WorldWideScience

Sample records for public attitude monitor

  1. Public attitudes regarding nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.L.

    1978-01-01

    This paper traces the history of public attitudes regarding nuclear waste issues. A majority of the public has recently developed the attitude that nuclear wastes are a serious problem, and a small percentage of the public opposes nuclear power mainly because of nuclear waste issues. However, a majority of the public has confidence in the ability of technologists to solve the problems associated with nuclear waste disposal. Finally, the attitudes of nuclear technologists regarding waste disposal differed greatly from the attitudes of other groups, especially environmentalists

  2. Attitudes of Austrian Psychotherapists Towards Process and Outcome Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Tim; Schmutzhart, Lisa; Laireiter, Anton-Rupert

    2018-03-08

    While monitoring systems in psychotherapy have become more common, little is known about the attitudes that mental health practitioners have towards these systems. In an online survey among 111 Austrian psychotherapists and trainees, attitudes towards therapy monitoring were measured. A well-validated questionnaire measuring attitudes towards outcome monitoring, the Outcome Measurement Questionnaire, was used. Clinicians' theoretical orientations as well as previous knowledge and experience with monitoring systems were associated with positive attitudes towards monitoring. Possible factors that may have led to these findings, like the views of different theoretical orientations or obstacles in Austrian public health care, are discussed.

  3. Public attitudes about radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisconti, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    Public attitudes about radioactive waste are changeable. That is the author's conclusion from eight years of social science research which the author has directed on this topic. The fact that public attitudes about radioactive waste are changeable is well-known to the hands-on practitioners who have opportunities to talk with the public and respond to their concerns--practitioners like Ginger King who is sharing the podium with me today. The public's changeability and open-mindedness are frequently overlooked in studies that focus narrowly on fear and dread. Such studies give the impression that the outlook for waste disposal solutions s dismal. The author believes that impression is misleading, and in this paper shares research findings that give a broader perspective

  4. Public attitudes about radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisconti, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    Public attitudes about radioactive waste are changeable. That is my conclusion from eight years of social science research which I have directed on this topic. The fact that public attitudes about radioactive waste are changeable is well-known to the hands-on practitioners who have opportunities to talk with the public and respond to their concerns-practitioners like Ginger King, who is sharing the podium with me today. The public's changeability and open-mindedness are frequently overlooked in studies that focus narrowly on fear and dread. Such studies give the impression that the outlook for waste disposal solutions is dismal. I believe that impression is misleading, and I'd like to share research findings with you today that give a broader perspective

  5. Public Attitudes Toward Nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sims Bainbridge, William

    2002-01-01

    Data from 3909 respondents to an Internet survey questionnaire provide the first insights into public perceptions of nanotechnology. Quantitative analysis of statistics about agreement and disagreement with two statements, one positive and the other negative, reveals high levels of enthusiasm for the potential benefits of nanotechnology and little concern about possible dangers. The respondents mentally connect nanotechnology with the space program, nuclear power, and cloning research, but rate it more favorably. In contrast, they do not associate nanotechnology with pseudoscience, despite its imaginative exploitation by science fiction writers. Qualitative analysis of written comments from 598 respondents indicates that many ideas about the value of nanotechnology have entered popular culture, and it provides material for an additional 108 questionnaire items that can be used in future surveys on the topic. The findings of this exploratory study can serve as benchmarks against which to compare results of future research on the evolving status of nanotechnology in society

  6. Public attitudes to nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Pligt, J; Eiser, J R; Spears, R

    1984-09-01

    The last decade has seen a marked increase in public concern about nuclear energy. As a consequence, it is now recognized that the future of nuclear energy will not only depend on technical and economic factors, but that public acceptability of this technology will play a crucial role in its long-term future. This paper summarizes trends in public reactions to nuclear power in various countries and discusses a number of studies on public beliefs and attitudes to nuclear power in general, and to the building of a nuclear power plant near to one's home. It is concluded that the qualitative aspects of the possible risks of nuclear energy play an important role in the public's perception of this technology. It is also clear, however, that differences in perception of the risks do not embrace all the relevant aspects of the public's assessment of nuclear energy. Public reaction is also related to more-general beliefs and values, such as emphasis on economic versus social priorities, attitudes to technology and environmental concern. 11 references.

  7. Recent public attitudes to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.E.O.

    This paper reviews recent public attitudes to nuclear power in Canada and the state of empirical knowledge about these attitudes referring specifically to studies carried out in Ontario. It discusses interest groups as a factor in public attitudes and suggests some lines of investigation for social research. (author)

  8. Public Attitudes toward Animal Research: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth H. Ormandy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The exploration of public attitudes toward animal research is important given recent developments in animal research (e.g., increasing creation and use of genetically modified animals, and plans for progress in areas such as personalized medicine, and the shifting relationship between science and society (i.e., a move toward the democratization of science. As such, public engagement on issues related to animal research, including exploration of public attitudes, provides a means of achieving socially acceptable scientific practice and oversight through an understanding of societal values and concerns. Numerous studies have been conducted to explore public attitudes toward animal use, and more specifically the use of animals in research. This paper reviews relevant literature using three categories of influential factors: personal and cultural characteristics, animal characteristics, and research characteristics. A critique is given of survey style methods used to collect data on public attitudes, and recommendations are given on how best to address current gaps in public attitudes literature.

  9. Ethics and policy: Dealing with public attitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheehan, M.

    2008-01-01

    The current trend towards ethical scrutiny and oversight is very much a social trend. Many of the results of this trend are perfectly reasonable but some go harmfully too far. In this paper, caution is advocated about public attitudes and social trends. Although there is often a degree of truth in them, there is an inevitable simplification of the issues involved. The more specific danger for the professions is to think that public attitudes and social trends simply deliver 'the ethical'. In this context a more adequate account of ethics is considered - one that is relevant for professions like radiology confronting the demands of ethical scrutiny and oversight. The paper concludes with some suggestions about how to incorporate the important aspects of public attitudes and social trends without being subservient to them. (authors)

  10. Public attitudes toward nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otway, H J [International Atomic Energy Agency, Joint IAEA/IIASA Research Project, Vienna (Austria)

    1976-07-01

    An earlier article (Bulletin Vol. 17, no. 4, August 1975) outlined the research programme of the Joint IAEA/IIASA Research Project on risk assessment and presented some preliminary results. This project is co-sponsored by the IAEA and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, located at Laxenburg, near Vienna. Additional support is received from IAEA Member States who have indicated their interest in this research by seconding scientists, at no cost to the Agency, to work with the group for periods of one year or more. Secondments have been completed by scientists from the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, United Kingdom, United States of America and Sweden. Additional secondments, or notice of intent, have now been received from France, Netherlands, Norway and South Africa. The research on risk assessment is oriented toward understanding how societies judge the acceptability of new technologies and how information on risks, and the expected responses to them, may be used in decision making. This article will briefly review one specific research area, that of attitude formation, and will illustrate how established models and techniques may be applied in order to gain insight into the relative importance of the specific technological, psychological and social factors which determine attitudes toward nuclear power.

  11. Public attitudes toward nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otway, H.J.

    1976-01-01

    An earlier article (Bulletin Vol. 17, no. 4, August 1975) outlined the research programme of the Joint IAEA/IIASA Research Project on risk assessment and presented some preliminary results. This project is co-sponsored by the IAEA and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, located at Laxenburg, near Vienna. Additional support is received from IAEA Member States who have indicated their interest in this research by seconding scientists, at no cost to the Agency, to work with the group for periods of one year or more. Secondments have been completed by scientists from the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, United Kingdom, United States of America and Sweden. Additional secondments, or notice of intent, have now been received from France, Netherlands, Norway and South Africa. The research on risk assessment is oriented toward understanding how societies judge the acceptability of new technologies and how information on risks, and the expected responses to them, may be used in decision making. This article will briefly review one specific research area, that of attitude formation, and will illustrate how established models and techniques may be applied in order to gain insight into the relative importance of the specific technological, psychological and social factors which determine attitudes toward nuclear power

  12. Public attitudes to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, John.

    1981-06-01

    The public is influenced against nuclear power by fear of a large accident, fear of radiation, worry about nuclear waste, and by the fact that it is a symbol of the bureaucratic, impersonal aspects of industrialized society. The nuclear industry must do several things to overcome this public concern. It must be more articulate in speaking to the public in a language the public understands and not in nuclear jargon; it must be strictly accurate and truthful in all statements, and if it believes the case it is putting forward is sound, it should defend the proposal and not promise to do even more to buy off criticism. Acceptance of nuclear power will either have to wait until the energy situation is desperate, or until the industry puts enough effort into presenting and defending its case to convince all objective people

  13. Public attitudes to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margerison, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    The British public is very poorly informed about nuclear power. 55 % express concern about it, but few can explain why. Some of the reasons given are extraordinary: 37 % of the public think nuclear power causes acid rain which pollutes lakes and kills trees; 47 % think coal is a safer fuel for making electricity than nuclear; a quarter think natural radiation is less harmful than that from nuclear stations. And a very large number of people have greatly exaggerated views of the amount of radiation released from power stations and the harm that it is doing people. Also, a quarter of everyone asked thought that nuclear power stations make bombs as well as electricity. Most of these concerns come from the media, and in particular from television which has broadcast many programmes which are strongly anti-nuclear, often inaccurate, and usually sensational. Fortunately, the effect of these stories is less damaging than one might think. At present about 42 % of the adult British population are not in favour of nuclear power, so there is still a majority who are not against. About 44 % are positively in favour, and the remainder are not sure or have no view

  14. Effect of nuclear education on public attitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Teruaki

    1995-01-01

    A method is proposed to assess the effect of nuclear education. In this method, the nuclear education is treated as a part of the activities for public acceptance (PA), and a unit PA activity is assumed to give the same effect on the public, in essence, as a unit of nuclear information given by the newsmedia. Moreover, the change of attitude to nuclear energy is assumed to originate from enhanced understanding which, in turn, is brought by the stimulus given by the nuclear education. With the values of constants determined by using the data in Japan, example calculations were made for the educational time b 0 and the infiltration rate of education into minors B as parameters. It became clear from this calculation that the attitude to nuclear energy formed in the age of school children plays an essential role in shaping future public opinion since it is held in individuals without any notable modification for a long time after its formation, and that the effect of nuclear education to minors emerges depending on the variables b 0 and B in a highly non-linear manner. It was also found that there exists an optimum condition for nuclear education to attain the maximum amelioration of public opinion under a given condition of man-power for educational workers. (author)

  15. Radioactive wastes: public attitudes toward disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, M.K.; Earle, T.C.; Hebert, J.A.; Perry, R.W.

    1978-10-01

    Seventeen geographically widespread, established groups were selected which were expected to vary in their attitudes from strongly pronuclear to strongly antinuclear. People who tend to be politically active were chosen. The highest level of consensus was found on the need for site monitoring, site control, and information transfer in a waste repository. Overall, the results indicate that pronuclear respondents believe that the hazards of nuclear waste are similar to other industrial risks, while antinuclear respondents are less optimistic about safe storage of nuclear wastes and believe that nuclear power is different

  16. Public attitudes toward nuclear generating facilities: positive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krannich, R.S.

    1977-01-01

    Public opposition and intervention in the siting and development of nuclear power plants has become more of a limiting factor than technological issues. Attitude surveys indicate that, while the majority of Americans support nuclear power, the utilities would do well to respond to the concerns and opinions of local residents when projects are in the planning stages. Recent polls are analyzed to identify the demographic and perceptive factors of opposition. Demographic studies indicate that the greatest opposition comes from women, young people, urban residents, farmers, low-income groups, and the unemployed. Perceptual opposition is associated with anticipated negative impacts in the form of hazards and social disruption. Since there appears to be a correlation between access to pertinent information and level of support, utility planners could develop educational programs to provide this information on the advantages of nuclear power. 10 references

  17. Public attitudes to nuclear risk in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asami, Masae

    1991-01-01

    Public or social risk perception is composed of individual risk perceptions. But public or social risk perception should be understood as a product of social dynamism, not the sum of individual risk perceptions. After the Chernobyl accident Japanese antinuclear movements expanded nationwide. In particular, there was a strong upsurge of criticism of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Complex (NFCC) project in the siting area at Rokkasho-mura, and even in other places. The movement against the NFCC project peaked with the election of an anti-nuclear candidate in the 1989 election to the Upper House of the Japanese parliament. The result of this election, and others in the same area, reflected nuclear risk perceptions in the siting prefecture (local authority district) of Aomori. This paper examines the public attitudes to nuclear risk in Japan. The anti-NFCC movement now has a core of regional support. Given a triggering event, the anti-NFCC movement could revive rapidly and the movement could spread nationwide. (author)

  18. Food irradiation: public attitudes at Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croci, Clara A.; Curzio, Osvaldo A.

    1999-01-01

    The paper show the research and development activities conducted in the South National University in relation to the consumer attitude about irradiated foodstuff in general, and irradiated onions in particular. Marketing trials were conducted in three opportunities in Bahia Blanca and Buenos Aires cities. Two surveys were carried out with handouts distributed to the public: the first was a general survey intended to find out how much supermarket customers know about food preservation by means of ionizing irradiation, and how much interest the public and in buying onions treated with ionizing radiation; the second survey was carried out with the members of the public who had bought the treated onions. The form asked for the reason for buying irradiated onions, the opinion about the product, and whether the product would be purchase again. The results encourage the transference of irradiation technology with an important economic benefit for the productive sector. Also, these studies may be used as a useful tool to start the introduction of irradiated food in MERCORSUR countries. (author)

  19. Public attitudes towards prevention of obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Sikorski

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate obesity prevention support in the German general public and to assess determinants of general prevention support as well as support of specific prevention measures. METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional analysis of a telephone based representative German study (3,003 subjects (52.8% women, mean age 51.9, s.d.  = 18.0, range 18-97 years. Likert scale-based questions on general prevention support and support of specific measures were used. Furthermore willingness to take part in preventive programs and willingness to pay were assessed. Stigmatizing attitudes were assessed with the Fat Phobia Scale (FPS. Causation of obesity was differentiated in three dimensions (internal, e.g. lack of exercise; external, e.g. social surroundings; and genetic factors. RESULTS: Obesity prevention was perceived as possible (98.2%, however, almost exclusively lifestyle changes were named. Participants with higher stigmatizing attitudes were less likely to believe obesity prevention is possible. The majority of participants would take part in preventive programs (59.6% and pay at least partially themselves (86.9%. Factor analysis revealed three dimensions of preventive measures: promoting healthy eating, restrictive and financial, governmental prevention efforts. In regard to these, promoting healthy eating was the most supported measure. Higher age, female gender and external causation were associated with higher support for all three dimensions of preventive measures. Only for governmental regulation, higher age was associated with lower support. CONCLUSION: Obesity prevention support in Germany is high. Structural prevention efforts are supported by the majority of the general public in Germany. The vast majority proclaims willingness to pay themselves for programs of weight gain prevention. This could be an indication of higher perceived self-responsibility in the German system but also for risen "fear of fat" in the population due

  20. Attitudes toward statistics in medical postgraduates: measuring, evaluating and monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuhai; Shang, Lei; Wang, Rui; Zhao, Qinbo; Li, Chanjuan; Xu, Yongyong; Su, Haixia

    2012-11-23

    In medical training, statistics is considered a very difficult course to learn and teach. Current studies have found that students' attitudes toward statistics can influence their learning process. Measuring, evaluating and monitoring the changes of students' attitudes toward statistics are important. Few studies have focused on the attitudes of postgraduates, especially medical postgraduates. Our purpose was to understand current attitudes regarding statistics held by medical postgraduates and explore their effects on students' achievement. We also wanted to explore the influencing factors and the sources of these attitudes and monitor their changes after a systematic statistics course. A total of 539 medical postgraduates enrolled in a systematic statistics course completed the pre-form of the Survey of Attitudes Toward Statistics -28 scale, and 83 postgraduates were selected randomly from among them to complete the post-form scale after the course. Most medical postgraduates held positive attitudes toward statistics, but they thought statistics was a very difficult subject. The attitudes mainly came from experiences in a former statistical or mathematical class. Age, level of statistical education, research experience, specialty and mathematics basis may influence postgraduate attitudes toward statistics. There were significant positive correlations between course achievement and attitudes toward statistics. In general, student attitudes showed negative changes after completing a statistics course. The importance of student attitudes toward statistics must be recognized in medical postgraduate training. To make sure all students have a positive learning environment, statistics teachers should measure their students' attitudes and monitor their change of status during a course. Some necessary assistance should be offered for those students who develop negative attitudes.

  1. Attitudes toward statistics in medical postgraduates: measuring, evaluating and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In medical training, statistics is considered a very difficult course to learn and teach. Current studies have found that students’ attitudes toward statistics can influence their learning process. Measuring, evaluating and monitoring the changes of students’ attitudes toward statistics are important. Few studies have focused on the attitudes of postgraduates, especially medical postgraduates. Our purpose was to understand current attitudes regarding statistics held by medical postgraduates and explore their effects on students’ achievement. We also wanted to explore the influencing factors and the sources of these attitudes and monitor their changes after a systematic statistics course. Methods A total of 539 medical postgraduates enrolled in a systematic statistics course completed the pre-form of the Survey of Attitudes Toward Statistics −28 scale, and 83 postgraduates were selected randomly from among them to complete the post-form scale after the course. Results Most medical postgraduates held positive attitudes toward statistics, but they thought statistics was a very difficult subject. The attitudes mainly came from experiences in a former statistical or mathematical class. Age, level of statistical education, research experience, specialty and mathematics basis may influence postgraduate attitudes toward statistics. There were significant positive correlations between course achievement and attitudes toward statistics. In general, student attitudes showed negative changes after completing a statistics course. Conclusions The importance of student attitudes toward statistics must be recognized in medical postgraduate training. To make sure all students have a positive learning environment, statistics teachers should measure their students’ attitudes and monitor their change of status during a course. Some necessary assistance should be offered for those students who develop negative attitudes. PMID:23173770

  2. Public knowledge and attitudes regarding public health inspections of restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Timothy F; Grimm, Karen

    2008-06-01

    Foodborne diseases cause 76 million illnesses in the U.S. each year, and almost half of all money spent on food is spent in restaurants. Restaurant inspections are a critical public health intervention for the prevention of foodborne disease. A telephone survey of randomly selected Tennessee residents aged > or =18 was performed. Data were collected on respondents' demographics, knowledge, attitudes, and expectations regarding restaurant inspections. Of 2000 respondents, 97% were aware that restaurants are inspected regularly by the health department. More than half of the respondents believed that inspections should be performed at least 12 times per year; only one third were aware that inspections currently occur only twice per year in Tennessee. More than one third of the respondents considered an inspection score of > or =90 acceptable for a restaurant at which they would eat; the mean score in Tennessee is 82. When presented with a variety of scenarios, an overwhelming number of respondents felt that public health responses to safety violations should be far more draconian than they actually are. Survey answers did not differ consistently based on respondents' race, gender, or history of having worked in a restaurant. This study identified a number of public misconceptions and unrealistically high expectations of the public health restaurant-inspection system. It is important to improve consumers' understanding of inspection scores and the limitations of regulatory inspections, as well as the role of such inspections in disease prevention.

  3. Public attitudes towards industrial, work-related and other risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott-Clarke, P.

    1982-01-01

    Two reports describing work sponsored by the Health and Safety Executive are presented. The first describes a study of public attitudes towards industrial, work related, nuclear industry related and other risks. The second report describes public attitudes towards the acceptability of risks. (U.K.)

  4. Plenoptic Attitude Monitoring System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is seeking an optical system capable of analyzing the attitude of wind tunnel models in real time, with a high angular resolution and robustness. To address...

  5. Attitudes of the Public toward Educational Mainstreaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Joan D.

    1989-01-01

    A survey of 377 adults at a small city shopping mall showed positive attitudes toward mainstreaming of handicapped students with normal potential for learning, and less favorable attitudes toward students exhibiting disruptive behavior. Subjects showed attitudinal differences based on their race, age, and child in school, but not their gender.…

  6. Exercise, Weather, Safety, and Public Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Mullan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Levels of cycling for transport (CFT in Ireland are very low—about 2% nationally—and the government has set a target of 10% of all trips to work by bicycle by 2020. The purpose of this study was to explore the complexities of leisure/sport cyclists’ views about CFT. Sixteen leisure/sport cyclists (four women and 12 men; about half cycled for transport were interviewed about the factors that influenced their decision to cycle somewhere instead of driving and the role of the weather in that decision, whether they considered CFT to be real “exercise,” and the meaning of “safety.” The findings were that the decision to cycle for transport was dominated by practical concerns, and weather concerns added to this organizational burden. For city-dwellers, the key deciding factor was cycling’s efficiency and reliability. Safety concerns centered around negative interactions with drivers and there was a common belief that the general public had very negative attitudes to cycling and cyclists. Finally, most thought that CFT was not “proper” exercise as it would be of insufficient intensity or duration and would take from the time available to do this. These findings show that to promote CFT among leisure/sport cyclists, government and local authorities must improve and highlight the efficiency, safety, and legitimacy of cycling as a transport option. Without this, promotional activities that just focus on the exercise, health, and enjoyment potential of CFT will have little effect.

  7. Knowledge and Attitude of Public Secondary School Teachers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated knowledge and attitude of public secondary school teachers towards continuous assessment (CA) practices in Edo Central Senatorial District, Nigeria. The study was undertaken to determine the influence of gender, age, years of experience and area of educational specialization on teachers' attitude ...

  8. Effect of demographic variables on public attitudes towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In conclusion, background variables do have a significant effect on some of the dimensions of Malaysians' attitudes towards modern biotechnology. The research findings will be useful for understanding the effect of background variables on public attitudes towards the application of gene technology in medicine.

  9. Public attitudes to organ donation in South Africa | Pike | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Public attitudes to organ donation may be influenced by cultural beliefs as well as racial prejudices and superstitions. In South Africa we are able to examine these issues from both a Firstand a Third-World perspective. In this study the attitudes of 1 299 urban white, 625 rural black and 826 urban black South Africans were ...

  10. Public attitudes toward mental illness in Africa and North America

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    investigations of public attitudes, whether from cross-cultural ... toward mental illness internationally ... in the context of different attitudes toward other human .... the impression that the study was not only a study of mental ... translation, and has experience in translating and editing ...... University students' perceptions of.

  11. Do public attitudes affect conservation effort? Using a questionnaire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globally, amphibians are among the least appreciated vertebrates and are often negatively perceived by the general public. Such attitudes are particularly prevalent in South Africa, where fear, superstitions and myths associated with frogs are pervasive in some cultures. These attitudes could have harmful consequences ...

  12. Process of public attitudes toward nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimooka, Hiroshi

    1993-01-01

    The Japanese public attitudes toward nuclear power generation had become negative year by year. After the Chernobyl accident, a percentage of the unfavorable respondent toward nuclear power generation has dramatically increased, and a new type of anti-nuclear movement has been observed. On the basis of our public opinion polls, the reason for this increase was found to be primarily decrease of sense of usefulness rather than increase of sense of nueasiness about nuclear safety. Particularly, social factors (change of life style, progress of civilian consciousness, credibility of the existing institutional system etc.) have influence on the attitude of either pro or anti-nuclear. Based on the above observation, we have inferred that process of the public attitudes has two flows arising from the above social factors, one is the usefulness and the other is the easiness about nuclear safety, and have formulated a model representing the process of public attitudes toward nuclear power. (author)

  13. Investigation on public knowledge, attitude and practices related to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    study are to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices towards pet husbandry, ... pet-owning households, with concerted efforts by veterinary, human and public health profes- ... Those benefits include companionship, physical activity, pro-.

  14. Public attitudes to organ donation in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    influence of cultural beliefs, racial prejudices and super- stitions on public attimdes ... added, free of charge, to existing market research ques- tionnaires. ..... changing attitude. The Xhosa ... lack of knowledge about brain death, organ donation.

  15. The formation of public attitudes to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.

    1983-01-01

    The following aspects are discussed: public attitudes and the media; reluctance of affluent societies to accept changes; methods developed by objectors; role of universities; public perceptions of hazards compared with objective statistical ranking; effect of public concern on government decisions. (U.K.)

  16. Nuclear attitudes and personality: informing our understanding of public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, E.R.; Donev, J. M.; Ellard, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    What distinguishes the supporter of nuclear power from the antagonist? The influence that public opinions may have on industry success necessitates a greater understanding of the reasons and factors behind public attitudes. The present study identified two psychometric traits, Emotionality and Need for Cognition, which were related to nuclear support even after accounting for gender differences. This paper discusses the implications of these findings for understanding nuclear attitudes and ends by proposing avenues for future research in this area. (author)

  17. Nuclear attitudes and personality: informing our understanding of public acceptance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd, E.R.; Donev, J. M.; Ellard, J.H., E-mail: erlloyd@ucalgary.ca, E-mail: jason.donev@ucalgary.ca [Univ. of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    What distinguishes the supporter of nuclear power from the antagonist? The influence that public opinions may have on industry success necessitates a greater understanding of the reasons and factors behind public attitudes. The present study identified two psychometric traits, Emotionality and Need for Cognition, which were related to nuclear support even after accounting for gender differences. This paper discusses the implications of these findings for understanding nuclear attitudes and ends by proposing avenues for future research in this area. (author)

  18. Public knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding antibiotic use in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Zajmi, Drita; Berisha, Merita; Begolli, Ilir; Hoxha, Rina; Mehmeti, Rukije; Mulliqi-Osmani, Gjyle; Kurti, Arsim; Loku, Afrim; Raka, Lul

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Antimicrobial resistance is becoming a major public health challenge worldwide, caused primarily by the misuse of antibiotics. Antibiotic use is closely related to the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of a population. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices about antibiotic use among the general public in Kosovo. Methods: A cross-sectional face-to-face survey was carried out with a sample of 811 randomly se...

  19. Public attitudes towards genetically-modified food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miles, S.; Ueland, O.; Frewer, L.J.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: Purpose - This study aimed to investigate the impact of information about traceability and new detection methods for identifying genetically-modified organisms in food, on consumer attitudes towards genetically-modified food and consumer trust in regulators in Italy, Norway and England. It

  20. Formation of public attitudes to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holy, Z.J.; Innes, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    Nuclear power has been plagued by public acceptance problems. Evidence suggests one of the key factors is poor communicaton between the scientific community and the general public. Although environmental enquiries provide a forum for the voicing of views, by adopting the adversary principle they have also resulted in polarizaton of public opinion, as experienced in Australia with the Ranger Environmental Enquiry. The problem of developing methods to enable a flow of objective informaton to and from the public requires urgent solution

  1. Formation of public attitudes to nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holy, Z J; Innes, R W

    1978-01-01

    Nuclear power has been plagued by public acceptance problems. Evidence suggests one of the key factors is poor communicaton between the scientific community and the general public. Although environmental enquiries provide a forum for the voicing of views, by adopting the adversary principle they have also resulted in polarizaton of public opinion, as experienced in Australia with the Ranger Environmental Enquiry. The problem of developing methods to enable a flow of objective informaton to and from the public requires urgent solution.

  2. Public Attitudes Towards Moral Enhancement. Evidence that Means Matter Morally

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Specker (Jona); M.H.N. Schermer (Maartje); P.B. Reiner (Peter)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractTo gain insight into the reasons that the public may have for endorsing or eschewing pharmacological moral enhancement for themselves or for others, we used empirical tools to explore public attitudes towards these issues. Participants (N = 293) from the United States were recruited via

  3. Public Attitudes toward Stuttering in Turkey: Probability versus Convenience Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, R. Sertan; St. Louis, Kenneth O.; Topbas, Seyhun

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A Turkish translation of the "Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering" ("POSHA-S") was used to compare probability versus convenience sampling to measure public attitudes toward stuttering. Method: A convenience sample of adults in Eskisehir, Turkey was compared with two replicates of a school-based,…

  4. Research and Development on a Public Attitude Instrument for Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Louis, Kenneth O.

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes research associated with the development of the "Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering" ("POSHA-S"), a survey instrument designed to provide a worldwide standard measure of public attitudes toward stuttering. Pilot studies with early experimental prototypes of the "POSHA-S" are summarized that relate to…

  5. Nuclear energy and the public: risk perception, attitudes and behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renn, O.

    1982-01-01

    A research group at the Nuclear Research Centre, Julich, has attempted to trace public attitudes to nuclear power and their roots. The structure of attitudes, types of reasoning and the processes involved in deciding about nuclear power were measured. Intuitive perceptions of technology and risk were studied. Attitudes to nuclear energy are found to be the result of intuitive processes and opposition is 'natural' on the basis of intuitive reasoning. Many people who believe nuclear power to be hazardous nevertheless will accept it as inevitable for the economic advantages it will bring in the future. (U.K.)

  6. Analysis of public attitude to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trofimenko, A.P.; Pisanko, Zh.I.

    2001-01-01

    Psychological features of nuclear power public perception, reasons of anti-nuclear movement and social components of its participants are considered. The results of some public opinion polls on nuclear power are analyzed, and factors, which influence on opinion, are discussed. Arguments are presented which indicate that part population imagination about nuclear power hazard is strongly exaggerated

  7. Public attitudes to genomic science: an experiment in information provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgis, Patrick; Brunton-Smith, Ian; Fife-Schaw, Chris

    2010-03-01

    We use an experimental panel study design to investigate the effect of providing "value-neutral" information about genomic science in the form of a short film to a random sample of the British public. We find little evidence of attitude change as a function of information provision. However, our results show that information provision significantly increased dropout from the study amongst less educated respondents. Our findings have implications both for our understanding of the knowledge-attitude relationship in public opinion toward genomic science and for science communication more generally.

  8. Nuclear reactions: public attitudes and policies toward nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudenburg, W.R.; Baxter, R.K.

    1985-01-01

    The declining public support for nuclear power has political costs. In the wake of the Three Mile Island accident, public trust in the nuclear industry has reached an all-time low. Recognition of this lack of trust sets up a counterweight to the industry pressures for relaxed regulation. The authors present the historical background behind the current debate, then summarize the available scientific survey data on the actual levels and trends in public attitudes. They find little reason for optimism. With the exception of gender, most demographic factors have only modest influence on nuclear power attitudes, which suggests that public uneasiness about the technology has become a fact of life. They conclude that a significant weakening of federal safety standards would not be consistent with public preferences. 49 references, 3 figures

  9. Monitoring and Decreasing Public Smoking among Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason, Leonard A.; Pokorny, Steven B.; Sanem, Julia R.; Adams, Monica L.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the impact of tobacco possession laws on public smoking among youth. There were two intervention sites: a fast food restaurant and a shopping mall. Two control sites were also monitored for public smoking among youth. Preliminary findings suggest that when police issued tickets to minors for violating tobacco possession laws,…

  10. Public attitudes toward mental illness in Africa and North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Louis, K O; Roberts, P M

    2013-03-01

    Public attitudes toward mental illness in two widely disparate cultures, Canada and Cameroon, were compared using an experimental version of a survey instrument, the Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Mental Illness or POSHA-MI(e). 120 respondents rated POSHA-MI(e) items relating to mental illness on 1-9 equal appearing interval scales: 30 in English and 30 in French in both Cameroon and Canada. Additionally, 30 matched, monolingual English, American respondents were included as a comparison group. In Canada (and in the USA), attitudes were generally more positive and less socially stigmatizing toward mental illness than in Cameroon. Differences between countries were much larger than differences between language groups. Consistent with other research, beliefs and reactions of the public regarding mental illness reflect stigma, especially in Cameroon. Cultural influences on these public attitudes are more likely important than language influences. Results of this field test of the POSHA-MI(e), documenting differences in public attitudes toward mental illness in two divergent cultures, support its further development.

  11. Attitudes of the public about nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.L.; Nealey, S.M.

    1978-01-01

    The disposal of nuclear wastes has become an important public issue in the past few years. In 1960, only a very small percentage of the American public questioned the safety of waste disposal methods, and no one opposed nuclear power for waste disposal reasons. By 1974, however, a slight majority of the public believed that the disposal of nuclear wastes was a serious problem associated with nuclear power, and from 1975 on, a small percentage of the public has opposed nuclear power for waste disposal reasons. More individuals believe that the technology is not available for acceptable waste management compared to the number of individuals who believe that the technology does exist. However, a majority of the public believe that modern technology can solve the waste disposal problem. Finally, nuclear technologists evaluate waste disposal problems differently from other groups. For instance, nuclear technologists believe that short-term safety is more important than long-term safety regarding waste disposal, while other groups, especially environmentalists, believe that long-term safety is more important than short-term safety. Nuclear technologists are willing to accept a higher level of waste management-related risk than other groups and evaluate waste disposal problems as being less severe than other societal problems

  12. Public attitudes toward nuclear risks and benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savellano, R.A.

    As the world progresses in technology, public awareness of risks and benefits have become more acute. This is more so towards nuclear risks and benefits. This comes about when people throughout the world, because of the energy crisis, have accepted the nuclear option. Hand in hand with the benefits that it brings are the risks of radiation and other calamities. ''The role of information, the methods of public participation, and the involvement of scientific expertise play an important part in risk assessment.'' Interest in nuclear power has gained momentum with the announcement of the construction of the first nuclear power plant. Different reactions, brought about by economic, social, moral and political factors were evident, but the economic benefits seem to prevail. Nuclear power accidents, citing particularly the recent TMI incident, have started the hornets nest of nuclear controversies and have widened the scope of concern on nuclear power. The newspapers and the media, public meetings and hearings have been used as arenas of these conflicts. These brought about varying opinions and growing disagreement among the public. Risk assessment is therefore dependent on effective communication not only with the public but between scientists and decision makers and also individuals. Risk assessment in nuclear power is a complex undertaking which is to consider a wide spectrum of factors to come up with reliable results. (author)

  13. Nuclear risk, psychological impact and public attitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghita, Carmen

    1998-01-01

    Research shows that the images of potential nuclear disasters that have been formed in the mind of antinuclear on public are remarkable different from the assessments put forth by many technical experts. In communicating risk, it is important for authorities to add information about risk assessments approach and its inherent scientific uncertainties. Presenting the benefits as well as the risks also can help the audience balance the issues involved in making decisions about technical risk. The paper describes the public perceptions related to nuclear risk and the risk assessment techniques valuable as communication tools. (author)

  14. Public Attitudes toward Stuttering in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przepiorka, Aneta M.; Blachnio, Agata; St. Louis, Kenneth O.; Wozniak, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    Background: People who stutter often experience negative judgments and reactions to their stuttering from the nonstuttering majority. Many are stigmatized because of their stuttering and threatened with social exclusion, placing them at risk for compromised quality of life. Aims: The purpose of this investigation was to measure public attitudes…

  15. Media Influence On Public Opinion Attitudes Toward The Migration Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Kosho

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many studies or facts from the practical experience of many journalist politicians and professors show that the media impact on public opinion is enormous and essential. Many issues of everyday life human crisis or mainstream policies once covered and analyzed from the lenses of the media become the main concerns of the citizens and have a meaningful impact on the attitudes of the public opinion. The migration crisis that is challenging the European countries nowadays is a big concern not only for the host countries citizens but a life challenge for the immigrants themselves. This study will examine of the connection between media reports on immigration and public attitudes and actions and how migration issues presented in the mainstream media impact the public and political discourse on international migration.

  16. Nuclear waste management, reactor decommisioning, nuclear liability and public attitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    This paper deals with several issues that are frequently raised by the public in any discussion of nuclear energy, and explores some aspects of public attitudes towards nuclear-related activities. The characteristics of the three types of waste associated with the nuclear fuel cycle, i.e. mine/mill tailings, reactor wastes and nuclear fuel wastes, are defined, and the methods currently being proposed for their safe handling and disposal are outlined. The activities associated with reactor decommissioning are also described, as well as the Canadian approach to nuclear liability. The costs associated with nuclear waste management, reactor decommissioning and nuclear liability are also discussed. Finally, the issue of public attitudes towards nuclear energy is addressed. It is concluded that a simple and comprehensive information program is needed to overcome many of the misconceptions that exist about nuclear energy and to provide the public with a more balanced information base on which to make decisions

  17. Public attitudes to financial incentive models for organs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus; Schicktanz, Silke; Deleuran, Ida

    2013-01-01

    Waiting lists for organs have stimulated interest in the use of financial incentives for organ donation (FIs), but the literature does not contain an adequate overview of studies of public attitudes toward this mode of procurement. We conducted a literature review of international peer......-reviewed research published between 2002 and 2012 on how members of the public position themselves toward FIs. We identified and analyzed 23 studies using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts and cross-reference search. The search included whole organs, donation, quantitative and empirical qualitative social...... scientific studies on, public attitudes (excluding professionals and medical students). The review reveals a broad divergence of public opinions on financial incentives. However, quantitative studies showed a low overall level of acceptance of payment for organs in living donation (LD); only a slightly...

  18. Public attitudes toward nuclear power and the TMI accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanga, B.K.

    1983-01-01

    This paper which examines the Three Mile Island accident in the context of public reactions to the plant in the surrounding area emphasises that public attitudes to nuclear power should be discussed according to two time frames - short and long range. Public perception of safety, reliability and economy may be different in the future and the role of the nuclear industry is to operate plants safely and ensure that the public gains a clearer understanding of the essential part played by nuclear reactors in generating electricity. (NEA) [fr

  19. Public attitudes toward mental illness in Africa and North America ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Result: In Canada (and in the USA), attitudes were generally more positive and less socially stigmatizing toward mental illness than in Cameroon. Differences between countries were much larger than differences between language groups. Conclusion: Consistent with other research, beliefs and reactions of the public ...

  20. Assessing the Attitudes and Practices of Public Health Professionals ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project, managed by the American University of Beirut, will survey public health academics and practitioners around the world about their attitudes and practices around funding from for-profit corporations, particularly those whose products are associated with non-communicable diseases. The project will also review ...

  1. Personality Traits and Foreign Policy Attitudes in German Public Opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Harald

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the effects of personality traits on attitudes toward foreign policy issues among the German public. Building on previous research, it argues that personality characteristics shape an individual's motivation, goals, and values, thereby providing criteria to evaluate external stimuli and affecting foreign policy opinions. An…

  2. Altruism and skepticism in public attitudes toward food nanotechnologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.; Fatehi, L.; Kuzma, J.

    2015-01-01

    To better explore and understand the public's perceptions of and attitudes toward emerging technologies and food products, we conducted a US-based focus group study centered on nanotechnology, nano-food, and nano-food labeling. Seven focus groups were conducted in seven locations in two different US metropolitan areas from September 2010 to January 2011. In addition to revealing context-specific data on already established risk and public perception factors, our goal was to inductively identify other nano-food perception factors of significance for consideration when analyzing why and how perceptions and attitudes are formed to nanotechnology in food. Two such factors that emerged—altruism and skepticism—are particularly interesting in that they may be situated between different theoretical frameworks that have been used for explaining perception and attitude. We argue that they may represent a convergence point among theories that each help explain different aspects of both how food nanotechnologies are perceived and why those perceptions are formed. In this paper, we first review theoretical frameworks for evaluating risk perception and attitudes toward emerging technologies, then review previous work on public perception of nanotechnology and nano-food, describe our qualitative content analysis results for public perception toward nano-food—focusing especially on altruism and skepticism, and discuss implications of these findings in terms of how public attitudes toward nano-food could be formed and understood. Finally, we propose that paying attention to these two factors may guide more responsible development of nano-food in the future

  3. Altruism and skepticism in public attitudes toward food nanotechnologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J. [University of Minnesota, Department of Educational Psychology, College of Education and Human Development (United States); Fatehi, L. [Humphrey School of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota (United States); Kuzma, J., E-mail: jkuzma@ncsu.edu [North Carolina State University, School of Public and International Affairs and Genetic Engineering and Society Center (United States)

    2015-03-15

    To better explore and understand the public's perceptions of and attitudes toward emerging technologies and food products, we conducted a US-based focus group study centered on nanotechnology, nano-food, and nano-food labeling. Seven focus groups were conducted in seven locations in two different US metropolitan areas from September 2010 to January 2011. In addition to revealing context-specific data on already established risk and public perception factors, our goal was to inductively identify other nano-food perception factors of significance for consideration when analyzing why and how perceptions and attitudes are formed to nanotechnology in food. Two such factors that emerged—altruism and skepticism—are particularly interesting in that they may be situated between different theoretical frameworks that have been used for explaining perception and attitude. We argue that they may represent a convergence point among theories that each help explain different aspects of both how food nanotechnologies are perceived and why those perceptions are formed. In this paper, we first review theoretical frameworks for evaluating risk perception and attitudes toward emerging technologies, then review previous work on public perception of nanotechnology and nano-food, describe our qualitative content analysis results for public perception toward nano-food—focusing especially on altruism and skepticism, and discuss implications of these findings in terms of how public attitudes toward nano-food could be formed and understood. Finally, we propose that paying attention to these two factors may guide more responsible development of nano-food in the future.

  4. Determinants of public attitudes to genetically modified salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifah Amin

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of Malaysian stakeholders to genetically modified (GM salmon and to identify the factors that influence their acceptance of GM salmon using a structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 434 representatives from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Public attitude towards GM salmon was measured using self-developed questionnaires with seven-point Likert scales. The findings of this study have confirmed that public attitudes towards GM salmon is a complex issue and should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The most important direct predictors for the encouragement of GM salmon are the specific application-linked perceptions about religious acceptability of GM salmon followed by perceived risks and benefits, familiarity, and general promise of modern biotechnology. Encouragement of GM salmon also involves the interplay among other factors such as general concerns of biotechnology, threatening the natural order of things, the need for labeling, the need for patenting, confidence in regulation, and societal values. The research findings can serve as a database that will be useful for understanding the social construct of public attitude towards GM foods in a developing country.

  5. Public attitudes toward nuclear power plant decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lough, W.T.

    1987-01-01

    A public workshop was conducted with a group of citizens to obtain the concerns and preferences of the group with respect to decommissioning. Seventeen concerns about decommissioning were identified and prioritized. The participants were most concerned about the potential health and safety effects from decommissioning. The potential impacts from the lost tax base and loss of employment were also rated highly. The estimated increase in electric utility rates was not a major concern. The participants were split fairly evenly on preferences about the methods of decommissioning. However, nine of the ten participants preferred power plant life extension over decommissioning by any method. Finally, the participants were given an evaluation questionnaire about the workshop. In general, they concluded that the process was effective, and they felt like they were a part of the Commission's planning process

  6. Public attitudes towards electroconvulsive therapy in the Chuvash Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golenkov, Andrei; Ungvari, Gabor S; Gazdag, Gábor

    2012-05-01

    Public attitudes towards a given medical procedure can have a significant influence on the employment of that method. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a medical procedure that has received an exceptionally ambiguous public reception since its inception. To survey the level of information about and attitudes towards ECT in a general population sample of the Chuvash Republic of the Russian Federation. A randomly selected cohort of 5,373 people was contacted by telephone. The respondents were asked three closed and three open questions. The response rate was 74.7%. Only 35.2% of those interviewed said they knew anything about ECT. Health professionals and younger respondents were better informed. The two main sources of information about ECT were foreign films and the mass media. The main indication of ECT was thought to be schizophrenia. The majority (63.3%) of the respondents had negative opinions and emotions about ECT. Limited information about and generally negative attitudes towards ECT were found in the general population of the Chuvash Republic. Gender, age, education level, employment in the health industry, and information source were found to be the determining factors in the knowledge of and attitudes towards ECT.

  7. Community attitudes toward breastfeeding in public places among Western Australia Adults, 1995-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xingqiong; Daly, Alison; Pollard, Christina Mary; Binns, Colin William

    2013-05-01

    Community attitudes toward breastfeeding in public influence how comfortable women feel about continuing breastfeeding. Knowledge of the social context helps target breastfeeding-promoting interventions. To examine trends in Western Australian adult attitudes toward breastfeeding in public places. As part of 5 cross-sectional surveys from the Western Australian Nutrition Monitor Survey Series conducted between 1995 and 2009, 5496 adults aged 18 to 64 years were asked whether it was acceptable for mothers to breastfeed their babies in public places, including shopping centers, workplaces, and restaurants, and on public transport. Descriptive statistics and multinomial regressions were used to describe factors associated with attitudes toward publicly breastfeeding. There was no change in the acceptance of breastfeeding in shopping centers, restaurants, and workplaces and on public transport over time, but in 2009, significantly fewer people said that it was unacceptable to breastfeed in public compared with 1995. Women, people older than 44 years, those born outside Australia, and the less educated were those most likely to say that breastfeeding in public was unacceptable. In the years that the question was asked, more than 97% of respondents said that breastfeeding was acceptable if a separate room was provided. Making breastfeeding acceptable and pleasant for mothers in public spaces is a key policy recommendation. Women, people older than 44 years, and those born outside Australia were most likely to respond that breastfeeding in public was unacceptable unless a room was provided. Given that, on average, 70% of the population said that breastfeeding in public was acceptable, investigation into why some women do not think so is warranted.

  8. Why School? The 48th Annual PDK Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phi Delta Kappan, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Why school? The 48th Annual PDK Poll of the Public's Attitudes Toward the Public Schools included questions about the purpose of schooling, standards, homework, school funding, and parents' relationships with their schools. The 2016 poll, which was conducted by Langer Research Associates, was based on a telephone poll of 1,221 adults during April…

  9. Do natural science experiments influence public attitudes towards environmental problems?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallner, A.; Hunziker, M.; Kienast, F.

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the significance of risk assessment studies in the public discussion on CO 2 emissions. Politicians and representatives from the public were interviewed by using the social-science technique of qualitative in-depth interviews. Three different types of attitudes towards natural science were found among politicians. Depending on which attitude a politician holds, risk assessment studies can have an impact on his/her readiness to support environmental policy measures. Regarding lay people, key factors affecting the acceptance of environmental policy measures are knowledge of environmental problems, their impacts on ecosystems or human health as well as direct personal perception of those impacts. Since direct perception is not always possible in everyday life, natural science experiments might be a means for successfully mediating this lacking perception. (author)

  10. Public attitudes toward nuclear power generation. Focusing on measurement of attitude intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Yasuko; Hayashi, Chikio

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to 1) examine the differences of the perception between nuclear power generation (NPG) and electric power generation by nuclear fusion, 2) find the structural characteristics of the attitude toward NPG, 3) shed light on the characteristics of knowledge about NPG, and 4) develop a scale to measure the intensity in attitude toward NPG. Subjects (N = 1,582) were randomly assigned into 4 groups and were asked to answer a questionnaire including public attitudes toward NPG and related matters. The results were as follows: 1) the perception of electric power generation by nuclear fusion was less favorable than that of NPG; 2) Items which correlated with attitudes toward NPG were: 'sense of anxiety,' sensitivity to risk,' 'trust in science and technology,' 'evaluation of Japan's nuclear policy', 'evaluation of electric power companies,' and interest in life and environmental issues.' Moreover, people with a strong attitude tended to be rational and had a better knowledge of NPG; 3) The evaluation of the amount of subjective knowledge concerning nuclear power and electric power generation was reliable as a measure of objective knowledge; 4) The measurement method used in this study was characterized by the use of biased questions(ten positively and ten negatively biased questions) which were shown to the subjects using the split-half method. An attempt was made to measure the attitude and its intensity taking into consideration gender, positive or negative attitude toward NPG, level of knowledge about NPG, age, and occupation. As a result, differences in intensity between different attributes were found. (author)

  11. Attitudes to publicly funded obesity treatment and prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas Bøker; Sandøe, Peter; Lassen, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the Danish public’s support for publicly funded obesity treatment and prevention. It was also examined whether levels of support could be explained by dislike of obese people and / or the belief that those who are obese are personally responsible......, the perceived controllability of obesity, self-reported BMI, and additional attitudinal and sociodemographic characteristics. Public funding of some obesity treatments, such as weight-loss surgery, attracted only limited public support. A majority of the Danish public did support ‘softer’ treatment...... interventions and preventive initiatives. Attitudes to the treatment of obesity were clearly best predicted by the belief that individuals are personally responsible for their own obesity. Dislike of obese persons had no direct effect on the preference for collective treatment initiatives and only a small...

  12. Canadian public and leadership attitudes to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, J.K.

    1976-01-01

    Surveys of the Canadian public and leadership were carried out to determine levels of knowledge, perceptions and attitudes toward the use of nuclear power in Canada. The public sample included population over 18 years broken down by region, age, sex and education. The leadership study sampled businessmen, politicians, civil servants, academics and environmentalists. Only 56 % of the public indicated a knowledge of the use of nuclear power: 68 % were in favour, and of these, 39 % were unsure of its safety. Environmentalits were the most knowledgealbe of all the leadership groups, with academics second, and the remaining groups having low levels of information. Fear-producing aspects defined by the survey should be used as the basis for providing information. All leadership groups except environmentalists favoured nuclear power development. Leadership groups identified the same disadvantages as the public (radiation, waste management, pollution and explosions) but added cost. (J.T.A.)

  13. Public knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding antibiotic use in Kosovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajmi, Drita; Berisha, Merita; Begolli, Ilir; Hoxha, Rina; Mehmeti, Rukije; Mulliqi-Osmani, Gjyle; Kurti, Arsim; Loku, Afrim; Raka, Lul

    2016-01-01

    Background: Antimicrobial resistance is becoming a major public health challenge worldwide, caused primarily by the misuse of antibiotics. Antibiotic use is closely related to the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of a population. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices about antibiotic use among the general public in Kosovo. Methods: A cross-sectional face-to-face survey was carried out with a sample of 811 randomly selected Kosovo residents. The methodology used for this survey was based on the European Commission Eurobarometer survey on antimicrobial resistance. Results: More than half of respondents (58.7%) have used antibiotics during the past year. A quarter of respondents consumed antibiotics without a medical prescription. The most common reasons for usage were flu (23.8%), followed by sore throat (20.2%), cold (13%) and common cold (7.6%). 42.5% of respondents think that antibiotics are effective against viral infections. Almost half of respondents (46.7%) received information about the unnecessary use of antibiotics and 32.5% of them report having changed their views and behaviours after receiving this information. Health care workers were identified as the most trustworthy source of information on antibiotic use (67.2%). Conclusion: These results provide quantitative baseline data on Kosovar knowledge, attitudes and practice regarding the use of antibiotic. These findings have potential to empower educational campaigns to promote the prudent use of antibiotics in both community and health care settings. PMID:28503216

  14. Towards an understanding of British public attitudes concerning human cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Richard; Barnett, Julie; Cooper, Helen; Coyle, Adrian; Moran-Ellis, Jo; Senior, Victoria; Walton, Chris

    2007-07-01

    The ability of scientists to apply cloning technology to humans has provoked public discussion and media coverage. The present paper reports on a series of studies examining public attitudes to human cloning in the UK, bringing together a range of quantitative and qualitative methods to address this question. These included a nationally representative survey, an experimental vignette study, focus groups and analyses of media coverage. Overall the research presents a complex picture of attitude to and constructions of human cloning. In all of the analyses, therapeutic cloning was viewed more favourably than reproductive cloning. However, while participants in the focus groups were generally negative about both forms of cloning, and this was also reflected in the media analyses, quantitative results showed more positive responses. In the quantitative research, therapeutic cloning was generally accepted when the benefits of such procedures were clear, and although reproductive cloning was less accepted there was still substantial support. Participants in the focus groups only differentiated between therapeutic and reproductive cloning after the issue of therapeutic cloning was explicitly raised; initially they saw cloning as being reproductive cloning and saw no real benefits. Attitudes were shown to be associated with underlying values associated with scientific progress rather than with age, gender or education, and although there were a few differences in the quantitative data based on religious affiliation, these tended to be small effects. Likewise in the focus groups there was little direct appeal to religion, but the main themes were 'interfering with nature' and the 'status of the embryo', with the latter being used more effectively to try to close down further discussion. In general there was a close correspondence between the media analysis and focus group responses, possibly demonstrating the importance of media as a resource, or that the media reflect

  15. 75 FR 4042 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of Public Perceptions and Attitudes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of Public Perceptions and Attitudes About Hawaiian Monk Seals AGENCY..., attitudes, beliefs, values, and behaviors regarding the endangered Hawaiian monk seal. The information...

  16. Georgian Public attitudes to a tobacco free environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Bakhturidze

    2017-05-01

    The study was funded in scope of Bloomberg Philanthropies Grant through Tobacco Free Kinds. Study was conducted by Georgian Institute of Social Studies and Analyses by cooperation with the FCTC Implementation and Monitoring Center in Georgia and Georgian Public Health Institute.

  17. Public knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy in Majmaah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aqeel Munahi Almutairi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Epilepsy is very common in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, occurring in 6.54 out of every 1000 individuals. The current study was conducted to determine the level of public awareness of and attitudes toward epilepsy in the city of Majmaah, Saudi Arabia. Subjects and Methods: This descriptive study was conducted in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia. The study population included respondents derived from preselected public places in the city. Stratified random sampling was used, and the sample size was made up of 706 individuals. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection from respondents after receiving their verbal consent. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 2.0. Ethical approval was obtained from the Ethics Committee of Majmaah University. Results: The results showed that 575 (81.4% of the respondents had heard or read about epilepsy. Almost 50% of the respondents knew someone who had epilepsy, and 393 (55.7% had witnessed what they believed to be a seizure. Results showed that 555 (78.6% respondents believed that epilepsy was neither a contagious disease nor a type of insanity. It was found that 335 (47.5% stated that epilepsy was a brain disease, and almost one-quarter of the respondents said that the manifestation of an epileptic episode is a convulsion. Regarding attitude, 49% and 47.3% of respondents stated that they would not allow their children to interact with individuals with epilepsy and would object to marrying an individual with epilepsy, respectively. Conclusion: Although knowledge about epilepsy is improving, it is still not adequate. The study showed that the attitude toward epilepsy is poor.

  18. Caring for our youngest: public attitudes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, K

    2001-01-01

    Families make choices about employment and care for their children in a context that is shaped by public policies and colored by public opinion. Debates over whether the government should increase funding for child care or do more to help parents stay home with their children reflect tensions among strongly held ideas about family life, work, and the role of government. This article summarizes the results of public opinion polls that probe attitudes about parent and government roles and responsibilities with respect to children's care. The polling findings yield three main lessons: The American public believes that parents should be the primary influence in their children's lives and that it is best if mothers can be home to care for the very young. The public also values family self-sufficiency and understands that low-income families may need child care assistance to balance child rearing and employment responsibilities. However, skepticism about the appropriateness of government involvement in family life limits public support for proposals that the government act directly to provide or improve child care. From these lessons, the author draws several conclusions for policymakers: Policies focused on caregiving should respect the rights of parents to raise their children by ensuring that an array of options is available. Public programs should help families who are struggling economically to balance their obligations to work and family. Rather than directly providing child care services, government should fund community-based child care programs, and provide flexible assistance to help families secure the services they need and want.

  19. Public awareness and attitudes towards epilepsy in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanean, Helia; Nojomi, Marzieh; Jacobsson, Lars

    2013-12-05

    Epilepsy is a prototypical, stigmatised disorder. Numerous studies have been conducted regarding the public perception of epilepsy, but they are primarily from high-income western countries; few studies have taken place in low- to middle-income countries with a traditional culture and a religious orientation. The public knowledge and attitudes towards epilepsy in Tehran, Iran, is studied. A survey of 800 subjects ranging from 18 to 85 years was randomly chosen from households in Tehran in 2009. The questionnaire used was based on the Caveness and Gallup's studies conducted in the United States in 1949 and it has been used in numerous similar studies all over the world. The mean age of the participants was 37.5 years and 46.7% were female. Pearson's Chi-squared test was used for subgroup analyses. The majority of subjects cited brain disorders as a cause of epilepsy, while 17% indicated the will of God as the cause. Most individuals were willing to work with a person with epilepsy, allow their children to play with a child with epilepsy, and allow people with epilepsy to use public transportation (78-82%). However, only 28% were willing to accept the marriage of a family member to someone with epilepsy. The knowledge and attitudes towards epilepsy are similar to those in Europe, with the exception of a much lower acceptance regarding marriage to a person with epilepsy. However, the low acceptance for marrying someone with epilepsy reveals the remaining misconceptions about the nature of epilepsy in Iran, despite the high educational level in the studied population. Therefore, informational efforts must be employed to change the perception of epilepsy.

  20. Public knowledge and attitudes towards Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Charlotte Devereaux; Gera, Aradhana; Shah, Meeraj; Sharma, Amit; Powell, Judy E; Wilson, Sue

    2008-01-01

    Background Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccine has undergone successful trials and has recently been approved for use for the primary prevention of cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to determine knowledge and attitudes towards HPV vaccination. Methods Semi-structured interview and questionnaire delivered in a street survey. Standardised HPV-related statements used to measure HPV knowledge and attitudes to vaccination. The setting was three different areas of Birmingham, to target a mix of social class and ethnicity. The sample population was composed of 16–54 year olds. Results A total of 420 participants were recruited. Poor knowledge of HPV and its links with cervical cancer were observed. 81% had a knowledge score of zero. Knowledge about HPV was associated with different ethnic group and socio-economic group. The majority (88%) of participants were in favour of vaccination, with 83.6% indicating that they would allow a child under their care to be vaccinated. Conclusion Initial responses to the proposed HPV vaccination within the UK public are favourable. However, knowledge levels are poor and media and health professional promotion are required to raise awareness. PMID:18947430

  1. Public and political attitudes to nuclear power in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wikdahl, C.-E.; Swedish Atomic Forum)

    1988-01-01

    The first important decisions about a large nuclear programme in Sweden were taken in the early 1960s without any political opposition at all. The first signs of an anti-nuclear movement were seen in 1972, and at the general election in 1976 nuclear power was for the first time the main political issue. It remained so until 1980, when Parliament, after a referendum, decided to phase out nuclear power not later than the year 2010. After that decision, political interest in nuclear power evaporated, but returned again after the Chernobyl accident in April 1986. Both the decision in Parliament in 1980 and the Government's bill of May 1987 put Sweden in an unique position. Public attitudes and the political situation in Sweden are examined. (author)

  2. Public Perceptions and Attitudes Toward Adolescent Marijuana Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella M. Resko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study is to examine patterns in public perceptions and attitudes toward marijuana use among adolescents. Computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI was used to collect data from a statewide sample of adults in Michigan identified through random-digit dialing (n = 560. CATI interviews were supplemented with web- and paper-based surveys for nonrespondents. We used latent class analysis to characterize patterns in public perception, using a vignette technique that assessed (a whether adults recognize adolescent marijuana use as a problem, (b how they view the efficacy of treatment, (c how they view help-seeking with mental health professionals, and (d whether they support prevention services for adolescents. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between class membership and demographics, substance use, and methodological factors. Three latent classes were identified: (a a discriminating group, (b a low-concern group, and (c a high-concern group. Age and substance use were among the strongest determinants for membership in the discriminating group. Results provide insight into how the general public perceives marijuana use and marijuana-related problems among adolescents.

  3. Public and media attitudes to nuclear power in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belelli, U.

    1988-01-01

    A study carried out by the Italian Electricity Board on the public acceptability of nuclear power, is reported. The question was examined in two ways. A sociological analysis was carried out with the aim of understanding the behaviour of public opinion. The results revealed that individual attitudes towards nuclear power are based on cost-benefit evaluations assessed in terms of social parameters by an instinctive rather than a rational process. Secondly press articles before and after the Chernobyl accident were analysed in terms of both the message being communicated and the quality of the technical content. Characteristics of the press coverage were more stress on nuclear safety after Chernobyl leading to greater opposition to nuclear power in general, a tendency for comment to dominate over factual information and no proper evaluation of the technical content. The major overall conclusions drawn are the need for international cooperation to address the social implications of the nuclear question, and for effective communication of information on power plant safety both to expert social and political bodies and, in a popular version, to the general public. (U.K.)

  4. Regional media coverage influences the public's negative attitudes to policy implementation success in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksson, Mio; Tiainen, Anne; Hanning, Marianne

    2015-12-01

    One central aspect of health literacy is knowledge of patients' rights. Being an important source of information about health and health care, the media may influence health literacy and act as a policy implementer. To investigate whether regional news media coverage in Sweden is linked to (i) the public's awareness and knowledge of a patient's rights policy, the waiting-time guarantee and (ii) the public's attitudes to how the guarantee's time limits are met, that is, implementation success. Three types of data are used. First, a national telephone survey of the public's awareness, knowledge and attitudes; second, media coverage information from digital media monitoring; and third, official waiting-time statistics. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses are performed with the 21 Swedish county councils/regions as a base. In the county councils/regions, non-awareness ranged from 1 to 15% and knowledge from 47 to 67%. There are relatively large differences between population groups. The amount of regional media coverage shows no significant correlation to the level of awareness and knowledge. There is, however, a significant correlation to both positive and negative attitudes; the latter remains after controlling for actual waiting times. At the national level, the media function as a policy implementer, being the primary source of information. At the regional level, the media are part of the political communication, reporting more extensively in county councils/regions where the population holds negative views towards the achievement in implementing the guarantee. We conclude that Swedish authorities should develop its communication strategies to bridge health literacy inequalities. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Monitoring 'monitoring' and evaluating 'evaluation': an ethical framework for monitoring and evaluation in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopichandran, Vijayaprasad; Indira Krishna, Anil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) is an essential part of public health programmes. Since M&E is the backbone of public health programmes, ethical considerations are important in their conduct. Some of the key ethical considerations are avoiding conflicts of interest, maintaining independence of judgement, maintaining fairness, transparency, full disclosure, privacy and confidentiality, respect, responsibility, accountability, empowerment and sustainability. There are several ethical frameworks in public health, but none focusing on the monitoring and evaluation process. There is a need to institutionalise the ethical review of M&E proposals. A theoretical framework for ethical considerations is proposed in this paper. This proposed theoretical framework can act as the blueprint for building the capacity of ethics committees to review M&E proposals. A case study is discussed in this context. After thorough field testing, this practical and field-based ethical framework can be widely used by donor agencies, M&E teams, institutional review boards and ethics committees.

