminate (3.3%) auto-tests. The success rate of handling and interpretation of this self-test is very satisfactory, demonstrating its potential for use by the general public and its utility to increase the number of opportunities to detect HIV patients.

  20. A Finger-Stick Whole-Blood HIV Self-Test as an HIV Screening Tool Adapted to the General Public.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Prazuck

    Full Text Available In 2013, the French Health Authority approved the use of HIV self-tests in pharmacies for the general public. This screening tool will allow an increase in the number of screenings and a reduction in the delay between infection and diagnosis, thus reducing the risk of further infections. We previously compared 5 HIV-self test candidates (4 oral fluid and one whole blood and demonstrated that the whole blood HIV test exhibited the optimal level of performance (sensitivity/specificity. We studied the practicability of an easy-to-use finger-stick whole blood HIV self-test "autotest VIH®", when used in the general public.This multicenter cross-sectional study involved 411 participants from the Parisian region (AIDES and HF association between April and July 2014 and was divided into 2 separate studies: one evaluating the capability of participants to obtain an interpretable result using only the information notice, and a second evaluating the interpretation of test results, using a provided chart.A total of 411 consenting participants, 264 in the first study and 147 in the second, were included. All participants were over 18 years of age. In the first study, 99.2% of the 264 participants correctly administered the auto-test, and 21.2% needed, upon their request, telephone assistance. Ninety-two percent of participants responded that the test was easy/very easy to perform, and 93.5% did not find any difficulty obtaining a sufficient good quantity of blood. In the second study, 98.1% of the 147 participants correctly interpreted the results. The reading/interpretation errors concerned the negative (2.1% or the indeterminate (3.3% auto-tests.The success rate of handling and interpretation of this self-test is very satisfactory, demonstrating its potential for use by the general public and its utility to increase the number of opportunities to detect HIV patients.

  1. Rapid screening test for gestational diabetes: public health need, market requirement, initial product design, and experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigl, Bernhard H.; Zwisler, Greg; Peck, Roger; Abu-Haydar, Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    Gestational diabetes is a global epidemic where many urban areas in Southeast Asia have found prevalence rates as high as 20%, exceeding the highest prevalence rates in the developed world. It can have serious and life-threatening consequences for mothers and babies. We are developing two variants of a new, simple, low-cost rapid test for screening for gestational diabetes mellitus for use primarily in low-resource settings. The pair of assays, both semiquantitative rapid diagnostic strip tests for glycated albumin, require neither fasting nor an oral glucose challenge test. One variant is an extremely simple strip test to estimate the level of total glycated albumin in blood. The other, which is slightly more complex and expensive, is a test that determines the ratio of glycated albumin to total albumin. The screening results can be used to refer women to receive additional care during delivery to avoid birth complications as well as counseling on diet and exercise during and after pregnancy. Results with the latter test may also be used to start treatment with glucose-lowering drugs. Both assays will be read visually. We present initial results of a preliminary cost-performance comparison model evaluating the proposed test versus existing alternatives. We also evaluated user needs and schematic paper microfluidics-based designs aimed at overcoming the challenge of visualizing relatively narrow differences between normal and elevated levels of glycated albumin in blood.

  2. Cholesterol testing on a smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oncescu, Vlad; Mancuso, Matthew; Erickson, David

    2014-02-21

    Home self-diagnostic tools for blood cholesterol monitoring have been around for over a decade but their widespread adoption has been limited by the relatively high cost of acquiring a quantitative test-strip reader, complicated procedure for operating the device, and inability to easily store and process results. To address this we have developed a smartphone accessory and software application that allows for the quantification of cholesterol levels in blood. Through a series of human trials we demonstrate that the system can accurately quantify total cholesterol levels in blood within 60 s by imaging standard test strips. In addition, we demonstrate how our accessory is optimized to improve measurement sensitivity and reproducibility across different individual smartphones. With the widespread adoption of smartphones and increasingly sophisticated image processing technology, accessories such as the one presented here will allow cholesterol monitoring to become more accurate and widespread, greatly improving preventive care for cardiovascular disease.

  3. Americans' Cholesterol Levels Keep Falling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and 2013-2014, the CDC reported. Dr. David Friedman is chief of heart failure services at Long ... for cholesterol treatment, all seem to be working," Friedman said. The study was published online Nov. 30 ...

  4. Formation of cholesterol bilayer domains precedes formation of cholesterol crystals in cholesterol/dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine membranes: EPR and DSC studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainali, Laxman; Raguz, Marija; Subczynski, Witold K

    2013-08-01

    Saturation-recovery EPR along with DSC were used to determine the cholesterol content at which pure cholesterol bilayer domains (CBDs) and cholesterol crystals begin to form in dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) membranes. To preserve compositional homogeneity throughout the membrane suspension, lipid multilamellar dispersions were prepared using a rapid solvent exchange method. The cholesterol content increased from 0 to 75 mol %. With spin-labeled cholesterol analogues, it was shown that the CBDs begin to form at ~50 mol % cholesterol. It was confirmed by DSC that the cholesterol solubility threshold for DMPC membranes is detected at ~66 mol % cholesterol. At levels above this cholesterol content, monohydrate cholesterol crystals start to form. The major finding is that the formation of CBDs precedes formation of cholesterol crystals. The region of the phase diagram for cholesterol contents between 50 and 66 mol % is described as a structured one-phase region in which CBDs have to be supported by the surrounding DMPC bilayer saturated with cholesterol. Thus, the phase boundary located at 66 mol % cholesterol separates the structured one-phase region (liquid-ordered phase of DMPC with CBDs) from the two-phase region where the structured liquid-ordered phase of DMPC coexists with cholesterol crystals. It is likely that CBDs are precursors of monohydrate cholesterol crystals.

  5. Chagas disease at the crossroad of international migration and public health policies: why a national screening might not be enough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, C; Bodini, C; Marta, B L; Ciannameo, A; Cacciatore, F

    2011-09-15

    Since the year 2000, Chagas disease, traditionally known as a rural Latin American affliction, has been rising in the ranking of international health priorities due to the growing migration flows from endemic areas to non-endemic ones. Using the example of Italy and reporting preliminary results of a study carried out in the district of Bologna, the paper will argue that a disease-centred public health approach might be inadequate when dealing with complex and uncertain situations, in which complete statistical data are not available or not reliable, and in which the involved actors, health professionals on the one side, migrants on the other, appear to be unaware of the issue, or might even be denying it. In such a context, an effective public health approach should be capable of crossing disciplinary boundaries and bridging the gap between health services and communities, as well as between health and social issues.

  6. Cholesterol Worships a New Idol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ira G. Schulman

    2009-01-01

    The growing worldwide epidemic of cardiovascular disease suggests that new therapeutic strategies are needed to complement statins in the lowering of cholesterol levels. In a recent paper in Science, Tontonoz and colleagues have identified Idol as a protein that can control cholesterol levels by regulating the stability of the low-density lipoprotein receptor; inhibiting the activity of Idol could provide novel approaches for the treatment of cardiovascular disease.

  7. Rastreio de disgrafia motora em escolares da rede pública de ensino Screening for motor dysgraphia in public schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marielza Regina Ismael Martins

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Rastrear sinais de alerta para a disgrafia em escolares do 6º ano do ensino fundamental. MÉTODO: Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, exploratório, de coorte transversal realizado com 630 escolares avaliados através do Inventário Disgráfico Analítico (adaptado, que reconhece as dificuldades da escrita através do traçado dos grafismos. RESULTADOS : Em 22% (n = 138 da amostra apareceram todos os indicativos de disgrafia, sendo que o indicador mais prevalente foi o de linha ascendente/descendente/flutuante (53,6%. Se correlacionados os indicadores ao gênero,os meninos apresentaram diferença significativa (p OBJECTIVE: To screen for warning signs of dysgraphia in schoolchildren at the sixth grade of elementary school. METHOD: This was a descriptive, exploratory, cross-sectional cohort study performed with 630 schoolchildren assessed through the (adapted Analytical Dysgraphia Inventory, which recognizes difficulties in writing through the tracing the graphics. RESULTS: A total of 22% (n = 138 of the sample presented all indications of dysgraphia; the most prevalent indicator was ascending/descending/fluctuating lines (53.6%. When the indicators were correlated to gender, males showed a significant difference (p < 0.05 in most of them. Among the warning signs of co-occurrences, dyslexia was the most prevalent indicator (22%. CONCLUSION: Given the large number of warning signs of dysgraphia observed in schoolchildren, it is advisable to screen for these signs, in order to implement early interventions.

  8. Perception of women on cancer screening and sexual behavior in a rural area, Jamaica: Is there a public health problem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen D. Kerr-Campbell

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Ministry of Health in Jamaica recommends that cervical cancer screening be undergo by women 25-54 years old. The age range is based on international standards, but this is in need for revision based on the parish of St. Thomas. Aims: The study aimed to evaluate the perception and practice of Pap smear and the sexual practices of women in St. Thomas in order to aid policy. Patients and Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study of 210 women (15-54 years from St. Thomas, Jamaica. Results: Eighty eight percent of the sample had done a Pap smear and 24% indicated that they did this at least once every 12 months. The Pap smear results revealed that 83.2% of the sample was normal and 11.5% of the participants knew that their Pap smear was abnormal. Eighty percent of those with abnormal Pap smear were aged between 20-35 years. Sixty percent indicated that they did not believe they were infected with any STDs, but the Pap smear results showed that 76.4% of them had STDs. Eighty-three percent of the sample indicated having one sexual partner; 22.1% indicated that they began having sex before 15 years; 71% began having sex at 15-20 years; 76% of the sample used a condom and 12% reported that they had never practiced safe sex. Conclusion: This study finds that the age interval for conducting Pap smear screening should be lowered to 20 years for women in the parish of St. Thomas, Jamaica.

  9. Screen Practice in Curating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Tanya Søndergaard

    2014-01-01

    During the past one and a half decade, a curatorial orientation towards "screen practice" has expanded the moving image and digital art into the public domain, exploring alternative artistic uses of the screen. The emergence of urban LED screens in the late 1990s provided a new venue that allowed...

  10. Principles of Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsky, Paul F

    2015-10-01

    Cancer screening has long been an important component of the struggle to reduce the burden of morbidity and mortality from cancer. Notwithstanding this history, many aspects of cancer screening remain poorly understood. This article presents a summary of basic principles of cancer screening that are relevant for researchers, clinicians, and public health officials alike. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. A relation between high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and bile cholesterol saturation.

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, J R; Heaton, K W; Macfarlane, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    The association of cholesterol gall stones with coronary artery disease is controversial. To investigate this possible relation at the biochemical level, bile cholesterol saturation and the plasma concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL cholesterol) were measured in 25 healthy, middle-aged women. Bile cholesterol saturation index was negatively correlated with HDL cholesterol. It was positively correlated with plasma triglycerides and ...

  12. Cholesterol and benign prostate disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Michael R; Solomon, Keith R

    2011-01-01

    The origins of benign prostatic diseases, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS), are poorly understood. Patients suffering from benign prostatic symptoms report a substantially reduced quality of life, and the relationship between benign prostate conditions and prostate cancer is uncertain. Epidemiologic data for BPH and CP/CPPS are limited, however an apparent association between BPH symptoms and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been consistently reported. The prostate synthesizes and stores large amounts of cholesterol and prostate tissues may be particularly sensitive to perturbations in cholesterol metabolism. Hypercholesterolemia, a major risk factor for CVD, is also a risk factor for BPH. Animal model and clinical trial findings suggest that agents that inhibit cholesterol absorption from the intestine, such as the class of compounds known as polyene macrolides, can reduce prostate gland size and improve lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Observational studies indicate that cholesterol-lowering drugs reduce the risk of aggressive prostate cancer, while prostate cancer cell growth and survival pathways depend in part on cholesterol-sensitive biochemical mechanisms. Here we review the evidence that cholesterol metabolism plays a role in the incidence of benign prostate disease and we highlight possible therapeutic approaches based on this concept.

  13. Steroidal Triterpenes of Cholesterol Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjana Rozman

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol synthesis is a ubiquitous and housekeeping metabolic pathway that leads to cholesterol, an essential structural component of mammalian cell membranes, required for proper membrane permeability and fluidity. The last part of the pathway involves steroidal triterpenes with cholestane ring structures. It starts by conversion of acyclic squalene into lanosterol, the first sterol intermediate of the pathway, followed by production of 20 structurally very similar steroidal triterpene molecules in over 11 complex enzyme reactions. Due to the structural similarities of sterol intermediates and the broad substrate specificity of the enzymes involved (especially sterol-Δ24-reductase; DHCR24 the exact sequence of the reactions between lanosterol and cholesterol remains undefined. This article reviews all hitherto known structures of post-squalene steroidal triterpenes of cholesterol synthesis, their biological roles and the enzymes responsible for their synthesis. Furthermore, it summarises kinetic parameters of enzymes (Vmax and Km and sterol intermediate concentrations from various tissues. Due to the complexity of the post-squalene cholesterol synthesis pathway, future studies will require a comprehensive meta-analysis of the pathway to elucidate the exact reaction sequence in different tissues, physiological or disease conditions. A major reason for the standstill of detailed late cholesterol synthesis research was the lack of several steroidal triterpene standards. We aid to this efforts by summarizing commercial and laboratory standards, referring also to chemical syntheses of meiosis-activating sterols.

  14. Circulating Cholesterol Levels May Link to the Factors Influencing Parkinson’s Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesA growing literature suggests that circulating cholesterol levels have been associated with Parkinson’s disease (PD. In this study, we investigated a possible causal basis for the cholesterol-PD link.MethodsFasting plasma cholesterol levels were obtained from 91 PD and 70 age- and gender-matched controls from an NINDS PD Biomarkers Program cohort at the Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine. Based on the literature, genetic polymorphisms in selected cholesterol management genes (APOE, LDLR, LRP1, and LRPAP1 were chosen as confounding variables because they may influence both cholesterol levels and PD risk. First, the marginal structure model was applied, where the associations of total- and LDL-cholesterol levels with genetic polymorphisms, statin usage, and smoking history were estimated using linear regression. Then, potential causal influences of total- and LDL-cholesterol on PD occurrence were investigated using a generalized propensity score approach in the second step.ResultsBoth statins (p < 0.001 and LRP1 (p < 0.03 influenced total- and LDL-cholesterol levels. There also was a trend for APOE to affect total- and LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.08 for both, and for LRPAR1 to affect LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.05. Conversely, LDLR did not influence plasma cholesterol levels (p > 0.19. Based on propensity score methods, lower total- and LDL-cholesterol were significantly linked to PD (p < 0.001 and p = 0.04, respectively.ConclusionThe current study suggests that circulating total- and LDL-cholesterol levels potentially may be linked to the factor(s influencing PD risk. Further studies to validate these results would impact our understanding of the role of cholesterol as a risk factor in PD, and its relationship to recent public health controversies.

  15. Niacin to Boost Your HDL "Good" Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niacin can boost 'good' cholesterol Niacin is a B vitamin that may raise your HDL ("good") cholesterol. But side effects might outweigh benefits for most ... been used to increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol — the "good" cholesterol that helps remove low-density ...

  16. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol: How High

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Rajagopal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C is considered anti-atherogenic good cholesterol. It is involved in reverse transport of lipids. Epidemiological studies have found inverse relationship of HDL-C and coronary heart disease (CHD risk. When grouped according to HDL-C, subjects having HDL-C more than 60 mg/dL had lesser risk of CHD than those having HDL-C of 40-60 mg/dL, who in turn had lesser risk than those who had HDL-C less than 40 mg/dL. No upper limit for beneficial effect of HDL-C on CHD risk has been identified. The goals of treating patients with low HDL-C have not been firmly established. Though many drugs are known to improve HDL-C concentration, statins are proven to improve CHD risk and mortality. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP is involved in metabolism of HDL-C and its inhibitors are actively being screened for clinical utility. However, final answer is still awaited on CETP-inhibitors.

  17. How important is Overdiagnosis to members of the public offered the chance to include it in an online multi-criteria decision aid for prostate cancer screening?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Mette Kjer; Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Salkeld, Glenn;

    Objectives To establish the proportion of men who chose to include Overdiagnosis as a criterion in an online multi-criteria decision aid for the prostate cancer screening decision; and to determine the relative importance assigned to Overdiagnosis by those who included it in their personalised aid...... was 33%. Conclusions Overdiagnosis was prominent among the criteria selected from a menu by male members of the public participating in a trial of online multi-criteria decision aids for prostate cancer. Notably, over 40% of those who excluded 4 to 6 of the 10 criteria included Overdiagnosis in their aid....... Methods The data are from the 'Pick Your Own' arm of an Australian community panel-based trial involving men aged 40-69 years without diagnosed prostate cancer. The 720 participants were asked to choose between 1 and 10 criteria for inclusion in their aid. With only Overdiagnosis spelled out here...

  18. [Hearing screening in a public hospital in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil: hearing impairment and risk factors in neonates and infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiensoli, Luciana Oliveira; Goulart, Lúcia Maria Horta de Figueiredo; Resende, Luciana Macedo de; Colosimo, Enrico Antônio

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of hearing impairment in children in a public hospital in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and to investigate the association with risk factors described in the literature. This study was cross-sectional and retrospective and analyzed 798 newborns and infants evaluated in the Universal Neonatal Hearing Screening Program from June 2002 to December 2003. The risk factors established by the Joint Committee on Infant Hearing in 1994 and Azevedo in 1996 were studied, besides prematurity. Prevalence of hearing impairment was 1.8% (15 cases). A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to verify associations between risk factors and hearing impairment, showing a significant statistical association (p ototoxic drugs, and low birth weight. A significant prevalence of hearing impairment in neonates and infants was confirmed. Attention should thus be focused on risk factors for hearing impairment, using hearing programs that ensure prevention, early detection, and intervention.

  19. Amperometric determination of serum total cholesterol with nanoparticles of cholesterol esterase and cholesterol oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, V; Malik, J; Prashant, A; Jaiwal, P K; Pundir, C S

    2016-05-01

    We describe the preparation of glutaraldehyde cross-linked and functionalized cholesterol esterase nanoparticles (ChENPs) and cholesterol oxidase nanoparticles (ChOxNPs) aggregates and their co-immobilization onto Au electrode for improved amperometric determination of serum total cholesterol. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images of ChENPs and ChOxNPs showed their spherical shape and average size of 35.40 and 56.97 nm, respectively. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies of Au electrode confirmed the co-immobilization of enzyme nanoparticles (ENPs). The biosensor exhibited optimal response at pH 5.5 and 40°C within 5 s when polarized at +0.25 V versus Ag/AgCl. The working/linear range of the biosensor was 10-700 mg/dl for cholesterol. The sensor showed high sensitivity and measured total cholesterol as low as 0.1 mg/dl. The biosensor was evaluated and employed for total cholesterol determination in sera of apparently healthy and diseased persons. The analytical recovery of added cholesterol was 90%, whereas the within-batch and between-batch coefficients of variation (CVs) were less than 2% and less than 3%. There was a good correlation (r = 0.99) between serum cholesterol values as measured by the standard enzymic colorimetric method and the current method. The initial activity of ENPs/working electrode was reduced by 50% during its regular use (200 times) over a period of 60 days when stored dry at 4°C.

  20. Diverse small molecule inhibitors of human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease APE1 identified from a screen of a large public collection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorjbal Dorjsuren

    Full Text Available The major human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease APE1 plays a pivotal role in the repair of base damage via participation in the DNA base excision repair (BER pathway. Increased activity of APE1, often observed in tumor cells, is thought to contribute to resistance to various anticancer drugs, whereas down-regulation of APE1 sensitizes cells to DNA damaging agents. Thus, inhibiting APE1 repair endonuclease function in cancer cells is considered a promising strategy to overcome therapeutic agent resistance. Despite ongoing efforts, inhibitors of APE1 with adequate drug-like properties have yet to be discovered. Using a kinetic fluorescence assay, we conducted a fully-automated high-throughput screen (HTS of the NIH Molecular Libraries Small Molecule Repository (MLSMR, as well as additional public collections, with each compound tested as a 7-concentration series in a 4 µL reaction volume. Actives identified from the screen were subjected to a panel of confirmatory and counterscreen tests. Several active molecules were identified that inhibited APE1 in two independent assay formats and exhibited potentiation of the genotoxic effect of methyl methanesulfonate with a concomitant increase in AP sites, a hallmark of intracellular APE1 inhibition; a number of these chemotypes could be good starting points for further medicinal chemistry optimization. To our knowledge, this represents the largest-scale HTS to identify inhibitors of APE1, and provides a key first step in the development of novel agents targeting BER for cancer treatment.

  1. Non- or full-laxative CT colonography vs. endoscopic tests for colorectal cancer screening: A randomised survey comparing public perceptions and intentions to undergo testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanouni, Alex; Wardle, Jane; Von Wagner, Christian [University College London, Health Behaviour Research Centre, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, London (United Kingdom); Halligan, Steve; Plumb, Andrew; Boone, Darren [University College London, Centre for Medical Imaging, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-15

    Compare public perceptions and intentions to undergo colorectal cancer screening tests following detailed information regarding CT colonography (CTC; after non-laxative preparation or full-laxative preparation), optical colonoscopy (OC) or flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS). A total of 3,100 invitees approaching screening age (45-54 years) were randomly allocated to receive detailed information on a single test and asked to return a questionnaire. Outcomes included perceptions of preparation and test tolerability, health benefits, sensitivity and specificity, and intention to undergo the test. Six hundred three invitees responded with valid questionnaire data. Non-laxative preparation was rated more positively than enema or full-laxative preparations [effect size (r) = 0.13 to 0.54; p < 0.0005 to 0.036]; both forms of CTC and FS were rated more positively than OC in terms of test experience (r = 0.26 to 0.28; all p-values < 0.0005). Perceptions of health benefits, sensitivity and specificity (p = 0.250 to 0.901), and intention to undergo the test (p = 0.213) did not differ between tests (n = 144-155 for each test). Despite non-laxative CTC being rated more favourably, this study did not find evidence that offering it would lead to substantially higher uptake than full-laxative CTC or other methods. However, this study was limited by a lower than anticipated response rate. (orig.)

  2. A Novel Public Library-Based Sexually Transmitted Infection Screening Program for Younger High-Risk Groups in Omaha, Nebraska, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delair, Shirley F; Lyden, Elizabeth R; O'Keefe, Anne L; Simonsen, Kari A; Nared, Sherri R; Berthold, Elizabeth A; Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu

    2016-04-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) are the two most commonly reported sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the United States (U.S.) and Douglas County, Nebraska has STI rates consistently above the U.S. average. The Douglas County Health Department (DCHD) developed an outreach CT and NG screening program in public libraries to address the problem beyond the traditional STI clinic setting. This study evaluates the effectiveness of the program and identifies factors predictive of CT and NG infections. A retrospective review of surveys of library patrons and DCHD traditional STI clinic clients who submitted urine tests for CT and NG from June 2010 through April 2014 was done. Chi square, Fisher exact, Student's t tests, univariate and multivariate logistic regression were conducted. A total of 977 library records and 4871 DCHD clinic records were reviewed. The percent positive was lower in the library than in the traditional clinic for CT (9.9 vs. 11.2 %) and NG (2.74 vs. 5.3 %) (p = 0.039 and p Library clients were more likely to be 19 years and younger (OR 6.14, 95 % CI: 5.0, 7.5), Black (OR 3.4, 95 % CI: 2.8, 4.1), and asymptomatic (OR 12.4, 95 % CI: 9.9, 15.5) compared to traditional clinic clients. The library STI screening program effectively reaches a younger, asymptomatic, and predominantly Black population compared to a traditional health department clinic site.

  3. Diverse small molecule inhibitors of human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease APE1 identified from a screen of a large public collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorjsuren, Dorjbal; Kim, Daemyung; Vyjayanti, Vaddadi N; Maloney, David J; Jadhav, Ajit; Wilson, David M; Simeonov, Anton

    2012-01-01

    The major human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease APE1 plays a pivotal role in the repair of base damage via participation in the DNA base excision repair (BER) pathway. Increased activity of APE1, often observed in tumor cells, is thought to contribute to resistance to various anticancer drugs, whereas down-regulation of APE1 sensitizes cells to DNA damaging agents. Thus, inhibiting APE1 repair endonuclease function in cancer cells is considered a promising strategy to overcome therapeutic agent resistance. Despite ongoing efforts, inhibitors of APE1 with adequate drug-like properties have yet to be discovered. Using a kinetic fluorescence assay, we conducted a fully-automated high-throughput screen (HTS) of the NIH Molecular Libraries Small Molecule Repository (MLSMR), as well as additional public collections, with each compound tested as a 7-concentration series in a 4 µL reaction volume. Actives identified from the screen were subjected to a panel of confirmatory and counterscreen tests. Several active molecules were identified that inhibited APE1 in two independent assay formats and exhibited potentiation of the genotoxic effect of methyl methanesulfonate with a concomitant increase in AP sites, a hallmark of intracellular APE1 inhibition; a number of these chemotypes could be good starting points for further medicinal chemistry optimization. To our knowledge, this represents the largest-scale HTS to identify inhibitors of APE1, and provides a key first step in the development of novel agents targeting BER for cancer treatment.

  4. The usefulness of total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The usefulness of total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein - cholesterol ratio in ... cholesterol and/or highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol/total cholesterol ratios in the interpretation of lipid profile result in clinical practice. ... Article Metrics.

  5. An evaluation of automated chest radiography reading software for tuberculosis screening among public- and private-sector patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Toufiq; Codlin, Andrew J; Rahman, Md Mahfuzur; Nahar, Ayenun; Reja, Mehdi; Islam, Tariqul; Qin, Zhi Zhen; Khan, Md Abdus Shakur; Banu, Sayera; Creswell, Jacob

    2017-05-01

    Computer-aided reading (CAR) of medical images is becoming increasingly common, but few studies exist for CAR in tuberculosis (TB). We designed a prospective study evaluating CAR for chest radiography (CXR) as a triage tool before Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert).Consecutively enrolled adults in Dhaka, Bangladesh, with TB symptoms received CXR and Xpert. Each image was scored by CAR and graded by a radiologist. We compared CAR with the radiologist for sensitivity and specificity, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), and calculated the potential Xpert tests saved.A total of 18 036 individuals were enrolled. TB prevalence by Xpert was 15%. The radiologist graded 49% of CXRs as abnormal, resulting in 91% sensitivity and 58% specificity. At a similar sensitivity, CAR had a lower specificity (41%), saving fewer (36%) Xpert tests. The AUC for CAR was 0.74 (95% CI 0.73-0.75). CAR performance declined with increasing age. The radiologist grading was superior across all sub-analyses.Using CAR can save Xpert tests, but the radiologist's specificity was superior. Differentiated CAR thresholds may be required for different populations. Access to, and costs of, human readers must be considered when deciding to use CAR software. More studies are needed to evaluate CAR using different screening approaches. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  6. Let's Talk About Water: Using Film Screenings to Engage Students and the Public in Water Science and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem Arrigo, J. A.; Berry, K.; Hooper, R. P.; Lilienfeld, L.

    2013-12-01

    "Let's Talk about Water" is a film symposium designed to bring together experts and the public to talk about the complex water issues facing society. The format of the event is quite simple: a panel of experts and the audience view a water documentary (such as "FLOW", "Liquid Assets", or "Gasland") together and there is an extended moderated discussion period following the film between the panel and the audience. Over the course of several events, we have developed best practices that make this simple format very effective. A film creates a context of subject and language for the discussion--it gets the audience and the panel on the same page. The moderators must actively manage the discussion, both challenging the panelists with follow up questions, asking questions to simplify the language the expert is using, and passing a question among panelists to bring out different points of view. The panelists are provided with the film in advance to view and, most importantly, meet the day before the event to discuss the film. This makes for a much more convivial discussion at the event. We have found that these discussions can easily be sustained for 90 to 120 minutes with active audience participation. We have found key element of the event is local relevance. Films should be carefully chosen to resonate with the audience, and the local host is critical in defining the audience, goals and identified panel members. Having local experts from universities and representatives from local water authorities and environmental groups bring a sense of community and a confidence in the audience that the panel members have local knowledge that is important for sustaining discussion. The discussion begins with points raised by the movie (are these issues real? Do they apply here? What are the scientific, engineering, and policy solutions to these problems?) and then segues into a discussion about career opportunities in the water sector, volunteer opportunities in the community or

  7. A Finger-Stick Whole-Blood HIV Self-Test as an HIV Screening Tool Adapted to the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prazuck, Thierry; Karon, Stephen; Gubavu, Camelia; Andre, Jerome; Legall, Jean Marie; Bouvet, Elisabeth; Kreplak, Georges; Teglas, Jean Paul; Pialoux, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2013, the French Health Authority approved the use of HIV self-tests in pharmacies for the general public. This screening tool will allow an increase in the number of screenings and a reduction in the delay between infection and diagnosis, thus reducing the risk of further infections. We previously compared 5 HIV-self test candidates (4 oral fluid and one whole blood) and demonstrated that the whole blood HIV test exhibited the optimal level of performance (sensitivity/specificity). We studied the practicability of an easy-to-use finger-stick whole blood HIV self-test “autotest VIH®”, when used in the general public. Methods and Materials This multicenter cross-sectional study involved 411 participants from the Parisian region (AIDES and HF association) between April and July 2014 and was divided into 2 separate studies: one evaluating the capability of participants to obtain an interpretable result using only the information notice, and a second evaluating the interpretation of test results, using a provided chart. Results A total of 411 consenting participants, 264 in the first study and 147 in the second, were included. All participants were over 18 years of age. In the first study, 99.2% of the 264 participants correctly administered the auto-test, and 21.2% needed, upon their request, telephone assistance. Ninety-two percent of participants responded that the test was easy/very easy to perform, and 93.5% did not find any difficulty obtaining a sufficient good quantity of blood. In the second study, 98.1% of the 147 participants correctly interpreted the results. The reading/interpretation errors concerned the negative (2.1%) or the indeterminate (3.3%) auto-tests. Conclusions The success rate of handling and interpretation of this self-test is very satisfactory, demonstrating its potential for use by the general public and its utility to increase the number of opportunities to detect HIV patients. PMID:26882229

  8. Cholesterol confusion and statin controversy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert; Du; Broff; Michel; de; Lorgeril

    2015-01-01

    The role of blood cholesterol levels in coronary heart disease(CHD) and the true effect of cholesterollowering statin drugs are debatable. In particular,whether statins actually decrease cardiac mortality and increase life expectancy is controversial. Concurrently,the Mediterranean diet model has been shown to prolong life and reduce the risk of diabetes,cancer,and CHD. We herein review current data related to both statins and the Mediterranean diet. We conclude that the expectation that CHD could be prevented or eliminated by simply reducing cholesterol appears unfounded. On the contrary,we should acknowledge the inconsistencies of the cholesterol theory and recognize the proven benefits of a healthy lifestyle incorporating a Mediterranean diet to prevent CHD.

  9. Polarizable multipolar electrostatics for cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Timothy L.; Popelier, Paul L. A.

    2016-08-01

    FFLUX is a novel force field under development for biomolecular modelling, and is based on topological atoms and the machine learning method kriging. Successful kriging models have been obtained for realistic electrostatics of amino acids, small peptides, and some carbohydrates but here, for the first time, we construct kriging models for a sizeable ligand of great importance, which is cholesterol. Cholesterol's mean total (internal) electrostatic energy prediction error amounts to 3.9 kJ mol-1, which pleasingly falls below the threshold of 1 kcal mol-1 often cited for accurate biomolecular modelling. We present a detailed analysis of the error distributions.

  10. Regulation of biliary cholesterol secretion and reverse cholesterol transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikkers, Arne

    2016-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization the number one cause of death throughout the world is cardiovascular disease. Therefore, there is an urgent need for new therapeutic strategies to prevent and treat cardiovascular disease. One possible way is to target the HDL-driven reverse cholesterol tra

  11. Regulation of biliary cholesterol secretion and reverse cholesterol transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikkers, Arne

    2016-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization the number one cause of death throughout the world is cardiovascular disease. Therefore, there is an urgent need for new therapeutic strategies to prevent and treat cardiovascular disease. One possible way is to target the HDL-driven reverse cholesterol

  12. Monomethylarsonous acid inhibited endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis in human skin fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Lei [Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0403 (United States); Xiao, Yongsheng [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0403 (United States); Wang, Yinsheng, E-mail: yinsheng.wang@ucr.edu [Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0403 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0403 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Human exposure to arsenic in drinking water is a widespread public health concern, and such exposure is known to be associated with many human diseases. The detailed molecular mechanisms about how arsenic species contribute to the adverse human health effects, however, remain incompletely understood. Monomethylarsonous acid [MMA(III)] is a highly toxic and stable metabolite of inorganic arsenic. To exploit the mechanisms through which MMA(III) exerts its cytotoxic effect, we adopted a quantitative proteomic approach, by coupling stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) with LC-MS/MS analysis, to examine the variation in the entire proteome of GM00637 human skin fibroblasts following acute MMA(III) exposure. Among the ∼ 6500 unique proteins quantified, ∼ 300 displayed significant changes in expression after exposure with 2 μM MMA(III) for 24 h. Subsequent analysis revealed the perturbation of de novo cholesterol biosynthesis, selenoprotein synthesis and Nrf2 pathways evoked by MMA(III) exposure. Particularly, MMA(III) treatment resulted in considerable down-regulation of several enzymes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis. In addition, real-time PCR analysis showed reduced mRNA levels of select genes in this pathway. Furthermore, MMA(III) exposure contributed to a distinct decline in cellular cholesterol content and significant growth inhibition of multiple cell lines, both of which could be restored by supplementation of cholesterol to the culture media. Collectively, the present study demonstrated that the cytotoxicity of MMA(III) may arise, at least in part, from the down-regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis enzymes and the resultant decrease of cellular cholesterol content. - Highlights: • MMA(III)-induced perturbation of the entire proteome of GM00637 cells is studied. • Quantitative proteomic approach revealed alterations of multiple cellular pathways. • MMA(III) inhibits de novo cholesterol biosynthesis. • MMA

  13. Screen Practice in Curating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Tanya Søndergaard

    2014-01-01

    During the past one and a half decade, a curatorial orientation towards "screen practice" has expanded the moving image and digital art into the public domain, exploring alternative artistic uses of the screen. The emergence of urban LED screens in the late 1990s provided a new venue that allowed...... for digital art to expand into public space. It also offered a political point of departure, inviting for confrontation with the Spectacle and with the politics and ideology of the screen as a mass communication medium that instrumentalized spectator positions. In this article I propose that screen practice...... to the dispositif of screen practice in curating, resulting in a medium-based curatorial discourse. With reference to the nomadic exhibition project Nordic Outbreak that I co-curated with Nina Colosi in 2013 and 2014, I suggest that the topos of the defined visual display area, frequently still known as "the screen...

  14. Low serum LDL cholesterol levels are associated with elevated mortality from liver cancer in Japan: the Ibaraki Prefectural health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Nobue; Sairenchi, Toshimi; Irie, Fujiko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Iimura, Kyoko; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Muto, Takashi; Ota, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    Liver cancer a global public health concern and well known for poor prognosis. The association between low total cholesterol level and liver cancer has been reported. However, the association between low low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels and liver cancer is still unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between LDL cholesterol level and liver cancer mortality. A total of 16,217 persons (5,551 men and 10,666 women) aged 40-79 years in 1993 were followed until 2008. LDL cholesterol levels were divided into four categories (LDL cholesterol level for liver cancer mortality was calculated using a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model. Covariates were age, sex, alanine transaminase, body mass index, alcohol intake and smoking status, all of which were correlated with LDL cholesterol levels. There were 51 deaths (32 men and 19 women) from liver cancer. Multivariable hazard ratios of liver cancer deaths for LDL cholesterol levels of LDL cholesterol levels of 80-99 mg/dl was 1.03 (95% CI: 0.42, 2.53), and for LDL cholesterol levels of ≥120 mg/dl was 0.43 (95% CI: 0.20, 0.92) compared with LDL cholesterol levels of 100-199 mg/dl (p for trendLDL cholesterol levels are associated with elevated risk of liver cancer mortality. Low LDL cholesterol may be a predictive marker for death due to liver cancer.

  15. Cholesterol absorption and excretion in ileostomy subjects on high- and low-dietary-cholesterol intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellegård, L; Bosaeus, I

    1994-01-01

    Six healthy ileostomy subjects were given [3H]cholesterol and [14C]beta-sitosterol in a single meal together with two controlled diets containing 150 or 450 mg cholesterol/d. Each diet was eaten for 3 d. Cholesterol absorption and excretion of cholesterol, bile acids, fat, energy, and nitrogen were analyzed. Fractional cholesterol absorption increased from 44 +/- 2.6% (mean +/- SE) to 61 +/- 3.4% (P effluent, or excretion of energy, nitrogen, fat, and bile acids did not differ between periods. Endogenous cholesterol excretion remained unchanged whereas net cholesterol excretion (output minus intake) was 37% higher (P < 0.05) on low compared with high cholesterol intake.

  16. Why have total cholesterol levels declined in most developed countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ford Earl S

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our paper addresses three major public health issues: cholesterol, statins and policies to prevent cardiovascular disease. Discussion Total cholesterol levels in whole populations have fallen substantially in the USA, UK and most other developed countries. This has greatly contributed to decreases in cardiovascular disease deaths. The evidence identifying diet as the major contributor to these historical falls in cholesterol is powerful and consistent. Large falls occurred before statins were introduced. Additional substantial falls occurred before statins were widely used. Now, up to 14% adults in Western populations currently receive statins for primary prevention. Furthermore, because diet is now only slowly improving, the statin contribution currently appears proportionately larger. Summary In conclusion, diet change explains most of the historical falls in cholesterol. Until very recently, the contribution from statins has been surprisingly modest. Furthermore, many middle income countries may have neither the resources nor the infrastructure for mass statin therapy. Further substantial falls in cholesterol are therefore unlikely to be obtained simply by increased use of statins or dietary advice to individuals if unsupported by the wider environment. This further emphasises the need for more effective structural policies. Regulatory and fiscal interventions could easily eradicate industrial transfats, halve the intake of dietary saturated fat, and subsidise healthier fats.

  17. Membrane Cholesterol Modulates Superwarfarin Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marangoni, M. Natalia; Martynowycz, Michael W.; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Braun, David; Polak, Paul E.; Weinberg, Guy; Rubinstein, Israel; Gidalevitz, David; Feinstein, Douglas L.

    2016-04-26

    Superwarfarins are modified analogs of warfarin with additional lipophilic aromatic rings, up to 100-fold greater potency, and longer biological half-lives. We hypothesized that increased hydrophobicity allowed interactions with amphiphilic membranes and modulation of biological responses. We find that superwarfarins brodifacoum and difenacoum increase lactate production and cell death in neuroblastoma cells. In contrast, neither causes changes in glioma cells that have higher cholesterol content. After choleterol depletion, lactate production was increased and cell viability was reduced. Drug-membrane interactions were examined by surface X-ray scattering using Langmuir monolayers of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and/or cholesterol. Specular X-ray reflectivity data revealed that superwarfarins, but not warfarin, intercalate between dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine molecules, whereas grazing incidence X-ray diffraction demonstrated changes in lateral crystalline order of the film. Neither agent showed significant interactions with monolayers containing >20% cholesterol. These findings demonstrate an affinity of superwarfarins to biomembranes and suggest that cellular responses to these agents are regulated by cholesterol content.

  18. The ABC of cholesterol transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plösch, Torsten

    2004-01-01

    Cholesterol fulfills an indispensable role in mammalian physiology. It is an important constituent of all cell membranes. Furthermore, it is the precursor of steroid hormones, which regulate a variety of physiological functions, and of bile salts, which are necessary for the generation of bile flow

  19. Cholesterol, bile acid and triglyceride metabolism intertwined

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonewille, Marleen

    2016-01-01

    Hyperlipidemie wordt gekarakteriseerd door verhoogd plasma cholesterol en/of triglyceriden en sterk geassocieerd met het risico op cardiovasculaire aandoeningen. Dit proefschrift beschrijft onderzoek naar de regulatie van plasma cholesterol en triglyceriden concentraties en de achterliggende mechani

  20. How Is High Blood Cholesterol Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for total and HDL cholesterol does not require fasting. If your total cholesterol is 200 mg/dL ... triglyceride level include: Overweight and obesity Lack of physical activity Cigarette smoking Excessive alcohol use A very high ...

