WorldWideScience

Sample records for public attention focuses

  1. Public attention is focused to concrete protective fence; Konkurito sei bogosaku ni shumoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-10

    The installation standards for protective fence was revised last November, and public interest is increased for these standards. Corresponding to this situation, the Cement Association held a revised installation standards explanation meeting, in cooperation with Steel Protective Fence Association and Japan Aluminum Association, in Tokyo for road managers mainly in areas under jurisdiction of Kanto Regional Construction Bureau. By the revised installation standards, concrete protective fence can be treated equal to steel. Traffic safety of drivers and passengers as well as economic effect by long maintenance span can be expected by popularization of concrete protective fence. (translated by NEDO)

  2. Focusing on ADHD - Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... September 2014 Print this issue Focusing on ADHD Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder En español Send us your comments ... might be signs of a developmental disorder called attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD. ADHD is a common ...

  3. Attentional Focusing Instructions and Force Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Marchant

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Research progress assessing the role of attentional focusing instructions on skill acquisition and performance has lead researchers to apply this approach to force production tasks. Initial converging evidence indicates that force production tasks are sensitive to verbal instruction; externally focused instructions (onto movement outcomes, or onto the object force is being exerted against are shown to be more beneficial than internally focused instructions (focusing attention onto the movements being executed. These benefits are observed for maximal and accurate force production, as well as the maintenance of force production in prolonged tasks. A range of mechanisms are identified supporting the proposal that an external focus promotes movement efficiency in line with energy and effort conservation. Future research is required to assess how this developing body of work interacts with the broader understanding of psychological and physiological factors implicated in the effective production, maintenance and limitation of maximal or sub-maximal forces.

  4. Focus of attention and automaticity in handwriting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMahon, Clare; Charness, Neil

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the nature of automaticity in everyday tasks by testing handwriting performance under single and dual-task conditions. Item familiarity and hand dominance were also manipulated to understand both cognitive and motor components of the task. In line with previous literature, performance was superior in an extraneous focus of attention condition compared to two different skill focus conditions. This effect was found only when writing with the dominant hand. In addition, performance was superior for high familiarity compared to low familiarity items. These findings indicate that motor and cognitive familiarity are related to the degree of automaticity of motor skills and can be manipulated to produce different performance outcomes. The findings also imply that the progression of skill acquisition from novel to novice to expert levels can be traced using different dual-task conditions. The separation of motor and cognitive familiarity is a new approach in the handwriting domain, and provides insight into the nature of attentional demands during performance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Relationship between self-focused attention, mindfulness and distress in individuals with auditory verbal hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Úbeda-Gómez, J; León-Palacios, M G; Escudero-Pérez, S; Barros-Albarrán, M D; López-Jiménez, A M; Perona-Garcelán, S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among self-focused attention, mindfulness and distress caused by the voices in psychiatric patients. Fifty-one individuals with a psychiatric diagnosis participated in this study. The Psychotic Symptom Rating Scale (PSYRATS) emotional factor was applied to measure the distress caused by the voices, the Self-Absorption Scale (SAS) was given for measuring the levels of self-focused attention, and the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) was used to measure mindfulness. The results showed that distress caused by the voices correlated positively with self-focused attention (private and public) and negatively with mindfulness. A negative correlation was also found between mindfulness and self-focused attention (private and public). Finally, multiple linear regression analysis showed that public self-focus was the only factor predicting distress caused by the voices. Intervention directed at diminishing public self-focused attention and increasing mindfulness could improve distress caused by the voices.

  6. Exploring Insight: Focus on Shifts of Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatnik, Alik; Koichu, Boris

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents and analyses a sequence of events that preceded an insight solution to a challenging problem in the context of numerical sequences. A three­week long solution process by a pair of ninth­-grade students is analysed by means of the theory of shifts of attention. The goal for this article is to reveal the potential of this theory…

  7. 34 CFR 300.606 - Public attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public attention. 300.606 Section 300.606 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND..., and Enforcement § 300.606 Public attention. Whenever a State receives notice that the Secretary is...

  8. Auditory and visual capture during focused visual attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelewijn, T.; Bronkhorst, A.W.; Theeuwes, J.

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that auditory and visual onsets presented at a particular location can capture a person's visual attention. However, the question of whether such attentional capture disappears when attention is focused endogenously beforehand has not yet been answered. Moreover, previous studies

  9. Auditory and Visual Capture during Focused Visual Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelewijn, Thomas; Bronkhorst, Adelbert; Theeuwes, Jan

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that auditory and visual onsets presented at a particular location can capture a person's visual attention. However, the question of whether such attentional capture disappears when attention is focused endogenously beforehand has not yet been answered. Moreover, previous studies have not differentiated between capture by onsets…

  10. Effects of attentional focus on walking stability in elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Melker Worms, Jonathan L.A.; Stins, John F.; van Wegen, Erwin E.H.; Verschueren, Sabine M.P.; Beek, Peter J.; Loram, Ian D.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Balance performance in the elderly is related to psychological factors such as attentional focus. We investigated the effects of internal vs. external focus of attention and fall history on walking stability in healthy older adults. Method Walking stability of twenty-eight healthy older

  11. Auditory and visual capture during focused visual attention

    OpenAIRE

    Koelewijn, T.; Bronkhorst, A.W.; Theeuwes, J.

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that auditory and visual onsets presented at a particular location can capture a person's visual attention. However, the question of whether such attentional capture disappears when attention is focused endogenously beforehand has not yet been answered. Moreover, previous studies have not differentiated between capture by onsets presented at a nontarget (invalid) location and possible performance benefits occurring when the target location is (validly) cued. In this study, th...

  12. The exogenous and endogenous control of attentional focusing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Lisa N; Enns, James T; Di Lollo, Vincent

    2017-09-22

    Selective visual attention involves prioritizing both the location (orienting) and distribution (focusing) of processing. To date, much more research has examined attentional orienting than focusing. One of the most well-established findings is that orienting can be exogenous, as when a unique change in luminance draws attention to a spatial location (e.g., Theeuwes in Atten Percept Psychophys 51:599-606, 1992; Yantis and Jonides in J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 10:601, 1984), and endogenous, as when a red distractor shape diverts attention when one is looking for a red target (e.g., Bacon and Egeth in Percept Psychophys 55:485-496, 1994; Folk et al. in J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 18:1030, 1992). Here we ask whether attentional focusing-the broadening and contracting of prioritized processing-is influenced by the same two factors. Our methodology involved a dual-stream attentional blink task; participants monitored two spatially separated streams of items for two targets that could appear unpredictably either in the same stream or in opposite streams. The spatial distribution of attention was assessed by examining second-target accuracy in relation to inter-target lag and target location (same or opposite streams). In Experiment 1, we found that attentional contracting was more rapid when the targets differed in luminance from the distractor items. In Experiments 2 and 3, we found that the rate of attentional contracting was slower when there were task-relevant distractors in the stream opposite the first target. These results indicate that the rate of attentional focusing, like orienting, can be modulated by both exogenous and endogenous mechanisms.

  13. Effects of attentional focus on walking stability in elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melker Worms, Jonathan L A; Stins, John F; van Wegen, Erwin E H; Verschueren, Sabine M P; Beek, Peter J; Loram, Ian D

    2017-06-01

    Balance performance in the elderly is related to psychological factors such as attentional focus. We investigated the effects of internal vs. external focus of attention and fall history on walking stability in healthy older adults. Walking stability of twenty-eight healthy older adults was assessed by applying random unilateral decelerations on a split-belt treadmill and analysing the resulting balance recovery movements. The internal focus instruction was: concentrate on the movement of your legs, whereas the external focus instruction was: concentrate on the movement of the treadmill. In both conditions participants were asked to look ahead at a screen. Outcome measures were coefficient of variation of step length and step width, and characteristics of the centre of mass velocity time-series as analysed using statistical parametric mapping. Fall history was assessed using a questionnaire. After each perturbation participants required two to three strides to regain a normal gait pattern, as determined by the centre of mass velocity response. No effects were found of internal and external focus of attention instructions and fall history on any of the outcome measures. We conclude that, compared to an internal focus of attention instruction, external focus to the walking surface does not lead to improved balance recovery responses to gait perturbations in the elderly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Attentional Focus in Classical Ballet: A Survey Of Professional Dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guss-West, Clare; Wulf, Gabriele

    2016-03-01

    Focus of attention and its effects on skilled motor performance has become an important line of research in the motor learning domain. Numerous studies have demonstrated that an external focus of attention (i.e., on the movement effect) enhances motor performance and learning relative to an internal focus (i.e., on body movements). Thus, small differences in the wording of instructions or feedback given by teachers can have a significant impact on the effectiveness and efficiency of motor skill performance. In this paper, we review some of the attentional focus studies that are relevant to ballet performance. In addition, we report the findings of a survey among professional ballet dancers (N = 53) that we conducted to determine their typical attentional focus while performing certain movements. The results showed that the majority adopted internal foci, or combinations of internal and external foci, most of the time. This suggests that there is room for improvement for performance and teaching. We provide examples of how external foci can be promoted in ballet practice.

  15. Defining the Focus of Attention: Effects of Attention on Perceived Exertion and Fatigue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith eLohse

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript presents two experiments designed to explore the effects of attention on perceived exertion and time to failure in a fatiguing athletic task. There were two major motivating factors for these experiments. First, there are few studies evaluating attentional focus effects in endurance tasks and, second, there is a lack of integration between studies of attentional focus as external/internal (e.g., Wulf, 2007 compared to associative/dissociative (e.g., Stevenson & Biddle, 1998. In Experiment 1, we used a fatiguing wall-sit posture (essentially a complex, isometric task to compare two different types of external attention with an internal focus on the position of the legs. An external focus (regardless of type increased the time taken to failure and reduced perceived exertion. In Experiment 2, we manipulated subjects’ expectancy of fatigue to test the interaction of attention and expectancy (both top-down factors in this highly fatiguing task. Previous theories of attention during endurance tasks have suggested that as fatigue/pain increase, bottom-up factors begin to dominate subjects’ attention. While this may be true, Experiment 2 showed that even in a highly fatiguing task, attentional strategies and expectancies affected the time to failure and perceived exertion.

  16. Computerized Attention Training Program and Vocal Ensemble Classes – means of Adolescent Attention Focusing Ability Development

    OpenAIRE

    Trubina, Irēna; Sīle, Maruta; Vaļēviča, Evita; Voita, Daina

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays adolescents encounter difficulties focusing on particular, effective and long-term activities. These difficulties depend on their age group development regularities. The aim of the research is to evaluate computer attention training software in comparison with vocal ensemble classes on the subject of adolescent attention focusing ability development. Participants – 24 adolescents (both sexes, average age 14 ± 0,87 years) were divided into three experimental groups – experimental grou...

  17. Does Focus of Attention Improve Snatch Lift Kinematics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutts, Kyle S; Wu, Will F W; Vidal, Anthony D; Hiegel, Jamie; Becker, James

    2017-10-01

    Recent motor control literature has demonstrated that using verbal instructions to direct a performer's attention externally (i.e., toward the movement outcome) enhances motor skill performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate how an athlete's focus of attention impacts kinematic performance of the snatch. Using a counterbalanced within-participant design, 12 competitively trained athletes (8 male and 4 female athletes) performed 2 instructional blocks of 3 snatch repetitions at 80% of their most recent training 1 repetition maximum. Blocks of internal and external instructions were given to the athlete in a random fashion. Results showed that, when focusing internally, athletes significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased elbow velocity relative to focusing externally, whereas the external instructions significantly increased horizontal barbell velocity, relative to internal instructions. Additionally, an internal focus resulted in significantly larger barbell-cervical-hip angles at maximum height of the barbell compared with an external focus, indicating that the athletes squatted under the barbell too soon. This information adds to the literature suggesting small changes in coaching instructions can impact performance significantly. It is recommended that coaches use instructions that direct an athlete's attention externally, toward the movement outcome, rather than the action itself.

  18. Neural correlates of focused attention and cognitive monitoring in meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Antonietta; Raffone, Antonino; Perrucci, Mauro Gianni; Nardo, Davide; Ferretti, Antonio; Tartaro, Armando; Londei, Alessandro; Del Gratta, Cosimo; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti; Romani, Gian Luca

    2010-04-29

    Meditation refers to a family of complex emotional and attentional regulatory practices, which can be classified into two main styles - focused attention (FA) and open monitoring (OM) - involving different attentional, cognitive monitoring and awareness processes. In a functional magnetic resonance study we originally characterized and contrasted FA and OM meditation forms within the same experiment, by an integrated FA-OM design. Theravada Buddhist monks, expert in both FA and OM meditation forms, and lay novices with 10 days of meditation practice, participated in the experiment. Our evidence suggests that expert meditators control cognitive engagement in conscious processing of sensory-related, thought and emotion contents, by massive self-regulation of fronto-parietal and insular areas in the left hemisphere, in a meditation state-dependent fashion. We also found that anterior cingulate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices play antagonist roles in the executive control of the attention setting in meditation tasks. Our findings resolve the controversy between the hypothesis that meditative states are associated to transient hypofrontality or deactivation of executive brain areas, and evidence about the activation of executive brain areas in meditation. Finally, our study suggests that a functional reorganization of brain activity patterns for focused attention and cognitive monitoring takes place with mental practice, and that meditation-related neuroplasticity is crucially associated to a functional reorganization of activity patterns in prefrontal cortex and in the insula. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Using Focus Group Research in Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunig, Larissa A.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes a recent instance of focus group research applied to a public relations case (rather than a marketing case). Reviews the advantages and disadvantages of this qualitative method, and describes the case of a county department of mental health relying on focus group research to help plan a program aimed at reducing the stigma of mental…

  20. Modeling the Evolution of Beliefs Using an Attentional Focus Mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrije Marković

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available For making decisions in everyday life we often have first to infer the set of environmental features that are relevant for the current task. Here we investigated the computational mechanisms underlying the evolution of beliefs about the relevance of environmental features in a dynamical and noisy environment. For this purpose we designed a probabilistic Wisconsin card sorting task (WCST with belief solicitation, in which subjects were presented with stimuli composed of multiple visual features. At each moment in time a particular feature was relevant for obtaining reward, and participants had to infer which feature was relevant and report their beliefs accordingly. To test the hypothesis that attentional focus modulates the belief update process, we derived and fitted several probabilistic and non-probabilistic behavioral models, which either incorporate a dynamical model of attentional focus, in the form of a hierarchical winner-take-all neuronal network, or a diffusive model, without attention-like features. We used Bayesian model selection to identify the most likely generative model of subjects' behavior and found that attention-like features in the behavioral model are essential for explaining subjects' responses. Furthermore, we demonstrate a method for integrating both connectionist and Bayesian models of decision making within a single framework that allowed us to infer hidden belief processes of human subjects.

  1. Automatic focusing of attention on object size and shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Galera

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In two experiments we investigated the automatic adjusting of the attentional focus to simple geometric shapes. The participants performed a visual search task with four stimuli (the target and three distractors presented always around the fixation point, inside an outlined frame not related to the search task. A cue informed the subject only about the possible size and shape of the frame, not about the target. The results of the first experiment showed faster target detection in the valid cue trials, suggesting that attention was captured automatically by the cue shape. In the second experiment, we introduced a flanker stimulus (compatible or incompatible with the target in order to determine if attentional resources spread homogenously inside and outside the frame. The results showed that performance depended both on cue validity and frame orientation. The flanker effect was dependent on compatibility and flanker position (vertical or horizontal meridian. The results of both experiments suggest that the form of an irrelevant object can capture attention despite participants’ intention and the results of the second experiment suggest that the attentional resources are more concentrated along the horizontal meridian.

  2. Direction of attentional focus in biofeedback treatment for /r/ misarticulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister Byun, Tara; Swartz, Michelle T; Halpin, Peter F; Szeredi, Daniel; Maas, Edwin

    2016-07-01

    Maintaining an external direction of focus during practice is reported to facilitate acquisition of non-speech motor skills, but it is not known whether these findings also apply to treatment for speech errors. This question has particular relevance for treatment incorporating visual biofeedback, where clinician cueing can direct the learner's attention either internally (i.e., to the movements of the articulators) or externally (i.e., to the visual biofeedback display). This study addressed two objectives. First, it aimed to use single-subject experimental methods to collect additional evidence regarding the efficacy of visual-acoustic biofeedback treatment for children with /r/ misarticulation. Second, it compared the efficacy of this biofeedback intervention under two cueing conditions. In the external focus (EF) condition, participants' attention was directed exclusively to the external biofeedback display. In the internal focus (IF) condition, participants viewed a biofeedback display, but they also received articulatory cues encouraging an internal direction of attentional focus. Nine school-aged children were pseudo-randomly assigned to receive either IF or EF cues during 8 weeks of visual-acoustic biofeedback intervention. Accuracy in /r/ production at the word level was probed in three to five pre-treatment baseline sessions and in three post-treatment maintenance sessions. Outcomes were assessed using visual inspection and calculation of effect sizes for individual treatment trajectories. In addition, a mixed logistic model was used to examine across-subjects effects including phase (pre/post-treatment), /r/ variant (treated/untreated), and focus cue condition (internal/external). Six out of nine participants showed sustained improvement on at least one treated /r/ variant; these six participants were evenly divided across EF and IF treatment groups. Regression results indicated that /r/ productions were significantly more likely to be rated accurate post

  3. No arousal-biased competition in focused visuospatial attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ásgeirsson, Árni Gunnar; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2017-11-01

    Arousal sometimes enhances and sometimes impairs perception and memory. A recent theory attempts to reconcile these findings by proposing that arousal amplifies the competition between stimulus representations, strengthening already strong representations and weakening already weak representations. Here, we report a stringent test of this arousal-biased competition theory in the context of focused visuospatial attention. Participants were required to identify a briefly presented target in the context of multiple distractors, which varied in the degree to which they competed for representation with the target, as revealed by psychophysics. We manipulated arousal using emotionally arousing pictures (Experiment 1), alerting tones (Experiment 2) and white-noise stimulation (Experiment 3), and validated these manipulations with electroencephalography and pupillometry. In none of the experiments did we find evidence that arousal modulated the effect of distractor competition on the accuracy of target identification. Bayesian statistics revealed moderate to strong evidence against arousal-biased competition. Modeling of the psychophysical data based on Bundesen's (1990) theory of visual attention corroborated the conclusion that arousal does not bias competition in focused visuospatial attention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Focus of Attention in Visual Working Memory: Protection of Focused Representations and Its Individual Variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Anna; Schubö, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Visual working memory can be modulated according to changes in the cued task relevance of maintained items. Here, we investigated the mechanisms underlying this modulation. In particular, we studied the consequences of attentional selection for selected and unselected items, and the role of individual differences in the efficiency with which attention is deployed. To this end, performance in a visual working memory task as well as the CDA/SPCN and the N2pc, ERP components associated with visual working memory and attentional processes, were analysed. Selection during the maintenance stage was manipulated by means of two successively presented retrocues providing spatial information as to which items were most likely to be tested. Results show that attentional selection serves to robustly protect relevant representations in the focus of attention while unselected representations which may become relevant again still remain available. Individuals with larger retrocueing benefits showed higher efficiency of attentional selection, as indicated by the N2pc, and showed stronger maintenance-associated activity (CDA/SPCN). The findings add to converging evidence that focused representations are protected, and highlight the flexibility of visual working memory, in which information can be weighted according its relevance.

  5. Attention has memory: priming for the size of the attentional focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuggetta, Giorgio; Lanfranchi, Silvia; Campana, Gianluca

    2009-01-01

    Repeating the same target's features or spatial position, as well as repeating the same context (e.g. distractor sets) in visual search leads to a decrease of reaction times. This modulation can occur on a trial by trial basis (the previous trial primes the following one), but can also occur across multiple trials (i.e. performance in the current trial can benefit from features, position or context seen several trials earlier), and includes inhibition of different features, position or contexts besides facilitation of the same ones. Here we asked whether a similar implicit memory mechanism exists for the size of the attentional focus. By manipulating the size of the attentional focus with the repetition of search arrays with the same vs. different size, we found both facilitation for the same array size and inhibition for a different array size, as well as a progressive improvement in performance with increasing the number of repetition of search arrays with the same size. These results show that implicit memory for the size of the attentional focus can guide visual search even in the absence of feature or position priming, or distractor's contextual effects.

  6. Developing public affairs counseling skills to support a public participation focus at Fernald

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoopes, J. [Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1994-03-01

    To provide closer coordination between the Public Affairs Division and environmental restoration management and technical staff, the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation (FERMCO) matrixed Public Affairs staffers as counselors to project teams within FERMCO. Close coordination between technical staff and public affairs staff is essential for effective public communication in a public participation, environmental risk communication environment. Two-way symmetrical communication (public participation) represents a paradigm shift for public affairs staff who have developed skills primarily in a public information (asymmetrical communication) environment. While there has been much focus in the literature and workshops on management changes needed to support a public participation environment, less attention has been paid to identifying and developing the skills needed by public affairs professionals to support public participation. To support the new counseling role of public affairs staffers, FERMCO used a public affairs training consultant to design and deliver a workshop to initiate development of the skills needed for the public affairs counseling role. This paper describes FERMCO`s matrixed counseling program and the training to develop public affairs counseling skills for the public participation environment.

  7. Noticing the self: Implicit assessment of self-focused attention using word recognition latencies

    OpenAIRE

    Eichstaedt, Dr Jan; Silvia, Dr Paul J.

    2003-01-01

    Self-focused attention is difficult to measure. Two studies developed an implicit measure of self-focus based on word recognition latencies. Self-focused attention activates self-content, so self-focused people should recognize self-relevant words more quickly. Study 1 measured individual-differences in self-focused attention. People scoring high in private self-consciousness recognized self-relevant words more quickly. Study 2 manipulated objective self-awareness with a writing task. People ...

  8. What the public wants to know (getting their attention)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waltar, A.E.; Beaumont, P.; Earl, B.; Peddicord, K.L.; Datta, S.

    1999-01-01

    Indeed, the more one reflects on this question, the clearer it becomes that one will never be able to bring the public around to a full support of things nuclear until they truly understand the incredible benefits inherent in this marvelous technology. Arguments centered on low risk will continually fall on either deaf or skeptical ears until the public is awakened to the enormous benefits they already derive from nuclear technology. Tempting though it may be to spent time and energy formulating and defending issue statements, the reality is that the public and most policy makers will simply not pay attention until they become aware of how ubiquitous radiation has become in enriching their daily lives. But, how does one get their attention? How can nuclear technologists penetrate the apathy that is exemplified by the glazed eyes normally encountered whenever one attempts to reach meaningful numbers of the public? How does one get the attention of the American people in a positive sense? Whereas one dare not make premature claims, the authors two activities that hold instant appeal to most Americans: (a) publicizing a real hero and (b) holding a celebration. It was on this premise that a decision was made in May 1998 to launch the concept of celebrating the centennial discovery of radium by Marie Curie. The initial response has been no less than staggering. Why? How could an event associated with things nuclear garner such positive attraction? Since the main events are not scheduled to take place until the year 2000, it is too early to claim success. But, by featuring the most famous female scientist of modern times, combined with a natural time of celebration, they believe they have successfully created a combination that has almost a magical attraction. People hearing of the project for the first time naturally begin to ask questions and explore possibilities, and the enthusiasm becomes contagious. They all known they have a powerful story to tell, if only they

  9. What the public wants to know (getting their attention)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waltar, A.E.; Beaumont, P.; Earl, B.; Peddicord, K.L.; Datta, S.

    1999-07-01

    Indeed, the more one reflects on this question, the clearer it becomes that one will never be able to bring the public around to a full support of things nuclear until they truly understand the incredible benefits inherent in this marvelous technology. Arguments centered on low risk will continually fall on either deaf or skeptical ears until the public is awakened to the enormous benefits they already derive from nuclear technology. Tempting though it may be to spent time and energy formulating and defending issue statements, the reality is that the public and most policy makers will simply not pay attention until they become aware of how ubiquitous radiation has become in enriching their daily lives. But, how does one get their attention? How can nuclear technologists penetrate the apathy that is exemplified by the glazed eyes normally encountered whenever one attempts to reach meaningful numbers of the public? How does one get the attention of the American people in a positive sense? Whereas one dare not make premature claims, the authors two activities that hold instant appeal to most Americans: (a) publicizing a real hero and (b) holding a celebration. It was on this premise that a decision was made in May 1998 to launch the concept of celebrating the centennial discovery of radium by Marie Curie. The initial response has been no less than staggering. Why? How could an event associated with things nuclear garner such positive attraction? Since the main events are not scheduled to take place until the year 2000, it is too early to claim success. But, by featuring the most famous female scientist of modern times, combined with a natural time of celebration, they believe they have successfully created a combination that has almost a magical attraction. People hearing of the project for the first time naturally begin to ask questions and explore possibilities, and the enthusiasm becomes contagious. They all known they have a powerful story to tell, if only they

  10. Influence of focus of attention, reinvestment and fall history on elderly gait stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Melker Worms, Jonathan L.A.; Stins, John F.; van Wegen, Erwin E.H.; Loram, Ian D.; Beek, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Falls represent a substantial risk in the elderly. Previous studies have found that a focus on the outcome or effect of the movement (external focus of attention) leads to improved balance performance, whereas a focus on the movement execution itself (internal focus of attention) impairs balance

  11. Pupil size reflects the focus of feature-based attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binda, Paola; Pereverzeva, Maria; Murray, Scott O

    2014-12-15

    We measured pupil size in adult human subjects while they selectively attended to one of two surfaces, bright and dark, defined by coherently moving dots. The two surfaces were presented at the same location; therefore, subjects could select the cued surface only on the basis of its features. With no luminance change in the stimulus, we find that pupil size was smaller when the bright surface was attended and larger when the dark surface was attended: an effect of feature-based (or surface-based) attention. With the same surfaces at nonoverlapping locations, we find a similar effect of spatial attention. The pupil size modulation cannot be accounted for by differences in eye position and by other variables known to affect pupil size such as task difficulty, accommodation, or the mere anticipation (imagery) of bright/dark stimuli. We conclude that pupil size reflects not just luminance or cognitive state, but the interaction between the two: it reflects which luminance level in the visual scene is relevant for the task at hand. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Direction of Attentional Focus in Biofeedback Treatment for /R/ Misarticulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister Byun, Tara; Swartz, Michelle T.; Halpin, Peter F.; Szeredi, Daniel; Maas, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Maintaining an external direction of focus during practice is reported to facilitate acquisition of non-speech motor skills, but it is not known whether these findings also apply to treatment for speech errors. This question has particular relevance for treatment incorporating visual biofeedback, where clinician cueing can direct the…

  13. Using spatial uncertainty to manipulate the size of the attention focus

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Dan; Xue, Linyan; Wang, Xin; Chen, Yao

    2016-01-01

    Preferentially processing behaviorally relevant information is vital for primate survival. In visuospatial attention studies, manipulating the spatial extent of attention focus is an important question. Although many studies have claimed to successfully adjust attention field size by either varying the uncertainty about the target location (spatial uncertainty) or adjusting the size of the cue orienting the attention focus, no systematic studies have assessed and compared the effectiveness of...

  14. Focusing on attention: the effects of working memory capacity and load on selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Lubna; de Fockert, Jan W

    2012-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is imperative for effective selective attention. Distractibility is greater under conditions of high (vs. low) concurrent working memory load (WML), and in individuals with low (vs. high) working memory capacity (WMC). In the current experiments, we recorded the flanker task performance of individuals with high and low WMC during low and high WML, to investigate the combined effect of WML and WMC on selective attention. In Experiment 1, distractibility from a distractor at a fixed distance from the target was greater when either WML was high or WMC was low, but surprisingly smaller when both WML was high and WMC low. Thus we observed an inverted-U relationship between reductions in WM resources and distractibility. In Experiment 2, we mapped the distribution of spatial attention as a function of WMC and WML, by recording distractibility across several target-to-distractor distances. The pattern of distractor effects across the target-to-distractor distances demonstrated that the distribution of the attentional window becomes dispersed as WM resources are limited. The attentional window was more spread out under high compared to low WML, and for low compared to high WMC individuals, and even more so when the two factors co-occurred (i.e., under high WML in low WMC individuals). The inverted-U pattern of distractibility effects in Experiment 1, replicated in Experiment 2, can thus be explained by differences in the spread of the attentional window as a function of WM resource availability. The current findings show that limitations in WM resources, due to either WML or individual differences in WMC, affect the spatial distribution of attention. The difference in attentional constraining between high and low WMC individuals demonstrated in the current experiments helps characterise the nature of previously established associations between WMC and controlled attention.

  15. Focusing on attention: the effects of working memory capacity and load on selective attention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubna Ahmed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Working memory (WM is imperative for effective selective attention. Distractibility is greater under conditions of high (vs. low concurrent working memory load (WML, and in individuals with low (vs. high working memory capacity (WMC. In the current experiments, we recorded the flanker task performance of individuals with high and low WMC during low and high WML, to investigate the combined effect of WML and WMC on selective attention. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Experiment 1, distractibility from a distractor at a fixed distance from the target was greater when either WML was high or WMC was low, but surprisingly smaller when both WML was high and WMC low. Thus we observed an inverted-U relationship between reductions in WM resources and distractibility. In Experiment 2, we mapped the distribution of spatial attention as a function of WMC and WML, by recording distractibility across several target-to-distractor distances. The pattern of distractor effects across the target-to-distractor distances demonstrated that the distribution of the attentional window becomes dispersed as WM resources are limited. The attentional window was more spread out under high compared to low WML, and for low compared to high WMC individuals, and even more so when the two factors co-occurred (i.e., under high WML in low WMC individuals. The inverted-U pattern of distractibility effects in Experiment 1, replicated in Experiment 2, can thus be explained by differences in the spread of the attentional window as a function of WM resource availability. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The current findings show that limitations in WM resources, due to either WML or individual differences in WMC, affect the spatial distribution of attention. The difference in attentional constraining between high and low WMC individuals demonstrated in the current experiments helps characterise the nature of previously established associations between WMC and controlled

  16. Mobile Application "Neurogame" for Assessment the Attention, Focus and Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loleski, Mario; Loleska, Sofija; Pop-Jordanova, Nada

    2017-12-01

    Smartphones are ubiquitous, but it is still unknown what physiological functions can be monitored at clinical quality. In medicine their use is cited in many fields (cardiology, pulmology, endocrinology, rheumatology, pediatrics as well as in the field of mental health). The aim of this paper is to explain how the use of mobile application can help clients to improve the index of their focus, concentration and motor skills. Our original developed application on Android operating system, named "neurogame" is based on an open source platform to enable assessment and therapeutic stimulation, focus and concentration with the ability to monitor the progress of the results obtained in a larger number of participants (normal subjects as well as patients with different disorders) over a period of time. Whilst nowadays the predominant focus is on the pharmacological treatments, there is a rapidly growing interest in research on alternative options that will offer help in many cases of disorder management in terms of mobile application games. In order to have some kind of "norms", we evaluated a group of healthy population. Obtained results will serve as a database for comparison the future results. This article displays the results obtained as database.

  17. Focusing on Attention: The Effects of Working Memory Capacity and Load on Selective Attention.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Lubna; de Fockert, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Background\\ud \\ud Working memory (WM) is imperative for effective selective attention. Distractibility is greater under conditions of high (vs. low) concurrent working memory load (WML), and in individuals with low (vs. high) working memory capacity (WMC). In the current experiments, we recorded the flanker task performance of individuals with high and low WMC during low and high WML, to investigate the combined effect of WML and WMC on selective attention.\\ud \\ud Methodology/Principal Findin...

  18. Optimal distance of an external focus of attention in standing long jump performance of athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Lotfi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Study Aim: Recently, studies have shown that an external focus of attention improves the performance of individuals. Some studies have also confirmed the superiority of distances away from body for external focus of attention. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal distance of an external focus of attention when performing athletes' standing long jump. Material and Method: 51 volunteer students (M age= 23.31 ± 5.26 years were selected as sample. At first all they performed a standing long jump in control status (without instruction for focus of attention. Then in an interpersonal counterbalanced design, a pair of jumps was performed with four different distances of an external focus of attention. These distances included 0.5, 2.5, 4 and 8 meters from the jump start line marked with colored tapes on the ground. Results: The results showed that having an external focus of attention compare to the control conditions has a significant advantage in the performance of the athlete's standing long jump. Also, the performance of athletes at different distances of an external focus of attention was compared. Results showed that the four-meter distance was significantly better performance than the half-meter distance of an external focus of attention. Conclusion: Four-meter distance can be introduced as the optimal distance of an external focus of attention in the performance of athletes’ standing long jump.

  19. Does Varying Attentional Focus Affect Skill Acquisition in Children? A Comparison of Internal and External Focus Instructions and Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agar, Charles; Humphries, Charlotte A.; Naquin, Millie; Hebert, Edward; Wood, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Recently, researchers have concluded that motor skill performance is enhanced when learners adopt an external attentional focus, compared to adopting an internal focus. We extended the line of inquiry to children and examined if skill learning in children was differentially affected by providing instructions and feedback that direct attentional…

  20. Quantifying external focus of attention in sailing by means of action sport cameras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluijms, Joost; Canal Bruland, R.; Hoozemans, M.J.M.; Beek, M.; Brocker, K.; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was twofold: (1) to validate the use of action sport cameras for quantifying focus of visual attention in sailing and (2) to apply this method to examine whether an external focus of attention is associated with better performance in upwind sailing. To test the validity

  1. Perceptual and Cognitive Load Interact to Control the Spatial Focus of Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnell, Karina J.; Caparos, Serge

    2011-01-01

    Caparos and Linnell (2009, 2010) used a variable-separation flanker paradigm to show that (a) when cognitive load is low, increasing perceptual load causes spatial attention to focus and (b) when perceptual load is high, decreasing cognitive load causes spatial attention to focus. Here, we tested whether the effects of perceptual and cognitive…

  2. The effects of different focus of attention on throwing skills among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of external focus (EF) of attention compared to internal focus (IF) of attention instructions on throwing boules in a modified-petanque game among the ASD children. Ten ASD children aged from seven to 10 participated in this study. They were randomly divided into two groups ...

  3. Stay Focused! The Effects of Internal and External Focus of Attention on Movement Automaticity in Patients with Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kal, E. C.; van der Kamp, J.; Houdijk, H.; Groet, E.; van Bennekom, C. A. M.; Scherder, E. J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Dual-task performance is often impaired after stroke. This may be resolved by enhancing patients’ automaticity of movement. This study sets out to test the constrained action hypothesis, which holds that automaticity of movement is enhanced by triggering an external focus (on movement effects), rather than an internal focus (on movement execution). Thirty-nine individuals with chronic, unilateral stroke performed a one-leg-stepping task with both legs in single- and dual-task conditions. Attentional focus was manipulated with instructions. Motor performance (movement speed), movement automaticity (fluency of movement), and dual-task performance (dual-task costs) were assessed. The effects of focus on movement speed, single- and dual-task movement fluency, and dual-task costs were analysed with generalized estimating equations. Results showed that, overall, single-task performance was unaffected by focus (p = .341). Regarding movement fluency, no main effects of focus were found in single- or dual-task conditions (p’s ≥ .13). However, focus by leg interactions suggested that an external focus reduced movement fluency of the paretic leg compared to an internal focus (single-task conditions: p = .068; dual-task conditions: p = .084). An external focus also tended to result in inferior dual-task performance (β = -2.38, p = .065). Finally, a near-significant interaction (β = 2.36, p = .055) suggested that dual-task performance was more constrained by patients’ attentional capacity in external focus conditions. We conclude that, compared to an internal focus, an external focus did not result in more automated movements in chronic stroke patients. Contrary to expectations, trends were found for enhanced automaticity with an internal focus. These findings might be due to patients’ strong preference to use an internal focus in daily life. Future work needs to establish the more permanent effects of learning with different attentional foci on re-automating motor

  4. Stay Focused! The Effects of Internal and External Focus of Attention on Movement Automaticity in Patients with Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kal, E C; van der Kamp, J; Houdijk, H; Groet, E; van Bennekom, C A M; Scherder, E J A

    2015-01-01

    Dual-task performance is often impaired after stroke. This may be resolved by enhancing patients' automaticity of movement. This study sets out to test the constrained action hypothesis, which holds that automaticity of movement is enhanced by triggering an external focus (on movement effects), rather than an internal focus (on movement execution). Thirty-nine individuals with chronic, unilateral stroke performed a one-leg-stepping task with both legs in single- and dual-task conditions. Attentional focus was manipulated with instructions. Motor performance (movement speed), movement automaticity (fluency of movement), and dual-task performance (dual-task costs) were assessed. The effects of focus on movement speed, single- and dual-task movement fluency, and dual-task costs were analysed with generalized estimating equations. Results showed that, overall, single-task performance was unaffected by focus (p = .341). Regarding movement fluency, no main effects of focus were found in single- or dual-task conditions (p's ≥ .13). However, focus by leg interactions suggested that an external focus reduced movement fluency of the paretic leg compared to an internal focus (single-task conditions: p = .068; dual-task conditions: p = .084). An external focus also tended to result in inferior dual-task performance (β = -2.38, p = .065). Finally, a near-significant interaction (β = 2.36, p = .055) suggested that dual-task performance was more constrained by patients' attentional capacity in external focus conditions. We conclude that, compared to an internal focus, an external focus did not result in more automated movements in chronic stroke patients. Contrary to expectations, trends were found for enhanced automaticity with an internal focus. These findings might be due to patients' strong preference to use an internal focus in daily life. Future work needs to establish the more permanent effects of learning with different attentional foci on re-automating motor control

  5. More attention, less deficit:wearable eeg-based serious game for focus improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Alchalabi, Alaa Eddin; Eddin, Amer Nour; Shirmohammadi, Shervin

    2017-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Attention Deficit Disorders (ADD) are two of the most spread mental disorders characterized by the lack of attention and focus. One way to measure focus is through Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals that can be read using the new wireless EEG reading devices often used by Brain-computer Interface (BCI) researchers. In parallel, serious games have been recently providing opportunities for the rehabilitation of various cognitive and emotional ...

  6. Isomorphic Diffusionin Public Sector: Focus on China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng CHEN

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on widely ranged theoretical discus­sion of isomorphic diffusion, this article traces the process of isomorphism in the context of public service center diffusion in China and dis­covers relationships between isomorphism and distance within different time and space. With data for a sample of 238 prefecture level cities collected from China, the authors aim to explore the correlation between isomorphism diffusion and spatial distance. The results of the analysis suggest that local governments will be at a disadvantage if these are stated in a further location when isomorphic diffusion takes place. Moreover, the correlation between isomorphic diffusion and spatial dis­tance varies according to the different phases of the diffusion process. The effect of geographical distance is initially strong in the growth period, but weakens later. The results will build bridges on isomorphic and geographical distance within diverse time and space in China, and have impli­cations both theoretically and practically.

  7. Processing statistics: an examination of focused and distributed attention using event related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baijal, Shruti; Nakatani, Chie; van Leeuwen, Cees; Srinivasan, Narayanan

    2013-06-07

    Human observers show remarkable efficiency in statistical estimation; they are able, for instance, to estimate the mean size of visual objects, even if their number exceeds the capacity limits of focused attention. This ability has been understood as the result of a distinct mode of attention, i.e. distributed attention. Compared to the focused attention mode, working memory representations under distributed attention are proposed to be more compressed, leading to reduced working memory loads. An alternate proposal is that distributed attention uses less structured, feature-level representations. These would fill up working memory (WM) more, even when target set size is low. Using event-related potentials, we compared WM loading in a typical distributed attention task (mean size estimation) to that in a corresponding focused attention task (object recognition), using a measure called contralateral delay activity (CDA). Participants performed both tasks on 2, 4, or 8 different-sized target disks. In the recognition task, CDA amplitude increased with set size; notably, however, in the mean estimation task the CDA amplitude was high regardless of set size. In particular for set-size 2, the amplitude was higher in the mean estimation task than in the recognition task. The result showed that the task involves full WM loading even with a low target set size. This suggests that in the distributed attention mode, representations are not compressed, but rather less structured than under focused attention conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Focused attention, heart rate deceleration, and cognitive development in preterm and full-term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie Thomas, Julianne H; Whitfield, Michael F; Oberlander, Tim F; Synnes, Anne R; Grunau, Ruth E

    2012-05-01

    The majority of children who are born very preterm escape major impairment, yet more subtle cognitive and attention problems are very common in this population. Previous research has linked infant focused attention during exploratory play to later cognition in children born full-term and preterm. Infant focused attention can be indexed by sustained decreases in heart rate (HR). However there are no preterm studies that have jointly examined infant behavioral attention and concurrent HR response during exploratory play in relation to developing cognition. We recruited preterm infants free from neonatal conditions associated with major adverse outcomes, and further excluded infants with developmental delay (Bayley Mental Development Index [MDI attention and concurrent HR response were compared in 83 preterm infants (born 23-32 weeks gestational age [GA]) who escaped major impairment to 46 full-term infants. Focused attention and HR response were then examined in relation to Bayley MDI, after adjusting for neonatal risk. MDI did not differ by group, yet full-term infants displayed higher global focused attention ratings. Among the extremely preterm infants born attention episodes, accounted for 49% of adjusted variance in predicting concurrent MDI. There were no significant associations for later-born gestational age (29-32 weeks) or full-term infants. Among extremely preterm infants who escape major impairment, our findings suggest unique relationships between focused attention, HR deceleration, and developing cognition. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Force control tasks with pure haptic feedback promote short-term focused attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dangxiao; Zhang, Yuru; Yang, Xiaoxiao; Yang, Gaofeng; Yang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Focused attention has great impact on our quality of life. Our learning, social skills and even happiness are closely intertwined with our capacity for focused attention. Attention promotion is replete with examples of training-induced increases in attention capability, most of which rely on visual and auditory stimulation. Pure haptic stimulation to increase attention capability is rarely found. We show that accurate force control tasks with pure haptic feedback enhance short-term focused attention. Participants were trained by a force control task in which information from visual and auditory channels was blocked, and only haptic feedback was provided. The trainees were asked to exert a target force within a pre-defined force tolerance for a specific duration. The tolerance was adaptively modified to different levels of difficulty to elicit full participant engagement. Three attention tests showed significant changes in different aspects of focused attention in participants who had been trained as compared with those who had not, thereby illustrating the role of haptic-based sensory-motor tasks in the promotion of short-term focused attention. The findings highlight the potential value of haptic stimuli in brain plasticity and serve as a new tool to extend existing computer games for cognitive enhancement.

  10. Effects of prenatal exposure to opioids on focused attention in toddlers during free play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, J W; Hans, S L

    1996-08-01

    The goals of this study were: (1) to determine if 24-month-old children exposed to opioids show decreased focused attention during free play compared with children of the same age who were not prenatally exposed; (2) to identify medical and social risk factors other than drug exposure that are related to focused attention; and (3) to determine if mothers' teaching ability had an effect on attention. Focused attention was rated during a 3-minute free play session for 30 toddlers who were methadone-exposed and for 44 comparison toddlers. The mother teaching the child to use a toy was also rated separately from the free play session. There was no difference in focused attention of 24 month olds during free play based only on prenatal exposure. Despite group differences in medical and social risk factors, only maternal IQ was significantly related to focused attention. Maternal instruction was strongly related to focused attention and mediated the effects of maternal IQ on attention.

  11. Effects of external focus of attention on balance: a short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun Hee; Yi, Chae Woo; Shin, Ju Yong; Ryu, Young Uk

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] The present study reviewed studies that examined the effects of attentional focus on balance. [Methods] Keywords such as "attentional", "focus", and "balance" were used to find relevant research papers in PubMed (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed). Forty-five papers were found, and 18 of them were used for this study, excluding review papers and papers irrelevant to the topic of this study. [Results] Among the papers used for the review, the number of papers in which external focus produced effective outcomes was 15 (83.3%). The number of papers in which both external and internal focus produced effective outcomes was 2 (11.1%). The number of paper in which no instruction about attentional focus was effective was 1 (5.5%), and the number of papers in which internal focus was effective was zero. [Conclusion] This short review suggests clinical implications about how physical therapists can use attentional focus for balance rehabilitation of patients. Instructions about external focus of attention can generally be useful as a method to improve posture and balance control. Furthermore, the present reviews indicates that external focus of attention would be more useful in a rehabilitation stage in which the difficulty level of balance performance is gradually increased.