  6. The 39th Annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Lowell C.; Gallup, Alec M.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors report the results of the 39th Annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll of the public's attitudes toward the public schools. This year's report examined the public's assessment of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and its principal strategy, standardized testing. The authors include a summary of key findings and tables showing…

  7. Have public attitudes in Germany towards nuclear energy changed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gey, Angela

    2000-01-01

    The Federal Government developed its phase-out scenario in 1998, at a time in which the public debate about nuclear energy in Germany had waned and the anti-nuclear movement among the population had clearly lost much of its support. Since the beginning of the 90s, the proportion of Germans referring to themselves as 'opponents of nuclear power' has gone down from almost 19 to only just 12%. This decrease has been particularly strong among younger people. While in 1990 29 were still opposed to nuclear power, in 1999 this figure was only 17 %. Within the age group of 30-44 year-olds, 26 were against nuclear power in 1990; today, it is only 16 %. As for Germans aged 45+, the number of nuclear-power opponents decreased within this period by around 6 to a mere 8%. The issue of the 'use of nuclear power', which used to be ideologically charged and discussed with great passion in Germany for a long time, has cooled down. There exist quite different views about the further use of nuclear technology, and what the public wants especially in view of the planned phase-out is a prudent energy policy, based on a careful analysis of the consequences. One of the major points of the current opinion poll on the topic: 'Have public attitudes in Germany towards nuclear energy changed?', is being carried out by the Institut fur Demoskopie Alensbach on behalf of the Informationskreis Kernenergie. Apart from this first major point, this poll is to find out which general course an energy policy should ideally take according to public opinion, along which lines such an energy policy should orientate itself, what is the place value of the principle of having an energy mix, and how much importance is attributed to sustainability. Another focus lies on probing the knowledge of those polled in order to check to what extent the population assesses correctly the quantitative importance of nuclear power and alternative energies and how well it is informed about the potentials of different forms

  8. The structure and strength of public attitudes towards wind farm development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, David Charles

    A growing social science literature seeks to understand why, despite broad public support for wind energy, proposals for specific projects are often met with strong local opposition. This gap between general and specific attitudes is viewed as a significant obstacle to the deployment of wind energy technologies. This dissertation applies theoretical perspectives and methodological tools from social psychology to provide insights on the structure and strength of attitudes towards the potential development of commercial wind farm in three coastal areas of Michigan. A survey of attitudes was completed by 375 residents in these communities and structural equation modeling was used to explore the relationship among variables. The analysis found that attitudes towards wind farm development are shaped by anticipated economic benefits to the community, but expectations of economic benefit are driven by personal values. Social psychology has long recognized that all attitudes are not created equal. Weak attitudes are fleeting and prone to change, while strong attitudes are stable over time and resistant to change. There are two fundamental paths to strong attitudes: repeated experience with an attitude object or the application of deeply held principles or values to that object. Structural equation models were also used to understand the strength of attitudes among the survey respondents. Both the anticipated effects of wind farm development and personal values were found to influence the strength of attitudes towards wind farms. However, while expectations that wind farm development will have positive effects on the economy bolster two measures of attitude strength (collective identity and importance), these expectations are associated with a decline in a third measure (confidence). A follow-up survey asking identical questions was completed by completed by 187 respondents to the initial survey. Linear regressions models were used to determine the effects of attitude

  9. Public attitudes toward stuttering in Europe: Within-country and between-country comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Louis, Kenneth O; Sønsterud, Hilda; Junuzović-Žunić, Lejla; Tomaiuoli, Donatella; Del Gado, Francesca; Caparelli, Emilia; Theiling, Mareen; Flobakk, Cecilie; Helmen, Lise Nesbakken; Heitmann, Ragnhild R; Kvenseth, Helene; Nilsson, Sofia; Wetterling, Tobias; Lundström, Cecilia; Daly, Ciara; Leahy, Margaret; Tyrrell, Laila; Ward, David; Węsierska, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological research methods have been shown to be useful in determining factors that might predict commonly reported negative public attitudes toward stuttering. Previous research has suggested that stuttering attitudes of respondents from North America and Europe (i.e., "The West"), though characterized by stereotypes and potential stigma, are more positive than those from several other regions of the world. This inference assumes that public attitudes within various regions characterized by "The West" are similar. This study aimed to determine the extent to which public stuttering attitudes are similar or different both within regions of three different European countries and between or among five different European countries or similar geographic areas. It also aimed to compare these European attitudes to attitudes from 135 samples around the world using a standard measure. Using convenience sampling, 1111 adult respondents from eight different investigations completed the Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering (POSHA-S) in the dominant language of each country or area. In Study I, the authors compared attitudes within three different regions of Bosnia & Herzegovina, Italy, and Norway. In Study II, the authors compared attitudes between combined samples from Bosnia & Herzegovina, Italy, and Norway (with additional respondents from Sweden), and two other samples, one from Germany and the other from Ireland and England. Attitudes of adults from the three samples within Bosnia & Herzegovina, Italy, and Norway were remarkably similar. By contrast, attitudes between the five different countries or area were quite dramatically different. Demographic variables on the POSHA-S did not predict the rank order of these between-country/area differences. Compared to the POSHA-S worldwide database, European attitudes ranged from less positive than average (i.e., Italians) to more positive than average (i.e., Norwegians and Swedes). Factors related to

  10. Public attitudes toward nuclear power generation. Preliminary study focusing on characteristics of the attitudes of men and women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Naoko; Misumi, Jyuji; Yanagihara, Ryozo; Hayashi, Chikio.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to approach the public attitudes toward nuclear power generation and related matters by focusing on the viewpoint of differences between men and women. More specifically, it was attempted to determine what types of lifestyles and ways of thinking are associated with persons indicating the respective attitudes, what types of anxiety these people have with respect to nuclear power generation, as well as the nature of the inflexibility of those attitudes. As a result, well-defined characteristics were found to be associated with each attitude. In addition, the types of anxiety with respect to nuclear power generation were able to be broadly classified into emotional anxiety and logical anxiety. Regarding the inflexibility of these attitudes, although men tended to exhibit little change concerning positive attitudes, they tended to easily change in the negative direction as a result of negative information. In the case of women, conversely, although their attitudes tended to change easily toward the affirmative direction when presented with positive information, it was determined that women tend to change very little toward the negative direction. (author)

  11. Income, egalitarianism and attitudes towards healthcare policy: a study on public attitudes in 29 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azar, A; Maldonado, L; Castillo, J C; Atria, J

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between income and egalitarian values and attitudes towards healthcare policy. Cross-sectional and cross-national study. Data for 29 countries from the International Social Survey Programme (ISSP) 2011 were used. The dependent variables are a general attitude towards government involvement in healthcare provision and two attitudes regarding specific policies (taxes and public funding). Income and egalitarianism were also measured by using ISSP. Data were analysed using regression models that account for individual and country-level characteristics, and country-fixed effects. The effect of income is small and non-significant for attitudes towards government involvement and public funding. For willingness to pay (WTP) taxes to improve healthcare services, we find a positive association with income. Results for egalitarianism suggest a positive association with government involvement in healthcare provision and significant interactions with WTP taxes. The distinction of dimensions and mechanisms underlying policy attitudes appears as relevant. Citizens across socioeconomic groups are motivated to support state-funded healthcare, favouring the design of non-selfish policies. These findings suggest that there is space for policymakers who seek to increase healthcare spending encouraging either policies for specific groups or broader institutional changes. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Public attitudes toward people with intellectual disabilities after viewing Olympic or Paralympic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Kate; Burns, Jan; Mills, Hayley

    2015-01-01

    Despite some changes to the way that people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are viewed in society, negative attitudes prevail. One of the aspirations of the 2012 Paralympic games was to influence the public's attitudes toward people with disabilities. The aim of this study was to investigate whether stimuli depicting people with ID performing at Paralympic level of competition change attitudes toward ID. A mixed randomized comparison design was employed comparing 2 groups: those who viewed Paralympic-level ID sport footage and information and those who viewed Olympic footage and information. One hundred fourteen students, mean age 25 yr, were administered measures of implicit (subconscious) attitudes toward disability and explicit (belief-based) attitudes toward ID. Implicit attitudes significantly changed in a positive direction for both groups. The findings provide evidence that both Paralympic (ID) and Olympic media coverage may have at least a short-term effect on attitudes toward people with disabilities.

  13. But I Trust My Teen: Parents' Attitudes and Response to a Parental Monitoring Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Metzger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Parental knowledge gained from monitoring activities protects against adolescent risk involvement. Parental monitoring approaches are varied and may be modified with successful interventions but not all parents or adolescents respond to monitoring programs the same way. 339 parent-adolescent dyads randomized to receive a parental monitoring intervention and 169 parent-adolescent dyads in the control group were followed for one year over four measurement periods. Parent attitudes about the usefulness of monitoring, the importance of trust and respecting their teens’ privacy, and the appropriateness of adolescent risk-taking behavior and experimentation were examined as predictors of longitudinal change in parental monitoring and open communication. Similar effects were found in both the intervention and control group models regarding open communication. Parental attitudes impacted longitudinal patterns of teen-reported parent monitoring, and these patterns differed across experimental groups. In the intervention group, parents’ beliefs about the importance of trust and privacy were associated with a steeper decline in monitoring across time. Finally, parents’ attitudes about the normative nature of teen experimentation were associated with a quadratic parental monitoring time trend in the intervention but not the control group. These findings suggest that parental attitudes may impact how families respond to an adolescent risk intervention.

  14. Community attitudes to the appropriation of mobile phones for monitoring and managing depression, anxiety, and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proudfoot, Judith; Parker, Gordon; Hadzi Pavlovic, Dusan; Manicavasagar, Vijaya; Adler, Einat; Whitton, Alexis

    2010-12-19

    The benefits of self-monitoring on symptom severity, coping, and quality of life have been amply demonstrated. However, paper and pencil self-monitoring can be cumbersome and subject to biases associated with retrospective recall, while computer-based monitoring can be inconvenient in that it relies on users being at their computer at scheduled monitoring times. As a result, nonadherence in self-monitoring is common. Mobile phones offer an alternative. Their take-up has reached saturation point in most developed countries and is increasing in developing countries; they are carried on the person, they are usually turned on, and functionality is continually improving. Currently, however, public conceptions of mobile phones focus on their use as tools for communication and social identity. Community attitudes toward using mobile phones for mental health monitoring and self-management are not known. The objective was to explore community attitudes toward the appropriation of mobile phones for mental health monitoring and management. We held community consultations in Australia consisting of an online survey (n = 525), focus group discussions (n = 47), and interviews (n = 20). Respondents used their mobile phones daily and predominantly for communication purposes. Of those who completed the online survey, the majority (399/525 or 76%) reported that they would be interested in using their mobile phone for mental health monitoring and self-management if the service were free. Of the 455 participants who owned a mobile phone or PDA, there were no significant differences between those who expressed interest in the use of mobile phones for this purpose and those who did not by gender (χ2(1), = 0.98, P = .32, phi = .05), age group (χ2(4), = 1.95, P = .75, phi = .06), employment status (χ2(2), = 2.74, P = .25, phi = .08) or marital status (χ2(4), = 4.62, P = .33, phi = .10). However, the presence of current symptoms of depression, anxiety, or stress affected interest in

  15. Public attitudes towards nuclear power and alternative energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-10-01

    Phase I of this study analyzed attitudes and beliefs of respondents drawn from Metro-Manila. The second phase utilized a sample drawn from residents near a geothermal power plant site in Southern Philippines. Four dimensions of beliefs (psychological/environmental risks, technological benefits/development, economic benefits/implications and socio-political implications/benefits) were identified through factor analysis of belief items on nuclear energy and refined empirically to determine perceptions of respondents about all energy systems. Identification of the relationships between dimensions provided insight into the shared perceptions about each energy system held by the various groups of respondents. The overall attitude of the respondents towards energy systems (nuclear, solar, hydro, geothermal and oil) was determined using three attitude measures: Fishbein model, Osgood's semantic differential technique, and direct response to unfavorability/favorability scale. The belief dimensions were correlated with the attitude measures to determine the degree of contribution of each dimension to attitude. A comparative analysis was made to differentiate attitudes and beliefs held by the PRO and CON nuclear groups, and by the subsamples: university students, science teachers and barangay leaders of the Metro-Manila sample. Attitudes and beliefs relating to the demographic variables were also examined for the two samples. (author)

  16. A country-wide probability sample of public attitudes toward stuttering in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Ana Rita S; St Louis, Kenneth O; Leahy, Margaret; Hall, Andreia; Jesus, Luis M T

    2017-06-01

    Negative public attitudes toward stuttering have been widely reported, although differences among countries and regions exist. Clear reasons for these differences remain obscure. Published research is unavailable on public attitudes toward stuttering in Portugal as well as a representative sample that explores stuttering attitudes in an entire country. This study sought to (a) determine the feasibility of a country-wide probability sampling scheme to measure public stuttering attitudes in Portugal using a standard instrument (the Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering [POSHA-S]) and (b) identify demographic variables that predict Portuguese attitudes. The POSHA-S was translated to European Portuguese through a five-step process. Thereafter, a local administrative office-based, three-stage, cluster, probability sampling scheme was carried out to obtain 311 adult respondents who filled out the questionnaire. The Portuguese population held stuttering attitudes that were generally within the average range of those observed from numerous previous POSHA-S samples. Demographic variables that predicted more versus less positive stuttering attitudes were respondents' age, region of the country, years of school completed, working situation, and number of languages spoken. Non-predicting variables were respondents' sex, marital status, and parental status. A local administrative office-based, probability sampling scheme generated a respondent profile similar to census data and indicated that Portuguese attitudes are generally typical. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Environmental vulnerability in public perceptions and attitudes : The case of Israel's urban centers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drori, Israel

    Objective. This article investigates how urban environmental vulnerability to hazards reflects in the perceptions and attitudes of the public in three major cities in Israel: Jerusalem, Tel Aviv, and Haifa. Our central argument is that the differences between the residents' perceptions and attitudes

  18. Effect of demographic variables on public attitudes towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-09-30

    Sep 30, 2011 ... 5Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM, Bangi, ..... race formulates a cultural/social network. .... Macer D, Chen Ng MA (2000). Changing Attitudes to Biotechnology in. Japan.

  19. Public attitudes to coal use in the context of global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohan Fernando [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-15

    Though coal remains the main fuel for power generation worldwide, concerns regarding the contribution of coal-fired power generation to global warming have also increased considerably in recent years. These concerns have somewhat eclipsed the many advantages of the use of coal for power generation. The attitudes of the public towards power generation from a particular fuel is an important factor in shaping government policy. For example, such attitudes are crucial in determining whether new coal-fired projects can proceed. This report describes current public attitudes towards coal-fired power plant in several countries both in the developed and developing world. It compares these attitudes with those reported in an earlier report on this subject produced in 2006. Since then, the publication of the IPCC report in 2007 and the greater worldwide consensus on the reality of global warming following the change in administrations in the USA and Australia would be expected to affect public attitudes. However, events in late 2009 have increased the levels of public scepticism. The report principally collates opinion poll data available on the public's attitude towards energy, environment and the use of coal for power generation. Whereas before 2006, surveys of attitudes towards energy sources commonly included coal-fired plant, more recently coal plant are rarely included, presumably as it is assumed that the public would be overwhelmingly opposed. Hence the subject has been broadened to include attitudes to climate changeand CCS. It also reports what national and international organisations say about the use of coal. It investigates what the general public and concerned organisations say should be done to reduce the greenhouse effect. Countries and regions chosen for particular focus are the USA, the European Union, the UK, India, Thailand and Australia. 121 refs., 38 figs., 26 tabs.

  20. Public and Biobank Participant Attitudes toward Genetic Research Participation and Data Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Lemke, A.A.; Wolf, W.A.; Hebert-Beirne, J.; Smith, M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Research assessing attitudes toward consent processes for high-throughput genomic-wide technologies and widespread sharing of data is limited. In order to develop a better understanding of stakeholder views toward these issues, this cross-sectional study assessed public and biorepository participant attitudes toward research participation and sharing of genetic research data. Forty-nine individuals participated in 6 focus groups; 28 in 3 public focus groups and 21 in 3 NUgene biorepository pa...

  1. Energy policy options--from the perspective of public attitudes and risk perceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viklund, Mattias

    2004-01-01

    In the present study a representative sample (N=797) of the Swedish population was surveyed, with regard to attitudes related to energy policy issues (e.g., environmental attitudes, risk perceptions, and attitudes towards different energy production systems), and self-reported electricity saving behavior. These factors were considered relevant in a Swedish energy policy context, due to the planned phase-out of nuclear power. Citizens' attitudes have traditionally been important factors in energy policy-making, especially nuclear policy. One of the conditions for a successful phase-out is decreased levels of electricity consumption among households and in industry, in order to compensate for the loss in energy production. Respondents reported positive attitudes to the environment in general and to electricity saving, while the attitudes to nuclear power as an energy production system in Sweden were relatively negative. Perceived risk was an important predictor of these attitudes and it was concluded that it is important to investigate factors behind this variable. The relationship between attitudes towards electricity saving and electricity saving behavior was weak. It is suggested that a contribution of psychological knowledge in energy conservation campaigns could be to elaborate on people's willingness to be public-spirited citizens in combination with their pro-environmental attitudes. Viklund (1999, Electricity saving: Attitudes and behavior of Swedish households. Center for Risk Research, Stockholm.) presented more data from the survey referred to here

  2. The Public's Attitude Toward Public Library Services in Essex County, New Jersey; A Research Study Conducted for the Essex County Library Directors Group Public Relations Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Market Dynamics, Inc., Princeton, NJ.

    In order to structure an effective campaign aimed at increasing the usage of the public libraries in Essex County, New Jersey, this research project was undertaken to determine the consumer attitudes toward various aspects of public library services. These aspects include: extent of public library usage; awareness of library services offered,…

  3. Attitudes toward epilepsy among the primary and secondary school teachers in Malaysia, using the public attitudes toward epilepsy (PATE) scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kheng Seang; Hills, Michael D; Choo, Wan Yuen; Wong, Mee Hoo; Wu, Cathie; Tan, Chong Tin

    2013-10-01

    There is a lack of study comparing the attitudes toward epilepsy between the teachers and general population, teachers and students, using a similar quantitative scale. This study was performed in one primary and one secondary school in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, using the Public Attitudes Toward Epilepsy (PATE) scale. A total of 186 teachers aged 39.6±10.4 years completed the questionnaire. The mean scores in both personal and general domains of PATE scale were significantly better in the teachers, comparing to the scores in the secondary and college students reported in previous study (Lim et al., 2013; pjob, rather than tertiary education generally. Subanalysis showed that the attitudes of teachers were significantly better than the general population and the students related to employment and social life, but were equally negative on issues directly related to education, such as placing children with epilepsy in regular classes. Teachers had more positive attitudes toward epilepsy as compared with the general population with tertiary education. Attitude to epilepsy may differ specific to types of work. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Public Attitudes toward Human Genetic Manipulation: A Revitalization of Eugenics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veglia, Geremia; And Others

    The purpose of this investigation was to measure the attitudes of college students across the United States concerning the possible use of genetic manipulation, especially in terms of enhancing human physical and intellectual characteristics. The instrument used was divided into three general areas of inquiry: the first, designed to measure the…

  5. Public knowledge, attitude and perception of over the counter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... knowledge, attitude and perception of over the counter medicines:Case study in Dar es ... views on OTC in terms of safety and effectiveness and knowledge and ... it shows those pharmacists need to be more proactive in the management of ...

  6. Public attitudes toward-and identification of-cluttering and stuttering in Norway and Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Louis, Kenneth O; Sønsterud, Hilda; Carlo, Edna J; Heitmann, Ragnhild R; Kvenseth, Helene

    2014-12-01

    The study sought to compare public attitudes toward cluttering versus stuttering in Norway and Puerto Rico and to compare respondents' identification of persons known with these fluency disorders. After reading lay definitions of cluttering and stuttering, three samples of adults from Norway and three from Puerto Rico rated their attitudes toward cluttering and/or stuttering on modified versions of the POSHA-Cl (for cluttering) and POSHA-S (for stuttering). They also identified children and adults whom they knew who either or both manifested cluttering or stuttering. Attitudes toward cluttering were essentially unaffected by rating either cluttering only or combined cluttering and stuttering on the same questionnaire in both countries. The same was also true of stuttering. Attitudes were very similar toward both disorders although slightly less positive for cluttering. Norwegian attitudes toward both disorders were generally more positive than Puerto Rican attitudes. The average respondent identified slightly more than one fluency disorder, a higher percentage for stuttering than cluttering and higher for adults than children. Cluttering-stuttering was rarely identified. Given a lay definition, this study confirmed that adults from diverse cultures hold attitudes toward cluttering that are similar to-but somewhat less positive than-their attitudes toward stuttering. It also confirmed that adults can identify cluttering among people they know, although less commonly than stuttering. Design controls in this study assured that consideration of stuttering did not affect either the attitudes or identification results for cluttering. The reader will be able to: (a) describe the effects-or lack thereof-of considerations of stuttering on attitudes toward cluttering; (b) describe differences in public identification of children and adults who either clutter or stutter; (c) describe differences between attitudes toward cluttering and stuttering in Norway and Puerto Rico

  7. Public attitude towards dentists and dental services in Bangalore city, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagashree Savanur Ravindranath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Understanding public attitude towards dentists and dental services helps both dental service providers and planners. Hence, this study was conducted to assess public attitude toward dentists and dental services in Bangalore city, India. Methods: Two thousand residents of Bangalore city were selected through multistage cluster sampling method. A structured questionnaire containing statements pertaining to public attitude toward dentists and dental services in Bangalore city was administered to the subjects. Five point Likert scale was used to measure the attitude. Results: About 67.8% of the study subjects had visited a dentist in their lifetime. Negative attitudes were observed regarding waiting time, cleanliness of instruments and dentist advising patients to give up unhealthy practices such as smoking, drinking and pan chewing. Positive attitude was found regarding availability of dental services near place of residence or work, modern equipments being used for treatment and the nobleness of the dental professionals. About 67% of study subjects felt that dental services are expensive. Only 65% agree that regular check-ups prevent dental diseases and 33% of the study subjects agree that dental treatment can be delayed if there are other expenses. Conclusions: Subjects generally had positive attitude toward dentists and dental services. Certain factors like waiting time and cleanliness elicited negative response.

  8. Public Universities in Competition with Private Enterprise: The Attitudes and Behaviors of University Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, David Otto

    2010-01-01

    Public universities undertake business activities sometimes considered by private enterprise as unfairly competitive based on nonprofit advantages. This study was an inquiry into the attitudes and actions of chief business officers at public universities regarding these activities. The research population consisted of the 1862 Morrill Act Land…

  9. Gender, Self-Stigma, and Public Stigma in Predicting Attitudes toward Psychological Help-Seeking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topkaya, Nursel

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of university students (N = 362), the role of gender and both the self-stigma and public stigma associated with one's decision to seek psychological help in predicting attitudes toward psychological helpseeking were examined. Moreover, gender differences regarding both the self-stigma and the public stigma associated with…

  10. Validation and Exploration of Instruments for Assessing Public Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Fen; Lin, Huann-shyang; Wu, Yi-ying

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop instruments that assess public knowledge of nanotechnology (PKNT), public attitudes toward nanotechnology (PANT) and conduct a pilot study for exploring the relationship between PKNT and PANT. The PKNT test was composed of six scales involving major nanotechnology concepts, including size and scale,…

  11. National assessment of public perceptions and attitudes to nuclear power in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, J.K.

    The Canadian Nuclear Association has recognized the need for 1) hard data on public attitudes towards nuclear power, and 2) a comprehensive public education program on nuclear power. The development of a methodology and the utilization of the acquired data for point 1) are described. (E.C.B.)

  12. Drivers of Public Attitudes towards Small Wind Turbines in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatchley, Cerian; Paton, Heather; Robertson, Emma; Minderman, Jeroen; Hanley, Nicholas; Park, Kirsty

    2016-01-01

    Small Wind Turbines (SWTs) are a growing micro-generation industry with over 870,000 installed units worldwide. No research has focussed on public attitudes towards SWTs, despite evidence the perception of such attitudes are key to planning outcomes and can be a barrier to installations. Here we present the results of a UK wide mail survey investigating public attitudes towards SWTs. Just over half of our respondents, who were predominantly older, white males, felt that SWTs were acceptable across a range of settings, with those on road signs being most accepted and least accepted in hedgerows and gardens. Concern about climate change positively influenced how respondents felt about SWTs. Respondent comments highlight visual impacts and perceptions of the efficiency of this technology are particularly important to this sector of the UK public. Taking this into careful consideration, alongside avoiding locating SWTs in contentious settings such as hedgerows and gardens where possible, may help to minimise public opposition to proposed installations.

  13. Public attitudes to nuclear energy: salience and anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pligt, J.

    1985-01-01

    Presents a brief overview of trends and developments of public opinion about nuclear energy since the late 1970's. One possible reason for increased concern is the public's perception of risks. Research has shown a considerable divergence in public and expert assessment of the risks associated with

  14. Public attitudes to nuclear and coal power in site selection for a future energy centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baril, R.G.; Dobson, J.K.

    This paper discusses the results of a 1977 public attitude survey carried out as part of an Ontario Hydro generating site selection program along the North Channel of Lake Huron. The results of the survey are compared with those of two similar surveys conducted in 1974 and 1975. The main topics discussed include local citizen attitudes to a generating site in the area, nuclear power, attitude changes over three years, differences in attitudes to nuclear and to coal fired generation and the underlying reasons given for favouring or opposing nuclear power. The results of other surveys which have been conducted recently in Canada and internationally are discussed and compared with this survey. Most longitudinal studies point to a trend of declining public acceptance regarding nuclear power. If this trend continues, there are important implications for the nuclear power industry: they are discussed from a sociological and political perspective. (author)

  15. Public attitudes to the promotion of genomic crop studies in Japan: correlations between genomic literacy, trust, and favourable attitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiyama, Izumi; Tanzawa, Tetsuro; Watanabe, Maiko; Maeda, Tadahiko; Muto, Kaori; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Nagai, Akiko; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2012-05-01

    This study aimed to assess public attitudes in Japan to the promotion of genomic selection in crop studies and to examine associated factors. We analysed data from a nationwide opinion survey. A total of 4,000 people were selected from the Japanese general population by a stratified two-phase sampling method, and 2,171 people participated by post; this survey asked about the pros and cons of crop-related genomic studies promotion, examined people's scientific literacy in genomics, and investigated factors thought to be related to genomic literacy and attitude. The relationships were examined using logistic regression models stratified by gender. Survey results showed that 50.0% of respondents approved of the promotion of crop-related genomic studies, while 6.7% disapproved. No correlation was found between literacy and attitude towards promotion. Trust in experts, belief in science, an interest in genomic studies and willingness to purchase new products correlated with a positive attitude towards crop-related genomic studies.

  16. Politics, proximity and the pipeline: Mapping public attitudes toward Keystone XL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravelle, Timothy B.; Lachapelle, Erick

    2015-01-01

    The politics of oil pipelines have become increasingly salient in American politics in recent years. In particular, debates about economic benefits, energy security and environmental impact have been provoked by the proposed Keystone XL pipeline expansion intended to take bitumen from northern Alberta in Canada to refineries on the Gulf Coast in Texas. Drawing on data from recent surveys conducted by the Pew Research Center, this article asks a series of questions. What levels of support for (and opposition to) the pipeline exist among the American public? What are the roles of political factors (such as party identification and ideology), economic attitudes, environmental attitudes and proximity to the proposed pipeline route in shaping attitudes toward the pipeline? And how do political factors and proximity to the pipeline interact? We find that partisanship and ideology drive attitudes toward the Keystone XL pipeline, and that the effect of ideology is attenuated by proximity to the proposed route. The policy implications of these findings for energy infrastructure siting controversies are discussed. -- Highlights: •Americans are divided on the Keystone XL energy pipeline. •Attitudes toward Keystone XL are driven by political party identification and ideology. •Attitudes toward the pipeline are also shaped by attitudes toward the economy and global warming. •The effect of proximity on attitudes toward Keystone XL is non-linear. •Spatial proximity to the pipeline attenuates the effect of ideology

  17. Patient attitudes toward mobile phone-based health monitoring: questionnaire study among kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillicuddy, John William; Weiland, Ana Katherine; Frenzel, Ronja Maximiliane; Mueller, Martina; Brunner-Jackson, Brenda Marie; Taber, David James; Baliga, Prabhakar Kalyanpur; Treiber, Frank Anton

    2013-01-08

    Mobile phone based remote monitoring of medication adherence and physiological parameters has the potential of improving long-term graft outcomes in the recipients of kidney transplants. This technology is promising as it is relatively inexpensive, can include intuitive software and may offer the ability to conduct close patient monitoring in a non-intrusive manner. This includes the optimal management of comorbidities such as hypertension and diabetes. There is, however, a lack of data assessing the attitudes of renal transplant recipients toward this technology, especially among ethnic minorities. To assess the attitudes of renal transplant recipients toward mobile phone based remote monitoring and management of their medical regimen; and to identify demographic or clinical characteristics that impact on this attitude. After a 10 minute demonstration of a prototype mobile phone based monitoring system, a 10 item questionnaire regarding attitude toward remote monitoring and the technology was administered to the participants, along with the 10 item Perceived Stress Scale and the 7 item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale. Between February and April 2012, a total of 99 renal transplant recipients were identified and agreed to participate in the survey. The results of the survey indicate that while 90% (87/97) of respondents own a mobile phone, only 7% (7/98) had any prior knowledge of mobile phone based remote monitoring. Despite this, the majority of respondents, 79% (78/99), reported a positive attitude toward the use of a prototype system if it came at no cost to themselves. Blacks were more likely than whites to own smartphones (43.1%, 28/65 vs 20.6%, 7/34; P=.03) and held a more positive attitude toward free use of the prototype system than whites (4.25±0.88 vs 3.76±1.07; P=.02). The data demonstrates that kidney transplant recipients have a positive overall attitude toward mobile phone based health technology (mHealth). Additionally, the data demonstrates

  18. Surveying Public Attitudes of Security Sector Reforms in the Arab ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The notion that the security sector's primary responsibility is to protect and preserve autocratic Arab regimes is widely discredited today. ... of public opinion in security sector reform by providing evidence-based information on public perceptions, and in so doing, encouraging civilian oversight and transparency in the sector.

  19. Assessment of Public Attitude Changes toward Exceptional Children as a Result of Public Newspaper Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sterling; Ogley, Peter

    1981-01-01

    To assess whether newspaper advertising would affect attitudes toward handicapped children, a series of newspaper advertisements were run over a five-month period. It was concluded that the ads produced significant difference in attitudes of persons manifest by their response to the questionnaire. (SB)

  20. Fear of living dangerously: public attitudes toward nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inglehart, R.

    1984-01-01

    Public misconceptions about nuclear power and the inability to separate nuclear power plants from atomic bombs persists. The fear which is generated over plant accidents and the sensational reporting by the media have made the public fearful and opposed to nuclear power. A rational weighing of nuclear risks should include a consideration of the risks of not developing nuclear power as well as an assessment of the safety record of operating plants. The public needs to recognize that no energy system is absolutely safe and that nuclear plant accidents of the future will most likely be comparable to mining and other drilling accidents that are already considered acceptable. 1 reference, 2 tables

  1. What Do Librarians Think about Marketing? A Survey of Public Librarians' Attitudes toward the Marketing of Library Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shontz, Marilyn L.; Parker, Jon C.; Parker, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify attitudes of public librarians toward the marketing of library services and relate these attitudes to selected independent variables. A questionnaire was mailed to individual members of the New Jersey Library Association. Although most of the respondents had generally positive attitudes toward library…

  2. Systematic environmental monitoring model for decision in Public Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Cunha Cardoso Filho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Addresses the existing interdisciplinary between Information Science and public policies, and proposes to environmental monitoring tool as a relevant tool for improving the process of evaluating the effectiveness of these social policies and social programs, there included the legislative branch, through the collection, processing and provision of information allowing to identify the environmental changes and propose, consistently, the improvement of public policies that meet the demands of citizens.

  3. Public attitudes toward legally coerced biological treatments of criminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryessa, Colleen M; Chandler, Jennifer A; Reiner, Peter

    2016-12-01

    How does the public view the offer of a biological treatment in lieu of prison for criminal offenders? Using the contrastive vignette technique, we explored this issue, using mixed-methods analysis to measure concerns regarding changing the criminal's personality, the coercive nature of the offer, and the safety of the proposed treatment. Overall, we found that of the three variables, the safety of the pill had the strongest effect on public acceptance of a biological intervention. Indeed, it was notable that the public was relatively sanguine about coercive offers of biological agents, as well as changing the personality of criminals. While respondents did not fully endorse such coercive offers, neither were they outraged by the use of biological treatments of criminals in lieu of incarceration. These results are discussed in the context of the retributive and rehabilitative sentiments of the public, and legal jurisprudence in the arena of human rights law.

  4. Consulting the community: public expectations and attitudes about genetics research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchegary, Holly; Green, Jane; Dicks, Elizabeth; Pullman, Daryl; Street, Catherine; Parfrey, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Genomic discoveries and technologies promise numerous opportunities for improving health. Key to these potential health improvements, however, are health-care consumers' understanding and acceptance of these new developments. We identified community groups and invited them to a public information-consultation session in order to explore public awareness, perception and expectations about genetics and genomics research. One hundred and four members of seven community groups in Newfoundland, Canada took part in the community sessions. Content analysis of participant comments revealed they were largely hopeful about genetics research in its capacity to improve health; however, they did not accept such research uncritically. Complex issues arose during the community consultations, including the place of genetics in primary care, the value of genetics for personal health, and concerns about access to and uses of genetic information. Participants unequivocally endorsed the value of public engagement with these issues. The rapid pace of discoveries in genomics research offers exciting opportunities to improve population health. However, public support will be crucial to realize health improvements. Our findings suggest that regular, transparent dialog between researchers and the public could allow a greater understanding of the research process, as well as assist in the design of efficient and effective genetic health services, informed by the public that will use them. PMID:23591403

  5. Individualism, acceptance and differentiation as attitude traits in the public's response to vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velan, Baruch; Boyko, Valentina; Lerner-Geva, Liat; Ziv, Arnona; Yagar, Yaakov; Kaplan, Giora

    2012-09-01

    The attitude of the general public to vaccination was evaluated through a survey conducted on a representative sample of the Israeli population (n = 2,018), in which interviewees were requested to express their standpoints regarding five different vaccination programs. These included: pandemic influenza vaccination, seasonal influenza vaccination, travel vaccines, Human Papilloma Virus vaccine and childhood vaccinations. Analysis of the responses reveal three major attitude traits: a) acceptance, characterized by the opinion that targets should be vaccinated; b) individualism, characterized by the opinion that vaccination should be left to personal choice; and c) differentiation, characterized by the tendency to express different attitudes when addressing different vaccination programs. Interestingly, direct opposition to vaccination was found to be a minor attitude trait in this survey. Groups within the population could be defined according to their tendency to assume these different attitudes as Acceptors, Judicious-acceptors, Differentiators, Soft-individualists, and Hard-individualists. These groups expressed different standpoints on all five vaccination programs as well as on other health recommendations, such as screening for early detection of cancer. Attitude traits could be also correlated, to a certain extent, with actual compliance with vaccination programs. Interestingly, attitudes to vaccination were not correlated with social profiles related to income or education, although younger individuals exhibited higher degrees of individualism and differentiation. Taken together, all this is in accordance with the current social settings, underlining the individual's tendency for critical evaluation and self-stirring. This should be taken into consideration by health authorities involved in vaccination programs.

  6. Public and private language ideologies as reflected in language attitudes on the Island of Korcula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujoldzić, Anita; Simicić, Lucija

    2013-06-01

    Since languages are such powerful means of group identification, they may be considered as constitutive of communities. Attitudes expressed toward certain linguistic varieties may thus be perceived as attitudes held toward respective community-members. However, as attitudes are not always easily accessible, and are rarely one-dimensional but rather multi-layered, an insight into overt (publicly proclaimed) and covert (privately held) ideologies can enhance understanding of language attitudes and their meaning. This paper brings the analysis of these two types of attitudes held by adolescents in three most populated places on the island of Korcula, Croatia. The analysis is based on the results obtained by means of a questionnaire eliciting, among other things, overt attitudes toward six local, regional and supra-regional varieties, and covert attitudes toward judges' local speech and the Standard variety of Croatian. Although the results confirm some expected tendencies in the evaluation of different varieties, subsequently conducted analysis of speech recognition rates offers some valuable insights and interesting implications for further interpretation of the results.

  7. Public Attitudes Toward Sexual Expression in Long-Term Care: Does Context Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelland, Erin; Hosier, Amy

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to (a) examine how age and sex of long-term care (LTC) residents influence public attitudes toward sexuality in LTC and (b) understand how, in the absence of cognitive decline, residing in LTC influences the perception of sexuality as a basic human right. Attitudes were examined using a factorial vignette with a probability sample of 325 respondents from a southern state. Results indicate that attitudes were not statistically affected by a vignette character's age or sex; but respondent education level, parenthood status, and religious affiliation did have direct bearing on attitudes. The notion of sexuality as a basic human right for residents of LTC was ultimately challenged as 19% of respondents said that LTC residents should not be permitted to have sexual relations with their spouse in the facility.

  8. Public speaking attitudes: does curriculum make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Adrienne B; Stone, Matthew D; Brundage, Shelley B; Zeigler, Mark T

    2010-05-01

    In light of infamous levels of fear associated with public speaking, businesses are training staff in communication effectiveness and universities are requiring courses in public speaking. A variety of approaches to individual training are available, but few studies have assessed effectiveness of group instruction, as in academic curricula. The specific purpose of this study was to compare changes in scores on measures of self-perceived confidence, competence, and apprehension associated with public speaking after two types of courses: one focused on knowledge of the vocal mechanism and mastering vocal characteristics (pitch, volume, rate, quality), and one addressing general communication theory and public speaking. Seventy-one undergraduate students enrolled in "Voice and Diction" at George Washington University (GWU) and 68 enrolled in "Fundamental Speech" at Florida State University completed questionnaires before and after the courses. Scores on Self-Perceived Communication Competence Scale, Personal Report of Confidence as a Speaker, and Personal Report of Communication Apprehension-24, were compared within subjects (ie, prepost course) and between courses. Significant differences (ppublic speaking curriculum of how to design and deliver a speech and curriculum tailored to the voice and speech mechanism succeeded in reducing public speaking apprehension and increasing feelings of confidence and competency for these undergraduate students. (c) 2010 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Fuzzy measure analysis of public attitude towards the use of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiwaki, Y.; Preyssl, C.; Onisawa, T.; Sen'ichi Mokuya

    1996-01-01

    It is important to identify the structure of public acceptance or rejection when new technologies are developed and implemented The structure of attitudes should have the essential attributes and their interrelation. In such a structural analysis the attitudes need to be decomposed into meaningful attributes by a suitable model However, the data obtained in this type of study may be more or less subjective and fuzzy, and the following problems may be pointed out: (1.) A man does net always have an additive measure such as probability to evaluate fuzzy objects, (2.) The attributes of an object in bis evaluation process are not always independent of each other. In either case a linear model may not be applicable. This paper is concerned with applying fuzzy measures and fuzzy integrals to analyze public attitude towards the use of nuclear energy. We applied the fuzzy measures and fuzzy integrals to analyze public attitude towards the use of nuclear energy by distributing questionnaires to about 100 students of Engineering Department of Kinki University, Higashi-Osaka, Osaka, Japan. Before and after the Chernobyl Accident we noticed a distinct difference in mental structure Before the accident, the students of pro-nuclear group were whole-heartedly in favour of the use of nuclear energy, based on fringe benefits, impacts on society and economic progress, but after the accident they showed a favourable attitude towards the use of nuclear energy based on economic progress, but with some reservation because of the potential threats. (author)

  10. Public Attitudes and Feelings of Warmth Toward Women and Men Experiencing Depression During the Perinatal Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Jennifer N; Banchefsky, Sarah; Park, Bernadette; Dimidjian, Sona

    2017-08-01

    Depression is a major public health concern and often goes untreated. In response to a growing body of research documenting stigma as a barrier to depression care, this study focused on examining public stigma toward potentially vulnerable subpopulations. Participants (N=241) were recruited from Amazon's Mechanical Turk and randomly assigned to provide anonymous ratings on attitudes and feelings of warmth toward pregnant women and expectant fathers experiencing depression, mothers and fathers experiencing postpartum depression, or women and men experiencing depression during nonperinatal periods. Participants reported significantly more negative attitudes about depressed men than women, and male participants reported significantly more negative attitudes than female participants toward depressed individuals. Similarly, participants felt significantly less warmth toward depressed men than women, and male participants expressed significantly less warmth than female participants toward depressed individuals. Male participants felt equally warm toward men and women who experienced depression during nonperinatal periods, whereas female participants felt significantly warmer toward women who experienced depression during nonperinatal periods compared with men. Results indicate that the public views depressed men more negatively than depressed women and that males are more likely to hold stigmatizing attitudes toward depression, suggesting the importance of reducing stigma directed toward men with depression and stigma held by men toward persons with depression. Attitudes and feelings toward depressed individuals did not consistently vary by perinatal status. These findings are an initial step in improving depression treatment engagement strategies and in identifying those who would benefit most from stigma reduction programs.

  11. A CRISPR New World: Attitudes in the Public toward Innovations in Human Genetic Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, Steven M; Badgio, Daniel; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2017-01-01

    The potential to genetically modify human germlines has reached a critical tipping point with recent applications of CRISPR-Cas9. Even as researchers, clinicians, and ethicists weigh the scientific and ethical repercussions of these advances, we know virtually nothing about public attitudes on the topic. Understanding such attitudes will be critical to determining the degree of broad support there might be for any public policy or regulation developed for genetic modification research. To fill this gap, we gave an online survey to a large (2,493 subjects) and diverse sample of Americans. Respondents supported genetic modification research, although demographic variables influenced these attitudes-conservatives, women, African-Americans, and older respondents, while supportive, were more cautious than liberals, men, other ethnicities, and younger respondents. Support was also was slightly muted when the risks (unanticipated mutations and possibility of eugenics) were made explicit. The information about genetic modification was also presented as contrasting vignettes, using one of five frames: genetic editing, engineering, hacking, modification, or surgery. Despite the fact that the media and academic use of frames describing the technology varies, these frames did not influence people's attitudes. These data contribute a current snapshot of public attitudes to inform policy with regard to human genetic modification.

  12. Knowledge of and attitudes toward electroconvulsive therapy among medical students, psychology students, and the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aki, Ozlem Erden; Ak, Sertac; Sonmez, Yunus Emre; Demir, Basaran

    2013-03-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is safe and effective for the treatment of various psychiatric disorders. Despite being a well-known treatment method among health care professionals, lay people generally have a negative opinion of ECT. The present study aimed to examine knowledge of and attitudes toward ECT among medical students, psychology students, and the general public. Psychology students were included because they are among the important groups in mental health care in Turkey. A Likert-type questionnaire was administered to fifth-year medical students (n = 28), master of science and doctor of philosophy clinical psychology students (n = 35), and a sample of the general public (n = 26). The questionnaire included questions about the general principles of and indications for ECT, and sources of knowledge of and attitudes toward ECT. The medical students were the most knowledgeable about ECT, as expected. The medical students also had a more positive attitude toward ECT than the other 2 groups. More psychology students had negative attitudes on some aspects than general public sample, despite being more knowledgeable. Medical school theoretical and practical training in ECT played an important role in increasing the level of knowledge of and decreasing the prevalence of negative attitudes toward ECT among the medical students; similar training for psychology students is required to achieve similar results.

  13. Australian public attitudes towards uranium mining and export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirvington, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Australian nuclear debate is focused on Australia's role as a uranium supplier, on the risks that this uranium might be diverted to nuclear weapons and on the risks of nuclear weapons generally. The results of a survey which was designed to measure the importance of uranium as an issue and reveal underlying influences and information behind public perceptions are presented. The methods and questions asked are given as well as the results. The results show that Australians are fairly unconcerned about uranium. However, many fear the possible application of civil nuclear technology to nuclear weapons, a fear not recognised or expected by the nuclear industry. The public image of the industry could, and should, be improved by television, films and documentaries to inform the general public about the nuclear industry. (U.K.)

  14. Attitudes and interest in technology-based treatment and the remote monitoring of smoking among adolescents and emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Erin; Baker, Nathaniel; Carpenter, Matthew J; Treiber, Frank A; Gray, Kevin

    2017-06-01

    Despite the public health relevance of smoking in adolescents and emerging adults, this group remains understudied and underserved. High technology utilization among this group may be harnessed as a tool for better understanding of smoking, yet little is known regarding the acceptability of mobile health (mHealth) integration. Participants (ages 14-21) enrolled in a smoking cessation clinical trial provided feedback on their technology utilization, perceptions, and attitudes; and interest in remote monitoring for smoking. Characteristics that predicted greater technology acceptability for smoking treatment were also explored. Participants (N=87) averaged 19 years old and were mostly male (67%). Technology utilization was high for smart phone ownership (93%), Internet use (98%), and social media use (94%). Despite this, only one-third of participants had ever searched the Internet for cessation tips or counseling (33%). Participants showed interest in mHealth-enabled treatment (48%) and felt that it could be somewhat helpful (83%). Heavier smokers had more favorable attitudes toward technology-based treatment, as did those with smartphones and unlimited data. Our results demonstrate high technology utilization, favorable attitudes towards technology, and minimal concerns. Technology integration among this population should be pursued, though in a tailored fashion, to accomplish the goal of providing maximally effective, just-in-time interventions.

  15. Stigma, public awareness about intellectual disability and attitudes to inclusion among different ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scior, K; Addai-Davis, J; Kenyon, M; Sheridan, J C

    2013-11-01

    Attitudes to the inclusion of people with intellectual disabilities (IDs) have been studied extensively, yet evidence on public awareness about ID and stigma is limited. The relationship between attitudes, knowledge and stigma associated with ID is poorly understood. The present study examined these factors and the relationships between them in the context of a multicultural society. UK residents of working age (n = 1002) were presented with a diagnostically unlabelled vignette of someone with a mild ID. They were asked to label the difficulties presented and to complete measures of social distance and attitudes to the inclusion of people with IDs. While attitudes to the inclusion of people with IDs were relatively positive overall, social contact was viewed with ambivalence. Inclusion attitudes and social distance were only moderately correlated. Across the whole sample 28% recognised typical symptoms of mild ID. Recognition of ID was associated with lower stigma and more positive attitudes than attribution of the difficulties presented to other causes. White Westerners showed increased knowledge, lower stigma and favoured inclusion more than participants from ethnic minorities. Among the latter group, Asians showed lower stigma and attitudes more in line with inclusion policies than participants of Black African/Caribbean backgrounds. Once a host of contextual factors were considered jointly, only contact was consistently associated with the variables measured. Stigma associated with ID is of concern across all ethnic groups, although it appears to be increased among the public from ethnic minorities. Given that contact and awareness are associated with reduced stigma, they should be considered as prime foci for efforts to tackle ID stigma. The current findings serve as baseline for attempts to increase public awareness and tackle stigma. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSID.

  16. From motivation to acceptability: a survey of public attitudes towards organ donation in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordfalk, Francisca; Olejaz, Maria; Jensen, Anja M B; Skovgaard, Lea Larsen; Hoeyer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Over the past three decades, public attitudes to organ donation have been a subject of numerous studies focusing on donor motivation. Here, we present a fresh approach. We suggest focusing on public acceptability instead of motivation. The point is to understand public attitudes well enough to avoid risking public support for organ transplantation. We conducted the study in Denmark because there have been significant developments in public attitudes to organ donation in this country. In the 1990s, Denmark was a country with very low public support for organ donation and Denmark was the last country in Europe to introduce brain death as a legal criterion of death, whereas today Eurobarometer surveys rate Denmark as one of the European countries with the highest support for deceased organ donation from brain dead donors. We conducted a telephone survey in Denmark (N = 1195). A questionnaire was developed on the basis of preceding qualitative studies and pilot testing and included reuse of one item from earlier surveys to facilitate historical comparison. The analysis of the data was carried out using IBM SPSS Statistics 22 and focused on descriptive statistics. A clear majority of 91.9 % are positive or very positive towards organ donation; 85.8 % like the idea of their body being used after their death, 85.0 % is willing to donate their own organs, 82.1 % to donate their tissue and only 2.3 % find that too much has been done to promote organ donation. There is limited support for monetary incentives for organ donation (5.8 %) and presumed consent (30.4 %), while a majority (63.9 %) supports making it mandatory to register a personal decision. Religious self-identification has limited impact on attitudes. We can identify a shift over the past three decades from marked opposition to organ transplantation to strong support as well as a pattern in the contemporary public attitudes, which can help explain what is central to public acceptability: self

  17. Public Knowledge and Attitudes towards Bystander Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The rate of bystander CPR is much lower in China than in developed countries. This survey was implemented to assess the current status of layperson CPR training, to analyze the willingness of bystanders to perform CPR, and to identify barriers to improving bystander CPR rates. The questionnaire included individual information, current status of bystander CPR training, and individual’s willingness and attitude towards performing CPR. There were 25.6% laypersons who took CPR training. The majority (98.6% of laypersons would perform CPR on their family members, but fewer laypersons (76.3% were willing to perform CPR on strangers. Most respondents (53.2% were worried about legal issues. If laws were implemented to protect bystanders who give aid, the number of laypersons who were not willing to perform CPR on strangers dropped from 23.7% to 2.4%. An increasing number of people in China know CPR compared with the situation in the past. CPR training in China is much less common than in many developed countries. The barriers are that laypersons are not well-trained and they fear being prosecuted for unsuccessful CPR. More accredited CPR training courses are needed in China. The laws should be passed to protect bystanders who provide assistance.

  18. Public attitudes toward health information exchange: perceived benefits and concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitropoulos, Linda; Patel, Vaishali; Scheffler, Scott A; Posnack, Steve

    2011-12-01

    To characterize consumers' attitudes regarding the perceived benefits of electronic health information exchange (HIE), potential HIE privacy and security concerns, and to analyze the intersection of these concerns with perceived benefits. A cross-sectional study. A random-digit-dial telephone survey of English-speaking adults was conducted in 2010. Multivariate logistic regression models examined the association between consumer characteristics and concerns related to the security of electronic health records (EHRs) and HIE. A majority of the 1847 respondents reported they were either "very" or "somewhat" concerned about privacy of HIE (70%), security of HIE (75%), or security of EHRs (82%). Concerns were significantly higher (P security, and 60% would permit HIE for treatment purposes even if the physician might not be able to protect their privacy all of the time. Over half (52%) wanted to choose which providers access and share their data. Greater participation by consumers in determining how HIE takes place could engender a higher degree of trust among all demographic groups, regardless of their varying levels of privacy and security concerns. Addressing the specific privacy and security concerns of minorities, individuals 40 to 64 years old, and employed individuals will be critical to ensuring widespread consumer participation in HIE.

  19. Attitudes toward Electronic Monitoring among Monitored Offenders and Criminal Justice Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Brian K.; Gainey, Randy R.

    1999-01-01

    Examines what 180 students think about electronic monitoring and compares their perceptions to those of 29 electronically-monitored offenders. Results show that students were less supportive of electronic monitoring but when asked about what offenders have to give up, they viewed the sanction more punitively than did offenders. Implications…

  20. Changing public attitudes towards corporal punishment: the effects of statutory reform in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J V

    2000-08-01

    One justification for a statutory ban on physical punishment is that passage of such legislation changes public attitudes towards the use of this form of parental discipline. The experience in Sweden is often cited as an example of legislation which changed public opinion. The aim of this brief article is to review the public opinion findings in Sweden in order to evaluate in greater detail the impact of changing the law. A search was conducted to generate all published and publicly-available quantitative surveys of the public in Sweden and elsewhere. The results of time-series analysis of the data are clear. The 1979 legal reform in Sweden did not reduce the level of public support for parental use of corporal punishment as a means of disciplining children. Support for physical punishment began declining years before the reform was passed and the decline was in no way accelerated by the law reform. Changes in public opinion may have generated the legal reform, but the reverse is not true. Data from other jurisdictions also support the view that there is no relationship between the status of the law and the nature of public views with regard to corporal punishment. This result is consistent with analyses of the effects of legal reforms in other areas. The Swedish ban on corporal punishment did not affect public attitudes. Changing public views requires other initiatives.

  1. The Role of Public and Self-Stigma in Predicting Attitudes toward Group Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, David L.; Shechtman, Zipora; Wade, Nathaniel G.

    2010-01-01

    Public and self-stigmas have been implicated as factors in the underutilization of individual counseling. However, group counseling is also underutilized, and yet scholars know very little about the role of different types of stigma on attitudes toward seeking group counseling. Therefore, the current study examined the relationships between public…

  2. Public attitudes to climate change and carbon mitigation—Implications for energy-associated behaviours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgstede, Chris von; Andersson, Maria; Johnsson, Filip

    2013-01-01

    This work explores public opinions regarding climate change and mitigation options and examines how psychological factors, such as attitudes, norms, and willingness to pay, determine self-reported energy-efficient behaviour. The aim is to create knowledge for the design and implementation of policy measures. The results of an opinion poll conducted in 2005 and 2010 are compared. The number of respondents favouring new technologies as a way to reduce emissions was substantially lower in 2010 than in 2005, whereas there was an increase in the number of people who acknowledged that lifestyle changes are necessary to counteract climate changes. This indicates an increased awareness among the public of the need for lifestyle changes, which could facilitate implementation of policies promoting environmental behaviour. Renewable energy and energy saving measures were ranked as the top two measures for mitigating climate change in both polls. In determining which energy behaviours of the public are determined by psychological factors, an analysis of the 2010 survey revealed that respondents with pro-environmental attitudes towards global warming favour significantly increased use of renewable energy technologies and greater engagement in energy-efficient behaviours. - Highlights: ► Public opinion place priority to environmental issues and beliefs to change current lifestyle. ► A decline in favoring new technologies as a way to reduce emissions in 2010 compare to 2005 poll. ► Environmental attitudes relate to favor of renewable energy technologies. ► Environmental attitudes relate to households energy efficient behaviour

  3. Attitudes toward Euthanasia in Hong Kong--A Comparison between Physicians and the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Alice Ming-lin; Fok, Shiu-yeu

    2005-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a cross-sectional study that compared the attitudes of 618 respondents of a general household survey and a random sample of 1,197 physicians toward different types of euthanasia in Hong Kong. The general public was found to agree with active euthanasia and non-voluntary euthanasia and was neutral about passive…

  4. Public Attitudes to and Awareness of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oei, Tian P. S.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Assessed public attitude toward, and awareness of possible problems and risks associated with, the consumption of alcohol during pregnancy. Results indicated a high awareness of the problem, knowledge of the specific effects to the offspring, and of quantities and frequency of consumption of alcohol which would have teratogenic effects were…

  5. Overcoming negative tendencies concerning public attitude to potentially dangerous technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barinov, A.; Shmelev, S.

    1995-01-01

    The Moscow Scientific industrial Association RADON is an enterprise with potentially dangerous technology. RADON fulfils the collection, transportation, treatment and disposal of radioactive waste from Moscow region. The inhabitants of this region consider it, and that is true, to be essentially dangerous. We understood, that it is necessary to change the situation and give the public the true information about RADON's activity. For this purpose 4 years ago we developed a new Department, the Department or External Relations

  6. Public attitudes towards photovoltaic developments: Case study from Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsantopoulos, Georgios; Arabatzis, Garyfallos; Tampakis, Stilianos

    2014-01-01

    The present decade is considered to be vitally important both as regards addressing energy requirements and for environmental protection purposes. The decisions taken, both on an individual and a collective level, will have a decisive impact on the environment, and primarily on climate change, due to the increased energy demands and the need to reduce carbon use in energy generation. The present study was designed and carried out while an extensive debate was ongoing in Greece regarding changes to the legislative framework that would specifically disallow new applications for the installation of photovoltaic systems; its aim is to depict the attitude of Greek citizens, through the completion of 1068 questionnaires. The research results show that over half the respondents are informed about the use of photovoltaic systems for electricity generation. Furthermore, almost half are willing to invest in such systems, either at home or on a plot of land. The factors contributing to the installation of photovoltaic systems are mainly “environmental”, “financial” and “social”. Finally, the citizens who are most willing to invest in residential photovoltaic systems are mainly university or technical school graduates; they would rather take such a decision after being motivated by institutional bodies and would do so for reasons of recognition. - Highlights: • The circumstances for RES are favorable both in the EU and in Greece. • The growth of renewable energy sources, particularly photovoltaic systems, is provenly following an upward trend. • The photovoltaic electricity production is an environmentally-friendly, sustainable and socially acceptable answer to the future energy requirements of society. • The Greek citizens state that they are adequately informed and sufficiently willing to invest in photovoltaic systems either residentially or in a plot of land

  7. Integrating Social Media Monitoring Into Public Health Emergency Response Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Tamer A; Fleshler, Keren

    2016-10-01

    Social media monitoring for public health emergency response and recovery is an essential response capability for any health department. The value of social media for emergency response lies not only in the capacity to rapidly communicate official and critical incident information, but as a rich source of incoming data that can be gathered to inform leadership decision-making. Social media monitoring is a function that can be formally integrated into the Incident Command System of any response agency. The approach to planning and required resources, such as staffing, logistics, and technology, is flexible and adaptable based on the needs of the agency and size and scope of the emergency. The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene has successfully used its Social Media Monitoring Team during public health emergency responses and planned events including major Ebola and Legionnaires' disease responses. The concepts and implementations described can be applied by any agency, large or small, interested in building a social media monitoring capacity. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;page 1 of 6).

  8. Food Allergy Knowledge and Attitudes among School Nurses in an Urban Public School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twichell, Sarah; Wang, Kathleen; Robinson, Humaira; Acebal, Maria; Sharma, Hemant

    2015-01-01

    Since food allergy knowledge and perceptions may influence prevention and management of school-based reactions, we evaluated them among nurses in an urban school district. All District of Columbia public school nurses were asked to anonymously complete a food allergy knowledge and attitude questionnaire. Knowledge scores were calculated as percentage of correct responses. Attitude responses were tabulated across five-point Likert scales, ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. The knowledge questionnaire was completed by 87% of eligible nurses and the attitude questionnaire by 83%. The mean total knowledge score was 76 ± 13 with domain score highest for symptom recognition and lowest for treatment. Regarding attitudes, most (94%) felt food allergy is a serious health problem, for which schools should have guidelines (94%). Fewer believed that nut-free schools (82%) and allergen-free tables (44%) should be implemented. Negative perceptions of parents were identified as: parents of food-allergic children are overprotective (55%) and make unreasonable requests of schools (15%). Food allergy knowledge deficits and mixed attitudes exist among this sample of urban school nurses, particularly related to management of reactions and perceptions of parents. Food allergy education of school nurses should be targeted to improve their knowledge and attitudes. PMID:27417367

  9. Food Allergy Knowledge and Attitudes among School Nurses in an Urban Public School District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twichell, Sarah; Wang, Kathleen; Robinson, Humaira; Acebal, Maria; Sharma, Hemant

    2015-07-21

    Since food allergy knowledge and perceptions may influence prevention and management of school-based reactions, we evaluated them among nurses in an urban school district. All District of Columbia public school nurses were asked to anonymously complete a food allergy knowledge and attitude questionnaire. Knowledge scores were calculated as percentage of correct responses. Attitude responses were tabulated across five-point Likert scales, ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. The knowledge questionnaire was completed by 87% of eligible nurses and the attitude questionnaire by 83%. The mean total knowledge score was 76 ± 13 with domain score highest for symptom recognition and lowest for treatment. Regarding attitudes, most (94%) felt food allergy is a serious health problem, for which schools should have guidelines (94%). Fewer believed that nut-free schools (82%) and allergen-free tables (44%) should be implemented. Negative perceptions of parents were identified as: parents of food-allergic children are overprotective (55%) and make unreasonable requests of schools (15%). Food allergy knowledge deficits and mixed attitudes exist among this sample of urban school nurses, particularly related to management of reactions and perceptions of parents. Food allergy education of school nurses should be targeted to improve their knowledge and attitudes.

