WorldWideScience

Sample records for public child care

  1. Public Policy Report. The Nanny Trap: Child Care Work Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetler, Lana

    1984-01-01

    Reports testimony given before the Illinois House Labor and Commerce Committee concerning employment, wages, benefits, and conditions that affect the quality of child care and the status of child care institutions as employers of women. (RH)

  2. Making the Case for Public-Private Child Care Partnerships: Child Care Partnership Project. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finance Project, Washington, DC.

    The quality of child care in the United States has important implications for school preparedness, welfare reform, economic vitality, and the quality of family life. In this 8-minute videotape, business leaders describe why child care makes good business sense. Visuals explain the importance of early childhood for school and life success, and the…

  3. Financing Child Care. A Public Policy Report from the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation. Winter 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, Kansas City, MO.

    This public policy report focuses on financing child care in the United States. The report contains brief articles on the following topics: (1) child care wages in comparison to other positions; (2) benefits to businesses when employees have high-quality child care; (3) resources for funding early education systems; (4) comparison of the cost of…

  4. Regulation-Exempt Family Child Care in the Context of Publicly Subsidized Child Care: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Care Law Center, San Francisco, CA.

    Whether and how to regulate family child care has been a continuing policy dilemma facing child care advocates, policymakers, child care administrators, and child care regulators over the last 20 years. Insufficient attention has been given to what regulatory and/or non-regulatory methods might be used to ensure that all children, regardless of…

  5. Who Cares for the Children? Denmark's Unique Public Child-Care Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polakow, Valerie

    1997-01-01

    U.S. working mothers wrestle daily with a child-care crisis characterized by unavailable infant care, high costs, and inadequate access and regulation. In Denmark, high-quality child care is a guaranteed entitlement for every child. Other benefits include paid parental leaves, single-parent allowances, housing subsidies, and universal health care.…

  6. Maryland Child Care Choices Study: Changes in Child Care Arrangements of Young Children in Maryland. Publication #2014-57

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krafft, Caroline; Davis, Elizabeth E.; Tout, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this series is to summarize key findings and implications from the Maryland Child Care Choices study, a longitudinal survey of parents who were applying for Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) in 2011. Families in the Maryland Child Care Choices study had at least one child age six or younger and lived in one of the…

  7. Important Evidence Highlights the Meaning of Teacher-Child Relationships for Child Development. Commentary on: "Formations of Attachment Relationships towards Teachers Lead to Conclusions for Public Child Care"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagi-Schwartz, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    In this commentary, Sagi-Schwartz evaluates the article by Beckh and Becker-Stoll (2016) on attachment relationships with non-parental caregivers and how it may contribute to public child care. Beckh and Becker-Stoll first describe important background about research on early parent-child relationships, and how their nature and quality might…

  8. Child Care Program Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information Medicaid Public Health Centers Temporary "Cash" Assistance Senior Benefits Program the proposed regulation changes, including the potential costs to private persons of complying with Heating Assistance Medicaid Senior Benefits Temporary Assistance Get Help Food Health Care Cash Child Care

  9. Does public reporting measure up? Federalism, accountability and child-care policy in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lynell; Findlay, Tammy

    2010-01-01

    Governments in Canada have recently been exploring new accountability measures within intergovernmental relations. Public reporting has become the preferred mechanism in a range of policy areas, including early learning and child-care, and the authors assess its effectiveness as an accountability measure. The article is based on their experience with a community capacity-building project that considers the relationship between the public policy, funding and accountability mechanisms under the federal/provincial/territorial agreements related to child-care. The authors argue that in its current form, public reporting has not lived up to its promise of accountability to citizens. This evaluation is based on the standards that governments have set for themselves under the federal/provincial/territorial agreements, as well as guidelines set by the Public Sector Accounting Board, an independent body that develops accounting standards over time through consultation with governments.

  10. Office of Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Children & Families Office of Child Care By Office Administration for Native Americans (ANA) Administration on Children, ... about the Child Care Rule > What is the Office of Child Care (OCC)? The Office of Child ...

  11. Where's Papa? Fathers' Role in Child Care. Population Trends and Public Policy No. 20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Martin

    Men are taking a more active role in child care. By 1991, 20% of preschool children were cared for by their fathers while their mothers worked outside the home--an increase since 1988, when only 15 percent of preschoolers were cared for by their fathers. This report summarizes the latest findings on child care arrangements of mothers who work…

  12. Dental care - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002213.htm Dental care - child To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. Proper care of your child's teeth and gums includes brushing and rinsing daily. It ...

  13. Changing Public and Private Roles in the Dutch Child-Care Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, Mirjam; Plantenga, Janneke; Siegers, Jacques; Knol, Hans

    2005-01-01

    In the session ‘Balancing Public and Private Roles in Care for the Elderly (developed countries)’ at the World Congress of the International Institute of Sociology in Stockholm, Sweden, July 5-9, 2005.

  14. Child Care: A Business Investment That Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children's Action Alliance, Phoenix, AZ.

    This publication explains to Arizona employers the effect of child care difficulties on the work force and profitablity and describes ways to help employees meet their child care needs. Discussion concerns the benefits of employee child care assistance programs, program options available to employees, and the steps required to implement the…

  15. Political or dental power in private and public service provision: a study of municipal expenditures for child dental care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L. B.; Bech, M.; Lauridsen, J.

    2012-01-01

    Both professionals and politicians may affect expenditures for highly professional services provided in the public and private sector. We investigated Danish publicly financed child dental care with a special focus on the influence of politicians and dentists on the expenditure level. By studying...... from 1996 to 2001 for 226 Danish municipalities, thus allowing for the control for heterogeneity between municipalities and for intra-municipal correlations across time. The results point to differences in expenditures between municipalities with privately and publicly produced dental care. Furthermore...... spatial patterns in expenditure levels across municipalities, we are able to test the influences of these two main actors and the networks through which learning is achieved. Four hypotheses on the existence of different spatial spillover effects are tested. The empirical analysis is based on annual data...

  16. Child Care Aware

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ready! Learn more about the issues facing millennial parents as well as a nationwide examination of child care affordability. Learn More + Breaking News Statement: The Effects of Separation Policy are Devastating and Potentially Life-long Dr. ...

  17. Political or dental power in private and public service provision: a study of municipal expenditures for child dental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Bech, Mickael; Lauridsen, Jørgen

    2012-07-01

    Both professionals and politicians may affect expenditures for highly professional services provided in the public and private sector. We investigated Danish publicly financed child dental care with a special focus on the influence of politicians and dentists on the expenditure level. By studying spatial patterns in expenditure levels across municipalities, we are able to test the influences of these two main actors and the networks through which learning is achieved. Four hypotheses on the existence of different spatial spillover effects are tested. The empirical analysis is based on annual data from 1996 to 2001 for 226 Danish municipalities, thus allowing for the control for heterogeneity between municipalities and for intra-municipal correlations across time. The results point to differences in expenditures between municipalities with privately and publicly produced dental care. Furthermore, dentists appear to be the most important actors for the spatial spillover effects, and these effects are especially strong for municipalities situated in the same county that use private dental clinics. There is no evidence of political spatial spillover effects between municipalities.

  18. Child Care Subsidies and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the…

  19. Child Poverty & Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafel, Judith A., Ed.

    This collection documents how far we still are in the United States from putting our knowledge about child well being and policy into practice. It provides an overview of the changing nature of child poverty in the United States through the contributions of authors who use a number of qualitative and quantitative approaches to look at children in…

  20. Providing High Quality Care in Low-Income Areas of Maryland: Definitions, Resources, and Challenges from Parents and Child Care Providers' Perspectives. Publication #2012-45

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forry, Nicole; Simkin, Shana; Wessel, Julia; Rodrigues, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Early life experiences are critical to a child's development. Research has shown that, for a variety of reasons, children born into low-income families are at a disadvantage when compared to their higher-income peers. Fortunately, research has also shown a positive association between high quality child care and the academic and social-emotional…

  1. Child public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blair, Mitch

    2010-01-01

    .... It combined clinical and academic perspectives to explore the current state of health of our children, the historical roots of the speciality and the relationship between early infant and child...

  2. Child Care Helps America Work and Learn. Issue No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Care Bureau, 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Child Care Helps America Work and Learn" is a new publication produced by the Child Care Bureau. This new series will highlight some of the many Recovery Act-funded child care success stories from communities across the country that illustrate how the Bureau is working toward the shared goal of supporting children and families. This…

  3. Child Malnutrition and Antenatal Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Forero-Ramirez; L.F. Gamboa (Luis); A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh); R.A. Sparrow (Robert)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Objective. To examine the effect of prenatal care (PNC) on the level and distribution of child stunting in three Andean countries—Bolivia, Colombia, and Peru—where expanding access to such care has been an explicit policy intervention to tackle child malnutrition in

  4. Mother's time allocation, child care and child cognitive development

    OpenAIRE

    BRILLI, Ylenia

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of maternal employment and non-parental child care on child cognitive development, taking into account the mother's time allocation between leisure and child-care time. I estimate a behavioral model, in which maternal labor supply, non-parental child care, goods expenditure and time allocation decisions are considered to be endogenous choices of the mother. The child cognitive development depends on maternal and non-parental child care and on the goods bought f...

  5. Child public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blair, Mitch

    2010-01-01

    "Despite children making up around a quarter of the population, the first edition of this book was the first to focus on a public health approach to the health and sickness of children and young people...

  6. 45 CFR 98.20 - A child's eligibility for child care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., ethnic background, sex, religious affiliation, or disability; (2) Limit parental rights provided under... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false A child's eligibility for child care services. 98.20 Section 98.20 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD...

  7. Caring for a Seriously Ill Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search English Español Caring for a Seriously Ill Child KidsHealth / For Parents / Caring for a Seriously Ill ... helping hand. Explaining Long-Term Illness to a Child Honest communication is vital to helping a child ...

  8. An Employer's Guide to Child Care Consultants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichman, Caroline

    This guide is designed to help employers hire a qualified child care consultant who will evaluate child care options in light of employees' needs and help develop and implement appropriate child care options. These options include: (1) establishment of a child care facility; (2) financial assistance; (3) a resource and referral service; (4)…

  9. Street Children Discourses in Russia and Cuba : A Comparative Study aimed at Developing Preventative Measures in Public Child Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toril Jenssen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available My colleague and I came to a centre for rights protection of children and adolescents in a city in Northern Russia. It was a winter day with snow all over. In an open space between the houses, just before the entrance to the centre building, we met two eight or nine-year-old girls, skiing. They were smoking cigarettes. My colleague, who is a Russian, said as a joke: “Don’t you know when you smoke a second head will grow on your shoulders?” The answer came right-away: “I don’t care!” This little conversation in Russian was our introduction to a series of meetings with different spokespersons working at arenas with influence on child and adolescent welfare in the region.

  10. Care of the abandoned child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunath, M

    1991-01-01

    Care of abandoned children in India is discussed in terms of reasons for abandonment, the physical condition of the children, and legal categories. The options available currently are the cottage system, sponsorship programs, foster care, or adoption. Child-care and rehabilitation that may be necessary is specified as is the importance of maintaining records. The gaps in child-care are exposed. The role of nongovernmental organization (NGOs) and new legislation in closing the gaps is presented. Abandonment is usually a direct result of poverty, but it can also be caused by mental or physical handicaps or illegitimacy. The numbers of abandoned children may reach 2 million. 40-60% of abandoned infants die during monsoons and summers. The legal categories are privately abandoned, children on remand, or court-committed children. The cottage system emphasizes deinstitutionalization, but there remains a great demand for care. Sponsorship aims to strengthen the family unit to prevent abandonment. Foster care provides an alternative family substitute, but is known only theoretically. Childcare may involve instant hospitalization, care is an institution, or foster care with a suitable family. Nursery care requires discipline in hygiene, sanitation, maintenance of individual medical records, and a general cheerful atmosphere. Records are important for the child in later life and for adoption. Rehabilitation is a sociolegal process which must be done properly or it can jeopardize a child's future security. Despite the Supreme Court guidelines of 1984, there is no uniform system of adoption practices, and the child's interests are overlooked when adoptions are promoted. NGOs play an important role in making social welfare programs work. However their efforts are of limited help without government support and legislation. There is a lack of proper legislation which is outside the control of political and religious interests; e.g., Hindu law only permits adoption of one child of

  11. 45 CFR 261.56 - What happens if a parent cannot obtain needed child care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... care arrangements are unavailable. (2) Refusal to work when an acceptable form of child care is... child care? 261.56 Section 261.56 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY....56 What happens if a parent cannot obtain needed child care? (a)(1) If the individual is a single...

  12. NEW ASPECTS OF CHILD CARE*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the social field of child care the Children Act of 1948 marked a major development in the community's re ponsi-. * A paper read in plenary session at the ..... mental hygiene as an important part of what the infant welfare movement ha to offer.

  13. NEW ASPECTS OF CHILD CARE*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the social field of child care the Children Act of 1948 marked a major ... Better methods for the prevention of ... t the hospital for Sick Children, Great Ormond Street, there is an ... With modern drugs to control infection and with more children ...

  14. Kindergarten Child Care Experiences and Child Achievement and Socioemotional Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Young children's experiences outside of both home and school are important for their development. As women have entered the labor force, child care has become an increasingly important context for child development. Child care experiences prior to school entry have been well-documented as important influences on children's academic and…

  15. Quality-Adjusted Cost Functions for Child-Care Centers.

    OpenAIRE

    Mocan, H Naci

    1995-01-01

    Using a newly compiled data set, this paper estimates multi- product translog cost functions for 399 child care centers from California, Colorado, Connecticut, and North Carolina. Quality of child care is controlled by a quality index, which has been shown to be positively related to child outcomes by previous research. Nonprofit centers that receive public money, either from the state or federal government, (which is tied to higher standards), have total variable costs that are 18 percent hi...

  16. Practice Parameter on Child and Adolescent Mental Health Care in Community Systems of Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This parameter presents overarching principles and practices for child and adolescent mental health care in community systems of care. Community systems of care are defined broadly as comprising the wide array of child-serving agencies, programs, and practitioners (both public and private), in addition to natural community supports such as…

  17. 45 CFR 98.51 - Activities to improve the quality of child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... health and safety, nutrition, first aid, the recognition of communicable diseases, child abuse detection... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Activities to improve the quality of child care... CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.51 Activities to improve...

  18. ["Care" and public nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Prével, Yves

    2002-01-01

    In 1990, the Unicef conceptual framework for nutrition recognised the role of care, along with household food security and health services and environment, as one of the three underlying factors of child survival, growth, and development. This model has been adopted at a policy level at the International Conference on Nutrition (Rome, 1992) and over the past ten years the concept of care has been refined through literature reviews, consultative meetings and empirical works. "Care is the provision in the household and the community of time, attention, and support to meet the physical, mental, and social needs of the growing child and other household members". Basically, care refers to the actions of caregivers (mainly, but not only mothers) that translate food and health resources into positive outcomes for the child's nutrition. Even under circumstances of poverty, enhanced caregiving can optimise the use of resources to promote good nutrition. Care practices have been grouped into six categories: care for women, breastfeeding and child feeding practices, psychosocial care, food preparation, hygiene practices, household health practices. They cover a wide range of behaviours, are often culturally specific and are daily, repetitive, and time-consuming activities. It must be underlined that the way care practices are performed (i.e., quality of care) is as important as the practices themselves. It has also been emphasised that children play a significant role in determining the quality of care that they receive, through an interactive process: an active child elicits more care from the caregiver, who is in turn more responsive. Care resources at household level have been described according to three categories: human (knowledge, beliefs, education, physical and mental health of the caregiver), economic (control on income, workload and time), and organisational (alternate caregivers, community support). But the availability of care also depends on support at the

  19. An Analysis of the Child and Adult Care Food Programs in Child Care Centers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kapur, Kanika

    1999-01-01

    ...) that provides healthy meals and snacks in child and adult day care facilities. This report uses the Cost, Quality and Child Outcomes study to analyze the characteristics of three types of child care centers: (1...

  20. Family Child Care Licensing Study, 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children's Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This report details the findings of an annual survey of state child care regulatory agencies. The survey gathered data on both small family child care homes and group or large family child care homes in each of the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. The report's introduction lists the survey categories and…

  1. Employer Child Care Resources: A Guide to Developing Effective Child Care Programs and Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Increasing numbers of employers are responding to employee child care needs by revising their benefit packages, work schedules, and recruitment plans to include child care options. This guide details ways to develop effective child care programs and policies. Section 1 of the guide describes employees' growing child care needs and employers'…

  2. Child Care Subsidy Use and Child Development: Potential Causal Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkinson, Laura E.

    2011-01-01

    Research using an experimental design is needed to provide firm causal evidence on the impacts of child care subsidy use on child development, and on underlying causal mechanisms since subsidies can affect child development only indirectly via changes they cause in children's early experiences. However, before costly experimental research is…

  3. Relationship-Focused Child Care Practices: Quality of Care and Child Outcomes for Children in Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Margaret Tresch; Klausli, Julia F.; Mata-Otero, Ana-Maria; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien

    2008-01-01

    Research Findings: Child care delivery practices promoting continuous, primary caregiver-child relationships (relationship-focused child care) were evaluated for 223 preschool-age children (45% African American, 55% Latino) attending child care centers serving low-income children. Both relationship-focused and non-relationship-focused centers were…

  4. The Child Health Care System in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsello, Giovanni; Ferrara, Pietro; Chiamenti, Gianpietro; Nigri, Luigi; Campanozzi, Angelo; Pettoello-Mantovani, Massimo

    2016-10-01

    Pediatric care in Italy has been based during the last 40 years on the increased awareness of the importance of meeting the psychosocial and developmental needs of children and of the role of families in promoting the health and well-being of their children. The pediatric health care system in Italy is part of the national health system. It is made up of 3 main levels of intervention: first access/primary care, secondary care/hospital care, and tertiary care based on specialty hospital care. This overview will also include a brief report on neonatal care, pediatric preventive health care, health service accreditation programs, and postgraduate training in pediatrics. The quality of the Italian child health care system is now considered to be in serious danger because of the restriction of investments in public health caused both by the 2008 global and national economic crisis and by a reduction of the pediatric workforce as a result of progressively insufficient replacement of specialists in pediatrics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Who Cares for Kids? A Report on Child Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Carolyn

    This study offers a profile of child care workers in family day care homes and child care centers, reporting general statistics and examining their wages, benefits, training, working conditions, and turnover rates. In addition, it looks at government regulation and licensing, employer-sponsored programs, child abuse, insurance rates, and federal…

  6. Take Care of Your Child's Teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dental visits? Your health insurance plan may cover dental care for your child. Check with your insurance provider ... you don’t have insurance that pays for dental care, find a free or low-cost dental care ...

  7. Cultural Sensitive Care Provision in a Public Child and Adolescent Mental Health Centre: A Case Study from the Toulouse University Hospital Intercultural Consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Gesine; Bonnet, Sylvie; Coussot, Yolaine; Journot, Katja; Raynaud, Jean-Philippe

    2017-12-01

    Child and adolescent mental health services in Europe are confronted with children with increasingly diverse socio-cultural backgrounds. Clinicians encounter cultural environments of hyperdiversity in terms of languages and countries of origin, growing diversity within groups, and accelerated change with regards to social and administrational situations (Hannah, in: DelVecchio Good et al. (eds) Shattering culture: American medicine responds to cultural diversity, Russel Sage Foundation, New York, 2011). Children and families who live in these complex constellations face multiple vulnerabilizing factors related to overlapping or intersecting social identities (Crenshaw in Univ Chic Leg Forum 140:139-167, 1989). Mobilizing existing resources in terms of social and family support, and encouraging creative strategies of interculturation in therapeutic work (Denoux, in: Blomart and Krewer (eds) Perspectives de l'interculturel, L'Harmattan, Paris, 1994) may be helpful in order to enhance resilience. Drawing from experiences in the context of French transcultural and intercultural psychiatry, and inspired by the Mc Gill Cultural Consultation in Child Psychiatry, we developed an innovative model, the Intercultural Consultation Service (ICS). This consultation proposes short term interventions to children and families with complex migration experiences. It has been implemented into a local public health care structure in Toulouse, the Medical and Psychological Centre la Grave. The innovation includes the creation of a specific setting for short term therapeutic interventions and team training via shared case discussions. Our objectives are (a) to improve outcomes of mental health care for the children through a better understanding of the child's family context (exploration of family dynamics and their relatedness to complex migration histories), (b) to enhance intercultural competencies in professionals via shared case discussions, and, (c) to improve the therapeutic

  8. Child Poverty and the Health Care System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Andrew D

    2016-04-01

    The persistence of child poverty in the United States and the pervasive health consequences it engenders present unique challenges to the health care system. Human capital theory and empirical observation suggest that the increased disease burden experienced by poor children originates from social conditions that provide suboptimal educational, nutritional, environmental, and parental inputs to good health. Faced with the resultant excess rates of pediatric morbidity, the US health care system has developed a variety of compensatory strategies. In the first instance, Medicaid, the federal-state governmental finance system designed to assure health insurance coverage for poor children, has increased its eligibility thresholds and expanded its benefits to allow greater access to health services for this vulnerable population. A second arm of response involves a gradual reengineering of health care delivery at the practice level, including the dissemination of patient-centered medical homes, the use of team-based approaches to care, and the expansion of care management beyond the practice to reach deep into the community. Third is a series of recent experiments involving the federal government and state Medicaid programs that includes payment reforms of various kinds, enhanced reporting, concentration on high-risk populations, and intensive case management. Fourth, pediatric practices have begun to make use of specific tools that permit the identification and referral of children facing social stresses arising from poverty. Finally, constituencies within the health care system participate in enhanced advocacy efforts to raise awareness of poverty as a distinct threat to child health and to press for public policy responses such as minimum wage increases, expansion of tax credits, paid family leave, universal preschool education, and other priorities focused on child poverty. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  9. Child labour: a public health issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulzar, Saleema Aziz; Vertejee, Samina; Pirani, Laila

    2009-11-01

    Child labour is a global practice and has many negative outcomes. According to International Labour Organization, child labour is the important source of child exploitation and child abuse in the world today. The Human Rights Commission of Pakistan has estimated the number of Pakistani working children to be around 11-12 millions, out of which, at least, half the children are under the age of ten years. It portrays the society's attitude towards child care. It is therefore, essential to break this vicious cycle and hence, enable the society to produce healthy citizens. This article analyzes the determinants of child labour in the Pakistani context and its implications for child's life, in specific, and for the nation, in general, utilizing the model developed by Clemen-stone & McGuire (1991). Since this practice has complex web of causation, a multidisciplinary approach is required to combat this issue through proposed recommendations.

  10. Evaluation of publicly financed and privately delivered model of emergency referral services for maternal and child health care in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Prinja

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Emergency referral services (ERS are being strengthened in India to improve access for institutional delivery. We evaluated a publicly financed and privately delivered model of ERS in Punjab state, India, to assess its extent and pattern of utilization, impact on institutional delivery, quality and unit cost. METHODS: Data for almost 0.4 million calls received from April 2012 to March 2013 was analysed to assess the extent and pattern of utilization. Segmented linear regression was used to analyse month-wise data on number of institutional deliveries in public sector health facilities from 2008 to 2013. We inspected ambulances in 2 districts against the Basic Life Support (BLS standards. Timeliness of ERS was assessed for determining quality. Finally, we computed economic cost of implementing ERS from a health system perspective. RESULTS: On an average, an ambulance transported 3-4 patients per day. Poor and those farther away from the health facility had a higher likelihood of using the ambulance. Although the ERS had an abrupt positive effect on increasing the institutional deliveries in the unadjusted model, there was no effect on institutional delivery after adjustment for autocorrelation. Cost of operating the ambulance service was INR 1361 (USD 22.7 per patient transported or INR 21 (USD 0.35 per km travelled. CONCLUSION: Emergency referral services in Punjab did not result in a significant change in public sector institutional deliveries. This could be due to high baseline coverage of institutional delivery and low barriers to physical access. Choice of interventions for reduction in Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR should be context-specific to have high value for resources spent. The ERS in Punjab needs improvement in terms of quality and reduction of cost to health system.

  11. Booming Economy Fuels Continued Expansion of For-Profit Child Care--Annual Status Report #13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2000-01-01

    Discusses growth of North America's 40 largest for- profit child care centers. Identifies current threats, including staffing shortage and increasing competition from public schools and among chains. Identifies current opportunities to include employer and franchise child care, upscale child care, elementary school services, and flexible hours.…

  12. Psychosocial Influences upon the Workforce and Professional Development Participation of Family Child Care Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Rebecca Anne; Wiley, Angela R.; A. Koziol, Natalie; Magerko, Katherine A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Family child care is commonly used in the US by families, including by those receiving child care subsidies. Psychosocial influences upon the workforce and professional development participation of family child care providers (FCCPs) have implications for the investment of public dollars that aim to improve quality and stability of…

  13. Evil, Child Abuse and the Caring Professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Caroline

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the ways in which the concept of evil has been invoked in relation to child abuse. First, the scene is set by juxtaposing professional discourses which have eschewed the concept of evil and public opinion which is affronted by the evil of child abuse. Second, I will discuss the work of some therapists in the USA whose work with perpetrators and survivors has led them to frame the causes and consequences of child abuse in terms of moral evil. Third, I will draw upon case studies of Satanic abuse and spirit possession in the UK to illustrate that some social workers and religious communities have interpreted child abuse as an outcome of or as an antidote to metaphysical evil. Finally, there is a critical appraisal of the merits of referencing moral and metaphysical evil in the discourses of caring professionals, with a suggestion that a mythical-metaphorical conception of evil could be a more flexible and fruitful resource for therapeutic work.

  14. Preschool Child Care and Child Well-being in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Micha; Bauer, Jan M.

    Because the value of preschool child care is under intensive debate among both policymakers and society in general, this paper analyzes the relation between preschool care and the well-being of children and adolescents in Germany. It also examines differences in outcomes based on child...... socioeconomic background by focusing on the heterogeneous effects for migrant children. Our findings, based on data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey of Children and Adolescents, suggest that children who have experienced child care have a slightly lower well-being overall. For migrant...

  15. Focus on Infection Control in Child Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biblio Alert! New Resources for Child Care Health and Safety, 1994

    1994-01-01

    The first in a series intended to provide child caregivers, parents, schools, health departments, and regulatory agencies with recent resources on child health and safety, this bibliography cites sources on the topic of controlling infections in child care settings. The list of annotated references contains background information and resource…

  16. Employer Child Care Surviving and Thriving: Employer Child Care Trend Report #17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2010-01-01

    Today employer child care is accepted as standard benefit for employees and nearly all Fortune 500 companies have gotten involved. The current recession threatened to halt the growth of employer child care as companies consolidated, cut back, and folded. However, in reviewing the status of employer child care for this trend report, it appears that…

  17. Non-cognitive Child Outcomes and Universal High Quality Child Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Simonsen, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    universal preschool programs and family day care vis-à-vis home care. We find that, compared to home care, being enrolled in preschool at age three does not lead to significant differences in child outcomes at age seven no matter the gender or the mother's level of education. Family day care, on the other...... hand, seems to significantly deteriorate outcomes for boys whose mothers have a lower level of education. Finally, longer hours in non-parental care lead to poorer child outcomes.......Exploiting a rich panel data child survey merged with administrative records along with a pseudoexperiment generating variation in the take-up of preschool across municipalities, we provide evidence of the effects on non-cognitive child outcomes of participating in large scale publicly provided...

  18. International policies toward parental leave and child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldfogel, J

    2001-01-01

    The pleasures and pressures of parenting a newborn are universal, but the supports surrounding parents vary widely from country to country. In many nations, decades of attention to benefits and services for new parents offer lessons worthy of attention in this country. This article describes policies regarding parental leave, child care, and early childhood benefits here and in 10 industrial nations in North America and Europe. The sharpest contrast separates the United States from the other countries, although differences among the others also are instructive: The right to parental leave is new to American workers; it covers one-half of the private-sector workforce and is relatively short and unpaid. By contrast, other nations offer universal, paid leaves of 10 months or more. Child care assistance in Europe is usually provided through publicly funded programs, whereas the United States relies more on subsidies and tax credits to reimburse parents for part of their child care expenses. Nations vary in the emphasis they place on parental leave versus child care supports for families with children under age three. Each approach creates incentives that influence parents' decisions about employment and child care. Several European nations, seeking flexible solutions for parents, are testing "early childhood benefits" that can be used to supplement income or pay for private child care. Based on this review, the author urges that the United States adopt universal, paid parental leave of at least 10 months; help parents cover more child care costs; and improve the quality of child care. She finds policy packages that support different parental choices promising, because the right mix of leave and care will vary from family to family, and child to child.

  19. Swedish child health care in a changing society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallberg, Ann-Christine; Lindbladh, Eva; Petersson, Kerstin; Råstam, Lennart; Håkansson, Anders

    2005-09-01

    Staff in Swedish child health care today feel a gap between policy and practice. By revealing the main lines in the development of child health care, we hoped to achieve a better understanding of the current trends and problems in today's Swedish child health care. A selection of official documents about the development of child health care during the period 1930-2000 was studied with the aid of discourse analysis. Four discourses were identified, which serve as a foundation for a periodization of the development of child health care. In the first period the main task of child health care, alongside checking on the development of the child, was to inform and educate the mothers. During the second period health supervision became the crucial task, to identify risks and discover abnormalities and disabilities. The third period focused on the discussion concerning the identification of health-related and social 'risk groups', and the work of child health care was increasingly geared to supervision of the parents' care of their children. Parents were to be given support so that they could cope with their difficulties by themselves. During the current period child health care is increasingly expected to direct its work towards the child's surroundings and the family as a whole and is now explicitly defined as an institution that should strengthen parents' self-esteem and competence. The level of responsibility for the child's health changed gradually during the different periods, from public responsibility to parental responsibility. The focus of efforts in child health care was changed from being general in the first and second periods to general and selective in period three, and then gradually becoming selective again in period four. While control of the child's physical health was central during the first two periods, psychosocial health came into focus in the last two, along with the importance of supporting the parents to enable them to handle their difficulties

  20. A Cost Sharing Plan: Solutions for the Child Care Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaware Valley Child Care Council, Philadelphia, PA.

    This booklet discusses the current child care crisis and suggests a solution to the crisis. The gap between the cost of child care and parents' ability to pay is restricting the expansion and availability of child care services and undercutting the quality of child care. The average cost of full-day child care in the Delaware Valley, Pennsylvania,…

  1. Child Health Care Services in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerbl, Reinhold; Ziniel, Georg; Winkler, Petra; Habl, Claudia; Püspök, Rudolf; Waldhauser, Franz

    2016-10-01

    We describe child health care in Austria, a small country in Central Europe with a population of about 9 million inhabitants of whom approximately 1.7 million are children and adolescents under the age of 20 years. For children and adolescents, few health care indicators are available. Pediatric and adolescent health provision, such as overall health provision, follows a complex system with responsibilities shared by the Ministry of Health, 19 social insurance funds, provinces, and other key players. Several institutions are affiliated with or cooperate with the Ministry of Health to assure quality control. The Austrian public health care system is financed through a combination of income-based social insurance payments and taxes. Pediatric primary health care in Austria involves the services of general pediatricians and general practitioners. Secondary care is mostly provided by the 43 children's hospitals; tertiary care is (particularly) provided in 4 state university hospitals and 1 private university hospital. The training program of residents takes 6 years and is completed by a final examination. Every year, this training program is completed by about 60 residents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysing Maternal Employment and Child Care Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akgündüz, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    The contributions in this thesis revolve around mothers' employment and child care quality. The first topic of interest is how mothers' employment is affected by modern child care services and parental leave entitlements. There is already an extensive literature on the effects of modern social

  3. Child care and our youngest children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, D; Adams, G

    2001-01-01

    Studies of child development confirm that experiences with people mold an infant's mind and personality. Caregiving is, therefore, central to development, whether the caregiver is a parent, a grandmother, or a teacher in a child care center. This article uses data from new, national studies of families to examine the state of child care for infants and toddlers. The story it tells is complex, as the authors outline the overlapping impacts that diverse child care settings and home situations have on children. Early exposure to child care can foster children's learning and enhance their lives, or it can leave them at risk for troubled relationships. The outcome that results depends largely on the quality of the child care setting. Responsive caregivers who surround children with language, warmth, and chances to learn are the key to good outcomes. Other quality attributes (like training and staff-to-child ratios) matter because they foster positive caregiving. Diversity and variability are hallmarks of the American child care supply. Both "wonderful and woeful" care can be found in all types of child care but, overall, settings where quality is compromised are distressingly common. Children whose families are not buoyed by good incomes or government supports are the group most often exposed to poor-quality care. Given this balanced but troubling look at the status of child care for infants and toddlers, the authors conclude that there is a mismatch between the rhetoric of parental choice and the realities facing parents of young children in the United States. They call on communities, businesses, foundations, and government to play a larger role in helping parents secure good care for their infants and toddlers.

  4. Financial Analysis of For Profit Child Care: A Work in Progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Keith

    1989-01-01

    Compares revenues, debts, investments, and profit margins of for-profit publicly and privately owned day care centers. An evaluation tool was developed through analysis of financial statements of seven privately owned child care businesses and six publicly owned child care chains. (RJC)

  5. Employer Supported Child Care: An Idea Whose Time Has Come. A Conference on Child Care as an Employee Benefit (Costs and Benefits, Successful Programs, Company Options, Current Issues). Conference Proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiman, Peter, Ed.; Sud, Gian, Ed.

    Many aspects of employer-sponsored child care programs--including key issues, costs and benefits, programmatic options, and implementation strategies--are discussed in these conference proceedings. Public policy issues, legal aspects of child care as an employee benefit, tax incentives for corporate child care, and funding sources for child care…

  6. The public role in promoting child health information technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Patrick H; White, P Jonathan; Clancy, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    The public sector plays an important role in promoting child health information technology. Public sector support is essential in 5 main aspects of child health information technology, namely, data standards, pediatric functions in health information systems, privacy policies, research and implementation funding, and incentives for technology adoption. Some innovations in health information technology for adult populations can be transferred to or adapted for children, but there also are unique needs in the pediatric population. Development of health information technology that addresses children's needs and effective adoption of that technology are critical for US children to receive care of the highest possible quality in the future.

  7. Care of the Child with Special Health Care Needs: A Report on 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Care of the child with special health care needs is gradually becoming a significant public health issue. To identify what these special health care needs are in our environment, 2 children presenting with clinical features of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy were studied. This crippling neuromuscular disorder has no cure at ...

  8. Child Care Practices and Its Effects to School Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Raymund C. Panopio

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This scholarly work aimed to determine the child care practices that have the potential in honing a child with good school performance. The result of the study led to the formulation of a model that typifies the good child care practices. Since children are on the accepting side, it is the way parents raise a nd rear them that will influence what they will be in the near future. The participants were selected as they are included in the top performing public schools in Batangas City , Philippines . The parents and teachers of the said child were the respondents to assess the ability of the child. A total of 215 students from grades 4 to 6 were selected as the target sample. Descriptive correlational design was utilized to determine the relationship between the child care practices and school performance. A self - made questionnaire was formulated and used face validity and content reliability to come up with the most appropriate instrument. Frequency distribution, weighted mean and chi square were th e statistical tests utilized to aid the analysis of data. Based on the result of the study, breastfeeding, proper hygiene, allowing the child to participate in family conversation and providing monetary allowance were among the practices that lead to child ren’s good school performance. Having knowledge on these practices will guide parents in giving their child a better and assured future, and eventually benefit their children as they become parents themselves.

  9. HOME CARE OF THE SICK CHILD *

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is separated from his mother was high-lighted by the work· ... disturbance, reaching sometimes far into later life. Although ... of child care, together with the trend towards smaller families, .... balance between hospital and domiciliary practice; for.

  10. Planning an Effective Child Care Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Rodney; Wright, Sydney

    This conference presentation offers general guidelines for planning a new child care facility. Particular attention is given to site selection, space requirements, functional requirements, materials, climate, and choosing an architect. (RH)

  11. Carefree in child care ?: child wellbeing, caregiving quality, and intervention programs in center-based child care

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Claudia Denise

    2014-01-01

    The use of center child care in Western countries has increased over the last three decades and is nowadays the most frequently used type of non-parental care for children aged zero to four (OECD, 2013). The aim of the current dissertation is to shed more light on indicators of child care quality in center child care and to answer the question whether narrow-focused caregiver interventions are effective in improving child care quality. The reported meta-analysis shows that narrow-focus interv...

  12. Early child health in Lahore, Pakistan: IV. Child care practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, S; Jalil, F; Karlberg, J

    1993-08-01

    Child care practices and hygiene measures were studied at 6 months of age in a longitudinally followed cohort of 1476 infants born between September 1984 to March 1987 in four socio-economically different areas in and around Lahore, Pakistan. Although, 76-98% of the mothers looked after their infants during health and 96-98% during a diarrhoeal illness, child care practices and hygiene measures differed significantly between the four areas. During a diarrhoeal episode, the mothers from the upper middle class took timely medical help, fed ample food and Oral Rehydration Salts (ORS) to the sick infants and provided uncontaminated food to them in clean surroundings. The mothers from the village and the periurban slum took their sick child, mostly after the second day of illness, to a doctor, but preferred home remedies. Fourteen percent of the mothers in the village and 6% in the periurban slum did not seek any medical help at all. One-third of the families, from these two areas, fed food to children 12 hours after cooking; the surroundings of the child were dirty with large numbers of flies present throughout the year, though the food was commonly kept covered with a lid. We constructed a simple measure of the surroundings of the child, rated as dirty, medium or clean; it was found to be associated to both parental illiteracy and child growth, but not with housing standard. The main conclusion is that any attempt to improve child-care practices and the hygienic environment for the child, should focus on maternal literacy and simple health messages.

  13. Teaching Your Child Healthy Nail Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the child is about 9 or 10 years old. At about that age, children can trim their ... Publications Connect With Us Contact Us Media contacts Advertising contacts AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal ...

  14. Carefree in child care ? : child wellbeing, caregiving quality, and intervention programs in center-based child care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, Claudia Denise

    2014-01-01

    The use of center child care in Western countries has increased over the last three decades and is nowadays the most frequently used type of non-parental care for children aged zero to four (OECD, 2013). The aim of the current dissertation is to shed more light on indicators of child care quality in

  15. Address Points, Points of Interest: AIRPORT_PRIVATE, AIRPORT_PUBLIC, ARMORY, ASSISTED LIVING, CAMPGROUND, CHILD CARE CENTERS, CHURCH, COLLEGE, COMMUNITY ENTRANCE, COMMUNITY REC CENTER, COURT, FARMERS MARKET, FIRE DEPT, GOVERNMENT BUILDING, HEALTH CENTER, HOSPITAL, etc, Published in 2011, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Anne Arundal County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Address Points dataset current as of 2011. Points of Interest: AIRPORT_PRIVATE, AIRPORT_PUBLIC, ARMORY, ASSISTED LIVING, CAMPGROUND, CHILD CARE CENTERS, CHURCH,...

  16. A Look at Child Care in a Northern Industrial State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michelle Russell, Ed.

    This paper presents the results of three child care studies in the Oakland, Macomb, and Wayne Counties of Michigan. In the first study parents were surveyed to determine their child care needs versus the needs met by child care centers. Data was collected from seven child care centers: two franchise, three private, and two in-home. The conclusions…

  17. Child Care during Nonstandard Work Hours: Research to Policy Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In November 2014, the Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) Act of 2014 was signed into law, reauthorizing the Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF)--the federal child care subsidy program--for the first time since 1996. In December 2015, the U.S. Office of Child Care issued a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, which updated CCDF regulations…

  18. Child Care Teaching as Women's Work: Reflections on Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Miai; Reifel, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Child care teachers' experiences and their gendered understandings of their work were explored in this study. Two female child care teachers were interviewed individually and asked to describe their work as women's work. Analysis showed that teachers essentialized child care teaching, recognized the paradoxes of being a child care teacher,…

  19. Parents and the High Cost of Child Care: 2012 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Care Aware of America, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Parents and the High Cost of Child Care: 2012 Report" presents 2011 data reflecting what parents pay for full-time child care in America. It includes average fees for both child care centers and family child care homes. Information was collected through a survey conducted in January 2012 that asked for the average costs charged for…

  20. Child Care and Development Block Grant Participation in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Hannah; Reeves, Rhiannon

    2014-01-01

    The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary funding source for federal child care subsidies to low-income working families, as well as improving child care quality. Based on preliminary state-reported data from the federal Office of Child Care, this fact sheet provides a snapshot of CCDBG program participation in 2012, noting…

  1. Small steps towards campus child care

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2005-09-15

    Sep 15, 2005 ... child-care facilities are rare at research institutions, a number of universities ... will have choices on the job market, and having excellent day-care ... Princeton University offers need-based financial aid, rather than a straight.