  12. Behavioral decoding of working memory items inside and outside the focus of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallett, Remington; Lewis-Peacock, Jarrod A

    2018-03-31

    How we attend to our thoughts affects how we attend to our environment. Holding information in working memory can automatically bias visual attention toward matching information. By observing attentional biases on reaction times to visual search during a memory delay, it is possible to reconstruct the source of that bias using machine learning techniques and thereby behaviorally decode the content of working memory. Can this be done when more than one item is held in working memory? There is some evidence that multiple items can simultaneously bias attention, but the effects have been inconsistent. One explanation may be that items are stored in different states depending on the current task demands. Recent models propose functionally distinct states of representation for items inside versus outside the focus of attention. Here, we use behavioral decoding to evaluate whether multiple memory items-including temporarily irrelevant items outside the focus of attention-exert biases on visual attention. Only the single item in the focus of attention was decodable. The other item showed a brief attentional bias that dissipated until it returned to the focus of attention. These results support the idea of dynamic, flexible states of working memory across time and priority. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  13. Location versus task relevance: The impact of differing internal focus of attention instructions on motor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelleck, Valerie; Passmore, Steven R

    2017-05-01

    Impaired performance while executing a motor task is attributed to a disruption of normal automatic processes when an internal focus of attention is used. What remains unclear is whether the specificity of internally focused task instructions may impact task performance. The present study assessed the implications of changing the attentional focus of novice and skilled golfers by measuring behavioural, neurophysiological and kinematic changes during a golf putting task. Over six blocks of ten putting trials each, attention was directed either externally (towards the target) or internally in one of two ways: 1) proximal (keeping the elbows extended and the hands gripping the putter); or 2) distal (keeping the weight evenly distributed between both legs) to the critical elements of the task. Results provided evidence that when novice participants use an internal focus of attention more closely associated with task performance that their: 1) execution; 2) accuracy; 3) variability of surface electromyography (sEMG) activity; and 4) kinematics of the putter movement are all adversely affected. Skilled golfers are much more resilient to changes in attentional focus, while all participants interpret a distal internal focus of attention similar to an external focus. All participants produced decreased activity in the muscle (tibialis anterior) associated with the distal (less task relevant) focus of attention even when the "internal" focus was on the lower extremity. Our results provide evidence that the skill level of the participant and the distance of the internal focus of attention from the key elements of a motor skill directly impact the execution, muscle activity, and movement kinematics associated with skilled motor task performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of Attentional Focus and Age on Suprapostural Task Performance and Postural Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNevin, Nancy; Weir, Patricia; Quinn, Tiffany

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Suprapostural task performance (manual tracking) and postural control (sway and frequency) were examined as a function of attentional focus, age, and tracking difficulty. Given the performance benefits often found under external focus conditions, it was hypothesized that external focus instructions would promote superior tracking and…

  15. The flexible focus: whether spatial attention is unitary or divided depends on observer goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Lisa N; Enns, James T; Di Lollo, Vincent

    2014-04-01

    The distribution of visual attention has been the topic of much investigation, and various theories have posited that attention is allocated either as a single unitary focus or as multiple independent foci. In the present experiment, we demonstrate that attention can be flexibly deployed as either a unitary or a divided focus in the same experimental task, depending on the observer's goals. To assess the distribution of attention, we used a dual-stream Attentional Blink (AB) paradigm and 2 target pairs. One component of the AB, Lag-1 sparing, occurs only if the second target pair appears within the focus of attention. By varying whether the first-target-pair could be expected in a predictable location (always in-stream) or not (unpredictably in-stream or between-streams), observers were encouraged to deploy a divided or a unitary focus, respectively. When the second-target-pair appeared between the streams, Lag-1 sparing occurred for the Unpredictable group (consistent with a unitary focus) but not for the Predictable group (consistent with a divided focus). Thus, diametrically different outcomes occurred for physically identical displays, depending on the expectations of the observer about where spatial attention would be required.

  16. More attentional focusing through binaural beats: evidence from the global-local task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colzato, Lorenza S; Barone, Hayley; Sellaro, Roberta; Hommel, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    A recent study showed that binaural beats have an impact on the efficiency of allocating attention over time. We were interested to see whether this impact affects attentional focusing or, even further, the top-down control over irrelevant information. Healthy adults listened to gamma-frequency (40 Hz) binaural beats, which are assumed to increase attentional concentration, or a constant tone of 340 Hz (control condition) for 3 min before and during a global-local task. While the size of the congruency effect (indicating the failure to suppress task-irrelevant information) was unaffected by the binaural beats, the global-precedence effect (reflecting attentional focusing) was considerably smaller after gamma-frequency binaural beats than after the control condition. Our findings suggest that high-frequency binaural beats bias the individual attentional processing style towards a reduced spotlight of attention.

  17. Focused and Sustained Attention Is Modified by a Goal-Based Rehabilitation in Parkinsonian Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrazzoli, Davide; Ortelli, Paola; Maestri, Roberto; Bera, Rossana; Gargantini, Roberto; Palamara, Grazia; Zarucchi, Marianna; Giladi, Nir; Frazzitta, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Rehabilitation for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) is based on cognitive strategies that exploit attention. Parkinsonians exhibit impairments in divided attention and interference control. Nevertheless, the effectiveness of specific rehabilitation treatments based on attention suggests that other attentional functions are preserved. Data about attention are conflicting in PD, and it is not clear whether rehabilitative treatments that entail attentional strategies affect attention itself. Reaction times (RTs) represent an instrument to explore attention and investigate whether changes in attentional performances parallel rehabilitation induced-gains. RTs of 103 parkinsonian patients in "on" state, without cognitive deficits, were compared with those of a population of 34 healthy controls. We studied those attentional networks that subtend the use of cognitive strategies in motor rehabilitation: alertness and focused and sustained attention, which is a component of the executive system. We used visual and auditory RTs to evaluate alertness and multiple choices RTs (MC RTs) to explore focused and sustained attention. Parkinsonian patients underwent these tasks before and after a 4-week multidisciplinary, intensive and goal-based rehabilitation treatment (MIRT). Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) III and Timed Up and Go test (TUG) were assessed at the enrollment and at the end of MIRT to evaluate the motor-functional effectiveness of treatment. We did not find differences in RTs between parkinsonian patients and controls. Further, we found that improvements in motor-functional outcome measures after MIRT ( p attention, are preserved in "on" state. This explains why Parkinsonians benefit from a goal-based rehabilitation that entails the use of attention. The reduction in MC RTs suggests a positive effect of MIRT on the executive component of attention and indicates that this type of rehabilitation provides benefits by exploiting executive functions

  18. Involuntary transfer of a top-down attentional set into the focus of attention: evidence from a contingent attentional capture paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Katherine Sledge; Weissman, Daniel H

    2010-08-01

    In the present study, we investigated whether involuntarily directing attention to a target-colored distractor causes the corresponding attentional set to enter a limited-capacity focus of attention, thereby facilitating the identification of a subsequent target whose color matches the same attentional set. As predicted, in Experiment 1, contingent attentional capture effects from a target-colored distractor were only one half to one third as large when subsequent target identification relied on the same (vs. a different) attentional set. In Experiment 2, this effect was eliminated when all of the target colors matched the same attentional set, arguing against bottom-up perceptual priming of the distractor's color as an alternative account of our findings. In Experiment 3, this effect was reversed when a target-colored distractor appeared after the target, ruling out a feature-based interference account of our findings. We conclude that capacity limitations in working memory strongly influence contingent attentional capture when multiple attentional sets guide selection.

  19. An external focus of attention enhances motor learning in children with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiviacowsky, S; Wulf, G; Avila, L T G

    2013-07-01

    The present study examined whether the learning benefits of an external focus of attention (i.e., on the movement effect) relative to an internal focus (i.e. on the movement), found previously in non-disabled children and adults would also be found in children with intellectual disabilities (IDs). Participants (n = 24; average age: 12.2 years) with mild intellectual deficiency (IQ = 51-69) practiced throwing beanbags at a target. In the external focus group, participants were instructed to direct their attention to the movement of the beanbag, while in the internal focus group, participants were asked to direct their attention to the movement of their hand. The practice phase consisted of 40 trials, and attentional focus reminders were given after every third trial. Learning was assessed 1 day later by retention and transfer (greater target distance) tests, each consisting of 10 trials. No focus reminders were given on that day. The external focus group demonstrated more effective learning than the internal focus group, as evidenced by more accurate tosses on the transfer test. The present findings show that instructions that induce an external focus of attention can enhance motor learning in children with IDs. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSID.

  20. Neural evidence for a distinction between short-term memory and the focus of attention

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis-Peacock, Jarrod A; Drysdale, Andrew T; Oberauer, Klaus; Postle, Bradley R

    2012-01-01

    It is widely assumed that the short-term retention of information is accomplished via maintenance of an active neural trace. However, we demonstrate that memory can be preserved across a brief delay despite the apparent loss of sustained representations. Delay-period activity may in fact reflect the focus of attention, rather than short-term memory. We unconfounded attention and memory by causing external and internal shifts of attention away from items that were being actively retained. Mult...

  1. More attentional focusing through binaural beats: Evidence from the global-local task

    OpenAIRE

    Colzato, L.S.; Barone, H.; Sellaro, R.; Hommel, B.

    2017-01-01

    A recent study showed that binaural beats have an impact on the efficiency of allocating attention over time. We were interested to see whether this impact affects attentional focusing or, even further, the top-down control over irrelevant information. Healthy adults listened to gamma-frequency (40?Hz) binaural beats, which are assumed to increase attentional concentration, or a constant tone of 340?Hz (control condition) for 3?min before and during a global?local task. While the size of the ...

  2. Multiperson visual focus of attention from head pose and meeting contextual cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Sileye O; Odobez, Jean-Marc

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel contextual model for the recognition of people's visual focus of attention (VFOA) in meetings from audio-visual perceptual cues. More specifically, instead of independently recognizing the VFOA of each meeting participant from his own head pose, we propose to jointly recognize the participants' visual attention in order to introduce context-dependent interaction models that relate to group activity and the social dynamics of communication. Meeting contextual information is represented by the location of people, conversational events identifying floor holding patterns, and a presentation activity variable. By modeling the interactions between the different contexts and their combined and sometimes contradictory impact on the gazing behavior, our model allows us to handle VFOA recognition in difficult task-based meetings involving artifacts, presentations, and moving people. We validated our model through rigorous evaluation on a publicly available and challenging data set of 12 real meetings (5 hours of data). The results demonstrated that the integration of the presentation and conversation dynamical context using our model can lead to significant performance improvements.

  3. The Focus of Attention is similar to other memory systems rather than uniquely different

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia eBeaudry

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available According to some current theories, the Focus of Attention, part of working memory, represents items in a privileged state that is more accessible than items stored in other memory systems. One line of evidence supporting the distinction between the focus of attention and other memory systems is the finding that items in the focus of attention are immune to proactive interference (when something learned earlier impairs the ability to remember something learned more recently. The focus of attention, then, is held to be unique: it is the only memory system that is not susceptible to proactive interference. We review the literature used to support this claim, and although there are many studies in which proactive interference was not observed, we found more studies in which it was observed. We conclude that the focus of attention is not immune to proactive interference: items in the focus of attention are susceptible to proactive interference just like items in every other memory system. And, just as in all other memory systems, it is how the items are represented and processed that plays a critical role in determining whether proactive interference will be observed.

  4. The effects of state and trait self-focused attention on sexual arousal in sexually functional and dysfunctional women

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    Meston, Cindy M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of state self-focused attention on sexual arousal and trait self-consciousness on sexual arousal and function in sexually functional (n = 16) and dysfunctional (n = 16) women. Self-focused attention was induced using a 50% reflectant television screen in one of two counterbalanced sessions during which self-report and physiological sexual responses to erotic films were measured. Self-focused attention significantly decreased vaginal pulse amplitude (VPA) responses among sexually functional but not dysfunctional women, and substantially decreased correlations between self-report and VPA measures of sexual arousal. Self-focused attention did not significantly impact subjective sexual arousal in sexually functional or dysfunctional women. Trait private self-consciousness was positively related to sexual desire, orgasm, compatibility, contentment and sexual satisfaction. Public self-consciousness was correlated with sexual pain. The findings are discussed in terms of Masters and Johnson’s [Masters, W. H. & Johnson, V. E. (1970). Human sexual inadequacy. Boston: Little, Brown) concepts of “spectatoring” and “sensate focus.” PMID:15927143

  5. Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Patrick M; Terry, Alvin V

    2015-01-01

    The ability to focus one's attention on important environmental stimuli while ignoring irrelevant stimuli is fundamental to human cognition and intellectual function. Attention is inextricably linked to perception, learning and memory, and executive function; however, it is often impaired in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, depression, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Accordingly, attention is considered as an important therapeutic target in these disorders. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of the most common behavioral paradigms of attention that have been used in animals (particularly rodents) and to review the literature where these tasks have been employed to elucidate neurobiological substrates of attention as well as to evaluate novel pharmacological agents for their potential as treatments for disorders of attention. These paradigms include two tasks of sustained attention that were developed as rodent analogues of the human Continuous Performance Task (CPT), the Five-Choice Serial Reaction Time Task (5-CSRTT) and the more recently introduced Five-Choice Continuous Performance Task (5C-CPT), and the Signal Detection Task (SDT) which was designed to emphasize temporal components of attention.

  6. Underpricing, underperformance and overreaction in initial public offerings: Evidence from investor attention using online searches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakrman, Tomas; Kristoufek, Ladislav

    2015-01-01

    Online activity of Internet users has proven very useful in modeling various phenomena across a wide range of scientific disciplines. In our study, we focus on two stylized facts or puzzles surrounding the initial public offerings (IPOs) - the underpricing and the long-term underperformance. Using the Internet searches on Google, we proxy the investor attention before and during the day of the offering to show that the high attention IPOs have different characteristics than the low attention ones. After controlling for various effects, we show that investor attention still remains a strong component of the high initial returns (the underpricing), primarily for the high sentiment periods. Moreover, we demonstrate that the investor attention partially explains the overoptimistic market reaction and thus also a part of the long-term underperformance.

  7. The effect of internal and external focus of attention on game performance in tennis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Tsetseli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Great importance has been given in recent years to the impact of focus of attention cues during skills execution but not during real game play, where more cognitive skills are involved besides technical performance. Objective: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of internal and external focus of attention instructions on the components of the game performance (decision making, skill execution, base in tennis. Methods: The participants (N = 60 were divided into three groups and followed an intervention training program that lasted 6 weeks; IF group (n = 20 under internal focus of attention instructions, EF group (n = 20 under external focus of attention instructions and CON group (n = 20 under no attentional focus instructions. Three measurements took place (pre, post and ret in which the participants were recorded on video while playing matches in real scoring conditions. Game Performance Assessment Instrument (GPAI was used to evaluate the components of game performance in tennis in three game situations; service, return of the service, base line game. Results: ANOVA repeated measures in a 3 (groups: IF, EF & CON × 3 (measurements: pre, post, ret revealed a significant interaction between groups and measurements and post hoc analysis indicated that the group that was instructed to focus externally improved significantly only in decision making compared to the internal focus of attention and to the control group. The score difference was maintained at the retention test as well, which indicates that the impact concerned not only performance but also learning. Conclusions: Instructions that aim to an external focus of attention enhance decision making skills, which are considered the most important element of game performance in tennis.

  8. Influence of focus of attention, reinvestment and fall history on elderly gait stability.

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    de Melker Worms, Jonathan L A; Stins, John F; van Wegen, Erwin E H; Loram, Ian D; Beek, Peter J

    2017-01-01

    Falls represent a substantial risk in the elderly. Previous studies have found that a focus on the outcome or effect of the movement (external focus of attention) leads to improved balance performance, whereas a focus on the movement execution itself (internal focus of attention) impairs balance performance in elderly. A shift toward more conscious, explicit forms of motor control occurs when existing declarative knowledge is recruited in motor control, a phenomenon called reinvestment. We investigated the effects of attentional focus and reinvestment on gait stability in elderly fallers and nonfallers. Full body kinematics was collected from twenty-eight healthy older adults walking on a treadmill, while focus of attention was manipulated through instruction. Participants also filled out the Movement Specific Reinvestment Scale (MSRS) and the Falls Efficacy Scale International (FES-I), and provided details about their fall history. Coefficients of Variation (CV) of spatiotemporal gait parameters and Local Divergence Exponents (LDE) were calculated as measures of gait variability and gait stability, respectively. Larger stance time CV and LDE (decreased gait stability) were found for fallers compared to nonfallers. No significant effect of attentional focus was found for the gait parameters, and no significant relation between MSRS score (reinvestment) and fall history was found. We conclude that external attention to the walking surface does not lead to improved gait stability in elderly. Potential benefits of an external focus of attention might not apply to gait, because walking movements are not geared toward achieving a distinct environmental effect. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  9. Object Selection Costs in Visual Working Memory: A Diffusion Model Analysis of the Focus of Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, David K.; Lilburn, Simon D.; Smith, Philip L.

    2016-01-01

    A central question in working memory research concerns the degree to which information in working memory is accessible to other cognitive processes (e.g., decision-making). Theories assuming that the focus of attention can only store a single object at a time require the focus to orient to a target representation before further processing can…

  10. Effects of Focus of Attention on Tone Production in Trained Singers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Rebecca L.

    2017-01-01

    Motor performance in familiar tasks is often advantaged when performers focus on the effects of their movements rather than on the movements themselves. But, this phenomenon has yet to be studied systematically in the context of vocal production. I evaluated 20 trained singers' vocal tone as they varied their focus of attention. Each participant…

  11. Focus of Attention in Children's Motor Learning: Examining the Role of Age and Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocken, J E A; Kal, E C; van der Kamp, J

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated the relative effectiveness of different attentional focus instructions on motor learning in primary school children. In addition, we explored whether the effect of attentional focus on motor learning was influenced by children's age and verbal working memory capacity. Novice 8-9-year old children (n = 30) and 11-12-year-old children (n = 30) practiced a golf putting task. For each age group, half the participants received instructions to focus (internally) on the swing of their arm, while the other half was instructed to focus (externally) on the swing of the club. Children's verbal working memory capacity was assessed with the Automated Working Memory Assessment. Consistent with many reports on adult's motor learning, children in the external groups demonstrated greater improvements in putting accuracy than children who practiced with an internal focus. This effect was similar across age groups. Verbal working memory capacity was not found to be predictive of motor learning, neither for children in the internal focus groups nor for children in the external focus groups. In conclusion, primary school children's motor learning is enhanced by external focus instructions compared to internal focus instructions. The purported modulatory roles of children's working memory, attentional capacity, or focus preferences require further investigation.

  12. Effect of Music Tempo on Attentional Focus and Perceived Exertion during Self-selected Paced Walking

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    SILVA, ALDO COELHO; DOS SANTOS FERREIRA, SANDRO; ALVES, RAGAMI CHAVES; FOLLADOR, LUCIO; DA SILVA, SERGIO GREGORIO

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of music on the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and attentional focus during walking at a self-selected pace. Fifteen overweight and obese women volunteered to participate in the study. They underwent four sessions: the first for incremental maximal test and anthropometric measurement followed by three experimental sessions. After the first session, they were exposed to three 30-minute walking sessions at a self-selected pace in a counterbalanced order: fast-tempo music (FT), medium-tempo music (MT) and no-music control (NM). Borg’s RPE Scale and an Attentional Focus Questionnaire were used to measure the perceptual response and attentional focus, respectively. Results showed that the RPE was higher in the no-music control than in the medium-tempo music (12.05 ± 0.6 vs. 10.5 ± 0.5). Furthermore, dissociative attentional focus was greater for both conditions with music in comparison with the no-music control (NM= 39.0 ± 4.1; MT= 48.4 ± 4.1 and FT= 47.9 ± 4.5). The results indicated that the use of music during walking can modulate attentional focus, increasing dissociative thought, and medium-tempo music can reduce the RPE. PMID:27990220

  13. Effect of Music Tempo on Attentional Focus and Perceived Exertion during Self-selected Paced Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Aldo Coelho; Dos Santos Ferreira, Sandro; Alves, Ragami Chaves; Follador, Lucio; DA Silva, Sergio Gregorio

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of music on the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and attentional focus during walking at a self-selected pace. Fifteen overweight and obese women volunteered to participate in the study. They underwent four sessions: the first for incremental maximal test and anthropometric measurement followed by three experimental sessions. After the first session, they were exposed to three 30-minute walking sessions at a self-selected pace in a counterbalanced order: fast-tempo music (FT), medium-tempo music (MT) and no-music control (NM). Borg's RPE Scale and an Attentional Focus Questionnaire were used to measure the perceptual response and attentional focus, respectively. Results showed that the RPE was higher in the no-music control than in the medium-tempo music (12.05 ± 0.6 vs. 10.5 ± 0.5). Furthermore, dissociative attentional focus was greater for both conditions with music in comparison with the no-music control (NM= 39.0 ± 4.1; MT= 48.4 ± 4.1 and FT= 47.9 ± 4.5). The results indicated that the use of music during walking can modulate attentional focus, increasing dissociative thought, and medium-tempo music can reduce the RPE.

  14. An external focus of attention enhances balance learning in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Wulf, Gabriele; Wally, Raquel

    2010-10-01

    Studies with young adults have shown that an external focus of attention (i.e., on the movement effect) results in more effective motor learning and greater automaticity than an internal focus (i.e., on one's own body movements). The present study examined whether instructions inducing an external versus internal attentional focus would differentially affect the learning of a balance task in 32 older adults (24 females and 8 males, mean age: 69.4 years), divided equally, by number and gender, into two groups. The task required participants to stand on a balance platform (stabilometer) tilting to the left and right, and to try to keep the platform as close to horizontal as possible during each 30-s trial. The external focus group was instructed to concentrate on keeping markers on the platform horizontal, while the internal focus group was instructed to concentrate on keeping their feet horizontal. The dependent variable was time in balance (i.e., platform movements within ± 5°). Participants performed 10 practice trials on day 1, with focus reminders given before each trial. Learning was assessed by a retention test, consisting of five trials without instructions, performed 1 day later. The external focus group outperformed the internal focus group in retention [F(4, 120)=3.46, p=.01]. The results demonstrate that the learning benefits of an external attentional focus are generalizable to older learners. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Observers' focus of attention in the simulation of self-perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, D M; Finstuen, K

    1977-01-01

    This research was designed to assess the effects of a manipulation of observers' focus of attention--from a focus on the actor to a focus on the actor's situation--upon observers' attributions of attitude to an actor in a simulation of a forced-compliance cognitive dissonance experiment. Observers induced through empathy instructions to focus attention on the actor's situation inferred less actor attitude positivity than did observers given no specific observational set. In addition, situation-focused observers inferred that the actor's attitude was directly related to reward magnitude, whereas actor-focused observers inferred that the actor's attitude was inversely related to reward magnitude. An extension of self-perception theory, offered as an interpretation of these and other results, suggested that motivation attribution made by actors and observers in dissonance and simulation studies are dependent on focus of attention. The attributions made by actor-focused observers simulate those of objectively self-aware actors and are based upon perceived intrinsic motivation; the attributions of situation-focused observers simulate those of subjectively self-aware actors and are based upon perceived extrinsic motivation.

  16. The influence of cueing on attentional focus in perceptual decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng-Ta; Little, Daniel R; Hsu, Ching-Chun

    2014-11-01

    Selective attention has been known to play an important role in decision making. In the present study, we combined a cueing paradigm with a redundant-target detection task to examine how attention affects the decision process when detecting the redundant targets. Cue validity was manipulated in two experiments. The results showed that when the cue was 50 % valid in one experiment, the participants adopted a parallel self-terminating processing strategy, indicative of a diffuse attentional focus on both target locations. When the cue was 100 % valid in the second experiment, all of the participants switched to a serial self-terminating processing strategy, which in our study indicated focused attention to a single target location. This study demonstrates the flexibility of the decision mechanism and highlights the importance of top-down control in selecting a decision strategy.

  17. The focus of attention in working memory – from metaphors to mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus eOberauer

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many verbal theories describe working memory in terms of physical metaphors such as information flow or information containers. These metaphors are often useful but can also be misleading. This article contrasts the verbal version of the author’s three-embedded-component theory with a computational implementation of the theory. The analysis focuses on phenomena that have been attributed to the focus of attention in working memory. The verbal theory characterizes the focus of attention by a container metaphor, which gives rise to questions such as: How many items fit into the focus? The computational model explains the same phenomena mechanistically through a combination of strengthened bindings between items and their retrieval cues, and priming of these cues. The author applies the computational model to three findings that have been used to argue about how many items can be held in the focus of attention (Gilchrist & Cowan, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2011; Oberauer & Bialkova, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 2009; Oberauer & Bialkova, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 2011. The modeling results imply a new interpretation of those findings: The different patterns of results across those studies don’t imply different capacity estimates for the focus of attention; they rather reflect to what extent retrieval from working memory is parallel or serial.

  18. Object selection costs in visual working memory: A diffusion model analysis of the focus of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, David K; Lilburn, Simon D; Smith, Philip L

    2016-11-01

    A central question in working memory research concerns the degree to which information in working memory is accessible to other cognitive processes (e.g., decision-making). Theories assuming that the focus of attention can only store a single object at a time require the focus to orient to a target representation before further processing can occur. The need to orient the focus of attention implies that single-object accounts typically predict response time costs associated with object selection even when working memory is not full (i.e., memory load is less than 4 items). For other theories that assume storage of multiple items in the focus of attention, predictions depend on specific assumptions about the way resources are allocated among items held in the focus, and how this affects the time course of retrieval of items from the focus. These broad theoretical accounts have been difficult to distinguish because conventional analyses fail to separate components of empirical response times related to decision-making from components related to selection and retrieval processes associated with accessing information in working memory. To better distinguish these response time components from one another, we analyze data from a probed visual working memory task using extensions of the diffusion decision model. Analysis of model parameters revealed that increases in memory load resulted in (a) reductions in the quality of the underlying stimulus representations in a manner consistent with a sample size model of visual working memory capacity and (b) systematic increases in the time needed to selectively access a probed representation in memory. The results are consistent with single-object theories of the focus of attention. The results are also consistent with a subset of theories that assume a multiobject focus of attention in which resource allocation diminishes both the quality and accessibility of the underlying representations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016

  19. Feature bindings are maintained in visual short-term memory without sustained focused attention.

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    Delvenne, Jean-François; Cleeremans, Axel; Laloyaux, Cédric

    2010-01-01

    Does the maintenance of feature bindings in visual short-term memory (VSTM) require sustained focused attention? This issue was investigated in three experiments, in which memory for single features (i.e., colors or shapes) was compared with memory for feature bindings (i.e., the link between the color and shape of an object). Attention was manipulated during the memory retention interval with a retro-cue, which allows attention to be directed and focused on a subset of memory items. The retro-cue was presented 700 ms after the offset of the memory display and 700 ms before the onset of the test display. If the maintenance of feature bindings - but not of individual features - in memory requires sustained focused attention, the retro-cue should not affect memory performance. Contrary to this prediction, we found that both memory for feature bindings and memory for individual features were equally improved by the retro-cue. Therefore, this finding does not support the view that the sustained focused attention is needed to properly maintain feature bindings in VSTM.

  20. Attentional Focus in Motor Learning, the Feldenkrais Method, and Mindful Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattes, Josef

    2016-08-01

    The present paper discusses attentional focus in motor learning and performance from the point of view of mindful movement practices, taking as a starting point the Feldenkrais method. It is argued that earlier criticism of the Feldenkrais method (and thereby implicitly of mindful movement practices more generally) because of allegedly inappropriate attentional focus turns out to be unfounded in light of recent developments in the study of motor learning and performance. Conversely, the examples of the Feldenkrais method and Ki-Aikido are used to illustrate how both Western and Eastern (martial arts derived) mindful movement practices might benefit sports psychology. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Bottom-up influences of voice continuity in focusing selective auditory attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressler, Scott; Masud, Salwa; Bharadwaj, Hari; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Selective auditory attention causes a relative enhancement of the neural representation of important information and suppression of the neural representation of distracting sound, which enables a listener to analyze and interpret information of interest. Some studies suggest that in both vision and in audition, the "unit" on which attention operates is an object: an estimate of the information coming from a particular external source out in the world. In this view, which object ends up in the attentional foreground depends on the interplay of top-down, volitional attention and stimulus-driven, involuntary attention. Here, we test the idea that auditory attention is object based by exploring whether continuity of a non-spatial feature (talker identity, a feature that helps acoustic elements bind into one perceptual object) also influences selective attention performance. In Experiment 1, we show that perceptual continuity of target talker voice helps listeners report a sequence of spoken target digits embedded in competing reversed digits spoken by different talkers. In Experiment 2, we provide evidence that this benefit of voice continuity is obligatory and automatic, as if voice continuity biases listeners by making it easier to focus on a subsequent target digit when it is perceptually linked to what was already in the attentional foreground. Our results support the idea that feature continuity enhances streaming automatically, thereby influencing the dynamic processes that allow listeners to successfully attend to objects through time in the cacophony that assails our ears in many everyday settings.

  2. Efficacy of a family-focused intervention for young drivers with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiano, Gregory A.; Schatz, Nicole K.; Morris, Karen L.; Willoughby, Michael T.; Vujnovic, Rebecca K.; Hulme, Kevin F.; Riordan, Jessica; Howard, Marlana; Hennessy, Dwight; Lewis, Kemper; Hawk, Larry; Wylie, Amanda; Pelham, William E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Teenage drivers diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at significant risk for negative driving outcomes related to morbidity and mortality. However, there are few viable psychosocial treatments for teens with ADHD and none focus on the key functional area of driving. The Supporting the Effective Entry to the Roadway (STEER) program was evaluated in a clinical trial to determine whether it improved family functioning as a proximal outcome and driving behavior as a distal outcome. Method One hundred seventy-two teenagers with ADHD, combined type, were randomly assigned to STEER or a driver education driver practice program (DEDP). Results Relative to parents in the DEDP condition, parents in STEER were observed to be less negative at post-treatment and 6-month follow-up, but not at 12-month follow-up and there were no significant differences for observed positive parenting. Relative to teens in the DEDP condition, teens in STEER reported lower levels of risky driving behaviors at post-treatment and six-month follow-up, but not at 12-month follow-up. They were not observed to differ on objective observations of risky driving or citations/accidents. Conclusions The STEER program for novice drivers with ADHD was effective in reducing observations of negative parenting behavior and teen self reports of risky driving relative to DEDP; groups did not significantly differ on observations of positive parenting or driving behaviors. Public Health Significance Statement Families with a teenager with ADHD may benefit from engaging in behavioral parent training around the transition to independent driving, especially via reductions in negative parenting. Teenagers with ADHD self-reported fewer risky driving behaviors within the family-focused intervention, but these findings were not replicated on objective observations of driving. PMID:27618640

  3. Examining the Relative Contribution of Memory Updating, Attention Focus Switching, and Sustained Attention to Children’s Verbal Working Memory Span

    OpenAIRE

    Beula M. Magimairaj; James W. Montgomery

    2013-01-01

    Whereas considerable developmental memory research has examined the contributions of short-term memory, processing efficiency, retention duration, and scope of attention to complex memory span, little is known about the influence of controlled attention. The present study investigated the relative influence of three understudied attention mechanisms on the verbal working memory span of school-age children: memory updating; attention focus switching; and sustained attention. Results of general...

  4. Effect of Bench Press Load Knowledge on Repetitions, Rating of Perceived Exertion, and Attentional Focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, Christina M; Cox, Zachary; Dundore, Tyler; Thomas, Tayler; Kim, Johnathon; Pillivant, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    Beaudoin, CM, Cox, Z, Dundore, T, Thomas, T, Kim, J, and Pillivant, D. Effect of bench press load knowledge on repetitions, rating of perceived exertion, and attentional focus. J Strength Cond Res 32(2): 514-519, 2018-Few studies have examined the role of the teleoanticipation during resistance training. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of bench press (BP) load knowledge on repetitions completed, ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs), and attentional focus (% associative). Thirty-six recreationally active resistance-trained men (n = 25) and women (n = 11) participated in this study (age = 20.97 ± 1.87 years; ht = 174.12 ± 9.41 cm; and mass = 80.14 ± 14.03 kg). All subjects completed 3 testing sessions: (a) 1 repetition maximum (1RM) BP determination; (b) submaximal BP repetitions to fatigue known load (KL); and (c) submaximal BP repetitions to fatigue unknown load (UL). Known load and UL sessions were randomized and counterbalanced and both completed at 70% 1RM. An estimated weight ratio was computed using the subject's estimate of the UL weight relative to the KL weight. An independent samples t-test revealed no significant testing order difference for the estimated weight ratio. Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variances revealed no significant differences in the number of repetitions (p = 0.63), RPE (p = 0.18), or attentional focus (% associative) (p = 0.93) between the KL and UL conditions. Pearson correlations found a moderate positive association between KL repetitions completed and % associative focus when the UL was completed before the KL. Load knowledge did not influence the number of repetitions, RPE, or attentional focus while completing the BP. Further research examining the use of pacing strategies, RPE, and attentional focus during KL and UL conditions are warranted.

  5. Salience in Second Language Acquisition:Physical form, learner attention, and instructional focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna C Cintrón-Valentín

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We consider the role of physical form, prior experience, and form focused instruction (FFI in adult language learning. (1 When presented with competing cues to interpretation, learners are more likely to attend to physically more salient cues in the input. (2 Learned attention is an associative learning phenomenon where prior-learned cues block those that are experienced later. (3 The low salience of morphosyntactic cues can be overcome by FFI, which leads learners to attend cues which might otherwise be ignored. Experiment 1 used eye-tracking to investigate how language background influences learners’ attention to morphological cues, as well as the attentional processes whereby different types of FFI overcome low cue salience, learned attention and blocking. Chinese native speakers (no L1 verb-tense morphology viewed Latin utterances combining lexical and morphological cues to temporality under control conditions (CC and three types of explicit FFI: grammar instruction (VG, verb salience with textual enhancement (VS, and verb pretraining (VP, and their use of these cues was assessed in a comprehension test. CC participants were significantly more sensitive to the adverbs than verb morphology. Instructed participants showed greater sensitivity to the verbs. These results reveal attentional processes whereby learners’ prior linguistic experience can shape their attention toward cues in the input, and whereby FFI helps learners overcome the long-term blocking of verb-tense morphology. Experiment 2 examined the role of modality of input presentation – aural or visual – in L1 English learners’ attentional focus on morphological cues and the effectiveness of different FFI manipulations. CC participants showed greater sensitivity toward the adverb cue. FFI was effective in increasing attention to verb-tense morphology, however, the processing of morphological cues was considerably more difficult under aural presentation. From visual exposure

  6. Decreasing internal focus of attention improves postural control during quiet standing in young healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafati, Gilel; Vuillerme, Nicolas

    2011-12-01

    This experiment was designed to investigate whether and how decreasing the amount of attentional focus invested in postural control could affect bipedal postural control. Twelve participants were asked to stand upright as immobile as possible on a force platform in one control condition and one cognitive condition. In the latter condition, they performed a short-term digit-span memory task. Decreased center-of-gravity displacements and decreased center-of-foot-pressure displacements minus center-of-gravity displacements were observed in the cognitive condition relative to the control condition. These results suggest that shifting the attentional focus away from postural control by executing a concurrent attention-demanding task could increase postural performance and postural efficiency.

  7. Age-dependent impairment of auditory processing under spatially focused and divided attention: an electrophysiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild-Wall, Nele; Falkenstein, Michael

    2010-01-01

    By using event-related potentials (ERPs) the present study examines if age-related differences in preparation and processing especially emerge during divided attention. Binaurally presented auditory cues called for focused (valid and invalid) or divided attention to one or both ears. Responses were required to subsequent monaurally presented valid targets (vowels), but had to be suppressed to non-target vowels or invalidly cued vowels. Middle-aged participants were more impaired under divided attention than young ones, likely due to an age-related decline in preparatory attention following cues as was reflected in a decreased CNV. Under divided attention, target processing was increased in the middle-aged, likely reflecting compensatory effort to fulfill task requirements in the difficult condition. Additionally, middle-aged participants processed invalidly cued stimuli more intensely as was reflected by stimulus ERPs. The results suggest an age-related impairment in attentional preparation after auditory cues especially under divided attention and latent difficulties to suppress irrelevant information.

  8. Adrenocorticotropin widens the focus of attention in humans. A nonliner electroencephalographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mölle, M; Albrecht, C; Marshall, L; Fehm, H L; Born, J

    1997-01-01

    This study examined the effects of ACTH 4-10, a fragment of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) with known central nervous system (CNS) activity, on the dimensional complexity of the ongoing electroencephalographic (EEG) activity. Stressful stimuli cause ACTH to be released from the pituitary, and as a neuropeptide ACTH may concurrently exert adaptive influences on the brain's processing of these stimuli. Previous studies have indicated an impairing influence of ACTH on selective attention. Dimensional complexity of the EEG, which indexes the brain's way of stimulus processing, was evaluated while subjects performed tasks with different attention demands. Sixteen healthy men (23 to 33 years) were tested once after placebo and another time after administration of ACTH 4-10 (1.25 mg intravenously (i.v.), 30 minutes before testing). The EEG was recorded while subjects were presented with a dichotic listening task (consisting of the concurrent presentation of tone pips to the left and right ear). Subjects either a) listened to pips in both ears (divided attention), or b) listened selectively to pips in one ear (selective attention), or c) ignored all pips. Dimensional complexity of the EEG was higher during divided than selective attention. ACTH significantly increased the EEG complexity during selective attention, in particular over the midfrontal cortex (Fz, Cz). The effects support the view of a de-focusing action of ACTH during selective attention that could serve to improve the organism's adaptation to stress stimuli.

  9. The detection of temporally defined objects does not require focused attention.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinto, Y.; Olivers, C.N.L.; Theeuwes, J.

    2008-01-01

    Perceptual grouping is crucial to distinguish objects from their background. Recent studies have shown that observers can detect an object that does not have any unique qualities other than unique temporal properties. A crucial question is whether focused attention is needed for this type of

  10. The Influence of Attentional Focus Instructions and Vision on Jump Height Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahipour, Reza; Psotta, Rudolf; Land, William M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Studies have suggested that the use of visual information may underlie the benefit associated with an external focus of attention. Recent studies exploring this connection have primarily relied on motor tasks that involve manipulation of an object (object projection). The present study examined whether vision influences the effect of…

  11. Decreasing Internal Focus of Attention Improves Postural Control during Quiet Standing in Young Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafati, Gilel; Vuillerme, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    This experiment was designed to investigate whether and how decreasing the amount of attentional focus invested in postural control could affect bipedal postural control. Twelve participants were asked to stand upright as immobile as possible on a force platform in one control condition and one cognitive condition. In the latter condition, they…

  12. Comparing Perception of Stroop Stimuli in Focused versus Divided Attention Paradigms: Evidence for Dramatic Processing Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidels, Ami; Townsend, James T.; Algom, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    A huge set of focused attention experiments show that when presented with color words printed in color, observers report the ink color faster if the carrier word is the name of the color rather than the name of an alternative color, the Stroop effect. There is also a large number (although not so numerous as the Stroop task) of so-called…

  13. Effects of Internal and External Focus of Attention during Novices' Instructional Preparation on Subsequent Rehearsal Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montemayor, Mark; Silvey, Brian A.; Adams, Amy L.; Witt, Kay L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of internal versus external focus of attention during novice teachers' instructional preparation on their subsequent rehearsal behaviors. Thirty-two undergraduate instrumental music education students led bands in a series of three, 6-minute rehearsals on their assigned excerpt. Prior to…

  14. The effect of organizational learning from performance feedback on team attention focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucas, G.J.M.; Zijlmans, Marius; Meeus, M.T.H.; Blettner, D.P.; Sund, K.J.; Galavan, R.J.; Huff, A.S.

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we present a theory on how organizational performance feedback influences individual decision-maker cognitions and thereby changes a team’s attention focus in terms of strategy. We argue that when performance compares unfavorably to aspiration levels, decision-makers reconsider

  15. Exploring the thoughts and attentional focus of music students under pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudejans, Raôul R.D.; Spitse, Anne; Kralt, Elmer; Bakker, Frank C.

    2017-01-01

    Musicians often play under circumstances in which pressure may lead to anxiety and performance deterioration. Theories suggest that a drop in performance is due to a shift in focus of attention towards task-irrelevant information. In this study, we asked music students to report what they think and

  16. Exploring the thoughts and focus of attention of elite musicians under pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buma, L.A.; Bakker, F.C.; Oudejans, R.R.D.

    2015-01-01

    Although musicians often have to perform under high pressure, there is little systematic research into the foci of attention needed to maintain performance in such situations. In the current study, we asked elite musicians to report what they focus on and think about during moments of high pressure,

  17. Effects of Internal and External Focus of Attention on Novices' Rehearsal Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvey, Brian A.; Montemayor, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of internal and external focus of attention on novices' rehearsal evaluations. Thirty-two undergraduate instrumental music education students led bands in a series of three 6-minute rehearsals on their assigned excerpt. Prior to these rehearsals, participants were led in score study and…

  18. Neural Evidence for a Distinction between Short-Term Memory and the Focus of Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-Peacock, Jarrod A.; Drysdale, Andrew T.; Oberauer, Klaus; Postle, Bradley R.

    2012-01-01

    It is widely assumed that the short-term retention of information is accomplished via maintenance of an active neural trace. However, we demonstrate that memory can be preserved across a brief delay despite the apparent loss of sustained representations. Delay period activity may, in fact, reflect the focus of attention, rather than STM. We…

  19. The Spatial Focus of Attention Is Controlled at Perceptual and Cognitive Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caparos, Serge; Linnell, Karina J.

    2010-01-01

    Selective attention has been hypothesized to reduce distractor interference at both perceptual and postperceptual levels (Lavie, 2005), respectively, by focusing perceptual resources on the attended location and by blocking at postperceptual levels distractors that survive perceptual selection. This study measured the impact of load on these…

  20. Focus of spatial attention during spatial working memory maintenance : Evidence from pupillary light response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fabius, J. H.; Mathôt, Sebastiaan; Schut, M. J.; Nijboer, T. C.W.; Van der Stigchel, S.

    2017-01-01

    In this experiment, we demonstrate modulation of the pupillary light response by spatial working memory (SWM). The pupillary light response has previously been shown to reflect the focus of covert attention, as demonstrated by smaller pupil sizes when a subject covertly attends a location on a

  1. PUBLIC ATTENTION AND FINANCIAL INFORMATION AS DETERMINANTS OF FIRMS PERFORMANCE IN THE TELECOMMUNICATION SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Nurazi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The remarkable progress of information technology had driven every firm to publish their financial performanceby using internet. This circumstance resulted in the high public attention in order to generate the stockreturn. In addition, financial information such as financial ratio namely DER, LEV, NPM, ROI, and ROEwere supposed to influence the firm’s performance either in positive or negative effects. This study focused onthe investigation of public attention (PA and financial information as determinants of financial performanceon four companies in Telecommunication sector, Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX, within time period from2007 to 2012. Hereby, we pointed out that public attention and financial information considerably contributeto firm performance, in which the Pooled Least Square (EGLS with cross section and period weight wasemployed. The results showed that Public Attention (PA positively contributed towards stock return. Further,financial ratio such as debt-to-equity ratio (DER negatively influenced the return. Leverage (LEV, net profitmargin (NPM and return on investment (ROI positively related to return. However, return on equity (ROEshowed the contrary sign, in which it negatively influenced the return but was statistically insignificant. Then,we reported that the stock price (LNSP did not significantly contribute towards return (RET.

  2. The effects of self-focus on attentional biases in social anxiety:An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judah, Matt R; Grant, DeMond M; Carlisle, Nancy B

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive theories of social anxiety disorder suggest that biased attention plays a key role in maintaining symptoms. These biases include self-focus and attention to socially threatening stimuli in the environment. The goal of this study was to utilize ERPs that are elicited by a change detection task to examine biases in selective attention (i.e., N2pc) and working memory maintenance (i.e., contralateral delay activity; CDA). Additionally, the effect of self-focus was examined using false heart rate feedback. In support of the manipulation, self-focus cues resulted in greater self-reported self-consciousness and task interference, enhanced anterior P2 amplitude and reduced SPN amplitude. Moreover, P2 amplitude for self-focus cues was correlated with reduced task performance for socially anxious subjects only. The difference in P2 amplitude between self-focus and standard cues was correlated with social anxiety independent of depression. As hypothesized, socially anxious participants (n = 20) showed early selection and maintenance of disgust faces relative to neutral faces as indicated by the N2pc and CDA components. Nonanxious controls (n = 22) did not show these biases. During self-focus cues, controls showed marginal evidence of biased selection for disgust faces, whereas socially anxious subjects showed no bias in this condition. Controls showed an ipsilateral delay activity after being cued to attend to one hemifield. Overall, this study supports early and persistent attentional bias for social threat in socially anxious individuals. Furthermore, self-focus may disrupt these biases. These findings and supplementary data are discussed in light of cognitive models of social anxiety disorder, recent empirical findings, and treatment.

  3. Using spatial uncertainty to manipulate the size of the attention focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dan; Xue, Linyan; Wang, Xin; Chen, Yao

    2016-09-01

    Preferentially processing behaviorally relevant information is vital for primate survival. In visuospatial attention studies, manipulating the spatial extent of attention focus is an important question. Although many studies have claimed to successfully adjust attention field size by either varying the uncertainty about the target location (spatial uncertainty) or adjusting the size of the cue orienting the attention focus, no systematic studies have assessed and compared the effectiveness of these methods. We used a multiple cue paradigm with 2.5° and 7.5° rings centered around a target position to measure the cue size effect, while the spatial uncertainty levels were manipulated by changing the number of cueing positions. We found that spatial uncertainty had a significant impact on reaction time during target detection, while the cue size effect was less robust. We also carefully varied the spatial scope of potential target locations within a small or large region and found that this amount of variation in spatial uncertainty can also significantly influence target detection speed. Our results indicate that adjusting spatial uncertainty is more effective than varying cue size when manipulating attention field size.