  10. Food Allergy Knowledge and Attitudes among School Nurses in an Urban Public School District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Twichell

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Since food allergy knowledge and perceptions may influence prevention and management of school-based reactions, we evaluated them among nurses in an urban school district. All District of Columbia public school nurses were asked to anonymously complete a food allergy knowledge and attitude questionnaire. Knowledge scores were calculated as percentage of correct responses. Attitude responses were tabulated across five-point Likert scales, ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. The knowledge questionnaire was completed by 87% of eligible nurses and the attitude questionnaire by 83%. The mean total knowledge score was 76 ± 13 with domain score highest for symptom recognition and lowest for treatment. Regarding attitudes, most (94% felt food allergy is a serious health problem, for which schools should have guidelines (94%. Fewer believed that nut-free schools (82% and allergen-free tables (44% should be implemented. Negative perceptions of parents were identified as: parents of food-allergic children are overprotective (55% and make unreasonable requests of schools (15%. Food allergy knowledge deficits and mixed attitudes exist among this sample of urban school nurses, particularly related to management of reactions and perceptions of parents. Food allergy education of school nurses should be targeted to improve their knowledge and attitudes.

  11. The role of values in public beliefs and attitudes towards commercial wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bidwell, David

    2013-01-01

    Mandates for renewable energy lead to siting disputes, because meeting the mandates requires the development of renewable energy production facilities. Proposals for one common form of renewable energy, commercial wind farms, are frequently met with forceful local opposition. Dissatisfied with simplistic explanations for this opposition (i.e., NIMBY), social scientists have urged a more nuanced understanding of public attitudes towards wind energy and other renewables. Based on a survey of residents of coastal Michigan, this article explores the role of general values and beliefs in shaping attitudes towards the potential development of commercial wind energy projects in or near respondents’ communities. Structural equation modeling reveals that support of commercial wind energy depends largely on a belief that wind farms will provide economic benefits to the community. Underlying values have substantial and important indirect effects on beliefs regarding the likely economic outcomes of wind farm development. Altruistic values buoy wind energy attitudes, while values of traditionalism diminish wind energy support. The pivotal role of values in attitudes towards renewables lends support for more participatory development processes. - Highlights: ► Predictors of attitudes towards commercial wind energy development are examined. ► Support is influenced by beliefs in community economic benefit. ► Underlying values have substantial and important indirect effects on beliefs. ► Altruistic values buoy attitudes towards wind energy. ► Values associated with traditionalism diminish wind energy support

  12. Validation of the Chinese version of public attitudes toward epilepsy scale in Mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Zongwei; Ma, Chanthia; Lim, Kheng-Seang; Xiao, Bo; Wu, Qian; Shu, Yi; Yue, Zhiping; Wang, Yelan; Feng, Li

    2017-07-01

    Epilepsy is a significant yet seriously underappreciated public health issue in Mainland China. The stigma and discrimination toward people with epilepsy (PWE) and their families are especially severe in China based on cultural misconceptions which cause tremendous psychological, economic and social burdens. It is imperative to formulate a targeted public intervention to eliminate knowledge gaps and correct these misconceptions of epilepsy. However, to date, the essential tools that may drive such an intervention by measuring the public perspective on PWEs is lacking in China. The goal of this study is to test the reliability and validity of a Simplified Chinese version of the "Public Attitude Toward Epilepsy" scale (PATE) in Mainland China which can be used to understand the content and identify the possible sources of stigma to better inform the design and focus of future stigma reduction interventions. The standard procedure of cross-cultural adaptation was used in the translation process. Subjects from different economic and social backgrounds were enrolled by convenience sampling in central China. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were used to check the underlying factor structure of the items. Furthermore, Cronbach's alpha was utilized to assess internal consistency. 199 respondents were included in the final analysis. Content validity of this Chinese PATE was assessed to be adequate for assessing public attitudes toward epilepsy among the mainland Chinese. Two factors were extracted from the data by exploratory factor analysis; confirmatory factor analysis further confirmed good consistency of theoretical constructs between the original Public Attitudes Toward Epilepsy scale and our Chinese PATE. Our Chinese PATE presented excellent internal consistency (α=0.853-0.909). This version of the Chinese PATE showed acceptable psychometric properties, indicating that it can be implemented in surveying public attitudes toward epilepsy in

  13. Attitude toward Public Health Dentistry as a career among dental students in Odisha: A Cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nupur; Jain, Kittu; Kabasi, Soumik

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of dental students' expectations of their profession as well as their attitudes to study a particular specialty of dentistry is of great importance. These attitudes and expectations make studying dentistry meaningful to dental students and society and understanding these factors facilitate workforce planning in the dental sector The aim of the study was to assess the attitude of dental students towards considering Public Health Dentistry as their future career. A questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted, which included the 3 rd year, 4 th fourth year and dental interns studying in the State of Odisha. It consisted of 27 questions that were graded on 5-point Likert scale. The responses for the attitude questions toward selecting Public Health Dentistry for postgraduation were categorized into three factors, which are a negative attitude (includes score 0-21), neutral attitude (score 22-44), and positive attitude (score 45-64). Differences between groups were examined using Chi-square test for proportions. The level of statistical significance was set at P attitude toward selecting public health dentistry as their future career, and nearly two-third of them (58.23%) had neutral attitude, with very few students having a negative attitude (8.23%) toward the specialty for pursuing postgraduation. Respondents had a considerable amount of interest in pursuing postgraduation in this specialty. Efforts should be intensified, both by the dental council and by the dental colleges, to develop this specialty, keeping in mind the increasing attitude of dental undergraduates toward it.

  14. Attitudes and values expected of public health nursing students at graduation: A delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okura, Mika; Takizawa, Hiroko

    2018-06-01

    The skills and knowledge of the competencies expected of public health nursing (PHN) students at graduation have been clarified; however, the attitudes and values have not yet been studied in Japan. The objective of this study was to identify and reach a consensus among experts on the attitudes and values expected of PHN students at graduation. This survey was conducted as a two-stage Delphi study. We selected the following experts: 248 teachers in the faculty of public health nursing at a university as academic experts, and 250 public health nurses who were also experienced clinical instructors as clinical experts. The round 1 mailed survey was conducted using a questionnaire about the necessity and importance of attitudes and values, and 211 experts responded (42.4%, clinical; n = 124, academic; n = 87). In the Round 2 survey, the experts consisted of 60.2% of the round 1 participants (clinical; n = 73, academic; n = 54). Descriptive statistics were used for multiple imputation. We identified a total of 13 attitudes and values expected of PHN students, and reached ≥90% consensus for most items (except for one). Regarding the expected achievement level at graduation, there was no difference between clinical and academic experts except for one item. Consensus was clearly achieved for 13 attitudes and values expected of PHN students, as well as importance and expected achievement level at graduation. In the future, it is important to examine strategies that can effectively develop these attitudes and values through basic and continuous education. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. What is a mental illness? Public views and their effects on attitudes and disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüsch, Nicolas; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Thornicroft, Graham

    2012-07-01

    'Mental illness' is a common label. However, the general public may or may not consider various conditions, ranging from major psychiatric disorders to stress, as mental illnesses. It is unclear how such public views affect attitudes towards people with mental illness and reactions to one's own potential mental illness, e.g. in terms of help-seeking or disclosure. In representative English population surveys the classification of six conditions (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, drug addiction, stress, grief) as a mental illness was assessed as well as attitudes towards, and contact with, people with mental illness, intentions to disclose a mental illness and to seek treatment. A factor analysis of how strongly respondents perceived the six conditions as a mental illness yielded two factors: (i) major psychiatric disorders and (ii) stress- and behaviour-related conditions including drug addiction. In regression analyses, higher scores on the first, but not the second, factor predicted less perceived responsibility of people with mental illness for their actions, and more support for a neurobiological illness model and help-seeking. Classifying stress-related/behaviour-related conditions as mental illnesses, as well as not referring to major psychiatric disorders as mental illnesses, was associated with more negative attitudes and increased social distance, but also with stronger intentions to disclose a mental illness to an employer. Negative attitudes and social distance were also related to ethnic minority status and lower social grade. Referring to major psychiatric disorders as mental illnesses may reflect higher mental health literacy, better attitudes towards people with mental illness and help-seeking. A broader concept of mental illness could, although increasing negative attitudes, facilitate disclosure in the workplace. Public views on what is a mental illness may have context-dependent effects and should be taken into account in anti

  16. The Publication of Research Data: Researcher Attitudes and Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Griffiths

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 There is now widespread recognition that data are a valuable long-term resource and that making them publicly available is a way to realise their potential value - both as part of the scholarly record or for re-use by others. The Research Information Network (RIN report, To share or not to share: Publication and quality assurance of research data outputs (June 2008, investigates whether or not researchers make their research data available to others and the issues they encounter when doing so. Importantly, it seeks to do this by seeking the perspectives of researchers themselves. This paper reflects on how this relates to the more top-down literature on the subject. The discussion of the significance of the RIN's main findings is correlated to the four themes of the RIN report. Firstly, it discusses some distinctions in the types of data that should be shared and preserved and what needs to done to do so effectively. Secondly, it reflects on the motivations for and constraints on researchers publishing their data, and how funders and publishers can address them. Thirdly, it reviews some issues around how data are discovered, accessed and re-used. Finally, it discusses the scholarly and technical quality of published data.

  17. Public Attitudes to Housing Systems for Pregnant Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, E B; Fraser, D; Weary, D M

    2015-01-01

    Understanding concerns about the welfare of farm animals is important for the development of socially sustainable production practices. This study used an online survey to test how views on group versus stall housing for pregnant sows varied when Canadian and US participants were provided information about these systems, including access to scientific papers, YouTube videos, Google images, and a frequently-asked-questions page (S1 Appendix). Initial responses and changes in responses after accessing the information were analyzed from Likert scores of 242 participants and from their written comments. Participants were less willing to accept the use of gestation stalls after viewing information on sow housing. For example, initially 30.4% of respondents indicated that they supported the use of gestation stalls; this declined to 17.8% after participants were provided additional information. Qualitative analysis of comments showed that supporters of gestation stalls expressed concern about the spread of disease and aggression between animals in less confined systems, whereas supporters of group housing placed more emphasis on the sow's ability to interact socially and perform natural behaviors. These results point to public opposition to the use of gestation stalls, and indicate that the more that the public learns about gestation stalls the less willing they will be to accept their use.

  18. Changing attitudes toward house arrest with electronic monitoring: the impact of a single presentation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainey, Randy R; Payne, Brian K

    2003-04-01

    The notion that community support is critical for program success is a consistent theme in the literature on community-based corrections. Unfortunately, many citizens know very little about alternative sanctions, are misinformed about them, and do not view them favorably. At issue is whether information about alternative sanctions affects individuals' attitudes regarding them. To address this question, students in an upper division criminal justice course were surveyed before and after a presentation on electronic monitoring. Following the presentation, students were more likely to agree that electronic monitoring is punitive and that it meets several goals of the justice system. Implications for policy makers and educators are provided.

  19. Navigating a sea of values: Understanding public attitudes toward the ocean and ocean energy resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, Jonathan Charles

    In examining ocean values and beliefs, this study investigates the moral and ethical aspects of the relationships that exist between humans and the marine environment. In short, this dissertation explores what the American public thinks of the ocean. The study places a specific focus upon attitudes to ocean energy development. Using both qualitative and quantitative methods, this research: elicits mental models that exist in society regarding the ocean; unearths what philosophies underpin people's attitudes toward the ocean and offshore energy development; assesses whether these views have any bearing on pro-environmental behavior; and gauges support for offshore drilling and offshore wind development. Despite the fact that the ocean is frequently ranked as a second-tier environmental issue, Americans are concerned about the state of the marine environment. Additionally, the data show that lack of knowledge, rather than apathy, prevents people from undertaking pro-environmental action. With regard to philosophical beliefs, Americans hold slightly more nonanthropocentric than anthropocentric views toward the environment. Neither anthropocentrism nor nonanthropocentrism has any real impact on pro-environmental behavior, although nonanthropocentric attitudes reduce support for offshore wind. This research also uncovers two gaps between scientific and public perceptions of offshore wind power with respect to: 1) overall environmental effects; and 2) the size of the resource. Providing better information to the public in the first area may lead to a shift toward offshore wind support among opponents with nonanthropocentric attitudes, and in both areas, is likely to increase offshore wind support.

  20. A CRISPR New World: Attitudes in the Public toward Innovations in Human Genetic Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Weisberg

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The potential to genetically modify human germlines has reached a critical tipping point with recent applications of CRISPR-Cas9. Even as researchers, clinicians, and ethicists weigh the scientific and ethical repercussions of these advances, we know virtually nothing about public attitudes on the topic. Understanding such attitudes will be critical to determining the degree of broad support there might be for any public policy or regulation developed for genetic modification research. To fill this gap, we gave an online survey to a large (2,493 subjects and diverse sample of Americans. Respondents supported genetic modification research, although demographic variables influenced these attitudes—conservatives, women, African-Americans, and older respondents, while supportive, were more cautious than liberals, men, other ethnicities, and younger respondents. Support was also was slightly muted when the risks (unanticipated mutations and possibility of eugenics were made explicit. The information about genetic modification was also presented as contrasting vignettes, using one of five frames: genetic editing, engineering, hacking, modification, or surgery. Despite the fact that the media and academic use of frames describing the technology varies, these frames did not influence people’s attitudes. These data contribute a current snapshot of public attitudes to inform policy with regard to human genetic modification.

  1. Development of the public attitude model toward nuclear power in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Sung Choi; Sun, Ho Lee; Nam, Zin Cho; Byong, Whi Lee

    1998-01-01

    This paper deals with the structure of public attitude towards nuclear power plants in Korea. Special emphasis is given to the issues of public acceptance in relation to perceived benefits, perceived risk, judged safety, and safety satisfaction. The national survey data of 1995 by the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety is analyzed with a latent class model and logistic regression. The latent class model is used to construct benefit and risk factors. With these factors and safety-related variables, a public attitude model is developed by logistic regression which enables the relationships between national or local acceptance of nuclear power and explanatory variables to be quantified. The results show that the attitude structure is somewhat different by gender. Subjectively perceived risk is found to be the most influential factor for local acceptance. The odds of local acceptance with the best risk perception is about 16 times the odds with the worst perception for males and about 7.7 times for females. From the results of this analysis, it is clear that subjective satisfaction with nuclear safety is a more important factor for explaining public acceptance rather than judgment of it. These important findings should be reflected in the public acceptance improvement strategy for the nuclear power program

  2. Parties heed (with caution): Public knowledge of and attitudes towards party finance in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanHeerde-Hudson, Jennifer; Fisher, Justin

    2013-01-01

    Despite comprehensive reform ( Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act ) and recent review (Phillips Review in 2007) of party finance in Britain, public opinion of party finance remains plagued by perceptions of corruption, undue influence from wealthy donors, carefree and wasteful spending and, more generally, from the perception that there is just 'too much money' in politics. In this article we argue that knowledge of and attitudes to party finance matter, not least because advocates of reform have cited public opinion as evidence for reform. However, because attitudes to party finance are part of a broader attitudinal structure, opinion-led reforms are unlikely to succeed in increasing public confidence. Using data generated from YouGov's online panel (N=2,008), we demonstrate that the public know little of the key provisions regulating party finance and attitudes to party finance can be explained along two underlying dimensions - Anti-Party Finance and Reformers . As such, we consider whether parties and politicians should be freed from the constraints of public opinion in reforming party finance.

  3. Public attitudes in relation to the risks presented by new technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cave, L.; Holmes, R.E.; Holmes, P.J.

    1978-01-01

    Studies on societal attitudes during the nineteenth century to risks introduced by new technologies indicate that the present day reluctance on the part of society to accept a level of risk, which on a national basis appears to be insignificant, in order to have the benefits of a new technology at a reasonable cost, may not be a new phenomenon. Conditions are postulated in which historical data on public attitudes to risk are valid, and the application of this approach is illustrated by a study of societal attitudes in the nineteenth century to the risks presented by the new technology of railway travel in the United Kingdom. It is concluded that the interpretation of relevant data from the abundant historical records available may provide a valuable insight into the reaction of society to present-day and future technological risks

  4. Public attitudes toward euthanasia and suicide for terminally ill persons: 1977 and 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCesare, M A

    2000-01-01

    This study replicates Singh's (1979) "classic" examination of correlates of euthanasia and suicide attitudes. The purposes of the current study were to assess (1) changes in public attitudes toward these voluntary termination of life practices, and (2) changes in the effects on attitudes of selected independent variables. I found Americans' approval of both euthanasia and suicide in 1996 to be higher than that in 1977. The increase in the approval of suicide, however, far outstripped that of euthanasia. Results of OLS regressions indicated that race, religious commitment, religious attendance, political identification, and suicide approval were statistically significant predictors of euthanasia approval. Only religious attendance and euthanasia approval were statistically significant predictors of suicide approval in both 1977 and 1996. The findings regarding euthanasia approval support those of Singh (1979); those regarding suicide approval do not. Triangulation of methods in future research is necessary to illuminate other aspects of these multifaceted issues.

  5. Public attitudes towards smoking and tobacco control policy in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danishevski, K; Gilmore, A; McKee, M

    2008-08-01

    Since the political transition in 1991, Russia has been targeted intensively by the transnational tobacco industry. Already high smoking rates among men have increased further; traditionally low rates among women have more than doubled. The tobacco companies have so far faced little opposition as they shape the discourse on smoking in Russia. This paper asks what ordinary Russians really think about possible actions to reduce smoking. A representative sample of the Russian population (1600 respondents) was interviewed face to face in November 2007. Only 14% of respondents considered tobacco control in Russia adequate, while 37% thought that nothing was being done at all. There was support for prices keeping pace with or even exceeding inflation. Over 70% of all respondents favoured a ban on sales from street kiosks, while 56% believed that existing health warnings (currently 4% of front and back of packs) were inadequate. The current policy of designating a few tables in bars and restaurants as non-smoking was supported by less than 10% of respondents, while almost a third supported a total ban, with 44% supporting provision of equal space for smokers and non-smokers. Older age, non-smoking status and living in a smaller town all emerged as significantly associated with the propensity to support antismoking measures. The tobacco companies were generally viewed as behaving like most other companies in Russia, with three-quarters of respondents believing that these companies definitely or maybe bribe politicians. Knowledge of impact of smoking on health was limited with significant underestimation of dangers and addictive qualities of tobacco. A third believed that light cigarettes are safer than normal cigarettes. The majority of the Russian population would support considerable strengthening of tobacco control policies but there is also a need for effective public education campaigns.

  6. Public attitudes towards smoking and tobacco control policy in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danishevski, Kirill; Gilmore, Anna; McKee, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background Since the political transition in 1991, Russia has been targeted intensively by the transnational tobacco industry. Already high smoking rates among men have increased further; traditionally low rates among women have more than doubled. The tobacco companies have so far faced little opposition as they shape the discourse on smoking in Russia. This paper asks what ordinary Russians really think about possible actions to reduce smoking. Methods A representative sample of the Russian population (1600 respondents) was interviewed face-to-face in November 2007. Results Only 14% of respondents considered tobacco control in Russia adequate, while 37% felt that nothing was being done at all. There was support for prices keeping pace with or even exceeding inflation. Over 70% of all respondents favoured a ban on sales from street kiosks, while 56% believed that existing health warnings (currently 4% of front and back of packs) were inadequate. The current policy of designating a few tables in bars and restaurants as non-smoking was supported by less than 10% of respondents, while almost a third supported a total ban, with 44% supporting provision of equal space for smokers and non-smokers. Older age, non-smoking status and living a smaller town all emerged as significantly associated with the propensity to support of antismoking measures. The tobacco companies were generally viewed as behaving like most other companies in Russia, with three-quarters believing that they definitely or maybe bribe politicians. Knowledge of impact of smoking on health was limited with significant underestimation of dangers and addictive qualities of tobacco. A third believed that light cigarettes are safer than normal. Conclusion The majority of the Russian population would support considerable strengthening of tobacco control policies but there is also a need for effective public education campaigns. PMID:18653793

  7. Drivers of Public Attitudes towards Small Wind Turbines in the UK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerian Tatchley

    Full Text Available Small Wind Turbines (SWTs are a growing micro-generation industry with over 870,000 installed units worldwide. No research has focussed on public attitudes towards SWTs, despite evidence the perception of such attitudes are key to planning outcomes and can be a barrier to installations. Here we present the results of a UK wide mail survey investigating public attitudes towards SWTs. Just over half of our respondents, who were predominantly older, white males, felt that SWTs were acceptable across a range of settings, with those on road signs being most accepted and least accepted in hedgerows and gardens. Concern about climate change positively influenced how respondents felt about SWTs. Respondent comments highlight visual impacts and perceptions of the efficiency of this technology are particularly important to this sector of the UK public. Taking this into careful consideration, alongside avoiding locating SWTs in contentious settings such as hedgerows and gardens where possible, may help to minimise public opposition to proposed installations.

  8. Drivers of Public Attitudes towards Small Wind Turbines in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatchley, Cerian; Paton, Heather; Robertson, Emma; Minderman, Jeroen; Hanley, Nicholas; Park, Kirsty

    2016-01-01

    Small Wind Turbines (SWTs) are a growing micro-generation industry with over 870,000 installed units worldwide. No research has focussed on public attitudes towards SWTs, despite evidence the perception of such attitudes are key to planning outcomes and can be a barrier to installations. Here we present the results of a UK wide mail survey investigating public attitudes towards SWTs. Just over half of our respondents, who were predominantly older, white males, felt that SWTs were acceptable across a range of settings, with those on road signs being most accepted and least accepted in hedgerows and gardens. Concern about climate change positively influenced how respondents felt about SWTs. Respondent comments highlight visual impacts and perceptions of the efficiency of this technology are particularly important to this sector of the UK public. Taking this into careful consideration, alongside avoiding locating SWTs in contentious settings such as hedgerows and gardens where possible, may help to minimise public opposition to proposed installations. PMID:27011356

  9. Determinants of attitude to volunteering in psychiatry: results of a public opinion survey in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauber, Christoph; Nordt, Carlos; Falcato, Luis; Rössler, Wulf

    2002-09-01

    The United Nations proclaimed 2001 the "International Year of Volunteers". Little is known about factors influencing the attitude to volunteering in psychiatry. However, knowledge about these factors is important as target groups to be addressed by an awareness and promotion campaign could be identified. To determine the influence of demographic, psychological and sociological factors on the attitude to volunteering in psychiatry. Multiple logistic regression analysis of the results of an opinion survey conducted on a representative population sample in Switzerland (n = 1737). Public attitude is mostly positive. It depends, however, on the form of volunteering. Two explanatory models for volunteering in psychiatry were found: first, the "antipathetic person" having social distance to and negative stereotypes towards the mentally ill. Second, the "people with social responsibility and commitment" who have former experience in volunteering, a positive attitude to community psychiatry, interest in mass media, a social profession and perceive discrimination of mentally ill persons. Age and gender are significant predictors. An awareness and promotion campaign to use the vast potential of people willing to volunteer in psychiatry can be primarily focused on those with a basic interest in social issues. Volunteering must be limited in time and responsibility. Contacting people with a positive attitude by mass media is a promising way.

  10. Public attitudes towards people with intellectual disabilities: a qualitative comparison of white British & South Asian people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Sarah; Scior, Katrina

    2012-03-01

    National and international polices promote the acceptance, integration and inclusion of people with intellectual disabilities into mainstream society. However, there is little systematic research into general population attitudes towards people with intellectual disabilities, and even less research, which considers the impact of culture on attitudes. The aim of this study was to explore how young people from White British and South Asian backgrounds differ in their attitudes towards people with intellectual disabilities and above all, how they arrive at their beliefs. A qualitative design utilizing focus groups and individual interviews with White British and South Asian adolescents aged 16-19 years (N = 61) was employed. Questionnaire data were collected to compare this sample to findings from a larger study run concurrently (Attitudes to people with intellectual disabilities: a cross cultural study. Thesis, University College London). Interview and focus group data were analysed using thematic analysis. Thematic analysis yielded five themes and pointed to widespread confusion about the concept of 'intellectual disability', not helped by the continuing invisibility of people with intellectual disabilities in the media. Participants expressed many positive beliefs, yet closer analysis revealed that underlying these may be more ambivalent or even hostile attitudes. Key differences between the two cultural groups are discussed. The findings highlight the need for raising public awareness and the importance of culturally sensitive support. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Knowledge and Attitude about Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis among Healthcare Workers in Public Health Centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bony Wiem Lestari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB is a significant public health problem and poses a threat to global tuberculosis (TB control. In 2015, at least 504 new MDR-TB cases were identified in Indonesia. Treating MDR-TB patients is very challenging. It may take more than two years for MDR-TB treatment. Therefore, it is crucial healthcare workers (HCWs are knowledgeable about MDR-TB. The aim of this study was to measure level of knowledge and attitude regarding MDR-TB among HCWs in public health centres. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at 73 Public Health Centres in Bandung the capital of West Java Province from August until November 2015. The samples were 73 TB nurses and 32 laboratory staff. A self-administered questionnaire was given comprising 27 knowledge questions and 29 attitude questions. Correlation between knowledge and attitude scores was calculated by Pearson correlation test. Results: The majority of study participants were women (82.9%, married (92.4%, nursing staff (65.7% with history of TB training (98.1%. Most of the participants were 40-59 years old (69.5% with working experience in TB programme < 10 years (69.5%. Less than half (38.1% of study participants had good knowledge. In terms of attitude, more than half (53.3% of study participants had a positive attitude towards MDR-TB. Conclusions: The level of knowledge among HCWs about MDR-TB is still at an unacceptable level. Certain educational interventions aim to ensure prompt diagnosis, implement infection control and accurate treatment should be established among those HCWs.

  12. Public beliefs about and attitudes towards bipolar disorder: testing theory based models of stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Nell; Mason, Oliver; Scior, Katrina

    2015-04-01

    Given the vast literature into public beliefs and attitudes towards schizophrenia and depression, there is paucity of research on attitudes towards bipolar disorder despite its similar prevalence to schizophrenia. This study explored public beliefs and attitudes towards bipolar disorder and examined the relationship between these different components of stigma. Using an online questionnaire distributed via email, social networking sites and public institutions, 753 members of the UK population were presented with a vignette depicting someone who met DSM-IV criteria for bipolar disorder. Causal beliefs, beliefs about prognosis, emotional reactions, stereotypes, and social distance were assessed in response to the vignette. Preacher and Hayes procedure for estimating direct and indirect effects of multiple mediators was used to examine the relationship between these components of stigma. Bipolar disorder was primarily associated with positive beliefs and attitudes and elicited a relatively low desire for social distance. Fear partially mediated the relationship between stereotypes and social distance. Biomedical causal beliefs reduced desire for social distance by increasing compassion, whereas fate causal beliefs increased it through eliciting fear. Psychosocial causal beliefs had mixed effects. The measurement of stigma using vignettes and self-report questionnaires has implications for ecological validity and participants may have been reluctant to reveal the true extent of their negative attitudes. Dissemination of these findings to people with bipolar disorder has implications for the reduction of internalised stigma in this population. Anti-stigma campaigns should attend to causal beliefs, stereotypes and emotional reactions as these all play a vital role in discriminatory behaviour towards people with bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Vascularized Composite Allograft Donation and Transplantation: A Survey of Public Attitudes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigue, J R; Tomich, D; Fleishman, A; Glazier, A K

    2017-10-01

    Vascularized composite allograft (VCA) transplantation has emerged as a groundbreaking surgical intervention to return identity and function following traumatic injury, congenital deformity, or disfigurement. While public attitudes toward traditional organ/tissue donation are favorable, little is known about attitudes toward VCA donation and transplantation. A survey was conducted of 1485 U.S. residents in August 2016 to assess VCA donation attitudes. Participants also completed the Revised Health Care System Distrust Scale. Most respondents were willing to donate hands/forearms (67.4%) and legs (66.8%), and almost half (48.0%) were willing to donate the face. Three-quarters (74.4%) of women were willing to donate the uterus; 54.4% of men were willing to donate the penis. VCA donation willingness was more likely among whites and Hispanics (p donation expressed concerns about psychological discomfort, mutilation, identity loss, and the reaction of others to seeing familiar body parts on a stranger. Attitudes toward VCA donation are favorable overall, despite limited exposure to VCA messaging and confusion about how VCA donation occurs. These findings may help guide the development and implementation of VCA public education campaigns. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  14. Suicide Prevention Public Service Announcements Impact Help-Seeking Attitudes: The Message Makes a Difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Wright, Nathan; Klingbeil, David A

    2016-01-01

    Suicide continues to be one of the most serious public health challenges. Public service announcements (PSAs) are frequently used to address this challenge, but are rarely sufficiently evaluated to determine if they meet the intended goals, or are associated with potential iatrogenic effects. Although it is challenging to assess the relative impact of different PSA modalities, our group previously noted that one billboard message failed to show the same benefits as one TV ad [e.g., Klimes-Dougan and Lee (1)]. The purpose of this study was to extend these findings to test critical aspects of suicide prevention billboard messaging. Although both simulated billboard messages presented had identical supporting messages, we predicted that the more personal billboard message, focused on saving one's life, would cause more favorable help-seeking attitudes than the message focused on suicide. Young adult university students (N = 785) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions; one of two billboard simulations or a TV ad simulation. Help-seeking attitudes, maladaptive coping, and reports of concern and distress were evaluated. The results of this study suggest some relative benefits in endorsement of favorable help-seeking attitudes for one of the billboard conditions - stop depression from taking another life. Although further research is needed to determine what methods will alter the risk for suicide in the population, the results of this study provide a useful first step showing that some billboard messaging may favorably influence help-seeking attitudes.

  15. Survey II of public and leadership attitudes toward nuclear power development in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    In August 1975, Ebasco Services Incorporated released results of a survey conducted by Louis Harris and Associates, Inc. to determine attitudes of the American public and its leaders toward nuclear power development in the U.S. Results showed, among other things, that the public favored building nuclear power plants; that they believed we have an energy shortage that will not go away soon; that they were not willing to make environmental sacrifices; and that, while favoring nuclear power development, they also had concerns about some aspects of nuclear power. Except for the environmental group, the leadership group felt the same way the public does. A follow-up survey was made in July 1976 to measure any shifts in attitudes. Survey II showed that one of the real worries that remains with the American public is the shortage of energy; additionally, the public and the leaders are concerned about the U.S. dependence on imported oil. With exception of the environmentalists, the public and its leaders support a host of measures to build energy sources, including: solar and oil shale development; speeding up the Alaskan pipeline; speeding up off-shore drilling; and building nuclear power plants. The public continues to be unwilling to sacrifice the environment. There is less conviction on the part of the public that electric power will be in short supply over the next decade. The public believes the days of heavy dependence on oil or hydroelectric power are coming to an end. By a margin of 3 to 1, the public favors building more nuclear power plants in the U.S., but some concerns about the risks have not dissipated. Even though the public is worried about radioactivity escaping into the atmosphere, they consider nuclear power generation more safe than unsafe

  16. Community/public health nursing faculty's knowledge, skills and attitudes of the Quad Council Competencies for Public Health Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Barbara L; Harmon, Monica; Johnson, Regina Gina H; Hicks, Vicki; Brown-Schott, Nancy; Pilling, Lucille; Brownrigg, Vicki

    2018-05-02

    A multisite collaborative team of community/public health nursing (C/PHN) faculty surveyed baccalaureate nursing faculty to explore their knowledge, skills, attitudes, and application of the Quad Council Competencies for Public Health Nurses (QCC-PHN). (1) Evaluate the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of the 2011 QCC-PHN by academic C/PHN faculty; (2) Evaluate the application of 2011 QCC-PHN by C/PHN faculty in the clinical practicum for undergraduate baccalaureate C/PHN students; and (3) Determine if a significant difference existed in the knowledge for each domain. A mixed methods descriptive research design was used to answer three specific hypotheses related to the study objectives. A convenience sample of 143 faculty teaching C/PHN in baccalaureate schools of nursing completed an online survey. ANOVA was used to determine the difference between knowledge, skills, attitudes, and application of nursing faculty regarding the QCC-PHN based on years of nursing experience, C/PHN experience, and nursing specialty preparation. Participants' qualitative comments for each domain were analyzed for themes. C/PHN nursing faculty are described and differences in knowledge, skills, and attitudes delineated. A statistically significant difference was found in skills based on years of experience in C/PHN and in the application of the competencies based on nursing specialty preparation. Variations in knowledge of the QCC-PHN are identified. Ten recommendations are proposed for key skill sets and necessary preparation for faculty to effectively teach C/PHN in baccalaureate schools of nursing. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Attitudes and perceptions of Conacyt researchers towards public communication of science and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz Merino, Noemí; Tarhuni Navarro, Daniela H

    2018-06-01

    This study aims to explore the perceptions and attitudes toward Public Communication of Science and Technology of the researchers of the National Council of Science and Technology (Conacyt), in order to provide a diagnosis about the ways the Mexican scientists are involved in public communication and to contribute to the visibility of researchers' needs in being able to popularize science. The results show significant differences among the researchers' opinions with respect to their perceptions about science communication, the ways they participate in PUS activities and their identified needs. In general, the researchers of Conacyt perceived public communication as very important. However, lack of time and of academic recognition stood out as determining factors in their low contribution to science popularization. We conclude that, to achieve a culture of Public Engagement in public communication of science and technology among R&D institutions, the Mexican Administration should address the above-mentioned unfavorable professional circumstances.

  18. Public and biobank participant attitudes toward genetic research participation and data sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, A A; Wolf, W A; Hebert-Beirne, J; Smith, M E

    2010-01-01

    Research assessing attitudes toward consent processes for high-throughput genomic-wide technologies and widespread sharing of data is limited. In order to develop a better understanding of stakeholder views toward these issues, this cross-sectional study assessed public and biorepository participant attitudes toward research participation and sharing of genetic research data. Forty-nine individuals participated in 6 focus groups; 28 in 3 public focus groups and 21 in 3 NUgene biorepository participant focus groups. In the public focus groups, 75% of participants were women, 75% had some college education or more, 46% were African-American and 29% were Hispanic. In the NUgene focus groups, 67% of participants were women, 95% had some college education or more, and the majority (76%) of participants was Caucasian. Five major themes were identified in the focus group data: (a) a wide spectrum of understanding of genetic research; (b) pros and cons of participation in genetic research; (c) influence of credibility and trust of the research institution; (d) concerns about sharing genetic research data and need for transparency in the Policy for Sharing of Data in National Institutes of Health-Supported or Conducted Genome-Wide Association Studies; (e) a need for more information and education about genetic research. In order to increase public understanding and address potential concerns about genetic research, future efforts should be aimed at involving the public in genetic research policy development and in identifying or developing appropriate educational strategies to meet the public's needs.

  19. Controversies in hybrid banking: attitudes of Swiss public umbilical cord blood donors toward private and public banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manegold, Gwendolin; Meyer-Monard, Sandrine; Tichelli, André; Granado, Christina; Hösli, Irene; Troeger, Carolyn

    2011-07-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) stored in public inventories has become an alternative stem cell source for allogeneic stem cell transplantation. The potential use of autologous UCB from private banks is a matter of debate. In the face of the limited resources of public inventories, a discussion on "hybrid" public and private UCB banking has evolved. We aimed to explore the attitudes of the donating parents toward public and private UCB banking. A standardized, anonymous questionnaire was sent to the most recent 621 public UCB donors including items regarding satisfaction with recruitment process, the need for a second consent before release of the UCB unit for stem cell transplantation, and the donors' views on public and private UCB banking. Furthermore, we asked about their views on UCB research. Of the questionnaires, 48% were returned, and 16% were lost due to mail contact. Of our donors, 95% would donate to the public bank again. As much as 35% of them were convinced that public banking was useful. Whereas 27% had never heard about private UCB banking, 34% discussed both options. Nearly 70% of donors opted for public banking due to altruism and the high costs of private banking. Of our public UCB donors, 81% stated that they did not need a re-consent before UCB release for stem cell transplantation. In case of sample rejection, 53.5% wanted to know details about the particular research project. A total of 9% would not consent. Almost all donors would choose public banking again due to altruism and the high costs of private banking. Shortly after donation, mail contact with former UCB donors was difficult. This might be a relevant issue in any sequential hybrid banking.

  20. Public stigma and self-stigma: differential association with attitudes toward formal and informal help seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattyn, Elise; Verhaeghe, Mieke; Sercu, Charlotte; Bracke, Piet

    2014-02-01

    Individuals in need of psychiatric treatment often avoid seeking help because of stigma. This study examined the impact of two stigma dimensions on help-seeking attitudes. Perceived public stigma refers to discrimination and devaluation by others, and anticipated self-stigma refers to internalization of negative stereotypes about people who seek help. Data were from the 2009 Stigma in a Global Context-Belgian Mental Health Study, in which face-to-face interviews were conducted with a representative sample of the general Belgian population. The study reported here included 728 respondents who received a vignette depicting major depression or schizophrenia. Perceived public stigma and anticipated self-stigma were measured with validated instruments. Respondents' attitudes toward help seeking were measured by the importance they assigned to care from formal and informal providers: general practitioners, psychiatrists, psychologists, family members, or friends. Multiple linear regression models were estimated. Respondents with higher levels of anticipated self-stigma attached less importance to care provided by general practitioners or psychiatrists, and those with higher levels of perceived public stigma rated informal help seeking as less important. The gender and the ethnicity of the person and respondents' sociodemographic characteristics had relatively little effect on help-seeking attitudes. Anticipated self-stigma and perceived public stigma appeared to have a differential impact on attitudes toward formal and informal help seeking. Internalization of negative stereotypes was negatively associated with the perceived importance of care from medical providers (general practitioners and psychiatrists). Awareness of stereotypes held by others deterred respondents from acknowledging the importance of informal care.

  1. Public Attitudes to the Use of Wildlife by Aboriginal Australians: Marketing of Wildlife and its Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clement A.; Swarna Nantha, Hemanath

    2005-01-01

    Attitudes of a sample of the Australian public towards the subsistence use of wildlife by indigenous Australians and whether or not indigenous Australians should be allowed to sell wildlife and wildlife products is examined. It has been suggested that allowing such possibilities would provide economic incentives for nature conservation among local people. We explore whether those sampled believe that indigenous Australians should do more than other groups and institutions to conserve Australi...

  2. Money Ethic, Moral Conduct and Work Related Attitudes: Field Study From the Public Sector in Swaziland

    OpenAIRE

    Gbadamosi, Gbolahan; Joubert, P.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose \\ud This study investigates perception of ethical and moral conduct in the public sector in Swaziland, specifically, the relationship among: money ethic, attitude towards business ethics, corruption perception, turnover intention, job performance, job satisfaction, and the demographic profile of respondents.\\ud Methodology/Approach\\ud The study was a survey using self-administered questionnaires. Using stratified sampling technique in selected organisations, usable data was collected ...

  3. The Traditional Model Does Not Explain Attitudes Toward Euthanasia: A Web-Based Survey of the General Public in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terkamo-Moisio, Anja; Kvist, Tarja; Laitila, Teuvo; Kangasniemi, Mari; Ryynänen, Olli-Pekka; Pietilä, Anna-Maija

    2017-08-01

    The debate about euthanasia is ongoing in several countries including Finland. However, there is a lack of information on current attitudes toward euthanasia among general Finnish public. The traditional model for predicting individuals' attitudes to euthanasia is based on their age, gender, educational level, and religiosity. However, a new evaluation of religiosity is needed due to the limited operationalization of this factor in previous studies. This study explores the connections between the factors of the traditional model and the attitudes toward euthanasia among the general public in the Finnish context. The Finnish public's attitudes toward euthanasia have become remarkably more positive over the last decade. Further research is needed on the factors that predict euthanasia attitudes. We suggest two different explanatory models for consideration: one that emphasizes the value of individual autonomy and another that approaches euthanasia from the perspective of fears of death or the process of dying.

  4. Public and Healthcare Professionals’ Knowledge and Attitudes toward Binge Eating Disorder: A Narrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reas, Deborah Lynn

    2017-01-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) is characterized by recurrent binge eating and marked distress in the absence of inappropriate compensatory behaviors for weight control. BED is prevalent in men and women, is associated with elevated psychosocial and functional impairment, and is associated strongly with obesity and related medical comorbidities. The aim is to provide a brief, state-of-the-art review of the major and recent findings to inform educational and awareness campaigns, stigma reduction interventions, as well as current clinical practice and future research. A narrative approach was used to synthesize emerging literature on the public and healthcare professionals’ knowledge and attitudes toward individuals with BED in comparison to other eating disorders (EDs) or mental illness. A total of 13 articles were reviewed. Nine studies investigated community samples and four studies investigated healthcare professionals. The reviewed literature suggested that BED is perceived by the public as less impairing, less severe, and “easier-to-treat” than other EDs. Attitudes and beliefs reflecting perceived blameworthiness and lack of self-discipline were ascribed to vignettes with BED. Community studies indicated a low level of public awareness that BED constitutes a discreet eating disorder. The literature on healthcare professionals’ knowledge and attitudes toward BED remains very limited. The few existing studies suggest encouraging trends in recognition and diagnostic accuracy, yet there remains a need for increased clinical awareness of BED-associated medical complications and knowledge of full BED diagnostic criteria. PMID:29160843

  5. Public and private attitudes towards 'green' electricity: the case of Swedish wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ek, Kristina

    2005-01-01

    There exists a political goal in Sweden and elsewhere to increase the use of renewable energy and wind power seems to be a favourable choice from an environmental perspective. However, although the public generally expresses a positive attitude towards wind power, the experience often shows that specific wind power projects face resistance from the local population. This paper analyses the attitudes towards wind power among the electricity consumers as well as the foundations of these attitudes. Results are based on a postal survey that was sent out to 1000 Swedish house owners. According to the results, the public is generally positive towards wind power. The probability of finding an average individual in support of wind power decreases with age and income. People with an interest in environmental issues are, however, more likely to be positive towards wind power than the average respondent and the results do not support the NIMBY-hypothesis. In addition, people that are more inclined to express public preferences are also more likely to be positive towards wind electricity than people who are less inclined to do so. These results imply, for instance, that the potential of markets for 'green' electricity may be limited, other support schemes is thus required if the politically stated goal to increase wind power capacity is to be fulfilled

  6. Public Understanding and Attitudes towards Meat Chicken Production and Relations to Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erian, Ihab; Phillips, Clive J C

    2017-03-09

    Little is known about public knowledge of meat chicken production and how it influences attitudes to birds' welfare and consumer behaviour. We interviewed 506 members of the public in SE Queensland; Australia; to determine how knowledge of meat chicken production and slaughter links to attitudes and consumption. Knowledge was assessed from 15 questions and low scores were supported by respondents' self-assessed report of low knowledge levels and agreement that their knowledge was insufficient to form an opinion about which chicken products to purchase. Older respondents and single people without children were most knowledgeable. There was uncertainty about whether chicken welfare was adequate, particularly in those with little knowledge. There was also evidence that a lack of empathy towards chickens related to lack of knowledge, since those that thought it acceptable that some birds are inadequately stunned at slaughter had low knowledge scores. More knowledgeable respondents ate chicken more frequently and were less likely to buy products with accredited labelling. Approximately half of the respondents thought the welfare of the chicken was more important than the cost. It is concluded that the public's knowledge has an important connection to their attitudes and consumption of chicken.

  7. Public and Healthcare Professionals’ Knowledge and Attitudes toward Binge Eating Disorder: A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Lynn Reas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Binge eating disorder (BED is characterized by recurrent binge eating and marked distress in the absence of inappropriate compensatory behaviors for weight control. BED is prevalent in men and women, is associated with elevated psychosocial and functional impairment, and is associated strongly with obesity and related medical comorbidities. The aim is to provide a brief, state-of-the-art review of the major and recent findings to inform educational and awareness campaigns, stigma reduction interventions, as well as current clinical practice and future research. A narrative approach was used to synthesize emerging literature on the public and healthcare professionals’ knowledge and attitudes toward individuals with BED in comparison to other eating disorders (EDs or mental illness. A total of 13 articles were reviewed. Nine studies investigated community samples and four studies investigated healthcare professionals. The reviewed literature suggested that BED is perceived by the public as less impairing, less severe, and “easier-to-treat” than other EDs. Attitudes and beliefs reflecting perceived blameworthiness and lack of self-discipline were ascribed to vignettes with BED. Community studies indicated a low level of public awareness that BED constitutes a discreet eating disorder. The literature on healthcare professionals’ knowledge and attitudes toward BED remains very limited. The few existing studies suggest encouraging trends in recognition and diagnostic accuracy, yet there remains a need for increased clinical awareness of BED-associated medical complications and knowledge of full BED diagnostic criteria.

  8. Do Online Comments Influence the Public's Attitudes Toward an Organization? Effects of Online Comments Based on Individuals' Prior Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Kang Hoon; Lee, Moon J

    2015-01-01

    The authors investigated the effects of reading different types of online comments about a company on people's attitude change based on individual's prior attitude toward the company. Based on Social Judgment Theory, several hypotheses were tested. The results showed that the effects of online comments interact with individuals' prior attitudes toward a corporation. People with a strong negative attitude toward a corporation were less influenced by other's online comments than people with a neutral attitude in general. However, people with a prior negative attitude were more affected by refutational two-sided comments than one-sided comments. The results suggest that the effects of user generated content should be studied in a holistic manner, not only by investigating the effects of online content itself, but also by examining how others' responses to the content shape or change individuals' attitudes based on their prior attitudes.

  9. Public perceptions about HIV/AIDS and discriminatory attitudes toward people living with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoudnia, Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    Negative and discriminatory attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) are one of the biggest experienced challenges by people suffering from HIV, and these attitudes have been regarded as a serious threat to the fundamental rights of all infected people who are affected or associated with this disease in Iran. This study aimed to determine the relationship between public perception about HIV/AIDS and discriminatory attitudes toward PLWHA . The present study was conducted using a descriptive and survey design. Data were collected from 450 patients (236 male and 214 female) in Tehran and Yazd cities. The research instruments were modified HIV-related knowledge/attitude and perception questions about PLWHA, and discriminatory attitudes toward PLWHA. The results showed that prevalence of discriminatory attitudes toward PLWHA in the studied population was 60.0%. There was a significant negative correlation between citizens' awareness about HIV/AIDS, HIV-related attitudes, negative perception toward people with HIV/AIDS symptoms and their discriminatory attitudes toward PLWHA (p AIDS explained for 23.7% of the variance of discriminatory attitudes toward PLWHA. Negative public perceptions about HIV/AIDS in Iran associated with discriminatory attitudes toward PLWHA and cultural beliefs in Iran tend to stigmatize and discriminate against the LWHA.

  10. Monitoring and evaluation of green public procurement programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adell, Aure [Ecoinstitut, Barcelona (Spain); Schaefer, Bettina [Ecoinstitut, Barcelona (Spain); Ravi, Kavita [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Corry, Jenny [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Effective procurement policies can help governments save considerable amounts of money while also reducing energy consumption. Additionally, private sector companies which purchase large numbers of energy-consuming devices can benefit from procurement policies that minimize life-cycle energy costs. Both public and private procurement programs offer opportunities to generate market-transforming demand for energy efficient appliances and lighting fixtures. In recent years, several governments have implemented policies to procure energy efficient products and services. When deploying these policies, efforts have focused on developing resources for implementation (guidelines, energy efficiency specifications for tenders, life cycle costing tools, training, etc.) rather than defining monitoring systems to track progress against the set objectives. Implementation resources are necessary to make effective policies; however, developing Monitoring and Evaluation (M and E) mechanisms are critical to ensure that the policies are effective. The purpose of this article is to provide policy makers and procurement officials with a preliminary map of existing approaches and key components to monitor Energy Efficient Procurement (EEP) programs in order to contribute to the improvement of their own systems. Case studies are used throughout the paper to illustrate promising approaches to improve the M and E of EEP programs, from the definition of the system or data collection to complementary instruments to improve both the monitoring response and program results.

  11. Attitude of public opinion to nuclear power, and reasons of prejudiced position towards it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishnevs'kij, Yi.M.; Trofimenko, A.P.

    1998-01-01

    A review of events which have led to the public opposition to nuclear power is given. Arguments of 'Greens' and social structure of this movement are exposed. INIS Database was used for finding the main directions of works in nuclear power in the World and for their comparison with such directions in thermal power field. The results obtained demonstrate that the 'Greens' strongly exaggerate the nuclear hazards and do not pay due attention to environmental pollution from fossil-fuel power plants. Attitude of the population in Ukraine to nuclear power after Chernobyl accident is analysed and actions for public opinion balancing are proposed

  12. Nuclear power and the Canadian public. A national and regional assessment of public attitudes and perceptions of the use of nuclear power for the production of electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greer-Wootten, B; Mitson, L [York Univ., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1976-06-01

    Over 2,100 persons from the Canadian public aged 18 years and over were interviewed to ascertain the opinions and attitudes of Canadians toward the use of nuclear power for generating electricity. The results of this survey are presented.

  13. Public Attitudes towards Socio-Cultural Aspects of Water Supply and Sanitation Services: Palestine as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Marwan

    2005-01-01

    Identifying and considering public attitudes towards various aspects of water supply and sanitation services by planners and decision makers represent an important developmental element relating to the quality, efficiency, and performance of those services. A sample of 1000 Palestinian adults completed a questionnaire assessing attitudes towards…

  14. A Study of Faculty Attitudes toward Internet-Based Distance Education: A Survey of Two Jordanian Public Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasaymeh, Al-Mothana M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes toward internet-based distance education by the faculty members of two Jordanian public universities, Al-Hussein Bin Talal University and Yarmouk University, as well as to explore the relationship between their attitudes toward internet-based distance education and their perceptions of their…

  15. The Recreational Fee Demonstration Program on the national forests: and updated analysis of public attitudes and beliefs, 1996-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Bengston; David P. Fan

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes trends in favorable and unfavorable attitudes toward the Recreational Fee Demonstration Program (RFDP) in the national forests, updating an earlier study using computer content analysis of the public debate. About 65 percent of the attitudes toward the RFDP were favorable, comparable to the findings of survey research.

  16. Teachers' attitudes and perceptions about preparation of public schools to assist students with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carral San Laureano, Florentino; Gutiérrez Manzanedo, José Vicente; Moreno Vides, Pablo; de Castro Maqueda, Guillermo; Fernández Santos, Jorge R; Ponce González, Jesús Gustavo; Ayala Ortega, María Del Carmen

    2018-04-01

    To assess teachers' attitudes and perceptions about preparation of public primary and secondary education schools in the Puerto Real University Hospital (Cádiz, Spain) area to care for students with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) METHODS: A descriptive observational study where answers to an attitude and perception questionnaire on the preparation of schools to care for pupils with T1DM were analyzed. A total of 765 teachers (mean age, 44.3±8.8 years; 61.7% women) from 44 public schools in the area of the Puerto Real University Hospital were selected by random sampling. Overall, 43.2% of teachers surveyed had or had previously had students with T1DM, but only 0.8% had received specific training on diabetes. 18.9% of teachers reported that one of their students with T1DM had experienced at least one episode of hypoglycemia at school, and half of them felt that their school was not prepared to deal with diabetic emergencies. 6.4% stated that their school had glucagon in its first aid kit, and 46.9% would be willing to administer it personally. Women, physical education teachers, and headmasters had a more positive perception of the school than their colleagues. Teachers with a positive perception of school preparation and with a positive attitude to administer glucagon were significantly younger than those with no positive perception and attitude. The study results suggest that teachers of public schools in our health area have not been specifically trained in the care of patients with T1DM and perceive that their educational centers are not qualified to address diabetic emergencies. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Surveys of public knowledge and attitudes with regard to antibiotics in Poland: Did the European Antibiotic Awareness Day campaigns change attitudes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Mazińska

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance is a global public health problem. Monitoring the level of knowledge regarding antibiotics is a part of the European Union Community strategy against antimicrobial resistance.To assess knowledge by the general public in Poland regarding antibiotics, AMR, and the impact of the European Antibiotic Awareness Day campaigns.The repeated cross-sectional study was developed and carried out among the general public in Poland (in 5 waves between 2009 and 2011, embracing a total of 5004 respondents. The survey was based on a self-designed questionnaire, and carried out by Millward Brown SMG/KRC, using Computer Assisted Telephone Interviews (CATI.A high percentage of Polish adults had used antibiotics within the 12 months preceding their participation in the study (38%. Statistically relevant differences were observed regarding the respondents' gender, age, education and employment status. The majority of the antibiotics used were prescribed by physicians (90%. In all five waves, 3% of the respondents purchased an antibiotic without a prescription. Prescriptions were mostly obtained from a general practitioner. The prevailing reasons for taking antibiotics were the common cold, sore throat, cough and flu. Approximately 40% of the respondents expected a prescription for an antibiotic against the flu. The vast majority knew that antibiotics kill bacteria (80% but at the same time 60% of respondents believed antibiotics kill viruses. Physicians, pharmacists, hospital staff and nurses were mentioned as the most trustworthy sources of information. A third of the respondents declared to have come across information on the prudent use of antibiotics in the preceding 12 months. In the fifth wave, nearly half of the participants (48%, who had come across information about antibiotics in the preceding 12 months declared that the information resulted in a change in their attitude towards antibiotic use.The survey generated information about

  18. Can Slovakia to survive without nuclear energy? State and perspectives of nuclear energetics. Attitudes of public to nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchomel, J.; Murinova, S.

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation authors deals with the review of the state of nuclear energetics in the Slovak Republic. Perspectives of nuclear energy and renewable sources of energy as well as attitudes of public to nuclear energy are discussed

  19. 'I reject your reality and substitute my own'. Why more knowledge about CO2 storage hardly improves public attitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunsting, S.; De Best-Waldhober, M. [ECN Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Terwel, B.W. [Leiden University, Department of Social and Organizational Psychology, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2013-05-01

    Lack of societal acceptance of energy (transition) technologies is often attributed to a lack of knowledge among the public. The underlying assumption is that more knowledge improves attitudes about a technology. This assumption will be tested in this paper by examining the influence of the scores on a CCS Knowledge Test on attitudes towards CO2 capture and storage (CCS). Furthermore the paper will examine the influence of perceptions of CCS (ideas that cannot be deemed 'true' or 'false') on attitude towards CCS and will analyse how knowledge and perceptions jointly influence attitude as well as in interaction. Implications of the results for communication about CCS are discussed.

  20. Attitudes of the general public and electric power company employees toward nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komiyama, Hisashi

    1997-01-01

    We conducted an awareness survey targeted at members of the general public residing in urban areas and in areas scheduled for construction of nuclear power plants as well as employees of electric power company in order to determine the awareness and attitude structures of people residing near scheduled construction sites of nuclear power plants with respect to nuclear power generation, and to examine ways of making improvements in terms of promoting nuclear power plant construction sites. Analysis of those results revealed that there are no significant differences in the awareness and attitudes of people residing in urban areas and in areas near scheduled construction sites. On the contrary, a general sense of apprehension regarding the construction of nuclear power plants was observed common to both groups. In addition, significant differences in awareness and attitudes with respect to various factors were determined to exist between members of the general public residing in urban areas and scheduled construction sites and employees of electric power company. (author)

  1. Attitude of Indian dental professionals toward scientific publications: A questionnaire based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Pradhuman; Sachdeva, Suresh K; Verma, Kanika Gupta; Khosa, Rameen; Basavraju, Suman; Dutta, Sanjay

    2015-08-01

    Due to competitiveness and academic benefits, most dental professionals feel an urgent need to increase their publications. Hence, we explored the attitude of students and faculty members toward scientific publications through a questionnaire. A questionnaire consisting of 13 questions was sent by e-mails and posting the printed copies to dental postgraduate (PG) students (second and third year) and faculty members (n = 500 each). The returned completed questionnaires were analyzed. About 37% of dental PG faculty and 35.6% PG students responded to the questionnaire, with overall response of 72.6%. Among the PG faculty, professors (P) had more scientific publications, followed by senior lecturers (SL) and readers (R). The publications as first or corresponding author were less among both faculty and PG students while co-authorship was more among PG students compared to faculty members. Awareness about the term "plagiarism" was overall high and relatively highest among R, followed by SL, P and PG students. The percentage of publications in fee charging journals was more among PG students than faculty members and self-funding for publication was observed in 86.4% of PG students and 94-100% among faculty members. About 72.6% of dental professionals were involved in publishing of their research work and the number of publications increased steadily with an increase in their academic experience. All the dental professionals concurred publications as the criteria for academic excellence.

  2. The role of leadership perception as a mediator between managers' self-monitoring and subordinate attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özalp Türetgen, Ilknur; Unsal, Pinar; Dural, Uzay

    2017-01-01

    Although the role of social cognition in leadership perception has been emphasized frequently in recent years, research using this approach in an organizational context is rare. This study investigated subordinates' perceptions of their managers as leaders (that is, to what extent they perceive their manager as a leader) as a potential mediating factor explaining the relationship between managers' self-monitoring and their subordinates' attitudes toward their organizations. The study was carried out with middle-level managers (N = 64) and their subordinates (N = 210) from various business organizations in Turkey. Results indicate that subordinates' leadership perceptions of their managers mediate the relationship between managers' self-monitoring and their subordinates' affective and normative organizational commitment. These results provide insight into some of the antecedents and outcomes of leadership perception.

  3. Public Attitudes to Nuclear Power - It's Not (just) About Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimston, M.

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear industry frequently accuses the public of having an 'irrational' fear of radiation, and sees it as a mission to 'educate' the public in order to improve their attitudes towards atomic energy. In fact there is little evidence that facts per se affect attitudes: in forming opinions people apply a 'common sense' rationality based on a range of factors, of which information is only one. 'Public information' campaigns may actually contribute to fears of radiation in the nuclear power context. Better communication - e.g. not banging on so much about safety - would undoubtedly help to put nuclear power into a proper perspective. But while the industry and its regulators continue to do silly things and treat nuclear power and radiation as if they are vastly more dangerous than they actually are - in the bizarre hope that this will put people's minds at rest rather than inevitably doing precisely the opposite - then only truly irrational members of the public will be convinced. Krsko may be a test case - can the waste debate be brought back onto a 'rational' footing. (author).

  4. Food allergy knowledge, attitudes and beliefs: Focus groups of parents, physicians and the general public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnathan Julia A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food allergy prevalence is increasing in US children. Presently, the primary means of preventing potentially fatal reactions are avoidance of allergens, prompt recognition of food allergy reactions, and knowledge about food allergy reaction treatments. Focus groups were held as a preliminary step in the development of validated survey instruments to assess food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents, physicians, and the general public. Methods Eight focus groups were conducted between January and July of 2006 in the Chicago area with parents of children with food allergy (3 groups, physicians (3 groups, and the general public (2 groups. A constant comparative method was used to identify the emerging themes which were then grouped into key domains of food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. Results Parents of children with food allergy had solid fundamental knowledge but had concerns about primary care physicians' knowledge of food allergy, diagnostic approaches, and treatment practices. The considerable impact of children's food allergies on familial quality of life was articulated. Physicians had good basic knowledge of food allergy but differed in their approach to diagnosis and advice about starting solids and breastfeeding. The general public had wide variation in knowledge about food allergy with many misconceptions of key concepts related to prevalence, definition, and triggers of food allergy. Conclusion Appreciable food allergy knowledge gaps exist, especially among physicians and the general public. The quality of life for children with food allergy and their families is significantly affected.

  5. Public attitudes towards pricing policies to change health-related behaviours: a UK focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Claire; Marteau, Theresa M; Kinmonth, Ann Louise; Cohn, Simon

    2015-12-01

    Evidence supports the use of pricing interventions in achieving healthier behaviour at population level. The public acceptability of this strategy continues to be debated throughout Europe, Australasia and USA. We examined public attitudes towards, and beliefs about the acceptability of pricing policies to change health-related behaviours in the UK. The study explores what underlies ideas of acceptability, and in particular those values and beliefs that potentially compete with the evidence presented by policy-makers. Twelve focus group discussions were held in the London area using a common protocol with visual and textual stimuli. Over 300,000 words of verbatim transcript were inductively coded and analyzed, and themes extracted using a constant comparative method. Attitudes towards pricing policies to change three behaviours (smoking, and excessive consumption of alcohol and food) to improve health outcomes, were unfavourable and acceptability was low. Three sets of beliefs appeared to underpin these attitudes: (i) pricing makes no difference to behaviour; (ii) government raises prices to generate income, not to achieve healthier behaviour and (iii) government is not trustworthy. These beliefs were evident in discussions of all types of health-related behaviour. The low acceptability of pricing interventions to achieve healthier behaviours in populations was linked among these responders to a set of beliefs indicating low trust in government. Acceptability might be increased if evidence regarding effectiveness came from trusted sources seen as independent of government and was supported by public involvement and hypothecated taxation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  6. FACOTRS TO DETERMINE RISK PERCEPTION OF CLIMATE CHANGE, AND ATTITUDE TOWARD ADAPTATION POLICY OF THE PUBLIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Kenshi; Sugimoto, Takuya; Kubota, Hiromi; Hijioka, Yasuaki; Tanaka, Mitsuru

    This study clarifies the factors to determine risk perception of climate change and attitudes toward adaptation policy by analyzing the data collecting from Internet survey to the general public. The results indicate the followings: 1) more than 70% people perceive some sort of risk of climate change, and most people are awaken to wind and flood damage. 2) most people recognize that mitigation policy is much more important than adaptation policy, whereas most people assume to accept adaptation policy as self-reponsibility, 3) the significant factors to determinane risk perception of climate chage and attitude towerd adaptation policy are cognition of benefits on the policy and procedural justice in the policy process in addion to demographics such as gender, experience of disaster, intension of inhabitant.