  2. Principles of Child Health Care Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudak, Mark L; Helm, Mark E; White, Patience H

    2017-09-01

    After passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, more children and young adults have become insured and have benefited from health care coverage than at any time since the creation of the Medicaid program in 1965. From 2009 to 2015, the uninsurance rate for children younger than 19 years fell from 9.7% to 5.3%, whereas the uninsurance rate for young adults 19 to 25 years of age declined from 31.7% to 14.5%. Nonetheless, much work remains to be done. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) believes that the United States can and should ensure that all children, adolescents, and young adults from birth through the age of 26 years who reside within its borders have affordable access to high-quality and comprehensive health care, regardless of their or their families' incomes. Public and private health insurance should safeguard existing benefits for children and take further steps to cover the full array of essential health care services recommended by the AAP. Each family should be able to afford the premiums, deductibles, and other cost-sharing provisions of the plan. Health plans providing these benefits should ensure, insofar as possible, that families have a choice of professionals and facilities with expertise in the care of children within a reasonable distance of their residence. Traditional and innovative payment methodologies by public and private payers should be structured to guarantee the economic viability of the pediatric medical home and of other pediatric specialty and subspecialty practices to address developing shortages in the pediatric specialty and subspecialty workforce, to promote the use of health information technology, to improve population health and the experience of care, and to encourage the delivery of evidence-based and quality health care in the medical home, as well as in other outpatient, inpatient, and home settings. All current and future health care insurance plans should incorporate the principles for child

  3. Child Care: The Employer's Role. Report of the Task Force on Child Care: Series 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townson, Monica; And Others

    The two research studies in this volume focus on the employer's role in child care. The studies were commissioned as part of an effort to provide detailed analyses of issues of special relevance to child care and parental leave policies and the effects of these issues on the Canadian family. Paper l provides a basis for the development of paid…

  4. Child Care Is Good Business: A Manual on Employer Supported Child Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Karen S.

    Many companies today consider employer-sponsored child care a viable solution to problems facing employees who are also parents. Companies can choose from many program options, each with particular benefits for employer and employees. This manual highlights what is presently happening in employer-supported child care, particularly the cost…

  5. Child care at CERN: Recommendations for Improvements of the Child Care Situation at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Alviggi, M G; Avramidou, R; Barillari, T; Bates, R; Benelli, G; Beolè, S; Berger, N; Boeriu, O; Bölla, G; Bornheim, A; Brigido, F; Calheiros, F; Garrido, M C; Llatas, M C; Chesneanu, D; Conde-Muíño, P; D'Auria, S; De Santo, A; David Tinoco Mendes, A; De La Cruz Burelo, E; Della Volpe, M; Delmastro, M; Demers, S M; Dimovasili, E; Dindar, K; Elder, S; Eno, S; Eschrich, K G; Fonseca Martin, T M; Gagnon, P; Gateau, M; Gemme, C; Gentile, S; Geurts, F; Goldfarb, S; Grabowska-Bold, I; Grothe, M; Hadjidakis, C; Hoffmann, D; Issever, C; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Kandasamy, S; Koblitz, S; Koval'S'Kyi, D; Krivda, M; Lançon, E; Leahu, A E; Leahu, L; Lester, C G; Lipniacka-Wesolowska, A L; List, J; López-Noriega, M; Manca, G; Mariotti, C; Maselli, S; Merkel, P; Nachtman, J; Natale, S; Oldeman, R; Organtini, G; Patterson, R; Pesci, A; Primavera, M; Quadt, A; Rosati, M; Sbarra, C; Teuscher, R; Tique Aires Viegas, F; Trigger, I M; Tuominen, E; Van Lingen, F; Vandoni, G; Vanini, S; Veverkovai, K; Vickey, T; Wang, D; Wells, P; Wengler, T; Wittmer, B; Yumiceva Del Pozo, F X; CERN. Geneva. HR Department

    2008-01-01

    This is a document summarizing a survey of child care needs of CERN staff and users which was performed in February 2008 by the CERN Child Care Initiative. The document presents the analysis of this data. Conclusions on the minimal facilities size are derived and possible funding source at the European Union are discussed.

  6. Maintaining Work: The Influence of Child Care Subsidies on Child Care-Related Work Disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forry, Nicole D.; Hofferth, Sandra L.

    2011-01-01

    With the passage of welfare reform, support for low-income parents to not only obtain but also maintain work has become imperative. The role of child care subsidies in supporting parents' job tenure has received little attention in the literature. This article examines the association between receiving a child care subsidy and experiencing a child…

  7. Child Care Gifts to Bolster Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemiroff, Robert J.; Allen, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Caring for children should not derail potentially excellent future astronomers. It is therefore suggested that a mechanism be created for established astronomers to voluntarily will 10 percent of their estate to a fund that helps aspiring astronomers reduce child care costs. Statistics indicate that many scientists delay child rearing until they have secure jobs. This delay appears to be based on the early relative cost of child care and the perception that time spent raising children negatively impacts job performance and future employability. Having even a portion of child care expenses covered may increase the efficiency of early-career education and productivity of early-career scientific research. It is hoped that some established astronomers may be inspired to contribute by remembering their own lives as aspiring astronomers, while also wishing to add to their legacy. Only an expression of interest is requested here, both from established astronomers who might be interested in taking such a donation pledge, and from aspiring astronomers who feel their careers would be helped by child care assistance.

  8. Child Care in Sweden. Fact Sheets on Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swedish Inst., Stockholm.

    This fact sheet outlines Sweden's policies of government-supported child care and parental insurance provisions. Swedish families receive: (1) free maternity and child health care; (2) child allowances for each child of 9,000 krona per year through age 16; (3) up to 450 days of paid parental leave for the birth of a child, with 360 days paid at 90…

  9. Day-care attendance and child development:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    performance at the end of elementary schooling. We assess the effects of attended types and qualities of day-care institutions on various child outcomes as measured by school grades in mathematics, science, English and Danish for the whole Danish population as well as outcomes from the 2006 PISA Denmark...... survey and a 2007 PISA Copenhagen survey. We use administrative registries to generate indicators such as child-staff ratios, child-pedagogues ratios, and the share of male staff and of staff with non-Danish origins. Furthermore, we use information on the average levels of educational attainments......, of total work experiences, ages and hourly wages of staff members. Those indicators show the expected correlations with children’s development outcomes, better day-care quality being linked to better child outcomes ten years later. We use rich administrative information about the children’s background...

  10. The Relationship between Child Care Subsidies and Children's Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkinson, Laura E.; Griffen, Andrew S.; Dong, Nianbo; Maynard, Rebecca A.

    2013-01-01

    Child care subsidies help low-income families pay for child care while parents work or study. Few studies have examined the effects of child care subsidy use on child development, and no studies have done so controlling for prior cognitive skills. We use rich, longitudinal data from the ECLS-B data set to estimate the relationship between child…

  11. Maternal perception regarding child care and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Albuquerque Frota

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the perception of mothers regarding the care and development of their children. Methods: This was a descriptive and qualitative study, conducted in a Basic Health Unit (UBS in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil, in the period from July to October, 2008. The subjects were twenty mothers who accompanied their children in childcare consultation and met with favorable clinical conditions. Data collection techniques used free observation and semistructured interview consisting of questions involving the perception of child development and care. Results: By means of data analysis the following categories emerged: “Smile and play: mother’s perception regarding the development of the child”; “Take care: emphasis on breastfeeding and body hygiene”. The main source of nonverbal communication that the child has to convey affection and love is the smile, being an essential activity to child development. We verified that the care with breastfeeding and body hygiene suggest behavioral indicators of maternal sensitivity. Final considerations: The childcare consultation held in UBS is essential, because it allows integration of ideas and actions shared with the professional-parent dyad, thus providing the arousal of new experiences in care and the influence on child development.

  12. Communities Putting Prevention to Work: Results of an Obesity Prevention Initiative in Child Care Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Ruby; Camejo, Stephanie; Sanders, Lee M.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a significant public health issue affecting even our youngest children. Given that a significant amount of young children are enrolled in child care, the goal of this project was to evaluate the effectiveness of a child care facility-based obesity prevention program. Over 1,000 facilities participated in the study. The intervention…

  13. Day-care attendance and child development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    Earlier research suggests that children’s development is shaped in their early years of life. This paper examines whether differences in day-care experiences during pre-school age are important for children’s cognitive and language development at the age of 15. The analysis is based on class...... performance at the end of elementary schooling. We assess the effects of attended types and qualities of day-care institutions on various child outcomes as measured by school grades in mathematics, science, English and Danish for the whole Danish population as well as outcomes from the 2006 PISA Denmark...... survey and a 2007 PISA Copenhagen survey. We use administrative registries to generate indicators such as child-staff ratios, child-pedagogues ratios, and the share of male staff and of staff with non-Danish origins. Furthermore, we use information on the average levels of educational attainments...

  14. Child and Youth Care Approaches to Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharabaghi, Kiaras

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the themes and issues related to child and youth care approaches to management. The profession is significantly underrepresented at the management level. To some extent, this reflects the challenges of being recognized in the broader human services sector as a profession, but perhaps more so, it reflects an underdevelopment…

  15. Employers Roundtable: Employer Supported Child Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaware Valley Child Care Council, Philadelphia, PA.

    This booklet outlines a number of options available to employers to enable them to better cope with child care issues that they and their employees face. Major options include: (1) flexible work policies, such as flexible scheduling, alternate work places, shorter work weeks, and the consolidating of sick leave, holidays, and vacation time into…

  16. Development of otorhinological care of the child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruben, Robert J

    2004-05-01

    During the last third of the 20th century, pediatric otolaryngology became a defined specialty in many nations, resulting in focused training, fellowships, societies, journals, textbooks, etc. This development occurred as a result of an interaction between the changing sociological and economic status of the child and medical advances. In this paper the history of the status of children is investigated during the Reformation/Counter-Reformation, Enlightenment and Romantic periods, and during the recent era of Entitlement, and an analysis is made of the relationships between otolaryngological care of children during these periods, including a consideration of selected medical advances made during the 17th to 21st centuries, and the evolving status of children. Advances in education of the deaf, understanding the role of the adenoid and care of the airway were applied to the child patient not directly, as it may sometimes seem to physicians caring for a patient in a hands-on fashion, but rather via the bridge of the social and economic context of the time. This interactive process created a special body of knowledge that is now applied in a society that places a high value on the child. In the second half of the 20th century, i.e. during the period of Entitlement, the otolaryngological needs of the child became a demand, based in part upon a need for care of airway pathology in the premature infant, which fostered the establishment of pediatric otolaryngology as a specialty.

  17. Child language interventions in public health: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cesaro, Bruna Campos; Gurgel, Léia Gonçalves; Nunes, Gabriela Pisoni Canedo; Reppold, Caroline Tozzi

    2013-01-01

    Systematically review the literature on interventions in children's language in primary health care. One searched the electronic databases (January 1980 to March 2013) MEDLINE (accessed by PubMed), Scopus, Lilacs and Scielo. The search terms used were "child language", "primary health care", "randomized controlled trial" and "intervention studies" (in English, Portuguese and Spanish). There were included any randomized controlled trials that addressed the issues child language and primary health care. The analysis was based on the type of language intervention conducted in primary health care. Seven studies were included and used intervention strategies such as interactive video, guidance for parents and group therapy. Individuals of both genders were included in the seven studies. The age of the children participant in the samples of the articles included in this review ranged from zero to 11 years. These seven studies used approaches that included only parents, parents and children or just children. The mainly intervention in language on primary health care, used in randomized controlled trials, involved the use of interactional video. Several professionals, beyond speech and language therapist, been inserted in the language interventions on primary health care, demonstrating the importance of interdisciplinary work. None of the articles mentioned aspects related to hearing. There was scarcity of randomized controlled trials that address on language and public health, either in Brazil or internationally.

  18. Childbearing and child care in surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, K L; Ho, H S; Goodnight, J E

    2001-06-01

    The responsibility for childbearing and child care has a major effect on general surgical residency and subsequent surgical practice. A survey of all graduates from a university general surgical training program between 1989 and 2000. Twenty-seven women and 44 men completed general surgical training at our university during the period, and 42 (59%) responded to our survey. The age at completion of the residency was 34.0 +/- 2.2 years for men and 33.9 +/- 2.8 years for women. During residency, 64% (14/22) of the men and 15% (3/20) of the women had children. At the time of the survey, 21 (95%) of the men and 8 (40%) of the women had children. Most residents (24 [57%] of 42) relied on their spouse for child care. During surgical practice, 18 (43%) indicated that they rely on their spouse; 19 (45%) use day care, home care, or both; and (8%) of 26 are unsatisfied with their current child care arrangement. During training, 38% (5/13) of men and 67% (2/3) of women took time off for maternity leave, paternity leave, or child care. Two of 3 surgeons would like to have had more time off during residency; most men (70%, or 7 of 10) recommended a leave of 1 to 3 months, and all women preferred a 3-month maternity or child care leave of absence. During surgical practice, only 12% (2/17) of men but 64% (7/11) of women have taken time off for either childbearing or child care. Half of the respondents (21/42) have a formal leave of absence policy at work, 52% (11/21) of which are paid leave programs. Although the workweek of our practicing graduates is 69 +/- 16 hours for men and 64 +/- 12 hours for women, 62% (26/42) spend more than 20 hours per week parenting. More than 80% (27/32) would consider a part-time surgical practice for more parenting involvement; one third of the responders suggested that 30 hours a week constitutes a reasonable part-time practice, one third preferred fewer than 30 hours, and one third favored more than 30 hours per week. Data are presented as mean

  19. Caring for our youngest: public attitudes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, K

    2001-01-01

    Families make choices about employment and care for their children in a context that is shaped by public policies and colored by public opinion. Debates over whether the government should increase funding for child care or do more to help parents stay home with their children reflect tensions among strongly held ideas about family life, work, and the role of government. This article summarizes the results of public opinion polls that probe attitudes about parent and government roles and responsibilities with respect to children's care. The polling findings yield three main lessons: The American public believes that parents should be the primary influence in their children's lives and that it is best if mothers can be home to care for the very young. The public also values family self-sufficiency and understands that low-income families may need child care assistance to balance child rearing and employment responsibilities. However, skepticism about the appropriateness of government involvement in family life limits public support for proposals that the government act directly to provide or improve child care. From these lessons, the author draws several conclusions for policymakers: Policies focused on caregiving should respect the rights of parents to raise their children by ensuring that an array of options is available. Public programs should help families who are struggling economically to balance their obligations to work and family. Rather than directly providing child care services, government should fund community-based child care programs, and provide flexible assistance to help families secure the services they need and want.

  20. Dental Care for a Child with Cleft Lip and Palate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Donor Spotlight Fundraising Ideas Vehicle Donation Volunteer Efforts Dental Care for a Child with Cleft Lip and ... submenu What We Do Cleft & Craniofacial Educational Materials Dental Care for a Child with Cleft Lip and ...

  1. Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) Sunsetted/For Reference ... page is not being updated . The Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) began as the ...

  2. DAP in the 'Hood: Perceptions of Child Care Practices by African American Child Care Directors Caring for Children of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Kay E.; Deihl, Amy; Kyler, Amy

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a qualitative analysis concerning child care practices by six African American directors of subsidized child care centers located in a low-income, racial ethnic minority area of Los Angeles, California. These programs are traditionally African American programs that experienced an influx of Latino immigrant enrollment. Using…

  3. Conceptual Frameworks for Child Care Decision-Making. White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudry, Ajay; Henly, Julia; Meyers, Marcia

    2010-01-01

    This working paper is one in a series of projects initiated by the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) to improve knowledge for child care researchers and policy makers about parental child care decision making. In this paper, the authors identify three distinct conceptual frameworks for understanding child care decisions--a rational…

  4. Collective labor supply and child care expenditures: theory and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klaveren, C.; Ghysels, J.

    2010-01-01

    In this study we examine the collective labor supply choices of dual-earner parents and take into account child care expenditures. We find that the individual labor supplies are hardly affected by changes in the prices of child care services. In addition, the child care price effects on the

  5. Rights in the Workplace: A Guide for Child Care Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Christine; Stoken, Amy; Fritts, Jonathan; Magar, Michele; Bellm, Dan; Shukla, Renu; Vardell, Rosemarie; Wayne, Claudia; Whitebook, Marcy

    Research on child care quality and experience in the field shows that the quality of working conditions are linked to a caregiver's ability to provide quality care. Noting that legal rights that generally apply to most child care teachers are not upheld in every workplace, this guide provides information on federal legal rights of child care…

  6. Parents and the High Cost of Child Care: 2013 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Stephen; Kendall, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    Every week in the United States, nearly 11 million children younger than age 5 are in some type of child care arrangement. On average, these children spend 36 hours a week in child care. While parents are children's first and most important teachers, child care programs provide early learning for millions of young children daily, having a profound…

  7. Active play opportunities at child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Pooja S; Saelens, Brian E; Christakis, Dimitri A

    2015-06-01

    Physical activity (PA) is important for children's health and development, yet preschoolers are not meeting PA recommendations. The objective of this study was to examine different PA opportunities at child care and how variation in indoor versus outdoor and free versus teacher-led opportunities relate to children's PA. An observational study of 98 children (mean age 4.5 years, 49% girls) from 10 child care centers. Classrooms were observed for at least 4 full days per center (total 50 days) to categorize time into (1) not an active play opportunity (APO); (2) naptime; (3) APO, outdoor free play; (4) APO, outdoor teacher-led; (5) APO, indoor free play; and (6) APO, indoor teacher-led. Children wore accelerometers during observations. Linear regression models examined the influence of APO categories on moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time. Children's activity was 73% sedentary, 13% light, and 14% MVPA. For 88% of time children did not have APOs, including 26% time as naptime. On average, 48 minutes per day were APOs (41% sedentary, 18% light, and 41% MVPA), 33 minutes per day were outdoors. The most frequent APO was outdoor free play (8% of time); outdoor teacher-led time was Children were more active and less sedentary outdoors versus indoors and during the child-initiated APOs (indoors and outdoors) versus teacher-led APOs. Preschoolers were presented with significantly fewer than recommended opportunities for PA at child care. More APOs are needed for children to meet recommendations, particularly those that encourage more outdoor time, more teacher-led and child-initiated active play, and flexibility in naptime for preschoolers. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. Early infection and asymptomatic spread of hepatitis A virus in a public child care center in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: should attending children under two years of age be vaccinated?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane M Morais

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted in order to identify hepatitis A virus (HAV serological markers in 418 individuals (mean age, 16.4 years; range, 1 month-80 years at a public child care center in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, as well as to analyze risk factors and determine circulating genotypes. Serum samples were tested using an enzyme immunoassay. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was used to detect and characterize HAV RNA, and sequencing was performed. Anti-HAV antibodies and IgM anti-HAV antibodies were detected, respectively, in 89.5% (374/418 and 10.5% (44/418 of the individuals tested. Acute HAV infection in children was independently correlated with crawling (p < 0.05. In 56.8% (25/44 of the IgM anti-HAV-positive individuals and in 33.3% (5/15 of the IgM anti-HAV-negative individuals presenting clinical symptoms, HAV RNA was detected. Phylogenetic analysis revealed co-circulation of subgenotypes IA and IB in 93.3% (28/30 of the amplified samples. In present study, we verify that 79% (30/38 of children IgM anti-HAV-positive were asymptomatic. In child care centers, this asymptomatic spread is a more serious problem, promoting the infection of young children, who rarely show signs of infection. Therefore, vaccinating children below the age of two might prevent the asymptomatic spread of hepatitis A.

  9. Creating New Child Care Slots in Mini Child Care Centers: Big Bang for the Buck in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Arthur J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Small grants of $7,500 with technical assistance were offered to the child care community of New Jersey to either start or increase licensed capacity in mini-child care centers. Results of a subsequent analysis showed that 26 grantees created 481 new child care slots at an average cost of $561 per slot. (Author/SM)

  10. Our Families, Our Children: The Lesbian and Gay Child Care Task Force Report on Quality Child Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dispenza, Mary

    The Lesbian and Gay Child Care Task Force documented anecdotal evidence of homophobia in child care and school age communities, including: (1) refusal to accept children from lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) families into child care; (2) biased attitudes expressed to children when they speak about their families; and (3) demonstrated…

  11. Diarrhea & Child Care: Controlling Diarrhea in Out-of-Home Child Care. NCEDL Spotlights, No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Robin B.; Pickering, Larry K.

    This report, the fourth in the National Center for Early Development and Learning's (NCEDL) "Spotlights" series, is based on excerpts from a paper presented during a "Research into Practice in Infant/Toddler Care" synthesis conference in fall 1997. The report addresses controlling diarrhea in out-of-home child care. The report…

  12. Non-cognitive Child Outcomes and Universal High Quality Child Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Simonsen, Århus Universitet, Marianne

    universal pre-school programs and family day care vis-à-vis home care. We find that, compared to home care, being enrolled in pre-school at age three does not lead to significant differences in child outcomes at age seven no matter the gender or mother’s level of education. Family day care, on the other......Exploiting a rich panel data child survey merged with administrative records along with a pseudo-experiment generating variation in the take-up of pre-school across municipalities, we provide evidence of the effects on non-cognitive child outcomes of participating in large scale publicly provided...... hand, seems to significantly deteriorate outcomes for boys whose mothers have a lower level of education. Finally, increasing hours in family day care from 30-40 hours per week to 40-50 hours per week and hours in pre-school from 20-30 hours per week to 30-40 hours per week leads to significantly...

  13. Non-cognitive Child Outcomes and Universal High Quality Child Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Simonsen, Marianne

    universal pre-school programs and family day care vis-à-vis home care. We find that, compared to home care, being enrolled in pre-school at age three does not lead to significant differences in child outcomes at age seven no matter the gender or mother's level of education. Family day care, on the other......Exploiting a rich panel data child survey merged with administrative records along with a pseudo-experiment generating variation in the take-up of pre-school across municipalities, we provide evidence of the effects on non-cognitive child outcomes of participating in large scale publicly provided...... hand, seems to significantly deteriorate outcomes for boys whose mothers have a lower level of education. Finally, increasing hours in family day care from 30-40 hours per week to 40-50 hours per week and hours in pre-school from 20-30 hours per week to 30-40 hours per week leads to significantly...

  14. Contracts, Vouchers, and Child Care Subsidy Stability: A Preliminary Look at Associations between Subsidy Payment Mechanism and Stability of Subsidy Receipt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holod, Aleksandra; Johnson, Anna D.; Martin, Anne; Gardner, Margo; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    Background: The federal child care subsidy program, funded through the Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF), is the nation's largest public investment in early child care. However, little is known about whether and how subsidy payment mechanisms relate to the stability of subsidy receipt or the stability of children's care arrangements.…

  15. National Child Care Regulatory, Monitoring and Evaluation Systems Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiene, Richard

    The relation between compliance with child care regulations and the quality of day care programs is discussed, and predictors of child care compliance are identified. Substantial compliance (90-97 percent, but not a full 100 percent compliance with state day care regulations) positively affects children. Low compliance (below 85 percent…

  16. Historical Child Abuse In Out-Of-Home Care: Finland Disclosing And Discussing Its Past

    OpenAIRE

    Mäkelä, Debora

    2015-01-01

    The main focus in this thesis lies in the observation of how the public debate is formulating and developing in Finland in relation to the current implementation of the Inquiry on historical child abuse and neglect in out-of-home care. This thesis analyses the testimonies published around the investigation and on historical child abuse, in the public domain. The release of two documentaries broadcasted on National TV (YLE TV1) in 2013 and 2014 triggered a, however scarce, online public discus...

  17. G. Stanley Hall, Child Study, and the American Public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jacy L

    2016-01-01

    In the final decades of the 19th century psychologist Granville Stanley Hall was among the most prominent pedagogical experts in the nation. The author explores Hall's carefully crafted persona as an educational expert, and his engagements with the American public, from 1880 to 1900, arguably the height of his influence. Drawing from accounts of Hall's lecture circuit in the popular press, a map of his talks across the nation is constructed to assess the geographic scope of his influence. These talks to educators on the psychology underlying childhood and pedagogy, and his views and research on child life more generally, were regularly discussed in newspapers and popular periodicals. The venues in which Hall's ideas were disseminated, discussed, and in some cases, dismissed are described. His efforts to mobilize popular support for, and assistance with, his research endeavors in child study are also discussed. Such efforts were controversial both within the burgeoning field of psychology and among the public. Through his various involvements in pedagogy, and concerted efforts to engage with the American public, Hall helped establish psychology's relevance to parenting and educational practices.

  18. L'inserimento del bambino al nido (Welcoming the Child into Child Care): Perspectives from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, Chiara

    1999-01-01

    Describes various approaches taken by Italian child-care programs to facilitate the young child's transition into a child care setting. Discusses the role of teachers as researchers, the role of parents as partners, and the benefits to young children. (KB)

  19. Options for Improving the Military Child Care System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zellman, Gail L; Gates, Susan M; Cho, Michelle; Shaw, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    .... Care in Child Development Centers (CDCs) is quite costly for DoD to provide; care for the youngest children is particularly expensive since parent fees are based on family income and not on the cost of care...

  20. Early child care and child development: For whom it works and why

    OpenAIRE

    Felfe, Christina; Lalive, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Many countries are currently expanding access to child care for young children. But are all children equally likely to benefit from such expansions? We address this question by adopting a marginal treatment effects framework. We study the West German setting where high quality center - based care is severely rationed and use within state differences in child care supply as exogenous variation in child care attendance. Data from the German Socio-Economic Panel provides comprehensive informa...

  1. Sensitivity in Teachers' Interaction Processes Is Central to the Improvement of Teacher-Child Relationships. Commentary on: "Formations of Attachment Relationships towards Teachers Lead to Conclusions for Public Child Care"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnert, Lieselotte

    2016-01-01

    In this commentary, Ahnert addresses the Beckh and Becker-Stoll's (2016) paper that characterized positive teacher-child relationships through high levels of closeness and low levels of conflict. Once teacher-child relationships are positively established, the children benefit the most in developmental domains which are considered typically weak…

  2. Child care in Vrsac and its development

    OpenAIRE

    Šljapić Živa; Šljapić-Roganović Miljana

    2002-01-01

    Documents concerning history of medicine during the Turkish reign (1552-1716) are very rare. However, there is evidence of plague epidemic in 18th century and cholera epidemic in the 19th century. The first medical institutions: The German Communal Hospital, The Serbian Hospital and the Pharmacy were founded in the second half of the 18th century. In the year 1803, children were vaccinated against variola. The first Serbian book about child care – "Čadoljub" was written by Dr. Gavrilo Pekarov...

  3. Differential Susceptibility to Parenting and Quality Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluess, Michael; Belsky, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Research on differential susceptibility to rearing suggests that infants with difficult temperaments are disproportionately affected by parenting and child care quality, but a major U.S. child care study raises questions as to whether quality of care influences social adjustment. One thousand three hundred sixty-four American children from…

  4. "Who Cares for the Children?" Lessons from a Global Perspective of Child Care Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokteff, Maegan; Piercy, Kathleen W.

    2012-01-01

    We present the argument that the meaning of child care and the policies that address it are explicitly linked with national ideologies, work force participation, economic success, and child outcomes. The relationship between family and child care policies is cyclical in nature, with a nation's ideology and vision of family often driving child care…

  5. One Welfare State, Two Care Regimes: Understanding Developments in Child and Elderly Care Policies in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hooren, F.; Becker, U.

    2012-01-01

    The different development of child and elderly care in the Netherlands reflects the hybrid character of its welfare system, which, until the 1980s, featured both social democratic and conservative elements. While public involvement in the provision of elderly care services rapidly increased after

  6. Maternal and Child Health Handbook use for maternal and child care: a cluster randomized controlled study in rural Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaki, Keiko; Hattori, Tomoko; Toda, Akemi; Mulati, Erna; Hermawan, Lukas; Pritasari, Kirana; Bardosono, Saptawati; Kosen, Soewarta

    2018-01-09

    Effectiveness of the Maternal and Child Health Handbook (MCHHB), a home-based booklet for pregnancy, delivery and postnatal/child health, was evaluated on care acquisition and home care in rural Java, a low service-coverage area. We conducted a health centre-based randomized trial, with a 2-year follow-up. Intervention included (i) MCHHB provision at antenatal care visits; (ii) records and guides by health personnel on and with the MCHHB; and (iii) sensitization of care by volunteers using the MCHHB. The follow-up rate was 70.2% (183, intervention area; 271, control area). Respondents in the intervention area received consecutive MCH services including two doses of tetanus toxoid injections and antenatal care four times or more during pregnancy, professional assistance during child delivery and vitamin A supplements administration to their children, after adjustment for confounding variables and cluster effects (OR = 2.03, 95% CI: 1.19-3.47). In the intervention area, home care (continued breastfeeding; introducing complementary feeding; proper feeding order; varied foods feeding; self-feeding training; and care for cough), perceived support by husbands, and lower underweight rates and stunting rates among children were observed. MCHHB use promoted continuous care acquisition and care at home from pregnancy to early child-rearing stages in rural Java. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.

  7. Perceptions of Administrative and Supervisory Support in Public Child Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonya M. Westbrook

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Using the Child Welfare Organizational Culture Inventory (CWOCI in a public child welfare agency, perceptions of administrative and supervisory support held by employees with social work degrees (BSW and MSW were compared to perceptions of administrative and supervisory support held by employees without social work degrees. Child welfare employees with social work degrees reported lower administrative and supervisory support than employees without social work degrees. Implications for social work educators, public child welfare administrators and supervisors, and future research are presented.

  8. Is Part-Time Child Care Surrogate Parenting? Parents' Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Avis

    The purpose of this survey and report is to gain information about parental planning for child-rearing when the mother is employed. This study is intended to explore mothers' perceptions of possible delegation of some basic child-rearing functions during the mothers' absence for employment. Comparison of the child care arrangements which the…

  9. Training child psychiatrists in rural public mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, T A; Benswanger, E G; Fialkov, M J; Sonis, M

    1987-04-01

    Lack of appropriate training in both public mental health service and rural mental health service is a major factor in the critical shortage of child psychiatrists in rural settings. The authors describe a residency training program in rural public mental health designed to help alleviate that shortage. The program familiarizes fourth-year residents in child psychiatry with the clinical, political, and social aspects of rural public mental health services through didactic and supervisory sessions as well as an eight-month practicum experience involving provision of inservice training and administrative and case-related consultation to staff of mental health agencies. An assessment of the program indicated that participants felt it was beneficial, but the program was only partly successful in increasing the number of child psychiatrists entering practice in rural areas. The authors urge that residency programs in child psychiatry give priority to training child psychiatrists for work in rural settings.

  10. The Identification of Texas Anglo, Black and Chicano Child Rearing and Child Care Practices in Relation to Child Care Career Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Ida Santos; Stone, Norma K.

    To identify cultural factors in both child rearing and child care practices which may influence training of preschool day care personnel, the study ascertained cultural differences in Anglo, Black, and Chicano child rearing practices in Texas and differences in how parents, center personnel, and early childhood professionals viewed appropriate…

  11. Identifying Child-Staff Ratios That Promote Peer Skills in Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iluz, Reli; Adi-Japha, Esther; Klein, Pnina S.

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Early child care policy and practice are grounded in a growing understanding of the importance of the first years of life. In earlier studies, associations between child-staff ratios and peer skills yielded inconsistent findings. The current study used data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study…

  12. Assessment of indoor environment in Paris child day care centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roda, Célina; Barral, Sophie; Ravelomanantsoa, Hanitriniala; Dusséaux, Murielle; Tribout, Martin; Le Moullec, Yvon; Momas, Isabelle

    2011-11-01

    Children are sensitive to indoor environmental pollution. Up until now there has been a lack of data on air quality in child day care centers. The aim of this study is to document the indoor environment quality of Paris child day care centers by repeated measurements, and to compare pollutant levels in child day care centers with levels in Paris dwellings. We selected 28 child day care centers frequented by a random sample of babies who participated in the PARIS birth cohort environmental investigation, and visited the child day care centers for one week twice in one year. Biological contaminants assessed were fungi, endotoxin, dust mite allergens, and chemical pollutants: aldehydes, volatile organic compounds and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Relative humidity, temperature, and carbon dioxide levels were measured simultaneously. A standardized questionnaire was used to gather information about the buildings and their inhabitants. Airborne endotoxin levels in child day care centers were higher than those found in Paris dwellings. Dust mite allergens in child day care centers were below the threshold level for sensitization in the majority of samples, and in common with dwelling samples. Penicillium and Cladosporium were the most commonly identified genera fungi. The child day care center indoor/outdoor ratio for most chemical pollutants was above unity except for NO2, the levels for NO2 being significantly higher than those measured in homes. Chemical and biological contamination in child day care centers appears to be low, apart from endotoxin and NO2. Failure to take child exposure in child day care centers into account could result in an overestimation of children's exposure to other pollutants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Pre-Employment Laboratory Education. Child Care Guidebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Instructional Materials Center.

    This guidebook is designed for use in teaching students enrolled in secondary pre-employment laboratory education (PELE) child care programs. The first of two major sections includes an overview for teachers in planning, conducting, and evaluating a child care program. Specific topics discussed in section 1 include (1) the school-operated center,…

  14. Parents' Child Care Experience: Effects of Sex and Parity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilpin, Andrew R.; Glanville, Bradley B.

    1985-01-01

    Surveyed 94 couples to determine effects on child care experience associated with gender, parity, and various other demographic variables. As expected, women had higher scores than men. Experience was a linear function of parity for men, but not for women, and was unrelated to attitudes toward women. Implications for child care responsibility are…

  15. Business Administration Scale for Family Child Care, BAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talan, Teri N.; Bloom, Paula Jorde

    2009-01-01

    The "BAS for Family Child Care" is the first valid and reliable tool for measuring and improving the overall quality of business and professional practices in family child care settings. It is applicable for multiple uses, including program self-improvement, technical assistance and monitoring, training, research and evaluation, and public…

  16. Child care prices and maternal employment : A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akgunduz, Yusuf Emre; Plantenga, Janneke

    The literature estimates for labor force participation elasticity with regard to child care prices are extensive and varying. While some estimates imply substantial gains from child care subsidies, others find insignificant effects. To determine the causes of the variance, this paper reviews and

  17. Child Care Teachers' Response to Children's Emotional Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hey Jun; Stifter, Cynthia

    2006-01-01

    This observational study examined practices through which child care teachers socialize children's emotion. A specific aim was to describe strategies of teacher intervention in response to emotion displayed by children in child care centers, and to answer the question of differential interactions based on children's age and gender. The results of…

  18. Effects of Quality Improvement System for Child Care Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xin; Shen, Jianping; Kavanaugh, Amy; Lu, Xuejin; Brandi, Karen; Goodman, Jeff; Till, Lance; Watson, Grace

    2011-01-01

    Using multiple years of data collected from about 100 child care centers in Palm Beach County, Florida, the authors studied whether the Quality Improvement System (QIS) made a significant impact on quality of child care centers. Based on a pre- and postresearch design spanning a period of 13 months, QIS appeared to be effective in improving…

  19. Child Care and Cortisol across Early Childhood: Context Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Daniel; Blair, Clancy; Ursache, Alexandra; Wiloughy, Michael; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Veron-Feagans, Lynne; Bratsch-Hines, Mary; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Granger, Douglas A.

    2014-01-01

    A considerable body of literature suggests that children's child-care experiences may impact adrenocortical functioning in early childhood. Yet emerging findings also suggest that the magnitude and sometimes the direction of child-care effects on development may be markedly different for children from higher risk contexts. Using data from a large…

  20. Psychiatric Nursing Care for Adult Survivors of Child

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yvonne van der Zalm; Willem Nugteren; Thóra Hafsteinsdóttir; Cokky van der Venne; Nienke Kool; prof Berno van Meijel

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine what is known from the literature about nursing care of psychiatric patients with a history of child maltreatment. CONCLUSIONS: Psychiatric nurses underline the importance of a routine inquiry of child abuse on admission of patients to psychiatric care, but are reluctant to

  1. Child Care as Script: Children's Descriptions of Daily Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifel, Stuart; Garza, Margaret

    Children's knowledge of daily events in full-day child care was assessed. Interviews with 14 children produced spontaneous narratives that revealed script-like knowledge of the child care day, including events such as indoor play, outdoor play, breakfast, lunch, nap, and snack. Younger children reported a smaller number of events in their…

  2. How Early Child Care Affects Later Development. Science Briefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Science Briefs" summarize the findings and implications of a recent study in basic science or clinical research. This brief reports on the study "Are there Long-Term Effects of Early Child Care?" (J. Belsky, D. L. Vandell, M. Burchinal, K. A. Clarke-Stewart, K. McCartney, M. T. Owen, M. T., and The NICHD Early Child Care Research Network).…

  3. Maternal Education, Early Child Care and the Reproduction of Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Jennifer March; Cavanagh, Shannon E.; Crosnoe, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The social and human capital that educational attainment provides women enables them to better navigate their children's passages through school. In this study, we examine a key mechanism in this intergenerational process: mothers' selection of early child care. Analyses of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development revealed that…

  4. Values and Values Education in Estonian Preschool Child Care Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ülavere, Pärje; Veisson, Marika

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to provide an outline of the values that principals, teachers and parents of preschool child care institutions consider important to be taught to children, and which activities, in their estimation, should be used to implement values education in child care institutions. A total of 978 respondents from all 15…

  5. Child care subsidies with endogenous education and fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, Laurie S.M.

    2014-01-01

    What are the effects of child care subsidies on education, fertility and the sectoral allocation of the labour force? In a general equilibrium setting the availability of affordable professional child care will have an impact on the relative supplies of educated and uneducated workers and the

  6. Child Care Practices and Its Effects to School Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Alfred Raymund C. Panopio

    2017-01-01

    This scholarly work aimed to determine the child care practices that have the potential in honing a child with good school performance. The result of the study led to the formulation of a model that typifies the good child care practices. Since children are on the accepting side, it is the way parents raise a nd rear them that will influence what they will be in the near future. The participants were selected as they are included in the top p...

  7. Are There Long-Term Effects of Early Child Care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsky, Jay; Vandell, Deborah Lowe; Burchinal, Margaret; Clarke-Stewart, K. Alison; McCartney, Kathleen; Owen, Margaret Tresch

    2007-01-01

    Effects of early child care on children's functioning from 4 1/2 years through the end of 6th grade (M age=12.0 years) were examined in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (n=1,364). The results indicated that although parenting was a stronger and more consistent predictor of…

  8. Parent Experiences with State Child Care Subsidy Systems and Their Perceptions of Choice and Quality in Care Selected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikes, Helen; Torquati, Julia; Wang, Cixin; Shjegstad, Brinn

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: This study investigated parents' experiences using Child Care and Development Fund and other state-dispersed child care subsidies, reasons for choosing their current child care program, and perceptions of the quality of child care received from their current program. A telephone survey of 659 parents receiving child care…

  9. Caring: Implications for Child Care and for Family Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderic Beaujot

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Canadian families have changed, in part due to an economy that provides more work opportunities for women, and a cultural orientation that values equal opportunity and diversity in families. In spite of the change, both quantitative and qualitative evidence suggest a continued preference for mothers to spend considerable time with children, especially in the infant and toddler years. Thus, in an average couple, the presence of young children in the home brings wives to reduce their paid work and husbands to increase their paid work. Our reading of parental preferences suggests an interest in more services for young children in the form of early childhood education and child care, but also an interest in policies that would allow parents to spend more time with children through parental leaves, part-time work with good benefits, and subsidies that supplement market income. Many options available to two-parent families are often less feasible for lone parents, giving a higher priority to child care.