  1. What You Need to Know about Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 164304.html What You Need to Know About Cholesterol Heart expert explains the difference between good and ... 28, 2017 MONDAY, March 27, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Cholesterol plays a vital role in your health, so ...

  2. Do You Know Your Cholesterol Levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Health Information Center Do You Know Your Cholesterol Levels? Print-friendly Version (PDF, 6.1 MB) ... Eat Smart Did you know that high blood cholesterol is a serious problem among Latinos? About one ...

  3. High Cholesterol: Medicines to Help You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women High Cholesterol--Medicines To Help You Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... side effects for each drug, check Drugs@FDA . Cholesterol Absorption Inhibitors Brand Name Generic Name Zetia Ezetimibe ...

  4. Active membrane cholesterol as a physiological effector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Yvonne; Steck, Theodore L

    2016-09-01

    Sterols associate preferentially with plasma membrane sphingolipids and saturated phospholipids to form stoichiometric complexes. Cholesterol in molar excess of the capacity of these polar bilayer lipids has a high accessibility and fugacity; we call this fraction active cholesterol. This review first considers how active cholesterol serves as an upstream regulator of cellular sterol homeostasis. The mechanism appears to utilize the redistribution of active cholesterol down its diffusional gradient to the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, where it binds multiple effectors and directs their feedback activity. We have also reviewed a broad literature in search of a role for active cholesterol (as opposed to bulk cholesterol or lipid domains such as rafts) in the activity of diverse membrane proteins. Several systems provide such evidence, implicating, in particular, caveolin-1, various kinds of ABC-type cholesterol transporters, solute transporters, receptors and ion channels. We suggest that this larger role for active cholesterol warrants close attention and can be tested easily.

  5. Nanoscale Membrane Domain Formation Driven by Cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javanainen, Matti; Martinez-Seara, Hector; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2017-01-01

    Biological membranes generate specific functions through compartmentalized regions such as cholesterol-enriched membrane nanodomains that host selected proteins. Despite the biological significance of nanodomains, details on their structure remain elusive. They cannot be observed via microscopic...... dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and cholesterol - the "minimal standard" for nanodomain formation. The simulations reveal how cholesterol drives the formation of fluid cholesterol-rich nanodomains hosting hexagonally packed cholesterol-poor lipid nanoclusters, both of which show registration between the membrane leaflets....... The complex nanodomain substructure forms when cholesterol positions itself in the domain boundary region. Here cholesterol can also readily flip-flop across the membrane. Most importantly, replacing cholesterol with a sterol characterized by a less asymmetric ring region impairs the emergence of nanodomains...

  6. New Cholesterol Fighting Meds Target Key Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165942.html New Cholesterol Fighting Meds Target Key Gene Two trials show ... New gene-based therapies appear to significantly decrease cholesterol levels in people, and could even cut down ...

  7. Cholesterol metabolism and homeostasis in the brain

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Juan; Qiang LIU

    2015-01-01

    Cholesterol is an essential component for neuronal physiology not only during development stage but also in the adult life. Cholesterol metabolism in brain is independent from that in peripheral tissues due to blood-brain barrier. The content of cholesterol in brain must be accurately maintained in order to keep brain function well. Defects in brain cholesterol metabolism has been shown to be implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Huntington’s disease (HD)...

  8. Quercetin regulates hepatic cholesterol metabolism by promoting cholesterol-to-bile acid conversion and cholesterol efflux in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Xie, Zongkai; Gao, Weina; Pu, Lingling; Wei, Jingyu; Guo, Changjiang

    2016-03-01

    Quercetin, a common member of the flavonoid family, is widely present in plant kingdom. Despite that quercetin is implicated in regulating cholesterol metabolism, the molecular mechanism is poorly understood. We hypothesized that quercetin regulates cholesterol homeostasis through regulating the key enzymes involved in hepatic cholesterol metabolism. To test this hypothesis, we compared the profile of key enzymes and transcription factors involved in the hepatic cholesterol metabolism in rats with or without quercetin supplementation. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control and quercetin-supplemented groups. Serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and total bile acids in feces and bile were measured. Hepatic enzymatic activities were determined by activity assay kit and high-performance liquid chromatography-based analyses. The messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expressions were determined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses, respectively. The results showed that the activity of hepatic cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase, a critical enzyme in the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids, was significantly elevated by quercetin. The expression of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase, as well as liver X receptor α, an important transcription factor, was also increased at both mRNA and protein levels by quercetin. However, quercetin exposure had no impact on the activity of hepatic HMG-CoA reductase, a rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of cholesterol. We also found that quercetin treatment significantly increased ATP binding cassette transporter G1 mRNA and protein expression in the liver, suggesting that quercetin may increase hepatic cholesterol efflux. Collectively, the results presented here indicate that quercetin regulates hepatic cholesterol metabolism mainly through the pathways that promote cholesterol-to-bile acid conversion and

  9. Non-cholesterol sterols and cholesterol metabolism in sitosterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Rgia A; Myrie, Semone B; Jones, Peter J H

    2013-12-01

    Sitosterolemia (STSL) is a rare autosomal recessive disease, manifested by extremely elevated plant sterols (PS) in plasma and tissue, leading to xanthoma and premature atherosclerotic disease. Therapeutic approaches include limiting PS intake, interrupting enterohepatic circulation of bile acid using bile acid binding resins such as cholestyramine, and/or ileal bypass, and inhibiting intestinal sterol absorption by ezetimibe (EZE). The objective of this review is to evaluate sterol metabolism in STSL and the impact of the currently available treatments on sterol trafficking in this disease. The role of PS in initiation of xanthomas and premature atherosclerosis is also discussed. Blocking sterols absorption with EZE has revolutionized STSL patient treatment as it reduces circulating levels of non-cholesterol sterols in STSL. However, none of the available treatments including EZE have normalized plasma PS concentrations. Future studies are needed to: (i) explore where cholesterol and non-cholesterol sterols accumulate, (ii) assess to what extent these sterols in tissues can be mobilized after blocking their absorption, and (iii) define the factors governing sterol flux.

  10. Remnant cholesterol and ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varbo, Anette; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review recent advances in the field of remnant cholesterol as a contributor to the development of ischemic heart disease (IHD). RECENT FINDINGS: Epidemiologic, mechanistic, and genetic studies all support a role for elevated remnant cholesterol (=cholesterol in triglyceride...

  11. Isolation of Cholesterol from an Egg Yolk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Douglass F.; Li, Rui; Anson, Cory M.

    2011-01-01

    A simple procedure for the isolation of the cholesterol, by hydrolysis and extraction followed by column chromatography, is described. The cholesterol can be further purified by complexation with oxalic acid. It can also be oxidized and conjugated to cholestenone. The source of the cholesterol is one egg yolk, which contains about 200 mg of…

  12. Intestinal cholesterol secretion : future clinical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakulj, L.; Besseling, J.; Stroes, E. S. G.; Groen, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    Together with the liver, the intestine serves as a homeostatic organ in cholesterol metabolism. Recent evidence has substantiated the pivotal role of the intestine in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). RCT is a fundamental antiatherogenic pathway, mediating the removal of cholesterol from tissues

  13. Intestinal cholesterol secretion : future clinical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakulj, L.; Besseling, J.; Stroes, E. S. G.; Groen, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    Together with the liver, the intestine serves as a homeostatic organ in cholesterol metabolism. Recent evidence has substantiated the pivotal role of the intestine in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). RCT is a fundamental antiatherogenic pathway, mediating the removal of cholesterol from tissues

  14. Isolation of Cholesterol from an Egg Yolk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Douglass F.; Li, Rui; Anson, Cory M.

    2011-01-01

    A simple procedure for the isolation of the cholesterol, by hydrolysis and extraction followed by column chromatography, is described. The cholesterol can be further purified by complexation with oxalic acid. It can also be oxidized and conjugated to cholestenone. The source of the cholesterol is one egg yolk, which contains about 200 mg of…

  15. Topical cholesterol in clofazimine induced ichthyosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey S

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Topical application of 10% cholesterol in petrolatum significantly (P< 0.05 controlled the development of ichthyosis in 62 patients taking 100 mg clofazimine daily for a period of 3 months. However, topical cholesterol application did not affect the lowering of serum cholesterol induced by oral clofazimine. Probable mechanism of action is being discussed.

  16. Mechanism of Resistance to Dietary Cholesterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey R. Boone

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Alterations in expression of hepatic genes that could contribute to resistance to dietary cholesterol were investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats, which are known to be resistant to the serum cholesterol raising action of dietary cholesterol. Methods. Microarray analysis was used to provide a comprehensive analysis of changes in hepatic gene expression in rats in response to dietary cholesterol. Changes were confirmed by RT-PCR analysis. Western blotting was employed to measure changes in hepatic cholesterol 7α hydroxylase protein. Results. Of the 28,000 genes examined using the Affymetrix rat microarray, relatively few were significantly altered. As expected, decreases were observed for several genes that encode enzymes of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway. The largest decreases were seen for squalene epoxidase and lanosterol 14α demethylase (CYP 51A1. These changes were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. LDL receptor expression was not altered by dietary cholesterol. Critically, the expression of cholesterol 7α hydroxylase, which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in bile acid synthesis, was increased over 4-fold in livers of rats fed diets containing 1% cholesterol. In contrast, mice, which are not resistant to dietary cholesterol, exhibited lower hepatic cholesterol 7α hydroxylase (CYP7A1 protein levels, which were not increased in response to diets containing 2% cholesterol.

  17. Cholesterol Depletion from a Ceramide/Cholesterol Mixed Monolayer: A Brewster Angle Microscope Study

    KAUST Repository

    Mandal, Pritam

    2016-06-01

    Cholesterol is crucial to the mechanical properties of cell membranes that are important to cells’ behavior. Its depletion from the cell membranes could be dramatic. Among cyclodextrins (CDs), methyl beta cyclodextrin (MβCD) is the most efficient to deplete cholesterol (Chol) from biomembranes. Here, we focus on the depletion of cholesterol from a C16 ceramide/cholesterol (C16-Cer/Chol) mixed monolayer using MβCD. While the removal of cholesterol by MβCD depends on the cholesterol concentration in most mixed lipid monolayers, it does not depend very much on the concentration of cholesterol in C16-Cer/Chol monolayers. The surface pressure decay during depletion were described by a stretched exponential that suggested that the cholesterol molecules are unable to diffuse laterally and behave like static traps for the MβCD molecules. Cholesterol depletion causes morphology changes of domains but these disrupted monolayers domains seem to reform even when cholesterol level was low.

  18. D38-cholesterol as a Raman active probe for imaging intracellular cholesterol storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso-García, Alba; Pfisterer, Simon G.; Riezman, Howard; Ikonen, Elina; Potma, Eric O.

    2016-06-01

    We generated a highly deuterated cholesterol analog (D38-cholesterol) and demonstrated its use for selective vibrational imaging of cholesterol storage in mammalian cells. D38-cholesterol produces detectable signals in stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) imaging, is rapidly taken up by cells, and is efficiently metabolized by acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase to form cholesteryl esters. Using hyperspectral SRS imaging of D38-cholesterol, we visualized cholesterol storage in lipid droplets. We found that some lipid droplets accumulated preferentially unesterified D38-cholesterol, whereas others stored D38-cholesteryl esters. In steroidogenic cells, D38-cholesteryl esters and triacylglycerols were partitioned into distinct sets of lipid droplets. Thus, hyperspectral SRS imaging of D38-cholesterol demonstrates a heterogeneous incorporation of neutral lipid species, i.e., free cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, and triacylglycerols, between individual lipid droplets in a cell.

  19. Intestinal Farnesoid X Receptor Controls Transintestinal Cholesterol Excretion in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Jan Freark; Schonewille, Marleen; Boesjes, Marije; Wolters, Henk; Bloks, Vincent W; Bos, Trijnie; van Dijk, Theo H; Jurdzinski, Angelika; Boverhof, Renze; Wolters, Justina C; Kuivenhoven, Jan A; van Deursen, Jan M; Oude Elferink, Ronald P J; Moschetta, Antonio; Kremoser, Claus; Verkade, Henkjan J; Kuipers, Folkert; Groen, Albert K

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: The role of the intestine in the maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis is increasingly recognized. Fecal excretion of cholesterol is the last step in the atheroprotective reverse cholesterol transport pathway, to which biliary and transintestinal cholesterol excretion (TICE) cont

  20. Dietary cholesterol and plasma lipoprotein profiles: Randomized controlled trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early work suggested that dietary cholesterol increased plasma total cholesterol concentrations in humans. Given the relationship between elevated plasma cholesterol concentrations and cardiovascular disease risk, dietary guidelines have consistently recommended limiting food sources of cholesterol....

  1. Cholesterol-Lowering Supplements: Lower Your Numbers without Prescription Medication

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... extract May reduce total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or "bad," cholesterol May cause gas or ... Niacin May lower LDL cholesterol, improve high-density lipoprotein (HDL), or "good" cholesterol May cause headache, nausea, ...

  2. Biliary cholesterol secretion : More than a simple ABC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikkers, Arne; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    2010-01-01

    Biliary cholesterol secretion is a process important for 2 major disease complexes, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and cholesterol gallstone disease With respect to cardiovascular disease, biliary cholesterol secretion is regarded as the final step for the elimination of cholesterol originat

  3. Biliary cholesterol secretion : More than a simple ABC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikkers, Arne; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    2010-01-01

    Biliary cholesterol secretion is a process important for 2 major disease complexes, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and cholesterol gallstone disease With respect to cardiovascular disease, biliary cholesterol secretion is regarded as the final step for the elimination of cholesterol

  4. Cellular Cholesterol Facilitates the Postentry Replication Cycle of Herpes Simplex Virus 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wudiri, George A; Nicola, Anthony V

    2017-07-15

    Cholesterol is an essential component of cell membranes and is required for herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) entry (1-3). Treatment of HSV-1-infected Vero cells with methyl beta-cyclodextrin from 2 to 9 h postentry reduced plaque numbers. Transport of incoming viral capsids to the nuclear periphery was unaffected by the cholesterol reduction, suggesting that cell cholesterol is important for the HSV-1 replicative cycle at a stage(s) beyond entry, after the arrival of capsids at the nucleus. The synthesis and release of infectious HSV-1 and cell-to-cell spread of infection were all impaired in cholesterol-reduced cells. Propagation of HSV-1 on DHCR24(-/-) fibroblasts, which lack the desmosterol-to-cholesterol conversion enzyme, resulted in the generation of infectious extracellular virions (HSV(des)) that lack cholesterol and likely contain desmosterol. The specific infectivities (PFU per viral genome) of HSV(chol) and HSV(des) were similar, suggesting cholesterol and desmosterol in the HSV envelope support similar levels of infectivity. However, infected DHCR24(-/-) fibroblasts released ∼1 log less infectious HSV(des) and ∼1.5 log fewer particles than release of cholesterol-containing particles (HSV(chol)) from parental fibroblasts, suggesting that the hydrocarbon tail of cholesterol facilitates viral synthesis. Together, the results suggest multiple roles for cholesterol in the HSV-1 replicative cycle.IMPORTANCE HSV-1 infections are associated with a wide range of clinical manifestations that are of public health importance. Cholesterol is a key player in the complex interaction between viral and cellular factors that allows HSV-1 to enter host cells and establish infection. Previous reports have demonstrated a role for cellular cholesterol in the entry of HSV-1 into target cells. Here, we employed both chemical treatment and cells that were genetically defined to synthesize only desmosterol to demonstrate that cholesterol is important at stages following the

  5. Preconception Carrier Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Gaucher disease. People of African, Mediterranean, and Southeast Asian heritage should be offered screening for thalassemias ... Publications Committee Opinions Practice Bulletins Patient Education Green Journal Clinical Updates Practice Management Coding Health Info Technology ...

  6. Epididymis cholesterol homeostasis and sperm fertilizing ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fabrice Saez; Aurélia Ouvrier; Jo(e)l R Drevet

    2011-01-01

    Cholesterol, being the starting point of steroid hormone synthesis, is a long known modulator of both female and male reproductive physiology especially at the level of the gonads and the impact cholesterol has on gametogenesis. Less is known about the effects cholesterol homeostasis may have on postgonadic reproductive functions. Lately, several data have been reported showing how imbalanced cholesterol levels may particularly affect the post-testicular events of sperm maturation that lead to fully fertile male gametes. This review will focus on that aspect and essentially centers on how cholesterol is important for the physiology of the mammalian epididymis and spermatozoa.

  7. Analysis of Cholesterol Trafficking with Fluorescent Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maxfield, Frederick R.; Wustner, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Cholesterol plays an important role in determining the biophysical properties of biological membranes, and its concentration is tightly controlled by homeostatic processes. The intracellular transport of cholesterol among organelles is a key part of the homeostatic mechanism, but sterol transport...... that can bind to cholesterol to reveal its distribution in cells. We also discuss the use of intrinsically fluorescent sterols that closely mimic cholesterol, as well as some minimally modified fluorophore-labeled sterols. Methods for imaging these sterols by conventional fluorescence microscopy...... and by multiphoton microscopy are described. Some label-free methods for imaging cholesterol itself are also discussed briefly....

  8. Medical Student Response to a Class Lipid-Screening Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Gifford; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Medical students at the State University of New York's Downstate Medical Center initiated and carried out a voluntary project to screen lipids (cholesterol) to identify known coronary risk factors. The incidence of coronary disease factors among these students and the response of students with high cholesterol levels are reported. (Authors/PP)

  9. Making Aggressive Prostate Cancer Quiescent by Abrogating Cholesterol Esterification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    with 10% loading efficacy. Phosphate buffer (PBS) injection was used as a control. Finding: We did not observe weight loss in any of these doses. The...Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response , including the time for reviewing instructions...application is to establish the viability of a new strategy of treating late stage PCa through therapeutic targeting of cholesterol metabolism in vivo

  10. Evaluating computational models of cholesterol metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paalvast, Yared; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Groen, Albert K

    2015-10-01

    Regulation of cholesterol homeostasis has been studied extensively during the last decades. Many of the metabolic pathways involved have been discovered. Yet important gaps in our knowledge remain. For example, knowledge on intracellular cholesterol traffic and its relation to the regulation of cholesterol synthesis and plasma cholesterol levels is incomplete. One way of addressing the remaining questions is by making use of computational models. Here, we critically evaluate existing computational models of cholesterol metabolism making use of ordinary differential equations and addressed whether they used assumptions and make predictions in line with current knowledge on cholesterol homeostasis. Having studied the results described by the authors, we have also tested their models. This was done primarily by testing the effect of statin treatment in each model. Ten out of eleven models tested have made assumptions in line with current knowledge of cholesterol metabolism. Three out of the ten remaining models made correct predictions, i.e. predicting a decrease in plasma total and LDL cholesterol or increased uptake of LDL upon treatment upon the use of statins. In conclusion, few models on cholesterol metabolism are able to pass a functional test. Apparently most models have not undergone the critical iterative systems biology cycle of validation. We expect modeling of cholesterol metabolism to go through many more model topologies and iterative cycles and welcome the increased understanding of cholesterol metabolism these are likely to bring.

  11. Intracellular transport of cholesterol in mammalian cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brasaemle, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    The erythrocyte was selected as a simple cell for the study of transbilayer movement of cholesterol. Cholesterol oxidase was used to measure the distribution of ({sup 3}H)cholesterol across the erythrocyte membrane. Cholesterol oxidase was also used to estimate the rate of transport of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol to the plasma membrane of cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) fibroblasts; the half-time of this process was 42 minutes. The rate of transport of LDL cholesterol to the plasma membrane was confirmed by a second procedure using amphotericin B. Amphotericin B was also used to estimate the rate of transport of endogenously synthesized cholesterol to the plasma membrane of CHO cells. New methodology was developed including improvements of the previously published cholesterol oxidase assay for plasma membrane cholesterol. A new method for detecting transport of cholesterol to the plasma membrane in cultured cells was developed using amphotericin B. Preliminary studies investigated the use of fluorescent polyenes, pimaricin and etruscomycin, as probes for plasma membrane cholesterol in transport studies. Finally, a modification of a previously published cell staining protocol yielded a simple, quantitative assay for cell growth.

  12. Cholesterol metabolism and homeostasis in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Liu, Qiang

    2015-04-01

    Cholesterol is an essential component for neuronal physiology not only during development stage but also in the adult life. Cholesterol metabolism in brain is independent from that in peripheral tissues due to blood-brain barrier. The content of cholesterol in brain must be accurately maintained in order to keep brain function well. Defects in brain cholesterol metabolism has been shown to be implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and some cognitive deficits typical of the old age. The brain contains large amount of cholesterol, but the cholesterol metabolism and its complex homeostasis regulation are currently poorly understood. This review will seek to integrate current knowledge about the brain cholesterol metabolism with molecular mechanisms.

  13. Acute caloric restriction counteracts hepatic bile acid and cholesterol deficiency in morbid obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straniero, S; Rosqvist, F; Edholm, D; Ahlström, H; Kullberg, J; Sundbom, M; Risérus, U; Rudling, M

    2017-05-01

    Bile acid (BA) synthesis is regulated by BA signalling in the liver and by fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), synthesized and released from the intestine. In morbid obesity, faecal excretion and hepatic synthesis of BAs and cholesterol are strongly induced and caloric restriction reduces their faecal excretion considerably. We hypothesized that the high intestinal food mass in morbidly obese subjects promotes faecal excretion of BAs and cholesterol, thereby creating a shortage of both BAs and cholesterol in the liver. Ten morbidly obese women (BMI 42 ± 2.6 kg m(-2) ) were monitored on days 0, 3, 7, 14 and 28 after beginning a low-calorie diet (800-1100 kcal day(-1) ). Serum was collected and liver size and fat content determined. Synthesis of BAs and cholesterol was evaluated from serum markers, and the serum levels of lipoproteins, BAs, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), insulin, glucose and FGF19 were monitored. Fifty-four nonobese women (BMI cholesterol and serum levels of BAs and PCSK9 were elevated in the obese group compared to controls. Already after 3 days on a low-calorie diet, BA and cholesterol synthesis and serum BA and PCSK9 levels normalized, whereas LDL cholesterol increased. FGF19 and triglyceride levels were unchanged, and liver volume was reduced by 10%. The results suggest that hepatic BAs and cholesterol are deficient in morbid obesity. Caloric restriction rapidly counteracts these deficiencies, normalizing BA and cholesterol synthesis and circulating PCSK9 levels, indicating that overproduction of cholesterol in enlarged peripheral tissues cannot explain this phenotype. We propose that excessive food intake promotes faecal loss of BAs and cholesterol contributing to their hepatic deficiencies. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Internal Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Publication of The Journal of Internal Medicine.

  14. The pedagogical value of a student-run community-based experiential learning project: The Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine Public Health Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Liang En; Yeo, Wei Xin; Tay, Clifton M; Lee, Jeannette J M; Koh, Gerald C H

    2010-09-01

    We assessed the pedagogical value of a student-led community-based experiential learning project called the Public Health Screening (PHS) run by medical and nursing students of the National University of Singapore's Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (NUS YLLSoM). We conducted a cross-sectional study using a self-administered anonymised questionnaire on medical and nursing students who participated in PHS using the Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education (FIPSE) Survey Instrument. Participants also gave an overall score for their learning experience at the PHS. The participation rate was 93.1% (576/619) for medical students and 100% (37/37) for nursing students. All participants gave the PHS learning experience a high rating (median = 8 out of maximum of 10, inter-quartile range, 7 to 9). A majority of participants felt that PHS had helped them to improve across all domains surveyed. For medical students, those in preclinical years and females were independently more likely to feel that PHS had helped them to improve in communication skills, teamwork, ability to identify social issues, taking action, and gaining and applying their knowledge than those in clinical years and males. Improved ability to interact with patients (β=1.64, 95%CI, 1.01-2.27), appreciation of challenges to healthcare faced by Singaporeans from lower income groups (β=0.93, 95%CI, 0.49-1.37), thinking of others (β=0.70, 95%CI, 0.04-1.37) and tolerance of different people (β =0.63, 95%CI, 0.17-1.10) were strongly associated with the overall rating score. PHS was a positive learning experience in a wide range of domains for all students involved. This suggests that student-organised community-based experiential learning projects have potential educational value for both medical and nursing students.

  15. Community-wide survey of physicians' knowledge of cholesterol management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Fei; XIE Jiang; WANG Gui-lian; WANG Jia-hong; WANG Jin-song; YU Jin-ming; HU Da-yi

    2010-01-01

    Background An elevated serum lipid is one of the major risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD). Physicians' awareness contributes to successful adoption of practice guidelines. Community medical centers are the primary defense against chronic disease. This study aimed to investigate community physicians' awareness of cholesterol guidelines and their utilization.Methods Six hundred and one community physicians were randomly selected from four different regions, and completed a confidential and semi-structured questionnaire. Four hundred and ninety-one completed the questionnaire, and 486 valid questionnaires were available.Results The physicians' fundamental knowledge of lipids was astonishingly poor, while the awareness of cholesterol guidelines was low. Only 24% and 14% of the physicians reported the right optimal low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level for CHD and diabetes patients respectively. More than half of the physicians (55.8%) mistakenly considered elevated transaminases to be the lethal side effect of statins. More than half of the physicians (51.9%) would give up statin treatment in the case of transaminase elevation.Conclusion Educational interventions to improve cholesterol knowledge and to publicize standard treatment are needed among Chinese community physicians.

  16. The 2013 cholesterol guideline controversy: Would better evidence prevent pharmaceuticalization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, Lynn; Rice, Thomas; Rosenau, Pauline Vaillancourt; Barnes, Andrew J

    2016-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death globally. A class of medications, known as statins, lowers low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, which are associated with CVD. The newest 2013 U.S. cholesterol guideline contains an assessment of risk that greatly expands the number of individuals without CVD for whom statins are recommended. Other countries are also moving in this direction. This article examines the controversy surrounding these guidelines using the 2013 cholesterol guidelines as a case study of broader trends in clinical guidelines to use a narrow evidence base, expand the boundaries of disease and overemphasize pharmaceutical treatment. We find that the recommendation in the 2013 cholesterol guidelines to initiate statins in individuals with a lower risk of CVD is controversial and there is much disagreement on whether there is evidence for the guideline change. We note that, in general, clinical guidelines may use evidence that has a number of biases, are subject to conflicts of interest at multiple levels, and often do not include unpublished research. Further, guidelines may contribute to the "medicalization" or "pharmaceuticalization" of healthcare. Specific policy recommendations to improve clinical guidelines are indicated: these include improving the evidence base, establishing a public registry of all results, including unpublished ones, and freeing the research process from pharmaceutical sector control.

  17. Phenothiazines Inhibit Hepatitis C Virus Entry, Likely by Increasing the Fluidity of Cholesterol-Rich Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamoun-Emanuelli, Ana M.; Pecheur, Eve-Isabelle; Simeon, Rudo L.; Huang, Da; Cremer, Paul S.

    2013-01-01

    Despite recent progress in the development of direct-acting antiviral agents against hepatitis C virus (HCV), more effective therapies are still urgently needed. We and others previously identified three phenothiazine compounds as potent HCV entry inhibitors. In this study, we show that phenothiazines inhibit HCV entry at the step of virus-host cell fusion, by intercalating into cholesterol-rich domains of the target membrane and increasing membrane fluidity. Perturbation of the alignment/packing of cholesterol in lipid membranes likely increases the energy barrier needed for virus-host fusion. A screening assay based on the ability of molecules to selectively increase the fluidity of cholesterol-rich membranes was subsequently developed. One compound that emerged from the library screen, topotecan, is able to very potently inhibit the fusion of liposomes with cell culture-derived HCV (HCVcc). These results yield new insights into HCV infection and provide a platform for the identification of new HCV inhibitors. PMID:23529728

  18. The growth pattern of 0-1-year-old Danish children, when screened by public health nurses--the Copenhagen County Child Cohort 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Else Marie; Petersen, Janne; Skovgaard, Anne Mette

    2005-01-01

    Using inadequate growth references when screening child health could lead to false conclusions concerning individual growth. We were concerned that this might apply to the official Danish growth reference.......Using inadequate growth references when screening child health could lead to false conclusions concerning individual growth. We were concerned that this might apply to the official Danish growth reference....

  19. Peptides having reduced toxicity that stimulate cholesterol efflux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bielicki, John K.; Johansson, Jan; Danho, Waleed

    2016-08-16

    The present invention provides a family of non-naturally occurring polypeptides having cholesterol efflux activity that parallels that of full-length apolipoproteins (e.g., Apo AI and Apo E), and having high selectivity for ABCA1 that parallels that of full-length apolipoproteins. Further, the peptides of the invention have little or no toxicity when administered at therapeutic and higher doses. The invention also provides compositions comprising such polypeptides, methods of identifying, screening and synthesizing such polypeptides, and methods of treating, preventing or diagnosing diseases and disorders associated with dyslipidemia, hypercholesterolemia and inflammation.

  20. Rastreamento mamográfico do câncer de mama em serviços de saúde públicos e privados Breast cancer mammographic screening in public and private health care systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton Augustinho Marchi

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a utilização da mamografia no rastreamento do câncer de mama em serviços de saúde públicos e privados. MÉTODOS: realizou-se estudo seccional entrevistando-se 643 mulheres submetidas à mamografia na cidade de Taubaté, região Sudeste do Brasil: 472 atendidas em serviços de saúde públicos e 171 em serviços privados. Avaliaram-se, por meio dos testes de chi2, exato de Fisher e Wilcoxon, o perfil sociodemográfico e reprodutivo das entrevistadas e características de utilização da mamografia, tais como, a proporção de entrevistadas previamente rastreadas, a idade de início do rastreamento, o intervalo e a freqüência entre as mamografias realizadas. RESULTADOS: as médias de idade das entrevistadas em ambos os grupos foram similares. As proporções de mulheres previamente rastreadas - respectivamente 54,2 e 79,5% em serviços públicos e privados - assim como a idade de início desse rastreamento - 46,8 anos (DP 10,2 nos serviços públicos e 40,2 anos (DP 7,7 nos privados - diferiram significativamente (pPURPOSE: to evaluate the characteristics of mammography use and the social demographic profile of women accessing public and private health care services. METHODS: a cross-sectional study was carried out in the city of Taubaté, southeast Brazil. Six hundred and forty-three women who underwent mammographic examinations in the available health care services were interviewed, 472 of them in public and 171 in private health services. The social demographic and reproductive profiles of the women interviewed and the characteristics of the mammography use, such as the proportion of the women interviewed who had been previously screened, the age when the screening began, the interval between the screenings and their frequency, were evaluated by means of the Fisher exact, Wilcoxon and chi2 tests. RESULTS: the mean age of the interviewed women was similar in both studied groups. The proportion of women previously

  1. Imbalanced cholesterol metabolism in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue-shan, Zhao; Juan, Peng; Qi, Wu; Zhong, Ren; Li-hong, Pan; Zhi-han, Tang; Zhi-sheng, Jiang; Gui-xue, Wang; Lu-shan, Liu

    2016-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex and multifactorial neurodegenerative disease that is mainly caused by β-amyloid accumulation. A large number of studies have shown that elevated cholesterol levels may perform a function in AD pathology, and several cholesterol-related gene polymorphisms are associated with this disease. Although numerous studies have shown the important function of cholesterol in AD pathogenesis and development, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. To further elucidate cholesterol metabolism disorder and AD, we first, review metabolism and regulation of the cholesterol in the brain. Second, we summarize the literature stating that hypercholesterolemia is one of the risk factors of AD. Third, we discuss the main mechanisms of abnormal cholesterol metabolism that increase the risk of AD. Finally, the relationships between AD and apolipoprotein E, PCSK9, and LRP1 are discussed in this article.

  2. Biophysical studies of cholesterol effects on chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Isabel T G; Fernandes, Vinicius; Souza, Caio; Treptow, Werner; Santos, Guilherme Martins

    2017-03-22

    Changes in chromatin structure regulate gene expression and genome maintenance. Molecules that bind to the nucleosome, the complex of DNA and histone proteins, are key modulators of chromatin structure. Previous work indicated that cholesterol, a ubiquitous cellular lipid, may bind to chromatin in vivo, suggesting a potential function for lipids in modulating chromatin architecture. However, the molecular mechanisms of cholesterol action on chromatin structure have remained unclear. Here, we explored the biophysical impact of cholesterol on nucleosome and chromatin fibers reconstituted in vitro and characterized in silico the cholesterol binding to nucleosome. Our findings support that cholesterol assists 10nm and 30nm chromatin formation and induces folding of long chromatin fibers as a result of direct interaction of the cholesterol to six nucleosomal binding sites.

  3. Cholesterol metabolism and serum non-cholesterol sterols: summary of 13 plant stanol ester interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallikainen, Maarit; Simonen, Piia; Gylling, Helena

    2014-04-27

    The efficacy and safety of plant stanols added to food products as serum cholesterol lowering agents have been demonstrated convincingly, but their effects on cholesterol metabolism and on serum non-cholesterol sterols is less evaluated. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of serum non-cholesterol sterols and squalene as bioindices of cholesterol synthesis and absorption, and to examine how the individual serum non-cholesterol sterols respond to consumption of plant stanols. We collected all randomized, controlled plant stanol ester (STAEST) interventions in which serum cholestanol, plant sterols campesterol and sitosterol, and at least two serum cholesterol precursors had been analysed. According to these criteria, there was a total of 13 studies (total 868 subjects without lipid-lowering medication; plant stanol doses varied from 0.8 to 8.8 g/d added in esterified form; the duration of the studies varied from 4 to 52 weeks). Serum non-cholesterol sterols were assayed with gas-liquid chromatography, cholesterol synthesis with the sterol balance technique, and fractional cholesterol absorption with the dual continuous isotope feeding method. The results demonstrated that during the control and the STAEST periods, the serum plant sterol/cholesterol- and the cholestanol/cholesterol-ratios reflected fractional cholesterol absorption, and the precursor sterol/cholesterol-ratios reflected cholesterol synthesis. Plant sterol levels were dose-dependently reduced by STAEST so that 2 g of plant stanols reduced serum campesterol/cholesterol-ratio on average by 32%. Serum cholestanol/cholesterol-ratio was reduced less frequently than those of the plant sterols by STAEST, and the cholesterol precursor sterol ratios did not change consistently in the individual studies emphasizing the importance of monitoring more than one surrogate serum marker. Serum non-cholesterol sterols are valid markers of cholesterol absorption and synthesis even during cholesterol

  4. Raising HDL cholesterol in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny J Eapen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Danny J Eapen1, Girish L Kalra1, Luay Rifai1, Christina A Eapen2, Nadya Merchant1, Bobby V Khan11Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2University of South Florida School of Medicine, Tampa, FL, USAAbstract: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C concentration is essential in the determination of coronary heart disease (CHD risk in women. This is especially true in the postmenopausal state, where lipid profiles and CHD risk mimic that of age-matched men. Thus, interventions designed to reduce CHD risk by raising HDL-C levels may have particular significance during the transition to menopause. This review discusses HDL-C-raising therapies and the role of HDL in the primary prevention of CHD in women. Lifestyle-based interventions such as dietary change, aerobic exercise regimens, and smoking cessation are initial steps that are effective in raising HDL-C, and available data suggest women respond similarly to men with these interventions. When combined with pharmacotherapy, the effects of these lifestyle alterations are further amplified. Though studies demonstrating gender-specific differences in therapy are limited, niacin continues to be the most effective agent in raising HDL-C levels, especially when used in combination with fibrate or statin therapy. Emerging treatments such as HDL mimetic therapy show much promise in further raising HDL-C levels and improving cardiovascular outcomes.Keywords: high-density lipoprotein, HDL, women, cholesterol, heart disease

  5. Biliary cholesterol secretion: More than a simple ABC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arne; Dikkers; Uwe; JF; Tietge

    2010-01-01

    Biliary cholesterol secretion is a process important for 2 major disease complexes, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and cholesterol gallstone disease. With respect to cardiovascular disease, biliary cholesterol secretion is regarded as the f inal step for the elimination of cholesterol originating from cholesterol-laden macrophage foam cells in the vessel wall in a pathway named reverse cholesterol transport. On the other hand, cholesterol hypersecretion into the bile is considered the main pathophys...

  6. Biliary cholesterol secretion: More than a simple ABC

    OpenAIRE

    Dikkers, Arne; Tietge, Uwe JF

    2010-01-01

    Biliary cholesterol secretion is a process important for 2 major disease complexes, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and cholesterol gallstone disease. With respect to cardiovascular disease, biliary cholesterol secretion is regarded as the final step for the elimination of cholesterol originating from cholesterol-laden macrophage foam cells in the vessel wall in a pathway named reverse cholesterol transport. On the other hand, cholesterol hypersecretion into the bile is considered the ...

  7. Structure of Cholesterol in Lipid Rafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toppozini, Laura; Meinhardt, Sebastian; Armstrong, Clare L.; Yamani, Zahra; Kučerka, Norbert; Schmid, Friederike; Rheinstädter, Maikel C.

    2014-11-01

    Rafts, or functional domains, are transient nano-or mesoscopic structures in the plasma membrane and are thought to be essential for many cellular processes such as signal transduction, adhesion, trafficking, and lipid or protein sorting. Observations of these membrane heterogeneities have proven challenging, as they are thought to be both small and short lived. With a combination of coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations and neutron diffraction using deuterium labeled cholesterol molecules, we observe raftlike structures and determine the ordering of the cholesterol molecules in binary cholesterol-containing lipid membranes. From coarse-grained computer simulations, heterogenous membranes structures were observed and characterized as small, ordered domains. Neutron diffraction was used to study the lateral structure of the cholesterol molecules. We find pairs of strongly bound cholesterol molecules in the liquid-disordered phase, in accordance with the umbrella model. Bragg peaks corresponding to ordering of the cholesterol molecules in the raftlike structures were observed and indexed by two different structures: a monoclinic structure of ordered cholesterol pairs of alternating direction in equilibrium with cholesterol plaques, i.e., triclinic cholesterol bilayers.

  8. Cholesterol oxidation products and their biological importance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulig, Waldemar; Cwiklik, Lukasz; Jurkiewicz, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The main biological cause of oxysterols is the oxidation of cholesterol. They differ from cholesterol by the presence of additional polar groups that are typically hydroxyl, keto, hydroperoxy, epoxy, or carboxyl moieties. Under typical conditions, oxysterol concentration is maintained at a very low...... and precisely regulated level, with an excess of cholesterol. Like cholesterol, many oxysterols are hydrophobic and hence confined to cell membranes. However, small chemical differences between the sterols can significantly affect how they interact with other membrane components, and this in turn can have...

  9. Cholesterol and late-life cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Peter

    2012-01-01

    High cholesterol levels are a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but their role in dementia and cognitive decline is less clear. This review highlights current knowledge on the role of cholesterol in late-life cognitive function, cognitive decline, and dementia. When measured in midlife, high cholesterol levels associate with an increased risk of late-life dementia and cognitive decline. However, when measured in late-life, high cholesterol levels show no association with cognitive function, or even show an inverse relation. Although statin treatment has been shown to associate with a lower risk of dementia and cognitive decline in observational studies, randomized controlled trials show no beneficial effect of statin treatment on late-life cognitive function. Lowering cholesterol levels may impair brain function, since cholesterol is essential for synapse formation and maturation and plays an important role in the regulation of signal transduction through its function as a component of the cell membrane. However, membrane cholesterol also plays a role in the formation and aggregation of amyloid-β. Factors that influence cholesterol metabolism, such as dietary intake, are shown to play a role in late-life cognitive function and the risk of dementia. In conclusion, cholesterol associates with late-life cognitive function, but the association is strongly age-dependent. There is no evidence that treatment with statins in late-life has a beneficial effect on cognitive function.