  4. Public and Private Cults of Hygieia (Particularly Focusing on Crete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giampiera Arrigoni

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this article is a survey of the cults dedicated to Hygieia in public and private spheres. This is the occasion of analyzing the conception of health and Hygieia among the archaic poets, and the process by which Hygieia from personification became a deity. Also analyzed is the link of Hygieia with other deities or personifications, the symbolism of certain attributes and epithets in poetry and cult and the meaning of certain gestures. Particular attention is paid to Crete (especially Gortyna and finally to the presence of Hygieia in baths and thermae.

  5. Meditation Breath Attention Scores (MBAS): Development and investigation of an internet-based assessment of focused attention during meditation practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frewen, Paul; Hargraves, Heather; DePierro, Jonathan; D'Andrea, Wendy; Flodrowski, Les

    2016-07-01

    Meditation Breath Attention Scores (MBAS) represent a self-report, state measure of focused attention (FA) during the practice of meditation. The MBAS assessment procedure involves sounding a bell at periodic intervals during meditation practice, at which times participants indicate if they were attending toward breathing (scored 1) or if instead they had become distracted (e.g., by mind wandering; scored 0); scores are then tallied to yield participants' MBAS for that meditation. The current study developed and evaluated a fully automated and Internet-based version of MBAS in 1,101 volunteers. Results suggested that: (a) MBAS are internally consistent across bell rings; (b) MBAS total scores exhibit a non-normal distribution identifying subgroups of participants with particularly poor or robust FA during meditation; (c) MBAS decrease linearly with the duration of meditation practices, indicating that participants tend to experience less FA later as opposed to earlier in the meditation; (d) in the case of eyes-open meditation, MBAS are higher when the amount of time between bells is shorter; (e) MBAS correlate with various self-reported subjective experiences occurring during meditation; and (f) MBAS are weakly associated with higher trait mindful "acting with awareness," lesser ADHD-related symptoms of inattentiveness, and estimated minutes of meditation practiced in the past month. In sum, results provide further support for the construct validity of MBAS and serve to further characterize the dynamics of individual differences in FA during meditation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Influence of attention focus on neural activity in the human spinal cord during thermal sensory stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroman, Patrick W; Coe, Brian C; Munoz, Doug P

    2011-01-01

    Perceptions of sensation and pain in healthy people are believed to be the net result of sensory input and descending modulation from brainstem and cortical regions depending on emotional and cognitive factors. Here, the influence of attention on neural activity in the spinal cord during thermal sensory stimulation of the hand was investigated with functional magnetic resonance imaging by systematically varying the participants' attention focus across and within repeated studies. Attention states included (1) attention to the stimulus by rating the sensation and (2) attention away from the stimulus by performing various mental tasks of watching a movie and identifying characters, detecting the direction of coherently moving dots within a randomly moving visual field and answering mentally-challenging questions. Functional MRI results spanning the cervical spinal cord and brainstem consistently demonstrated that the attention state had a significant influence on the activity detected in the cervical spinal cord, as well as in brainstem regions involved with the descending analgesia system. These findings have important implications for the detection and study of pain, and improved characterization of the effects of injury or disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Altering Pace Control and Pace Regulation: Attentional Focus Effects during Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brick, Noel E; Campbell, Mark J; Metcalfe, Richard S; Mair, Jacqueline L; Macintyre, Tadhg E

    2016-05-01

    To date, there are no published studies directly comparing self-controlled (SC) and externally controlled (EC) pace endurance tasks. However, previous research suggests pace control may impact on cognitive strategy use and effort perceptions. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effects of manipulating perception of pace control on attentional focus, physiological, and psychological outcomes during running. The secondary aim was to determine the reproducibility of self-paced running performance when regulated by effort perceptions. Twenty experienced endurance runners completed four 3-km time trials on a treadmill. Subjects completed two SC pace trials, one perceived exertion clamped (PE) trial, and one EC pace time trial. PE and EC were completed in a counterbalanced order. Pacing strategy for EC and perceived exertion instructions for PE replicated the subjects' fastest SC time trial. Subjects reported a greater focus on cognitive strategies such as relaxing and optimizing running action during EC than during SC. The mean HR was 2% lower during EC than that during SC despite an identical pacing strategy. Perceived exertion did not differ between the three conditions. However, increased internal sensory monitoring coincided with elevated effort perceptions in some subjects during EC and a 10% slower completion time for PE (13.0 ± 1.6 min) than that for SC (11.8 ± 1.2 min). Altering pace control and pace regulation impacted on attentional focus. External control over pacing may facilitate performance, particularly when runners engage attentional strategies conducive to improved running efficiency. However, regulating pace based on effort perceptions alone may result in excessive monitoring of bodily sensations and a slower running speed. Accordingly, attentional focus interventions may prove beneficial for some athletes to adopt task-appropriate attentional strategies to optimize performance.

  8. Dual n-back training increases the capacity of the focus of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienthal, Lindsey; Tamez, Elaine; Shelton, Jill Talley; Myerson, Joel; Hale, Sandra

    2013-02-01

    Working memory (WM) training has been reported to benefit abilities as diverse as fluid intelligence (Jaeggi et al., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105:6829-6833, 2008) and reading comprehension (Chein & Morrison, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 17:193-199, 2010), but transfer is not always observed (for reviews, see Morrison & Chein, Psychonomics Bulletin & Review, 18:46-60, 2011; Shipstead et al., Psychological Bulletin, 138:628-654, 2012). In contrast, recent WM training studies have consistently reported improvement on the trained tasks. The basis for these training benefits has received little attention, however, and it is not known which WM components and/or processes are being improved. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to investigate five possible mechanisms underlying the effects of adaptive dual n-back training on working memory (i.e., improvements in executive attention, updating, and focus switching, as well as increases in the capacity of the focus of attention and short-term memory). In addition to a no-contact control group, the present study also included an active control group whose members received nonadaptive training on the same task. All three groups showed significant improvements on the n-back task from pretest to posttest, but adaptive training produced larger improvements than did nonadaptive training, which in turn produced larger improvements than simply retesting. Adaptive, but not nonadaptive, training also resulted in improvements on an untrained running span task that measured the capacity of the focus of attention. No other differential improvements were observed, suggesting that increases in the capacity of the focus of attention underlie the benefits of adaptive dual n-back training.

  9. Weak surround suppression of the attentional focus characterizes visual selection in the ventral stream in autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Ronconi

    Full Text Available Neurophysiological findings in the typical population demonstrate that spatial scrutiny for visual selection determines a center-surround profile of the attentional focus, which is the result of recurrent processing in the visual system. Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD manifest several anomalies in their visual selection, with strengths in detail-oriented tasks, but also difficulties in distractor inhibition tasks. Here, we asked whether contradictory aspects of perception in ASD might be due to a different center-surround profile of their attentional focus. In two experiments, we tested two independent samples of children with ASD, comparing them with typically developing (TD peers. In Experiment 1, we used a psychophysical task that mapped the entire spatial profile of the attentional focus. In Experiment 2, we used dense-array electroencephalography (EEG to explore its neurophysiological underpinnings. Experiment 1 results showed that the suppression, surrounding the attentional focus, was markedly reduced in children with ASD. Experiment 2 showed that the center-surround profile in TD children resulted in a modulation of the posterior N2 ERP component, with cortical sources in the lateral-occipital and medial/inferior temporal areas. In contrast, children with ASD did not show modulation of the N2 and related activations in the ventral visual stream. Furthermore, behavioural and neurophysiological measures of weaker suppression predicted more severe autistic symptomatology. The present findings, showing an altered center-surround profile during attentional selection, give an important insight to understand superior visual processing in autism as well as the experiencing of sensory overload. Keywords: EEG, Source analysis, Ventral visual stream, Perception, Rehabilitation

  10. The Differential Effects of Attentional Focus in Children with Moderate and Profound Visual Impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott W. T. McNamara

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been consistently reported that an external focus of attention leads to better motor performance than an internal focus, but no research to date has explored this effect in a population with visual impairments (VI. External focus statements typically reference something in the environment (e.g., target that may be difficult to conceptualize for people with VI since they cannot generate a visual representation of the object of focus. Internal focus statements could be more closely identifiable with proprioception that is not impaired in this population. Recent studies have reported that sighted adults with temporarily obstructed vision are able to receive an external focus benefit when performing discrete tasks (i.e., golf putt and vertical jump, however, it is unclear if those with VI would experience the same benefit. The purpose of this investigation was to compare how an internal focus and external focus impact the balance of children with VI. Eighteen children with VI were grouped into a moderate (n = 11 and a profound VI group (n = 7. Participants completed a familiarization trial, an internal focus trial (i.e., focusing on feet and an external focus trial (i.e., focusing on markers in a counterbalanced order. The moderate VI group had a lower root mean square error while using an external focus (p = 0.04, while the profound VI group did not differ between conditions (p > 0.05. These results suggest that while performing a task reliant on sensory feedback, an external focus benefit may be dependent on the severity of VI. Further research is needed to examine whether external focus statements can be presented in a way that may be more intuitive to those with profound VI. These findings may help to influence how professionals in health-related fields (e.g., physical therapist and physical educators give instructions on motor performance to populations with VI.

  11. The effects of attentional focus in the preparation and execution of a standing long jump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Kevin A; Fairbrother, Jeffrey T; Couvillion, Kaylee F

    2018-04-03

    Attentional focus research suggests an external focus leads to improved motor performance compared to an internal focus (Wulf in Int Rev Sport Exerc Psychol 6:77-104, 2013), but skilled athletes often report using an internal focus (Fairbrother et al., Front Psychol 7:1028, 2016) and sometimes shifting between different foci in the preparation and execution phases of performance (Bernier et al. in J Appl Sport Psychol 23:326-341, 2011; Bernier et al. in Sport Psychol 30:256-266, 2016). To date, focus shifts have been unexplored in experimental research, thus the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of shifting focus between the preparation and execution phases of a standing long jump. Participants (N = 29) completed two jumps in a control condition (CON), followed by two jumps in four experimental conditions presented in a counterbalanced order. Conditions included using an external focus (EF) and internal focus (IF) in both preparation and execution of the skill, as well as shifting from an internal focus in preparation to an external focus in execution (ITE), and an external focus in preparation to an internal focus in execution (ETI). Jump distance was analyzed with a repeated measures ANOVA. The main effect of condition was significant, p ITE also generated farther jumps than IF and CON (p's ITE conditions suggests that the focus employed in execution has the strongest impact on performance. Additionally, if an internal focus must be used in preparation, the performance decrement can be ameliorated by shifting to an external focus during execution.

  12. The effects of anxiety and external attentional focus on postural control in patients with Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazaeri, Seyede Zohreh; Azad, Akram; Mehdizadeh, Hajar; Habibi, Seyed Amirhassan; Mandehgary Najafabadi, Mahbubeh; Saberi, Zakieh Sadat; Rahimzadegan, Hawre; Moradi, Saeed; Behzadipour, Saeed; Parnianpour, Mohamad; Khalaf, Kinda

    2018-01-01

    Background Although anxiety is a common non-motor outcome of Parkinson's disease (PD) affecting 40% of patients, little attention has been paid so far to its effects on balance impairment and postural control. Improvement of postural control through focusing on the environment (i.e. external focus) has been reported, but the role of anxiety, as a confounding variable, remains unclear. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the influence of anxiety and attentional focus instruction on the standing postural control of PD patients. Methods Thirty-four patients with PD (17 with high anxiety (HA-PD) and 17 with low anxiety (LA-PD)), as well as 17 gender- and age-matched healthy control subjects (HC) participated in the study. Postural control was evaluated using a combination of two levels of postural difficulty (standing on a rigid force plate surface with open eyes (RO) and standing on a foam surface with open eyes (FO)), as well as three attentional focus instructions (internal, external and no focus). Results Only the HA-PD group demonstrated significant postural control impairment as compared to the control, as indicated by significantly greater postural sway measures. Moreover, external focus significantly reduced postural sway in all participants especially during the FO condition. Conclusion The results of the current study provide evidence that anxiety influences balance control and postural stability in patients with PD, particularly those with high levels of anxiety. The results also confirmed that external focus is a potential strategy that significantly improves the postural control of these patients. Further investigation of clinical applicability is warranted towards developing effective therapeutic and rehabilitative treatment plans. PMID:29390029

  13. Children's Failure in Analogical Reasoning Tasks: A Problem of Focus of Attention and Information Integration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glady, Yannick; French, Robert M; Thibaut, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Children's improved performance with age in analogy tasks has been explained by an increase in semantic knowledge of the items and the relations between them or by the development of an increased ability to inhibit irrelevant information. We tested the so-called "unbalanced attentional focus hypothesis" that claims that a failure to choose the "analogical" match can be the result of a difficulty to focus on all the relevant information available. Previous eye-tracking research has suggested, in analogies of the A:B::C:D format, that 5-6 year-olds organize their search around the C item. They focused significantly less than adults on the A:B pair, thereby hindering their discovering the relation(s) between A and B. We hypothesized that inducing them to focus their attention on the A:B pair at the beginning of the trial would affect their performance. In Experiment 1, increasing children's focus on the A:B pair did, indeed, lead to better performance. In contrast, in Experiment 2, focusing their attention on the A:B pair impaired performance when the most salient relation holding between A and B was, in fact, irrelevant for the analogy. By contrast, the obvious-but-irrelevant relation in the A:B pair had no negative effect on performance when no explicit A:B focusing was induced. These results are discussed in terms of the temporal organization of the task and availability of information, and of children's difficulties to disengage from the main goal of the task, when necessary.

  14. The effects of anxiety and external attentional focus on postural control in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazaeri, Seyede Zohreh; Azad, Akram; Mehdizadeh, Hajar; Habibi, Seyed Amirhassan; Mandehgary Najafabadi, Mahbubeh; Saberi, Zakieh Sadat; Rahimzadegan, Hawre; Moradi, Saeed; Behzadipour, Saeed; Parnianpour, Mohamad; Taghizadeh, Ghorban; Khalaf, Kinda

    2018-01-01

    Although anxiety is a common non-motor outcome of Parkinson's disease (PD) affecting 40% of patients, little attention has been paid so far to its effects on balance impairment and postural control. Improvement of postural control through focusing on the environment (i.e. external focus) has been reported, but the role of anxiety, as a confounding variable, remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the influence of anxiety and attentional focus instruction on the standing postural control of PD patients. Thirty-four patients with PD (17 with high anxiety (HA-PD) and 17 with low anxiety (LA-PD)), as well as 17 gender- and age-matched healthy control subjects (HC) participated in the study. Postural control was evaluated using a combination of two levels of postural difficulty (standing on a rigid force plate surface with open eyes (RO) and standing on a foam surface with open eyes (FO)), as well as three attentional focus instructions (internal, external and no focus). Only the HA-PD group demonstrated significant postural control impairment as compared to the control, as indicated by significantly greater postural sway measures. Moreover, external focus significantly reduced postural sway in all participants especially during the FO condition. The results of the current study provide evidence that anxiety influences balance control and postural stability in patients with PD, particularly those with high levels of anxiety. The results also confirmed that external focus is a potential strategy that significantly improves the postural control of these patients. Further investigation of clinical applicability is warranted towards developing effective therapeutic and rehabilitative treatment plans.

  15. Attentional Focus and Grip Width Influences on Bench Press Resistance Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calatayud, Joaquin; Vinstrup, Jonas; Jakobsen, Markus D; Sundstrup, Emil; Colado, JuanCarlos; Andersen, Lars L

    2018-04-01

    This study evaluated the influence of different attentional foci for varied grip widths in the bench press. Eighteen resistance-trained men were familiarized with the procedure and performed a one-repetition maximum (1RM) test during Session 1. In Session 2, they used three different standardized grip widths (100%, 150%, and 200% of biacromial width distance) in random order at 50% of 1RM while also engaged in three different attention focus conditions (external focus on the bench press, internal focus on pectoralis major muscles, and internal focus on triceps brachii muscles). Surface electromyography (EMG) signals were recorded from the triceps brachii and pectoralis major, and peak EMG of the filtered signals were normalized to maximum EMG of each muscle. Both grip width and focus influenced the muscle activity level, but there were no significant interactions between these variables. Exploratory analyses suggested that an internal focus may slightly (4%-6%) increase pectoralis major activity at wider grip widths and triceps brachii activity at narrower grip widths, but this should be confirmed or rejected in a study with a larger sample size or through a meta-analysis of research to date.

  16. Information paradox of new product development: A case of decision-makers' focus of attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Kristina Risom

    Drawing on theory of bounded rationality and the attention-based view of the company, decision-makers' focus of attention is examined within the new product development process. Attention, defined as something which occupies individual consciousness, should be directed at selecting development...... activities and applying information resulting from these activities to go/no-go decision-making. Based on the information behavior of 42 development managers collected through a virtual role-play simulation of new product development, this research finds two information paradoxes of new product development....... First, competitive behavior makes decision-makers apply logic of reassurances in their implementation of NPD activities. Second, the information processing competence of decision-makers is unbalanced as information increases uncertainty in the concrete decision-making situation....

  17. Focused attention improves working memory: implications for flexible-resource and discrete-capacity models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Alessandra S; Rerko, Laura; Lin, Hsuan-Yu; Oberauer, Klaus

    2014-10-01

    Performance in working memory (WM) tasks depends on the capacity for storing objects and on the allocation of attention to these objects. Here, we explored how capacity models need to be augmented to account for the benefit of focusing attention on the target of recall. Participants encoded six colored disks (Experiment 1) or a set of one to eight colored disks (Experiment 2) and were cued to recall the color of a target on a color wheel. In the no-delay condition, the recall-cue was presented after a 1,000-ms retention interval, and participants could report the retrieved color immediately. In the delay condition, the recall-cue was presented at the same time as in the no-delay condition, but the opportunity to report the color was delayed. During this delay, participants could focus attention exclusively on the target. Responses deviated less from the target's color in the delay than in the no-delay condition. Mixture modeling assigned this benefit to a reduction in guessing (Experiments 1 and 2) and transposition errors (Experiment 2). We tested several computational models implementing flexible or discrete capacity allocation, aiming to explain both the effect of set size, reflecting the limited capacity of WM, and the effect of delay, reflecting the role of attention to WM representations. Both models fit the data better when a spatially graded source of transposition error is added to its assumptions. The benefits of focusing attention could be explained by allocating to this object a higher proportion of the capacity to represent color.

  18. Self-focused attention and the experience of emotion: attraction, repulsion, elation, and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheier, M F; Carver, C S

    1977-09-01

    Four experiments were conducted to study the effect of self-focused attention on affective reactions. In addition, the research was also intended to help resolve the controversy over attentional versus arousal explanations of self-awareness research. In Experiment 1, undergraduate men were asked to view and rate slides of nude women in the presence of a mirror or with no mirror. In Experiment 3, subjects were either exposed or not exposed to a mirror and read a set of mood statements which became either increasingly positive or increasingly negative. Experiments 2 and 4 conceptually replicated Experiments 1 and 3 by selecting subjects on the basis of private self-consciousness. In each study, self-focused attention increased the person's responsiveness to his transient affective state. The convergence between mirror-manipulated self-awareness and private self-consciousness was offered as support for an attentional interpretation of the findings. The implications of the research for self-awareness theory are discussed.

  19. Perceptual load vs. dilution: the roles of attentional focus, stimulus category, and target predictability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe eChen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have shown that increasing the number of neutral stimuli in a display decreases distractor interference. This result has been interpreted within two different frameworks; a perceptual load account, based on a reduction in spare resources, and a dilution account, based on a degradation in distractor representation and/or an increase in crosstalk between the distractor and the neutral stimuli that contain visually similar features. In four experiments, we systematically manipulated the extent of attentional focus, stimulus category, and preknowledge of the target to examine how these factors would interact with the display set size to influence the degree of distractor processing. Display set size did not affect the degree of distractor processing in all situations. Increasing the number of neutral items decreased distractor processing only when a task induced a broad attentional focus that included the neutral stimuli, when the neutral stimuli were in the same category as the target and distractor, and when the preknowledge of the target was insufficient to guide attention to the target efficiently. These results suggest that the effect of neutral stimuli on the degree of distractor processing is more complex than previously assumed. They provide new insight into the competitive interactions between bottom-up and top-down processes that govern the efficiency of visual selective attention.

  20. Perceptual load vs. dilution: the roles of attentional focus, stimulus category, and target predictability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Cave, Kyle R

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have shown that increasing the number of neutral stimuli in a display decreases distractor interference. This result has been interpreted within two different frameworks; a perceptual load account, based on a reduction in spare resources, and a dilution account, based on a degradation in distractor representation and/or an increase in crosstalk between the distractor and the neutral stimuli that contain visually similar features. In four experiments, we systematically manipulated the extent of attentional focus, stimulus category, and preknowledge of the target to examine how these factors would interact with the display set size to influence the degree of distractor processing. Display set size did not affect the degree of distractor processing in all situations. Increasing the number of neutral items decreased distractor processing only when a task induced a broad attentional focus that included the neutral stimuli, when the neutral stimuli were in the same category as the target and distractor, and when the preknowledge of the target was insufficient to guide attention to the target efficiently. These results suggest that the effect of neutral stimuli on the degree of distractor processing is more complex than previously assumed. They provide new insight into the competitive interactions between bottom-up and top-down processes that govern the efficiency of visual selective attention.

  1. Effect of Music Tempo on Attentional Focus and Perceived Exertion during Self-selected Paced Walking

    OpenAIRE

    SILVA, ALDO COELHO; DOS SANTOS FERREIRA, SANDRO; ALVES, RAGAMI CHAVES; FOLLADOR, LUCIO; DA SILVA, SERGIO GREGORIO

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of music on the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and attentional focus during walking at a self-selected pace. Fifteen overweight and obese women volunteered to participate in the study. They underwent four sessions: the first for incremental maximal test and anthropometric measurement followed by three experimental sessions. After the first session, they were exposed to three 30-minute walking sessions at a self-selected pace in a counterbalanced order...

  2. The Focus of Spatial Attention Determines the Number and Precision of Face Representations in Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towler, John; Kelly, Maria; Eimer, Martin

    2016-06-01

    The capacity of visual working memory for faces is extremely limited, but the reasons for these limitations remain unknown. We employed event-related brain potential measures to demonstrate that individual faces have to be focally attended in order to be maintained in working memory, and that attention is allocated to only a single face at a time. When 2 faces have to be memorized simultaneously in a face identity-matching task, the focus of spatial attention during encoding predicts which of these faces can be successfully maintained in working memory and matched to a subsequent test face. We also show that memory representations of attended faces are maintained in a position-dependent fashion. These findings demonstrate that the limited capacity of face memory is directly linked to capacity limits of spatial attention during the encoding and maintenance of individual face representations. We suggest that the capacity and distribution of selective spatial attention is a dynamic resource that constrains the capacity and fidelity of working memory for faces. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Oculomotor examination of the weapon focus effect: does a gun automatically engage visual attention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowe, Heather D; Hope, Lorraine; Hillstrom, Anne P

    2013-01-01

    A person is less likely to be accurately remembered if they appear in a visual scene with a gun, a result that has been termed the weapon focus effect (WFE). Explanations of the WFE argue that weapons engage attention because they are unusual and/or threatening, which causes encoding deficits for the other items in the visual scene. Previous WFE research has always embedded the weapon and nonweapon objects within a larger context that provides information about an actor's intention to use the object. As such, it is currently unknown whether a gun automatically engages attention to a greater extent than other objects independent of the context in which it is presented. Reflexive responding to a gun compared to other objects was examined in two experiments. Experiment 1 employed a prosaccade gap-overlap paradigm, whereby participants looked toward a peripheral target, and Experiment 2 employed an antisaccade gap-overlap paradigm, whereby participants looked away from a peripheral target. In both experiments, the peripheral target was a gun or a nonthreatening object (i.e., a tomato or pocket watch). We also controlled how unexpected the targets were and compared saccadic reaction times across types of objects. A gun was not found to differentially engage attention compared to the unexpected object (i.e., a pocket watch). Some evidence was found (Experiment 2) that both the gun and the unexpected object engaged attention to a greater extent compared the expected object (i.e., a tomato). An image of a gun did not engage attention to a larger extent than images of other types of objects (i.e., a pocket watch or tomato). The results suggest that context may be an important determinant of WFE. The extent to which an object is threatening may depend on the larger context in which it is presented.

  4. Distinct Neural Activity Associated with Focused-Attention Meditation and Loving-Kindness Meditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tatia M. C.; Leung, Mei-Kei; Hou, Wai-Kai; Tang, Joey C. Y.; Yin, Jing; So, Kwok-Fai; Lee, Chack-Fan; Chan, Chetwyn C. H.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the dissociable neural effects of ānāpānasati (focused-attention meditation, FAM) and mettā (loving-kindness meditation, LKM) on BOLD signals during cognitive (continuous performance test, CPT) and affective (emotion-processing task, EPT, in which participants viewed affective pictures) processing. Twenty-two male Chinese expert meditators (11 FAM experts, 11 LKM experts) and 22 male Chinese novice meditators (11 FAM novices, 11 LKM novices) had their brain activity monitored by a 3T MRI scanner while performing the cognitive and affective tasks in both meditation and baseline states. We examined the interaction between state (meditation vs. baseline) and expertise (expert vs. novice) separately during LKM and FAM, using a conjunction approach to reveal common regions sensitive to the expert meditative state. Additionally, exclusive masking techniques revealed distinct interactions between state and group during LKM and FAM. Specifically, we demonstrated that the practice of FAM was associated with expertise-related behavioral improvements and neural activation differences in attention task performance. However, the effect of state LKM meditation did not carry over to attention task performance. On the other hand, both FAM and LKM practice appeared to affect the neural responses to affective pictures. For viewing sad faces, the regions activated for FAM practitioners were consistent with attention-related processing; whereas responses of LKM experts to sad pictures were more in line with differentiating emotional contagion from compassion/emotional regulation processes. Our findings provide the first report of distinct neural activity associated with forms of meditation during sustained attention and emotion processing. PMID:22905090

  5. The short- and long-term fates of memory items retained outside the focus of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRocque, Joshua J; Eichenbaum, Adam S; Starrett, Michael J; Rose, Nathan S; Emrich, Stephen M; Postle, Bradley R

    2015-04-01

    When a test of working memory (WM) requires the retention of multiple items, a subset of them can be prioritized. Recent studies have shown that, although prioritized (i.e., attended) items are associated with active neural representations, unprioritized (i.e., unattended) memory items can be retained in WM despite the absence of such active representations, and with no decrement in their recognition if they are cued later in the trial. These findings raise two intriguing questions about the nature of the short-term retention of information outside the focus of attention. First, when the focus of attention shifts from items in WM, is there a loss of fidelity for those unattended memory items? Second, could the retention of unattended memory items be accomplished by long-term memory mechanisms? We addressed the first question by comparing the precision of recall of attended versus unattended memory items, and found a significant decrease in precision for unattended memory items, reflecting a degradation in the quality of those representations. We addressed the second question by asking subjects to perform a WM task, followed by a surprise memory test for the items that they had seen in the WM task. Long-term memory for unattended memory items from the WM task was not better than memory for items that had remained selected by the focus of attention in the WM task. These results show that unattended WM representations are degraded in quality and are not preferentially represented in long-term memory, as compared to attended memory items.

  6. Impact of the focus of attention on vertical jump performance of junior basketball players

    OpenAIRE

    Manojlović Vladimir; Erčulj Frane

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the research was to determine the impact of the focus of attention on vertical jump performance expressed through a jump height. Thirteen basketball players (body mass = 73,4 kg, height = 186,58 cm, age = 15.12 ± 0.61 y) volunteered as participants. All the subject represented a club which participated in the Croatian cadets 1. league in season 2008/09, and were tested during the season. The subjects performed two experiments. In both experiments, they performed 15 repetitions of c...

  7. Attentional Control Buffers the Effect of Public Speaking Anxiety on Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher R; Fazio, Russell H; Vasey, Michael W

    2012-09-01

    We explored dispositional differences in the ability to self-regulate attentional processes in the domain of public speaking. Participants first completed measures of speech anxiety and attentional control. In a second session, participants prepared and performed a short speech. Fear of public speaking negatively impacted performance only for those low in attentional control. Thus, attentional control appears to act as a buffer that facilitates successful self-regulation despite performance anxiety.

  8. Working memory benefits creative insight, musical improvisation, and original ideation through maintained task-focused attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Dreu, Carsten K W; Nijstad, Bernard A; Baas, Matthijs; Wolsink, Inge; Roskes, Marieke

    2012-05-01

    Anecdotes from creative eminences suggest that executive control plays an important role in creativity, but scientific evidence is sparse. Invoking the Dual Pathway to Creativity Model, the authors hypothesize that working memory capacity (WMC) relates to creative performance because it enables persistent, focused, and systematic combining of elements and possibilities (persistence). Study 1 indeed showed that under cognitive load, participants performed worse on a creative insight task. Study 2 revealed positive associations between time-on-task and creativity among individuals high but not low in WMC, even after controlling for general intelligence. Study 3 revealed that across trials, semiprofessional cellists performed increasingly more creative improvisations when they had high rather than low WMC. Study 4 showed that WMC predicts original ideation because it allows persistent (rather than flexible) processing. The authors conclude that WMC benefits creativity because it enables the individual to maintain attention focused on the task and prevents undesirable mind wandering.

  9. Tactus ≠ Tempo: Some Dissociations Between Attentional Focus, Motor Behavior, and Tempo Judgment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin London

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments explored the relationships between surface rhythmic activity, tactus or beat rate, attentional focus, sensorimotor synchronization (tapping, and tempo perception. All involved a rhythmic standard followed by a comparison; the experimental task was a judgment of “slower, same, or faster.” In Experiment 1 participants simply judged relative speed; they focused on the beat level in Experiment 2, and they tapped along as they made their judgments in Experiment 3. In all three experiments judgments were highly accurate (89-97% correct, relative to beat-level inter-onset interval when the standard-comparison involved the same pattern/same tempo, and performed similarly for the same pattern at different tempos (80-83% correct. Performance degraded significantly in other contexts, especially for different patterns at the same tempo. A main effect for pattern (two levels: same vs. different and a pattern x tempo interaction were observed in all three experiments; a main effect for tempo (collapsed to two levels: same vs. different occurred only in Experiment 1. Analysis of a subset of the experimental conditions indicated that surface activity was of greater salience than the beat level in some contexts. Tapping along (Experiment 3 did not improve overall performance any more than simply focusing on the tactus level (Experiment 2, and a possible biasing effect of tapping rate on tempo judgment was observed. Thus there is an apparent dissociation between tactus rate, attentional focus, tapping behavior and tempo judgment. This suggests that our perception of musical speed or tempo is more than simple apprehension of the tactus rate.

  10. Enhanced jump performance when providing augmented feedback compared to an external or internal focus of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Martin; Lauber, Benedikt; Gottschalk, Marius; Taube, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Factors such as an external focus of attention (EF) and augmented feedback (AF) have been shown to improve performance. However, the efficacy of providing AF to enhance motor performance has never been compared with the effects of an EF or an internal focus of attention (IF). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to identify which of the three conditions (AF, EF or IF) leads to the highest performance in a countermovement jump (CMJ). Nineteen volunteers performed 12 series of 8 maximum CMJs. Changes in jump height between conditions and within the series were analysed. Jump heights differed between conditions (P jump heights at the end of the series in AF (+1.60%) and lower jump heights at the end of the series in EF (-1.79%) and IF (-1.68%) were observed. Muscle activity did not differ between conditions. The differences between conditions and within the series provide evidence that AF leads to higher performance and better progression within one series than EF and IF. Consequently, AF seems to outperform EF and IF when maximising jump height.

  11. Three-dimensional focus of attention for iterative cone-beam micro-CT reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, T M; Gregor, J

    2006-01-01

    Three-dimensional iterative reconstruction of high-resolution, circular orbit cone-beam x-ray CT data is often considered impractical due to the demand for vast amounts of computer cycles and associated memory. In this paper, we show that the computational burden can be reduced by limiting the reconstruction to a small, well-defined portion of the image volume. We first discuss using the support region defined by the set of voxels covered by all of the projection views. We then present a data-driven preprocessing technique called focus of attention that heuristically separates both image and projection data into object and background before reconstruction, thereby further reducing the reconstruction region of interest. We present experimental results for both methods based on mouse data and a parallelized implementation of the SIRT algorithm. The computational savings associated with the support region are substantial. However, the results for focus of attention are even more impressive in that only about one quarter of the computer cycles and memory are needed compared with reconstruction of the entire image volume. The image quality is not compromised by either method

  12. Tracking the visual focus of attention for a varying number of wandering people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kevin; Ba, Sileye O; Odobez, Jean-Marc; Gatica-Perez, Daniel

    2008-07-01

    We define and address the problem of finding the visual focus of attention for a varying number of wandering people (VFOA-W), determining where the people's movement is unconstrained. VFOA-W estimation is a new and important problem with mplications for behavior understanding and cognitive science, as well as real-world applications. One such application, which we present in this article, monitors the attention passers-by pay to an outdoor advertisement. Our approach to the VFOA-W problem proposes a multi-person tracking solution based on a dynamic Bayesian network that simultaneously infers the (variable) number of people in a scene, their body locations, their head locations, and their head pose. For efficient inference in the resulting large variable-dimensional state-space we propose a Reversible Jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo (RJMCMC) sampling scheme, as well as a novel global observation model which determines the number of people in the scene and localizes them. We propose a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) and Hidden Markov Model (HMM)-based VFOA-W model which use head pose and location information to determine people's focus state. Our models are evaluated for tracking performance and ability to recognize people looking at an outdoor advertisement, with results indicating good performance on sequences where a moderate number of people pass in front of an advertisement.

  13. Impact of the focus of attention on vertical jump performance of junior basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manojlović Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to determine the impact of the focus of attention on vertical jump performance expressed through a jump height. Thirteen basketball players (body mass = 73,4 kg, height = 186,58 cm, age = 15.12 ± 0.61 y volunteered as participants. All the subject represented a club which participated in the Croatian cadets 1. league in season 2008/09, and were tested during the season. The subjects performed two experiments. In both experiments, they performed 15 repetitions of countermovement jump, whereas in one of the experiments, during the performance of the jumps they were listening to an audio record of spectators. For both type of jumps, the subjects were instructed to stay in the air as long as possible during a single jump (external focus of attention. To determine the differences between jumps, a paired-sample t-test was used with a level of statistical significance set to p ≤ 0.05. Comparison for jump height between both type of jumps revealed no statistically significant difference, although the presented difference should not be denied considering a real match conditions.

  14. Examining the Relative Contribution of Memory Updating, Attention Focus Switching, and Sustained Attention to Children’s Verbal Working Memory Span

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beula M. Magimairaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Whereas considerable developmental memory research has examined the contributions of short-term memory, processing efficiency, retention duration, and scope of attention to complex memory span, little is known about the influence of controlled attention. The present study investigated the relative influence of three understudied attention mechanisms on the verbal working memory span of school-age children: memory updating; attention focus switching; and sustained attention. Results of general linear modeling revealed that, after controlling for age, only updating accuracy emerged as a significant predictor of verbal working memory span. Memory updating speed (that subsumed attention focus switching speed also contributed but was mediated by age. The results extend the developmental memory literature by implicating the mechanism of memory updating and developmental improvement in speed of attention focus switching and updating as critical contributors to children’s verbal working memory. Theoretically, the results provide substantively new information about the role of domain-general executive attention in children’s verbal working memory.

  15. Focused and divided attention abilities in the acute phase of recovery from moderate to severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Kayela; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2017-01-01

    Impairments in attention following traumatic brain injury (TBI) can significantly impact recovery and rehabilitation effectiveness. This study investigated the multi-faceted construct of selective attention following TBI, highlighting the differences on visual nonsearch (focused attention) and search (divided attention) tasks. Participants were 30 individuals with moderate to severe TBI who were tested acutely (i.e. following emergence from PTA) and 30 age- and education-matched controls. Participants were presented with visual displays that contained either two or eight items. In the focused attention, nonsearch condition, the location of the target (if present) was cued with a peripheral arrow prior to presentation of the visual displays. In the divided attention, search condition, no spatial cue was provided prior to presentation of the visual displays. The results revealed intact focused, nonsearch, attention abilities in the acute phase of TBI recovery. In contrast, when no spatial cue was provided (divided attention condition), participants with TBI demonstrated slower visual search compared to the control group. The results of this study suggest that capitalizing on intact focused attention abilities by allocating attention during cognitively demanding tasks may help to reduce mental workload and improve rehabilitation effectiveness.

  16. Characteristics of attention-related body sensations. Temporal stability and associations with measures of body focus, affect, sustained attention, and heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tihanyi, Benedek T; Ferentzi, Eszter; Köteles, Ferenc

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the temporal stability and correlates of attention-related body sensations that emerge without external stimulation during rest and due to focused attention on a body part. To assess attention-related body sensations, participants were asked to focus on a freely chosen body area with closed eyes, and had to report whether the sensation of that area had changed. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess various aspects of body focus (body awareness, body responsiveness, somatosensory amplification, subjective somatic symptoms), and positive and negative affectivity. Previous experiences in body-mind therapies were also measured. PEBL Continuous Performance Test was used to assess sustained attention. Heart rate variability scores were based on a 3-minute long resting heart rate measurement. Fifty-eight university students (22.3 ± 3.95 years; 34 females) participated in the study. The stability of attention-related body sensations was measured 8 weeks later on a randomly chosen sub-group (n = 28). Attention-related body sensations showed a mediocre temporal stability (r ρ  = 0.47, p = 0.012). People reporting attention-related body sensations showed significantly higher body awareness, somatosensory amplification, and resting heart rate; and marginally higher somatic symptoms. No relation was found with body-mind practice, body responsiveness, positive and negative affect, the vagal component of heart rate variability, and performance in the sustained attention task. Attention-related sensations are relatively stable over time. They are connected to some, but not to all of the aspects of body focus. Further studies are needed to elaborate the influencing stable and situational factors.

  17. Effect of Virtual Reality Exposure and Aural Stimuli on Eye Contact, Directional Focus, and Focus of Attention of Novice Wind Band Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orman, Evelyn K.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of virtual reality immersion with audio on eye contact, directional focus and focus of attention for novice wind band conductors. Participants (N = 34) included a control group (n = 12) and two virtual reality groups with (n = 10) and without (n = 12) head tracking. Participants completed conducting/score study…

  18. Perceptual learning to reduce sensory eye dominance beyond the focus of top-down visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingping P; He, Zijiang J; Ooi, Teng Leng

    2012-05-15

    Perceptual learning is an important means for the brain to maintain its agility in a dynamic environment. Top-down focal attention, which selects task-relevant stimuli against competing ones in the background, is known to control and select what is learned in adults. Still unknown, is whether the adult brain is able to learn highly visible information beyond the focus of top-down attention. If it is, we should be able to reveal a purely stimulus-driven perceptual learning occurring in functions that are largely determined by the early cortical level, where top-down attention modulation is weak. Such an automatic, stimulus-driven learning mechanism is commonly assumed to operate only in the juvenile brain. We performed perceptual training to reduce sensory eye dominance (SED), a function that taps on the eye-of-origin information represented in the early visual cortex. Two retinal locations were simultaneously stimulated with suprathreshold, dichoptic orthogonal gratings. At each location, monocular cueing triggered perception of the grating images of the weak eye and suppression of the strong eye. Observers attended only to one location and performed orientation discrimination of the gratings seen by the weak eye, while ignoring the highly visible gratings at the second, unattended, location. We found SED was not only reduced at the attended location, but also at the unattended location. Furthermore, other untrained visual functions mediated by higher cortical levels improved. An automatic, stimulus-driven learning mechanism causes synaptic alterations in the early cortical level, with a far-reaching impact on the later cortical levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evidence inhibition responds reactively to the salience of distracting information during focused attention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Wyatt

    Full Text Available Along with target amplification, distractor inhibition is regarded as a major contributor to selective attention. Some theories suggest that the strength of inhibitory processing is proportional to the salience of the distractor (i.e., inhibition reacts to the distractor intensity. Other theories suggest that the strength of inhibitory processing does not depend on the salience of the distractor (i.e., inhibition does not react to the distractor intensity. The present study aimed to elucidate the relationship between the intensity of a distractor and its subsequent inhibition during focused attention. A flanker task with a variable distractor-target stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA was used to measure both distractor interference and distractor inhibition. We manipulated the intensity of the distractor in two separate ways, by varying its distance from the target (Experiment 1 and by varying its brightness (Experiment 2. The results indicate that more intense distractors were associated with both increased interference and stronger distractor inhibition. The latter outcome provides novel support for the reactive inhibition hypothesis, which posits that inhibition reacts to the strength of distractor input, such that more salient distractors elicit stronger inhibition.

  20. The power of Kawaii: viewing cute images promotes a careful behavior and narrows attentional focus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Nittono

    Full Text Available Kawaii (a Japanese word meaning "cute" things are popular because they produce positive feelings. However, their effect on behavior remains unclear. In this study, three experiments were conducted to examine the effects of viewing cute images on subsequent task performance. In the first experiment, university students performed a fine motor dexterity task before and after viewing images of baby or adult animals. Performance indexed by the number of successful trials increased after viewing cute images (puppies and kittens; M ± SE=43.9 ± 10.3% improvement more than after viewing images that were less cute (dogs and cats; 11.9 ± 5.5% improvement. In the second experiment, this finding was replicated by using a non-motor visual search task. Performance improved more after viewing cute images (15.7 ± 2.2% improvement than after viewing less cute images (1.4 ± 2.1% improvement. Viewing images of pleasant foods was ineffective in improving performance (1.2 ± 2.1%. In the third experiment, participants performed a global-local letter task after viewing images of baby animals, adult animals, and neutral objects. In general, global features were processed faster than local features. However, this global precedence effect was reduced after viewing cute images. Results show that participants performed tasks requiring focused attention more carefully after viewing cute images. This is interpreted as the result of a narrowed attentional focus induced by the cuteness-triggered positive emotion that is associated with approach motivation and the tendency toward systematic processing. For future applications, cute objects may be used as an emotion elicitor to induce careful behavioral tendencies in specific situations, such as driving and office work.

  1. The Power of Kawaii: Viewing Cute Images Promotes a Careful Behavior and Narrows Attentional Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittono, Hiroshi; Fukushima, Michiko; Yano, Akihiro; Moriya, Hiroki

    2012-01-01

    Kawaii (a Japanese word meaning “cute”) things are popular because they produce positive feelings. However, their effect on behavior remains unclear. In this study, three experiments were conducted to examine the effects of viewing cute images on subsequent task performance. In the first experiment, university students performed a fine motor dexterity task before and after viewing images of baby or adult animals. Performance indexed by the number of successful trials increased after viewing cute images (puppies and kittens; M ± SE = 43.9±10.3% improvement) more than after viewing images that were less cute (dogs and cats; 11.9±5.5% improvement). In the second experiment, this finding was replicated by using a non-motor visual search task. Performance improved more after viewing cute images (15.7±2.2% improvement) than after viewing less cute images (1.4±2.1% improvement). Viewing images of pleasant foods was ineffective in improving performance (1.2±2.1%). In the third experiment, participants performed a global–local letter task after viewing images of baby animals, adult animals, and neutral objects. In general, global features were processed faster than local features. However, this global precedence effect was reduced after viewing cute images. Results show that participants performed tasks requiring focused attention more carefully after viewing cute images. This is interpreted as the result of a narrowed attentional focus induced by the cuteness-triggered positive emotion that is associated with approach motivation and the tendency toward systematic processing. For future applications, cute objects may be used as an emotion elicitor to induce careful behavioral tendencies in specific situations, such as driving and office work. PMID:23050022

  2. The power of Kawaii: viewing cute images promotes a careful behavior and narrows attentional focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittono, Hiroshi; Fukushima, Michiko; Yano, Akihiro; Moriya, Hiroki

    2012-01-01

    Kawaii (a Japanese word meaning "cute") things are popular because they produce positive feelings. However, their effect on behavior remains unclear. In this study, three experiments were conducted to examine the effects of viewing cute images on subsequent task performance. In the first experiment, university students performed a fine motor dexterity task before and after viewing images of baby or adult animals. Performance indexed by the number of successful trials increased after viewing cute images (puppies and kittens; M ± SE=43.9 ± 10.3% improvement) more than after viewing images that were less cute (dogs and cats; 11.9 ± 5.5% improvement). In the second experiment, this finding was replicated by using a non-motor visual search task. Performance improved more after viewing cute images (15.7 ± 2.2% improvement) than after viewing less cute images (1.4 ± 2.1% improvement). Viewing images of pleasant foods was ineffective in improving performance (1.2 ± 2.1%). In the third experiment, participants performed a global-local letter task after viewing images of baby animals, adult animals, and neutral objects. In general, global features were processed faster than local features. However, this global precedence effect was reduced after viewing cute images. Results show that participants performed tasks requiring focused attention more carefully after viewing cute images. This is interpreted as the result of a narrowed attentional focus induced by the cuteness-triggered positive emotion that is associated with approach motivation and the tendency toward systematic processing. For future applications, cute objects may be used as an emotion elicitor to induce careful behavioral tendencies in specific situations, such as driving and office work.