  10. Quality Early Education and Child Care From Birth to Kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoghue, Elaine A

    2017-08-01

    High-quality early education and child care for young children improves physical and cognitive outcomes for the children and can result in enhanced school readiness. Preschool education can be viewed as an investment (especially for at-risk children), and studies show a positive return on that investment. Barriers to high-quality early childhood education include inadequate funding and staff education as well as variable regulation and enforcement. Steps that have been taken to improve the quality of early education and child care include creating multidisciplinary, evidence-based child care practice standards; establishing state quality rating and improvement systems; improving federal and state regulations; providing child care health consultation; as well as initiating other innovative partnerships. Pediatricians have a role in promoting quality early education and child care for all children not only in the medical home but also at the community, state, and national levels. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. The Relationship between Practices and Child Care Providers' Beliefs Related to Child Feeding and Obesity Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanigan, Jane D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between child care practices and child care provider knowledge and beliefs about their role in supporting children's healthful eating. Design: Longitudinal design using survey and observation data from baseline and year 1 of the Encouraging Healthy Activity and Eating in Childcare Environments (ENHANCE) pilot…

  12. The Child Health Care System of Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestrovic, Julije; Bralic, Irena; Simetin, Ivana Pavic; Mujkic, Aida; Radonić, Marija; Rodin, Urelija; Trošelj, Mario; Stevanović, Ranko; Benjak, Tomislav; Pristaš, Ivan; Mayer, Dijana; Tomić, Branimir

    2016-10-01

    The Republic of Croatia is a Parliamentary Republic with a population of 4.2 million people that sits on the Adriatic coast within Central Europe. Gross domestic product is approximately 60% of the European Union average, which in turn, limits health service spending. The health system is funded through universal health insurance administered by the Croatian Health Insurance Fund based on the principles of social solidarity and reciprocity. The children of Croatia are guaranteed access to universal primary, hospital, and specialist care provided by a network of health institutions. Pediatricians and school medicine specialists provide comprehensive preventive health care for both preschool and school-aged children. Despite the Croatian War of Independence in the late 20th century, indicators of child health and measures of health service delivery to children and families are steadily improving. However, similar to many European countries, Croatia is experiencing a rise in the "new morbidities" and is responding to these new challenges through a whole society approach to promote healthy lifestyles and insure good quality of life for children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect in Child Care Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    of failure * fear of desertion by caregiver • inappropriate dress for the weather * discomfort when sitting * excessive masturbation , especially when...abusive parents are repeating the child-rearing practices that they had been subjected to as children. In some cases, abused children who 10 become parents...them abreast of the center’s procedures for reporting, the state’s reporting laws, and the specific practices of the state child welfare agency

  14. An Easy Guide to Developing an Emergency Child Care System (Free Child Care in the Aftermath of Major Disasters).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Karl

    A program and related materials for providing child care free of charge in the aftermath of widespread disaster to children ranging in age from infancy through second grade are described in this guidebook. In Section I, the Temporary Emergency Child Care (TECC) program is discussed. In particular, the nature of TECC services is indicated, the…

  15. Creating and Maintaining a Wellness Environment in Child Care Centers Participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofton, Kristi L.; Carr, Deborah H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: This study identifies issues associated with creating and maintaining a wellness environment in child care centers (CCCs) participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP). Methods: Structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with CCC professionals and state agency personnel to develop a survey to assess…

  16. Differential susceptibility to parenting and quality child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluess, Michael; Belsky, Jay

    2010-03-01

    Research on differential susceptibility to rearing suggests that infants with difficult temperaments are disproportionately affected by parenting and child care quality, but a major U.S. child care study raises questions as to whether quality of care influences social adjustment. One thousand three hundred sixty-four American children from reasonably diverse backgrounds were followed from 1 month to 11 years with repeated observational assessments of parenting and child care quality, as well as teacher report and standardized assessments of children's cognitive-academic and social functioning, to determine whether those with histories of difficult temperament proved more susceptible to early rearing effects at ages 10 and 11. Evidence for such differential susceptibility emerges in the case of both parenting and child care quality and with respect to both cognitive-academic and social functioning. Differential susceptibility to parenting and child care quality extends to late middle childhood. J. Belsky, D. L. Vandell, et al.'s (2007) failure to consider such temperament-moderated rearing effects in their evaluation of long-term child care effects misestimates effects of child care quality on social adjustment.

  17. Information for Government Agencies about Specific Environmental Health Issues in Child-Care Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    research on child care environmental health issues, identify key state and regional healthy child care organizations for partnerships, and see how other states are addressing child care environmental health issues.

  18. Private sector in public health care systems

    OpenAIRE

    Matějusová, Lenka

    2008-01-01

    This master thesis is trying to describe the situation of private sector in public health care systems. As a private sector we understand patients, private health insurance companies and private health care providers. The focus is placed on private health care providers, especially in ambulatory treatment. At first there is a definition of health as a main determinant of a health care systems, definition of public and private sectors in health care systems and the difficulties at the market o...

  19. Child and adolescent psychiatry leadership in public mental health, child welfare, and developmental disabilities agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachik, Albert A; Naylor, Michael W; Klaehn, Robert L

    2010-01-01

    Child and adolescent psychiatrists are in a unique position to provide administrative and clinical leadership to public agencies. In mental health, services for children and adolescents in early childhood, school, child welfare, and juvenile justice settings, transition-aged youth programs, workforce development, family and youth leadership programs, and use of Medicaid waivers for home- and community-based service system development are described. In child welfare, collaboration between an academic child psychiatry department and a state child welfare department is described. In developmental disabilities, the role of the child and adolescent psychiatrist administrator is described providing administrative leadership, clinical consultation, quality review, and oversight of health and behavioral health plans for persons with developmental disabilities.

  20. Smoke-Free Child Care = Proyecto de Cuidado Diurno Para Ninos Donde "No se Fuma."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts State Dept. of Public Health, Boston.

    This packet of materials on smoke-free child care contains: (1) "Smoke Free Child Care," a booklet warning child care providers about the dangers of second-hand smoke and the fact that children often imitate adult behaviors, such as smoking; (2) "Smoke-Free Child Care: A Booklet for Family Day Care Providers," warning about the…

  1. 7 CFR 226.17 - Child care center provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... reduced price meals or were title XX beneficiaries. However, children who only receive snacks in an... following meal types—breakfast; lunch; supper; and snack. Reimbursement must not be claimed for more than two meals and one snack or one meal and two snacks provided daily to each child. (4) Each child care...

  2. Intra-Cultural Variation in Child Care Practices in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    This study, comprising three sub-studies, aims to examine how child-rearing practices vary according to different social circumstances in Japan. By comparing teacher-child interaction at mealtimes in day care centres both on an isolated small island located in Okinawa prefecture, Tarama, and in a large industrialised city, Tokyo, the following was…

  3. Child health and child care of very young children in Bolivia, Colombia and Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Urke, Helga Bjørnøy

    2017-01-01

    With the global progress in reduction of child mortality, an increasing concern for the health, development and well-being of the surviving child has emerged. It is estimated that 250 million children are not reaching their developmental potential in developing countries, due to among others malnutrition, inadequate care and exposure to violence. In addition, structural and other social aspects of the immediate family and wider community environment of the child exert influence...

  4. Relating Child Care during Infancy to Externalizing and Internalizing Behaviors in Toddlerhood: How Specific Features of Child Care Quality Matter Depending on a Child's Gender and Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemay, Lise; Bigras, Nathalie; Bouchard, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    This study explored whether the relationships between specific features of child care quality and externalizing and internalizing behaviors in 24-month-old children are moderated by gender and temperament. Questionnaires were used to record children's gender and measure their temperament. Child care quality was observed with the "Échelles…

  5. 2014 Child and Adult Health Care Quality Measures

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Performance rates on frequently reported health care quality measures in the CMS Medicaid/CHIP Child and Adult Core Sets, for FFY 2014 reporting. Dataset contains...

  6. Socio-demographic determinants of paternal centred child care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using structured questionnaire, information was collected on socio economic and ... involvement in child care practices and anthropometric data of the children. ... was significantly associated with stunting and wasting while father's occupation ...

  7. The role of play in Danish child care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Lindqvist, Ditte Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    of child care. To illustrate how play is a developmental activitity for children, an example of a social fantasy play episode is analysed in order to substantiate the claim: that children’s self-organised play-activities propels social development, authenticity and democratic values.......Children’s play is an immensely central part of child care in Scandinavia. This chapter describes how children’s play with peers and friends is supported by the pedagogical environment of Danish child care. It is argued that play is an existential project for children and that opportunites to play...... freely teaches children to become part of the social order, to become good friends and to solve differences through negotiation. Throughout the chapter the environment facilitating children’s play is illustrated with reference to typical Danish child care practices and research results on quality...

  8. 2016 Child and Adult Health Care Quality Measures

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Performance rates on frequently reported health care quality measures in the CMS Medicaid/CHIP Child and Adult Core Sets, for FFY 2016 reporting. Source: Mathematica...

  9. 2015 Child and Adult Health Care Quality Measures

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Performance rates on frequently reported health care quality measures in the CMS Medicaid/CHIP Child and Adult Core Sets, for FFY 2015 reporting. Source: Mathematica...

  10. Interaction Between Physical Environment, Social Environment, and Child Characteristics in Determining Physical Activity at Child Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, J.S.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Kann, D.H.H. van; Stafleu, A.; Candel, M.J.J.M.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Thijs, C.; Vries, N.K.de

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between the child-care environment and physical activity of 2- and 3-year-olds. Based on an ecological view of environmental influences on health behavior, we hypothesized that the social and physical environment, as well as child characteristics (age and

  11. Managing pediatric dental patients: issues raised by the law and changing views of proper child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bross, Donald C

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine legal issues regarding the management of pediatric dental patients and changing views of proper child care. Standards of care in pediatric dentistry are not static. They change in response to research, patterns of reimbursement, patient and parental expectations of reasonable care, and consensus among practitioners. The law pertaining to accountability for pediatric dental patient treatment largely reflects standards of care established by the pediatric dentistry profession. However, the law can also reflect changes in public expectations of reasonable care that can effectively outrun the discipline's efforts to reflect new knowledge or changing public concerns. A major impetus for considering the care of children in all settings has been the increasing recognition of suboptimal children's care, as well as concerns that children have either been abused or neglected in a number of settings. Too often, practices towards children have been untested and based only on the assumption that what is done is "for the child's own good." Pediatric dentists can respond to changing standards of reasonable care for pediatric dental patients, as expressed in legal decisions. They can also usefully consider how attention to child maltreatment has sensitized parents to be better consumers of services on their children's behalf. Rather than reacting only to public pressures for better means of behavior management, the challenge is to exceed expectations via new research and thoughtful anticipation of improvements that can be made.

  12. Gender bias in child care and child health: global patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khera, Rohan; Jain, Snigdha; Lodha, Rakesh; Ramakrishnan, Sivasubramanian

    2014-04-01

    Gender-based discrimination is reported across the spectrum of paediatric healthcare including emergency, inpatient, outpatient and preventive care and is mostly reported from South Asia and China with sporadic reports from Africa and South America. Biases against young girls have been documented even in immunisation percentage, home food allocation, seeking medical care for childhood ailments and percentage of household healthcare expenditures allocated to them. Such gender discrimination in access to medical care is likely to have an influence on the overall health of female children. Over the last five decades, the under-5 sex ratios are worsening in India with declining number of girls. Deliberate parental neglect of girls' essential and life-saving medical care is also an important contributing factor apart from sex-selective abortions to the declining gender ratios. Corrective measures and focused action are needed.

  13. Effects of Prenatal Care on Child Health at Age 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Kelly; Corman, Hope; Schwartz-Soicher, Ofira; Reichman, Nancy E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The broad goal of contemporary prenatal care is to promote the health of the mother, child, and family through the pregnancy, delivery, and the child’s development. Although the vast majority of mothers giving birth in developed countries receive prenatal care, past research has not found compelling evidence that early or adequate prenatal care has favorable effects on birth outcomes. It is possible that prenatal care confers health benefits to the child that do not become apparent until after the perinatal period. Methods Using data from a national urban birth cohort study in the U.S., we estimate the effects of prenatal care on four markers of child health at age 5—maternal-reported health status, asthma diagnosis, overweight, and height. We implement a number of different strategies to address the issue of potential omitted variables bias as well as a large number of specification checks to validate the findings. Results and Conclusions Prenatal care, defined a number of different ways, does not appear to have any effect on the outcomes examined. The findings are robust and suggest that routine health care encounters during the prenatal period could potentially be used more effectively to enhance children’s health trajectories. However, future research is needed to explore the effects of prenatal care on additional child health and developmental outcomes as well as the effects of preconceptional and maternal lifetime helathcare on child health. PMID:22374319

  14. Promoting integration of immigrants. Effects of free child care on child enrollment and parental employment

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Drange; Kjetil Telle

    2015-01-01

    Proficiency in the language spoken by the majority population may be crucial for the cognitive development of children from immigrant families. High-quality child care is believed to promote such language skills, and it is thus of concern that children from immigrant families are underrepresented in formal child care across OECD countries. How can we increase their participation, and can such participation improve family integration? We study an intervention in some districts of Oslo where ch...

  15. Identifying and Intervening in Child Maltreatment and Implementing Related National Guidelines by Public Health Nurses in Finland and Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayoko Suzuki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. This study aimed to investigate how public health nurses identify, intervene in, and implement the guidelines on child maltreatment in Finland and Japan and to compare the data between the two countries. Method. This study employed a cross-sectional design. Public health nurses’ knowledge and skills with respect to child maltreatment prevention were assessed using a questionnaire consisting of three categories: identification, intervention, and implementation of guidelines. Public health nurses working in the area of maternal and child health care in Finland (n=193 and Japan (n=440 were the participants. Results. A significantly higher percentage of Japanese public health nurses identified child maltreatment compared to Finnish public health nurses, while Finnish nurses intervened in child maltreatment better than their Japanese counterparts. In both countries, public health nurses who had read and used the guidelines dealt with child maltreatment better than those who did not. Conclusion. The results suggest that effective training on child maltreatment and the use of guidelines are important to increase public health nurses’ knowledge and skills for identifying and intervening in child maltreatment.

  16. The High Cost of Child Care Puts Quality Care out of Reach for Many Families. Issue Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, Karen

    This issue brief presents data on the cost of child care, collected from local child care resource and referral agencies (CCR&Rs) surveyed by the Children's Defense Fund. The report's key findings on the high cost of child care are: (1) child care for a 4-year-old in a child care center averages $4,000 to $6,000 a year in cities and states…

  17. Child development in primary care: a surveillance proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Renato; Ferreira, José Paulo; Sukiennik, Ricardo; Halpern, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate a child development surveillance tool proposal to be used in primary care, with simultaneous use of the Denver II scale. This was a cross-sectional study of 282 infants aged up to 36 months, enrolled in a public daycare in a countryside community in Rio Grande do Sul/Brazil. Child development was assessed using the surveillance tool and the Denver II scale. The prevalence of probable developmental delay was 53%; most of these cases were in the alert group and 24% had normal development, but with risk factors. At the Denver scale, the prevalence of suspected developmental delay was 32%. When risk factors and sociodemographic variables were assessed, no significant difference was observed. The evaluation of this surveillance tool resulted in objective and comparable data, which were adequate for a screening test. It is easily applicable as a screening tool, even though it was originally designed as a surveillance tool. The inclusion of risk factors to the scoring system is an innovation that allows for the identification of children with suspected delay in addition to developmental milestones, although the definition of parameters and choice of indicators should be thoroughly studied. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. The consequences of implementing a child care voucher: Evidence from Australia, the Netherlands and USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warner, M.; Gradus, R.H.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the USA and Australia, public funding has promoted parental choice by introducing a voucher scheme for child care, where parents are free to choose the provider. The policy experiments and the outcomes in these three countries provide useful information about the consequences of

  19. 41 CFR 102-81.30 - What information must job applicants at child care centers reveal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What information must... Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 81-SECURITY Security § 102-81.30 What information must job applicants at child care centers reveal...

  20. Mothers' Transition Back to Work and Infants' Transition to Child Care: Does Work-Based Child Care Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouteris, Helen; McCaught, Simone; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    The overall aim in this study was twofold: to compare the use of work-based (WB) and non-work-based (NWB) child care on the transition back to the workplace for women after a period of maternity leave, and on the transition into child care for the infants of these women. Thirty-five mothers with infants in WB centres and 44 mothers with infants in…

  1. Priorities for Improving Iowa's Child-Care System: A Five-Year Plan for Early Care and Education. January 2014 Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child and Family Policy Center, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Child and Family Policy Center convened key stakeholders during 2011 and again in 2013 to identify needed improvements to the state's child-care system. This plan reflects the input of focus groups of parents and providers held around Iowa and a planning committee of representatives from public and nonprofit organizations involved with child…

  2. Understanding fatherhood in Greece: father's involvement in child care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Maridaki-Kassotaki

    Full Text Available The present study aims to depict a picture of Greek fathers concerning their involvement in family and child-centered tasks over the first year of the child. Eighty fathers from rural areas with low educational and occupational status and eighty fathers from urban districts with high educational and occupational status were asked to talk about their own perceptions of fatherhood and also their participation into two parenting commitments: (a preparations before and after the birth of the child and (b involvement in play with the child and a variety of daily child-care tasks. The results show that fathers in urban regions were more involved in these activities than their counterparts in rural areas. All fathers valued fatherhood as a pleasant experience. Many fathers, however, stated that child-rearing responsibilities cause them a lot of psychological strain. The results are discussed in relation to the division of roles between spouses in Greek families.

  3. Hard To Find and Difficult To Manage: The Effects of Child Care on the Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emlen, Arthur C.; Koren, Paul E.

    This study, which focused on effects of child care on the workplace, addressed several questions: (1) What kinds of child care arrangements do employed parents make, and why do they make them? (2) Are these parents having difficulty finding child care? (3) Does their ability to manage child care affect their absenteeism and stress? (4) What roles…

  4. Not Babysitting: Work Stress and Well-Being for Family Child Care Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstenblatt, Paula; Faulkner, Monica; Lee, Ahyoung; Doan, Linh Thy; Travis, Dnika

    2014-01-01

    Family child care providers contend with a number of work stressors related to the dual roles of operating a small business and providing child care in their home. Research has documented many sources of work related stress for family child care providers; however, research examining family child care providers' experiences outside of the…

  5. Valuable Work, Minimal Rewards: A Report on the Wisconsin Child Care Work Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Alice; And Others

    A 1994 state-wide survey examined the status of child care profession in Wisconsin. Surveyed were 326 family child care providers, 104 child care center directors, and 254 center teaching staff. Responses indicated that child care teaching staff have experienced a wage increase of just over 1 percent per year since 1988, and continue to earn low…

  6. Improving Support Services for Family Child Care through Relationship-Based Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromer, Juliet; Bibbs, Tonya

    2011-01-01

    Family child care (FCC) providers often experience isolation from other early childhood and child care professionals. Yet, research suggests that providers who network with other providers, engage with community resources, and belong to support groups tend to offer higher quality child care. For example, the Family Child Care Network Impact Study…

  7. The Nonprofit Advantage: Producing Quality in Thick and Thin Child Care Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Gordon; Krashinsky, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Nonprofit child care centers are frequently observed to produce child care which is, on average, of higher quality than care provided in commercial child care centers. In part, this nonprofit advantage is due to different input choices made by nonprofit centers--lower child--staff ratios, better-educated staff and directors, higher rates of…

  8. Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) Participation Continues to Fall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Hannah; Schmit, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Child care subsidies help make quality child care affordable for low-income parents, allowing them to attend work or school to support their families while ensuring their children's healthy development. The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary source of federal funding for child care subsidies for low-income working…

  9. Participation in the child and adult care food program is associated with more nutritious foods and beverages in child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Lorrene D; Boyle, Maria; Chandran, Kumar; Spector, Phil; Whaley, Shannon E; James, Paula; Samuels, Sarah; Hecht, Ken; Crawford, Patricia

    2012-06-01

    Nearly two million California children regularly spend time in child care. Surprisingly little is known about the nutrition environments of these settings. The aim of this study was to compare foods and beverages served to 2- to 5-year-olds by type of child care and participation in the federally funded Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP). A statewide survey of child care providers (n = 429) was administered. Licensed child care was divided into six categories: Head Start centers, state preschools, centers that participate in CACFP, non-CACFP centers, homes that participate in CACFP, and non-CACFP homes. CACFP sites in general, and Head Start centers in particular, served more fruits, vegetables, milk, and meat/meat alternatives, and fewer sweetened beverages and other sweets and snack-type items than non-CACFP sites. Reported barriers to providing nutritious foods included high food costs and lack of training. CACFP participation may be one means by which reimbursement for food can be increased and food offerings improved. Further research should investigate whether promoting CACFP participation can be used to provide healthier nutrition environments in child care and prevent obesity in young children.

  10. Neighborhood Child Opportunity and Individual-Level Pediatric Acute Care Use and Diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Ellen E; Adler, Nancy E; Gottlieb, Laura; Jutte, Douglas P; Robinson, Sarah; Roundfield, Katrina; LeWinn, Kaja Z

    2018-05-01

    : media-1vid110.1542/5751513300001PEDS-VA_2017-2309 Video Abstract OBJECTIVES: Although health care providers and systems are increasingly interested in patients' nonmedical needs as a means to improve health, little is known about neighborhood conditions that contribute to child health problems. We sought to determine if a novel, publicly available measure of neighborhood context, the Child Opportunity Index, was associated with pediatric acute care visit frequency and diagnoses. This cross-sectional study included San Francisco residents <18 years of age with an emergency department and/or urgent care visit to any of 3 medical systems ( N = 47 175) between 2007 and 2011. Hot-spot analysis was used to compare the spatial distribution of neighborhood child opportunity and income. Generalized estimating equation logistic regression models were used to examine independent associations between neighborhood child opportunity and frequent acute care use (≥4 visits per year) and diagnosis group after adjusting for neighborhood income and patient age, sex, race and/or ethnicity, payer, and health system. Neighborhood child opportunity and income had distinct spatial distributions, and we identified different clusters of high- and low-risk neighborhoods. Children living in the lowest opportunity neighborhoods had significantly greater odds of ≥4 acute care visits per year (odds ratio 1.33; 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.73) compared with those in the highest opportunity neighborhoods. Neighborhood child opportunity was negatively associated with visits for respiratory conditions, asthma, assault, and ambulatory care-sensitive conditions but positively associated with injury-related visits. The Child Opportunity Index could be an effective tool for identifying neighborhood factors beyond income related to child health. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. Preschool-aged children's television viewing in child care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakis, Dimitri A; Garrison, Michelle M

    2009-12-01

    The goal was to quantify television viewing in day care settings and to investigate the characteristics of programs that predict viewing. A telephone survey of licensed child care programs in Michigan, Washington, Florida, and Massachusetts was performed. The frequency and quantity of television viewing for infants, toddlers, and preschool-aged children were assessed. With the exception of infants, children in home-based child care programs were exposed to significantly more television on an average day than were children in center-based programs (infants: 0.2 vs 0 hours; toddlers: 1.6 vs 0.1 hours; preschool-aged children: 2.4 vs 0.4 hours). In a regression analysis of daily television time for preschool-aged children in child care, center-based programs were found to have an average of 1.84 fewer hours of television each day, controlling for the other covariates. Significant effect modification was found, in that the impact of home-based versus center-based child care programs differed somewhat depending on educational levels for staff members; having a 2- or 4-year college degree was associated with 1.41 fewer hours of television per day in home-based programs, but no impact of staff education on television use was observed in center-based programs. For many children, previous estimates of screen time significantly underestimated actual amounts. Pediatricians should council parents to minimize screen time in child care settings.

  12. Helping Working Parents: Child Care Options for Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina State Dept. of Administration, Raleigh.

    Seven models representing the existing range of options of employer involvement in day care are described in this paper. The range of options are grouped into two categories: (1) company owned, operated, or subsidized child day care; and (2) employee assistance services, benefits, and policies. The models included in the first category are the…

  13. Not Too Small To Care: Small Businesses and Child Care. National Advisory Panel Exchange #2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichman, Caroline; Reisman, Barbara

    This report of the Child Care Action Committee's National Advisory Panel profiles 29 small businesses employing under 250 workers in 15 states which offer child care benefits to their employees. These businesses do not constitute a representative sample of small businesses. A series of factors for small businesses to consider when planning a child…

  14. Public authority over home care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genet, N.A.; Boerma, W.G.W.; Kroneman, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The ageing society, decreasing resources and financial constraints are putting governments under pressure. Across Europe, division of responsibilities for long-term care are being reconsidered. Under these pressures, the role of governments in home care could be changing. This paper will

  15. Probiotics and child care absence due to infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Rikke Pilmann; Larnkjær, Anni; Ritz, Christian

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The risk of infections is higher in children attending child care compared with children cared for at home. This study examined the effect of a combination of probiotics on absence from child care because of respiratory and gastrointestinal infections in healthy infants aged 8 to 14...... range: 6-16). Intention-to-treat analysis showed no difference between the probiotics and placebo groups (P = .19). Additionally, there was no difference in any of the secondary outcomes between groups; the number of children with doctor-diagnosed upper or lower respiratory tract infections, the number...

  16. The family child care home environment and children's diet quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin-Neelon, Sara E; Vaughn, Amber E; Tovar, Alison; Østbye, Truls; Mazzucca, Stephanie; Ward, Dianne S

    2018-07-01

    Developing healthy eating behaviors and food preferences in early childhood may help establish future healthy diets. Large numbers of children spend time in child care, but little research has assessed the nutritional quality of meals and snacks in family child care homes. Therefore, it is important to assess foods and beverages provided, policies related to nutrition and feeding children, and interactions between providers and children during mealtimes. We examined associations between the nutrition environments of family child care homes and children's diet quality. We assessed the nutrition environments of 166 family child care homes using the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation (EPAO) (scores range: 0-21). We also recorded foods and beverages consumed by 496 children in care and calculated healthy eating index (HEI) (scores range: 0-100). We used a mixed effects linear regression model to examine the association between the EPAO nutrition environment (and EPAO sub-scales) and child HEI, controlling for potential confounders. Family child care homes had a mean (standard deviation, SD) of 7.2 (3.6) children in care, 74.1% of providers were black or African American, and children had a mean (SD) age of 35.7 (11.4) months. In adjusted multivariable models, higher EPAO nutrition score was associated with increased child HEI score (1.16; 95% CI: 0.34, 1.98; p = 0.006). Higher scores on EPAO sub-scales for foods provided (8.98; 95% CI: 3.94, 14.01; p = 0.0006), nutrition education (5.37; 95% CI: 0.80, 9.94; p = 0.02), and nutrition policy (2.36; 95% CI: 0.23, 4.49; p = 0.03) were all associated with greater child HEI score. Foods and beverages served, in addition to nutrition education and nutrition policies in family child care homes, may be promising intervention targets for improving child diet quality. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Maternal Employment, Nonparental Care, Mother-Child Interactions, and Child Outcomes during Preschool Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomaguchi, Kei M.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the relationships between maternal employment, nonparental care, mother-child interactions, and preschoolers' outcomes. Data from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (N = 1,248) show that maternal employment during the previous year, especially full-time employment, was related to care by…

  18. Care for Child Development: an intervention in support of responsive caregiving and early child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, J E; Richter, L M; Daelmans, B

    2018-01-01

    An estimated 43% of children younger than 5 years of age are at elevated risk of failing to achieve their human potential. In response, the World Health Organization and UNICEF developed Care for Child Development (CCD), based on the science of child development, to improve sensitive and responsive caregiving and promote the psychosocial development of young children. In 2015, the World Health Organization and UNICEF identified sites where CCD has been implemented and sustained. The sites were surveyed, and responses were followed up by phone interviews. Project reports provided information on additional sites, and a review of published studies was undertaken to document the effectiveness of CCD for improving child and family outcomes, as well as its feasibility for implementation in resource-constrained communities. The inventory found that CCD had been integrated into existing services in diverse sectors in 19 countries and 23 sites, including child survival, health, nutrition, infant day care, early education, family and child protection and services for children with disabilities. Published and unpublished evaluations have found that CCD interventions can improve child development, growth and health, as well as responsive caregiving. It has also been reported to reduce maternal depression, a known risk factor for poor pregnancy outcomes and poor child health, growth and development. Although CCD has expanded beyond initial implementation sites, only three countries reported having national policy support for integrating CCD into health or other services. Strong interest exists in many countries to move beyond child survival to protect and support optimal child development. The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals depend on children realizing their potential to build healthy and emotionally, cognitively and socially competent future generations. More studies are needed to guide the integration of the CCD approach under different conditions. Nevertheless

  19. Employee motivation and employee performance in child care : the effects of the introduction of market forces on employees in the Dutch child-care sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, Mirjam

    2006-01-01

    Employee Motivation and Employee Performance in Child Care: The Effects of the Introduction of Market Focus on Employees in the Dutch Child-Care Sector Mirjam Plantinga (RUG) This research describes and explains the effects of the introduction of market forces in the Dutch child-care sector on

  20. Employee Motivation and Employee Performance in Child Care : The effects of the Introduction of Market Forces on Employees in the Dutch Child-Care Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, Mirjam

    2006-01-01

    This research describes and explains the effects of the introduction of market forces in the Dutch child-care sector on employee governance, motivation and performance. The Dutch child-care sector is transitioning from a welfare sector into a market sector. The transition process in child care is

  1. Understanding Parents' Child Care Decision-Making: A Foundation for Child Care Policy Making. Research-to-Policy, Research-to-Practice Brief. OPRE 2011-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Roberta

    2011-01-01

    Policies such as those related to child care subsidies and quality rating and improvement systems are designed to increase the likelihood that child care and education arrangements meet developmental needs of children and employment needs of parents. Ultimately, parents select child care arrangements, and the quality and stability of these…

  2. Shedding Further Light on the Effects of Various Types and Quality of Early Child Care on Infant-Mother Attachment Relationship: The Haifa Study of Early Child Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagi, Abraham; Koren-Karie, Nina; Gini, Motti; Ziv, Yair; Joels, Tirtsa

    2002-01-01

    The Haifa Study of Early Child Care examined the unique contribution of various child-care-related correlates to infant-mother attachment. Findings indicated that, after controlling for other potential contributing variables (including mother characteristics, mother-child interaction, and mother- father relationship), center care adversely…

  3. Nutrition and Physical Activity Policies and Practices in Family Child Care Homes in Oregon: Baseline Findings from the Healthy Home Child Care Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Katherine B.; Rice, Kelly R.; Trost, Stewart G.

    2012-01-01

    Baseline findings from the Healthy Home Child Care Project include data from Family Child Care Providers (FCCPs) in Oregon (n=53) who completed assessments of nutrition and physical activity policies and practices and BMI data for children in the care of FCCPs (n=205). Results show that a significant percentage of FCCPs failed to meet child care…

  4. Chiropractic care and public health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Claire; Rubinstein, Sidney M; Côté, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this collaborative summary is to document current chiropractic involvement in the public health movement, reflect on social ecological levels of influence as a profession, and summarize the relationship of chiropractic to the current public health topics of: safety, health issues...... disorders? How can chiropractic use cognitive behavioral therapy to address chronic low back pain as a public health problem? What opportunities exist for doctors of chiropractic to more effectively serve the aging population? What is the role of ethics and the contribution of the chiropractic profession...

  5. Maternal Employment and Child Cognitive Outcomes in the First Three Years of Life: The NICHD Study of Early Child Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane

    2002-01-01

    Examined data on 900 European American children from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care to explore links between maternal employment during the child's first year and child cognitive outcomes. Found that maternal employment by the child's ninth month related to lower school readiness scores at 36 months, with more pronounced effects for certain…

  6. Measuring Child Work and Residence Adjustments to Parents'Long-Term Care Needs

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Stern

    1996-01-01

    This article estimates the effects of various parent and child characteristics on the choice of care arrangements of the parent, taking inot account the potential endogeneity of some of the child chararcteristics. Three equations are estimated: a care choice equation, a child location equation, and a child work equation. Results suggest a hieracrchy of family decision making; child locations affect the care decision, which affect child work decisions. The results also question previous resear...

  7. The child welfare system: through the eyes of public health nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Janet U

    2005-01-01

    This qualitative descriptive study investigates how public health nurses working within the child welfare system view the organization and the organization's effect on their case management practice. Semistructured interviews were conducted utilizing the Bolman-Deal Organizational Model. This model identifies four frames of an organization: symbolic, human resources, political, and structural. A purposive sample of nine nurses and one social worker was selected to participate in comprehensive interviews. Data analysis identified two main themes. The first theme was the presence of organizational structural barriers to providing case management. The second theme was the lack of political influence by the nurses to change the structure of the organization; hence, their skills could be more completely utilized. Public health nurses who work in child welfare will need to systematically analyze their role within the organization and understand how to work in "host settings." Nursing educators need to prepare public health nurses to work in non-health care settings by teaching organizational analysis.

  8. Associations of Caregiver Stress with Working Conditions, Caregiving Practices, and Child Behaviour in Home-Based Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusby, Julie C.; Jones, Laura Backen; Crowley, Ryann; Smolkowski, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Home-based child caregivers face unique stressors related to the nature of their work. One hundred and fifty-five home-based child care providers in Oregon, USA, participated in this cross-sectional correlational study. We investigated associations between indicators of caregiver stress and child care working conditions, the quality of caregiver…

  9. Adapting Child Care Market Price Surveys to Support State Quality Initiatives. White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branscome, Kenley

    2016-01-01

    Recent changes to the Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF) require a state's child care market price survey to: (1) be statistically valid and reliable and (2) reflect variations in the cost of child care services by geographic area, type of provider, and age of child. States may use an alternative methodology for setting payment rates--such as…

  10. Child sex trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation: health care needs of victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Jordan; Crawford-Jakubiak, James E

    2015-03-01

    Child sex trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) are major public health problems in the United States and throughout the world. Despite large numbers of American and foreign youth affected and a plethora of serious physical and mental health problems associated with CSEC, there is limited information available to pediatricians regarding the nature and scope of human trafficking and how pediatricians and other health care providers may help protect children. Knowledge of risk factors, recruitment practices, possible indicators of CSEC, and common medical and behavioral health problems experienced by victims will help pediatricians recognize potential victims and respond appropriately. As health care providers, educators, and leaders in child advocacy, pediatricians play an essential role in addressing the public health issues faced by child victims of CSEC. Their roles can include working to increase recognition of CSEC, providing direct care and anticipatory guidance related to CSEC, engaging in collaborative efforts with medical and nonmedical colleagues to provide for the complex needs of youth, and educating child-serving professionals and the public. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. The History of Children's Engagements in Danish Child Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Jakob Waag; Hviid, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    that make up the Danish tradition and its pedagogical methodologies and practices. Yet, due to a strong present-day educational perspective within the center-based child care, along with the application of standardized and evidence-based programs and evaluations, the pedagogical tradition is fundamentally......In this chapter we investigate the role of children’s engagements in pedagogical practices within the field of center-based child care. Based on a historical analysis, it is argued that children’s engagements have played a central and crucial part throughout the varied pedagogical approaches...

  12. Social innovation in public elder care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilfeldt, Annette; Andersen, John

    2013-01-01

    The chapter addresses the role of action research in social innovation related to elder care work at public nursing homes in Denmark. It is shown how critical utopian action research can contribute to the development of humanity in elder care to the benefit of the residents life quality...

  13. Caring for Your Child's Cold or Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Share Caring for Your Child’s Cold or Flu Page Content ​Unfortunately, there's no cure for the ... or spoon) that is marked in milliliters. Prevention: Flu vaccine Children 6 months or older should get ...

  14. Games and playthings in a child day care center: a bioecological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rute Estanislava Tolocka

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Social changes have contributed to decreased opportunities for children to perform physical activities. Children have been introduced in preschools where the opportunities of playing are insufficient, thus being deprived of the benefits of such activity. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between ludic physical activities and child development. A descriptive study was conducted on 68 children of both genders, aged 4 to 6 years, from a public child day care center. A physical education program was offered twice per week and an event involving other children was carried out. Activities, social roles, interpersonal relations, emotions, and personal characteristics were analyzed. Improvement was observed in interpersonal relations and social relationships, as well as in emotional control. Basic emotions and different child characteristics were expressed. Thus, the introduction of games and playthings at school may contribute to child development and to the engagement of children in physical activities.

  15. Staff immunisation: policy and practice in child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spokes, Paula J; Ferson, Mark J; Ressler, Kelly-Anne

    2011-08-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the level of knowledge among child-care centre directors regarding the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) recommendations for the immunisation of child-care workers, the extent to which this knowledge was translated into practice and any organisational barriers to the development and implementation of staff immunisation policy. A cross-sectional survey, conducted in August 2006, in which a postal questionnaire was sent to a random sample of 784 NSW child-care centres. Centre directors were asked to complete the questionnaire on immunisation knowledge, policy and practice for the centre. A multivariate logistic-regression model was used to identify factors independently associated with centres with an immunisation policy for staff and centres that offered to pay all or part of the cost of vaccination of staff. Directors from 437 centres participated in the study for a response rate of 56%. Of these, 49% were aware of the NHMRC recommendations, and 57% had a staff immunisation policy in place. In the logistic regression model, centres with a written immunisation policy for staff were more likely to be aware of the NHMRC guidelines and offer long day care services. Centres that offered to pay all or part of the cost of immunisation for staff were more likely to be aware of the NHMRC guidelines, offer other child-care services and not operate for profit. Barriers to staff immunisation were related to the implementation of policy and included cost, time and access to information. The level of awareness of specific staff immunisation recommendations was relatively low. The transition of knowledge to policy was encouraging, although implementation of policies requires further commitment. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2011 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  16. Teaching Your Child Healthy Hair Care Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Registration General information Housing & travel Education Exhibit hall Mobile app 2019 Annual Meeting Derm Exam Prep Course ... SkinPAC State societies Scope of practice Truth in advertising NP/PA laws Action center Public and patients ...

  17. Challenges in care of the child with special health care needs in a resource limited environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Ehi Eseigbe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To identify challenges encountered in the care of children with special health care needs in a resource limited environment a 10 year-old child with a diagnosis of Tuberous Sclerosis was studied. Challenges identified were in: making a definitive diagnosis, provision of adequate care, cost of care, meeting parental expectations and accessing community support for the child and family. Available specialist health care and related services, including community rehabilitation, were provided for the child and family. The study highlights the need for improved community awareness, development in the provision of specialist health care services and institution of governmental policies that identify, support and protect children with special health care needs.

  18. Healthy apple program to support child care centers to alter nutrition and physical activity practices and improve child weight: a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stookey, Jodi D; Evans, Jane; Chan, Curtis; Tao-Lew, Lisa; Arana, Tito; Arthur, Susan

    2017-12-19

    North Carolina Nutrition and Physical Activity Self-Assessment for Child Care (NAP SACC) resources improve child body mass index (BMI) when the resources are introduced by nurses to child care providers, and offered with workshops and incentives. In San Francisco, public health and child care agencies partnered to adapt NAP SACC resources into an annual "Healthy Apple" quality improvement program (HAP). This cluster randomized controlled trial pilot-tested integration of the HAP with bi-annual public health screenings by nurses. All child care centers that participated in Child Care Health Program (CCHP) screenings in San Francisco in 2011-2012 were offered routine services plus HAP in 2012-2013 (CCHP + HAP, n = 19) or routine services with delayed HAP in 2014-2015 (CCHP + HAP Delayed, n = 24). Intention-to-treat analyses (robust SE or mixed models) used 4 years of screening data from 12 to 17 CCHP + HAP and 17 to 20 CCHP + HAP Delayed centers, regarding 791 to 945 children ages 2 to 5y, annually. Year-specific, child level models tested if children in CCHP + HAP centers had greater relative odds of exposure to 3 index best practices and smaller Autumn-to-Spring changes in BMI percentile and z-score than children in CCHP + HAP Delayed centers, controlling for age, sex, and Autumn status. Multi-year, child care center level models tested if HAP support modified year-to-year changes (2013-2014 and 2014-2015 vs 2011-2012) in child care center annual mean Autumn-to-Spring BMI changes. In 2011-2012, the CCHP + HAP and CCHP + HAP Delayed centers had similar index practices (public health nursing services was associated with significantly more children exposed to best practices and improvement in child BMI change. The results warrant continued integration of HAP into local public health infrastructure. ISRCTN18857356 (24/04/2015) Retrospectively registered.