  10. Black pepper and piperine reduce cholesterol uptake and enhance translocation of cholesterol transporter proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duangjai, Acharaporn; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Praputbut, Sakonwun; Limpeanchob, Nanteetip

    2013-04-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) lowers blood lipids in vivo and inhibits cholesterol uptake in vitro, and piperine may mediate these effects. To test this, the present study aimed to compare actions of black pepper extract and piperine on (1) cholesterol uptake and efflux in Caco-2 cells, (2) the membrane/cytosol distribution of cholesterol transport proteins in these cells, and (3) the physicochemical properties of cholesterol micelles. Piperine or black pepper extract (containing the same amount of piperine) dose-dependently reduced cholesterol uptake into Caco-2 cells in a similar manner. Both preparations reduced the membrane levels of NPC1L1 and SR-BI proteins but not their overall cellular expression. Micellar cholesterol solubility of lipid micelles was unaffected except by 1 mg/mL concentration of black pepper extract. These data suggest that piperine is the active compound in black pepper and reduces cholesterol uptake by internalizing the cholesterol transporter proteins.

  11. Potential of BODIPY-cholesterol for analysis of cholesterol transport and diffusion in living cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüstner, Daniel; Lund, Frederik Wendelboe; Röhrl, Clemens

    2016-01-01

    Cholesterol is an abundant and important lipid component of cellular membranes. Analysis of cholesterol transport and diffusion in living cells is hampered by the technical challenge of designing suitable cholesterol probes which can be detected for example by optical microscopy. One strategy...... is to use intrinsically fluorescent sterols, as dehydroergosterol (DHE), having minimal chemical alteration compared to cholesterol but giving low fluorescence signals in the UV region of the spectrum. Alternatively, one can use dye-tagged cholesterol analogs and in particular BODIPY-cholesterol (BChol......), whose synthesis and initial characterization was pioneered by Robert Bittman. Here, we give a general overview of the properties and applications but also limitations of BODIPY-tagged cholesterol probes for analyzing intracellular cholesterol trafficking. We describe our own experiences...

  12. High Density Lipoproteins and Arteriosclerosis: Role of Cholesterol Efflux and Reverse Cholesterol Transport

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    von Eckardstein, Arnold; Nofer, Jerzy Roch; Assmann, Gerd

    2001-01-01

    Abstract—High density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is an important risk factor for coronary heart disease, and HDL exerts various potentially antiatherogenic properties, including the mediation of reverse transport of cholesterol...

  13. A review of human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes for high-throughput drug discovery, cardiotoxicity screening, and publication standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordwinkin, Nicholas M; Burridge, Paul W; Wu, Joseph C

    2013-02-01

    Drug attrition rates have increased in past years, resulting in growing costs for the pharmaceutical industry and consumers. The reasons for this include the lack of in vitro models that correlate with clinical results and poor preclinical toxicity screening assays. The in vitro production of human cardiac progenitor cells and cardiomyocytes from human pluripotent stem cells provides an amenable source of cells for applications in drug discovery, disease modeling, regenerative medicine, and cardiotoxicity screening. In addition, the ability to derive human-induced pluripotent stem cells from somatic tissues, combined with current high-throughput screening and pharmacogenomics, may help realize the use of these cells to fulfill the potential of personalized medicine. In this review, we discuss the use of pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes for drug discovery and cardiotoxicity screening, as well as current hurdles that must be overcome for wider clinical applications of this promising approach.

  14. Oxidised LDL, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol levels in patients of coronary artery disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Joya; Mishra, T.K.; Rao, Y. N.; S K Aggarwal

    2006-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is a major cause of morbidity and has various risk factors. Lipid profile i.e. low HDL-cholesterol, high LDL cholesterol, high total cholesterol, high triglycerides playing important role in its causation. Recently interest has been shown in the oxidized fraction of LDL as one of the risk factors. In the present study 60 age and sex matched normal healthy individuals were taken as controls and 60 patients of CAD were taken. Cholesterol was measured by enzymatic method,...

  15. From blood to gut : Direct secretion of cholesterol via transintestinal cholesterol efflux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrins, Carlos L. J.

    2010-01-01

    The reverse cholesterol transport pathway (RCT) is the focus of many cholesterol lowering therapies By way of this pathway, excess cholesterol is collected from peripheral tissues and delivered back to the liver and gastrointestinal tract for excretion from the body For a long time this removal via

  16. Statins increase hepatic cholesterol synthesis and stimulate fecal cholesterol elimination in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonewille, Marleen; de Boer, Jan Freark; Mele, Laura; Wolters, Henk; Bloks, Vincent W.; Wolters, Justina C.; Kuivenhoven, Jan A.; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Brufau, Gemma; Groen, Albert K.

    2016-01-01

    Statins are competitive inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol synthesis. Statins reduce plasma cholesterol levels, but whether this is actually caused by inhibition of de novo cholesterol synthesis has not been clearly established. Using three different statins, we

  17. Dietary cholesterol and fats at a young age : do they influence cholesterol metabolism in adult life?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temmerman, A M; Vonk, R J; Niezen-Koning, K; Berger, R.; Fernandes, J

    1989-01-01

    The effects of dietary cholesterol and fats on cholesterol metabolism later in life were studied in Mongolian gerbils. Three groups were given a basic diet with soybean oil, palm kernel oil amounting to 8.75% (w/w), or the basic diet only. In three other groups, cholesterol (0.05%) was added to the

  18. Statins increase hepatic cholesterol synthesis and stimulate fecal cholesterol elimination in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonewille, Marleen; de Boer, Jan Freark; Mele, Laura; Wolters, Henk; Bloks, Vincent W; Wolters, Justina C; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Tietge, Uwe J.F.; Brufau Dones, Gemma; Groen, Albert K

    2016-01-01

    Statins are competitive inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol synthesis. Statins reduce plasma cholesterol levels, but whether this is actually caused by inhibition of de novo cholesterol synthesis has not been clearly established. Using three different statins we

  19. Dietary cholesterol and fats at a young age : do they influence cholesterol metabolism in adult life?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temmerman, A.M.; Vonk, R.J.; Niezen-Koning, K.; Berger, R.; Fernandes, J.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of dietary cholesterol and fats on cholesterol metabolism later in life were studied in Mongolian gerbils. Three groups were given a basic diet with soybean oil, palm kernel oil amounting to 8.75% (w/w), or the basic diet only. In three other groups, cholesterol (0.05%) was added to the

  20. Statins increase hepatic cholesterol synthesis and stimulate fecal cholesterol elimination in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonewille, Marleen; de Boer, Jan Freark; Mele, Laura; Wolters, Henk; Bloks, Vincent W.; Wolters, Justina C.; Kuivenhoven, Jan A.; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Brufau, Gemma; Groen, Albert K.

    Statins are competitive inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol synthesis. Statins reduce plasma cholesterol levels, but whether this is actually caused by inhibition of de novo cholesterol synthesis has not been clearly established. Using three different statins, we

  1. Vision Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Prematurity Strabismus Stye (defined) Vision Screening Vision Screening Recommendations Loading... Most Common Searches Adult Strabismus Amblyopia Cataract Conjunctivitis Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye ...

  2. Cholesterol orientation and tilt modulus in DMPC bilayers

    OpenAIRE

    Khelashvili, George; Pabst, Georg; Harries, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    We performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of hydrated bilayers containing mixtures of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and Cholesterol at various ratios, to study the effect of cholesterol concentration on its orientation, and to characterize the link between cholesterol tilt and overall phospholipid membrane organization. The simulations show a substantial probability for cholesterol molecules to transiently orient perpendicular to the bilayer normal, and suggest that cholesterol...

  3. Cholesterol efflux is differentially regulated in neurons and astrocytes: implications for brain cholesterol homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Zhang, Xiaolu; Kusumo, Handojo; Costa, Lucio G.; Guizzetti, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Disruption of cholesterol homeostasis in the central nervous system (CNS) has been associated with neurological, neurodegenerative, and neurodevelopmental disorders. The CNS is a closed system with regard to cholesterol homeostasis, as cholesterol-delivering lipoproteins from the periphery cannot pass the blood-brain-barrier and enter the brain. Different cell types in the brain have different functions in the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis, with astrocytes producing and releasing apolipoprotein E and lipoproteins, and neurons metabolizing cholesterol to 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol. We present evidence that astrocytes and neurons adopt different mechanisms also in regulating cholesterol efflux. We found that in astrocytes cholesterol efflux is induced by both lipid-free apolipoproteins and lipoproteins, while cholesterol removal from neurons is triggered only by lipoproteins. The main pathway by which apolipoproteins induce cholesterol efflux is through ABCA1. By upregulating ABCA1 levels and by inhibiting its activity and silencing its expression, we show that ABCA1 is involved in cholesterol efflux from astrocytes but not from neurons. Furthermore, our results suggest that ABCG1 is involved in cholesterol efflux to apolipoproteins and lipoproteins from astrocytes but not from neurons, while ABCG4, whose expression is much higher in neurons than astrocytes, is involved in cholesterol efflux from neurons but not astrocytes. These results indicate that different mechanisms regulate cholesterol efflux from neurons and astrocytes, reflecting the different roles that these cell types play in brain cholesterol homeostasis. These results are important in understanding cellular targets of therapeutic drugs under development for the treatments of conditions associated with altered cholesterol homeostasis in the CNS. PMID:23010475

  4. Evaluating computational models of cholesterol metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paalvast, Yared; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Groen, Albert K.

    2015-01-01

    Regulation of cholesterol homeostasis has been studied extensively during the last decades. Many of the metabolic pathways involved have been discovered. Yet important gaps in our knowledge remain. For example, knowledge on intracellular cholesterol traffic and its relation to the regulation of chol

  5. Cholesterol, the central lipid of mammalian cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maxfield, F. R.; van Meer, G.

    2010-01-01

    Despite its importance for mammalian cell biology and human health, there are many basic aspects of cholesterol homeostasis that are not well understood. Even for the well-characterized delivery of cholesterol to cells via lipoproteins, a novel regulatory mechanism has been discovered recently, invo

  6. Prosopis farcta beans increase HDL cholesterol and decrease LDL cholesterol in ostriches (Struthio camelus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidi, Arash; Ansari nik, Hossein; Ghazaghi, Mahmood

    2013-02-01

    Ten blue-neck male ostriches (Struthio camelus) were fed Prosopis farcta beans throughout a 30-day experiment. Blood samples were collected from ostriches on days 0 and 30 to measure levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglyceride, total serum protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, calcium, inorganic phosphorus, the activity of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and γ-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT). From days 0 to 30, HDL cholesterol, total protein, and globulins levels increased significantly whereas LDL cholesterol, inorganic phosphorus, and γ-GT activity decreased significantly.

  7. Cholesterol in myelin biogenesis and hypomyelinating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saher, Gesine; Stumpf, Sina Kristin

    2015-08-01

    The largest pool of free cholesterol in mammals resides in myelin membranes. Myelin facilitates rapid saltatory impulse propagation by electrical insulation of axons. This function is achieved by ensheathing axons with a tightly compacted stack of membranes. Cholesterol influences myelination at many steps, from the differentiation of myelinating glial cells, over the process of myelin membrane biogenesis, to the functionality of mature myelin. Cholesterol emerged as the only integral myelin component that is essential and rate-limiting for the development of myelin in the central and peripheral nervous system. Moreover, disorders that interfere with sterol synthesis or intracellular trafficking of cholesterol and other lipids cause hypomyelination and neurodegeneration. This review summarizes recent results on the roles of cholesterol in CNS myelin biogenesis in normal development and under different pathological conditions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Brain Lipids.

  8. Trapping crystal nucleation of cholesterol monohydrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomonov, I.; Weygand, M.J.; Kjær, K.

    2005-01-01

    Crystalline nucleation of cholesterol at the air-water interface has been studied via grazing incidence x-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation. The various stages of cholesterol molecular assembly from monolayer to three bilayers incorporating interleaving hydrogen-bonded water layers...... in a monoclinic cholesterol . H2O phase, has been monitored and their structures characterized to near atomic resolution. Crystallographic evidence is presented that this multilayer phase is similar to that of a reported metastable cholesterol phase of undetermined structure obtained from bile before...... transformation to the triclinic phase of cholesterol . H2O, the thermodynamically stable macroscopic form. According to grazing incidence x-ray diffraction measurements and crystallographic data, a transformation from the monoclinic film structure to a multilayer of the stable monohydrate phase involves...

  9. The Structure of Cholesterol in Lipid Rafts

    CERN Document Server

    Toppozini, Laura; Armstrong, Clare L; Yamani, Zahra; Kucerka, Norbert; Schmid, Friederike; Rheinstaedter, Maikel C

    2014-01-01

    Rafts, or functional domains, are transient nano- or mesoscopic structures in the plasma membrane and are thought to be essential for many cellular processes such as signal transduction, adhesion, trafficking and lipid/protein sorting. Observations of these membrane heterogeneities have proven challenging, as they are thought to be both small and short-lived. With a combination of coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations and neutron diffraction using deuterium labeled cholesterol molecules we observe raft-like structures and determine the ordering of the cholesterol molecules in binary cholesterol-containing lipid membranes. From coarse-grained computer simulations, heterogenous membranes structures were observed and characterized as small, ordered domains. Neutron diffraction was used to study the lateral structure of the cholesterol molecules. We find pairs of strongly bound cholesterol molecules in the liquid-disordered phase, in accordance with the umbrella model. Bragg peaks corresponding to orderin...

  10. Raphanus sativus L. var niger as a source of phytochemicals for the prevention of cholesterol gallstones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Torres, Ibrahim Guillermo; De la O-Arciniega, Minarda; Gallegos-Estudillo, Janeth; Naranjo-Rodríguez, Elia Brosla; Domínguez-Ortíz, Miguel Ángel

    2014-02-01

    Raphanus sativus L. var niger (black radish) is a plant of the cruciferous family with important ethnobotanical uses for the treatment of gallstones in Mexican traditional medicine. It has been established that the juice of black radish decreases cholesterol levels in plasma and dissolves gallstones in mice. Glucosinolates, the main secondary metabolites of black radish, can hydrolyze into its respective isothiocyanates and have already demonstrated antioxidant properties as well as their ability to diminish hepatic cholesterol levels; such therapeutic effects can prevent the formation of cholesterol gallstones. This disease is considered a current problem of public health. In the present review, we analyze and discuss the therapeutic effects of the main glucosinolates of black radish, as well as the effects that this plant has on cholesterol gallstones disease.

  11. Marginal public health gain of screening for colorectal cancer: modelling study, based on WHO and national databases in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, J.A.; Getz, L.; Sjonell, G.

    2013-01-01

    Aims To estimate the potential gain of national screening programmes for colorectal cancer (CRC) by stool occult blood testing in the Nordic countries, with comparative reference to the burden of other causes of premature death. Methods Implementation of national screening programmes for CRC...... calculated mean mortality for the period 2005-2009. Results Invitation to a CRC screening programme for 10 years could influence 0.5-0.9% (95%CI 0.4-1.2) of all deaths in the age group 65-74 years. Among the remaining 99% of premature deaths, around 50% were caused by lung cancer, other lung diseases...... preventive strategies targeting more prevalent causes of premature death may be a superior approach...

  12. Systematic screening for cardiovascular risk at pharmacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohla, Miklos; Haberfeld, Heinz; Sinzinger, Helmut; Kritz, Harald; Tscharre, Maximilian; Freynhofer, Matthias K; Huber, Kurt; Weiss, Thomas W

    2016-01-01

    Background Early identification and treatment of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) is essential to prevent excess morbidity, mortality and healthcare-related costs. We sought to investigate whether an active screening programme at pharmacies could identify a significant proportion of patients with previously undetected CVRFs. Methods and results Between April and July 2013, 184 pharmacies in Lower Austria enrolled a total of 6800 participants, in whom body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), total cholesterol and blood glucose were measured. Mean age was 58±17 years and 67.8% were women. 21% of men and 16% of women had a BMI≥30 kg/m2. The crude prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) was 7%, hypercholesterolaemia was identified in 57%, and 44% had elevated BP. Among fasting individuals (n=1814), DM was found in 18%. In total, 30% were confronted with a CVRF they were previously unaware of, and pharmacists recommended 45% of all participants to actively consult a physician. A first-time diagnosis of a CVRF was most frequent in the age groups between 25 and 64 (32% of participants). Conclusions This pharmacy-based approach for cardiovascular risk screening found similar overall prevalences of CVRFs as reported by national surveys, but revealed underdiagnoses, particularly in lower age groups. A previously unknown CVRF was identified in every third individual, frequently prompting the pharmacists to recommend the consultation of a physician. An active screening approach at pharmacies might therefore serve as an effective alternative to the public preventive medical examination, particularly in younger age groups. PMID:27738518

  13. High Blood Cholesterol: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Audiences Contact The Health Information Center High Blood Cholesterol: What You Need To Know Table of Contents ... Lifestyle Changes (TLC) Drug Treatment Resources Why Is Cholesterol Important? Your blood cholesterol level has a lot ...

  14. Cholesterol: Top Five Foods to Lower Your Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholesterol: Top foods to improve your numbers Diet can play an important role in lowering your cholesterol. Here are the top foods to lower your cholesterol and protect your heart. By Mayo Clinic Staff ...

  15. Endogenous cholesterol synthesis, fecal steroid excretion and serum lanosterol in subjects with high or low response of serum cholesterol to dietary cholesterol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beynen, A.C.; Katan, M.B.; Gent, van C.M.

    1986-01-01

    In this study we addressed the question whether hypo- and hyper-responders to dietary cholesterol differ with regard to the flexibility of endogenous cholesterol synthesis after changes in cholesterol intake. Whole-body cholesterol synthesis was measured as faecal excretion of neutral steroids and b

  16. Endogenous cholesterol synthesis, fecal steroid excretion and serum lanosterol in subjects with high or low response of serum cholesterol to dietary cholesterol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beynen, A.C.; Katan, M.B.; Gent, van C.M.

    1986-01-01

    In this study we addressed the question whether hypo- and hyper-responders to dietary cholesterol differ with regard to the flexibility of endogenous cholesterol synthesis after changes in cholesterol intake. Whole-body cholesterol synthesis was measured as faecal excretion of neutral steroids and

  17. Colorectal cancer screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramona M McLoughlin; Colm A O'Morain

    2006-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major public health burden worldwide.There is clear-cut evidence that screening will reduce colorectal cancer mortality and the only contentious issue is which screening tool to use.Most evidence points towards screening with fecal occult blood testing.The immunochemical fecal occult blood tests have a higher sensitivity than the guaiac-based tests.In addition,their automation and haemoglobin quantification allows a threshold for colonoscopy to be selected that can be accommodated within individual health care systems.

  18. Brain cholesterol in normal and pathological aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanmierlo Tim

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Aberrations in cerebral cholesterol homeostasis can lead to severe neurological diseases. Recent findings strengthen the link between brain cholesterol metabolism and factors involved in synaptic plasticity, a process essential for learning and memory functions, as well as regeneration, which are affected in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD. Cholesterol homeostasis within the brain is independent of that in the rest of the body and needs to be strictly regulated for optimal brain functioning. In contrast with what was initially assumed brain cholesterol homeostasis can be modulated by extra-cerebral factors. We have found that enhancement of the cholesterol-turnover in the brain by administration of the synthetic activator of liver x receptos (LXRs, T0901317, leads to restoration of memory functions in an AD mouse-model.Memory in C57Bl6NCrl mice was not further improved by the same treatment. Moreover, it was found that in contrast with cholesterol, the structurally very similar dietary derived plant sterols can enter the brain. Plant sterols may be natural activators of LXRs. Evidence is provided suggesting that brassicasterol may be a novel additional biomarker in cerebrospinal fluid of AD patients. Insight into the regulation of cerebral cholesterol homeostasis will provide possibilities to modulate the key steps involved and may lead to the development of therapies for the prevention as well as treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as AD.

  19. Physiological and pathological implications of cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Victor A; Busso, Dolores; Maiz, Alberto; Arteaga, Antonio; Nervi, Flavio; Rigotti, Attilio

    2014-01-01

    Cholesterol has evolved to fulfill sophisticated biophysical, cell signaling and endocrine requirements of animal systems. At a cellular level, cholesterol is found in membranes, where it increases both bilayer stiffness and impermeability to water and ions. Furthermore, cholesterol is integrated into specialized lipid-protein membrane microdomains with critical topographical and signaling functions. At an organismal level, cholesterol is the precursor for all steroid hormones, including gluco- and mineralo-corticoids, sex hormones and vitamin D, all of which regulate carbohydrate, sodium, reproductive and bone homeostasis, respectively. This sterol is also the precursor for bile acids, which are important for intestinal absorption of dietary lipids as well as energy and glucose metabolic regulation. Importantly, complex mechanisms maintain cholesterol within physiological ranges and the disregulation of these mechanisms results in embryonic or adult diseases, caused by either excessive or reduced tissue cholesterol levels. The causative role of cholesterol in these diseases has been demonstrated by diverse genetic and pharmacologic animal models that are commented in this review.

  20. Genetic therapies to lower cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    This review surveys the state-of-the-art in genetic therapies for familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH), caused most commonly by mutations in the LDL receptor (LDLR) gene. FH manifests as highly elevated low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels and consequently accelerated atherosclerosis. Modern pharmacological therapies for FH are insufficiently efficacious to prevent premature cardiovascular disease, can cause significant adverse effects and can be expensive. Genetic therapies for FH have been mooted since the mid 1990s but gene replacement strategies using viral vectors have so far been unsuccessful. Other strategies involve knocking down the expression of Apolipoprotein B100 (APOB100) and the protease PCSK9 which designates LDLR for degradation. The antisense oligonucleotide mipomersen, which knocks down APOB100, is currently marketed (with restrictions) in the USA, but is not approved in Europe due to its adverse effects. To address this problem, we have devised a novel therapeutic concept, APO-skip, which is based on modulation of APOB splicing, and which has the potential to deliver a cost-effective, efficacious and safe therapy for FH.

  1. Cellular Cholesterol Regulates Ubiquitination and Degradation of the Cholesterol Export Proteins ABCA1 and ABCG1*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Victar; Kim, Mi-Jurng; Gelissen, Ingrid C.; Brown, Andrew J.; Sandoval, Cecilia; Hallab, Jeannette C.; Kockx, Maaike; Traini, Mathew; Jessup, Wendy; Kritharides, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the influence of cholesterol in post-translational control of ABCA1 and ABCG1 protein expression. Using CHO cell lines stably expressing human ABCA1 or ABCG1, we observed that the abundance of these proteins is increased by cell cholesterol loading. The response to increased cholesterol is rapid, is independent of transcription, and appears to be specific for these membrane proteins. The effect is mediated through cholesterol-dependent inhibition of transporter protein degradation. Cell cholesterol loading similarly regulates degradation of endogenously expressed ABCA1 and ABCG1 in human THP-1 macrophages. Turnover of ABCA1 and ABCG1 is strongly inhibited by proteasomal inhibitors and is unresponsive to inhibitors of lysosomal proteolysis. Furthermore, cell cholesterol loading inhibits ubiquitination of ABCA1 and ABCG1. Our findings provide evidence for a rapid, cholesterol-dependent, post-translational control of ABCA1 and ABCG1 protein levels, mediated through a specific and sterol-sensitive mechanism for suppression of transporter protein ubiquitination, which in turn decreases proteasomal degradation. This provides a mechanism for acute fine-tuning of cholesterol transporter activity in response to fluctuations in cell cholesterol levels, in addition to the longer term cholesterol-dependent transcriptional regulation of these genes. PMID:24500716

  2. Tissue storage and control of cholesterol metabolism in man on high cholesterol diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintão, E C; Brumer, S; Stechhahn, K

    1977-03-01

    The possibility of accumulation of tissue cholesterol in human beings submitted to high cholesterol feeding was investigated in liver biopsies and through fecal sterol balance studies. Feeding to 10 individuals 3.1 to 3.4 g/day of cholesterol for 3 weeks raised the mean serum level from 293 to 349 mg/100 ml, namely 19%, whereas the liver cholesterol content was 417 mg/100 g of wet weight. In 10 control cases eating 0.1--0.4 g/day of cholesterol serum cholesterol remained stable throughout the experimental period and the liver cholesterol content was 256 mg/100 g. Difference of liver colesterol level between the two groups was 62%. In 7 patients submitted to two periods of balance investigation on a cholesterol-free synthetic formula diet respectively prior to (PI) and after (PIII) eating the high cholesterol solid food from 4 to 15 weeks (PII), fecal steroid excretion in PIII exceeded PI in 3 patients. Such data are a direct evidence for the existence of an efficient system to release acutely stored cholesterol. In one patient bile acid excretion accounted for the difference between PIII and PI.

  3. Acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferases

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Ta-Yuan; Li, Bo-Liang; Chang, Catherine C.Y.; Urano, Yasuomi

    2009-01-01

    The enzymes acyl-coenzyme A (CoA):cholesterol acyltransferases (ACATs) are membrane-bound proteins that utilize long-chain fatty acyl-CoA and cholesterol as substrates to form cholesteryl esters. In mammals, two isoenzymes, ACAT1 and ACAT2, encoded by two different genes, exist. ACATs play important roles in cellular cholesterol homeostasis in various tissues. This chapter summarizes the current knowledge on ACAT-related research in two areas: 1) ACAT genes and proteins and 2) ACAT enzymes as...

  4. Peripheral cholesterol, metabolic disorders and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, Maria Dolores; Dotti, Carlos Gerardo

    2012-01-01

    Strong correlations have been made between high levels of blood cholesterol and the risk to suffer Alzheimer's disease (AD). The question arises on how a peripheral event contributes to a disease that so severely affects the integrity and function of the Central Nervous System. Hypercholesterolemia has been also associated to peripheral metabolic disorders like diabetes, obesity or atherosclerosis that, in turn, predispose to AD. Here we review data, which point to alterations in blood cholesterol levels as a link between these metabolic disorders and AD. We describe and discuss common, cholesterol-related, molecular mechanisms and strategies to fight these conditions that, altogether, constitute a major cause of death in our societies.

  5. Wheat alkylresorcinols reduce micellar solubility of cholesterol in vitro and increase cholesterol excretion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikawa, Kazumasa; Hashimoto, Chiaki; Kikuchi, Yosuke; Makita, Miki; Fukudome, Shin-Ichi; Okita, Kimiko; Wada, Naoyuki; Oishi, Katsutaka

    2017-03-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that the consumption of whole grains can reduce risk for metabolic disorders. We recently showed that chronic supplementation with wheat alkylresorcinols (ARs) prevents glucose intolerance and insulin resistance with hepatic lipid accumulation induced in mice by a high-fat high-sucrose diet (HFHSD). This study examines the effects of ARs on the micellar solubility of cholesterol in vitro, as well as the effects of transient AR supplementation on faecal lipid excretion and plasma lipid levels in mice. We found that ARs formed bile micelles with taurocholate independently of phospholipids, and dose-dependently decreased the micellar solubility of cholesterol in a biliary micelle model. Transient AR supplementation with HFHSD increased faecal cholesterol and triglyceride contents and decreased plasma cholesterol concentrations. These suggest that one underlying mechanism through which ARs suppress diet-induced obesity is by interfering with the micellar cholesterol solubilisation in the digestive tract, which subsequently decreases cholesterol absorption.

  6. How Is High Blood Cholesterol Treated?

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    ... fat is found in some meats, dairy products, chocolate, baked goods, and deep-fried and processed foods. ... and raise your HDL cholesterol level. People gain health benefits from as little as 60 minutes of moderate- ...

  7. estimations of cholesterol, triglycerides and fractionation

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    2Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Moshood Abiola ... (LDL-C) and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) in 53 female .... In this report, concentrations of the following biochemical parameters in the serum were.

  8. [Cholesterol and atherosclerosis. Historical considerations and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zárate, Arturo; Manuel-Apolinar, Leticia; Basurto, Lourdes; De la Chesnaye, Elsa; Saldívar, Iván

    2016-01-01

    Cholesterol is a precursor of steroid hormones and an essential component of the cell membrane, however, altered regulation of the synthesis, absorption and excretion of cholesterol predispose to cardiovascular diseases of atherosclerotic origin. Despite, the recognition of historical events for 200 years, starting with Michel Chevreul naming «cholesterol»; later on, Lobstein coining the term atherosclerosis and Marchand introducing it, Anichkov identifying cholesterol in atheromatous plaque, and Brown and Goldstein discovering LDL receptor; as well as the emerging of different drugs, such as fibrates, statins and cetrapibs this decade, promising to increase HDL and the most recent ezetimibe and anti-PCSK9 to inhibit the degradation of LDL receptor, however morbidity has not been reduced in cardiovascular disease.

  9. Roles of the Mevalonate Pathway and Cholesterol Trafficking in Pulmonary Host Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabor, Kristin A; Fessler, Michael B

    2017-01-01

    The mevalonic acid synthesis pathway, cholesterol, and lipoproteins play fundamental roles in lung physiology and the innate immune response. Recent literature investigating roles for cholesterol synthesis and trafficking in host defense against respiratory infection was critically reviewed. The innate immune response and the cholesterol biosynthesis/trafficking network regulate one another, with important implications for pathogen invasion and host defense in the lung. The activation of pathogen recognition receptors and downstream cellular host defense functions are critically sensitive to cellular cholesterol. Conversely, microorganisms can co-opt the sterol/lipoprotein network in order to facilitate replication and evade immunity. Emerging literature suggests the potential for harnessing these insights towards therapeutic development. Given that >50% of adults in the U.S. have serum cholesterol abnormalities and pneumonia remains a leading cause of death, the potential impact of cholesterol on pulmonary host defense is of tremendous public health significance and warrants further mechanistic and translational investigation. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Effect of cholesterol and triglycerides levels on the rheological behavior of human blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Leonardo; Calderas, Fausto; Sanchez-Olivares, Guadalupe; Medina-Torres, Luis; Sanchez-Solis, Antonio; Manero, Octavio

    2015-02-01

    Important public health problems worldwide such as obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and coronary diseases are quite common. These problems arise from numerous factors, such as hyper-caloric diets, sedentary habits and other epigenetic factors. With respect to Mexico, the population reference values of total cholesterol in plasma are around 200 mg/dL. However, a large proportion has higher levels than this reference value. In this work, we analyze the rheological properties of human blood obtained from 20 donors, as a function of cholesterol and triglyceride levels, upon a protocol previously approved by the health authorities. Samples with high and low cholesterol and triglyceride levels were selected and analyzed by simple-continuous and linear-oscillatory shear flow. Rheometric properties were measured and related to the structure and composition of human blood. In addition, rheometric data were modeled by using several constitutive equations: Bautista-Manero-Puig (BMP) and the multimodal Maxwell equations to predict the flow behavior of human blood. Finally, a comparison was made among various models, namely, the BMP, Carreau and Quemada equations for simple shear rate flow. An important relationship was found between cholesterol, triglycerides and the structure of human blood. Results show that blood with high cholesterol levels (400 mg/dL) has flow properties fully different (higher viscosity and a more pseudo-plastic behavior) than blood with lower levels of cholesterol (tendency to Newtonian behavior or viscosity plateau at low shear rates).

  11. Depression Screening

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    ... Centers Diseases + Condition Centers Mental Health Medical Library Depression Screening (PHQ-9) - Instructions The following questions are ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Depression Screening - Manual Instructions The following questions are a ...

  12. Assessing possible hazards of reducing serum cholesterol.

    OpenAIRE

    Law, M. R.; Thompson, S. G.; Wald, N J

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess whether low serum cholesterol concentration increases mortality from any cause. DESIGN--Systematic review of published data on mortality from causes other than ischaemic heart disease derived from the 10 largest cohort studies, two international studies, and 28 randomised trials, supplemented by unpublished data on causes of death obtained when necessary. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Excess cause specific mortality associated with low or lowered serum cholesterol concentration....

  13. Cholesterol treatment practices of primary care physicians.

    OpenAIRE

    Hyman, D J; Maibach, E W; Flora, J A; Fortmann, S.P.

    1992-01-01

    The active involvement of primary care physicians is necessary in the diagnosis and treatment of elevated blood cholesterol. Empirical evidence suggests that primary care physicians generally initiate dietary and pharmacological treatment at threshold values higher than is currently recommended. To determine current treatment thresholds and establish factors that distinguish physicians who are more likely to initiate therapy at lower cholesterol values, 119 primary care physicians in four nor...

  14. A new framework for reverse cholesterol transport: Non-biliary contributions to reverse cholesterol transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ryan; E; Temel; J; Mark; Brown

    2010-01-01

    Reduction of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol through statin therapy has only modestly decreased coronary heart disease (CHD)-associated mortality in developed countries, which has prompted the search for alternative therapeutic strategies for CHD. Major efforts are now focused on therapies that augment high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-mediated reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), and ultimately increase the fecal disposal of cholesterol. The process of RCT has long been thought to simply involve HDL-media...

  15. From blood to gut: Direct secretion of cholesterol via transintestinal cholesterol efflux

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carlos; LJ; Vrins

    2010-01-01

    The reverse cholesterol transport pathway (RCT) is the focus of many cholesterol-lowering therapies. By way of this pathway, excess cholesterol is collected from peripheral tissues and delivered back to the liver and gastrointestinal tract for excretion from the body. For a long time this removal via the hepatobiliary secretion was considered to be the sole route involved in the RCT. However, observations from early studies in animals and humans already pointed towards the possibility of another route. In t...

  16. Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Prasad

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Cancer screening is a means to detect cancer early with the goal of decreasing morbidity and mortality. At present, there is a reasonable consensus regarding screening for breast, cervical and colorectal cances and the role of screening is under trial in case of cancers of the lung,  ovaries and prostate. On the other hand, good screening tests are not available for some of the commonest cancers in India like the oral, pharyngeal, esophageal and stomach cancers.

  17. Cancer Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna Prasad

    2004-01-01

    Cancer screening is a means to detect cancer early with the goal of decreasing morbidity and mortality. At present, there is a reasonable consensus regarding screening for breast, cervical and colorectal cances and the role of screening is under trial in case of cancers of the lung,  ovaries and prostate. On the other hand, good screening tests are not available for some of the commonest cancers in India like the oral, pharyngeal, esophageal and stomach cancers.

  18. CHOLESTEROL ASSIMILATION BY COMMERCIAL YOGHURT STARTER CULTURES

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    Małgorzata Ziarno

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The ability to in vitro cholesterol level reduction in laboratory media has been shown for numerous strains of lactic acid bacteria, but not for all strains of lactic bacteria used in the dairy industry. The aim of this work was the determination of the ability of selected thermophilic lactic acid bacteria to cholesterol assimilation during 24 h culture in MRS broth. Commercial starter cultures showed various ability to cholesterol assimilation from laboratory medium. In case of starter cultures used for production of traditional yoghurt, consisting of Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, the quantity of assimilated cholesterol did not exceed 27% of its initial contents (0.7 g in 1 dm3. Starter cultures used for bioyoghurt production, containing also probiotic strains (came from Lactobacillus acidophilus species or Bifidobacterium genus assimilated from almost 18% to over 38% of cholesterol. For one monoculture of Lb. acidophilus, cholesterol assimilation ability of 49-55% was observed, despite that the number of bacterial cells in this culture was not different from number of bacteria in other cultures.

  19. Cholesterol suppresses antimicrobial effect of statins

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    Mohammad Reza Haeri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Isoprenoid biosynthesis is a key metabolic pathway to produce a wide variety of biomolecules such as cholesterol and carotenoids, which target cell membranes. On the other hand, it has been reported that statins known as inhibitors of isoprenoid biosynthesis and cholesterol lowering agents, may have a direct antimicrobial effect on the some bacteria. The exact action of statins in microbial metabolism is not clearly understood. It is possible that statins inhibit synthesis or utilization of some sterol precursor necessary for bacterial membrane integrity. Accordingly, this study was designed in order to examine if statins inhibit the production of a compound, which can be used in the membrane, and whether cholesterol would replace it and rescue bacteria from toxic effects of statins. Materials and Methods: To examine the possibility we assessed antibacterial effect of statins with different classes; lovastatin, simvastatin, and atorvastatin, alone and in combination with cholesterol on two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis and two Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli bacteria using gel diffusion assay. Results: Our results showed that all of the statins except for lovastatin had significant antibacterial property in S. aureus, E. coli, and Enter. faecalis. Surprisingly, cholesterol nullified the antimicrobial action of effective statins in statin-sensitive bacteria. Conclusion: It is concluded that statins may deprive bacteria from a metabolite responsible for membrane stability, which is effectively substituted by cholesterol.

  20. Cholesterol content in meat of some Cyprinidae

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    Živković Dragić L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to examine cholesterol content in meat of five Cyprinidae species: white bream (Bllica bjoerkna L, carp bream (Abramis brama L, baltic vimba (Vimba vimba carinata Pallas, zope (Abramis balerus L and crucian carp (Carassius carassius gibelio Bloch from the river Danube. Cholesterol content was examined in the function of season factor and individual weight. Cholesterol concentration in meat of white bream carp bream, baltic vimba, zope and crucian carp is on average level below 20 mg/100 g of meat, which makes meat of these fish species nutritively very valuable. Cholesterol content is variable during the season. Its concentration in meat and in lipids is lowest during spring, during summer it increases and during autumn decreases, except in meat of white bream. Body weight has influence on cholesterol content when its concentration is expressed as % of cholesterol in lipids. Its content in lipids decreases with increasing of individual weight, except in meat of carp bream.

  1. Dietary cholesterol modulates pathogen blocking by Wolbachia.

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    Eric P Caragata

    Full Text Available The bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis protects its hosts from a range of pathogens by limiting their ability to form infections inside the insect. This "pathogen blocking" could be explained by innate immune priming by the symbiont, competition for host-derived resources between pathogens and Wolbachia, or the direct modification of the cell or cellular environment by Wolbachia. Recent comparative work in Drosophila and the mosquito Aedes aegypti has shown that an immune response is not required for pathogen blocking, implying that there must be an additional component to the mechanism. Here we have examined the involvement of cholesterol in pathogen blocking using a system of dietary manipulation in Drosophila melanogaster in combination with challenge by Drosophila C virus (DCV, a common fly pathogen. We observed that flies reared on cholesterol-enriched diets infected with the Wolbachia strains wMelPop and wMelCS exhibited reduced pathogen blocking, with viral-induced mortality occurring 2-5 days earlier than flies reared on Standard diet. This shift toward greater virulence in the presence of cholesterol also corresponded to higher viral copy numbers in the host. Interestingly, an increase in dietary cholesterol did not have an effect on Wolbachia density except in one case, but this did not directly affect the strength of pathogen blocking. Our results indicate that host cholesterol levels are involved with the ability of Wolbachia-infected flies to resist DCV infections, suggesting that cholesterol contributes to the underlying mechanism of pathogen blocking.