  3. Public purpose recreation marketing: a focus on the relationships between the public and public lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    William T. Borrie; Neal Christensen; Alan E. Watson; Theron A. Miller; Daniel W. McCollum

    2002-01-01

    Marketing has long had a place in the planning and management of public sector recreation. In particular, the use of market segmentation has allowed leisure providers to better understand their clientsgas needs and to tailor their services to the diversity of those needs. However, the use of marketing approaches is not without controversy and is sometimes perceived to...

  4. Focused and divided attention in a simulated cocktail-party situation: ERP evidence from younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getzmann, Stephan; Golob, Edward J; Wascher, Edmund

    2016-05-01

    Speech perception under complex listening conditions usually decreases in aging. This is especially true for listening conditions requiring divided attention among 2 and more relevant speakers. Using a speech perception task and event-related potential measures, we studied the ability of younger and older adults to attend to speech information from a single-target speaker (focused attention) or from 2 different (alternative) target speakers (divided attention). The focused and divided attention conditions were presented either in silence or in the presence of 3 concurrent speakers. In the presence of concurrent speakers, older participants showed worse performance with divided versus focused attention. In contrast, there was no effect of attention condition for the younger adults. Relative to the young, event-related potential analysis in older subjects indicated a decline in preparatory activity for the critical speech information (a delayed and smaller contingent negative variation), and delayed attentional control (indicated by a longer P2 latency). Standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography revealed that the age-related decline in preparatory activity was associated with reduced activation of medial and superior frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate gyrus. The results suggest that age-related differences in these prefrontal brain areas reflect declines in preparatory attention and gating of subsequent task-related speech information, especially under conditions of divided attention. These findings may reflect mechanisms relating to impaired speech perception by older people in "cocktail-party" listening situations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Non-erotic thoughts, attentional focus, and sexual problems in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Andrea L; Purdon, Christine

    2011-04-01

    According to Barlow's model of sexual dysfunction, anxiety in sexual situations leads to attentional focus on sexual performance at the expense of erotic cues, which compromises sexual arousal. This negative experience will enhance anxiety in future sexual situations, and non-erotic thoughts (NETs) relevant to performance will receive attentional priority. Previous research with student samples (Purdon & Holdaway, 2006; Purdon & Watson, 2010) has found that people experience many types of NETs in addition to performance-relevant thoughts, and that, consistent with Barlow's model, the frequency of and anxiety evoked by these thoughts is positively associated with sexual problems. Extending this previous work, the current study found that, in a community sample of women (N = 81) and men (N = 72) in long-term relationships, women were more likely to report body image concerns and external consequences of the sexual activity, while men were more likely to report performance-related concerns. Equally likely among men and women were thoughts about emotional consequences of the sexual activity. Regardless of thought content, experiencing more frequent NETs was associated with more sexual problems in both women and men. Moreover, as per Barlow's model, greater negative affect in anticipation of and during sexual activity predicted greater frequency of NETs and greater anxiety in response to NETs was associated with greater difficulty dismissing the thoughts. However, greater difficulty in refocusing on erotic thoughts during sexual activity uniquely predicted more sexual problems above the frequency and dismissability of NETs. Together, these data support the cognitive interference mechanism implicated by Barlow's causal model of sexual dysfunction and have implications for the treatment of sexual problems.

  6. Students' and teachers' focus of attention in classroom interaction — subtle sources for the reproduction of social disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Anna-Marietha; Prediger, Susanne; Quasthoff, Uta; Heller, Vivien

    2018-01-01

    Mathematics classroom interaction has often been described as an important context for involving all students. However, this article shows that teacher-student-interaction is still not really in the focus of teachers' attention. Based on classroom video studies, some authors hypothesize that the implicitness of establishing norms and practices is, among others, an obstacle for students with low socio-economic status. The article intends to put this hypothesis into perspective by investigating teachers' and students' focus of attention on classroom interaction in video-stimulated group discussions (six discussions with 5-6 students, four discussions with 5-9 teachers). The data analysis used inductive procedures of category development, frequency analysis, and deeper qualitative analysis of the transcripts. For students' focus of attention, differential patterns could be extrapolated: Whereas students of high socio-economic status seem to be more attentive to teacher's contextual expectations, the students of low socio-economic status seem to be more focused on general norms without taking into account contextual expectations. For the teachers, the analysis shows that interactive mechanisms of teacher-student exchanges in classrooms are usually not in the teachers' focus of attention. Additionally, the teachers address, but rarely problematize the implicitness by which norms and practices are established. Together with the differential findings on students' attention, these findings are discussed with respect to equity concerns and consequences for professional development of teachers.

  7. Efficacy of a family-focused intervention for young drivers with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiano, Gregory A; Schatz, Nicole K; Morris, Karen L; Willoughby, Michael T; Vujnovic, Rebecca K; Hulme, Kevin F; Riordan, Jessica; Howard, Marlana; Hennessy, Dwight; Lewis, Kemper; Hawk, Larry; Wylie, Amanda; Pelham, William E

    2016-12-01

    Teenage drivers diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at significant risk for negative driving outcomes related to morbidity and mortality. However, there are few viable psychosocial treatments for teens with ADHD and none focus on the key functional area of driving. The Supporting the Effective Entry to the Roadway (STEER) program was evaluated in a clinical trial to investigate whether it improved family functioning as a proximal outcome and driving behavior as a distal outcome. One hundred seventy-two teenagers with ADHD, combined type, were randomly assigned to STEER or a driver education driver practice program (DEDP). Relative to parents in the DEDP condition, parents in STEER were observed to be less negative at posttreatment and 6-month follow-up but not at 12-month follow-up, and there were no significant differences for observed positive parenting. Relative to teens in the DEDP condition, teens in STEER reported lower levels of risky driving behaviors at posttreatment and 6-month follow-up, but not at 12-month follow-up. Groups did not differ on objective observations of risky driving or citations/accidents. The STEER program for novice drivers with ADHD was effective in reducing observations of negative parenting behavior and teen self-reports of risky driving relative to DEDP; groups did not significantly differ on observations of positive parenting or driving behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Self-focused attention affects subsequent processing of positive (but not negative) performance appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzman, Jacob B; Valentiner, David P

    2016-03-01

    Cognitive-behavioral models highlight the conjoint roles of self-focused attention (SFA), post-event processing (PEP), and performance appraisals in the maintenance of social anxiety. SFA, PEP, and biased performance appraisals are related to social anxiety; however, limited research has examined how SFA affects information-processing following social events. The current study examined whether SFA affects the relationships between performance appraisals and PEP following a social event.. 137 participants with high (n = 72) or low (n = 65) social anxiety were randomly assigned to conditions of high SFA or low SFA while engaging in a standardized social performance. Subsequent performance appraisals and PEP were measured. Immediate performance appraisals were not affected by SFA. High levels of SFA led to a stronger, inverse relationship between immediate positive performance appraisals and subsequent negative PEP. High levels of SFA also led to a stronger, inverse relationship between negative PEP and changes in positive performance appraisals.. Future research should examine whether the current findings, which involved a standardized social performance event, extend to interaction events as well as in a clinical sample. These findings suggest that SFA affects the processing of positive information following a social performance event. SFA is particularly important for understanding how negative PEP undermines positive performance appraisals.. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Competition for the focus of attention in visual working memory: perceptual recency versus executive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitch, Graham J; Hu, Yanmei; Allen, Richard J; Baddeley, Alan D

    2018-03-10

    Previous research on memory for a short sequence of visual stimuli indicates that access to the focus of attention (FoA) can be achieved in either of two ways. The first is automatic and is indexed by the recency effect, the enhanced retention of the final item. The second is strategic and based on instructions to prioritize items differentially, a process that draws on executive capacity and boosts retention of information deemed important. In both cases, the increased level of retention can be selectively reduced by presenting a poststimulus distractor (or suffix). We manipulated these variables across three experiments. Experiment 1 generalized previous evidence that prioritizing a single item enhances its retention and increases its vulnerability to interference from a poststimulus suffix. A second experiment showed that the enhancement from prioritizing one or two items comes at a cost to the recency effect. A third experiment showed that prioritizing two items renders memory for both vulnerable to interference from an irrelevant suffix. The results suggest that some but not all items in working memory compete to occupy a narrow FoA and that this competition is determined by a combination of perceptually driven recency and internal executive control. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  10. Audiovisual focus of attention and its application to Ultra High Definition video compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rerabek, Martin; Nemoto, Hiromi; Lee, Jong-Seok; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2014-02-01

    Using Focus of Attention (FoA) as a perceptual process in image and video compression belongs to well-known approaches to increase coding efficiency. It has been shown that foveated coding, when compression quality varies across the image according to region of interest, is more efficient than the alternative coding, when all region are compressed in a similar way. However, widespread use of such foveated compression has been prevented due to two main conflicting causes, namely, the complexity and the efficiency of algorithms for FoA detection. One way around these is to use as much information as possible from the scene. Since most video sequences have an associated audio, and moreover, in many cases there is a correlation between the audio and the visual content, audiovisual FoA can improve efficiency of the detection algorithm while remaining of low complexity. This paper discusses a simple yet efficient audiovisual FoA algorithm based on correlation of dynamics between audio and video signal components. Results of audiovisual FoA detection algorithm are subsequently taken into account for foveated coding and compression. This approach is implemented into H.265/HEVC encoder producing a bitstream which is fully compliant to any H.265/HEVC decoder. The influence of audiovisual FoA in the perceived quality of high and ultra-high definition audiovisual sequences is explored and the amount of gain in compression efficiency is analyzed.

  11. Maximizing Performance: Augmented Feedback, Focus of Attention, and/or Reward?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wälchli, Michael; Ruffieux, Jan; Bourquin, Yann; Keller, Martin; Taube, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Different approaches like providing augmented feedback (aF), applying an external focus of attention (EF), or rewarding participants with money (RE) have been shown to instantly enhance motor performance. So far, these approaches have been tested either in separate studies or directly against each other. However, there is no study that combined aF, EF, and/or RE to test whether this provokes additional benefits. The aim of the present study was therefore to identify the most powerful combination. Eighteen participants performed maximal countermovement jumps in six different conditions: neutral (NE), aF, RE, aF + EF, aF + RE, and aF + EF + RE. Participants demonstrated the highest jump heights with aF + EF, followed by aF + EF + RE, aF + RE, aF, RE, and finally, NE. Activity of the M. rectus femoris differed significantly between conditions resulting in lower muscular activity in aF + EF and aF + EF + RE compared with NE. All other parameters, such as ground reaction forces and joint angles, were comparable across conditions. This is the first study showing superior performance when combining aF with EF. As reduced muscular activity was found only in conditions with EF, it is argued in line with the constrained action hypothesis that adopting an EF improves movement efficiency. In contrast, aF seems to rather enhance (intrinsic) motivation. However, monetary reward did not further amplify performance.

  12. Altered white matter tract property related to impaired focused attention, sustained attention, cognitive impulsivity and vigilance in attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Huey-Ling; Chen, Yu-Jen; Lo, Yu-Chun; Tseng, Wen-Yih I; Gau, Susan S

    2015-09-01

    The neural substrate for clinical symptoms and neuropsychological performance in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has rarely been studied and has yielded inconsistent results. We sought to compare the microstructural property of fibre tracts associated with the prefrontal cortex and its association with ADHD symptoms and a wide range of attention performance in youth with ADHD and healthy controls. We assessed youths with ADHD and age-, sex-, handedness-, coil- and intelligence-matched controls using the Conners' Continuous Performance Test (CCPT) for attention performance and MRI. The 10 target tracts, including the bilateral frontostriatal tracts (caudate to dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and orbitofrontal cortex), superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) and cingulum bundle were reconstructed using diffusion spectrum imaging tractography. We computed generalized fractional anisotropy (GFA) values to indicate tract-specific microstructural property. We included 50 youths with ADHD and 50 healthy controls in our study. Youths with ADHD had lower GFA in the left frontostriatal tracts, bilateral SLF and right cingulum bundle and performed worse in the CCPT than controls. Furthermore, alteration of the right SLF GFA was most significantly associated with the clinical symptom of inattention in youths with ADHD. Finally, youths with ADHD had differential association patterns of the 10 fibre tract GFA values with attention performance compared with controls. Ten of the youths with ADHD were treated with methylphenidate, which may have long-term effects on microstructural property. Our study highlights the importance of the SLF, cingulum bundle and frontostriatal tracts for clinical symptoms and attention performance in youths with ADHD and demonstrates the involvement of different fibre tracts in attention performance in these individuals.

  13. Accessing Information in Working Memory: Can the Focus of Attention Grasp Two Elements at the Same Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberauer, Klaus; Bialkova, Svetlana

    2009-01-01

    Processing information in working memory requires selective access to a subset of working-memory contents by a focus of attention. Complex cognition often requires joint access to 2 items in working memory. How does the focus select 2 items? Two experiments with an arithmetic task and 1 with a spatial task investigate time demands for successive…

  14. Accessing information in working memory: Can the focus of attention grasp two elements at the same time?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberauer, K.; Bialkova, S.E.

    2009-01-01

    Processing information in working memory requires selective access to a subset of working-memory contents by a focus of attention. Complex cognition often requires joint access to 2 items in working memory. How does the focus select 2 items? Two experiments with an arithmetic task and 1 with a

  15. Stay Focused! The Effects of Internal and External Focus of Attention on Movement Automaticity in Patients with Stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kal, E. C.; van der Kamp, J.; Houdijk, H.; Groet, E.; van Bennekom, C. A. M.; Scherder, E. J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Dual-task performance is often impaired after stroke. This may be resolved by enhancing patients' automaticity of movement. This study sets out to test the constrained action hypothesis, which holds that automaticity of movement is enhanced by triggering an external focus (on movement effects),

  16. The Effects of External Focus of Attention on Shoulder Muscle Activities during Forehand Drive in Table Tennis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Hatami

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the external focus of attention on the rotator cuff muscle activity for the timely hit forehand drive by table tennis players. Methods: Twelve professional table tennis players with mean age of 26.5 years voluntarily participated in this study. The electrical activities of the muscles of the shoulder girdle using M.A 300 machine and bipolar electrodes surface under two conditions .First with external focus of attention and then without such attention were recorded, first without any guidance blows forehand drive was carried out by subjects (without focus. Then such subject was asked to focus their attention on the area marked for the ball landing (external focus of attention.      Muscle activities in both preparation and tapping phases were analyzed the three –dimensional (200 Hz, Vicon, with four camera series T motion analysis system was used to obtain the data. Data was analyzed by running reported measures ANOVA at a significance level of p0.05 but the different between the intensity of muscle activity was meaningful. This suggests that there is a mutual influence between the two attention factors and muscles (p=0.03, that is, orientation can have a significant effect on the severity of muscle contraction. Intensities of muscle contraction in the preparation and tapping were different (p<0.05. Conclusion: On the forehand drive technique, the anterior deltoid muscle has the most activity. The type of focus and attention had a significant impact on the change of activity of muscles relative to each other, and the greatest impact is on the reduction of activity of the infraspinatus muscle. This type of focus delays fatigue and results in an increase in the efficiency of neuromuscular in the activities of skills.

  17. The Public Schools Contracts Law. Focus on School Law Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabreu, O. Lisa

    New Jersey's Public Schools Contracts Law, enacted on June 2, 1977, places limits on the authority of local and regional boards of education to make purchases and to enter into contracts, agreements, or leases for supplies or services. This publication is designed to provide information and guidance that will assist boards of education in meeting…

  18. The precision of spatial selection into the focus of attention in working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Alessandra S; Thalmann, Mirko; Oberauer, Klaus

    2018-04-23

    Attention helps manage the information held in visual working memory (vWM). Perceptual attention selects the stimuli to be represented in vWM, whereas internal attention prioritizes information already in vWM. In the present study we assessed the spatial precision of perceptual and internal attention in vWM. Participants encoded eight colored dots for a local-recognition test. To manipulate attention, a cue indicated the item most likely to be tested (~65% validity). The cue appeared either before the onset of the memory array (precue) or during the retention interval (retrocue). The precue guides perceptual attention to gate encoding into vWM, whereas the retrocue guides internal attention to prioritize the cued item within vWM. If attentional selection is spatially imprecise, attention should be preferentially allocated to the cued location, with a gradual drop-off of attention over space to nearby uncued locations. In this case, memory for uncued locations should vary as a function of their distance from the cued location. As compared to a no-cue condition, memory was better for validly cued items but worse for uncued items. The spatial distance between the uncued and cued locations modulated the cuing costs: Items close in space to the cued location were insulated from cuing costs. The extension of this spatial proximity effect was larger for precues than for retrocues, mostly because the benefits of attention were larger for precues. These results point to similar selection principles between perceptual and internal attention and to a critical role of spatial distance in the selection of visual representations.

  19. In search of the focus of attention in working memory: 13 years of the retro-cue effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Alessandra S; Oberauer, Klaus

    2016-10-01

    The concept of attention has a prominent place in cognitive psychology. Attention can be directed not only to perceptual information, but also to information in working memory (WM). Evidence for an internal focus of attention has come from the retro-cue effect: Performance in tests of visual WM is improved when attention is guided to the test-relevant contents of WM ahead of testing them. The retro-cue paradigm has served as a test bed to empirically investigate the functions and limits of the focus of attention in WM. In this article, we review the growing body of (behavioral) studies on the retro-cue effect. We evaluate the degrees of experimental support for six hypotheses about what causes the retro-cue effect: (1) Attention protects representations from decay, (2) attention prioritizes the selected WM contents for comparison with a probe display, (3) attended representations are strengthened in WM, (4) not-attended representations are removed from WM, (5) a retro-cue to the retrieval target provides a head start for its retrieval before decision making, and (6) attention protects the selected representation from perceptual interference. The extant evidence provides support for the last four of these hypotheses.

  20. Focused attention, open monitoring and automatic self-transcending: Categories to organize meditations from Vedic, Buddhist and Chinese traditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Fred; Shear, Jonathan

    2010-12-01

    This paper proposes a third meditation-category--automatic self-transcending--to extend the dichotomy of focused attention and open monitoring proposed by Lutz. Automatic self-transcending includes techniques designed to transcend their own activity. This contrasts with focused attention, which keeps attention focused on an object; and open monitoring, which keeps attention involved in the monitoring process. Each category was assigned EEG bands, based on reported brain patterns during mental tasks, and meditations were categorized based on their reported EEG. Focused attention, characterized by beta/gamma activity, included meditations from Tibetan Buddhist, Buddhist, and Chinese traditions. Open monitoring, characterized by theta activity, included meditations from Buddhist, Chinese, and Vedic traditions. Automatic self-transcending, characterized by alpha1 activity, included meditations from Vedic and Chinese traditions. Between categories, the included meditations differed in focus, subject/object relation, and procedures. These findings shed light on the common mistake of averaging meditations together to determine mechanisms or clinical effects. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Primacy and recency effects as indices of the focus of attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra B. Morrison

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing debate surrounds the capacity and characteristics of the focus of attention. The present study investigates whether a pattern of larger recency effects and smaller primacy effects reported in previous working memory studies is specific to task conditions used in those studies, or generalizes across manipulations of task-demand. Two experiments varied task-demands by requiring participants to remember lists of letters and to then respond to a subsequent two-item probe by indicating either the item that was presented later in the list (judgment of recency or the item was presented earlier (judgment of primacy. Analyses tested the prediction that a WM task emphasizing later items in a list (judgment of recency would encourage exaggerated recency effects and attenuated primacy effects, while a task emphasizing earlier items (judgment of primacy would encourage exaggerated primacy effects and attenuated recency effects. Behavioral results from two experiments confirmed this prediction. In contrast to past studies, fMRI contrasts revealed no brain regions where activity was significantly altered by the presence of recency items in the probe, for either task condition. However, presence of the primacy item in the probe significantly influenced activity in frontal lobe brain regions linked to active maintenance, but the location and direction of activation changes varied as a function of task instructions. In sum, two experiments demonstrate that the behavioral and neural signatures of WM, specifically related to primacy and recency effects, are dependent on task-demands. Findings are discussed as they inform models of the structure and capacity of WM.

  2. Flexibility within working memory and the focus of attention for sequential verbal information does not depend on active maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandry, Joshua; Schwark, Jeremy D; MacDonald, Justin

    2014-10-01

    The focus of attention seems to be a static element within working memory when verbal information is serially presented, unless additional time is available for processing or active maintenance. Experiment 1 manipulated the reward associated with early and medial list positions in a probe recognition paradigm and found evidence that these nonterminal list positions could be retrieved faster and more accurately if participants were appropriately motivated-without additional time for processing or active maintenance. Experiment 2 used articulatory suppression and demonstrated that the underlying maintenance mechanism cannot be attributed to rehearsal, leaving attentional refreshing as the more likely mechanism. These findings suggest that the focus of attention within working memory can flexibly maintain nonterminal early and medial list representations at the expense of other list representations even when there is not additional time for processing or active maintenance. Maintenance seems to be accomplished through an attentional refreshing mechanism.

  3. Threat ≠ prevention, challenge ≠ promotion: the impact of threat, challenge and regulatory focus on attention to negative stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassenberg, Kai; Sassenrath, Claudia; Fetterman, Adam K

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current experiment was to distinguish between the impact of strategic and affective forms of gain- and loss-related motivational states on the attention to negative stimuli. On the basis of the counter-regulation principle and regulatory focus theory, we predicted that individuals would attend more to negative than to neutral stimuli in a prevention focus and when experiencing challenge, but not in a promotion focus and under threat. In one experiment (N = 88) promotion, prevention, threat, or challenge states were activated through a memory task, and a subsequent dot probe task was administered. As predicted, those in the prevention focus and challenge conditions had an attentional bias towards negative words, but those in promotion and threat conditions did not. These findings provide support for the idea that strategic mindsets (e.g., regulatory focus) and hot emotional states (e.g., threat vs. challenge) differently affect the processing of affective stimuli.

  4. A single bout of meditation biases cognitive control but not attentional focusing: Evidence from the global-local task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colzato, Lorenza S; van der Wel, Pauline; Sellaro, Roberta; Hommel, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies show that a single bout of meditation can impact information processing. We were interested to see whether this impact extends to attentional focusing and the top-down control over irrelevant information. Healthy adults underwent brief single bouts of either focused attention meditation (FAM), which is assumed to increase top-down control, or open monitoring meditation (OMM), which is assumed to weaken top-down control, before performing a global-local task. While the size of the global-precedence effect (reflecting attentional focusing) was unaffected by type of meditation, the congruency effect (indicating the failure to suppress task-irrelevant information) was considerably larger after OMM than after FAM. Our findings suggest that engaging in particular kinds of meditation creates particular cognitive-control states that bias the individual processing style toward either goal-persistence or cognitive flexibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Improvement of Emotion and Attention Regulation after a 6-Week Training of Focused Meditation: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Baptista Menezes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-regulatory trainings can be an effective complementary treatment for mental health disorders. We investigated the effects of a six-week-focused meditation training on emotion and attention regulation in undergraduates randomly allocated to a meditation, a relaxation, or a wait-list control group. Assessment comprised a discrimination task that investigates the relationship between attentional load and emotional processing and self-report measures. For emotion regulation, results showed greater reduction in emotional interference in the low attentional load condition in meditators, particularly compared to relaxation. Only meditators presented a significant association between amount of weekly practice and the reduction in emotion interference in the task and significantly reduced image ratings of negative valence and arousal, perceived anxiety and difficulty during the task, and state and trait-anxiety. For attention regulation, response bias during the task was analyzed through signal detection theory. After training, meditation and relaxation significantly reduced bias in the high attentional load condition. Importantly, there was a dose-response effect on general bias: the lowest in meditation, increasing linearly across relaxation and wait-list. Only meditators reduced omissions in a concentrated attention test. Focused meditation seems to be an effective training for emotion and attention regulation and an alternative for treatments in the mental health context.

  6. Bottom-up influences of voice continuity in focusing selective auditory attention

    OpenAIRE

    Bressler, Scott; Masud, Salwa; Bharadwaj, Hari; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Selective auditory attention causes a relative enhancement of the neural representation of important information and suppression of the neural representation of distracting sound, which enables a listener to analyze and interpret information of interest. Some studies suggest that in both vision and in audition, the “unit” on which attention operates is an object: an estimate of the information coming from a particular external source out in the world. In this view, which object ends up in the...

  7. Bring Hidden Hazards to the Publics Attention, Understanding, and Informed Decision by Coordinating Federal Education Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niepold, F.; Karsten, J. L.; Wei, M.; Jadin, J.

    2010-12-01

    In the 2010 National Research Council’s America’s Climate Choices’ report on Informing Effective Decisions and Actions Related to Climate Change concluded; “Education and communication are among the most powerful tools the nation has to bring hidden hazards to public attention, understanding, and action.” They conclude that the “current and future students, the broader public, and policymakers need to understand the causes, consequences, and potential solutions to climate change, develop scientific thinking and problem-solving skills, and improve their ability to make informed decisions.” The U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) works to integrate the climate related activities of these different agencies, with oversight from the Office of Science and Technology Policy and other White House offices. USGCRP’s focus is now on evaluating optimal strategies for addressing climate change risks, improving coordination among the Federal agencies, engaging stakeholders (including national policy leaders and local resource managers) on the research results to all and improving public understanding and decision-making related to global change. Implicit to these activities is the need to educate the public about the science of climate change and its consequences, as well as coordinate Federal investments related to climate change education. In a broader sense, the implementation of the proposed Interagency Taskforce on Climate Change Communication and Education will serve the evolving USGCRP mandates around cross-cutting, thematic elements, as recommended by the National Research Council (NRC, 2009) and the U.S. Climate Change Science Program Revised Research Plan: An update to the 2003 Strategic Plan (USGCRP, 2008), to help the Federal government “capitalize on its investments and aid in the development of increased climate literacy for the Nation.” This session will update the participants on the work to date and the near term coordinated plans

  8. A study about Accounting Publications from a Semiotic Focus

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Antonio de Souza; Carlos Alberto Diehl; Fernando Batista Fontana; Clea Beatriz Macagnan

    2013-01-01

    This paper was aimed at analyzing the contributions of semiotics teaching in Accounting. The actual development of semiotics as a modern science, which focuses on any language form, was only acknowledged between the 18th and 19thcenturies. Since then, several authors have studied this theme, using semiotics as an instrument to analyze other sciences. Many authors classify Accounting, considered a science, as a language. Hence, it can be analyzed based on the premises of semiotics. In this stu...

  9. Neural mechanisms of human perceptual choice under focused and divided attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyart, Valentin; Myers, Nicholas E; Summerfield, Christopher

    2015-02-25

    Perceptual decisions occur after the evaluation and integration of momentary sensory inputs, and dividing attention between spatially disparate sources of information impairs decision performance. However, it remains unknown whether dividing attention degrades the precision of sensory signals, precludes their conversion into decision signals, or dampens the integration of decision information toward an appropriate response. Here we recorded human electroencephalographic (EEG) activity while participants categorized one of two simultaneous and independent streams of visual gratings according to their average tilt. By analyzing trial-by-trial correlations between EEG activity and the information offered by each sample, we obtained converging behavioral and neural evidence that dividing attention between left and right visual fields does not dampen the encoding of sensory or decision information. Under divided attention, momentary decision information from both visual streams was encoded in slow parietal signals without interference but was lost downstream during their integration as reflected in motor mu- and beta-band (10-30 Hz) signals, resulting in a "leaky" accumulation process that conferred greater behavioral influence to more recent samples. By contrast, sensory inputs that were explicitly cued as irrelevant were not converted into decision signals. These findings reveal that a late cognitive bottleneck on information integration limits decision performance under divided attention, and places new capacity constraints on decision-theoretic models of information integration under cognitive load. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/353485-14$15.00/0.

  10. Neural mechanisms of human perceptual choice under focused and divided attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyart, Valentin; Myers, Nicholas E.; Summerfield, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Perceptual decisions occur after evaluation and integration of momentary sensory inputs, and dividing attention between spatially disparate sources of information impairs decision performance. However, it remains unknown whether dividing attention degrades the precision of sensory signals, precludes their conversion into decision signals, or dampens the integration of decision information towards an appropriate response. Here we recorded human electroencephalographic (EEG) activity whilst participants categorised one of two simultaneous and independent streams of visual gratings according to their average tilt. By analyzing trial-by-trial correlations between EEG activity and the information offered by each sample, we obtained converging behavioural and neural evidence that dividing attention between left and right visual fields does not dampen the encoding of sensory or decision information. Under divided attention, momentary decision information from both visual streams was encoded in slow parietal signals without interference but was lost downstream during their integration as reflected in motor mu- and beta-band (10–30 Hz) signals, resulting in a ‘leaky’ accumulation process which conferred greater behavioural influence to more recent samples. By contrast, sensory inputs that were explicitly cued as irrelevant were not converted into decision signals. These findings reveal that a late cognitive bottleneck on information integration limits decision performance under divided attention, and place new capacity constraints on decision-theoretic models of information integration under cognitive load. PMID:25716848

  11. Influence of different attentional focus on EMG amplitude and contraction duration during the bench press at different speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calatayud, Joaquin; Vinstrup, Jonas; Jakobsen, Markus D; Sundstrup, Emil; Colado, Juan Carlos; Andersen, Lars L

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether using different focus affects electromyographic (EMG) amplitude and contraction duration during bench press performed at explosive and controlled speeds. Eighteen young male individuals were familiarized with the procedure and performed the one-maximum repetition (1RM) test in the first session. In the second session, participants performed the bench press exercise at 50% of the 1RM with 3 different attentional focuses (regular focus on moving the load vs contracting the pectoralis vs contracting the triceps) at 2 speed conditions (controlled vs maximal speed). During the controlled speed condition, focusing on using either the pectoralis or the triceps muscles increased pectoralis normalized EMG (nEMG) by 6% (95% CI 3-8%; p = 0.0001) and 4% nEMG (95% CI 1-7%; p = 0.0096), respectively, compared with the regular focus condition. Triceps activity was increased by 4% nEMG (95% CI 0-7%; p = 0.0308) at the controlled speed condition during the triceps focus. During the explosive speed condition, the use of different focuses had no effect. The different attentional focus resulted in comparable contraction duration for the measured muscles when the exercise was performed explosively. Using internal focus to increase EMG amplitude seems to function only during conditions of controlled speed.

  12. Effects of Internal, External and Preference of Attentional Focus Feedback Instructions on Learning Soccer “Head Kick”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Okan Miçooğulları

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different types of feedback on learning soccer “head kick” of female adolescent. Novices performed head kick during two practice days [one week apart for two weeks using either internal or external preference attentional focusing instructions. There was also a preference group who choosen their feedback type themselves. Internal focus feedback related with body movements, whereas external focus feedback related with movement effects. The subjects (N=64 were randomly assigned to three groups internal focus feedback group (IFF (N=15, external focus feedback group (EFF (N=15 and preference group (PF (N=34. To promote learning two skill acquisition days for two weeks and one retention day was applied at initial day of third week. Technique of the skill was measured in acquisition days and targeting was measured in retention day. In technique measuring part, EFF group was significantly more accurate than IFF group, PF group was better than those two groups (PF>EFF>IFF. Similar to acquisition phase, EFF group was significantly more successfull than IFF group, PF group was better than those two groups (PF>EFF>IFF in retention phase. Acquisition and retention phase results indicated significance main effect for attentional focus feedback groups. This study results’ indicated that external focus feedback was more effective than internal focus feedback in terms of acquisition and retention of learning soccer head kick for students with limited amount of knowledge about this skill. This study also indicated that not only the source of attention but also control over to source of attention of preference was an important factor in the amount of retention.

  13. Examining the factors that are correlated with mindfulness with a focus on attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Burcu Goksan; Yavuz, Mesut; Onal, Arzu

    2018-05-18

    We hypothesized that attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms would negatively correlate with the level of mindfulness. Seventy-six subjects referred to the outpatient psychiatry unit and 32 healthy control subjects filled out the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS), the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS), and the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS). Patients scored higher on ADH symptoms compared to controls (p ≤ .001). Higher scores on the ASRS and WURS revealed lower mindfulness in the study group (p ≤ .001). WURS, DASS depression, ASRS attention subscale-based scores (p < .05) were significant predictors on MAAS scores. Besides emotional symptoms ADH symptoms had a significant predictive value on mindfulness. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The effects of attentional focus on jump performance and knee joint kinematics in patients after ACL reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gokeler, Alli; Benjaminse, Anne; Welling, Wouter; Alferink, Malou; Eppinga, Peter; Otten, Bert

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an internal and external attentional focus on single leg hop jump distance and knee kinematics in patients after ACL reconstruction (ACLR). Design: Experimental. Setting: Outpatient physical therapy facility. Participants: Sixteen

  15. Cognitive control processes in paranoia: the impact of threat induction on strategic cognition and self-focused attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, Laura; Newman-Taylor, Katherine; Stopa, Lusia

    2015-01-01

    Current clinical models emphasize certain cognitive processes in the maintenance of distressing paranoia. While a number of these processes have been examined in detail, the role of strategic cognition and self-focused attention remain under-researched. This study examined the deployment of cognitive strategies and self-focused attention in people with non-clinical paranoia. An experimental design was used to examine the impact of a threat activation task on these processes, in participants with high and low non-clinical paranoia. Twenty-eight people were recruited to each group, and completed measures of anxiety, paranoid cognition, strategic cognition and self-focused attention. The threat activation task was effective in increasing anxiety in people with high and low non-clinical paranoia. The high paranoia group experienced more paranoid cognitions following threat activation. This group also reported greater use of thought suppression, punishment and worry, and less use of social control strategies when under threat. No differences were found between the groups on measures of self-focused attention. This study shows that the threat activation task increased anxiety in people with high non-clinical paranoia, leading to increased paranoid thinking. The use of strategic cognition following threat activation varied dependent on level of non-clinical paranoia. If these differences are replicated in clinical groups, the strategies may be implicated in the maintenance of distressing psychosis, and may therefore be a valuable target for therapeutic intervention.

  16. How do I look? Self-focused attention during a video chat of women with social anxiety (disorder)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriends, N.; Meral, Y.; Bargas-Avila, J.A.; Stadler, C.; Bögels, S.M.

    We investigated the role of self-focused attention (SFA) in social anxiety (disorder) in an ecologically valid way. In Experiment 1 high (n = 26) versus low (n = 25) socially anxious single women between 18 and 30 years had a video (“Skype”) conversation with an attractive male confederate, while

  17. The Effect of Different Attentional Focus Instructions during Finger Movement Tasks in Healthy Subjects: An Exploratory Study

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    Giacomo Rossettini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available External focus of attention (EFA and internal focus of attention (IFA represent commonly used strategies to instruct subjects during exercise. Several studies showed EFA to be more effective than IFA to improve motor performance and learning. To date the role of these strategies on motor performance during finger movement was less studied. The objective of the study was to investigate motor performance, patient’s preference induced by IFA and EFA, and the focus during control condition. Ten healthy right-handed participants performed a finger movement task in control, EFA, and IFA conditions (counterbalanced. Errors, patient’s preference, and type of attentional focus spontaneously adopted during the control condition were recorded. EFA determined less error (p<0.01 compared to control and IFA. Participants preferred EFA against IFA and control condition. In the control group 10% of subjects adopted a purely EFA, 70% of subjects adopted a purely IFA, and 20% of subjects adopted a mixture of the two foci. Our results confirm that EFA is more effective than IFA and control in finger movement task. Due its clinical relevance, the interaction between attention and finger movement should be further investigated.

  18. Early Postnatal Manganese Exposure Causes Lasting Impairment of Selective and Focused Attention and Arousal Regulation in Adult Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudin, Stephane A.; Strupp, Barbara J.; Strawderman, Myla; Smith, Donald R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies in children and adolescents have associated early developmental manganese (Mn) exposure with inattention, impulsivity, hyperactivity, and oppositional behaviors, but causal inferences are precluded by the correlational nature of the data and generally limited control for potential confounders. Objectives: To determine whether early postnatal oral Mn exposure causes lasting attentional and impulse control deficits in adulthood, and whether continued lifelong Mn exposure exacerbates these effects, using a rat model of environmental Mn exposure. Methods: Neonates were exposed orally to 0, 25 or 50 mg Mn/kg/day during early postnatal life (PND 1–21) or throughout life from PND 1 until the end of the study. In adulthood, the animals were tested on a series of learning and attention tasks using the five-choice serial reaction time task. Results: Early postnatal Mn exposure caused lasting attentional dysfunction due to impairments in attentional preparedness, selective attention, and arousal regulation, whereas associative ability (learning) and impulse control were spared. The presence and severity of these deficits varied with the dose and duration of Mn exposure. Conclusions: This study is the first to show that developmental Mn exposure can cause lasting impairments in focused and selective attention and arousal regulation, and to identify the specific nature of the impairments. Given the importance of attention and arousal regulation in cognitive functioning, these findings substantiate concerns about the adverse effects of developmental Mn exposure in humans. Citation: Beaudin SA, Strupp BJ, Strawderman M, Smith DR. 2017. Early postnatal manganese exposure causes lasting impairment of selective and focused attention and arousal regulation in adult rats. Environ Health Perspect 125:230–237; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP258 PMID:27384154

  19. Early Postnatal Manganese Exposure Causes Lasting Impairment of Selective and Focused Attention and Arousal Regulation in Adult Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudin, Stephane A; Strupp, Barbara J; Strawderman, Myla; Smith, Donald R

    2017-02-01

    Studies in children and adolescents have associated early developmental manganese (Mn) exposure with inattention, impulsivity, hyperactivity, and oppositional behaviors, but causal inferences are precluded by the correlational nature of the data and generally limited control for potential confounders. To determine whether early postnatal oral Mn exposure causes lasting attentional and impulse control deficits in adulthood, and whether continued lifelong Mn exposure exacerbates these effects, using a rat model of environmental Mn exposure. Neonates were exposed orally to 0, 25 or 50 mg Mn/kg/day during early postnatal life (PND 1-21) or throughout life from PND 1 until the end of the study. In adulthood, the animals were tested on a series of learning and attention tasks using the five-choice serial reaction time task. Early postnatal Mn exposure caused lasting attentional dysfunction due to impairments in attentional preparedness, selective attention, and arousal regulation, whereas associative ability (learning) and impulse control were spared. The presence and severity of these deficits varied with the dose and duration of Mn exposure. This study is the first to show that developmental Mn exposure can cause lasting impairments in focused and selective attention and arousal regulation, and to identify the specific nature of the impairments. Given the importance of attention and arousal regulation in cognitive functioning, these findings substantiate concerns about the adverse effects of developmental Mn exposure in humans. Citation: Beaudin SA, Strupp BJ, Strawderman M, Smith DR. 2017. Early postnatal manganese exposure causes lasting impairment of selective and focused attention and arousal regulation in adult rats. Environ Health Perspect 125:230-237; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP258.

  20. Developing Public Policy in Romania: Focusing Responsability, Authority and Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. RINGSMUTH

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available The model of foreign friends visiting fellow democracies to observe and participate in the civic culture, has a long and distinguished tradition. Tocqueville’s visit to and observations of the United States nearly 200 years ago provide a lofty exemplar to which few could pretend to or attempt to duplicate or approach. Nothing in the following observations is meant to make such a pretense1 My journey in Romania has been and will be substantially less noted and notable, but my observations are offered with similar intentions. Rather they are meant in the spirit and offered with the hope that they might, in some small way, begin to make a contribution to the dialogue about the development of democracy and democratic institutions in Romania. In particular, here, I am concerned with Romania’s ability, will and means to develop public policy.

  1. Focus of Attention and Choice of Text Modality in Multimedia Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnotz, Wolfgang; Mengelkamp, Christoph; Baadte, Christiane; Hauck, Georg

    2014-01-01

    The term "modality effect" in multimedia learning means that students learn better from pictures combined with spoken rather than written text. The most prominent explanations refer to the split attention between visual text reading and picture observation which could affect transfer of information into working memory, maintenance of…

  2. A study about Accounting Publications from a Semiotic Focus

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    Marcos Antonio de Souza

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper was aimed at analyzing the contributions of semiotics teaching in Accounting. The actual development of semiotics as a modern science, which focuses on any language form, was only acknowledged between the 18th and 19thcenturies. Since then, several authors have studied this theme, using semiotics as an instrument to analyze other sciences. Many authors classify Accounting, considered a science, as a language. Hence, it can be analyzed based on the premises of semiotics. In this study, bibliographic research and content analysis are used, the latter applied to the papers published about the theme in the following congresses: Associação Brasileira de Custo, USP de Controladoria e Contabilidade and Encontros da ANPAD. In addition, a search was undertaken in 22 international scientific Accounting journals. In conclusion, few theoretical contributions have been published in Brazilian congresses and in international scientific journals, but mainly practical contributions about the use of semiotics in Accounting.

  3. Public participation in a DOE national program: The mixed waste focus area's approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The authors describe the Mixed Waste Focus Area's approach to involving interested Tribal and public members in the mixed waste technology development process. Evidence is provided to support the thesis that the Focus Area's systems engineering process, which provides visible and documented requirements and decision criteria, facilitates effective Tribal and public participation. Also described is a status of Tribal and public involvement at three levels of Focus Area activities

  4. Corporate philanthropic responses to emergent human needs: the role of organizational attention focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, A.; Whiteman, G.

    2015-01-01

    Research on corporate philanthropy typically focuses on organization-external pressures and aggregated donation behavior. Hence, our understanding of the organization-internal structures that determine whether a given organization will respond philanthropically to a specific human need remains

  5. Understanding public opinion in debates over biomedical research: looking beyond political partisanship to focus on beliefs about science and society.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Nisbet

    Full Text Available As social scientists have investigated the political and social factors influencing public opinion in science-related policy debates, there has been growing interest in the implications of this research for public communication and outreach. Given the level of political polarization in the United States, much of the focus has been on partisan differences in public opinion, the strategies employed by political leaders and advocates that promote those differences, and the counter-strategies for overcoming them. Yet this focus on partisan differences tends to overlook the processes by which core beliefs about science and society impact public opinion and how these schema are often activated by specific frames of reference embedded in media coverage and popular discourse. In this study, analyzing cross-sectional, nationally representative survey data collected between 2002 and 2010, we investigate the relative influence of political partisanship and science-related schema on Americans' support for embryonic stem cell research. In comparison to the influence of partisan identity, our findings suggest that generalized beliefs about science and society were more chronically accessible, less volatile in relation to media attention and focusing events, and an overall stronger influence on public opinion. Classifying respondents into four unique audience groups based on their beliefs about science and society, we additionally find that individuals within each of these groups split relatively evenly by partisanship but differ on other important dimensions. The implications for public engagement and future research on controversies related to biomedical science are discussed.

  6. Understanding public opinion in debates over biomedical research: looking beyond political partisanship to focus on beliefs about science and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, Matthew; Markowitz, Ezra M

    2014-01-01

    As social scientists have investigated the political and social factors influencing public opinion in science-related policy debates, there has been growing interest in the implications of this research for public communication and outreach. Given the level of political polarization in the United States, much of the focus has been on partisan differences in public opinion, the strategies employed by political leaders and advocates that promote those differences, and the counter-strategies for overcoming them. Yet this focus on partisan differences tends to overlook the processes by which core beliefs about science and society impact public opinion and how these schema are often activated by specific frames of reference embedded in media coverage and popular discourse. In this study, analyzing cross-sectional, nationally representative survey data collected between 2002 and 2010, we investigate the relative influence of political partisanship and science-related schema on Americans' support for embryonic stem cell research. In comparison to the influence of partisan identity, our findings suggest that generalized beliefs about science and society were more chronically accessible, less volatile in relation to media attention and focusing events, and an overall stronger influence on public opinion. Classifying respondents into four unique audience groups based on their beliefs about science and society, we additionally find that individuals within each of these groups split relatively evenly by partisanship but differ on other important dimensions. The implications for public engagement and future research on controversies related to biomedical science are discussed.

  7. Understanding Public Opinion in Debates over Biomedical Research: Looking beyond Political Partisanship to Focus on Beliefs about Science and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, Matthew; Markowitz, Ezra M.