  19. [Risk factors associated with mother negligence in child care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Porras, Carolina; Villamizar-Carvajal, Beatriz; Ardila-Suárez, Edinson Fabian

    2016-01-01

    To determine the factors associated with the risk of negligence in child care during the first year of rearing in adolescent and adult mothers. This was cross-sectional correlation study with a non-probabilistic sample composed of 250 mothers during their first year of child rearing. The information was collected through the Parenting Inventory for Teenagers and Adults. 88 teenager mothers and 162 adult mothers participated in this study. In general low scores were found in all dimensions in both adolescent mothers group and adult mother group, which indicate the existence of deficiencies in the adequate maternal behavior and risk of negligent care to their children. In the group of teenage mothers there was an evident and significant correlation between the factors: maternal age and occupation dimension belief in punishment and occupation with inappropriate expectations dimension. The group of adult mothers showed significant correlation between: educational level with the dimensions of role reversal, belief in punishment and lack of empathy; socioeconomic dimension with the belief in punishment and age of the child with the lack of empathy dimension. Child rearing expectations of mothers show a high risk of negligence in child care. Therefore, nurses should promote the strengthening of the maternal role. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  20. The position of the targets of the public health policy of maternal and child in Bandung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugyati, C.; Mariana, D.; Sjoraida, D. F.

    2018-03-01

    This study seeks to make a deep, systematic analysis of the urgency of implementing elements in the implementation of public health policies, especially in the field of mother and child in Bandung City, West Java. This study is important to evaluate whether the government services on maternal and child health is sufficient or not. With the descriptive-qualitative method, this study presents a discussion of how the implementers interact with the community as their targets in implementing public health programs in Bandung City so that their presence is indispensable. With theories of implementation of policies and health campaign, the data was obtained and showed that (a) the unity of the coordination and uniformity of information services, and a network of cooperation in public health institutions, in the Government of Bandung City, have been performed well; (b) in getting their rights the targets are highly motivated for the services of public health and some of them function to be the volunteers to assist local health policy implementers. However, the lack of health care workers who were directly addressing maternal and child health was perceived by the public so well that this study recommends the convening of additional formal health workers in the community.

  1. Caring for the injured child in settings of limited resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Jacob

    2016-02-01

    Children represent the most vulnerable members of our global society, a truth that is magnified when they are physically wounded. In much of the developed world, society has responded by offering protection in the form of law, injury prevention guidelines, and effective trauma systems to provide care for the injured child. Much of our world, though, remains afflicted by poverty and a lack of protective measures. As the globe becomes smaller by way of ease of travel and technology, surgeons are increasingly able to meet these children where they live and in doing so offer their hands and voices to care and protect these young ones. This article is intended as an overview of current issues in pediatric trauma care in the developing world as well as to offer some tips for the volunteer surgeon who may be involved in the care of the injured child in a setting of limited resource availability. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Child Care Subsidies and School Readiness in Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Anna D; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    The federal child care subsidy program represents one of the government’s largest investments in early care and education. Using data from the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study – Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), this paper examines associations, among subsidy-eligible families, between child care subsidy receipt when children are 4 years old and a range of school readiness outcomes in kindergarten (sample n ≈ 1,400). Findings suggest that subsidy receipt in preschool is not directly linked to subsequent reading or social-emotional skills. However, subsidy receipt predicted lower math scores among children attending community-based centers. Supplementary analyses revealed that subsidies predicted greater use of center care, but this association did not appear to affect school readiness. PMID:23461769

  3. Impact of prenatal care on postpartum child care

    OpenAIRE

    NWARU, BRIGHT

    2007-01-01

    Background: Although prenatal care has come a long way to be regarded as a standard routine care in pregnancy since its formal organization in the early 20th century, with several modifications to its content, it is just of recent that considerable attention was drawn to questions about its effectiveness. This awareness has led to several evaluations of the impact of prenatal care. Initially, these assessments concentrated on the effect of prenatal care on the more traditional outcomes (b...

  4. Demands and Job Resources in the Child Care Workforce: Swiss Lead Teacher and Assistant Teacher Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloechliger, Olivia R.; Bauer, Georg F.

    2016-01-01

    Center-based child care has been struggling with poor health and high turnover rates of child care staff and their adverse impact on care quality for decades. Yet little is known about personal and structural antecedents of job resources and job demands that are valid predictors of health and turnover in the child care workforce. Research…

  5. Social Inclusion and Residential Child Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartz, Ida

    to an inclusion perspective, the focal point of this presentation will be on how professionals – with focus on relations and networks – work with the expansion of social opportunities of participation for children and young people in out-of-home care. This paper is based on a Danish practice-research project Børn...... in relation to social inclusion in out-of-home care. How can we conceptualise the cooperative development of professional practices in order to establish flexible alignments of actions relative to problems within complex issues?...

  6. 45 CFR 261.15 - Can a family be penalized if a parent refuses to work because he or she cannot find child care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... work because he or she cannot find child care? 261.15 Section 261.15 Public Welfare Regulations... work because he or she cannot find child care? (a) No, the State may not reduce or terminate assistance based on an individual's refusal to engage in required work if the individual is a single custodial...

  7. 20 CFR 404.349 - When is a child living apart from me in my care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) The child is living apart because of school but spends at least 30 days vacation with you each year... is not in your care if— (1) The child is in active military service; (2) The child is living with his...

  8. State Child Care Regulatory, Monitoring and Evaluation Systems as a Means for Ensuring Quality Child Development Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiene, Richard

    The development of a checklist for use in monitoring and evaluating the quality of child care services, and the implications of use of the checklist by day care providers, are discussed. Several research studies that used the indicator checklist model have attempted to determine whether compliance with state child care regulations has a positive…

  9. Work Environment and Japanese Fathers' Involvement in Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii-Kuntz, Masako

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies mainly examined individual and family factors affecting Japanese fathers' involvement in child care. Along with these factors, we examine how work-related factors such as father-friendly environment at work, workplace's accommodation of parental needs, job stress, and autonomy are associated with Japanese men's participation in…

  10. Child and youth care workers: Profile, nutrition knowledge and food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-08-06

    Aug 6, 2014 ... Child and youth care workers (CCWs) in these centres are encouraged to .... underweight, poor bone health and dental caries (Wenhold et al. 2008:443) ... habits; secondly, children who feel stressed, unsafe or anxious do not eat well, ..... America indicate that even though CCWs seem to be well educated ...

  11. Child Care in the Pioneer Partnerships, 1994 and 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Kelly; Bryant, Donna; Bernier, Kathleen

    Smart Start is North Carolina's partnership between state government and local leaders, service providers, and families to better serve children under 6 years and their families with the aim of ensuring that all children enter school healthy and prepared to succeed. This study examined child care centers in Smart Start counties, focusing on the…

  12. WORKING MOTHERS AND THE NEED FOR CHILD CARE SERVICES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    DATA AND CHARTS DOCUMENT THE RISING NUMBER OF WORKING MOTHERS IN THE UNITED STATES TODAY AND THE INCREASING NEED FOR CHILD CARE SERVICES. DATA WERE OBTAINED FROM U.S. DEPARTMENTS OF LABOR, COMMERCE, AND HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE. NEARLY 10 MILLION MOTHERS WITH CHILDREN UNDER 18 YEARS OF AGE WERE WORKERS IN MARCH 1966. MORE THAN ONE OF THREE…

  13. Outsourcing child care, home cleaning and meal preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelisse-Vermaat, J.R.; Ophem, van J.A.C.; Antonides, G.; Maassen van den Brink, H.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the outsourcing of child care, home cleaning and meal preparation is analysed by means of a socio-economic model that incorporates household-economic, life cycle, lifestyle and health variables. The data (n¿=¿700) were collected during a telephone survey in the Netherlands. About 10%

  14. TQ What?: Applying Total Quality Management to Child Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewes, Dorothy

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the concept of Total Quality Management (TQM), developed by W. Edward Deming and Joseph Juran in 1940s, and its applications for child care centers. Discusses how TQM focuses on customer satisfaction, measuring performance, benchmarking, employee empowerment, and continuous training. Includes a list of suggested readings on TQM. (MDM)

  15. Using drawings to understand the child's experience of child-centred care on admission to a paediatric high dependency unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Mandie; Whitehead, Lisa

    2018-01-01

    Family- and child-centred care are philosophies of care used within paediatrics where the family and/or the child are central to healthcare delivery. This study explored the lived experience of hospitalized school-aged children admitted to a paediatric high dependency unit in New Zealand to gain insight into child-centred care from a child's perspective. An interpretive thematic approach was used where the child was asked to draw a picture of 'a person in the hospital' that was further explored through interviews. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim with an inductive thematic analysis completed, drawing on the child-centred care framework. Twenty-six school-aged children participated. The pictures included drawings of family, staff, children and themselves. The themes generated from the interviews were relationships with themselves, family and staff and psychosocial, emotional and physical support. Children described themselves as co-creators of their own healthcare experience, consistent with child-centred care, while drawing on the principles of family-centred care. Further exploration of the concepts of 'participation versus protection' and 'child as becoming versus child as being' will contribute to translation and integration of child-centred care and family-centred care principles into practice, theory, research and policy.

  16. Use of Child Centered Play Therapy Responses in a Child Care Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro, Joel H.; Muro, Lilia Lamar; Rose, Katherine Kensinger; Webster, Lindsey; Allen, Cassie

    2017-01-01

    The communication process between care providers and children can, at times, be complex. Young children typically lack the verbal language necessary for complex emotional expression. In this article, the authors contend that using some basic "child centered play therapy" (CCPT) techniques would be beneficial in enhancing communicative…

  17. Low Fertility of Highly Educated Women: The Impact of Child Care Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Schrage, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    Most studies of the negative correlation between fertility and education treat education as exogenously raising wages and the cost of child rearing, thus reducing fertility. I relax these assumptions in two respects. First, child costs don't increase with the value of time when external child care is used. Second, over a lifetime, education is endogenous. I model women's choice of education, fertility, and form of child care, allowing for economies of scale in parental child care. Compatibili...

  18. [Inequality in primary care interventions in maternal and child health care in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Tirado, Laura Alejandra; Tirado-Gómez, Laura Leticia; López-Cervantes, Malaquías

    2014-04-01

    To analyze the principal indicators associated with maternal mortality and mortality in children under 1 year of age and evaluate coverage levels and variability among the federative entities of Mexico. Eight interventions in maternal and child primary health care (variables) were studied: complete vaccination series, measles vaccine, and pentavalent vaccine in children under 1 year of age; early breast-feeding; prenatal care with at least one check-up by trained staff; prevalence of contraceptive use among married women of reproductive age; obstetric care in delivery by trained staff; and the administration of tetanus toxoid (TT) to pregnant women. The average and standard deviation of national coverage for each variable was calculated. Within each federative entity the proportion of municipalities with high, medium, and low marginalization was determined. States were ranked by the proportion of municipalities with high marginalization (highest to lowest) and divided into quintiles. Absolute inequality was measured using the observed difference and relative inequality, using the ratio of each variable studied. The average national coverage for the eight variables studied ranged from 86.5% to 97.5%, with administration of TT to pregnant women the lowest and administration of measles vaccine to children under 1 year of age the highest. Obstetric care in delivery, prevalence of contraceptive use, and prenatal checkup were the variables with less equitable coverage. In states with higher levels of marginalization, activities dependent on a structured health system-e.g., obstetric care in delivery-showed lower levels of coverage compared to preventive activities not requiring costly inputs or infrastructure-e.g., early breast-feeding. Interventions exhibiting greater inequity are associated with the lack of medical infrastructure and are more accentuated in federative entities with higher levels of marginalization. Greater public health expenditure is urgently needed

  19. Facilitators and Barriers for Successful Implementation of Interconception Care in Preventive Child Health Care Services in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijpkens, M.K. (Meertien K.); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); Rosman, A.N. (Ageeth N.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjectives Successful implementation of preconception and interconception care contributes to optimizing pregnancy outcomes. While interconception care to new mothers could potentially be provided by Preventive Child Health Care services, this care is currently not routinely available in

  20. Finding Good Child Care: The Essential Questions To Ask When Seeking Quality Care for Your Child. CCAC Information Guide 19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Care Action Campaign, New York, NY.

    This Child Care Action Campaign (CCAC) Information Guide focuses on questions for parents to ask when looking for the right childcare program. The guide provides a checklist for parents to use when evaluating potential or currently used childcare programs. By sharing and discussing the checklist with caregivers, parents and caregivers can work…

  1. Use of Color in Child Care Environments: Application of Color for Wayfinding and Space Definition in Alabama Child Care Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Marilyn A.

    2003-01-01

    Compared the use of color in physical design features associated with the exterior and interior designs of 101 child care centers in Alabama. Found that color was evidenced on the exterior of the centers at just over half of the sample. The interior environments had warm colors and bright accents in the setting; however, the majority of centers…

  2. Losing an only child: the one-child policy and elderly care in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yu

    2014-05-01

    China has had the one-child policy for more than 30 years. It reduced China's population growth within a short period of time and promoted economic development. However, it has also led to difficulties, and this paper focuses on those which pertain to ageing and losing one's only child. Approximately one million families have lost their only child in China. They suffer mentally and physically, and sometimes face social stigma and economic loss. What worries them most, however, is elderly care, which has become a severe crisis for the families who have lost their only children. This article draws upon several qualitative studies and 12 cases reported by the Chinese media in 2012 and 2013, and existing laws and policies for supporting those who have lost only children. It also analyses the current elderly care situation facing these families. The Chinese government has recognized the predicament and provides some help, which is increasing but is still not always adequate. To both sustain China's economic development and limit population growth, it is essential for the government to reform the one-child policy and provide a comprehensive support system for the families who have lost their only children, including financial relief and elderly care, and work to reduce stigma against these families. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Family child care providers' self-perceived role in obesity prevention: working with children, parents, and external influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Marjorie S; Crowley, Angela A; Curry, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    To describe the perspective and strategies of family child care providers (FCCPs) to reduce children's suboptimal weight trajectories. In-person, in-depth interviews with FCCPs. Family child care homes. Seventeen FCCPs caring for children 6 weeks to 9 years old; 94% caring for children paying with a state subsidy. Strategies of FCCP to reduce children's suboptimal weight trajectories. Constant comparative method of qualitative data analysis. Family child care providers described 3 core strategies: (1) improving children's behavior, (2) engaging and educating parents, and (3) leveraging influences external to their relationship with parents to effect positive change and to avoid parental conflict. These strategies were framed within their knowledge of child development, parental communication, and community services. The findings suggest that FCCPs' role in obesity prevention may be framed within knowledge that may be commonly expected of a child care provider. Partnerships between public health policy makers and FCCP may reduce obesigenic environments by employing training and resources that link obesity prevention and child care provider expertise. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Mitigating the Effects of Family Poverty on Early Child Development through Parenting Interventions in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Carolyn Brockmeyer; Weisleder, Adriana; Mendelsohn, Alan L

    2016-04-01

    Poverty related disparities in early child development and school readiness are a major public health crisis, the prevention of which has emerged in recent years as a national priority. Interventions targeting parenting and the quality of the early home language environment are at the forefront of efforts to address these disparities. In this article we discuss the innovative use of the pediatric primary care platform as part of a comprehensive public health strategy to prevent adverse child development outcomes through the promotion of parenting. Models of interventions in the pediatric primary care setting are discussed with evidence of effectiveness reviewed. Taken together, a review of this significant body of work shows the tremendous potential to deliver evidence-based preventive interventions to families at risk for poverty related disparities in child development and school readiness at the time of pediatric primary care visits. We also addresss considerations related to scaling and maximizing the effect of pediatric primary care parenting interventions and provide key policy recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Understanding Cortisol Reactivity across the Day at Child Care: The Potential Buffering Role of Secure Attachments to Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badanes, Lisa S.; Dmitrieva, Julia; Watamura, Sarah Enos

    2012-01-01

    Full-day center-based child care has been repeatedly associated with rising cortisol across the child care day. This study addressed the potential buffering role of attachment to mothers and lead teachers in 110 preschoolers while at child care. Using multi-level modeling and controlling for a number of child, family, and child care factors,…

  6. Early child care and obesity at 12 months of age in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neelon, S E B; Andersen, Camilla Schou; Morgen, C S

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives:Evidence suggests that the child care environment may be more obesogenic than the family home, and previous studies have found that child care use may be associated with obesity in children. Few studies, however, have focused on child care during infancy, which may be an esp...... accepted article preview online, 19 September 2014. doi:10.1038/ijo.2014.173....

  7. The Costs of Being a Child Care Teacher: Revisiting the Problem of Low Wages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Debra J.

    2006-01-01

    The demand for child care in the United States continues to grow, but child care workers' wages remain minimal. Using examples within New Jersey, the author demonstrates how low wages impact child care quality and are directly related to the effects of the competitive marketplace. Various historical, regulatory, and cultural contexts also…

  8. Parents' perspectives of the transition to home when a child has complex technological health care needs.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brenner, Maria

    2015-09-01

    There is an increasing number of children with complex care needs, however, there is limited evidence of the experience of families during the process of transitioning to becoming their child\\'s primary care giver. The aim of this study was to explore parents\\' perspectives of the transition to home of a child with complex respiratory health care needs.

  9. 76 FR 34541 - Child and Adult Care Food Program Improving Management and Program Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    ... 7 CFR Parts 210, 215, 220 et al. Child and Adult Care Food Program Improving Management and Program..., 220, 225, and 226 RIN 0584-AC24 Child and Adult Care Food Program Improving Management and Program... management and integrity in the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), at 67 FR 43447 (June 27, 2002) and...

  10. Competition for a better future? Effects of competition on child care quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akgündüz, Y.E.; Plantenga, J.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about how competition affects child care centers’ quality. This paper examines the impact of competition on the quality of Dutch child care centers. The results show that high density of child care centers in an area improves scores in quality assessment measures. The positive

  11. Child Care Options: A Workplace Initiative for the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Margery Leveen; Fried, Madeline

    This book examines the business community's responsibility to aid employees and their families with child care. It provides information on why businesses should provide child care and how to plan and manage a work-place child care facility. The 11 chapters cover: (1) program design; (2) architecture; (3) playground design; (4) security; (5)…

  12. The Effectiveness of a Brief Asthma Education Intervention for Child Care Providers and Primary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuharth-Pritchett, Stacey; Getch, Yvette Q.

    2016-01-01

    Limited information exists about management of asthma in child care settings and primary school classrooms. The goal of this study was to evaluate a brief asthma management intervention for child care providers and primary school teachers. Child care providers and primary school teachers were recruited to participate in two 3-h workshops on asthma…

  13. Chicago Mothers on Finding and Using Child Care during Nonstandard Work Hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Marcia; Alexander, David; Nicpon, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Few issues confound child care policy more than the fact that very large numbers of mothers work evenings, overnight, or weekend hours when fewer child care programs operate. The authors interviewed 50 single Chicago mothers with nontraditional work hours about their experiences finding and using child care. Participants' responses addressed…

  14. Parents Pleased With Child Care Options and Quality. Research Brief, Volume 96, Number 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Policy Forum, 2008

    2008-01-01

    A recent survey of 430 parents in southeastern Wisconsin finds the majority are satisfied with the quality of their child care arrangements and their options for child care. Most say they would not change anything about their child care arrangement if they had the chance, and nearly two-thirds report a willingness to pay more for their current…

  15. Do Effects of Early Child Care Extend to Age 15 Years? Results from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandell, Deborah Lowe; Belsky, Jay; Burchinal, Margaret; Steinberg, Laurence; Vandergrift, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    Relations between nonrelative child care (birth to 4 1/2 years) and functioning at age 15 were examined (N = 1,364). Both quality and quantity of child care were linked to adolescent functioning. Effects were similar in size as those observed at younger ages. Higher quality care predicted higher cognitive-academic achievement at age 15, with…

  16. Child and Adolescent Mental Health Care in Iran: Current Status and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Vandad; Mojtabai, Ramin; Shahrivar, Zahra; Alaghband-Rad, Javad; Zarafshan, Hadi; Wissow, Lawrence

    2016-11-01

    The need for mental health care among children and adolescents in Iran, as in other low and middle income countries (LAMIC) remains mostly unmet. In this paper, we sought to provide an overview of the extent of unmet need and mental health services in Iran. We also aimed to propose approaches to address this gap. We reviewed the published epidemiologic studies of child and adolescent mental and behavioral health problems in Iran. We also examined the current status of child mental health services and the gaps between current needs and available services based on published literature that included papers published in scientific journals, as well as governmental and other administrative reports. The contextual issues relevant to child mental health care were also explored, as well as the possibilities to introduce new or scale up promising services. Child and adolescent mental and behavioral health problems are highly prevalent in Iran. Different studies have estimated that 16.7% to 36.4% of children and adolescents suffer from one or more mental health problems. However, there is a serious scarcity of resources to meet this need. Available services are delivered by independent public organizations (e.g., Ministry of Health, Welfare Organization, and Ministry of Education) or private sector with inefficient communication and collaboration among them and no mandatory national mental health policy. Available specialized child and adolescent services are mostly confined to small inpatient units and university outpatient facilities in larger cities, and there is a scarce evidence for  the effectiveness of the available services. Expansion of primary care's role in timely detection and management of child and adolescent mental health problems, implementation of task-shifting and -sharing initiatives, as well as improved collaboration among responsible governmental and non-governmental sectors are some of the most promising future venues to improve mental health care for

  17. Public trust in Dutch health care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straten, G.F.M.; Friele, R.D.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the development of a valid and reliable instrument to measure different dimensions of public trust in health care in the Netherlands. This instrument is needed because the concept was not well developed, or operationalized in earlier research. The new instrument will be used

  18. Individual differences in effects of child care quality : The role of child affective self-regulation and gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuizen, Martine L.; Van Aken, Marcel A G; Dubas, Judith S.; Mulder, Hanna; Leseman, Paul P M

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated whether the relation between child care quality and children's socio-emotional behavior depended on children's affective self-regulation skills and gender. Participants were 545 children (Mage=27 months) from 60 center-based child care centers in the Netherlands.

  19. The frequency of outdoor play for preschool age children cared for at home-based child care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Pooja S; Zhou, Chuan; Christakis, Dimitri A

    2012-01-01

    Given that more than 34% of U.S. children are cared for in home-based child care settings and outdoor play is associated with physical activity and other health benefits, we sought to characterize the outdoor play frequency of preschoolers cared for at home-based child care settings and factors associated with outdoor play. Cross-sectional study of 1900 preschoolers (representing approximately 862,800 children) cared for in home-based child care settings (including relative and nonrelative care) using the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort. Only 50% of home-based child care providers reported taking the child outside to walk or play at least once/day. More than one-third of all children did not go outside to play daily with either their parent(s) or home-based child care provider. There were increased odds of going outside daily for children cared for by nonrelatives in the child's home compared with care from a relative. Children with ≥3 regular playmates had greater odds of being taken outdoors by either the parents or child care provider. We did not find statistically significant associations between other child level (age, sex, screen-time), family level (highest education in household, mother's race, employment, exercise frequency), and child care level (hours in care, provider's educational attainment, perception of neighborhood safety) factors and frequency of outdoor play. At a national level, the frequency of outdoor play for preschoolers cared for in home-based child care settings is suboptimal. Further study and efforts to increase outdoor playtime for children in home-based child care settings are needed. Copyright © 2012 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Dual-Military Couples, Child Care and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    ACSC/Williams, Ja Rai A./AY16 1 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY Dual-Military Couples, Child Care & Retention...academic research paper are those of the author( s ) and do not reflect the official policy or position of the US government or the Department of Defense...inclusion. A number of Airmen are married to other military members—a phenomenon coined as “dual-military” marriages. Specifically, 11.3% (35,239) of

  1. Caring for an intimate stranger: parenting a child with psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmi, E; Bellali, T; Papazoglou, I; Karamitri, I; Papadatou, D

    2017-05-01

    The care of an adult son or daughter with psychosis is filled with overwhelming demands caused by the symptomatology and illness exacerbations. Parents display disenfranchised grief over multiple losses and report increased levels of emotional burden. Most studies use quantitative methods and rely on pre-existing theoretical frameworks to investigate, through psychometric measures, the effects of being a carer. Meaning attributions to the disorder, and changes in parent-child relations over time, are poorly understood. This hermeneutic phenomenological study illuminates the subjective experience of parenting a son or daughter with psychosis, as it is lived and described by parents of young adults with psychosis. Findings suggest that the parents' perceptions of their child changes over the course of the disorder, leading to a redefinition of the parent-child relationship, causing alternations in attachment. Findings illuminate the parents' profound guilt over having contributed or not prevented the disorder, over not being 'good' parents and feeling ambivalent towards an 'intimate stranger.' Guilt is compensated by absolute dedication to the son or daughter's care, at the expense of their own well-being. Interventions for parents must be available as soon as possible, both during hospitalization and after discharge. Professionals should provide a therapeutic space, where parents could express intimate thoughts and feelings, address guilt, fear and resentment issues, be assisted in their parenting role as well as in the reconstruction of a sense of self and self-esteem. Professionals are invited to facilitate illness acceptance, provide accurate information, assist parents to redefine their relationship to the child and facilitate the integration of the traumatic experience into their personal and family narrative. Professionals must develop in depth awareness of their biases and attitudes, have an ongoing training on how to respond to the parents' needs, facilitate

  2. Timing of high-quality child care and cognitive, language, and preacademic development

    OpenAIRE

    Li, W; Farkas, G; Duncan, GJ; Burchinal, MR; Vandell, DL

    2013-01-01

    The effects of high- versus low-quality child care during 2 developmental periods (infant-toddlerhood and preschool) were examined using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care. Propensity score matching was used to account for differences in families who used different combinations of child care quality during the 2 developmental periods. Findings indicated that cognitive, language, and preacademic skills prior to school entry were hig...

  3. Public trust in Dutch health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straten, G F M; Friele, R D; Groenewegen, P P

    2002-07-01

    This article describes the development of a valid and reliable instrument to measure different dimensions of public trust in health care in the Netherlands. This instrument is needed because the concept was not well developed, or operationalized in earlier research. The new instrument will be used in a research project to monitor trust and to predict behaviour of people such as consulting "alternative practitioners". The idea for the research was suggested by economic research into public trust. In the study, a phased design was used to overcome the operationalization problem. In the first phase, a qualitative study was conducted; and, in the second, a quantitative study. In the first phase, more than 100 people were interviewed to gain insight into the issues they associated with trust. Eight categories of issues that were derived from the interviews were assumed to be possible dimensions of trust. On the basis of these eight categories and the interviews, a questionnaire was developed that was used in the second phase. In this phase, the questionnaire was sent to 1500 members of a consumer panel; the response was 70 percent. The analysis reveals that six of the eight possible dimensions appear in factor analysis. These dimensions are trust in: the patient-focus of health care providers; macro policies level will have no consequences for patients; expertise of health care providers; quality of care; information supply and communication by care providers and the quality of cooperation. The reliability of most scales is higher than 0.8. The validity of the dimensions is assessed by determining the correlation between the scales on the one hand, and people's experience and a general mark they would assign on the other. We conclude that public trust is a multi-dimensional concept, including not only issues that relate to the patient-doctor relationship, but also issues that relate to health care institutions. The instrument appears to be reliable and valid.

  4. Child care and the development of behavior problems among economically disadvantaged children in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Maldonado-Carreño, Carolina; Li-Grining, Christine P; Chase-Lansdale, P Lindsay

    2010-01-01

    Research examining the longer term influences of child care on children's development has expanded in recent years, but few studies have considered low-income children's experiences in community care arrangements. Using data from the Three-City Study (N=349), the present investigation examines the influences of child care quality, extent and type on low-income children's development of behavior problems during middle childhood (7-11 years old). Higher levels of child care quality were linked to moderate reductions in externalizing behavior problems. High-quality child care was especially protective against the development of behavior problems for boys and African American children. Child care type and the extent of care that children experienced were generally unrelated to behavior problems in middle childhood. © 2010 The Authors. Child Development © 2010 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  5. [Care with the child's health and validation of an educational technology for riverside families].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Elizabeth; de Almeida Siqueira, Aldo; da Silva, Joselice Pereira; Lavor, Lília Cunha

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the knowledge and ways of caring for the child health 0-5 years between riverine (Phase 1), and to validate an educational technology (Phase 2). It was carried out a descriptive qualitative study. With the mothers, focus groups and content analysis were used, and with judges-specialists and target-public-applied, forms. The study revealed that the concern with the care of a child between the riverine families permeates the adversity daily, with dedication and commitment of these families in maintaining the health of their children. The sensitivity listening of mothers indicated the need for a closer relationship between nursing professionals and family. The validation of the educational technology was convergent, within the parameters considered adequate.

  6. The Role of Public Health Insurance in Reducing Child Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wherry, Laura R; Kenney, Genevieve M; Sommers, Benjamin D

    2016-04-01

    Over the past 30 years, there have been major expansions in public health insurance for low-income children in the United States through Medicaid, the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), and other state-based efforts. In addition, many low-income parents have gained Medicaid coverage since 2014 under the Affordable Care Act. Most of the research to date on health insurance coverage among low-income populations has focused on its effect on health care utilization and health outcomes, with much less attention to the financial protection it offers families. We review a growing body of evidence that public health insurance provides important financial benefits to low-income families. Expansions in public health insurance for low-income children and adults are associated with reduced out of pocket medical spending, increased financial stability, and improved material well-being for families. We also review the potential poverty-reducing effects of public health insurance coverage. When out of pocket medical expenses are taken into account in defining the poverty rate, Medicaid plays a significant role in decreasing poverty for many children and families. In addition, public health insurance programs connect families to other social supports such as food assistance programs that also help reduce poverty. We conclude by reviewing emerging evidence that access to public health insurance in childhood has long-term effects for health and economic outcomes in adulthood. Exposure to Medicaid and CHIP during childhood has been linked to decreased mortality and fewer chronic health conditions, better educational attainment, and less reliance on government support later in life. In sum, the nation's public health insurance programs have many important short- and long-term poverty-reducing benefits for low-income families with children. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The art, science and philosophy of child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Meharban

    2009-02-01

    Pediatrics deals with promotion of health and well being of children and not merely diagnosis and treatment of their diseases. Children are truly the foundation of a society because healthy children grow to become healthy and strong adults who can actively participate in the developmental activities of a nation. Health and well being of children is intimately linked with the health, nutrition, education and awareness of their mothers. In order to improve child health and survival, it is therefore important to provide a life-cycle approach for the care of girl children with focus on equal opportunities for their nutrition (from birth through infancy, childhood, adolescence, pregnancy and lactation), optimal health care, education, dignity, empowerment, status and say in society. Every child must be viewed in totality - body, mind, heart and soul, and not in isolation but in context with the dynamics of their ecology, family, friends, teachers and society. We should treat the child and not his disease or laboratory reports. And every contact with the family should be effectively harnessed to provide "holistic care" and not mere "cure". We must give advice regarding life style changes, importance of personal hygiene, promotion of breast feeding, provision of safe environment, personal hygiene, optimal nutrition, immunizations and prevention of accidents. We should try to establish a rapport with the child and his parents to provide them emotionai support and win their faith, trust and confidence. We should make sincere efforts to become knowledgeable, upto-date and a rational physician to practice evidence-based pediatrics. Above all, we must strive to master the sublime art of medicine and acquire the divine gift of healing. And we should not allow technology to further dehumanize medicine!

  8. Diabetes, child care, and performance of family functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Kobos

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Parents caring for a child with diabetes may experience a burden on both a practical and an emotional level. Aim of the research : Analysis of the correlations between the care burden level and the perceived influence of type 1 diabetes in children on the performance of family functions. Material and methods : The study included 112 caregivers of children with diabetes. The following inclusion criteria were taken into account: full family, direct caregiver of the child, the child’s age 3–16 years, disease duration of at least 6 months, and no chronic diseases in siblings. The study material was collected using an interview questionnaire and the Caregiver Burden Scale. Correlation analysis was performed using the Spearman correlation coefficient. The significance level was defined as p = 0.05. Results : A higher burden level of a caregiver in the individual subscales of the CB Scale was associated with a significant decrease in the intensity of performance of the cultural and social function as well as consumption function, the increased amount of time spent with a sick child, and an increase in parental disagreements. The overall burden level differentiated the performance of the religious function. An increase in the burden level on the overall effort subscale was accompanied by lower interest in sex and less frequent sexual intercourse. The higher level of caregiver burden occurs in families where permanent job income has fallen. The differences were shown in the performance of control-socialisation function due to the sense of burden on the environment subscale. Conclusions : The burden level of a caregiver is important in the perceived influence of the child’s illness on the functioning of the family. Stimulating a caregiver in dealing with the problems that are the consequence of the disease, as well as activating and preparing other family members to participate in the care of a sick child, and financial support may

  9. Developing the Child Care Workforce: Understanding "Fight" or "Flight" Amongst Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretherton, Tanya

    2010-01-01

    The early childhood education and care sector in Australia is undergoing a shift in philosophy. Changes in policy are driving the industry towards a combined early childhood education and care focus, away from one only on child care. This move has implications for the skilling of the child care workforce. This report examines workforce development…

  10. Service-Learning Linking Family Child Care Providers, Community Partners, and Preservice Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Pamela W.; Parker, Tameka S.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the implementation of a service-learning project, which was infused into a child development course. The project linked family child care providers, their licensing agency, and 39 preservice teachers in a joint effort to develop a parent handbook to be used by the providers in their child care businesses and to support…

  11. The Demand for Child Care Quality. An Hedonic Price Theory Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagy, Alison P.

    1998-01-01

    An implicit price for child care staff-to-child ratio was used to study demand for child care quality. Direct purchase-of-service contracts or vouchers, which subsidize only providers meeting state regulations, effectively lower implicit price and have little influence on the demand for quality. (Author/SK)

  12. PESTICIDE MEASUREMENT RESULTS FROM THE FIRST NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SURVEY OF CHILD CARE CENTERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately 13 million children are placed in non-parental child care during the work day; however, children's exposures to chemicals in child care centers have not been characterized. To address this data gap, three federal agencies teamed to characterize contaminants in child...

  13. PESTICIDE RESULTS FROM AN INTERAGENCY EFFORT TO CHARACTERIZE CONTAMINANTS IN CHILD CARE CENTERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately 13 million children are placed in non-parental child care during the work day; but, children's exposures to chemicals in child care centers have not been characterized. To address this data gap, three federal agencies teamed to characterize contaminants in child ...

  14. Some Costs of Caring at Home for an Intellectually Handicapped Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetwynd, Jane

    1985-01-01

    Household expenditure patterns of families in the general population were compared with those of 91 families caring for an intellectually handicapped child. Results indicated that handicapped child families spent on average $NZ17 per week more on household items and $NZ7 a week on items related to care of the handicapped child. (Author/CL)

  15. Individual differences in effects of child care quality: The role of child affective self-regulation and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekhuizen, Martine L; Aken, Marcel A G van; Dubas, Judith S; Mulder, Hanna; Leseman, Paul P M

    2015-08-01

    The current study investigated whether the relation between child care quality and children's socio-emotional behavior depended on children's affective self-regulation skills and gender. Participants were 545 children (Mage=27 months) from 60 center-based child care centers in the Netherlands. Multi-level analyses showed that children with low affective self-regulation skills or who were male demonstrated less teacher-rated social competence when exposed to relatively low quality child care. In addition, children with low affective self-regulation skills also showed more social competence in the case of relatively high quality child care, suggesting mechanisms of differential susceptibility. No main effects of child care quality or interactions were found for teacher- and parent-rated externalizing behavior. These findings emphasize the importance of considering children's affective self-regulation skills and gender in understanding the effects of child care quality. High quality child care can be a means to strengthen children's social development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Early Child Care and Adolescent Functioning at the End of High School: Results from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandell, Deborah Lowe; Burchinal, Margaret; Pierce, Kim M.

    2016-01-01

    Relations between early child care and adolescent functioning at the end of high school (EOHS; M age = 18.3 years) were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of 1,214 children. Controlling for extensive measures of family background, early child care was associated with academic standing and behavioral adjustment at the EOHS. More…

  17. Using communities that care for community child maltreatment prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Amy M; Haggerty, Kevin P; de Haan, Benjamin; Catalano, Richard F; Vann, Terri; Vinson, Jean; Lansing, Michaele

    2016-03-01

    The prevention of mental, emotional, and behavioral (MEB) disorders among children and adolescents is a national priority. One mode of implementing community-wide MEB prevention efforts is through evidence-based community mobilization approaches such as Communities That Care (CTC). This article provides an overview of the CTC framework and discusses the adaptation process of CTC to prevent development of MEBs through preventing child abuse and neglect and bolstering child well-being in children aged 0 to 10. Adaptations include those to the intervention itself as well as those to the evaluation approach. Preliminary findings from the Keeping Families Together pilot study of this evolving approach suggest that the implementation was manageable for sites, and community board functioning and community adoption of a science-based approach to prevention in pilot sites looks promising. Implications and next steps are outlined. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Usage and Quality of Formal Child Care Services Experienced by Infants and Toddlers in Foster and Kinship Care: An Australian Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    This research uses data from the Early Childhood in Foster and Kinship Care (ECIFKC) study to identify the proportion of young children, under 2 years of age, in foster and kinship care who use formal child care; weekly hours of child care; predictors of weekly hours of child care; and quality of care experienced. The sample for these analyses…

  19. Child-care chaos and teachers' responsiveness: The indirect associations through teachers' emotion regulation and coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Lieny; Hur, Eunhye; Buettner, Cynthia K

    2016-12-01

    Teachers in early child-care settings are key contributors to children's development. However, the role of teachers' emotional abilities (i.e., emotion regulation and coping skills) and the role of teacher-perceived environmental chaos in relation to their responsiveness to children are understudied. The current study explored the direct and indirect associations between teachers' perceptions of child-care chaos and their self-reported contingent reactions towards children's negative emotions and challenging social interactions via teachers' emotional regulation and coping strategies. The sample consisted of 1129 preschool-aged classroom teachers in day care and public pre-K programs across the US. We first found that child-care chaos was directly associated with teachers' non-supportive reactions after controlling for multiple program and teacher characteristics. In addition, teachers in more chaotic child-care settings had less reappraisal and coping skills, which in turn, was associated with lower levels of positive responsiveness to children. Teachers reporting a higher degree of chaos used more suppression strategies, which in turn, was associated with teachers' non-supportive reactions and fewer expressive encouragement reactions to children's emotions. Results of this exploratory study suggest that it is important to prepare teachers to handle chaotic environments with clear guidelines and rules. In order to encourage teachers' supportive responses to children, intervention programs are needed to address teachers' coping and emotion regulation strategies in early childhood education. Copyright © 2016 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Information on Child Abuse: A Selected Bibliography of Federal Government Publications. Research Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Timothy

    The overall topic of this annotated bibliography, directed to users of the Auburn University libraries, is child abuse. It contains 63 federal government publications in 4 major areas: (1) definitions and prevalence of child abuse, including child pornography and pedophilia, family violence, abductions, and emotional abuse; (2) recent legislation,…

  1. Teaching Note-CASA Volunteerism: Preparing MSW Students for Public Child Welfare Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrick, Jill Duerr; Durst, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to reform public child welfare systems across the nation, Title IV-E child welfare training programs were established over 2 decades ago. Participating students typically engage in a customized educational experience as part of their MSW program that prepares them to work in the field of child welfare upon graduation. This article…

  2. Respite Child Care in California: Alternatives for At-Risk Families. A Report from the California Children's Council.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Vivian; Siegel, Patty

    Respite child care is a form of short-term care provided in a family day care home or a child care center for the purpose of helping families that are experiencing stress. At an average cost of $300 to $400 per month, respite care is cost effective. Since 1983, California's child care resource and referral agencies have administered a small…

  3. Comparing Strategies for Providing Child and Youth Mental Health Care Services in Canada, the United States, and The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronis, Scott T; Slaunwhite, Amanda K; Malcom, Kathryn E

    2017-11-01

    This paper reviews how child and youth mental health care services in Canada, the United States, and the Netherlands are organized and financed in order to identify systems and individual-level factors that may inhibit or discourage access to treatment for youth with mental health problems, such as public or private health insurance coverage, out-of-pocket expenses, and referral requirements for specialized mental health care services. Pathways to care for treatment of mental health problems among children and youth are conceptualized and discussed in reference to health insurance coverage and access to specialty services. We outline reforms to the organization of health care that have been introduced in recent years, and the basket of services covered by public and private insurance schemes. We conclude with a discussion of country-level opportunities to enhance access to child and youth mental health services using existing health policy levers in Canada, the United States and the Netherlands.