  2. Obesity, cholesterol metabolism, and breast cancer pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Donald P; Park, Sunghee; Goulet, Matthew T; Jasper, Jeff; Wardell, Suzanne E; Chang, Ching-Yi; Norris, John D; Guyton, John R; Nelson, Erik R

    2014-09-15

    Obesity and altered lipid metabolism are risk factors for breast cancer in pre- and post-menopausal women. These pathologic relationships have been attributed in part to the impact of cholesterol on the biophysical properties of cell membranes and to the influence of these changes on signaling events initiated at the membrane. However, more recent studies have indicated that the oxysterol 27-hydroxycholesterol (27HC), and not cholesterol per se, may be the primary biochemical link between lipid metabolism and cancer. The enzyme responsible for production of 27HC from cholesterol, CYP27A1, is expressed primarily in the liver and in macrophages. In addition, significantly elevated expression of this enzyme within breast tumors has also been observed. It is believed that 27HC, acting through the liver X receptor in macrophages and possibly other cells, is involved in maintaining organismal cholesterol homeostasis. It has also been shown recently that 27HC is an estrogen receptor agonist in breast cancer cells and that it stimulates the growth and metastasis of tumors in several models of breast cancer. These findings provide the rationale for the clinical evaluation of pharmaceutical approaches that interfere with cholesterol/27HC synthesis as a means to mitigate the impact of cholesterol on breast cancer pathogenesis. Cancer Res; 74(18); 4976-82. ©2014 AACR. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Obesity, Cholesterol Metabolism and Breast Cancer Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Donald P.; Park, Sunghee; Goulet, Matthew T.; Jasper, Jeff; Wardell, Suzanne E.; Chang, Ching-yi; Norris, John D.; Guyton, John R.; Nelson, Erik R.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and altered lipid metabolism are risk factors for breast cancer in pre- and post-menopausal women. These pathologic relationships have been attributed in part to the impact of cholesterol on the biophysical properties of cell membranes and to the influence of these changes on signaling events initiated at the membrane. However, more recent studies have indicated that the oxysterol 27-hydroxycholesterol (27HC), and not cholesterol per se, may be the primary biochemical link between lipid metabolism and cancer. The enzyme responsible for production of 27HC from cholesterol, CYP27A1, is expressed primarily in the liver and in macrophages. In addition significantly elevated expression of this enzyme within breast tumors has also been observed. It is believed that 27HC, acting through the liver X receptor (LXR) in macrophages and possibly other cells is involved in maintaining organismal cholesterol homeostasis. It has also been shown recently that 27HC is an estrogen receptor (ER) agonist in breast cancer cells and that it stimulates the growth and metastasis of tumors in several models of breast cancer. These findings provide the rationale for the clinical evaluation of pharmaceutical approaches that interfere with cholesterol/27HC synthesis as a means to mitigate the impact of cholesterol on breast cancer pathogenesis. PMID:25060521

  4. Cholesterol modulates the dimer interface of the β₂-adrenergic receptor via cholesterol occupancy sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna, Xavier; Chattopadhyay, Amitabha; Sengupta, Durba

    2014-03-18

    The β2-adrenergic receptor is an important member of the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily, whose stability and function are modulated by membrane cholesterol. The recent high-resolution crystal structure of the β2-adrenergic receptor revealed the presence of possible cholesterol-binding sites in the receptor. However, the functional relevance of cholesterol binding to the receptor remains unexplored. We used MARTINI coarse-grained molecular-dynamics simulations to explore dimerization of the β2-adrenergic receptor in lipid bilayers containing cholesterol. A novel (to our knowledge) aspect of our results is that receptor dimerization is modulated by membrane cholesterol. We show that cholesterol binds to transmembrane helix IV, and cholesterol occupancy at this site restricts its involvement at the dimer interface. With increasing cholesterol concentration, an increased presence of transmembrane helices I and II, but a reduced presence of transmembrane helix IV, is observed at the dimer interface. To our knowledge, this study is one of the first to explore the correlation between cholesterol occupancy and GPCR organization. Our results indicate that dimer plasticity is relevant not just as an organizational principle but also as a subtle regulatory principle for GPCR function. We believe these results constitute an important step toward designing better drugs for GPCR dimer targets.

  5. Total serum calcium level may have adverse effects on serum cholesterol and triglycerides among female university faculty and staffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lianping; Qian, Yifan; Ren, Xiaohua; Jin, Yuelong; Chang, Weiwei; Li, Jie; Chen, Yan; Song, Xiuli; Tang, Hui; Ding, Lingling; Guo, Daoxia; Yao, Yingshui

    2014-03-01

    Our previous studies showed that serum calcium level may have influence in the blood pressure to older male subjects, but the relationship between serum calcium level and blood lipids is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between total serum calcium level and blood lipids. In our study, total serum calcium level and blood lipids were measured among 1,075 subjects, with age range of 30-60 years, who were recruited for the routine health screening in 2006. The results showed that serum calcium level was positively correlated with triglyceride and total cholesterol weight, but not HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol in female subjects (P 0.05). These findings suggest that a higher total serum calcium level may have a adverse effects on serum cholesterol and triglycerides among female subjects.

  6. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in diabetic patients with subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Juan J; Iglesias, Pedro

    2014-10-01

    To assess whether subclinical hypothyroidism is associated to elevations in serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. From a total population of 1,112 patients with type 2 diabetes screened for thyroid dysfunction (thyrotropin measurement), a group of 325 patients with normal thyroid function and another group of 29 patients with subclinical hypothyroidism were selected. No patient had known dyslipidemia or was taking lipid lowering medication. Patients with subclinical hypothyroidism had serum levels of total cholesterol (4.88 ± 0.74 mmol/L), HDL cholesterol (1.37 ± 0.34 mmol/L), LDL cholesterol (2.94 ± 0.58 mmol/L), and triglycerides (1.05 [0.88-1.41] mmol/L) that did not significantly differ from those found in euthyroid patients (4.79 ± 0.83, 1.33 ± 0.36, 2.87 ± 0.76, and 1.11 [0.81-1.43] mmol/L, respectively). Multiple regression analysis showed no association between TSH and serum lipid levels. These results suggest that, in our population, there are no significant differences in serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels between diabetic patients with normal and reduced thyroid function. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. The Structural Basis of Cholesterol Activity in Membranes

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    Olsen, Brett N.; Bielska, Agata; Lee, Tiffany; Daily, Michael D.; Covey, Douglas F.; Schlesinger, Paul H.; Baker, Nathan A.; Ory, Daniel S.

    2013-10-15

    Although the majority of free cellular cholesterol is present in the plasma membrane, cholesterol homeostasis is principally regulated through sterol-sensing proteins that reside in the cholesterol-poor endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In response to acute cholesterol loading or depletion, there is rapid equilibration between the ER and plasma membrane cholesterol pools, suggesting a biophysical model in which the availability of plasma membrane cholesterol for trafficking to internal membranes modulates ER membrane behavior. Previous studies have predominantly examined cholesterol availability in terms of binding to extramembrane acceptors, but have provided limited insight into the structural changes underlying cholesterol activation. In this study, we use both molecular dynamics simulations and experimental membrane systems to examine the behavior of cholesterol in membrane bilayers. We find that cholesterol depth within the bilayer provides a reasonable structural metric for cholesterol availability and that this is correlated with cholesterol-acceptor binding. Further, the distribution of cholesterol availability in our simulations is continuous rather than divided into distinct available and unavailable pools. This data provide support for a revised cholesterol activation model in which activation is driven not by saturation of membrane-cholesterol interactions but rather by bulk membrane remodeling that reduces membrane-cholesterol affinity.

  8. A low-cholesterol menu in a steak restaurant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, L W; Foreyt, J P; Manis, E; O'Malley, M P; Gotto, A M

    1979-01-01

    A twelve-month pilot project was conducted to test public reaction to a special restaurant menu identifying food choices low in cholesterol and saturated fat. The Houston steak house in which the "Help Your Heart" menu was tested prepared foods according to guidelines from dietitians of the Diet Modification Clinic, Baylor College of Medicine. Two newspaper articles, a brief magazine feature, and regularly scheduled radio advertising spots publicized the special menu. At the end of each month of the test period, the number of orders from the special menu was tallied for fourteen randomly selected days. Monthly sales from the special menu ranged from 2.5 to 5.1 per cent, with an overall average of 3.4 per cent. There was no statistically significant change from the mean of the percentage of total sales from the special menu over the months. Despite the relatively low percentage of total sales, restaurant executives were pleased with the results of the study and planned to offer the low-cholesterol menu indefinitely, eventually in an expanded form.

  9. Dairy products and plasma cholesterol levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Ohlsson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol synthesized in the body or ingested is an essential lipid component for human survival from our earliest life. Newborns ingest about 3–4 times the amount per body weight through mother's milk compared to the dietary intake of adults. A birth level of 1.7 mmol/L plasma total cholesterol will increase to 4–4.5 mmol/L during the nursing period and continue to increase from adulthood around 40% throughout life. Coronary artery disease and other metabolic disorders are strongly associated with low-density lipoprotein (LDL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol as well as triacylglycerol concentration. Milk fat contains a broad range of fatty acids and some have a negative impact on the cholesterol rich lipoproteins. The saturated fatty acids (SFAs, such as palmitic acid (C16:0, myristic acid (C14:0, and lauric acid (C12:0, increase total plasma cholesterol, especially LDL, and constitute 11.3 g/L of bovine milk, which is 44.8% of total fatty acid in milk fat. Replacement of dairy SFA and trans-fatty acids with polyunsaturated fatty acids decreases plasma cholesterol, especially LDL cholesterol, and is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Available data shows different effects on lipoproteins for different dairy products and there is uncertainty as to the impact a reasonable intake amount of dairy items has on cardiovascular risk. The aim of this review is to elucidate the effect of milk components and dairy products on total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and the LDL/HDL quotients. Based on eight recent randomized controlled trials of parallel or cross-over design and recent reviews it can be concluded that replacement of saturated fat mainly (but not exclusively derived from high-fat dairy products with low-fat dairy products lowers LDL/HDL cholesterol and total/HDL cholesterol ratios. Whey, dairy fractions enriched in polar lipids, and techniques such as fermentation, or fortification of cows feeding can be used

  10. Intracellular cholesterol-binding proteins enhance HDL-mediated cholesterol uptake in cultured primary mouse hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Stephen M; McIntosh, Avery L; Huang, Huan; Landrock, Kerstin K; Martin, Gregory G; Landrock, Danilo; Payne, H Ross; Atshaves, Barbara P; Kier, Ann B; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2012-04-15

    A major gap in our knowledge of rapid hepatic HDL cholesterol clearance is the role of key intracellular factors that influence this process. Although the reverse cholesterol transport pathway targets HDL to the liver for net elimination of free cholesterol from the body, molecular details governing cholesterol uptake into hepatocytes are not completely understood. Therefore, the effects of sterol carrier protein (SCP)-2 and liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), high-affinity cholesterol-binding proteins present in hepatocyte cytosol, on HDL-mediated free cholesterol uptake were examined using gene-targeted mouse models, cultured primary hepatocytes, and 22-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)-amino]-23,24-bisnor-5-cholen-3β-ol (NBD-cholesterol). While SCP-2 overexpression enhanced NBD-cholesterol uptake, counterintuitively, SCP-2/SCP-x gene ablation also 1) enhanced the rapid molecular phase of free sterol uptake detectable in cholesterol and 2) differentially enhanced free cholesterol uptake mediated by the HDL3, rather than the HDL2, subfraction. The increased HDL free cholesterol uptake was not due to increased expression or distribution of the HDL receptor [scavenger receptor B1 (SRB1)], proteins regulating SRB1 [postsynaptic density protein (PSD-95)/Drosophila disk large tumor suppressor (dlg)/tight junction protein (ZO1) and 17-kDa membrane-associated protein], or other intracellular cholesterol trafficking proteins (steroidogenic acute response protein D, Niemann Pick C, and oxysterol-binding protein-related proteins). However, expression of L-FABP, the single most prevalent hepatic cytosolic protein that binds cholesterol, was upregulated twofold in SCP-2/SCP-x null hepatocytes. Double-immunogold electron microscopy detected L-FABP sufficiently close to SRB1 for direct interaction, similar to SCP-2. These data suggest a role for L-FABP in HDL cholesterol uptake, a finding confirmed with SCP-2/SCP-x/L-FABP null mice and hepatocytes. Taken together

  11. Intracellular cholesterol-binding proteins enhance HDL-mediated cholesterol uptake in cultured primary mouse hepatocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Stephen M.; McIntosh, Avery L.; Huang, Huan; Landrock, Kerstin K.; Martin, Gregory G.; Landrock, Danilo; Payne, H. Ross; Atshaves, Barbara P.; Kier, Ann B.

    2012-01-01

    A major gap in our knowledge of rapid hepatic HDL cholesterol clearance is the role of key intracellular factors that influence this process. Although the reverse cholesterol transport pathway targets HDL to the liver for net elimination of free cholesterol from the body, molecular details governing cholesterol uptake into hepatocytes are not completely understood. Therefore, the effects of sterol carrier protein (SCP)-2 and liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), high-affinity cholesterol-binding proteins present in hepatocyte cytosol, on HDL-mediated free cholesterol uptake were examined using gene-targeted mouse models, cultured primary hepatocytes, and 22-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)-amino]-23,24-bisnor-5-cholen-3β-ol (NBD-cholesterol). While SCP-2 overexpression enhanced NBD-cholesterol uptake, counterintuitively, SCP-2/SCP-x gene ablation also 1) enhanced the rapid molecular phase of free sterol uptake detectable in cholesterol and 2) differentially enhanced free cholesterol uptake mediated by the HDL3, rather than the HDL2, subfraction. The increased HDL free cholesterol uptake was not due to increased expression or distribution of the HDL receptor [scavenger receptor B1 (SRB1)], proteins regulating SRB1 [postsynaptic density protein (PSD-95)/Drosophila disk large tumor suppressor (dlg)/tight junction protein (ZO1) and 17-kDa membrane-associated protein], or other intracellular cholesterol trafficking proteins (steroidogenic acute response protein D, Niemann Pick C, and oxysterol-binding protein-related proteins). However, expression of L-FABP, the single most prevalent hepatic cytosolic protein that binds cholesterol, was upregulated twofold in SCP-2/SCP-x null hepatocytes. Double-immunogold electron microscopy detected L-FABP sufficiently close to SRB1 for direct interaction, similar to SCP-2. These data suggest a role for L-FABP in HDL cholesterol uptake, a finding confirmed with SCP-2/SCP-x/L-FABP null mice and hepatocytes. Taken together

  12. Double screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gratia, Pierre [Department of Physics, University of Chicago,South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Hu, Wayne [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago,South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Enrico Fermi Institute and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago,South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Joyce, Austin [Enrico Fermi Institute and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago,South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Ribeiro, Raquel H. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London,Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-15

    Attempts to modify gravity in the infrared typically require a screening mechanism to ensure consistency with local tests of gravity. These screening mechanisms fit into three broad classes; we investigate theories which are capable of exhibiting more than one type of screening. Specifically, we focus on a simple model which exhibits both Vainshtein and kinetic screening. We point out that due to the two characteristic length scales in the problem, the type of screening that dominates depends on the mass of the sourcing object, allowing for different phenomenology at different scales. We consider embedding this double screening phenomenology in a broader cosmological scenario and show that the simplest examples that exhibit double screening are radiatively stable.

  13. Taurine ameliorates cholesterol metabolism by stimulating bile acid production in high-cholesterol-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Shigeru; Fujita, Michiko; Nakamura, Masakazu; Sakono, Masanobu; Nishizono, Shoko; Sato, Masao; Imaizumi, Katsumi; Mori, Mari; Fukuda, Nobuhiro

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of dietary taurine on cholesterol metabolism in high-cholesterol-fed rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two dietary groups (n = 6 in each group): a high-cholesterol diet containing 0.5% cholesterol and 0.15% sodium cholate, and a high-cholesterol diet with 5% (w/w) taurine. The experimental diets were given for 2 weeks. Taurine supplementation reduced the serum and hepatic cholesterol levels by 37% and 32%, respectively. Faecal excretion of bile acids was significantly increased in taurine-treated rats, compared with untreated rats. Biliary bile acid concentrations were also increased by taurine. Taurine supplementation increased taurine-conjugated bile acids by 61% and decreased glycine-conjugated bile acids by 53%, resulting in a significant decrease in the glycine/taurine (G/T) ratio. Among the taurine-conjugated bile acids, cholic acid and deoxycholic acid were significantly increased. In the liver, taurine supplementation increased the mRNA expression and enzymatic activity of hepatic cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the rate-limiting enzyme for bile acid synthesis, by three- and two-fold, respectively. Taurine also decreased the enzymatic activity of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP). These observations suggest that taurine supplementation increases the synthesis and excretion of taurine-conjugated bile acids and stimulates the catabolism of cholesterol to bile acid by elevating the expression and activity of CYP7A1. This may reduce cholesterol esterification and lipoprotein assembly for very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion, leading to reductions in the serum and hepatic cholesterol levels. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Novel inhibitors of cholesterol degradation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis reveal how the bacterium's metabolism is constrained by the intracellular environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C VanderVen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb relies on a specialized set of metabolic pathways to support growth in macrophages. By conducting an extensive, unbiased chemical screen to identify small molecules that inhibit Mtb metabolism within macrophages, we identified a significant number of novel compounds that limit Mtb growth in macrophages and in medium containing cholesterol as the principle carbon source. Based on this observation, we developed a chemical-rescue strategy to identify compounds that target metabolic enzymes involved in cholesterol metabolism. This approach identified two compounds that inhibit the HsaAB enzyme complex, which is required for complete degradation of the cholesterol A/B rings. The strategy also identified an inhibitor of PrpC, the 2-methylcitrate synthase, which is required for assimilation of cholesterol-derived propionyl-CoA into the TCA cycle. These chemical probes represent new classes of inhibitors with novel modes of action, and target metabolic pathways required to support growth of Mtb in its host cell. The screen also revealed a structurally-diverse set of compounds that target additional stage(s of cholesterol utilization. Mutants resistant to this class of compounds are defective in the bacterial adenylate cyclase Rv1625/Cya. These data implicate cyclic-AMP (cAMP in regulating cholesterol utilization in Mtb, and are consistent with published reports indicating that propionate metabolism is regulated by cAMP levels. Intriguingly, reversal of the cholesterol-dependent growth inhibition caused by this subset of compounds could be achieved by supplementing the media with acetate, but not with glucose, indicating that Mtb is subject to a unique form of metabolic constraint induced by the presence of cholesterol.

  15. Cholesterol and ocular pathologies: focus on the role of cholesterol-24S-hydroxylase in cholesterol homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fourgeux Cynthia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The retina is responsible for coding the light stimulus into a nervous signal that is transferred to the brain via the optic nerve. The retina is formed by the association of the neurosensory retina and the retinal pigment epithelium that is supported by Bruch’s membrane. Both the physical and metabolic associations between these partners are crucial for the functioning of the retina, by means of nutrient intake and removal of the cell and metabolic debris from the retina. Dysequilibrium are involved in the aging processes and pathologies such as age-related macular degeneration, the leading cause of visual loss after the age of 50 years in Western countries. The retina is composed of several populations of cells including glia that is involved in cholesterol biosynthesis. Cholesterol is the main sterol in the retina. It is present as free form in cells and as esters in Bruch’s membrane. Accumulation of cholesteryl esters has been associated with aging of the retina and impairment of the retinal function. Under dietary influence and in situ synthesized, the metabolism of cholesterol is regulated by cell interactions, including neurons and glia via cholesterol-24S-hydroxylase. Several pathophysiological associations with cholesterol and its metabolism can be suggested, especially in relation to glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration.

  16. Narrative History of the Resistance Screening Center: It’s Origins, Leadership and Partial List of Public Benefits and Scientific Contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Young

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Forty years ago, the US Department of Agriculture (USDA Forest Service developed and currently operates the Resistance Screening Center near Asheville, North Carolina, as a service to both industry and university-based tree improvement programs and tree-seed exporting companies in the southern US, Mexico, and Central America. Seed lots from more than 15,000 selections of slash and loblolly pines have been evaluated for genetically-controlled resistance to fusiform rust and other diseases including pitch canker, dogwood anthracnose, and brown spot needle blight. The screening system uses a greenhouse-based artificial inoculation system with controlled density of inoculum from geographically diverse sources of the rust pathogen. Results are completed in 6–9 months and are reasonably well-correlated with field-based progeny tests. Operating costs of the Center are shared by both the USDA Forest Service and its clients. The technologically sophisticated methods and professional skills of the Center staff have been applied to facilitate and accelerate progress in region-wide timber production, scientific understanding of the fusiform rust pathosystem, and graduate education of forest geneticists and pathologists in universities.

  17. Metabolism of adrenal cholesterol in man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, Abraham; Delcroix, Claude; Levin, Sam

    1972-01-01

    The synthesis of adrenal cholesterol, its esterification and the synthesis of the glucocorticosteroid hormones were studied in vitro on human adrenal tissue. It was found that the synthesis of adrenal cholesterol may normally be small in the zona “fasciculata,” particularly when compared with the synthesis of the glucocorticosteroid hormones, that it is several times higher in the zona “reticularis” where esterified cholesterol is less abundant, and that under ACTH stimulation it increases strikingly and proportionally to the degree of esterified adrenal cholesterol depletion. On the other hand, the relative rate of esterification as well as the concentration of free adrenal cholesterol are remarkably stable: they do not differ according to the adrenal zonation and are unaffected by ACTH. Furthermore, from a qualitative point of view, the relative proportions of Δ1 and Δ2 cholesteryl esters formed in situ are similar to those anticipated from their relative concentrations, suggesting that the characteristic fatty acid distribution of the adrenal cholesteryl esters results from an in situ esterification rather than from a selective uptake of the plasma cholesteryl esters. Besides, the in vitro esterification reveals a propensity to the formation of the most unsaturated cholesteryl esters. Regarding hydrocortisone and corticosterone, their synthesis tends to be more elevated in the zona “fasciculata.” Despite its higher cholesterol concentration the zona “fasciculata” should not therefore be viewed as a quiescent functional complement to the zona “reticularis” and the cortical distribution of glucocorticosteroid hormone synthesis is quite distinct from that of adrenal cholesterol synthesis. PMID:4338120

  18. Colon cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening for colon cancer; Colonoscopy - screening; Sigmoidoscopy - screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test; Colorectal cancer - screening; Rectal ...

  19. Blood Glucose and Cholesterol Concentrations in a Mediterranean Rural Population of Andros Island, Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Tsaousis, Konstantinos T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study conducted as part of a screening program for the promotion of community health in the primary care setting of Ormos Korthi in Andros, Greece. The objective of this study was to identify the levels of glucose and total cholesterol in individuals without major cardiovascular problems in order to identify cases of undetected dyslipidemia and high blood glucose levels, in a rural population located in the southern part of Andros Island, Greece. Methods: In total, 242 in...

  20. Aspirin Prevention of Cholesterol Gallstone Formation in Prairie Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sum P.; Carey, Martin C.; Lamont, J. Thomas

    1981-03-01

    When prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) are fed a diet containing cholesterol, a marked increase in gallbladder mucin secretion parallels the evolution of cholesterol supersaturated bile. Gelation of mucin precedes the precipitation of cholesterol liquid and solid crystals and the development of gallstones. Aspirin given to prairie dogs inhibited mucin hypersecretion and gel accumulation and prevented gallstone formation without influencing the cholesterol content of supersaturated bile. This suggests that gallbladder mucin is a nucleation matrix for cholesterol gallstones.

  1. Aspirin prevention of cholesterol gallstone formation in prairie dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S P; Carey, M C; LaMont, J T

    1981-03-27

    When prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) are fed a diet containing cholesterol, a marked increase in gallbladder mucin secretion parallels the evolution of cholesterol supersaturated bile. Gelation of mucin precedes the precipitation of cholesterol liquid and solid crystals and the development of gallstones. Aspirin given to prairie dogs inhibited mucin hypersecretion and gel accumulation and prevented gallstone formation without influencing the cholesterol content of supersaturated bile. This suggests that gallbladder mucin is a nucleation matrix for cholesterol gallstones.

  2. Intestinal SR-BI does not impact cholesterol absorption or transintestinal cholesterol efflux in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bura, Kanwardeep S.; Lord, Caleb; Marshall, Stephanie; McDaniel, Allison; Thomas, Gwyn; Warrier, Manya; Zhang, Jun; Davis, Matthew A.; Sawyer, Janet K.; Shah, Ramesh; Wilson, Martha D.; Dikkers, Arne; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Collet, Xavier; Rudel, Lawrence L.; Temel, Ryan E.; Brown, J. Mark

    2013-01-01

    Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) can proceed through the classic hepatobiliary route or through the non-biliary transintestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE) pathway. Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) plays a critical role in the classic hepatobiliary route of RCT. However, the role of SR-BI

  3. Transintestinal and Biliary Cholesterol Secretion Both Contribute to Macrophage Reverse Cholesterol Transport in Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Jan Freark; Schonewille, Marleen; Dikkers, Arne; Koehorst, Martijn; Havinga, Rick; Kuipers, Folkert; Tietge, Uwe J F; Groen, Albert K

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Reverse cholesterol transport comprises efflux of cholesterol from macrophages and its subsequent removal from the body with the feces and thereby protects against formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Because of lack of suitable animal models that allow for evaluation of the respective c

  4. Prevention of cholesterol gallstones by inhibiting hepatic biosynthesis and intestinal absorption of cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Helen H; Portincasa, Piero; de Bari, Ornella; Liu, Kristina J; Garruti, Gabriella; Neuschwander-Tetri, Brent A; Wang, David Q.-H

    2013-01-01

    Cholesterol cholelithiasis is a multifactorial disease influenced by a complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors, and represents a failure of biliary cholesterol homeostasis in which the physical-chemical balance of cholesterol solubility in bile is disturbed. The primary pathophysiologic event is persistent hepatic hypersecretion of biliary cholesterol, which has both hepatic and small intestinal components. The majority of the environmental factors are probably related to Western-type dietary habits, including excess cholesterol consumption. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy, one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures in the US, is nowadays a major treatment for gallstones. However, it is invasive and can cause surgical complications, and not all patients with symptomatic gallstones are candidates for surgery. The hydrophilic bile acid, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) has been employed as first-line pharmacological therapy in a subgroup of symptomatic patients with small, radiolucent cholesterol gallstones. Long-term administration of UDCA can promote the dissolution of cholesterol gallstones. However, the optimal use of UDCA is not always achieved in clinical practice because of failure to titrate the dose adequately. Therefore, the development of novel, effective, and noninvasive therapies is crucial for reducing the costs of health care associated with gallstones. In this review, we summarize recent progress in investigating the inhibitory effects of ezetimibe and statins on intestinal absorption and hepatic biosynthesis of cholesterol, respectively, for the treatment of gallstones, as well as in elucidating their molecular mechanisms by which combination therapy could prevent this very common liver disease worldwide. PMID:23419155

  5. Cholesterol content and methods for cholesterol determination in meat and poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Available data for cholesterol content of beef, pork, poultry, and processed meat products were reported. Although the cholesterol concentration in meat and poultry can be influenced by various factors, effects of animal species, muscle fiber type, and muscle fat content are focused on in this revi...

  6. Universal HIV screening at postnatal points of care: which public health approach for early infant diagnosis in Cote d'Ivoire?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Ndondoki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Universal HIV pediatric screening offered at postnatal points of care (PPOC is an entry point for early infant diagnosis (EID. We assessed the parents' acceptability of this approach in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, trained counselors offered systematic HIV screening to all children aged 6-26 weeks attending PPOC in three community health centers with existing access to HAART during 2008, as well as their parents/caregivers. HIV-testing acceptability was measured for parents and children; rapid HIV tests were used for parents. Both parents' consent was required according to the Ivorian Ethical Committee to perform a HIV test on HIV-exposed children. Free HIV care was offered to those who were diagnosed HIV-infected. FINDINGS: We provided 3,013 HIV tests for infants and their 2,986 mothers. While 1,731 mothers (58% accepted the principle of EID, only 447 infants had formal parental consent 15%; 95% confidence interval (CI: [14%-16%]. Overall, 1,817 mothers (61% accepted to test for HIV, of whom 81 were HIV-infected (4.5%; 95% CI: [3.5%-5.4%]. Among the 81 HIV-exposed children, 42 (52% had provided parental consent and were tested: five were HIV-infected (11.9%; 95% CI: [2.1%-21.7%]. Only 46 fathers (2% came to diagnose their child. Parental acceptance of EID was strongly correlated with prenatal self-reported HIV status: HIV-infected mothers were six times more likely to provide EID parental acceptance than mothers reporting unknown or negative prenatal HIV status (aOR: 5.9; 95% CI: [3.3-10.6], p = 0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: Although the principle of EID was moderately accepted by mothers, fathers' acceptance rate remained very low. Routine HIV screening of all infants was inefficient for EID at a community level in Abidjan in 2008. Our results suggest the need of focusing on increasing the PMTCT coverage, involving fathers and tracing children issued from PMTCT programs in low HIV prevalence countries.

  7. Emerging roles of the intestine in control of cholesterol metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Janine K Kruit; Albert K Groen; Theo J van Berkel; Folkert Kuipers

    2006-01-01

    The liver is considered the major "control center" for maintenance of whole body cholesterol homeostasis. This organ is the main site for de novo cholesterol synthesis,clears cholesterol-containing chylomicron remnants and low density lipoprotein particles from plasma and is the major contributor to high density lipoprotein (HDL; good cholesterol) formation. The liver has a central position in the classical definition of the reverse cholesterol transport pathway by taking up peripheryderived cholesterol from lipoprotein particles followed by conversion into bile acids or its direct secretion into bile for eventual removal via the feces. During the past couple of years, however, an additional important role of the intestine in maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis and regulation of plasma cholesterol levels has become apparent. Firstly, molecular mechanisms of cholesterol absorption have been elucidated and novel pharmacological compounds have been identified that interfere with the process and positively impact plasma cholesterol levels. Secondly, it is now evident that the intestine itself contributes to fecal neutral sterol loss as a cholesterol-secreting organ. Finally, very recent work has unequivocally demonstrated that the intestine contributes significantly to plasma HDL cholesterol levels.Thus, the intestine is a potential target for novel antiatherosclerotic treatment strategies that, in addition to interference with cholesterol absorption, modulate direct cholesterol excretion and plasma HDL cholesterol levels.

  8. [Trans-intestinal cholesterol excretion (TICE): a new route for cholesterol excretion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Claire; Moreau, François; Cariou, Bertrand; Le May, Cédric

    2014-10-01

    The small intestine plays a crucial role in dietary and biliary cholesterol absorption, as well as its lymphatic secretion as chylomicrons (lipoprotein exogenous way). Recently, a new metabolic pathway called TICE (trans-intestinal excretion of cholesterol) that plays a central role in cholesterol metabolism has emerged. TICE is an inducible way, complementary to the hepatobiliary pathway, allowing the elimination of the plasma cholesterol directly into the intestine lumen through the enterocytes. This pathway is poorly characterized but several molecular actors of TICE have been recently identified. Although it is a matter of debate, two independent studies suggest that TICE is involved in the anti-atherogenic reverse cholesterol transport pathway. Thus, TICE is an innovative drug target to reduce -cardiovascular diseases.

  9. Effect of Inhibition of Intestinal Cholesterol Absorption on the Prevention of Cholesterol Gallstone Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portincasa, Piero; Wang, David Q-H

    2017-01-01

    Cholesterol cholelithiasis is a multifactorial hepatobiliary disease. Interactions between genetic and environmental factors play a critical role in biliary cholesterol homeostasis and its imbalance enhances cholelithogenesis. In patients developing symptoms or complications of gallstone disease, laparoscopic cholecystectomy is recommended for treatment of gallstones. In a subgroup of patients with small, radiolucent pure cholesterol gallstones, the hydrophilic bile acid, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is still considered the only pharmacological therapy able to induce oral litholysis. Identifying novel and effective pharmacological therapies is being investigated. We propose that the specific intestinal Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 protein inhibitor ezetimibe is a potential agent for preventing gallstone formation by reducing bioavailability of intestine- derived cholesterol to the liver for biliary secretion and desaturating bile through the inhibition of intestinal absorption of cholesterol. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Lipoproteins, cholesterol homeostasis and cardiac health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler F. Daniels, Karen M. Killinger, Jennifer J. Michal, Raymond W. Wright Jr., Zhihua Jiang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol is an essential substance involved in many functions, such as maintaining cell membranes, manufacturing vitamin D on surface of the skin, producing hormones, and possibly helping cell connections in the brain. When cholesterol levels rise in the blood, they can, however, have dangerous consequences. In particular, cholesterol has generated considerable notoriety for its causative role in atherosclerosis, the leading cause of death in developed countries around the world. Homeostasis of cholesterol is centered on the metabolism of lipoproteins, which mediate transport of the lipid to and from tissues. As a synopsis of the major events and proteins that manage lipoprotein homeostasis, this review contributes to the substantial attention that has recently been directed to this area. Despite intense scrutiny, the majority of phenotypic variation in total cholesterol and related traits eludes explanation by current genetic knowledge. This is somewhat disappointing considering heritability estimates have established these traits as highly genetic. Thus, the continued search for candidate genes, mutations, and mechanisms is vital to our understanding of heart disease at the molecular level. Furthermore, as marker development continues to predict risk of vascular illness, this knowledge has the potential to revolutionize treatment of this leading human disease.

  11. The Sterolgene v0 cDNA microarray: a systemic approach to studies of cholesterol homeostasis and drug metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggerbeck Lawrence P

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholesterol homeostasis and xenobiotic metabolism are complex biological processes, which are difficult to study with traditional methods. Deciphering complex regulation and response of these two processes to different factors is crucial also for understanding of disease development. Systems biology tools as are microarrays can importantly contribute to this knowledge and can also discover novel interactions between the two processes. Results We have developed a low density Sterolgene v0 cDNA microarray dedicated to studies of cholesterol homeostasis and drug metabolism in the mouse. To illustrate its performance, we have analyzed mouse liver samples from studies focused on regulation of cholesterol homeostasis and drug metabolism by diet, drugs and inflammation. We observed down-regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis during fasting and high-cholesterol diet and subsequent up-regulation by inflammation. Drug metabolism was down-regulated by fasting and inflammation, but up-regulated by phenobarbital treatment and high-cholesterol diet. Additionally, the performance of the Sterolgene v0 was compared to the two commercial high density microarray platforms: the Agilent cDNA (G4104A and the Affymetrix MOE430A GeneChip. We hybridized identical RNA samples to the commercial microarrays and showed that the performance of Sterolgene is comparable to commercial arrays in terms of detection of changes in cholesterol homeostasis and drug metabolism. Conclusion Using the Sterolgene v0 microarray we were able to detect important changes in cholesterol homeostasis and drug metabolism caused by diet, drugs and inflammation. Together with its next generations the Sterolgene microarrays represent original and dedicated tools enabling focused and cost effective studies of cholesterol homeostasis and drug metabolism. These microarrays have the potential of being further developed into screening or diagnostic tools.

  12. Stability of Cholesterol, 7-Ketocholesterol and β-Sitosterol during Saponification: Ramifications for Artifact Monitoring of Sterol Oxide Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, T P; King, A J

    2010-09-01

    Cholesterol has been used to monitor artifact generation. Stability differences among cholesterol oxide products (COPs) and cholesterol in thermal and alkaline conditions are theorized. Thus, use of cholesterol may be unsuitable for detection of artifacts generated from COPs. Stability of cholesterol was compared to that of 7-ketocholesterol (7-keto) and β-sitosterol (βS) under various thermal and alkaline saponification conditions: 1 M methanolic KOH for 18 h at 24 °C (1 M18hr24°C, Control), 18 h at 37 °C (1M18hr37°C), 3 h at 45 °C (1M3hr45°C), and 3.6 M methanolic KOH for 3 h at 24 °C (3.6M3hr24°C). Trends indicated that cholesterol in solution was more stable than 7-keto under all conditions. Compared to βS, cholesterol was more stable under all conditions except for 1M18hr37°C for which stabilities were similar. Compounds were more labile in heat than alkalinity. Poor recoveries of 7-keto during cold saponification with high alkalinity were attributed to alkaline instability. 7-Keto, less stable than cholesterol, should be used to monitor artifact generation during screening of various methods that include thermal and alkaline conditions. In a preliminary analysis of turkey meat, more 3,5-7-one was generated from spiking with cholesterol than with 7-keto.

  13. Enzymatic quantification of cholesterol and cholesterol esters from silicone hydrogel contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucker, Andrew D; Thangavelu, Mirunalni; Nichols, Jason J

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop an enzymatic method of quantification of cholesterol and cholesterol esters derived from contact lenses, both in vitro and ex vivo. Lotrafilcon B (O2 Optix; CIBA Vision, Inc., Duluth, GA) and galyfilcon A (Acuvue Advance; Vistakon, Inc., Jacksonville, FL) silicone hydrogel contact lenses were independently incubated in cholesterol oleate solutions varying in concentrations. After incubation, the lenses were removed and underwent two separate 2:1 chloroform-methanol extractions. After in vitro studies, 10 human subjects wore both lotrafilcon B and galyfilcon A contact lenses for 7 days. The lenses also underwent two separate 2:1 chloroform-methanol extractions. All in vitro and ex vivo samples were quantified with a cholesterol esterase enzymatic reaction. Calibration curves from quantifications of in vitro contact lens samples soaked in successively decreasing concentrations of cholesterol oleate yielded coefficients of determination (R(2)) of 0.99 (lotrafilcon B) and 0.97 (galyfilcon A). For in vitro contact lens samples, galyfilcon A was associated with an average cholesterol oleate extraction of 39.85 +/- 48.65 microg/lens, whereas lotrafilcon B was associated with 5.86 +/- 3.36 microg/lens (P = 0.05) across both extractions and all incubation concentrations. For ex vivo contact lens samples, there was significantly more cholesterol and cholesterol esters deposited on galyfilcon A (5.77 +/- 1.87 microg/lens) than on lotrafilcon B (2.03 +/- 1.62 microg/lens; P = 0.0005). This is an efficient and simple method of quantifying total cholesterol extracted from silicone hydrogel contact lenses and, potentially, the meibum and/or tear film. Certain silicone hydrogel materials demonstrate more affinity for cholesterol and its esters than do others.

  14. Ordering effects of cholesterol and its analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Róg, Tomasz; Pasenkiewicz-Gierula, Marta; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2009-01-01

    Without any exaggeration, cholesterol is one of the most important lipid species in eukaryotic cells. Its effects on cellular membranes and functions range from purely mechanistic to complex metabolic ones, besides which it is also a precursor of the sex hormones (steroids) and several vitamins....... In this review, we discuss the biophysical effects of cholesterol on the lipid bilayer, in particular the ordering and condensing effects, concentrating on the molecular level or inter-atomic interactions perspective, starting from two-component systems and proceeding to many-component ones e.g., modeling lipid...... rafts. Particular attention is paid to the roles of the methyl groups in the cholesterol ring system, and their possible biological function. Although our main research methodology is computer modeling, in this review we make extensive comparisons between experiments and different modeling approaches....

  15. CHOBIMALT: a cholesterol-based detergent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Stanley C; Mittal, Ritesh; Huang, Lijun; Travis, Benjamin; Breyer, Richard M; Sanders, Charles R

    2010-11-01

    Cholesterol and its hemisuccinate and sulfate derivatives are widely used in studies of purified membrane proteins but are difficult to solubilize in aqueous solution, even in the presence of detergent micelles. Other cholesterol derivatives do not form conventional micelles and lead to viscous solutions. To address these problems, a cholesterol-based detergent, CHOBIMALT, has been synthesized and characterized. At concentrations above 3−4 μM, CHOBIMALT forms micelles without the need for elevated temperatures or sonic disruption. Diffusion and fluorescence measurements indicated that CHOBIMALT micelles are large (210±30 kDa). The ability to solubilize a functional membrane protein was explored using a G-protein coupled receptor, the human kappa opioid receptor type 1 (hKOR1). While CHOBIMALT alone was not found to be effective as a surfactant for membrane extraction, when added to classical detergent micelles CHOBIMALT was observed to dramatically enhance the thermal stability of solubilized hKOR1.

  16. Serum cholesterol in healthy postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, B B

    1998-05-01

    Hypercholes erolaemia is a modifiable risk factor in atherosclerosis. Women lose their relative protection against coronory heart disease at menopause because of changed lipid profile due to oestrogen deficiency. Total serum cholesterol was estimated in 82 healthy postmenopausal women in the age group of 46-72 years (51.5 +/- 7.39). Thirty five healthy pre-menopausal women in the age group of 18-38 years (29.5 +/- 6.4) served as controls. The mean serum cholesterol concentration was significantly higher in the postmenopausal group compared to control group (178.5 +/- 39.8 Vs 155.4 +/- 24 mg/dl; P < 0.01). Serum cholesterol concentration in the study group was not related to social class, dietary habit and obesity.