    2014-01-01

    As social scientists have investigated the political and social factors influencing public opinion in science-related policy debates, there has been growing interest in the implications of this research for public communication and outreach. Given the level of political polarization in the United States, much of the focus has been on partisan differences in public opinion, the strategies employed by political leaders and advocates that promote those differences, and the counter-strategies for overcoming them. Yet this focus on partisan differences tends to overlook the processes by which core beliefs about science and society impact public opinion and how these schema are often activated by specific frames of reference embedded in media coverage and popular discourse. In this study, analyzing cross-sectional, nationally representative survey data collected between 2002 and 2010, we investigate the relative influence of political partisanship and science-related schema on Americans' support for embryonic stem cell research. In comparison to the influence of partisan identity, our findings suggest that generalized beliefs about science and society were more chronically accessible, less volatile in relation to media attention and focusing events, and an overall stronger influence on public opinion. Classifying respondents into four unique audience groups based on their beliefs about science and society, we additionally find that individuals within each of these groups split relatively evenly by partisanship but differ on other important dimensions. The implications for public engagement and future research on controversies related to biomedical science are discussed. PMID:24558393

  8. Children’s Failure in Analogical Reasoning Tasks: A Problem of Focus of Attention and Information Integration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Glady

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Children’s improved performance with age in analogy tasks has been explained by an increase in semantic knowledge of the items and the relations between them or by the development of an increased ability to inhibit irrelevant information. We tested the so-called “unbalanced attentional focus hypothesis” that claims that a failure to choose the “analogical” match can be the result of a difficulty to focus on all the relevant information available. Previous eye-tracking research has suggested, in analogies of the A:B::C:D format, that 5–6 year-olds organize their search around the C item. They focused significantly less than adults on the A:B pair, thereby hindering their discovering the relation(s between A and B. We hypothesized that inducing them to focus their attention on the A:B pair at the beginning of the trial would affect their performance. In Experiment 1, increasing children’s focus on the A:B pair did, indeed, lead to better performance. In contrast, in Experiment 2, focusing their attention on the A:B pair impaired performance when the most salient relation holding between A and B was, in fact, irrelevant for the analogy. By contrast, the obvious-but-irrelevant relation in the A:B pair had no negative effect on performance when no explicit A:B focusing was induced. These results are discussed in terms of the temporal organization of the task and availability of information, and of children’s difficulties to disengage from the main goal of the task, when necessary.

  9. Children’s Failure in Analogical Reasoning Tasks: A Problem of Focus of Attention and Information Integration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glady, Yannick; French, Robert M.; Thibaut, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Children’s improved performance with age in analogy tasks has been explained by an increase in semantic knowledge of the items and the relations between them or by the development of an increased ability to inhibit irrelevant information. We tested the so-called “unbalanced attentional focus hypothesis” that claims that a failure to choose the “analogical” match can be the result of a difficulty to focus on all the relevant information available. Previous eye-tracking research has suggested, in analogies of the A:B::C:D format, that 5–6 year-olds organize their search around the C item. They focused significantly less than adults on the A:B pair, thereby hindering their discovering the relation(s) between A and B. We hypothesized that inducing them to focus their attention on the A:B pair at the beginning of the trial would affect their performance. In Experiment 1, increasing children’s focus on the A:B pair did, indeed, lead to better performance. In contrast, in Experiment 2, focusing their attention on the A:B pair impaired performance when the most salient relation holding between A and B was, in fact, irrelevant for the analogy. By contrast, the obvious-but-irrelevant relation in the A:B pair had no negative effect on performance when no explicit A:B focusing was induced. These results are discussed in terms of the temporal organization of the task and availability of information, and of children’s difficulties to disengage from the main goal of the task, when necessary. PMID:28588516

  10. Social attention in a virtual public speaking task in higher functioning children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrold, William; Mundy, Peter; Gwaltney, Mary; Bailenson, Jeremy; Hatt, Naomi; McIntyre, Nancy; Kim, Kwanguk; Solomon, Marjorie; Novotny, Stephanie; Swain, Lindsay

    2013-10-01

    Impairments in social attention play a major role in autism, but little is known about their role in development after preschool. In this study, a public speaking task was used to study social attention, its moderators, and its association with classroom learning in elementary and secondary students with higher functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD). Thirty-seven students with HFASD and 54 age- and intelligence quotient (IQ)-matched peers without symptoms of ASD were assessed in a virtual classroom public speaking paradigm. This paradigm assessed the ability to attend to nine avatar peers seated at a table, while simultaneously answering self-referenced questions. Students with HFASD looked less frequently to avatar peers in the classroom while talking. However, social attention was moderated in the HFASD sample such that students with lower IQ, and/or more symptoms of social anxiety, and/or more attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder inattentive symptoms, displayed more atypical social attention. Group differences were more pronounced when the classroom contained social avatars versus nonsocial targets. Moreover, measures of social attention rather than nonsocial attention were significantly associated with parent report and objective measures of learning in the classroom. The data in this study support the hypothesis of the Social Attention Model of ASD that social attention disturbance remains part of the school-aged phenotype of autism that is related to syndrome-specific problems in social learning. More research of this kind would likely contribute to advances in the understanding of the development of the spectrum of autism and educational intervention approaches for affected school-aged children. © 2013 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Children's Reasoning about Self-Presentation Following Rule Violations: The Role of Self-Focused Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Robin; Bennett, Mark; Luke, Nikki

    2012-01-01

    Rule violations are likely to serve as key contexts for learning to reason about public identity. In an initial study with 91 children aged 4-9 years, social emotions and self-presentational concerns were more likely to be cited when children were responding to hypothetical vignettes involving social-conventional rather than moral violations. In 2…

  12. Effectiveness of Parents-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms, Obesity and Self-Esteem of Overweight Children with Attention Deficient Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Karbasi Amel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is the most common behavioral problems that cause hyperactivity, attention deficits, academic failure, and emotional and behavioral problems in preschool and elementary school that is often hidden from the parents' eyes. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of parent-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT on ADHD symptoms (including attention deficit disorder, restlessness, and impulsivity, overweight and self-esteem of 6–11-year-old obese children with attention deficit hyperactivity in Isfahan. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was carried out on 40 children aged 6–11 years with ADHD and overweight or obesity (above the 85th percentile in weight for age, height, and sex diagram that their parents referred to Isfahan child and adolescent psychiatric clinic of Ali Asghar Hospital in 2015. For twenty patients, only ADHD treatment was applied, and they received no other intervention, but the others in experimental group participated in CBT sessions. Analysis tools were Coppersmith Self-Esteem Scale, ADHD conners' test, and the body mass index (BMI. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance with repeated measurements. Results: CBT by teaching parents had a significant effect on ADHD symptoms, the self-esteem of overweight and obese children with ADHD in posttest and follow-up. The results also showed that had a significant effect on ADHD symptoms, overweight and self-esteem of the obese children with ADHD (P < 0.001. Conclusions: Parents focused CBT can be considered as a complementary treatment for reducing ADHD symptoms and BMI and increased self-esteem in the obese ADHD children.

  13. Effectiveness of Parents-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms, Obesity and Self-Esteem of Overweight Children with Attention Deficient Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbasi Amel, Afsaneh; Karbasi Amel, Saeed; Erfan, Arefeh

    2018-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common behavioral problems that cause hyperactivity, attention deficits, academic failure, and emotional and behavioral problems in preschool and elementary school that is often hidden from the parents' eyes. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of parent-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) on ADHD symptoms (including attention deficit disorder, restlessness, and impulsivity), overweight and self-esteem of 6-11-year-old obese children with attention deficit hyperactivity in Isfahan. This quasi-experimental study was carried out on 40 children aged 6-11 years with ADHD and overweight or obesity (above the 85 th percentile in weight for age, height, and sex diagram) that their parents referred to Isfahan child and adolescent psychiatric clinic of Ali Asghar Hospital in 2015. For twenty patients, only ADHD treatment was applied, and they received no other intervention, but the others in experimental group participated in CBT sessions. Analysis tools were Coppersmith Self-Esteem Scale, ADHD conners' test, and the body mass index (BMI). Data were analyzed using analysis of variance with repeated measurements. CBT by teaching parents had a significant effect on ADHD symptoms, the self-esteem of overweight and obese children with ADHD in posttest and follow-up. The results also showed that had a significant effect on ADHD symptoms, overweight and self-esteem of the obese children with ADHD ( P < 0.001). Parents focused CBT can be considered as a complementary treatment for reducing ADHD symptoms and BMI and increased self-esteem in the obese ADHD children.

  14. PPACA and public health: creating a framework to focus on prevention and wellness and improve the public's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majette, Gwendolyn Roberts

    2011-01-01

    PPACA epitomizes comprehensive health care reform legislation. Public health, disease prevention, and wellness were integral considerations in its development. This article reveals the author's personal experiences while working on the framework for health care reform in the United States Senate and reviews activity in the United States House of Representatives. This insider's perspective delineates PPACA's positive effect on public health by examining the infrastructure Congress designed to focus on prevention, wellness, and public health, with a particular focus on the National Prevention, Health Promotion and Public Health Council; the National Prevention, Health Promotion, Public Health, and Integrative Health Care Strategy; and the Prevention and Public Health Fund. The Council, strategy, and fund are especially important because they reflect compliance with some of the Institute of Medicine's recommendations to improve public health in the United States, as well as international health and human rights norms that protect the right to health. © 2011 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  15. Composing Focus: Shaping Temporal, Social, Media, Social Media, and Attentional Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fife, Jane

    2017-01-01

    Writers must learn to control factors that influence the ability to focus, especially in what some call a culture of distraction. In our efforts to promote metacognition and flexible writing processes, writing teachers need to engage students in study and discussion of factors in our temporal, social, media, social media, and attentional…

  16. Management of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults: focus on methylphenidate hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasree Nair

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Rajasree Nair, Shannon B MossBaylor Family Medicine Residency at Garland, Garland, Texas, USAAbstract: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in young adults and causes significant psychosocial impairment and economic burden to society. Because of the paucity of long-term evidence and lack of national guidelines for diagnosis and management of adult ADHD, most of the data are based on experience derived from management of childhood ADHD. This article reviews the current evidence for the diagnosis and management of adult ADHD with special emphasis on the role of methylphenidate hydrochloride preparations in its treatment. Methylphenidate hydrochloride, a stimulant that acts through the dopaminergic and adrenergic pathways, has shown more than 75% efficacy in controlling the symptoms of adult ADHD. Although concern for diversion of the drug exists, recent data have shown benefits in preventing substance use disorders in patients with adult ADHD.Keywords: adult ADHD, treatment, stimulants, methylphenidate hydrochloride

  17. Focusing narrowly or broadly attention when judging categorical and coordinate spatial relations: a MEG study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Franciotti

    Full Text Available We measured activity in the dorsal system of the human cortex with magnetoencephalography (MEG during a matching-to-sample plus cueing paradigm, where participants judged the occurrence of changes in either categorical or coordinate spatial relations (e.g., exchanges of left versus right positions or changes in the relative distances between images of pairs of animals. The attention window was primed in each trial to be either small or large by using cues that immediately preceded the matching image. In this manner, we could assess the modulatory effects of the scope of attention on the activity of the dorsal system of the human cortex during spatial relations processing. The MEG measurements revealed that large spatial cues yielded greater activations and longer peak latencies in the right inferior parietal lobe for coordinate trials, whereas small cues yielded greater activations and longer peak latencies in the left inferior parietal lobe for categorical trials. The activity in the superior parietal lobe, middle frontal gyrus, and visual cortex, was also modulated by the size of the spatial cues and by the type of spatial relation change. The present results support the theory that the lateralization of each kind of spatial processing hinges on differences in the sizes of regions of space attended to by the two hemispheres. In addition, the present findings are inconsistent with the idea of a right-hemispheric dominance for all kinds of challenging spatial tasks, since response times and accuracy rates showed that the categorical spatial relation task was more difficult than the coordinate task and the cortical activations were overall greater in the left hemisphere than in the right hemisphere.

  18. Single-channel in-ear-EEG detects the focus of auditory attention to concurrent tone streams and mixed speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Lorenz; Wöstmann, Malte; Graversen, Carina; Brandmeyer, Alex; Lunner, Thomas; Obleser, Jonas

    2017-06-01

    Objective. Conventional, multi-channel scalp electroencephalography (EEG) allows the identification of the attended speaker in concurrent-listening (‘cocktail party’) scenarios. This implies that EEG might provide valuable information to complement hearing aids with some form of EEG and to install a level of neuro-feedback. Approach. To investigate whether a listener’s attentional focus can be detected from single-channel hearing-aid-compatible EEG configurations, we recorded EEG from three electrodes inside the ear canal (‘in-Ear-EEG’) and additionally from 64 electrodes on the scalp. In two different, concurrent listening tasks, participants (n  =  7) were fitted with individualized in-Ear-EEG pieces and were either asked to attend to one of two dichotically-presented, concurrent tone streams or to one of two diotically-presented, concurrent audiobooks. A forward encoding model was trained to predict the EEG response at single EEG channels. Main results. Each individual participants’ attentional focus could be detected from single-channel EEG response recorded from short-distance configurations consisting only of a single in-Ear-EEG electrode and an adjacent scalp-EEG electrode. The differences in neural responses to attended and ignored stimuli were consistent in morphology (i.e. polarity and latency of components) across subjects. Significance. In sum, our findings show that the EEG response from a single-channel, hearing-aid-compatible configuration provides valuable information to identify a listener’s focus of attention.

  19. Switching between internally and externally focused attention in obsessive-compulsive disorder: Abnormal visual cortex activation and connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Emily R; Muratore, Alexandra F; Taylor, Stephan F; Abelson, James L; Hof, Patrick R; Goodman, Wayne K

    2017-07-30

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by excessive absorption with internally-generated distressing thoughts and urges, with difficulty incorporating external information running counter to their fears and concerns. In the present study, we experimentally probed this core feature of OCD through the use of a novel attention switching task that investigates transitions between internally focused (IF) and externally focused (EF) attentional states. Eighteen OCD patients and 18 controls imagined positive and negative personal event scenarios (IF state) or performed a color-word Stroop task (EF state). The IF/EF states were followed by a target detection (TD) task requiring responses to external stimuli. Compared to controls, OCD patients made significantly more errors and showed reduced activation of superior and inferior occipital cortex, thalamus, and putamen during TD following negative IF, with the inferior occipital hypoactivation being significantly greater for TD following negative IF compared to TD following the other conditions. Patients showed stronger functional connectivity between the inferior occipital region and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. These findings point to an OCD-related impairment in the visual processing of external stimuli specifically when they follow a period of negative internal focus, and suggest that future treatments may wish to target the transition between attentional states. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Can Dual Task Walking Improve in Parkinson's Disease After External Focus of Attention Exercise? A Single Blind Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Eric N; Intzandt, Brittany N; Almeida, Quincy J

    2018-01-01

    It may be possible to use attention-based exercise to decrease demands associated with walking in Parkinson's disease (PD), and thus improve dual task walking ability. For example, an external focus of attention (focusing on the effect of an action on the environment) may recruit automatic control processes degenerated in PD, whereas an internal focus (limb movement) may recruit conscious (nonautomatic) control processes. Thus, we aimed to investigate how externally and internally focused exercise influences dual task walking and symptom severity in PD. Forty-seven participants with PD were randomized to either an Externally (n = 24) or Internally (n = 23) focused group and completed 33 one-hour attention-based exercise sessions over 11 weeks. In addition, 16 participants were part of a control group. Before, after, and 8 weeks following the program (pre/post/washout), gait patterns were measured during single and dual task walking (digit-monitoring task, ie, walking while counting numbers announced by an audio-track), and symptom severity (UPDRS-III) was assessed ON and OFF dopamine replacement. Pairwise comparisons (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) and repeated-measures analyses of variance were conducted. Pre to post: Dual task step time decreased in the external group (Δ = 0.02 seconds, CI 0.01-0.04). Dual task step length (Δ = 2.3 cm, CI 0.86-3.75) and velocity (Δ = 4.5 cm/s, CI 0.59-8.48) decreased (became worse) in the internal group. UPDRS-III scores (ON and OFF) decreased (improved) in only the External group. Pre to washout: Dual task step time ( P = .005) and percentage in double support ( P = .014) significantly decreased (improved) in both exercise groups, although only the internal group increased error on the secondary counting task (ie, more errors monitoring numbers). UPDRS-III scores in both exercise groups significantly decreased ( P = .001). Since dual task walking improvements were found immediately, and 8 weeks after the cessation of an

  1. 78 FR 63223 - Fibromyalgia Public Meeting on Patient-Focused Drug Development; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-N-2013-1041] Fibromyalgia Public Meeting on Patient-Focused Drug Development; Correction AGENCY: Food and Drug... 23, 2013 (78 FR 58313). The document announced a public meeting entitled ``Fibromyalgia Public...

  2. How acute stress may enhance subsequent memory for threat stimuli outside the focus of attention: DLPFC-amygdala decoupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yu; Fernández, Guillén; Hermans, Erno; Vogel, Susanne; Zhang, Yu; Li, Hong; Klumpers, Floris

    2018-05-01

    Stress-related disorders, e.g., anxiety and depression, are characterized by decreased top-down control for distracting information, as well as a memory bias for threatening information. However, it is unclear how acute stress biases mnemonic encoding and leads to prioritized storage of threat-related information even if outside the focus of attention. In the current study, healthy adults (N = 53, all male) were randomly assigned to stress induction using the socially evaluated cold-pressor test (SECPT) or a control condition. Participants performed a task in which they were required to identify a target letter within a string of letters that were either identical to the target and thereby facilitating detection (low distractor load) or mixed with other letters to complicate the search (high load). Either a fearful or neutral face was presented on the background, outside the focus of attention. Twenty-four hours later, participants were asked to perform a surprise recognition memory test for those background faces. Stress induction resulted in increased cortisol and negative subjective mood ratings. Stress did not affect visual search performance, however, participants in the stress group showed stronger memory compared to the control group for fearful faces in the low attentional load condition. Critically, the stress induced memory bias was accompanied by decoupling between amygdala and DLFPC during encoding, which may represent a mechanism for decreased ability to filter task-irrelevant threatening background information. The current study provides a potential neural account for how stress can produce a negative memory bias for threatening information even if presented outside the focus of attention. Despite of an adaptive advantage for survival, such tendencies may ultimately also lead to generalized fear, a possibility requiring additional investigation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Users evaluation of transport mode characteristics with special attention to public transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waerden, van der P.J.H.J.; Borgers, A.W.J.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Berenos, M.

    2007-01-01

    The paper focuses on the influence of public transport use on the evaluation of transport mode characteristics. Based on stated choice data, several multinomial logit models that include parameters representing differences between users and non-users of public transport are estimated. The estimation

  4. Too Far to Care? Measuring Public Attention and Fear for Ebola Using Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lent, Liza Gg; Sungur, Hande; Kunneman, Florian A; van de Velde, Bob; Das, Enny

    2017-06-13

    In 2014, the world was startled by a sudden outbreak of Ebola. Although Ebola infections and deaths occurred almost exclusively in Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia, few potential Western cases, in particular, caused a great stir among the public in Western countries. This study builds on the construal level theory to examine the relationship between psychological distance to an epidemic and public attention and sentiment expressed on Twitter. Whereas previous research has shown the potential of social media to assess real-time public opinion and sentiment, generalizable insights that further the theory development lack. Epidemiological data (number of Ebola infections and fatalities) and media data (tweet volume and key events reported in the media) were collected for the 2014 Ebola outbreak, and Twitter content from the Netherlands was coded for (1) expressions of fear for self or fear for others and (2) psychological distance of the outbreak to the tweet source. Longitudinal relations were compared using vector error correction model (VECM) methodology. Analyses based on 4500 tweets revealed that increases in public attention to Ebola co-occurred with severe world events related to the epidemic, but not all severe events evoked fear. As hypothesized, Web-based public attention and expressions of fear responded mainly to the psychological distance of the epidemic. A chi-square test showed a significant positive relation between proximity and fear: χ 2 2 =103.2 (Pfear for self in the Netherlands showed peaks when Ebola became spatially closer by crossing the Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean. Fear for others was mostly predicted by the social distance to the affected parties. Spatial and social distance are important predictors of public attention to worldwide crisis such as epidemics. These factors need to be taken into account when communicating about human tragedies. ©Liza GG van Lent, Hande Sungur, Florian A Kunneman, Bob van de Velde, Enny Das

  5. SwissEnergy 2011 - 2020: Electricity at the focus of attention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorg, M.

    2010-01-01

    This article takes a look at the SwissEnergy programme which is starting its second decade of operation. As a result of changing general conditions in legislation and current developments on the market, the programme has received a new strategic re-alignment. The basic purpose of the programme - the promotion of energy efficiency and the use of renewable energy sources - remains the same, but it is supplemented with further topics such as mobility, electric apparatus and cross-sectional themes concerning city and regional development. These new topics are discussed in detail. Thinking in terms of whole systems is noted as being an important part of the new strategy, and increasing entrepreneurial thinking is being called for. The funding of the programme by public and private institutions is looked at

  6. Verbal-motor attention-focusing instructions influence kinematics and performance on a golf-putting task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munzert, Jörn; Maurer, Heiko; Reiser, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined how varying the content of verbal-motor instructions and requesting an internal versus external focus influenced the kinematics and outcome of a golf putting task. On Day 1, 30 novices performed 120 trials with the instruction to focus attention either on performing a pendulum-like movement (internal) or on the desired ball path (external). After 20 retention trials on Day 2, they performed 20 transfer trials with the opposite instruction. Group differences for retention and a group by block interaction showed that external instruction enhanced movement outcome. Kinematic data indicated that specific instruction content influenced outcomes by eliciting changes in movement execution. Switching from the external to the internal focus instruction resulted in a more pendulum-like movement.

  7. The allocation of attention to learning of goal-directed actions: A cognitive neuroscience framework focusing on the basal ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz eFranz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper builds on the idea that attention is largely in service of our actions. A framework and model which captures the allocation of attention for learning of goal-directed actions is proposed and developed. This framework highlights an evolutionary model based on the notion that rudimentary brain functions have become embedded into increasingly higher levels of networks which all contribute to adaptive learning. Background literature is presented alongside key evidence based on experimental studies in the so-called ‘split-brain’ (surgically divided cerebral hemispheres with a key focus on bimanual actions. The proposed multilevel cognitive-neural system of attention is built upon key processes of a highly-adaptive basal-ganglia-thalamic-cortical system. Although overlap with other existing findings and models is acknowledged where appropriate, the proposed framework is an original synthesis of cognitive experimental findings with supporting evidence of a neural system and a carefully formulated model of attention. It is the hope that this new synthesis will be informative in fields of cognition and other fields of brain sciences and will lead to new avenues for experimentation across domains.

  8. Asthma-specific cognitions, self-focused attention, and fear of negative evaluation in adolescents and young adults diagnosed with childhood-onset asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junghans-Rutelonis, Ashley N; Tackett, Alayna P; Suorsa, Kristina I; Chaney, John M; Mullins, Larry L

    2018-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of asthma-specific thought intrusion (TI) and thought suppression (TS) on two cognitive-affective variables (self-focused attention and fear of negative evaluation) among adolescents and young adults (AYAs) diagnosed with childhood-onset asthma. Participants were 290 AYAs who completed assessment questionnaires and participated in a written exercise electronically. Asthma-TI and TS were reported by participants following participation in a writing assignment. Asthma-TI was associated with increased private, public, and social anxiety self-focused attention, and greater fear of negative evaluation. Interestingly, asthma-TS was not associated with these same outcome variables. Findings suggest illness-specific cognitions are associated with cognitive-affective variables and it may be important to assess for illness-specific intrusive thoughts following asthma-focused medical appointments. Additionally, findings suggest the importance of assessing asthma-TI and TS separately in order to better understand thoughts about health and psychological functioning.

  9. The Effect of Enumeration of Self-Relevant Words on Self-Focused Attention and Repetitive Negative Thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muranaka, Seiji; Sasaki, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Self-focused attention refers to awareness of self-referent, internally generated information. It can be categorized into dysfunctional (i.e., self-rumination) and functional (self-reflection) aspects. According to theory on cognitive resource limitations (e.g., Moreno, 2006), there is a difference in cognitive resource allocation between these two aspects of self-focused attention. We propose a new task, self-relevant word (SRW) enumeration, that can aid in behaviorally identifying individuals’ use of self-rumination and self-reflection. The present study has two purposes: to determine the association between self-focus and SRW enumeration, and to examine the effect of dysfunctional SRW enumeration on repetitive negative thinking. One hundred forty-six undergraduate students participated in this study. They completed a measure of state anxiety twice, before and after imagining a social failure situation. They also completed the SRW enumeration task, Repetitive Thinking Questionnaire, Short Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale, and Rumination-Reflection Questionnaire. A correlational analysis indicated a significant positive correlation between self-reflection and the number of SRWs. Furthermore, individuals high in self-reflection had a tendency to pay more attention to problems than did those high in self-rumination. A significant positive correlation was found between self-rumination and the strength of self-relevance of negative SRWs. Through a path analysis, we found a significant positive effect of the self-relevance of negative SRWs on repetitive negative thinking. Notably, however, the model that excluded self-rumination as an explanatory variable showed a better fit to the data than did the model that included it. In summary, SRW enumeration might enable selective and independent detection of the degree of self-reflection and self-rumination, and therefore should be examined in future research in order to design new behavioral procedures. PMID:29896140

  10. The Effect of Enumeration of Self-Relevant Words on Self-Focused Attention and Repetitive Negative Thoughts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiji Muranaka

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Self-focused attention refers to awareness of self-referent, internally generated information. It can be categorized into dysfunctional (i.e., self-rumination and functional (self-reflection aspects. According to theory on cognitive resource limitations (e.g., Moreno, 2006, there is a difference in cognitive resource allocation between these two aspects of self-focused attention. We propose a new task, self-relevant word (SRW enumeration, that can aid in behaviorally identifying individuals’ use of self-rumination and self-reflection. The present study has two purposes: to determine the association between self-focus and SRW enumeration, and to examine the effect of dysfunctional SRW enumeration on repetitive negative thinking. One hundred forty-six undergraduate students participated in this study. They completed a measure of state anxiety twice, before and after imagining a social failure situation. They also completed the SRW enumeration task, Repetitive Thinking Questionnaire, Short Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale, and Rumination-Reflection Questionnaire. A correlational analysis indicated a significant positive correlation between self-reflection and the number of SRWs. Furthermore, individuals high in self-reflection had a tendency to pay more attention to problems than did those high in self-rumination. A significant positive correlation was found between self-rumination and the strength of self-relevance of negative SRWs. Through a path analysis, we found a significant positive effect of the self-relevance of negative SRWs on repetitive negative thinking. Notably, however, the model that excluded self-rumination as an explanatory variable showed a better fit to the data than did the model that included it. In summary, SRW enumeration might enable selective and independent detection of the degree of self-reflection and self-rumination, and therefore should be examined in future research in order to design new behavioral procedures.

  11. Eight attention points when evaluating large-scale public sector reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Balle; Breidahl, Karen Nielsen; Furubo, Jan-Eric

    2017-01-01

    This chapter analyses the challenges related to evaluations of large-scale public sector reforms. It is based on a meta-evaluation of the evaluation of the reform of the Norwegian Labour Market and Welfare Administration (the NAV-reform) in Norway, which entailed both a significant reorganization...... sector reforms. Based on the analysis, eight crucial points of attention when evaluating large-scale public sector reforms are elaborated. We discuss their reasons and argue that other countries will face the same challenges and thus can learn from the experiences of Norway....

  12. Enactment of one-to-many communication may induce self-focused attention that leads to diminished perspective taking: The case of Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Bin Chiou

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Social networking sites (SNSs provide users with an efficient interface for distributing information, such as photos or wall posts, to many others simultaneously. We demonstrated experimentally that this type of indiscriminate one-to-many (i.e., monologue communication may induce self-focused attention and thereby impair perspective taking. The present study used multiple paradigms to explore the link between engaging in online one-to-many communication and a decrease in perspective taking. Experiment 1 revealed that Facebookers who published a personal photo to the public or their friends were less likely to adopt another person's visual perspective than were those in the control group. Experiment 2 showed that Facebookers who engaged in indiscriminate one-to-many wall posting were more likely than those in the control group to rely heavily on their own perspectives. A state of self-focus, as measured by greater Stroop interference in naming the color of self-relevant versus neutral words, mediated the detrimental effect of indiscriminate one-to-many communication on cognitive perspective taking. These findings suggest that indiscriminate one-to-many communication on SNSs may promote public self-focus, leading to self-referential processing when making social judgments. Online monologue communication may be more harmful to perspective taking than previously understood.

  13. Public attention to science and political news and support for climate change mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, P. Sol; Nisbet, Erik C.; Myers, Teresa A.

    2015-06-01

    We examine how attention to science and political news may influence public knowledge, perceived harm, and support for climate mitigation policies. Previous research examining these relationships has not fully accounted for how political ideology shapes the mental processes through which the public interprets media discourses about climate change. We incorporate political ideology and the concept of motivated cognition into our analysis to compare and contrast two prominent models of opinion formation, the scientific literacy model, which posits that disseminating scientific information will move public opinion towards the scientific consensus, and the motivated reasoning model, which posits that individuals will interpret information in a biased manner. Our analysis finds support for both models of opinion formation with key differences across ideological groups. Attention to science news was associated with greater perceptions of harm and knowledge for conservatives, but only additional knowledge for liberals. Supporting the literacy model, greater knowledge was associated with more support for climate mitigation for liberals. In contrast, consistent with motivated reasoning, more knowledgeable conservatives were less supportive of mitigation policy. In addition, attention to political news had a negative association with perceived harm for conservatives but not for liberals.

  14. Frontal midline theta rhythm and gamma power changes during focused attention on mental calculation: an MEG beamformer analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryouhei eIshii

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Frontal midline theta rhythm (Fmθ appears widely distributed over medial prefrontal areas in EEG recordings, indicating focused attention. Although mental calculation is often used as an attention-demanding task, little has been reported on calculation-related activation in Fmθ experiments. In this study we used spatially filtered MEG and permutation analysis to precisely localize cortical generators of the magnetic counterpart of Fmθ, as well as other sources of oscillatory activity associated with mental calculation processing (i.e., arithmetic subtraction. Our results confirmed and extended earlier EEG/MEG studies indicating that Fmθ during mental calculation is generated in the dorsal anterior cingulate and adjacent medial prefrontal cortex. Mental subtraction was also associated with gamma event-related synchronization, as an index of activation, in right parietal regions subserving basic numerical processing and number-based spatial attention. Gamma event-related desynchronization appeared in the right lateral prefrontal cortex, likely representing a mechanism to interrupt neural activity that can interfere with the ongoing cognitive task.

  15. How do I look? Self-focused attention during a video chat of women with social anxiety (disorder).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriends, Noortje; Meral, Yasemin; Bargas-Avila, Javier A; Stadler, Christina; Bögels, Susan M

    2017-05-01

    We investigated the role of self-focused attention (SFA) in social anxiety (disorder) in an ecologically valid way. In Experiment 1 high (n = 26) versus low (n = 25) socially anxious single women between 18 and 30 years had a video ("Skype") conversation with an attractive male confederate, while seeing themselves and the confederate on-screen. The conversation was divided in four phases: (I) warm-up, (II) positive (confederate was friendly to the participant), (III) critical (confederate was critical to the participant), and (IV) active (participant was instructed to ask questions to the confederate). Participant's SFA was measured by eye-tracked gaze duration at their own image relative to the confederates' video image and other places at the computer screen. Results show that high socially anxious participants were more self-focused in the critical phase, but less self-focused in the active phase than low socially anxious participants. In Experiment 2 women diagnosed with SAD (n = 32) and controls (n = 30) between 18 and 30 years conducted the same experiment. Compared to controls participants with SAD showed increased SFA across all four phases of the conversation, and SFA predicted increased self-rated anxiety during the conversation. In conclusion, in subclinical social anxiety SFA is high only when the interaction partner is critical, whereas instructions to ask questions to the confederate reduces subclinical socially anxious' SFA, while clinical SAD is characterized by heightened self-focused attention throughout the interaction. Results support theories that social anxiety disorder is maintained by SFA, and imply that interventions that lower SFA may help prevent and treat social anxiety disorder, but that SFA can also be adaptive in certain types of interaction, such as when receiving compliments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Exploring the switching of the focus of attention within working memory: A combined event-related potential and behavioral study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenken, Marius; Berti, Stefan

    2018-04-01

    Working memory enables humans to maintain selected information for cognitive processes and ensures instant access to the memorized contents. Theories suggest that switching the focus of attention between items within working memory realizes the access. This is reflected in object-switching costs in response times when the item for the task processing is to be changed. Another correlate of attentional allocation in working memory is the P3a-component of the human event-related potential. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that switching of attention within working memory is a separable processing step. Participants completed a cued memory-updating task in which they were instructed to update one memory item at a time out of a memory list of four digits by applying a mathematical operation indicated by a target sign. The hypotheses predicted (1) prolonged updating times in switch (different item compared to previous trial) versus repetition trials (same item), (2) an influence of cues (valid/neutral) presented before the mathematical target on switching costs, and (3) that the P3a-component is more pronounced in the cue-target interval in the valid cue condition and more pronounced in the post-target interval in the neutral cue condition. A student's t-test verified the first hypothesis, repeated-measurement analyses of variance demonstrated that hypotheses 2 and 3 should be rejected. Results suggest that switching of attention within working memory could not be separated from further processing steps and retro-cue benefits are not due to a head start of retrieval as well as that switch costs represent internal processes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Magnetoencephalographic alpha band connectivity reveals differential default mode network interactions during focused attention and open monitoring meditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzetti, Laura; Di Lanzo, Claudia; Zappasodi, Filippo; Chella, Federico; Raffone, Antonino; Pizzella, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    According to several conceptualizations of meditation, the interplay between brain systems associated to self-related processing, attention and executive control is crucial for meditative states and related traits. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate such interplay in a highly selected group of “virtuoso” meditators (Theravada Buddhist monks), with long-term training in the two main meditation styles: focused attention (FA) and open monitoring (OM) meditation. Specifically, we investigated the differences between FA meditation, OM meditation and resting state in the coupling between the posterior cingulate cortex, core node of the Default Mode Network (DMN) implicated in mind wandering and self-related processing, and the whole brain, with a recently developed phase coherence approach. Our findings showed a state dependent coupling of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) to nodes of the DMN and of the executive control brain network in the alpha frequency band (8–12 Hz), related to different attentional and cognitive control processes in FA and OM meditation, consistently with the putative role of alpha band synchronization in the functional mechanisms for attention and consciousness. The coupling of PCC with left medial prefrontal cortex (lmPFC) and superior frontal gyrus characterized the contrast between the two meditation styles in a way that correlated with meditation expertise. These correlations may be related to a higher mindful observing ability and a reduced identification with ongoing mental activity in more expert meditators. Notably, different styles of meditation and different meditation expertise appeared to modulate the dynamic balance between fronto-parietal (FP) and DMN networks. Our results support the idea that the interplay between the DMN and the FP network in the alpha band is crucial for the transition from resting state to different meditative states. PMID:25360102

  18. Does Contralateral Delay Activity Reflect Working Memory Storage or the Current Focus of Spatial Attention within Visual Working Memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Nick; Eimer, Martin

    2016-12-01

    During the retention of visual information in working memory, event-related brain potentials show a sustained negativity over posterior visual regions contralateral to the side where memorized stimuli were presented. This contralateral delay activity (CDA) is generally believed to be a neural marker of working memory storage. In two experiments, we contrasted this storage account of the CDA with the alternative hypothesis that the CDA reflects the current focus of spatial attention on a subset of memorized items set up during the most recent encoding episode. We employed a sequential loading procedure where participants memorized four task-relevant items that were presented in two successive memory displays (M1 and M2). In both experiments, CDA components were initially elicited contralateral to task-relevant items in M1. Critically, the CDA switched polarity when M2 displays appeared on the opposite side. In line with the attentional activation account, these reversed CDA components exclusively reflected the number of items that were encoded from M2 displays, irrespective of how many M1 items were already held in working memory. On trials where M1 and M2 displays were presented on the same side and on trials where M2 displays appeared nonlaterally, CDA components elicited in the interval after M2 remained sensitive to a residual trace of M1 items, indicating that some activation of previously stored items was maintained across encoding episodes. These results challenge the hypothesis that CDA amplitudes directly reflect the total number of stored objects and suggest that the CDA is primarily sensitive to the activation of a subset of working memory representations within the current focus of spatial attention.

  19. Understanding the Correlations between Social Attention and Topic Trends of Scientific Publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianlei Dong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We propose and apply a simplified nowcasting model to understand the correlations between social attention and topic trends of scientific publications. Design/methodology/approach: First, topics are generated from the obesity corpus by using the latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA algorithm and time series of keyword search trends in Google Trends are obtained. We then establish the structural time series model using data from January 2004 to December 2012, and evaluate the model using data from January 2013. We employ a state-space model to separate different non-regression components in an observational time series (i.e. the tendency and the seasonality and apply the “spike and slab prior” and stepwise regression to analyze the correlations between the regression component and the social media attention. The two parts are combined using Markov-chain Monte Carlo sampling techniques to obtain our results. Findings: The results of our study show that (1 the number of publications on child obesity increases at a lower rate than that of diabetes publications; (2 the number of publication on a given topic may exhibit a relationship with the season or time of year; and (3 there exists a correlation between the number of publications on a given topic and its social media attention, i.e. the search frequency related to that topic as identified by Google Trends. We found that our model is also able to predict the number of publications related to a given topic. Research limitations: First, we study a correlation rather than causality between topics' trends and social media. As a result, the relationships might not be robust, so we cannot predict the future in the long run. Second, we cannot identify the reasons or conditions that are driving obesity topics to present such tendencies and seasonal patterns, so we might need to do “field” study in the future. Third, we need to improve the efficiency of our model by finding more efficient

  20. A randomised controlled trial investigating motor skill training as a function of attentional focus in old age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swanenburg Jaap

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Motor learning research has had little impact on clinical applications and rarely extended to research about how older adults learn motor skills. There is consistent evidence that motor skill performance and learning can be enhanced by giving learners instructions that direct their attention. The aim of this study was to test whether elderly individuals that receive an external focus instruction during training of dynamic balance skills would learn in a different manner compared to individuals that received an internal focus instruction. Methods This randomised trial included 26 older persons (81 ± 6 years that were training functional balance twice a week for the duration of 5 weeks. Learning outcomes were recorded after every training session. Weight shifting score and dynamic balance parameters (Biodex Balance System, components of the Extended Timed-Get-Up-and-Go test, five chair rises, and falls efficacy (FES-I was assessed at baseline and post-intervention. Results Participation for training sessions was 94%. No differences between groups were found following 5 weeks of training for weight shifting score, dynamic balance index and dynamic balance time (p p = 0.16, p Sit-to-stand, p = .036; Gait initiation, p = .039; Slow down, stop, turnaround, and sit down, p = 0.011 and the Fes-I (p = 0.014 showed improvements for the total group, indicating that function improved compared to baseline. Conclusion A 5-week balance training improved weight shifting scores and dynamic balance parameters as well as functional abilities. The observed improvements were independent from the type of attentional focus instructions. The findings provide support for the proposition of different motor learning principles in older adults compared to younger adults. Trial Registration ISRCTN44627088

  1. Effectiveness of music therapy on focused attention, working memory and stress in Type 2 diabetes: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira Tumuluri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive deficits are reported in diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2. Previous research has shown that music-based intervention can not only reduce hyperglycemia but also target cognitive functions as well as stress. The aim of this exploratory study was to understand the effect of active participation in music therapy (MT on the cognitive deficits of DM2 patients. MT of twenty sessions was carried out with three participants with DM2. Serum cortisol, perceived stress, Color Trail Test (1 and 2, and verbal n-back (1 and 2 tests were used to measure the outcomes. Feedback was taken for the subjective ratings and satisfaction of the participants. Stress and cortisol reduced and focused attention and working memory improved in varying degrees. Subjectively, participants reported having benefitted from the intervention. This is the first attempt to investigate the effect of music-based intervention on cognitive function in DM2 patients using case study approach.

  2. Effectiveness of Music Therapy on Focused Attention, Working Memory and Stress in Type 2 Diabetes: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumuluri, Indira; Hegde, Shantala; Nagendra, H R

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive deficits are reported in diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2). Previous research has shown that music-based intervention can not only reduce hyperglycemia but also target cognitive functions as well as stress. The aim of this exploratory study was to understand the effect of active participation in music therapy (MT) on the cognitive deficits of DM2 patients. MT of twenty sessions was carried out with three participants with DM2. Serum cortisol, perceived stress, Color Trail Test (1 and 2), and verbal n-back (1 and 2) tests were used to measure the outcomes. Feedback was taken for the subjective ratings and satisfaction of the participants. Stress and cortisol reduced and focused attention and working memory improved in varying degrees. Subjectively, participants reported having benefitted from the intervention. This is the first attempt to investigate the effect of music-based intervention on cognitive function in DM2 patients using case study approach.

  3. Redefining leadership education in graduate public health programs: prioritization, focus, and guiding principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, Jennifer A; Oxendine, Jeffrey S

    2015-03-01

    Public health program graduates need leadership skills to be effective in the complex, changing public health environment. We propose a new paradigm for schools of public health in which technical and leadership skills have equal priority as core competencies for graduate students. Leadership education should focus on the foundational skills necessary to effect change independent of formal authority, with activities offered at varying levels of intensity to engage different students. Leadership development initiatives should be practice based, process focused, interdisciplinary, diversity based, adaptive, experimental, innovative, and empowering, and they should encourage authenticity. Leadership training in graduate programs will help lay the groundwork for public health professionals to have an immediate impact in the workforce and to prioritize continuous leadership development throughout their careers.

  4. Redefining Leadership Education in Graduate Public Health Programs: Prioritization, Focus, and Guiding Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxendine, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Public health program graduates need leadership skills to be effective in the complex, changing public health environment. We propose a new paradigm for schools of public health in which technical and leadership skills have equal priority as core competencies for graduate students. Leadership education should focus on the foundational skills necessary to effect change independent of formal authority, with activities offered at varying levels of intensity to engage different students. Leadership development initiatives should be practice based, process focused, interdisciplinary, diversity based, adaptive, experimental, innovative, and empowering, and they should encourage authenticity. Leadership training in graduate programs will help lay the groundwork for public health professionals to have an immediate impact in the workforce and to prioritize continuous leadership development throughout their careers. PMID:25706021

  5. THE DIRECT AND INDIRECT EFFECTS OF CUSTOMER FOCUS ON PERFORMANCE IN PUBLIC FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulnaidi Yaacob

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated within the literature that the practice of customer focus is significantly associated with customer satisfaction. However, the possibility that the construct of customer focus may affect other relevant measures remains underexplored. As such, this paper discusses the effect that customer focus has on organizational performance, operating upon the premise that customer satisfaction is an end result of other relevant performance measures such as employee satisfaction, innovation, and cost benefits. Data were collected from 205 managers within the public service sector, all of whom were directly involved with the process of customer focus. The results of this study revealed that customer focus is a significant predictor of employee satisfaction, innovation, and customer satisfaction. The structural model developed also indicated that there is an indirect relationship between customer focus and customer satisfaction, as determined by employee satisfaction. In addition, the effect of customer focus on innovation is mediated by employee satisfaction. Therefore, this model implies that the practice of customer focus may enable public firms to increase their levels of performance.

  6. Effects of false feedback on affect, cognition, behavior, and postevent processing: the mediating role of self-focused attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkar, Steve R; Grisham, Jessica R

    2013-03-01

    Current social phobia models (e.g., Clark & Wells, 1995; Leary & Kowalski, 1995) postulate that socially anxious individuals negatively appraise their anxiety sensations (e.g., sweating, heart racing, blushing) as evidence of poor social performance, and thus fear these anxiety symptoms will be noticed and judged negatively by others. Consequently, they become self-focused and hypervigilant of these sensations and use them to judge how they appear to others. To test this model, high (N=41) and low (N=38) socially anxious participants were shown false physiological feedback regarding an increase or decrease in heart rate prior to and during an impromptu speech task. Relative to participants who observed a false heart rate decrease, those in the increase condition reported higher levels of negative affect, more negative performance appraisals, and more frequent negative ruminative thoughts, and these effects were mediated by an increase in self-focused attention. The unhelpful effects of the physiological feedback were not specific to high socially anxious participants. The results have implications for current cognitive models as well as the treatment of social phobia. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Increases in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and decreases the rostral prefrontal cortex activation after-8 weeks of focused attention based mindfulness meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasino, Barbara; Fabbro, Franco

    2016-02-01

    Mindfulness meditation is a form of attention control training. The training exercises the ability to repeatedly focus attention. We addressed the activation changes related to an 8-weeks mindfulness-oriented focused attention meditation training on an initially naïve subject cohort. Before and after training participants underwent an fMRI experiment, thus, although not strictly a cross over design, they served as their internal own control. During fMRI they exercised focused attention on breathing and body scan as compared to resting. We found increased and decreased activation in different parts of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) by comparing pre- vs. post-mindfulness training (MT) during breathing and body scan meditation exercises that were compared against their own resting state. In the post-MT (vs. pre-MT) meditation increased activation in the right dorsolateral PFC and in the left caudate/anterior insula and decreased activation in the rostral PFC and right parietal area 3b. Thus a brief mindfulness training caused increased activation in areas involved in sustaining and monitoring the focus of attention (dorsolateral PFC), consistent with the aim of mindfulness that is exercising focused attention mechanisms, and in the left caudate/anterior insula involved in attention and corporeal awareness and decreased activation in areas part of the "default mode" network and is involved in mentalizing (rostral PFC), consistent with the ability trained by mindfulness of reducing spontaneous mind wandering. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Socialization in the Institution: A Working Group's Journey to Bring Public Engagement into Focus on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakans, Lia; Alper, Rebecca; Colvin, Carolyn; Aquilino, Mary; Louko, Linda J.; Zebrowski, Patricia; Ali, Saba Rasheed

    2016-01-01

    For over 3 years, 6 faculty members and 1 graduate student have gathered as a working group applying an interdisciplinary focus to public engagement projects involving immigrant families in the rural Midwest. One dimension of the group's effort has been to involve faculty, staff, and students from many disciplines in its examination of pertinent…

  9. Modulating the Focus of Attention for Spoken Words at Encoding Affects Frontoparietal Activation for Incidental Verbal Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Thomas A.; Almryde, Kyle R.; Fidler, Lesley J.; Lockwood, Julie L.; Antonucci, Sharon M.; Plante, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Attention is crucial for encoding information into memory, and current dual-process models seek to explain the roles of attention in both recollection memory and incidental-perceptual memory processes. The present study combined an incidental memory paradigm with event-related functional MRI to examine the effect of attention at encoding on the subsequent neural activation associated with unintended perceptual memory for spoken words. At encoding, we systematically varied attention levels as ...