  4. Care demands on mothers caring for a child with Down syndrome: Malaysian (Sarawak) mothers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kim Geok; Lim, Khatijah Abdullah; Ling, How Kee

    2015-10-01

    This paper examines the experiences of mothers caring for a child with Down syndrome in the Malaysian (Sarawak) context. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 26 biological mothers of children with Down syndrome aged 18 years and below. They were accessed through selected child health clinics, community-based rehabilitation centres and schools using purposive sampling within two regions in Sarawak, one of the two Borneo States of Malaysia. Major themes emerging within the context of care demands were children's health, developmental delays, daily needs and behaviour issues. The insights obtained into the care demands experienced by mothers of children with Down syndrome have several implications for practice by care professionals. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Indoor versus outdoor time in preschoolers at child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Pooja S; Saelens, Brian E; Zhou, Chuan; Kerr, Jacqueline; Christakis, Dimitri A

    2013-01-01

    Being outdoors may have health benefits including being more physically active. Understanding the relationship between outdoor time and health is hampered by the difficulty of measuring outdoor time. To examine the accuracy and validity of light-sensor and GPS methods for quantifying outdoor time among those aged 3-5 years at child care. A total of 45 children (mean age 4.5 years, 64% boys) from five child care centers wore portable accelerometers with built-in light sensors and a separate GPS device around their waists during child care, providing 80,648 episodes (15 seconds each) for analysis. Direct observation (gold standard) of children being outdoors versus indoors was conducted for 2 days at each center. GPS signal-to-noise ratios, processed through the Personal Activity and Location Measurement System were used to define indoor versus outdoor locations. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were used to determine thresholds for defining being indoors versus outdoors. Data were collected in Fall 2011, analyzed in 2012. Mean observed outdoor time was 63 [±44; range: 18-152] minutes/day. Mean light-sensor levels were significantly higher outdoors. The area under the ROC curve for location based on light sensor for all weather conditions was 0.82 (range: 0.70 on partly cloudy days to 0.97 on sunny days); for GPS, it was 0.89. The light sensor had a sensitivity of 74% and specificity of 86%. GPS had a sensitivity of 82% and specificity of 88%. A light sensor and a GPS device both distinguish indoor from outdoor time for preschoolers with moderate to high levels of accuracy. These devices can increase the feasibility and lower the cost of measuring outdoor time in studies of preschool children. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Report - Results of survey on child care needs - 2017

    CERN Document Server

    Guinot, Genevieve; Weymaere, Emeline; Trilhe, Philippe; Palluel, Stephanie; Mangiorou, Maria-Anna; Mondlane, Bruna; CERN. Geneva. HR Department

    2017-01-01

    In June 2016, a working group reporting to the Director for Finance and Human Resources was established to study the sustainability of CERN nursery and school services. Among actions taken by the working group, a survey was carried out to achieve a better understanding of the needs of CERN families for child care and educational structures, to identify which services are in highest demand (e.g. crèche or early years, primary schooling) and to understand the expectations and preferences of CERN families regarding these services.

  7. Child Care Choices, Food Choices, and Children’s Obesity Status

    OpenAIRE

    Mandal, Bidisha; Powell, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the effect of differences in child care and food environments on obesity among children in the age group of four to six years. To address non-random selection of children into different child care settings, we first predict market price of child care and market wages, and then examine how these affect choice of child care settings and the amount of time children spend in different settings. Using panel data models, we analyze the role of care settings on frequency of consumption o...

  8. Differences in essential newborn care at birth between private and public health facilities in eastern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waiswa, Peter; Akuze, Joseph; Peterson, Stefan; Kerber, Kate; Tetui, Moses; Forsberg, Birger C; Hanson, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    In Uganda and elsewhere, the private sector provides an increasing and significant proportion of maternal and child health services. However, little is known whether private care results in better quality services and improved outcomes compared to the public sector, especially regarding care at the time of birth. To describe the characteristics of care-seekers and assess newborn care practices and services received at public and private facilities in rural eastern Uganda. Within a community-based maternal and newborn care intervention with health systems strengthening, we collected data from mothers with infants at baseline and endline using a structured questionnaire. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate data analysis comparing nine newborn care practices and three composite newborn care indicators among private and public health facilities was conducted. The proportion of women giving birth at private facilities decreased from 25% at baseline to 17% at endline, whereas overall facility births increased. Private health facilities did not perform significantly better than public health facilities in terms of coverage of any essential newborn care interventions, and babies were more likely to receive thermal care practices in public facilities compared to private (68% compared to 60%, p=0.007). Babies born at public health facilities received an average of 7.0 essential newborn care interventions compared to 6.2 at private facilities (pprivate facilities were more likely to have higher parity, lower socio-economic status, less education, to seek antenatal care later in pregnancy, and to have a normal delivery compared to women delivering in public facilities. In this setting, private health facilities serve a vulnerable population and provide access to service for those who might not otherwise have it. However, provision of essential newborn care practices was slightly lower in private compared to public facilities, calling for quality improvement in both

  9. Risk assessment of parents' concerns at 18 months in preventive child health care predicted child abuse and neglect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staal, I.I.E.; Hermanns, J.M.A.; Schrijvers, A.J.P.; van Stel, H.F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: As child maltreatment has a major impact, prevention and early detection of parenting problems are of great importance. We have developed a structured interview which uses parents’ concerns for a joint needs assessment by parents and a child health care nurse, followed by a professional

  10. State Child Care Licensing Laws in the Fifty States: A New Look in the Face of Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulkley, Josephine; Jackson, Jolie

    1989-01-01

    The article reviews state child care licensing legislation in light of reported child abuse and neglect in some such facilities. Recommended are licensing of all facilities of any size or religious affiliation, criminal record screening, at least annual inspections, unannounced inspections, and required notice to parents when abuse has been…

  11. Normal motor milestone development for use to promote child care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdin A. Husaini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Motor behavior is an essential aspect of child development, and usually assessed in terms of age of achievement of motor milestone. The early detection of infants experiencing subtle delays in motor maturation can allow early intervention in developmental problems. Intervention can be more effective if delays are identified early. In order to facilitate the identification of early delays, the Center of Nutrition and Foods Research and Development in Bogor has designed a simple tool to monitor the child (aged 3 to 18 months motor development. Objective To develop an observable of normal gross motor maturation for use to detect deviance or motor delay. Methods A total of 2100 healthy children, aged 3-18 months, from high socio-economic group, in urban and suburban areas, were studied. Body length, weight and motor development were measured on all children. Gross motor development was measured 17 pre selected milestones: lie, sit, crawl, creep, stand Mth assistance, walk with assistance, stand alone, walk alone, and run. Results There were no differences between males and females in the comparison of attainment motor maturation therefore a sex combined curve was developed. Conclusion The curve of normal motor milestone development can be used as a tool to evaluate motor development over time, and/or as a child development card for use in primary health care.

  12. Pinellas Plant: Child Care/Partnership School safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-11-01

    The Albuquerque Operations Office through the Pinellas Plant Area Office is involved in a joint venture to establish a Partnership School and a Day Care Facility at the Plant. The venture is unique in that it is based on a partnership with the local county school system. The county school system will provide the teachers, supplies and classroom furnishings for the operation of the school for pre-kindergarten, kindergarten, first and second grade during regular school hours. The Government will provide the facility and its normal operating and maintenance costs. A Day Care Facility will also be available for children from infancy through the second grade for outside school hours. The day care will be operated as a non-profit corporation. Fees paid by parents with children in the day care center will cove the cost of staff, food, supplies and liability insurance. Again, the government will provide the facility and its normal operating and maintenance costs. Between 75 and 90 children are expected in the first year of operation. The Partnership School will consist of one class each for pre-kindergarten, kindergarten and first grade. Second grade will be added in 1990. The total estimated number of children for both the Child Care and Partnership School should not exceed 200 children. Expected benefits include reduced absenteeism, tardiness and turnover and thus increased productivity. The program will be an asset in recruiting and retaining the best workforce. Other benefits include improved education for the children.

  13. University Opinion Poll 9: Child Care, MPIRG, Lettuce. Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matross, Ronald; And Others

    The University Opinion Poll conducted a survey of student opinion on issues related to University-sponsored day care, the role of the Minnesota Public Interest Research Group (MPIRG) and the University's policy on buying lettuce for its food services. Four hundred fifty-two respondents, 76% of a random sample of University of Minnesota students,…

  14. Social media in public health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kim Normann; Medaglia, Rony; Henriksen, Helle Zinner

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the impacts of social media use in Danish public health care with respect to capabilities, interactions, orientations, and value distribution. Taking an exploratory approach, the paper draws on an array of quantitative and qualitative data, and puts forward four propositions......: social media transform the access to health-related information for patients and general practitioners, the uptake of social media can be a cost driver rather than a cost saver, social media provide empowerment to patients, and the uptake of social media is hindered by legal and privacy concerns...

  15. Child Care and the Development of Behavior Problems among Economically Disadvantaged Children in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Maldonado-Carreno, Carolina; Li-Grining, Christine P.; Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay

    2010-01-01

    Research examining the longer term influences of child care on children's development has expanded in recent years, but few studies have considered low-income children's experiences in community care arrangements. Using data from the Three-City Study (N = 349), the present investigation examines the influences of child care quality, extent and…

  16. Consequences of Teen Parents' Child-Care Arrangements for Mothers and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Blalock, Casey

    2012-01-01

    Using the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (2001-2006; N [image omitted]7,900), the authors examined child-care arrangements among teen parents from birth through prekindergarten. Four latent classes of child care arrangements at 9, 24, and 52 months emerged: (a) "parental care," (b) "center…

  17. State CCDBG Plans to Promote Opportunities for Babies & Toddlers in Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Teresa; Schumacher, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    State child care policies can promote the quality and continuity of early childhood experiences and foster the healthy growth and development of babies and toddlers in all child care settings, especially if they are informed by research. The quality of the relationship between children and those who care for them influences every aspect of young…

  18. Public trust in health care : Exploring the mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schee, E.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate how public trust in health care is formed, by studying the mechanisms behind it, addressing the following research question: ‘Which mechanisms explain differences in public trust in health care?’. Public trust in health care is important. Low levels of trust

  19. Perceptions of the characteristics of the Alberta Nutrition Guidelines for Children and Youth by child care providers may influence early adoption of nutrition guidelines in child care centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulos, Hara; Farmer, Anna; Berry, Tanya R; McCargar, Linda J; Mager, Diana R

    2015-04-01

    In 2008, the Alberta government released the Alberta Nutrition Guidelines for Children and Youth (ANGCY) as a resource for child care facilities to translate nutrition recommendations into practical food choices. Using a multiple case study method, early adoption of the guidelines was examined in two child care centres in Alberta, Canada. Key constructs from the Diffusion of Innovations framework were used to develop an interview protocol based on the perceived characteristics of the guidelines (relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability and observability) by child care providers. Analysis of the ANGCY was conducted by a trained qualitative researcher and validated by an external qualitative researcher. This entailed reviewing guideline content, layout, organisation, presentation, format, comprehensiveness and dissemination to understand whether characteristics of the guidelines affect the adoption process. Data were collected through direct observation, key informant interviews and documentation of field notes. Qualitative data were analysed using content analysis. Overall, the guidelines were perceived positively by child care providers. Child care providers found the guidelines to have a high relative advantage, be compatible with current practice, have a low level of complexity, easy to try and easy to observe changes. It is valuable to understand how child care providers perceive characteristics of guidelines as this is the first step in identifying the needs of child care providers with respect to early adoption and identifying potential educational strategies important for dissemination. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Information and Women’s Intentions: Experimental Evidence About Child Care

    OpenAIRE

    Galasso, Vincenzo; Profeta, Paola; Pronzato, Chiara; Billari, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the effect of providing information about the benefits to children of attending formal child care when women intend to use formal child care so they can work. We postulate that the reaction to the information differs across women according to their characteristics, specifically their level of education. We present a randomized experiment in which 700 Italian women of reproductive age with no children are exposed to positive information about formal child care through a text mes...

  1. Improving the rate and quality of medicaid well child care exams in primary care practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Katy Duncan; Merchen, Eileen; Turner, Crystal D; Vaught, Cara; Fritz, Terrie; Mold, Jim

    2010-07-01

    Providing recommended well child care to children insured bythe Medicaid Program can be challenging. Members of the Department of Family and Preventive Medicine (DFPM) at the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center contracted to help practices improve the rates and quality of well child care visits within the Oklahoma Medicaid Program. Sixteen pediatric and family medicine practices in three Oklahoma counties chose to participate in this quality improvement initiative. The records of Sooner Care-insured children age 0-20 were reviewed for both rate and quality of well child care visits made during the previous twelve months. Performance feedback was provided. Practice guidelines, Sooner Care requirements, and tips from exemplary practices were provided. In two of the counties, a case manager helped practices with challenging patients. Practice Enhancement Assistants (PEAs) then helped practices implement a variety of strategies to increase visit rates and improve the quality of early and periodic screening, diagnosis, and treatment (EPSDT) visits. Information technology (IT) support was provided when needed. The average rates of visits, for all counties combined, increased. Visit rates increased more in the younger age groups (birth to two years). There was significant improvement in quality of visits. Rates and quality improved much more in some practices than in others. A combination of academic detailing, performance feedback, practice facilitation, case management, and IT support produced increases in the quality and rates of EPSDT exams.

  2. Providing Child Care to Military Families. The Role of the Demand Formula in Defining Need and Informing Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moini, Joy S; Zellman, Gail L; Gates, Susan M

    2006-01-01

    .... Difficulty in obtaining child care creates conflicts between parental obligations and mission responsibilities, and if parents have no child care, they may fail to report for duty in order to care for their children...

  3. Organizing to Coordinate Child Care Services. (With an Appendix) The Greater Minneapolis Day Care Association: Early History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, Patricia; Berryman, Pauline

    Systems of coordinating child care services are analyzed as a guide to organizing. Federal Community Child Care (4-C) are the focus of the analysis. In Part I, evolution of coordination, an initial steering committee is followed through its various phases of expansion--initial impetus, visibility, staffing patterns, parent involvement, community…

  4. A stepped-care model of post-disaster child and adolescent mental health service provision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett M. McDermott

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: From a global perspective, natural disasters are common events. Published research highlights that a significant minority of exposed children and adolescents develop disaster-related mental health syndromes and associated functional impairment. Consistent with the considerable unmet need of children and adolescents with regard to psychopathology, there is strong evidence that many children and adolescents with post-disaster mental health presentations are not receiving adequate interventions. Objective: To critique existing child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS models of care and the capacity of such models to deal with any post-disaster surge in clinical demand. Further, to detail an innovative service response; a child and adolescent stepped-care service provision model. Method: A narrative review of traditional CAMHS is presented. Important elements of a disaster response – individual versus community recovery, public health approaches, capacity for promotion and prevention and service reach are discussed and compared with the CAMHS approach. Results: Difficulties with traditional models of care are highlighted across all levels of intervention; from the ability to provide preventative initiatives to the capacity to provide intense specialised posttraumatic stress disorder interventions. In response, our over-arching stepped-care model is advocated. The general response is discussed and details of the three tiers of the model are provided: Tier 1 communication strategy, Tier 2 parent effectiveness and teacher training, and Tier 3 screening linked to trauma-focused cognitive behavioural therapy. Conclusion: In this paper, we argue that traditional CAMHS are not an appropriate model of care to meet the clinical needs of this group in the post-disaster setting. We conclude with suggestions how improved post-disaster child and adolescent mental health outcomes can be achieved by applying an innovative service approach.

  5. A stepped-care model of post-disaster child and adolescent mental health service provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Brett M; Cobham, Vanessa E

    2014-01-01

    From a global perspective, natural disasters are common events. Published research highlights that a significant minority of exposed children and adolescents develop disaster-related mental health syndromes and associated functional impairment. Consistent with the considerable unmet need of children and adolescents with regard to psychopathology, there is strong evidence that many children and adolescents with post-disaster mental health presentations are not receiving adequate interventions. To critique existing child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) models of care and the capacity of such models to deal with any post-disaster surge in clinical demand. Further, to detail an innovative service response; a child and adolescent stepped-care service provision model. A narrative review of traditional CAMHS is presented. Important elements of a disaster response - individual versus community recovery, public health approaches, capacity for promotion and prevention and service reach are discussed and compared with the CAMHS approach. Difficulties with traditional models of care are highlighted across all levels of intervention; from the ability to provide preventative initiatives to the capacity to provide intense specialised posttraumatic stress disorder interventions. In response, our over-arching stepped-care model is advocated. The general response is discussed and details of the three tiers of the model are provided: Tier 1 communication strategy, Tier 2 parent effectiveness and teacher training, and Tier 3 screening linked to trauma-focused cognitive behavioural therapy. In this paper, we argue that traditional CAMHS are not an appropriate model of care to meet the clinical needs of this group in the post-disaster setting. We conclude with suggestions how improved post-disaster child and adolescent mental health outcomes can be achieved by applying an innovative service approach.

  6. Socioeconomic Determinants of the Utilization of Antenatal Care and Child Vaccination in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuhair, Mohd; Roy, Ram Babu

    2017-11-01

    Antenatal care and child vaccination services are adopted worldwide to reduce the risk of child mortality, maternal mortality, and burden of infectious diseases. This article examines the effect of socioeconomic factors on the utilization of antenatal care and child vaccination services in India. The generalized linear model has been used along with the Indian National Family Health Survey data for the period 2005-2006. The analysis shows that the health insurance plan has a significant effect on the use of antenatal care but not in the child vaccination. Furthermore, there is inequality in the utilization of antenatal care as well as child vaccination services and it is positively related to the wealth. The study suggests that there is a need to improve the socioeconomic status of the financially weaker section of the society for improving the use of child and maternal care services.

  7. Swedish Child Health Care nurses conceptions of overweight in children: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isma, Gabriella E; Bramhagen, Ann-Cathrine; Ahlstrom, Gerd; Ostman, Margareta; Dykes, Anna-Karin

    2012-06-14

    Registered Sick Children's Nurses and District Nurses employed at Child Health Care centres are in a position to help prevent childhood overweight and obesity. Prevention of this challenging public health threat could be improved through having a better understanding of how this group of nurses perceives childhood obesity. The aim of this study was to elucidate the conceptions of childhood overweight, including obesity, among nurses working in Child Health Care. A qualitative study using a phenomenographic approach, based on open-ended interviews with 18 Child Health Care nurses (CHC-nurses) strategically selected from 17 Child Health Care Centres in the southern part of Sweden. Four categories of description emerged from the data: Perception of childhood overweight changes, Overweight in younger children a neglected concern, Overweight a delicate issue and Importance of family lifestyle. The participating CHC-nurses conceived overweight in children, primarily obesity in children to be an extensive and serious problem which affects children, families and the surrounding society. Overweight in children was further perceived as a consequence of their parent's lifestyle and their awareness of the problem, which was considered by the CHC-nurses as a sensitive and a provoking issue. It was also perceived that overweight in children is not taken seriously during the pre-school period and that concerns regarding overweight in younger children were mainly about the appearance and not the health of the child. The CHC-nurses perceived that the proportion of overweight children has increased, which Swedish society and the CHC-nurses have adapted to. This adaptation makes it difficult for CHC-nurses to define those children who are overweight. CHC-nurses provide a comprehensive and complex picture of childhood overweight, which includes several difficulties dealing with this issue. Attention to CHC-nurse's conceptions of overweight in children is important since it can affect

  8. Swedish Child Health Care nurses conceptions of overweight in children: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Registered Sick Children’s Nurses and District Nurses employed at Child Health Care centres are in a position to help prevent childhood overweight and obesity. Prevention of this challenging public health threat could be improved through having a better understanding of how this group of nurses perceives childhood obesity. The aim of this study was to elucidate the conceptions of childhood overweight, including obesity, among nurses working in Child Health Care. Method A qualitative study using a phenomenographic approach, based on open-ended interviews with 18 Child Health Care nurses (CHC-nurses) strategically selected from 17 Child Health Care Centres in the southern part of Sweden. Results Four categories of description emerged from the data: Perception of childhood overweight changes, Overweight in younger children a neglected concern, Overweight a delicate issue and Importance of family lifestyle. The participating CHC-nurses conceived overweight in children, primarily obesity in children to be an extensive and serious problem which affects children, families and the surrounding society. Overweight in children was further perceived as a consequence of their parent’s lifestyle and their awareness of the problem, which was considered by the CHC-nurses as a sensitive and a provoking issue. It was also perceived that overweight in children is not taken seriously during the pre-school period and that concerns regarding overweight in younger children were mainly about the appearance and not the health of the child. The CHC-nurses perceived that the proportion of overweight children has increased, which Swedish society and the CHC-nurses have adapted to. This adaptation makes it difficult for CHC-nurses to define those children who are overweight. Conclusion CHC-nurses provide a comprehensive and complex picture of childhood overweight, which includes several difficulties dealing with this issue. Attention to CHC-nurse’s conceptions of overweight in

  9. Challenges in the management of nutritional disorders and communicable diseases in child day care centers: a quantitative and qualitative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantyner, Tulio; Konstantyner, Thais Cláudia Roma de Oliveira; Toloni, Maysa Helena Aguiar; Longo-Silva, Giovana; Taddei, José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo

    2017-03-01

    In Brazil, although many children from low income families attend day care centers with appropriate hygiene practices and food programs, they have nutritional disorders and communicable diseases. This quantitative and qualitative cross-sectional study identified staff challenges in child day care centers and suggested alternative activity management to prevent nutritional disorders and communicable diseases. The study included 71 nursery teachers and 270 children from public and philanthropic day care centers (teacher to child ratios of 1:2.57 and 1:6.40, respectively). Interviews and focus groups were conducted with teachers and parents, and anthropometry and blood samples were drawn from the children by digital puncture. Children in philanthropic child day care centers were more likely to be hospitalized due to communicable diseases. Teachers from philanthropic child day care centers had lower age, income and education and higher work responsibilities based on the number of children and working time. The focus groups characterized institutions with organized routines, standard food practices, difficulties with caretaking, and lack of training to provide healthcare to children. Strategies to improve children's health in day care settings should focus on training of teachers about healthcare and nutrition.

  10. Gatekeepers of health: A qualitative assessment of child care centre staff's perspectives, practices and challenges to enteric illness prevention and management in child care centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams Cindy L

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enteric outbreaks associated with child care centres (CCC have been well documented internationally and in Canada. The current literature focuses on identifying potential risk factors for introduction and transmission of enteric disease, but does not examine why these risk factors happen, how the risk is understood and managed by the staff of CCCs, or what challenges they experience responding to enteric illness. The purpose of this study was to explore the understanding, knowledge and actions of CCC staff regarding enteric illness and outbreaks, and to identify challenges that staff encounter while managing them. Methods Focus groups were conducted with staff of regulated CCCs in Southern Ontario. Five focus groups were held with 40 participants. An open ended style of interviewing was used. Data were analyzed using content analysis. Results CCC staff play an important role in preventing and managing enteric illness. Staff used in-depth knowledge of the children, the centre and their personal experiences to assist in making decisions related to enteric illness. The decisions and actions may differ from guidance provided by public health officials, particularly when faced with challenges related to time, money, staffing and parents. Conclusion CCC staff relied on experience and judgment in coordination with public health information to assist decision-making in the management of enteric illness and outbreaks. Advice and guidance from public health officials to CCC staff needs to be consistent yet flexible so that it may be adapted in a variety of situations and meet regulatory and public health requirements.

  11. Parental Decision Making about Technology and Quality in Child Care Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Katherine K.; Vittrup, Brigitte; Leveridge, Tinney

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study investigated parental decision making about non-parental child care programs based on the technological and quality components of the program, both child-focused and parent-focused. Child-focused variables related to children's access to technology such as computers, educational television programming, and the internet.…

  12. Child Welfare-Involved Youth with Intellectual Disabilities: Pathways into and Placements in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slayter, Elspeth; Springer, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    Existing literature suggests that youth with intellectual disabilities are at increased risk for child maltreatment. Little is known about youth with intellectual disabilities who are supervised by child welfare authorities or living in foster care. Reasons for child welfare system involvement and placement types are explored. In this…

  13. Training of Unskilled Child Care Providers: An In-House Program to Overcome Management's Financial Constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Brian

    An in-house staff development program was designed and implemented for unskilled child caregivers employed at Tiny Tots Educare Academies, Inc., a privately owned and operated child care center located in Ellenton, Florida. Employees had little knowledge of child development and other topics related to early childhood education and, therefore,…

  14. The Influence of Race/Ethnicity on Disadvantaged Mothers' Child Care Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radey, Melissa; Brewster, Karin L.

    2007-01-01

    This study uses data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study [Reichman, N., Teitler, J., Garfinkel, I., & McLanahan, S. (2001). The fragile families and child wellbeing study: Sample and design. "Children and Youth Services Review, 23", 303-326] to describe primary child care arrangements of employed, predominantly low-income mothers…

  15. In Search of Dignity: One Family Caring for Their Child's Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Amy

    2009-01-01

    This article shares a story of a family with a child who has a spastic quadriplegia cerebral palsy, a form of cerebral palsy (CP) that affects all four limbs and torso with debilitating muscle dysfunction. It describes how the family cares for their child's incontinence. It also shares the experience of the child's mother, Kathy, who attributes…

  16. Systematic screening of child abuse in out-of-hours primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, MCM

    2017-01-01

    Child abuse is a serious global health problem. This thesis focused on – improving – the detection of child abuse in the out-of-hours primary care (OOH-PC). The main aim was to assess the diagnostic value of the screening instrument SPUTOVAMO-R2 for child abuse. We found that the detection rate of

  17. [Child health care and its development in Vrsac].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sljapić, Ziva; Sljapić-Roganović, Miljana

    2002-01-01

    Documents concerning history of medicine during the Turkish reign (1552-1716) are very rare. However, there is evidence of plague epidemic in 18th century and colera epidemic in the 19th century. The first medical institutions: The German Communal Hospital, The Serbian Hospital and the Pharmacy were founded in the second half of the 18th century. In the year 1803, children were vaccinated against variola. The first Serbian book about child care--"Cadoljub" was written by Dr. Gavrilo Pekarović (1812-1851) during his studies of medicine in Budapest. In 1927 the city founded a dispensary for the newborn. The Polyclinic for schoolchildren was established as a part of the Health Center in 1934. After World War II, Children's Department was opened in the Health Center, later on it was turned into Mother and Child Center. At the beginning of 1955, a provisional children's ward with 18 beds was established in the former sanatorium, whereas till the end of the year it had 49 beds. In May 1965, it was moved into a new hospital building. After integration of Hospital and the Health Center into a Medical Center in 1967, a department for children was founded and it consisted of the emergency center and a hospital. Parents counseling, dispensary for children and dispensary for schoolchildren were founded in August 1971.

  18. Evaluating child care in the Family Health Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Simone Albino; Fracolli, Lislaine Aparecida

    2016-01-01

    to evaluate the healthcare provided to children under two years old by the Family Health Strategy. evaluative, quantitative, cross-sectional study that used the Primary Care Assessment Tool - Child Version for measuring the access, longitudinality, coordination, integrality, family orientation and community orientation. a total of 586 adults responsible for children under two years old and linked to 33 health units in eleven municipalities of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were interviewed. The evaluation was positive for the attributes longitudinality and coordination, and negative for access, integrality, Family orientation and community orientation. there are discrepancies between health needs of children and what is offered by the service; organizational barriers to access; absence of counter-reference; predominance of curative and long-standing and individual preventive practices; verticalization in organization of actions; and lack of good communication between professionals and users.

  19. Dietary intake of children attending full-time child care: What are they eating away from the child-care center?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Shannon M; Khoury, Jane C; Kalkwarf, Heidi J; Copeland, Kristen

    2015-09-01

    The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics recommends children attending full-time child care obtain one-half to two-thirds of daily nutrient needs during their time at the child-care center, leaving one-third to one-half to be consumed away from the center. Although there are guidelines to optimize dietary intake of children attending child care, little is known about what these children consume away from the center. To describe the dietary intake away from the child-care center for preschool-aged children relative to the expected one-third to one-half proportion of recommended intake, and to examine the relationships between energy intake away from the center with weight status, food group consumption, and low-income status. Cross-sectional study conducted between November 2009 and January 2011. Participants (n=339) attended 30 randomly selected, licensed, full-time child-care centers in Hamilton County, OH. Child weight status and dietary intake (food/beverages consumed outside the child-care setting from the time of pickup from the center to the child's bedtime), including energy and servings of fruits, vegetables, milk, 100% juice, sugar-sweetened beverages, and snack foods. Generalized linear mixed models were used to examine independent associations of food group servings and low-income status to energy intake and energy intake to child weight status. The mean energy intake consumed away from the center (685±17 kcal) was more than the recommended target range (433 to 650 kcal). Intakes of fruits, vegetables, and milk were less than recommended. Food group servings and overweight/obesity status were positively associated with energy intake while away from the center. Preschool-aged children consume more energy and less fruits, vegetables, and milk outside of child-care centers than recommended. Overweight status was associated with children's dietary intake after leaving the child-care center. It may be beneficial to include parents in obesity prevention

  20. Quality assessment of child care services in primary health care settings of Central Karnataka (Davangere District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infectious disease and malnutrition are common in children. Primary health care came into being to decrease the morbidity. Quality assessment is neither clinical research nor technology assessment. It is primarily an administrative device used to monitor performance to determine whether it continues to remain within acceptable bounds. Aims and Objectives: To assess the quality of service in the delivery of child health care in a primary health care setting. To evaluate client satisfaction. To assess utilization of facilities by the community. Materials and Methods: Study Type: Cross-sectional community-based study. Quality assessment was done by taking 30-50%, of the service provider. Client satisfaction was determined with 1 Immunization and child examination-90 clients each. Utilization of services was assessed among 478 households. Statistical Analysis: Proportions, Likert′s scale to grade the services and Chi-square. Results: Immunization service: Identification of needed vaccine, preparation and care was average. Vaccination technique, documentation, EPI education, maintenance of cold chain and supplies were excellent. Client satisfaction was good. Growth monitoring: It was excellent except for mother′s education andoutreach educational session . Acute respiratory tract infection care: History, physical examination, ARI education were poor. Classification, treatment and referral were excellent. Client satisfaction was good. Diarrheal disease care: History taking was excellent. But examination, classification, treatment, ORT education were poor. Conclusion: Mothers education was not stressed by service providers. Service providers′ knowledge do not go with the quality of service rendered. Physical examination of the child was not good. Except for immunization other services were average.

  1. Maternal autonomy and child health care utilization in India: results from the National Family Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Chetna; Malhotra, Rahul; Østbye, Truls; Subramanian, S V

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association of maternal autonomy with preventive and curative child health care utilization in India. Data from the National Family Health Survey 2005-2006 were used to ascertain association of maternal autonomy (in 3 dimensions: decision making, access to financial resources, freedom of movement) with child's primary immunization status (indicative of preventive health care use) and treatment seeking for child's acute respiratory infection (indicative of curative health care use). Low maternal freedom of movement was associated with higher odds of incomplete primary immunization of the child and for not seeking treatment for the child's acute respiratory infection. Low maternal financial access was associated with increased odds for incomplete primary immunization of the child. The findings show that improvement in autonomy of Indian mothers, especially their freedom of movement, may help improve utilization of health care for their children. © 2012 APJPH.

  2. Fathers' Involvement in Child Care and Perceptions of Parenting Skill over the Transition to Parenthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Amy A.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.; Deutsch, Francine M.; Perry-Jenkins, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    This study explored first-time fathers' perceived child care skill over the transition to parenthood, based on face-to-face interviews of 152 working-class, dual-earner couples. Analyses examined the associations among fathers' perceived skill and prenatal perception of skill, child care involvement, mothers' breastfeeding, maternal gatekeeping,…

  3. Child Care Time, Parents’ Well-Being, and Gender: Evidence from the American Time Use Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeters, Anne; Gracia, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    This study used data from the ‘Well Being Module’ of the 2010 American Time Use Survey (N = 1699) to analyze how parents experience child care time in terms of meaning and stress levels. Multivariate multilevel regressions showed clear differences by gender and the circumstances of child care

  4. Can You Hear Me Now? Staff-Parent Communication in Child Care Centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedy, Cindy Kennedy; McGrath, Wendy Hobbins

    2010-01-01

    Supporting the growth and development of young children through effective communication with parents is one of the greatest challenges of the twenty-first century facing early childhood and special educators. This article examines adult communication in child care centres through data gathered via a mixed-method study of child care directors'…

  5. An Exploratory Study of the Impacts of an Employer-Supported Child Care Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Taryn W.; Warner, Mildred E.

    2011-01-01

    Although employer-sponsored child care programs have become more common, there is little empirical research on whether these programs affect employees' satisfaction with child care or their work-life balance, and if effects vary across employee characteristics. In this exploratory study, we administered a survey to employees with children at one…

  6. Child malnutrition and prenatal care: Evidence from three Latin American countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Forero-Ramirez (Nohora); L.F. Gamboa (Luis F.); A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh); R.A. Sparrow (Robert)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjective. To examine the effect of prenatal care (PNC) on the level and distribution of child stunting in three Andean countries-Bolivia, Colombia, and Peru-where expanding access to such care has been an explicit policy intervention to tackle child malnutrition in utero and during

  7. Child Care Provider Awareness and Prevention of Cytomegalovirus and Other Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Magnusson, Brianna M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Child care facilities are prime locations for the transmission of infectious and communicable diseases. Children and child care providers are at high risk for cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection which causes severe birth defects and developmental delays. Objective: The goals of study were: (1) to determine the level of cytomegalovirus…

  8. Post-up study : Postpartum depression screening in well-child care and maternal outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Zee-Van Den Berg, Angarath I.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M.; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Catharina G.M.; IJzerman, Maarten J.; Haasnoot-Smallegange, Riet M.E.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Postpartum depression often remains unaddressed. Screening in well-child care (WCC) may improve early detection, promote maternal recovery, and reduce effects on child development. We assessed the effectiveness of screening for postpartum depression in WCC compared with care as usual

  9. Post-Up Study : Postpartum Depression Screening in Well-Child Care and Maternal Outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee-van den Berg, Angarath I; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Catharina G M; IJzerman, Maarten J; Haasnoot-Smallegange, Riet M E; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Postpartum depression often remains unaddressed. Screening in well-child care (WCC) may improve early detection, promote maternal recovery, and reduce effects on child development. We assessed the effectiveness of screening for postpartum depression in WCC compared with care as usual

  10. Implementing the Child Care and Development Block Grant Reauthorization: A Guide for States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Hannah; Schulman, Karen; Vogtman, Julie; Johnson-Staub, Christine; Blank, Helen

    2015-01-01

    In November 2014, with broad bipartisan support, Congress reauthorized CCDBG [Child Care and Development Block Grant] (the major federal child care program) for the first time since 1996. The new law strengthens CCDBG's dual role as a major early childhood education program and a work support for low-income families. This implementation guide is…

  11. Assessing the Local Need for Family and Child Care Services: A Small Area Utilization Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percy, Andrew; Carr-Hill, Roy; Dixon, Paul; Jamison, James Q.

    2000-01-01

    Describes study of administrative data from Northern Ireland on the costs of family and child care services, using small area utilization modeling, to derive a new set of needs indicators that could be used within the family and child care capitation funding formula. Argues that small area utilization modeling produces a fairer and more equitable…

  12. Exploring Cultural Differences in Children's Exposure to Television in Home-Based Child Care Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivers, Eva Marie; Barr, Rachel

    2007-01-01

    This article compares patterns of television use between African American and Latino child care providers in low-income households that are caring for children under the age of 5 years. Everyday experiences such as television viewing may impede or support healthy child development. Because both poverty and minority status put children at risk for…

  13. The Work-Family Support Roles of Child Care Providers across Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromer, Juliet; Henly, Julia R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a qualitative investigation of the work-family support roles of a sample of 29 child care providers serving low-income families in the Chicago area (16 family, friend, and neighbor providers (FFN), 7 licensed family child care providers (FCC), and 6 center-based teachers). Providers report offering low-income parents…

  14. Labor Supply Heterogeneity and Demand for Child Care of Mothers with Young Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apps, Patricia F.; Kabátek, J.; Rees, Ray; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a static structural model of hours of market labor supply, time spent on child care and other domestic work, and bought in child care for married or cohabiting mothers with pre-school age children. The father's behavior is taken as given. The main goal is to analyze the

  15. 77 FR 45297 - Children's Toys and Child Care Articles Containing Phthalates; Proposed Guidance on Inaccessible...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1199 [Docket No. CPSC-2012-0040] Children's Toys... containing phthalates does not apply to any component part of children's toys or child care articles that is... guidance on inaccessible component parts in children's toys or child care articles subject to section 108...

  16. 78 FR 10503 - Children's Toys and Child Care Articles Containing Phthalates; Final Guidance on Inaccessible...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION [Docket No. CPSC-2012-0040] 16 CFR Part 1199 Children's Toys... does not apply to any component part of children's toys or child care articles that is not accessible... parts in children's toys or child care articles subject to section 108 of the CPSIA. DATES: This rule is...

  17. Worthy Work, Unlivable Wages: The National Child Care Staffing Study, 1988-1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitebook, Marcy; Howes, Carollee; Phillips, Deborah

    In 1988, the National Child Care Staffing Study first gathered information on staffing and quality from a sample of child care centers in five metropolitan areas--Atlanta, Boston, Detroit, Phoenix, and Seattle--and returned for updated information in 1992. In 1997, directors of the original sample of centers still in operation were contacted again…

  18. Physical Activity in Child-Care Centers: Do Teachers Hold the Key to the Playground?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Kristen A.; Kendeigh, Cassandra A.; Saelens, Brian E.; Kalkwarf, Heidi J.; Sherman, Susan N.

    2012-01-01

    Many (56%) US children aged 3-5 years are in center-based childcare and are not obtaining recommended levels of physical activity. In order to determine what child-care teachers/providers perceived as benefits and barriers to children's physical activity in child-care centers, we conducted nine focus groups and 13 one-on-one interviews with 49…

  19. In the Wake of the Subtle Revolution--Opportunities and Challenges in Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCroskey, Jacquelyn

    1984-01-01

    Explores the role of industrial social workers in employer supported child care services. Discusses current employer supported child care efforts, their relationship to industrial social work (i.e., through Employer Assistance Programs), possible problems related to this trend, and the immediate challenges for social workers in developing…

  20. Effects of Universal Child Care Participation on Pre-teen Skills and Risky Behaviors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Simonsen, Marianne

    This paper uses a Danish panel data child survey merged with administrative records along with a pseudo-experiment that generates variation in the take-up of preschool across municipalities to investigate pre-teenage effects of child care participation at age three (either parental care, preschoo...

  1. A Policy Analysis of Child Care Subsidies: Increasing Quality, Access, and Affordability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodie-Dyer, Amber

    2011-01-01

    Changing family dynamics over the past four decades, including rises in the numbers of working mothers and single-parent families, have created an increased need for affordable child care. Government response to this need has involved a number of stop-and-start policy approaches, which have led to a fractured child care system that makes it…

  2. 78 FR 49249 - Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF) Program; Reopening of Comment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Part 98 Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF... Development Fund (CCDF), published in the Federal Register of May 20, 2013. The proposed rule makes changes to..., Office of Child Care, 202-205-0750 (not a toll-free call). Deaf and hearing impaired individuals may call...