  17. Dietary cholesterol from eggs increases the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in humans : a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weggemans, R.M.; Zock, P.L.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    Several epidemiologic studies found no effect of egg consumption on the risk of coronary heart disease. It is possible that the adverse effect of eggs on LDL-cholesterol is offset by their favorable effect on HDL cholesterol. Objective: The objective was to review the effect of dietary cholesterol o

  18. Dietary cholesterol from eggs increases the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in humans : a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weggemans, R.M.; Zock, P.L.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    Several epidemiologic studies found no effect of egg consumption on the risk of coronary heart disease. It is possible that the adverse effect of eggs on LDL-cholesterol is offset by their favorable effect on HDL cholesterol. Objective: The objective was to review the effect of dietary cholesterol

  19. Elevated Remnant Cholesterol Causes Both Low-Grade Inflammation and Ischemic Heart Disease, Whereas Elevated Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Causes Ischemic Heart Disease Without Inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varbo, Anette; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2013-01-01

    Elevated nonfasting remnant cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol are causally associated with ischemic heart disease (IHD), but whether elevated nonfasting remnant cholesterol and LDL cholesterol both cause low-grade inflammation is currently unknown....

  20. Statins and the cholesterol mortality paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, José Pedro L

    2017-02-01

    Large-scale randomised controlled trials, carried out in the context of secondary cardiovascular prevention, have shown that statins are superior to placebo: these drugs were shown to decrease cardiovascular events and total mortality. A further set of clinical trials compared high intensity to low/standard intensity LDL cholesterol lowering in the same setting (using either statins or a statin/ezetimibe association). In this case, a decrease in LDL cholesterol and a concomitant significant reduction in cardiovascular events were seen with intensive therapy, however with no change in total mortality. This phenomenon we may term the LDL cholesterol mortality paradox. It could be due either to the prevention (by high-intensity therapy) of episodes not severe enough to lead to the death of patients, or to high-intensity therapy leading to the death of some patients at the same time as preventing the death of others, with a null aggregate effect. Several types of adverse effects have been seen with statin therapy, such as a possible increased incidence of Diabetes mellitus and of myopathy. The decision to start high-intensity LDL cholesterol lowering (rather than low- or moderate-intensity statin treatment) should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis, taking into consideration the overall aspects of each patient, including the patient's preferences. High-intensity LDL cholesterol lowering, up to the present moment, has failed to produce a change in overall prognosis (total mortality), and should not therefore be mandatory in secondary cardiovascular prevention. It remains to be seen if a similar LDL cholesterol mortality paradox occurs with new drugs targeting plasma lipids.

  1. Tympanomastoid cholesterol granulomas: Immunohistochemical evaluation of angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannella, Giannicola; Di Gioia, Cira; Carletti, Raffaella; Magliulo, Giuseppe

    2017-08-01

    This study investigates the immunohistochemical expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and CD34 in patients treated for middle ear and mastoid cholesterol granulomas to evaluate the angiogenesis and vascularization of this type of lesion. A correlation between the immunohistochemical data and the radiological and intraoperative evidence of temporal bone marrow invasion and blood source connection was performed to validate this hypothesis. Retrospective study. Immunohistochemical expression of VEGF and CD34 in a group of 16 patients surgically treated for cholesterol granuloma was examined. Middle ear cholesteatomas with normal middle ear mucosa and external auditory canal skin were used as the control groups. The radiological and intraoperative features of cholesterol granulomas were also examined. In endothelial cells, there was an increased expression of angiogenetic growth factor receptors in all the cholesterol granulomas in this study. The quantitative analysis of VEGF showed a mean value of 37.5, whereas the CD34 quantitative analysis gave a mean value of 6.8. Seven patients presented radiological or intraoperative evidence of bone marrow invasion, hematopoietic potentialities, or blood source connections that might support the bleeding theory. In all of these cases there was computed tomography or intraoperative evidence of bone erosion of the middle ear and/or temporal bone structures. The mean values of VEGF and CD34 were 41.1 and 7.7, respectively. High values of VEGF and CD34 are present in patients with cholesterol granulomas. Upregulation of VEGF and CD34 is indicative of a remarkable angiogenesis and a widespread vascular concentration in cholesterol granulomas. 3b. Laryngoscope, 127:E283-E290, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  2. Adesão ao rastreamento mamográfico oportunístico em serviços de saúde públicos e privados Adherence to the opportunistic mammography screening in public and private health systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton Augustinho Marchi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a adesão às recomendações para o rastreamento mamográfico oportunístico do câncer de mama. MÉTODOS: estudo prospectivo que acompanhou 460 mulheres na cidade de Taubaté, São Paulo, Brasil, das quais 327 foram atendidas em serviços de saúde públicos e 133 em Serviços privados, durante período de cinco anos após a realização de mamografia índice. Analisamos a prevalência de repetição da mamografia, as taxas de adesão e os fatores preditivos associados ao rastreamento mamográfico vigente. As associações dos desfechos com as variáveis independentes foram estudadas pela obtenção dos riscos relativos (RR e respectivos intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC95%. O cálculo das razões de prevalência ajustadas foi realizado pela técnica de regressão de COX. RESULTADOS: apesar de mais de 90% das entrevistadas terem repetido pelo menos uma vez o exame de mamografia, a adesão correta às recomendações do rastreamento mamográfico, com a repetição do procedimento a cada 24 meses, revelou taxas muito baixas (ao redor de 30% na amostra estudada. Os fatores preditivos associados à adesão ao rastreamento mamográfico relacionaram-se com o acesso diferenciado aos serviços de saúde, públicos ou privados (RR=1,77; IC95%=1,26-2,48 e com a presença de rastreio prévio (RR=3,07; IC95%=1,86-5,08. CONCLUSÕES: ocorreu baixa adesão às recomendações do rastreamento mamográfico oportunístico do câncer de mama em ambos os segmentos populacionais estudados.PURPOSE: to assess compliance with the recommendations for opportunistic breast cancer screening by mammography. METHODS: 460 women from the town of Taubaté, São Paulo, Brazil, were followed-up prospectively after the index mammography, 327 of them attended by the public health system and 133 by the private system. We evaluated the prevalence of mammography repetition, the adherence rates and predictive factors associated with the current recommendations of

  3. Aspirin Increases the Solubility of Cholesterol in Lipid Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsop, Richard; Barrett, Matthew; Zheng, Sonbo; Dies, Hannah; Rheinstadter, Maikel

    2014-03-01

    Aspirin (ASA) is often prescribed for patients with high levels of cholesterol for the secondary prevention of myocardial events, a regimen known as the Low-Dose Aspirin Therapy. We have recently shown that Aspirin partitions in lipid bilayers. However, a direct interplay between ASA and cholesterol has not been investigated. Cholesterol is known to insert itself into the membrane in a dispersed state at moderate concentrations (under ~37.5%) and decrease fluidity of membranes. We prepared model lipid membranes containing varying amounts of both ASA and cholesterol molecules. The structure of the bilayers as a function of ASA and cholesterol concentration was determined using high-resolution X-ray diffraction. At cholesterol levels of more than 40mol%, immiscible cholesterol plaques formed. Adding ASA to the membranes was found to dissolve the cholesterol plaques, leading to a fluid lipid bilayer structure. We present first direct evidence for an interaction between ASA and cholesterol on the level of the cell membrane.

  4. [Basic mechanisms: absorption and excretion of cholesterol and other sterols].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofan Pujol, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Cholesterol is of vital importance for vertebrate cell membrane structure and function. It is obvious that adequate regulation of cholesterol homeostasis is essential. Hypercholesterolemia promotes atherosclerosis and thereby represents a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The liver has been considered the major site of control in maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis. The liver facilitates clearance of (very) low density lipoprotein particles and cholesterol-containing chylomicron remnants, synthesizes cholesterol, synthesizes and secretes (nascent) high density lipoprotein particles, secretes cholesterol and bile salts to bile, and is involved in reverse cholesterol transport. In recent years, however, the importance of the intestine in many aspects of cholesterol physiology is increasingly recognized. It has become apparent that direct secretion of cholesterol from the blood compartment into the intestine, or transintestinal cholesterol excretion, plays a major role in disposal of cholesterol via the feces. This review will discuss current knowledge on the physiology of cholesterol homeostasis, with emphasis on cholesterol absorption, cholesterol synthesis and fecal excretion, and therapeutic options for hypercholesterolemia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEA. All rights reserved.

  5. Saúde pública e ética na era da medicina genômica: rastreamentos genéticos Public health and ethics in the age of genomic medicine: genetic screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Miranda Gomes de Constantino Bandeira

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem como objetivo contextualizar o campo da saúde pública diante dos grandes avanços da biotecnologia e genética aplicada, destacando elementos para a problematização do tema tais como benefícios e questões éticas relacionados aos rastreamentos genéticos. O Projeto Genoma Humano gerou várias expectativas, dentre elas, a possibilidade de rastrear genes associados a doenças e comportamentos, e mais ainda, de intervir geneticamente no ser humano, levantando preocupações relativas ao renascimento da eugenia, ao aconselhamento genético, e ao uso da informação genética como critério de acesso aos planos de saúde e postos de trabalho. Uma discussão de todos esses tópicos é essencial para que a saúde pública seja beneficiada com as informações obtidas através da análise genômica das populações.This article has the objective to bring the field of public health into context in the face of the great advances of biotechnology and applied genetics, focusing on issues related to the theme such as benefits and ethics concerning genetic screening. The Human Genome Project has generated many expectations among which the possibility of screening genes associated to diseases and behaviors, moreover, the possibility of genetic interventions on humans, creating concerns related to the resurgence of Eugenia, of genetic counseling and the use of genetic information as a standard for access to healthcare clinics and jobs. The discussion of all these issues is essential to benefit public health with information obtained through population genomic analysis.

  6. Prevalence and risk factors of gallstones in adult health screening population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mi Hwa; Cho, Pyong Kon [Dept. of Radiological Science, Catholic University of Daegu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Duck Moon [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Gallstone is the most common disease of the biliary system. Korean has experienced an increase in the percentage of cholesterol gallstones. The major risk factors associated with cholesterol gallstones are age, gender as well as obesity. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of gallstones in the last three years and evaluate the associated risk factors in the population who underwent health screening. The study population consisted of 2,484 males and 2,212 females who visited the health promotion center in Dalseogu, Daegu in Korea from January 2011 to December 2013. Each participant in the study had their biliary system gallbladder examined using ultrasonography. Classified as underweight, normal weight or overweight using the population of obese according to the body mass index, and classified according to mood diagnosis of diabetes presented by the American Diabetes Association. Fasting blood glucose and number of liver function, the divided the control group by referring to the normal liver function values used herein. The geological map, I was classified as NCEP APT Ⅲ. A showed of total 148 people were found to have gallstones. The prevalence of sex among 148 patients (3.15%) 84 men (1.79%) and 64 women (1.36%) which shows significantly there is little difference. 1.84% 40 years and below, 3.38% 40's showed age prevalence was 4.66% in 50's and above. In addition, Total-cholesterol was at the most in 52 people, LDL-cholesterol in 398 people, Triglyceride in 36 people, HDL-cholesterol in 19 people. The abnormal group, was created from the total-cholesterol categories from a physical examination of a subject that has been found to be gallstones in the gallbladder. A result of conducting the univariate analysis shows the prevalence of gallstones, a correlation that is meaningful. The logistic regression analysis of multiple ages was chosen to show risk factors age independent cholelithiasis. In spite of the conclusion, gallstones are not

  7. [To the problem of evaluation of public health: screening for gastroduodenal pathology on the example of atrophic gastritis in mass medical examination of the population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, S V; Modestova, A V; Ermakov, N V

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of health status of the population - the most important issue in preventive medicine. The objective of this work - to determine the possibility of nonendoscopic screening for gastroduodenal pathology, by the example of atrophic gastritis, in mass medical examinations of working residents in Moscow. Minimally invasive diagnostic test system GastroPanel ("Biohit", Finland) has been used. It allows with the ELISA method to determine both serum indicators of the function of the stomach -pepsinogen 1, gastrin 17 and the presence of H. pylori infection. 758 persons have been examined. The performed study confirms the possibility with the use of a set of mentioned indicators to identify individuals suspected for the presence of gastroduodenal disorders, especially atrophic gastritis, recognized as a precancerous condition. The use in preventive medicine complex diagnostic system, firstly, will make assessment of the health of the population more correct, increase the effectiveness of preventive measures and quality of life, and secondly, will contribute to the diagnosis of diseases of the stomach and duodenum in the early stages.

  8. Screening CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramírez, A.; Hagedoorn, S.; Kramers, L.; Wildenborg, T.; Hendriks, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the development and application of a methodology to screen and rank Dutch reservoirs suitable for long-term large scale CO2 storage. The screening focuses on off- and on-shore individual aquifers, gas and oil fields. In total 176 storage reservoirs have been taken int

  9. MCPIP is induced by cholesterol and participated in cholesterol-caused DNA damage in HUVEC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da, Jingjing; Zhuo, Ming; Qian, Minzhang

    2015-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is an important risk factor for atherosclerosis and cholesterol treatment would cause multiple damages, including DNA damage, on endothelial cells. In this work, we have used human umbilical vein endothelial cell line (HUVEC) to explore the mechanism of cholesterol induced damage. We have found that cholesterol treatment on HUVEC could induce the expression of MCPIP1. When given 12.5 mg/L cholesterol on HUVEC, the expression of MCPIP1 starts to increase since 4 hr after treatment and at 24 hr after treatment it could reach to 10 fold of base line level. We hypothesis this induction of MCPIP1 may contribute to the damaging process and we have used siRNA of MCPIP1 in further research. This MCPIP1 siRNA (siMCPIP) could down regulate MCPIP1 by 73.4% and when using this siRNA on HUVECs, we could see the cholesterol induced DNA damage have been reduced. We have detected DNA damage by γH2AX foci formation in nuclear, γH2AX protein level and COMET assay. Compare to cholesterol alone group, siMCPIP group shows much less γH2AX foci formation in nuclear after cholesterol treatment, less γH2AX protein level in cell and also less tail moment detected in COMET assay. We have also seen that using siMCPIP1 could result in less reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cell after cholesterol treatment. We have also seen that using siMCPIP could reduce the protein level of Nox4 and p47(phox), two major regulators in ROS production. These results suggest that MCPIP1 may play an important role in cholesterol induced damage.

  10. Intestinal SR-BI does not impact cholesterol absorption or transintestinal cholesterol efflux in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bura, Kanwardeep S; Lord, Caleb; Marshall, Stephanie; McDaniel, Allison; Thomas, Gwyn; Warrier, Manya; Zhang, Jun; Davis, Matthew A; Sawyer, Janet K; Shah, Ramesh; Wilson, Martha D; Dikkers, Arne; Tietge, Uwe J F; Collet, Xavier; Rudel, Lawrence L; Temel, Ryan E; Brown, J Mark

    2013-06-01

    Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) can proceed through the classic hepatobiliary route or through the nonbiliary transintestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE) pathway. Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) plays a critical role in the classic hepatobiliary route of RCT. However, the role of SR-BI in TICE has not been studied. To examine the role of intestinal SR-BI in TICE, sterol balance was measured in control mice and mice transgenically overexpressing SR-BI in the proximal small intestine (SR-BI(hApoCIII-ApoAIV-Tg)). SR-BI(hApoCIII-ApoAIV-Tg) mice had significantly lower plasma cholesterol levels compared with wild-type controls, yet SR-BI(hApoCIII-ApoAIV-Tg) mice had normal fractional cholesterol absorption and fecal neutral sterol excretion. Both in the absence or presence of ezetimibe, intestinal SR-BI overexpression had no impact on the amount of cholesterol excreted in the feces. To specifically study effects of intestinal SR-BI on TICE we crossed SR-BI(hApoCIII-ApoAIV-Tg) mice into a mouse model that preferentially utilized the TICE pathway for RCT (Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 liver transgenic), and likewise found no alterations in cholesterol absorption or fecal sterol excretion. Finally, mice lacking SR-BI in all tissues also exhibited normal cholesterol absorption and fecal cholesterol disposal. Collectively, these results suggest that SR-BI is not rate limiting for intestinal cholesterol absorption or for fecal neutral sterol loss through the TICE pathway.

  11. Inhibiting Cholesterol Absorption During Lactation Programs Future Intestinal Absorption of Cholesterol in Adult Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova, Lidiya G; de Boer, Jan Freark; Plantinga, Josee; Plösch, Torsten; Hoekstra, Menno; Verkade, Henkjan J; Tietge, Uwe J F

    2017-08-01

    In nematodes, the intestine senses and integrates early life dietary cues that lead to lifelong epigenetic adaptations to a perceived nutritional environment-it is not clear whether this process occurs in mammals. We aimed to establish a mouse model of reduced dietary cholesterol availability from maternal milk and investigate the consequences of decreased milk cholesterol availability, early in life, on the metabolism of cholesterol in adult mice. We blocked intestinal absorption of cholesterol in milk fed to newborn mice by supplementing the food of dams (for 3 weeks between birth and weaning) with ezetimibe, which is secreted into milk. Ezetimibe interacts with the intestinal cholesterol absorption transporter NPC1l1 to block cholesterol uptake into enterocytes. Characterization of these offspring at 24 weeks of age showed a 27% decrease in cholesterol absorption (P cholesterol transporters, in the proximal small intestine. We observed increased histone H3K9me3 methylation at positions -423 to -607 of the proximal Npc1l1 promoter in small intestine tissues from 24-week-old offspring fed ezetimibe during lactation, compared with controls. These findings show that the early postnatal mammalian intestine functions as an environmental sensor of nutritional conditions, responding to conditions such as low cholesterol levels by epigenetic modifications of genes. Further studies are needed to determine how decreased sterol absorption for a defined period might activate epigenetic regulators; the findings of our study might have implications for human infant nutrition and understanding and preventing cardiometabolic disease. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cashew consumption reduces total and LDL cholesterol: a randomized, crossover, controlled-feeding trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Eunice; Schulz, Jacqueline A; Kaden, Valerie N; Lawless, Andrea L; Rotor, Jose; Mantilla, Libertie B; Liska, DeAnn J

    2017-05-01

    Background: Cashews are the third most-consumed tree nut in the United States and are abundant with monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are associated with reduced cardiovascular disease risk. Although a qualified Food and Drug Administration health claim exists for nuts and heart health, cashews have been exempt from its use because cashews exceed the disqualifying amount of saturated fatty acids. Approximately one-third of the saturated fat in cashews is stearic acid, which is relatively neutral on blood lipids, thereby suggesting that cashews could have effects that are similar to those of other nuts. However, clinical data on cashews and blood lipids have been limited.Objective: We investigated the effect of reasonable intakes of cashews on serum lipids in adults with or at risk of high LDL cholesterol.Design: In a randomized, crossover, isocaloric, controlled-feeding study, 51 men and women (aged 21-73 y) with a median LDL-cholesterol concentration of 159 mg/dL (95% CI: 146, 165 mg/dL) at screening consumed typical American diets with cashews (28-64 g/d; 50% of kilocalories from carbohydrate, 18% of kilocalories from protein, and 32% of kilocalories from total fat) or potato chips (control; 54% of kilocalories from carbohydrate, 18% of kilocalories from protein, and 29% of kilocalories from total fat) for 28 d with a ≥2-wk washout period.Results: Consumption of the cashew diet resulted in a significantly greater median change from baseline (compared with the control, all P cashews into typical American diets decreases total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. Results from this study provide support that the daily consumption of cashews, when substituted for a high-carbohydrate snack, may be a simple dietary strategy to help manage total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02769741. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Association between cholesterol intake and pancreatic cancer risk: evidence from a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongqiang; Qin, Shiyong; Wang, Minghai; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Shuguang

    2015-02-04

    Quantification of the association between the intake of cholesterol and risk of pancreatic cancer is still conflicting. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis to summarize the evidence from epidemiological studies of cholesterol intake and the risk of pancreatic cancer. Pertinent studies were delivered by PubMed and Web of Knowledge issued through April of 2014. A random effects model was used to process the data for analysis. Sensitivity analysis and publication bias were conducted. Dose-response relationship was assessed by restricted cubic spline and variance-weighted least squares regression analysis. With 4513 pancreatic cases exemplified, 16 articles were applied in the meta-analysis. Pooled results suggest that cholesterol intake level was significantly associated with the risk of pancreatic cancer [summary relative risk (RR) = 1.371, 95%CI = 1.155-1.627, I(2) = 58.2%], especially in America [summary RR = 1.302, 95%CI = 1.090-1.556]. A linear dose-response relation was attested that the risk of pancreatic cancer rises by 8% with 100 mg/day of cholesterol intake. [summary RR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.04-1.13]. In conclusion, our analysis suggests that a high intake of cholesterol might increase the risk of pancreatic cancer, especially in America.

  14. Cholesterol homeostasis: How do cells sense sterol excess?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Vicky; Sharpe, Laura J; Alexopoulos, Stephanie J; Kunze, Sarah V; Chua, Ngee Kiat; Li, Dianfan; Brown, Andrew J

    2016-09-01

    Cholesterol is vital in mammals, but toxic in excess. Consequently, elaborate molecular mechanisms have evolved to maintain this sterol within narrow limits. How cells sense excess cholesterol is an intriguing area of research. Cells sense cholesterol, and other related sterols such as oxysterols or cholesterol synthesis intermediates, and respond to changing levels through several elegant mechanisms of feedback regulation. Cholesterol sensing involves both direct binding of sterols to the homeostatic machinery located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and indirect effects elicited by sterol-dependent alteration of the physical properties of membranes. Here, we examine the mechanisms employed by cells to maintain cholesterol homeostasis.

  15. Histone deacetylase inhibition decreases cholesterol levels in neuronal cells by modulating key genes in cholesterol synthesis, uptake and efflux.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Nunes

    Full Text Available Cholesterol is an essential component of the central nervous system and increasing evidence suggests an association between brain cholesterol metabolism dysfunction and the onset of neurodegenerative disorders. Interestingly, histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi such as trichostatin A (TSA are emerging as promising therapeutic approaches in neurodegenerative diseases, but their effect on brain cholesterol metabolism is poorly understood. We have previously demonstrated that HDACi up-regulate CYP46A1 gene transcription, a key enzyme in neuronal cholesterol homeostasis. In this study, TSA was shown to modulate the transcription of other genes involved in cholesterol metabolism in human neuroblastoma cells, namely by up-regulating genes that control cholesterol efflux and down-regulating genes involved in cholesterol synthesis and uptake, thus leading to an overall decrease in total cholesterol content. Furthermore, co-treatment with the amphipathic drug U18666A that can mimic the intracellular cholesterol accumulation observed in cells of Niemman-Pick type C patients, revealed that TSA can ameliorate the phenotype induced by pathological cholesterol accumulation, by restoring the expression of key genes involved in cholesterol synthesis, uptake and efflux and promoting lysosomal cholesterol redistribution. These results clarify the role of TSA in the modulation of neuronal cholesterol metabolism at the transcriptional level, and emphasize the idea of HDAC inhibition as a promising therapeutic tool in neurodegenerative disorders with impaired cholesterol metabolism.

  16. Transport of maternal cholesterol to the fetus is affected by maternal plasma cholesterol concentrations in the golden Syrian hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Katie T; Colvin, Perry L; Myatt, Leslie; Graf, Gregory A; Schroeder, Friedhelm; Woollett, Laura A

    2009-06-01

    The fetus has a high requirement for cholesterol and synthesizes cholesterol at elevated rates. Recent studies suggest that fetal cholesterol also can be obtained from exogenous sources. The purpose of the current study was to examine the transport of maternal cholesterol to the fetus and determine the mechanism responsible for any cholesterol-driven changes in transport. Studies were completed in pregnant hamsters with normal and elevated plasma cholesterol concentrations. Cholesterol feeding resulted in a 3.1-fold increase in the amount of LDL-cholesterol taken up by the fetus and a 2.4-fold increase in the amount of HDL-cholesterol taken up. LDL-cholesterol was transported to the fetus primarily by the placenta, and HDL-cholesterol was transported by the yolk sac and placenta. Several proteins associated with sterol transport and efflux, including those induced by activated liver X receptor, were expressed in hamster and human placentas: NPC1, NPC1L1, ABCA2, SCP-x, and ABCG1, but not ABCG8. NPC1L1 was the only protein increased in hypercholesterolemic placentas. Thus, increasing maternal lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations can enhance transport of maternal cholesterol to the fetus, leading to 1) increased movement of cholesterol down a concentration gradient in the placenta, 2) increased lipoprotein secretion from the yolk sac (shown previously), and possibly 3) increased placental NPC1L1 expression.

  17. Cholesterol pathways affected by small molecules that decrease sterol levels in Niemann-Pick type C mutant cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina Rujoi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Niemann-Pick type C (NPC disease is a genetically inherited multi-lipid storage disorder with impaired efflux of cholesterol from lysosomal storage organelles. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The effect of screen-selected cholesterol lowering compounds on the major sterol pathways was studied in CT60 mutant CHO cells lacking NPC1 protein. Each of the selected chemicals decreases cholesterol in the lysosomal storage organelles of NPC1 mutant cells through one or more of the following mechanisms: increased cholesterol efflux from the cell, decreased uptake of low-density lipoproteins, and/or increased levels of cholesteryl esters. Several chemicals promote efflux of cholesterol to extracellular acceptors in both non-NPC and NPC1 mutant cells. The uptake of low-density lipoprotein-derived cholesterol is inhibited by some of the studied compounds. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results herein provide the information for prioritized further studies in identifying molecular targets of the chemicals. This approach proved successful in the identification of seven chemicals as novel inhibitors of lysosomal acid lipase (Rosenbaum et al, Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 2009, 1791:1155-1165.

  18. Structure of cholesterol/ceramide monolayer mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheffer, L.; Solomonov, I.; Weygand, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    The structure of monolayers of cholesterol/ ceramide mixtures was investigated using grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, immunofluorescence, and atomic force microscopy techniques. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction measurements showed the existence of a crystalline mixed phase of the two...

  19. Degradation of cholesterol crystals in phospholipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Eugen; Koscec, Mirna; Fugate, Robert D.

    1993-02-01

    Based on previous studies from the laboratory that demonstrated degradation of cholesterol crystals ingested by macrophages in a cell culture system and indicated that intracellular phospholipids could play an important role in mobilization of crystalline cholesterol, the role of each of the three major intracellular phospholipid species in degradation of crystals is further explored. Fluorescently labeled cholesterol crystals are incubated with phospholipids over a period of 5 d. Morphological changes in crystals are monitored using digital imaging fluorescence microscopy, fluorescence redistribution after photobleaching, confocal microscopy, and epifluorescent and phase contrast microscopy. Results clearly demonstrate that all three phospholipids are able to mobilize crystalline cholesterol. However, the mechanisms by which they exert mobilization are different. Sphingomyelin and phosphatidylchloline are found to cause gradual and uniform dissolution of crystals, more or less preserving their original shape. Phosphatidylethanolamine appear to penetrate into the crystal, causing its fragmentation and solubilization. In the mixture of all three phospholipids representing the composition found in macrophages, both of the described mechanisms are working simultaneously.

  20. Garbanzo diet lowers cholesterol in hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholesterol-lowering potential of diets with 22% protein from Chickpea (Cicer arietinum, European variety of Garbanzo, Kabuli Chana), Bengal gram (Cicer arietinum, Asian variety of Garbanzo, Desi Chana, smaller in size, yellow to black color), lentils, soy protein isolate, hydrolyzed salmon protein...

  1. Proximate composition and cholesterol concentrations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... human nutrition in Africa, Asia and Latin America. They are an important resource for the natives of Southern. Nigeria, who like other indigenous groups, expend much ... times adults variety of winged termites, bees, wasp and ant brood (larvae .... exerts remarkable influence on their lipid and cholesterol.

  2. Expert and Advocacy Group Consensus Findings on the Horizon of Public Health Genetic Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Modell

    2016-01-01

    buy-in of Tier 1 programs. Groups differed on funding strategies, with alternative options such as large-scale federal funding and smaller scale, incremental funding solutions proposed. Piggybacking on existing federal breast and colorectal cancer control programs was suggested. Public health departments need to assess what information is now being collected by their state cancer registries. The groups advised that information on cascade screening of relatives be included in toolkits for use by states. Participants stressed incorporation of family history into health department breast cancer screening programs, and clinical HBOC data into state surveillance systems. The carrying out of universal LS screening of tumors in those with colorectal cancer was reviewed. Expansion of universal screening to include endometrial tumors was discussed, as was the application of guidelines recommending cholesterol screening of children 9–11 years old. States more advanced in terms of Tier 1 testing could serve as models and partners with other states launching screening and surveillance programs. A multidisciplinary team of screening program champions was suggested as a means of raising awareness among the consumer and health care communities. Participants offered multiple recommendations regarding use of electronic health records, including flagging of at-risk family members and utilization of state-level health information exchanges. The paper contains an update of policy developments and happenings for all three Tier 1 conditions, as well as identified gaps. Conclusions: Implementation of cascade screening of family members for HBOC and FH, and universal screening for LS in CRC tumors has reached a point of readiness within the U.S., with creative solutions at hand. Facilitating factors such as screening coverage through the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, and state health information exchanges can be tapped. Collaboration is needed between public health

  3. Fluorimetric determination of cholesterol in hypercholesterolemia serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Xiufeng; Liu, Jiangang; Liu, Ying; Luo, Xiaosen; Lu, Jian; Ni, Xiaowu

    2005-01-01

    With the increase of people"s living standard and the changes of living form, the number of people who suffer from hypercholesterolemia is increasing. It is not only harmful to heart and blood vessel, but also leading to obstruction of cognition. The conventional blood detection technology has weakness such as complex operation, long detecting period, and bad visibility. In order to develop a new detection method that can checkout hypercholesterolemia conveniently, spectroscopy of cholesterol in hypercholesterolemia serum is obtained by the multifunctional grating spectrograph. The experiment results indicate that, under the excitation of light-emitting diode (LED) with the wavelength at 407 nm, the serum from normal human and the hypercholesterolemia serum emit different fluorescence spectra. The former can emit one fluorescence region with the peak locating at 516 nm while the latter can emit two more regions with peaks locating at 560 nm and 588 nm. Moreover, the fluorescence intensity of serum is non-linear increasing with the concentration of cholesterol increases when the concentration of cholesterol is lower than 13.8 mmol/L, and then, with the concentration of cholesterol increase, the fluorescence intensity decreases. However, the fluorescence intensity is still much higher than that of serum from normal human. Conclusions can be educed from the experiments: the intensity and the shape of fluorescence spectra of hypercholesterolemia serum are different of those of normal serum, from which the cholesterol abnormal in blood can be judged. The consequences in this paper may offer an experimental reference for the diagnosis of the hypercholesterolemia.

  4. Ezetimibe: a selective cholesterol absorption inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutescu, Edith A; Shapiro, Nancy L

    2003-11-01

    Ezetimibe is the first agent of a novel class of selective cholesterol absorption inhibitors recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treatment in the United States. Ezetimibe inhibits the absorption of biliary and dietary cholesterol from the small intestine without affecting the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, triglycerides, or bile acids. Ezetimibe localizes at the brush border of the small intestine and decreases cholesterol uptake into the enterocytes. Preclinical studies demonstrated lipid-lowering properties of ezetimibe as monotherapy and showed a synergistic effect in combination with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins). The efficacy and safety of ezetimibe 10 mg/day have been established in phase III clinical trials. In these trials, ezetimibe was investigated as monotherapy, as an add-on to ongoing statin therapy, and as combination therapy with statins in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia. In addition, ezetimibe has been evaluated in patients with homozygous and heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia and in those with sitosterolemia. When given as monotherapy or in combination with statins or fenofibrate, ezetimibe reduces low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) by 15-20% while increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 2.5-5%. Unlike other intestinally acting lipid-lowering agents, ezetimibe does not adversely affect triglyceride levels and, due to its minimal systemic absorption, drug interactions are few. Ezetimibe's side-effect profile resembles that of placebo when given as monotherapy or in combination with statins. In clinical practice, ezetimibe has a role as monotherapy for patients who require modest LDL reductions or cannot tolerate other lipid-lowering agents. In combination therapy with a statin, ezetimibe is used in patients who cannot tolerate high statin doses or in those who need additional LDL reductions despite maximum statin doses.

  5. HDL cholesterol: reappraisal of its clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    März, Winfried; Kleber, Marcus E; Scharnagl, Hubert; Speer, Timotheus; Zewinger, Stephen; Ritsch, Andreas; Parhofer, Klaus G; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Landmesser, Ulf; Laufs, Ulrich

    2017-03-24

    While several lines of evidence prove that elevated concentrations of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) causally contribute to the development of atherosclerosis and its clinical consequences, high-density lipoproteins are still widely believed to exert atheroprotective effects. Hence, HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) is in general still considered as "good cholesterol". Recent research, however, suggests that this might not always be the case and that a fundamental reassessment of the clinical significance of HDL-C is warranted. This review article is based on a selective literature review. In individuals without a history of cardiovascular events, low concentrations of HDL-C are inversely associated with the risk of future cardiovascular events. This relationship may, however, not apply to patients with metabolic disorders or manifest cardiovascular disease. The classical function of HDL is to mobilise cholesterol from extrahepatic tissues for delivery to the liver for excretion. These roles in cholesterol metabolism as well as many other biological functions of HDL particles are dependent on the number as well as protein and lipid composition of HDL particles. They are poorly reflected by the HDL-C concentration. HDL can even exert negative vascular effects, if its composition is pathologically altered. High serum HDL-C is therefore no longer regarded protective. In line with this, recent pharmacological approaches to raise HDL-C concentration have not been able to show reductions of cardiovascular outcomes. In contrast to LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-C correlates with cardiovascular risk only in healthy individuals. The calculation of the ratio of LDL-C to HDL-C is not useful for all patients. Low HDL-C should prompt examination of additional metabolic and inflammatory pathologies. An increase in HDL-C through lifestyle change (smoking cessation, physical exercise) has positive effects and is recommended. However, HDL-C is currently not a valid target for drug therapy.

  6. Extracts of Edible Plants Inhibit Pancreatic Lipase, Cholesterol Esterase and Cholesterol Micellization, and Bind Bile Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julnaryn Intrawangso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of edible plants with more effective ability to inhibit fat digestion and absorption has recently been explored for possible treatment of hyperlipidaemia. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of nine edible plants on the inhibition of pancreatic lipase and pancreatic cholesterol esterase activities, as well as the inhibition of cholesterol micelle formation, and bile acid binding. Our findings have shown strong pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity and the inhibition of cholesterol micellization by mulberry leaf extract. Safflower extract was the most potent inhibitor of pancreatic cholesterol esterase. In addition, cat’s whiskers and safflower extracts had a potent bile acid binding activity. It is suggested that a daily intake of these edible plants may delay postprandial hypertriacylglycerolaemia and hypercholesterolaemia, and therefore may be applied for the prevention and treatment of hyperlipidaemia.

  7. Inhibition of cholesterol ester transfer protein CGS 25159 and changes in lipoproteins in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, H V; Poirier, K J; Lee, W H; Satoh, Y

    1997-01-03

    As a result of screening, several isoflavans were identified to be antagonists of cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) activity. The present study evaluates CGS 25159, a synthetic isoflavan, as a putative inhibitor of CETP activity of human and hamster plasma. Determined by [3]CE transfer from HDL to VLDL + LDL fraction or by fluorescent-CE transfer assay, CGS 25159 inhibited CETP in both human plasma bottom fraction (d = 1.21 g/ml) and in plasma from Golden Syrian Hamsters with an IC50 time dependent changes in CETP activity. After two weeks of treatment at 10 mg/kg, the changes in VLDL + LDL cholesterol, total triglycerides and HDL cholesterol were -22 +/- 4.6*, -23 +/- 7.5 and +10 +/- 2.8%, respectively. The corresponding changes at 30 mg/kg were -28 +/- 5.5*, -38 +/- 6.8* and +29 +/-4.4.*%, (*, P, 0.05; mean +/- S.E.M., n = 6). A single spin gradient density ultracentrifugation of plasma lipoproteins and treated animals showed an increase in HDL cholesterol and a redistribution to larger HDL particles. These data support the contention that pharmacological down regulation of CETP activity could result in favorable changes in lipoprotein profile.

  8. Cholesterol esterase inhibitory activity of bioactives from leaves of Mangifera indica L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G M Gururaja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the earlier studies, methanolic extract of Mangifera indica L leaf was exhibited hypocholesterol activity. However, the bioactive compounds responsible for the same are not reported so far. Objective: To isolate the bioactive compounds with hypocholesterol activity from the leaf extract using cholesterol esterase inhibition assay which can be used for the standardization of extract. Materials and Methods: The leaf methanolic extract of M. indica (Sindoora variety was partitioned with ethyl acetate and chromatographed on silica gel to yield twelve fractions and the activity was monitored by using cholesterol esterase inhibition assay. Active fractions were re-chromatographed to yield individual compounds. Results and Discussion: A major compound mangiferin present in the extract was screened along with other varieties of mango leaves for cholesterol esterase inhibition assay. However, the result indicates that compounds other than mangiferin may be active in the extract. Invitro pancreatic cholesterol esterase inhibition assay was used for bioactivity guided fractionation (BAGF to yield bioactive compound for standardization of extract. Bioactivity guided fractionation afford the active fraction containing 3b-taraxerol with an IC50 value of 0.86μg/ml.Conclusion: This study demonstrates that M.indica methanol extract of leaf have significant hypocholesterol activity which is standardized with 3b-taraxerol, a standardized extract for hypocholesterol activity resulted in development of dietary supplement from leaves of Mangifera indica.

  9. In vitro cholesterol-lowering properties of Lactobacillus plantarum AN6 isolated from aji-narezushi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuda, T; Yazaki, T; Ono, M; Takahashi, H; Kimura, B

    2013-09-01

    Aji-narezushi is a traditional lactic acid-fermented fish. In this study, we screened for lactose-utilizing, acidophilic, bile-resistant and cholesterol-lowering lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from aji-narezushi for use as starter strains for fermented foods, as well as for use as probiotics. Of the 301 LAB isolates, 277 fermented lactose, and among these, 171 grew in de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe broth adjusted to pH 3·5. Thirty-four of the isolates were grown in a broth containing 3% (w/v) bile. All of the isolates were lactobacilli. Seven isolates that demonstrated cholesterol-lowering activity in ethanolic solution were selected. All of the isolates were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum. Lactobacillus plantarum AN6 showed the highest cholesterol-lowering activity. AN6 was more resistant to acid, salt and bile than the type strain NBRC15891(T). One-half of the cholesterol-lowering effect remained after boiling AN6 for 10 min. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis indicated that the content of cell wall polysaccharides in AN6 is higher than ones in the type strain. These results indicate that Lact. plantarum AN6 can be used as a profitable starter organism and probiotic.