  7. The role of nuclear research and large-scale experiments in shaping public attitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rometsch, R.

    1991-01-01

    Public attitudes are of complex origin. Only a minor part is derived from natural science. The thinking of a majority of humans about nuclear energy e.g. employs imagery that can be traced back to a time long before the discovery of radioactivity, even back to archaic symbols and myths. Experiments help mainly to shape the attitude of the scientifically trained minority. Well planned to answer the essential questions and performed by people of internationally recognised qualification they tend to strengthen the self-confidence of the scientific community. Based on its own self-confidence the scientific community might be able to exert some influence on the silent majority and inspire to any human society or nation that amount of self-confidence which is a prerequisite to master complex problems of technical as well as socio-psychological nature

  8. Effects of attitudes and demography on public support for endangered species conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liordos, Vasilios; Kontsiotis, Vasileios J; Anastasiadou, Magdalini; Karavasias, Efstathios

    2017-10-01

    It is critical for managers to understand how attitudes and demography affect public's preferences for species protection for designing successful conservation projects. 1080 adults in Greece were asked to rate pictures of 12 endangered species on aesthetic and negativistic attitudes, and intention to support their conservation. Factor analysis identified a group of animals for which respondents indicated high levels of support for their conservation (red deer, loggerhead sea turtle, brown bear, common pheasant, European ground squirrel, glossy ibis) and a group of animals for which respondents indicated low levels of support (black vulture, great white shark, fire-bellied toad, western barbastelle, Cretan tube web spider, Milos viper). The species that received the highest support were also rated as the most attractive and safest, excluding the fearsome brown bear. Structural models revealed that aesthetic, moralistic and negativistic attitudes were the stronger predictors of support. Aesthetic and moralistic attitudes were positively, and negativistic attitudes negatively, correlated with support for conservation in both groups. Consumptive users scored lower in aesthetics and were less supportive of protection in the high support group, while nonconsumptive users showed the opposite trend. Respondents residing in urban areas deemed animals of high support more attractive and less fearsome and were more supportive of conservation than rural residents in both groups. Females of higher education viewed animals of low support as fearsome, however they supported their conservation. Our study identified popular species that can be used as flagship species to facilitate the implementation of conservation projects. The results of this study could also be used to design a communication and outreach campaign to raise awareness about the ecosystem value of less attractive species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Interim monitoring of cost dynamics for publicly supported energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemet, Gregory F. [La Follette School of Public Affairs, University of Wisconsin, 1225 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)]|[Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53726 (United States)

    2009-03-15

    The combination of substantial public funding of nascent energy technologies and recent increases in the costs of those that have been most heavily supported has raised questions about whether policy makers should sustain, alter, enhance, or terminate such programs. This paper uses experience curves for photovoltaics (PV) and wind to (1) estimate ranges of costs for these public programs and (2) introduce new ways of evaluating recent cost dynamics. For both technology cases, the estimated costs of the subsidies required to reach targets are sensitive to the choice of time period on which cost projections are based. The variation in the discounted social cost of subsidies exceeds an order of magnitude. Vigilance is required to avoid the very expensive outcomes contained within these distributions of social costs. Two measures of the significance of recent deviations are introduced. Both indicate that wind costs are within the expected range of prior forecasts but that PV costs are not. The magnitude of the public funds involved in these programs heightens the need for better analytical tools with which to monitor and evaluate cost dynamics. (author)

  10. Public perceptions of industrial risks: the context of public attitudes toward radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earle, T.C.

    1981-06-01

    A survey was made to determine the public risk perception of several industrial hazards. A free response approach was used in order for respondents to generate their own alternatives. The general class of hazard investigated here included all hazardous industrial facilities. The free response survey was used to study public perception of: (a) the closeness of the nearest hazardous industrial facility (as estimated by the respondent); (b) the sort of facility it is; (c) the sorts of risk associated with it; and (d) the persons placed at risk by it. Respondents also identified the risks of, and the persons placed at risk by, both a toxic chemical disposal facility and a nuclear waste disposal facility. Results of this study thus can inform us of the unprompted concerns of the public regarding a wide variety of industrial facilities

  11. Changes in Attitudes Towards Bariatric Surgery After 5 Years in the German General Public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Franziska Ulrike Christine Else; Dietrich, A; Stroh, C; Riedel-Heller, S G; Luck-Sikorski, C

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in attitudes of the general public towards bariatric surgery and other interventions that can be part of obesity management, during the last 5 years. 1007 participants were randomly selected and interviewed. Apart from socio-demographic data, interviews also included causal reasons for obesity as well as questions regarding treatment methods and their believed effectiveness. Results were compared with data published 5 years ago. Surgery is seen as a rather ineffective method to reduce weight in obesity and is recommended less often by the general public compared to the assessment 5 years ago. Public health-implications should inform about obesity and benefits of surgery as an intervention to improve individual health conditions.

  12. Attitudes in Korea toward Introducing Smart Policing Technologies: Differences between the General Public and Police Officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HyungBin Moon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes different attitudes toward introduction of smart policing technologies in cybercrime policing among the Korean public and police. Policing is essential for a sustainable community. Technological advances in policing have both positive and negative aspects, making it essential to investigate perceptions of both public and police when introducing smart policing technologies. A discrete choice experiment was undertaken to survey preferences of the public and police toward introduction of such technologies and conduct simulation analysis to compare changes in the acceptance of various scenarios. The study divides cybercrime policing into prevention and investigation. The sample included 500 members of the public and 161 police officers. The results show that the public thinks an increase in yearly taxes and invasion of privacy are the most important factors. Conversely, the police think factors enhancing the efficiency of policing are most important. Moreover, when smart policing technologies are introduced, the public and police perceive more utility in the prevention and investigation of cybercrime, respectively. Few studies in this field separate the prevention and investigation of crimes, or compare perceptions of the public and police toward the introduction of smart policing technologies. This study’s quantitative analysis provides insights lacking in previous literature.

  13. Public attitudes towards marine aquaculture: A comparative analysis of Germany and Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, Shirra; Vigoda-Gadot, Eran; Sterr, Horst; Schultz, Michael; Korchenkov, Irina; Krost, Peter; Angel, Dror

    2012-01-01

    We report on bi-national (Germany–Israel) research on relationships between public attitudes, behaviours and preferences related to marine aquaculture. Aquaculture's world-wide market share accounts for over half of all aquatic products. In many places, the sector's explosive growth has outstripped scientific knowledge and governance provisions. Small producers such as Israel and Germany seeking to expand domestic production must address environmental challenges posed by fish farming, stakeholder competition in crowded coastal zones and public/consumer receptiveness. Based on survey data obtained from both the countries, correlation analysis (Pearson's r-statistic) was used to test four hypotheses. Of these, one (positive relationship between coastal tourism and aquaculture attitudes) was supported in both countries. The hypothesis of positive relationships between lifestyle (environment/health) behaviours and aquaculture attitudes was supported only in Germany and the hypothesis of negative relationships between concern for the environment and aquaculture attitudes was supported only in Israel. These results are significant for policy, business, NGO and other stakeholders. Moreover, they point to the importance of this type of comparative research in improving our understanding of local factors influencing attitude-formation and inter-relationships. First, the tourism–aquaculture relationship found indicates potential synergies between two sectors reliant on the coastal zone that should be taken into account by planning authorities. The divergent environment–aquaculture results were especially interesting since in both countries, the primary concern regarding aquaculture expansion was environmental impacts. Closer inspection of the survey results revealed that this relationship may have been influenced by the orientation of environmental concerns in each population. Germans focus on depletion of wildstocks and Israelis on cage effluent and marine pollution

  14. Public knowledge awareness and attitudes toward epilepsy in Al-Kharj Governorate Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled K Al-Dossari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Epilepsy is one of the most stigmatizing disorders. Stigmas and negative attitudes associating epilepsy are due to poor public awareness and knowledge. This study evaluated Saudi public Knowledge, awareness, and attitude towards epilepsy. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted during the period from September 16, 2014 to January 1st 2015. A 20-item questionnaire adapted from the literature was validated and distributed to 422 adults living in Al-Kharj governorate, and 22 participants were excluded as they have never heard or read about epilepsy. Results: About 94.79% of participants have heard or read about epilepsy, 63% of them knew someone with epilepsy, and 49.75% have witnessed a seizure attack. Seventy per cent of subjects thought that epilepsy is a neurological disease and 59% believed it is a brain disease. Almost 46.5% selected possession by demons or evil spirits and 51.25% cited envy or evil eye. More than half of subjects selected the medical treatment and follow-up as the most effective treatment of epilepsy. Rather, 41% believed in the faith healing. Most of respondents (81.5% believed that epileptic children could be successful in normal classes. The vast majority agreed with that epileptic woman can get married and have children. Moreover, 65.25% would allow their offspring to play with epileptic persons and surprisingly, 59% would let their offspring marrying a person with epilepsy. As much as 82.75% agreed to work with epileptic persons and 85.5% would easily become a close friend of them. The equal job opportunity for epileptic and normal persons should be practiced to about 53.75% of subjects. The predictors of good knowledge, limited misconception, and positive attitudes were female gender, being a relative of an epileptic person, and having high educational level. Conclusion: The public knowledge, awareness of and attitudes toward epilepsy were acceptable with regard to this study. However

  15. Public and private schoolteachers' differences in terms of job attitudes in Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buka, Migena; Bilgiç, Reyhan

    2010-06-01

    In the present study, the attitudinal differences between public and private schoolteachers in Albania were investigated. Since the type of the organization varies, one would expect different climates for the emergence of job attitudes--mainly job satisfaction, job involvement, and organizational commitment, the most frequently studied job attitudes in the industrial and organizational psychology literature. It was hypothesized that the private schoolteachers would be more satisfied than public schoolteachers, especially due to high levels of payment and other desirable conditions. However, the public schoolteachers will be more involved than the private schoolteachers since they have to justify their continued work under the undesirable conditions. The commitment level of the private schoolteachers will be higher than the public schoolteachers since there is usually high correlation between job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Data were gathered from a total of 429 teachers working in public (n = 254) and private (n = 175) schools in Albania, in high and middle schools. The data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of covariance with age as a covariate. The results indicated that the private schoolteachers were more satisfied, as expected, revealed a weaker job involvement and were more committed to their school than their colleagues in the public sector. The results were found to be in line with previous studies conducted in the west. However, this study is believed to have a potential contribution to the literature in general, and to the Albanian local literature in particular. To the knowledge of the authors, there has been no similar study in Albania. Discussion is provided along with the limitations of the study and suggestions for future research.

  16. Awareness and attitude of the public toward personalized medicine in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Iyn-Hyang; Kang, Hye-Young; Suh, Hae Sun; Lee, Sukhyang; Oh, Eun Sil

    2018-01-01

    Objectives As personalized medicine (PM) is expected to greatly improve health outcomes, efforts have recently been made for its clinical implementation in Korea. We aimed to evaluate public awareness and attitude regarding PM. Methods We performed a self-administered questionnaire survey to 703 adults, who participated in the survey on a voluntary basis. The primary outcome measures included public knowledge, attitude, and acceptance of PM. We conducted multinomial multivariate logistic analysis for outcome variables with three response categories and performed multivariate logistic regression analyses for dichotomous outcome variables. Results Only 28% of participants had knowledge that genetic factors can contribute to inter-individual variations in drug response and the definition of PM (199 out of 702). Higher family income was correlated with greater knowledge concerning PM (OR = 3.76, p = 0.034). A majority of respondents preferred integrated pharmacogenomic testing over drug-specific testing and agreed to inclusion of pharmacogenomic testing in the national health examination (64% and 77%, respectively), but only 51% were willing to pay for it. Discussion Our results identify the urgent need for public education as well as the potential health disparities in access to PM. This study helps to frame policies for implementing PM in clinical practice. PMID:29451916

  17. Strategies for changing negative public attitudes toward organ donation in the People's Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumin X

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Xie Shumin,1 Stephanie Mu-Lian Woo,2 Zhang Lei3 1Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, People's Republic of China; 2Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA; 3Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin, People's Republic of China Abstract: In recent decades, the demand for organ transplantation has risen rapidly worldwide, due to an increased incidence of vital organ failure. However, the scarcity of organs appropriate for transplantation has led to an organ shortage crisis. This article retrospectively reviews strategies to change negative public attitudes toward organ donation in the People's Republic of China. We strongly believe that efforts to publicize knowledge of organ donation, promote family discussions, train medical staff and students, establish incentive systems, and implement regulatory oversight may combat unfavorable Chinese public opinion toward organ donation and transplantation, thus potentially increasing the organ donation rate in the People's Republic of China. Keywords: influencing factors, attitudes, organ transplantation, organ failure

  18. Attitudes of heart failure patients and health care providers towards mobile phone-based remote monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Emily; Leonard, Kevin J; Masino, Caterina; Cafazzo, Joseph A; Barnsley, Jan; Ross, Heather J

    2010-11-29

    Mobile phone-based remote patient monitoring systems have been proposed for heart failure management because they are relatively inexpensive and enable patients to be monitored anywhere. However, little is known about whether patients and their health care providers are willing and able to use this technology. The objective of our study was to assess the attitudes of heart failure patients and their health care providers from a heart function clinic in a large urban teaching hospital toward the use of mobile phone-based remote monitoring. A questionnaire regarding attitudes toward home monitoring and technology was administered to 100 heart failure patients (94/100 returned a completed questionnaire). Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with 20 heart failure patients and 16 clinicians to determine the perceived benefits and barriers to using mobile phone-based remote monitoring, as well as their willingness and ability to use the technology. The survey results indicated that the patients were very comfortable using mobile phones (mean rating 4.5, SD 0.6, on a five-point Likert scale), even more so than with using computers (mean 4.1, SD 1.1). The difference in comfort level between mobile phones and computers was statistically significant (Pmobile phones to view health information (mean 4.4, SD 0.9). Patients and clinicians were willing to use the system as long as several conditions were met, including providing a system that was easy to use with clear tangible benefits, maintaining good patient-provider communication, and not increasing clinical workload. Clinicians cited several barriers to implementation of such a system, including lack of remuneration for telephone interactions with patients and medicolegal implications. Patients and clinicians want to use mobile phone-based remote monitoring and believe that they would be able to use the technology. However, they have several reservations, such as potential increased clinical workload, medicolegal

  19. An evaluation of in vivo sensitivity via public monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, J.L.; Kirchner, T.B

    2000-07-01

    Citizen volunteers from the Carlsbad, New Mexico area were monitored for internally deposited radionuclides through a project entitled 'Lie Down and Be Counted'. This project is provided as an outreach service to the public to support education about naturally occurring and man-made radioactivity present in people and the environment prior to the opening of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The bioassay measurements consisted of a lung and whole-body count. Prior to their bioassay, each subject completed a lifestyle questionnaire which included questions regarding their age, sex, weight, height, ethnicity, occupation, foreign travel, wild game consumption, smoking habit and any nuclear medicine procedures. Since a majority of these radionuclides were not detectable in local residents, a primary focus of the study was to evaluate the variability of human background and the implications with respect to measurement sensitivity. (author)

  20. The Attitudes toward Prostitutes and Prostitution Scale: A New Tool for Measuring Public Attitudes toward Prostitutes and Prostitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Lia; Peled, Einat

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary developments in social attitudes toward prostitution and prostitutes influence both social policies and the social work profession. Understanding individuals' attitudes toward these issues is necessary for the development of social interventions and policies aimed at reducing stigmata attached to them. This article describes a new…

  1. Public information attitudes towards nuclear energy and the IAEA role in public information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Hans-Friedrich

    1998-01-01

    It includes information on the relation that exists between the Division of Public Information of the International Atomic Energy Agency, and different journalists, in answering questions on nuclear energy and nuclear applications. Also, questions whenever there was a rumor or a report of a receives a growing number of E-mail letters from all over the world, on the same subjects. Increasingly, international organizations are contacted by journalists and the public, for information on incidents and accidents, in the nuclear or the radiation field. This article states that the interest on nuclear energy, isotopes and radiation is focusing in the public media on following points: the fear for an accident; the fear for radiation escaping; the belief that nuclear power plants are too expensive; the belief that electricity could be saved; the belief that nuclear wastes cannot be properly disposed; the fear for unsafe transport; the fears that the neighbors operate their plants carelessly; and fears that radiation treatment makes food or agricultural products radioactive or poisonous. (S. Grainger)

  2. Effects of Anti-Smoking Public Service Announcements on the Attitudes of Korean College Students toward Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyoung Won; Lee, Jakyoung; Ryu, Ji-Hye; Kim, Soo Jeong

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to identify the effects of anti-smoking public service announcements on the attitudes of Korean college students toward smoking. This study involved students via convenience sampling from seven universities who were randomly assigned to four groups. All groups completed a preliminary questionnaire, before being shown a public service announcement twice, and then completed a post viewing questionnaire. For announcements with positive messages, the proportion of changes in beliefs and attitudes were 39.1% and 19.8%, respectively, whereas those with negative messages showed a greater proportion of changes in the beliefs (59.7%) and attitudes (40.3%). After adjusting for sex and change in belief, the message types and smoking status were identified as factors affecting the change in the participants attitudes. A negative message resulted in a greater change in attitudes (odds ratio [OR], 3.047; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.847-5.053). Ever-smokers including current smokers showed a greater positive change in attitude than never-smokers (OR, 6.965; 95% CI, 4.107-11.812). This study found that positive anti-smoking public service announcements were more effective on attitude change than negative messages. Additionally these announcements were more effective among viewers who were current smokers or had a prior smoking experience.

  3. Try It Again, Uncle Sam: The 46th Annual PDK/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools. [Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushaw, William J.; Calderon, Valerie J.

    2014-01-01

    The 46th Annual PDK/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools reveals that Americans say they know a lot more this year about the Common Core State Standards than they indicated a year ago, and they like it a lot less. Americans also say local school boards should have the greatest influence in deciding what is taught in the…

  4. Knowledge and attitude towards organ donation of medicine students of a Northwestern Mexico public university

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastián-Ruiz, María José; Guerra-Sáenz, Elda Karina; Vargas-Yamanaka, Anna Karen; Barboza-Quintana, Oralia; Ríos-Zambudio, Antonio; García-Cabello, Ricardo; Palacios-Saucedo, Gerardo Del Carmen

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the knowledge and attitude towards organ donation of medicine students of a Northwestern Mexico public university. A prolective, descriptive, observational, and cross-sectional study. A 34 items cross-sectional survey evaluating knowledge and attitude towards organ donation in 3,056 medicine students during 2013-2015. Descriptive statistics were used as absolute frequencies, percentages, mean and standard deviation, as well as the Chi-square test. A p donate their own organs, mainly due to reciprocity (41%). 26% of students would not donate, 48% of them because of fear that their organs could be taken before death. 86% would donate organs from a relative. 64% have spoken about organ donation and transplantation with their family and 67% with friends. 50% said they had received no information about it. 68% understand the concept of brain death. Students received little information about organ donation during college. Despite that, most of them showed a positive attitude and are willing to donate. Copyright: © 2017 SecretarÍa de Salud

  5. Public Transportation Based Dynamic Urban Pollution Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando LOPEZ-PEÑA

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development and results of a mobile sensor based opportunistic urban pollution monitoring network that uses public transportation buses as platforms for its deployment. This work is an extended and improved version of the paper presented to the IDAACS’09 conference. It reports some aspects of the implementation of a single pollution sensor based sensing node prototype which was used for testing an opportunistic communications network and which was reported in depth elsewhere. More emphasis is given to the description of the basic sensing unit and its modular conversion into a sensing system able to acquire data on several pollutants as well as temperature, humidity and geo-location information. The software architecture developed around it in order to process the huge amounts of data the system produces is also described. The different prototypes were tested on the public transportation system of the city of Vigo and on multiple test runs around the city of A Coruña in the north-west of Spain producing very promising results.

  6. Nuclear power, climate change and energy security: Exploring British public attitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corner, Adam; Venables, Dan; Spence, Alexa; Poortinga, Wouter; Demski, Christina; Pidgeon, Nick

    2011-01-01

    Public attitudes towards nuclear power in the UK have historically been deeply divided, but as concern about climate change and energy security has exerted an increasing influence on British energy policy, nuclear power has been reframed as a low-carbon technology. Previous research has suggested that a significant proportion of people may 'reluctantly accept' nuclear power as a means of addressing the greater threat of climate change. Drawing on the results of a national British survey (n=1822), the current study found that attitudes towards nuclear remain divided, with only a minority expressing unconditional acceptance. In general, people who expressed greater concern about climate change and energy security and possessed higher environmental values were less likely to favour nuclear power. However, when nuclear power was given an explicit 'reluctant acceptance' framing - allowing people to express their dislike for nuclear power alongside their conditional support - concerns about climate change and energy security became positive predictors of support for nuclear power. These findings suggest that concern about climate change and energy security will only increase acceptance of nuclear power under limited circumstances-specifically once other (preferred) options have been exhausted. - Highlights: → We report data from 2005 to 2010 of British attitudes towards nuclear power and climate change. → Changes in attitudes over the time period were relatively modest. → British population remained relatively divided on nuclear power in 2010. → Concern about climate change was negatively related to evaluations of nuclear power. → Different framings of the issue alter the balance of support for nuclear power.

  7. Nuclear power, climate change and energy security: Exploring British public attitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corner, Adam; Venables, Dan [School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Tower Building, Park Place, Cardiff CF10 3AT (United Kingdom); Spence, Alexa [School of Psychology/Horizon Digital Economy Research, University of Nottingham (United Kingdom); Poortinga, Wouter [Welsh School of Architecture, Cardiff University (United Kingdom); School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Tower Building, Park Place, Cardiff CF10 3AT (United Kingdom); Demski, Christina [School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Tower Building, Park Place, Cardiff CF10 3AT (United Kingdom); Pidgeon, Nick, E-mail: pidgeonn@cardiff.ac.uk [School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Tower Building, Park Place, Cardiff CF10 3AT (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-15

    Public attitudes towards nuclear power in the UK have historically been deeply divided, but as concern about climate change and energy security has exerted an increasing influence on British energy policy, nuclear power has been reframed as a low-carbon technology. Previous research has suggested that a significant proportion of people may 'reluctantly accept' nuclear power as a means of addressing the greater threat of climate change. Drawing on the results of a national British survey (n=1822), the current study found that attitudes towards nuclear remain divided, with only a minority expressing unconditional acceptance. In general, people who expressed greater concern about climate change and energy security and possessed higher environmental values were less likely to favour nuclear power. However, when nuclear power was given an explicit 'reluctant acceptance' framing - allowing people to express their dislike for nuclear power alongside their conditional support - concerns about climate change and energy security became positive predictors of support for nuclear power. These findings suggest that concern about climate change and energy security will only increase acceptance of nuclear power under limited circumstances-specifically once other (preferred) options have been exhausted. - Highlights: > We report data from 2005 to 2010 of British attitudes towards nuclear power and climate change. > Changes in attitudes over the time period were relatively modest. > British population remained relatively divided on nuclear power in 2010. > Concern about climate change was negatively related to evaluations of nuclear power. > Different framings of the issue alter the balance of support for nuclear power.

  8. Managing radioactive waste safely. Awareness and attitudes of the Scottish public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodger, N.

    2002-01-01

    Between January and April 2002, the Scottish Executive Environment and Rural Affairs department inducted a consultation exercise in conjunction with DEFRA on 'Managing Radioactive Waste Safely', and commissioned several pieces of supplementary research to gauge levels of awareness of the issues around radioactive waste among the Scottish public. This research was conducted as part of this process. Its main aims were to measure awareness and assess attitudes towards radioactive waste, its sources, its perceived risks and its management. Reflecting a key objective of the main consultation, this research also sought to assess how the public rate a variety of possible actions that could be taken to involve them in this debate and decision-making process. A representative sample of 1,000 Scottish adults (age 18+) was interviewed by telephone using 'Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing' during February 2002

  9. Public attitude in the city of Belgrade towards invasive alien plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomićević Jelena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological invasions are seen as a major threat to biodiversity at a global level, while the number of new invasions is increasing at an alarming rate. Raising the awareness of the public, academic world and policy makers about the dangers caused by invasive species, is essential for the creation of the support needed to implement and coordinate the policies necessary to address this problem. The aim of this study is to determine the level of local public awareness of the existence of these plant species, examine the public attitude towards alien invasive plant species and willingness to get involved in the prevention of their spreading. The survey was conducted in four nurseries on the territory of the City of Belgrade and the investigation dealt only with alien invasive woody plant species. Thirty customers were questioned in each of the four nurseries. The results show that local public is uninformed on the issue of invasive plant species. It is necessary to constantly and intensively raise their awareness of this issue, as well as the awareness of harmful consequences that may occur due to the uncontrolled spreading of alien invasive species. This refers not only to the population that visits the nurseries and buys the plants there and to those employed in plant production and selling, but also to the whole local public and decision makers.

  10. Change in public attitudes towards a Cornish wind farm: Implications for planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltham, Douglas C.; Harrison, Gareth P.; Allen, Simon J.

    2008-01-01

    While independently conducted polls suggest significant public support for wind energy, there are often objections to particular wind farm developments from the local population which can result in planning permission being declined and a restriction in the ability to meet renewable energy and greenhouse gas reduction targets. The aim of the study was to determine whether the pre-construction opinions held by communities local to a wind farm change after an extended period following commissioning. Residents of St. Newlyn East, Cornwall, England, were asked to recall their opinions of Carland Cross wind farm in 1991 and 2006. Statistically significant changes in opinion were observed for attitudes regarding the wind farm's visual attractiveness and the importance of the energy security it provides. This study continues by exploring potential reasons for this in the context of recent literature on public attitudes towards renewable energy. The findings of this study support the proposals in the 2007 UK White Paper, Planning for a Sustainable Future, for community engagement early in the project process and for the requirement of infrastructure to be debated at the national level

  11. Public perceptions and attitudes toward thalassaemia: Influencing factors in a multi-racial population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping; George, Elizabeth; Tan, Jin-Ai Mary Anne

    2011-03-30

    Thalassaemia is a common public health problem in Malaysia and about 4.5 to 6% of the Malays and Chinese are carriers of this genetic disorder. The major forms of thalassaemia result in death in utero of affected foetuses (α-thalassaemia) or life-long blood transfusions for survival in β-thalassaemia. This study, the first nationwide population based survey of thalassaemia in Malaysia, aimed to determine differences in public awareness, perceptions and attitudes toward thalassaemia in the multi-racial population in Malaysia. A cross-sectional computer-assisted telephone interview survey of a representative sample of multi-racial Malaysians aged 18 years and above was conducted between July and December 2009. Of a total of 3723 responding households, 2846 (76.4%) have heard of thalassaemia. Mean knowledge score was 11.85 (SD ± 4.03), out of a maximum of 21, with higher scores indicating better knowledge. Statistically significant differences (P culturally acceptable in the reduction of pregnancies with thalassaemia major. The findings provide insights into culturally congruent educational interventions to reach out diverse socio-demographic and ethnic communities to increase knowledge and cultivate positive attitudes toward prevention of thalassaemia.

  12. Can Environmental Education Actions Change Public Attitudes? An Example Using the Pond Habitat and Associated Biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Eunice; Quintino, Victor; Palhas, Jael; Rodrigues, Ana Maria; Teixeira, José

    2016-01-01

    Ponds provide vital ecological services. They are biodiversity hotspots and important breading sites for rare and endangered species, including amphibians and dragonflies. Nevertheless, their number is decreasing due to habitat degradation caused by human activities. The "Ponds with Life" environmental education project was developed to raise public awareness and engagement in the study of ponds by promoting the direct contact between the public and nature, researchers and pedagogical hands-on exploration activities. A pre-post- project survey was set-up to assess the effects of the project on the environmental consciousness, knowledge and attitude changes towards ponds and the associated biodiversity of school students aged 15 to 18. The survey questions were based on Likert scales and their pre-post project comparisons used an innovative multivariate hypothesis testing approach. The results showed that the project improved the students' knowledge and attitudes towards ponds and associated biodiversity, especially the amphibians. Ponds can be found or constructed in urban areas and despite small sized, they proved to be interesting model habitats and living laboratories to foster environmental education, by encompassing a high number of species and a fast ecological succession.

  13. Public knowledge and attitudes towards the 60Co incident in Qixian County, Henan Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Cuiping; Cheng Xiaojun; Zhang Qinfu

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate radiation risk perception and nuclear acceptance after the 60 Co stuck source incident in June 2009 in Qixian County, Henan Province. Methods: From March to April 2010, 23 hamlets and 2 schools from 5 towns in Qixian County were selected, while 3 hamlets and 2 schools from 3 towns were used as control in Huixian County, 135 km away where no any impact of the incident was found. Face-to-face questionnaire survey was conducted among three groups including mass public, elite public (representatives of public opinion, such as physicians, teachers, governmental officials, administrative personnel, private entrepreneurs), and middle school students (the third grade students in junior middle schools and the first grade students in senior middle schools). Results: A total of 1 340 valid questionnaires were collected. The public knowledge levels about radiation and nuclear power were low among all groups in two areas and public knowledge levels in Qixian County were higher than those in Huixian County. In both areas.the knowledge levels of the students were higher than those among the elite public, and that among the general public were the lowest. The knowledge levels of males and those with higher educational levels were higher than those of females and those with lower educational levels. More than 40.0% of the respondents supported the idea to build nuclear power plants in China, but only a small part of them supported to build nuclear power plants in their own areas. The percentages of opponents against local nuclear power plant construction were especially higher among the students and those with higher educational levels. More than 60% of the mass public and elite public believed the explanation of the government. More than 80% of the respondents held negative attitudes towards the performance of the Qixian County Government in dealing with this incident. The student gave the lowest evaluation of the credibility and the specific performance

  14. Attitude toward Public Health Dentistry as a career among dental students in Odisha: A Cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nupur; Jain, Kittu; Kabasi, Soumik

    2016-01-01

    Background: Knowledge of dental students' expectations of their profession as well as their attitudes to study a particular specialty of dentistry is of great importance. These attitudes and expectations make studying dentistry meaningful to dental students and society and understanding these factors facilitate workforce planning in the dental sector The aim of the study was to assess the attitude of dental students towards considering Public Health Dentistry as their future career. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted, which included the 3rd year, 4th fourth year and dental interns studying in the State of Odisha. It consisted of 27 questions that were graded on 5-point Likert scale. The responses for the attitude questions toward selecting Public Health Dentistry for postgraduation were categorized into three factors, which are a negative attitude (includes score 0–21), neutral attitude (score 22–44), and positive attitude (score 45–64). Differences between groups were examined using Chi-square test for proportions. The level of statistical significance was set at P dentistry as their future career, and nearly two-third of them (58.23%) had neutral attitude, with very few students having a negative attitude (8.23%) toward the specialty for pursuing postgraduation. Conclusion: Respondents had a considerable amount of interest in pursuing postgraduation in this specialty. Efforts should be intensified, both by the dental council and by the dental colleges, to develop this specialty, keeping in mind the increasing attitude of dental undergraduates toward it. PMID:28182073

  15. 76 FR 37356 - 2011 Scientific Meeting of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System; Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    ... animal and retail sampling methods for the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS... Web site at http://www.fda.gov/AnimalVeterinary/SafetyHealth/AntimicrobialResistance/National...] 2011 Scientific Meeting of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System; Public Meeting...

  16. Public attitudes toward practice by medical students: a nationwide survey in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Kyoko; Sakuma, Mio; Seki, Susumu; Morimoto, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    It is essential for medical students to interact directly with patients. However, patients may be reluctant to be seen by medical students in settings in which they may also be seen by senior staff. To understand patients' attitudes toward practice by medical students and consider the factors involved in obtaining patients' cooperation, we conducted a nationwide cross-sectional survey. We randomly selected 2,400 adult participants from all over Japan. Trained research assistants inquired about participants' experiences and attitudes toward practice by medical students using a questionnaire. We compared differences in attitudes between participants who were accepting of practice by medical students and those who were not, as well as differences between participants who had experienced practice by a medical student versus those who had not. A total of 1,109 (46%) participants were included in the study. Eleven percent (117/1109) of the participants had experienced practice by a medical student. One fourth of participants were accepting of practice by medical students, and experienced participants were significantly more likely to be accepting of practice by medical students than inexperienced participants (45% vs. 24%, ppractice by medical students among accepting participants with previous experiences included "polite," "kind," and "hard-working." Fifty-nine percent (637/1088) of participants indicated that they would request a senior staff member's supervision when being seen by a medical student. The present nationwide survey suggests that education emphasizing bedside manner may be effective in promoting patients' cooperation of medical students. In addition, providing information to patients about medical students and efforts to increase supervision during clinical clerkship should be emphasized to foster the public's cooperation.

  17. A survey of the Canadian publics attitudes towards the energy situation. Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, G.; McDougall, G.H.G.

    1981-06-01

    Based on a 1981 survey of 1,600 male and female heads-of-households a report was prepared on the Canadian public's attitudes towards the energy situation. This report presents additional analysis of the 1981 data and draws some comparisons with the six previous annual surveys conducted in this area. The major objective of this report is to provide an understanding of the relationship between Canadians' knowledge, attitudes, behavior, and program support with respect to the energy situation. The following conclusions were reached. There has been a decrease in the number of Canadians who regard energy as a matter of concern. The possibility of an energy shortage continues to decline as a matter of importance. The major reason for concern is the cost of energy. Fewer people are engaging in energy conserving behaviors. Groups identified in previous years on the basis of attitudes and behavior were not identified in 1981. There was a lack of consistency in the results in 1981 which led to some surprising and counter intuitive implications. For example, those perceived as being hostile to energy conservation measures tended to support energy price/tax increases, and these perceived to be knowledgeable about conservation programs. Why this has occurred is not clear, but it may be that with the declining interest in energy, the issue is taking on a superficial nature for many people. The two most encouraging findings for those concerned with conservation are: 93% of the respondents agreed that spending money on insulation was a good investment, and 30% favored increasing gasoline prices to world levels within the next two years. 35 tabs.

  18. A survey of public attitudes towards barking dogs in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, E L; Minot, E O; Perry, P E; Stafford, K J

    2014-11-01

    To investigate public attitudes towards barking dogs in New Zealand in order to quantify the extent to which people perceive barking dogs to be a problem, to compare tolerance of barking with that of other common suburban noises, to assess the level of public understanding about the function of barking, to determine risk factors for intolerance of barking and to assess knowledge of possible strategies for the investigation and management of problem barking. A 12-page questionnaire was sent to 2,000 people throughout New Zealand randomly selected from the electoral roll. Risk factors for being bothered by barking were examined using logistic regression analysis. A total of 1,750 questionnaires were successfully delivered; of these, 727 (42%) were returned. Among respondents, 356/727 (49.0%) indicated that frequent barking during the day would bother them while 545/727 (75.0%) would be bothered by barking at night. Barking and howling were ranked above other suburban noises as a cause of annoyance. Risk factors for being bothered by daytime barking were not being home during the day, not owning a dog, and considering a dog bite to be a serious health risk. Risk factors for being bothered by night-time barking were not being home during the day, marital status, considering dog bites to pose a serious health risk, and having been frightened by a dog. Overall, 510/699 (73%) respondents understood that barking was a form of communication. Action likely to be taken by 666 respondents hearing frequent barking included notifying and offering to help the owner (119; 17.8%), complaining to the owner (127; 19.1%) or the authorities (121; 18.2%), or doing nothing (299; 48%). Possible responses by 211 dog owners if they had a barking dog included seeking help from dog trainers (59; 28%) or behaviourists (54; 26%), buying an anti-barking device (33; 15%) or getting rid of the dog (20; 10%). Barking was considered to be potentially disturbing by respondents to this survey

  19. Public attitudes in Japan toward participation in whole genome sequencing studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okita, Taketoshi; Ohashi, Noriko; Kabata, Daijiro; Shintani, Ayumi; Kato, Kazuto

    2018-04-13

    Recent innovations in gene analysis technology have allowed for rapid and inexpensive sequencing of entire genomes. Thus, both conducting a study using whole genome sequencing (WGS) in a large population and the clinical application of research findings from such studies are currently feasible. However, to promote WGS studies, understanding and voluntary participation by the general public is needed. Therefore, it is essential to investigate the general public's attitude toward and understanding of WGS studies. The primary goal of our research is to investigate these issues and to discover how they relate to research participation in WGS studies. A survey of awareness regarding WGS and studies using WGS was conducted with a sample of 2000 or more participants using a self-administered questionnaire posted on the Internet between February 20 and 21, 2015. Prior to the survey, we briefly explained WGS and WGS study-related issues to the respondents in order to provide them with the minimum knowledge required to answer the questionnaire. We then conducted an analysis, including cross-classification. For the question regarding interest in WGS, 46.6% of participants responded "Yes." 70.7% of all respondents said that they were interested in some kinds of findings that could be obtained from WGS studies. Regarding participation in WGS studies, 29.0% were interested in participating. The demographic factors significantly related to attitudes toward research participation were age, level of education, and employment status. The results also suggest that concerns about WGS have a positive effect on people's willingness to participate. Furthermore, it was shown that for people who were not interested in their gene-related information, concerns about WGS negatively impacted their willingness to participate. However, for people who were interested in their gene-related information, their concerns might not have impacted their willingness to participate. This research has shown

  20. Public Attitudes towards Monetary Integration in Seven New Member States of the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szőcs Csongor-Ernő

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Existing work on euro support has provided insights into the dynamics of preferences, but most of these studies focus on older member states that already form an integral part of the Eurozone. This article inquires into public attitudes towards monetary integration in new member states of the EU: Poland, the Czech Republic, Romania, Hungary, Croatia, Bulgaria and Lithuania. Focusing on the cross-sectional variation of preferences, it applies multilevel logit regression to test three perspectives – economic, conceptual and political – using individual-level survey data and NUTS-2 regional statistical data from seven countries for 2013. One of its novel findings is that beliefs such as the one that European Monetary Union (EMU adherence will cause a spiral in economic inflation are powerful disincentives to euro support in these countries.

  1. Knowledge, attitudes, and smoking behaviours among physicians specializing in public health: a multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Torre, Giuseppe; Saulle, Rosella; Unim, Brigid; Angelillo, Italo Francesco; Baldo, Vincenzo; Bergomi, Margherita; Cacciari, Paolo; Castaldi, Silvana; Del Corno, Giuseppe; Di Stanislao, Francesco; Panà, Augusto; Gregorio, Pasquale; Grillo, Orazio Claudio; Grossi, Paolo; La Rosa, Francesco; Nante, Nicola; Pavia, Maria; Pelissero, Gabriele; Quarto, Michele; Ricciardi, Walter; Romano, Gabriele; Schioppa, Francesco Saverio; Fallico, Roberto; Siliquini, Roberta; Triassi, Maria; Vitale, Francesco; Boccia, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare professionals have an important role to play both as advisers-influencing smoking cessation-and as role models. However, many of them continue to smoke. The aims of this study were to examine smoking prevalence, knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours among four cohorts physicians specializing in public health, according to the Global Health Profession Students Survey (GHPSS) approach. A multicentre cross-sectional study was carried out in 24 Italian schools of public health. The survey was conducted between January and April 2012 and it was carried out a census of students in the selected schools for each years of course (from first to fourth year of attendance), therefore among four cohorts of physicians specializing in Public Health (for a total of n. 459 medical doctors). The GHPSS questionnaires were self-administered via a special website which is created ad hoc for the survey. Logistic regression model was used to identify possible associations with tobacco smoking status. Hosmer-Lemeshow test was performed. The level of significance was P ≤ 0.05. A total of 388 answered the questionnaire on the website (85%), of which 81 (20.9%) declared to be smokers, 309 (79.6%) considered health professionals as behavioural models for patients, and 375 (96.6%) affirmed that health professionals have a role in giving advice or information about smoking cessation. Although 388 (89.7%) heard about smoking related issues during undergraduate courses, only 17% received specific smoking cessation training during specialization. The present study highlights the importance of focusing attention on smoking cessation training, given the high prevalence of smokers among physicians specializing in public health, their key role both as advisers and behavioural models, and the limited tobacco training offered in public health schools.

  2. Public perception and attitude towards chemical industry park in Dalian, Bohai Rim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guizhen; Chen, Chunci; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Yonglong

    2018-04-01

    Recent decade has witnessed accelerating expansion of chemical industry and increasing conflicts between the local citizens, governmental authorities and project developers, especially in some coastal and port cities in China. Development and transformation of chemical industrial parks has been adopted as a national initiative recently. However, there is a paucity of research examining public perspectives on chemical industrial parks and their risks. Aiming to understand public perception, attitude, and response and the factors underlying the support/acceptance of chemical industry park, this paper investigated 418 residents neighboring to two chemical industrial parks, Dalian in Bohai Rim through face-to-face questionnaire survey. The results showed the knowledge of the respondents on the chemical industrial parks development was very limited. The respondents had complex perceptions on the environmental impacts, risks control, social-economic benefits, and problem awareness. The current levels of information disclosure and public participation were very low. The central governmental official (44.3%) was the most trustworthy group by the respondents. Only 5.5% and 23.2% of the respondents supported the construction of a new CIP nearby and far away their homes, whilst 13% thought new CIP project as acceptable. The spearman correlation analysis results showed a strong NIMBY effect (Not In My Backyard). Factor analysis results demonstrated five latent factors: knowledge, benefit, information, trust, and participation. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated how socio-demographic differences and five latent factors might impact on the support/acceptance of the chemical industrial parks. Education level, trust, information, and participation were significant predictors of public support/acceptance level. This study contributes to our limited knowledge and understanding of public sentiments to the chemical industry parks in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  3. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Smoking Behaviours among Physicians Specializing in Public Health: A Multicentre Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe La Torre

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Healthcare professionals have an important role to play both as advisers—influencing smoking cessation—and as role models. However, many of them continue to smoke. The aims of this study were to examine smoking prevalence, knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours among four cohorts physicians specializing in public health, according to the Global Health Profession Students Survey (GHPSS approach. Materials and Methods. A multicentre cross-sectional study was carried out in 24 Italian schools of public health. The survey was conducted between January and April 2012 and it was carried out a census of students in the selected schools for each years of course (from first to fourth year of attendance, therefore among four cohorts of physicians specializing in Public Health (for a total of n. 459 medical doctors. The GHPSS questionnaires were self-administered via a special website which is created ad hoc for the survey. Logistic regression model was used to identify possible associations with tobacco smoking status. Hosmer-Lemeshow test was performed. The level of significance was P≤0.05. Results. A total of 388 answered the questionnaire on the website (85%, of which 81 (20.9% declared to be smokers, 309 (79.6% considered health professionals as behavioural models for patients, and 375 (96.6% affirmed that health professionals have a role in giving advice or information about smoking cessation. Although 388 (89.7% heard about smoking related issues during undergraduate courses, only 17% received specific smoking cessation training during specialization. Conclusions. The present study highlights the importance of focusing attention on smoking cessation training, given the high prevalence of smokers among physicians specializing in public health, their key role both as advisers and behavioural models, and the limited tobacco training offered in public health schools.

  4. Track leading to decision of 'framework for nuclear energy policy'. Reading the public attitude with public opinions (the second). Framework for nuclear energy policy (as of July 2005)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimooka, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    The Government decides to respect the 'Framework for Nuclear Energy Policy', which was decided by the Atomic Energy Commission on October 11th, 2005, as a basic principle for the nuclear energy policy and promote research, development and utilization of nuclear science and engineering. The Atomic Energy Commission asked the public to comment on the draft and held Public Hearings at five different venues. The Planning Council finalized the draft, taking the 1717 opinions from 701 citizens thus gathered into the consideration. Reading the public attitude with public opinions had been conducted by the author, which showed a large percentage of the consent to the policy and, at the same time, the necessity for the nation to make more efforts to communicate with the public in simple and more concise terms or listen to the public, and also to gain the public trust through education and public relations. The pros and cons both commented that the mass media was not fair. (T. Tanaka)

  5. Academic Attitudes and Achievement in Students of Urban Public Single-Sex and Mixed-Sex High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Else-Quest, Nicole M.; Peterca, Oana

    2015-01-01

    Publicly funded single-sex schooling (SSS) has proliferated in recent years and is touted as a remedy to gaps in academic attitudes and achievement, particularly for low-income students of color. Research on SSS is rife with limitations, stemming from selective admissions processes, selection effects related to socioeconomic status, a lack of…

  6. Public attitudes towards preventive genomics and personal interest in genetic testing to prevent disease: a survey study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, E.; Henneman, L.; van El, C.G.; Cornel, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Genetic testing and family history assessment can be used as an aid in the prevention of common chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to determine public attitudes and interests towards offering genetic testing and family history-based risk assessment for common chronic disease

  7. Faculty Members' Attitudes towards the Performance Appraisal Process in the Public Universities in Light of Some Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ashqar, Wafaa Mohammed Ali

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to detect the level of faculty members' attitudes at public universities towards the performance appraisal process and its relationship with some variables (gender, college, scientific rank, university, teaching experience, and age). The study sample consisted of (320) faculty members of both sexes in three public…

  8. Perceived Public Stigma and the Willingness to Seek Counseling: The Mediating Roles of Self-Stigma and Attitudes toward Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, David L.; Wade, Nathaniel G.; Hackler, Ashley H.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the mediating effects of the self-stigma associated with seeking counseling and attitudes toward seeking counseling on the link between perceived public stigma and willingness to seek counseling for psychological and interpersonal concerns. Structural equation modeling of data from 676 undergraduates indicated that the link…

  9. Women’s working hours: The interplay between gender role attitudes, motherhood, and public childcare support in 23 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andringa, Wouter; Nieuwenhuis, Rense; van Gerven-Haanpää, Minna Marja-Leena

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to show how the interplay between individual women’s gender role attitudes, having young children at home, as well as the country-context characterized by gender egalitarianism and public childcare support, relates to women’s working hours in 23 European

  10. Teachers' Demographic Factors on Attitude towards Guidance and Counselling Services in Public Primary Schools of Kimilili Subcounty, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasilumbi, Wesonga Joanne; Jenniffer, Munyau K.; Prisca, Tarus

    2016-01-01

    The government of Kenya through the Ministry of education banned corporal punishment in schools. This necessitated strengthening of guidance and counseling (G&C) services in schools. This study aimed to: determine the teachers' attitude towards guidance and counseling services in public primary schools in Kimilili Sub-County and determine the…

  11. Actitud Hacia las Matematicas: Revision Bibliografica (Attitudes Toward Mathematics: Revised Bibliography). Publication No. 39.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Feijoo, Nelida

    Investigations about attitudes toward mathematics carried out in the past decade were revised. The instruments used to measure attitudes toward mathematics were analysed as well as the attitudes toward different aspects of mathematics, their relation with other school subjects and their stability through time. Opinions about the influence of…

  12. Bosnian and American students' attitudes toward electronic monitoring: is it about what we know or where we come from?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muftić, Lisa R; Payne, Brian K; Maljević, Almir

    2015-06-01

    The use of community corrections continues to grow across the globe as alternatives to incarceration are sought. Little research attention, however, has been directed at correctional alternatives from a global orientation. The purpose of this research study is to compare the way that a sample of criminal justice students from the United States (n = 118) and Bosnia and Herzegovina (n = 133) perceive electronic monitoring. Because electronic monitoring is a newer sentencing alternative and it is used differently in Bosnia and Herzegovina than it is in the United States, it is predicted that Bosnian students will view electronic monitoring differently than will students from the United States. This study finds that while students are largely supportive of electronic monitoring sentences, support is affected by offender type and student nationality. For example, Bosnian students are more supportive of electronic monitoring sentences for drug offenders while American students are more supportive of electronic monitoring sentences for juvenile offenders. Differences were also found across student groups when attitudes toward electronic monitoring and the costs and pains associated with electronic monitoring were assessed. Specifically, American students were less likely to view electronic monitoring as meeting the goals of rehabilitation and more likely to view the conditions and restrictions associated with electronic monitoring as being punitive than Bosnian students were. Implications from these findings, as well as limitations and suggestions for further research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2013.

  13. Emotion in obesity discourse: understanding public attitudes towards regulations for obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Lucy C; Warin, Megan J; Moore, Vivienne M; Street, Jackie M

    2016-05-01

    Intense concern about obesity in the public imagination and in political, academic and media discourses has catalysed advocacy efforts to implement regulatory measures to reduce the occurrence of obesity in Australia and elsewhere. This article explores public attitudes towards the possible implementation of regulations to address obesity by analysing emotions within popular discourses. Drawing on reader comments attached to obesity-relevant news articles published on Australian news and current affairs websites, we examine how popular anxieties about the 'obesity crisis' and vitriol directed at obese individuals circulate alongside understandings of the appropriate role of government to legitimise regulatory reform to address obesity. Employing Ahmed's theorisation of 'affective economies' and broader literature on emotional cultures, we argue that obesity regulations achieve popular support within affective economies oriented to neoliberal and individualist constructions of obesity. These economies preclude constructions of obesity as a structural problem in popular discourse; instead positioning anti-obesity regulations as a government-endorsed vehicle for discrimination directed at obese people. Findings implicate a new set of ethical challenges for those championing regulatory reform for obesity prevention. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  14. Off to the Courts? Or the Agency? Public Attitudes on Bureaucratic and Legal Approaches to Policy Enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinn Mulroy

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A key curiosity in the operation of the American regulatory state lies with its hybrid structure, defined by centralized, bureaucratic approaches but also more decentralized actions such as lawsuits brought by private citizens in the courts. While current research on these two pathways focuses at the elite level—exploring how and why political actors and institutions opt for legal or administrative strategies for implementing different public policies—there is little research that examines public attitudes toward how policy is enforced in the U.S. Given that the public is a key partner in this process, this paper integrates public attitudes into the discussion, tapping into conceptions of “big government,” privatization, and the tort reform movement. Using original data from a series of vignette-based experiments included in the 2014 Cooperative Congressional Election Survey, we examine public preferences about how policy is regulated—by private citizens in the courts or by government officials in agencies—across a broad number of policy areas. We offer one of the first studies that adjudicates the boundaries of public attitudes on litigation and bureaucratic regulation in the U.S., offering implications for how elites might approach the design of policy implementation for different issue areas.

  15. Agenda-setting effects of sun-related news coverage on public attitudes and beliefs about tanning and skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Helen; Warne, Charles; Scully, Maree; Dobbinson, Suzanne; Wakefield, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    The topics and framing of news stories relevant to skin cancer prevention have shifted over time. This study examined agenda-setting effects of such news stories on public attitudes and beliefs about tanning and skin cancer. Content analysis data on 516 articles published in two major daily newspapers in Melbourne, Australia, from 1994 to 2007 were combined with circulation data to generate indices of potential news exposure. Associations between these indices and cross-sectional telephone survey data from the same period on 6,244 adults' tanning attitudes and perceived susceptibility to skin cancer were examined using logistic regression models, accounting for the temporal precedence of news content. Pro-sun protection stories on attitudes and behavior were associated with older adults not thinking a tan looks healthy. Pro-sun protection stories on solaria were associated with less preference for a deep tan among young adults who like to suntan. Stories on vitamin D that were unsupportive of or ambiguous about sun protection were associated with a number of pro-tan attitudes among younger adults. Results indicate news coverage during 1994-2007 served an important agenda-setting role in explaining the public's attitudes and beliefs about tanning and skin cancer. Vitamin D stories appeared most influential, particularly among young adults.

  16. Public Perceptions of GPS Monitoring for Convicted Sex Offenders: Opinions on Effectiveness of Electronic Monitoring to Reduce Sexual Recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, Kristen M; Mancini, Christina

    2017-09-01

    In the United States, electronic monitoring (EM) and global positioning systems (GPS) are new applications that are used to extensively monitor and track convicted sex offenders. What is unclear though are public perceptions of this strategy. This research examines public perceptions of a national sample of Americans on the use of GPS/EM with convicted sex offenders as a method to reduce their sexual recidivism. Using a multinomial regression model, we analyze the effects of sex offender myths and parental status on public perceptions that sex offender GPS/EM is very effective in reducing sexual recidivism. Findings suggest that public perceptions of effectiveness are partially driven by myths and also that parents are unsure of this strategy. The analysis contributes to the growing body of knowledge on public perceptions of GPS/EM to manage sex offenders in communities. Implications of the study and areas for future research are discussed in light of the findings.

  17. The swine flu vaccine, public attitudes, and researcher interpretations: a systematic review of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Benedicte; Glenton, Claire

    2016-06-24

    During pandemics, health authorities may be uncertain about the spread and severity of the disease and the effectiveness and safety of available interventions. This was the case during the swine flu (H1N1) pandemic of 2009-2010, and governments were forced to make decisions despite these uncertainties. While many countries chose to implement wide scale vaccination programmes, few accomplished their vaccination goals. Many research studies aiming to explore barriers and facilitators to vaccine uptake have been conducted in the aftermath of the pandemic, including several qualitative studies. 1. To explore public attitudes to the swine flu vaccine in different countries through a review of qualitative primary studies. 2. To describe and discuss the implications drawn by the primary study authors. Systematic review of qualitative research studies, using a broadly comparative cross case-study approach. Study quality was appraised using an adaptation of the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) quality assessment tool. The review indicates that the public had varying opinions about disease risk and prevalence and had concerns about vaccine safety. Most primary study authors concluded that participants were uninformed, and that more information about the disease and the vaccine would have led to an increase in vaccine uptake. We find these conclusions problematic. We suggest instead that people's questions and concerns were legitimate given the uncertainties of the situation at the time and the fact that the authorities did not have the necessary information to convince the public. Our quality assessment of the included studies points to a lack of reflexivity and a lack of information about study context. We suggest that these study weaknesses are tied to primary study authors' lack of acknowledgement of the uncertainties surrounding the disease and the vaccine. While primary study authors suggest that authorities could increase vaccine uptake through increased

  18. Predictors of public attitude toward living organ donation in Kano, northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubairu Iliyasu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organ shortage is a major public health challenge for transplant programs globally. The sustenance of such programs as an effective therapy for end-stage organ failure (ESOF requires an exploration of public awareness and willingness to donate organs. This is imperative, especially in developing countries where ESOF is highly prevalent. We studied the awareness and predictors of public attitude toward organ donation in Kano city in northern Nigeria. Using interviewer-administered questionnaires, we assessed the awareness and willingness to donate solid organs among 400 adults in the Kano metropolis. Three hundred and five of the 383 respondents (79.6% reported that they had heard about organ donation. There was a significant variation of awareness by education and ethnicity (P <0.05. Most respondents, 303 (79.1%, were willing to donate an organ. Gender [adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 2.13; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.40-4.95], educational attainment (AOR = 2.55; 95% CI: 1.35-5.88, marital status (AOR = 4.5; 95% CI: 2.97-9.1, religion (AOR = 3.40; 95% CI: 1.43-8.10 and ethnicity (AOR = 2.36; 95% CI 1.04-5.35 were significant predictors of willingness to donate an organ. Preferred organ recipients were parents (48.9%, children (21.3%, spouses (14.6% and other relatives (13.4%. Reasons for willingness to donate organs included religion (51.2%, moral obligation (21.4% and compassion (11.9%, among others. However, there was widespread ignorance of religious precepts concerning organ donation. The high level of awareness and willingness to donate organs in this society could be further enhanced by intensive information, education and communication strategies providing clear messages on societal benefits, religious aspects and bioethical guidance regarding organ donation.

  19. Public Opinion on Organ Donation After Death and Its Influence on Attitudes Toward Organ Donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aijing, Luo; Wenzhao, Xie; Wei, Wei; Qiquan, Wan; Xuantong, Deng

    2016-08-18

    BACKGROUND China officially launched a pilot program of organ donation after cardiac death to overcome the shortage of available organs since 2011. Voluntary organ donation by deceased citizens became the only source of transplant organs beginning January 1, 2015. To investigate public opinions on organ donation by deceased donors, and discuss the effect of these opinions on the willingness and attitude of the public regarding voluntary organ donation. MATERIAL AND METHODS We designed a questionnaire. The survey was conducted from December 2014 to January 2015 in Changsha City, and 417 valid questionnaires were recovered. RESULTS A total of 162 respondents explicitly expressed a willingness to donate organs, and 269 believed that the organ donors' relatives should be compensated. A total of 255 respondents thought it acceptable to complete the donation-consent form when receiving a driver's license. Among the respondents, 65.3% did not agree with the statement "My body is bestowed by my parents, and to donate my body parts would not display filial respect"; 88.9% agreed that "It is necessary to consider the willingness of my family"; 74.4% agreed that "Donated organs have not been fairly and appropriately used; the wealthy and celebrities have been favored"; and 61.4% agreed that "Organ donation laws and regulations are not well developed, and organ donations will result in unnecessary difficulties." More than 80% believed that organ donation and transplantation extend life. CONCLUSIONS Public opinions on organ donation after death are associated with various factors, including traditional values, religious beliefs, compensation mechanisms, donor registration, institutional credibility, and ideals.

  20. Sensor Deployment for Air Pollution Monitoring Using Public Transportation System

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, James J. Q.; Li, Victor O. K.; Lam, Albert Y. S.

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution monitoring is a very popular research topic and many monitoring systems have been developed. In this paper, we formulate the Bus Sensor Deployment Problem (BSDP) to select the bus routes on which sensors are deployed, and we use Chemical Reaction Optimization (CRO) to solve BSDP. CRO is a recently proposed metaheuristic designed to solve a wide range of optimization problems. Using the real world data, namely Hong Kong Island bus route data, we perform a series of simulations an...

  1. The stigmatizing effect of visual media portrayals of obese persons on public attitudes: does race or gender matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Rebecca M; Luedicke, Joerg; Heuer, Chelsea A

    2013-01-01

    Overweight and obese persons are frequently stigmatized in news media. The present study is the first to systematically compare public reactions to positive and negative images of obese persons accompanying news reports on obesity (while manipulating gender and race of the target)and their effects on generalized attitudes and social distance toward obese persons. The authors conducted 3 randomized experimental studies using online surveys to assess public perceptions of positive versus stereotypical images of obese adults (who varied by gender and race) accompanying a neutral news report about obesity. The sample included 1,251 adults, who were recruited through a national survey panel during May of 2010. Participants who viewed negative, stereotypical images of obese targets increased social distance, antifat attitudes, and ratings of laziness and dislike toward obese persons, whereas positive, nonstereotypical images induced more positive attitudes. These findings remained consistent when accounting for sociodemographic variables. African American female obese targets portrayed in images evoked higher ratings of dislike and social distance compared with Caucasian targets, but ratings were similar for male and female targets. This study provides evidence that images of obese person accompanying written media influence public attitudes toward obese people, and may reinforce weight stigmatization if images contain stereotypical portrayals of obese persons. Implications for efforts to report about obesity in the news media are discussed.

  2. Eliciting Public Attitudes Regarding Bioremediation Cleanup Technologies: Lessons Learned from a Consensus Workshop in Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denise Lach, Principle Investigator; Stephanie Sanford, Co-P.I.