  3. Mental Health Screening in Child Care: Impact of a Statewide Training Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Mary Margaret; Heller, Sherryl Scott; Nagle, Geoffrey A.; Boothe, Allison; Keyes, Angela; Rice, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Child care settings may provide an optimal setting for identification of early childhood mental health problems. However, little is known about child care providers' attitudes or knowledge about screening for children's mental health problems. Both attitudes and perceived knowledge could affect the successful implementation of mental health…

  4. The Child Day Care Recycling Fund Experiment: The Waiting List Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Gary L.; And Others

    The Recycling Fund Concept was conceptualized as a special allocation of money for the purpose of expanding child care services for preschool children of low-income parents who were or had been recipients of Aid to Families with Dependent Children in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina. In 1985, North Carolina's Child Care Resources Incorporated…

  5. Child Care Funding Sources for California School Districts. CRB 08-014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Lisa K.

    2008-01-01

    School districts are central players in the child care delivery system: they operate a mix of child care centers and programs, serve a range of children of different ages, and fund their programs from a variety of federal, state, and local sources. This report provides a range of programmatic and fiscal information about the federal and state…

  6. Child Care Providers' Strategies for Supporting Healthy Eating: A Qualitative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Meghan; Batal, Malek

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has revealed child care settings and providers to be important influences on children's developing behaviors. Yet most research on children's nutritional development has focused on home settings and parents. Thus, through semistructured interviews with child care providers, this study aimed to develop a better understanding of the…

  7. Child-care environment and dietary intake of 2- and 3-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, J.S.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Stafleu, A.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Vries, N.K.de; Thijs, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Previous research has shown that children in child-care do not comply with dietary intake recommendations (i.e. either exceeding or not meeting recommendations), which may be attributable to specific features of the child-care environment. The present study explored the relationship

  8. The Context of Child Care for Toddlers: The "Experience Expectable Environment"

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Paro, Karen M.; Gloeckler, Lissy

    2016-01-01

    An experience expectable environment in child care classrooms is one in which teachers consistently provide positive and nurturing interactions within daily routines and activities to enhance children's learning. Growing numbers of children are being enrolled in child care at earlier ages and staying for longer periods of time each day which is…

  9. Intra-household work timing: the effect on joint activities and the demand for child care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klaveren, C.; Maassen van den Brink, H.; van Praag, B.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether couples time their work hours and how this work timing influences child care demand and the time that spouses jointly spend on leisure, household chores, and child care. By using an innovative matching strategy, this study identifies the timing of work hours that cannot

  10. Child Care and the Labor Supply of Married Women: Reduced Form Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribar, David C.

    1992-01-01

    With data from the Survey of Income Program Participation, a three-equation, reduced-form econometric model is used to generate estimates revealing that the cost of market child care decreases the labor force participation of married women. High wages increase likelihood of working and use of paid child care. (SK)

  11. Psychiatric nursing care for adult survivors of child maltreatment: a systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zalm, Y.C.; Nugteren, W.A.; Hafsteinsdottir, T.B.; van der Venne, C.G.J.M.; Kool, N.; van Meijel, B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine what is known from the literature about nursing care of psychiatric patients with a history of child maltreatment. Conclusions: Psychiatric nurses underline the importance of a routine inquiry of child abuse on admission of patients to psychiatric care, but are reluctant to ask

  12. Supply and Demand for Child Care Services in Turkey : A Mixed Methods Study

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    Despite increases in availability of center based child care and preschool services in Turkey over the last decade, both the supply of services and utilization remain low. There are regional disparities in availability and the majority of children and households remain unserved in terms of child care and preschool services. This report has collected and assessed information on the supply a...

  13. State CCDBG Plans to Promote Opportunities for Babies and Toddlers in Child Care. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Teresa; Schumacher, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    State child care policies--including licensing, subsidy, and quality enhancement strategies--can promote the quality and continuity of early childhood experiences and foster the healthy growth and development of babies and toddlers in child care settings, especially if they are informed by research. One of the policy levers states may use to…

  14. Facilitating Employee Recruitment and Retention through On-Site Child Day Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Kathy A.

    An early childhood educator at a 360-bed community general hospital implemented a licensed on-site child care program for children between 6 weeks and 10 years of age in order to improve employee recruitment and retention by assisting employees with appropriate child care arrangements. A parent questionnaire was used to assess the degree to which…

  15. Genetic Moderation of Early Child-Care Effects on Social Functioning Across Childhood: A Developmental Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsky, Jay; Pluess, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Data from 508 Caucasian children in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development shows that the DRD4 (but not 5-HTTLPR) polymorphism moderates the effect of child-care quality (but not quantity or type) on caregiver-reported externalizing problems at 54 months and in kindergarten and teacher-reported social skills at kindergarten and…

  16. Celebrating African Men's Role in Child Care and Early Childhood Development Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejuu, Godfrey

    2016-01-01

    In many cultures, early child care and education has been considered the purview of women, who were thought to be more nurturing and better suited to the role. Hand-in-hand with this notion is the historical misconception that early child care and education is unimportant, and that the most valued members of society should focus on other, more…

  17. National Resource Center for Health and Safety in Child Care and Early Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Resource Center for Health and Safety in Child Care and Early Education (NRC) at the University of Colorado College of ... National Resource Center for Health and Safety in Child Care and Early Education Email: info@NRCKids.org Please read our disclaimer ...

  18. TAKING CARE OF A CHILD DIAGNOSED WITH CEREBRAL PALSY: FEELINGS AND EXPECTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Najar Smeha

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at understanding the maternity experience for women who are mothers of a child diagnosed with cerebral palsy. Twenty-six mothers answered a semi-structured interview. The qualitative textual analysis of the interview resulted in the following categories: “the diagnosis moment”; “the perception of motherhood”; “worries, difficulties and aspirations” and “expectations for the future”. The interviewed mothers attributed the cause of Cerebral Palsy to medical error or to the negligence of health professionals during the pre-labor and labor phases, to the precariousness of resources in the hospital, or to their own fault. Among the concerns, the fear of becoming sick and dying, the lack of qualified health professionals, the worry that their child will suffer some kind of exclusion at school, and the need to promote the maximum autonomy possible. As for the difficulties, they mentioned public transportation for their children’s locomotion, the situations in which their child is not well accepted or suffers with prejudice, the criticisms towards the way that they care for their children and the lack of respect from some people on the streets. Concerning the future expectations, the mothers revealed that they would like to be able to work, to go back to school, to invest in their personal care, and to be able to have leisure time. The results indicate that motherhood requires constant adaptation to the needs of the child with cerebral palsy and highlight the importance of family support and the advising that mothers receive from health professionals.

  19. Social influence in child care centers: a test of the theory of normative social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapinski, Maria Knight; Anderson, Jenn; Shugart, Alicia; Todd, Ewen

    2014-01-01

    Child care centers are a unique context for studying communication about the social and personal expectations about health behaviors. The theory of normative social behavior (TNSB; Rimal & Real, 2005 ) provides a framework for testing the role of social and psychological influences on handwashing behaviors among child care workers. A cross-sectional survey of child care workers in 21 centers indicates that outcome expectations and group identity increase the strength of the relationship between descriptive norms and handwashing behavior. Injunctive norms also moderate the effect of descriptive norms on handwashing behavior such that when strong injunctive norms are reported, descriptive norms are positively related to handwashing, but when weak injunctive norms are reported, descriptive norms are negatively related to handwashing. The findings suggest that communication interventions in child care centers can focus on strengthening injunctive norms in order to increase handwashing behaviors in child care centers. The findings also suggest that the theory of normative social behavior can be useful in organizational contexts.

  20. Research on Child and Adolescent Development and Public Policy in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narea, Marigen

    2016-01-01

    This commentary discusses the implication of child and adolescent development research for public policy in Latin America. As illustrated by the articles in this special issue, even though the research of child and adolescent development in Latin America is making significant progress, still more research is needed. Developmental research in the…

  1. Excluding the rural population: the impact of public expenditure on child malnutrition in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Gajate-Garrido, Gissele

    2013-01-01

    Why is the urban-rural gap in child malnutrition increasing in Peru despite government efforts to improve the provision of public services? To answer this question, the impact of regional public expenditure in Peru on young children's nutritional outcomes is examined. To account for policy endogeneity, public expenditures are instrumented using unanticipated regional mining revenues. Even ...

  2. The Child-care Food and Activity Practices Questionnaire (CFAPQ): development and first validation steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbels, Jessica S; Sleddens, Ester Fc; Raaijmakers, Lieke Ch; Gies, Judith M; Kremers, Stef Pj

    2016-08-01

    To develop and validate a questionnaire to measure food-related and activity-related practices of child-care staff, based on existing, validated parenting practices questionnaires. A selection of items from the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire (CFPQ) and the Preschooler Physical Activity Parenting Practices (PPAPP) questionnaire was made to include items most suitable for the child-care setting. The converted questionnaire was pre-tested among child-care staff during cognitive interviews and pilot-tested among a larger sample of child-care staff. Factor analyses with Varimax rotation and internal consistencies were used to examine the scales. Spearman correlations, t tests and ANOVA were used to examine associations between the scales and staff's background characteristics (e.g. years of experience, gender). Child-care centres in the Netherlands. The qualitative pre-test included ten child-care staff members. The quantitative pilot test included 178 child-care staff members. The new questionnaire, the Child-care Food and Activity Practices Questionnaire (CFAPQ), consists of sixty-three items (forty food-related and twenty-three activity-related items), divided over twelve scales (seven food-related and five activity-related scales). The CFAPQ scales are to a large extent similar to the original CFPQ and PPAPP scales. The CFAPQ scales show sufficient internal consistency with Cronbach's α ranging between 0·53 and 0·96, and average corrected item-total correlations within acceptable ranges (0·30-0·89). Several of the scales were significantly associated with child-care staff's background characteristics. Scale psychometrics of the CFAPQ indicate it is a valid questionnaire that assesses child-care staff's practices related to both food and activities.

  3. Community nurses' child protection role: views of public health nurses in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kent, Susan

    2011-11-01

    Public health nurses in Ireland are generalist practitioners with a wide range of roles that address the needs of clients in the community across their lifespan. Child protection is one of many of the roles of Irish public health nurses. However, with increasing caseloads, birth rates and aging populations, their child protection role is becoming more difficult to define and practise safely. This paper presents a key finding of a qualitative study that explored the views of a group of public health nurses (n = 10) regarding their role with pre-school children. A significant theme following analysis of the interviews were the nurses\\' expressed concerns on their role in child protection. There is a need to define the role practised by public health nurses in child protection and to achieve a standard for this nationally.

  4. Factors influencing women's utilization of public health care services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the determinants influencing women's use of public health facilities at the time they give birth. Results: Of .... due to distance between their places of abode and health care facilities ..... care: what works for safe motherhood: Bull World Health.

  5. Child Care and the Development of Behavior Problems among Economically Disadvantaged Children in Middle Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Maldonado-Carreño, Carolina; Li-Grining, Christine; Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay

    2010-01-01

    Research examining the longer term influences of child care on children’s development has expanded in recent years, but few studies have considered low-income children’s experiences in community care arrangements. Using data from the Three-City Study (N = 349), this study examines the influences of child care quality, extent and type on low-income children’s development of behavior problems during middle childhood (7–11 years old). Higher levels of child care quality were linked to moderate r...

  6. Female infant in Egypt: mortality and child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, W; Beheiri, F; El-drini, H; Manala-od; Bulbul, A

    1981-01-01

    Deviation from the normative sex-pattern of infant deaths is so large in Egypt that nearly 1/3 of female deaths can be attributed to a sex-specific cause: lesser care of the female child. This article reports on child neglect which may account for the relatively lower survival rate of the female infant, despite its biological advantage over the male. This knowledge is seen as vital in planning interventions. The investigation answers 3 questions relating to the sex-specific factors of death among female infants: do girls display a poorer level of nutrition compared to boys? Is there evidence to show that sickness episodes of female infants are treated more carelessly than those of male infants? Are there reasons to believe that girls are more exposed to life-threatening psychological factors than are boys? A group of 598 families in low-income districts of Cairo was randomly chosen to receive regular monthly visits by a team of trained field invstigators over a 1-year period. The sample is thought to represent life in urban quarters of Egypt, described as pervasively rural in orientations despite urban occupations and living conditions. The study finds no significant sex difference in nutritional status until the 6th month of life. Around this period, 2/5 of the female group but 1/4 of the male show signs of malnutrition as measured by weight. The difference continues to increase and is very statistically significant by the end of the year. Nutritional status of female infants tended to decline with an addition of daughters in the family. Also, at birth orders 2 ot 5 and in large families of 4-5 children, the relative nutritional disadvantage of the female infant is statistically significant. Moreover, a very distinct sex-difference in dietary patterns is observed as no boy was deprived of supplementary feeding during the 2nd 1/2 of the year but only 1/15 girls received food other than breast milk during this period. Despite some evidence highly suggestive of

  7. The supportive care needs of parents caring for a child with a rare disease: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelentsov, Lemuel J; Laws, Thomas A; Esterman, Adrian J

    2015-10-01

    Parents caring for a child with a rare disease report unmet needs, the origins of which are varied and complex. Few studies have systematically attempted to identify the supportive care needs of parents with a child with a rare disease comprehensively. We have used the widely accepted Supportive Care Needs Framework (SCNF) as the structure for this review. The purpose of the current review was to identify the supportive care needs of parents with a child with a rare disease, irrespective of condition. We conducted a scoping study review comprising 29 studies (1990-2014) to identify and examine the research literature related to the supportive care needs of parents, and to compare these needs with the seven domains outlined in the SCNF. Most common needs cited were social needs (72% of papers), followed by informational needs (65% of papers) and emotional needs (62% of papers), with the most common parental needs overall being information about their child's disease, emotional stress, guilt and uncertainty about their child's future health care needs, parents own caring responsibilities and the need for more general support. A paucity of studies exists that explore the supportive care needs of parents of a child with a rare disease. The SCNF only partially reflects the breadth and type of needs of these parents, and a preliminary revised framework has been suggested. Further research is required in this area, particularly empirical research to amend or confirm the suggested new framework. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. TV FOR CHILDREN : How the Swedish Public Service Television Imagines a Child Audience

    OpenAIRE

    Pettersson, Åsa

    2013-01-01

    The study explores how the Swedish public service TV institution imagines a child audience in a societal context where the broadcasting landscape hastransformed greatly over the past thirty years and where TV is seen to  constitute both risks and benefits for children. The concept of TV for children is established to broaden the scope for studying what has been broadcast for a child audience on public service TV. The empirical material consists of both broadcasting policy documents and an ext...

  9. Associations between birth health, maternal employment, and child care arrangement among a community sample of mothers with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Chi; Chyu, Laura; Ksobiech, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Although a large body of literature exists on how different types of child care arrangements affect a child's subsequent health and sociocognitive development, little is known about the relationship between birth health and subsequent decisions regarding type of nonparental child care as well as how this relationship might be influenced by maternal employment. This study used data from the Los Angeles Families and Neighborhoods Survey (L.A.FANS). Mothers of 864 children (ages 0-5) provided information regarding birth weight, maternal evaluation of a child's birth health, child's current health, maternal employment, type of child care arrangement chosen, and a variety of socioeconomic variables. Child care options included parental care, relative care, nonrelative care, and daycare center. Multivariate analyses found that birth weight and subjective rating of birth health had similar effects on child care arrangement. After controlling for a child's age and current health condition, multinomial logit analyses found that mothers with children with poorer birth health are more likely to use nonrelative and daycare centers than parental care when compared to mothers with children with better birth health. The magnitude of these relationships diminished when adjusting for maternal employment. Working mothers were significantly more likely to use nonparental child care than nonemployed mothers. Results suggest that a child's health early in life is significantly but indirectly related to subsequent decisions regarding child care arrangements, and this association is influenced by maternal employment. Development of social policy aimed at improving child care service should take maternal and family backgrounds into consideration.

  10. Comparison of motor and cognitive performance of children attending public and private day care centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana M. Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given that environmental factors, such as the school environment, can influence child development, more attention should be paid to the development of children attending day care centers. OBJECTIVE: Todetermine whether there are differences in the gross motor, fine motor, or cognitive performances of children between 1 and3 years-old of similar socioeconomic status attending public and private day care centers full time. METHOD: Participants were divided into 2 groups, 1 of children attending public day care centers (69 children and another of children attending private day care centers (47 children. All children were healthy and regularly attended day care full time for over 4 months. To assess cognitive, gross and fine motor performance, the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development III was used. The Mann-Whitney test was used for comparative analyses between groups of children between 13 and 24 months, 25 and 41 months, and 13 and 41 months. RESULTS: Children in public day care centers exhibited lower scores on the cognitive development scale beginning at 13 months old. The fine and gross motor performance scores were lower in children over the age of 25 months attending public centers. Maternal education was not related to the performance of children in either group. CONCLUSION: The scores of cognitive performance as well as fine and gross motor performance of children of similar socioeconomic status who attend public day care centers are lower than children attending private daycare centers.

  11. Public Health Insurance and Health Care Utilization for Children in Immigrant Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percheski, Christine; Bzostek, Sharon

    2017-12-01

    Objectives To estimate the impacts of public health insurance coverage on health care utilization and unmet health care needs for children in immigrant families. Methods We use survey data from National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) (2001-2005) linked to data from Medical Expenditures Panel Survey (MEPS) (2003-2007) for children with siblings in families headed by at least one immigrant parent. We use logit models with family fixed effects. Results Compared to their siblings with public insurance, uninsured children in immigrant families have higher odds of having no usual source of care, having no health care visits in a 2 year period, having high Emergency Department reliance, and having unmet health care needs. We find no statistically significant difference in the odds of having annual well-child visits. Conclusions for practice Previous research may have underestimated the impact of public health insurance for children in immigrant families. Children in immigrant families would likely benefit considerably from expansions of public health insurance eligibility to cover all children, including children without citizenship. Immigrant families that include both insured and uninsured children may benefit from additional referral and outreach efforts from health care providers to ensure that uninsured children have the same access to health care as their publicly-insured siblings.

  12. Differences in health care utilization between parents who perceive their child as vulnerable versus overprotective parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasgard, M; Metz, W P

    1996-06-01

    While a parental perception of child vulnerability to illness/injury is often used interchangeably with parental overprotection, research suggests that they are independent constructs. We hypothesized more frequent pediatric nonwell-child visits for perceived child vulnerability, but not for parental overprotection. The parents of 300 children, ages 2-5 years, enrolled in a health maintenance organization, were sampled. For children without medical conditions, there were no differences in nonwell-child care visits between the high perceived vulnerability and high parental protection groups (Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test, WRST, P = .31). As expected, high parental protection was not significantly associated with increased nonwell-child care visits compared with the low parental protection group (WRST, P = .14). These findings suggest that markers other than health care utilization are required to identify these forms of parent-child relationship disorders.

  13. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics benchmarks for nutrition in child care 2011: are child-care providers across contexts meeting recommendations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, Dipti A; McBride, Brent A

    2013-10-01

    The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (Academy) recommends feeding practices for child-care providers to establish nutrition habits in early childhood to prevent obesity. With >12 million US children in child care, little is known about child-care providers' feeding practices. The purpose of this study was to examine child-care providers' feeding practices to assess whether providers met the Academy's benchmarks and whether attainment of benchmarks varied across child-care contexts (Head Start, Child and Adult Care Food Program [CACFP], and non-CACFP). Cross-sectional data was collected in 2011 and 2012 from 118 child-care providers who completed self-administered surveys regarding their feeding practices for 2- to 5-year-old children. χ(2) tests and analysis of variance were used to determine variation across contexts. Head Start providers sat more frequently with children during meals (P=0.01), ate the same foods as children (P=0.001), and served meals family style (Pchildren (P=0.01) received more nutrition-education opportunities compared with CACFP and non-CACFP. Head Start providers encouraged more balance and variety of foods (Pchildren about nutrition (PAcademy's benchmarks compared with CACFP and non-CACFP providers. Possible reasons for this compliance might be attributed to Head Start nutrition performance standards and increased nutrition-training opportunities for Head Start staff. Head Start programs can serve as a model in implementing the Academy's benchmarks. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Obesity Prevention Practices and Policies in Child Care Settings Enrolled and Not Enrolled in the Child and Adult Care Food Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sherry T; Graffagino, Cheryl L; Leser, Kendall A; Trombetta, Autumn L; Pirie, Phyllis L

    2016-09-01

    Objectives The United States Department of Agriculture's Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) provides meals and snacks to low-income children in child care. This study compared nutrition and physical activity practices and policies as well as the overall nutrition and physical activity environments in a sample of CACFP and non-CACFP child care settings. Methods A random stratified sample of 350 child care settings in a large Midwestern city and its suburbs, was mailed a survey on obesity prevention practices and policies concerning menu offerings, feeding practices, nutrition and physical activity education, activity levels, training, and screen time. Completed surveys were obtained from 229 of 309 eligible child care settings (74.1 % response rate). Chi square tests were used to compare practices and policies in CACFP and non-CACFP sites. Poisson and negative binomial regression were used to examine associations between CACFP and total number of practices and policies. Results Sixty-nine percent of child care settings reported CACFP participation. A significantly higher proportion of CACFP sites reported offering whole grain foods daily and that providers always eat the same foods that are offered to the children. CACFP sites had 1.1 times as many supportive nutrition practices as non-CACFP sites. CACFP participation was not associated with written policies or physical activity practices. Conclusions for Practice There is room for improvement across nutrition and physical activity practices and policies. In addition to food reimbursement, CACFP participation may help promote child care environments that support healthy nutrition; however, additional training and education outreach activities may be needed.

  15. Child Care Health Connections: A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 19, Number 2, March-April 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.; Gendell, Mara, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment…

  16. The Strengthening Families Initiative and Child Care Quality Improvement: How Strengthening Families Influenced Change in Child Care Programs in One State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, Anne; Klerman, Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: This study investigated how the Strengthening Families through Early Care and Education initiative in Illinois (SFI) influenced change in 4 child care programs. Findings indicate that SFI influenced quality improvements through 4 primary pathways: (a) Learning Networks, (b) the quality of training, (c) the engagement of program…

  17. Child Care Health Connections: A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 23, Number 4, July-August 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Garakani, Tahereh, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment…

  18. 76 FR 44573 - Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service Payment Rates, and Administrative Reimbursement Rates for Sponsoring Organizations of Day Care Homes for the Period July 1, 2011 Through June 30, 2012 Correction In notice document 2011-18257 appearin...

  19. 76 FR 43254 - Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... adjustments to the national average payment rates for meals and snacks served in child care centers, outside... payment rates for meals and snacks served in day care homes; and the administrative reimbursement rates for sponsoring organizations of day care homes, to reflect changes in the Consumer Price Index...

  20. Care for the Other's Selfhood: A View on Child Care and Education through Heidegger's Analytic of Dasein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joensuu, Kosti

    2012-01-01

    Philosophical analysis concerning selfhood and care is of fundamental importance for child care and education. Martin Heidegger's analytic of Dasein introduces the concepts of self and care within the ontological domain while structuring the holistic understanding of human existence. Because of the ontological emphasis, Heidegger's concepts of…

  1. The Impact of Child Care Subsidies on Child Well-Being: Evidence from Geographic Variation in the Distance to Social Service Agencies

    OpenAIRE

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, child care subsidies have become an integral part of federal and state efforts to move economically disadvantaged parents from welfare to work. Although previous empirical studies consistently show that these employment-related subsidies raise work levels among this group, little is known about the impact of subsidy receipt on child well-being. In this paper, we identify the causal effect of child care subsidies on child development by exploiting geographic variation in the d...

  2. Care-'less': exploring the interface between child care and parental control in the context of child rights for workers in children's homes in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darkwah, Ernest; Daniel, Marguerite; Yendork, Joana Salifu

    2018-02-20

    This study explored how employed caregivers experience the interface between child care, parental control and child rights in the context of Children's Homes in Ghana. The focus was on investigating caregiver perceptions of proper child care, their experiences with having to work with child rights principles and the implication of these for their relationships with the children and the care services they deliver. Adopting a qualitative approach with phenomenological design, data were collected from 41 caregivers in two children's homes in Ghana using focus group discussions and in-depth interviews. It emerged that caregivers experienced frustrations with perceived limitations that child rights principles place on their control over the children describing it as lessening and, at the same time, complicating the care services they provide. The findings suggest a need for a review of the implementation strategies of the child rights approach in that context. A re-organization of the children's homes environment and re-orientation of caregivers and children regarding their relationship is also suggested.

  3. Child Care Exposure Influences Childhood Adiposity at 2 Years: Analysis from the ROLO Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Helena; Alberdi, Goiuri; Segurado, Ricardo; McNamara, Aoife; Lindsay, Karen; Horan, Mary; Hennessy, Eilis; Gibney, Eileen; McAuliffe, Fionnuala

    2017-04-01

    The first 2 years of life are instrumental for childhood physical development. Factors contributing to childhood obesity are difficult to determine; child care exposure is one to consider, by influencing food preference and physical activity development. To investigate the association of child care exposure with adiposity at 2 years. Data were collected as part of the secondary analysis of the prospective ROLO study (randomized control trial of low glycemic index diet) in Dublin, Ireland. Mothers were recruited antenatally and followed up at 2 years postpartum. Maternal and childhood anthropometric data and lifestyle questionnaires, reporting on child care attendance (defined as nonparental care), exposure (weeks), and infant-feeding practices, were collected. Anthropometric measures and lifestyle data were collected for 273 mothers and children aged 2 years, 52.7% of whom attended child care. Child care was predominately provided by a nonrelative (83.7%), either in a crèche (57%) or by a childminder (26.7%). More than half (56.2%) of the children attended child care part-time (≤30 hours/week). Central adiposity measures (abdominal circumference, waist:height ratio) and total adiposity (sum of all skin folds) were significantly elevated in children with increasing time in child care. Children provided with "meals and snacks" had elevated adiposity measures versus those given "snacks or no food." No difference in the infant-feeding practices was identified between the child care groups. Children attending child care have higher total and central adiposity, proportional to exposure. More research is required to investigate this link to appropriately design health promotion and obesity prevention programs targeting children at 2 years.

  4. Child Home Care Allowance: Transition to Second- and Third-Order Births in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Pajunen, Anni

    2012-01-01

    In this study, I study the relationship between the use of the child home care allowance and second and third births among women aged 19-44 in Finland. I use register data from the Finnish Census Panel (FCP) on 254 465 women who had a second or third child during 1993 to 2007. I apply discrete-time event-history analysis to examine whether women using the child home care allowance while their previous child was under the age of three have a higher risk to proceed to subsequent childbearing – ...

  5. Pediatric primary care to help prevent child maltreatment: the Safe Environment for Every Kid (SEEK) Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowitz, Howard; Feigelman, Susan; Lane, Wendy; Kim, Jeongeun

    2009-03-01

    Effective strategies for preventing child maltreatment are needed. Few primary care-based programs have been developed, and most have not been well evaluated. Our goal was to evaluate the efficacy of the Safe Environment for Every Kid model of pediatric primary care in reducing the occurrence of child maltreatment. A randomized trial was conducted from June 2002 to November 2005 in a university-based resident continuity clinic in Baltimore, Maryland. The study population consisted of English-speaking parents of children (0-5 years) brought in for child health supervision. Of the 1118 participants approached, 729 agreed to participate, and 558 of them completed the study protocol. Resident continuity clinics were cluster randomized by day of the week to the model (intervention) or standard care (control) groups. Model care consisted of (1) residents who received special training, (2) the Parent Screening Questionnaire, and (3) a social worker. Risk factors for child maltreatment were identified and addressed by the resident physician and/or social worker. Standard care involved routine pediatric primary care. A subset of the clinic population was sampled for the evaluation. Child maltreatment was measured in 3 ways: (1) child protective services reports using state agency data; (2) medical chart documentation of possible abuse or neglect; and (3) parental report of harsh punishment via the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics scale. Model care resulted in significantly lower rates of child maltreatment in all the outcome measures: fewer child protective services reports, fewer instances of possible medical neglect documented as treatment nonadherence, fewer children with delayed immunizations, and less harsh punishment reported by parents. One-tailed testing was conducted in accordance with the study hypothesis. The Safe Environment for Every Kid (SEEK) model of pediatric primary care seems promising as a practical strategy for helping prevent child maltreatment

  6. Measuring the quality of child health care at first-level facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouws, Eleanor; Bryce, Jennifer; Pariyo, George; Armstrong Schellenberg, Joanna; Amaral, João; Habicht, Jean-Pierre

    2005-08-01

    Sound policy and program decisions require timely information based on valid and relevant measures. Recent findings suggest that despite the availability of effective and affordable guidelines for the management of sick children in first-level health facilities in developing countries, the quality and coverage of these services remains low. We report on the development and evaluation of a set of summary indices reflecting the quality of care received by sick children in first-level facilities. The indices were first developed through a consultative process to achieve face validity by involving technical experts and policymakers. The definition of evaluation measures for many public health programs stops at this point. We added a second phase in which standard statistical techniques were used to evaluate the content and construct validity of the indices and their reliability, drawing on data sets from the multi-country evaluation of integrated management of childhood illness (MCE) in Brazil, Tanzania and Uganda. The statistical evaluation identified important conceptual errors in the indices arising from the theory-driven expert review. The experts had combined items into inappropriate indicators resulting in summary indices that were difficult to interpret and had limited validity for program decision making. We propose a revised set of summary indices for the measurement of child health care in developing countries that is supported by both expert and statistical reviews and that led to similar programmatic insights across the three countries. We advocate increased cross-disciplinary research within public health to improve measurement approaches. Child survival policymakers, program planners and implementers can use these tools to improve their monitoring and so increase the health impact of investments in health facility care.

  7. Parental Perceptions of Child Care Quality in Centre-Based and Home-Based Settings: Associations with External Quality Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Joanne S.; Lemay, Lise; Bigras, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined how parental perceptions of child care quality were related to external quality ratings and considered how parental perceptions of quality varied according to child care context (home-based or centre-based settings). Parents of 179 4-year-old children who attended child care centres (n = 141) and home-based settings…

  8. The Little Engine That Hasn't: The Poor Performance of Employer Tax Credits for Child Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzPatrick, Christina Smith; Campbell, Nancy Duff

    An increasingly popular approach to addressing child care needs of Americas families is to give state tax credits to employers that provide child care assistance to their employees, thereby permitting the employer to offset part of its child care expenditures against its state tax liability. Currently, 28 states have such tax credits, and a…

  9. Integrated Pest Management Intervention in Child Care Centers Improves Knowledge, Pest Control, and Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkon, Abbey; Nouredini, Sahar; Swartz, Alicia; Sutherland, Andrew Mason; Stephens, Michelle; Davidson, Nita A; Rose, Roberta

    To reduce young children's exposure to pests and pesticides, an integrated pest management (IPM) intervention was provided for child care center staff. The 7-month IPM education and consultation intervention was conducted by trained nurse child care health consultants in 44 child care centers in California. IPM knowledge surveys were completed by child care staff, objective IPM assessments were completed by research assistants pre- and postintervention, and activity logs were completed by the nurses. There were significant increases in IPM knowledge for the child care staff who attended workshops. There were reductions in the prevalence of pests and increases in IPM practices at the postintervention compared with the preintervention time point. The nurses consulted an average of 5.4 hours per center. A nurse-led IPM intervention in child care centers can reduce exposure to harmful substances for young children attending child care centers. Copyright © 2016 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sleep of Parents Living With a Child Receiving Hospital-Based Home Care: A Phenomenographical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelhoff, Charlotte; Edéll-Gustafsson, Ulla; Mörelius, Evalotte

    2015-01-01

    Caring for an ill child at home gives the family the chance to be together in a familiar environment. However, this involves several nocturnal sleep disturbances, such as frequent awakenings and bad sleep quality, which may affect parents' ability to take care of the child and themselves. The aim of this study was to describe parents' perceptions of circumstances influencing their own sleep when living with a child enrolled in hospital-based home care (HBHC) services. This is a phenomenographical study with an inductive, exploratory design. Fifteen parents (11 mothers and 4 fathers) with children enrolled in HBHC services were interviewed. Data were analyzed to discover content-related categories describing differences in ways parents experienced sleep when caring for their children receiving HBHC. Four descriptive categories were detected: sleep influences mood and mood influences sleep; support influences safeness and safeness influences sleep; the child's needs influence routines and routines influence sleep; and "me time" influences sleep. Sleep does not affect only the parents' well-being but also the child's care. Symptoms of stress may limit the parents' capacity to meet the child's needs. Support, me time, and physical activity were perceived as essential sources for recovery and sleep. It is important for nurses to acknowledge parental sleep in the child's nursing care plan and help the parents perform self-care to promote sleep and maintain life, health, and well-being.

  11. The effect of early child care attendance on childhood asthma and wheezing: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Alicia; Collier, Tina; Young, Chelsea Anne; Cruz, Eddie; Bekmezian, Arpi; Coffman, Janet; Celedon, Juan; Alkon, Abbey; Cabana, Michael D

    2018-04-09

    Research evidence offers mixed results regarding the relationship between early child care attendance and childhood asthma and wheezing. A meta-analysis was conducted to synthesize the current research evidence of the association between early child care attendance and the risk of childhood asthma and wheezing. Peer reviewed studies published from 1964-January 2017 were identified in MEDLINE, CINAL, and EMBASE using MeSH headings relevant to child care and asthma. Two investigators independently reviewed the selected articles from this search. All relevant articles that met our inclusion criteria were selected for further analysis. Data were extracted from studies that had sufficient data to analyze the odds of asthma or wheezing among children who attended child care. The meta-analysis of 32 studies found that (1) early child care attendance is protective against asthma in children 3-5 years of age but not for children with asthma 6 years of age or older. (2) Early child care attendance increases the risk of wheezing among children 2 years of age or younger, but not the risk of wheezing for children over 2 years of age. This meta-analysis shows that early child care attendance is not significantly associated with the risk of asthma or wheeze in children 6 years of age or older.

  12. 25 CFR 20.508 - What must the social services agency do when a child is placed in foster care, residential care...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.508 What must the social services agency do when a child is placed in foster care, residential care or guardianship home? The social services agency must make... placed in foster care, residential care or guardianship home? 20.508 Section 20.508 Indians BUREAU OF...

  13. Consequences of Teen Parents’ Child Care Arrangements for Mothers and Children*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Blalock, Casey

    2013-01-01

    Using the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001 - 2006; N ≈ 7900), we examined child care arrangements among teen parents from birth through prekindergarten. Four latent classes of child care arrangements at 9, 24, and 52 months emerged: “parental care,” “center care,” “paid home-based care,” and “free kin-based care.” Disadvantaged teen-parent families were overrepresented in the “parental care” class, which was negatively associated with children’s preschool reading, math, and behavior scores and mothers’ socioeconomic and fertility outcomes compared to some nonparental care classes. Nonparental care did not predict any negative maternal or child outcomes, and different care arrangements had different benefits for mothers and children. Time spent in nonparental care and improved maternal outcomes contributed to children’s increased scores across domains. Child care classes predicted maternal outcomes similarly in teen-parent and nonteen-parent families, but the “parental care” class predicted some disproportionately negative child outcomes for teen-parent families. PMID:23729861

  14. Is the Prediction of Adolescent Outcomes From Early Child Care Moderated by Later Maternal Sensitivity? Results From the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchinal, Margaret R.; Vandell, Deborah Lowe; Belsky, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal data are used to examine whether effects of early child care are amplified and/or attenuated by later parenting. Analyses tested these interactions using parenting as both a categorical and continuous variable to balance power and flexibility in testing moderation. The most consistent finding was that maternal sensitivity during adolescence accentuated the association between child care quality and adolescent academic-cognitive skills at age 15 years when maternal sensitivity during adolescence was high. This interaction was obtained in analyses with maternal sensitivity as both a categorical and continuous variable. Relations between early child care hours and adolescent behavioral outcomes also were moderated by maternal sensitivity, with longer child care hours predicting more impulsivity and externalizing at age 15 when maternal sensitivity during middle childhood, scored as a categorical variable, was low to moderate and when maternal sensitivity during adolescence, scored as a continuous variable, was lower. These findings suggest that some child care effects are moderated by subsequent parenting and that this moderation may take both linear and nonlinear forms. PMID:23937381

  15. Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Among Child Care Center Directors in 2008 and 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shope, Timothy R; Walker, Benjamin H; Aird, Laura D; Southward, Linda; McCown, John S; Martin, Judith M

    2017-06-01

    Children in child care centers represent an important population to consider in attempts to mitigate the spread of an influenza pandemic. This national survey, conducted in 2008 and 2016, assessed directors' reports of their child care centers' pandemic influenza preparation before and after the 2009 H1N1 novel influenza pandemic. This was a telephone-based survey of child care center directors randomly selected from a national database of licensed US child care centers who were queried about their preparedness for pandemic influenza. We grouped conceptually related items in 6 domains into indexes: general infection control, communication, seasonal influenza control, use of health consultants, quality of child care, and perceived barriers. These indexes, along with other center and director characteristics, were used to predict pandemic influenza preparedness. Among 1500 and 518 child care center directors surveyed in 2008 and 2016, respectively, preparation for pandemic influenza was low and did not improve. Only 7% of directors had taken concrete actions to prepare their centers. Having served as a center director during the 2009 influenza pandemic did not influence preparedness. After adjusting for covariates, child care health consultation and years of director's experience were positively associated with pandemic influenza preparation, whereas experiencing perceived barriers such as lack of knowing what to do in the event of pandemic influenza, was negatively associated with pandemic influenza preparedness. Pandemic influenza preparedness of child care center's directors needs to improve. Child care health consultants are likely to be important collaborators in addressing this problem. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. Point-of-Care Child Psychiatry Expertise: The Massachusetts Child Psychiatry Access Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cleave, Jeanne; Le, Thuy-Tien; Perrin, James M

    2015-05-01

    Since 2005, after a pilot program, the Massachusetts Child Psychiatry Access Project (MCPAP) has provided point-of-care psychiatry expertise and referral assistance by telephone to primary care providers. We examined its adoption and use and the practice characteristics associated with different adoption timelines and use patterns. We merged data on calls to MCPAP in 2005 to 2011 with practice data (enrollment year, panel size, regional team assignment). We categorized practices' days from enrollment to first call (adoption) (0-100, 101-365, > 365 days) and quartile of call frequency (use) (annual highest, middle, and lowest quartiles of number of calls per 1000 empanelled patients). We determined associations between adoption and use and practice characteristics using multivariate models. Among 285 practices, adoption and use varied: 55% called 0 to 100 days from enrollment and 16% called >365 days from enrollment. Practices in the highest quartile of use made a mean 15.5 calls/year per 1000 patients, whereas the lowest quartile made 0.4 calls/year per 1000 patients. Adoption within 100 days was associated with enrollment during or after 2007 (odds ratio [OR] 4.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.23-7.49) and assignment to the team at the pilot site (OR 4.42, 95% CI 2.16-9.04 for central Massachusetts). Highest-quartile use was associated with team assignment (OR 3.58, 95% CI 1.86-6.87 for central Massachusetts) and panel size (OR 0.10, 95% CI 0.03-0.31 for ≥ 10,000 vs < 2000 patients). Adoption and use of MCPAP varied widely. Timing of enrollment, assignment to the team from the program's pilot site, and panel size were associated with patterns of adoption and use. Findings may help other programs design effective implementation strategies. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. CAN CHILD-CARE SUPPORT POLICIES HALT DECREASING FERTILITY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaya Yasuoka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Some earlier papers examine whether child allowances can raise fertility or not in an endogenous fertility model with a defined contribution pension system. They derive that a child allowance can raise fertility. This paper is aimed at deriving the level of child allowances or education subsidies to make the pension system sustainable. A child allowance can raise fertility instantaneously. However, in the long run, fertility might continue decreasing and the pension system might not be sustainable if less child allowance is provided. In a defined benefit system, tax burdens for pension benefits are heavy in an aging society with fewer children. A heavy tax burden reduces the household income and then decreases fertility. Therefore, child allowances must be provided to halt decreasing fertility in the long run. Nevertheless, given parametric conditions, education subsidy of more than a certain level can not halt the decrease of fertility in the long run.