  10. How physical therapists instruct patients with stroke: an observational study on attentional focus during gait rehabilitation after stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kal, Elmar; van den Brink, Henrieke; Houdijk, Han; van der Kamp, John; Goossens, Paulien Helena; van Bennekom, Coen; Scherder, Erik

    2018-01-01

    People without neurological impairments show superior motor learning when they focus on movement effects (external focus) rather than on movement execution itself (internal focus). Despite its potential for neurorehabilitation, it remains unclear to what extent external focus strategies are

  11. Information processing and aspects of visual attention in children with the DSM-III-R diagnosis ''pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified'' (PDDNOS) .1. Focused and divided attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Althaus, M; deSonneville, LMJ; Minderaa, RB; Hensen, LGN; Til, RB

    A sample of 8-to 12-year-old nonhyperactive children of normal intelligence with the DSM-III-R diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDDNOS) completed two selective attention tasks. Following a linear stage model of information processing, it was demonstrated that

  12. A Required Online Course with a Public Health Focus for Third Professional Year Pharmacy Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Amber E; Egras, Amy M

    2015-06-25

    To design, deliver, and evaluate the impact of a required course on student knowledge acquisition and ability to evaluate contemporary public health issues. A 2-credit course was implemented using asynchronous, online delivery. Learning activities included literature retrieval and assessment, analytic writing, quizzes, and creation of a group wiki evaluating a current public health issue. Course topics included health care reform, social determinants of health, health disparities, evidence-based medicine, end-of-life care, patient safety, and research ethics. Strong student performance on assessments indicated an ability to use higher-order cognitive domains. Online delivery provided students with the flexibility to complete assignments at their convenience, allowed participation by all students, and encouraged self-directed learning. Completion of a required, online, asynchronous course with a public health focus allowed pharmacy students to increase their knowledge of and ability to evaluate contemporary ethical, social, cultural, and governmental issues affecting pharmacy practice.

  13. Food allergy knowledge, attitudes and beliefs: Focus groups of parents, physicians and the general public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnathan Julia A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food allergy prevalence is increasing in US children. Presently, the primary means of preventing potentially fatal reactions are avoidance of allergens, prompt recognition of food allergy reactions, and knowledge about food allergy reaction treatments. Focus groups were held as a preliminary step in the development of validated survey instruments to assess food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents, physicians, and the general public. Methods Eight focus groups were conducted between January and July of 2006 in the Chicago area with parents of children with food allergy (3 groups, physicians (3 groups, and the general public (2 groups. A constant comparative method was used to identify the emerging themes which were then grouped into key domains of food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. Results Parents of children with food allergy had solid fundamental knowledge but had concerns about primary care physicians' knowledge of food allergy, diagnostic approaches, and treatment practices. The considerable impact of children's food allergies on familial quality of life was articulated. Physicians had good basic knowledge of food allergy but differed in their approach to diagnosis and advice about starting solids and breastfeeding. The general public had wide variation in knowledge about food allergy with many misconceptions of key concepts related to prevalence, definition, and triggers of food allergy. Conclusion Appreciable food allergy knowledge gaps exist, especially among physicians and the general public. The quality of life for children with food allergy and their families is significantly affected.

  14. Modulating the Focus of Attention for Spoken Words at Encoding Affects Frontoparietal Activation for Incidental Verbal Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A. Christensen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention is crucial for encoding information into memory, and current dual-process models seek to explain the roles of attention in both recollection memory and incidental-perceptual memory processes. The present study combined an incidental memory paradigm with event-related functional MRI to examine the effect of attention at encoding on the subsequent neural activation associated with unintended perceptual memory for spoken words. At encoding, we systematically varied attention levels as listeners heard a list of single English nouns. We then presented these words again in the context of a recognition task and assessed the effect of modulating attention at encoding on the BOLD responses to words that were either attended strongly, weakly, or not heard previously. MRI revealed activity in right-lateralized inferior parietal and prefrontal regions, and positive BOLD signals varied with the relative level of attention present at encoding. Temporal analysis of hemodynamic responses further showed that the time course of BOLD activity was modulated differentially by unintentionally encoded words compared to novel items. Our findings largely support current models of memory consolidation and retrieval, but they also provide fresh evidence for hemispheric differences and functional subdivisions in right frontoparietal attention networks that help shape auditory episodic recall.

  15. Modulating the focus of attention for spoken words at encoding affects frontoparietal activation for incidental verbal memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Thomas A; Almryde, Kyle R; Fidler, Lesley J; Lockwood, Julie L; Antonucci, Sharon M; Plante, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Attention is crucial for encoding information into memory, and current dual-process models seek to explain the roles of attention in both recollection memory and incidental-perceptual memory processes. The present study combined an incidental memory paradigm with event-related functional MRI to examine the effect of attention at encoding on the subsequent neural activation associated with unintended perceptual memory for spoken words. At encoding, we systematically varied attention levels as listeners heard a list of single English nouns. We then presented these words again in the context of a recognition task and assessed the effect of modulating attention at encoding on the BOLD responses to words that were either attended strongly, weakly, or not heard previously. MRI revealed activity in right-lateralized inferior parietal and prefrontal regions, and positive BOLD signals varied with the relative level of attention present at encoding. Temporal analysis of hemodynamic responses further showed that the time course of BOLD activity was modulated differentially by unintentionally encoded words compared to novel items. Our findings largely support current models of memory consolidation and retrieval, but they also provide fresh evidence for hemispheric differences and functional subdivisions in right frontoparietal attention networks that help shape auditory episodic recall.

  16. Searching for serial refreshing in working memory: Using response times to track the content of the focus of attention over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergauwe, Evie; Hardman, Kyle O; Rouder, Jeffrey N; Roemer, Emily; McAllaster, Sara; Cowan, Nelson

    2016-12-01

    One popular idea is that, to support the maintenance of a set of elements over brief periods of time, the focus of attention rotates among the different elements, thereby serially refreshing the content of working memory (WM). In the research reported here, probe letters were presented between to-be-remembered letters, and response times to these probes were used to infer the status of the different items in WM. If the focus of attention cycles from one item to the next, its content should be different at different points in time, and this should be reflected in a change in the response time patterns over time. Across a set of four experiments, we demonstrated a striking pattern of invariance in the response time patterns over time, suggesting either that the content of the focus of attention did not change over time or that response times cannot be used to infer the content of the focus of attention. We discuss how this pattern constrains models of WM, attention, and human information processing.

  17. Anatomical substrates of the alerting, orienting and executive control components of attention: focus on the posterior parietal lobe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuntao Yin

    Full Text Available Both neuropsychological and functional neuroimaging studies have identified that the posterior parietal lobe (PPL is critical for the attention function. However, the unique role of distinct parietal cortical subregions and their underlying white matter (WM remains in question. In this study, we collected both magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI data in normal participants, and evaluated their attention performance using attention network test (ANT, which could isolate three different attention components: alerting, orienting and executive control. Cortical thickness, surface area and DTI parameters were extracted from predefined PPL subregions and correlated with behavioural performance. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS was used for the voxel-wise statistical analysis. Results indicated structure-behaviour relationships on multiple levels. First, a link between the cortical thickness and WM integrity of the right inferior parietal regions and orienting performance was observed. Specifically, probabilistic tractography demonstrated that the integrity of WM connectivity between the bilateral inferior parietal lobules mediated the orienting performance. Second, the scores of executive control were significantly associated with the WM diffusion metrics of the right supramarginal gyrus. Finally, TBSS analysis revealed that alerting performance was significant correlated with the fractional anisotropy of local WM connecting the right thalamus and supplementary motor area. We conclude that distinct areas and features within PPL are associated with different components of attention. These findings could yield a more complete understanding of the nature of the PPL contribution to visuospatial attention.

  18. Indicators of national focus of the research published by Public Health journals edited in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Abel Laerte

    2015-07-01

    This report presents a set of bibliometric indicators and statistics which explain the high level of production of articles on research in public and collective health in Brazil which are published in the main nationally edited journals in the field. The predominance of publications in the Portuguese language by Brazilian authors results in a lower impact in terms of citations received as measured by the bibliometric indexes Scimago/Scopus and JCR/WoS. These bibliometric indexes are used to measure the production and performance of research and journals. Nevertheless, the performance of these same journals stands out in SciELO, and is competitive internationally in the broader context of Google Scholar Metrics. The challenge faced by journals in Brazil is developing and applying editorial policies for the valuation of research with a national focus, and its internationalization.

  19. Effect of Training Focused on Executive Functions (attention, inhibition and working memory in Preschoolers exhibiting ADHD symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Re

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of early intervention strategies for children with symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is important because it provides an opportunity to prevent severe problems in the future. The main purpose of this investigation was to determine the efficacy of a group training for the control of attention, working memory and impulsive behaviors, involving five-year-old children with ADHD symptoms. Twenty-six children with ADHD symptoms and 26 with typical development were randomly divided in two conditions. 13 children in each group were assigned to the training condition and the other to the business as usual condition (normal class activity. Children who participated in the intervention showed an improvement in the tasks measuring their control of attention, impulsive behavior and working memory. Moreover, children with typical development who attended the training also improved their competencies. The results confirm the importance of an early intervention for preschool-age children with ADHD symptoms.

  20. Self-esteem, Self-focused Attention, and the Mediating Role of Fear of Negative Evaluation in College Students With and Without Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junghans-Rutelonis, Ashley N; Suorsa, Kristina I; Tackett, Alayna P; Burkley, Edward; Chaney, John M; Mullins, Larry L

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated the mediating role of fear of negative evaluation on the relationship between self-focused attention and self-esteem among college students with and without asthma. Young adults with (n = 148) and without (n = 530) childhood-onset asthma were recruited from a college student population. Self-focused attention and fear of negative evaluation measures were completed. Participants also answered questions about inclusion in a social activity. Higher levels of self-focused attention and fear of negative evaluation were associated with lower self-esteem in both groups within the context of social activity participation. Fear of negative evaluation mediated the relationship between self-consciousness and self-esteem. No significant differences were found between groups. Findings indicate significant relationships among self-focused attention, fear of negative evaluation, and self-esteem in the context of social activity participation. Further examination of self-esteem regarding participation in social activities among college students appears warranted.

  1. Self-Esteem, Self-Focused Attention, and the Mediating Role of Fear of Negative Evaluation in College Students with and without Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junghans-Rutelonis, Ashley N.; Suorsa, Kristina I.; Tackett, Alayna P.; Burkley, Edward; Chaney, John M.; Mullins, Larry L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The current study investigated the mediating role of fear of negative evaluation on the relationship between self-focused attention and self-esteem among college students with and without asthma. Participants: Young adults with (n = 148) and without (n = 530) childhood-onset asthma were recruited from a college student population.…

  2. Confidence in public institutions: A focus group study on views on the Swedish Social Insurance Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, K; Rosstorp, F; Rohdén, H

    2016-09-27

    From a public health perspective among the working population, it is very important that confidence in the welfare system is high, ensuring the citizens economic security and protecting them from economic stress when falling ill. The aim of this study was to explore how people with experience of health insurance perceive their confidence in the Swedish Social Insurance Agency (SSIA). Eight focus groups (n = 41) were conducted and each group met on one occasion. The participants described a systemic change in the work of the SSIA where the rule-of-law was disregarded, with arbitrary assessment, and no transparency. The reception by the SSIA shaped the image of the SSIA. The participants described vulnerability in relation to the SSIA. They felt mistrusted, which left a feeling of impotence that worsened their health. Experiencing vulnerability left a strong impression and affected the participants' confidence negatively. The following has to be acknowledged to prevent clients from experiencing impaired health, promote return-to-work possibilities, and to push public confidence in the institution in a more positive direction: Politicians and public administrators need to clarify the regulations. The decision-making process needs to be transparent and just. The entire procedure, including continuity as well as a personal, nice reception, has to be ensured.

  3. Public attitudes towards pricing policies to change health-related behaviours: a UK focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Claire; Marteau, Theresa M; Kinmonth, Ann Louise; Cohn, Simon

    2015-12-01

    Evidence supports the use of pricing interventions in achieving healthier behaviour at population level. The public acceptability of this strategy continues to be debated throughout Europe, Australasia and USA. We examined public attitudes towards, and beliefs about the acceptability of pricing policies to change health-related behaviours in the UK. The study explores what underlies ideas of acceptability, and in particular those values and beliefs that potentially compete with the evidence presented by policy-makers. Twelve focus group discussions were held in the London area using a common protocol with visual and textual stimuli. Over 300,000 words of verbatim transcript were inductively coded and analyzed, and themes extracted using a constant comparative method. Attitudes towards pricing policies to change three behaviours (smoking, and excessive consumption of alcohol and food) to improve health outcomes, were unfavourable and acceptability was low. Three sets of beliefs appeared to underpin these attitudes: (i) pricing makes no difference to behaviour; (ii) government raises prices to generate income, not to achieve healthier behaviour and (iii) government is not trustworthy. These beliefs were evident in discussions of all types of health-related behaviour. The low acceptability of pricing interventions to achieve healthier behaviours in populations was linked among these responders to a set of beliefs indicating low trust in government. Acceptability might be increased if evidence regarding effectiveness came from trusted sources seen as independent of government and was supported by public involvement and hypothecated taxation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  4. Designing personal attentive user interfaces in the mobile public safety domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streefkerk, J.W.; Esch van-Bussemakers, M.P.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    In the mobile computing environment, there is a need to adapt the information and service provision to the momentary attentive state of the user, operational requirements and usage context. This paper proposes to design personal attentive user interfaces (PAUI) for which the content and style of

  5. Randomized Trial on the Effects of Attentional Focus on Motor Training of the Upper Extremity Using Robotics With Individuals After Chronic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Grace J; Hinojosa, Jim; Rao, Ashwini K; Batavia, Mitchell; O'Dell, Michael W

    2017-10-01

    To compare the long-term effects of external focus (EF) and internal focus (IF) of attention after 4 weeks of arm training. Randomized, repeated-measures, mixed analysis of variance. Outpatient clinic. Individuals with stroke and moderate-to-severe arm impairment living in the community (N=33; withdrawals: n=3). Four-week arm training protocol on a robotic device (12 sessions). Joint independence, Fugl-Meyer Assessment, and Wolf Motor Function Test measured at baseline, discharge, and 4-week follow-up. There were no between-group effects for attentional focus. Participants in both groups improved significantly on all outcome measures from baseline to discharge and maintained those changes at 4-week follow-up regardless of group assignment (joint independence EF condition: F 1.6,45.4 =17.74; P<.0005; partial η 2 =.39; joint independence IF condition: F 2,56 =18.66; P<.0005; partial η 2 =.40; Fugl-Meyer Assessment: F 2,56 =27.83; P<.0005; partial η 2 =.50; Wolf Motor Function Test: F 2,56 =14.05; P<.0005; partial η 2 =.35). There were no differences in retention of motor skills between EF and IF participants 4 weeks after arm training, suggesting that individuals with moderate-to-severe arm impairment may not experience the advantages of an EF found in healthy individuals. Attentional focus is most likely not an active ingredient for retention of trained motor skills for individuals with moderate-to-severe arm impairment, whereas dosage and intensity of practice appear to be pivotal. Future studies should investigate the long-term effects of attentional focus for individuals with mild arm impairment. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cognitive development in 7- to 24-month-old extremely/very-to-moderately/late preterm and full-term born infants: The mediating role of focused attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuner, Gitta; Weinschenk, Andrea; Pauen, Sabina; Pietz, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    The present study analyzed the links between prematurity, attention, and global cognitive performance in infancy and early childhood. At 7 months, focused attention (FA) was examined with an object examination task in 93 preterm infants (39 of them born extremely/very preterm, 54 born moderately/late preterm, and 38 infants born full-term). Global cognition was assessed at 7 and 24 months with the Bayley-II cognitive scale. Groups did not differ with respect to global cognitive performance but FA of infants born extremely/very preterm was significantly lower than in infants born moderately/late preterm. FA correlated significantly with both prematurity and cognitive performance at 7 months of age but not with global cognition in childhood. Findings point to a subtle adverse effect of prematurity on early attention and reveal evidence for the mediating role of FA on the effect of prematurity on cognition.

  7. Neurofeedback training aimed to improve focused attention and alertness in children with ADHD: a study of relative power of EEG rhythms using custom-made software application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillard, Brent; El-Baz, Ayman S; Sears, Lonnie; Tasman, Allan; Sokhadze, Estate M

    2013-07-01

    Neurofeedback is a nonpharmacological treatment for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We propose that operant conditioning of electroencephalogram (EEG) in neurofeedback training aimed to mitigate inattention and low arousal in ADHD, will be accompanied by changes in EEG bands' relative power. Patients were 18 children diagnosed with ADHD. The neurofeedback protocol ("Focus/Alertness" by Peak Achievement Trainer) has a focused attention and alertness training mode. The neurofeedback protocol provides one for Focus and one for Alertness. This does not allow for collecting information regarding changes in specific EEG bands (delta, theta, alpha, low and high beta, and gamma) power within the 2 to 45 Hz range. Quantitative EEG analysis was completed on each of twelve 25-minute-long sessions using a custom-made MatLab application to determine the relative power of each of the aforementioned EEG bands throughout each session, and from the first session to the last session. Additional statistical analysis determined significant changes in relative power within sessions (from minute 1 to minute 25) and between sessions (from session 1 to session 12). Analysis was of relative power of theta, alpha, low and high beta, theta/alpha, theta/beta, and theta/low beta and theta/high beta ratios. Additional secondary measures of patients' post-neurofeedback outcomes were assessed, using an audiovisual selective attention test (IVA + Plus) and behavioral evaluation scores from the Aberrant Behavior Checklist. Analysis of data computed in the MatLab application, determined that theta/low beta and theta/alpha ratios decreased significantly from session 1 to session 12, and from minute 1 to minute 25 within sessions. The findings regarding EEG changes resulting from brain wave self-regulation training, along with behavioral evaluations, will help elucidate neural mechanisms of neurofeedback aimed to improve focused attention and alertness in ADHD.

  8. Focus on Ethics and Public Relations Practice in a University Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smudde, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Public relations action relies on sound decision making about how to inspire cooperation between an organization and its publics. Such thinking must uphold principles for ethical communication. Effectively combining ethics with public relations practice for students is key. A pedagogical approach to public relations ethics, hinging on selected…

  9. Public Communication Strategy Development: Focused on the Public Opinion Poll and Lessons Learned from the Survey on Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hah, Yeon Hee; Chung, Yun Hyung; Lee, Gey Hwi; Choi, Yong Seog

    2006-01-01

    The fundamental objective of nuclear regulatory organization is to ensure that nuclear activities are conducted at all times in an acceptably safe manner. When we are talking about 'acceptable' safety, it means that we have to try to achieve the safety level as 'acceptable' as perceived by the public, not the one conceptualized by the technology itself. In meeting this objective, the regulatory organization continues to ensure that its activities are transparent, technically sound, credible, and independent. More importantly, it should strive to ensure that the public are well informed about such activities and are confident upon regulatory organization. Public communication is one of the key approaches to attain such a goal. The availability of on-line communications based on the development of information technology has made a major impact on the public's better awareness of nuclear safety issues. Nuclear regulatory organization and operators are increasingly under pressure to communicate more actively with the public to satisfy their demand for knowing about the safety of nuclear facility. In coping with such challenges, KINS has developed a public information and communication policy to make public confident in their information and thus to earn the public trust and confidence toward nuclear safety. It is widely acknowledged that public communication for ensuring nuclear safety has been an integral part of the operators' activity. However, the roles and activities by the regulator in the area of public communication are increasingly required as the public become more interested in and concerned about safety issues. Taking this into account, KINS has carried out several activities to be well-informed about how the public perceive nuclear safety and how much they are satisfied with the regulator's activities, etc

  10. The flanker compatibility effect as a function of visual angle, attentional focus, visual transients, and perceptual load: a search for boundary conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J

    1991-03-01

    When subjects must respond to a relevant center letter and ignore irrelevant flanking letters, the identities of the flankers produce a response compatibility effect, indicating that they are processed semantically at least to some extent. Because this effect decreases as the separation between target and flankers increases, the effect appears to result from imperfect early selection (attenuation). In the present experiments, several features of the focused attention paradigm were examined, in order to determine whether they might produce the flanker compatibility effect by interfering with the operation of an early selective mechanism. Specifically, the effect might be produced because the paradigm requires subjects to (1) attend exclusively to stimuli within a very small visual angle, (2) maintain a long-term attentional focus on a constant display location, (3) focus attention on an empty display location, (4) exclude onset-transient flankers from semantic processing, or (5) ignore some of the few stimuli in an impoverished visual field. The results indicate that none of these task features is required for semantic processing of unattended stimuli to occur. In fact, visual angle is the only one of the task features that clearly has a strong influence on the size of the flanker compatibility effect. The invariance of the flanker compatibility effect across these conditions suggests that the mechanism for early selection rarely, if ever, completely excludes unattended stimuli from semantic analysis. In addition, it shows that selective mechanisms are relatively insensitive to several factors that might be expected to influence them, thereby supporting the view that spatial separation has a special status for visual selective attention.

  11. Screening for Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in a Psychiatric Outpatient Population with Specific Focus on Sex Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Corbisiero

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/aimsAttention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is often overlooked in adults; moreover, the problem seems to be even more critical in women. In the present, observational screening study, a clinical, particularly adult outpatient population was examined regarding frequency and severity of a likely ADHD, whereby sex differences were of particular interest.Methods224 participants, 146 men and 78 women, were included. Based on data recorded with the self-rating WHO screening instrument Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-v1.1, it was examined how many participants were conspicuous for adult ADHD by exceeding a predefined cutoff value (COV (COV ≥ 4 for ASRS-6, and ≥12 for ASRS-18. To examine frequency distributions, χ2 tests were conducted. For the inferential statistical comparison of means, t-tests for independent samples or Mann–Whitney U tests were calculated.Results34.4% of the sample was screened positive in the ASRS-v1.1 screener short version, ASRS-6, while 17.4% were conspicuous in the symptom checklist, ASRS-18. There were indeed more men screened positive, but the difference in the frequency between the sexes was not statistically significant, indicating a balanced sex ratio. Further, severity of ADHD core symptoms inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity was examined by comparing ASRS-18 symptom subscale scores. In concordance with the hypothesis, men and women did not differ in severity of symptoms.ConclusionResults indicate that women might be affected by ADHD in a comparable manner as men; this emphasizes the importance for the awareness of ADHD in both sexes in clinical practice.

  12. Shifting Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Jenni

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the shifts in attention and focus as one teacher introduces and explains an image that represents the processes involved in a numeric problem that his students have been working on. This paper takes a micro-analytic approach to examine how the focus of attention shifts through what the teacher and students do and say in the…

  13. Facilitating Transition from High School and Special Education to Adult Life: Focus on Youth with Learning Disorders, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, and Speech/Language Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascherman, Lee I; Shaftel, Julia

    2017-04-01

    Youth with learning disorders, speech/language disorders, and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder may experience significant struggles during the transition from high school to postsecondary education and employment. These disorders often occur in combination or concurrently with behavioral and emotional difficulties. Incomplete evaluation may not fully identify the factors underlying academic and personal challenges. This article reviews these disorders, the role of special education law for transitional age youth in public schools, and the Americans with Disabilities Act in postsecondary educational and employment settings. The role of the child and adolescent psychiatrist and the importance of advocacy for these youth are presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ethical issues in genetics and public health in Latin America with a focus on Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penchaszadeh, Victor B

    2015-07-01

    This paper reviews the health situation and developments in medical genetics and bioethics in Latin America, with a focus on Argentina. The region is the most inequitable in the world, with an average Gini Index of 52.5 and 25 % of the population living in poverty. Health expenditures are low and health systems are fragmented and privatised, with curtailed governmental responsibility and regulation. Health-care decision making is mostly in the hands of private insurance corporations and the medical-industrial complex, so that what is (or is not) covered by health plans is arbitrary and determined by the market and not by population health needs. This inequity and the lack of meaningful governmental intervention in the provision of health care, including genetic services, are at the heart of the bioethical dilemmas in Latin America. It is not surprising, therefore, that bioethics in the region has developed an approach grounded in social justice, equity and human rights as guiding principles, in contrast to the individualism espoused by Anglo-Saxon bioethics. The main ethical issues identified in genetics in Latin America are (1) inequity in access to genetic services, particularly in prenatal diagnosis, (2) genetic discrimination and (3) the lack of adherence to internationally accepted requisites of clinical validity and utility for diagnostic and predictive genetic testing. In this context, there is a risk that the impressive advances in genetics/genomics occurring in developed countries may fail to improve the public's health and deepen inequity, with the implementation of expensive genetic technologies of unproven validity.

  15. Vaginal orgasm is associated with vaginal (not clitoral) sex education, focusing mental attention on vaginal sensations, intercourse duration, and a preference for a longer penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Stuart; Weiss, Petr

    2010-08-01

    Evidence was recently provided for vaginal orgasm, orgasm triggered purely by penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI), being associated with better psychological functioning. Common sex education and sexual medicine approaches might undermine vaginal orgasm benefits. To examine the extent to which women's vaginal orgasm consistency is associated with (i) being told in childhood or adolescence that the vagina was the important zone for inducing female orgasm; (ii) how well they focus mentally on vaginal sensations during PVI; (iii) greater PVI duration; and (iv) preference for above-average penis length.   In a representative sample of the Czech population, 1,000 women reported their vaginal orgasm consistency (from never to almost every time; only 21.9% never had a vaginal orgasm), estimates of their typical foreplay and PVI durations, what they were told in childhood and adolescence was the important zone for inducing female orgasm, their degree of focus on vaginal sensations during PVI, and whether they were more likely to orgasm with a longer than average penis. The association of vaginal orgasm consistency with the predictors noted above. Vaginal orgasm consistency was associated with all hypothesized correlates. Multivariate analysis indicated the most important predictors were being educated that the vagina is important for female orgasm, being mentally focused on vaginal sensations during PVI, and in some analyses duration of PVI (but not foreplay) and preferring a longer than average penis. Focusing attention on penile-vaginal sensation supports vaginal orgasm and the myriad benefits thereof. Brody S, and Weiss P. Vaginal orgasm is associated with vaginal (not clitoral) sex education, focusing mental attention on vaginal sensations, intercourse duration, and a preference for a longer penis. © 2009 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  16. Chinese Public Attention to the Outbreak of Ebola in West Africa: Evidence from the Online Big Data Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kui; Li, Li; Jiang, Tao; Chen, Bin; Jiang, Zhenggang; Wang, Zhengting; Chen, Yongdi; Jiang, Jianmin; Gu, Hua

    2016-08-04

    The outbreak of the Ebola epidemic in West Africa in 2014 exerted enormous global public reaction via the Internet and social media. This study aimed to investigate and evaluate the public reaction to Ebola in China and identify the primitive correlation between possible influence factors caused by the outbreak of Ebola in West Africa and Chinese public attention via Internet surveillance. Baidu Index (BDI) and Sina Micro Index (SMI) were collected from their official websites, and the disease-related data were recorded from the websites of the World Health Organization (WHO), U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and U.S. National Ministries of Health. The average BDI of Internet users in different regions were calculated to identify the public reaction to the Ebola outbreak. Spearman's rank correlation was used to check the relationship of epidemic trends with BDI and SMI. Additionally, spatio-temporal analysis and autocorrelation analysis were performed to detect the clustered areas with the high attention to the topic of "Ebola". The related news reports were collected from authoritative websites to identify potential patterns. The BDI and the SMI for "Ebola" showed a similar fluctuating trend with a correlation coefficient = 0.9 (p < 0.05). The average BDI in Beijing, Tibet, and Shanghai was higher than other cities. However, the disease-related indicators did not identify potential correlation with both indices above. A hotspot area was detected in Tibet by local autocorrelation analysis. The most likely cluster identified by spatiotemporal cluster analysis was in the northeast regions of China with the relative risk (RR) of 2.26 (p ≤ 0.01) from 30 July to 14 August in 2014. Qualitative analysis indicated that negative news could lead to a continuous increase of the public's attention until the appearance of a positive news report. Confronted with the risk of cross-border transmission of the infectious disease, online surveillance might be

  17. Closure of a local public hospital in Korea: focusing on the organizational life cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeo YH

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Young Hyun Yeo,1 Keon-Hyung Lee,2 Hye Jeong Kim3 1Department of Public Administration, Sunmoon University, Asan, ChungNam, South Korea; 2Askew School of Public Administration and Policy, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA; 3Department of Public Administration, Sunmoon University, Asan, ChungNam, South Korea Abstract: Just as living organisms have a creation-maintenance-extinction life cycle, organizations also have a life cycle. Private organizations will not survive if they fail to acquire necessary resources through market competition. Public organizations, however, continue to survive because the government has provided financial support in order to enhance public interest. Only a few public organizations in Korea have closed. With the introduction of new public management since the economic crisis in 1997, however, public organizations have had to compete with private organizations. Public hospitals are not free to open or close their business. They are also controlled by the government in terms of their prices, management, budgets, and operations. As they pursue public interest by fulfilling the government’s order such as providing free or lower-priced care to the vulnerable population, they tend to provide a lower quality of care and suffer a financial burden. Employing a case study analysis, this study attempts to understand the external environment that local public hospitals face. The fundamental problem of local public hospitals in Korea is the value conflict between public interest and profitability. Local public hospitals are required to pursue public interest by assignment of a public mission including building a medical safety net for low-income patients and managing nonprofitable medical facilities and emergent health care situations. At the same time, they are required to pursue profitability by achieving high-quality care through competition and the operation of an independent, self-supporting system according to

  18. Closure of a local public hospital in Korea: focusing on the organizational life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Young Hyun; Lee, Keon-Hyung; Kim, Hye Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Just as living organisms have a creation-maintenance-extinction life cycle, organizations also have a life cycle. Private organizations will not survive if they fail to acquire necessary resources through market competition. Public organizations, however, continue to survive because the government has provided financial support in order to enhance public interest. Only a few public organizations in Korea have closed. With the introduction of new public management since the economic crisis in 1997, however, public organizations have had to compete with private organizations. Public hospitals are not free to open or close their business. They are also controlled by the government in terms of their prices, management, budgets, and operations. As they pursue public interest by fulfilling the government's order such as providing free or lower-priced care to the vulnerable population, they tend to provide a lower quality of care and suffer a financial burden. Employing a case study analysis, this study attempts to understand the external environment that local public hospitals face. The fundamental problem of local public hospitals in Korea is the value conflict between public interest and profitability. Local public hospitals are required to pursue public interest by assignment of a public mission including building a medical safety net for low-income patients and managing nonprofitable medical facilities and emergent health care situations. At the same time, they are required to pursue profitability by achieving high-quality care through competition and the operation of an independent, self-supporting system according to private business logic. Under such paradoxical situations, a political decision may cause an unexpected result.

  19. Too Far to Care? Measuring Public Attention and Fear for Ebola Using Twitter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lent, L.G.G.; Sungur, H.; Kunneman, F.A.; van de Velde, B.; Das, E.

    Background: In 2014, the world was startled by a sudden outbreak of Ebola. Although Ebola infections and deaths occurred almost exclusively in Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia, few potential Western cases, in particular, caused a great stir among the public in Western countries. Objective: This

  20. Underpricing, underperformance and overreaction in initial public offerings: Evidence from investor attention using online searches

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vakrman, T.; Krištoufek, Ladislav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 84 (2015) ISSN 2193-1801 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G097 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Onlinesearches * Initial public offerings * Puzzles Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.982, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/E/kristoufek-0452324.pdf

  1. Capturing public opinion on public health topics: a comparison of experiences from a systematic review, focus group study, and analysis of online, user-generated content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Louise Giles

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundCapturing public opinion towards public health topics is important to ensure that services, policy and research are aligned with the beliefs and priorities of the general public. A number of approaches can be used to capture public opinion. MethodsWe are conducting a programme of work on the effectiveness and acceptability of health promoting financial incentive interventions. We have captured public opinion on financial incentive interventions using three methods: a systematic review, focus group study, and analysis of online user-generated comments to news media reports. In this short, editorial-style, piece we compare and contrast our experiences with these three methods.ResultsEach of these methods had their advantages and disadvantages. Advantages include tailoring of the research question for systematic reviews, probing of answers during focus groups, and the ability to aggregate a large data set using online user-generated content. However, disadvantages include needing to update systematic reviews, participants conforming to a dominant perspective in focus groups, and being unable to collect respondent characteristics during analysis of user-generated online content. That said, analysis of user-generated online content offers additional time and resource advantages, and we found it elicited similar findings to those obtained via more traditional methods, such as systematic reviews and focus groups. ConclusionsA number of methods for capturing public opinions on public health topics are available. Public health researchers, policy makers and practitioners should choose methods appropriate to their aims. Analysis user-generated online content, especially in the context of news media reports, may be a quicker and cheaper alternative to more traditional methods, without compromising on the breadth of opinions captured.

  2. Capturing Public Opinion on Public Health Topics: A Comparison of Experiences from a Systematic Review, Focus Group Study, and Analysis of Online, User-Generated Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Emma Louise; Adams, Jean M

    2015-01-01

    Capturing public opinion toward public health topics is important to ensure that services, policy, and research are aligned with the beliefs and priorities of the general public. A number of approaches can be used to capture public opinion. We are conducting a program of work on the effectiveness and acceptability of health promoting financial incentive interventions. We have captured public opinion on financial incentive interventions using three methods: a systematic review, focus group study, and analysis of online user-generated comments to news media reports. In this short editorial-style piece, we compare and contrast our experiences with these three methods. Each of these methods had their advantages and disadvantages. Advantages include tailoring of the research question for systematic reviews, probing of answers during focus groups, and the ability to aggregate a large data set using online user-generated content. However, disadvantages include needing to update systematic reviews, participants conforming to a dominant perspective in focus groups, and being unable to collect respondent characteristics during analysis of user-generated online content. That said, analysis of user-generated online content offers additional time and resource advantages, and we found it elicited similar findings to those obtained via more traditional methods, such as systematic reviews and focus groups. A number of methods for capturing public opinions on public health topics are available. Public health researchers, policy makers, and practitioners should choose methods appropriate to their aims. Analysis of user-generated online content, especially in the context of news media reports, may be a quicker and cheaper alternative to more traditional methods, without compromising on the breadth of opinions captured.

  3. Assessing the Molecular Genetics of the Development of Executive Attention in Children: Focus on Genetic Pathways Related to the Anterior Cingulate Cortex and Dopamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocki, Karin; Clerkin, Suzanne M.; Guise, Kevin G.; Fan, Jin; Fossella, John A.

    2009-01-01

    It is well-known that children show gradual and protracted improvement in an array of behaviors involved in the conscious control of thought and emotion. Non-invasive neuroimaging in developing populations has revealed many neural correlates of behavior, particularly in the developing cingulate cortex and fronto-striatal circuits. These brain regions, themselves, undergo protracted molecular and cellular change in the first two decades of human development and, as such, are ideal regions of interest for cognitive- and imaging-genetic studies that seek to link processes at the biochemical and synaptic levels to brain activity and behavior. We review our research to-date that employs both adult and child-friendly versions of the Attention Network Task (ANT) in an effort to begin to describe the role of specific genes in the assembly of a functional attention system. Presently, we constrain our predictions for genetic association studies by focusing on the role of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and of dopamine in the development of executive attention. PMID:19344637

  4. Patient and public understanding and knowledge of antimicrobial resistance and stewardship in a UK hospital: should public campaigns change focus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micallef, Christianne; Kildonaviciute, Kornelija; Castro-Sánchez, Enrique; Scibor-Stepien, Aleksandra; Santos, Reem; Aliyu, Sani H; Cooke, Fiona J; Pacey, Sarah; Holmes, Alison H; Enoch, David A

    2017-01-01

    The rising global tide of antimicrobial resistance is a well-described phenomenon. Employing effective and innovative antimicrobial stewardship strategies is an essential approach to combat this public health threat. Education of the public and patients is paramount to enable the success of such strategies. A panel of hospital multidisciplinary healthcare professionals was set up and a short quiz containing true/false statements around antimicrobial stewardship and resistance was designed and piloted. An educational leaflet with the correct replies and supporting information was also produced and disseminated. Participants were recruited on a single day (18 November 2015) from the hospital outpatient clinics and the hospital outpatient pharmacy waiting room. One hundred and forty-five completed quizzes were returned, providing a total of 1450 answers. Overall, 934 of 1450 (64%) statements were scored correctly whilst 481 (33%) were scored incorrectly; 35 (3%) statements were left unscored. We speculate that these results may demonstrate that respondents understood the statements, as only a small proportion of statements were left unanswered. The question dealing with the definition of antimicrobial resistance and the question dealing with the definition of antimicrobial stewardship obtained the most incorrect replies (85% and 72%, respectively). However, a specific factual recall question regarding only one microorganism (MRSA) received the most correct responses (99%). We describe a simple, innovative method of engagement with patients and the general public to help educate and disseminate important public health messages around antimicrobial resistance and stewardship. We also identified the need for public health campaigns to address the knowledge gaps found around this topic. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Publication trends in Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology: focus on pharmacology in Egypt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Mas, Mahmoud M.; El-Gowelli, Hanan M.; Michel, Martin C.

    2013-01-01

    In a previous analysis of the country of origin of papers published in Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology, a major shift toward contributions from emerging market countries, was noticed in comparison of 2010 to 2001 publications. Repeating such analysis for 2012 publications in the

  6. Linking social and built environmental factors to the health of public housing residents: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Erin; Ibe, Chidinma; Young, Jeffery Hunter; Potti, Karthya; Jones, Paul; Pollack, Craig Evan; Gudzune, Kimberly A

    2015-04-10

    Public housing residents have a high risk of chronic disease, which may be related to neighborhood environmental factors. Our objective was to understand how public housing residents perceive that the social and built environments might influence their health and wellbeing. We conducted focus groups of residents from a low-income public housing community in Baltimore, MD to assess their perceptions of health and neighborhood attributes, resources, and social structure. Focus groups were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Two investigators independently coded transcripts for thematic content using editing style analysis technique. Twenty-eight residents participated in six focus groups. All were African American and the majority were women. Most had lived in public housing for more than 5 years. We identified four themes: public housing's unhealthy physical environment limits health and wellbeing, the city environment limits opportunities for healthy lifestyle choices, lack of trust in relationships contributes to social isolation, and increased neighborhood social capital could improve wellbeing. Changes in housing and city policies might lead to improved environmental health conditions for public housing residents. Policymakers and researchers may consider promoting community cohesiveness to attempt to empower residents in facilitating neighborhood change.

  7. Lateralized delay period activity marks the focus of spatial attention in working memory: evidence from somatosensory event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katus, Tobias; Eimer, Martin

    2015-04-29

    The short-term retention of sensory information in working memory (WM) is known to be associated with a sustained enhancement of neural activity. What remains controversial is whether this neural trace indicates the sustained storage of information or the allocation of attention. To evaluate the storage and attention accounts, we examined sustained tactile contralateral delay activity (tCDA component) of the event-related potential. The tCDA manifests over somatosensory cortex contralateral to task-relevant tactile information during stimulus retention. Two tactile sample sets (S1, S2) were presented sequentially, separated by 1.5 s. Each set comprised two stimuli, one per hand. Human participants memorized the location of one task-relevant stimulus per sample set and judged whether one of these locations was stimulated again at memory test. The two relevant pulses were unpredictably located on the same hand (stay trials) or on different hands (shift trials). Initially, tCDA components emerged contralateral to the relevant S1 pulse. Sequential loading of WM enhanced the tCDA after S2 was presented on stay trials. On shift trials, the tCDA's polarity reversed after S2 presentation, resulting in delay activity that was now contralateral to the task-relevant S2 pulse. The disappearance of a lateralized neural trace for the relevant S1 pulse did not impair memory accuracy for this stimulus on shift trials. These results contradict the storage account and suggest that delay period activity indicates the sustained engagement of an attention-based rehearsal mechanism. In conclusion, somatosensory delay period activity marks the current focus of attention in tactile WM. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/356689-07$15.00/0.

  8. Consequences of collective violence with particular focus on the gender perspective--secondary publication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Kastrup, Marianne C

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing focus on the gender perspective related to the consequences of collective violence. Women run a greater risk of being victims of sexual violence, but few studies have focused on gender differences with respect to physical violence, sexual violations and the impact on health...

  9. How do scientists perceive the current publication culture? A qualitative focus group interview study among Dutch biomedical researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijdink, J K; Schipper, K; Bouter, L M; Maclaine Pont, P; de Jonge, J; Smulders, Y M

    2016-02-17

    To investigate the biomedical scientist's perception of the prevailing publication culture. Qualitative focus group interview study. Four university medical centres in the Netherlands. Three randomly selected groups of biomedical scientists (PhD, postdoctoral staff members and full professors). Main themes for discussion were selected by participants. Frequently perceived detrimental effects of contemporary publication culture were the strong focus on citation measures (like the Journal Impact Factor and the H-index), gift and ghost authorships and the order of authors, the peer review process, competition, the funding system and publication bias. These themes were generally associated with detrimental and undesirable effects on publication practices and on the validity of reported results. Furthermore, senior scientists tended to display a more cynical perception of the publication culture than their junior colleagues. However, even among the PhD students and the postdoctoral fellows, the sentiment was quite negative. Positive perceptions of specific features of contemporary scientific and publication culture were rare. Our findings suggest that the current publication culture leads to negative sentiments, counterproductive stress levels and, most importantly, to questionable research practices among junior and senior biomedical scientists. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Focusing, Sustaining, and Switching Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    Refereed articles Schwartz A and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2013). Dynamic range compression effects spatial selection of speech sounds in normal-hearing...34Foundations of binaural hearing: Why does spatial hearing matter?," Annual Meeting of the Academy of Audiology , Anaheim, CA, 3 April 2013 [invited keynote...Keynote Speaker, Binaural Active Audition Symposium, Kyoto Japan, March 2013 Keynote Speaker, Annual Meeting of the Academy of Audiology , Anaheim, CA

  11. Problems in siting low level radioactive wastes: A focus on public participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bord, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    Public participation programs must develop a means to enlist meaningful public feedback. Besides the traditional public meetings, which generally mobilize the opposition, careful surveys can be done of a representative spectrum of the public getting their judgments about specific criteria. These judgments can be used to shape siting policy. Such an approach would help avoid the criticism that public input is not taken into account. While the suggestions included in this paper go far in dealing with public fear and distrust they cannot guarantee siting success. There are a number of uncontrollable contingencies that can affect any siting program. Another energy crises, for example, may increase the prestige of the nuclear industry and make LLRW siting less onerous. Or, new broadcasts of waste site failures or of nuclear accidents could make LLRW siting more problematic. The problems of waste siting will not disappear nor are the solutions easy ones. They demand serious consideration by talented scientists of all kinds. Waste siting difficulties certainly rank near the top of challenges facing advanced industrial societies. Attempts to site wastes of all kinds have foundered because of strong public opposition. LLRW siting attempts are certain to meet similar problems. Local communities tend to see little or no benefits but high costs in hosting waste sites. Fear of pollution, the unknown aspects of radiation risks, a lack of confidence in governmental agencies, are all factors promoting public resistance. Compounding these problems has been the failure of citizen participation programs to fulfill the functions for which they were designed. Instead of fostering more open communication, regulating conflict, and generating better ideas, participation programs dealing with waste siting tend to generate more conflict and mobilize determined opposition

  12. Education within public management in South Africa: A focus on external Whole-School Evaluation process’ contribution in Mpumalanga province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Siphamandla Ryan Mathaba

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study focused on the role played by public sector management in South Africa towards the country’s total development and improvement. This article also analyses how through the Whole School Evaluation (WSE process, the education system in South Africa seeks to ensure that the schooling is effective. This paper examines public management, public administration as well as new public management (NPM. The aim is to illustrate a view of how education fits in the broader public management and how the WSE process assists schooling in South Africa and Mpumalanga in particular. This is to ensure that the schooling is effective and contribute towards service delivery and the country’s overall development and improvement. Furthermore, WSE as a process, is viewed through five of NPM undisputable and debatable characteristics of accountability for performance; performance measurement; performance auditing; policy analysis and evaluation; and strategic planning and management. Public management functions and public management principles are discussed from a point of how the WSE process strives to ensure that it complies with these function and principles, and how this compliance benefit school improvement. This paper came to a number of conclusions regarding education within public management from a WSE perspective. Firstly, education through the external WSE process conforms to this principle of New Public Management in that evaluation is aimed at improving the quality of education. Also, the external WSE, as a process, and education in general, through the NPM principles can be performed within public management. Furthermore, external WSE conforms to public management principles as well as Batho Pele principles.