    2003-01-01

    During the summer of 2002, we developed and implemented a ''consensus workshop'' with Idaho citizens to elicit their concerns and issues regarding the use of bioremediation as a cleanup technology for radioactive nuclides and heavy metals at Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The consensus workshop is a derivation of a technology assessment method designed to ensure dialogue between experts and lay people. It has its origins in the United States in the form of ''consensus development conferences'' used by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to elicit professional knowledge and concerns about new medical treatments. Over the last 25 years, NIH has conducted over 100 consensus development conferences. (Jorgensen 1995). The consensus conference is grounded in the idea that technology assessment and policy needs to be socially negotiated among many different stakeholders and groups rather than narrowly defined by a group of experts. To successfully implement new technology, the public requires access to information that addresses a full complement of issues including understanding the organization proposing the technology. The consensus conference method creates an informed dialogue, making technology understandable to the general public and sets it within perspectives and priorities that may differ radically from those of the expert community. While specific outcomes differ depending on the overall context of a conference, one expected outcome is that citizen panel members develop greater knowledge of the technology during the conference process and, sometimes, the entire panel experiences a change in attitude toward the technology and/or the organization proposing its use (Kluver 1995). The purpose of this research project was to explore the efficacy of the consensus conference model as a way to elicit the input of the general public about bioremediation of radionuclides and heavy metals at Department of Energy sites. Objectives of the research included: (1

  3. Exploring public attitudes towards approaches to discussing costs in the clinical encounter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danis, Marion; Sommers, Roseanna; Logan, Jean; Weidmer, Beverly; Chen, Shirley; Goold, Susan; Pearson, Steven; Donley, Greer; McGlynn, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Patients' willingness to discuss costs of treatment alternatives with their physicians is uncertain. To explore public attitudes toward doctor-patient discussions of insurer and out-of-pocket costs and to examine whether several possible communication strategies might enhance patient receptivity to discussing costs with their physicians. Focus group discussions and pre-discussion and post-discussion questionnaires. Two hundred and eleven insured individuals with mean age of 48 years, 51 % female, 34 % African American, 27 % Latino, and 50 % with incomes below 300 % of the federal poverty threshold, participated in 22 focus groups in Santa Monica, CA and in the Washington, DC metro area. Attitudes toward discussing out-of-pocket and insurer costs with physicians, and towards physicians' role in controlling costs; receptivity toward recommended communication strategies regarding costs. Participants expressed more willingness to talk to doctors about personal costs than insurer costs. Older participants and sicker participants were more willing to talk to the doctor about all costs than younger and healthier participants (OR = 1.8, p = 0.004; OR = 1.6, p = 0.027 respectively). Participants who face cost-related barriers to accessing health care were in greater agreement than others that doctors should play a role in reducing out-of-pocket costs (OR = 2.4, p = 0.011). Participants did not endorse recommended communication strategies for discussing costs in the clinical encounter. In contrast, participants stated that trust in one's physician would enhance their willingness to discuss costs. Perceived impediments to discussing costs included rushed, impersonal visits, and clinicians who are insufficiently informed about costs. This study suggests that trusting relationships may be more conducive than any particular discussion strategy to facilitating doctor-patient discussions of health care costs. Better public understanding of how medical

  4. Polish society attitudes towards nuclear power, ionizing radiation applications and radioactive waste management (Report on public opinion polls)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latek, Stanislaw

    1999-01-01

    In Poland, during parliamentary debate on Foundations for the 'Polish energy policies up to 2010', the importance of public attitudes toward nuclear power has been recalled repeatedly in the context of the future development of nuclear power in Poland. In the governmental document, accepted by Polish Parliament on 1 January 1996, it has been stated that nuclear power plant construction is not foreseen up to the year 2010; nevertheless it has been assumed that the appraisals of the economic feasibility and of the public acceptance level for such investments will be conducted. Thus, the need for such assessments of public opinions and attitudes toward nuclear power has been recognized and accepted by the highest legislative power organ in Poland

  5. Public perception of carbon dioxide storage. The role of trust and affect in attitude formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huijts, N.M.A.

    2003-12-01

    In this study a multidisciplinary description of, and investigation into carbon dioxide storage is given. Carbon dioxide storage is a CO2-emission reduction option that might be implemented to combat climate change. The threat of climate change has led to emission reduction goals for greenhouse gases in the Netherlands for the period 2008-2010 compared to the year 1990, and possibly more stringent goals for the longer term. The technology of carbon dioxide capture, transport and storage is shortly described, and it is expected that it is possible to perform the technology. Possible identified barriers are the costs, the risks and public perception. A wide range for the estimation of the costs has been found. Any price in the range however leads to a significant increase of the electricity price, when applying CO2 capture and storage to power plants. Risks are not quantified yet, but possible risks are described for man, environment, and buildings in literature. So far, little research had been performed on the public perception of carbon dioxide storage. Therefore a field study has been conducted for this study. From personal communication and literature, the current points of view of government, industry, and environmental NGOs (non-governmental organizations) are described for the Netherlands. Government and environmental NGOs believe that carbon dioxide storage can only be a temporary solution, because it is not considered a sustainable solution. Opposition from environmental NGOs might arise when the storage of carbon dioxide diverts effort from the development of sustainable energy sources. Industry that would perform storage expects that it can be done in a safe and acceptable way. The points of view of the actors involved can influence the perception of citizens and have therefore been summarised and added to the information for the participants in the study. From literature in the field of psychology, a conceptual model for the formation of an attitude

  6. Public perception of carbon dioxide storage. The role of trust and affect in attitude formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huijts, N.M.A.

    2003-12-01

    In this study a multidisciplinary description of, and investigation into carbon dioxide storage is given. Carbon dioxide storage is a CO2-emission reduction option that might be implemented to combat climate change. The threat of climate change has led to emission reduction goals for greenhouse gases in the Netherlands for the period 2008-2010 compared to the year 1990, and possibly more stringent goals for the longer term. The technology of carbon dioxide capture, transport and storage is shortly described, and it is expected that it is possible to perform the technology. Possible identified barriers are the costs, the risks and public perception. A wide range for the estimation of the costs has been found. Any price in the range however leads to a significant increase of the electricity price, when applying CO2 capture and storage to power plants. Risks are not quantified yet, but possible risks are described for man, environment, and buildings in literature. So far, little research had been performed on the public perception of carbon dioxide storage. Therefore a field study has been conducted for this study. From personal communication and literature, the current points of view of government, industry, and environmental NGOs (non-governmental organizations) are described for the Netherlands. Government and environmental NGOs believe that carbon dioxide storage can only be a temporary solution, because it is not considered a sustainable solution. Opposition from environmental NGOs might arise when the storage of carbon dioxide diverts effort from the development of sustainable energy sources. Industry that would perform storage expects that it can be done in a safe and acceptable way. The points of view of the actors involved can influence the perception of citizens and have therefore been summarised and added to the information for the participants in the study. From literature in the field of psychology, a conceptual model for the formation of an attitude

  7. Strategies for changing negative public attitudes toward organ donation in the People’s Republic of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumin, Xie; Woo, Stephanie Mu-Lian; Lei, Zhang

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, the demand for organ transplantation has risen rapidly worldwide, due to an increased incidence of vital organ failure. However, the scarcity of organs appropriate for transplantation has led to an organ shortage crisis. This article retrospectively reviews strategies to change negative public attitudes toward organ donation in the People’s Republic of China. We strongly believe that efforts to publicize knowledge of organ donation, promote family discussions, train medical staff and students, establish incentive systems, and implement regulatory oversight may combat unfavorable Chinese public opinion toward organ donation and transplantation, thus potentially increasing the organ donation rate in the People’s Republic of China. PMID:24368880

  8. National character and communication. Attitude toward nuclear power plant and its public relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Chikio; Morikawa, Shinichi.

    1994-01-01

    The attitude structure toward nuclear power plant is analyzed with the attitudes toward relevant matters, for example image for nuclear power, knowledge of nuclear power, attitudes toward energy and environment, anxiety about various matters, cognition of risk, social and political attitudes and Japanese national character. Six types are revealed, that is to say, indifference group (13%), strongly favorable group (11%), strongly unfavorable group (9%), fairly favorable group (12%), fairly unfavorable group (5%), and intermediate group (50%). Strongly favorable and unfavorable groups are similar in some points and different in other points, for they are both rational whereas the former is optimistic in the attitude toward science and technology and less interested in environmental problems, and the latter is pessimistic in the attitude toward science and technology and extremely sensitive to environmental problems. The intermediate group has so-called Japanese -like characteristics. It is shown that the emotional persuasion and that based on fact presentation are particularly desirable for this group. (author)

  9. National character and communication. Attitude toward nuclear power plant and its public relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Chikio [Institute of Statistical Mathematics, Tokyo (Japan); Morikawa, Shinichi

    1995-10-01

    The attitude structure toward nuclear power plant is analyzed with the attitudes toward relevant matters, for example image for nuclear power, knowledge of nuclear power, attitudes toward energy and environment, anxiety about various matters, cognition of risk, social and political attitudes and Japanese national character. Six types are revealed, that is to say, indifference group (13%), strongly favorable group (11%), strongly unfavorable group (9%), fairly favorable group (12%), fairly unfavorable group (5%), and intermediate group (50%). Strongly favorable and unfavorable groups are similar in some points and different in other points, for they are both rational whereas the former is optimistic in the attitude toward science and technology and less interested in environmental problems, and the latter is pessimistic in the attitude toward science and technology and extremely sensitive to environmental problems. The intermediate group has so-called Japanese-like characteristics. It is shown that the emotional persuasion and that based on fact presentation are particularly desirable for this group. (author)

  10. National character and communication. Attitude toward nuclear power plant and its public relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Chikio; Morikawa, Shinichi.

    1995-01-01

    The attitude structure toward nuclear power plant is analyzed with the attitudes toward relevant matters, for example image for nuclear power, knowledge of nuclear power, attitudes toward energy and environment, anxiety about various matters, cognition of risk, social and political attitudes and Japanese national character. Six types are revealed, that is to say, indifference group (13%), strongly favorable group (11%), strongly unfavorable group (9%), fairly favorable group (12%), fairly unfavorable group (5%), and intermediate group (50%). Strongly favorable and unfavorable groups are similar in some points and different in other points, for they are both rational whereas the former is optimistic in the attitude toward science and technology and less interested in environmental problems, and the latter is pessimistic in the attitude toward science and technology and extremely sensitive to environmental problems. The intermediate group has so-called Japanese-like characteristics. It is shown that the emotional persuasion and that based on fact presentation are particularly desirable for this group. (author)

  11. National character and communication. Attitude toward nuclear power plant and its public relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Chikio [Institute of Statistical Mathematics, Tokyo (Japan); Morikawa, Shinichi

    1994-05-01

    The attitude structure toward nuclear power plant is analyzed with the attitudes toward relevant matters, for example image for nuclear power, knowledge of nuclear power, attitudes toward energy and environment, anxiety about various matters, cognition of risk, social and political attitudes and Japanese national character. Six types are revealed, that is to say, indifference group (13%), strongly favorable group (11%), strongly unfavorable group (9%), fairly favorable group (12%), fairly unfavorable group (5%), and intermediate group (50%). Strongly favorable and unfavorable groups are similar in some points and different in other points, for they are both rational whereas the former is optimistic in the attitude toward science and technology and less interested in environmental problems, and the latter is pessimistic in the attitude toward science and technology and extremely sensitive to environmental problems. The intermediate group has so-called Japanese -like characteristics. It is shown that the emotional persuasion and that based on fact presentation are particularly desirable for this group. (author)

  12. Test - retest reliability of two instruments for measuring public attitudes towards persons with mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leufstadius Christel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has identified stigmatization as a major threat to successful treatment of individuals with mental illness. As a consequence several anti-stigma campaigns have been carried out. The results have been discouraging and the field suffers from lack of evidence about interventions that work. There are few reports on psychometric data for instruments used to assess stigma, which thus complicates research efforts. The aim of the present study was to investigate test-retest reliability of the Swedish versions of the questionnaires: FABI and "Changing Minds" and to examine the internal consistency of the two instruments. Method Two instruments, fear and behavioural intentions (FABI and "Changing Minds", used in earlier studies on public attitudes towards persons with mental illness were translated into Swedish and completed by 51 nursing students on two occasions, with an interval of three weeks. Test-retest reliability was calculated by using weighted kappa coefficient and internal consistency using the Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Results Both instruments attain at best moderate test-retest reliability. For the Changing Minds questionnaire almost one fifth (17.9% of the items present poor test-retest reliability and the alpha coefficient for the subscales ranges between 0.19 - 0.46. All of the items in the FABI reach a fair or a moderate agreement between the test and retest, and the questionnaire displays a high internal consistency, alpha 0.80. Conclusions There is a need for development of psychometrically tested instruments within this field of research.

  13. Understanding key influencers' attitudes and beliefs about healthy public policy change for obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Kim D; Nykiforuk, Candace I J; Vu-Nguyen, Karen; Nieuwendyk, Laura M; VanSpronsen, Eric; Reed, Shandy; Wild, T Cameron

    2014-11-01

    As overweight and obesity is a risk factor for chronic diseases, the development of environmental and healthy public policy interventions across multiple sectors has been identified as a key strategy to address this issue. In 2009, a survey was developed to assess the attitudes and beliefs regarding health promotion principles, and the priority and acceptability of policy actions to prevent obesity and chronic diseases, among key policy influencers in Alberta and Manitoba, Canada. Surveys were mailed to 1,765 key influencers from five settings: provincial government, municipal government, school boards, print media companies, and workplaces with greater than 500 employees. A total of 236 surveys were completed with a response rate of 15.0%. Findings indicate nearly unanimous influencer support for individual-focused policy approaches and high support for some environmental policies. Restrictive environmental and economic policies received weakest support. Obesity was comparable to smoking with respect to perceptions as a societal responsibility versus a personal responsibility, boding well for the potential of environmental policy interventions for obesity prevention. This level of influencer support provides a platform for more evidence to be brokered to policy influencers about the effectiveness of environmental policy approaches to obesity prevention. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  14. Public Knowledge and Attitude toward Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Tokat Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Yilmaz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The World health Organization (WHO declares Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fe­ver (CCHF endemic in Turkey. Despite the magnitude of problem, no documented evi­dence exists in Turkey, which reveals the aware­ness and practices of the country's adult popula­tion regarding CCHF, its spread, symptoms, treatment, and preven­tion. This study was conducted to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding CCHF in people visit­ing terti­ary care hospital in Tokat, Turkey."nMethods: This questionnaire based cross-sectional survey was conducted among patients' rela­tives or guardians who ad­mitted pediatric outpatient clinics during May-July 2008. The question­naire was composed of 25 questions."nResults: A total of 1034 respondents participated in the survey. Sufficient knowledge about CCHF was not found in 28.9% of the sample. Literate individuals were relatively better informed about CCHF as compared to the illiterate peo­ple. Television and radio were con­sidered as the most important and useful source of information on the disease."nConclusion: We have found insufficient knowledge on CCHF in our population. It is thought to have no chance of suc­cess against a fatal disease such as CCHF, which has serious consequences, without the contribution of commu­nity. It is clear that there are important tasks for health, agri­culture, and media sectors to improve public knowledge and awareness about CCHF. "n Keywords: Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever, Public knowledge, Survey, Turkey

  15. A web-based survey of attitudes toward epilepsy in secondary and tertiary students in Malaysia, using the Public Attitudes Toward Epilepsy (PATE) scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kheng Seang; Hills, Michael D; Choo, Wan Yuen; Wong, Mee Hoo; Wu, Cathie; Tan, Chong Tin

    2013-02-01

    Students' attitudes toward epilepsy have been studied in several countries, but none of the studies used a quantitative scale. We aimed to determine the validity and reliability of the Public Attitudes Toward Epilepsy (PATE) scale in a homogenous population consisting of secondary and tertiary students in Malaysia and to quantify their attitudes toward epilepsy, using a web-based survey. A total of 227 respondents with a mean age of 19.6±2.07 years, predominantly Chinese (85%), female (62%), and in a pre-university education level (71%) completed the web-based survey. Psychometric testing showed that the PATE is a valid and reliable scale to be applied in a homogenous population. The mean score in the personal domain was significantly higher than that in the general domain (2.73±0.61 vs. 2.12±0.60, respectively, ppopulation (Lim et al., 2012 [10]), the mean score in the general domain was significantly lower (pstudents are more positive than those of the general population in the general domain but not in the personal domain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Attitudes and relationship between physicians and the pharmaceutical industry in a public general hospital in Lima, Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo De Ferrari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The interaction between physicians and the pharmaceutical industry influences physicians' attitudes and prescribing behavior. Although largely studied in the US, this topic has not been well studied in resource-poor settings, where a close relationship between physicians and industry still exists. OBJECTIVE: To describe physician interactions with and attitudes towards the pharmaceutical industry in a public general hospital in Lima, Peru. DESIGN: Descriptive, cross-sectional study through an anonymous, self-filled questionnaire distributed among faculty and trainee physicians of five different clinical departments working in a Peruvian public general hospital. A transcultural validation of an existing Spanish questionnaire was performed. Exposure to marketing activities, motivations to contact pharmaceutical representatives and attitudes towards industry were studied. Collected data was analyzed by degree of training, clinical department, gender and teaching status. Attitudes were measured on a four-point LIKERT scale. RESULTS: 155 physicians completed the survey, of which 148 were included in the study sample. 94.5% of attending physicians reported ongoing encounters with pharmaceutical representatives. The most common industry-related activities were receiving medical samples (91.2%, promotional material (87.8% and attending meetings in restaurants (81.8%. Respondents considered medical samples and continuing medical education the most ethically acceptable benefits. We found significant differences between attendings and residents, and teaching and non-teaching attendings. An association between the amount of encounters with pharmaceutical representatives, and attitudes towards industry and acceptance of medical samples was found. CONCLUSIONS: A close physician-industry relationship exists in the population under study. The contact is established mainly through pharmaceutical representatives. Medical samples are the most received

  17. Public monitoring during the radiological accident in Goiania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, W.M.

    2000-01-01

    During the radiological accident with Cs 137 occurred at Goiania, Brazil, many people were contaminated. To identify the people with possible contamination a large place in the center of the city was selected for screening people with a possibility of contamination. This paper describes the work involved monitoring about 112.800 persons in a period of three month. (author)

  18. Designing interruptive behaviors of a public environmental monitoring robot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, V.; de Vries, R.; Alvito, P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports ongoing research to inform the design of a social robot to monitor levels of pollutant gasses in the air. Next to licensed environmental agents and immobile chemical sensors, mobile technologies such as robotic agents are needed to collect complaints and smell descriptions from

  19. Monitoring speed before and during a speed publicity campaign.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schagen, I.N.L.G. van Commandeur, J.J.F. Goldenbeld, C. & Stipdonk, H.

    2016-01-01

    Driving speeds were monitored during a period of 16 weeks encompassing different stages of an anti-speeding campaign in the Netherlands. This campaign targeted speed limit violations in built-up areas. The observation periods differed in terms of intensity and media used for the campaign. Small

  20. Monitoring public health following a major firework factory explosion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkzwager, A.J.E.; IJzermans, C.J.; Kerssens, J.J.

    2003-01-01

    Background: In May 2000, a firework factory exploded in a residential area in the Netherlands, resulting in 22 deaths, 947 wounded people, and about 2.000 severely damaged houses. Following the explosion, a largescale monitoring study was implemented to examine disaster-related health consequences

  1. Female public Jordanian university undergraduate students' intentions and attitudes toward breastfeeding: application of self-objectification theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ali, Nahla; Hatamleh, Reem; Khader, Yousef

    2013-11-01

    Breastfeeding is the natural way of feeding infants and an important public health issue. Representation women as sexual objects by highlighting their bodies as mainly for the desire of men causes women to prioritise their physical appearance and internalise sexual objectification of their bodies. Such ideologies make women less comfortable to accept other functions of their bodies such as the reproductive functions, including breastfeeding and childbirth. To describe, in a sample of female undergraduate students, attitudes toward breastfeeding, level of self-objectification and to examine whether women's attitudes and the intention of breastfeeding is related to the level of self-objectification. An exploratory, cross-sectional design was used. All female undergraduate university students, attending a large university in the Northern part of Jordan were eligible to participate. A convenience sample of 600 female students from both health professional and non-health professional schools were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire designed to collect data on students' intentions and attitudes toward breastfeeding and self-objectification, with a response rate of 82.6% (n=496). Ethical approval was obtained from the Scientific Research Board of the Jordan University of Science and Technology prior to the start of the study. The majority of the students gave favourable responses towards the attitude statements and reported a commitment to breastfeeding Students' attitudes toward breastfeeding correlated significantly with self-objectification. Participants with negative attitudes towards breastfeeding were more likely to internalise and accept the socio-cultural attitudes towards appearance (r = -0.098, p = 0.029). Participants' intention to breastfeed correlated negatively with self-objectification and those who intended to breastfeed were more likely to reject the socio-cultural attitudes towards the "apearance" subscale (r = 0.097, p = 0.031). The

  2. Possible Biases of Researchers' Attitudes Toward Video Games: Publication Trends Analysis of the Medical Literature (1980-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segev, Aviv; Rovner, Mitchell; Appel, David Ian; Abrams, Aaron W; Rotem, Michal; Bloch, Yuval

    2016-07-18

    The study of video games is expanding, and so is the debate regarding their possible positive and deleterious effects. As controversies continue, several researchers have expressed their concerns about substantial biases existing in the field, which might lead to the creation of a skewed picture, both in the professional and in the lay literature. However, no study has tried to examine this issue quantitatively. The objective of our study was to examine possible systematic biases in the literature, by analyzing the publication trends of the medical and life sciences literature regarding video games. We performed a complete and systematic PubMed search up to December 31, 2013. We assessed all 1927 articles deemed relevant for their attitude toward video games according to the focus, hypothesis, and authors' interpretation of the study results, using a 3-category outcome (positive, negative, and neutral). We assessed the prevalence of different attitudes for possible association with year of publication, location of researchers, academic discipline, methodological research, and centrality of the publishing journals. The attitude toward video games presented in publications varied by year of publication, location, academic discipline, and methodological research applied (Pimpact factor (Pvideo games. Readers, both lay and professional, should weigh these contextual variables when interpreting studies' results, in light of the possible bias they carry. The results also support a need for a more balanced, open-minded approach toward video games, as it is likely that this complex phenomenon carries novel opportunities as well as new hazards.

  3. Possible Biases of Researchers’ Attitudes Toward Video Games: Publication Trends Analysis of the Medical Literature (1980–2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovner, Mitchell; Appel, David Ian; Abrams, Aaron W; Rotem, Michal; Bloch, Yuval

    2016-01-01

    Background The study of video games is expanding, and so is the debate regarding their possible positive and deleterious effects. As controversies continue, several researchers have expressed their concerns about substantial biases existing in the field, which might lead to the creation of a skewed picture, both in the professional and in the lay literature. However, no study has tried to examine this issue quantitatively. Objective The objective of our study was to examine possible systematic biases in the literature, by analyzing the publication trends of the medical and life sciences literature regarding video games. Methods We performed a complete and systematic PubMed search up to December 31, 2013. We assessed all 1927 articles deemed relevant for their attitude toward video games according to the focus, hypothesis, and authors’ interpretation of the study results, using a 3-category outcome (positive, negative, and neutral). We assessed the prevalence of different attitudes for possible association with year of publication, location of researchers, academic discipline, methodological research, and centrality of the publishing journals. Results The attitude toward video games presented in publications varied by year of publication, location, academic discipline, and methodological research applied (Pvideo games. Readers, both lay and professional, should weigh these contextual variables when interpreting studies’ results, in light of the possible bias they carry. The results also support a need for a more balanced, open-minded approach toward video games, as it is likely that this complex phenomenon carries novel opportunities as well as new hazards. PMID:27430187

  4. Iodine nutrition status and knowledge, attitude, and behavior in Tehranian women following 2 decades without public education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmiran, Parvin; Nazeri, Pantea; Amiri, Parisa; Mehran, Ladan; Shakeri, Nezhat; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the association of iodine nutrition status and knowledge, attitude, and behavior in Tehranian women after 2 decades without updating public education. Cross-sectional study. Eight health care centers from 4 district areas of Tehran. A total of 383 women aged ≥ 19 years, randomly selected. Iodine concentration of 24-hour urine samples, iodine content of household salts, and knowledge, attitude, and practice scores regarding iodine nutrition and iodized salt. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify the association of knowledge, attitude, and practice scores with urinary iodine concentration (UIC) women with high knowledge, attitude, and practice scores were 26%, 26%, and 14%, respectively. Practice score was significantly different between females with UIC 100 μg/L (P = .001). Risk of UIC women of childbearing age (19-45 years) after adjustment of education level, region of residence, and iodine content of salt was significantly associated with intermediate practice score (odds ratio = 2.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-13.2). Marginally suboptimal iodine status in women of childbearing age can be attributed to inappropriate practices, but not to knowledge and attitude. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Impact of Suicide Prevention Public Service Announcements on Help-Seeking Attitudes: The Message Makes a Difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie Klimes-Dougan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Suicide continues to be one of the most serious public health challenges. Public service announcements are frequently used to address this challenge, but are rarely sufficiently evaluated to determine if they meet the intended goals, or are associated with potential iatrogenic effects. Although it is challenging to assess the relative impact of different PSA modalities, our group previously noted that one billboard message failed to show the same benefits as one TV ad (e.g., Klimes-Dougan & Lee, 2010. The purpose of this study was to extend these findings to test critical aspects of suicide prevention billboard messaging. Although both simulated billboard messages presented had identical supporting messages, we predicted that the more personal billboard message, focused on saving one’s life, would cause more favorable help-seeking attitudes than the message focused on suicide. Young adult university students (N = 785 were randomly assigned to one of three conditions; one of two billboard simulations or a TV ad simulation. Help-seeking attitudes, maladaptive coping and reports of concern and distress were evaluated. The results of this study suggest some relative benefits in endorsement of favorable help-seeking attitudes for one of the billboard conditions - Stop depression from taking another life. Although further research is needed to determine what methods will alter the risk for suicide in the population, the results of this study provide a useful first step showing that some billboard messaging may favorably influence help-seeking attitudes.

  6. Public Company Bankruptcy Cases Opened and Monitored for Fiscal Year 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Securities and Exchange Commission — This file contains all of the bankruptcy cases for public companies opened and monitored in the fiscal year 2009. The data includes the District Court, the state,...

  7. Public attitudes toward geological disposal of carbon dioxide in Canada : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, J.

    2005-01-01

    A research project investigating the public's perceptions of the risks and benefits of the geologic disposal of carbon dioxide (GDC) technology was presented. Data for the project was collected in 2 phases. Focus groups were conducted in order to understand the likely range of attitudes and concerns about the technology. The information obtained from the focus groups was then used to design an Internet-based survey for administration to a sample of 1967 Canadians. The survey included questions about climate change and GDC as well as a discrete choice experiment. Linear multiple regression analysis was used to identify the determinants of the respondents' support for GDC. Results showed that while a strong majority of Canadians believed that climate change was occurring, climate change ranked very low in importance compared to other national issues, and was the lowest ranked environmental issue. Knowledge of GDC was low, and the vast majority of those who had heard of GDC could not identify what environmental problem it was meant to address. The most important benefits of GDC were seen to be its utility as a bridging technology while long-term climate change solutions are developed; the potential for its use in enhanced oil recovery; and its ability to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, the risks of GDC were rated as more important than the benefits, and included concerns about unknown future impacts; contamination of groundwater; the risk of a carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) leak; and risks to plants and animals. It was concluded that respondents were slightly supportive of GDC development in Canada, and perceived the technology as having a net positive impact on the environment. GDC was seen as less risky than normal oil and gas industry operations, nuclear power, or coal-burning power plants. It was concluded that GDC is less popular then energy efficiency and renewable energy alternatives, and should be used in combination with these technologies in order to

  8. Monitoring Cataract Surgical Outcome in a Public Hospital in Orlu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the proportion and causes of poor visual outcome of cataract operations done in a public hospital in southeast Nigeria and propose actions to improve the cataract surgical outcome. Method: A prospective observational analysis of the initial hundred cases of cataract operations done in Imo State ...

  9. Use of Twitter to monitor attitudes toward depression and schizophrenia: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola J. Reavley

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The paper reports on an exploratory study of the usefulness of Twitter for unobtrusive assessment of stigmatizing attitudes in the community.Materials and Methods. Tweets with the hashtags #depression or #schizophrenia posted on Twitter during a 7-day period were collected. Tweets were categorised based on their content and user information and also on the extent to which they indicated a stigmatising attitude towards depression or schizophrenia (stigmatising, personal experience of stigma, supportive, neutral, or anti-stigma. Tweets that indicated stigmatising attitudes or personal experiences of stigma were further grouped into the following subthemes: social distance, dangerousness, snap out of it, personal weakness, inaccurate beliefs, mocking or trivializing, and self-stigma.Results and Discussion. Tweets on depression mostly related to resources for consumers (34%, or advertised services or products for individuals with depression (20%. The majority of schizophrenia tweets aimed to increase awareness of schizophrenia (29% or reported on research findings (22%. Tweets on depression were largely supportive (65% or neutral (27%. A number of tweets were specifically anti-stigma (7%. Less than 1% of tweets reflected stigmatising attitudes (0.7% or personal experience of stigma (0.1%. More than one third of the tweets which reflected stigmatising attitudes were mocking or trivialising towards individuals with depression (37%. The attitude that individuals with depression should “snap out of it” was evident in 30% of the stigmatising tweets. The majority of tweets relating to schizophrenia were categorised as supportive (42% or neutral (43%. Almost 10% of tweets were explicitly anti-stigma. The percentage of tweets showing stigmatising attitudes was 5%, while less than 1% of tweets described personal experiences of stigmatising attitudes towards individuals with schizophrenia. Of the tweets that indicated stigmatising attitudes

  10. MONITORING OF THE ACTIVITY OF PUBLIC PROCUREMENT SYSTEM IN COUNTRIES OF EUROPEAN UNION AND UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Ksonzhyk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The research objective is to study and summarize the experience of the European Union countries in the field of public procurement monitoring; to study the activities that form its mechanism; to analyse forms of monitoring. Also, the current state, problems and prospects of creation and implementation of the mechanism for public procurement monitoring in Ukraine are studied; administrative and corruption risks are revealed. Methodology. Theoretical and methodological backgrounds of the research are formed on the basis of the provisions, categories, and concepts of economic theory, national and world economy, strategic development of public procurement, modelling. Laws and regulations that are regulators of the public procurement system and its monitoring, the works of domestic and foreign scientists on investigated issues were of greater importance. The system-structural analysis and synthesis, general scientific methods and methods of economic research are used to analyse and evaluate the phenomena and processes that accompany the functioning of the public procurement market and the mechanism for its monitoring. In particular, historical and dialectical methods (when studying the development of public procurement system in Western countries, the definition of stages and trends in its formation, the development and adoption of treaties for the regulation of public procurement within the European Union; method of expert assessments (for assessing the regulatory and legal support for public procurement monitoring; abstractlogical method (when establishing the factors for the formation of a monitoring mechanism in the field of public procurement in Ukraine, in particular, the institutional and organizational-economic features of its implementation, when assessing the criteria and performance indicators for the functioning of the monitoring system and its impact on the public procurement market, for theoretical generalization and conclusions

  11. Eliciting Public Attitudes Regarding Bioremediation Cleanup Technologies: Lessons Learned from a Consensus Workshop in Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denise Lach, Principle Investigator; Stephanie Sanford, Co-P.I.

    2003-03-01

    During the summer of 2002, we developed and implemented a ''consensus workshop'' with Idaho citizens to elicit their concerns and issues regarding the use of bioremediation as a cleanup technology for radioactive nuclides and heavy metals at Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The consensus workshop is a derivation of a technology assessment method designed to ensure dialogue between experts and lay people. It has its origins in the United States in the form of ''consensus development conferences'' used by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to elicit professional knowledge and concerns about new medical treatments. Over the last 25 years, NIH has conducted over 100 consensus development conferences. (Jorgensen 1995). The consensus conference is grounded in the idea that technology assessment and policy needs to be socially negotiated among many different stakeholders and groups rather than narrowly defined by a group of experts. To successfully implement new technology, the public requires access to information that addresses a full complement of issues including understanding the organization proposing the technology. The consensus conference method creates an informed dialogue, making technology understandable to the general public and sets it within perspectives and priorities that may differ radically from those of the expert community. While specific outcomes differ depending on the overall context of a conference, one expected outcome is that citizen panel members develop greater knowledge of the technology during the conference process and, sometimes, the entire panel experiences a change in attitude toward the technology and/or the organization proposing its use (Kluver 1995). The purpose of this research project was to explore the efficacy of the consensus conference model as a way to elicit the input of the general public about bioremediation of radionuclides and heavy metals at Department of Energy sites

  12. Stroke patients and their attitudes toward mHealth monitoring to support blood pressure control and medication adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Carolyn; Burkett, Nina-Sarena; Ovbiagele, Bruce; Mueller, Martina; Patel, Sachin; Brunner-Jackson, Brenda; Saulson, Raelle; Treiber, Frank

    2016-05-01

    Mobile health, or mHealth, has increasingly been signaled as an effective means to expedite communication and improve medical regimen adherence, especially for patients with chronic health conditions such as stroke. However, there is a lack of data on attitudes of stroke patients toward mHealth. Such information will aid in identifying key indicators for feasibility and optimal implementation of mHealth to prevent and/or decrease rates of secondary stroke. Our objective was to ascertain stroke patients' attitudes toward using mobile phone enabled blood pressure (BP) monitoring and medication adherence and identify factors that modulate these attitudes. Sixty stroke patients received a brief demonstration of mHealth devices to assist with BP control and medication adherence and a survey to evaluate willingness to use this technology. The 60 participants had a mean age of 57 years, were 43.3% male, and 53.3% were White. With respect to telecommunication prevalence, 93.3% owned a cellular device and 25% owned a smartphone. About 70% owned a working computer. Regarding attitudes, 85% felt comfortable with a doctor or nurse using mHealth technologies to monitor personal health information, 78.3% believed mHealth would help remind them to follow doctor's directions, and 83.3% were confident that technology could effectively be used to communicate with health care providers for medical needs. Mobile device use is high in stroke patients and they are amenable to mHealth for communication and assistance in adhering to their medical regimens. More research is needed to explore usefulness of this technology in larger stroke populations.

  13. Track leading to decision of 'framework for nuclear energy policy'. Reading the public attitude with public opinions (the first). Contents of a new plan (as of June 2005)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimooka, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    The Government decides to respect the 'Framework for Nuclear Energy Policy', which was decided by the Atomic Energy Commission on October 11th, 2005, as a basic principle for the nuclear energy policy and promote research, development and utilization of nuclear science and engineering. The Planning Council asked public opinion and received 758 opinions from 393 citizens. The Council continued the deliberation taking these opinions and compiled a preliminary draft of the 'Framework for Nuclear Energy Policy'. Reading the public attitude with public opinions had been conducted by the author, which showed the necessity for the nation to communicate crucial issues such as the nation's role of nuclear program's implementation, reasons for further promotion of nuclear program and its impacts on environments as well as more preferable introduction of new energy or energy conservation in stead of nuclear power, more to the public. (T. Tanaka)

  14. Abuse of disabled parking: Reforming public's attitude through persuasive multimedia strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahaya, W A J W; Zain, M Z M

    2014-01-01

    Attitude is one of the factors that contribute to the abuse of disabled parking. The attitude's components are affective, cognitive and behavioral and may be formed in various ways including learning and persuasion. Using learning and persuasion approach, this study has produced a persuasive multimedia aiming to form a positive attitude toward disabled persons in order to minimize the rate of disabled parking abuse. The persuasive multimedia was developed using Principle of Social Learning draws from Persuasive Technology as learning strategy at macro persuasion level, and modality and redundancy principles draw from Multimedia Learning Principles as design strategy at micro persuasion level. In order to measure the effectiveness of the persuasive multimedia, 93 respondents were selected in a 2 × 2 quasi experimental research design for experiment. Attitude components of affective, cognitive and behavioral were measured using adapted instrument from the Multi Dimensional Attitudes Scale toward Persons With Disabilities (MAS). Result of the study shows that the persuasive multimedia which designed based on Social Learning Theory at macro persuasion level is capable of forming positive attitude toward disabled person. The cognitive component of the attitude found to be the most responsive component. In term of design strategy at the micro persuasion level, modality found to be the most significant strategy compare to redundancy. While males are more responsive to the persuasive multimedia compare to females

  15. Abuse of disabled parking: Reforming public's attitude through persuasive multimedia strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahaya, W. A. J. W.; Zain, M. Z. M.

    2014-02-01

    Attitude is one of the factors that contribute to the abuse of disabled parking. The attitude's components are affective, cognitive and behavioral and may be formed in various ways including learning and persuasion. Using learning and persuasion approach, this study has produced a persuasive multimedia aiming to form a positive attitude toward disabled persons in order to minimize the rate of disabled parking abuse. The persuasive multimedia was developed using Principle of Social Learning draws from Persuasive Technology as learning strategy at macro persuasion level, and modality and redundancy principles draw from Multimedia Learning Principles as design strategy at micro persuasion level. In order to measure the effectiveness of the persuasive multimedia, 93 respondents were selected in a 2 × 2 quasi experimental research design for experiment. Attitude components of affective, cognitive and behavioral were measured using adapted instrument from the Multi Dimensional Attitudes Scale toward Persons With Disabilities (MAS). Result of the study shows that the persuasive multimedia which designed based on Social Learning Theory at macro persuasion level is capable of forming positive attitude toward disabled person. The cognitive component of the attitude found to be the most responsive component. In term of design strategy at the micro persuasion level, modality found to be the most significant strategy compare to redundancy. While males are more responsive to the persuasive multimedia compare to females.

  16. Public Knowledge and Attitude toward Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Tokat Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Yilmaz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The World health Organization (WHO declares Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fe­ver (CCHF endemic in Turkey. Despite the magnitude of problem, no documented evi­dence exists in Turkey, which reveals the aware­ness and practices of the country's adult popula­tion regarding CCHF, its spread, symptoms, treatment, and preven­tion. This study was conducted to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding CCHF in people visit­ing terti­ary care hospital in Tokat, Turkey.Methods: This questionnaire based cross-sectional survey was conducted among patients' rela­tives or guardians who ad­mitted pediatric outpatient clinics during May-July 2008. The question­naire was composed of 25 questions.Results: A total of 1034 respondents participated in the survey. Sufficient knowledge about CCHF was not found in 28.9% of the sample. Literate individuals were relatively better informed about CCHF as compared to the illiterate peo­ple. Television and radio were con­sidered as the most important and useful source of information on the disease.Conclusion: We have found insufficient knowledge on CCHF in our population. It is thought to have no chance of suc­cess against a fatal disease such as CCHF, which has serious consequences, without the contribution of commu­nity. It is clear that there are important tasks for health, agri­culture, and media sectors to improve public knowledge and awareness about CCHF.

  17. Contingent Faculty Perceptions of Organizational Support, Workplace Attitudes, and Teaching Evaluations at a Public Research University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Young Cha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research examines contingent faculty’s perception of organizational support, workplace attitudes, and Student Ratings of Teaching (SRT in a large public research university to investigate their employee-organization relationship. According to t-tests and regression analyses for samples of 2,229 faculty and instructional staff who answered the survey and had SRT data (tenured and tenure-track faculty: 1,708, 76.6% of total; contingent faculty: 521, 23.4% of total, employment relationship of contingent faculty in this institution was closer to a combined economic and social exchange model than to a pure economic exchange model or underinvestment model. Contingent faculty’s satisfaction with work, satisfaction with coworkers, perception of being supported at work, and affective organizational commitment were higher than tenured and tenure-track faculty at a statistically significant level. In addition, contingent faculty had higher SRT mean results in all areas of SRT items in medium-size (10-30 classes and in ‘class presentation,’ ‘feedback,’ ‘deeper understanding,’ and ‘interest stimulated’ in large-size (30-50 classes than Tenured and Tenure-track Faculty. These results not only refute the misconception that contingent faculty have too little time to provide students with feedback but also support that they provide students with good teaching, at least in medium-size and large-size classes. Whereas these results might be partially attributable to the relatively stable status of contingent faculty in this study (who work for more than 50 percent FTE, they indicate that, as a collective, contingent faculty also represent a significant contributor to the university, who are satisfied with their work, enjoy the community they are in, and are committed to their institution.

  18. Public involvement in pharmacogenomics research: a national survey on public attitudes towards pharmacogenomics research and the willingness to donate DNA samples to a DNA bank in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Eriko; Satoh, Nobunori

    2009-11-01

    To assess the attitudes of the Japanese general public towards pharmacogenomics research and a DNA bank for identifying genomic markers associated with ADRs and their willingness to donate DNA samples, we conducted a national survey for 1,103 Japanese adults from the general public, not a patient population. The response rate was 36.8%. The majority of the respondents showed a positive attitude towards pharmacogenomics research (81.0%) and a DNA bank (70.4%). Considering fictitious clinical situations such as taking medications and experiencing ADRs, the willingness to donate DNA samples when experiencing ADRs (61.7%) was higher than when taking medications (45.3%). Older generations were significantly associated with a decreased willingness to donate (OR = 0.45, CI 0.28-0.72 in 50s. OR = 0.49, CI: 0.31-0.77 in 60s). Positive attitudes towards pharmacogenomics research, a DNA bank, blood/bone marrow/organ donation were significantly associated with an increased willingness. However, the respondents had the following concerns regarding a DNA bank: the confidentiality of their personal information, the manner by which research results were utilized and simply the use of their own DNA for research. In order to attain public understanding to overcome these concerns, a process of public awareness should be put into place to emphasize the beneficial aspects of identifying genomic markers associated with ADRs and to address these concerns raised in our study. Further study is needed to assess the willingness of actual patients taking medications in real situations, since the respondents in our study were from the general public, not a patient population, and their willingness was assessed on the condition of assuming that they were patients taking medications.

  19. An empirical analysis of the public's attitudes toward advertising hospital services: a comparative cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, H Ronald; Freeman, Gordon L

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates current opinions about hospital advertising and compares them to the attitudes expressed 25 years ago. It replicates a survey done in 1985, using the same questionnaire and population to compare responses longitudinally. The study indicates some changes in the public's opinions of hospital advertising. Although the image of hospitals remains positive, most of the 2010 respondents' opinions were rather mixed regarding whether it is proper for hospitals to advertise. The study also confirmed that the quality of service and reputation of hospitals remain more important to the public than price.

  20. Impact of the TEPCO incident on the public's attitude to nuclear power generation. Periodic survey No.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitada, Atsuko

    2003-01-01

    The impact of the TEPCO incident, was examined, using the data collected by public opinion polls on power generation, which have been conducted persistently since 1993. The survey revealed that there were no negative changes in the public's attitude overall (including their concerns about nuclear power accidents, their sense of danger of such accidents, the image of organizations involved in nuclear power generation, their confidence in such organizations, and their opinion on the use of nuclear power generation), and that the TEPCO incident had no impact on the public's attitude to nuclear power generation. In contrast with the JCO accident, which did affect the public's attitude to nuclear power generation, the TEPCO incident left a strong impression on few people, and public awareness was limited. Such low public awareness is deemed to relate to its lack of impact on the public's attitude to nuclear power generation. In the case of the JCO accident, even individuals who had limited exposure to the mass media were highly of it, whereas in the case of the TEPCO incident, individuals who were relatively unexposed to the mass media were substantially less aware of the incident than their more mass-media-exposed counterparts. This is deemed to have been due to the difference in mass media reports. A comparison of newspaper articles covering the TEPCO and the JCO accident substantiated the quantitative difference in mass media reports: articles on the former numbered less than half of the latter. Correlation analysis with respect to the awareness of the TEPCO incident was conducted, in order to identify the impact of the incident on individuals with a high level of awareness. Such individuals were highly confident that safe operation is being regarded as the top-priority objective by staff at the nuclear power plants, indicating that their confidence was not undermined by the TEPCO incident. However, there was a high level of distrust, that the truth about safety is

  1. Job attitudes and well-being among public vs. private physicians: organizational justice and job control as mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heponiemi, Tarja; Kuusio, Hannamaria; Sinervo, Timo; Elovainio, Marko

    2011-08-01

    The present study examined whether there are differences in job-related attitudes and well-being among physicians working in private sector and public sector. In addition, we examined whether psychosocial factors (organizational justice and job control) could mediate these possible differences in different sectors. Cross-sectional survey data from the Finnish Health Professional Study was used. A random sample of Finnish physicians included 1522 women and 1047 men aged 25-65 years. Outcome variables were job satisfaction, organizational commitment, psychological distress, work ability and sleeping problems. Job control and organizational justice were measured using established questionnaires. Series of regression analyses were performed and the mediational effects were tested following the procedures outlined by Baron and Kenny. Physicians working in private sector had higher levels of job satisfaction and organizational commitment and lower levels of psychological distress and sleeping problems when compared with physicians working in public sector. Private physicians also had higher levels of organizational justice, which acted as a mediator behind more positive attitudes and better well-being in private sector. Private physicians had higher levels of job control but it did not act as a mediator. Private physicians feel better than public physicians and this is partly due to higher organizational justice in private sector. Public health care organizations should invest effort to increase the fairness in their organizations and management and pay more attention in improving the well-being of their employees, which could possibly increase the attractiveness of public sector as a career option.

  2. Public attitudes to GM foods. The balancing of risks and gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, John; Caplanova, Anetta; Novak, Marcel

    2015-09-01

    In the paper we study the variables influencing attitudes to the use of two biotechnologies related to gene transfer within apples. Using Eurobarometer 73.1 survey data on biotechnology, science and technology, with 15,650 respondents, we study the extent these attitudes are determined by socio-economic and other variables. We found that attitudes to the risks and gains are determined by socio-economic variables and also by the individual's knowledge, scientific background, their parent's education in science and their religion. Perceptions of naturalness and of environmental impact combined with perceived risks and gains in determining overall approval, proxied by views on whether the technologies should be encouraged, for GMTs. However there are substantial differences in attitudes to transgenesis and cisgenesis. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Philippine survey of public attitudes towards alternative energy systems (Pilot Study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savellano, R.A.; Leonin, T.V. Jr.; Bulaon, C.A.; Leon, G.C. de.

    1980-01-01

    The methodology designed by the Joint IAEA/IIASA Project Team on Risk Assessment based on the work of Fishbein and his associates is utilized in this study, in order to determine its applicability in measuring of attitudes of Philippine sample groups. This pilot study was conducted on a group composed of individuals affiliated with a government agency engaged in nuclear energy research. The study demonstrates the applicability and usefulness of the model for attitude measurement under Philippine conditions. (author)

  4. Does media coverage influence public attitudes towards welfare recipients? The impact of the 2011 English riots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Aaron; de Vries, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Following the shooting of Mark Duggan by police on 4 August 2011, there were riots in many large cities in the UK. As the rioting was widely perceived to be perpetrated by the urban poor, links were quickly made with Britain's welfare policies. In this paper, we examine whether the riots, and the subsequent media coverage, influenced attitudes toward welfare recipients. Using the British Social Attitudes survey, we use multivariate difference-in-differences regression models to compare attitudes toward welfare recipients among those interviewed before (pre-intervention: i.e. prior to 6 August) and after (post-intervention: 10 August-10 September) the riots occurred (N = 3,311). We use variation in exposure to the media coverage to test theories of media persuasion in the context of attitudes toward welfare recipients. Before the riots, there were no significant differences between newspaper readers and non-readers in their attitudes towards welfare recipients. However, after the riots, attitudes diverged. Newspaper readers became more likely than non-readers to believe that those on welfare did not really deserve help, that the unemployed could find a job if they wanted to and that those on the dole were being dishonest in claiming benefits. Although the divergence was clearest between right-leaning newspaper and non-newspaper readers, we do not a find statistically significant difference between right- and left-leaning newspapers. These results suggest that media coverage of the riots influenced attitudes towards welfare recipients; specifically, newspaper coverage of the riots increased the likelihood that readers of the print media expressed negative attitudes towards welfare recipients when compared with the rest of the population. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.

  5. Temporal changes in the attitude towards smoking bans in public arenas among adults in the Capital Region of Denmark from 2007 to 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Maja; Helbech, Bodil; Glümer, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The population's attitude towards smoking bans in public arenas is important for their passing, implementation and compliance. Smoking bans are believed to reduce the social acceptability of smoking, and once people experience them, public support increases - also among pre-ban sceptics....... This study aimed to examine the temporal changes in public attitude towards smoking bans in public arenas from 2007 to 2010 and whether these changes differed across educational attainment, smoking status and intention to quit among smokers. Methods: Data from two surveys among adults (aged 25-79 years......) in 2007 and 2010 in the Capital Region of Denmark (n=36,472/42,504, response rate = 52.3) was linked with data on sex, age and educational attainment from central registers. Age-standardised prevalence of supportive attitude towards smoking bans was estimated. Temporal changes in supportive attitude were...

  6. Evaluation of Chronic Disease Prevention and Control Public Service Advertisement on the Awareness and Attitude Change among Urban Population in Chongqing, China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Tingting; Hu, Ping; Huang, Hao; Wu, Chengbin; Fu, Zhirong; Du, Lei; Xu, Xianglong; Shi, Zumin; Zhao, Yong

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of public service advertising on the awareness and attitude of Chongqing urban citizens. The theme of the public service advertisement launched in Chongqing was chronic disease prevention and control. A self-designed questionnaire was used in an outdoor intercept survey to collect information about the perception of citizens toward the effect of the advertisement on awareness and attitude situation. Respondents had good knowledge of chronic d...

  7. Public attitudes towards and demand for hydrogen and fuel cell vehicles. A review of the evidence and methodological implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yetano Roche, Maria; Mourato, Susana; Fischedick, Manfred; Pietzner, Katja; Viebahn, Peter

    2010-01-01

    It is now widely recognized that effective communication and demand-side policies for alternative energy require sound knowledge of preferences and determinants of demand of the public and consumers. To date, public attitudes towards new transport technologies have been studied under very different conceptual frameworks. This paper gives an overview of the various conceptual frameworks and methodologies used, where four main approaches can be distinguished: general attitudinal surveys, risk perception studies, non-market economic valuation studies, and other approaches such as those based on semiotic theory. We then review the findings of the recent literature on acceptance, attitudes and preferences for hydrogen and fuel cell end-use technologies, focusing on vehicles. These studies are then contrasted with related research into alternative fuel vehicles. The paper finally discusses the main trends in research and avenues for further work in this field. We recommend, among other things, the use of approaches that build knowledge and familiarity with the technology prior to the exploration of attitudes, and the set up of studies that take a whole-systems perspective of hydrogen technologies and that look at hydrogen in the context of other competing clean technologies. (author)

  8. Public attitudes towards and demand for hydrogen and fuel cell vehicles. A review of the evidence and methodological implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yetano Roche, Maria [Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Energy and Environment, PO BOX 100480, 42004 Wuppertal (Germany); Department of Geography and Environment, London School of Economics and Political Science (United Kingdom); Mourato, Susana [Department of Geography and Environment, London School of Economics and Political Science (United Kingdom); Fischedick, Manfred; Pietzner, Katja; Viebahn, Peter [Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Energy and Environment, PO BOX 100480, 42004 Wuppertal (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    It is now widely recognized that effective communication and demand-side policies for alternative energy require sound knowledge of preferences and determinants of demand of the public and consumers. To date, public attitudes towards new transport technologies have been studied under very different conceptual frameworks. This paper gives an overview of the various conceptual frameworks and methodologies used, where four main approaches can be distinguished: general attitudinal surveys, risk perception studies, non-market economic valuation studies, and other approaches such as those based on semiotic theory. We then review the findings of the recent literature on acceptance, attitudes and preferences for hydrogen and fuel cell end-use technologies, focusing on vehicles. These studies are then contrasted with related research into alternative fuel vehicles. The paper finally discusses the main trends in research and avenues for further work in this field. We recommend, among other things, the use of approaches that build knowledge and familiarity with the technology prior to the exploration of attitudes, and the set up of studies that take a whole-systems perspective of hydrogen technologies and that look at hydrogen in the context of other competing clean technologies. (author)

  9. Public attitudes towards and demand for hydrogen and fuel cell vehicles: A review of the evidence and methodological implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yetano Roche, Maria, E-mail: maria.yetano@wupperinst.or [Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Energy and Environment, PO BOX 100480, 42004 Wuppertal (Germany) and Department of Geography and Environment; London School of Economics and Political Science, Houghton Street, London WC2A 2AE (United Kingdom); Mourato, Susana [Department of Geography and Environment, London School of Economics and Political Science, Houghton Street, London WC2A 2AE (United Kingdom); Fischedick, Manfred; Pietzner, Katja; Viebahn, Peter [Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Energy and Environment, PO BOX 100480, 42004 Wuppertal (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    It is now widely recognized that effective communication and demand-side policies for alternative energy require sound knowledge of preferences and determinants of demand of the public and consumers. To date, public attitudes towards new transport technologies have been studied under very different conceptual frameworks. This paper gives an overview of the various conceptual frameworks and methodologies used, where four main approaches can be distinguished: general attitudinal surveys, risk perception studies, non-market economic valuation studies, and other approaches such as those based on semiotic theory. We then review the findings of the recent literature on acceptance, attitudes and preferences for hydrogen and fuel cell end-use technologies, focusing on vehicles. These studies are then contrasted with related research into alternative fuel vehicles. The paper finally discusses the main trends in research and avenues for further work in this field. We recommend, among other things, the use of approaches that build knowledge and familiarity with the technology prior to the exploration of attitudes, and the set up of studies that take a whole-systems perspective of hydrogen technologies and that look at hydrogen in the context of other competing clean technologies.

  10. 'Chernobyl' in the public opinion of the Federal Republic of Germany - risk perception, political attitudes and information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennen, L.; Peters, H.P.

    1990-01-01

    The information behaviour of the population after Chernobyl was characterized by a sceptical attitude to reporting in the media, which was frequently considered to be inaccurate. A critical attitude was, however, also revealed towards primary information sources such as the government, opposition, nuclear research centres, industry, action groups and ecological research institutes. The majority of the population are evidently oriented both towards statements from established institutions such as the government and nuclear research centres as well as to information from institutions and persons critical of nuclear energy; they therefore did not shut their eyes to contradictions in the published information. It became clear that a majority of the respondents had a preference for a decentralized information policy where the public has unimpeded access to as many information sources as possible. (orig.) [de

  11. The effect of message frame in anti-smoking public service announcements on cognitive response and attitude toward smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lijiang

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether and how message frames in anti-smoking public service announcements (PSAs) affect individuals' cognition and attitude toward smoking. Individuals in a sample of 315 participants were randomly assigned to one of three experimental framing conditions: (a) health consequence, (b) secondhand smoke, and (c) industry manipulation. Each participant viewed four PSAs in a random order within a particular message frame. The study found strong evidence for the application effect in framing. The accessibility effect in framing was found to be conditional on message frame. Individuals' cognition on health consequence of smoking and on industry manipulation predicted their attitude toward smoking, but not cognition on secondhand smoke. The three frames also led to different patterns of affective responses that can be a basis for persuasion. Implications for message framing effect and anti-smoking campaigns were discussed.

  12. See I told you I was taking it! - attitudes of adolescents with asthma towards a device monitoring their inhaler use: Implications for future design

    OpenAIRE

    Howard, Sam; Lang, Alexandra. R.; Sharples, Sarah; Shaw, Dominick E.

    2016-01-01

    Adherence to treatment in asthma is often poor, particularly in adolescents and children where the condition is most prevalent. Electronic monitoring devices have shown potential for improving inhaler use, yet little research has considered the attitudes of patients towards these devices. We gave seven adolescents with asthma an electronic monitoring device to use for one month and collected their views on important issues including monitoring and data sharing. Our results showed that partici...

  13. Temporal changes in the attitude towards smoking bans in public arenas among adults in the Capital Region of Denmark from 2007 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykke, Maja; Helbech, Bodil; Glümer, Charlotte

    2014-07-01

    The population's attitude towards smoking bans in public arenas is important for their passing, implementation and compliance. Smoking bans are believed to reduce the social acceptability of smoking, and once people experience them, public support increases--also among pre-ban sceptics. This study aimed to examine the temporal changes in public attitude towards smoking bans in public arenas from 2007 to 2010 and whether these changes differed across educational attainment, smoking status and intention to quit among smokers. Data from two surveys among adults (aged 25-79 years) in 2007 and 2010 in the Capital Region of Denmark (n=36,472/42,504, response rate = 52.3) was linked with data on sex, age and educational attainment from central registers. Age-standardised prevalence of supportive attitude towards smoking bans was estimated. Temporal changes in supportive attitude were explored in workplaces, restaurants and bars using logistic regression models. The prevalence of supportive attitude towards smoking bans increased significantly in all arenas from 2007 to 2010. Positive temporal changes in supportive attitude towards smoking bans were seen across educational attainment, smoking status and intention to quit smoking in restaurants and across smoking status for smoking bans in workplaces and bars. The results of this study show that the public's attitude towards smoking in public arenas has changed after the implementation of a comprehensive smoking ban. This change in attitude can support implementation of future legislation on smoking and may lead to positive changes in smoking norms. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  14. Farmer Attitudes and Livestock Disease: Exploring Citizenship Behaviour and Peer Monitoring across Two BVD Control Schemes in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Claire; Azbel-Jackson, Lena; Brownlie, Joe; Gunn, George

    2016-01-01

    The eradication of BVD in the UK is technically possible but appears to be socially untenable. The following study explored farmer attitudes to BVD control schemes in relation to advice networks and information sharing, shared aims and goals, motivation and benefits of membership, notions of BVD as a priority disease and attitudes toward regulation. Two concepts from the organisational management literature framed the study: citizenship behaviour where actions of individuals support the collective good (but are not explicitly recognised as such) and peer to peer monitoring (where individuals evaluate other's behaviour). Farmers from two BVD control schemes in the UK participated in the study: Orkney Livestock Association BVD Eradication Scheme and Norfolk and Suffolk Cattle Breeders Association BVD Eradication Scheme. In total 162 farmers participated in the research (109 in-scheme and 53 out of scheme). The findings revealed that group helping and information sharing among scheme members was low with a positive BVD status subject to social censure. Peer monitoring in the form of gossip with regard to the animal health status of other farms was high. Interestingly, farmers across both schemes supported greater regulation with regard to animal health, largely due to the mistrust of fellow farmers following voluntary disease control measures. While group cohesiveness varied across the two schemes, without continued financial inducements, longer-term sustainability is questionable.

  15. Farmer Attitudes and Livestock Disease: Exploring Citizenship Behaviour and Peer Monitoring across Two BVD Control Schemes in the UK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Heffernan

    Full Text Available The eradication of BVD in the UK is technically possible but appears to be socially untenable. The following study explored farmer attitudes to BVD control schemes in relation to advice networks and information sharing, shared aims and goals, motivation and benefits of membership, notions of BVD as a priority disease and attitudes toward regulation. Two concepts from the organisational management literature framed the study: citizenship behaviour where actions of individuals support the collective good (but are not explicitly recognised as such and peer to peer monitoring (where individuals evaluate other's behaviour. Farmers from two BVD control schemes in the UK participated in the study: Orkney Livestock Association BVD Eradication Scheme and Norfolk and Suffolk Cattle Breeders Association BVD Eradication Scheme. In total 162 farmers participated in the research (109 in-scheme and 53 out of scheme. The findings revealed that group helping and information sharing among scheme members was low with a positive BVD status subject to social censure. Peer monitoring in the form of gossip with regard to the animal health status of other farms was high. Interestingly, farmers across both schemes supported greater regulation with regard to animal health, largely due to the mistrust of fellow farmers following voluntary disease control measures. While group cohesiveness varied across the two schemes, without continued financial inducements, longer-term sustainability is questionable.

  16. Do public programs in ‘energy regions’ affect citizen attitudes and behavior?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatzl, Stefanie; Brudermann, Thomas; Reinsberger, Kathrin; Posch, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the effect of regional and municipal measures for promoting energy transition on citizen attitudes and behavior. We compare one township that has successfully implemented a comprehensive and systematic energy-saving program (the so-called e5 program) with a township without such a program. The results indicate that despite the program's ambitious aims, e5 implementation has almost no impact on citizen attitudes and behavior. In fact, there are some signs that it might even have slight negative side effects. - Highlights: • Comprehensive and systematic municipal energy transition framework. • Implemented measures slightly impact citizen attitudes. • Implemented measures yield only marginal positive effects on behavior. • Transition framework might also be accompanied by negative behavioral side effects. • Behavioral reactions need to be considered in transition frameworks

  17. [The attitude of the nursing students of Public Higher Medical Professional School in Opole towards the smoking problems in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtal, Mariola; Kurpas, Donata; Bielska, Dorota; Steciwko, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has been main reason of the Polish society health hazard and one of the most widespread unhealthy element of the human life style. Aim of the study is to evaluate the attitude of the nursing students of Public Higher Medical Professional School in Opole towards the smoking problems in Poland. Most of respondents considered the nicotinism problem in Poland as very important--3 of them evaluate importance of problem on the scale of 0 - 10, estimated it from 8, 9 and 10 points. 74.3% of respondents support the opinion to put the total injunction from smoking at public areas into practice. According to respondents, the most effective forms to express a non-smoking lifestyle is to promote the idea of the total injunction from smoking at public areas and the promotion of the nonsmoking people at the mass media.

  18. Evolution of public cooperation in a monitored society with implicated punishment and within-group enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojie; Sasaki, Tatsuya; Perc, Matjaž

    2015-11-01

    Monitoring with implicated punishment is common in human societies to avert freeriding on common goods. But is it effective in promoting public cooperation? We show that the introduction of monitoring and implicated punishment is indeed effective, as it transforms the public goods game to a coordination game, thus rendering cooperation viable in infinite and finite well-mixed populations. We also show that the addition of within-group enforcement further promotes the evolution of public cooperation. However, although the group size in this context has nonlinear effects on collective action, an intermediate group size is least conductive to cooperative behaviour. This contradicts recent field observations, where an intermediate group size was declared optimal with the conjecture that group-size effects and within-group enforcement are responsible. Our theoretical research thus clarifies key aspects of monitoring with implicated punishment in human societies, and additionally, it reveals fundamental group-size effects that facilitate prosocial collective action.