  10. High-density lipoprotein metabolism and reverse cholesterol transport: strategies for raising HDL cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosheska Trajkovska, Katerina; Topuzovska, Sonja

    2017-08-01

    A key to effective treatment of cardiovascular disease is to understand the body's complex lipoprotein transport system. Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) is the process of cholesterol movement from the extrahepatic tissues back to the liver. Lipoproteins containing apoA-I [highdensity lipoprotein (HDL)] are key mediators in RCT, whereas non-high-density lipoproteins (non-HDL, lipoproteins containing apoB) are involved in the lipid delivery pathway. HDL particles are heterogeneous; they differ in proportion of proteins and lipids, size, shape, and charge. HDL heterogeneity is the result of the activity of several factors that assemble and remodel HDL particles in plasma: ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), hepatic lipase (HL), phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP), endothelial lipase (EL), and scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI). The RCT pathway consists of the following steps: 1. Cholesterol efflux from peripheral tissues to plasma, 2. LCAT-mediated esterification of cholesterol and remodeling of HDL particles, 3. direct pathway of HDL cholesterol delivery to the liver, and 4. indirect pathway of HDL cholesterol delivery to the liver via CETP-mediated transfer There are several established strategies for raising HDL cholesterol in humans, such as lifestyle changes; use of drugs including fibrates, statins, and niacin; and new therapeutic approaches. The therapeutic approaches include CETP inhibition, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists, synthetic farnesoid X receptor agonists, and gene therapy. Results of clinical trials should be awaited before further clinical management of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

  11. The association between dietary cholesterol intake and subclinical atherosclerosis in Korean adults: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Eun-Jung; Ryu, Seungho; Lee, Jong-Young; Lee, Sung Ho; Cheong, EunSun; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Won, Yu Sam; Kim, Joon Mo; Cho, Dong-Sik; Chung, Hye-Kyung; Sung, Ki Chul

    The Scientific Report of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (2015) concluded that restriction of dietary cholesterol is unnecessary in most adults for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. We aimed to assess the risk for subclinical atherosclerosis according to coronary artery calcium score (CACS), based on dietary cholesterol intake in apparently healthy Korean adults. This was a cross-sectional study performed in 30,068 participants (mean age 40.8 years; 84.5% men) in a health screening program in Korea. The data were collected from 2001 to 2013 and analyzed in 2015. Total energy intake and dietary cholesterol intake were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. The participants were stratified according to quartile of dietary cholesterol intake. CACS was measured by multi-detector computed tomography. Lipid profiles were measured, and the participants were divided into 6 groups according to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level: 0. Dietary cholesterol intake did not correlate with mean value of serum LDL-C level. For both genders, the odds ratio for coronary artery calcification was not significantly greater with greater amounts of dietary cholesterol (as assessed by quartile). The risk for coronary artery calcification was not higher in subjects with LDL-C 70-129 mg/dL compared with those with LDL-C < 70 mg/dL; however, the risk was significantly greater in subjects with LDL-C ≥ 130 mg/dL compared with those with LDL-C < 70 mg/dL. Dietary cholesterol intake did not have an association with LDL-C level or with risk for coronary artery calcification in apparently healthy Korean adults. The results have to be translated with consideration of limitation of population-based studies. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Nonfasting triglycerides, cholesterol, and ischemic stroke in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varbo, Anette; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Current guidelines on stroke prevention have recommendations on desirable cholesterol levels, but not on nonfasting triglycerides. We compared stepwise increasing levels of nonfasting triglycerides and cholesterol for their association with risk of ischemic stroke in the general population....

  13. Estimating the burden of disease attributable to high cholesterol in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    burden attributed to high cholesterol for the four population ... and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical Sclwol, Boston, USA ..... deaths and disability. ..... Executive Summary of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program.

  14. Trans Fat Now Listed With Saturated Fat and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Trans Fat Now Listed With Saturated Fat and Cholesterol Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... I Do About Saturated Fat, Trans Fat, and Cholesterol? When comparing foods, look at the Nutrition Facts ...

  15. Remnant cholesterol as a cause of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varbo, Anette; Benn, Marianne; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on remnant cholesterol as a causal risk factor for ischemic heart disease (IHD), on its definition, measurement, atherogenicity, and levels in high risk patient groups; in addition, present and future pharmacological approaches to lowering remnant cholesterol levels...... are considered. Observational studies show association between elevated levels of remnant cholesterol and increased risk of cardiovascular disease, even when remnant cholesterol levels are defined, measured, or calculated in different ways. In-vitro and animal studies also support the contention that elevated...... levels of remnant cholesterol may cause atherosclerosis same way as elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, by cholesterol accumulation in the arterial wall. Genetic studies of variants associated with elevated remnant cholesterol levels show that an increment of 1mmol/L (39mg...

  16. Are You Taking the Right Treatment for Your High Cholesterol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you taking the right treatment for your high cholesterol? Our analysis and new guidelines could change your ... people consider a moderate-intensity statin (reduces LDL cholesterol by 30 percent to 50 percent) • People 40 ...

  17. Plasma Ubiquinone, Alpha-Tocopherol and Cholesterol in Man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Jan; Diamant, Bertil; Edlund, Per Olof

    1992-01-01

    Farmakologi, Coenzyme Q10, free cholesterol, vitamin E, antioxidants, Alpha-Tocopherol, vitamin Q, plasma, LDL-particle......Farmakologi, Coenzyme Q10, free cholesterol, vitamin E, antioxidants, Alpha-Tocopherol, vitamin Q, plasma, LDL-particle...

  18. CDC Vital Signs: High Blood Pressure and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the MMWR Science Clips High Blood Pressure and Cholesterol Out of Control Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... cdc.gov/GISCVH2/ High Blood Pressure and High Cholesterol Among US Adults SOURCES: National Health and Nutrition ...

  19. 1 in 7 Obese People Has Normal Blood Pressure, Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in 7 Obese People Has Normal Blood Pressure, Cholesterol But that doesn't mean the excess weight ... people studied, 14 percent had normal blood sugar, cholesterol and blood pressure readings, the study found. Doctors ...

  20. Cholesterol paradox: a correlate does not a surrogate make.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBroff, Robert

    2017-03-01

    The global campaign to lower cholesterol by diet and drugs has failed to thwart the developing pandemic of coronary heart disease around the world. Some experts believe this failure is due to the explosive rise in obesity and diabetes, but it is equally plausible that the cholesterol hypothesis, which posits that lowering cholesterol prevents cardiovascular disease, is incorrect. The recently presented ACCELERATE trial dumbfounded many experts by failing to demonstrate any cardiovascular benefit of evacetrapib despite dramatically lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in high-risk patients with coronary disease. This clinical trial adds to a growing volume of knowledge that challenges the validity of the cholesterol hypothesis and the utility of cholesterol as a surrogate end point. Inadvertently, the cholesterol hypothesis may have even contributed to this pandemic. This perspective critically reviews this evidence and our reluctance to acknowledge contradictory information.

  1. Reverse cholesterol transport: its contribution to cholesterol catabolism in normal and disease states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, K C; Tan, M H

    1996-10-01

    To review the reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) model and its contribution to cholesterol catabolism in normal and disease states. Pertinent articles were identified through a MEDLINE search of the English language literature from 1983 to 1995, followed by a manual search of the bibliographies of pertinent articles. Review articles, laboratory and clinical studies and case reports. The physiology of the RCT pathway as well as alterations observed in individuals with diseases or lifestyle changes were reviewed. Data were derived mainly from laboratory studies and clinical observations. The RCT model is proposed to explain the removal of excess cholesterol from extrahepatic tissues and its delivery to liver for catabolism. This involves several regulated steps mediated by the plasma apolipoproteins and two key enzymes, lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP). In essence free cholesterol in peripheral tissues is taken up by nascent high density lipoprotein (HDL) particles, converted to cholesteryl esters (by LCAT), and then transferred to apo B-containing lipoproteins (by CETP) for hepatic removal. Altered cholesterol catabolism may occur in individuals with disorders of a genetic or acquired nature as well as lifestyle changes, as a result of alterations in one of several of the putative steps or enzymes involved in RCT. The proposed antiatherogenic role of RCT remains to be validated as a review of the possible alterations noted in various disorders showed conflicting results in atherogenic propensity.

  2. Liver LXRα expression is crucial for whole body cholesterol homeostasis and reverse cholesterol transport in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan; Breevoort, Sarah R.; Angdisen, Jerry; Fu, Mingui; Schmidt, Daniel R.; Holmstrom, Sam R.; Kliewer, Steven A.; Mangelsdorf, David J.; Schulman, Ira G.

    2012-01-01

    Liver X receptors (LXRα and LXRβ) are important regulators of cholesterol and lipid metabolism, and their activation has been shown to inhibit cardiovascular disease and reduce atherosclerosis in animal models. Small molecule agonists of LXR activity are therefore of great therapeutic interest. However, the finding that such agonists also promote hepatic lipogenesis has led to the idea that hepatic LXR activity is undesirable from a therapeutic perspective. To investigate whether this might be true, we performed gene targeting to selectively delete LXRα in hepatocytes. Liver-specific deletion of LXRα in mice substantially decreased reverse cholesterol transport, cholesterol catabolism, and cholesterol excretion, revealing the essential importance of hepatic LXRα for whole body cholesterol homeostasis. Additionally, in a pro-atherogenic background, liver-specific deletion of LXRα increased atherosclerosis, uncovering an important function for hepatic LXR activity in limiting cardiovascular disease. Nevertheless, synthetic LXR agonists still elicited anti-atherogenic activity in the absence of hepatic LXRα, indicating that the ability of agonists to reduce cardiovascular disease did not require an increase in cholesterol excretion. Furthermore, when non-atherogenic mice were treated with synthetic LXR agonists, liver-specific deletion of LXRα eliminated the detrimental effect of increased plasma triglycerides, while the beneficial effect of increased plasma HDL was unaltered. In sum, these observations suggest that therapeutic strategies that bypass the liver or limit the activation of hepatic LXRs should still be beneficial for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. PMID:22484817

  3. Quadruple screen test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quad screen; Multiple marker screening; AFP plus; Triple screen test; AFP maternal; MSAFP; 4-marker screen; Down syndrome - quadruple; Trisomy 21 - quadruple; Turner syndrome - quadruple; Spina bifida - ...

  4. Polymer sorbent with the properties of an artificial cholesterol receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakova, I. V.; Ezhova, N. M.; Osipenko, A. A.; Pisarev, O. A.

    2015-02-01

    A cholesterol-imprinted polymer sorbent and the corresponding reticular control copolymer were synthesized from hydroxyethyl methacrylate and ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate. The sorption isotherms of cholesterol were analyzed using the generalized Langmuir and Freundlich equations. In the case of the imprinted reticular polymer, cholesterol sorption occurred on the energetically homogeneous binding centers, forming one monolayer, while the nonspecific sorption of cholesterol on the control copolymer occurred with energetically nonhomogeneous binding of the sorbate and depended on the physicochemical conditions of sorption.

  5. Bad cholesterol and good mood: exploring the link

    OpenAIRE

    Yashaswi Gupta

    2016-01-01

    It is a well-known fact that high cholesterol increases the risks of heart disease. Hence, physicians actively encourage cholesterol-lowering interventions using medications and lifestyle modifications. However, there is considerable evidence that aggressive lowering of cholesterol is associated with depression, bipolar disorders, violent behaviour, and suicidal ideation. It has been hypothesised that low cholesterol leads to low levels of serotonin, a chemical that is responsible for maintai...

  6. Elevated Cholesterol in the Coxiella burnetii Intracellular Niche Is Bacteriolytic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulye, Minal; Samanta, Dhritiman; Winfree, Seth; Heinzen, Robert A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular bacterial pathogen and a significant cause of culture-negative endocarditis in the United States. Upon infection, the nascent Coxiella phagosome fuses with the host endocytic pathway to form a large lysosome-like vacuole called the parasitophorous vacuole (PV). The PV membrane is rich in sterols, and drugs perturbing host cell cholesterol homeostasis inhibit PV formation and bacterial growth. Using cholesterol supplementation of a cholesterol-free cell model system, we found smaller PVs and reduced Coxiella growth as cellular cholesterol concentration increased. Further, we observed in cells with cholesterol a significant number of nonfusogenic PVs that contained degraded bacteria, a phenotype not observed in cholesterol-free cells. Cholesterol had no effect on axenic Coxiella cultures, indicating that only intracellular bacteria are sensitive to cholesterol. Live-cell microscopy revealed that both plasma membrane-derived cholesterol and the exogenous cholesterol carrier protein low-density lipoprotein (LDL) traffic to the PV. To test the possibility that increasing PV cholesterol levels affects bacterial survival, infected cells were treated with U18666A, a drug that traps cholesterol in lysosomes and PVs. U18666A treatment led to PVs containing degraded bacteria and a significant loss in bacterial viability. The PV pH was significantly more acidic in cells with cholesterol or cells treated with U18666A, and the vacuolar ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin blocked cholesterol-induced PV acidification and bacterial death. Additionally, treatment of infected HeLa cells with several FDA-approved cholesterol-altering drugs led to a loss of bacterial viability, a phenotype also rescued by bafilomycin. Collectively, these data suggest that increasing PV cholesterol further acidifies the PV, leading to Coxiella death. PMID:28246364

  7. Toxicology screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxicology screening is most often done using a blood or urine sample. However, it may be done soon after the person swallowed the medication, using stomach contents taken through gastric lavage (stomach pumping) or after vomiting.

  8. Hypertension screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulke, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt was made to measure the response to an announcement of hypertension screening at the Goddard Space Center, to compare the results to those of previous statistics. Education and patient awareness of the problem were stressed.

  9. Hypertension screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulke, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt was made to measure the response to an announcement of hypertension screening at the Goddard Space Center, to compare the results to those of previous statistics. Education and patient awareness of the problem were stressed.

  10. [Cholesterol bound to high density lipoproteins: critical review of the methods of analysis and personal data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orso Giacone, G

    1982-01-01

    division. The mean levels of total colesterol have been shown similar in both the experimental groups, while plasma HDL-cholesterol is significantly higher in the healthy group. This discrepancy is the cause of definitively higher risk factors in the hospitalized patients. In conclusion, the reported data furtherly stress that the total cholesterol values do not give "per se" any indication of atherogenic risk. They are useful only when examined together with the HDL-cholesterol levels. From that the opportunity to always include the determination of plasma HDL-cholesterol screening lipemic profiles.

  11. Utility of dried blood spots for measurement of cholesterol and triglycerides in a surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmy, Ramakrishnan; Gupta, Ruby; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Snehi, Uma; Reddy, K Srinath

    2010-03-01

    Developing countries are facing a rise in noncommunicable diseases (NCD), which is a cause for concern. The World Health Organization has recommended a stepwise approach for NCD risk factor surveillance. Screening for risk factors in remote populations is difficult due to lack of resources and technical expertise, including standardized laboratory facilities. The collection of samples on filter paper for the assessment of risk factors circumvents the need for blood processing, storage, and shipment at ultralow temperatures. Samples were collected on 3-mm Whatman filter paper from one industry (National Thermal Power Corporation) located in the periphery of Delhi as part of a surveillance carried out in industries from different parts of India. Total cholesterol was measured in serum and dried blood by the cholesterol oxidase/p-aminophenazone method and triglycerides by the glycerophosphate oxidase-peroxidase/aminophenazone method. Values obtained by the two methods were compared using Pearson correlation, and Bland-Altman plots were prepared to assess bias. The correlation coefficient "r" was 0.78 for cholesterol and 0.94 for triglycerides between dried blood spots and serum. Bland-Altman plots suggest that differences in values obtained by the two methods were within two standard deviations for most of the samples. Blood samples dried on filter paper can be a successful option for population screening in remote areas, provided preanalytical variations arising due to the method of blood spot preparation and storage are well controlled. (c) 2010 Diabetes Technology Society.

  12. Alcohol consumption stimulates early stemps in reverse cholesterol transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, van der M.S.; Tol, van A.; Vermunt, S.H.F.; Scheek, L.M.; Schaafsma, G.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2001-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with increased HDL cholesterol levels, which may indicate stimulated reverse cholesterol transport. The mechanism is, however, not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of alcohol consumption on the first two steps of the reverse cholesterol pathw

  13. Alcohol consumption stimulates early steps in reverse cholesterol transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, M.S. van der; Tol, A. van; Vermunt, S.H.F.; Scheek, L.M.; Schaafsma, G.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2001-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with increased HDL cholesterol levels, which may indicate stimulated reverse cholesterol transport. The mechanism is, however, not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of alcohol consumption on the first two steps of the reverse cholesterol pathw

  14. Understanding Lipoproteins as Transporters of Cholesterol and Other Lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggerstaff, Kyle D.; Wooten, Joshua S.

    2004-01-01

    A clear picture of lipoprotein metabolism is essential for understanding the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. Many students are taught that low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol is "bad" and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol is "good." This misconception leads to students thinking that lipoproteins are types of cholesterol rather than…

  15. Regulation of direct transintestinal cholesterol excretion in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Astrid E.; Vrins, Carlos L. J.; van den Oever, Karin; Seemann, Ingar; Elferink, Ronald P. J. Oude; van Eck, Miranda; Kuipers, Folkert; Groen, Albert K.

    2008-01-01

    Biliary secretion is generally considered to be an obligate step in the pathway of excess cholesterol excretion from the body. We have recently shown that an alternative route exists. Direct transintestinal cholesterol efflux ( TICE) contributes significantly to cholesterol removal in mice. Our aim

  16. Carbon Inverse Opal Rods for Nonenzymatic Cholesterol Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Qifeng; Xie, Zhuoying; Ding, Haibo; Zhu, Cun; Yang, Zixue; Gu, Zhongze

    2015-11-18

    Carbon inverse opal rods made from silica photonic crystal rods are used for nonenzymatic cholesterol sensing. The characteristic reflection peak originating from the physical periodic structure works as sensing signals for quantitatively estimating cholesterol concentrations. Carbon inverse opal rods work both in cholesterol standard solutions and human serum. They are suitable for practical use in clinical diagnose.

  17. Cholesterol biosynthesis and homeostasis in regulation of the cell cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpendra Singh

    Full Text Available The cell cycle is a ubiquitous, multi-step process that is essential for growth and proliferation of cells. The role of membrane lipids in cell cycle regulation is not explored well, although a large number of cytoplasmic and nuclear regulators have been identified. We focus in this work on the role of membrane cholesterol in cell cycle regulation. In particular, we have explored the stringency of the requirement of cholesterol in the regulation of cell cycle progression. For this purpose, we utilized distal and proximal inhibitors of cholesterol biosynthesis, and monitored their effect on cell cycle progression. We show that cholesterol content increases in S phase and inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis results in cell cycle arrest in G1 phase under certain conditions. Interestingly, G1 arrest mediated by cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitors could be reversed upon metabolic replenishment of cholesterol. Importantly, our results show that the requirement of cholesterol for G1 to S transition is absolute, and even immediate biosynthetic precursors of cholesterol, differing with cholesterol merely in a double bond, could not replace cholesterol for reversing the cell cycle arrest. These results are useful in the context of diseases, such as cancer and Alzheimer's disease, that are associated with impaired cholesterol biosynthesis and homeostasis.

  18. Moderate alcohol consumption increases cholesterol efflux mediated by ABCA1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Sierksma, A.; Tol, van A.; Fournier, C.

    2004-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption increases HDL cholesterol, which is involved in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on cholesterol efflux, using J774 mouse macrophages and Fu5AH cells, and on other parameters in the RC

  19. Emerging roles of the intestine in control of cholesterol metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruit, Janine K.; Groen, Albert K.; van Berkel, Theo J.; Kuipers, Folkert

    2006-01-01

    The liver is considered the major "control center" for maintenance of whole body cholesterol homeostasis. This organ is the main site for de novo cholesterol synthesis, clears cholesterol-containing chylomicron remnants and low density lipoprotein particles from plasma and is the major contributor t

  20. Greased hedgehogs : new links between hedgehog signaling and cholesterol metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breitling, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    The close link between signaling by the developmental regulators of the Hedgehog family and cholesterol biochemistry has been known for some time. The morphogen is covalently attached to cholesterol in a peculiar autocatalytic reaction and embryonal disruption of cholesterol synthesis leads to malfo

  1. Emerging roles of the intestine in control of cholesterol metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruit, Janine K.; Groen, Albert K.; van Berkel, Theo J.; Kuipers, Folkert

    2006-01-01

    The liver is considered the major "control center" for maintenance of whole body cholesterol homeostasis. This organ is the main site for de novo cholesterol synthesis, clears cholesterol-containing chylomicron remnants and low density lipoprotein particles from plasma and is the major contributor

  2. Alcohol consumption stimulates early steps in reverse cholesterol transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, M.S. van der; Tol, A. van; Vermunt, S.H.F.; Scheek, L.M.; Schaafsma, G.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2001-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with increased HDL cholesterol levels, which may indicate stimulated reverse cholesterol transport. The mechanism is, however, not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of alcohol consumption on the first two steps of the reverse cholesterol

  3. Sex Differences in the Hepatic Cholesterol Sensing Mechanisms in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingemar Björkhem

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol is linked to many multifactorial disorders, including different forms of liver disease where development and severity depend on the sex. We performed a detailed analysis of cholesterol and bile acid synthesis pathways at the level of genes and metabolites combined with the expression studies of hepatic cholesterol uptake and transport in female and male mice fed with a high-fat diet with or without cholesterol. Lack of dietary cholesterol led to a stronger response of the sterol sensing mechanism in females, resulting in higher expression of cholesterogenic genes compared to males. With cholesterol in the diet, the genes were down-regulated in both sexes; however, males maintained a more efficient hepatic metabolic flux through the pathway. Females had higher content of hepatic cholesterol but this was likely not due to diminished excretion but rather due to increased synthesis and absorption. Dietary cholesterol and sex were not important for gallbladder bile acids composition. Neither sex up-regulated Cyp7a1 upon cholesterol loading and there was no compensatory up-regulation of Abcg5 or Abcg8 transporters. On the other hand, females had higher expression of the Ldlr and Cd36 genes. These findings explain sexual dimorphism of cholesterol metabolism in response to dietary cholesterol in a high-fat diet in mice, which contributes to understanding the sex-basis of cholesterol-associated liver diseases.

  4. CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHODS IN THE ANALYSIS OF CHOLESTEROL AND RELATED LIPIDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOVING, EB

    1995-01-01

    Methods using thin-layer chromatography, solid-phase extraction, gas chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography and supercritical fluid chromatography are described for the analysis of single cholesterol, esterified and sulfated cholesterol, and for cholesterol in the context of other

  5. CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHODS IN THE ANALYSIS OF CHOLESTEROL AND RELATED LIPIDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOVING, EB

    1995-01-01

    Methods using thin-layer chromatography, solid-phase extraction, gas chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography and supercritical fluid chromatography are described for the analysis of single cholesterol, esterified and sulfated cholesterol, and for cholesterol in the context of other li

  6. Effects of Cholesterol-altering Pharmaceuticals on Cholesterol Metabolism, Steroidogenesis, and Gene Expression in the Fathead Minnow (Pimephales promelas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharmaceuticals that target cholesterol biosynthesis and uptake are among the most widely prescribed drugs and have been detected in the aquatic environment. Fibrates are a class of pharmaceuticals that indirectly modulate cholesterol biosynthesis through effects on peroxisome pr...

  7. [Organized breast cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouëssé, Jacques; Sancho-Garnier, Hélèn

    2014-02-01

    Breast screening programs are increasingly controversial, especially regarding two points: the number of breast cancer deaths they avoid, and the problem of over-diagnosis and over-treatment. The French national breast cancer screening program was extended to cover the whole country in 2004. Ten years later it is time to examine the risk/benefit ratio of this program and to discuss the need for change. Like all forms of cancer management, screening must be regularly updated, taking into account the state of the art, new evidence, and uncertainties. All screening providers should keep themselves informed of the latest findings. In the French program, women aged 50-74 with no major individual or familial risk factors for breast cancer are offered screening mammography and clinical breast examination every two years. Images considered non suspicious of malignancy by a first reader are re-examined by a second reader. The devices and procedures are subjected to quality controls. Participating radiologists (both public and private) are required to read at least 500 mammographies per year. The program's national participation rate was 52.7 % in 2012. When individual screening outside of the national program is taken into account (nearly 15 % of women), coverage appears close to the European recommendation of 65 %. Breast cancer mortality has been falling in France by 0.6 % per year for over 30 years, starting before mass screening was implemented, and by 1.5 % since 2005. This decline can be attributed in part to earlier diagnosis and better treatment, so that the specific impact of screening cannot easily be measured. Over-treatment, defined as the detection and treatment of low-malignancy tumors that would otherwise not have been detected in a person's lifetime, is a major negative effect of screening, but its frequency is not precisely known (reported to range from 1 % to 30 %). In view of these uncertainties, it would be advisable to modify the program in order to

  8. HCC screening; HCC-Screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, T. [Charite-Unversitaetsmedizin,Freie Universitaet und Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Klinik und Hochschulambulanz fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin,Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin (Germany)

    2008-01-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most frequently diagnosed tumour diseases throughout the world. In the vast majority of cases those affected are high-risk patients with chronic viral hepatitis and/or liver cirrhosis, which means there is a clearly identifiable target group for HCC screening. With resection, transplantation, and interventional procedures for local ablation, following early diagnosis curative treatment options are available with which 5-year survival rates of over 60% can be reached. Such early diagnosis is a reality only in a minority of patients, however, and in the majority of cases the disease is already in an advanced stage at diagnosis. One of the objects of HCC screening is diagnosis in an early stage when curative treatment is still possible. Precisely this is achieved by screening, so that the proportion of patients treated with curative intent is decisively higher. There is not yet any clear evidence as to whether this leads to a lowering of the mortality of HCC. As lower mortality is the decisive indicator of success for a screening programme the benefit of HCC screening has so far been neither documented nor refuted. Nonetheless, in large regions of the world it is the practice for high-risk patients to undergo HCC screening in the form of twice-yearly ultrasound examination and determination of AFP. (orig.) [German] Das hepatozellulaere Karzinom (HCC) ist eine der weltweit haeufigsten Tumorerkrankungen. Es tritt in der grossen Mehrzahl der Faelle bei Hochrisikopatienten mit chronischer Virushepatitis bzw. Leberzirrhose auf, woraus sich eine klar identifizierbare Zielgruppe fuer das HCC-Screening ergibt. Mit der Resektion, der Transplantation und interventionellen lokal ablativen Verfahren stehen bei rechtzeitiger Diagnosestellung kurative Therapieoptionen zur Verfuegung, die 5-Jahres-Ueberlebensraten von >60% erreichen. Diese rechtzeitige Diagnosestellung erfolgt jedoch nur bei einer Minderzahl der Patienten, waehrend die

  9. Evidence for condensed complexes of cholesterol in lipid membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, Maria K.

    Although cholesterol is a predominant lipid in the eukaryotic plasma membrane, its interactions with other lipids are still not well understood. Insights into the nature of lipid assembly can be gained from examining lipid-cholesterol interaction using model systems. A key observation was the discovery of liquid-liquid phase diagrams with two critical points in the binary mixtures of cholesterol and lipids. The shape of the phase diagrams can be explained by a thermodynamic model of "condensed complexes". In our quest to characterize cholesterol-lipid interactions, we determined phase diagrams of cholesterol and phospholipids that point to the existence of condensed complexes. This complex formation hypothesis was further supported by experiments involving cholesterol removal by cyclodextrin, grazing x-ray diffraction and x-ray reflectivity studies and isothermal calorimetry. Our study aimed at establishing a correlation (or the lack of) between domain formation and complex formation, as well as determining the mode of cholesterol association with different lipids based on their structural and physical properties. We established a displacement assay by which we were able to probe cholesterol-lipid interactions by perturbing them in the presence of an intercalator that competes with cholesterol for association with lipids. Our data support the condensed complex model between cholesterol and lipids, and cholesterol when complexed with lipids shows low activity whereas free, uncomplexed cholesterol exhibits high activity. We were successful in modulating cholesterol activity by varying the level of intercalator while keeping the cholesterol content fixed. In this thesis, not only have we shown that cholesterol can be displaced by intercalators in model systems, we have further established that such displacement can take place in membranes of live cell.

  10. Gut microbiota dysbiosis and bacterial community assembly associated with cholesterol gallstones in large-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Zhang, Zhigang; Liu, Bin; Hou, Dezhi; Liang, Yun; Zhang, Jie; Shi, Peng

    2013-10-01

    Elucidating gut microbiota among gallstone patients as well as the complex bacterial colonization of cholesterol gallstones may help in both the prediction and subsequent lowered risk of cholelithiasis. To this end, we studied the composition of bacterial communities of gut, bile, and gallstones from 29 gallstone patients as well as the gut of 38 normal individuals, examining and analyzing some 299, 217 bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences from 120 samples. First, as compared with normal individuals, in gallstone patients there were significant (P gut bacterial phylum Proteobacteria and decreases of three gut bacterial genera, Faecalibacterium, Lachnospira, and Roseburia. Second, about 70% of gut bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from gallstone patients were detectable in the biliary tract and bacteria diversity of biliary tract was significantly (P gut. Third, analysis of the biliary tract core microbiome (represented by 106 bacteria OTUs) among gallstone patients showed that 33.96% (36/106) of constituents can be matched to known bacterial species (15 of which have publicly available genomes). A genome-wide search of MDR, BSH, bG, and phL genes purpotedly associated with the formation of cholesterol gallstones showed that all 15 species with known genomes (e.g., Propionibacterium acnes, Bacteroides vulgates, and Pseudomonas putida) contained at least contained one of the four genes. This finding could potentially provide underlying information needed to explain the association between biliary tract microbiota and the formation of cholesterol gallstones. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to discover gut microbiota dysbiosis among gallstone patients, the presence of which may be a key contributor to the complex bacteria community assembly linked with the presence of cholesterol gallstones. Likewise, this study also provides the first large-scale glimpse of biliary tract microbiota potentially associated with cholesterol gallstones. Such

  11. Validation of reported physical activity for cholesterol control using two different physical activity instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Z Fan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Amy Z Fan1, Sandra A Ham2, Shravani Reddy Muppidi3, Ali H Mokdad41Behavioral Surveillance Branch, Division of Adult and Community Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion; 2Physical Activity and Health Branch, Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3College of Public Health, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA; 4Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USAAbstract: The National Cholesterol Education Program recommends increasing physical activity to improve cholesterol levels and overall cardiovascular health. We examined whether US adults who reported increasing their physical activity to control or lower blood cholesterol following physician’s advice or on their own efforts had higher levels of physical activity than those who reported that they did not. We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2004, which implemented two physical activity assessment instruments. The physical activity questionnaire (PAQ assessed self-reported frequency, intensity, and duration of leisure-time, household, and transportation-related physical activity in the past month. Physical movement was objectively monitored using a waist accelerometer that assessed minute-by-minute intensity (counts of movement/minute during waking time over a 7-day period. We adjusted our analysis for age, gender, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, and body mass index. Participants who reported increasing physical activity to control blood cholesterol had more PAQ-assessed physical activity and more accelerometer-assessed active days per week compared to those who did not. However, there were no significant differences in cholesterol levels between comparison groups. These findings suggest that self-report of exercising

  12. Effects of saturated and unsaturated fats given with and without dietary cholesterol on hepatic cholesterol synthesis and hepatic lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochenek, W; Rodgers, J B

    1978-01-27

    Hepatic cholesterol synthesis was studied in rats after consuming diets of varying neutral lipid and cholesterol content. Cholesterol synthesis was evaluated by measuring 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase and by determining the rate of 3H-labeled sterol production from [3H]mevalonate. Results were correlated with sterol balance data and hepatic lipid content. Hepatic cholesterol synthesis was relatively great when cholesterol was excluded from the diet. The source of neutral dietary lipids, saturated vs. unsaturated, produced no change in hepatic sterol synthesis. Values for fecal sterol outputs and hepatic cholesterol levels were also similar in rats consuming either saturated or unsaturated fats. When 1% cholesterol was added to the diet, hepatic cholesterol synthesis was suppressed but the degree of suppression was greater in rats consuming unsaturated vs. saturated fats. This was associated with greater accumulation of cholesterol in livers from rats consuming unsaturates and a reduction in fecal neutral sterol output in this group as opposed to results from rats on saturated fats. Cholesterol consumption also altered the fatty acid composition of hepatic phospholipids producing decreases in the percentages of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids. It is concluded that dietary cholesterol alters cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism in the liver and that this effect is enhanced by dietary unsaturated fats.

  13. Steady-state oxidation of cholesterol catalyzed by cholesterol oxidase in lipid bilayer membranes on platinum electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bokoch, Michael P.; Devadoss, Anando; Palencsar, Mariela S.; Burgess, James D

    2004-08-09

    Cholesterol oxidase is immobilized in electrode-supported lipid bilayer membranes. Platinum electrodes are initially modified with a self-assembled monolayer of thiolipid. A vesicle fusion method is used to deposit an outer leaflet of phospholipids onto the thiolipid monolayer forming a thiolipid/lipid bilayer membrane on the electrode surface. Cholesterol oxidase spontaneously inserts into the electrode-supported lipid bilayer membrane from solution and is consequently immobilized to the electrode surface. Cholesterol partitions into the membrane from buffer solutions containing cyclodextrin. Cholesterol oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of cholesterol by molecular oxygen, forming hydrogen peroxide as a product. Amperometric detection of hydrogen peroxide for continuous solution flow experiments are presented, where flow was alternated between cholesterol solution and buffer containing no cholesterol. Steady-state anodic currents were observed during exposures of cholesterol solutions ranging in concentration from 10 to 1000 {mu}M. These data are consistent with the Michaelis-Menten kinetic model for oxidation of cholesterol as catalyzed by cholesterol oxidase immobilized in the lipid bilayer membrane. The cholesterol detection limit is below 1 {mu}M for cholesterol solution prepared in buffered cyclodextrin. The response of the electrodes to low density lipoprotein solutions is increased upon addition of cyclodextrin. Evidence for adsorption of low density lipoprotein to the electrode surface is presented.

  14. Fibroblast cholesterol efflux to plasma from metabolic syndrome subjects is not defective despite low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P.F. Dullaart (Robin); A. Groen (Albert); G.M. Dallinga-Thie (Geesje); R. de Vries (Rindert); W. Sluiter (Wim); A. van Tol (Arie)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractObjective: We tested whether in metabolic syndrome (MetS) subjects the ability of plasma to stimulate cellular cholesterol efflux, an early step in the anti-atherogenic reverse cholesterol transport pathway, is maintained despite low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Design: In

  15. A cholesterol-free, high-fat diet suppresses gene expression of cholesterol transporters in murine small intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, van den H.M.; Wit, de N.J.W.; Hooiveld, G.J.E.J.; Vermeulen, H.; Veen, van der J.N.; Houten, S.M.; Kuipers, F.; Müller, M.R.; Meer, van der R.

    2008-01-01

    Transporters present in the epithelium of the small intestine determine the efficiency by which dietary and biliary cholesterol are taken up into the body and thus control whole-body cholesterol balance. Niemann-Pick C1 Like Protein 1 (Npc1l1) transports cholesterol into the enterocyte, whereas ATP-

  16. Understanding Cholesterol and Heart Health | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: High Cholesterol Understanding Cholesterol and Heart Health Past Issues / Summer 2012 Table ... both types of lipoproteins is important. High Blood Cholesterol and Triglycerides High blood cholesterol is a condition ...

  17. Parvovirus capsid disorders cholesterol-rich membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakkanen, Kirsi; Kirjavainen, Sanna; Mäkelä, Anna R; Rintanen, Nina; Oker-Blom, Christian; Jalonen, Tuula O; Vuento, Matti

    2009-02-06

    In this study canine parvovirus, CPV, was found to induce disorder in DPPC:cholesterol membranes in acidic conditions. This acidicity-induced fluidizing effect is suggested to originate from the N-terminus of the viral capsid protein VP1. In accordance with the model membrane studies, a fluidizing effect was seen also in the endosomal membranes during CPV infection implying an important functional role of the fluidization in the endocytic entry of the virus.

  18. EVALUATION OF SERUM CHOLESTEROL, AMINO TRANSFERASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anantha Babu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of red yeast rice (Monascus purpureus-fermented rice in lowering cholesterol in the blood. At the same time, alanine aminotranferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and gamma-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT were measured for notable side effects in the liver. Possible muscle damage was determined by measuring creatine kinase (CK. METHODS The cholesterol lowering effect in serum of red yeast rice-fed rats were studied over a 42-day feeding period. A total of 16 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomised into 8 per group: control and treated. Treated rats were administered 1.35g/kg/day. Control rats were maintained on ordinary rat chow. RESULTS Serum cholesterol levels were significantly decreased by 19.13% in treated group compared to controls. This treatment also showed increase in serum ALT and AST activities by 41.90% and 21.53%, respectively. Mean CK activity in treated rats showed an increase by 32.32% when compared with control rats. γ-GT is the only enzyme that showed a decrease of 15.16% in sera of treated rats. Body weights of control and treated rats increased significantly by 10% end of feeding period but were not due to treatment. CONCLUSION Red yeast rice significantly decreased serum cholesterol level at a dosage of 1.35g/kg/day. However, the differences in serum enzyme activities between control and treated rats were not significant.

  19. Publicity and public relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosha, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses approaches to using publicity and public relations to meet the goals of the NASA Space Grant College. Methods universities and colleges can use to publicize space activities are presented.

  20. Cholesterol: a novel regulatory role in myelin formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saher, Gesine; Quintes, Susanne; Nave, Klaus-Armin

    2011-02-01

    Myelin consists of tightly compacted membranes that form an insulating sheath around axons. The function of myelin for rapid saltatory nerve conduction is dependent on its unique composition, highly enriched in glycosphingolipids and cholesterol. Cholesterol emerged as the only integral myelin component that is essential and rate limiting for the development of CNS and PNS myelin. Experiments with conditional mouse mutants that lack cholesterol biosynthesis in oligodendrocytes revealed that only minimal changes of the CNS myelin lipid composition are tolerated. In Schwann cells of the PNS, protein trafficking and myelin compaction depend on cholesterol. In this review, the authors summarize the role of cholesterol in myelin biogenesis and myelin disease.

  1. Biochemical and Bioimaging Evidence of Cholesterol in Acquired Cholesteatoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsted, Bjarne; Bloksgaard, Maria; Groza, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    : The results show that the total lipid content of the cholesteatoma matrix is similar to that of stratum corneum from skin and that the cholesteatoma matrix unquestionably contains cholesterol. The cholesterol content in the cholesteatoma matrix is increased by over 30% (w/w dry weight) compared to the control....... The cholesterol sulfate content is below 1% of the total lipids in both the cholesteatoma and the control. Cholesterol ester was reduced by over 30% when compared to the control. CONCLUSIONS: The content of cholesterol in the cholesteatoma matrix is significantly different from that in stratum corneum from skin...

  2. Cholesterol impairment contributes to neuroserpin aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampietro, Costanza; Lionetti, Maria Chiara; Costantini, Giulio; Mutti, Federico; Zapperi, Stefano; La Porta, Caterina A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Intraneural accumulation of misfolded proteins is a common feature of several neurodegenerative pathologies including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, and Familial Encephalopathy with Neuroserpin Inclusion Bodies (FENIB). FENIB is a rare disease due to a point mutation in neuroserpin which accelerates protein aggregation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Here we show that cholesterol depletion induced either by prolonged exposure to statins or by inhibiting the sterol reg-ulatory binding-element protein (SREBP) pathway also enhances aggregation of neuroserpin proteins. These findings can be explained considering a computational model of protein aggregation under non-equilibrium conditions, where a decrease in the rate of protein clearance improves aggregation. Decreasing cholesterol in cell membranes affects their biophysical properties, including their ability to form the vesicles needed for protein clearance, as we illustrate by a simple mathematical model. Taken together, these results suggest that cholesterol reduction induces neuroserpin aggregation, even in absence of specific neuroserpin mutations. The new mechanism we uncover could be relevant also for other neurodegenerative diseases associated with protein aggregation. PMID:28255164

  3. Cholesterol impairment contributes to neuroserpin aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampietro, Costanza; Lionetti, Maria Chiara; Costantini, Giulio; Mutti, Federico; Zapperi, Stefano; La Porta, Caterina A. M.

    2017-03-01

    Intraneural accumulation of misfolded proteins is a common feature of several neurodegenerative pathologies including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, and Familial Encephalopathy with Neuroserpin Inclusion Bodies (FENIB). FENIB is a rare disease due to a point mutation in neuroserpin which accelerates protein aggregation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Here we show that cholesterol depletion induced either by prolonged exposure to statins or by inhibiting the sterol reg-ulatory binding-element protein (SREBP) pathway also enhances aggregation of neuroserpin proteins. These findings can be explained considering a computational model of protein aggregation under non-equilibrium conditions, where a decrease in the rate of protein clearance improves aggregation. Decreasing cholesterol in cell membranes affects their biophysical properties, including their ability to form the vesicles needed for protein clearance, as we illustrate by a simple mathematical model. Taken together, these results suggest that cholesterol reduction induces neuroserpin aggregation, even in absence of specific neuroserpin mutations. The new mechanism we uncover could be relevant also for other neurodegenerative diseases associated with protein aggregation.