  13. STRENGTHENING THE SUSTAINABILITY OF PUBLIC FINANCES BY MEANS OF FINANCIAL LAW FOCUSED ON THE CONTROL AND AUDIT EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel BOSTAN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The activity to prevent embrittlement sustainability of public finances should manifest itself permanently, regardless of economic circumstances - national or European. This, more so as it was set by the Stability and Growth Pact (SGP, which introduces new rules on fiscal policy. Regulations and exercise adequate of financial control and public audit are intended to give certain guarantees on landing approach this topic (most on enhancing sustainability of public finances. Therefore, our approach aims to reveal some aspects of fiscal consolidation by means of financial law focused on exercise fiscal control and public audit. Our references aim the current regulatory of this important organization and functioning rule of law activities and results reported.

  14. Case studies in public-private-partnership in health with the focus of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various definitions have been framed for public-private partnerships (PPPs) in health depending on the desired relationship and the characteristics of the respective sectors. These relationships span from a continuum of loose relationships with narrow objectives, lack of a legal status and an absence of a formalized ...

  15. Ten Reasons to Still Keep the Focus on Teen Childbearing. Research Brief, Publication #2009-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, Emily; Peterson, Kristen; Manlove, Jennifer; Scarupa, Harriet J., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    In 2002, Child Trends drew on statistics and research findings to produce a report called "Ten Reasons to Keep the Focus on Teen Childbearing." That report took note of the steady decline in the nation's teenage pregnancy and childbearing rates, beginning in 1991, while citing multiple reasons to continue to be concerned about teen childbearing.…

  16. Quality and integration of public health information systems: A systematic review focused on immunization and vital records systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, Joshua R; Kirk, Hilary M; Issel, L Michele

    2012-01-01

    Public health professionals rely on quantitative data for the daily practice of public health as well as organizational decision making and planning. However, several factors work against effective data sharing among public health agencies in the US. This review characterizes the reported barriers and enablers of effective use of public health IS from an informatics perspective. A systematic review of the English language literature for 2005 to 2011 followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) format. The review focused on immunization information systems (IIS) and vital records information systems (VRIS). Systems were described according to the structural aspects of IS integration and data quality. Articles describing IIS documented issues pertaining to the distribution of the system, the autonomy of the data providers, the heterogeneous nature of information sharing as well as the quality of the data. Articles describing VRIS were focused much more heavily on data quality, particularly whether or not the data were free from errors. For state and local practitioners to effectively utilize data, public health IS will have to overcome the challenges posed by a large number of autonomous data providers utilizing a variety of technologies.

  17. Customer-Focused Business Practice Adoption: A Comparison of Private and Public Sector Implementations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-01

    not experimentally examined or measured…” ( Denzin and Lincoln , 2000:8). Furthermore, scientific experiments are typically not conducted in business...Objectivist and Constructivist Methods. In N.K. Denzin and Y.S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of Qualitative Research (2nd Edition) (pp. 509-535). Thousand...unpublished article. n. pag. http://www.dla.mil/public_info/read_news.asp?track=182. 5 December 2003. Denzin , N.K. and Lincoln , Y.S. (2000). Handbook of

  18. Industry's focus on benefits 'Creates public distrust'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitev, Lubomir [NucNet, Brussels (Belgium)

    2015-03-15

    The Eagle Project, aimed at identifying and disseminating good practices in information and communication related to ionising radiation, has been carrying out public opinion polls in Europe. NucNet spoke to Genevieve Baumont, senior expert member of the French Expert Commission, and Marie-Helene Eljammal, co-writer of a French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) report on one of the polls, about the results.

  19. Hearing focuses on price of Norplant; Wyeth pledges discount for public sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-23

    In November 1993, Democratic US Representative Ron Wyden held a hearing on the cost of the contraceptive implant Norplant. Its US distributor, Wyeth-Ayerst, informed the US House Subcommittee on Regulation, Business Opportunities and Technology that it would offer the public sector a discounted price for Norplant 5 years after it had been on the US market. Public funds contributed to the development of Norplant. USAID provided $17.2 million of the $41.3 million that the Population Council spent on developing Norplant. Wyeth provided the Council levonorgestrel, the drug used in Norplant, thereby holding the right to market Norplant in the US and Canada. USAID buys Norplant from the distributor for all other countries for $23, while Wyeth sells Norplant in a package of insertion and educational materials for $365. This large gap infuriates groups providing family planning services to low-income women. Medicaid pays for Norplant and its insertion for the poorest women. Wealthier women either pay for Norplant themselves, or their health insurance pays for it. This leaves low-income women with no access to Norplant. Wyeth has formed the Norplant Foundation to provide Norplant to low-income women whom Medicaid will not cover. It also trains most providers in insertion and removal procedures. The law requires Wyeth to reimburse qualified public health clinics 15% of costs. The reason Wyeth does not yet give the public sector a discounted price is that it wants Norplant to become firmly entrenched in the private sector first. Other panelists commented on how Norplant's success may encourage other companies to return to contraception research. Liability and political controversy are still concerns, however. Another panelist expressed concern that consumers have become too dependent on pharmaceutical companies and their commercial interests.

  20. Industry's focus on benefits 'Creates public distrust'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitev, Lubomir

    2015-01-01

    The Eagle Project, aimed at identifying and disseminating good practices in information and communication related to ionising radiation, has been carrying out public opinion polls in Europe. NucNet spoke to Genevieve Baumont, senior expert member of the French Expert Commission, and Marie-Helene Eljammal, co-writer of a French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) report on one of the polls, about the results.

  1. Public and Opinion Leader Willingness to Fund Obesity-Focused Policies in Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Carol L; Curry, Laurel E; Homsi, Ghada; Williams, Pamela A; Glasgow, LaShawn M; Van Hersh, Deanna; Willett, Jeffrey; Rogers, Todd

    2017-08-01

    Obesity increases the risk for leading causes of death, including cardiovascular disease and some cancers. Midwestern and southern states have the highest obesity rates-in Kansas, one in every three adults is obese. We compared the willingness of Kansas adults and opinion leaders to pay more in taxes to fund obesity prevention policies. In 2014, we asked a representative sample of 2,203 Kansas adults (response rate 15.7%) and 912 opinion leaders (response rate 55%) drawn from elected office and other sectors, including business and health, whether they would pay an additional $50 in annual taxes to support five policies that improve access to healthy foods and opportunities for physical activity. We used adjusted Wald tests to compare public and opinion leaders' responses, and regression analysis to assess whether differences in respondents' gender, age, location (urban/rural), race/ethnicity, and political stance affected results. Adjusting for demographic differences, Kansas adults were more willing than opinion leaders to pay $50 in taxes for each of the five policy interventions. This study demonstrates a willingness among residents of a fiscally conservative state to pay increased taxes for policies that could reduce population obesity rates. Health professionals, including nurses, can use these findings to educate policy makers in Kansas and geopolitically similar states about widespread public support for obesity prevention policies. Public health and other nurses could also apply our methods to assess support for obesity prevention policies in their jurisdictions.

  2. Focus on Citizens: Public Engagement with Online and Face-to-Face Participation—A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Garau, Chiara

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to focus on how an integrated system based on Information Communication Technology (ICT) and face-to-face communication can increase participation in order to have a positive effect on quality of life, plans and decisions, and to discuss the many benefits which web-based public participation can bring to the planning process through a set of improvements to relations, quality and structure of cities in general and in this case example specifically. With the...

  3. New challenges of public health: bringing the future of personalised healthcare into focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Walter; Boccia, Stefania

    2017-10-01

    The greater personalization of healthcare represents a driver of innovation for research, and for the healthcare systems and industries as a whole. Still policy-makers, healthcare professionals, citizens and private companies need to take some steps to realize the potential for such a radical shift. In this paper, we illustrate the challenges, the benefits and consequences that might accompany the implementation of personalized healthcare, and the steps that policy-makers and practitioners would need to take to realise its potential. Six main prerequisites for radical change in healthcare are presented, that include achieving better genetic literacy for professionals and for the public; engaging citizen in the discourse; improved governance, consent and trust in healthcare; feeding and harnessing the data-knowledge cycle for better health; adopting and adapting the Health Technology Assessment framework for the evaluation of the new technologies; and retaining humanity and community in health and care. Some of these concepts originate from a discussion on the future of health and healthcare, looking at least 15-20 years into the future, that we had at the end of 2016 at Ickworth with an international group of experts, under the aegis of the PHG Foundation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  4. Innovative assistive technology in Finnish public elderly-care services: a focus on productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkas, Helinä

    2013-01-01

    The study investigates ways in which technology use may help municipalities improve productivity in elderly-care services. A case study of Finnish elderly-care services provides responses concerning impacts, decisions and options in technology use. The research data were collected during a 'smart home pilot' implemented in four housing service units. Over 60 assistive devices were introduced in the smart homes used during short-term housing periods. Both customers and care staff's experiences as well as processes related to the use of assistive devices were investigated on the basis of survey questionnaires, interviews and feedback. Assistive device-related operational processes were investigated with the help of concepts of 'resource focus', 'lost motion' and 'intermediate storage'. Four central operational processes were identified. Design and desirability as well as costs, such as opportunity costs of assistive devices were also a focus. Significant factors related to productivity were disclosed in this way. Technology use versus productivity needs to be 'circled' from the points of view of individual users, workplaces, service processes, and larger technology options. There must be long-term patience to introduce technology properly into use to produce positive impacts on productivity. Customers and care staff have an interlinked, vital role to play as decision-makers' informants.

  5. Public policy managers councils under the focus of the theory of organizations : theoretical- conceptual approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Gabriela Gandra Pimenta Magalhães

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper do approaches between organizational theory and councils, proposing a deepening of the different perspectives of the object. The interfaces are displayed between the object and theory, followed by the similarities between them and the themes of organizational theory. The goal is to show the intersection points, the contribution of organizational studies for the understanding of this object. It was concluded that the different perspectives presented are complementary, indicating that the councils, places permeated by conflicts of power and cultural issues, constitute new organizational form that is implemented through partnerships networks between society and state. This infers also that the institutionalization of conuncils includes a new time and form of public management, developed under the logic of substantive rational action and humanistic paradigm.

  6. Visual attention to alcohol cues and responsible drinking statements within alcohol advertisements and public health campaigns: Relationships with drinking intentions and alcohol consumption in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersbergen, Inge; Field, Matt

    2017-06-01

    Both alcohol advertising and public health campaigns increase alcohol consumption in the short term, and this may be attributable to attentional capture by alcohol-related cues in both types of media. The present studies investigated the association between (a) visual attention to alcohol cues and responsible drinking statements in alcohol advertising and public health campaigns, and (b) next-week drinking intentions (Study 1) and drinking behavior in the lab (Study 2). In Study 1, 90 male participants viewed 1 of 3 TV alcohol adverts (conventional advert; advert that emphasized responsible drinking; or public health campaign; between-subjects manipulation) while their visual attention to alcohol cues and responsible drinking statements was recorded, before reporting their drinking intentions. Study 2 used a within-subjects design in which 62 participants (27% male) viewed alcohol and soda advertisements while their attention to alcohol/soda cues and responsible drinking statements was recorded, before completing a bogus taste test with different alcoholic and nonalcoholic drinks. In both studies, alcohol cues attracted more attention than responsible drinking statements, except when viewing a public health TV campaign. Attention to responsible drinking statements was not associated with intentions to drink alcohol over the next week (Study 1) or alcohol consumption in the lab (Study 2). However, attention to alcohol portrayal cues within alcohol advertisements was associated with ad lib alcohol consumption in Study 2, although attention to other types of alcohol cues (brand logos, glassware, and packaging) was not associated. Future studies should investigate how responsible drinking statements might be improved to attract more attention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Looking Upstream: Findings from Focus Groups on Public Perceptions of Source Water Quality in British Columbia, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Henrich

    Full Text Available In association with the development of new microbial tests for source water quality (SWQ, focus groups with members of the public were conducted to gain insight into their perceptions of SWQ, behaviours and contaminants they think pose the greatest threat to its quality, and what/how they want to know about SWQ. Discussions revealed a low concern about SWQ in general, and in particular about microbial contamination. Participants identified behaviours that threaten SWQ, barriers to changing behaviour and suggestions for inducing change. A strong desire was expressed for water quality information to be interpreted and communicated in terms of how SWQ may impact human health and how their actions should be altered in response to test results. The information can be used to inform communication strategies and possibly impact policies associated with water quality testing and implementation of new tests. More broadly, awareness of the public's understanding and beliefs about source water can be used in working with the public to adopt water-friendly behaviours, influence the content and methods of communicating with the public about water issues and water quality, and could contribute to the direction of future research and investment into water technologies to align with the public's priorities.

  8. A LOCAL DEVELOPMENT PROJECT IN THE FRAMEWORK OF PUBLIC POLICIES FOCUSED ON REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Schin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at outlining a successful implementation of a project within LEADER framework, which is a local development method which allows local actors to develop an area by using its endogenous development potential. After a brief presentation of the characteristics of regional development strategies in Romania, there were emphasized the objectives and activities encompassed in a local development plan, managed by the leaders of the local action group called ‘Vrancea County’. In order to reinforce the strengths of Vrancea County and implicitly to assure a sustainable development of this area from the South-East part of Romania, a LAG constituted through a partnership between public and private actors settled a set of priorities to be exploited by means of specific actions. The goal of this paper is to highlight these priorities, by integrating them in a project management approach. The paper concludes with specifications about how Microsoft Project software could support project management initiatives that will be developed by the LAG Vrancea County in the next period.

  9. Events and the means of attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, G.W.

    2013-01-01

    In the contemporary network society, attracting public attention has become more challenging as the supply of information increases. Events arguably play an essential role in synchronizing personal, social and political agendas, helping to focus attention and frame places, objects and people. The

  10. Prefrontal Function Engaging in External-Focused Attention in 5- to 6-Month-Old Infants: A Suggestion for Default Mode Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mingdi; Hoshino, Eiichi; Yatabe, Kiyomi; Matsuda, Soichiro; Sato, Hiroki; Maki, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Mina; Minagawa, Yasuyo

    2016-01-01

    The present study used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to measure 5- to 6-month-old infants' hemodynamic response in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) to visual stimuli differing in saliency and social value. Nineteen Japanese 5- to 6-month-old infants watched video clips of Peek-a-Boo (social signal) performed by an anime character (AC) or a human, and hand movements without social signal performed by an AC. The PFC activity of infants was measured by 22-channel fNIRS, while behaviors including looking time were recorded simultaneously. NIRS data showed that infants' hemodynamic responses in the PFC generally decreased due to these stimuli, and the decrease was most prominent in the frontopolar (FP), covering medial PFC (MPFC), when infants were viewing Peek-a-Boo performed by an AC. Moreover, the decrease was more pronounced in the dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC) when infants were viewing Peek-a-Boo performed by an AC than by a human. Accordingly, behavioral data revealed significantly longer looking times when Peek-a-Boo was performed by an AC than by a human. No significant difference between Peek-a-Boo and non-Peek-a-Boo conditions was observed in either measure. These findings indicate that infants at this age may prefer stimuli with more salient features, which may be more effective in attracting their attentions. In conjunction with our previous findings on responses to self-name calling in infants of similar age, we hypothesize that the dynamic function of the MPFC and its vicinity (as part of default mode network (DMN): enhanced by self-focused stimuli, attenuated by externally focused stimuli), which is consistently observed in adults, may have already emerged in 5- to 6-month-old infants.

  11. Public attitudes toward nuclear power generation. Focusing on measurement of attitude intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Yasuko; Hayashi, Chikio

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to 1) examine the differences of the perception between nuclear power generation (NPG) and electric power generation by nuclear fusion, 2) find the structural characteristics of the attitude toward NPG, 3) shed light on the characteristics of knowledge about NPG, and 4) develop a scale to measure the intensity in attitude toward NPG. Subjects (N = 1,582) were randomly assigned into 4 groups and were asked to answer a questionnaire including public attitudes toward NPG and related matters. The results were as follows: 1) the perception of electric power generation by nuclear fusion was less favorable than that of NPG; 2) Items which correlated with attitudes toward NPG were: 'sense of anxiety,' sensitivity to risk,' 'trust in science and technology,' 'evaluation of Japan's nuclear policy', 'evaluation of electric power companies,' and interest in life and environmental issues.' Moreover, people with a strong attitude tended to be rational and had a better knowledge of NPG; 3) The evaluation of the amount of subjective knowledge concerning nuclear power and electric power generation was reliable as a measure of objective knowledge; 4) The measurement method used in this study was characterized by the use of biased questions(ten positively and ten negatively biased questions) which were shown to the subjects using the split-half method. An attempt was made to measure the attitude and its intensity taking into consideration gender, positive or negative attitude toward NPG, level of knowledge about NPG, age, and occupation. As a result, differences in intensity between different attributes were found. (author)

  12. Immediate integration of prosodic information from speech and visual information from pictures in the absence of focused attention: a mismatch negativity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; Yang, Y; Ren, G

    2009-06-16

    Language is often perceived together with visual information. Recent experimental evidences indicated that, during spoken language comprehension, the brain can immediately integrate visual information with semantic or syntactic information from speech. Here we used the mismatch negativity to further investigate whether prosodic information from speech could be immediately integrated into a visual scene context or not, and especially the time course and automaticity of this integration process. Sixteen Chinese native speakers participated in the study. The materials included Chinese spoken sentences and picture pairs. In the audiovisual situation, relative to the concomitant pictures, the spoken sentence was appropriately accented in the standard stimuli, but inappropriately accented in the two kinds of deviant stimuli. In the purely auditory situation, the speech sentences were presented without pictures. It was found that the deviants evoked mismatch responses in both audiovisual and purely auditory situations; the mismatch negativity in the purely auditory situation peaked at the same time as, but was weaker than that evoked by the same deviant speech sounds in the audiovisual situation. This pattern of results suggested immediate integration of prosodic information from speech and visual information from pictures in the absence of focused attention.

  13. How calorie-focused thinking about obesity and related diseases may mislead and harm public health. An alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucan, Sean C; DiNicolantonio, James J

    2015-03-01

    Prevailing thinking about obesity and related diseases holds that quantifying calories should be a principal concern and target for intervention. Part of this thinking is that consumed calories - regardless of their sources - are equivalent; i.e. 'a calorie is a calorie'. The present commentary discusses various problems with the idea that 'a calorie is a calorie' and with a primarily quantitative focus on food calories. Instead, the authors argue for a greater qualitative focus on the sources of calories consumed (i.e. a greater focus on types of foods) and on the metabolic changes that result from consuming foods of different types. In particular, the authors consider how calorie-focused thinking is inherently biased against high-fat foods, many of which may be protective against obesity and related diseases, and supportive of starchy and sugary replacements, which are likely detrimental. Shifting the focus to qualitative food distinctions, a central argument of the paper is that obesity and related diseases are problems due largely to food-induced physiology (e.g. neurohormonal pathways) not addressable through arithmetic dieting (i.e. calorie counting). The paper considers potential harms of public health initiatives framed around calorie balance sheets - targeting 'calories in' and/or 'calories out' - that reinforce messages of overeating and inactivity as underlying causes, rather than intermediate effects, of obesity. Finally, the paper concludes that public health should work primarily to support the consumption of whole foods that help protect against obesity-promoting energy imbalance and metabolic dysfunction and not continue to promote calorie-directed messages that may create and blame victims and possibly exacerbate epidemics of obesity and related diseases.

  14. Place-focused physical activity research, human agency, and social justice in public health: taking agency seriously in studies of the built environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacksher, Erika; Lovasi, Gina S

    2012-03-01

    Built environment characteristics have been linked to health outcomes and health disparities. However, the effects of an environment on behavior may depend on human perception, interpretation, motivation, and other forms of human agency. We draw on epidemiological and ethical concepts to articulate a critique of research on the built environment and physical activity. We identify problematic assumptions and enumerate both scientific and ethical reasons to incorporate subjective perspectives and public engagement strategies into built environment research and interventions. We maintain that taking agency seriously is essential to the pursuit of health equity and the broader demands of social justice in public health, an important consideration as studies of the built environment and physical activity increasingly focus on socially disadvantaged communities. Attention to how people understand their environment and navigate competing demands can improve the scientific value of ongoing efforts to promote active living and health, while also better fulfilling our ethical obligations to the individuals and communities whose health we strive to protect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Predictors of public support for nutrition-focused policy, systems and environmental change strategies in Los Angeles County, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Brenda; Kuo, Tony

    2017-01-13

    Since 2010, federal and local agencies have invested broadly in a variety of nutrition-focused policy, systems and environmental change (PSE) initiatives in Los Angeles County (LAC). To date, little is known about whether the public supports such efforts. We address this gap in the literature by examining predictors of support for a variety of PSEs. Voters residing in LAC (n=1007) were randomly selected to participate in a cross-sectional telephone survey commissioned by the LAC Department of Public Health. The survey asked questions about attitudes towards the obesity epidemic, nutrition knowledge and behaviours, public opinions about changing business practices/government policies related to nutrition, and sociodemographics. A factor analysis informed outcome variable selection (ie, type of PSEs). Multivariable regression analyses were performed to examine predictors of public support. Predictors in the regression models included (primary regressor) community economic hardship; (control variables) political affiliation, sex, age, race and income; and (independent variables) perceptions about obesity, perceived health and weight status, frequency reading nutrition labels, ease of finding healthy and unhealthy foods, and food consumption behaviours (ie, fruit and vegetables, non-diet soda, fast-food and sit-down restaurant meals). 3 types of PSE outcome variables were identified: promotional/incentivising, limiting/restrictive and business practices. Community economic hardship was not found to be a significant predictor of public support for any of the 3 PSE types. However, Republican party affiliation, being female and perceiving obesity as a serious health problem were. These findings have implications for public health practice and community planning in local health jurisdictions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Focus on Citizens: Public Engagement with Online and Face-to-Face Participation—A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Garau

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to focus on how an integrated system based on Information Communication Technology (ICT and face-to-face communication can increase participation in order to have a positive effect on quality of life, plans and decisions, and to discuss the many benefits which web-based public participation can bring to the planning process through a set of improvements to relations, quality and structure of cities in general and in this case example specifically. With the development of a transparent support system for collaborative decision-making processes, it is possible to identify a strategy for addressing gaps to reach collaborative decisions.

  17. Attention Sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketch was used in the context of an experiment for the PhD project “Ambient Learning Displays”. The sketch comprises a custom-built attention sensor. The sensor measured (during the experiment) whether a participant looked at and thus attended a public display. The sensor was built

  18. Case studies in public-private-partnership in health with the focus of enhancing the accessibility of health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njau, R J A; Mosha, F W; De Savigny, D

    2009-10-01

    Various definitions have been framed for public-private partnerships (PPPs) in health depending on the desired relationship and the characteristics of the respective sectors. These relationships span from a continuum of loose relationships with narrow objectives, lack of a legal status and an absence of a formalized membership or governing body to high level institutionalization. The latter includes concrete objectives, the presence of a legal status and permanent multi-sectoral membership. The study used qualitative research methods including case studies, literature review and interview with key informants. The research undertakes an extensive literature review of various PPP models in health in scale and in scope which are aimed at advancing public health goals in developing countries. The major emphasis is on a qualitative description of some of the PPPs in the planning and implementation phases, including the challenges encountered. This background is used to analyse in-depth two case studies which are both health oriented; the first one is a national level NGO consortium with a focus on malaria and the second one is an international advocacy group with an overarching goal of protecting children against malaria through an innovative mechanism. The case study approach is used to analyze why the PPP approach was used to address malaria control and how it was implemented. Both PPPs demonstrated that relationships between the public and private sector may begin from very humble and loose beginnings. However, with perseverance from committed individuals, a vision and trustworthiness may become powerful advocates for meeting prescribed health agendas. In conclusion, three key themes (trust, sacrifice and championship) run vividly through the case studies and are significant for developing countries to emulate.

  19. Attention and Olfactory Consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the relation between attention and consciousness is an important part of our understanding of consciousness. Attention, unlike consciousness, can be systematically manipulated in psychophysical experiments and a law-like relation between attention and consciousness is waiting to be discovered. Most attempts to discover the nature of this relation are focused on a special type of attention: spatial visual attention. In this review I want to introduce another type of attention to ...

  20. ATTENTION OF CHILDBIRTH, RURAL-URBAN MIGRATION AND PUBLIC POLITICS OF REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH IN INDIGENOUS POPULATION OF CHIAPAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austreberta Nazar Beutelspacher, Benito Salvatierra Izaba y Emma Zapata Martelo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it’s analyze the tendencies of childbirth attention of urban indigenous women excluded in Chiapas, from rural settlement in Los Altos de Chiapas. It’s an exploratory essay which contributes to clear up the relation that establishes immigrant indigenous population with institutional health services for childbirth attention and modifications in traditional medicine. Are discussed the scopes of these changes in the operation of the institutional program of reproductive health and the risk of mother death.

  1. Public attitudes toward nuclear power generation. Preliminary study focusing on characteristics of the attitudes of men and women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Naoko; Misumi, Jyuji; Yanagihara, Ryozo; Hayashi, Chikio.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to approach the public attitudes toward nuclear power generation and related matters by focusing on the viewpoint of differences between men and women. More specifically, it was attempted to determine what types of lifestyles and ways of thinking are associated with persons indicating the respective attitudes, what types of anxiety these people have with respect to nuclear power generation, as well as the nature of the inflexibility of those attitudes. As a result, well-defined characteristics were found to be associated with each attitude. In addition, the types of anxiety with respect to nuclear power generation were able to be broadly classified into emotional anxiety and logical anxiety. Regarding the inflexibility of these attitudes, although men tended to exhibit little change concerning positive attitudes, they tended to easily change in the negative direction as a result of negative information. In the case of women, conversely, although their attitudes tended to change easily toward the affirmative direction when presented with positive information, it was determined that women tend to change very little toward the negative direction. (author)

  2. Exploring the Potential Emotional and Behavioural Impact of Providing Personalised Genomic Risk Information to the Public: A Focus Group Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Amelia K; Keogh, Louise A; Newson, Ainsley J; Hersch, Jolyn; Butow, Phyllis; Cust, Anne E

    2015-01-01

    To explore the potential emotional and behavioural impact of providing information on personalised genomic risk to the public, using melanoma as an example, to aid research translation. We conducted four focus groups in which 34 participants were presented with a hypothetical scenario of an individual's lifetime genomic risk of melanoma (using the term 'genetic risk'). We asked about understanding of genetic risk, who would choose to receive this risk information, potential emotional and behavioural impacts, and other concerns or potential benefits. Data were analysed thematically. Participants thought this risk information could potentially motivate preventive behaviours such as sun protection and related it to screening for other diseases including breast cancer. Factors identified as influencing the decision to receive genetic risk information included education level, children, age and gender. Participants identified potential negative impacts on the recipient such as anxiety and worry, and proposed that this could be mitigated by providing additional explanatory and prevention information, and contact details of a health professional for further discussion. Participants' concerns included workplace and insurance discrimination. Participants recognised the potential for both positive and negative emotional and behavioural impacts related to receiving information on the personalised genomic risk of melanoma. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Barriers to Implementing Person-Centered Recovery Planning in Public Mental Health Organizations in Texas: Results from Nine Focus Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodge, Amy C; Kaufman, Laura; Stevens Manser, Stacey

    2017-05-01

    Despite being an established practice in the disabilities service systems, person-centered planning is a relatively new practice in the behavioral health system. As a result, little is known about the barriers that mental health organizations face in implementing person-centered recovery planning (PCRP). To fill this gap, results are presented from a qualitative analysis of nine focus groups at three public mental health organizations in Texas that have been implementing PCRP for at least 2 years. Findings suggest that organizations experienced 12 distinct barriers to PCRP implementation which were categorized into the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research domains of intervention characteristics, the outer setting, the inner setting, characteristics of individuals, and the implementation process. Half of these 12 barriers fell within the inner setting domain, suggesting that implementation efforts should be flexible and adaptable to organizational culture and context. One-quarter of the barriers fell into the domain of characteristics of individuals involved in the intervention, which further suggests implementation efforts should assess the impact that both staff and consumers have on implementation success.

  4. Attention to Attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper; Paulsen, Michael Eric

    In these years digital media and wireless networks are introduced in upper secondary schools in Denmark. This implies new “attentional objects” like updates on Facebook or tweets on Twitter within instant reach of the pupils and teachers. Also it implies new kinds of attention (awareness) like when...... pupils try to listen to the teacher and simultaneously participate in online games. To this new social setting the teachers has reacted with either prohibition or unconcern. What has not been realised is that the introduction of new media profoundly challenges the way attention hitherto has functioned...... as a psychic prerequisite for the social interaction between pupils and teachers. New kinds of “split attention” arise and new kinds of social mediation (regulation and “use”) of psychic attention become necessary if teaching in the new digital medium milieu shall be beneficial. In this paper we qualify...

  5. Co-morbidity of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with focus on personality traits and related disorders in a tertiary referral center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Christian P; Romanos, Jasmin; Dempfle, Astrid; Heine, Monika; Windemuth-Kieselbach, Christine; Kruse, Anja; Reif, Andreas; Walitza, Susanne; Romanos, Marcel; Strobel, Alexander; Brocke, Burkhard; Schäfer, Helmut; Schmidtke, Armin; Böning, Jobst; Lesch, Klaus-Peter

    2007-09-01

    The prevalence and consequences of co-morbid axis-I and axis-II disorders as well as personality traits were examined in a large cohort of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AADHD) at a tertiary referral center. In- and outpatients referred for diagnostic assessment of AADHD were screened. 372 affected probands were examined by means of the Structured Clinical Interview of DSM-IV axis-I/II disorders, the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R), and the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ). Lifetime co-morbidity with mood disorders was 57.3%, with anxiety disorders 27.2%, and with substance use disorders 45.0%. The histrionic personality disorder (35.2%) was the most frequent personality disorder. AADHD patients exhibited significantly altered scores on most of the NEO-PI-R and TPQ personality dimensions. The extent of substance abuse and dependence, as well as the presence of antisocial personality disorder alone or the cumulative number of other specific personality disorders was associated with lower psychosocial status (pdisorders was remarkably prevalent. In AADHD co-morbid mood, anxiety, and personality disorders as well as substance abuse/dependence is likely to be predictive of poor outcome.

  6. 77 FR 58849 - Prescription Drug User Fee Act Patient-Focused Drug Development; Public Meeting and Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ... disease areas to consider. FDA also welcomes public comment on the criteria for disease area selection... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-N-0967...: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public meeting; request for comments. SUMMARY: The...

  7. Writing for Scholarly Publication as "Tacit Knowledge": A Qualitative Focus Group Study of Doctoral Students in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalongo, Mary Renck; Boyer, Wanda; Ebbeck, Marjory

    2014-01-01

    Expectations for academic writing and publication have intensified in Academia. Doctoral students in colleges of education are advised to publish even before they graduate and evidence of successful publication is influential in hiring, tenure, and promotion decisions. The purpose of this research was to study the process of writing for…

  8. A Test of Attention Control Theory in Public Speaking: Cognitive Load Influences the Relationship between State Anxiety and Verbal Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Paul E.; Finn, Amber N.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between public-speaking state anxiety (PSA) and verbal communication performance when delivering a speech. In Study 1, participants delivered an extemporaneous five-minute classroom speech behind a lectern, and in Study 2, to increase cognitive load, participants delivered an extemporaneous five-minute…

  9. Dynamics of Media Attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traag, V.A.; Reinanda, R.; Hicks, J.; van Klinken, G.; Aziz-Alaoui, M.A.; Bertelle, C.; Liu, X.; Olivier, D.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of human attention dynamics analyses how attention is focused on specific topics, issues or people. In online social media, there are clear signs of exogenous shocks, bursty dynamics, and an exponential or powerlaw lifetime distribution. We here analyse the attention dynamics of traditional

  10. Digital Trace Data in the Study of Public Opinion : An Indicator of Attention Toward Politics Rather Than Political Support

    OpenAIRE

    Jungherr, Andreas; Schoen, Harald; Posegga, Oliver; Jürgens, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we examine the relationship between metrics documenting politics-related Twitter activity with election results and trends in opinion polls. Various studies have proposed the possibility of inferring public opinion based on digital trace data collected on Twitter and even the possibility to predict election results based on aggregates of mentions of political actors. Yet, a systematic attempt at a validation of Twitter as an indicator for political support is lacking. In this...

  11. What Matters for Staying On-Track and Graduating in Chicago Public Schools: A Focus on English Language Learners. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Julia; Pareja, Amber Stitziel; Ehrlich, Stacy B.; Allensworth, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    One out of every seven students in the Chicago Public Schools (CPS) is designated as an English language learner (ELL), and 30 percent of students in the entire district have been designated as ELLs at some point while enrolled in CPS. Many of the policies, programs, and resources targeting the needs of ELL students focus on students in elementary…

  12. The Specification of Science Education Programs in the Local Public Library: Focusing on the Programs In G-city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Ja Ahn*

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The city of 'G' has been made a number of achievements with its science program as a part of public library's cultural program during the last 5 years. Recently, the national science centre has been established in the same city, the debate is now needed whether the science program in the public library have reasons to be maintained or to be reduced. The aim of this research is on the operating strategies of the science program in the public library. The research methods include case studies of operational strategies in domestic and foreign science centre, the level of satisfaction of local citizen on the science program, the vision of science program in the advancement of public library in the century. In results, the research proposes that the science program in public library should be maintained, but with locally characterised programs. In addition, the study also advised on the provision of scientific information, the strengthened search functions, and the development of user-centred services for those in science fields.

  13. Medical records confidentiality and public health research: two values at stake? An italian survey focus on individual preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgilia Toccaceli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In a time when Europe is preparing to introduce new regulations on privacy protection, we conducted a survey among 1700 twins enrolled in the Italian Twin Register about the access and use of their medical records for public health research without explicit informed consent. A great majority of respondents would refuse or are doubtful about the access and use of hospital discharge records or clinical data without their explicit consent. Young and female individuals represent the modal profile of these careful people. As information retrieved from medical records is crucial for progressing knowledge, it is important to promote a better understanding of the value of public health research activities among the general population. Furthermore, public opinions are relevant to policy making, and concerns and preferences about privacy and confidentiality in research can contribute to the design of procedures to exploit medical records effectively and customize the protection of individuals’ medical data.

  14. Sustainability Measures of Urban Public Transport in Cities: A World Review and Focus on the Asia/Middle East Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris De Gruyter

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies of public transport sustainability in cities have been very limited to date, particularly in more developing countries located throughout Asia and the Middle East. This paper assesses the sustainability of urban public transport systems in cities by adopting a quantitative measurement framework containing 15 public transport sustainability indicators. It compares aggregate sustainability performance of urban public transport in international regions of cities, and then examines the relative sustainability of selected cities in the Asia and Middle East region. The world region analysis shows that Eastern Europe, Asia, and Latin America achieve the highest aggregate normalised scores for sustainable public transport, in that order. In general, the results suggest that western developed countries (Western Europe, North America, and Oceania have better performance on environmental and social indicators but poorer performance on system effectiveness and economic indicators. Asia and Latin America perform the other way round; better on economic and system effectiveness and worse on social and environmental indicators. Eastern Europe is one of the few regions with higher level performance all round. The city-based analysis of Asia/Middle East suggested that out of the 26 cities studied, the top 3 cities in terms of sustainable public transport in the Asia and Middle East Region are: 1st, Manila (Philippines; 2nd, Tokyo (Japan; and 3rd, Chennai (India. Dubai (United Arab Emirates (UAE, rated 26th, Shizuoka (Japan, rated 25th and Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia, rated 24th were the lowest rated cities. The paper explores the implications of the findings and makes suggestions for future research.

  15. Communication in a Human biomonitoring study: Focus group work, public engagement and lessons learnt in 17 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Karen; Cano, Noemi; Aerts, Dominique; Biot, Pierre; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Schwedler, Gerda; Castaño, Argelia; Angerer, Jürgen; Koch, Holger M; Esteban, Marta; Schoeters, Greet; Den Hond, Elly; Horvat, Milena; Bloemen, Louis; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Joas, Reinhard; Joas, Anke; Dewolf, Marie-Christine; Van de Mieroop, Els; Katsonouri, Andromachi; Hadjipanayis, Adamos; Cerna, Milena; Krskova, Andrea; Becker, Kerstin; Fiddicke, Ulrike; Seiwert, Margarete; Mørck, Thit A; Rudnai, Peter; Kozepesy, Szilvia; Cullen, Elizabeth; Kellegher, Anne; Gutleb, Arno C; Fischer, Marc E; Ligocka, Danuta; Kamińska, Joanna; Namorado, Sónia; Reis, M Fátima; Lupsa, Ioana-Rodica; Gurzau, Anca E; Halzlova, Katarina; Jajcaj, Michal; Mazej, Darja; Tratnik, Janja Snoj; Huetos, Olga; López, Ana; Berglund, Marika; Larsson, Kristin; Sepai, Ovnair

    2015-08-01

    A communication strategy was developed by The Consortium to Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (COPHES), as part of its objectives to develop a framework and protocols to enable the collection of comparable human biomonitoring data throughout Europe. The framework and protocols were tested in the pilot study DEMOCOPHES (Demonstration of a study to Coordinate and Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale). The aims of the communication strategy were to raise awareness of human biomonitoring, encourage participation in the study and to communicate the study results and their public health significance. It identified the audiences and key messages, documented the procedure for dissemination of results and was updated as the project progressed. A communication plan listed the tools and materials such as press releases, flyers, recruitment letters and information leaflets required for each audience with a time frame for releasing them. Public insight research was used to evaluate the recruitment material, and the feedback was used to improve the documents. Dissemination of results was coordinated in a step by step approach by the participating countries within DEMOCOPHES, taking into account specific national messages according to the needs of each country. Participants received individual results, unless they refused to be informed, along with guidance on what the results meant. The aggregate results and policy recommendations were then communicated to the general public and stakeholders, followed by dissemination at European level. Several lessons were learnt that may assist other future human biomonitoring studies. Recruitment took longer than anticipated and so social scientists, to help with community engagement, should be part of the research team from the start. As a European study, involving multiple countries, additional considerations were needed for the numerous organisations, different languages, cultures, policies and priorities

  16. The Pennsylvania Experience with Hydraulic Fracturing for Shale Gas Development: Relatively Infrequent Water Quality Incidents with Lots of Public Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, S. L.; Li, Z.; Yoxtheimer, D.; Vidic, R.

    2015-12-01

    New techniques of hydraulic fracturing - "fracking" - have changed the United States over the last 10 years into a leading producer of natural gas extraction from shale. The first such gas well in Pennsylvania was drilled and completed using high-volume hydraulic fracturing in 2004. By late 2014, more than 8500 of these gas wells had been drilled in the Marcellus Shale gas field in Pennsylvania alone. Almost 1000 public complaints about groundwater quality were logged by the PA Department of Environmental Protection (PA DEP) between 2008 and 2012. Only a fraction of these were attributed to unconventional gas development. The most common problem was gas migration into drinking water, but contamination incidents also included spills, seepage, or leaks of fracking fluids, brine salts, or very occasionally, radioactive species. Many problems of gas migration were from a few counties in the northeastern part of the state. However, sometimes one gas well contaminated multiple water wells. For example, one gas well was reported by the state regulator to have contaminated 18 water wells with methane near Dimock PA. It can be argued that such problems at a relatively small fraction of gas wells initiated pockets of pushback against fracking worldwide. This resistance to fracking has grown even though fracking has been in use in the U.S.A. since the 1940s. We have worked as part of an NSF-funded project (the Shale Network) to share water quality data and publish it online using the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System. Sharing data has led to collaborative investigation of specific contamination incidents to understand how problems can occur, and to efforts to quantify the frequency of impacts. The Shale Network efforts have also highlighted the need for more transparency with water quality data in the arena related to the energy-water nexus. As more data are released, new techniques of data analysis will allow better understanding of how to tune best practices to be

  17. Communicating with the public following radiological terrorism: results from a series of focus groups and national surveys in Britain and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Julia M; Rubin, G James; Selke, Piet; Amlôt, Richard; Mowbray, Fiona; Rogers, M Brooke

    2013-04-01

    Incidents involving the exposure of large numbers of people to radiological material can have serious consequences for those affected, their community and wider society. In many instances, the psychological effects of these incidents have the greatest impact. People fear radiation and even incidents which result in little or no actual exposure have the potential to cause widespread anxiety and behavior change. The aim of this study was to assess public intentions, beliefs and information needs in the UK and Germany in response to a hidden radiological exposure device. By assessing how the public is likely to react to such events, strategies for more effective crisis and risk communication can be developed and designed to address any knowledge gaps, misperceptions and behavioral responses that are contrary to public health advice. This study had three stages. The first stage consisted of focus groups which identified perceptions of and reactions to a covert radiological device. The incident was introduced to participants using a series of mock newspaper and broadcast injects to convey the evolving scenario. The outcomes of these focus groups were used to inform national telephone surveys, which quantified intended behaviors and assessed what perceptions were correlated with these behaviors. Focus group and survey results were used to develop video and leaflet communication interventions, which were then evaluated in a second round of focus groups. In the first two stages, misperceptions about the likelihood and routes of exposure were associated with higher levels of worry and greater likelihood of engaging in behaviors that might be detrimental to ongoing public health efforts. The final focus groups demonstrated that both types of misunderstanding are amenable to change following targeted communication. Should terrorists succeed in placing a hidden radiological device in a public location, then health agencies may find that it is easier to communicate effectively

  18. CSU attention focuses on the Asian markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-15

    European coal terminal operators increasingly select grab cranes over continuous ship loader (CSU) technology, but does the Far East still offer the greatest potential for growth? Siewertell, part of the Cargotec group, has developed something of a niche market with its screw-type CSUs. The article reports recent business by Siwertell and ThyssenKrupp Foerdertechnik (TFK). 2 photos.

  19. Attitudes of the Japanese public and doctors towards use of archived information and samples without informed consent: Preliminary findings based on focus group interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukuhara Shunichi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study is to explore laypersons' attitudes toward the use of archived (existing materials such as medical records and biological samples and to compare them with the attitudes of physicians who are involved in medical research. Methods Three focus group interviews were conducted, in which seven Japanese male members of the general public, seven female members of the general public and seven physicians participated. Results It was revealed that the lay public expressed diverse attitudes towards the use of archived information and samples without informed consent. Protecting a subject's privacy, maintaining confidentiality, and communicating the outcomes of studies to research subjects were regarded as essential preconditions if researchers were to have access to archived information and samples used for research without the specific informed consent of the subjects who provided the material. Although participating physicians thought that some kind of prior permission from subjects was desirable, they pointed out the difficulties involved in obtaining individual informed consent in each case. Conclusions The present preliminary study indicates that the lay public and medical professionals may have different attitudes towards the use of archived information and samples without specific informed consent. This hypothesis, however, is derived from our focus groups interviews, and requires validation through research using a larger sample.

  20. Focus Studies of Geographically Connected Countries: Analysis of Regionally Oriented Studies in Political Science Publications 1996-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Petković

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the focus studies of geographically connected and geographically not connected countries, i.e. regional and comparative regional studies. In the first part of the article, a description of the role and development of this type of studies as a subdiscipline of comparative politics is provided. In the second part, I present the results of quantitative analysis of the content of articles published in the academic journals published or co-published by the Faculty of Political Science, University of Zagreb. The objects of analysis are regional studies of South-East Europe published in the journals. The main goal of this article is to determine which countries in their regional surroundings are researched the most by Croatian political scientists (and other authors who publish such articles in Croatian or English language in those journals, and which countries Croatia is most often compared to. This research has shown that, with regard to studies of the region, Croatian political scientists mostly focus on the countries of the former Yugoslavia.

  1. Perceived barriers to achieving a healthy weight: a qualitative study using focus groups at public and private schools in Guatemala City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Madrigal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight prevalence among Guatemalan girls is higher in public than in private schools. Little is known about adolescent girls’ perceptions of the right ways to achieve a healthy weight. This study examines public and private school adolescent girls’ perceptions of a “healthy weight,” and barriers and facilitators to achieving it. Methods We conducted 4 focus groups in public and private schools in Guatemala City with girls from 13 to 15 years old. The discussion guide included open-ended questions and activities aimed at examining perceptions of “healthy weight” and barriers and motivators to achieving it within the school environment. Focus groups were audio-recorded and transcribed. Data analyses followed established methods of content analysis. Results Twenty-eight girls (private school, n = 12; public school, n = 16 of ages ranging from 13.1 to 15.9 years (median, 14, IQR, 13.6–14.9 participated in the study. Girls identified images of thin and fit women as healthy. They cited healthy eating and physical activity as ways to achieve a healthy weight. Within the school environment, barriers to maintaining a healthy weight included a lack of healthy food options and the prioritization of sports for boys over girls. In public schools, facilities were less than optimal; in private schools, girls’ access to facilities was limited. Public school girls stated that their uniforms were inappropriate for exercising. Conclusion Our findings support the need to provide more healthy food options in Guatemalan schools. In addition, physical activity for girls should be promoted and facilities made available for their use.