  19. "The Volunteer Monitor" Newsletter: A National Publication for Citizen Scientists (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, E.

    2009-12-01

    Citizen scientists have many communication tools available, including listservs, blogs, websites, and online discussion groups. What is the role of traditional publications such as newsletters or journals in this new environment? This presentation will summarize lessons learned from the 20-year history of The Volunteer Monitor newsletter, a national publication that provides a networking and information-sharing forum for citizen scientists engaged in water quality monitoring. The presenter, who has been the editor of The Volunteer Monitor since 1990, will emphasize practical tips for editors or prospective editors. Topics will include defining the publication's mission and target audience, obtaining submissions, communicating with authors, and applying basic journalistic techniques to enhance the usefulness and readability of articles.

  20. Performance Management and Monitoring of Internal Audit for the Public Sector in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Doina Dascălu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Performance management is an on-going process, which has an essential component part, performance measurement, which involves the identification, supervision and communication of performance results, through the relation to a set of performance indicators. Based on the assessment results, corrective measures are established to ensure attainment of targeted results, offering a feedback, essential for the decision grounding enhancement, at all levels: strategic, operational or individual. As concerns performance management in public institutions in Romania, The Code on managerial internal control provides a hierarchy type model, in the framework of which, the head of the public entity, which is on the first level, needs to provide for performance monitoring for each objective and activity, through the intermediary of relevant quantitative and qualitative indicators, including referring to economy, efficiency, and effectiveness. Given the importance of the internal audit in the process of performance management, identifying solutions for continuous improvement of the public internal audit was subject to a study that was based on questioning public sector auditors on how to monitor the performance of public internal audit activity. Considering issues arising, the article proposes a series of directions for improving the monitoring of the performance of public internal audit activity in the public sector.

  1. Public Place Smoke-Free Regulations, Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Related Beliefs, Awareness, Attitudes, and Practices among Chinese Urban Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Wu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the association between smoke-free regulations in public places and secondhand smoke exposure and related beliefs, awareness, attitudes, and behavior among urban residents in China. Methods: We selected one city (Hangzhou as the intervention city and another (Jiaxing as the comparison. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection, and implemented at two time points across a 20-month interval. Both unadjusted and adjusted logistic methods were considered in analyses. Multiple regression procedures were performed in examining variation between final and baseline measures. Results: Smoke-free regulations in the intervention city were associated with a significant decline in personal secondhand smoke exposure in government buildings, buses or taxis, and restaurants, but there was no change in such exposure in healthcare facilities and schools. In terms of personal smoking beliefs, awareness, attitudes, and practices, the only significant change was in giving quitting advice to proximal family members. Conclusions: There was a statistically significant association between implementation of smoke-free regulations in a city and inhibition of secondhand tobacco smoking exposure in public places. However, any such impact was limited. Effective tobacco control in China will require a combination of strong public health education and enforcement of regulations.

  2. Public attitudes toward programs designed to enhance forest related benefits on private lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald F. Dennis; Mark J. Twery; Michael A. Rechlin; Bruce Hansen

    2003-01-01

    Public agencies may at times provide education, technical help, tax incentives, or other forms of aid to private landowners to help them enhance their land in ways that benefit the public. Since public funds are used to pay these expenses, it is important that program goals be correlated with underlying public values and concerns. We used a conjoint ranking survey to...

  3. Students Opinions and Attitudes towards Physical Education Classes in Kuwait Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Heyam Reda; Mohammad, Mona Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    The aim of study was to investigate student opinion and attitude toward physical education classes. Two thousand seven hundred (2700) students answered the survey: 1239 (45.3%) were male students and 1497 (54.7%) were female from Kuwait six districts: Al_Hawalli, Al_Asimah, Al_Jahra, Al_Mobarak, Al_Farwniah, Al_Ahmadi. Weight Status was determined…

  4. An Examination of Attitudes towards Women in Leadership Positions in Public Universities in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfawzan, Norah Saad

    2017-01-01

    Despite opportunities for female leadership in the field of higher education made available through gender-segregation policies, women leaders are underrepresented in Saudi Arabia (Jamjoom & Kelly, 2013). There are obstacles that Saudi women face when seeking leadership positions in higher education, including societal attitudes on gender. Due…

  5. Addiction Counseling Competencies: The Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes of Professional Practice. Technical Assistance Publication Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999

    This document presents knowledge, skills, and attitudes that are needed for achieving and practicing the competencies listed in Addiction Counseling Competencies, as written by the National Curriculum Committee of the Addiction Technology Transfer Center Program. The document is intended to provide guidance for the professional treatment of…

  6. Adequacy of benefits, distributive justice and individual attitudes and behaviors: A case of public community colleges staff Adequacy of benefits, distributive justice and individual attitudes and behaviors: A case of public community colleges staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Cheekiong

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine the indirect effect of distributive justice in the relationship between adequacy of benefits and individual attitudes and behaviors (i.e., job satisfaction and organizational commitment using 190 usable questionnaires gathered from employees in Malaysian public community colleges (MPCOLLEGE sector. The outcome of stepwise regression analysis showed that the inclusion of distributive justice in the analysis had increased the effect of adequacy of benefits on job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Furthermore, this finding confirms that distributive justice does act as a full mediating variable in the benefits program model of the organizational sector sample. In addition, implications and limitations of this study, as well as directions for future research are discussed.This study was conducted to examine the indirect effect of distributive justice in the relationship between adequacy of benefits and individual attitudes and behaviors (i.e., job satisfaction and organizational commitment using 190 usable questionnaires gathered from employees in Malaysian public community colleges (MPCOLLEGE sector. The outcome of stepwise regression analysis showed that the inclusion of distributive justice in the analysis had increased the effect of adequacy of benefits on job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Furthermore, this finding confirms that distributive justice does act as a full mediating variable in the benefits program model of the organizational sector sample. In addition, implications and limitations of this study, as well as directions for future research are discussed.

  7. Effects of the criticality accident at Tokai-mura on the public's attitude to nuclear power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitada, Atsuko [Institute of Social Research, Institute of Nuclear Safety System Inc., Mihama, Fukui (Japan); Hayashi, Chikio [The Institute of Statistical Mathematics, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-09-01

    The objective of our study was to clarify the effects on the public's attitude of nuclear power and the criticality accident that occurred at the JCO plant in Tokai-mura, Ibaraki Prefecture. For this purpose, we conducted an awareness survey in the Kansai and Kanto areas two months after the accident. Analysis was made on the basis of the comparison of the survey results with the data that the Institute of Nuclear Safety System had accumulated through continuous awareness surveys on nuclear power generation (regular surveys) since 1993. The public's reactions were twofold. On one hand, there were emotional reactions about accidents in nuclear facilities and a reduction in the sense of security. On the other hand, there were reactions concerning the image of nuclear power plant workers and demand on electricity utilities for enhanced employee education and training. The latter reactions correspond to the problems pointed out after the JCO accident. Regarding the utilization of nuclear power generation, the opinion that 'the utilization of nuclear power generation is unavoidable' accounts for 60% of those surveyed. With the opinion that 'nuclear power generation should be utilized' added, 70% of those surveyed take an affirmative attitude to nuclear power utilization. This situation has remained about the same since 1998, the year before the JCO accident. Using the quantification method III to analyze a number of questionnaires about nuclear power generation such as the anxiety about it, we determined overall attitude indexes regarding nuclear power to perform a time sequence comparison. The comparison shows that the attitude after the JCO accident tended to be more negative than in 1998. However, no significant difference in the overall indexes is seen between 1993 and 1998. Judging the comparison results on the basis of the time span starting in 1993 allows us to conclude that the JCO accident has not greatly contributed to worsening

  8. Effects of the criticality accident at Tokai-mura on the public's attitude to nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitada, Atsuko; Hayashi, Chikio

    2000-01-01

    The objective of our study was to clarify the effects on the public's attitude of nuclear power and the criticality accident that occurred at the JCO plant in Tokai-mura, Ibaraki Prefecture. For this purpose, we conducted an awareness survey in the Kansai and Kanto areas two months after the accident. Analysis was made on the basis of the comparison of the survey results with the data that the Institute of Nuclear Safety System had accumulated through continuous awareness surveys on nuclear power generation (regular surveys) since 1993. The public's reactions were twofold. On one hand, there were emotional reactions about accidents in nuclear facilities and a reduction in the sense of security. On the other hand, there were reactions concerning the image of nuclear power plant workers and demand on electricity utilities for enhanced employee education and training. The latter reactions correspond to the problems pointed out after the JCO accident. Regarding the utilization of nuclear power generation, the opinion that 'the utilization of nuclear power generation is unavoidable' accounts for 60% of those surveyed. With the opinion that 'nuclear power generation should be utilized' added, 70% of those surveyed take an affirmative attitude to nuclear power utilization. This situation has remained about the same since 1998, the year before the JCO accident. Using the quantification method III to analyze a number of questionnaires about nuclear power generation such as the anxiety about it, we determined overall attitude indexes regarding nuclear power to perform a time sequence comparison. The comparison shows that the attitude after the JCO accident tended to be more negative than in 1998. However, no significant difference in the overall indexes is seen between 1993 and 1998. Judging the comparison results on the basis of the time span starting in 1993 allows us to conclude that the JCO accident has not greatly contributed to worsening the attitude towards nuclear

  9. Managing and monitoring the public lighting; Gerer et surveiller l`eclairage public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurent, M.

    1997-10-01

    The performances of the public lighting systems is closely dependent of a series of elements and factors from the conceiving to the operation and from the power supply to the light source. This paper takes stocks of the tele-management (centralized technical management), the tele-surveillance (failure detection, energy stealing, self-regulation of light intensity) and of some new technological developments in this domain. (J.S.)

  10. Public secondary school teachers' attitude to family life education in two geopolitical zones of Nigeria: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okusanya, B O; Isabu, P A

    2010-03-01

    This qualitative study was conducted to assess and compare the attitude of teachers in two geopolitical zones of Nigeria to family life education. Multi stage sample selection was used to pick 6 public secondary schools (3 junior, 3 senior) in each zone. All teachers (221) in the selected schools were surveyed. Pre-tested questionnaires were self administered, responses analyzed and results presented using descriptive frequencies. Where appropriate statistical evaluation was done with Yates corrected Chi square at 95% confidence interval. Katsina respondents were mostly Muslims (92.4%), married (64.8%) and had the National Certificate of Education (62.9%). Ekpoma teachers were mostly Christians (97.4%), married (93.1%) and 67.2% had a University degree. Attendance at a seminar on family life education was by 19% and 25.9% of respondents from Katsina and Ekpoma respectively. Teachers' knowledge of family life education was very good and most teachers in both regions considered it useful but there were geographical disparities in perception and attitude. While teachers in Katsina discussed HIV/AIDS twice more with their students than sexuality (54.3% vs 28%) those in Ekpoma discussed sexuality more than HIV/AIDS (80.2% vs 72.4%). Respondents in Katsina reported three times (60% vs 19.8%) more that parents would object to FLE in schools than those in Ekpoma and also that its introduction would encourage promiscuity amongst the students (53.3% vs 21.6%). While being married positively influenced respondents' perception, their attitude was influenced positively by having university degree and teaching at the senior secondary school. Christians significantly discussed sexuality (Chi square 58.60; RR: 3.03) and HIV/AIDS (Chi square 15.01; RR: 1.50) with students than Muslims. Policy makers need to be aware of the regional differences in teachers' attitude to family life education as this may hinder the implementation of curriculum.

  11. Development of quick scan whole body monitor for in-vivo monitoring of radiation workers and general public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankhla, Rajesh; Singh, I.S.; Rao, D.D.; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2015-01-01

    Whole body monitoring of radiation workers at nuclear facilities is a regulatory requirement and is recommended for assessment of internal contamination due to gamma emitting radio nuclides. Additionally, nuclear accidents like Chernobyl, Fukushima and radiological accidents like Goiania have clearly highlighted the need for in-vivo monitoring of the members of the public during and/or after such accidents. To cater to these requirements, a high throughput, fast screening, standing linear geometry Quick Scan Whole Body Monitor (QS-WBM) is designed, fabricated and commissioned to measure internal contamination due to gamma emitting radio nuclides (E γ >200keV) incorporated in the human body. The system is designed to achieve sensitivity comparable with conventional WBM for 1 - 2 minutes counting time and to accommodate different body sizes of Indian occupational workers. It is calibrated using BARC reference Bottle Mannequin Absorption (BOMAB) type phantom and also using a family of BOMAB type phantoms representative of different age groups namely 1-, 5-, 10-, 15- and 20- years. The developed system will also be highly useful during emergency situations when large numbers of persons are to be monitored in short interval of time. (author)

  12. Neuro-Societies? Attitudes and Perceptions in a German Public towards the Neurosciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lumma, Anna-Lena; Nagel, Saskia K.; Nagel, Saskia Kathi

    2016-01-01

    Findings from the neurosciences are increasingly discussed publicly. In neuroethical debates it is often assumed that the general public perceives neuroscientific topics as highly relevant and that it is influenced by the neuroscientific narratives that pervade the public sphere. However, studies on

  13. Key issues of public relations of Europe: findings from the European Communication Monitor 2007-2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verčič, D.; Verhoeven, P.; Zerfass, A.

    2014-01-01

    European Communication Monitor is the largest longitudinal research project in public relations practice in the world. Data collected annually from 2007 to 2014 show that practitioners perceive five issues as the most important for their work: linking business strategy and communication, coping with

  14. Monitoring Manual for Determining Compliance with Public Law 94-142. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    Designed to assist service providers as they strive to provide a full service goal for all handicapped pupils, this manual consists of checklists for monitoring compliance with Public Law 94-142 (Education for All Handicapped Children Act). Checklists of components in general policy areas are: (1) policy requirements (LEAs - Local Educational…

  15. Assessment of knowledge, attitudes and practices about public health nutrition among students of the University of Medicine in Tirana, Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanda Hyska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: the aim of this survey was twofold: (i: to assess medical students’ knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding nutrition in general, in order to identify their level of competences in the field of nutrition which will be useful in their future role of providers/health care professionals, and; (ii to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding the discipline of public health nutrition in order to identify the needs for improving the curriculum of this subject in all the branches of the University of Medicine in Tirana. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in June-July 2013 including a representative sample of 347 students at the University of Medicine in Tirana, Albania (61% females and 39% males; overall mean age: 23±2 years; response rate: 87%. A nutritional questionnaire, adopted according to the models used in previous international studies, was used to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices among the university students. Results: Overall, about one third of the students was not satisfied with the quality and quantity of nutritional education and demanded a more scientifically rigorous curriculum. In general, students’ knowledge about infant feeding practices was adequate. However, there were gaps in the students’ knowledge regarding the commencement of breastfeeding, or the duration of exclusive breast-feeding. Furthermore, there was evidence of an insufficient level of knowledge among students regarding diet and nutrition in general and their health impact, especially on development and prevention of chronic diseases. Conclusion: This survey identified significant gaps in the current curriculum of public health nutrition at the University of Medicine in Tirana. Our findings suggest the need for intervention programs to improve both the quantitative and the qualitative aspects of nutrition curricula in all the branches of the University of Medicine Tirana, in accordance with the

  16. Public health care system, a quasi-experimental study: Acceptance and attitude to implicate clinical services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillani Syed Wasif

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A six-month longitudinal intervention arm study with a pre-post cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was performed. A 3-phase objective structured clinical examination (OSCE design was utilized for evaluation of acceptance and attitude of pharmacy students towards clinical pharmacy services. The pre-OSCE survey showed increased disagreement with the role of clinical pharmacists, compared to a significant positive shift in attitude towards their services in the healthcare team after 6 months of the trial. Responses improved for awareness (the current healthcare system could be improved by involving pharmacists, p < 0.02 and positive attitude categories (doctors and nurses would be happy to welcome the services of competent clinical pharmacists as part of their team, p < 0.01 in addition to competency (pharmacists have sufficient clinical training to advise doctors and nurses, p < 0.01. The predictive model suggested a strong positive effect on patient interaction, medical information tasks, clinical decisions on drug-related problems (DRPs, and communication with healthcare professionals (R2 = 0.41, F = 1.51, p < 0.001.

  17. Identifying Persuasive Public Health Messages to Change Community Knowledge and Attitudes About Bulimia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Siân A; Paxton, Susan J; Massey, Robin; Hay, Phillipa J; Mond, Jonathan M; Rodgers, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Addressing stigma through social marketing campaigns has the potential to enhance currently low rates of treatment seeking and improve the well-being of individuals with the eating disorder bulimia nervosa. This study aimed to evaluate the persuasiveness of health messages designed to reduce stigma and improve mental health literacy about this disorder. A community sample of 1,936 adults (48.2% male, 51.8% female) from Victoria, Australia, provided (a) self-report information on knowledge and stigma about bulimia nervosa and (b) ratings of the persuasiveness of 9 brief health messages on dimensions of convincingness and likelihood of changing attitudes. Messages were rated moderately to very convincing and a little to moderately likely to change attitudes toward bulimia nervosa. The most persuasive messages were those that emphasized that bulimia nervosa is a serious mental illness and is not attributable to personal failings. Higher ratings of convincingness were associated with being female, with having more knowledge about bulimia nervosa, and with lower levels of stigma about bulimia nervosa. Higher ratings for likelihood of changing attitudes were associated with being female and with ratings of the convincingness of the corresponding message. This study provides direction for persuasive content to be included in social marketing campaigns to reduce stigma toward bulimia nervosa.

  18. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of quality standards in small-sized public hospitals, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad Khamis Alomari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess current situations in small size hospitals regarding knowledge of staff, their attitude and practice of quality standards, in order to set a plan to improve the current situations and overcome barriers of quality practice. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional research was conducted by a validated self-administered questionnaire using systematic random technique. Results: The study included about 37.7% Physicians followed by 28.3% nurses, and 18.8% administrators. Median percentage of participants′ knowledge and attitude scores regarding healthcare quality was 48% and 80% respectively. Meanwhile, the median percentage of participants′ perception toward hospital support and implementation of healthcare quality was 54% and 50% respectively. The main barriers for quality standards implementation and practicing were; staff resistance (84.8% followed by deficient knowledge (81.1%. Knowledge showed significant positive correlation with hospital application of quality standards (P = 0.001. Conclusion: The researcher concluded that improvement of knowledge and attitude toward implementation of quality standards as well as leadership commitment to quality and change management were a critical element for organisational shifting transformation to implementing quality of care. Focusing on small hospital and providing more support with all resources for implementation of quality standards through proper education and training for all staff categories are highly recommended.

  19. Motives as predictors of the public's attitudes toward solid waste issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebreo, A.; Vining, J.

    2000-02-01

    Surveys focusing on solid-waste-related issues, conducted over a period of several years, provided data from independent samples of residents of a Midwestern, USA, community. The collection of these data yielded useful information about the relationship between residents' recycling motives and their attitudes toward solid waste management in light of several changes in the solid waste infrastructure of the community over that time. The initial survey assessed baseline beliefs and attitudes, while later surveys were conducted after the implementation of a community educational program and a curbside recycling program. The findings indicated that for recyclers and nonrecyclers, different motives predicted endorsement of solid waste programs and policies. Although a similar percentage of recyclers and nonrecyclers were in support of various proposed programs and policies, concern for the environment was found to be positively related to nonrecyclers' support of proposed programs, particularly before these programs were implemented. Prior to program implementation, motives other than environmental altruism were found to be related to recyclers' support of the programs. Additional findings support the idea that educational programs and increased accessibility to recycling opportunities affect the relationship between people's attitudes toward solid waste management and their recycling motives.

  20. Public Attitudes about Health Information Technology, and Its Relationship to Health Care Quality, Costs, and Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylin, Daniel S; Moiduddin, Adil; Mohamoud, Shamis; Lundeen, Katie; Kelly, Jennifer A

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand Americans' attitudes concerning health information technology's (IT's) potential to improve health care and differences in those attitudes based on demographics and technological affinity. Data Sources/Study Setting A random-digit-dial sample with known probability of selection for every household in the United States with a telephone, plus a supplemental sample of cell phone users. Telephone interviews were conducted from August 2009 through November 2009. Study Design Data were analyzed to present univariate estimates of Americans' opinions of health IT, as well as multivariate logistic regressions to assess hypotheses relating individuals' characteristics to their opinions. Characteristics used in our model include age, race, ethnicity, gender, income, and affinity to technology. Findings A large majority (78 percent) favor use of electronic medical records (EMRs); believe EMRs could improve care and reduce costs (78 percent and 59 percent, respectively); believe benefits of EMR use outweigh privacy risks (64 percent); and support health care information sharing among providers (72 percent). Regression analyses show more positive attitudes among those with higher incomes and greater comfort using electronic technologies. Conclusion The findings suggest that American's believe that health IT adoption is an effective means to improve the quality and safety of health care. PMID:21275986

  1. Beliefs and Attitudes of Medical Students from Public and Private Universities in Malaysia towards Individuals with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Kwee Choy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the findings from a survey assessing the beliefs regarding testing, confidentiality, disclosure, and environment of care and attitudes towards care of people with HIV/AIDS (PLHWA, in 1020, 4th and 5th year medical students, from public and private medical universities in Malaysia. A self-administered validated questionnaire based on the UNAIDS Model Questionnaire with a 5-point Likert scale (5, strongly disagree; 4, disagree; 3, neutral; 2, agree; 1, strongly agree was used as a survey tool. The survey included demographic data and data on undergraduate training received on HIV/AIDS. Statistical significance in the demographic data and training received by respondents was evaluated using the chi-square test while the independent Student’s t-test was used for comparison of means between public and private universities. A value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant with 95% confidence interval. Our study revealed less than 20% of medical students received adequate training to care for PLHWA. They had prevalent negative beliefs regarding testing, confidentiality, disclosure and environment of care towards PLHWA although in giving care to PLHWA, their attitudes were largely positive and nondiscriminatory.

  2. Contested space in the pharmacy: public attitudes to pharmacy harm reduction services in the West of Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidman, Wendy; Coomber, Ross

    2014-01-01

    Internationally, community pharmacies have become increasingly involved in providing harm reduction services and health advice to people who use illicit drugs. This paper considers public opinion of community pharmacy services. It discusses attitudes to harm reduction services in the context of stigmatization of addiction and people who use drugs. This exploratory study involved twenty-six purposively sampled members of the public, from the West of Scotland, participating in one of 5 focus groups. The groups were composed to represent known groups of users and non-users of community pharmacy, none of whom were problem drug users. Three thematic categories were identified: methadone service users in community pharmacies; attitudes to harm reduction policies; contested space. Harm reduction service expansion has resulted in a high volume of drug users in and around some Scottish pharmacies. Even if harm reduction services are provided discretely users' behavior can differentiate them from other pharmacy users. Drug users' behavior in this setting is commonly perceived to be unacceptable and can deter other consumers from using pharmacy services. The results of this study infer that negative public opinion is highly suggestive of stereotyping and stigmatization of people who use drugs. Participants considered that (1) community pharmacies were unsuitable environments for harm reduction service provision, as they are used by older people and those with children; (2) current drug policy is perceived as ineffective, as abstinence is seldom achieved and methadone was reported to be re-sold; (3) people who use drugs were avoided where possible in community pharmacies. Community pharmacy harm reduction services increasingly bring together the public and drug users. Study participants were reluctant to share pharmacy facilities with drug users. This paper concludes by suggesting mechanisms to minimize stigmatization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Performance Monitoring and Evaluation in Botswana’s Public Service: Achievements and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy Mpabanga

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to explore the implementation of performance monitoring and evaluation tools used in Botswana’s public service. The paper also identifies achievements and challenges of implementing performance monitoring and evaluation system and suggests ways for improvement. This paper uses secondary data sources. The paper reveals lack of performance monitoring and evaluation skills, poor supervision, poor conditions of service and a poor work ethic as some of the factors contributing to ineffective use of performance monitoring and evaluation tools in the service. Leadership commitment and support, benchmarking reforms, training and education, developed administrative and governance structures as well as well-defined public policy and program formulation and implementation processes are some of the success factors to enhanced performance management and evaluation systems in Botswana. The paper argues for adoption of a developmental-led model in order to enhance existing performance monitoring and evaluation system that would improve implementation of government policies and programs. Botswana has been striving to excel in service delivery through performance monitoring and evaluation oriented reforms.

  4. IT Governance and the Public Sector: A Survey of Perceptions, Attitudes, and Knowledge of Federal Public Sector IT Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, David P.

    2013-01-01

    IT governance has become an important topic as both public and private organizations struggle to meet the challenge of aligning complex IT systems with operational needs. Without effective IT governance, organizations fail to gain strategic benefits that come by the proper strategic alignment of IT resources with the larger organizational mission.…

  5. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding dengue infection among public sector healthcare providers in Machala, Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Handel, Andrew S.; Ayala, Efra?n Beltr?n; Borbor-Cordova, Mercy J.; Fessler, Abigail G.; Finkelstein, Julia L.; Espinoza, Roberto Xavier Robalino; Ryan, Sadie J.; Stewart-Ibarra, Anna M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Dengue fever is a rapidly emerging infection throughout the tropics and subtropics with extensive public health burden. Adequate training of healthcare providers is crucial to reducing infection incidence through patient education and collaboration with public health authorities. We examined how public sector healthcare providers in a dengue-endemic region of Ecuador view and manage dengue infections, with a focus on the 2009 World Health Organization (WHO) Dengue Guidelines. Metho...

  6. Public beliefs and attitudes towards depression in Italy: a national survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmine Munizza

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that attitudes towards depression may be influenced by country-specific social and cultural factors. A survey was carried out to collect beliefs on and attitudes toward depression in Italy, which has an established community-based mental health system. METHODS: A telephone survey was carried out in a probabilistic sample aged ≥15 years. A 20-item questionnaire was administered to explore knowledge of depression, stigma, causal beliefs, treatment preference, and help-seeking attitudes. RESULTS: Of the 1001 participants, 98% were aware of depression, and 62% had experienced it, either directly or indirectly. A widespread belief (75% was that people suffering from depression should avoid talking about their problem. A minority of the sample viewed depression as a condition that should be managed without recourse to external help or a "socially dangerous" illness. Among perceived causes of depression, most respondents mentioned life stressors or physical strains. Psychologists were often indicated as an adequate source of professional help. Half of the sample believed that depression should be pharmacologically treated, but drugs were often seen as addictive. Referring to a primary care physician (PCP was considered embarrassing; furthermore, many people thought that PCPs are too busy to treat patients suffering from depression. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that depression is seen as a reaction to significant life events that should be overcome with the support of significant others or the help of health professionals (mainly psychologists. However, there are still barriers to the disclosure of depressive symptoms to PCPs, and concerns about the addictive effect of antidepressants. In the presence of a gap between people's beliefs and what health professionals consider appropriate for the treatment of depression, a "shared decision making" approach to treatment selection should be adopted taking into

  7. Device-based monitoring in physical activity and public health research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassett, David R

    2012-01-01

    Measurement of physical activity is important, given the vital role of this behavior in physical and mental health. Over the past quarter of a century, the use of small, non-invasive, wearable monitors to assess physical activity has become commonplace. This review is divided into three sections. In the first section, a brief history of physical activity monitoring is provided, along with a discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of different devices. In the second section, recent applications of physical activity monitoring in physical activity and public health research are discussed. Wearable monitors are being used to conduct surveillance, and to determine the extent and distribution of physical activity and sedentary behaviors in populations around the world. They have been used to help clarify the dose–response relation between physical activity and health. Wearable monitors that provide feedback to users have also been used in longitudinal interventions to motivate research participants and to assess their compliance with program goals. In the third section, future directions for research in physical activity monitoring are discussed. It is likely that new developments in wearable monitors will lead to greater accuracy and improved ease-of-use. (paper)

  8. Attitudes and Motivation to Use Public or Individual Transport: A Case Study of Two Middle-Sized Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Burian

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a quantitative study in the Czech Republic to understand travellers’ attitudes towards and motivation to use different means of transport. Two Czech cities, Olomouc and Ostrava, are compared from the point of view of factors influencing spatial and temporal patterns and citizen’s selection of transport mode and transport behaviour (range and daily movements of the population, perception of the quality of public transport etc.. The data for the analysis were obtained from the survey with more than 500 respondents in each city. Spatial and temporal behaviour represented by the pattern of the movement in Olomouc and Ostrava city was identified by statistical and visual analytics methods. Based on a case study of two cities of a different size, we conclude that the size and shape of the city centre (spatial structure influence not only the distances travelled but also the average speed of public transportation (slower for a smaller city. Distances and choice of transport mode also vary with the density of urban areas but can also be influenced by the spatial structure of the city. The walking distance to a public transport stop does not influence the most frequently used mode of transport. Temporal patterns in both cities are very similar and are not dependent on city size or city spatial structure. The spatial patterns of the car and public transport flows are similar in both cities. Different patterns can be observed for walking and shopping routes.

  9. Why do some therapists not deal with outcome monitoring feedback? A feasibility study on the effect of regulatory focus and person–organization fit on attitude and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Kim; de Goede, Marije

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Despite research on its effectiveness, many therapists still have negative attitudes toward using outcome monitoring feedback. The current study aims to investigate how the perceived match between values of an individual and those of the organization (Person–Organization fit; PO fit), and

  10. Xenophobic societal attitudes in a “new” South Africanism: Governance of public perceptions, national identities and citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Tsheola

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that xenophobia is not a natural state of being for any society; instead, it is a product of socialisation which becomes excessive with violent abuses of the out- group immigrants where such conduct is institutionalised through state apparatus. In this context, post-apartheid South Africanisms cannot be generalised as intrinsically xenophobic because the dreadful societal attitudes and violent abuses are evidently products of institutionalized governance for socialization of public perceptions of hostilities and animosities through the politics and struggles of politico-socio-economic resources. The coinage and officialdom of rainbowism was admission that construction of a new national identity around culture was a virtual impossibility; and, the result was usurpation of exclusionary citizenship that came to define insiders away from outsiders. This notion of citizenship promised access to state and pubic resources, which did not materialise, leading to frustration against government and targeting of out-group African immigrants. Hence, the apparent “felt” collective threat among in-group communities against out-group immigrants over the untenable alibi of job and women stealing as well as acceptance of below minimum wages are inherently functions of irrational jealousy. This article frames this argument through a rigorous examination of the theorisation of xenophobia as “new racism”, models of governance of xenophobic societal attitudes for public hostilities, animosities and violent abuse. Furthermore, it examines constructions of new South Africanism, African Renaissance, exclusionary citizenship, exceptionalism, differentness and the society’s frustration with politico-socio-economic resources exclusionism amidst constitutional inclusivity, tolerance, cultural pluralism, inviolate human rights and the political elitism’s hyperbolic public stunts of a better life for all.

  11. Public attitudes to government intervention to regulate food advertising, especially to children

    OpenAIRE

    Berry, Narelle M; Carter, Patricia; Nolan, Rebecca; Dal Grande, Eleonora; Booth, Sue

    2017-01-01

    The World Health Organization has called on governments to implement recommendations on the marketing of foods and beverages to children. This study describes high public support for government intervention in marketing of unhealthy food to children and suggests more effort is needed to harness public opinion to influence policy development.

  12. Public attitudes to government intervention to regulate food advertising, especially to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Narelle M; Carter, Patricia; Nolan, Rebecca; Dal Grande, Eleonora; Booth, Sue

    2017-03-01

    The World Health Organization has called on governments to implement recommendations on the marketing of foods and beverages to children. This study describes high public support for government intervention in marketing of unhealthy food to children and suggests more effort is needed to harness public opinion to influence policy development.

  13. Knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes toward complementary and alternative medicines among pharmacy students of a Malaysian Public University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshed, Shazia Qasim; Khan, Muhammad Umair; Ahmad, Akram; Elkalmi, Ramadan M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is consistently on the rise worldwide. Consumers often consider pharmacists as a major source of information about CAM products and their safety. Due to the limitation of data, it is worth exploring the knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of pharmacy students toward CAM. Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of pharmacy students regarding the use of CAM in Malaysia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted for 3 months among Bachelor of Pharmacy students in a public sector University of Malaysia. A pretested, self-administered questionnaire, comprised four sections, was used to collect the data from 440 participants. Descriptive analysis was used, and Chi-square test was used to test the association between dependent and independent variables. Results: Of 440 questionnaire distributed, 287 were returned giving a response rate of (65.2%). The results showed that 38.6% participants gave correct answers when asked about the use of herbal products with digoxin. Majority of the participants were knowledgeable about supplementary therapy (25.3%) while the lack of knowledge was mostly evident in traditional Chinese medicines (73.7%). Majority of the students were either neutral (49.5%) or disagreed that (42.8%) CAM use is unsafe. Females were more in disagreement to the statements than males (P = 0.007). Majority of students also agreed to use CAM therapies for their health and well-being (51.2%). Conclusion: The study revealed that pharmacy students did not have adequate knowledge of CAM though their attitudes and perceptions were relatively positive. PMID:26957866

  14. The effect of the 2010 Gulf oil spill on public attitudes toward offshore oil drilling and wind development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilley, Jonathan; Firestone, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    In April 2010, the Deepwater Horizon oil well exploded, releasing over four million barrels of oil into the Gulf of Mexico. This paper presents data from two national mail surveys undertaken in 2008 and 2010 that compare public attitudes to both offshore oil drilling and offshore wind development pre- and post-spill. The results show that while there was a drop in support for expanded drilling (from 66% in 2008 to 59% in 2010) the change was not significant. There was, however, a significant decrease in support for offshore drilling among coastal residents. There was a slight, non-significant increase in support for offshore wind development which remained significantly higher than support for offshore oil (80% in 2008 and 82% in 2010). Despite there being no significant change in overall support levels, there was a shift in the strength of feeling regarding offshore oil, with 80% of Americans either less supportive or more opposed to expanded drilling in 2010 than they were in 2008. -- Highlights: •We assess whether the Gulf oil spill affected attitudes to offshore energy. •Overall support for offshore wind (82%) was greater than for offshore oil (59%). •Support for expanded offshore oil drilling decreased but not significantly. •Support for offshore wind development increased slightly, again not significantly. •Although overall support levels did not change, the strength of feeling did

  15. Public health or social impacts? A qualitative analysis of attitudes toward the smoke-free legislation in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Derek; Ross, Alastair; Eadie, Douglas; MacAskill, Susan; Davies, John B; Hastings, Gerard; Haw, Sally

    2009-12-01

    Introduction of smoke-free legislation presents a unique opportunity to study how population-level interventions can challenge existing smoking norms. Our study examined support and opposition to the Scottish legislation and ascertained the relative importance of social and health factors in shaping attitudes among bar customers. Repeat (pre-/post-legislation) recorded and transcribed semistructured interviews with customers (n = 67/62) of eight community bars in contrasting settings were conducted, and data were analyzed thematically. While the legislation was marketed primarily in terms of gains to public and individual health, supportive and opposing responses to the legislation tended to be framed around libertarian and practical factors. Attitudes tended to be stable across both waves of data collection. It is concluded that reasons for smoking were not challenged by promotion of the legislation. In addition to a focus on health gains, social marketing of smoke-free legislation and initiatives may therefore benefit from a stronger focus on social and contextual effects of such policies.

  16. Suicide Prevention Public Service Announcements Impact Help-Seeking Attitudes: The Message Makes a Difference

    OpenAIRE

    Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Wright, Nathan; Klingbeil, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Suicide continues to be one of the most serious public health challenges. Public service announcements (PSAs) are frequently used to address this challenge, but are rarely sufficiently evaluated to determine if they meet the intended goals, or are associated with potential iatrogenic effects. Although it is challenging to assess the relative impact of different PSA modalities, our group previously noted that one billboard message failed to show the same benefits as one TV ad [e.g., Klimes-Dou...

  17. Public attitude in the city of Belgrade towards invasive alien plant species

    OpenAIRE

    Tomićević Jelena; Grbić Mihailo; Skočajić Dragana; Radovanović Dragana

    2012-01-01

    Biological invasions are seen as a major threat to biodiversity at a global level, while the number of new invasions is increasing at an alarming rate. Raising the awareness of the public, academic world and policy makers about the dangers caused by invasive species, is essential for the creation of the support needed to implement and coordinate the policies necessary to address this problem. The aim of this study is to determine the level of local public a...

  18. Attitudes toward strategies to increase organ donation: views of the general public and health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnieh, Lianne; Klarenbach, Scott; Gill, John S; Caulfield, Tim; Manns, Braden

    2012-12-01

    The acceptability of financial incentives for organ donation is contentious. This study sought to determine (1) the acceptability of expense reimbursement or financial incentives by the general public, health professionals involved with organ donation and transplantation, and those with or affected by kidney disease and (2) for the public, whether financial incentives would alter their willingness to consider donation. Web-based survey administered to members of the Canadian public, health professionals, and people with or affected by kidney disease asking questions regarding acceptability of strategies to increase living and deceased kidney donation and willingness to donate a kidney under various financial incentives. Responses were collected from 2004 members of the Canadian public October 11-18, 2011; responses from health professionals (n=339) and people with or affected by kidney disease (n=268) were collected during a 4-week period commencing October 11, 2011. Acceptability of one or more financial incentives to increase deceased and living donation was noted in >70% and 40% of all groups, respectively. Support for monetary payment for living donors was 45%, 14%, and 27% for the public, health professionals, and people with or affected by kidney disease, respectively. Overall, reimbursement of funeral expenses for deceased donors and a tax break for living donors were the most acceptable. The general public views regulated financial incentives for living and deceased donation to be acceptable. Future research needs to examine the impact of financial incentives on rates of deceased and living donors.

  19. Influences of culture and environmental attitude on thermal, emotional and perceptual evaluations of a public square

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knez, Igor; Thorsson, Sofia

    2006-05-01

    The main objective of the present quasi-experimental study was to examine the influence of culture (Swedish vs Japanese) and environmental attitude (urban vs open-air person) on participants’ thermal, emotional and perceptual assessments of a square, within the PET (physiological equivalent temperature) comfortable interval of 18 23°C. It was predicted that persons living in different cultures with different environmental attitudes would psychologically evaluate a square differently despite similar thermal conditions. Consistent with this prediction, Japanese participants estimated the current weather as warmer than did Swedish participants and, consistent with this, they felt less thermally comfortable on the site, although participants in both countries perceived similar comfortable thermal outdoor conditions according to the PET index. Compared to the Japanese, the Swedes estimated both the current weather and the site as windier and colder, indicating a consistency in weather assessment on calm-windy and warm-cold scales in participants in both cultures. Furthermore, Swedish participants felt more glad and calm on the site and, in line with their character (more glad than gloomy), they estimated the square as more beautiful and pleasant than did Japanese participants. All this indicates that thermal, emotional and perceptual assessments of a physical place may be intertwined with psychological schema-based and socio-cultural processes, rather than fixed by general thermal indices developed in line with physiological heat balance models. In consequence, this implies that thermal comfort indices may not be applicable in different cultural/climate zones without modifications, and that they may not be appropriate if we do not take into account the psychological processes involved in environmental assessment.

  20. Knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of the teacher's role in sexuality education in public schools in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asekun-Olarinmoye, Esther O; Fawole, Olufunmilayo I; Dairo, Magbagbeola D; Amusan, Oluwatoyin A

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the knowledge, attitude, and perception of teachers of their role in the sexuality education of secondary school students with a viewto suggesting strategies for improvement. The study was a descriptive cross-sectional survey. Information was collected from 305 secondary school teachers selected by multi-stage random sampling method from Osun state, Nigeria using a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire. Median age of respondents was 36 +/- 8.18 years. Male/female ratio was 1:1.2. Knowledge about key reproductive issues was poor and inadequate. Knowledge of more than one contraceptive method was low (39.0%), Condom was the most frequently mentioned (59.3%). The teachers exhibited poor perception of their role in sexuality education of their students. 52.8% placed the sole responsibility for sexuality education on parents and only 20.7% found that it should start before age 10 years. Mean menarcheal age was 13.1 +/- 1.7 y. A statistically significant association was found between respondents' gender and knowledge of menarcheal age (p = .03); and between class taught and knowledge of menarcheal age (p = .003). 86.90% had positive attitude towards inclusion of sexuality education in the school curriculum; however, 43.6% felt that contraceptive methods should not be part of the course content. An urgent need exists for education and re-orientation of teachers through seminars and workshops, in-service training education program to equip them properly for the task. Policy makers need to formulate a definite, explicit, and workable sexuality education policy.

  1. LGBT Monitor 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisette Kuyper

    2016-01-01

    Original title: LHBT-monitor 2016 What is the public attitude today towards lesbian, homosexual, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) persons? What do large-scale population surveys enable us to say about their position in society? The Netherlands is one of the most positive countries in Europe in its

  2. Traffic Tech : National Telephone Survey on Distracted Driving Attitudes and Behaviors - 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) conducted its third national telephone survey of distracted driving to monitor the public's attitudes, knowledge, and self-reported behavior about cell phone use and texting while driving, an...

  3. Public involvement in pharmacogenomics research: a national survey on patients' attitudes towards pharmacogenomics research and the willingness to donate DNA samples to a DNA bank in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Eriko; Sakurada, Tomoya; Ueda, Shiro; Satoh, Nobunori

    2011-05-01

    To assess the attitude of Japanese patients towards pharmacogenomics research and a DNA bank for identifying genomic markers associated with adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and their willingness to donate DNA samples, we conducted a survey of 550 male and female patients. The majority of the respondents showed a positive attitude towards pharmacogenomics research (87.6%) and a DNA bank (75.1%). The willingness to donate DNA samples when experiencing severe ADRs (55.8%) was higher than when taking medications (40.4%). Positive attitudes towards a DNA bank and organ donation were significantly associated with an increased willingness to donate. Though the level of positive attitude in the patient population was higher than that in the general public in our former study (81.0 and 70.4%, respectively), the level of the willingness of patients to donate was 40.4% when taking medications and 55.8% when experiencing severe ADRs which was lower than that of the general public in our former study (45.3 and 61.7%). The results suggested that the level of true willingness in the patient population was lower than that of the general public considering the fictitious situation presented to the public (to suppose that they were patients receiving medication). It is important to assess the willingness of patients who are true potential donors, not the general public.

  4. The Mexican experience in monitoring and evaluation of public policies addressing social determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Adolfo Martinez

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) have gradually become important and regular components of the policy-making process in Mexico since, and even before, the World Health Organization (WHO) Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) called for interventions and policies aimed at tackling the social determinants of health (SDH). This paper presents two case studies to show how public policies addressing the SDH have been monitored and evaluated in Mexico using reliable, valid, and complete information, which is not regularly available. Prospera, for example, evaluated programs seeking to improve the living conditions of families in extreme poverty in terms of direct effects on health, nutrition, education and income. Monitoring of Prospera's implementation has also helped policy-makers identify windows of opportunity to improve the design and operation of the program. Seguro Popular has monitored the reduction of health inequalities and inequities evaluated the positive effects of providing financial protection to its target population. Useful and sound evidence of the impact of programs such as Progresa and Seguro Popular plus legal mandates, and a regulatory evaluation agency, the National Council for Social Development Policy Evaluation, have been fundamental to institutionalizing M&E in Mexico. The Mexican experience may provide useful lessons for other countries facing the challenge of institutionalizing the M&E of public policy processes to assess the effects of SDH as recommended by the WHO CSDH.

  5. The Mexican experience in monitoring and evaluation of public policies addressing social determinants of health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Martinez Valle

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring and evaluation (M&E have gradually become important and regular components of the policy-making process in Mexico since, and even before, the World Health Organization (WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH called for interventions and policies aimed at tackling the social determinants of health (SDH. This paper presents two case studies to show how public policies addressing the SDH have been monitored and evaluated in Mexico using reliable, valid, and complete information, which is not regularly available. Prospera, for example, evaluated programs seeking to improve the living conditions of families in extreme poverty in terms of direct effects on health, nutrition, education and income. Monitoring of Prospera's implementation has also helped policy-makers identify windows of opportunity to improve the design and operation of the program. Seguro Popular has monitored the reduction of health inequalities and inequities evaluated the positive effects of providing financial protection to its target population. Useful and sound evidence of the impact of programs such as Progresa and Seguro Popular plus legal mandates, and a regulatory evaluation agency, the National Council for Social Development Policy Evaluation, have been fundamental to institutionalizing M&E in Mexico. The Mexican experience may provide useful lessons for other countries facing the challenge of institutionalizing the M&E of public policy processes to assess the effects of SDH as recommended by the WHO CSDH.

  6. The Mexican experience in monitoring and evaluation of public policies addressing social determinants of health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Adolfo Martinez

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) have gradually become important and regular components of the policy-making process in Mexico since, and even before, the World Health Organization (WHO) Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) called for interventions and policies aimed at tackling the social determinants of health (SDH). This paper presents two case studies to show how public policies addressing the SDH have been monitored and evaluated in Mexico using reliable, valid, and complete information, which is not regularly available. Prospera, for example, evaluated programs seeking to improve the living conditions of families in extreme poverty in terms of direct effects on health, nutrition, education and income. Monitoring of Prospera's implementation has also helped policy-makers identify windows of opportunity to improve the design and operation of the program. Seguro Popular has monitored the reduction of health inequalities and inequities evaluated the positive effects of providing financial protection to its target population. Useful and sound evidence of the impact of programs such as Progresa and Seguro Popular plus legal mandates, and a regulatory evaluation agency, the National Council for Social Development Policy Evaluation, have been fundamental to institutionalizing M&E in Mexico. The Mexican experience may provide useful lessons for other countries facing the challenge of institutionalizing the M&E of public policy processes to assess the effects of SDH as recommended by the WHO CSDH. PMID:26928215

  7. The LIFE Project “Monitoring of insects with public participation” (MIPP: aims, methods and conclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Maria Carpaneto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Life Project “Monitoring of insects with public participation” (LIFE11 NAT/IT/000252 had as the main objective to develop and test methods for the monitoring of five beetle species listed in the Annexes of the Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC: Osmoderma eremita (hermit beetle, Scarabaeidae, Lucanus cervus (European stag beetle, Lucanidae, Cerambyx cerdo (great capricorn beetle, Cerambycidae, Rosalia alpina (rosalia longicorn, Cerambycidae and Morimus asper/funereus (morimus longicorn, Cerambycidae. The data gathered represent an important contribution to the monitoring of these target species in Italy. The methods developed for monitoring of the target species are intended for use by the local management authorities and staff of protected areas. These developed methods are the result of extensive fieldwork and ensure scientific validity, ease of execution and limited labour costs. The detailed description of methods and the results for each species are published in separate articles of this special issue of Nature Conservation. A second objective of the project was to gather faunistic data with a Citizen Science approach, using the web and a mobile application software (app specifically built for mobile devices. The validation of the records collected by the citizens was carried out by experts, based on photographs, which were obligatory for all records. Dissemination activities represented the principal way to contact and engage citizens for the data collection and also offered the possibility of providing information on topics such as Natura 2000, the Habitats Directive, the role of monitoring in nature conservation, the importance of forest ecosystems and the ecological role of the saproxylic insects. An innovative method tested during the project was the training of a dog for searching and monitoring the elusive hermit beetle; the trained dog also added a “curiosity” factor to attract public attention towards this rare insect and

  8. Public attitudes of wind energy in Texas: Local communities in close proximity to wind farms and their effect on decision-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swofford, Jeffrey; Slattery, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Wind energy is now recognized as an important energy resource throughout the world. Within the United States, the state of Texas currently has the largest wind energy capacity with 8797 total megawatts and an additional 660 MW under construction. With this rapid growth, it is important to achieve a better understanding of how wind energy is being perceived by the public. This paper explores three research strands: (i) describing the environmental attitudes of a population in close proximity to a wind farm development, (ii) determining the influence that proximity has on wind energy attitudes, and (iii) determining if the Not-In-My-Backyard (Nimby) phenomenon is appropriate for explaining human perceptions of wind energy. A survey questionnaire was developed to explore perceptions of wind energy in the region as well as general attitudes about energy and the environment. Results regarding general wind energy attitudes signify overall public support for wind energy. In addition, those living closest to the wind farm indicate the lowest levels of support, while those living farthest away indicate much stronger support. Findings support the view that the use of Nimby does not adequately explain the attitudes of local wind farm opposition. Alternative explanations and planning implications are discussed with a focus on public participation and education.

  9. A cellular automation model for the change of public attitude regarding nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Teruaki

    1991-01-01

    A cellular automation model was constructed to investigate how public opinion on nuclear energy in Japan depends upon the information environment and personal communication between people. From simulation with this model, the following become clear; (i) society is a highly non-linear system with a self-organizing potential: (ii) in a society composed of one type of constituent member with homogeneous characteristics, the trend of public opinion is substantially changed only when the effort to ameliorate public acceptance over a long period of time, by means such as education, persuasion and advertisement, exceeds a certain threshold, and (iii) in the case when the amount of information on nuclear risk released from the newsmedia is reduced continuously from now on, the acceptability of nuclear energy is significantly improved so far as the extent of the reduction exceeds a certain threshold. (author)

  10. A cellular automation model for the change of public attitude regarding nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnishi, Teruaki (CRC Research Inst., Chiba (Japan))

    1991-01-01

    A cellular automation model was constructed to investigate how public opinion on nuclear energy in Japan depends upon the information environment and personal communication between people. From simulation with this model, the following become clear; (i) society is a highly non-linear system with a self-organizing potential: (ii) in a society composed of one type of constituent member with homogeneous characteristics, the trend of public opinion is substantially changed only when the effort to ameliorate public acceptance over a long period of time, by means such as education, persuasion and advertisement, exceeds a certain threshold, and (iii) in the case when the amount of information on nuclear risk released from the newsmedia is reduced continuously from now on, the acceptability of nuclear energy is significantly improved so far as the extent of the reduction exceeds a certain threshold. (author).

  11. What the public think about hypnosis and hypnotherapy: A narrative review of literature covering opinions and attitudes of the general public 1996-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krouwel, Matthew; Jolly, Kate; Greenfield, Sheila

    2017-06-01

    To describe the public's understanding of hypnosis and openness to hypnotherapy. A comprehensive search of English language peer reviewed journal articles from 1st January 1996-11th March 2016 was performed over 9 databases (Medline, PubMed, PsycARTICLES, CINAHL, Embase (excerpta medica), PsychInfo, Cochrane, Science citation index-expanded, Conference citation index) and a title-only search of Google scholar. 39 keyword combinations were employed: hypnosis, hypnotherapy, hypnotic, perception, beliefs, knowledge, view, opinion and understanding, in singular and plural where appropriate. A search of the bibliographies of eligible articles was undertaken. Inclusion criteria - Articles containing original data regarding the general public's attitudes towards hypnotherapy or hypnosis. Exclusion criteria - Non-therapy hypnosis (forensic, entertainment) materials and those concerned with groups likely to possess prior or professional knowledge of hypnosis, (hypnotists, clinicians and psychologists). Analysis was conducted in line with the questions. 31 articles were identified, covering diverse populations. Most people believe that: hypnosis is an altered state which requires collaboration to enter; once hypnotized perception changes; hypnotherapy is beneficial for psychological issues and is supportive of medical interventions; hypnosis can also enhance abilities especially memory. People are open to hypnotherapy subject to validation from the psychological or medical establishment. Similarity of opinion is more apparent than difference. Most people are positive towards hypnotherapy, and would consider its use under the right circumstances. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Impact of social media as an instructional component on content knowledge, attitudes, and public engagement related to global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Sallie E.

    Social media (SM) are considered important avenues to reach citizens and engage them in social change. Given the widespread use of SM and their potential to enhance communication, they could also have significant influence when used as an educational tool. Educators are exploring whether classroom SM use has instructional benefits, such as enhancing interactivity and engagement. It is critical to understand the potential of SM for creating meaningful learning environments and public engagement pathways. Much work remains to understand the use of SM in this context and how to use them effectively. This study draws on active learning theory to examine the impact of SM as an instructional component with community college students learning to make connections among science, social responsibility, and global understanding in an environmental biology course (the Course). Using global climate change as a theme, the Course included a Facebook instructional component. A pretest--posttest, nonrandomized comparison group design was used to measure the impact of Facebook as an integrated component of the Course. The treatment and comparison groups were determined to be comparable based on demographics, access and ownership of digital devices, and SM use despite non-random assignment. No statistically significant differences were found between groups on these factors. The intervention consisted of semester-long required use of Facebook for the treatment group. The impact of the SM intervention was measured in three areas: (a) content knowledge, (b) attitudes toward climate change, and (c) public engagement actions and intentions to act. At the conclusion of the Course, no discernable difference was measured in content knowledge gains between the two groups. However, students who used Facebook experienced statistically significant differences in attitude, becoming increasingly concerned about global climate change. The comparison group demonstrated statistically significant

  13. Integrating a project monitoring system into a public health network: experiences from Alive & Thrive Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Nguyen Thanh; Alayon, Silvia; Do, Tran Thanh; Ngan, Tran Thi; Hajeebhoy, Nemat

    2015-01-01

    Little information is available about how to build a monitoring system to measure the output of preventive nutrition interventions, such as counselling on infant and young child feeding. This paper describes the Alive & Thrive Vietnam (A&T) project experience in nesting a large-scale project monitoring system into the existing public health information system (e.g. using the system and resources), and in using monitoring data to strengthen service delivery in 15 provinces with A&T franchises. From January 2012 to April 2014, the 780 A&T franchises provided 1,700,000 counselling contacts (~3/4 by commune franchises). In commune franchises in April 2014, 80% of mothers who were pregnant or with children under two years old had been to the counselling service at least one time, and 87% of clients had been to the service earlier. Monitoring data are used to track the progress of the project, make decisions, provide background for a costing study and advocate for the integration of nutrition counselling indicators into the health information system nationwide. With careful attention to the needs of stakeholders at multiple levels, clear data quality assurance measures and strategic feedback mechanisms, it is feasible to monitor the scale-up of nutrition programmes through the existing routine health information system.

  14. Can UK NHS research ethics committees effectively monitor publication and outcome reporting bias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Rasheda; Kolstoe, Simon

    2015-07-25

    Publication and outcome reporting bias is often caused by researchers selectively choosing which scientific results and outcomes to publish. This behaviour is ethically significant as it distorts the literature used for future scientific or clinical decision-making. This study investigates the practicalities of using ethics applications submitted to a UK National Health Service (NHS) research ethics committee to monitor both types of reporting bias. As part of an internal audit we accessed research ethics database records for studies submitting an end of study declaration to the Hampshire A research ethics committee (formerly Southampton A) between 1st January 2010 and 31st December 2011. A literature search was used to establish the publication status of studies. Primary and secondary outcomes stated in application forms were compared with outcomes reported in publications. Out of 116 studies the literature search identified 57 publications for 37 studies giving a publication rate of 32%. Original Research Ethics Committee (REC) applications could be obtained for 28 of the published studies. Outcome inconsistencies were found in 16 (57%) of the published studies. This study showed that the problem of publication and outcome reporting bias is still significant in the UK. The method described here demonstrates that UK NHS research ethics committees are in a good position to detect such bias due to their unique access to original research protocols. Data gathered in this way could be used by the Health Research Authority to encourage higher levels of transparency in UK research.

  15. Food Safety Attitude of Culinary Arts Based Students in Public and Private Higher Learning Institutions (IPT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patah, Mohd Onn Rashdi Abd; Issa, Zuraini Mat; Nor, Khamis Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    Food safety issue is not new in Malaysia as problems such as unsafe food handling, doubtful food preparation, food poisoning outbreaks in schools and education institutions and spreading of infectious food borne illness has been discussed by the public more often than before. The purpose of this study is to examine the food safety knowledge and…

  16. Attitudes and action: public opinion and the occurrence of international terrorism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krueger, A. B.; Malečková, Jitka

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 325, č. 5947 (2009), s. 1534-1536 ISSN 0036-8075 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7E08090 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : international terrorism * public opinion toward another country Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 29.747, year: 2009

  17. Gender Differences in Public Relations Students' Career Attitudes: A Benchmark Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Betty; Waugh, Lisa

    1999-01-01

    Explores students' perceptions of gender issues in public relations. Finds that there were no statistically significant differences in male and female students' desires to perform managerial activities, but there were statistically significant differences in several areas (i.e. female students expect to earn less money starting out and to be…

  18. The moderating effect of prior attitudes on framing effects and their combined contribution to the public politicization of EU immigration policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klingeren, M.; Boomgaarden, H.G.; de Vreese, C.H.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of news frames on public politicization (i.e., salience and polarization) and the moderating role of prior attitudes on this relationship. An experiment was set-up among a representative sample of the Dutch population between June and July 2011. The results yield

  19. Attitudes of the Japanese public and doctors towards use of archived information and samples without informed consent: Preliminary findings based on focus group interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukuhara Shunichi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study is to explore laypersons' attitudes toward the use of archived (existing materials such as medical records and biological samples and to compare them with the attitudes of physicians who are involved in medical research. Methods Three focus group interviews were conducted, in which seven Japanese male members of the general public, seven female members of the general public and seven physicians participated. Results It was revealed that the lay public expressed diverse attitudes towards the use of archived information and samples without informed consent. Protecting a subject's privacy, maintaining confidentiality, and communicating the outcomes of studies to research subjects were regarded as essential preconditions if researchers were to have access to archived information and samples used for research without the specific informed consent of the subjects who provided the material. Although participating physicians thought that some kind of prior permission from subjects was desirable, they pointed out the difficulties involved in obtaining individual informed consent in each case. Conclusions The present preliminary study indicates that the lay public and medical professionals may have different attitudes towards the use of archived information and samples without specific informed consent. This hypothesis, however, is derived from our focus groups interviews, and requires validation through research using a larger sample.

  20. An Investigation of the Attitudes of School Administrators and School Board Presidents Toward Career Education in Public Schools of New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Howard Keaton

    In an effort to assess, compare, and contrast the attitudes of school administrators and board of education presidents toward career education in the public schools of New Mexico, 88 school districts in the State were surveyed. Findings included: (1) Most of the respondents agreed with the existing State-adopted career education definition with…

  1. Roads On The U.S. nation Forests: An Analysis of Public Attitudes, Beliefs, and Values Expressed in the News Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Bengston; David P. Fan

    1999-01-01

    Public attitudes, beliefs, and underlying values about roads on the U.S. national forests expressed in more than 4,000 on-line news stories during a 3-year period are analyzed by using computer methods. The belief that forest roads provide access for recreation was expressed most frequently, accounting for about 40% of all beliefs expressed. The belief that roads cause...

  2. Attitudes toward Shock Advertising of Western-European and Serbian University Students With Regard To Public Health Context (Anti-Smoking and Anti-HIV/AIDS Campaigns)

    OpenAIRE

    Krstic, Tamara

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this dissertation is to examine attitudes toward shock advertising of western-European and Serbian university students with regard to public health context (anti-smoking and anti-HIV/AIDS campaigns). Although the use of shock advertising is widely adopted in practice, there has not been extensive research with regard to this topic. Public health context is of special interest in this dissertation as there is an urge for social marketing on Serbian market. The results of ...

  3. UK public attitudes to the nuclear industry: the effect of the Sellafield visitor centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.; Rogers, J.

    1993-01-01

    Public support for the nuclear industry appears to be growing in the UK at a time when environmental awareness is also prominent. Perceived advantages from nuclear power range from conservation of scare fossil reserves through to maintaining a worldwide technical competitiveness. Within the UK, the Sellafield Visitors Centre has proved to be a large tourist attraction, as well as successfully presenting information in a form that is easy to understand. (author)

  4. Attitude towards Community Building in Association of Southeast Asian Nations: A Public Opinion Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Ravichandran Moorthy; Guido Benny

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) envisioned an integrated regional community by the year 2015, following the European Union model. However, unlike the European Community which was formed after years of discussion at different levels of society, institutions and government, ASEAN was rather quick to conceptualize this initiative, without seeking the feedbacks for the public. Consequently, ASEAN Community initiative has been criticized for being elitist in i...

  5. Knowledge, attitudes, and resources of sex education among female adolescents in public and private schools in Central Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alquaiz, Aljoharah M; Almuneef, Maha A; Minhas, Hafsa R

    2012-09-01

    To investigate the knowledge and sources of knowledge among Saudi female adolescent students, attending public and private schools in the city of Riyadh with regard to sexuality and reproductive health. This cross sectional survey was conducted from January to April 2009. Female adolescents between 11 and 21 years of age were invited to participate in the survey. Five classes of intermediate and secondary levels were randomly selected from 2 schools in Riyadh city. A total of 417 female students were included into the sample. Students were asked to answer a self-administrated questionnaire. Forty-two percent of the participants reported that they discussed sexual matters with their friends. Only 15.8% discussed these matters with their parents (mothers). Interestingly, 17.3% discussed sexual matters with the domestic helper. Most (61%) reported that their teachers had negative attitudes toward questions related to sexual issues. Only 33.3%, 37.9% and 14.5% knew that syphilis, gonorrhea, and hepatitis B, are sexually transmitted diseases. No significant differences were found between students in private schools and public schools. Formal sexual education should be introduced in the curriculum of the schools within the context of our religion and culture. Parents and teachers should be more open to discuss sexual issues with their children and students.