  4. Dietary cholesterol, heart disease risk and cognitive dissonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Donald J

    2014-05-01

    In the 1960s, the thesis that dietary cholesterol contributes to blood cholesterol and heart disease risk was a rational conclusion based on the available science at that time. Fifty years later the research evidence no longer supports this hypothesis yet changing the dietary recommendation to limit dietary cholesterol has been a slow and at times contentious process. The preponderance of the clinical and epidemiological data accumulated since the original dietary cholesterol restrictions were formulated indicate that: (1) dietary cholesterol has a small effect on the plasma cholesterol levels with an increase in the cholesterol content of the LDL particle and an increase in HDL cholesterol, with little effect on the LDL:HDL ratio, a significant indicator of heart disease risk, and (2) the lack of a significant relationship between cholesterol intake and heart disease incidence reported from numerous epidemiological surveys. Over the last decade, many countries and health promotion groups have modified their dietary recommendations to reflect the current evidence and to address a now recognised negative consequence of ineffective dietary cholesterol restrictions (such as inadequate choline intake). In contrast, health promotion groups in some countries appear to suffer from cognitive dissonance and continue to promote an outdated and potentially hazardous dietary recommendation based on an invalidated hypothesis. This review evaluates the evidence for and against dietary cholesterol restrictions and the potential consequences of such restrictions.

  5. Astragalus polysaccharides lowers plasma cholesterol through mechanisms distinct from statins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjiu Cheng

    Full Text Available To determine the efficacy and underlying mechanism of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS on plasma lipids in hypercholesterolemia hamsters. The effect of APS (0.25 g/kg/d on plasma and liver lipids, fecal bile acids and neutral sterol, cholesterol absorption and synthesis, HMG-CoA reductase activity, and gene and protein expressions in the liver and small intestine was investigated in twenty-four hypercholesterolemia hamsters. Treatment periods lasted for three months. APS significantly lowered plasma total cholesterol by 45.8%, triglycerides by 30%, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol by 47.4%, comparable to simvastatin. Further examinations revealed that APS reduced total cholesterol and triglycerides in the liver, increased fecal bile acid and neutral sterol excretion, inhibited cholesterol absorption, and by contrast, increased hepatic cholesterol synthesis and HMG-CoA reductase activity. Plasma total cholesterol or low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels were significantly correlated with cholesterol absorption rates. APS up-regulated cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase and LDL-receptor gene expressions. These new findings identify APS as a potential natural cholesterol lowering agent, working through mechanisms distinct from statins.

  6. Nonlinear associations between plasma cholesterol levels and neuropsychological function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell, Carrington R; Zonderman, Alan B; Katzel, Leslie I; Rosenberger, William F; Plamadeala, Victoria V; Hosey, Megan M; Waldstein, Shari R

    2016-11-01

    Although both high and low levels of total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol have been associated with poor neuropsychological function, little research has examined nonlinear effects. We examined quadratic relations of cholesterol to performance on a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Participants were 190 older adults (53% men, ages 54-83) free of major medical, neurologic, and psychiatric disease. Measures of fasting plasma total and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were assayed, and LDL cholesterol was calculated. Participants completed neuropsychological measures of attention, executive function, memory, visuospatial judgment, and manual speed and dexterity. Multiple regression analyses examined cholesterol levels as quadratic predictors of each measure of cognitive performance, with age (dichotomized as quadratic effect of Total Cholesterol² × Age was identified for Logical Memory II (b = -.0013, p = .039), such that the 70+ group performed best at high and low levels of total cholesterol than at midrange total cholesterol (U-shaped) and the Quadratic associations between HDL cholesterol and cognitive performance were nonsignificant. Results indicate differential associations between cholesterol and neuropsychological function across different ages and domains of function. High and low total and LDL cholesterol may confer both risk and benefit for suboptimal cognitive function at different ages. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Cholesterol in the retina: the best is yet to come

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuleva, Irina A.; Curcio, Christine A.

    2014-01-01

    Historically understudied, cholesterol in the retina is receiving more attention now because of genetic studies showing that several cholesterol-related genes are risk factors for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and because eye pathology studies showing high cholesterol content of drusen, aging Bruch's membrane, and newly found subretinal lesions. The challenge before us is determining how the cholesterol-AMD link is realized. Meeting this challenge will require an excellent understanding these genes’ roles in retinal physiology and how chorioretinal cholesterol is maintained. In the first half of this review, we will succinctly summarize physico-chemical properties of cholesterol, its distribution in the human body, general principles of maintenance and metabolism, and differences in cholesterol handling in human and mouse that impact on experimental approaches. This information will provide a backdrop to the second part of the review focusing on unique aspects of chorioretinal cholesterol homeostasis, aging in Bruch's membrane, cholesterol in AMD lesions, a model for lesion biogenesis, a model for macular vulnerability based on vascular biology, and alignment of AMD-related genes and pathobiology using cholesterol and an atherosclerosis-like progression as unifying features. We conclude with recommendations for the most important research steps we can take towards delineating the cholesterol-AMD link. PMID:24704580

  8. Application of pooled genotyping to scan candidate regions for association with HDL cholesterol levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinds David A

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Association studies are used to identify genetic determinants of complex human traits of medical interest. With the large number of validated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs currently available, two limiting factors in association studies are genotyping capability and costs. Pooled DNA genotyping has been proposed as an efficient means of screening SNPs for allele frequency differences in case-control studies and for prioritising them for subsequent individual genotyping analysis. Here, we apply quantitative pooled genotyping followed by individual genotyping and replication to identify associations with human serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol levels. The DNA from individuals with low and high HDL cholesterol levels was pooled separately, each pool was amplified by polymerase chain reaction in triplicate and each amplified product was separately hybridised to a high-density oligonucleotide array. Allele frequency differences between case and control groups with low and high HDL cholesterol levels were estimated for 7,283 SNPs distributed across 71 candidate gene regions spanning a total of 17.1 megabases. A novel method was developed to take advantage of independently derived haplotype map information to improve the pooled estimates of allele frequency differences. A subset of SNPs with the largest estimated allele frequency differences between low and high HDL cholesterol groups was chosen for individual genotyping in the study population, as well as in a separate replication population. Four SNPs in a single haplotype block within the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP gene interval were significantly associated with HDL cholesterol levels in both populations. Our study is among the first to demonstrate the application of pooled genotyping followed by confirmation with individual genotyping to identify genetic determinants of a complex trait.

  9. LXR driven induction of HDL-cholesterol is independent of intestinal cholesterol absorption and ABCA1 protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannisto, Kristina; Gåfvels, Mats; Jiang, Zhao-Yan; Slätis, Katharina; Hu, Xiaoli; Jorns, Carl; Steffensen, Knut R; Eggertsen, Gösta

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether: (1) liver X receptor (LXR)-driven induction of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and other LXR-mediated effects on cholesterol metabolism depend on intestinal cholesterol absorption; and (2) combined treatment with the LXR agonist GW3965 and the cholesterol absorption inhibitor ezetimibe results in synergistic effects on cholesterol metabolism that could be beneficial for treatment of atherosclerosis. Mice were fed 0.2 % cholesterol and treated with GW3965+ezetimibe, GW3965 or ezetimibe. GW3965+ezetimibe treatment elevated serum HDL-C and Apolipoprotein (Apo) AI, effectively reduced the intestinal cholesterol absorption and increased the excretion of faecal neutral sterols. No changes in intestinal ATP-binding cassette (ABC) A1 or ABCG5 protein expression were observed, despite increased mRNA expression, while hepatic ABCA1 was slightly reduced. The combined treatment caused a pronounced down-regulation of intestinal Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) and reduced hepatic and intestinal cholesterol levels. GW3965 did not affect the intestinal cholesterol absorption, but increased serum HDL-C and ApoAI levels. GW3965 also increased Apoa1 mRNA levels in primary mouse hepatocytes and HEPA1-6 cells. Ezetimibe reduced the intestinal cholesterol absorption, ABCA1 and ABCG5, but did not affect the serum HDL-C or ApoAI levels. Thus, the LXR-driven induction of HDL-C and ApoAI was independent of the intestinal cholesterol absorption and increased expression of intestinal or hepatic ABCA1 was not required. Inhibited influx of cholesterol via NPC1L1 and/or low levels of intracellular cholesterol prevented post-transcriptional expression of intestinal ABCA1 and ABCG5, despite increased mRNA levels. Combined LXR activation and blocked intestinal cholesterol absorption induced effective faecal elimination of cholesterol.

  10. HDL Cholesterol and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Christiane L; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-01-01

    Observationally, low levels of HDL cholesterol are consistently associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, plasma HDL cholesterol increasing has been suggested as a novel therapeutic option to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes. Whether levels of HDL cholesterol are causally...... associated with type 2 diabetes is unknown. In a prospective study of the general population (n = 47,627), we tested whether HDL cholesterol-related genetic variants were associated with low HDL cholesterol levels and, in turn, with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. HDL cholesterol-decreasing gene scores...... and allele numbers associated with up to -13 and -20% reductions in HDL cholesterol levels. The corresponding theoretically predicted hazard ratios for type 2 diabetes were 1.44 (95% CI 1.38-1.52) and 1.77 (1.61-1.95), whereas the genetic estimates were nonsignificant. Genetic risk ratios for type 2 diabetes...

  11. HDL Cholesterol, LDL Cholesterol, and Triglycerides as Risk Factors for CKD: A Mendelian Randomization Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanktree, Matthew B; Thériault, Sébastien; Walsh, Michael; Paré, Guillaume

    2017-07-26

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations are heritable risk factors for vascular disease, but their role in the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is unclear. 2-sample Mendelian randomization analysis of data derived from the largest published lipid and CKD studies. Effect of independent genetic variants significantly associated with lipid concentrations was obtained from the Global Lipids Genetics Consortium (n=188,577), and the effect of these same variants on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), CKD (defined as eGFRGenetics Consortium (n=133,814). Using conventional, multivariable, and Egger Mendelian randomization approaches, we assessed the causal association between genetically determined lipid concentrations and kidney traits. eGFR, dichotomous eGFRGenetically higher triglyceride concentrations appeared associated with higher eGFRs, but this finding was driven by a single pleiotropic variant in the glucokinase regulator gene (GCKR). After exclusion, genetically higher triglyceride concentration was not associated with any kidney trait. Individual patient-level phenotype and genotype information were unavailable. 2-sample Mendelian randomization analysis of data from the largest lipid and CKD cohorts supports genetically higher HDL cholesterol concentration as causally associated with better kidney function. There was no association between genetically altered LDL cholesterol or triglyceride concentration and kidney function. Further analysis of CKD outcomes in HDL cholesterol intervention trials is warranted. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cervical cancer screening at crossroads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Rygaard, Carsten; Baillet, Miguel Vazquez-Prada

    2014-01-01

    Cervical screening has been one of the most successful public health prevention programmes. For 50 years, cytology formed the basis for screening, and detected cervical intraepithelial lesions (CIN) were treated surgically to prevent progression to cancer. In a high-risk country as Denmark......, screening decreased the incidence of cervical cancer from 34 to 11 per 100,000, age-standardized rate (World Standard Population). Screening is, however, also expensive; Denmark (population: 5.6 million) undertakes close to half a million tests per year, and has 6-8 CIN-treated women for each prevented...... cancer case. The discovery of human papillomavirus (HPV) as the cause of cervical cancer dramatically changed perspectives for disease control. Screening with HPV testing was launched around 1990, and preventive HPV vaccination was licensed in 2006. Long-term randomized controlled trials (RCT...

  13. Mitochondrial cholesterol: mechanisms of import and effects on mitochondrial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Laura A; Kennedy, Barry E; Karten, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Mitochondria require cholesterol for biogenesis and membrane maintenance, and for the synthesis of steroids, oxysterols and hepatic bile acids. Multiple pathways mediate the transport of cholesterol from different subcellular pools to mitochondria. In steroidogenic cells, the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) interacts with a mitochondrial protein complex to mediate cholesterol delivery to the inner mitochondrial membrane for conversion to pregnenolone. In non-steroidogenic cells, several members of a protein family defined by the presence of a StAR-related lipid transfer (START) domain play key roles in the delivery of cholesterol to mitochondrial membranes. Subdomains of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), termed mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAM), form membrane contact sites with mitochondria and may contribute to the transport of ER cholesterol to mitochondria, either independently or in conjunction with lipid-transfer proteins. Model systems of mitochondria enriched with cholesterol in vitro and mitochondria isolated from cells with (patho)physiological mitochondrial cholesterol accumulation clearly demonstrate that mitochondrial cholesterol levels affect mitochondrial function. Increased mitochondrial cholesterol levels have been observed in several diseases, including cancer, ischemia, steatohepatitis and neurodegenerative diseases, and influence disease pathology. Hence, a deeper understanding of the mechanisms maintaining mitochondrial cholesterol homeostasis may reveal additional targets for therapeutic intervention. Here we give a brief overview of mitochondrial cholesterol import in steroidogenic cells, and then focus on cholesterol trafficking pathways that deliver cholesterol to mitochondrial membranes in non-steroidogenic cells. We also briefly discuss the consequences of increased mitochondrial cholesterol levels on mitochondrial function and their potential role in disease pathology.

  14. Esophageal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Esophageal Cancer Prevention Esophageal Cancer Screening Research Esophageal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go to ... the esophagus and the stomach). Being overweight . Esophageal Cancer Screening Key Points Tests are used to screen for ...

  15. The politics of prostate cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaffenberger, Samuel D; Penson, David F

    2014-05-01

    The controversial recent recommendation by the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) against prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening for early-stage prostate cancer has caused much debate. Whereas USPSTF recommendations against routine screening mammography in younger women resulted in fierce public outcry and eventual alteration in the language of the recommendation, the same public and political response has not been seen with PSA screening for prostate cancer. It is of paramount importance to ensure improved efficiency and transparency of the USPSTF recommendation process, and resolution of concerns with the current USPSTF recommendation against PSA screening for all ages. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. When cholesterol is not cholesterol: a note on the enzymatic determination of its concentration in model systems containing vegetable extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamplona Reinald

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental evidences demonstrate that vegetable derived extracts inhibit cholesterol absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. To further explore the mechanisms behind, we modeled duodenal contents with several vegetable extracts. Results By employing a widely used cholesterol quantification method based on a cholesterol oxidase-peroxidase coupled reaction we analyzed the effects on cholesterol partition. Evidenced interferences were analyzed by studying specific and unspecific inhibitors of cholesterol oxidase-peroxidase coupled reaction. Cholesterol was also quantified by LC/MS. We found a significant interference of diverse (cocoa and tea-derived extracts over this method. The interference was strongly dependent on model matrix: while as in phosphate buffered saline, the development of unspecific fluorescence was inhibitable by catalase (but not by heat denaturation, suggesting vegetable extract derived H2O2 production, in bile-containing model systems, this interference also comprised cholesterol-oxidase inhibition. Several strategies, such as cholesterol standard addition and use of suitable blanks containing vegetable extracts were tested. When those failed, the use of a mass-spectrometry based chromatographic assay allowed quantification of cholesterol in models of duodenal contents in the presence of vegetable extracts. Conclusions We propose that the use of cholesterol-oxidase and/or peroxidase based systems for cholesterol analyses in foodstuffs should be accurately monitored, as important interferences in all the components of the enzymatic chain were evident. The use of adequate controls, standard addition and finally, chromatographic analyses solve these issues.

  17. Cholesterol removal from various samples by cholesterol-imprinted monosize microsphere-embedded cryogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çaktü, Kıvılcım; Baydemir, Gözde; Ergün, Bahar; Yavuz, Handan

    2014-12-01

    Cholesterol-imprinted monosize poly(glycidyl methacrylate-N-methacryloyl-(L)-tyrosine methylester) microspheres were embedded into the poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) cryogels and the resulting composite cryogel was used for the selective removal of cholesterol. Composite cryogels were characterized by swelling tests, multipoint BET apparatus, SEM, FTIR and elemental analysis studies. Specific surface area of the PHEMA cryogel was increased from 13 to 72.7 m(2)/g by embedding of microspheres. Composite cryogels removed 80% of cholesterol from homogenized milk. The maximum adsorption capacity was found as 42.7 mg/g for intestinal mimicking solution. After 20 adsorption-desorption cycles, there was no remarkable decrease in the adsorption capacity.

  18. A new model of reverse cholesterol transport: enTICEing strategies to stimulate intestinal cholesterol excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temel, Ryan E; Brown, J Mark

    2015-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the largest cause of mortality in most developed countries. Although recent failed clinical trials and Mendelian randomization studies have called into question the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) hypothesis, it remains well accepted that stimulating the process of reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) can prevent or even regress atherosclerosis. The prevailing model for RCT is that cholesterol from the artery wall must be delivered to the liver where it is secreted into bile before leaving the body through fecal excretion. However, many studies have demonstrated that RCT can proceed through a non-biliary pathway known as transintestinal cholesterol excretion (TICE). The goal of this review is to discuss the current state of knowledge of the TICE pathway, with emphasis on points of therapeutic intervention.

  19. Identification of Undiagnosed Hyperlipidemia: Do Work Site Screening Programs Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Alain K; Bali, Vishal; Yermilov, Irina; Legorreta, Antonio P

    2016-09-28

    We evaluated the rate of hyperlipidemia identified during workplace screening in previously undiagnosed individuals, the association between workplace hyperlipidemia screening and use of medical care during follow-up, and changes in lipid profile among individuals with hyperlipidemia at screening. Nonexperimental longitudinal study. Employees who participated in a workplace health screening. A total of 18 993 individuals from 39 self-insured employers in the United States. Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and triglycerides were measured during screening. A claims-based algorithm was used to identify hyperlipidemia cases. Discrete-time survival analysis was used to estimate monthly rates of new hyperlipidemia diagnoses or prescriptions. Paired t tests were used to evaluate 1-year changes in lipid profile. A total of 1872 (9.9%) individuals had hyperlipidemia at screening. Among all individuals, a significantly greater rate of new hyperlipidemia diagnoses was observed during the first month after screening, compared to the 3 months before screening (odds ratio [95% CI]: 2.99 [2.66-3.36]). Among the 987 individuals who were followed up 1 year later, significant improvements were observed in total cholesterol (-8.5% ± 13.6%) and LDL levels (-10.2% ± 19.3%). Workplace health screenings in an insured population were associated with a subsequent increase in physician visits and prescriptions for hyperlipidemia. After 1 year, significant improvements in total cholesterol and LDL levels were observed among individuals who screened positive for hyperlipidemia. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. PEG-lipid micelles enable cholesterol efflux in Niemann-Pick Type C1 disease-based lysosomal storage disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Anna; Patel, Siddharth; Ward, Carl; Lorenz, Anna; Ortiz, Mauren; Duross, Allison; Wieghardt, Fabian; Esch, Amanda; Otten, Elsje G.; Heiser, Laura M.; Korolchuk, Viktor I.; Sun, Conroy; Sarkar, Sovan; Sahay, Gaurav

    2016-08-01

    2-Hydroxy-propyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD), a cholesterol scavenger, is currently undergoing Phase 2b/3 clinical trial for treatment of Niemann Pick Type C-1 (NPC1), a fatal neurodegenerative disorder that stems from abnormal cholesterol accumulation in the endo/lysosomes. Unfortunately, the extremely high doses of HPβCD required to prevent progressive neurodegeneration exacerbates ototoxicity, pulmonary toxicity and autophagy-based cellular defects. We present unexpected evidence that a poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG)-lipid conjugate enables cholesterol clearance from endo/lysosomes of Npc1 mutant (Npc1‑/‑) cells. Herein, we show that distearyl-phosphatidylethanolamine-PEG (DSPE-PEG), which forms 12-nm micelles above the critical micelle concentration, accumulates heavily inside cholesterol-rich late endosomes in Npc1‑/‑ cells. This potentially results in cholesterol solubilization and leakage from lysosomes. High-throughput screening revealed that DSPE-PEG, in combination with HPβCD, acts synergistically to efflux cholesterol without significantly aggravating autophagy defects. These well-known excipients can be used as admixtures to treat NPC1 disorder. Increasing PEG chain lengths from 350 Da-30 kDa in DSPE-PEG micelles, or increasing DSPE-PEG content in an array of liposomes packaged with HPβCD, improved cholesterol egress, while Pluronic block copolymers capable of micelle formation showed slight effects at high concentrations. We postulate that PEG-lipid based nanocarriers can serve as bioactive drug delivery systems for effective treatment of lysosomal storage disorders.

  1. Two Years after Molecular Diagnosis of Familial Hypercholesterolemia: Majority on Cholesterol-Lowering Treatment but a Minority Reaches Treatment Goal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijgen, Roeland; Kindt, Iris; Verhoeven, Sjoerd B. J.; Sijbrands, Eric J. G.; Vissers, Maud N.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Hutten, Barbara A.

    2010-01-01

    Background The risk of premature cardiovascular disease in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) can be profoundly reduced by cholesterol-lowering therapy, and current guidelines for FH advocate ambitious low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goals. In the present study, we determined whether these goals are reflected in current clinical practice once FH has been diagnosed. Methodology/Principal Findings In 2008, we sent questionnaires to all subjects (aged 18–65 years) who were molecularly diagnosed with FH in the year 2006 through the screening program in the Netherlands. Of these 1062 subjects, 781 completed the questionnaire (46% males; mean age: 42±12 years; mean LDL-C at molecular diagnosis (baseline): 4.1±1.3 mmol/L). The number of persons that used cholesterol-lowering therapy increased from 397 (51%) at baseline to 636 (81%) after diagnosis. Mean treated LDL-C levels decreased significantly to 3.2±1.1 mmol/L two years after diagnosis. Only 22% achieved the LDL-C target level of ≤2.5 mmol/L. Conclusions/Significance The proportion of patients using cholesterol-lowering medication was significantly increased after FH diagnosis through genetic cascade screening. The attained LDL-C levels were lower than those reported in previous surveys on medication use in FH, which could reflect the effect of more stringent lipid target levels. However, only a minority of the medication users reached the LDL-C target. PMID:20169164

  2. SCREEN CUISINE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heather Baysa

    2010-01-01

    ... from the legendary restaurant; the World's First FoodTruck Drive-In Movie on Saturday, where the city's finest food-truck vendors park for the screenings; and the Brooklyn Burger W Beer Garden on Sunday, serving up hearty burgers and brews while you watch Anat Baron's Beer Wars. Tonight at 7, Water Taxi Beach, South Street Seaport.fest...

  3. Airport Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... must be limited to a safe level. An American National Standards Institute/Health Physics Society industry standard states that the maxi- mum ... that does not directly damage DNA. 2 References American National ... Physics Society. Radiation safety for personnel security screening systems ...

  4. Voluntary exercise increases cholesterol efflux but not macrophage reverse cholesterol transport in vivo in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuipers Folkert

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Physical exercise beneficially impacts on the plasma lipoprotein profile as well as on the incidence of cardiovascular events and is therefore recommended in primary and secondary prevention strategies against atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. However, the underlying mechanisms of the protective effect of exercise remain largely unknown. Therefore, the present study tested the hypothesis that voluntary exercise in mice impacts on cholesterol efflux and in vivo reverse cholesterol transport (RCT. After two weeks of voluntary wheel running (average 10.1 ± 1.4 km/day plasma triglycerides were lower (p

  5. Serum cholesterol acceptor capacity in intrauterine growth restricted fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecks, Ulrich; Rath, Werner; Bauerschlag, Dirk O; Maass, Nicolai; Orlikowsky, Thorsten; Mohaupt, Markus G; Escher, Geneviève

    2017-02-14

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases later in life. The mechanisms whereby slowed intrauterine growth confers vascular risk are not clearly established. In general, a disturbed cholesterol efflux has been linked to atherosclerosis. The capacity of serum to accept cholesterol has been repeatedly evaluated in clinical studies by the use of macrophage-based cholesterol efflux assays and, if disturbed, precedes atherosclerotic diseases years before the clinical diagnosis. We now hypothesized that circulating cholesterol acceptors in IUGR sera specifically interfere with cholesterol transport mechanisms leading to diminished cholesterol efflux. RAW264.7 cells were used to determine efflux of [3H]-cholesterol in response to [umbilical cord serum (IUGR), n=20; controls (CTRL), n=20]. Cholesterol efflux was lower in IUGR as compared to controls [controls: mean 7.7% fractional [3H]-cholesterol efflux, standard deviation (SD)=0.98; IUGR: mean 6.3%, SD=0.79; P<0.0001]. Values strongly correlated to HDL (ρ=0.655, P<0.0001) and apoE (ρ=0.510, P=0.0008), and mildly to apoA1 (ρ=0.3926, P=0.0122) concentrations. Reduced cholesterol efflux in IUGR could account for the enhanced risk of developing cardiovascular diseases later in life.

  6. ACAT1 deficiency increases cholesterol synthesis in mouse peritoneal macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Dwayne E; Su, Yan Ru; Swift, Larry L; Linton, MacRae F; Fazio, Sergio

    2006-06-01

    Acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) esterifies free cholesterol and stores cholesteryl esters in lipid droplets. Macrophage ACAT1 deficiency results in increased atherosclerotic lesion area in hyperlipidemic mice via disrupted cholesterol efflux, increased lipoprotein uptake, accumulation of intracellular vesicles, and accelerated apoptosis. The objective of this study was to determine whether lipid synthesis is affected by ACAT1. The synthesis, esterification, and efflux of new cholesterol were measured in peritoneal macrophages from ACAT1(-/-) mice. Cholesterol synthesis was increased by 134% (p=0.001) in ACAT1(-/-) macrophages compared to wildtype macrophages. Increased synthesis resulted in a proportional increase in the efflux of newly synthesized cholesterol. Although the esterification of new cholesterol was reduced by 93% (pSREBP1a mRNA was increased 6-fold in ACAT1(-/-) macrophages compared to wildtype macrophages, suggesting an up-regulation of cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis in ACAT1(-/-) macrophages. Increased cholesterol synthesis and up-regulation of SREBP in ACAT1(-/-) macrophages suggests that ACAT1 affects the regulation of lipid metabolism in macrophages. This change in cholesterol homeostasis may contribute to the atherogenic potential of ACAT1(-/-) macrophages.

  7. Control of Angiogenesis by AIBP-mediated Cholesterol Efflux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Longhou; Choi, Soo-Ho; Baek, Ji Sun; Liu, Chao; Almazan, Felicidad; Ulrich, Florian; Wiesner, Philipp; Taleb, Adam; Deer, Elena; Pattison, Jennifer; Torres-Vázquez, Jesús; Li, Andrew C.; Miller, Yury I.

    2013-01-01

    Cholesterol is a structural component of the cell, indispensable for normal cellular function, but its excess often leads to abnormal proliferation, migration, inflammatory responses and/or cell death. To prevent cholesterol overload, ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters mediate cholesterol efflux from the cells to apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) and to the ApoA-I-containing high-density lipoprotein (HDL)1-3. Maintaining efficient cholesterol efflux is essential for normal cellular function4-6. However, the role of cholesterol efflux in angiogenesis and the identity of its local regulators are poorly understood. Here we show that ApoA-I binding protein (AIBP) accelerates cholesterol efflux from endothelial cells (EC) to HDL and thereby regulates angiogenesis. AIBP/HDL-mediated cholesterol depletion reduces lipid rafts, interferes with VEGFR2 dimerization and signaling, and inhibits VEGF-induced angiogenesis in vitro and mouse aortic neovascularization ex vivo. Remarkably, Aibp regulates the membrane lipid order in embryonic zebrafish vasculature and functions as a non-cell autonomous regulator of zebrafish angiogenesis. Aibp knockdown results in dysregulated sprouting/branching angiogenesis, while forced Aibp expression inhibits angiogenesis. Dysregulated angiogenesis is phenocopied in Abca1/Abcg1-deficient embryos, and cholesterol levels are increased in Aibp-deficient and Abca1/Abcg1-deficient embryos. Our findings demonstrate that secreted AIBP positively regulates cholesterol efflux from EC and that effective cholesterol efflux is critical for proper angiogenesis. PMID:23719382

  8. Phytosterol ester constituents affect micellar cholesterol solubility in model bile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Andrew W; Hang, Jiliang; Dussault, Patrick H; Carr, Timothy P

    2010-09-01

    Plant sterols and stanols (phytosterols) and their esters are nutraceuticals that lower LDL cholesterol, but the mechanisms of action are not fully understood. We hypothesized that intact esters and simulated hydrolysis products of esters (phytosterols and fatty acids in equal ratios) would differentially affect the solubility of cholesterol in model bile mixed micelles in vitro. Sodium salts of glycine- and taurine-conjugated bile acids were sonicated with phosphatidylcholine and either sterol esters or combinations of sterols and fatty acids to determine the amount of cholesterol solubilized into micelles. Intact sterol esters did not solubilize into micelles, nor did they alter cholesterol solubility. However, free sterols and fatty acids altered cholesterol solubility independently (no interaction effect). Equal contents of cholesterol and either campesterol, stigmasterol, sitosterol, or stigmastanol (sitostanol) decreased cholesterol solubility in micelles by approximately 50% compared to no phytosterol present, with stigmasterol performing slightly better than sitosterol. Phytosterols competed with cholesterol in a dose-dependent manner, demonstrating a 1:1 M substitution of phytosterol for cholesterol in micelle preparations. Unsaturated fatty acids increased the micelle solubility of sterols as compared with saturated or no fatty acids. No differences were detected in the size of the model micelles. Together, these data indicate that stigmasterol combined with saturated fatty acids may be more effective at lowering cholesterol micelle solubility in vivo.

  9. Overactivation of Intestinal SREBP2 in Mice Increases Serum Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Vinay; Hedroug, Omar; Annaba, Fadi; Dudeja, Amish; Shen, Le; Turner, Jerrold R.; Khramtsova, Ekaterina A.; Saksena, Seema; Dudeja, Pradeep K.; Gill, Ravinder K.; Alrefai, Waddah A.

    2014-01-01

    Sterol Response Element Binding Protein 2 (SREBP2) transcription factor is a master regulator of cholesterol homeostasis. Treatment with statins, inhibitors of cholesterol synthesis, activates intestinal SREBP2, which may hinder their cholesterol-lowering effects. Overactivation of SREBP2 in mouse liver was shown to have no effect on plasma cholesterol. However, the influence of activating intestinal SREBP2 on plasma cholesterol is not known. We have generated a novel transgenic mouse model with intestine specific overexpression of active SREBP2 (ISR2) driven by villin promoter. ISR2 mice showed overexpression of active SREBP2 specifically in the intestine. Microarray analysis of jejunal RNA from ISR2 mice showed a significant increase in genes involved in fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis. Cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) in jejunum and liver (mg/g protein) were significantly increased in ISR2 vs wild type mice. Serum Cholesterol was significantly increased in VLDL and LDL fractions whereas the level of serum triglycerides was decreased in ISR2 vs wild type mice. In conclusion, activation of intestinal SREBP2 alone seems to be sufficient to increase plasma cholesterol, highlighting the essential role of intestine in maintaining cholesterol homeostasis in the body. PMID:24465397

  10. Mathematically modelling the dynamics of cholesterol metabolism and ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, A E; Mooney, K M; Wilkinson, S J; Pickles, N A; Mc Auley, M T

    2016-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the UK. This condition becomes increasingly prevalent during ageing; 34.1% and 29.8% of males and females respectively, over 75 years of age have an underlying cardiovascular problem. The dysregulation of cholesterol metabolism is inextricably correlated with cardiovascular health and for this reason low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are routinely used as biomarkers of CVD risk. The aim of this work was to use mathematical modelling to explore how cholesterol metabolism is affected by the ageing process. To do this we updated a previously published whole-body mathematical model of cholesterol metabolism to include an additional 96 mechanisms that are fundamental to this biological system. Additional mechanisms were added to cholesterol absorption, cholesterol synthesis, reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), bile acid synthesis, and their enterohepatic circulation. The sensitivity of the model was explored by the use of both local and global parameter scans. In addition, acute cholesterol feeding was used to explore the effectiveness of the regulatory mechanisms which are responsible for maintaining whole-body cholesterol balance. It was found that our model behaves as a hypo-responder to cholesterol feeding, while both the hepatic and intestinal pools of cholesterol increased significantly. The model was also used to explore the effects of ageing in tandem with three different cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) genotypes. Ageing in the presence of an atheroprotective CETP genotype, conferring low CETP activity, resulted in a 0.6% increase in LDL-C. In comparison, ageing with a genotype reflective of high CETP activity, resulted in a 1.6% increase in LDL-C. Thus, the model has illustrated the importance of CETP genotypes such as I405V, and their potential role in healthy ageing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All

  11. Breast cancer screening: ''reassuring'' the worried well?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, John; Siersma, Volkert; Ryle, Mette

    2011-01-01

    of women offered screening compared to a population of women not offered screening for breast cancer. METHODS: One thousand women, aged 50-69 years, were randomly drawn from the Danish Civil Registration System to receive part I of the questionnaire Consequences of Screening in Breast Cancer (COS-BC1......): the sample consisted of 500 women living in a geographical area where screening mammography had been offered for more than 10 years and 500 women living in an area where the public health authorities had never invited women to breast cancer screening. RESULTS: A total of 759 women returned the questionnaire....... Those living in areas where screening was not offered reported more negative psychosocial aspects compared to women living in areas where screening was offered. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that women tend to perceive breast cancer screening as a reassuring preventive initiative. Alternatively...

  12. Cholesterol Metabolism and Prostate Cancer Lethality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopsack, Konrad H; Gerke, Travis A; Sinnott, Jennifer A; Penney, Kathryn L; Tyekucheva, Svitlana; Sesso, Howard D; Andersson, Swen-Olof; Andrén, Ove; Cerhan, James R; Giovannucci, Edward L; Mucci, Lorelei A; Rider, Jennifer R

    2016-08-15

    Cholesterol metabolism has been implicated in prostate cancer pathogenesis. Here, we assessed the association of intratumoral mRNA expression of cholesterol synthesis enzymes, transporters, and regulators in tumor specimen at diagnosis and lethal prostate cancer, defined as mortality or metastases from prostate cancer in contrast to nonlethal disease without evidence of metastases after at least 8 years of follow-up. We analyzed the prospective prostate cancer cohorts within the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (n = 249) and the Physicians' Health Study (n = 153) as well as expectantly managed patients in the Swedish Watchful Waiting Study (n = 338). The expression of squalene monooxygenase (SQLE) was associated with lethal cancer in all three cohorts. Men with high SQLE expression (>1 standard deviation above the mean) were 8.3 times (95% confidence interval, 3.5 to 19.7) more likely to have lethal cancer despite therapy compared with men with the mean level of SQLE expression. Absolute SQLE expression was associated with lethal cancer independently from Gleason grade and stage, as was a SQLE expression ratio in tumor versus surrounding benign prostate tissue. Higher SQLE expression was tightly associated with increased histologic markers of angiogenesis. Collectively, this study establishes the prognostic value of intratumoral cholesterol synthesis as measured via SQLE, its second rate-limiting enzyme. SQLE expression at cancer diagnosis is prognostic for lethal prostate cancer both after curative-intent prostatectomy and in a watchful waiting setting, possibly by facilitating micrometastatic disease. Cancer Res; 76(16); 4785-90. ©2016 AACR.

  13. Synthesis and QSAR Study of Some HDL Cholesterol Increasing Quinazolinone Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Deshmukh

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe here an easy and efficient method to obtain S-alkylated derivatives of thio-quinazolinone using different alkylating agents via a solvent-free microwave-assisted method. The alkylated thio quinazolinones were further sequentially condensed with hydrazine hydrate and different aromatic aldehydes to get the hydrazones, which were studied for QSAR. The synthesized compounds were subjected to a prediction of biological activities. A software application (PASS was used for this purpose. The relationship between structure and different biological activities was studied and the different derivatives were recommended for the screening of some specific activities like anti-tuberculosic, anti-mycobacterial and HDL cholesterol increasing activities.

  14. Genetic variation in ABC transporter A1 contributes to HDL cholesterol in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Jensen, Gorm B

    2004-01-01

    Homozygosity for mutations in ABC transporter A1 (ABCA1) causes Tangier disease, a rare HDL-deficiency syndrome. Whether heterozygosity for genetic variation in ABCA1 also contributes to HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in the general population is presently unclear. We determined whether mutations...... or single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ABCA1 were overrepresented in individuals with the lowest 1% (n=95) or highest 1% (n=95) HDL-C levels in the general population by screening the core promoter and coding region of ABCA1. For all nonsynonymous SNPs identified, we determined the effect of genotype...

  15. Brain cholesterol in normal and pathological aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Mauricio; Dotti, Carlos G; Ledesma, Maria Dolores

    2010-08-01

    Correct lipid homeostasis at the plasma membrane is essential for cell survival and performance. These are critically challenged in the aging brain. Changes in the levels of cholesterol, a major membrane component especially enriched in neurons, accompany the brain aging process. They also occur in neurodegenerative diseases. Understanding the causes and consequences of these changes is a crucial step when trying to delay the cognitive decline, which comes with age, or to design strategies to fight neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. We here review work that has contributed to this understanding. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Exploring Urban Screens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatan Krajina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a tautological tendency in the widespread claims that urban space is 'me-diated'. Never before has the citizen, it is argued, been confronted with such an unprecedented array of signage. I depart from the rhetoric of 'biggest-ever-saturation' as not necessarily untrue, but as insufficient in exploring the diverse spatial operations of urban screens. I examine some contemporary cases of ani-mated architectural surfaces, informational panels, and advertising billboards, with reference to much longer standing cultural practices of spatial management in modern cities, such as illumination, to suggest that the contemporary display media do not mediate the city anew but re-invent urban space as a field of ubiqui-tous mediation. From that standpoint I suggest exploring urban screens as a both singular visual agents and indivisible items in plural structural assemblages, b complementary forces of public illumination, and c complex perceptual platforms in visual play of scale and distance.

  17. Potassium-doped carbon nanotubes toward the direct electrochemistry of cholesterol oxidase and its application in highly sensitive cholesterol biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xiaorong [State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Xu Jingjuan, E-mail: xujj@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Chen Hongyuan [State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2011-10-30

    We demonstrate herein a newly developed serum total cholesterol biosensor by using the direct electron transfer of cholesterol oxidase (ChOx), which is based on the immobilization of cholesterol oxidase and cholesterol esterase (ChEt) on potassium-doped multi-walled carbon nanotubes (KMWNTs) modified electrodes. The KMWNTs accelerate the electron transfer from electrode surface to the immobilized ChOx, achieving the direct electrochemistry of ChOx and maintaining its bioactivity. As a new platform in cholesterol analysis, the resulting electrode (ChOx/KMWNTs/GCE) exhibits a sensitive response to free cholesterol, with a linear range of 0.050-16.0 {mu}mol L{sup -1} and a detection limit of 5.0 nmol L{sup -1} (S/N = 3). Coimmobilization of ChEt and ChOx (ChEt/ChOx/KMWNTs/GCE) allows the determination of both free cholesterol and esterified cholesterol. The resulting biosensor shows the same linear range of 0.050-16.0 {mu}mol L{sup -1} for free cholesterol and cholesteryl oleate, with the detection limit of 10.0 and 12.0 nmol L{sup -1} (S/N = 3), respectively. The concentrations of total (free and esterified) cholesterol in human serum samples, determined by using the techniques developed in the present study, are in good agreement with those determined by the well-established techniques using the spectrophotometry.

  18. Improvements in cholesterol-related knowledge and behavior and plasma cholesterol levels in youths during the 1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, E; Winkleby, M; Fortmann, S P; Rockhill, B; Farquhar, J W

    1993-01-01

    This article examines cholesterol-related knowledge, cholesterol-related behaviors, and plasma cholesterol levels in 12-24-year-olds, using data collected from four community-based cross-sectional surveys conducted 1979-1980, 1981-1982, 1985-1986, and 1989-1990. Participants included 1,552 individuals from randomly sampled households in two control cities (San Luis Obispo and Modesto, California) of the Stanford Five-City Project. Over the eleven-year study period, cholesterol-related knowledge improved in both control cities (P population than Modesto). In general, knowledge and behavior scores and plasma cholesterol levels were lower in these 12-24-year-olds than in 25-74-year-olds, although trends at all ages were similar over time and by demographic variables. Although the cholesterol-related interventions that began in the mid-1980s primarily targeted adults, these 12-24-year-olds' cholesterol-related knowledge improved (as did, to a lesser extent, their cholesterol-related behavior and plasma cholesterol levels). These findings have implications for upcoming youth-related cholesterol interventions.