  18. Perceptions of Child Body Size and Health Care Seeking for Undernourished Children in Southern Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flax, Valerie L; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Ashorn, Ulla

    2016-12-01

    Child undernutrition affects millions of children globally, but little is known about the ability of adults to detect different types of child undernutrition in low-income countries. We used focused ethnographic methods to understand how Malawian parents and grandparents describe the characteristics they use to identify good and poor child growth, their actual or preferred patterns of health seeking for undernourished children, and the perceived importance of child undernutrition symptoms in relation to other childhood illnesses. Malawians value adiposity rather than stature in assessing child growth. Symptoms of malnutrition, including wasting and edema, were considered the least severe childhood illness symptoms. Parents delayed health care seeking when a child was ill. When they sought care, it was for symptoms such as diarrhea or fever, and they did not recognize malnutrition as the underlying cause. These findings can be used to tailor strategies for preventing and treating growth faltering in Malawian children. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Timing of high-quality child care and cognitive, language, and preacademic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weilin; Farkas, George; Duncan, Greg J; Burchinal, Margaret R; Vandell, Deborah Lowe

    2013-08-01

    The effects of high- versus low-quality child care during 2 developmental periods (infant-toddlerhood and preschool) were examined using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care. Propensity score matching was used to account for differences in families who used different combinations of child care quality during the 2 developmental periods. Findings indicated that cognitive, language, and preacademic skills prior to school entry were highest among children who experienced high-quality care in both the infant-toddler and preschool periods, somewhat lower among children who experienced high-quality child care during only 1 of these periods, and lowest among children who experienced low-quality care during both periods. Irrespective of the care received during infancy-toddlerhood, high-quality preschool care was related to better language and preacademic outcomes at the end of the preschool period; high-quality infant-toddler care, irrespective of preschool care, was related to better memory skills at the end of the preschool period. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Improving the Physical Activity and Outdoor Play Environment of Family Child Care Homes in Nebraska Through Go Nutrition and Physical Activity Self-Assessment for Child Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkel, Danae; Dev, Dipti; Guo, Yage; Hulse, Emily; Rida, Zainab; Sedani, Ami; Coyle, Brian

    2018-05-09

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the Go Nutrition and Physical Activity Self-Assessment in Child Care (Go NAP SACC) intervention was effective in improving best practices in the areas of infant and child physical activity and outdoor play and learning in family child care homes (FCCHs) in Nebraska. FCCHs (n = 201) participated in a pre-post evaluation using the Infant and Child Physical Activity and Outdoor Play and Learning assessments from the Go NAP SACC validated measure to assess compliance with best practices. At post, FCCHs demonstrated significant differences in 85% of the Infant and Child Physical Activity items (17 of 20) and 80% of the Outdoor Play and Learning items (12 of 15). Significant differences in best practices between urban and rural FCCH providers were also found. Go NAP SACC appears to be an effective intervention in Nebraska as, after participation in the initiative, providers were improving child care physical activity best practices. Additional research is needed to objectively determine if these changes resulted in objective improvements in children's physical activity levels. Further, efforts are needed to develop and/or identify geographic-specific resources for continued improvement.

  1. The discovery of autism: Indian parents' experiences of caring for their child with an autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Miraj U; Divan, Gauri; Wertz, Frederick J; Patel, Vikram

    2012-07-01

    The current study investigated the lived experience of 12 parents of children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder in everyday cultural contexts in Goa, India. Narratives from parents collected between 2009 and 2010 were analyzed using the procedures of phenomenological psychology. Four temporal phases of parents' experience emerged from these data. Findings showed that the earliest phase of the child's life was a period of relative normalcy and social cohesion. In the second phase, the child's behaviors began to disrupt the everyday social order, but parents viewed these unexpected behaviors as temporary. In the third phase, parents' observations in public situations, along with assessments of others, led to a qualitative shift in which parents began to perceive that there was a persisting problem interfering with their child's social and practical activities. In the fourth phase, parents grappled with developing their child's capacities to meet existing practical opportunities in the local society, while attempting to reshape the social world to accommodate the abilities and limits of children like their own. Parents' fundamental concerns throughout their journey were: learning to meet new and unfamiliar challenges as parents, caring for their child's basic needs, and finding an engaging niche with a sense of belonging for their child in the everyday milieu. Both culture-specific and potentially universal levels of experience are delineated in the overall findings. Implications for culturally sensitive research and practice in India and other low- and middle-income countries are discussed.

  2. Children With Special Health Care Needs: Child Health and Functioning Outcomes and Health Care Service Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caicedo, Carmen

    This study describes health, functioning, and health care service use by medically complex technology-dependent children according to condition severity (moderately disabled, severely disabled, and vegetative state). Data were collected monthly for 5 months using the Pediatric Quality of Life Generic Core Module 4.0 Parent-Proxy Report. Health care service use measured the number of routine and acute care office visits (including primary and specialty physicians), emergency department visits, hospitalizations, nursing health care services, special therapies, medications, medical technology devices (MTDs), and assistive devices. Child physical health was different across the condition severity groups. The average age of the children was 10.1 years (SD, 6.2); the average number of medications used was 5.5 (SD, 3.7); the average number of MTDs used was 4.2 (SD, 2.9); and the average number of assistive devices used was 4.3 (SD, 2.7). Severely disabled and vegetative children were similar in age (older) and had a similar number of medications, MTDs, and assistive devices (greater) than moderately disabled children. The advanced practice nurse care coordinator role is necessary for the health and functioning of medically complex, technology-dependent children. Copyright © 2016 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Risk assessment of parents' concerns at 18 months in preventive child health care predicted child abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staal, Ingrid I E; Hermanns, Jo M A; Schrijvers, Augustinus J P; van Stel, Henk F

    2013-07-01

    As child maltreatment has a major impact, prevention and early detection of parenting problems are of great importance. We have developed a structured interview which uses parents' concerns for a joint needs assessment by parents and a child health care nurse, followed by a professional judgment on the risk level of future parenting and developmental problems: the Structured Problem Analysis of Raising Kids (SPARK). Previous results have shown that the risk assessment of the SPARK is associated with risk factors for child maltreatment. This study reports the predictive value of the SPARK for reports on high impact parenting problems and child abuse and neglect. Cross-sectional study with a 1.5-year follow-up based on 1,850 18-month old children, living in Zeeland, a province of the Netherlands. Data on the SPARK were obtained in the period of June 2007 to March 2008. Outcomes of the SPARK were in October 2009 compared to reports of the Advice and Reporting Centers for Child Abuse and Neglect (ARCAN) and Youth Care Agency (YCA). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was done using the risk assessment, parents' concerns, the perceived need for support and known risk factors as predictors. The overall risk assessment of the SPARK is the strongest predictor for reports to ARCAN and YCA in the 1.5 years after completing the SPARK (odds ratio of high versus low risk: 16.3 [95% confidence interval: 5.2-50.8]. Controlling for the risk assessment, only the sum of known risk factors and an unemployed father remained as significant predictors. The reported groups differ significantly from the children without a report with regard to family characteristics, but not with regard to child characteristics. A structured assessment of the concerns and care needs of toddlers' parents by a child health care nurse is a valuable predictor of reports on child abuse and neglect and serious parenting problems in toddlers. Systematically exploring and evaluating parental

  4. Corporate Child Care Options. A Position Paper by Catalyst. RR#1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalyst, New York, NY.

    Described are principal options through which employers may address the child care concerns of their employees. Options fall into four general categories: financial assistance, time availability, direct care services, and provision of information. The principal options in the category of financial assistance are dependent care assistance plans and…

  5. Evidence from Maternity Leave Expansions of the Impact of Maternal Care on Early Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael; Milligan, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    We study the impact of maternal care on early child development using an expansion in Canadian maternity leave entitlements. Following the leave expansion, mothers who took leave spent 48-58 percent more time not working in their children's first year of life. This extra maternal care primarily crowded out home-based care by unlicensed…

  6. Differences in essential newborn care at birth between private and public health facilities in eastern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Waiswa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Uganda and elsewhere, the private sector provides an increasing and significant proportion of maternal and child health services. However, little is known whether private care results in better quality services and improved outcomes compared to the public sector, especially regarding care at the time of birth. Objective: To describe the characteristics of care-seekers and assess newborn care practices and services received at public and private facilities in rural eastern Uganda. Design: Within a community-based maternal and newborn care intervention with health systems strengthening, we collected data from mothers with infants at baseline and endline using a structured questionnaire. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate data analysis comparing nine newborn care practices and three composite newborn care indicators among private and public health facilities was conducted. Results: The proportion of women giving birth at private facilities decreased from 25% at baseline to 17% at endline, whereas overall facility births increased. Private health facilities did not perform significantly better than public health facilities in terms of coverage of any essential newborn care interventions, and babies were more likely to receive thermal care practices in public facilities compared to private (68% compared to 60%, p=0.007. Babies born at public health facilities received an average of 7.0 essential newborn care interventions compared to 6.2 at private facilities (p<0.001. Women delivering in private facilities were more likely to have higher parity, lower socio-economic status, less education, to seek antenatal care later in pregnancy, and to have a normal delivery compared to women delivering in public facilities. Conclusions: In this setting, private health facilities serve a vulnerable population and provide access to service for those who might not otherwise have it. However, provision of essential newborn care practices was

  7. Encouraging Consumption of Water in School and Child Care Settings: Access, Challenges, and Strategies for Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Karla E.

    2011-01-01

    Children and adolescents are not consuming enough water, instead opting for sugar-sweetened beverages (sodas, sports and energy drinks, milks, coffees, and fruit-flavored drinks with added sugars), 100% fruit juice, and other beverages. Drinking sufficient amounts of water can lead to improved weight status, reduced dental caries, and improved cognition among children and adolescents. Because children spend most of their day at school and in child care, ensuring that safe, potable drinking water is available in these settings is a fundamental public health measure. We sought to identify challenges that limit access to drinking water; opportunities, including promising practices, to increase drinking water availability and consumption; and future research, policy efforts, and funding needed in this area. PMID:21680941

  8. Adapting Parent-Child Interaction Therapy to Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersky, Joshua P.; Topitzes, James; Grant-Savela, Stacey D.; Brondino, Michael J.; McNeil, Cheryl B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study presents outcomes from a randomized trial of a novel Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) model for foster families. Differential effects of two intervention doses on child externalizing and internalizing symptoms are examined. Method: A sample of 102 foster children was assigned to one of three conditions--brief PCIT,…

  9. National Childcare Consumer Study: 1975. Volume III: American Consumer Attitudes and Opinions on Child Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodes, Thomas W.

    This report represents the third of a series of analyses of child care usages based on 4609 personal interviews conducted in 1975 from a national probability sample of households with children under 14 years of age. The study was sponsored by the office of Child Development of the U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare. This volume is…

  10. Early Childhood Education and Care Educators Supporting Parent-Child Relationships: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Amanda; Nolan, Andrea; Bergmeier, Heidi; Hooley, Merrilyn; Olsson, Craig; Cann, Warren; Williams-Smith, Janet; Skouteris, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Building strong relationships between children and parents is vital for children's social and emotional development. A majority of children attend early childhood education and care (ECEC) settings where they experience a range of relationships (educator-child, educator-parent, parent-child). Educators build relationships with children and…

  11. Cultural Perspectives on Peer Conflicts in Multicultural Dutch Child Care Centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rourou, Amina; Singer, Elly; Bekkema, Nienke; De Haan, Dorian

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a study of cultural perspectives on peer conflicts in multicultural child care centres. On the level of child behaviour we did not find differences between native Dutch. Moroccan-Dutch and Antillean-Dutch children with regard to occurrence, duration and actions to solve peer conflicts. On the level of mother' opinions…

  12. Child/Youth Homelessness: housing affordability, early intervention, and preventive care in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Shiga, Fumiya

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the child/youth homelessness including its preventive care.This paper explores the housing support program implemented across Australia in brief at first, and then profile child/youth homelessness and housing policy. Based on that, it discusses early intervention and preventive methods followed by the conclusion.

  13. Quality of Child Care Using the Environment Rating Scales: A Meta-Analysis of International Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, Harriet J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Cárcamo, Rodrigo A.; Harrison, Linda J.

    2016-01-01

    The current study provides a systematic examination of child care quality around the globe, using the Environment Rating Scales (ERS). Additional goals of this study are to examine associations between ERS process quality and structural features (group size, caregiver-child ratio) that underpin quality and between ERS and more proximal aspects of…

  14. Knowledge of Child Abuse and Reporting Practices among Early Care and Education Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinehart, Laura; Kenny, Maureen C.

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to assess child abuse knowledge and reporting practices of a diverse sample of early care and education (ECE) practitioners. One hundred and thirty-seven practitioners in the state of Florida completed the "Early Childhood Educators Child Abuse Questionnaire." Results revealed that only a minority of participants have…

  15. Technical attainment, practical success and practical knowledge: hermeneutical bases for child nursing care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello, Débora Falleiros; de Lima, Regina Aparecida Garcia

    2009-01-01

    This reflective study aimed to present some aspects of the concepts technical attainment, practical success and practical knowledge, with a view to a broader understanding of child nursing care. Health care is considered in the perspective of reconstructive practices, characterized as contingencies, highlighting the importance of the connection between technical attainment and practical success and the valuation of practical knowledge, based on philosophical hermeneutics, in the context of practical philosophy. Child health nursing can deal with technical attainment and practical success jointly, and also understand practical knowledge in the longitudinality of care. Health promotion, disease prevention, recovery and rehabilitation of child health should be indissociably associated with contextualized realities, shared between professionals and families, aiming to follow the child's growth and development, produce narratives, identify experiences, choices and decision making to broaden health care.

  16. Child care in infancy and cognitive performance until middle childhood in the millennium cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Sylvana M; Doyle, Orla; Petitclerc, Amélie; Timmins, Lori

    2013-01-01

    This study used a British cohort (n = ∼13,000) to investigate the association between child care during infancy and later cognition while controlling for social selection and missing data. It was found that attending child care (informal or center based) at 9 months was positively associated with cognitive outcomes at age 3 years, but only for children of mothers with low education. These effects did not persist to ages 5 or 7 years. Early center-based care was associated with better cognitive outcomes than informal care at ages 3 and 5 years, but not at 7 years. Effect sizes were larger among children whose mother had low education. Propensity score matching and multiple imputation revealed significant findings undetected using regression and complete-case approaches. © 2013 The Authors. Child Development © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  17. Children's early child care and their mothers' later involvement with schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosnoe, Robert; Augustine, Jennifer March; Huston, Aletha C

    2012-01-01

    Theory and policy highlight the role of child care in preparing children for the transition into school. Approaching this issue in a different way, this study investigated whether children's care experiences before this transition promoted their mothers' school involvement after it, with the hypothesized mechanism for this link being the cultivation of children's social and academic skills. Analyses of 1,352 children (1 month-6 years) and parents in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development revealed that mothers were more involved at their children's schools when children had prior histories of high-quality nonparental care. This pattern, which was fairly stable across levels of maternal education and employment, was mediated by children's academic skills and home environments. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  18. Ethical Considerations for Care of the Child Undergoing Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Martha A

    2017-02-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a complex, highly technical surgical procedure that can offer hope for children born with congenital heart defects. The procedure may only briefly prolong a life, has limited potential for decreasing mortality, and may lead to serious complications, however. Perioperative nurses play an important role in caring for the child who requires ECMO. They are involved in assessing the child, implementing the plan of care, and facilitating communication between the child's family members and the health care team. Thus, perioperative nurses have a responsibility to consider the broad range of ethical issues associated with the procedure. By examining the ethical concepts of beneficence, nonmaleficence, autonomy, justice, and moral distress, the perioperative nurse can better understand the dilemmas that can affect the care and outcome of the critically ill child who requires ECMO. Copyright © 2017 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Recruitment of family child care homes for an obesity prevention intervention study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne S. Ward

    2016-08-01

    Conclusion: Results of these enhanced recruitment strategies demonstrate the many lessons learned about successful recruitment of a difficult-to-reach population, family child care homes; specifically, the importance of building relationships, communicating clearly, and identifying key motivators.

  20. 78 FR 45176 - Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ...This notice announces the annual adjustments to the national average payment rates for meals and snacks served in child care centers, outside-school-hours care centers, at-risk afterschool care centers, and adult day care centers; the food service payment rates for meals and snacks served in day care homes; and the administrative reimbursement rates for sponsoring organizations of day care homes, to reflect changes in the Consumer Price Index. Further adjustments are made to these rates to reflect the higher costs of providing meals in the States of Alaska and Hawaii. The adjustments contained in this notice are made on an annual basis each July, as required by the laws and regulations governing the Child and Adult Care Food Program.

  1. Description of a multi-university education and collaborative care child psychiatry access program: New York State's CAP PC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, D L; Fornari, V; Scharf, M; Fremont, W; Zuckerbrot, R; Foley, C; Hargrave, T; Smith, B A; Wallace, J; Blakeslee, G; Petras, J; Sengupta, S; Singarayer, J; Cogswell, A; Bhatia, I; Jensen, P

    2017-09-01

    Although, child mental health problems are widespread, few get adequate treatment, and there is a severe shortage of child psychiatrists. To address this public health need many states have adopted collaborative care programs to assist primary care to better assess and manage pediatric mental health concerns. This report adds to the small literature on collaborative care programs and describes one large program that covers most of New York state. CAP PC, a component program of New York State's Office of Mental Health (OMH) Project TEACH, has provided education and consultation support to primary care providers covering most of New York state since 2010. The program is uniquely a five medical school collaboration with hubs at each that share one toll free number and work together to provide education and consultation support services to PCPs. The program developed a clinical communications record to track information about all consultations which forms the basis of much of this report. 2-week surveys following consultations, annual surveys, and pre- and post-educational program evaluations have also been used to measure the success of the program. CAP PC has grown over the 6years of the program and has provided 8013 phone consultations to over 1500 PCPs. The program synergistically provided 17,523 CME credits of educational programming to 1200 PCPs. PCP users of the program report very high levels of satisfaction and self reported growth in confidence. CAP PC demonstrates that large-scale collaborative consultation models for primary care are feasible to implement, popular with PCPs, and can be sustained. The program supports increased access to child mental health services in primary care and provides child psychiatric expertise for patients who would otherwise have none. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Early Brain and Child Development: Connections to Early Education and Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Judith T.

    2013-01-01

    The vast majority of young children spend time in settings outside of the home, and the nature of those settings directly impacts the child's health and development. The ecobiodevelopmental framework of early brain and child development serve as the backdrop for establishing quality. This article describes the use of quality rating systems,…

  3. The impact of a child's special health care needs on maternal work participation during early motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauge, Lars Johan; Kornstad, Tom; Nes, Ragnhild Bang; Kristensen, Petter; Irgens, Lorentz M; Eskedal, Leif T; Landolt, Markus A; Vollrath, Margarete E

    2013-07-01

    Many women temporarily reduce work hours or stop working when caring for small children. However, mothers of children with special health care needs may face particular challenges balancing childrearing responsibilities and employment demands. This study examines how the work participation among mothers of children with special health care needs compares with that of mothers in general during early motherhood, focusing in particular on the extent of the child's additional health care needs. By linkage of the population-based Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study with national registers on employment, child health care needs, and social background factors, 41,255 mothers employed prior to childbirth were followed until child age 3 years to investigate associations between the child's care needs and mother's dropping out of employment. In total, 16.3% of the formerly employed mothers were no longer employed at child age 3 years. Mothers of children with mild care needs did not differ from mothers in general, whereas mothers of children with moderate [Risk Ratio (RR) 1.45; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17, 1.80] and severe care needs [RR 2.19; 95% CI 1.67, 2.87] were at substantial risk of not being employed at follow-up. The impact of the child's health care needs remained strong also after adjusting for several factors associated with employment in general. Extensive childhood health care needs are associated with reduced short-term employment prospects and remain a substantial influence on mothers' work participation during early motherhood, irrespective of other important characteristics associated with maternal employment. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Improving nutrition and physical activity in child care: what parents recommend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Sara E; Haines, Jess; Ball, Sarah C; Ward, Dianne S

    2008-11-01

    A large percentage of children in the United States spend part of their day in out-of-home child care. As rates of obesity continue to rise, especially among young children, child care has become a focus for nutrition and physical activity intervention. Parental involvement is an important component of these efforts. During summer 2006, parents of children in child care were surveyed to better understand their perceived quality of meals, snacks, and physical activity at the child-care center, and their recommendations for improvement. Parents of children who attended 94 licensed child-care centers in North Carolina were invited to complete a brief survey of perceived quality of meals, snacks, and physical activity at their centers using close-ended questions. Open-ended questions were used to identify suggestions for improvement. Five hundred eight parents from 91 child-care centers completed the questionnaire. The majority of parents reported quality of meals and snacks at the center as either excellent (30% meals, 27% snacks) or good (42% meals, 46% snacks). The main recommendations for improving meals and snacks were to increase fruits and vegetables and provide a variety of healthful foods. The majority of parents categorized the quality of physical activity at the center as excellent (36%) or good (46%), and suggested more structured, outdoor activities for children. Findings from this study provide insight into key areas of concern for parents regarding the nutrition and activity environment of child-care centers. This information may be used to create or modify interventions or policies and to help motivate parents to become advocates for change in child care.

  5. Improving Quality of the Child Care Environment through a Consultancy Programme for Centre Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmerhorst, Katrien O. W.; Fukkink, Ruben G.; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne A.; Gevers Deynoot-Schaub, Mirjam J. J. M.; Tavecchio, Louis W. C.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a newly developed on-site consultancy programme to improve global quality of the child care environment in non-parental child care centres for 0- to 4-year-old children as measured with the ITERS-R/ECERS-R. Using a randomised controlled trial with a pretest, posttest, and follow-up test, we compared 35…

  6. Mandates for Collaboration: Health Care and Child Welfare Policy and Practice Reforms Create the Platform for Improved Health for Children in Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnik, Sarah; Wilson, Leigh; Scribano, Philip; Wood, Joanne N; Noonan, Kathleen

    2015-10-01

    Improving the health of children in foster care requires close collaboration between pediatrics and the child welfare system. Propelled by recent health care and child welfare policy reforms, there is a strong foundation for more accountable, collaborative models of care. Over the last 2 decades health care reforms have driven greater accountability in outcomes, access to care, and integrated services for children in foster care. Concurrently, changes in child welfare legislation have expanded the responsibility of child welfare agencies in ensuring child health. Bolstered by federal legislation, numerous jurisdictions are developing innovative cross-system workforce and payment strategies to improve health care delivery and health care outcomes for children in foster care, including: (1) hiring child welfare medical directors, (2) embedding nurses in child welfare agencies, (3) establishing specialized health care clinics, and (4) developing tailored child welfare managed care organizations. As pediatricians engage in cross-system efforts, they should keep in mind the following common elements to enhance their impact: embed staff with health expertise within child welfare settings, identify long-term sustainable funding mechanisms, and implement models for effective information sharing. Now is an opportune time for pediatricians to help strengthen health care provision for children involved with child welfare. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. 75 FR 41793 - Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ...] Lunch and Centers Breakfast supper \\1\\ Snack Contingous States: Paid 0.26 0.26 0.06 Reduced Price 1.18 2... adjustments to the national average payment rates for meals and snacks served in child care centers, outside... payment rates for meals and snacks served in day care homes; and the administrative reimbursement rates...

  8. [Effect of an intervention based on child-care centers to reduce risk behaviors for obesity in preschool children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Morales, Hortensia; González-Unzaga, Marco A; Jiménez-Aguilar, Alejandra; Uribe-Carvajal, Rebeca

    Preschool age is a critical stage for health promotion and prevention of obesity, which is an emerging public health problem in children. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate the effect of a multifaceted intervention based on child-care centers to reduce risk behaviors for obesity among preschool children. A 12-month cluster-randomized community trial was conducted in 16 Mexican Institute of Social Security child-care centers in Mexico City. Children between 2 and 4 years of age enrolled in the selected child-care centers participated in the study. Intervention comprised 12 weekly curriculum sessions for the children, and six family workshops. Changes in children's dietary and physical activity, food availability at home, and maternal feeding styles were determined after 6 and 12 months. Changes within groups among stages, and between groups by stage were analyzed through χ 2 test. The intervention showed decrease of home availability for some non-recommended foods and increase in physical activity in the intervention group compared to the usual care group. Improvement in physical activity can be effective in the long term; innovative strategies aimed to modify family dietary risk behaviors are required. Copyright © 2016 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  9. Nutritional quality and patterns of lunch menus at child care centers in South Korea and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sooyoun; Yeoh, Yoonjae; Abe, Satoko

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the nutritional quality and patterns of lunch menus provided by child care centers in South Korea and Japan. The weekly lunch menus from Monday to Saturday that child care centers provided in November 2014 in South Korea and Japan were analyzed. For Korea, a total of 72 meals provided by 12 centers in Seoul were analyzed by referring to the homepage of the Center for Children's Foodservice Management, which serviced menus for child care centers. For Japan, a total of 30 meals provided by 5 child care centers in Tokyo were analyzed. Nutrient content and pattern in lunch menus were evaluated. The lunch menus in Korea and Japan provided 359.5 kcal (25.7% of the estimated energy requirement) and 376.3 kcal (29.5% of the estimated energy requirement), respectively. 'Rice + Soup + Main dish + Side dish I + Side dish II' were provided in 66.7% of meals in Korea, while various patterns with rice and soup as their bases were provided in Japan. The lunch menus of child care centers in Korea and Japan provide similar amounts of energy, protein, carbohydrate, vitamin A, calcium, and other nutrients. However, there were significant differences in the lunch menu patterns in Korea and Japan. This study provides information about the nutritional content and pattern of lunch menus at child care centers in Asian countries with rice as a staple food.

  10. Child-Care and Participation in the Labor Market for Married Women in Mediterranean Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Nicodemo, Catia; Waldmann, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Parents in the labor force have balance their work and home life, including the choice of the type of care to provide for their children while they work. In this paper we study the connection between the married women's labor force participation, child care arrangements and the time that husbands and wives spent to take care of children in Mediterranean countries. As more women now are in the labor force the interest in the use child care and housework of husband have grown. We use the new da...

  11. Parental handling of fear in children with cancer; caring in the best interests of the child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderzén-Carlsson, Agneta; Kihlgren, Mona; Svantesson, Mia; Sorlie, Venke

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of how parents of children with cancer handle the fear in their children. Fifteen parents of 11 children participated in focus-group interviews. Data were analyzed by a phenomenological hermeneutical method. The results suggest that the parents' handling was equivalent with caring in the best interests of the child. This included striving for the security and well-being of the child up to a certain point where the parents instead used their authority to maintain the child's physical health rather than trying to prevent or relieve the child's fear. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Brief Report: Parent's Assessments of Their Care-Related Stress and Child's ASD Symptoms in Relation to Their child's Intervention History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Daniel; Csako, Rita; Landon, Jason; Goedeke, Sonja; Ty, Kelly

    2018-03-20

    Parenting a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be stressful. Understanding parent's perceptions of their stress and their child's ASD-related symptoms is important for both the well-being of parent and child and for other reasons, such as intervention adherence and diagnostic accuracy. We report parent (N = 570) ratings of both their ASD Care-Related Stress scores and their child's symptoms in relation to the child's exposure to five mainstream ASD interventions. Differences across intervention history in the way parents perceive their child's symptoms and rate the stressfulness of performing ASD-related parenting duties were found.

  13. Child Home Care Allowance and the Transition to Second- and Third-Order Births in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Erlandsson, Anni

    2017-01-01

    Using register data from the Finnish Census Panel, this paper studies the relationship between the use of the child home care allowance and second and third births among women aged 20?44 in Finland during the period 1992?2007. Discrete-time event-history analysis is applied to examine (i) whether women taking up the child home care allowance while their previous child was under the age of 3 have a higher risk to proceed to subsequent childbearing, (ii) whether these women proceed to a further...

  14. When Your Child's in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... life specialists. Trained in fields like development, education, psychology, and counseling, they help kids understand and manage ... Baby's in the NICU Knowing Your Child's Medical History What You Need to Know in an Emergency ...

  15. Well-Child-Care - A Check-Up for Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children. This team approach helps develop optimal physical, mental and social health of a child. Additional Information & Resources: Back to School, Back to Doctor A Medical Home Where Everybody ...

  16. 45 CFR 1306.35 - Family child care program option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... must have systems for assuring the safety of any child not within view for any period (e.g. the... develop contingency plans for emergencies. Such plans may include, but are not limited to, the use of...

  17. Hours in non-parental child care are related to language development in a longitudinal cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijk, M.P.C.M.; Linting, M.; Henrichs, J.; Herba, C.M.; Verhage, M.L.; Schenk, J.J.; Arends, L.R.; Raat, H.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Hofman, A.; Verhulst, F.C.; Tiemeier, H.; Van IJzendoorn, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The effects of child care services on several domains of child development have been extensively investigated, but evidence regarding the effects of child care on language development remains inconclusive. Methods: Within a large-scale population-based study, we examined the longitudinal

  18. Development and Implementation of an AIDS Prevention Program for African-American Women at a Child Care Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moten-Tolson, Paula

    This program was designed to provide Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) prevention education for African-American women of child bearing age at a child care center which serves low income high risk families. The primary goal was to reduce the risk of African-American women at the child care center for contracting the Human Immunodeficiency…

  19. [Director Checklist and Child Care Checklist: Examinations for the Position of Center Director and the Position of Child Care Provider (with User Guides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheig Associates, Inc., Gig Harbor, WA.

    The two separate evaluation instruments combined here are designed to help companies identify applicants for the positions of director and child care provider who have the greatest probability of being outstanding performers on the job. Each instrument contains three sections. Section 1 is an interest and willingness checklist, which acts as a…

  20. Foods served in child care facilities participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program: Menu match and agreement with the new meal patterns and best practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to assess the agreement of posted menus with foods served to 3- to 5-year-old children attending federal Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP)-enrolled facilities, and the degree to which the facilities met the new meal patterns and best practices. On-site observations and menu...

  1. Is the Prediction of Adolescent Outcomes from Early Child Care Moderated by Later Maternal Sensitivity? Results from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchinal, Margaret R.; Lowe Vandell, Deborah; Belsky, Jay

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal data are used to examine whether effects of early child care are amplified and/or attenuated by later parenting. Analyses tested these interactions using parenting as both a categorical and continuous variable to balance power and flexibility in testing moderation. The most consistent finding was that maternal sensitivity during…

  2. Listening to the Voices of Children in Foster Care: Youths Speak out about Child Welfare Workforce Turnover and Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strolin-Goltzman, Jessica; Kollar, Sharon; Trinkle, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Child welfare workforce turnover rates across private and public child welfare agencies are concerning. Although research about the causes of child welfare workforce turnover has been plentiful, empirical studies on the effects of turnover on child outcomes are sparse. Furthermore, the voices and experiences of youths within the system have been…

  3. Parents' perceptions about child abuse and their impact on physical and emotional child abuse: A study from primary health care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed N Al Dosari

    2017-01-01

    CONCLUSION: The causes of child abuse and neglect are complex. Though detecting child abuse may be difficult in primary care practice, many risk factors can be identified early. Parents' attitudes can be measured, and prevention initiatives, such as screening and counseling for parents of children at risk, can be developed and incorporated into primary care practice.

  4. Parent and child usual source of care and children's receipt of health care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVoe, Jennifer E; Tillotson, Carrie J; Wallace, Lorraine S; Angier, Heather; Carlson, Matthew J; Gold, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE In the United States, children who have a usual source of care (USC) have better access to health care than those who do not, but little is known about how parental USC affects children's access. We examined the association between child and parent USC patterns and children's access to health care services. METHODS We undertook a secondary analysis of nationally representative, cross-sectional data from children participating in the 2002-2007 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (n = 56,302). We assessed 10 outcome measures: insurance coverage gaps, no doctor visits in the past year, less than yearly dental visits, unmet medical and prescription needs, delayed care, problems getting care, and unmet preventive counseling needs regarding healthy eating, regular exercise, car safety devices, and bicycle helmets. RESULTS Among children, 78.6% had a USC and at least 1 parent with a USC, whereas 12.4% had a USC but no parent USC. Children with a USC but no parent USC had a higher likelihood of several unmet needs, including an insurance coverage gap (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21-1.47), an unmet medical or prescription need (aRR 1.70; 95% CI 1.09-2.65), and no yearly dental visits (aRR 1.12; 95% CI 1.06-1.18), compared with children with a USC whose parent(s) had a USC. CONCLUSIONS Among children with a USC, having no parent USC was associated with a higher likelihood of reporting unmet needs when compared with children whose parent(s) had a USC. Policy reforms should ensure access to a USC for all family members.

  5. is the child-to-child approach useful in improving uptake of eye care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Centre for Eye Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London. 3. ... Using the child-to-parent approach and Snellens 6/60 illiterate E-chart, participants .... criteria but who had visual, hearing or mental disability.

  6. Observations of Group Care Worker-Child Interaction in Residential Youth Care: Pedagogical Interventions and Child Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaanssen, I.L.W.; Delsing, M.J.M.H.; Geijsen, L.; Kroes, G.; Veerman, J.W.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    The work of group care workers in residential youth care is often described as professional parenting. Pedagogical interventions of group care workers influence the quality of care for looked-after children. The aim of the current study was to observe the pedagogical interventions of group care

  7. Observations of Group Care Worker-Child Interaction in Residential Youth Care: Pedagogical Interventions and Child Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiaanssen, Inge L. W.; Delsing, Marc J. M. H.; Geijsen, Luuk; Kroes, Gert; Veerman, Jan W.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The work of group care workers in residential youth care is often described as professional parenting. Pedagogical interventions of group care workers influence the quality of care for looked-after children. Objective: The aim of the current study was to observe the pedagogical interventions of group care workers within residential…

  8. Association between child-care and acute diarrhea: a study in Portuguese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros Henrique

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To quantify the influence of the type of child-care on the occurrence of acute diarrhea with special emphasis on the effect of children grouping during care. METHODS: From October 1998 to January 1999 292 children, aged 24 to 36 months, recruited using a previously assembled cohort of newborns, were evaluated. Information on the type of care and occurrence of diarrhea in the previous year was obtained from parents by telephone interview. The X² and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare proportions and quantitative variables, respectively. The risk of diarrhea was estimated through the calculation of incident odds ratios (OR and their respective 95% confidence intervals (95% CI, crude and adjusted by unconditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Using as reference category children cared individually at home, the adjusted ORs for diarrhea occurrence were 3.18, 95% CI [1.49, 6.77] for children cared in group at home, 2.28, 95% CI [0.92, 5.67] for children cared in group in day-care homes and 2.54, 95% CI [1.21, 5.33] for children cared in day-care centers. Children that changed from any other type of child-care setting to child-care centers in the year preceding the study showed a risk even higher (OR 7.65, 95% CI [3.25, 18.02]. CONCLUSIONS: Group care increases the risk of acute diarrhea whatsoever the specific setting.

  9. 5 CFR 792.220 - What are the requirements that child care providers must meet in order to participate in this...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., where applicable, by local authorities where the child care service is delivered. Outside of the United States, agencies may adopt or create criteria to ensure a child care center or family child care home is... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the requirements that child care...

  10. Predicting re-involvement for children adopted out of a public child welfare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Some of the approximately 400,000 children currently placed out-of-home in a public child welfare system will not reunify with their family of origin. They may instead be adopted into a new family. Adoption placements can be characterized by poor adjustment for children; some such placements even result in disruption or dissolution. We conducted a stratified Cox regression of 4,016 children from the Colorado public child welfare system. All of the children had a finalized adoption during the years 2002 through 2006. The two outcomes analyzed were new child protection and youth-in-conflict referrals and assessments for these previously adopted children. New child welfare referrals and assessments may be early indicators of poor adjustment for adopted children within the adoptive family. Study results indicate that older children and Hispanic children had higher rates of referral and assessment. Children with a pre-adoption history including longer time out-of-home or a larger number of out-of-home placements also experienced higher referral and assessment rates. Additional factors which predicted subsequent system re-involvement included presence of paid adoption assistance, adoption by a non-relative foster parent and younger adoptive parent age. Several study results were moderated by the presence or absence of an ethnic match between the child and the adoptive parents. We provide an overview of the statistical model used for analysis and we discuss implications of the study results for child welfare practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. How Public Health Nurses Identify and Intervene in Child Maltreatment Based on the National Clinical Guideline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paavilainen Eija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To describe how Finnish public health nurses identify and intervene in child maltreatment and how they implement the National Clinical Guideline in their work. Design and Sample. Cross-sectional survey of 367 public health nurses in Finland. Measures. A web-based questionnaire developed based on the content areas of the guideline: identifying, intervening, and implementing. Results. The respondents reported they identify child maltreatment moderately (mean 3.38, intervene in it better (4.15, and implement the guideline moderately (3.43, scale between 1 and 6. Those with experience of working with maltreated children reported they identify them better P<0.001, intervene better P<0.001, and implement the guideline better P<0.001 than those with no experience. This difference was also found for those who were aware of the guideline, had read it, and participated in training on child maltreatment, as compared to those who were not aware of the guideline, had not read it, or had not participated in such training. Conclusions. The public health nurses worked quite well with children who had experienced maltreatment and families. However, the results point out several developmental targets for increasing training on child maltreatment, for devising recommendations for child maltreatment, and for applying these recommendations systematically in practice.

  12. The effect of relational continuity of care in maternity and child health clinics on parenting self-efficacy of mothers and fathers with loneliness and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuominen, Miia; Junttila, Niina; Ahonen, Pia; Rautava, Päivi

    2016-06-01

    This study explored the parenting self-efficacy of the parents of 18-month-old children in the context of Finnish maternity and child health clinics. This parenting self-efficacy was observed in relation with the relational continuity of care and parents' experienced loneliness and depressive symptoms. The relational continuity of care was provided by a public health nurse in maternity and child health clinics. The participating parents were drawn from the STEPS study that is being carried out by the Institute for Child and Youth Research at the University of Turku. The results showed that relational continuity of care provided by the same public health nurse in the maternity and child health clinics was associated with mothers' higher emotional loneliness and with lower scores on three dimensions of parents' parenting self-efficacy. Loneliness and depressive symptoms negatively influenced parents' parenting self-efficacy - however, in the case where the family had experienced relational continuity of care, the parents' higher levels of depressive symptoms had not weakened their parenting self-efficacy beliefs. These results are discussed in terms of organizing maternity and child health clinic services. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Organizational factors influencing successful primary care and public health collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valaitis, Ruta; Meagher-Stewart, Donna; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Wong, Sabrina T; MacDonald, Marjorie; O'Mara, Linda

    2018-06-07

    Public health and primary care are distinct sectors within western health care systems. Within each sector, work is carried out in the context of organizations, for example, public health units and primary care clinics. Building on a scoping literature review, our study aimed to identify the influencing factors within these organizations that affect the ability of these health care sectors to collaborate with one another in the Canadian context. Relationships between these factors were also explored. We conducted an interpretive descriptive qualitative study involving in-depth interviews with 74 key informants from three provinces, one each in western, central and eastern Canada, and others representing national organizations, government, or associations. The sample included policy makers, managers, and direct service providers in public health and primary care. Seven major organizational influencing factors on collaboration were identified: 1) Clear Mandates, Vision, and Goals; 2) Strategic Coordination and Communication Mechanisms between Partners; 3) Formal Organizational Leaders as Collaborative Champions; 4) Collaborative Organizational Culture; 5) Optimal Use of Resources; 6) Optimal Use of Human Resources; and 7) Collaborative Approaches to Programs and Services Delivery. While each influencing factor was distinct, the many interactions among these influences are indicative of the complex nature of public health and primary care collaboration. These results can be useful for those working to set up new or maintain existing collaborations with public health and primary care which may or may not include other organizations.