  6. Survey of the general public's attitudes toward advance directives in Japan: How to respect patients' preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Ichiro

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Japanese people have become increasingly interested in the expression and enhancement of their individual autonomy in medical decisions made regarding medical treatment at and toward the end of life. However, while many Western countries have implemented legislation that deals with patient autonomy in the case of terminal illness, no such legislation exists in Japan. The rationale for this research is based on the need to investigate patient's preferences regarding treatment at the end of life in order to re-evaluate advance directives policy and practice. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey with 418 members of the general middle-aged and senior adults (aged between 40 and 65 in Tokyo, Japan. Respondents were asked about their attitudes toward advance directives, and preferences toward treatment options. Results Over 60% of respondents agreed that it is better to express their wishes regarding advance directives (treatment preferences in writing, appointment of proxy for care decision making, appointment of legal administrator of property, stating preferences regarding disposal of one's property and funeral arrangements but less than 10% of them had already done so. About 60% of respondents in this study preferred to indicate treatment preferences in broad rather than concrete terms. Over 80% would like to decide treatment preferences in consultation with others (22.2% with their proxy, 11.0% with the doctor, and 47.8% with both their proxy and the doctor. Conclusion This study revealed that many Japanese people indicate an interest in undertaking advance directives. This study found that there is a range of preferences regarding how advance directives are undertaken, thus it is important to recognize that any processes put into place should allow flexibility in order to best respect patients' wishes and autonomy.

  7. Knowledge and attitude towards total knee arthroplasty among the public in Saudi Arabia: a nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mohrej, Omar A; Alshammari, Faris O; Aljuraisi, Abdulrahman M; Bin Amer, Lujain A; Masuadi, Emad M; Al-Kenani, Nader S

    2018-04-01

    Studies on total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in Saudi Arabia are scarce, and none have reported the knowledge and attitude of the procedure in Saudi Arabia. Our study aims to measure the knowledge and attitude of TKA among the adult Saudi population. To encompass a representative sample of this cross-sectional survey, all 13 administrative areas were used as ready-made geographical clusters. For each cluster, stratified random sampling was performed to maximize participation in the study. In each area, random samples of mobile phone numbers were selected with a probability proportional to the administrative area population size. Sample size calculation was based on the assumption that 50% of the participants would have some level of knowledge, with a 2% margin of error and 95% confidence level. To reach our intended sample size of 1540, we contacted 1722 participants with a response rate of 89.4%. The expected percentage of public knowledge was 50%; however, the actual percentage revealed by this study was much lower (29.7%). A stepwise multiple logistic regression was used to assess the factors that positively affected the knowledge score regarding TKA. Age [P = 0.016 with OR of 0.47], higher income [P = 0.001 with OR of 0.52] and participants with a positive history of TKA or that have known someone who underwent the surgery [P Saudi Arabia concerning TKA, its indications and results. We recommend that doctors use the results of our survey to assess their conversations with their patients, and to determine whether the results of the procedure are adequately clarified.

  8. Public attitudes toward depression and help-seeking in four European countries baseline survey prior to the OSPI-Europe intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppens, Evelien; Van Audenhove, Chantal; Scheerder, Gert; Arensman, Ella; Coffey, Claire; Costa, Susana; Koburger, Nicole; Gottlebe, Katrin; Gusmão, Ricardo; O'Connor, Rory; Postuvan, Vita; Sarchiapone, Marco; Sisask, Merike; Székely, András; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina; Hegerl, Ulrich

    2013-09-05

    Stigmatizing attitudes toward depression and toward help-seeking are important barriers for people with mental health problems to obtain adequate professional help. This study aimed to examine: (1) population attitudes toward depression and toward seeking professional help in four European countries; (2) the relation between depression stigma and attitudes toward help-seeking; (3) the relation between both attitudes and socio-demographic characteristics; and (4) differences in attitudes across countries. A representative general population survey (n=4011) was conducted in Germany, Hungary, Ireland, and Portugal, assessing attitudes toward depression and toward help-seeking, and a number of socio-demographic variables. Respondents showed a moderate degree of personal stigma toward depression and a strikingly higher degree of perceived stigma. Although a substantial majority showed openness to seek professional help, only half of the people perceived professional help as valuable. More negative attitudes were found in Hungary and were associated with male gender, older age, lower educational level and living alone. Also, personal stigma was related to less openness to and less perceived value of professional treatment. The survey was cross-sectional, so no causal inferences could be drawn. Personal and perceived stigma toward depression deserves public health attention, since they impact upon the intention of people with depression to seek professional help. Public media campaigns should focus on the credibility of the mental health care sector, and target males, older people, and those with a lower educational level and living alone. The content of each campaign should be adapted to the cultural norms of the country for which it is intended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The role of scientific knowledge in shaping public attitudes to GM technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mielby, Henrik Ole; Sandøe, Peter; Lassen, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Depending on the perceived balance of risk and benefit, and on the perceived unnaturalness, some applications of gene technology appear more acceptable to the public than others. This study asks whether a person’s knowledge of biology affects their assessment of these factors differently. A random...... sample of the Danish population (n = 2000) was presented with questionnaires. The respondent’s knowledge was measured by a number of textbook questions on biology. The results indicated that knowledge increases the likelihood that a person will have differentiated opinions on medical and agricultural...

  10. Development of the Chicago Food Allergy Research Surveys: assessing knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents, physicians, and the general public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongracic Jacqueline A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents of children with food allergy, primary care physicians, and members of the general public play a critical role in the health and well-being of food-allergic children, though little is known about their knowledge and perceptions of food allergy. The purpose of this paper is to detail the development of the Chicago Food Allergy Research Surveys to assess food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among these three populations. Methods From 2006–2008, parents of food-allergic children, pediatricians, family physicians, and adult members of the general public were recruited to assist in survey development. Preliminary analysis included literature review, creation of initial content domains, expert panel review, and focus groups. Survey validation included creation of initial survey items, expert panel ratings, cognitive interviews, reliability testing, item reduction, and final validation. National administration of the surveys is ongoing. Results Nine experts were assembled to oversee survey development. Six focus groups were held: 2/survey population, 4–9 participants/group; transcripts were reviewed via constant comparative methods to identify emerging themes and inform item creation. At least 220 participants per population were recruited to assess the relevance, reliability, and utility of each survey item as follows: cognitive interviews, 10 participants; reliability testing ≥ 10; item reduction ≥ 50; and final validation, 150 respondents. Conclusion The Chicago Food Allergy Research surveys offer validated tools to assess food allergy knowledge and perceptions among three distinct populations: a 42 item parent tool, a 50 item physician tool, and a 35 item general public tool. No such tools were previously available.

  11. A FRAMEWORK FOR PERFORMANCE EVALUATION AND MONITORING OF PUBLIC HEALTH PROGRAM USING COMPOSITE PERFORMANCE INDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanta Kumar Gauri

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A public health program (PHP taken up by the government of a country refers to all organized measures to prevent disease and promote health among the population, by providing different planned cares/services to the people. Usually, the target population for different PHP are different. The basic requirement for success of a PHP is to ensure that all the planned cares/services are reached to each member of the target population. Therefore, the important performance measures for a PHP are the implementation status of all the planned cares/services under the PHP. However, management and monitoring of a PHP become quite difficult by interpreting separately the information contained in a large number of performance measures. Therefore, usually a metric, called composite performance index (CPI, is evaluated to understand the overall performance of a PHP. However, due a scaling operation involved in the CPI computation procedure, the CPI value does not reveal the true overall implementation status of a PHP and consequently, it is effective for management of a PHP. This paper presents a new approach for CPI computation, in which scaling/normalization of the performance variables is not required and therefore, it can be used for monitoring the true overall implementation status of a PHP in a region. A systematic approach for monitoring a PHP using the CPI values is proposed and applied for monitoring the maternal and child healthcare (MCH program. The results are found effective towards continuous improvement of implementation status.

  12. Public attitudes toward biofuels. Effects of knowledge, political partisanship, and media use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Michael A; Binder, Andrew R; Scheufele, Dietram A; Shaw, Bret R

    2012-01-01

    Despite large-scale investments and government mandates to expand biofuels development and infrastructure in the United States, little is known about how the public conceives of this alternative fuel technology. This study examines public opinion of biofuels by focusing on citizen knowledge and the motivated processing of media information. Specifically, we explore the direct effects of biofuels knowledge and the moderating effect of partisanship on the relationship between media use and benefit vs. risk perceptions in the following four domains: environmental impacts, economic consequences, ethical/social implications, and political ramifications. Our results suggest that more knowledgeable respondents see fewer benefits of biofuels relative to risks, and that Democrats and Republicans are affected differently by media use when forming opinions about biofuels. Among Democrats, greater attention to political media content leads to a more favorable outlook toward the technology across several domains of interest, while among Republicans, an increase in attention to political content has the opposite effect. Possible reasons for these results, as well as implications of the findings at the intersection of politics and the life sciences, are discussed.

  13. Attitudes and Perceptions of the Brazilian Public Health System by Transgender Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Bones Rocha

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to describe how transgender people perceive services offered by the Brazilian Public Health System (SUS. This qualitative study, using the phenomenological technique, is based on eight semi-structured interviews conducted with individuals whose gender identity and/or gender expression differs from the sex they were assigned at birth. Each interview was evaluated by two interviewers and a content analysis performed by all members of the research group. The analysis identified the following categories as having high relevance to the participants’ experiences: homophobia, receptiveness, and humanization, access to health care, and suggestions to improve the SUS. Information shared by participants emphasized their belief that health care professionals are not adequately prepared to assist transgendered individuals and that health care providers should use a more sensitive approach towards them. A recurrent theme was the need to use appropriate and socially acceptable terminology when providing health care services in order to facilitate transgendered individuals' inclusive treatment. Despite the effort of Brazilian authorities, there is a need for significant improvement in health care practices in order to comply with SUS quality standards. This study highlights the importance of qualitative investigations to improve planning and to help define public health policies with the goal of including the most vulnerable and marginalized groups of the population. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0902281

  14. Environmental value considerations in public attitudes about alternative energy development in Oregon and Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Brent S; Pierce, John C; Warner, Rebecca L; Lovrich, Nicholas P

    2015-03-01

    The 2013 Pacific Coast Action Plan on Climate and Energy signed by the Governors of California, Oregon, and Washington and the Premier of British Columbia launched a broadly announced public commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through multiple strategies. Those strategies include the development and increased use of renewable energy sources. The initiative recognized that citizens are both a central component in abating greenhouse gas emissions with regard to their energy use behaviors, and are important participants in the public policymaking process at both state and local levels of government. The study reported here examines whether either support or opposition to state government leadership in the development of alternative energy technologies can be explained by environmental values as measured by the New Ecological Paradigm (NEP). The research results are based on mail surveys of randomly selected households conducted throughout Oregon and Washington in late 2009 and early 2010. Findings suggest that younger and more highly educated respondents are significantly more likely than older and less educated respondents to either support or strongly support government policies to promote bioenergy, wind, geothermal, and solar energy. Those respondents with higher NEP scores are also more supportive of government promotion of wind, geothermal, and solar technologies than are those with lower NEP scores. Support for wave energy does not show a statistical correlation with environmental values, maybe a reflection of this technology's nascent level of development. The paper concludes with a consideration of the implications of these findings for environmental management.

  15. Attitudes of Kuwaiti public towards the radiation risks of nuclear medicine diagnositic procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgazzar, AH; Al-Ghani, HE; Collier, BD; Al-Saeedi, F; Al-Shammari, J; Mahmoud, AM; Omar, A

    2004-01-01

    Public perception of radiation risks of diagnostic imaging procedures differs from that of professionals working in the field. The perception probably varies among societies and may vary within the same society. The objective of this study is to determine the public perception in Kuwait represented by patients referred for nuclear medicine diagnostic studies. With the assistance of Arabic speaking investigators, 239 patients (139 males and 100 females) with a mean age of 37 years (Range of 15 to 90 years) completed a questionnaire about their opinion of radiation fear from the nuclear medicine procedures as well as their education, income, ability to speak English and foreign travel experience. Radiation phobia was measured by asking the patient to to the statement 'Radiation from nuclear medicine examination is likely to harm my body' by one of 5 choices, 1 strongly agree, 2 somewhat agree, 3 uncertain, 4 somewhat disagree, 5 strongly disagree. Responses 1 and 2 were classified as radiation phobia. Pearson correlation coefficient and logistic regression analysis were used for data analysis. Forty four percent of patients had radiation phobia. Only education significantly correlated with radiation phobia. Income, ability to speak English, age, gender or travel experience did not show significant correlation. Our study indicates that radiation phobia is common and is probably widespread throughout the society. Patient education should emphasize radiation benefits and actual risks and include the entire community. (authors)

  16. Emergency environmental monitoring for the decision-aiding on public protective actions during a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yong Ho; Choi, Geun Sik; Han, Moon Hee; Lee, Han Soo; Lee, Chang Woo

    2005-01-01

    In a nuclear emergency, protective actions for the public should be taken in time. It is internationally proposed that Generic Intervention Levels (GILs) and generic action levels, determined based on cost-benefit analyses, be used as the decision criteria for protective actions. Operational Intervention Levels (OILs) are directly or easily measurable quantities corresponding to these generic levels. To assess the necessity of protective actions in a nuclear emergency, it is important that the environmental monitoring data required for applying and revising OILs should be promptly produced. It is discussed what and how to do for this task in the course of the emergency response. For an emergency environmental monitoring to be performed effectively, a through preparedness has to be made including maintenance of the organization and equipments, establishment of various procedure manuals, development of a supporting computer system and periodical training and exercises. It is pointed out that Korean legal provisions concerning GILs and OILs need to be amended or newly established

  17. Monitoring User-Based Accessibility Assessment in Urban Environments and in Public Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gintaras Stauskis

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The research features analysis of user-experience-based accessibility assessment and progress monitoring of buildings and public spaces; this analysis is used as a tool for facilitating the development of humane, socially sustainable and an inclusive urban environment. A group of users representing people with different kinds of disabilities, the elderly and families with children was created to assess the quality of access to various buildings with different functions and locations across Vilnius and in Singapore. A school, two hospitals, a rehab centre and two offices were selected for access monitoring in Vilnius City, while a hotel, a café and two metro stations with public squares were chosen for access assessment in Singapore. As the same method was principally applied to assess accessibility of selected buildings in Vilnius City in 2000 and 2017 and in Singapore in 2012, the article draws a comparative analysis of access levels in these two cities located in different global regions. The results show a definite improvement of access quality over time and also identify the critical aspects in this process. The segment of plot planning represents the lowest quality of access for all assessed building types as compared to the building segment and the external–internal element segments. The paper also draws conclusions that access improvement is a continuous process of implementing advanced urban policy instruments, and city planners can contribute to it by constantly analysing and presenting to public the monitoring data about the progress in access improvement. Comparing the assessment results between Vilnius City and Singapore – cities that are located in different global regions and in different socio-economic environments – provides a practical tool for benchmarking and setting the priorities for this process.

  18. The roles of users personal characteristics and organisational support in the attitude towards using ERP systems in a Spanish public hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Rodriguez, Tomas; Bartual-Sopena, Lourdes

    Enterprise resources planning (ERP) systems enable central and integrative control over all processes throughout an organisation by ensuring one data entry point and the use of a common database. T his paper analyses the attitude of healthcare personnel towards the use of an ERP system in a Spanish public hospital, identifying influencing factors. This research is based on a regression analysis of latent variables using the optimisation technique of partial least squares. We propose a research model including possible relationships among different constructs using the technology acceptance model. Our results show that the personal characteristics of potential users are key factors in explaining attitude towards using ERP systems.

  19. Patient and public attitudes towards informed consent models and levels of awareness of Electronic Health Records in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, Fiona; Papoutsi, Chrysanthi; Reed, Julie E.; Marston, Cicely; Bell, Derek; Majeed, Azeem

    2015-01-01

    Background The development of Electronic Health Records (EHRs) forms an integral part of the information strategy for the National Health Service (NHS) in the UK, with the aim of facilitating health information exchange for patient care and secondary use, including research and healthcare planning. Implementing EHR systems requires an understanding of patient expectations for consent mechanisms and consideration of public awareness towards information sharing as might be made possible through integrated EHRs across primary and secondary health providers. Objectives To explore levels of public awareness about EHRs and to examine attitudes towards different consent models with respect to sharing identifiable and de-identified records for healthcare provision, research and planning. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was administered to adult patients and members of the public in primary and secondary care clinics in West London, UK in 2011. In total, 5331 individuals participated in the survey, and 3157 were included in the final analysis. Results The majority (91%) of respondents expected to be explicitly asked for consent for their identifiable records to be accessed for health provision, research or planning. Half the respondents (49%) did not expect to be asked for consent before their de-identified records were accessed. Compared with White British respondents, those from all other ethnic groups were more likely to anticipate their permission would be obtained before their de-identified records were used. Of the study population, 59% reported already being aware of EHRs before the survey. Older respondents and individuals with complex patterns of interaction with healthcare services were more likely to report prior awareness of EHRs. Individuals self-identifying as belonging to ethnic groups other than White British, and those with lower educational qualifications were less likely to report being aware of EHRs than White British respondents and

  20. Public awareness, patterns of use and attitudes toward natural health products in Kuwait: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Abdelmoneim; Al-Shaye, Dana

    2014-03-19

    There has been a global rise in the use of natural health products (NHPs). Proper regulation of NHPs is pivotal to ensure good quality control standards, enhance consumers' safety and facilitate their integration into modern healthcare systems. There is scarcity of published data on the prevalence of NHPs usage among the general Kuwaiti population. Hence, this study was designed to determine awareness, patterns of use, general attitude and information requirements about NHPs among the public in Kuwait. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was performed using a pretested self-administered questionnaire on a sample of 1300 Kuwaiti individuals, selected from six governorates in Kuwait using a multistage stratified clustered sampling. Descriptive and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used in data analysis. The response rate was 90.2%. NHPs were thought to be herbal remedies by most of participants (63.5%), followed by vitamins/minerals (40.5%), traditional medicines (21.1%), probiotics (14.9%), amino acids and essential fatty acids (7.2%), and homeopathic medicines (5.6%). NHPs usage was reported by 71.4% (95% CI: 68.8-74.0%) of respondents, and mostly associated with females (OR: 1.90; 95% CI: 1.44-2.51). Herbal remedies were the most commonly used (41.3%; 95% CI: 38.5-44.2%). The most common reasons for using NHPs were to promote and maintain health and to prevent illness and build immune system. Family members and/or friends and mass media were the main sources for providing information about NHPs. About 18% of consumers have experienced a side effect due to using a NHP. Attitudes toward NHPs were generally positive; with more than 75% of participants believing that the Ministry of Health in Kuwait should regulate the claims made by the manufacturers of NHPs and it is important to talk to a medical doctor or a pharmacist prior to using NHPs. Most of the respondents showed increased interest to acquire knowledge about different types of information

  1. Agriculture and the European public: Agendas, attitudes, and the management of issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    Introduction: European agriculture has gone through troubled times. The critical point was reached in the 1980s. Support policies had increased production far beyond market demand. Allegations of support abuse were ripe. Policy-makers responded by partially replacing input- and output-linked forms...... of producer support with others. However, radical reform was avoided. In the period 2002-2004, the level of support to producers still amounted to approximately 30% of farm receipts in the EU, and 70% in Iceland, Norway and Switzerland. In the public eye, intensified agricultural production was also labelled...... a key culprit in environmental degradation. In the 1990s (notably in the reform plans set forth in the Agenda 2000 under Commissioner Franz Fischler), the EU responded by advocating the "multifunctionality" concept of agriculture. Among the EU's trading partners, the concept quickly gained notoriety...

  2. Behind the ethnic-civic distinction: Public attitudes towards immigrants' political rights in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Martinovic, Borja

    2015-09-01

    Public opinion research has sought to distinguish between ethnic and civic conceptions of citizenship and examined the differential associations of these conceptions with policy preferences in the realm of immigration. What has not been examined empirically is why exactly these conceptions are related to people's preferences. In two survey studies conducted among national samples of native Dutch we tested the proposition that the endorsement of ethnic citizenship is related to lower acceptance of Muslim immigrant rights (Study 1) and their political participation (Study 2) because of a weaker normative sense of common national belonging and higher adherence to autochthony (primo-occupancy) beliefs. In contrast, the endorsement of civic citizenship was expected to be associated with higher acceptance of Muslim immigrant rights and their political participation because of a stronger sense of common belonging and lower belief in autochthony. The findings of the two studies are similar and in support of these expectations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Attitudes toward clinical autopsy in unexpected patient deaths in Japan: a nation-wide survey of the general public and physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamishiraki, Etsuko; Maeda, Shoichi; Starkey, Jay; Ikeda, Noriaki

    2012-12-01

    Autopsy is a useful tool for understanding the cause and manner of unexpected patient death. However, the attitudes of the general public and physicians in Japan about clinical autopsy are limited. To describe the beliefs of the general public about whether autopsy should be performed and ascertain if they would actually request one given specific clinical situations where patient death occurred with the additional variable of medical error. To compare these attitudes with previously obtained attitudes of physicians practising at Japanese teaching hospitals. We conducted a cross-sectional study of the general public. We sent standardised questionnaires in 2010 to a randomly selected non-physician adult population using a survey company for participant selection. Respondents gave their opinions about the necessity of autopsy and how they might act given various clinical scenarios of patient death. We compared these results with those of a previous survey of Japanese physicians conducted in 2009. Of the 2300 eligible general adult population, 1575 (68.5%) responded. The majority of the general public indicated they believed an autopsy was necessary. However, in cases of unclear medical error or unclear cause and effect relationship of medical care and patient death, the general public were much less likely to indicate they would actually request an autopsy than were physicians (pcase of error related to death is underway. The results from this study will be important in informing related decisions.

  4. The Community Environmental Monitoring Program: Reducing Public Perception of Risk through Stakeholder Involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    William T. Hartwell

    2007-01-01

    The Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) has promoted stakeholder involvement, awareness, and understanding of radiological surveillance in communities surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) since 1981. It involves stakeholders in the operation, data collection, and dissemination of information obtained from a network of 29 stations across a wide area of Nevada, Utah and California. It is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration's Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) and administered by the Desert Research Institute (DRI) of the Nevada System of Higher Education. Integration of a near real-time communications system, a public web site, training workshops for involved stakeholders, and educational programs all help to alleviate public perception of risk of health effects from past activities conducted at the NTS

  5. The Community Environmental Monitoring Program: Reducing Public Perception of Risk Through Stakeholder Involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. Hartwell

    2007-01-01

    Between 1951 and 1992, 928 nuclear tests were conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), including 100 atmospheric and 828 underground tests. Initial public reaction to the tests was largely supportive, but by the late 1950s this began to change, largely as a result of fear of the potential for adverse health effects to be caused by exposure to ionizing radiation resulting from the tests. The nuclear power plant accident at Three Mile Island in 1979 served to heighten these fears, as well as foster a general distrust of the federal agencies involved and low public confidence in monitoring results. Modeled after a similar program that involved the public in monitoring activities around the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant, the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) has promoted stakeholder involvement, awareness, and understanding of radiological surveillance in communities surrounding the NTS since 1981. It involves stakeholders in the operation, data collection, and dissemination of information obtained from a network of 29 stations across a wide area of Nevada, Utah, and California. It is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) and administered by the Desert Research Institute (DRI) of the Nevada System of Higher Education. Since assuming administration of the program in 2000, DRI has accomplished significant enhancements to the network's data collection and transmission capabilities. A robust datalogging and communications system allows for the near real-time transmission of data to a platform maintained by DRI's Western Regional Climate Center, where the data are uploaded and displayed on a publicly accessible web site (http://cemp.dri.edu/). Additionally, the CEMP can serve as part of an emergency response network in the event of an unplanned radiological release from the NTS, and also provides an excellent platform for testing new environmental sensor technologies

  6. Public Perception of CCS Technology. The Effects of Information on Attitude; Percepcion Publica de la Tecnologia de CAC. El Efecto de la Informacion en la Actitud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oltra, C.; Marin, R.; Sala, R.

    2011-11-10

    This report examines the public perception of Carbon Capture and Storage technology and the impacts of information on perception. We analyze, from an electronic questionnaire with technical and contextual information, dimensions such as the initial reaction to the technology, the acceptance of CO{sub 2} storage, the perception of risk of storage and the degree of antagonism toward the organizations involved. The determinants of attitudes and reactions to CCS are also analyzed. A favorable initial reaction to CCS is found after some information and contextualization of CCS as well as significant risk perception. The type of information transmitted appears to influence the attitude of participants to the technology. The broader positive impact on attitude occurs when transmitting the idea of CO{sub 2} as a natural resource. (Author) 4 refs.

  7. Practical implications of the ICRP - Publication 26 on the neutron external monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sordi, G.-M.A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: radiation monitoring (monitoring of the work place, individual monitoring, application of models to the interpretation of the monitoring results, monitoring complementary functions); monitoring of the work place for the external neutronic radiation (a project for a monitoring program, interpretation of the results) and confidence quality. (M.A.) [pt

  8. Support for laws to prohibit weight discrimination in the United States: public attitudes from 2011 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Young; Puhl, Rebecca; Liu, Sai; Milici, Frances Fleming

    2014-08-01

    Public attitudes about three proposed laws prohibiting weight discrimination in the US, from 2011 to 2013 were examined. An online survey using a diverse national sample of US adults to assess their level of support for three specific laws against weight discrimination was conducted. Data collection occurred between June and July in 2011 (n = 1,098), 2012 (n = 1,202), and 2013 (n = 1,202). Between 2011 and 2013, support for laws prohibiting weight discrimination remained consistent, and in some cases became increasingly supportive, primarily in 2012-2013. At least 75% of participants consistently favored laws prohibiting weight discrimination in the workplace. Individuals became increasingly supportive of extending disability protections for individuals with obesity (62% in 2011 to 69% in 2013) and adding body weight as a protected class in Civil Rights statutes (70% in 2011 to 76% in 2013). Analyses highlight specific predictors of support (gender, race, education, and political affiliation). There is strong, consistent support for policies prohibiting weight discrimination. These findings have important implications for developing specific antidiscrimination legislation to protect Americans with obesity and improve their quality of life. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  9. Knowledge, attitude, and behaviour of public health doctors towards pandemic influenza compared to the general population in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Torre, Giuseppe; Semyonov, Leda; Mannocci, Alice; Boccia, Antonio

    2012-02-01

    To study differences between public health physicians' and general population's knowledge, attitude, and behaviours towards an influenza pandemic. During winter 2009, an anonymous questionnaire online (www.ijph.it) of 34 questions was available for participants, structured into three parts: socio-demographic information, people's knowledge, and behaviours about influenza H1N1. 836 persons were interviewed (335 physicians and 501 not physicians). Of these, 50.8% of physicians and 78.1% of not physicians were aged less than 50 years and 57.6% of physicians and 31.7% of not physicians were male. Physicians were more interested to be updated about the pandemic (90.6% versus 88.4% of not physicians; p = 0.003); not physicians were more inclined to avoid crowded places (29.7% versus 17.6% of physicians; p health facilities' internal communication (33.1%), while for not physicians being watching the national television news (34.1%) and surfing the internet (30.9%). During the spread of the pandemic flu, a lot of information was propagated chaotically. The information given were not always truthful and often they were interpreted incorrectly or sometimes only partially understood by the population, and this needs to be taken into account for future successful communication in cases of emergency.

  10. Public attitudes towards alcohol control policies in Scotland and England: Results from a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jessica; Lovatt, Melanie; Eadie, Douglas; Dobbie, Fiona; Meier, Petra; Holmes, John; Hastings, Gerard; MacKintosh, Anne Marie

    2017-03-01

    The harmful effects of heavy drinking on health have been widely reported, yet public opinion on governmental responsibility for alcohol control remains divided. This study examines UK public attitudes towards alcohol policies, identifies underlying dimensions that inform these, and relationships with perceived effectiveness. A cross-sectional mixed methods study involving a telephone survey of 3477 adult drinkers aged 16-65 and sixteen focus groups with 89 adult drinkers in Scotland and England was conducted between September 2012 and February 2013. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to reduce twelve policy statements into underlying dimensions. These dimensions were used in linear regression models examining alcohol policy support by demographics, drinking behaviour and perceptions of UK drinking and government responsibility. Findings were supplemented with a thematic analysis of focus group transcripts. A majority of survey respondents supported all alcohol policies, although the level of support varied by type of policy. Greater enforcement of laws on under-age sales and more police patrolling the streets were strongly supported while support for pricing policies and restricting access to alcohol was more divided. PCA identified four main dimensions underlying support on policies: alcohol availability, provision of health information and treatment services, alcohol pricing, and greater law enforcement. Being female, older, a moderate drinker, and holding a belief that government should do more to reduce alcohol harms were associated with higher support on all policy dimensions. Focus group data revealed findings from the survey may have presented an overly positive level of support on all policies due to differences in perceived policy effectiveness. Perceived effectiveness can help inform underlying patterns of policy support and should be considered in conjunction with standard measures of support in future research on alcohol control policies

  11. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of the general public toward sun exposure and protection: A national survey in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlGhamdi, Khalid M; AlAklabi, Aeed S; AlQahtani, Abdulla Z

    2016-11-01

    Background: Many international studies have been conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of the public toward sun exposure and sun-protection measures. However, there are scarce data on these factors from the Middle East. Objectives: This study aimed to explore the KAP of the public toward sun exposure and sun-protection measures among Saudis. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using a specially designed questionnaire was conducted on a stratified random sample of the general population in the five geographical regions of Saudi Arabia (central, eastern, northern, southern, and western). Data were collected between October 2010 and March 2011. Multiple logistic regressions were applied to relate the use of sunscreen and skin cancer awareness with various socio-demographic variables. Results: The questionnaire was distributed to 2900 Saudis. A total of 2622 questionnaires were completed, returned, and included in the data analysis, corresponding to a response rate of 90.4%. The mean (SD) age of respondents was 27.8 ± 9.7 years. Fifty percent (1301/1601) of the respondents were males. Fifty-five percent (1406/2544) were aware of the association between sun exposure and skin cancer. Female, young and student respondents were more likely to be aware of the connection between sun exposure and skin cancer ( p  Protective clothes were the most commonly used sun protection measure as reported by more than 90% of our participants. Conclusion: This study has shown that sun awareness and protection are generally inadequate in the Saudi population and suggests the need for health education programs.

  12. Renewable energy applications in Greece—What is the public attitude?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaldellis, J.K.; Kapsali, M.; Katsanou, Ev.

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale integration of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) applications is thought to be imperative for Greece in view of meeting the targets of 2020, which dictate that 20% of the national gross energy consumption and 40% of the national gross electricity consumption should be covered by RES. However, availability of suitable sites for the installation of such applications is questioned, since apart from the fact that many locations of high RES potential and adequate infrastructure have already been allocated, the society opposition often sets additional barriers. The present study focuses on the assessment of the levels of social acceptability for selected RES technologies (wind, small hydro and photovoltaics) in a representative region of Southern Greece. The specific area is of major interest since, apart from the operating and scheduled installations of RES applications in the next years, the local population is also familiar with the long-term operation of a lignite-based power station (850 MW). One three-part questionnaire has been deployed for conducting the survey based on a representative sample of local inhabitants. According to the results obtained, high levels of acceptability of renewable energy applications have been encountered although the need for additional public information regarding RES exploitation has also been designated. - Highlights: ► This study assesses the levels of social acceptability for several Renewable Energy Sources (RES) technologies. ► The survey was conducted in the wide region of central Peloponnesus (S. Greece). ► The area has already remarkable RES-based installations. ► Respondents are familiar with long-term operation of a lignite-based power station. ► Based on results, high levels of acceptability of RES applications have been recorded.

  13. Effects of news media messages about mass shootings on attitudes toward persons with serious mental illness and public support for gun control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Emma E; Webster, Daniel W; Barry, Colleen L

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, mass shootings by persons with serious mental illness have received extensive news media coverage. The authors test the effects of news stories about mass shootings on public attitudes toward persons with serious mental illness and support for gun control policies. They also examine whether news coverage of proposals to prevent persons with serious mental illness from having guns exacerbates the public's negative attitudes toward this group. The authors conducted a survey-embedded randomized experiment using a national sample (N=1,797) from an online panel. Respondents were randomly assigned to groups instructed to read one of three news stories or to a no-exposure control group. The news stories described, respectively, a mass shooting by a person with serious mental illness, the same mass shooting and a proposal for gun restrictions for persons with serious mental illness, and the same mass shooting and a proposal to ban large-capacity magazines. Outcome measures included attitudes toward working with or living near a person with serious mental illness, perceived dangerousness of persons with serious mental illness, and support for gun restrictions for persons with serious mental illness and for a ban on large-capacity magazines. Compared with the control group, the story about a mass shooting heightened respondents' negative attitudes toward persons with serious mental illness and raised support for gun restrictions for this group and for a ban on large-capacity magazines. Including information about the gun restriction policy in a story about a mass shooting did not heighten negative attitudes toward persons with serious mental illness or raise support for the restrictions. The aftermath of mass shootings is often viewed as a window of opportunity to garner support for gun control policies, but it also exacerbates negative attitudes toward persons with serious mental illness.

  14. The Public and Professionals Reason Similarly about the Management of Non-Native Invasive Species: A Quantitative Investigation of the Relationship between Beliefs and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Anke; Selge, Sebastian; van der Wal, René; Larson, Brendon M. H.

    2014-01-01

    Despite continued critique of the idea of clear boundaries between scientific and lay knowledge, the ‘deficit-model’ of public understanding of ecological issues still seems prevalent in discourses of biodiversity management. Prominent invasion biologists, for example, still argue that citizens need to be educated so that they accept scientists’ views on the management of non-native invasive species. We conducted a questionnaire-based survey with members of the public and professionals in invasive species management (n = 732) in Canada and the UK to investigate commonalities and differences in their perceptions of species and, more importantly, how these perceptions were connected to attitudes towards species management. Both native and non-native mammal and tree species were included. Professionals tended to have more extreme views than the public, especially in relation to nativeness and abundance of a species. In both groups, species that were perceived to be more abundant, non-native, unattractive or harmful to nature and the economy were more likely to be regarded as in need of management. While perceptions of species and attitudes towards management thus often differed between public and professionals, these perceptions were linked to attitudes in very similar ways across the two groups. This suggests that ways of reasoning about invasive species employed by professionals and the public might be more compatible with each other than commonly thought. We recommend that managers and local people engage in open discussion about each other’s beliefs and attitudes prior to an invasive species control programme. This could ultimately reduce conflict over invasive species control. PMID:25170957

  15. Public attitudes towards psychiatry and psychiatric treatment at the beginning of the 21st century: a systematic review and meta-analysis of population surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angermeyer, Matthias C; van der Auwera, Sandra; Carta, Mauro G; Schomerus, Georg

    2017-02-01

    Public attitudes towards psychiatry are crucial determinants of help-seeking for mental illness. It has been argued that psychiatry as a discipline enjoys low esteem among the public, and a "crisis" of psychiatry has been noted. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of population studies examining public attitudes towards various aspects of psychiatric care. Our search in PubMed, Web of Science, PsychINFO and bibliographies yielded 162 papers based on population surveys conducted since 2000 and published no later than 2015. We found that professional help for mental disorders generally enjoys high esteem. While general practitioners are the preferred source of help for depression, mental health professionals are the most trusted helpers for schizophrenia. If respondents have to rank sources of help, they tend to favor mental health professionals, while open questions yield results more favorable to general practitioners. Psychiatrists and psychologists/psychotherapists are equally recommended for the treatment of schizophrenia, while for depression psychologists/psychotherapists are more recommended, at least in Europe and America. Psychotherapy is consistently preferred over medication. Attitudes towards seeking help from psychiatrists or psychologists/psychotherapists as well as towards medication and psychotherapy have markedly improved over the last twenty-five years. Biological concepts of mental illness are associated with stronger approval of psychiatric help, particularly medication. Self-stigma and negative attitudes towards persons with mental illness decrease the likelihood of personally considering psychiatric help. In conclusion, the public readily recommends psychiatric help for the treatment of mental disorders. Psychotherapy is the most popular method of psychiatric treatment. A useful strategy to further improve the public image of psychiatry could be to stress that listening and understanding are at the core of psychiatric care.

  16. 77 FR 57545 - Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule: Public Meeting on Monitoring Data Analysis...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... Water Treatment Rule: Public Meeting on Monitoring Data Analysis, Occurrence Forecasts, Binning, and the... solicit public input on data and information related to several topics. The first topic is the results of... Review process. EPA will consider the data and/or information discussed at this meeting during the agency...

  17.  Public Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Complementary and AlternativeMedicine in Riyadh Region, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M.N. AlBedah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available  Objectives: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM iswell established world wide. The present work is aimed at studying the knowledge, attitude and practice of CAM by the people of Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia.Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive household survey studyof the people living in Riyadh city, as well as the surrounding governorates. A multistage random sample was taken from1st January to the end of March 2010, with a total number of 518 participants. Data were collected using a pre-designed questionnaire through direct interview. The data was collected based on socio-demography, as well as knowledge, attitude and practice of CAM.Results: Participants were nearly sex-matched, consisting of approximately 70�0Saudi and 30�0non-Saudis. About 89�0ofthe participants had some knowledge of CAM. Mass media e.g.(T.V., newspapers and radio and family, relatives and friends represented the main sources of CAM knowledge, (46.5�0and46.3�0respectively. Nearly 85�0of participants or one of their family members has used some form of CAM before, and the most common users of CAM practices were females, housewives, and illiterate subjects (or those who could just read and write, as well as participants aged 60 years and above. Medical herbs (58.89� prayer (54� honey and bee products (54� hijama (35.71�nd cauterization or medical massage therapy (22�20were thecommonly used CAM practices. Most participants agreed that there are needs for; CAM practices (93.8� regulations for CAM(94.9� health education (96.6� specialized centers (94.8�20and CAM clinics (92.7� While only 8.3�0of participants usually discussed CAM with their physicians.Conclusion: There is a high prevalence and increased public interest in CAM use in the Riyadh region. There is a positiv eattitude towards CAM, yet most participants are reluctant to share and discuss CAM information with their physicians.

  18. Monitoring mechanisms and financial distress of public listed companies in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Kazemian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationships between financial distress and financial ratio (liquidity, leverage, profitability, firm’s performance, and dividend among public listed companies, using the Altman Z-Score to determine the financial distress levels among public listed companies in Malaysia. Five-year data has been collected (2010 to 2014 from the annual financial statements and from Data Stream of public listed companies in Malaysia. The findings indicate significant relationships between liquidity, leverage, profitability, firm’s performance, and dividend with the financial distress levels among the companies in question. This study also examines the interaction effects of financial ratios and the year after implementation of the Malaysian Code on Corporate Governance (MCCG in 2012 on financial distress levels. The results suggest that only liquidity and firm’s performance have stronger effects on financial distress levels in two years after MCCG implementation. This indicates that after the implementation of the Code, liquidity and firms’ performance ratios had strong and significant effect on financial distress levels. Overall, this study could help investors, creditors as well as external regulators in monitoring companies from being classified as financially distressed companies.

  19. A proposed approach to systematically identify and monitor the corporate political activity of the food industry with respect to public health using publicly available information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mialon, M; Swinburn, B; Sacks, G

    2015-07-01

    Unhealthy diets represent one of the major risk factors for non-communicable diseases. There is currently a risk that the political influence of the food industry results in public health policies that do not adequately balance public and commercial interests. This paper aims to develop a framework for categorizing the corporate political activity of the food industry with respect to public health and proposes an approach to systematically identify and monitor it. The proposed framework includes six strategies used by the food industry to influence public health policies and outcomes: information and messaging; financial incentive; constituency building; legal; policy substitution; opposition fragmentation and destabilization. The corporate political activity of the food industry could be identified and monitored through publicly available data sourced from the industry itself, governments, the media and other sources. Steps for country-level monitoring include identification of key food industry actors and related sources of information, followed by systematic data collection and analysis of relevant documents, using the proposed framework as a basis for classification of results. The proposed monitoring approach should be pilot tested in different countries as part of efforts to increase the transparency and accountability of the food industry. This approach has the potential to help redress any imbalance of interests and thereby contribute to the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases. © 2015 World Obesity.

  20. Determinants of Attitude toward the Public Health Spending and Its Relationship with Voting Behavior in the 2012 South Korean Presidential Election.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Jun Eun

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the factors influencing South Korean voters' attitudes towards increasing public expenditure on health and to identify whether the issue of healthcare expenditure influenced candidate choice in the 2012 Korean presidential election. The study used the data from a survey conducted by the Institute of Korean Politics at Seoul National University immediately following the 2012 presidential election. The survey was completed by a nationwide sample of 1,200 people aged 19 or over using a face-to-face interview method and proportional quota sampling based on sex, age, and region. About 44.3% of respondents had a positive attitude toward increasing public health expenditure. There was no significant difference by the candidate they supported (conservative Park Geun-hye or liberal Moon Jae-in. In particular, even 44.9% of conservative supporters agreed with more spending. Politically neutral respondents (OR = 1.76, 90% CI 1.22-2.54 and strong conservative party supporters (OR = 1.53, 90% CI 1.05-2.25 were more likely to support public health expenditure increase compared to strong liberal party supporters. Also, respondents who believed that the economic gap in the country was widening were 1.91 times more likely to support an increase in public health expenditures. However, the issue of health expenditure had no influence on voters' choice of presidential candidates, and in particular no negative effect of choice of the ruling (conservative party's candidate. Our results should be interpreted with care; one possible reason for this lack of effect might be that constituents voted along partisan lines regardless of their attitude to the welfare issue; another possible explanation might be the success of the "left click strategy" of the conservative party. That is, the conservatives did not reject economic democratization or social welfare expansion. Further research should be done to explain why attitudes to health spending

  1. Determinants of Attitude toward the Public Health Spending and Its Relationship with Voting Behavior in the 2012 South Korean Presidential Election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun, Sang Jun; Lee, Jin Yong; Jung, Hye-Min; Lee, Jin-Seok

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the factors influencing South Korean voters' attitudes towards increasing public expenditure on health and to identify whether the issue of healthcare expenditure influenced candidate choice in the 2012 Korean presidential election. The study used the data from a survey conducted by the Institute of Korean Politics at Seoul National University immediately following the 2012 presidential election. The survey was completed by a nationwide sample of 1,200 people aged 19 or over using a face-to-face interview method and proportional quota sampling based on sex, age, and region. About 44.3% of respondents had a positive attitude toward increasing public health expenditure. There was no significant difference by the candidate they supported (conservative Park Geun-hye or liberal Moon Jae-in). In particular, even 44.9% of conservative supporters agreed with more spending. Politically neutral respondents (OR = 1.76, 90% CI 1.22-2.54) and strong conservative party supporters (OR = 1.53, 90% CI 1.05-2.25) were more likely to support public health expenditure increase compared to strong liberal party supporters. Also, respondents who believed that the economic gap in the country was widening were 1.91 times more likely to support an increase in public health expenditures. However, the issue of health expenditure had no influence on voters' choice of presidential candidates, and in particular no negative effect of choice of the ruling (conservative) party's candidate. Our results should be interpreted with care; one possible reason for this lack of effect might be that constituents voted along partisan lines regardless of their attitude to the welfare issue; another possible explanation might be the success of the "left click strategy" of the conservative party. That is, the conservatives did not reject economic democratization or social welfare expansion. Further research should be done to explain why attitudes to health spending did not directly

  2. Evaluation of Chronic Disease Prevention and Control Public Service Advertisement on the Awareness and Attitude Change among Urban Population in Chongqing, China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tingting; Hu, Ping; Huang, Hao; Wu, Chengbin; Fu, Zhirong; Du, Lei; Zhao, Yong

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of public service advertising on the awareness and attitude of Chongqing urban citizens. The theme of the public service advertisement launched in Chongqing was chronic disease prevention and control. A self-designed questionnaire was used in an outdoor intercept survey to collect information about the perception of citizens toward the effect of the advertisement on awareness and attitude situation. Respondents had good knowledge of chronic disease (17.11 ± 3.23, total score: 23), but only 58.4% of participants thought cancer is one type of chronic disease. The awareness of cancer as a chronic disease among the group who had seen this advertisement (63.6%) was higher than that of the group who had not seen the advertisement (56.5%) (p = 0.046). The attitude of respondents was good after watching the advertisement, approximately 77.4% of respondents attempted to remind their family and friends to prevent chronic diseases, roughly. 78.2% tried to persuade their family and friends to change their unhealthy lifestyle habits, and 84.7% of participants reported that the advertising increased the possibility of their own future lifestyle change. There was minimal change of awareness of the participants who saw the advertisement. This study did not show significant differences on chronic disease related knowledge between the participants who have seen the advertisement and who have not seen the advertisement. The public service advertisement may help participants improve the attitude of future behavior change. Further researches combining the sustained intervention and support through clinical and community health programs media campaigns are needed to support public health. PMID:29206192

  3. Evaluation of Chronic Disease Prevention and Control Public Service Advertisement on the Awareness and Attitude Change among Urban Population in Chongqing, China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Wu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of public service advertising on the awareness and attitude of Chongqing urban citizens. The theme of the public service advertisement launched in Chongqing was chronic disease prevention and control. A self-designed questionnaire was used in an outdoor intercept survey to collect information about the perception of citizens toward the effect of the advertisement on awareness and attitude situation. Respondents had good knowledge of chronic disease (17.11 ± 3.23, total score: 23, but only 58.4% of participants thought cancer is one type of chronic disease. The awareness of cancer as a chronic disease among the group who had seen this advertisement (63.6% was higher than that of the group who had not seen the advertisement (56.5% (p = 0.046. The attitude of respondents was good after watching the advertisement, approximately 77.4% of respondents attempted to remind their family and friends to prevent chronic diseases, roughly. 78.2% tried to persuade their family and friends to change their unhealthy lifestyle habits, and 84.7% of participants reported that the advertising increased the possibility of their own future lifestyle change. There was minimal change of awareness of the participants who saw the advertisement. This study did not show significant differences on chronic disease related knowledge between the participants who have seen the advertisement and who have not seen the advertisement. The public service advertisement may help participants improve the attitude of future behavior change. Further researches combining the sustained intervention and support through clinical and community health programs media campaigns are needed to support public health.

  4. Evaluation of Chronic Disease Prevention and Control Public Service Advertisement on the Awareness and Attitude Change among Urban Population in Chongqing, China: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tingting; Hu, Ping; Huang, Hao; Wu, Chengbin; Fu, Zhirong; Du, Lei; Xu, Xianglong; Shi, Zumin; Zhao, Yong

    2017-12-05

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of public service advertising on the awareness and attitude of Chongqing urban citizens. The theme of the public service advertisement launched in Chongqing was chronic disease prevention and control. A self-designed questionnaire was used in an outdoor intercept survey to collect information about the perception of citizens toward the effect of the advertisement on awareness and attitude situation. Respondents had good knowledge of chronic disease (17.11 ± 3.23, total score: 23), but only 58.4% of participants thought cancer is one type of chronic disease. The awareness of cancer as a chronic disease among the group who had seen this advertisement (63.6%) was higher than that of the group who had not seen the advertisement (56.5%) ( p = 0.046). The attitude of respondents was good after watching the advertisement, approximately 77.4% of respondents attempted to remind their family and friends to prevent chronic diseases, roughly. 78.2% tried to persuade their family and friends to change their unhealthy lifestyle habits, and 84.7% of participants reported that the advertising increased the possibility of their own future lifestyle change. There was minimal change of awareness of the participants who saw the advertisement. This study did not show significant differences on chronic disease related knowledge between the participants who have seen the advertisement and who have not seen the advertisement. The public service advertisement may help participants improve the attitude of future behavior change. Further researches combining the sustained intervention and support through clinical and community health programs media campaigns are needed to support public health.

  5. Algal bloom detection, monitoring and prediction. 3. Workshop on public health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catena, G; Funari, E [eds.; Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Rome (Italy). Lab. di Igiene Ambientale

    1999-07-01

    The report presents articles discussed in the 3. Workshop on Public Health (Rome, Italy) focused on the problem of the harmful algae in the Mediterranean basin with the aim of verifying the possibilities of using remote sensing techniques together with conventional ones. These proceedings report the aim aspects of the problem, as the ecological one, the conventional monitoring techniques, the activities of international organizations and finally some of the current research activities in Italy aimed at using remote sensing techniques. [Italian] Il workshop sulla salute pubblica e' incentrato sul problema delle alghe tossiche marine all'interno del bacino del Mediterraneo con lo scopo di verificare le possibilita' di utilizzare delle tecniche di telerilevamento in modo complementare rispetto a quelle convenzionali. Si affrontano alcuni degli aspetti principali di questa problematica quali l'ecologia, le tecniche convenzionali di monitoraggio, le attivita' di organismi internazionali e infine le attivita' in corso in Italia finalizzate all'utilizzazione delle tecniche di telerilevamento.

  6. Determinants of Public Attitudes towards Euthanasia in Adults and Physician-Assisted Death in Neonates in Austria: A National Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Stolz

    Full Text Available Euthanasia remains a controversial topic in both public discourses and legislation. Although some determinants of acceptance of euthanasia and physician-assisted death have been identified in previous studies, there is still a shortage of information whether different forms of euthanasia are supported by the same or different sub-populations and whether authoritarian personality dispositions are linked to attitudes towards euthanasia.A large, representative face-to-face survey was conducted in Austria in 2014 (n = 1,971. Respondents faced three scenarios of euthanasia and one of physician assisted death differing regarding the level of specificity, voluntariness and subject, requiring either approval or rejection: (1 abstract description of euthanasia, (2 abstract description of physician-assisted suicide, (3 the case of euthanasia of a terminally-ill 79-year old cancer patient, and (4 the case of non-voluntary, physician assisted death of a severely disabled or ill neonate. A number of potential determinants for rejection ordered in three categories (socio-demographic, personal experience, orientations including authoritarianism were tested via multiple logistic regression analyses.Rejection was highest in the case of the neonate (69% and lowest for the case of the older cancer patient (35%. A consistent negative impact of religiosity on the acceptance across all scenarios and differential effects for socio-economic status, area of residence, religious confession, liberalism, and authoritarianism were found. Individuals with a stronger authoritarian personality disposition were more likely to reject physician-assisted suicide for adults but at the same time also more likely to approve of physician-assisted death of a disabled neonate.Euthanasia in adults was supported by a partially different sub-population than assisted death of disabled neonates.

  7. Determinants of Public Attitudes towards Euthanasia in Adults and Physician-Assisted Death in Neonates in Austria: A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, Erwin; Burkert, Nathalie; Großschädl, Franziska; Rásky, Éva; Stronegger, Willibald J; Freidl, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Euthanasia remains a controversial topic in both public discourses and legislation. Although some determinants of acceptance of euthanasia and physician-assisted death have been identified in previous studies, there is still a shortage of information whether different forms of euthanasia are supported by the same or different sub-populations and whether authoritarian personality dispositions are linked to attitudes towards euthanasia. A large, representative face-to-face survey was conducted in Austria in 2014 (n = 1,971). Respondents faced three scenarios of euthanasia and one of physician assisted death differing regarding the level of specificity, voluntariness and subject, requiring either approval or rejection: (1) abstract description of euthanasia, (2) abstract description of physician-assisted suicide, (3) the case of euthanasia of a terminally-ill 79-year old cancer patient, and (4) the case of non-voluntary, physician assisted death of a severely disabled or ill neonate. A number of potential determinants for rejection ordered in three categories (socio-demographic, personal experience, orientations) including authoritarianism were tested via multiple logistic regression analyses. Rejection was highest in the case of the neonate (69%) and lowest for the case of the older cancer patient (35%). A consistent negative impact of religiosity on the acceptance across all scenarios and differential effects for socio-economic status, area of residence, religious confession, liberalism, and authoritarianism were found. Individuals with a stronger authoritarian personality disposition were more likely to reject physician-assisted suicide for adults but at the same time also more likely to approve of physician-assisted death of a disabled neonate. Euthanasia in adults was supported by a partially different sub-population than assisted death of disabled neonates.

  8. Knowledge, attitude and practice related to diabetes mellitus among the general public in Galle district in Southern Sri Lanka: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. M Herath

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM has become a global epidemic with significant disability and premature death. Identification of the level of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP related to diabetes among the general public is important in strategies for prevention of diabetes mellitus. Methods This study was conducted as a community based cross sectional study in three Medical Officers of Health (MOH areas in Galle district. Previously healthy literate individuals who have not attended any diabetes education program in the last two years were selected for this study. Results A total of 277 participants were included in the study. The majority (77% had either moderate (39% or above moderate knowledge (38% on diabetes mellitus. Even though, level of education was significantly and positively associated with knowledge (p = 0.001, the association of gender and age with knowledge was not significant. Unlike knowledge, the attitude towards diabetes was poor in majority (90% and level of education had no significant effect on attitude. With regards to practices, more than half of study subjects never had their blood sugar checked and, about 65% used to take refined sugar liberally and a large majority (80% had no regular exercise activity. Conclusions Even though the majority (77% had moderate or above moderate knowledge on diabetes, their attitudes towards diabetes was poor (88%. It appears that the higher knowledge on diabetes did not translate into good practices as over 50% of study subjects did not involve with any preventive measures. Therefore, more emphasis should be given to address the issue of poor attitude and practices towards diabetes mellitus among general public in Sri Lanka.

  9. A study of the Canadian public's attitudes toward the energy situation in Canada. Wave 4. A quantitative trend study conducted in selected major urban centres in Canada, of the attitudes of both men and women toward the subject of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This report presents the results of a yearly study designed to examine the attitudes of the Canadian public to certain energy-related issues. The study attempts to measure: the extent to which Canadians regard energy as a problem, relative to other issues such as unemployment and inflation; the extent and manner in which the public can help alleviate the problem; the role governments should play in solving the energy problem; perceived benefits and effects of turning to new energy sources; and shifts in opinions from earlier studies. A new section, not included in previous surveys, covers the extent of readership of government publications on energy conservation. Data were collected based on telephone interviews with respondents in seven cities across Canada. A selection of what is considered to be meaningful and pertinent data is presented, and some data from earlier surveys are also included. A supplement to this report includes summary tables and copies of the questionnaires used in the surveys. 49 tabs.

  10. Coliform Bacteria Monitoring in Fish Systems: Current Practices in Public Aquaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culpepper, Erin E; Clayton, Leigh A; Hadfield, Catherine A; Arnold, Jill E; Bourbon, Holly M

    2016-06-01

    Public aquaria evaluate coliform indicator bacteria levels in fish systems, but the purpose of testing, testing methods, and management responses are not standardized, unlike with the coliform bacteria testing for marine mammal enclosures required by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. An online survey was sent to selected aquaria to document current testing and management practices in fish systems without marine mammals. The information collected included indicator bacteria species, the size and type of systems monitored, the primary purpose of testing, sampling frequency, test methods, the criteria for interpreting results, corrective actions, and management changes to limit human exposure. Of the 25 institutions to which surveys were sent, 19 (76%) responded. Fourteen reported testing for fecal indicator bacteria in fish systems. The most commonly tested indicator species were total (86%) and fecal (79%) coliform bacteria, which were detected by means of the membrane filtration method (64%). Multiple types and sizes of systems were tested, and the guidelines for testing and corrective actions were highly variable. Only three institutions performed additional tests to confirm the identification of indicator organisms. The results from this study can be used to compare bacterial monitoring practices and protocols in fish systems, as an aid to discussions relating to the accuracy and reliability of test results, and to help implement appropriate management responses. Received August 23, 2015; accepted December 29, 2015.

  11. Long-term monitoring studies of pollutants on public lands: Bald Eagles in the Midwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowerman, W.W. [Eagle Environmental Inc., Haslett, MI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The role of public agencies to monitor the populations of wildlife species with protected status is paramount to the recovery of these species. Since the early 1960s, the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) populations within the Midwest have been monitored to determine number of breeding pairs, nest occupancy, and success rates. In addition to the reproductive outcome studies, abandoned eggs, blood samples, and feather samples have been collected to determine concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and heavy metals. These surveys give an actual measure of population dynamics of a top-predator species in aquatic systems that integrates the effects of many different environmental pollutants. As concentrations of the organochlorine compounds have declined, bald eagle populations have increased in numbers and their reproductive success has improved. The recovery of this species has not been uniform however. In regions where DDT and PCB concentrations are still above thresholds associated with reproductive impairment, eagles still have impaired reproduction. These areas include the shorelines of the Great Lakes and Voyageurs National Park. Some areas such as the Chippewa National Forest have begun to show declines in reproduction due to density dependent factors. Recent proposals for ecosystem management and reclassification of the bald eagle have led to reduced emphasis for maintaining these long-term data sets. The utility and importance of maintaining surveys of top-predators that can give a measure of population-level effects of pollutants rather than an index will be discussed using examples from the Midwest.

  12. Community drinking water quality monitoring data: utility for public health research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachael M; Graber, Judith M; Anderson, Robert; Rockne, Karl; Turyk, Mary; Stayner, Leslie T

    2014-01-01

    Environmental Public Health Tracking (EPHT) tracks the occurrence and magnitude of environmental hazards and associated adverse health effects over time. The EPHT program has formally expanded its scope to include finished drinking water quality. Our objective was to describe the features, strengths, and limitations of using finished drinking water quality data from community water systems (CWSs) for EPHT applications, focusing on atrazine and nitrogen compounds in 8 Midwestern states. Water quality data were acquired after meeting with state partners and reviewed and merged for analysis. Data and the coding of variables, particularly with respect to censored results (nondetects), were not standardized between states. Monitoring frequency varied between CWSs and between atrazine and nitrates, but this was in line with regulatory requirements. Cumulative distributions of all contaminants were not the same in all states (Peto-Prentice test P water as the CWS source water type. Nitrate results showed substantial state-to-state variability in censoring (20.5%-100%) and in associations between concentrations and the CWS source water type. Statistical analyses of these data are challenging due to high rates of censoring and uncertainty about the appropriateness of parametric assumptions for time-series data. Although monitoring frequency was consistent with regulations, the magnitude of time gaps coupled with uncertainty about CWS service areas may limit linkage with health outcome data.

  13. Final report on the public involvement process phase 1, Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility Feasibility Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, L.; Shanteau, C.

    1992-12-01

    This report summarizes the pubic involvement component of Phase 1 of the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility (NM) Feasibility Study in San Juan County, Utah. Part of this summary includes background information on the federal effort to locate a voluntary site for temporary storage of nuclear waste, how San Juan County came to be involved, and a profile of the county. The heart of the report, however, summarizes the activities within the public involvement process, and the issues raised in those various forums. The authors have made every effort to reflect accurately and thoroughly all the concerns and suggestions expressed to us during the five month process. We hope that this report itself is a successful model of partnership with the citizens of the county -- the same kind of partnership the county is seeking to develop with its constituents. Finally, this report offers some suggestions to both county officials and residents alike. These suggestions concern how decision-making about the county's future can be done by a partnership of informed citizens and listening decision-makers. In the Appendix are materials relating to the public involvement process in San Juan County

  14. Understanding Climate Adaptation on Public Lands in the Upper Midwest: Implications for Monitoring and Tracking Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anhalt-Depies, Christine M.; Knoot, Tricia Gorby; Rissman, Adena R.; Sharp, Anthony K.; Martin, Karl J.

    2016-05-01

    There are limited examples of efforts to systematically monitor and track climate change adaptation progress in the context of natural resource management, despite substantial investments in adaptation initiatives. To better understand the status of adaptation within state natural resource agencies, we utilized and problematized a rational decision-making framework to characterize adaptation at the level of public land managers in the Upper Midwest. We conducted in-depth interviews with 29 biologists and foresters to provide an understanding of managers' experiences with, and perceptions of, climate change impacts, efforts towards planning for climate change, and a full range of actions implemented to address climate change. While the majority of managers identified climate change impacts affecting their region, they expressed significant uncertainty in interpreting those signals. Just under half of managers indicated planning efforts are underway, although most planning is remote from local management. Actions already implemented include both forward-looking measures and those aimed at coping with current impacts. In addition, cross-scale dynamics emerged as an important theme related to the overall adaptation process. The results hold implications for tracking future progress on climate change adaptation. Common definitions or measures of adaptation (e.g., presence of planning documents) may need to be reassessed for applicability at the level of public land managers.

  15. Final report on the public involvement process phase 1, Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, L.; Shanteau, C.