  19. Influence of infant and juvenile diets on serum cholesterol, lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoprotein concentrations in juvenile baboons (Papio sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, G E; McMahan, C A; Kelley, J L; Farley, C M; McGill, H C

    1982-11-01

    The long-term effects of infant diet (breast milk or formula containing 2, 30, or 60 mg/dl cholesterol) and subsequent dietary cholesterol (1 mg/kcal) and fat (saturated or unsaturated) on serum lipid and apolipoprotein concentrations were estimated using 82 juvenile baboons 4-6 years of age. A significant interaction of infant diet (breast vs formula) with type of fat (saturated vs unsaturated) at 4-6 years of age was observed on HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) concentrations. That is, animals breast-fed as infants had higher HDL cholesterol and apoA-I concentrations when fed unsaturated fat from weaning to 4-6 years of age than those fed saturated fat (77 vs 68 mg/dl). In contrast, animals fed formulas in infancy followed by a diet containing unsaturated fat had lower HDL cholesterol and apoA-I concentrations at 4-6 years of age than did those fed saturated fat (67 vs 78 mg/dl). However, breast feeding or feeding formulas containing various levels of cholesterol for 3 months during infancy did not result in statistically significant differences in total serum cholesterol, VLDL + LDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B (apoB) concentrations. Dietary cholesterol after infancy significantly increased serum total cholesterol, VLDL + LDL and HDL cholesterol, apoA-I and apoB concentrations. All of these response variables also were higher in animals fed saturated fat compared to those fed unsaturated fat on the same level of cholesterol. At 4-6 years of age, regardless of diet, females had significantly higher serum VLDL + LDL cholesterol (57 vs 43 mg/dl) and apoB concentrations (39 vs 30 mg/dl) than did males.

  20. Transintestinal and Biliary Cholesterol Secretion Both Contribute to Macrophage Reverse Cholesterol Transport in Rats-Brief Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Jan Freark; Schonewille, Marleen; Dikkers, Arne; Koehorst, Martijn; Havinga, Rick; Kuipers, Folkert; Tietge, Uwe J F; Groen, Albert K

    2017-04-01

    Reverse cholesterol transport comprises efflux of cholesterol from macrophages and its subsequent removal from the body with the feces and thereby protects against formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Because of lack of suitable animal models that allow for evaluation of the respective contributions of biliary cholesterol secretion and transintestinal cholesterol excretion (TICE) to macrophage reverse cholesterol transport under physiological conditions, the relative importance of both pathways in this process has remained controversial. To separate cholesterol traffic via the biliary route from TICE, bile flow was mutually diverted between rats, continuously, for 3 days. Groups of 2 weight-matched rats were designated as a pair, and both rats were equipped with cannulas in the bile duct and duodenum. Bile from rat 1 was diverted to the duodenum of rat 2, whereas bile from rat 2 was rerouted to the duodenum of rat 1. Next, rat 1 was injected with [(3)H]cholesterol-loaded macrophages. [(3)H]Cholesterol secreted via the biliary route was consequently diverted to rat 2 and could thus be quantified from the feces of that rat. On the other hand, [(3)H]cholesterol tracer in the feces of rat 1 reflected macrophage-derived cholesterol excreted via TICE. Using this setup, we found that 63% of the label secreted with the fecal neutral sterols had travelled via the biliary route, whereas 37% was excreted via TICE. TICE and biliary cholesterol secretion contribute to macrophage reverse cholesterol transport in rats. The majority of macrophage-derived cholesterol is however excreted via the hepatobiliary route. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Low dietary cholesterol availability during lactation programs intestinal absorption of cholesterol in adult mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimova, Lidiya G; de Boer, Jan Freark; Plantinga, Josee; Plösch, Torsten; Hoekstra, Menno; Verkade, Henkjan J; Tietge, Uwe J F

    In nematodes, the intestine senses and integrates early-life dietary cues that lead to lifelong epigenetic adaptations to a perceived nutritional environment-it is not clear whether this process occurs in mammals. We aimed to establish a mouse model of reduced dietary cholesterol availability from

  2. Apoprotein E genotype and the response of serum cholesterol to dietary fat, cholesterol and cafestol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weggemans, R.M.; Zock, P.L.; Ordovas, J.M.; Pedro-Botet, J.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies on the effect of apoprotein E (APOE) polymorphism on the response of serum lipids to diet showed inconsistent results. We therefore studied the effect of apoprotein E polymorphism on responses of serum cholesterol and lipoproteins to various dietary treatments. We combined data on r

  3. Apoprotein E genotype and the response of serum cholesterol to dietary fat, cholesterol and cafestol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weggemans, R.M.; Zock, P.L.; Ordovas, J.M.; Pedro-Botet, J.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies on the effect of apoprotein E (APOE) polymorphism on the response of serum lipids to diet showed inconsistent results. We therefore studied the effect of apoprotein E polymorphism on responses of serum cholesterol and lipoproteins to various dietary treatments. We combined data on

  4. Pairing of cholesterol with oxidized phospholipid species in lipid bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khandelia, Himanshu; Loubet, Bastien; Olzynska, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    We claim that (1) cholesterol protects bilayers from disruption caused by lipid oxidation by sequestering conical shaped oxidized lipid species such as 1-palmitoyl-2-azelaoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PZPC) away from phospholipid, because cholesterol and the oxidized lipid have complementary...... shapes and (2) mixtures of cholesterol and oxidized lipids can self-assemble into bilayers much like lysolipid–cholesterol mixtures. The evidence for bilayer protection comes from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. Unimodal size distributions of extruded...... vesicles (LUVETs) made up of a mixture of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) and PZPC containing high amounts of PZPC are only obtained when cholesterol is present in high concentrations. In simulations, bilayers containing high amounts of PZPC become porous, unless cholesterol is also present...

  5. Membrane cholesterol access into a G-protein-coupled receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guixà-González, Ramon; Albasanz, José L.; Rodriguez-Espigares, Ismael; Pastor, Manuel; Sanz, Ferran; Martí-Solano, Maria; Manna, Moutusi; Martinez-Seara, Hector; Hildebrand, Peter W.; Martín, Mairena; Selent, Jana

    2017-02-01

    Cholesterol is a key component of cell membranes with a proven modulatory role on the function and ligand-binding properties of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Crystal structures of prototypical GPCRs such as the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) have confirmed that cholesterol finds stable binding sites at the receptor surface suggesting an allosteric role of this lipid. Here we combine experimental and computational approaches to show that cholesterol can spontaneously enter the A2AR-binding pocket from the membrane milieu using the same portal gate previously suggested for opsin ligands. We confirm the presence of cholesterol inside the receptor by chemical modification of the A2AR interior in a biotinylation assay. Overall, we show that cholesterol's impact on A2AR-binding affinity goes beyond pure allosteric modulation and unveils a new interaction mode between cholesterol and the A2AR that could potentially apply to other GPCRs.

  6. Cholesterol monohydrate nucleation in ultrathin films on water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapaport, H.; Kuzmenko, I.; Lafont, S.

    2001-01-01

    The growth of a cholesterol crystalline phase, three molecular layers thick at the air-water interface, was monitored by grazing incidence x-ray diffraction and x-ray reflectivity. Upon compression, a cholesterol film transforms from a monolayer of trigonal symmetry and low crystallinity...... to a trilayer, composed of a highly crystalline bilayer in a rectangular lattice and a disordered top cholesterol layer. This system undergoes a phase transition into a crystalline trilayer incorporating ordered water between the hydroxyl groups of the top and middle sterol layers in an arrangement akin...... to the triclinic 3-D crystal structure of cholesterol . H(2)O. By comparison, the cholesterol derivative stigmasterol transforms, upon compression, directly into a crystalline trilayer in the rectangular lattice. These results may contribute to an understanding of the onset of cholesterol crystallization...

  7. Membrane cholesterol access into a G-protein-coupled receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guixà-González, Ramon; Albasanz, José L.; Rodriguez-Espigares, Ismael; Pastor, Manuel; Sanz, Ferran; Martí-Solano, Maria; Manna, Moutusi; Martinez-Seara, Hector; Hildebrand, Peter W.; Martín, Mairena; Selent, Jana

    2017-01-01

    Cholesterol is a key component of cell membranes with a proven modulatory role on the function and ligand-binding properties of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Crystal structures of prototypical GPCRs such as the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) have confirmed that cholesterol finds stable binding sites at the receptor surface suggesting an allosteric role of this lipid. Here we combine experimental and computational approaches to show that cholesterol can spontaneously enter the A2AR-binding pocket from the membrane milieu using the same portal gate previously suggested for opsin ligands. We confirm the presence of cholesterol inside the receptor by chemical modification of the A2AR interior in a biotinylation assay. Overall, we show that cholesterol's impact on A2AR-binding affinity goes beyond pure allosteric modulation and unveils a new interaction mode between cholesterol and the A2AR that could potentially apply to other GPCRs. PMID:28220900

  8. Preparation of intravenous cholesterol tracer using current good manufacturing practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaobo; Ma, Lina; Racette, Susan B; Swaney, William P; Ostlund, Richard E

    2015-12-01

    Studies of human reverse cholesterol transport require intravenous infusion of cholesterol tracers. Because insoluble lipids may pose risk and because it is desirable to have consistent doses of defined composition available over many months, we investigated the manufacture of cholesterol tracer under current good manufacturing practice (CGMP) conditions appropriate for phase 1 investigation. Cholesterol tracer was prepared by sterile admixture of unlabeled cholesterol or cholesterol-d7 in ethanol with 20% Intralipid(®). The resulting material was filtered through a 1.2 micron particulate filter, stored at 4°C, and tested at time 0, 1.5, 3, 6, and 9 months for sterility, pyrogenicity, autoxidation, and particle size and aggregation. The limiting factor for stability was a rise in thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances of 9.6-fold over 9 months (P postproduction. CGMP manufacturing methods can be achieved in the academic setting and need to be considered for critical components of future metabolic studies.

  9. Specific Ion Effects in Cholesterol Monolayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Del Castillo-Santaella

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of ions with interfaces and, in particular, the high specificity of these interactions to the particular ions considered, are central questions in the field of surface forces. Here we study the effect of different salts (NaI, NaCl, CaCl2 and MgCl2 on monolayers made of cholesterol molecules, both experimentally (surface area vs. lateral pressure isotherms measured by a Langmuir Film Balance and theoretically (molecular dynamics (MD all-atomic simulations. We found that surface isotherms depend, both quantitatively and qualitatively, on the nature of the ions by altering the shape and features of the isotherm. In line with the experiments, MD simulations show clear evidences of specific ionic effects and also provide molecular level details on ion specific interactions with cholesterol. More importantly, MD simulations show that the interaction of a particular ion with the surface depends strongly on its counterion, a feature ignored so far in most theories of specific ionic effects in surface forces.

  10. Physical laws of cholesterol gallstone fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubrand, M; Greinwald, I; Lobentanzer, H; Paumgartner, G; Hermeking, H; Sauerbruch, T

    1997-03-01

    Efficient fragmentation is the most important prerequisite for successful treatment of gallstones by extracorporeally induced shock waves. No data are available on the amount of energy necessary for stone disintegration and on the threshold energy below which no further fragmentation occurs. We therefore performed an in vitro investigation on human cholesterol gallstones to elucidate physical laws governing shock-wave lithotripsy. First, the focal pressure of the lithotripter was measured to calculate the energy traversing a stone. Second, 96 gallstones from 16 gall bladders were analysed with respect to physicochemical composition, radiological features and ultrasound before fragmentation was performed. Energy for stone disintegration was constant within each stone family but varied between 4.6 mL-1 and 36.8J mL-1 in different families. This energy correlated linearly with stone volume. None of the radiological and physicochemical factors revealed a clear-cut correlation of the different energies necessary for similar stone disintegration. The threshold energy differed between 0.26 mJ and 1.04 mJ per pulse. In conclusion, stone volume was the best parameter predicting stone fragmentation. However, in cholesterol stones with a similar composition the required energy per volume varies considerably together with the threshold energy. Radiological and ultrasound parameters appear to be of minor importance in explaining these differences.

  11. Crystallogeny fundamentals of the cholesterol gallstone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Jie; Zhou Jianli; He Lijun; Qu Xingang; Gu Lin; Yang Haimin

    2007-01-01

    The nucleation mechanism and crystal growth process of the cholesterol gallstone are studied and a systematic theory expounded by crystallogeny is proposed. Normal feed and stone-forming feed were used to raise guinea pigs in the control and stone-causing groups respectively. The state and transformation of liquid crystal vesicles, the appearance of crystal nuclei, and the formation of microcrystal grains were observed under a polarizing microscope during the experimental period. It was found that the liquid crystal vesicles in the bile of the control group were small, scattered, and always existed as single forms, and no shaped gallstone crystals were formed.While in the stone-causing group, liquid crystal vesicles grew to larger ones, and then aggregated to form large liquid crystal cells. Solid crystal growth along the edge of these liquid crystal cells formed microcrystal grains. These demonstrated that bile liquid crystal vesicles form the basic nuclei of cholesterol gallstone. Heterogeneous nucleation is the common process in the formation of crystal nuclei and crystal growth.

  12. [Prostate cancer dependance upon cholesterol, statins and diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilch, Paweł; Radziszewski, Piotr; Maciukiewicz, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the work is to analyze the influence of higher cholesterol and LDL level on risk of prostate cancer. The work is based on the available literature in that field. The metabolism of cholesterol is mainly regulated by the statins, which may thus inhibit prostate cancer growth. Keeping the appropriate body mass and level of cholesterol by proper diet and physical exercises may be the prophylaxis of prostate cancer.

  13. Sesamin Enhances Cholesterol Efflux in RAW264.7 Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Nan Liu; Chongming Wu; Lizhong Sun; Jun Zheng; Peng Guo

    2014-01-01

    Foam cells formation as a result of the uncontrolled cytophagy of modified cholesterol by macrophages plays a key role in the occurrence and development of atherosclerosis. Sesamin is an active constituent of Sesamum indicum which has been shown to possess multiple pharmacological activities. In this work, we investigated the effects of sesamin on foam cell formation and cholesterol efflux in RAW264.7 macrophages. Sesamin dose-dependently inhibited the enhanced cholesterol accumulation elicit...

  14. Interaction of G protein coupled receptors and cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimpl, Gerald

    2016-09-01

    G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) form the largest receptor superfamily in eukaryotic cells. Owing to their seven transmembrane helices, large parts of these proteins are embedded in the cholesterol-rich plasma membrane bilayer. Thus, GPCRs are always in proximity to cholesterol. Some of them are functionally dependent on the specific presence of cholesterol. Over the last years, enormous progress on receptor structures has been achieved. While lipophilic ligands other than cholesterol have been shown to bind either inside the helix bundle or at the receptor-lipid interface, the binding site of cholesterol was either a single transmembrane helix or a groove between two or more transmembrane helices. A clear preference for one of the two membrane leaflets has not been observed. Not surprisingly, many hydrophobic residues (primarily leucine and isoleucine) were found to be involved in cholesterol binding. In most cases, the rough β-face of cholesterol contacted the transmembrane helix bundle rather than the surrounding lipid matrix. The polar hydroxy group of cholesterol was localized near the water-membrane interface with potential hydrogen bonding to residues in receptor loop regions. Although a canonical motif, designated as CCM site, was detected as a specific cholesterol binding site in case of the β2AR, this site was not found to be occupied by cholesterol in other GPCRs possessing the same motif. Cholesterol-receptor interactions can increase the compactness of the receptor structure and are able to enhance the conformational stability towards active or inactive receptor states. Overall, all current data suggest a high plasticity of cholesterol interaction sites in GPCRs.

  15. [Plant sterols, cholesterol precursors and oxysterols: small amounts, big effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkkonen, Vesa M; Gylling, Helena; Ikonen, Elina

    2015-01-01

    Noncholesterol sterols are present in the body in very low concentrations compared with cholesterol. Minor structural changes in sterols give them completely individual biological activities. Steroid hormones are the best known example of this. The knowledge of other relatives of cholesterol, particularly plant sterols, cholesterol precursors and oxysterols, their properties, physiological effects, significance in disease processes and diagnostic applications has recently undergone a rapid increase.

  16. Cholesterol granuloma of the paratesticular tissue: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Dursun; Kilic, Metin; Oner, Sedat; Erkinuresin, Taskın; Demirbas, Murat; Coban, Soner; Aydos, Mustafa Murat

    2015-01-01

    A 38-year-old man was admitted to our clinic with an enlarging right scrotal mass that had been present for 7 years. Right radical inguinal orchiectomy was performed and a histopathological diagnosis confirmed a very rare case of cholesterol granuloma of the paratesticular tissue. It can be very difficult to preoperatively distinguish testicular tumours from cholesterol granulomas of the testis or epididymis. Cholesterol granuloma should be kept in mind in patients with large and non-tender scrotal masses. PMID:26225185

  17. Studies on PCSK9 in the regulation of cholesterol metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, Lena

    2011-01-01

    Elevated levels of plasma cholesterol, mainly in low density lipoproteins (LDL), are a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. The level of plasma LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) is largely dependent on the number of hepatic LDL receptors (LDLRs). Increased number of LDLRs leads to higher uptake of LDL particles and lower concentration of plasma LDL-C. Proprotein convertase subtilisin Kexin Type 9 (PCSK9) is a novel key regulator in cholesterol metabolism. PCSK9 reduces the numbe...

  18. Responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, Lidewij; Borry, Pascal; Chokoshvili, Davit; Cornel, Martina C; van El, Carla G; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Howard, Heidi C; Janssens, Sandra; Kayserili, Hülya; Lakeman, Phillis; Lucassen, Anneke; Metcalfe, Sylvia A; Vidmar, Lovro; de Wert, Guido; Dondorp, Wybo J; Peterlin, Borut

    2016-06-01

    This document of the European Society of Human Genetics contains recommendations regarding responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening. Carrier screening is defined here as the detection of carrier status of recessive diseases in couples or persons who do not have an a priori increased risk of being a carrier based on their or their partners' personal or family history. Expanded carrier screening offers carrier screening for multiple autosomal and X-linked recessive disorders, facilitated by new genetic testing technologies, and allows testing of individuals regardless of ancestry or geographic origin. Carrier screening aims to identify couples who have an increased risk of having an affected child in order to facilitate informed reproductive decision making. In previous decades, carrier screening was typically performed for one or few relatively common recessive disorders associated with significant morbidity, reduced life-expectancy and often because of a considerable higher carrier frequency in a specific population for certain diseases. New genetic testing technologies enable the expansion of screening to multiple conditions, genes or sequence variants. Expanded carrier screening panels that have been introduced to date have been advertised and offered to health care professionals and the public on a commercial basis. This document discusses the challenges that expanded carrier screening might pose in the context of the lessons learnt from decades of population-based carrier screening and in the context of existing screening criteria. It aims to contribute to the public and professional discussion and to arrive at better clinical and laboratory practice guidelines.

  19. Responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, Lidewij; Borry, Pascal; Chokoshvili, Davit; Cornel, Martina C; van El, Carla G; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Howard, Heidi C; Janssens, Sandra; Kayserili, Hülya; Lakeman, Phillis; Lucassen, Anneke; Metcalfe, Sylvia A; Vidmar, Lovro; de Wert, Guido; Dondorp, Wybo J; Peterlin, Borut

    2016-01-01

    This document of the European Society of Human Genetics contains recommendations regarding responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening. Carrier screening is defined here as the detection of carrier status of recessive diseases in couples or persons who do not have an a priori increased risk of being a carrier based on their or their partners' personal or family history. Expanded carrier screening offers carrier screening for multiple autosomal and X-linked recessive disorders, facilitated by new genetic testing technologies, and allows testing of individuals regardless of ancestry or geographic origin. Carrier screening aims to identify couples who have an increased risk of having an affected child in order to facilitate informed reproductive decision making. In previous decades, carrier screening was typically performed for one or few relatively common recessive disorders associated with significant morbidity, reduced life-expectancy and often because of a considerable higher carrier frequency in a specific population for certain diseases. New genetic testing technologies enable the expansion of screening to multiple conditions, genes or sequence variants. Expanded carrier screening panels that have been introduced to date have been advertised and offered to health care professionals and the public on a commercial basis. This document discusses the challenges that expanded carrier screening might pose in the context of the lessons learnt from decades of population-based carrier screening and in the context of existing screening criteria. It aims to contribute to the public and professional discussion and to arrive at better clinical and laboratory practice guidelines. PMID:26980105

  20. Public Education, Public Good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, John

    1986-01-01

    Criticizes policies which would damage or destroy a public education system. Examines the relationship between government-provided education and democracy. Concludes that privatization of public education would emphasize self-interest and selfishness, further jeopardizing the altruism and civic mindedness necessary for the public good. (JDH)

  1. Development of alimentary cholesterol in the plasma and the plasmatic lipoproteins in man, after ingestion of a meal containing octa-deuterated cholesterol; Devenir du cholesterol alimentaire dans le plasma et les lipoproteines plasmatiques chez l`homme, apres ingestion d`un repas contenant du cholesterol octa-deutere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becue, T.; Ferezou, J.; Simon, G. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France); Bernard, P.M.; Portugal, H. [Hopital Sainte-Marguerite, 13 - Marseille (France); Dubois, C.; Lairon, D.

    1994-12-31

    Cholesterol absorbed after a test-meal has two origins with man: the biliary cholesterol and the alimentary cholesterol. In order to understand the mechanism of the modification of cholesterol intestinal absorption by oat bran, the alimentary cholesterol has been labelled with octa-deuterated cholesterol, in test-diets. The kinetics of D-cholesterol in plasma and chylomicrons is described. 1 fig., 6 refs.

  2. Targets for Current Pharmacological Therapy in Cholesterol Gallstone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Ciaula, Agostino; Wang, David Q.-H.; Wang, Helen H.; Bonfrate, Leonilde; Portincasa, Piero

    2010-01-01

    Summary Gallstone disease is a frequent condition throughout the world and cholesterol stones are the most frequent form in western countries. Current standard treatment of symptomatic gallstone subjects remains laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The selection of patients amenable for non-surgical, medical therapy is of key importance: a careful analysis should consider the natural history of the disease and the overall costs of therapy. Only patients with mild symptoms and small, uncalcified cholesterol gallstones in a functioning gallbladder with a patent cystic duct will be considered for oral litholysis by the hydrophilic ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) hopefully leading to cholesterol desaturation of bile and progressive stone dissolution. Recent studies have raised the possibility that cholesterol-lowering agents which inhibit hepatic cholesterol synthesis (statins) or intestinal cholesterol absorption (ezetimibe), or drugs acting on specific nuclear receptors involved in cholesterol and bile acid homeostasis may offer, alone or in combination, additional medical therapeutic tools for treating cholesterol gallstones. Recent perspectives on medical treatment of cholesterol gallstone disease will be discussed in this chapter. PMID:20478485

  3. Cholesterol granuloma of the petrous apex: CT diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, W.W.M.; Solti-Bohman, L.G.; Brackmann, D.E.; Gruskin, P.

    1984-12-01

    Cholesterol granuloma of the petrous apex is a readily recognizable and treatable entity that is more common than previously realized. Cholesterol granuloma grows slowly in the petrous apex as a mass lesion until it produces hearing loss, tinnitus, vertigo, and facial twitching. Twelve cases of cholesterol granuloma of the petrous apex are illustrated; ten of these analyzed in detail, especially with respect to CT findings. A sharply and smoothly marginated expansile lesion in the petrous apex, isodense with plain and nonenhancing on CT, is in all probability a cholesterol granuloma. Preoperative recognition by CT is important for planning proper treatment.

  4. Transfer of cholesterol from macrophages to lymphocytes in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bittencourt Júnior, P I; Curi, R

    1998-02-01

    A major feature of macrophage metabolism is its capacity to produce and export cholesterol. Several reports have shown that the manipulation of lymphocyte cholesterol content elicits important changes in lymphocyte proliferation. These findings lead to an inquiry as to whether macrophage-derived cholesterol released into the lymphocyte surroundings may be transferred to the latter thus affecting lymphocyte function. In this study, cholesterol transfer from macrophages to lymphocytes was examined in vitro using rat cells in culture. The findings indicate that there may be a significant transfer of cholesterol from [4-14C]cholesterol labeled resident peritoneal macrophages to mesenteric lymph node resting lymphocytes (up to 173.9 +/- 2.7 pmol/10(7) lymphocytes/10(7) macrophages when co-cultivated for 48 h), in a lipoprotein-dependent manner. This represents the mass transfer of ca. 17 nmoles of cholesterol molecules per 10(7) lymphocytes from 10(7) macrophages (calculated on the basis of specific radioactivity incorporated into macrophages after the pre-labelling period), which suggests that macrophages are capable of replacing the whole lymphocyte cholesterol pool every 21 h. Moreover, an 111%-increase in the total cholesterol content of lymphocytes was found after co-cultivation with macrophages for 48 h. When compared to peritoneal cells, monocytes/macrophages obtained from circulating blood leukocytes presented a much higher cholesterol transfer capacity to lymphocytes (3.06 +/- 0.10 nmol/10(7) lymphocytes/10(7) macrophages co-cultivated for 24 h). Interestingly, inflammatory macrophages dramatically reduced their cholesterol transfer ability (by up to 91%, as compared to resident macrophages). Cholesterol transfer may involve a humoral influence, since it is not only observed when cells are co-cultivated in a single-well chamber system (cells in direct contact), but also in a two-compartment system (where cells can communicate but not by direct contact). Co

  5. Determination of cholesterol in human biliary calculus by TLC scanning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Kang Yang; Kai Xiong Qiu; Yu Zhu Zhan; Er Yi Zhan; Hai Ming Yang; Ping Zheng

    2000-01-01

    AIM To study the physico-chemical properties of biliary calculus and the relationship between the calculusformation and the phase change of liquid crystal, providing the best evidence for the biliary calculusprevention and treatment.METHODS The cholesterol contents in thirty one cases of biliary calculus in Kunming were determined bydouble-wave-length TLC scanning with high efficiency silica gel films.RESULTS Under magnifiers, the granular biliary calculus from 31 patients were classified according totheir section structures and colours, as cholesterol cholelith, 25 cases; bilirubin cholelith, 4 cases andcompound cholelith, 2 cases. By TLC scanning, it was found that the content of cholesterol in human biliarycalculus was 71%- 100%, about 80% cholesterol bilestones whose cholesterol content was more than 90%being pure cholesterol bilestones.CONCLUSION Cholesterol bilestone is the main human biliary calculus in Kunming, which was inaccordance with X-ray analysis. Compared with the related reports, it is proved that the proportion ofcholesterol bilestones to biliary calculus is increasing because of the improved life standard and the decreaseof bilirubin bilestones resulted from bile duct ascariasis or bacteria infection in China since 90s, and that theincrease of cholesterol in-take leads to the increase of cholesterol metabolism disorder

  6. Retracted: Advances in the physiological and pathological implications of cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Victor A; Busso, Dolores; Mardones, Pablo; Maiz, Alberto; Arteaga, Antonio; Nervi, Flavio; Rigotti, Attilio

    2013-11-01

    Cholesterol has evolved to fulfill sophisticated biophysical, cell signalling, and endocrine functions in animal systems. At the cellular level, cholesterol is found in membranes where it increases both bilayer stiffness and impermeability to water and ions. Furthermore, cholesterol is integrated into specialized lipid-protein membrane microdomains with critical topographical and signalling functions. At the organismal level, cholesterol is the precursor of all steroid hormones, including gluco- and mineralo-corticoids, sex hormones, and vitamin D, which regulate carbohydrate, sodium, reproductive, and bone homeostasis, respectively. This sterol is also the immediate precursor of bile acids, which are important for intestinal absorption of dietary lipids as well as energy homeostasis and glucose regulation. Complex mechanisms maintain cholesterol within physiological ranges and the dysregulation of these mechanisms results in embryonic or adult diseases, caused by either excessive or reduced tissue cholesterol levels. The causative role of cholesterol in these conditions has been demonstrated by genetic and pharmacological manipulations in animal models of human disease that are discussed herein. Importantly, the understanding of basic aspects of cholesterol biology has led to the development of high-impact pharmaceutical therapies during the past century. The continuing effort to offer successful treatments for prevalent cholesterol-related diseases, such as atherosclerosis and neurodegenerative disorders, warrants further interdisciplinary research in the coming decades. © 2013 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2013 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  7. Quantity of cholesterol in butter from Zagreb market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željka Cvrtila

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the quantity of cholesterol in butter - a representative of dairy products with known high quantity of milk fat, is determined. The results show that the quantity of milk fats for the butter samples from domestic production (n=17 was 83.9 %, and from the industrial production (n=5 85.2 %. Average cholesterol quantities, in before mentioned samples, were 227 mg/100g or 22 mg of cholesterol per 100 g of sample. The results show that the increase of milk fats does not strictly influence cholesterol increase in the individual butter sample.

  8. Cholesterol Assimilation by Lactobacillus Probiotic Bacteria: An In Vitro Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Tomaro-Duchesneau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excess cholesterol is associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD, an important cause of mortality worldwide. Current CVD therapeutic measures, lifestyle and dietary interventions, and pharmaceutical agents for regulating cholesterol levels are inadequate. Probiotic bacteria have demonstrated potential to lower cholesterol levels by different mechanisms, including bile salt hydrolase activity, production of compounds that inhibit enzymes such as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A, and cholesterol assimilation. This work investigates 11 Lactobacillus strains for cholesterol assimilation. Probiotic strains for investigation were selected from the literature: Lactobacillus reuteri NCIMB 11951, L. reuteri NCIMB 701359, L. reuteri NCIMB 702655, L. reuteri NCIMB 701089, L. reuteri NCIMB 702656, Lactobacillus fermentum NCIMB 5221, L. fermentum NCIMB 8829, L. fermentum NCIMB 2797, Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103 GG, Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 314, and Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 14917. Cholesterol assimilation was investigated in culture media and under simulated intestinal conditions. The best cholesterol assimilator was L. plantarum ATCC 14917 (15.18 ± 0.55 mg/1010 cfu in MRS broth. L. reuteri NCIMB 701089 assimilated over 67% (2254.70 ± 63.33 mg/1010 cfu of cholesterol, the most of all the strains, under intestinal conditions. This work demonstrates that probiotic bacteria can assimilate cholesterol under intestinal conditions, with L. reuteri NCIMB 701089 showing great potential as a CVD therapeutic.

  9. Cholesterol modulates open probability and desensitization of NMDA receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korinek, Miloslav; Vyklicky, Vojtech; Borovska, Jirina; Lichnerova, Katarina; Kaniakova, Martina; Krausova, Barbora; Krusek, Jan; Balik, Ales; Smejkalova, Tereza; Horak, Martin; Vyklicky, Ladislav

    2015-01-01

    NMDA receptors (NMDARs) are glutamate-gated ion channels that mediate excitatory neurotransmission in the CNS. Although these receptors are in direct contact with plasma membrane, lipid–NMDAR interactions are little understood. In the present study, we aimed at characterizing the effect of cholesterol on the ionotropic glutamate receptors. Whole-cell current responses induced by fast application of NMDA in cultured rat cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) were almost abolished (reduced to 3%) and the relative degree of receptor desensitization was increased (by seven-fold) after acute cholesterol depletion by methyl-β-cyclodextrin. Both of these effects were fully reversible by cholesterol repletion. By contrast, the responses mediated by AMPA/kainate receptors were not affected by cholesterol depletion. Similar results were obtained in CGCs after chronic inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis by simvastatin and acute enzymatic cholesterol degradation to 4-cholesten-3-one by cholesterol oxidase. Fluorescence anisotropy measurements showed that membrane fluidity increased after methyl-β-cyclodextrin pretreatment. However, no change in fluidity was observed after cholesterol enzymatic degradation, suggesting that the effect of cholesterol on NMDARs is not mediated by changes in membrane fluidity. Our data show that diminution of NMDAR responses by cholesterol depletion is the result of a reduction of the open probability, whereas the increase in receptor desensitization is the result of an increase in the rate constant of entry into the desensitized state. Surface NMDAR population, agonist affinity, single-channel conductance and open time were not altered in cholesterol-depleted CGCs. The results of our experiments show that cholesterol is a strong endogenous modulator of NMDARs. Key points NMDA receptors (NMDARs) are tetrameric cation channels permeable to calcium; they mediate excitatory synaptic transmission in the CNS and their excessive activation can lead to

  10. Cholesterol and Copper Affect Learning and Memory in the Rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard G. Schreurs

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A rabbit model of Alzheimer’s disease based on feeding a cholesterol diet for eight weeks shows sixteen hallmarks of the disease including beta amyloid accumulation and learning and memory changes. Although we have shown that feeding 2% cholesterol and adding copper to the drinking water can retard learning, other studies have shown that feeding dietary cholesterol before learning can improve acquisition and feeding cholesterol after learning can degrade long-term memory. We explore the development of this model, the issues surrounding the role of copper, and the particular contributions of the late D. Larry Sparks.

  11. Cholesterol in the separation of transudates and exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, M A; Marchi, E; Vargas, F S

    2001-07-01

    The Light criteria represent the most acceptable method to separate transudates and exudates. However, approximately 10% of patients with transudates, especially those with congestive heart disease, are misdiagnosed with these criteria. To improve diagnostic accuracy, many biochemical markers have been proposed as alternatives to differentiate transudates and exudates. Cholesterol has raised particular interest because only pleural fluid is needed, which makes blood samples unnecessary and simplifies the procedure. In most clinical studies, cholesterol has been shown to be as sensitive as the Light criteria, although it is less specific. Other randomized studies are necessary to determine the real potential value of pleural-fluid cholesterol measurements. Studies of pleural-fluid cholesterol are aimed at better understanding the mechanisms by which cholesterol enters the pleural cavity and its role in diseases. The ideal cutoff point of cholesterol to differentiate transudates and exudates is still unknown. Recently, aspects of the cholesterol turnover in diseases have raised great interest. Cholesterol generated great interest after it was related to coronary artery diseases. The involvement of cholesterol in the atherosclerotic process is well known, although its importance in body cavities is still unclear.

  12. Effect of doxazosin on cholesterol synthesis in cell culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Eletto, R.D.; Javitt, N.B.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of doxazosin on cholesterol synthesis was determined by measuring the content of deuterium-enriched cholesterol in rabbit fibroblasts with and without receptors for low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and in hepatoma (Hep G2 cells). Doxazosin, at concentrations of 5-20 mumol/L, increased LDL binding to hepatic cells in a dose-related manner. Also, in these hepatic cells, doxazosin produced dose-related decreases in both newly synthesized cholesterol and cholesterol ester. In rabbit fibroblasts that were LDL receptor negative, de novo cholesterol synthesis was markedly reduced by increasing concentrations of doxazosin. Taken together, these results suggest that doxazosin may have a direct inhibitory effect on cholesterol synthesis independent of the LDL receptor. The inhibition of cholesterol synthesis by doxazosin may cause cells to compensate by upregulating the LDL receptor, thereby increasing the importation of lipoprotein cholesterol and reducing LDL cholesterol in the medium. This hypothesis supports findings in the clinical setting whereby doxazosin has a beneficial effect on the lipid profile, and suggests a useful additional property for this antihypertensive agent.

  13. Recovery and purification of cholesterol from cholesterol-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex using ultrasound-assisted extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Chen, Youliang; Li, Hua

    2017-01-01

    Response surface methodology was used to optimize ultrasound-assisted ethanol extraction (UAE) of cholesterol from cholesterol-β-cyclodextrin (C-β-CD) inclusion complex prepared from duck yolk oil. The best extraction conditions were solvent-solid ratio 10mL/g, ultrasonic power 251W, extraction temperature 56°C and sonication time 36min. Under these conditions, the highest cholesterol extraction yield and cholesterol content obtained 98.12±0.25% and 43.38±0.61mg/g inclusion complex, respectively. As compared with Reflux extraction and Soxhlet extraction, the UAE was more efficient and economical. To increase the purity of crude cholesterol extraction, silica gel column chromatography and crystallization were carried out. Finally, cholesterol was obtained at 95.1% purity, 71.7% recovery and 22.0% yield.

  14. Cholesterol testing among men and women with disability: the role of morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lofters AK

    2016-09-01

    of health care need (reflected in this study as level of disability and level of morbidity may provide a benefit for cholesterol testing, and conversely, health care needs that are too few or too great may negatively affect testing. Public health and practice-based interventions need to be explored to address these findings. Keywords: primary care, preventative care, cholesterol testing, disability, morbidity

  15. Screening for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Executive Director's Corner Resources Public Screening for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) If you suspect that you might suffer from generalized anxiety disorder, also known as GAD, answer the questions below, ...

  16. Screening for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Partners Executive Director's Corner Resources Public Screening for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) If you suspect that you might suffer from obsessive-compulsive disorder, also known as OCD, answer the questions below, ...

  17. Apoprotein E phenotype determines serum cholesterol in infants during both high-cholesterol breast feeding and low-cholesterol formula feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, M J; Salmenperä, L; Siimes, M A; Perheentupa, J; Gylling, H; Miettinen, T A

    1997-04-01

    Our objective was to establish the role of the apoprotein (apo) E phenotype in determining serum cholesterol levels in infants fed exclusively on high-fat, high-cholesterol human milk and in those fed a low-cholesterol, high-unsaturated fat formula. The total and lipoprotein cholesterol, apoB, and triglyceride concentrations in serum were quantified and related to the apoE phenotype in 151 infants at birth and at 2, 6, 9, and 12 months of age. Forty-four had the E3/4 or 4/4 phenotype (E4 group), 94 had the E3/3 phenotype (E3 group), and 13 had the E2/3 or 2/4 phenotype (E2 group). In cord blood, cholesterol concentrations tended to be higher in the E4 than in the E2 group. With exclusive breast-feeding, the concentrations rose significantly faster and higher in the E4 group than in the E3 group or, especially, the E2 group. The values (mmol/L, mean +/- SEM) were 1.6 +/- 0.15, 1.5 +/- 0.05, 1.4 +/- 0.1 (P = n.s.) at birth; 4.2 +/- 0.1, 3.8 +/- 0.08, 3.4 +/- 0.2 (P HDL, HDL2, and HDL3 cholesterol concentrations did not depend on the apoE phenotype. Among infants fed high-fat, high-cholesterol human milk, the total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations and the LDL apoB concentration of those with the apoE phenotype 4/4 or 3/4 rose faster and to higher levels than in other infants. Among formula-fed infants, receiving a low-cholesterol, high-unsaturated fat diet, the differences between the apoE groups were smaller.

  18. 24 CFR 983.255 - Tenant screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... suitability for tenancy. However, the PHA may opt to screen applicants for family behavior or suitability for... in 25 CFR part 5, subpart L, apply to tenant screening....

  19. Public Computation & Boundary Play

    CERN Document Server

    Sengupta, Pratim

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce 'public computation' as a genre of learning environments that can be used to radically broaden public participation in authentic, computation-enabled STEM disciplinary practices. Our paradigmatic approach utilizes open source software designed for professional scientists, engineers and digital artists, and situates them in an undiluted form, alongside live and archived expert support, in a public space. We present a case study of DigiPlay, a prototypical public computation space we designed at the University of Calgary, where users can interact directly with scientific simulations as well as the underlying open source code using an array of massive multi- touch screens. We argue that in such a space, public interactions with the code can be thought of as boundary work and play, through which public participation becomes legitimate scientific act, as the public engages in scientific creation through truly open-ended explorations with the code.

  20. Breast cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammogram - breast cancer screening; Breast exam - breast cancer screening; MRI - breast cancer screening ... performed to screen women to detect early breast cancer when it is more likely to be cured. ...