  14. Fathers' involvement in Swedish child health care - the role of nurses' practices and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoudi, Pamela; Wickberg, Birgitta; Hwang, C Philip

    2011-03-01

    To investigate how nurses in Swedish child health care perceived working with fathers, and to what extent they offered support to, and included fathers in clinical encounters. A random sample of all nurses in Swedish child health care, 499 nurses, were asked to complete a postal questionnaire. The response rate was 70%. Data were analysed with content analysis, the chi-square test and logistic regression models. Almost all of the nurses found working with fathers positive. Fathers' participation in child health care was much lower than that of mothers'. Almost 90% of the nurses estimated that it rarely came to their attention that a father was distressed, and less than one of five nurses had offered supportive counselling to any distressed father in the previous year. Nurses with regular supervision on mental health issues and nurses with a paediatric specialization were more likely to offer supportive counselling to fathers. Approximately 50% of the nurses had an ambivalent attitude towards fathers' caring capacity when compared to that of mothers. Fathers received less support from child health nurses, and many nurses were ambivalent about fathers' caring abilities. Methods need to be developed to involve both parents in child health care. © 2010 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2010 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  15. Obesity prevention in child care: A review of U.S. state regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slining Meghan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To describe and contrast individual state nutrition and physical activity regulations related to childhood obesity for child care centers and family child care homes in the United States. Methods We conducted a review of regulations for child care facilities for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. We examined state regulations and recorded key nutrition and physical activity items that may contribute to childhood obesity. Items included in this review were: 1 Water is freely available; 2 Sugar-sweetened beverages are limited; 3 Foods of low nutritional value are limited; 4 Children are not forced to eat; 5 Food is not used as a reward; 6 Support is provided for breastfeeding and provision of breast milk; 7 Screen time is limited; and 8 Physical activity is required daily. Results Considerable variation exists among state nutrition and physical activity regulations related to obesity. Tennessee had six of the eight regulations for child care centers, and Delaware, Georgia, Indiana, and Nevada had five of the eight regulations. Conversely, the District of Columbia, Idaho, Nebraska and Washington had none of the eight regulations. For family child care homes, Georgia and Nevada had five of the eight regulations; Arizona, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oregon, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, and West Virginia had four of the eight regulations. California, the District of Columbia, Idaho, Iowa, Kansas, and Nebraska did not have any of the regulations related to obesity for family child care homes. Conclusion Many states lack specific nutrition and physical activity regulations related to childhood obesity for child care facilities. If widely implemented, enhancing state regulations could help address the obesity epidemic in young children in the United States.

  16. Comparing the nutrition environment and practices of home- and centre-based child-care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyniuk, Olivia J M; Vanderloo, Leigh M; Irwin, Jennifer D; Burke, Shauna M; Tucker, Patricia

    2016-03-01

    To assess and compare the nutrition environment and practices (as they relate to pre-schoolers) of centre- and home-based child-care facilities. Using a cross-sectional study design, nineteen child-care facilities (ten centre-based, nine home-based) were assessed for one full day using the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation (EPAO) tool (consisting of a day-long observation/review of the nutrition environment, practices and related documents). Specifically, eight nutrition-related subscales were considered. Child-care facilities in London, Ontario, Canada. Child-care facilities were recruited through directors at centre-based programmes and the providers of home-based programmes. The mean total nutrition environment EPAO scores for centre- and home-based facilities were 12·3 (sd 1·94) and 10·8 (sd 0·78) out of 20 (where a higher score indicates a more supportive environment with regard to nutrition), respectively. The difference between the total nutrition environment EPAO score for centre- and home-based facilities was approaching significance (P=0·055). For both types of facilities, the highest nutrition subscale score (out of 20) was achieved in the staff behaviours domain (centre mean=17·4; home mean=17·0) and the lowest was in the nutrition training and education domain (centre mean=3·6; home mean=2·0). Additional research is needed to confirm these findings. In order to better support child-care staff and enhance the overall nutrition environment in child care, modifications to food practices could be adopted. Specifically, the nutritional quality of foods/beverages provided to pre-schoolers could be improved, nutrition-related training for child-care staff could be provided, and a nutrition curriculum could be created to educate pre-schoolers about healthy food choices.

  17. Prenatal Care for Pregnant Adolescents in a Public High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Marjorie; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Two groups of pregnant adolescents were studied using a retrospective analysis of obstetrical summary to demonstrate the relationship of the availability of a comprehensive, program of prenatal care in a public school setting to the achievement of early and continuous prenatal care, and to the minimizing of obstetrical complications. (JMF)

  18. The problems and prospects of public health care development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The abysmal failure of public health care system in Nigeria has attracted comments and criticisms from local and national levels. The provision of adequate health care services to the citizens, particularly those residing at the rural areas has left much to be desired. In spite of media propaganda and the current health sector ...

  19. Infection Control in Child Day Care Centres : Development and evaluation of a hand hygiene intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.P. Zomer (Tizza)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Children attending child day care centres are at increased risk of acquiring gastrointestinal and respiratory infections compared to children cared for at home. Hand hygiene is known to be an effective measure to prevent infections. However, compliance with hand

  20. Investing in Low-Wage Workers: Lessons from Family Child Care in Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roder, Anne; Seavey, Dorie

    2006-01-01

    While child care is one of the fastest growing occupations in the country, most employment in this field is precarious and low-wage. Investing in Low-Wage Workers profiles the Day Care Justice Co-op, a group of largely Latina and African American women living and working in some of Rhode Island's poorest communities. Determined to improve family…

  1. Una Guia Para Padres Para El Cuidado de Ninos (A Parent's Guide to Child Care).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon State Dept. of Human Resources, Salem.

    This booklet was designed to help parents in Oregon in finding and financing child care for their children. The first section of the booklet provides information on the Oregon Department of Human Resources' Adult and Family Services (AFS) Division's Aid for Dependent Children (ADC) and Employment Related Day Care (ERDC) programs. This section…

  2. Couples’ work schedules and child-care use in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, Melissa; Roeters, Anne; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Various aspects of parental work schedules affect the opportunities and constraints that parents encounter when arranging care for their children. This study examined the extent to which the combination of couples’ work schedules was associated with their use of different types of child care,

  3. Correlates of Burnout Symptoms among Child Care Teachers. A Multilevel Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blöchliger, Olivia R.; Bauer, Georg F.

    2018-01-01

    Burnout is a widespread occupational stress outcome among child care teachers, jeopardizing the quality of care and children's development. This study aimed at exploring the relationships between individual and organizational level characteristics (representing the six work-life areas control, reward, workload, community, fairness, and values) and…

  4. Match of psychosocial risk and psychosocial care in families of a child with cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sint Nicolaas, S. M.; Schepers, S. A.; van den Bergh, E. M. M.; de Boer, Y.; Streng, I.; van Dijk-Lokkart, E. M.; Grootenhuis, M. A.; Verhaak, C. M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The Psychosocial Assessment Tool (PAT) was developed to screen for psychosocial risk, aimed to be supportive in directing psychosocial care to families of a child with cancer. This study aimed to determine (i) the match between PAT risk score and provided psychosocial care with healthcare

  5. Investing in Our Children: A Plan to Expand Access to Preschool and Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Cynthia G.; Cooper, Donna; Herman, Juliana; Lazarín, Melissa; Linden, Michael; Post, Sasha; Tanden, Neera

    2013-01-01

    This issue brief presents a plan to expand educational opportunities and care for children ages 0-5 years old by investing significant federal dollars to: (1) Make high-quality preschool universally accessible to all 3- and 4-year-old children; and (2) Enable more lower-income families to afford child care for children ages 0-3 years old. These…

  6. Who's Watching the Babies? Improving the Quality of Family, Friend, and Neighbor Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Douglas R.

    2008-01-01

    One of the important influences on a child's development is the quality of his or her early care and education experiences. It is estimated that more than 1 million children in the U.S. are cared for while their parents are at work by nonlicensed caregivers who are family, friends, or neighbors - and these caregivers can be difficult to reach…

  7. Children's Early Child Care and Their Mothers' Later Involvement with Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosnoe, Robert; Augustine, Jennifer March; Huston, Aletha C.

    2012-01-01

    Theory and policy highlight the role of child care in preparing children for the transition into school. Approaching this issue in a different way, this study investigated whether children's care experiences before this transition promoted their mothers' school involvement after it, with the hypothesized mechanism for this link being the…

  8. Exploring the Relationship between Global Quality and Group Engagement in Toddler Child Care Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Alison; Hallam, Rena

    2017-01-01

    Toddlers' engagement with their social and physical environment is an important aspect of their experience in early care and education programs. The purpose of this research study was to examine how global quality relates to children's engagement in toddler child care classrooms. Additionally, this study explored how toddlers' group engagement…

  9. Developing effective child psychiatry collaboration with primary care: leadership and management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvet, Barry D; Wegner, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    By working in collaboration with pediatric primary care providers, child and adolescent psychiatrists have the opportunity to address significant levels of unmet need for the majority of children and teenagers with serious mental health problems who have been unable to gain access to care. Effective collaboration with primary care represents a significant change from practice-as-usual for many child and adolescent psychiatrists. Implementation of progressive levels of collaborative practice, from the improvement of provider communication through the development of comprehensive collaborative systems, may be possible with sustained management efforts and application of process improvement methodology.

  10. Mothers’ Experiences of Participating in the Medical Care of their Child with Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korning Lund, Line; Bregnballe, Vibeke

    Background: Only a few research studies have addressed parents’ experiences of participating in the medical care and treatment of their child diagnosed with cancer. Objective: To explore how mothers of children diagnosed with cancer experienced participating in the medical care of their child both...... at hospital and at home. Design and methods: A qualitative study with a hermeneutical approach. The empirical data consisted of three semi-structured interviews with mothers of children diagnosed with cancer within the last three months. The interviews were analysed in accordance with Kvale and Brinkmann....... Findings/results: Six themes were found: "Distraction, control and security", "Difficulty dealing with the child's psychological reaction", "Fluctuating surplus of mental resources calls for match of expectation", "Preparing systems for the medical care on their own", "Complying with the medical care...

  11. Child-Adult Relationship Enhancement in Primary Care (PriCARE): A Randomized Trial of a Parent Training for Child Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Samantha; French, Benjamin; Berkowitz, Steven J; Dougherty, Susan L; Scribano, Philip V; Wood, Joanne N

    Child-Adult Relationship Enhancement in Primary Care (PriCARE) is a 6-session group parent training designed to teach positive parenting skills. Our objective was to measure PriCARE's impact on child behavior and parenting attitudes. Parents of children 2 to 6 years old with behavior concerns were randomized to PriCARE (n = 80) or control (n = 40). Child behavior and parenting attitudes were measured at baseline (0 weeks), program completion (9 weeks), and 7 weeks after program completion (16 weeks) using the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI) and the Adult Adolescent Parenting Inventory 2 (AAPI2). Linear regression models compared mean ECBI and AAPI2 change scores from 0 to 16 weeks in the PriCARE and control groups, adjusted for baseline scores. Of those randomized to PriCARE, 43% attended 3 or more sessions. Decreases in mean ECBI intensity and problem scores between 0 and 16 weeks were greater in the PriCARE group, reflecting a larger improvement in behavior problems [intensity: -22 (-29, -16) vs -7 (-17, 2), P = .012; problem: -5 (-7, -4) vs -2 (-4, 0), P = .014]. Scores on 3 of the 5 AAPI2 subscales reflected greater improvements in parenting attitudes in the PriCARE group compared to control in the following areas: empathy toward children's needs [0.82 (0.51, 1.14) vs 0.25 (-0.19, 0.70), P = .04], corporal punishment [0.22 (0.00, 0.45) vs -0.30 (-0.61, 0.02), P = .009], and power and independence [0.37 (-0.02, 0.76) vs -0.64 (-1.19, -0.09), P = .003]. PriCARE shows promise in improving parent-reported child-behavior problems in preschool-aged children and increasing positive parenting attitudes. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Factors in the Decision to Leave: Retaining Social Workers with MSWs in Public Child Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samantrai, Krishna

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed 7 social workers with master's in social work (MSW) degrees who had left public child welfare and 20 who decided to stay. Found two factors that distinguished groups: inflexibility in job assignment and poor relationship with immediate supervisor. Academic preparation for this type of practice was not decisive factor. (Author/NB)

  13. On the importance of families and public policies for child development outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosero Moncayo, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis investigates how public interventions in developing countries can promote human capital accumulation of children at different stages of life (pre-school, compulsory and post-compulsory school) and how a specific characteristic of a child, the order of birth, might affect the

  14. Primary health care and public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangelsdorf, K L; Luna, J; Smith, H L

    1988-01-01

    The health problems of Ecuador are similar to those in other developing countries where the standard of living is low, and housing and sanitation are inadequate. Women, children, and those living in rural areas are those most severely affected. National policy has been to attempt to increase access to health care in rural areas through the construction of new facilities and the appointment of highly paid medical staff. However, little attention was paid to sociocultural factors, which caused the peasantry to reject the medical care system, or to problems of internal efficiency which inhibited utilization. Since the 1970s various national and international organizations have attempted to implement primary health care (PHC) through the use of trained community health workers (CHWs). The primary problems faced by the CHWs were shortages of medicines and supplies, an almost total lack of supervision, and lack of transportation available to take staff to isolated villages. The poor supervision is blamed for the 17% drop out rate among CHWs since 1980. Independent PHC programs have also been established in Ecuador by voluntary organizations. These work best when coordinated with governmental programs, in order to allow monitoring and to avoid the duplication of services. Problems with the establishment of PHC programs in Ecuador will continue, as the government has no clear cut policy, and difficulties financing on a broad national scale. Other problems include the absence of effective supervision and logistical support for even small pilot programs, and inconsistencies in the training and role definition for CHWs. These problems need to be met in the implementation of a national PHC policy.

  15. 76 FR 3143 - Office of Child Care; Delegation of Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... exercise of the authorities delegated herein prior to the effective date of this delegation. Dated: January... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Office of Child... Health and Human Services in the memorandum dated August 20, 1991, pertaining to the Head Start Program...

  16. Training for Child Care and Education Workers in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Mina

    1994-01-01

    Examines the history and current status of early childhood teacher training in India. Describes the Bal Sevika Training program, launched in 1961, and the Integrated Child Development Services program, instituted in 1975 to provide a wide range of educational and nutritional services to preschool children and their families. (MDM)

  17. Providing High-Quality Support Services to Home-Based Child Care: A Conceptual Model and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromer, Juliet; Korfmacher, Jon

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: Home-based child care accounts for a significant proportion of nonparental child care arrangements for young children in the United States. Yet the early care and education field lacks clear models or pathways for how to improve quality in these settings. The conceptual model presented here articulates the components of…

  18. The economic impact of work and family issues: child care satisfaction and financial considerations of employed mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poms, Laura Wheeler; Botsford, Whitney E; Kaplan, Seth A; Buffardi, Louis C; O'Brien, Alison S

    2009-10-01

    This article introduces the role of financial considerations into work-family research by considering the costs and benefits of employed mothers' child care satisfaction. Data from 2 samples offer empirical support for the addition of a fourth factor to a current measure of child care satisfaction so that the measure reflects mothers' satisfaction not only with caregiver attentiveness, communication, and dependability but also with child care-related financial considerations. This article also discusses relationships between child care satisfaction and work-family conflict and job satisfaction for this population. The results of this study provide both organizations and child care providers with a broader picture of the concerns that employed mothers face as they search for reliable, affordable child care. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Care satisfaction among older people receiving public care and service at home or in special accommodation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Staffan; Edberg, Anna-Karin; Jakobsson, Ulf; Hallberg, Ingalill R

    2013-02-01

    To explore care satisfaction in relation to place of living, health-related quality of life, functional dependency and health complaints among people 65 years or older, receiving public care and service. The concept public care and service concerns formal care from the municipality, including home help, home nursing care, rehabilitation and a special accommodation. To be able to provide care and service of high quality to older people, knowledge about factors influencing their experience of satisfaction with the care is essential. Cross-sectional, including comparison and correlation. One-hundred sixty-six people receiving public care and service from the municipality were interviewed regarding demography, functional ability, perceived health complaints and care. Health-related quality of life was measured with SF-12, and self-rated care satisfaction was measured with a questionnaire. Low self-rated care satisfaction was associated with dependency in Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, blindness, faeces incontinence and anxiety, while high self-rated care satisfaction was associated with dependency in Personal Activities of Daily Living. Those at home rated an overall higher care satisfaction and were more satisfied with care continuity and personal relations; they thought that the staff had more time and were more respectful and quiet, than the ratings by those in a special accommodation (equivalent to a nursing home). Care satisfaction and health-related quality of life among older people was more associated with functional impairment and health complaints than to whether care and service was received at home or in a special accommodation. An approach using intervention focused on functional ability and health complaints is important for development of improved care satisfaction for older people receiving public care and service. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Preventable infant mortality and quality of health care: maternal perception of the child's illness and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salime Hadad

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This study used a qualitative methodology to analyze the discourse of mothers from Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, whose infant children had died from what were considered avoidable causes (diarrhea, malnutrition, and pneumonia, seeking to elucidate the factors associated with utilization of health care services. Identification of the illness by the mother was related to perception of specific alterations in the child's state of health. Analysis of the alterations helped identify the principal characteristics ascribed to each alteration and their relationship to the search for treatment. The authors also studied the mother's assessment of treatment received at health care facilities; 43.0% of the cases involved problems related to the structure of health care services or the attending health care professionals. In 46.0% of the cases, mothers associated the child's death with flaws in the health care service. The study group showed a variety of interpretations of illness, often distinct from the corresponding biomedical concepts. The fact that attending health care personnel overlooked or underrated the mother's perception of the illness and the lack of communications between health care personnel and the child's family had an influence on the child's evolution and subsequent death.

  1. Children with Special Health Care Needs in CHIP: Access, Use, and Child and Family Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zickafoose, Joseph S; Smith, Kimberly V; Dye, Claire

    2015-01-01

    To assess how the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) affects outcomes for children with special health care needs (CSHCN). We used data from a survey of parents of recent and established CHIP enrollees conducted from January 2012 through March 2013 as part of a congressionally mandated evaluation of CHIP. We identified CSHCN in the sample using the Child and Adolescent Health Measurement Initiative's CSHCN screener. We compared the health care experiences of established CHIP enrollees to the pre-enrollment experiences of previously uninsured and privately insured recent CHIP enrollees, controlling for observable characteristics. Parents of 4142 recent enrollees and 5518 established enrollees responded to the survey (response rates, 46% recent enrollees and 51% established enrollees). In the 10 survey states, about one-fourth of CHIP enrollees had a special health care need. Compared to being uninsured, parents of CSHCN who were established CHIP enrollees reported greater access to and use of medical and dental care, less difficulty meeting their child's health care needs, fewer unmet needs, and better dental health status for their child. Compared to having private insurance, parents of CSHCN who were established CHIP enrollees reported similar levels of access to and use of medical and dental care and unmet needs, and less difficulty meeting their child's health care needs. CHIP has significant benefits for eligible CSHCN and their families compared to being uninsured and appears to have some benefits compared to private insurance. Copyright © 2015 Academic Pediatric Association. All rights reserved.

  2. Child-Care Instability and Behavior Problems: Does Parenting Stress Mediate the Relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilarz, Alejandra Ros; Hill, Heather D

    2017-10-01

    Child care instability is associated with more behavior problems in young children, but the mechanisms of this relationship are not well understood. Theoretically, this relationship is likely to emerge, at least in part, because care instability leads to increased parenting stress. Moreover, low socioeconomic status and single-mother families may be more vulnerable to the effects of instability. This study tested these hypotheses using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study (n=1,675) and structural equation modeling. Three types of child care instability were examined: long-term instability, multiplicity, and needing to use back-up arrangements. Overall, findings showed little evidence that parenting stress mediated the associations between care instability and child behavior problems among the full sample. Among single-mother and low-income families, however, needing to use back-up arrangements had small positive associations with parenting stress, which partially mediated the relationship between that type of care instability and child externalizing behavior problems.

  3. Child Care Providers' Knowledge About Dental Injury First Aid in Preschool-age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sienkiewicz, Kristine L; Rainchuso, Lori; Boyd, Linda D; Giblin, Lori

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess child care providers' level of knowledge of first aid management and attitudes towards dental injuries among preschool-age children within Fairfield County, Connecticut and Boston, Massachusetts. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study used a web-based, validated questionnaire adapted from several studies with permission from authors. A panel of 5 dental experts determined the relevance of the questions and overall content (I-CVI range 0.8-1; S-CVI = 0.95). The 28 question survey included demographics, level of knowledge, attitudes about traumatic dental injuries, emergency management, and 2 case study questions on management of luxation and tooth fracture. Survey data was coded and analyzed for associations and trends using STATA® statistics/data analysis software v. 11.2. Results: A total of 100 child care providers completed the online questionnaire. Eighty-four percent self-reported little to no knowledge about dental injury management. Sixty percent of child care providers agreed that they are responsible for managing dental injuries. Approximately two-thirds of child care providers reported not feeling adequately informed about dental injuries, with 77% expressing interest in receiving more information. Conclusions: The majority of child care providers' do not have the knowledge to perform adequate first aid following a dental injury. Professional development on first aid for dental injuries is recommended among this workforce population. Copyright © 2017 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  4. Performance assessment of junior public health nurse in maternal and child health services in a district of Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achampattu Mridulal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Performance assessment of health services provided to maternal and child population is an important area of concern especially in developing countries including India. Aim: This study was conducted to assess the performance of Junior Public Health Nurses (JPHN on services provided to maternal and child health at sub-centers in Malappuram district of Kerala, India. Methods: Maternal and child health services were assessed based on record analysis and interviewing JPHN in 30 randomly selected sub-centers using a predesigned questionnaire prepared according to Indian Public Health Standards for sub-centers. The work performed by the JPHNs was graded as excellent, very good, good, satisfactory, and poor based on the standard guidelines. Results: Population covered by the 30 JPHNs at their sub-centers ranges from 5050 to 9869. Services were excellent in all the sub-centers for tetanus toxoid immunization and institutional deliveries. Although antenatal care (ANC registration was excellent in 70% of the sub-centers, it was poor for the 1 st trimester ANC registration in 50% of sub-centers. In the case of referral services and postnatal care (PNC, 27% and 33% of the centers were excellent, respectively. 50% of the centers have had poor performance in PNC. Detection of beneficiaries for immunization by JPHNs was excellent in 60% of the sub-centers. Measles and full immunization coverage was poor in 40% of sub-centers. Around 77% JPHNs attended in-service training, and 90% of them could prepare sub-center annual action-plan. Conclusion: There is a variation in performance of JPHNs at a sub-district level which highlights the importance of further studies to elucidate the factors associated with it.

  5. Auditing the needs of recovery room staff providing care for the child in an acute hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas-Holley, J

    2016-05-01

    This article examines the results of an audit into recovery nurse knowledge and understanding of paediatric care standards. It will critically analyse the availability of current standards for children's services in the recovery room and discuss the need for a national document specifically dedicated to standards of practise for the care of the child in the recovery room providing immediate post operative care. The article will also look at the development of such a document.

  6. Self-care interventions for the school-aged child with encopresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitito, L M

    2000-01-01

    Encopresis, an elimination disorder in children, presents as a challenging problem for gastroenterology nurses working with patients and families confronted with this disorder. This article offers a summary of the literature on encopresis, including pathogenesis, causative factors, early treatment, and clinical interventions focused on self-care. The antecedent factors that facilitate the child's participation in self-care are summarized, along with the intended outcomes of the self-care intervention plan.

  7. A comparison between antenatal care quality in public and private sector in rural Hebei, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Dai, Yaohua; Zhang, Yanfeng; Wu, Qiong; Rudan, Diana; Saftić, Vanja; van Velthoven, Michelle H M M T; Su, Jianqiang; Tan, Zangwen; Scherpbier, Robert W

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the quality of antenatal care (ANC) in Hebei Province and compare it between the public and private sector and within the public sector. We conducted a Maternal, Newborn and Child Health Household Survey in 2010 using a two-stage sampling procedure and included 1079 mothers. The quality of ANC was assessed on the basis of the number of ANC visits, the time of the first ANC visit, 16 different ANC procedures, owning a maternal health care booklet, and the type of service provider. Almost all women (98%) received ANC services at least once, 80% at least four times, and 54% at least five times. About half of the women (46%) visited ANC facility within their first trimester. Neither public nor private sector provided all 16 standardized services, but significantly more women in public sector received ANC procedures. Most women received ANC in county or higher-level hospitals (75%) and very few in township hospitals (8%). Significantly fewer women were weighed and tested for HIV/AIDS in township than in county or higher-level hospitals. The quality of ANC in Hebei was poorer than required by China's national and World Health Organization norms. Although the public sector performed better than the private sector, the utilization and quality of care of ANC services in this sector varied and women generally visited county or higher-level health facilities.

  8. A comparison between antenatal care quality in public and private sector in rural Hebei, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Dai, Yaohua; Zhang, Yanfeng; Wu, Qiong; Rudan, Diana; Saftić, Vanja; van Velthoven, Michelle H.M.M.T.; Su, Jianqiang; Tan, Zangwen; Scherpbier, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the quality of antenatal care (ANC) in Hebei Province and compare it between the public and private sector and within the public sector. Methods We conducted a Maternal, Newborn and Child Health Household Survey in 2010 using a two-stage sampling procedure and included 1079 mothers. The quality of ANC was assessed on the basis of the number of ANC visits, the time of the first ANC visit, 16 different ANC procedures, owning a maternal health care booklet, and the type of service provider. Results Almost all women (98%) received ANC services at least once, 80% at least four times, and 54% at least five times. About half of the women (46%) visited ANC facility within their first trimester. Neither public nor private sector provided all 16 standardized services, but significantly more women in public sector received ANC procedures. Most women received ANC in county or higher-level hospitals (75%) and very few in township hospitals (8%). Significantly fewer women were weighed and tested for HIV/AIDS in township than in county or higher-level hospitals. Conclusion The quality of ANC in Hebei was poorer than required by China’s national and World Health Organization norms. Although the public sector performed better than the private sector, the utilization and quality of care of ANC services in this sector varied and women generally visited county or higher-level health facilities. PMID:23630142

  9. [The influence of caregivers' anxiety and the home environment on child abuse. A study of children attending child-care centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Yukiko; Tanaka, Emiko; Shinohara, Ryoji; Sugisawa, Yuka; Tomisaki, Etsuko; Watanabe, Taeko; Tokutake, Kentaro; Matsumoto, Misako; Sugita, Chihiro; Anme, Tokie

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of child abuse is increasing in Japan. Therefore, we need appropriate and practical approaches for implementing feasible prevention, early detection, and support services for abused children. The purpose of this study was to examine child-rearing anxieties and the home environment as factors affecting caregivers of suspected abused children who attend child-care centers . First, we applied the millennium edition of the Japan Child and Family Research Institute (JCFRI) Child Rearing Support Questionnaire, and the Index of Child Care Environment (ICCE), for 1,801 caregivers whose children were enrolled in child-care centers based in City A. The millennium edition of the JCFRI Child Rearing Support Questionnaire measures difficulties in childcare for caregivers in terms of feelings, anxiety, and tendencies toward depression. The ICCE measures the quality and frequency of involvement of caregivers with their children and the child-care environment. Next, we interviewed the directors and child-care professionals in the centers to collect information on child abuse. The children were divided into two groups: abused and non-abused. The "abused group" consisted of the children whom the directors and professionals of the child-care centers suspected of being "possibly abused" and so had been placed under the protection of the center; furthermore, the center exchanged information with the City A Municipality "City A municipal government" about these children. We conducted Fisher's exact test to examine the relationship between the "abused group" and the "non-abused group," in relation to child-rearing anxiety and the children's home environments. Questionnaire scores from the two groups were assessed. We calculated odds ratios to examine the significant factors related to child abuse. Our dependent variable was child abuse, our main independent variables were items related to child-care difficulties and the child-care environment, and the moderating variables

  10. Public health emergencies and the public health/managed care challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Sara; Skivington, Skip; Praeger, Sandra

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between insurance and public health is an enduring topic in public health policy and practice. Insurers share certain attributes with public health. But public health agencies operate in relation to the entire community that they are empowered by public law to serve and without regard to the insurance status of community residents; on the other hand, insurers (whether managed care or otherwise) are risk-bearing entities whose obligations are contractually defined and limited to enrolled members and sponsors. Public insurers such as Medicare and Medicaid operate under similar constraints. The fundamental characteristics that distinguish managed care-style insurance and public health become particularly evident during periods of public health emergency, when a public health agency's basic obligations to act with speed and flexibility may come face to face with the constraints on available financing that are inherent in the structure of insurance. Because more than 70% of all personal health care in the United States is financed through insurance, public health agencies effectively depend on insurers to finance necessary care and provide essential patient-level data to the public health system. Critical issues of state and federal policy arise in the context of the public health/insurance relations during public health emergencies. These issues focus on coverage and the power to make coverage decisions, as well as the power to define service networks and classify certain data as exempt from public reporting. The extent to which a formal regulatory approach may become necessary is significantly affected by the extent to which private entities themselves respond to the problem with active efforts to redesign their services and operations to include capabilities and accountability in the realm of public health emergency response.

  11. Physicians' fees and public medical care programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R H; Hadley, J

    1981-01-01

    In this article we develop and estimate a model of physicians' pricing that explicitly incorporates the effects of Medicare and Medicaid demand subsidies. Our analysis is based on a multiperiod model in which physicians are monopolistic competitors supplying services to several markets. The implications of the model are tested using data derived from claims submitted by a cohort of 1,200 California physicians during the years 1972-1975. We conclude that the demand for physician's services is relatively elastic; that increases in the local supply of physicians reduce prices somewhat; that physicians respond strategically to attempts to control prices through the customary-prevailing-reasonable system; and that price controls limit the rate of increase in physicians' prices. The analysis identifies a family of policies that recognize the monopsony power of public programs and may change the cost-access trade-off. PMID:7021479

  12. The Rise in Cortisol in Family Day Care: Associations with Aspects of Care Quality, Child Behavior, and Child Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnar, Megan R.; Kryzer, Erin; Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Phillips, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the increase in salivary cortisol from midmorning to midafternoon in 151 children (3.0-4.5 years) in full-time home-based day care. Compared to cortisol levels at home, increases were noted in the majority of children (63%) at day care, with 40% classified as a stress response. Observations at day care revealed that intrusive,…

  13. A cross-sectional survey of the prevalence of environmental tobacco smoke preventive care provision by child health services in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daly Justine B

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the need for a reduction in levels of childhood exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS being a recognised public health goal, the delivery of ETS preventive care in child health service settings remains a largely unstudied area. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of ETS preventive care in child health services; differences in the provision of care by type of service; the prevalence of strategies to support such care; and the association between care support strategies and care provision. Method One-hundred and fifty-one (83% child health service managers within New South Wales, Australia completed a questionnaire in 2002 regarding the: assessment of parental smoking and child ETS exposure; the provision of parental smoking cessation and ETS-exposure reduction advice; and strategies used to support the provision of such care. Child health services were categorised based on their size and case-mix, and a chi-square analysis was performed to compare the prevalence of ETS risk assessment and ETS prevention advice between service types. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between the existence of care support strategies and the provision of ETS risk assessment and ETS exposure prevention advice. Results A significant proportion of services reported that they did not assess parental smoking status (26%, and reported that they did not assess the ETS exposure (78% of any child. Forty four percent of services reported that they did not provide smoking cessation advice and 20% reported they did not provide ETS exposure prevention advice. Community based child and family health services reported a greater prevalence of ETS preventive care compared to other hospital based units. Less than half of the services reported having strategies to support the provision of ETS preventive care. The existence of such support strategies was associated with greater odds of care provision

  14. Complications and total care of a child with acute leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vietti, T J; Ragab, A H

    1975-03-01

    The complications which occur in a child with acute leukemia depend on the stage of the disease and the therapeutic regiman. Most children will present with some manifestation of marrow failure. An occasional child will have marked leukocytosis and disturbance of organ function due to massive leukemic infiltrates. Metabolic disturbances such as hyperuricemia and hyperphosphatemia-hypocalcemia may develop, expecially after therapy is initiated. The myelosuppression and immunosuppression due to drug toxicity may result in opportunistic infections. Other toxicities which can occur with a chemotherapeutic regimen are numerois and varied, and the physician must be cognizant of them in order to minimize damage. Therapy to the central nervous system, either for subclinical or clinical disease, has been associated with a variety of symptoms ranging from meningismus to paraplegia and death. To prevent the development of these complications, and to manage them effectively if they occur, the physician must be knowlegeable about their etiology, clinical and laboratory manifestations, and treatment.

  15. Maternal and child health care in an underprivileged area of Bangalore city: Identifying the gaps in the continuum of care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avita R Johnson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background With over 100 million Indians living in urban slums and high child mortality among low-income groups, focusing on maternal and child health (MCH among urban underprivileged is vital, if India is to achieve the fourth and fifth Millennium Development goals. Objectives To identify the gaps in the MCH Continuum of care, by assessing coverage and quality of Maternal and Child Health Services in an urban underprivileged area of Bangalore City. Methods A survey was conducted in an urban slum of Bangalore City, using systematic random sampling. A total of 178 subjects were interviewed with a pre-tested questionnaire. 88 were mothers who delivered in the last one year (to assess maternal care services, and 90 were mothers of a child aged 12-23 months (to assess immunization coverage. Breastfeeding practices and care during childhood illness were documented in both groups. Results Though institutional delivery rate was 97.7%, only 34.1% mothers had received full antenatal care. The quality of antenatal and postnatal services was poor, practices like prelacteal feeds and delayed initiation of breastfeeding were common. Less than 40 % of children were exclusively breastfed for at least 6 months. Only 53% of children aged 12-23 months were fully immunised. Primary immunisation drop-out rates were high. Mothers’ knowledge regarding vaccines was poor. Children with diarrhea received less fluids and food and only 61% received ORS. Conclusion This study identified the following gaps in the MCH Continuum of Care- lack of IFA consumption, poor quality of antenatal and postnatal care, high immunisation dropout rates, erroneous breastfeeding practices and inadequate care during diarrhoea. Further research may identify potential solutions to bridging these gaps in MCH care.

  16. Maternal and child health care in an underprivileged area of Bangalore city: Identifying the gaps in the continuum of care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avita R Johnson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background With over 100 million Indians living in urban slums and high child mortality among low-­‐income groups, focusing on maternal and child health (MCH among urban underprivileged is vital, if India is to achieve the fourth and fifth Millennium Development goals. Objectives To identify the gaps in the MCH Continuum of care, by assessing coverage and quality of Maternal and Child Health Services in an urban underprivileged area of Bangalore City. Methods A survey was conducted in an urban slum of Bangalore City, using systematic random sampling. A total of 178 subjects were interviewed with a pre-­‐tested questionnaire. 88 were mothers who delivered in the last one year (to assess maternal care services, and 90 were mothers of a child aged 12-­‐23 months (to assess immunization coverage. Breastfeeding practices and care during childhood illness were documented in both groups. Results Though institutional delivery rate was 97.7%, only 34.1% mothers had received full antenatal care. The quality of antenatal and postnatal services was poor, practices like prelacteal feeds and delayed initiation of breastfeeding were common. Less than 40 % of children were exclusively breastfed for at least 6 months. Only 53% of children aged 12-­‐23 months were fully immunised. Primary immunisation drop-­‐out rates were high. Mothers’ knowledge regarding vaccines was poor. Children with diarrhea received less fluids and food and only 61% received ORS. Conclusion This study identified the following gaps in the MCH Continuum of Care-­‐ lack of IFA consumption, poor quality of antenatal and postnatal care, high immunisation dropout rates, erroneous breastfeeding practices and inadequate care during diarrhoea. Further research may identify potential solutions to bridging these gaps in MCH care.

  17. Regional disparities in child mortality within China 1996-2004: epidemiological profile and health care coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xing Lin; Guo, Sufang; Yang, Qing; Xu, Ling; Zhu, Jun; Guo, Yan

    2011-07-01

    China was one of the 68 "countdown" countries prioritized to attain Millennium Development Goals (MDG 4). The aim of this study was to analyze data on child survival and health care coverage of proven cost-effective interventions in China, with a focus on national disparities. National maternal and child mortality surveillance data were used to estimate child mortality. Coverage for proven interventions was analyzed based on data from the National Health Services Survey, National Nutrition and Health Survey, and National Immunization Survey. Consultations and qualitative field observations by experts were used to complement the Survey data. Analysis of the data revealed a significant reduction in the overall under-5 (U5) child mortality rate in China from 1996 to 2007, but also great regional disparities, with the risk of child mortality in rural areas II-IV being two- to sixfold higher than that in urban areas. Rural areas II-IV also accounted for approximately 80% of the mortality burden. More than 60% of child mortality occurred during the neonatal period, with 70% of this occurring during the first week of life. The leading causes of neonatal mortality were asphyxia at birth and premature birth; during the post-neonatal period, these were diarrhea and pneumonia, especially in less developed rural areas. Utilization of health care services in terms of both quantity and quality was positively correlated with the region's development level. A large proportion of children were affected by inadequate feeding, and the lack of safe water and essential sanitary facilities are vital indirect factors contributing to the increase in child mortality. The simulation analysis revealed that increasing access to and the quality of the most effective interventions combined with relatively low costs in the context of a comprehensive approach has the potential to reduce U5 deaths by 34%. China is on track to meet MDG 4; however, great disparities in health care do exist within

  18. Family Models for Earning and Caring: Implications for Child Care and for Family Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravanera, Zenaida

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractCanadian families have changed, in part due to an economy that provides more work opportunities for women, and a cultural orientation that values equal opportunity and diversity infamilies. In spite of the change, both quantitative and qualitative evidence suggest a continued preference for mothers to spend considerable time with children, especially in the infant andtoddler years. Thus, in an average couple, the presence of young children in the home brings wives to reduce their paid work and husbands to increase their paid work. Our reading of parentalpreferences suggests an interest in more services for young children in the form of early childhood education and child care, but also an interest in policies that would allow parents to spend more time with children through parental leaves, part-time work with good benefits, and subsidies that supplement market income. Many options available to two-parent families are often less feasible for lone parents, giving a higher priority to child care.RésuméLa famille canadiennes a changé, dû en partie à une économie qui offre plus de possibilités d’emploi pour les femmes, et à une tendance culturelle qui valorise l’égalité des chances et la diversité dans les familles. En dépit de ces changements, les preuves quantitatives et qualitatives suggèrent une préférence continue pour les mères de passer plus de temps avec les enfants, particulièrement quand il s’agit de nouveau-nés ou d’enfants en bas âge. Donc, pour un couple moyen, la présence de jeunes enfants au foyer pousse les femmes à réduire leurs emplois rémunérés et les maris à augmenter les leurs. Notre étude des préférences parentales suggère un intérêt pour un accroissement des services pour jeunes enfants sous la forme d’éducation préscolaire et de garde d’enfants, et aussi un intérêt pour des politiques qui permettraient aux parents de passer plus de temps avec leurs enfants tels que cong

  19. Double Jeopardy: Poorer Social-Emotional Outcomes for Children in the NICHD SECCYD Experiencing Home and Child-Care Environments that Confer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watamura, Sarah Enos; Phillips, Deborah A.; Morrissey, Taryn W.; McCartney, Kathleen; Bub, Kristen

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Early Child Care Research Network (NICHD SECCYD), the authors examined whether interactions between home and child-care quality affect children's social-emotional adjustment at 24, 36, and 54 months (N = 771). Triadic splits on quality of home and child care were used to…

  20. Public and private health-care financing with alternate public rationing rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuff, Katherine; Hurley, Jeremiah; Mestelman, Stuart; Muller, Andrew; Nuscheler, Robert

    2012-02-01

    We develop a model to analyze parallel public and private health-care financing under two alternative public sector rationing rules: needs-based rationing and random rationing. Individuals vary in income and severity of illness. There is a limited supply of health-care resources used to treat individuals, causing some individuals to go untreated. Insurers (both public and private) must bid to obtain the necessary health-care resources to treat their beneficiaries. Given individuals' willingnesses-to-pay for private insurance are increasing in income, the introduction of private insurance diverts treatment from relatively poor to relatively rich individuals. Further, the impact of introducing parallel private insurance depends on the rationing mechanism in the public sector. We show that the private health insurance market is smaller when the public sector rations according to need than when allocation is random. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.