    1992-12-01

    This report summarizes the pubic involvement component of Phase 1 of the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility (NM) Feasibility Study in San Juan County, Utah. Part of this summary includes background information on the federal effort to locate a voluntary site for temporary storage of nuclear waste, how San Juan County came to be involved, and a profile of the county. The heart of the report, however, summarizes the activities within the public involvement process, and the issues raised in those various forums. The authors have made every effort to reflect accurately and thoroughly all the concerns and suggestions expressed to us during the five month process. We hope that this report itself is a successful model of partnership with the citizens of the county -- the same kind of partnership the county is seeking to develop with its constituents. Finally, this report offers some suggestions to both county officials and residents alike. These suggestions concern how decision-making about the county's future can be done by a partnership of informed citizens and listening decision-makers. In the Appendix are materials relating to the public involvement process in San Juan County.

  16. Final report on the public involvement process phase 1, Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, L.; Shanteau, C.

    1992-12-01

    This report summarizes the pubic involvement component of Phase 1 of the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility (NM) Feasibility Study in San Juan County, Utah. Part of this summary includes background information on the federal effort to locate a voluntary site for temporary storage of nuclear waste, how San Juan County came to be involved, and a profile of the county. The heart of the report, however, summarizes the activities within the public involvement process, and the issues raised in those various forums. The authors have made every effort to reflect accurately and thoroughly all the concerns and suggestions expressed to us during the five month process. We hope that this report itself is a successful model of partnership with the citizens of the county -- the same kind of partnership the county is seeking to develop with its constituents. Finally, this report offers some suggestions to both county officials and residents alike. These suggestions concern how decision-making about the county`s future can be done by a partnership of informed citizens and listening decision-makers. In the Appendix are materials relating to the public involvement process in San Juan County.

  17. Public stigma and attitudes toward psychological help-seeking in the United Arab Emirates: The mediational role of self-stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vally, Zahir; Cody, Brettjet L; Albloshi, Maryam A; Alsheraifi, Safeya N M

    2018-04-17

    Scholars argue that public stigma is predictive of self-stigma, and self-stigma is a primary predictor of attitudes toward seeking psychological help (ATPH). This assertion remains undetermined outside of the United States. This study examines a potential mediational model in which internalized stigma was hypothesized to mediate the relationship between public stigma and ATPH using a sample in the United Arab Emirates. Cross-sectional, correlational design; 114 students completed measures of public stigma, self-stigma, and ATPH. Full mediation occurred. The sample exhibited high levels of both public stigma and self-stigma. Psychology students manifested diminished levels of stigma and more favorable ATPH. Results are discussed in relation to the prevalent cultural and contextual factors. Stigma reduction campaigns in this locale should target internalized stigma and its associated socio-cultural nuances. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Current Views and Perspectives on E-Mental Health: An Exploratory Survey Study for Understanding Public Attitudes Toward Internet-Based Psychotherapy in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolinário-Hagen, Jennifer; Vehreschild, Viktor; Alkoudmani, Ramez M

    2017-02-23

    Despite the advanced development of evidence-based psychological treatment services, help-seeking persons with mental health problems often fail to receive appropriate professional help. Internet-delivered psychotherapy has thus been suggested as an efficient strategy to overcome barriers to access mental health care on a large scale. However, previous research indicated poor public acceptability as an issue for the dissemination of Internet-delivered therapies. Currently, little is known about the expectations and attitudes toward Internet-delivered therapies in the general population. This is especially the case for countries such as Germany where electronic mental health (e-mental health) treatment services are planned to be implemented in routine care. This pilot study aimed to determine the expectations and attitudes toward Internet-based psychotherapy in the general population in Germany. Furthermore, it aimed to explore the associations between attitudes toward Internet-based therapies and perceived stress. To assess public attitudes toward Internet-based psychotherapy, we conducted both Web-based and paper-and-pencil surveys using a self-developed 14-item questionnaire (Cronbach alpha=.89). Psychological distress was measured by employing a visual analogue scale (VAS) and the 20-item German version of the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ). In addition, we conducted explorative factor analysis (principal axis factor analysis with promax rotation). Spearman's rank correlations were used to determine the associations between attitudes toward Internet-based therapies and perceived stress. Descriptive analyses revealed that most respondents (N=1558; female: 78.95%, 1230/1558) indicated being not aware of the existence of Internet-delivered therapies (83.46%, 1141/1367). The average age was 32 years (standard deviation, SD 10.9; range 16-76). Through exploratory factor analysis, we identified 3 dimensions of public attitudes toward Internet-based therapies

  19. The long-term development of public attitudes towards people with epilepsy in the Czech Republic: 1981, 1984, 1998 and 2009 studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotná, I; Rektor, I

    2017-04-01

    The long-term development of public attitudes towards people with epilepsy (PWE) was studied. Four questions (Q) used in Czech questionnaires for studies in 1981, 1984, 1998 and 2009 concerned: Q1, familiarity with the concept of epilepsy; Q2, tolerance towards children with epilepsy; Q3, whether epilepsy is considered to be a mental disease; and Q4, attitudes towards employment of PWE. The quality of information about epilepsy increased significantly between 1981 and 1998, 1981 and 2009, and 1998 and 2009. The 1981 and 1984 studies reflected a level of information inferior to the levels seen in Germany and the USA, and the difference had almost disappeared in 1998 and 2009. The long-term follow-up studies in Czech Republic displayed a permanent increase in knowledge about epilepsy. This may reflect the progress in the spread of information, the efforts of patient associations and specialists and perhaps also a change in general attitudes towards people with disabilities. The dramatic change of information levels in Czech surveys could also reflect the change of the political system in 1989. A question that remains to be answered is the extent to which the positive trend reflects positive attitudes in real life. The answers to questions concerning whether people would be willing to help a person having a seizure remain unsatisfactory. Greater efforts should be made to improve the situation of PWE and to minimize their stigmatization. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The effect of sympathy on discriminatory attitudes toward persons living with HIV/AIDS in Puerto Rico: a hierarchical analysis of women living in public housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Lisa R; Abreu, Silkha; Candelaria, Erika; Sala, Ana

    2009-02-01

    As the number of persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) continues to increase in Puerto Rico, it becomes increasingly important to address the issues of stigma and other discriminatory attitudes. Therefore, the objective of the present study is to examine the attitudes toward PLWHA of a large sample of women living in public housing in Puerto Rico, including sympathy and support for PLWHA in the workplace and in school. A total of 1138 women completed a self-administered 218-item survey made up of questions that measured HIV-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors. Levels of sympathy varied depending upon the target group, with HIV-infected drug users receiving the least sympathy. Most women reported that HIV-positive teachers should be allowed to teach and that HIV-positive children should be allowed to attend school. However, a significantly lower percentage reported that HIV-infected nurses should be allowed to continue working. Women who were more sympathetic toward PLWHA were more tolerant of PLWHA in the workplace and school, while those with inaccurate knowledge concerning HIV transmission were less tolerant. Also, those who knew a PLWHA were more tolerant. Levels of discriminatory attitudes in Puerto Rico are high and warrant both individual- and societal-level interventions.

  1. Private or Public Law Enforcement? The Case of Digital Piracy Policies with Non-monitored Illegal Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Éric Darmon; Thomas Le Texier

    2014-01-01

    In the case of digital piracy should rights be publicly or privately enforced? The emergence of large-scale anti-piracy laws and the existence of non-monitored illegal channels raise important issues for the design of digital anti-piracy policies. In this paper, we study the impact of these two enforcement settings (public vs. private) in the presence of an illegal non-monitored outside option for users. Taking account of market outcomes, we show that in both cases, the optimal strategies of ...

  2. How Do Masters of Public Health Programs Teach Monitoring and Evaluation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Negandhi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe health systems in developing countries face challenges because of deficient monitoring and evaluation (M&E capacity with respect to their knowledge, skills, and practices. Strengthening M&E training in public health education can help overcome the gaps in M&E capacity. There is a need to advance the teaching of M&E as a core element of public health education.ObjectivesTo review M&E teaching across Masters of Public Health programs and to identify core competencies for M&E teaching in South Asian context.Materials and methodsWe undertook two activities to understand the M&E teaching across masters level programs: (1 desk review of M&E curriculum and teaching in masters programs globally and (2 review of M&E teaching across 10 institutions representing 4 South Asian countries. Subsequently, we used the findings of these two activities as inputs to identify core competencies for an M&E module through a consultative meeting with the 10 South Asian universities.ResultsMasters programs are being offered globally in 321 universities of which 88 offered a Masters in Public Health, and M&E was taught in 95 universities. M&E was taught as a part of another module in 49 institutions. The most common duration of M&E teaching was 4–5 weeks. From the 70 institutes where information on electives was available, M&E was a core module/part of a core module at 42 universities and an elective at 28 universities. The consultative meeting identified 10 core competencies and draft learning objectives for M&E teaching in masters programs in South Asia.ConclusionThe desk review showed similarities in M&E course content but variations in course structure and delivery. The core competencies identified during the consultation included basic M&E concepts. The results of the review and the core competencies identified at the consultation are useful resources for institutions interested in refining/updating M&E curricula in their postgraduate degree

  3. Management and monitoring of public buildings through ICT based systems: Control rules for energy saving with lighting and HVAC services

    OpenAIRE

    Aghemo, C.; Virgone, J.; Fracastoro, G.V.; Pellegrino, A.; Blaso, L.; Savoyat, J.; Johannes, Kevyn

    2013-01-01

    The presented work addresses the topic of energy savings in existing public buildings, when no significant retrofits on building envelope or plants can be done and savings can be achieved by designing intelligent ICT-based service to monitor and control environmental conditions, energy loads and plants operation. At the end of 2010 the European Commission, within the Seventh Framework Program, has founded a project entitled “Smart Energy Efficient Middleware for Public Spaces” (SEEMPubS). To ...

  4. Attitudes of Mashhad Public Hospital's Nurses and Midwives toward the Causes and Rates of Medical Errors Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobarakabadi, Sedigheh Sedigh; Ebrahimipour, Hosein; Najar, Ali Vafaie; Janghorban, Roksana; Azarkish, Fatemeh

    2017-03-01

    Patient's safety is one of the main objective in healthcare services; however medical errors are a prevalent potential occurrence for the patients in treatment systems. Medical errors lead to an increase in mortality rate of the patients and challenges such as prolonging of the inpatient period in the hospitals and increased cost. Controlling the medical errors is very important, because these errors besides being costly, threaten the patient's safety. To evaluate the attitudes of nurses and midwives toward the causes and rates of medical errors reporting. It was a cross-sectional observational study. The study population was 140 midwives and nurses employed in Mashhad Public Hospitals. The data collection was done through Goldstone 2001 revised questionnaire. SPSS 11.5 software was used for data analysis. To analyze data, descriptive and inferential analytic statistics were used. Standard deviation and relative frequency distribution, descriptive statistics were used for calculation of the mean and the results were adjusted as tables and charts. Chi-square test was used for the inferential analysis of the data. Most of midwives and nurses (39.4%) were in age range of 25 to 34 years and the lowest percentage (2.2%) were in age range of 55-59 years. The highest average of medical errors was related to employees with three-four years of work experience, while the lowest average was related to those with one-two years of work experience. The highest average of medical errors was during the evening shift, while the lowest were during the night shift. Three main causes of medical errors were considered: illegibile physician prescription orders, similarity of names in different drugs and nurse fatigueness. The most important causes for medical errors from the viewpoints of nurses and midwives are illegible physician's order, drug name similarity with other drugs, nurse's fatigueness and damaged label or packaging of the drug, respectively. Head nurse feedback, peer

  5. Effects of structured versus non-structured learning on achievement and attitudes of fifth graders in a public aquarium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafka, Merryl Audrey

    The investigator analyzed the main effect of a structured-learning experience in an informal setting, as well as interactions between the students' learning-style variations toward the element of structure and the imposed instructional conditions. The subjects consisted of 170 students enrolled in two public schools located in Brooklyn, New York. The students were predominantly a White multi-ethnic population consisting of 118 Caucasians, 25 Hispanics, 24 Asians, and 3 African-Americans. Three randomly assigned classes (n = 81) were provided trip sheets, which directed students on how to learn new information with written questions and directives. Three randomly assigned non-structured classes (n = 89) experienced the same exhibit in a free-form manner. Science-based criterion-referenced pre- and posttests were administered, in addition to Learning Style Inventories (Dunn, Dunn, & Price, 1996) and a modified Semantic Differential Scale (Pizzo, 1981), which was used to measure attitudinal levels. The non-structured group had access to similar content information in the form of exhibit graphics, but apparently they chose not to read it as carefully or engage in the information-seeking process as intensely as the students equipped with trip sheets. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) indicated that a structured-learning experience produced significantly higher science-achievement test scores than in a non-structured-learning experience (p = .0001). In addition, there was no single learning-style variation (preference, aversion, or no preference) to structure that produced significantly higher gains than another. Furthermore, attitudinal scores were not significantly different between structured and non-structured groups, as well as among homogeneous subsets of students with learning-style variations that matched, mismatched, or indicated no-preferenced positions on the element of structure. Hence, a moderate amount of structure resulted in academic gains without

  6. European Communication Monitor 2009: an institutionalized view of how public relations and communication management professionals face the economic and media crises in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno, Á.; Verhoeven, P.; Tench, R.; Zerfass, A.

    2010-01-01

    The European Communication Monitor (ECM) is an extensive longitudinal research project to monitor trends in public relations and communication management and analyze the changing framework for the profession in Europe. The 2009 ECM edition identifies the main characteristics of individual

  7. Attitudes and attitude change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohner, Gerd; Dickel, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Attitudes and attitude change remain core topics of contemporary social psychology. This selective review emphasizes work published from 2005 to 2009. It addresses constructionist and stable-entity conceptualizations of attitude, the distinction between implicit and explicit measures of attitude, and implications of the foregoing for attitude change. Associative and propositional processes in attitude change are considered at a general level and in relation to evaluative conditioning. The role of bodily states and physical perceptions in attitude change is reviewed. This is followed by an integrative perspective on processing models of persuasion and the consideration of meta-cognitions in persuasion. Finally, effects of attitudes on information processing, social memory, and behavior are highlighted. Core themes cutting across the areas reviewed are attempts at integrative theorizing bringing together formerly disparate phenomena and viewpoints.

  8. Evaluating the validity and reliability of the V-scale instrument (Turkish version) used to determine nurses' attitudes towards vital sign monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertuğ, Nurcan

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the V-scale, which measures nurses' attitudes towards vital signs monitoring in the detection of clinical deterioration. This validity and reliability study was conducted at a tertiary hospital in Ankara, Turkey, in 2016. A total of 169 ward nurses participated in the study. Exploratory factor analysis, Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and the intraclass correlation coefficient were used to determine the validity and reliability of the scale. A 5-factor, 16-item scale explained 60.823% of the total variance according to the validity analysis. Our version matched the original scale in terms of the number of items and factor structure. Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the Turkish version of the V-scale was 0.764. The test-retest reliability results were 0.855 for the overall intraclass correlation coefficient, and the t-test result was P > 0.05. The V-scale is a reliable and valid instrument to measure Turkish nurses' attitudes towards vital signs monitoring in the detection of clinical deterioration. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Effects of the accident at Mihama Nuclear Power Plant Unit 3 on the public's attitude to nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitada, Atsuko

    2005-01-01

    As part of an ongoing public opinion survey regarding nuclear power generation, which started in 1993, a survey was carried out in the Kansai and Kanto regions two months after the accident at Unit 3 of the Mihama Nuclear Power Plant. In addition to analyzing the statistically significant changes that have taken place since the previous survey (taken in 2003), increase and decrease of the ratio of answers to all the questions related to nuclear power before and after the two accidents were compared in the case of the accidents which occurred in the Mihama Unit 3 and the JCO company's nuclear-fuel plant. In the Kansai region, a feeling of uneasiness about the risky character of nuclear power generation increased to some extent, while the public's trust in the safety of nuclear power plants decreased somewhat. After a safety-related explanation on ''Early detection of troubles'' and Accident prevention'' was given from a managerial standpoint, people felt a little less at ease than they had before. Uneasiness, however, did not increase in relation to the overall safety explanation given about the engineering and technical functioning of the plant. There was no significant negative effect on the respondents' evaluation of or attitude toward nuclear power generation. It was found that the people's awareness about the Mihama Unit 3 accident was lower and the effect of the accident on their awareness of nuclear power generation was more limited and smaller when compared with the case of the JCO accident. In the Kanto region, people knew less about the Mihama Unit 3 accident than those living in the Kansai region, and they remembered the JCO accident, the subsequent cover-up by Tokyo Electric Power Company, and the resulting power shortage better than those living in Kansai. This suggested that there was a little difference in terms of psychological distance in relation to the accidents an incidents depending on the place where the events occurred and the company which

  10. Algal bloom detection, monitoring and prediction. 3. Workshop on public health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catena, G.; Funari, E. [eds.] [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Rome (Italy). Lab. di Igiene Ambientale

    1999-07-01

    The report presents articles discussed in the 3. Workshop on Public Health (Rome, Italy) focused on the problem of the harmful algae in the Mediterranean basin with the aim of verifying the possibilities of using remote sensing techniques together with conventional ones. These proceedings report the aim aspects of the problem, as the ecological one, the conventional monitoring techniques, the activities of international organizations and finally some of the current research activities in Italy aimed at using remote sensing techniques. [Italian] Il workshop sulla salute pubblica e' incentrato sul problema delle alghe tossiche marine all'interno del bacino del Mediterraneo con lo scopo di verificare le possibilita' di utilizzare delle tecniche di telerilevamento in modo complementare rispetto a quelle convenzionali. Si affrontano alcuni degli aspetti principali di questa problematica quali l'ecologia, le tecniche convenzionali di monitoraggio, le attivita' di organismi internazionali e infine le attivita' in corso in Italia finalizzate all'utilizzazione delle tecniche di telerilevamento.

  11. The examination of radiological monitoring on Okayama Prefectural Institute for Environmental Science and Public Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanematsu, Seiko [Okayama Prefectural Inst. for Environmental Science and Public Health (Japan)

    2000-09-01

    We evaluated the environment around Ningyotoge in the northern part of Okayama Prefecture. Environmental gamma ray measurement results were evaluated by TLD at the time of confirming an investigation using a continuous gamma ray monitor. Doses during that time span for passing persons and individuals in the area were lower than 89 nGy/h. We observed Fading for TLD. The result was that the Fading revision coefficient for the Tenno district in Ningyotoge between October 10, 1997 to December 18, 1997 was 1.02. That for the premises of the Okayama Prefectural Institute for Environmental Science and Public Health was 1.05. The Tenno district in Ningyotoge during the period between June 29, 1998 to October 6, 1998 was 1.04. A relationship between the height from the ground and gamma ray dose was found. A straight line was shown by both logarithm graphs. We evaluated radioactive wastewater. When considering the processing of wastewater that flows into rivers, a discharge of zero release is desirable. We evaluated the BOD, COD, etc, as well as the radioactive materials that are processed by microbes such as Bacillus and Arthrobacter. (author)

  12. Differences in Students' Smoking-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors among Public, Factory, and Private Secondary Schools in Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xiaozhong; Chen, Weiqing; Qian, Zhengmin; Muscat, Joshua E.; Lu, Ciyong; Ling, Wenhua

    2008-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of smoking among Chinese adolescents has dramatically increased in recent years. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among Chinese students in 3 types of secondary schools. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 3957 students of…

  13. The Two Faces of Internationalism: Public Attitudes toward American Foreign Policy in the 1970s--and Beyond?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittkopf, Eugene R.; Maggiotto, Michael A.

    1983-01-01

    An analysis of two foreign policy surveys taken in the 1970s showed that Americans viewed the role of the United States in world affairs as either cooperative or militant internationalism. There was no consensus. Political philosophy, education, and region of the country consistently affected the respondents' attitudes. (Author/RM)

  14. Attitude toward Public Health Dentistry as a career among dental students in Odisha: A Cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nupur Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Respondents had a considerable amount of interest in pursuing postgraduation in this specialty. Efforts should be intensified, both by the dental council and by the dental colleges, to develop this specialty, keeping in mind the increasing attitude of dental undergraduates toward it.

  15. Attitudes and attitude change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    An attitude can be defined as the evaluation of an object as positive or negative. The term "object" in this definition should be understood in a broad sense; an attitude object may be any concrete or abstract entity that is in some way represented in our thoughts and memory. In other words......, attitude objects are simply the things we like or dislike. Consumer researchers are mainly interested in attitude objects of two classes, products and services, including the attributes, issues, persons, communications, situations, and behaviours related to them. Research on consumer attitudes takes two...... perspectives: Understanding attitude structure: how is an attitude cognitively represented in a consumer's mind, including its components (intra-attitudinal structure) and its associations with other psychological variables (inter-attitudinal structure)? Understanding information processing: what...

  16. Attitudes and Attitude Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracin, Dolores; Shavitt, Sharon

    2018-01-04

    This review covers research on attitudes and attitude change published between 2010 and 2017. We characterize this period as one of significant progress toward an understanding of how attitudes form and change in three critical contexts. The first context is the person, as attitudes change in connection to values, general goals, language, emotions, and human development. The second context is social relationships, which link attitude change to the communicator of persuasive messages, social media, and culture. The third context is sociohistorical and highlights the influence of unique events, including sociopolitical, economic, and climatic occurrences. In conclusion, many important recent findings reflect the fact that holism, with a focus on situating attitudes within their personal, social, and historical contexts, has become the zeitgeist of attitude research during this period.

  17. Public attitudes toward depression and help-seeking: Impact of the OSPI-Europe depression awareness campaign in four European regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohls, Elisabeth; Coppens, Evelien; Hug, Juliane; Wittevrongel, Eline; Van Audenhove, Chantal; Koburger, Nicole; Arensman, Ella; Székely, András; Gusmão, Ricardo; Hegerl, Ulrich

    2017-08-01

    Public attitudes toward depression and help-seeking behaviour are important factors influencing depressed people to obtain professional help and adequate treatment. OSPI-Europe is a multi-level suicide prevention programme including a public awareness campaign. It was implemented in four regions of four European countries (Germany, Hungary, Ireland and Portugal). This paper reports the results of the evaluation of the campaign, including its visibility and effects of the campaign on stigma associated with depression and help-seeking behaviour. A representative general population survey (N=4004) including measures on personal stigma, perceived stigma, openness to help, perceived value of help, and socio-demographic variables was conducted in the four intervention and four control regions in a cross-sectional pre-post design. The public awareness campaign was considerably more visible in Germany and Portugal compared to Ireland and Hungary. Visibility was further affected by age and years of schooling. Personal stigma, perceived stigma and openness toward professional help varied significantly across the four countries. Respondents in the intervention regions showed significantly less personal depression stigma than respondents in the control regions after the campaign. Respondents of the intervention region who were aware of the campaign reported more openness toward seeking professional help than respondents who were unaware of it. The OSPI-Europe awareness campaign was visible and produced some positive results. At the same time, it proved to be difficult to show strong, measurable and unambiguous effects, which is in line with previous studies. Public awareness campaigns as conducted within OSPI-Europe can contribute to improved attitudes and knowledge about depression in the general public and produce synergistic effects, in particular when the dissemination of awareness campaign materials is simultaneously reinforced by other intervention levels of a multi

  18. On the use of a risk ladder: Linking public perception of risks associated with indoor air with cognitive elements and attitudes toward risk reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschandreas, D. J.; Chang, P. E.

    In recent years a number of building managers have invested small amounts of money to measure indoor air quality in offices and other non-industrial buildings. Their objective is to reduce the number of occupant complaints, and not necessarily to reduce the risk associated with such complaints. Clearly, reduction of the risk would require greater investment of funds and effort. This paper focuses on individuals and the amount of money they are willing to invest in order to reduce risks associated with indoor air pollution in their home. Psychologists assert that lay judgement of risks are influenced by cognitive biases and attitudes. This study investigates the possibility that cognitive elements and general attitudes influence not only the perceived risk associated with exposures to indoor air pollutants, but also the willingness of individuals to invest in order to reduce the risk. A three-stage study was performed to determine some of the factors that influence public decisions to control the quality of the air inside their home. The study is focused on the design of a risk ladder, and the survey of 400 randomly selected individuals in the Chicago metropolitan area. The survey was designed to determine if demographics, smoking, education, or income influence the desire of individuals to invest in order to reduce indoor air pollution. The following conclusions were reached: (i) public awareness of indoor air pollution is high; (ii) media campaigns on indoor air pollution affect the determination of the specific pollutant the public perceives as important, but do not influence the public's desire to invest larger amounts of money to reduce risks from exposures to air pollutants in the residential environment; (iii) the public is not willing to spend large amounts of money to reduce indoor residential air pollution; (iv) education does not affect the level of awareness regarding indoor air pollution, but it increases the willingness to invest in an effort to reduce

  19. Monitoring Urban Tree Cover Using Object-Based Image Analysis and Public Domain Remotely Sensed Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan Halabisky

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Urban forest ecosystems provide a range of social and ecological services, but due to the heterogeneity of these canopies their spatial extent is difficult to quantify and monitor. Traditional per-pixel classification methods have been used to map urban canopies, however, such techniques are not generally appropriate for assessing these highly variable landscapes. Landsat imagery has historically been used for per-pixel driven land use/land cover (LULC classifications, but the spatial resolution limits our ability to map small urban features. In such cases, hyperspatial resolution imagery such as aerial or satellite imagery with a resolution of 1 meter or below is preferred. Object-based image analysis (OBIA allows for use of additional variables such as texture, shape, context, and other cognitive information provided by the image analyst to segment and classify image features, and thus, improve classifications. As part of this research we created LULC classifications for a pilot study area in Seattle, WA, USA, using OBIA techniques and freely available public aerial photography. We analyzed the differences in accuracies which can be achieved with OBIA using multispectral and true-color imagery. We also compared our results to a satellite based OBIA LULC and discussed the implications of per-pixel driven vs. OBIA-driven field sampling campaigns. We demonstrated that the OBIA approach can generate good and repeatable LULC classifications suitable for tree cover assessment in urban areas. Another important finding is that spectral content appeared to be more important than spatial detail of hyperspatial data when it comes to an OBIA-driven LULC.

  20. Understanding public attitudes to road-user safety – literature review: final report road safety research report no. 112.

    OpenAIRE

    Musselwhite, C.; Avineri, E.; Fulcher, E.; Goodwin, P.; Susilo, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Context and scope: \\ud – The literature reviewed in this report is primarily UK based and published post 2000. \\ud – In total, 72 articles have been reviewed in-depth and represent a mixture of qualitative, quantitative and mixed methodology primary research and a variety of reviews (see Appendix 2). \\ud – A wider definition of attitudes was incorporated to include a variety of psychosocial variables, such as social norms, risk, identity and impression management, pro-social behaviour, habit,...

  1. Do attitudes, intentions and actions of school food coordinators regarding public organic food procurement policy improve the eating environment at school? Results from the iPOPY study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chen; Perez-Cueto, Federico J A; Mikkelsen, Bent E

    2014-06-01

    The present study investigates whether public organic food procurement policies have the potential to induce changes in the school food service environment. A comparative cross-national survey was conducted in public primary and/or secondary schools in Finland, Germany and Italy. The school food coordinators completed a web-based questionnaire on their attitudes, intentions and actions towards organic school food provision. In Germany, 122 out of 2050 schools in the state of Hesse responded. In Finland, 250 out of 998 schools across the country responded. In Italy, 215 out of 940 schools from eight provinces responded. School food coordinators in the sample of schools in the three countries. The German and Finnish school food coordinators separately most agreed with the promotion of healthy eating habits (P environment.

  2. Who Shall Not Be Treated: Public Attitudes on Setting Health Care Priorities by Person-Based Criteria in 28 Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogge, Jana; Kittel, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    The principle of distributing health care according to medical need is being challenged by increasing costs. As a result, many countries have initiated a debate on the introduction of explicit priority regulations based on medical, economic and person-based criteria, or have already established such regulations. Previous research on individual attitudes towards setting health care priorities based on medical and economic criteria has revealed consistent results, whereas studies on the use of person-based criteria have generated controversial findings. This paper examines citizens' attitudes towards three person-based priority criteria, patients' smoking habits, age and being the parent of a young child. Using data from the ISSP Health Module (2011) in 28 countries, logistic regression analysis demonstrates that self-interest as well as socio-demographic predictors significantly influence respondents' attitudes towards the use of person-based criteria for health care prioritization. This study contributes to resolving the controversial findings on person-based criteria by using a larger country sample and by controlling for country-level differences with fixed effects models.

  3. Attitudes of College Undergraduates Towards Coyotes (Canis latrans in an Urban Landscape: Management and Public Outreach Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan M. Draheim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding and assessing the public’s attitudes towards urban wildlife is an important step towards creating management plans, increasing knowledge and awareness, and fostering coexistence between people and wildlife. We conducted a survey of undergraduate college students in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area—where coyotes are recent arrivals—to determine existing attitudes towards coyotes and coyote management methods. Amongst other findings, we found that the more a person feared coyotes, the less likely they were to support their presence (p < 0.001, and the less likely they were to believe that pet owners should be directly responsible for protecting their pets (p < 0.001. Respondents demonstrated major gaps in their understanding of basic coyote biology and ecology. Respondents broke wildlife management practices into two categories: those that involved an action on coyotes (both lethal or non-lethal; referred to as “Coyote”, and those that restricted human behavior (referred to as “Human”; the “Human” methods were preferred. We found important differences between key demographic groups in terms of attitudes and management preferences. Our study suggests that wildlife professionals have unique opportunities in urban areas to prevent and reduce conflict before it escalates, in part by targeting tailored outreach messages to various demographic and social groups.

  4. Who Shall Not Be Treated: Public Attitudes on Setting Health Care Priorities by Person-Based Criteria in 28 Nations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Rogge

    Full Text Available The principle of distributing health care according to medical need is being challenged by increasing costs. As a result, many countries have initiated a debate on the introduction of explicit priority regulations based on medical, economic and person-based criteria, or have already established such regulations. Previous research on individual attitudes towards setting health care priorities based on medical and economic criteria has revealed consistent results, whereas studies on the use of person-based criteria have generated controversial findings. This paper examines citizens' attitudes towards three person-based priority criteria, patients' smoking habits, age and being the parent of a young child. Using data from the ISSP Health Module (2011 in 28 countries, logistic regression analysis demonstrates that self-interest as well as socio-demographic predictors significantly influence respondents' attitudes towards the use of person-based criteria for health care prioritization. This study contributes to resolving the controversial findings on person-based criteria by using a larger country sample and by controlling for country-level differences with fixed effects models.

  5. Self-monitoring practices, attitudes, and needs of individuals with bipolar disorder: implications for the design of technologies to manage mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murnane, Elizabeth L; Cosley, Dan; Chang, Pamara; Guha, Shion; Frank, Ellen; Gay, Geri; Matthews, Mark

    2016-05-01

    To understand self-monitoring strategies used independently of clinical treatment by individuals with bipolar disorder (BD), in order to recommend technology design principles to support mental health management. Participants with BD (N = 552) were recruited through the Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance, the International Bipolar Foundation, and WeSearchTogether.org to complete a survey of closed- and open-ended questions. In this study, we focus on descriptive results and qualitative analyses. Individuals reported primarily self-monitoring items related to their bipolar disorder (mood, sleep, finances, exercise, and social interactions), with an increasing trend towards the use of digital tracking methods observed. Most participants reported having positive experiences with technology-based tracking because it enables self-reflection and agency regarding health management and also enhances lines of communication with treatment teams. Reported challenges stem from poor usability or difficulty interpreting self-tracked data. Two major implications for technology-based self-monitoring emerged from our results. First, technologies can be designed to be more condition-oriented, intuitive, and proactive. Second, more automated forms of digital symptom tracking and intervention are desired, and our results suggest the feasibility of detecting and predicting emotional states from patterns of technology usage. However, we also uncovered tension points, namely that technology designed to support mental health can also be a disruptor. This study provides increased understanding of self-monitoring practices, attitudes, and needs of individuals with bipolar disorder. This knowledge bears implications for clinical researchers and practitioners seeking insight into how individuals independently self-manage their condition as well as for researchers designing monitoring technologies to support mental health management. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University

  6. Attitudes of policy makers in Hawaii towards public health and related issues before and after an economic recession in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay E Maddock

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Legislation and regulation at the state and local level can often have a greater impact on the public’s health than individual-based approaches. Elected and appointed officials have an essential role in protecting and improving public health. Despite this important role, little systematic research has been done to assess the relative importance of public health issues compared to other policy issues in times of economic hardship. This study assessed attitudes of elected and appointed decision makers in Hawaii in 2007 and 2013 to determine if priorities differed before and after the economic recession. Methods: Elected and appointed state and county officials were mailed surveys at both time points. Respondents rated the importance of 23 specified problems, of which 9 asked about specific public health issues. Results: The survey was completed by 126 (70.4% respondents in 2007 and 117(60.9% in 2013. Among the public health issues, five saw significant mean decreases. These variables included: climate change, pedestrian safety, government response to natural disasters, access to healthcare, and pandemic influenza. Obesity was the only public health issue to increase in importance across the two time points. In terms of relative ranking across the time points, only drug abuse and obesity were among the top ten priorities. Lack of public health training, pandemic influenza, and government response to natural disasters were among the bottom five priorities. Conclusions: After the economic recession, many public health issues have a lower priority among Hawaii’s policy makers than before the downturn. Additional education and advocacy is needed to keep public health issues on the minds of decision makers during tough economic times.

  7. Perceived parental monitoring and health risk behavior among public secondary school students in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Andrew E; Sharma, Shreela; de Guardado, Alba Margarita; Nava, Francisco Vázquez; Kelder, Steven H

    2006-12-28

    Although parental monitoring has received considerable attention in studies of U.S. adolescents, few published studies have examined how parents' knowledge of their children's whereabouts may influence health risk behaviors in adolescents living in Latin America. We investigated the association between perceived parental monitoring and substance use, fighting, and sexual behaviors in rural and urban Salvadoran adolescents (n = 982). After adjusting for several sociodemographic covariates, multilevel regression analyses indicated that students reporting low parental monitoring were between 2 to 3.5 times more likely to report risk behaviors examined. The promotion of specific parenting practices such as parental monitoring may hold promise for reducing adolescent risk behaviors in El Salvador.

  8. The influence of public participation on the attitude of local inhabitants towards wind energy developments in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erp, F.C.W. van; Wiedemann, P.M.; Midden, C.J.H.; Westra, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents results of a study concerning the siting processes of wind energy developments in Germany. By means of two case studies and a mail questionnaire survey among developers of completed wind energy projects, measures to encourage public participation and reactions of the local public towards concrete projects are examined. One case study demonstrated a development in which the public cooperated to realise a joint wind project. The other study concerns a development that faced public protests. The survey found that both public participation and public protests occur quite rarely in the siting of Wind Energy Converter (WEC) developments. The relation between participation and protests, hypothesized on the basis of the case studies, is not confirmed in the survey. (author)

  9. A framework for air quality monitoring based on free public data and open source tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolov, Hristo; Borisova, Denitsa

    2014-10-01

    In the recent years more and more widely accepted by the Space agencies (e.g. NASA, ESA) is the policy toward provision of Earth observation (EO) data and end products concerning air quality especially in large urban areas without cost to researchers and SMEs. Those EO data are complemented by increasing amount of in-situ data also provided at no cost either from national authorities or having crowdsourced origin. This accessibility together with the increased processing capabilities of the free and open source software is a prerequisite for creation of solid framework for air modeling in support of decision making at medium and large scale. Essential part of this framework is web-based GIS mapping tool responsible for dissemination of the output generated. In this research an attempt is made to establish a running framework based solely on openly accessible data on air quality and on set of freely available software tools for processing and modeling taking into account the present status quo in Bulgaria. Among the primary sources of data, especially for bigger urban areas, for different types of gases and dust particles, noted should be the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology of Bulgaria (NIMH) and National System for Environmental Monitoring managed by Bulgarian Executive Environmental Agency (ExEA). Both authorities provide data for concentration of several gases just to mention CO, CO2, NO2, SO2, and fine suspended dust (PM10, PM2.5) on monthly (for some data on daily) basis. In the framework proposed these data will complement the data from satellite-based sensors such as OMI instrument aboard EOS-Aura satellite and from TROPOMI instrument payload for future ESA Sentinel-5P mission. Integral part of the framework is the modern map for the land use/land cover which is provided from EEA by initiative GIO Land CORINE. This map is also a product from EO data distributed at European level. First and above all, our effort is focused on provision to the

  10. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of public sector primary health care physicians of rural north karnataka towards obesity management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunath S Somannavar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD, diabetes mellitus (DM, and hypertension (HTN. In an era of rapidly growing prevalence of obesity, it is important to explore the current knowledge, attitude, and practices of primary care physicians. Materials and Methods: Study participants were medical officers (MOs of primary health centers in three districts of North Karnataka. The questionnaire was developed by a review of literature in the field and validated with five participants for scope, length, and clarity. Results/Discussion: Of the 102 participants, only 15% were aware about the burden of obesity in India. HTN, DM, and CVD were indicated as comorbidities by 73, 78, and 60 participants, respectively. Only 25 and 12 participants indicated appropriate body mass index (BMI cut-off values for overweight and obesity diagnosis. Of the 102 participants, 54 were not aware of the guidelines for obesity management. Practices and attitudes of the participants were encouraging. Nearly all of them felt that the adults with BMI within the healthy range should be encouraged to maintain their weight and, three-fourth of them agreed that most overweight persons should be treated for weight loss and small weight loss can achieve major medical benefit. However, nearly half of the participants′ responses were stereotypical as they felt only obese and overweight with comorbidities should be treated for weight loss. Two-thirds of them use BMI to diagnose overweight/obese and nearly all of them advice their patients to increase physical activity and restrict fat. Most of the participants were advising their patients to restrict sugar intake, increase fruits and vegetable consumption, reduce red meat, and avoid alcohol consumption. Conclusion: Present study exposed the lack of knowledge regarding obesity. However, practices and attitudes of the participants were promising. There is a need of in-service training to MOs to further

  11. Equine road user safety: public attitudes, understandings and beliefs from a qualitative study in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Catherine; Musselwhite, Charles B A

    2011-11-01

    Horse riders represent a significant group of vulnerable road user and are involved in a number of accidents and near misses on the road. Despite this horse riders have received little attention both in terms of academic research and transport policy. Based on literature on vulnerable road user safety, including attitudes to road user safety and behaviour of drivers and their relationship with cyclists and motorcyclists, this paper examines the attitudes and reported behaviour of drivers and horse riders. A total of 46 participants took part in six focus groups divided into four groups of drivers with little or no horse riding experience and two groups of frequent horse riders. Each group investigated five key topic areas stemming from the literature review on vulnerable road users including hazard perception, risk perception, emotion, attitudes to sharing the road and empathy. It was found that drivers and horse riders are not always aware of the same hazards in the road and that this may lead drivers to under-estimate the risk when encountering horses. Drivers often had good intentions to overtake horses safely, but were unaware of how vulnerable passing very wide and slow made them feel until they had begun the manoeuvre and hence quickly reduced such feelings either by speeding up or cutting in too soon. However, other than this, drivers had good skills when encountering horses. But these skills could be impeded by frustration when encountering a slow moving horse which was further compounded by a feeling, mainly by younger drivers, that horse riding was for leisure and as such should not get in the way of necessary work journeys. There is a need for drivers to be more aware of the potential hazards a horse rider faces on the road and these could be achieved through inducing empathy amongst drivers for horse riders, creating nudges for drivers in the environment and better education for drivers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of a Real-Time Smoke Belching Monitoring System for Public Utility Vehicles (PUV via GSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson C. Rodelas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Development of a Real-Time-Based Smoke Belching Monitoring System for Public Utility Vehicle is designed in order to monitor smoke belchers or violators among public utility vehicles (PUV that uses diesel such as jeepneys or buses. The concept of the project is to measure the opacity of the smoke being emitted by the PUV with the use of a predesigned sensor unit incorporated by Light Dependent Resistor Sensor and Light Source facing each other, 4 inches apart. By allowing the smoke to pass through the LDR and Light Source, the desired resistance is acquired and processed by the microcontroller to obtain the Light Absorption Coefficient. This value is the basis for being a smoke belcher (If it exceeds 2.5 k. The system then sends the data (Plate Number and K -value for every one (1 hour to the Database System and to the operator with the aid of GSM Microcontroller that leads to a real time monitoring. The system is possible to implement and has a potential to be used for emission testing centers since it has the features of the commercial opacity meter which is common in emission centers to measure the smoke emitted by the diesel-fueled vehicles. This project serves as an innovation in emission testing because it monitors the smoke belchers in real-time and operators or owners of the vehicle are not required anymore to go to the emission testing center every year to renew their car registration.

  13. Monitoring mechanisms and financial distress of public listed companies in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Soheil Kazemian; Noor Azura Ahmad Shauri; Zuraidah Mohd Sanusi; Amrizah Kamaluddin; Shuhaida Mohamed Shuhidan

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the relationships between financial distress and financial ratio (liquidity, leverage, profitability, firm’s performance, and dividend) among public listed companies, using the Altman Z-Score to determine the financial distress levels among public listed companies in Malaysia. Five-year data has been collected (2010 to 2014) from the annual financial statements and from Data Stream of public listed companies in Malaysia. The findings indicate significant relationships betw...

  14. Publicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Joan

    Publicity for preschool cooperatives is described. Publicity helps produce financial support for preschool cooperatives. It may take the form of posters, brochures, newsletters, open house, newspaper coverage, and radio and television. Word of mouth and general good will in the community are the best avenues of publicity that a cooperative nursery…

  15. Metals - Pipers Creek Natural Drainage System monitoring for Seattle Public Utilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Relatively little scientific research or monitoring has occurred in the Pacific Northwest or elsewhere on the biological effectiveness of restoration efforts in...

  16. Biota - Pipers Creek Natural Drainage System monitoring for Seattle Public Utilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Relatively little scientific research or monitoring has occurred in the Pacific Northwest or elsewhere on the biological effectiveness of restoration efforts in...

  17. Habitat - Pipers Creek Natural Drainage System monitoring for Seattle Public Utilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Relatively little scientific research or monitoring has occurred in the Pacific Northwest or elsewhere on the biological effectiveness of restoration efforts in...

  18. Perceived Parental Monitoring and Health Risk Behavior among Public Secondary School Students in El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew E. Springer

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Although parental monitoring has received considerable attention in studies of U.S. adolescents, few published studies have examined how parents' knowledge of their children's whereabouts may influence health risk behaviors in adolescents living in Latin America. We investigated the association between perceived parental monitoring and substance use, fighting, and sexual behaviors in rural and urban Salvadoran adolescents (n = 982. After adjusting for several sociodemographic covariates, multilevel regression analyses indicated that students reporting low parental monitoring were between 2 to 3.5 times more likely to report risk behaviors examined. The promotion of specific parenting practices such as parental monitoring may hold promise for reducing adolescent risk behaviors in El Salvador.

  19. Perceived Parental Monitoring and Health Risk Behavior among Public Secondary School Students in El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Springer, Andrew E.; Sharma, Shreela; de Guardado, Alba Margarita; Nava, Francisco Vázquez; Kelder, Steven H.

    2006-01-01

    Although parental monitoring has received considerable attention in studies of U.S. adolescents, few published studies have examined how parents' knowledge of their children's whereabouts may influence health risk behaviors in adolescents living in Latin America. We investigated the association between perceived parental monitoring and substance use, fighting, and sexual behaviors in rural and urban Salvadoran adolescents (n = 982). After adjusting for several sociodemographic covariates, mul...

  20. Environmental radiation monitoring data for Point Lepreau Generating Station, 1988. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, J K

    1989-01-01

    Annual report presenting a compilation of the 1988 environmental radiation monitoring program data from samples collected around the Point Lepreau Nuclear Generating Station (PLNGS) and at reference stations remote from PLNGS. About 1,700 analyses were made on 1,200 samples to monitor environmental radiation, including air filters, airborne water vapour, sea water, well water, milk, beach sediments, clams, fish, lobster, dulse, crabs, scallops and lichen. Background radiation is measured by thermoluminescence dosimetry.

  1. Environmental radiation monitoring data for Point Lepreau Generating Station, 1987. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, J K

    1988-01-01

    Annual report presenting a compilation of the 1987 environmental radiation monitoring program data from samples collected around the Point Lepreau Nuclear Generating Station (PLNGS) and at reference stations remote from PLNGS. About 1,800 analyses were made on 1,300 samples to monitor environmental radiation, including air filters, airborne water vapour, sea water, well water, milk, beach sediments, clams, fish, lobster, dulse, crabs, scallops and periwinkles. Background radiation is measured by thermoluminescence dosimetry.

  2. Terms of transactions monitoring on the French wholesale electricity and gas markets. Public consultation. Synthesis of contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    In its communication dated 16 April 2008, CRE published its practical methods used to monitor transactions concluded on the French electricity and gas markets. CRE invited any companies to comment on the practical arrangements of such monitoring activities. The monitoring system described by CRE is divided into two steps. In the first step, CRE wants to be able to request any information concerning transactions for physical delivery concluded after 1 January 2007. CRE will make an initial request that will focus on: - for electricity: transactions concluded in 2007 on yearly products for delivery in 2008 and 2009, base-load and peak-load; - for gas: transactions concluded in 2007 on seasonal and yearly products for delivery in 2008 and 2009, base-load and peak-load. The second step, based on feedback received, will see CRE liaise with market players and consider the possibility of setting up systematic procedures to gather transactions data. A final decision will be made by the end of 2008. 17 contributors responded to the public consultation. The remarks made on the practical methods used to gather data can be summarized along the following themes: Preamble: the monitoring principle; Theme 1: scope of transactions monitoring; Theme 2: content and format of requested data; Theme 3: procedures, transmission deadlines and confidentiality issues; Theme 4: stage II of systematic data gathering

  3. A survey of the Canadian public's attitudes towards the energy situation. Vol. 2. [Technical appendix included as a separate volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, G.; McDougall, D.H.G.

    1983-06-01

    Based on a telephone survey of ca 1,900 male and female heads-of-households in nine cities, a report was prepared in 1983 on the Canadian public's attitudes towards the energy situation. This report presents additional analyses of the 1983 data and provides some comparisons with the eight previous annual surveys conducted in this area. The major objective of this report is to provide an understanding of the relationship between Canadians' attitudes, behaviours, and program support with respect to the energy situation. Some conclusions were as follows. Energy shortage is not an issue, rising energy prices are. Surprisingly, in light of the perception of energy prices, self reported conservation actions and behaviours declined in 1983 compared to 1982. Awareness and participation levels in oil substitution and home insulation programs are high and continued government activity in these areas appears warranted. A detailed analysis of two conservation behaviors - adding insulation and weatherstripping/caulking - provided some interesting results. Those who had performed these behaviors tended to be knowledgeable about energy, were satisfied that the money was well spent, and planned to do mere. Those who didn't, felt they had sufficient insulation/weatherstipping and many did not plan to improve the energy efficiency of their home within the next year. There has been a modest trend towards downsizing cars between 1981 and 1983. However, multiple car households still remain as disproportionately heavy users of gasoline. 42 tabs.

  4. The Impact of Suicide Prevention Public Service Announcements on Help-Seeking Attitudes: The Message Makes a Difference

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnie Klimes-Dougan; Nathan Wright; David A Klingbeil

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Suicide continues to be one of the most serious public health challenges. Public service announcements are frequently used to address this challenge, but are rarely sufficiently evaluated to determine if they meet the intended goals, or are associated with potential iatrogenic effects. Although it is challenging to assess the relative impact of different PSA modalities, our group previously noted that one billboard message failed to show the same benefits as one TV ad (e.g., Klimes-D...

  5. For the greater good? Patient and public attitudes to use of medical free text data in research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ford

    2017-04-01

    This review demonstrates that transparency about data usage, and working “for the greater good” rather than financial gain, appear to be the most important public concerns to be addressed when using patients’ medical data. Governance frameworks for using EHRs must now be enhanced to provide for the use of medical text. This will involve informing both regulators and the public about the current capabilities of automated de-identification, and developing other assurances to safeguard patients’ privacy.

  6. Changes in public attitudes towards confidential adolescent sexual and reproductive health services in Lithuania after the introduction of new legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaruseviciene, Lina; Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Sauliune, Skirmante

    2015-01-01

    was employed to estimate absolute differences in prevalence of belief in whether or not adolescents would find confidentiality important when consulting a physician on SRH issues. A log-binomial regression model was fitted to estimate the relative changes (prevalence ratio) of the independent variables......BACKGROUND: In Lithuania, the right to confidentiality in healthcare for adolescents over the age of 16 was guaranteed in 2010 through the adoption of new legislation. This study sets out to explore changes in Lithuanian residents' attitudes towards confidentiality protection in adolescent sexual....... RESULTS: The total number of respondents was 1054 (response rate 83%) in 2005 and 1002 (response rate 80%) in 2012. The proportion of respondents who reported a belief that adolescents would find confidentiality important when seeing a physician for SRH issues increased significantly from 62% in 2005...

  7. The Influence of Organisational Culture on Mainstreaming Monitoring and Evaluation in Public Entities Revenue Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sebedi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Research informs us that most of the problems confronting governments can be traced to their inability and failure to appropriately analyze and evaluate organizational culture. This article argues that there is a direct link between organizational culture, organizational performance, as well as monitoring and evaluation. Understanding the effect that organizational culture has, is a significant factor of good governance. The importance of a strong organizational culture together with effective monitoring and evaluation processes contribute appreciably towards efficient performance and effective service delivery. Yet mainstreaming monitoring and evaluation in government departments and entities is often met with varying challenges. Such challenges can be better understood and addressed through aligning the entities’ organizational culture to government’s monitoring and evaluation initiatives. The focus of the article is on responding to the pertinent question: what are the current challenges relative to implementation and how should they be addressed? The article will thus highlight some of the key challenges that are associated with organizational culture, which have direct impact on the mainstreaming of monitoring and evaluation.

  8. Monitoring Conformance and Containment for Geological Carbon Storage: Can Technology Meet Policy and Public Requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, D. C.; Osadetz, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Province of Alberta, Canada identified carbon capture and storage (CCS) as a key element of its 2008 Climate Change strategy. The target is a reduction in CO2 emissions of 139 Mt/year by 2050. To encourage uptake of CCS by industry, the province has provided partial funding to two demonstration scale projects, namely the Quest Project by Shell and partners (CCS), and the Alberta Carbon Trunk Line Project (pipeline and CO2-EOR). Important to commercial scale implementation of CCS will be the requirement to prove conformance and containment of the CO2 plume injected during the lifetime of the CCS project. This will be a challenge for monitoring programs. The Containment and Monitoring Institute (CaMI) is developing a Field Research Station (FRS) to calibrate various monitoring technologies for CO2 detection thresholds at relatively shallow depths. The objective being assessed with the FRS is sensitivity for early detection of loss of containment from a deeper CO2 storage project. In this project, two injection wells will be drilled to sandstone reservoir targets at depths of 300 m and 700 m. Up to four observation wells will be drilled with monitoring instruments installed. Time-lapse surface and borehole monitoring surveys will be undertaken to evaluate the movement and fate of the CO2 plume. These will include seismic, microseismic, cross well, electrical resistivity, electromagnetic, gravity, geodetic and geomechanical surveys. Initial baseline seismic data from the FRS will presented.

  9. Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. Overcoming Environmental Monitoring Inertia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, T.G.; Desmond, J.A.; Stevens, A.K.

    2006-01-01

    The first nuclear reactors at Sellafield went critical in 1951 and fuel reprocessing commenced shortly afterwards. As the nuclear programme expanded, reprocessing increased and there was an associated increase in discharges to the environment. An initial environmental monitoring programme was formulated on the basis of research and assessment of the likely behaviour of radionuclides. In addition to the routine process sources there were also incidents that gave rise to acute releases of radioactivity to the environment. Of key significance were: the Windscale fire, 1957; short-cooled fuel reprocessing, 1981; and discharge of contaminated solvent, 1983. All of these incidents added to the requirements for environments for environmental monitoring. The monitoring programme has evolved over a period of more than 50 years. (N.C.)

  10. Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. Overcoming Environmental Monitoring Inertia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, T.G.; Desmond, J.A. [British Nuclear Group Sellafield Ltd. (United Kingdom); Stevens, A.K. [Westlakes Scientific Consulting (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    The first nuclear reactors at Sellafield went critical in 1951 and fuel reprocessing commenced shortly afterwards. As the nuclear programme expanded, reprocessing increased and there was an associated increase in discharges to the environment. An initial environmental monitoring programme was formulated on the basis of research and assessment of the likely behaviour of radionuclides. In addition to the routine process sources there were also incidents that gave rise to acute releases of radioactivity to the environment. Of key significance were: the Windscale fire, 1957; short-cooled fuel reprocessing, 1981; and discharge of contaminated solvent, 1983. All of these incidents added to the requirements for environments for environmental monitoring. The monitoring programme has evolved over a period of more than 50 years. (N.C.)

  11. Betting on Teachers: The 43rd Annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushaw, William J.; Lopez, Shane J.

    2011-01-01

    This is the latest in a series of polls sponsored by Phi Delta Kappa International with the Gallup organization. Some important findings of this year's poll include: About half of us believe teacher unions are hurting public education, but we're more likely to support teacher union leaders than governors in disputes over teacher collective…

  12. Environmental radiation monitoring data for Point Lepreau Generating Station, 1990. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, J K

    1991-01-01

    Annual report presenting a compilation of the 1990 environmental radiation monitoring program data from samples collected around the Point Lepreau Nuclear Generating Station (PLNGS) and at reference stations remote from PLNGS. About 1,500 analyses were made on 1,100 samples to monitor environmental radiation, including air particulates, airborne water vapour, carbon dioxide in air, sea water, well water, milk, beach sediments, clams, fish, lobster, dulse, crabs, scallops, periwinkles, sea plants and lichen. Background radiation is measured by thermoluminescence dosimetry. Radon is not assessed.

  13. Serum potassium monitoring for users of ethinyl estradiol/drospirenone taking medications predisposing to hyperkalemia: physician compliance and survey of knowledge and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mona Eng, Patricia; Seeger, John D; Loughlin, Jeanne; Oh, Kelly; Walker, Alexander M

    2007-02-01

    Yasmin-28 [ethinyl estradiol 0.03 mg/drospirenone 3 mg (EE/DRSP)] contains drospirenone, a progestin component that possesses antimineralocorticoid activity with a potassium-sparing diuretic effect similar to that in spironolactone. Product labeling recommends potassium monitoring in the first month of use for women concurrently receiving medication that may increase serum potassium. We evaluated compliance with this recommendation by measuring monitoring around the date of oral contraceptive (OC) initiation in women who received EE/DRSP while being treated with medications predisposing to hyperkalemia and in similar women who received other OCs. Because preliminary analyses indicated incomplete compliance, we surveyed physicians who prescribed EE/DRSP to women receiving drugs predisposing to hyperkalemia on their knowledge and attitudes with regard to the recommendation. We conducted this study using data from the Ingenix Research Datamart, which includes insurance claims for reimbursement for medical services and prescription medications for approximately 8,000,000 members of a large nationally dispersed health plan. We used claims for pharmacy dispensings of prescription medications to identify all women aged 10-59 years old who initiated EE/DRSP or other OCs during the first 3 years of EE/DRSP availability (July 2001 to June 2004). The frequency of potassium monitoring was measured by identifying claims for serum potassium tests. We conducted a telephone survey of 58 physicians who had prescribed EE/DRSP up to June 2003 to women who received concomitant hyperkalemic drugs. Although potassium monitoring was generally more frequent among EE/DRSP initiators receiving concomitant hyperkalemic drugs than among other OC initiators receiving similar medications, only 40% of 466 EE/DRSP initiators with concurrent hyperkalemic treatment had potassium tests. More than 98% of surveyed physicians were aware of the potassium-sparing property of EE/DRSP. Compared with

  14. Comparing caseload and non-caseload midwives' burnout levels and professional attitudes: A national, cross-sectional survey of Australian midwives working in the public maternity system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Kate; Newton, Michelle; Forster, Della; McLachlan, Helen

    2018-08-01

    Caseload midwifery has many benefits for women and their babies, however only around 8% of women receive caseload care in the public maternity system in Australia. Midwives working within caseload models are required to provide activity-based care (working on-call, responsively to the needs of their caseload of women) rather than undertaking shift work. There has been debate regarding the impact of caseload work on midwives, but recently caseload work has been associated with higher professional satisfaction and lower burnout when compared to midwives working in traditional models. However, there continues to be debate about the impact of caseload on midwives, so further investigation is needed. A national cross-sectional survey of midwives working in Australian public hospitals that have birthing services was undertaken. We explored burnout and midwives' attitudes to their professional role using the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory and the Midwifery Process Questionnaire, respectively. Comparisons were made across three groups of midwives: those who worked in the caseload model, midwives who did not work in this model but worked in a hospital with a caseload model, and midwives who worked in a hospital without a caseload model. We received 542 responses from midwives from 111 hospitals from all Australian states and one of the territories. Of respondents, 107 midwives worked in a caseload model, 212 worked in a hospital with a caseload model but did not work in caseload, and 220 midwives worked in a hospital without a caseload model. Midwives working in caseload had significantly lower burnout scores in the personal and work-related burnout subscales, and a trend toward lower scores in the client-related burnout subscale. They also had higher scores across all four subscales of the midwifery process questionnaire, demonstrating more positive attitudes to their professional role. Although concerns have been raised regarding the impact of caseload midwifery on midwives

  15. Perceptions of risk from nanotechnologies and trust in stakeholders: a cross sectional study of public, academic, government and business attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capon, Adam; Gillespie, James; Rolfe, Margaret; Smith, Wayne

    2015-04-26

    Policy makers and regulators are constantly required to make decisions despite the existence of substantial uncertainty regarding the outcomes of their proposed decisions. Understanding stakeholder views is an essential part of addressing this uncertainty, which provides insight into the possible social reactions and tolerance of unpredictable risks. In the field of nanotechnology, large uncertainties exist regarding the real and perceived risks this technology may have on society. Better evidence is needed to confront this issue. We undertook a computer assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) survey of the Australian public and a parallel survey of those involved in nanotechnology from the academic, business and government sectors. Analysis included comparisons of proportions and logistic regression techniques. We explored perceptions of nanotechnology risks both to health and in a range of products. We examined views on four trust actors. The general public's perception of risk was significantly higher than that expressed by other stakeholders. The public bestows less trust in certain trust actors than do academics or government officers, giving its greatest trust to scientists. Higher levels of public trust were generally associated with lower perceptions of risk. Nanotechnology in food and cosmetics/sunscreens were considered riskier applications irrespective of stakeholder, while familiarity with nanotechnology was associated with a reduced risk perception. Policy makers should consider the disparities in risk and trust perceptions between the public and influential stakeholders, placing greater emphasis on risk communication and the uncertainties of risk assessment in these areas of higher concern. Scientists being the highest trusted group are well placed to communicate the risks of nanotechnologies to the public.

  16. Monitoring urban tree cover using object-based image analysis and public domain remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. Monika Moskal; Diane M. Styers; Meghan. Halabisky

    2011-01-01

    Urban forest ecosystems provide a range of social and ecological services, but due to the heterogeneity of these canopies their spatial extent is difficult to quantify and monitor. Traditional per-pixel classification methods have been used to map urban canopies, however, such techniques are not generally appropriate for assessing these highly variable landscapes....

  17. Public recreation and landscape protection- Hand in hand with visitor monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaarsma, C.F.; Beunen, R.; Vries, de J.R.

    2013-01-01

    Policy makers and managers of natural areas have to deal with competing socio-economic and environmental interests. The planning and management of these areas depends on accurate and sufficiently detailed information. Data from long-term monitoring are essential for assessing visitor impact on

  18. Using Surveys to Track Student Sexual Behavior and Attitudes in the Public Schools: Current Case Law and Future Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullis, Ronald K.

    2008-01-01

    Two recent federal court cases have addressed the constitutionality of using sexual surveys in public schools. This article compares these cases with an earlier case dealing with the same issue but reaching different results. This article also describes the constitutional rights of parents to educate their children and the school's rights to…

  19. Effects of Homophobic versus Nonhomophobic Victimization on School Commitment and the Moderating Effect of Teacher Attitudes in Brazilian Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Mandi M.; Santo, Jonathan B.; Da Cunha, Josafa; Weber, Lidia; Russell, Stephen T.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated homophobic victimization, teacher support, and school commitment in Brazilian schools. Participants were 339 students, ages 11 to 18 years old, in two public schools in Brazil. Data were obtained using the Brazil Preventing School Harassment Survey. Structural equation modeling revealed that both homophobic and…

  20. Dutch public affairs professionals in the national and European arena : A smart mix of skills, attitude, and knowledge competences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figee, Edward L.; Gosselt, Jordi F.; Linders, Paul C.J.; de Jong, Menno D.T.

    2017-01-01

    Although the profession of public affairs (PA) is increasingly important for organizations, relatively little is known about the range of competences PA professionals need. This article presents a qualitative study among 41 experienced Dutch PA professionals and practitioners, who were interviewed