  2. Psychological factors affecting public acceptance of nuclear energy. Comparative analysis focusing on regional characteristics and degree of knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Atsuyuki; Furuta, Kazuo

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to clarify how psychological factors' impact on public acceptance of nuclear energy varies with where they live and their degree of knowledge. For this purpose, we carried out questionnaire survey about nuclear energy at three urban areas and two nuclear power plant siting areas. After collecting data, we applied factor analysis to the data, and found four factors which construct cognitive structure of nuclear energy. Using multiple regression analysis, we evaluated the impact of the four factors on two issues: the decision for or against nuclear policy and the reaction to nuclear power plant siting, and compared changes of the impact by where respondents live and their degree of knowledge. Consequently, we found that the impact of all four factors on the two issues varies with where respondents live. We also found that the impact of respondents' degree of knowledge to four factors varies with where they live. (author)

  3. Reading aloud and solving simple arithmetic calculation intervention (Learning therapy improves inhibition, verbal episodic memory, focus attention, and processing speed in healthy elderly people: Evidence from a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui eNouchi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPrevious reports have described that simple cognitive training using reading aloud and solving simple arithmetic calculations, so-called learning therapy, can improve executive functions and processing speed in the older adults. Nevertheless, it is not well-known whether learning therapy improve a wide range of cognitive functions or not. We investigated the beneficial effects of learning therapy on various cognitive functions in healthy older adults.MethodsWe used a single-blinded intervention with two groups (learning therapy group: LT and waiting list control group: WL. Sixty-four elderly were randomly assigned to LT or WL. In LT, participants performed reading Japanese aloud and solving simple calculations training tasks for 6 months. WL did not participate in the intervention. We measured several cognitive functions before and after 6 months intervention periods.ResultsCompared to WL, results revealed that LT improved inhibition performance in executive functions (Stroop: LT (Mean = 3.88 vs. WL (Mean = 1.22, adjusted p =.013 and reverse Stroop LT (Mean = 3.22 vs. WL (Mean = 1.59, adjusted p =.015, verbal episodic memory (logical memory: LT (Mean = 4.59 vs. WL (Mean = 2.47, adjusted p =.015, focus attention(D-CAT: LT (Mean = 2.09 vs. WL (Mean = -0.59, adjusted p =.010 and processing speed compared to the waiting list control group (digit symbol coding: LT (Mean = 5.00 vs. WL (Mean = 1.13, adjusted p =.015 and symbol search: LT (Mean = 3.47 vs. WL (Mean = 1.81, adjusted p =.014.DiscussionThis RCT can showed the benefit of learning therapy on inhibition of executive functions, verbal episodic memory, focus attention, and processing speed in healthy elderly people. Our results were discussed under overlapping hypothesis.Trial registrationThis trial was registered in The University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN000006998.

  4. Publicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Joan

    Publicity for preschool cooperatives is described. Publicity helps produce financial support for preschool cooperatives. It may take the form of posters, brochures, newsletters, open house, newspaper coverage, and radio and television. Word of mouth and general good will in the community are the best avenues of publicity that a cooperative nursery…

  5. Rethinking physical activity communication: using focus groups to understand women's goals, values, and beliefs to improve public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segar, Michelle; Taber, Jennifer M; Patrick, Heather; Thai, Chan L; Oh, April

    2017-05-18

    Communication about physical activity (PA) frames PA and influences what it means to people, including the role it plays in their lives. To the extent that PA messages can be designed to reflect outcomes that are relevant to what people most value experiencing and achieving in their daily lives, the more compelling and effective they will be. Aligned with self-determination theory, this study investigated proximal goals and values that are salient in everyday life and how they could be leveraged through new messaging to better support PA participation among women. The present study was designed to examine the nature of women's daily goals and priorities and investigate women's PA beliefs, feelings, and experiences, in order to identify how PA may compete with or facilitate women's daily goals and priorities. Preliminary recommendations are proposed for designing new PA messages that align PA with women's daily goals and desired experiences to better motivate participation. Eight focus groups were conducted with White, Black, and Hispanic/Latina women aged 22-49, stratified by amount of self-reported PA (29 low active participants, 11 high active participants). Respondents discussed their goals, values, and daily priorities along with beliefs, feelings about and experiences being physically active. Data were collected, coded, and analyzed using a thematic analysis strategy to identify emergent themes. Many of the goals and values that both low and high active participants discussed as desiring and valuing map on to key principles of self-determination theory. However, the discussions among low active participants suggested that their beliefs, feelings, experiences, and definitions of PA were in conflict with their proximal goals, values, and priorities, also undermining their psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Findings from this study can be used to inform and evaluate new physical activity communication strategies that leverage more

  6. A strategy for improving public confidence of nuclear energy based on the segmentation of stake holders -Focused on Univ. Students, the Opinion Leader in the Next Generation-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Jenam

    2012-01-01

    Korea Nuclear Energy Promotion Agency(hereafter, referred as KONEPA) is a public institution established in March, 1992 to improve correct understanding of nuclear energy through development and dissemination of objective, scientific knowledge on the peaceful use of nuclear energy. KONEPA divided the targeted group into four large groups? opinion leaders, civil-social group, LOCA governments, general public/next-generation students/teachers? according to the knowledge levels of nuclear power and involvements in nuclear power plants, and implemented 'customized strategy' suited to the own characteristic of each group. Of these four groups, the next generation, focused on the 'Univ. students' will be discussed with their activities and future plans in this paper

  7. Attracting pedestrians’ attention using interaction technology

    OpenAIRE

    Mellquist, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The technology and marketing channels to display and broadcast advertisements are ever changing; this has led to the change of many forms of advertisements. Public advertisements have not changed as drastically as many others and can therefore be seen as out-dated. In this paper a prototype of an interactive advertisement with a dynamic user flow is presented where focus has been on attracting attention. Different interaction technologies have been discussed and compared. A Kinect sensor has ...

  8. Prediction of black box warning by mining patterns of Convergent Focus Shift in clinical trial study populations using linked public data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Handong; Weng, Chunhua

    2016-04-01

    To link public data resources for predicting post-marketing drug safety label changes by analyzing the Convergent Focus Shift patterns among drug testing trials. We identified 256 top-selling prescription drugs between 2003 and 2013 and divided them into 83 BBW drugs (drugs with at least one black box warning label) and 173 ROBUST drugs (drugs without any black box warning label) based on their FDA black box warning (BBW) records. We retrieved 7499 clinical trials that each had at least one of these drugs for intervention from the ClinicalTrials.gov. We stratified all the trials by pre-marketing or post-marketing status, study phase, and study start date. For each trial, we retrieved drug and disease concepts from clinical trial summaries to model its study population using medParser and SNOMED-CT. Convergent Focus Shift (CFS) pattern was calculated and used to assess the temporal changes in study populations from pre-marketing to post-marketing trials for each drug. Then we selected 68 candidate drugs, 18 with BBW warning and 50 without, that each had at least nine pre-marketing trials and nine post-marketing trials for predictive modeling. A random forest predictive model was developed to predict BBW acquisition incidents based on CFS patterns among these drugs. Pre- and post-marketing trials of BBW and ROBUST drugs were compared to look for their differences in CFS patterns. Among the 18 BBW drugs, we consistently observed that the post-marketing trials focused more on recruiting patients with medical conditions previously unconsidered in the pre-marketing trials. In contrast, among the 50 ROBUST drugs, the post-marketing trials involved a variety of medications for testing their associations with target intervention(s). We found it feasible to predict BBW acquisitions using different CFS patterns between the two groups of drugs. Our random forest predictor achieved an AUC of 0.77. We also demonstrated the feasibility of the predictor for identifying long

  9. Attention to memory: orienting attention to sound object representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backer, Kristina C; Alain, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Despite a growing acceptance that attention and memory interact, and that attention can be focused on an active internal mental representation (i.e., reflective attention), there has been a paucity of work focusing on reflective attention to 'sound objects' (i.e., mental representations of actual sound sources in the environment). Further research on the dynamic interactions between auditory attention and memory, as well as its degree of neuroplasticity, is important for understanding how sound objects are represented, maintained, and accessed in the brain. This knowledge can then guide the development of training programs to help individuals with attention and memory problems. This review article focuses on attention to memory with an emphasis on behavioral and neuroimaging studies that have begun to explore the mechanisms that mediate reflective attentional orienting in vision and more recently, in audition. Reflective attention refers to situations in which attention is oriented toward internal representations rather than focused on external stimuli. We propose four general principles underlying attention to short-term memory. Furthermore, we suggest that mechanisms involved in orienting attention to visual object representations may also apply for orienting attention to sound object representations.

  10. Physical education Teachers' and public health Nurses' perception of Norwegian high school Students' participation in physical education - a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abildsnes, Eirik; Stea, Tonje H; Berntsen, Sveinung; Omfjord, Christina S; Rohde, Gudrun

    2015-12-24

    High quality physical education programs in high schools may facilitate adoption of sustainable healthy living among adolescents. Public health nurses often meet students who avoid taking part in physical education programs. We aimed to explore physical education teachers' and public health nurses' perceptions of high school students' attitudes towards physical education, and to explore physical education teachers' thoughts about how to facilitate and promote students' participation in class. Prior to an initiative from physical education teachers, introducing a new physical education model in two high schools in the South of Norway, we conducted focus groups with 6 physical education teachers and 8 public health nurses. After implementation of the new model, we conducted two additional focus group interviews with 10 physical education teachers. In analyses we used Systematic Text Condensation and an editing analysis style. In general, the students were experienced as engaged and appreciating physical education lessons. Those who seldom attended often strived with other subjects in school as well, had mental health problems, or were characterized as outsiders in several arenas. Some students were reported to be reluctant to expose their bodies in showers after class, and students who seldom attended physical education class frequently visited the school health services. Although the majority of students were engaged in class, several of the students lacked knowledge about physical fitness and motoric skills to be able to master daily activities. The participants related the students' competence and attitude towards participation in physical education class to previous experiences in junior high school, to the competence of physical education teachers, and to possibility for students to influence the content of physical education programs. The participants suggested that high school students' attitudes towards participation in physical education is heterogeneous

  11. Focus on focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The discovery and impact of the principle of strong focusing was celebrated at a history Symposium at Stanford on 25 July in the course of the 1985 US Summer School on Particle Accelerators. Burt Richter, Stanford Linac Director, who introduced all the speakers with well chosen reminders about their various contributions related to the theme of the symposium, remarked that it was an appropriate time to be lauding the great contributions of accelerator physicists following the Nobel Prize award to Simon van der Meer for outstanding achievements in accelerator physics

  12. Focus on focusing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1985-10-15

    The discovery and impact of the principle of strong focusing was celebrated at a history Symposium at Stanford on 25 July in the course of the 1985 US Summer School on Particle Accelerators. Burt Richter, Stanford Linac Director, who introduced all the speakers with well chosen reminders about their various contributions related to the theme of the symposium, remarked that it was an appropriate time to be lauding the great contributions of accelerator physicists following the Nobel Prize award to Simon van der Meer for outstanding achievements in accelerator physics.

  13. [Health impact and treatment costs of community-acquired pneumonia in children in the first level of public attention in Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernztein, Ricardo; Drake, Ignacio

    2009-04-01

    Community acquired pneumonia in children remains an important cause of childhood deaths throughout the world that can be prevented by the use of antibiotics and access to medical care. Both were reduced in 2001 when Argentina suffered a severe social crisis. Among the responses to the crisis, the Remediar Program provided free essential medicines to the socially vulnerable population. Assess the health impact and costs of the provision of free medicines at the first level of public attention for childhood pneumonia. Three designs: 1. Ecological study with cross comparisons of diagnoses, prescriptions, beneficiaries by individual provinces of Remediar forms. children under 15 years old attended at 6 thousand health centres in Argentina, encompassing 24 Argentine provinces from March 2005 until February 2006. 2. Counterfactual approach. 3. Calculation of drug costs per unit of outcome. Over 15 million prescriptions were identified, 2,420 children under 1 year, 19,205 of 1 to 4 years and 15,977 from 5 to 14 years old with pneumonia. 90% of beneficiaries received antibiotics, most often amoxicillin. In children's under 5 years of age, Remediar coverage was 27.8%, with greater impact in the poorest provinces. The likely impact was 4,322 lives saved or 310,325 years of life lost avoided if mortality without antibiotics was 20%. Indigents who had children with pneumonia saved by medicines 14.3% of their income. Each life saved could have cost US $ 6.46 and each year of life lost averted US $ 0.09. This work highlights the impact of a low-cost health program for the treatment of vulnerable populations with childhood pneumonia in Argentina.

  14. Focus - Les établissements publics fonciers, des outils pour la biodiversité des zones humides : le cas de l’EPF Nord-Pas de Calais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEMOINE, Guillaume

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Les établissements publics fonciers (EPF ont pour mission recycler le foncier dégradé pour favoriser, dans le cadre du développement durable, le renouvellement urbain, notamment pour aider la construction de logements tout en luttant contre l’étalement urbain. Devenus propriétaires de nombreux terrains, dont des zones humides, ils sont également concernés par la protection et la valorisation de ces espaces naturels. À travers l'exemple des actions menées par l’EPF Nord-Pas de Calais pour préserver ces zones humides, ce focus s'intéresse au rôle que peuvent jouer les EPF dans la préservation des espaces agricoles et naturels.

  15. Iconic memory requires attention

    OpenAIRE

    Persuh, Marjan; Genzer, Boris; Melara, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments investigated whether attention plays a role in iconic memory, employing either a change detection paradigm (Experiment 1) or a partial-report paradigm (Experiment 2). In each experiment, attention was taxed during initial display presentation, focusing the manipulation on consolidation of information into iconic memory, prior to transfer into working memory. Observers were able to maintain high levels of performance (accuracy of change detection or categorization) even when co...

  16. Visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Karla K; Horowitz, Todd S; Howe, Piers; Pedersini, Roccardo; Reijnen, Ester; Pinto, Yair; Kuzmova, Yoana; Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2011-09-01

    A typical visual scene we encounter in everyday life is complex and filled with a huge amount of perceptual information. The term, 'visual attention' describes a set of mechanisms that limit some processing to a subset of incoming stimuli. Attentional mechanisms shape what we see and what we can act upon. They allow for concurrent selection of some (preferably, relevant) information and inhibition of other information. This selection permits the reduction of complexity and informational overload. Selection can be determined both by the 'bottom-up' saliency of information from the environment and by the 'top-down' state and goals of the perceiver. Attentional effects can take the form of modulating or enhancing the selected information. A central role for selective attention is to enable the 'binding' of selected information into unified and coherent representations of objects in the outside world. In the overview on visual attention presented here we review the mechanisms and consequences of selection and inhibition over space and time. We examine theoretical, behavioral and neurophysiologic work done on visual attention. We also discuss the relations between attention and other cognitive processes such as automaticity and awareness. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 503-514 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.127 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Capturing Attention When Attention "Blinks"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Serena; Chua, Fook K.

    2004-01-01

    Four experiments addressed the question of whether attention may be captured when the visual system is in the midst of an attentional blink (AB). Participants identified 2 target letters embedded among distractor letters in a rapid serial visual presentation sequence. In some trials, a square frame was inserted between the targets; as the only…

  18. A minimum price per unit of alcohol: A focus group study to investigate public opinion concerning UK government proposals to introduce new price controls to curb alcohol consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lonsdale Adam J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background UK drinkers regularly consume alcohol in excess of guideline limits. One reason for this may be the high availability of low-cost alcoholic beverages. The introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy has been proposed as a means to reduce UK alcohol consumption. However, there is little in-depth research investigating public attitudes and beliefs regarding a minimum pricing policy. The aim of the present research was to investigate people’s attitudes and beliefs toward the introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy and their views on how the policy could be made acceptable to the general public. Methods Twenty-eight focus groups were conducted to gain in-depth data on attitudes, knowledge, and beliefs regarding the introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy. Participants (total N = 218 were asked to give their opinions about the policy, its possible outcomes, and how its introduction might be made more acceptable. Transcribed focus-group discussions were analysed for emergent themes using inductive thematic content analysis. Results Analysis indicated that participants’ objections to a minimum price had three main themes: (1 scepticism of minimum pricing as an effective means to reduce harmful alcohol consumption; (2 a dislike of the policy for a number of reasons (e.g., it was perceived to ‘punish’ the moderate drinker; and (3 concern that the policy might create or exacerbate existing social problems. There was a general perception that the policy was aimed at ‘problem’ and underage drinkers. Participants expressed some qualified support for the policy but stated that it would only work as part of a wider campaign including other educational elements. Conclusions There was little evidence to suggest that people would support the introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy. Scepticism about the effectiveness of the policy is likely to represent the most

  19. A minimum price per unit of alcohol: A focus group study to investigate public opinion concerning UK government proposals to introduce new price controls to curb alcohol consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background UK drinkers regularly consume alcohol in excess of guideline limits. One reason for this may be the high availability of low-cost alcoholic beverages. The introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy has been proposed as a means to reduce UK alcohol consumption. However, there is little in-depth research investigating public attitudes and beliefs regarding a minimum pricing policy. The aim of the present research was to investigate people’s attitudes and beliefs toward the introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy and their views on how the policy could be made acceptable to the general public. Methods Twenty-eight focus groups were conducted to gain in-depth data on attitudes, knowledge, and beliefs regarding the introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy. Participants (total N = 218) were asked to give their opinions about the policy, its possible outcomes, and how its introduction might be made more acceptable. Transcribed focus-group discussions were analysed for emergent themes using inductive thematic content analysis. Results Analysis indicated that participants’ objections to a minimum price had three main themes: (1) scepticism of minimum pricing as an effective means to reduce harmful alcohol consumption; (2) a dislike of the policy for a number of reasons (e.g., it was perceived to ‘punish’ the moderate drinker); and (3) concern that the policy might create or exacerbate existing social problems. There was a general perception that the policy was aimed at ‘problem’ and underage drinkers. Participants expressed some qualified support for the policy but stated that it would only work as part of a wider campaign including other educational elements. Conclusions There was little evidence to suggest that people would support the introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy. Scepticism about the effectiveness of the policy is likely to represent the most significant barrier to

  20. A minimum price per unit of alcohol: a focus group study to investigate public opinion concerning UK government proposals to introduce new price controls to curb alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Adam J; Hardcastle, Sarah J; Hagger, Martin S

    2012-11-23

    UK drinkers regularly consume alcohol in excess of guideline limits. One reason for this may be the high availability of low-cost alcoholic beverages. The introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy has been proposed as a means to reduce UK alcohol consumption. However, there is little in-depth research investigating public attitudes and beliefs regarding a minimum pricing policy. The aim of the present research was to investigate people's attitudes and beliefs toward the introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy and their views on how the policy could be made acceptable to the general public. Twenty-eight focus groups were conducted to gain in-depth data on attitudes, knowledge, and beliefs regarding the introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy. Participants (total N = 218) were asked to give their opinions about the policy, its possible outcomes, and how its introduction might be made more acceptable. Transcribed focus-group discussions were analysed for emergent themes using inductive thematic content analysis. Analysis indicated that participants' objections to a minimum price had three main themes: (1) scepticism of minimum pricing as an effective means to reduce harmful alcohol consumption; (2) a dislike of the policy for a number of reasons (e.g., it was perceived to 'punish' the moderate drinker); and (3) concern that the policy might create or exacerbate existing social problems. There was a general perception that the policy was aimed at 'problem' and underage drinkers. Participants expressed some qualified support for the policy but stated that it would only work as part of a wider campaign including other educational elements. There was little evidence to suggest that people would support the introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy. Scepticism about the effectiveness of the policy is likely to represent the most significant barrier to public support. Findings also suggest that clearer

  1. Without 'Focus'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Sevi

    2010-12-01

    Contrastive focus, givenness and the unmarked status of discourse-new’.Sevi, A. 2005. Exhaustivity: A Semantic Account of ’Quantity’ Implicatures. Ph.D. thesis, Tel Aviv University.Truckenbrodt, H. 1995. Phonological Phrases: Their Relation to Syntax, Focus and Prominence. Ph.D. thesis, MIT.Valduví, E. & Vilkuna, M. 1998. ‘On Rheme and Kontrast’. In P. Cullicover & Louise McNally (eds. ‘Syntax and Semantics29: The Limits of Syntax’, 79–108. Academic Press.van Rooij, R. & Schulz, K. 2006. ‘Pragmatic meaning and non-monotonic reasoning: the case of exhaustive interpretation’. Linguistics and Philosophy 29: 205–250.von Stechow, A. 1981. ‘Topic, focus and local relevance’. In W. Klein and W. Levelt (eds., Crossing the Boundaries in Linguistics, Reidel.von Stechow, A. 1982. ‘Structured propositions’. Technical Report 59, Sonder-forschungsbereich 99, Universität Konstanz.von Stechow, A. 1989. ‘Focusing and backgrounding operators’. Technical Report 6, Fachgruppe Sprachwissenschaft, Universität Konstanz.Wagner, M. 2006. ‘Givenness and locality’. In M. Gibson & J. Howell (eds. ‘Proceedings of SALT XVI’, 295–312. Ithaca, NY: CLC Publications.Zeevat, H. 2007. ‘Exhaustivity, questions and plurals in update semantics’. In M. Aloni, A. Butler & P. Dekker (eds. ‘Questions in Dynamic semantics’, 161–92. Elsevier.Zimmermann, M. 2008. ‘Contrastive focus and emphasis’. Acta Linguistica Hungarica 55: 347–360.http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/ALing.55.2008.3-4.9

  2. The public transportation system security and emergency preparedness planning guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Recent events have focused renewed attention on the vulnerability of the nation's critical infrastructure to major events, including terrorism. The Public Transportation System Security and Emergency Preparedness Planning Guide has been prepared to s...

  3. Physiotherapists' experiences of physiotherapy interventions in scientific physiotherapy publications focusing on interventions for children with cerebral palsy: a qualitative phenomenographic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Ingalill; Miller, Michael; Liljedahl, Kerstin; Gard, Gunvor

    2012-07-02

    Physiotherapy research concerning interventions for children with CP is often focused on collecting evidence of the superiority of particular therapeutic methods or treatment modalities. Articulating and documenting the use of theory, instrumentation and research design and the assumptions underlying physiotherapy research interventions are important. Physiotherapy interventions focusing on children with Cerebral Palsy should, according to the literature, be based on a functional and environmental perspective with task-specific functional activity, motor learning processes and Family-Centred Service i.e. to enhance motor ability and improve capacity so that the child can perform the tasks necessary to participate actively in everyday life. Thus, it is important to coordinate the norms and values of the physiotherapist with those of the family and child. The aim of this study was to describe how physiotherapists' experiences physiotherapy interventions for children with CP in scientific physiotherapy publications written by physiotherapists. A qualitative phenomenographic approach was used. Twenty- one scientific articles, found in PubMed, strategically chosen according to year of publication (2001-2009), modality, journals and country, were investigated. Three qualitatively different descriptive categories were identified: A: Making it possible a functional-based intervention based on the biopsychosocial health paradigm, and the role of the physiotherapist as collaborative, interacting with the child and family in goal setting, intervention planning and evaluation, B: Making it work an impairment-based intervention built on a mixed health paradigm (biomedical and biopsychosocial), and the role of the physiotherapist as a coach, leading the goal setting, intervention planning and evaluation and instructing family members to carry out physiotherapist directed orders, and; C: Making it normal an impairment-based intervention built on a biomedical health paradigm, and

  4. Physiotherapists’ experiences of physiotherapy interventions in scientific physiotherapy publications focusing on interventions for children with cerebral palsy: a qualitative phenomenographic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Physiotherapy research concerning interventions for children with CP is often focused on collecting evidence of the superiority of particular therapeutic methods or treatment modalities. Articulating and documenting the use of theory, instrumentation and research design and the assumptions underlying physiotherapy research interventions are important. Physiotherapy interventions focusing on children with Cerebral Palsy should, according to the literature, be based on a functional and environmental perspective with task-specific functional activity, motor learning processes and Family-Centred Service i.e. to enhance motor ability and improve capacity so that the child can perform the tasks necessary to participate actively in everyday life. Thus, it is important to coordinate the norms and values of the physiotherapist with those of the family and child. The aim of this study was to describe how physiotherapists’ experiences physiotherapy interventions for children with CP in scientific physiotherapy publications written by physiotherapists. Methods A qualitative phenomenographic approach was used. Twenty- one scientific articles, found in PubMed, strategically chosen according to year of publication (2001–2009), modality, journals and country, were investigated. Results Three qualitatively different descriptive categories were identified: A: Making it possible a functional-based intervention based on the biopsychosocial health paradigm, and the role of the physiotherapist as collaborative, interacting with the child and family in goal setting, intervention planning and evaluation, B: Making it work an impairment-based intervention built on a mixed health paradigm (biomedical and biopsychosocial), and the role of the physiotherapist as a coach, leading the goal setting, intervention planning and evaluation and instructing family members to carry out physiotherapist directed orders, and; C: Making it normal an impairment-based intervention built on a

  5. Physiotherapists’ experiences of physiotherapy interventions in scientific physiotherapy publications focusing on interventions for children with cerebral palsy: a qualitative phenomenographic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsson Ingalill

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physiotherapy research concerning interventions for children with CP is often focused on collecting evidence of the superiority of particular therapeutic methods or treatment modalities. Articulating and documenting the use of theory, instrumentation and research design and the assumptions underlying physiotherapy research interventions are important. Physiotherapy interventions focusing on children with Cerebral Palsy should, according to the literature, be based on a functional and environmental perspective with task-specific functional activity, motor learning processes and Family-Centred Service i.e. to enhance motor ability and improve capacity so that the child can perform the tasks necessary to participate actively in everyday life. Thus, it is important to coordinate the norms and values of the physiotherapist with those of the family and child. The aim of this study was to describe how physiotherapists’ experiences physiotherapy interventions for children with CP in scientific physiotherapy publications written by physiotherapists. Methods A qualitative phenomenographic approach was used. Twenty- one scientific articles, found in PubMed, strategically chosen according to year of publication (2001–2009, modality, journals and country, were investigated. Results Three qualitatively different descriptive categories were identified: A: Making it possible a functional-based intervention based on the biopsychosocial health paradigm, and the role of the physiotherapist as collaborative, interacting with the child and family in goal setting, intervention planning and evaluation, B: Making it work an impairment-based intervention built on a mixed health paradigm (biomedical and biopsychosocial, and the role of the physiotherapist as a coach, leading the goal setting, intervention planning and evaluation and instructing family members to carry out physiotherapist directed orders, and; C: Making it normal an impairment

  6. When the Chips Are down: Taking Time to Pay Attention to Real Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Model, David

    2011-01-01

    Global warming, deforestation, destruction of the oceans, hunger, poverty, human rights abuses and war crimes will, at best, be redressed by empty words and token gestures unless the public imbibes massive doses of caffeine. Unfortunately the public's attention seems to be focused elsewhere. Blackberries, cell phones, social networks on the…

  7. Attentional modulation of reflex cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Thomas; Silva, Mitchell; Davenport, Paul W; Van Diest, Ilse; Dupont, Lieven J; Van den Bergh, Omer

    2014-07-01

    Reflex cough is a defensive response generated in the brainstem in response to chemical and mechanical stimulation of the airways. However, converging evidence shows that reflex cough is also influenced by central neural control processes. In this study, we investigate whether reflex cough can be modulated by attentional focus on either external stimuli or internal cough-related stimuli. Healthy volunteers (N = 24; seven men; age range, 18-25 years) completed four blocks of citric acid-induced cough challenges while, simultaneously, auditory stimuli were presented. Within each block, four concentrations were administered (30, 100, 300 and 1,000 mM, randomized). During two subsequent blocks, participants focused their attention externally (counting tones). During the other two blocks, participants focused their attention internally (counting coughs). The order of attentional focus was counterbalanced across participants. Ratings of the urge to cough were collected after each challenge. Cough frequency was determined by audio recording. Cough frequency was higher when participants focused their attention internally vs externally (P Reflex cough can be modulated by attentional focus. Internally focused attention may be a mechanism involved in excessive (idiopathic) cough, while an external focus may be introduced as part of treatments targeting excessive cough.

  8. Iconic memory requires attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persuh, Marjan; Genzer, Boris; Melara, Robert D

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments investigated whether attention plays a role in iconic memory, employing either a change detection paradigm (Experiment 1) or a partial-report paradigm (Experiment 2). In each experiment, attention was taxed during initial display presentation, focusing the manipulation on consolidation of information into iconic memory, prior to transfer into working memory. Observers were able to maintain high levels of performance (accuracy of change detection or categorization) even when concurrently performing an easy visual search task (low load). However, when the concurrent search was made difficult (high load), observers' performance dropped to almost chance levels, while search accuracy held at single-task levels. The effects of attentional load remained the same across paradigms. The results suggest that, without attention, participants consolidate in iconic memory only gross representations of the visual scene, information too impoverished for successful detection of perceptual change or categorization of features.

  9. Iconic memory requires attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan ePersuh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments investigated whether attention plays a role in iconic memory, employing either a change-detection paradigm (Experiment 1 or a partial-report paradigm (Experiment 2. In each experiment, attention was taxed during initial display presentation, focusing the manipulation on consolidation of information into iconic memory, prior to transfer into working memory. Observers were able to maintain high levels of performance (accuracy of change detection or categorization even when concurrently performing an easy visual search task (low load. However, when the concurrent search was made difficult (high load, observers’ performance dropped to almost chance levels, while search accuracy held at single-task levels. The effects of attentional load remained the same across paradigms. The results suggest that, without attention, participants consolidate in iconic memory only gross representations of the visual scene, information too impoverished for successful detection of perceptual change or categorization of features.

  10. [Thalamus and Attention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokoro, Kazuhiko; Sato, Hironobu; Yamamoto, Mayumi; Nagai, Yoshiko

    2015-12-01

    Attention is the process by which information and selection occurs, the thalamus plays an important role in the selective attention of visual and auditory information. Selective attention is a conscious effort; however, it occurs subconsciously, as well. The lateral geniculate body (LGB) filters visual information before it reaches the cortex (bottom-up attention). The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) provides a strong inhibitory input to both the LGB and pulvinar. This regulation involves focusing a spotlight on important information, as well as inhibiting unnecessary background information. Behavioral contexts more strongly modulate activity of the TRN and pulvinar influencing feedforward and feedback information transmission between the frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital cortical areas (top-down attention). The medial geniculate body (MGB) filters auditory information the TRN inhibits the MGB. Attentional modulation occurring in the auditory pathway among the cochlea, cochlear nucleus, superior olivary complex, and inferior colliculus is more important than that of the MGB and TRN. We also discuss the attentional consequence of thalamic hemorrhage.

  11. Visual attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, K.K.; Horowitz, T.S.; Howe, P.; Pedersini, R.; Reijnen, E.; Pinto, Y.; Wolfe, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    A typical visual scene we encounter in everyday life is complex and filled with a huge amount of perceptual information. The term, ‘visual attention’ describes a set of mechanisms that limit some processing to a subset of incoming stimuli. Attentional mechanisms shape what we see and what we can act

  12. Inducing omnipotence or powerlessness in learners with developmental and attention difficulties through structuring technologies. Accepted for publication in EAI Special Issue (Eds. Eva Brooks)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldborg, Hanne; Sorensen, Elsebeth Korsgaard

    2017-01-01

    at school? Using this lens, the authors examine, to what extent technology may assist teachers to create more ideal learning environments by reducing the threat for these learners and enable them to participate in learning. Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs), digital templates, timers and calendars......, become aware and understand their own role in the classroom. This paper suggests technologies for structuring and overviewing as basic assistive tools for equalizing the learning possibilities for learners with developmental and attention difficulties in an inclusive school setting....

  13. Good legal governance in authoritative public-private partnerships. Conceptualising legitimate partnerships with public authority

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heldeweg, Michiel A.; Sanders, Maurits

    2013-01-01

    The discourse on Public Private Partnerships (PPP) is focused most on Procurement or on what we name ‘Market-PPP’. Placing PPP in the shift from government to governance calls for attention especially to those PPP, which are geared to exercise public legal powers. These ‘Authoritative PPP’ are most

  14. Analysis of subsequent publication and impact of abstracts presented at the Sir Peter Freyer Surgical Symposium: Focus on the Plenary Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O' Connor, D J; Lowery, A J; Kearney, D; McAnena, O J; Sweeney, K J; Kerin, M J

    2015-09-01

    The quality of abstracts presented at a conference reflects the academic activity and research productivity of the surgical/scientific association concerned. The abstract to publication rate (44.5 % internationally), is an important indicator of the quality of presented research. To evaluate the publication rate and impact of abstracts presented at the plenary session of the Sir Peter Freyer Surgical Symposium over a 25-year period (1989-2014), and identify factors influencing publication. Plenary abstracts were identified from abstract books of the Symposium from 1989-2014. The authors, institution, subspecialty and research subject were recorded. A Medline search with name of the first and last author, key words and content of all abstracts was conducted to identify related publications. The impact factor (IF) of the journal and the time to publication was recorded. 298 presented abstracts resulted in 168 publications (publication rate: 56 %). Basic Science research accounted for 80 % (n = 237) of the total number of presentations with the remaining 20 % (n = 61) being categorised as clinical research. Overall, cancer research accounted for 48 % of presented work. The average time to publication was 2 ± 7 years, while 11 % of all published studies achieved publication in the year of the symposium. The median impact factor for published research was 3.558 (IF range 0-39). These results indicate that the quality of papers presented at the Sir Peter Freyer Surgical Symposium compares favourably with international equivalents, making this meeting an important forum for Irish Academic Surgery.

  15. Moments of Meeting: Difficulties and Developments in Shared Attention, Interaction, and Communication with Children with Autism during Two Years of Music Therapy in a Public Preschool Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Geoffrey Prescott

    2010-01-01

    Drawing upon video recordings over two years, teacher interviews, school reports, and field notes, this practitioner research study described and analyzed 16 video excerpts from a music therapy group in a public preschool class serving 14 children with autism, for durations ranging from two to sixteen months. The research centered on three of the…

  16. Focusing ethnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woermann, Niklas

    2018-01-01

    underpinnings of focusing ethnographic research by comparing different schools of thought and suggesting a practice theory-based approach. It argues that many research projects are focused but do not reflect on the process of focusing, describes how to identify focal settings or practices, and introduces......Building theory with ethnography and filmic research increasingly requires focussing on key practices or settings, instead of painting a broad panorama of a culture. But few authors discuss why and how to focus. This article provides a systematic discussion of the theoretical and methodological...

  17. Analysis of subsequent publication of scientific orally presented abstracts of the French National Congress of Radiology. Part II: Focus on the French abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangouloff-Ros, V; Ronot, M; Lagadec, M; Vilgrain, V

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the publication rate of scientific abstracts that were presented orally at the 2008, 2009, and 2010 annual meetings of the French Society of Radiology by French radiologists, and to perform a French regional analysis. Orally presented abstracts were identified by examining online abstract books of the 2008, 2009, and 2010 annual meetings of the French Society of Radiology, and cross-checked by reviewing the paper version of abstracts for the same period. Only abstracts from French teams were selected. The administrative region of submission was noted for each abstract and for each region the total population, the number of active radiologists, the number of active members of the French Society of Radiology and the number of academic radiologists were noted. Imaging subspecialties were also noted. 625 abstracts were identified resulting in 268 publications (publication rate: 43%). The median number of presentations and publications per region was 18 (range: 1-255) and 7 (range: 0-101), respectively. The ratio per million inhabitants was 7.5 and 3 respectively. The median number of presentations and publications per 100 active radiologists (respectively members of the FSR) was 7 and 3 (respectively 10 and 4). The median number of presentations and publications per academic radiologist were 2.6, and 1.2, respectively. The regional variations for each indicator were high (40-180%). Three subspecialties had a publication rate of more than 50%: thoracic imaging (58%), abdominal imaging (52%), and genitourinary imaging (51%). The publication rate of orally presented French scientific abstracts was high, with important variations according to the regions of origin and imaging subspecialties. Copyright © 2015 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of Attention in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahone, E.M.; Schneider, H.E.

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, there has been an increased interest in the assessment and treatment of preschool children presenting with concerns about attention problems. This article reviews the research and clinical literature involving assessment of attention and related skills in the preschool years. While inattention among preschoolers is common, symptoms alone do not necessarily indicate a disorder, and most often represent a normal variation in typical preschool child development. Thus, accurate identification of “disordered” attention in preschoolers can be challenging, and development of appropriate, norm-referenced tests of attention for preschoolers is also difficult. The current review suggests that comprehensive assessment of attention and related functions in the preschool child should include thorough review of the child’s history, planned observations, and formal psychometric testing. The three primary methods of psychometric assessment that have been used to characterize attentional functioning in preschool children include performance-based tests, structured caregiver interviews, and rating scales (parent, teacher, and clinician). Among performance-based methods for measurement of attention in the preschool years, tests have been developed to assess sustained attention, selective (focused) attention, span of attention (encoding/manipulation), and (top-down) controlled attention—including freedom from distractibility and set shifting. Many of these tests remain experimental in nature, and review of published methods yields relatively few commercially available, nationally normed tests of attention for preschoolers, and an overall dearth of reliability and validity studies on the available measures. PMID:23090646

  19. Perceptual organization and visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimchi, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    Perceptual organization--the processes structuring visual information into coherent units--and visual attention--the processes by which some visual information in a scene is selected--are crucial for the perception of our visual environment and to visuomotor behavior. Recent research points to important relations between attentional and organizational processes. Several studies demonstrated that perceptual organization constrains attentional selectivity, and other studies suggest that attention can also constrain perceptual organization. In this chapter I focus on two aspects of the relationship between perceptual organization and attention. The first addresses the question of whether or not perceptual organization can take place without attention. I present findings demonstrating that some forms of grouping and figure-ground segmentation can occur without attention, whereas others require controlled attentional processing, depending on the processes involved and the conditions prevailing for each process. These findings challenge the traditional view, which assumes that perceptual organization is a unitary entity that operates preattentively. The second issue addresses the question of whether perceptual organization can affect the automatic deployment of attention. I present findings showing that the mere organization of some elements in the visual field by Gestalt factors into a coherent perceptual unit (an "object"), with no abrupt onset or any other unique transient, can capture attention automatically in a stimulus-driven manner. Taken together, the findings discussed in this chapter demonstrate the multifaceted, interactive relations between perceptual organization and visual attention.

  20. Focused Ethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Knoblauch

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I focus on a distinctive kind of sociological ethnography which is particularly, though not exclusively, adopted in applied research. It has been proposed that this branch of ethno­graphy be referred to as focused ethnography. Focused ethnography shall be delineated within the context of other common conceptions of what may be called conventional ethnography. However, rather than being opposed to it, focused ethno­graphy is rather complementary to conventional ethnography, particularly in fields that are charac­teristic of socially and functionally differentiated contemporary society. The paper outlines the back­ground as well as the major methodological features of focused ethnography, such as short-term field visits, data intensity and time intensity, so as to provide a background for future studies in this area. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0503440

  1. Attention in a bayesian framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whiteley, Louise Emma; Sahani, Maneesh

    2012-01-01

    , and include both selective phenomena, where attention is invoked by cues that point to particular stimuli, and integrative phenomena, where attention is invoked dynamically by endogenous processing. However, most previous Bayesian accounts of attention have focused on describing relatively simple experimental...... selective and integrative roles, and thus cannot be easily extended to complex environments. We suggest that the resource bottleneck stems from the computational intractability of exact perceptual inference in complex settings, and that attention reflects an evolved mechanism for approximate inference which...... can be shaped to refine the local accuracy of perception. We show that this approach extends the simple picture of attention as prior, so as to provide a unified and computationally driven account of both selective and integrative attentional phenomena....

  2. A situated practice of ethics for participatory visual and digital methods in public health research and practice: a focus on digital storytelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubrium, Aline C; Hill, Amy L; Flicker, Sarah

    2014-09-01

    This article explores ethical considerations related to participatory visual and digital methods for public health research and practice, through the lens of an approach known as "digital storytelling." We begin by briefly describing the digital storytelling process and its applications to public health research and practice. Next, we explore 6 common challenges: fuzzy boundaries, recruitment and consent to participate, power of shaping, representation and harm, confidentiality, and release of materials. We discuss their complexities and offer some considerations for ethical practice. We hope this article serves as a catalyst for expanded dialogue about the need for high standards of integrity and a situated practice of ethics wherein researchers and practitioners reflexively consider ethical decision-making as part of the ongoing work of public health.

  3. Visual attention: The past 25 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Marisa

    2012-01-01

    This review focuses on covert attention and how it alters early vision. I explain why attention is considered a selective process, the constructs of covert attention, spatial endogenous and exogenous attention, and feature-based attention. I explain how in the last 25 years research on attention has characterized the effects of covert attention on spatial filters and how attention influences the selection of stimuli of interest. This review includes the effects of spatial attention on discriminability and appearance in tasks mediated by contrast sensitivity and spatial resolution; the effects of feature-based attention on basic visual processes, and a comparison of the effects of spatial and feature-based attention. The emphasis of this review is on psychophysical studies, but relevant electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies and models regarding how and where neuronal responses are modulated are also discussed. PMID:21549742

  4. Transition to Accrual Accounting in the Public Sector of Developed and Developing Countries : Problems and Requirements. With Special Focus on the Netherlands and Egypt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouda, H.A.G.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a better understanding of the way in which accrual accounting can successfully be adopted in the public sector as well as to attain the target benefits of that adoption. This study investigates both theoretically and empirically the transition problems that

  5. [Twenty-year History and Future Challenges in Transparency Enhancement of Review Process for Approval: Focus on Public Release of Review Reports regarding New Drugs and Medical Devices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Kazushige; Kawasaki, Satoko; Yoshida, Yasunori

    2015-01-01

    For 20 years, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW, formerly Ministry of Health and Welfare (MHW)) has been trying to increase transparency of the review process for approving reports in order to promote the rational use of newly approved drugs and medical devices. The first Summary Basis of Approval (SBA) was published by MHW in 1994. In 1999, evaluation reports were prepared by MHW and the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Evaluation Center to make them available to the public. In 2005, a notice from the Chief Executive of the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) made procedures for public release of information on reviewing applications for new drugs. In 2006, 90 review reports of newly approved drugs and eight medical devices were revealed on PMDA websites. The dissemination of information by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and that of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) were studied and compared with that of the MHLW and PMDA. While common technical documents (CTD) for new drugs and summary technical documents (STED) for new medical devices have been released by PMDA, such documents are not released by the FDA and EMA. The European Public Assessment Report (EAPR) summary for the public is an interesting questionnaire approach that uses the "What," "How" and "Why" format. Finally, future proposals for the next decade are also outlined.

  6. InfoRio, focus group sessions to test potential for a personal real time travel information concept for public transport, (no 03071, 23 p.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, W.G.; Vonk, Warner; Nijenhuis, Guido; van Berkum, Eric C.; Bodmer, Milena; Hulleman, Robert; Hulleman, R.; Viegas, J.M.; Macario, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a market research method in order to establish the potential demand for a Personal Real Time Travel Information (PRTTI) concept applied to public transport (PT) in Rio de Janeiro, called InfoRio. In order to receive personal travel information on PT services

  7. Laughter catches attention!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Ana P; Barros, Carla; Dias, Marcelo; Kotz, Sonja A

    2017-12-01

    In social interactions, emotionally salient and sudden changes in vocal expressions attract attention. However, only a few studies examined how emotion and attention interact in voice processing. We investigated neutral, happy (laughs) and angry (growls) vocalizations in a modified oddball task. Participants silently counted the targets in each block and rated the valence and arousal of the vocalizations. A combined event-related potential and time-frequency analysis focused on the P3 and pre-stimulus alpha power to capture attention effects in response to unexpected events. Whereas an early differentiation between emotionally salient and neutral vocalizations was reflected in the P3a response, the P3b was selectively enhanced for happy voices. The P3b modulation was predicted by pre-stimulus frontal alpha desynchronization, and by the perceived pleasantness of the targets. These findings indicate that vocal emotions may be differently processed based on task relevance and valence. Increased anticipation and attention to positive vocal cues (laughter) may reflect their high social relevance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The case for transforming governmental public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinsky, Eileen; Gursky, Elin A

    2006-01-01

    Changing threats to the public's health necessitate a profound transformation of the public health enterprise. Despite recent attention to the biodefense role of public health, policymakers have not developed a clear, realistic vision for the structure and functionality of the governmental public health system. Lack of leadership and organizational disconnects across levels of government have prevented strategic alignment of resources and undermined momentum for meaningful change. A transformed public health system is needed to address the demands of emergency preparedness and health protection. Such transformation should include focused, risk-based resource allocation; regional planning; technological upgrades; workforce restructuring; improved integration of private-sector assets; and better performance monitoring.

  9. Pay No Attention to That Data Behind the Curtain: On Angry Birds, Happy Children, Scholarly Squabbles, Publication Bias, and Why Betas Rule Metas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J

    2015-09-01

    This article responds to five comments on my "Angry Birds" meta-analysis of video game influences on children (Ferguson, 2015, this issue). Given ongoing debates on video game influences, comments varied from the supportive to the self-proclaimed "angry," yet hopefully they and this response will contribute to constructive discussion as the field moves forward. In this reply, I address some misconceptions in the comments and present data that challenge the assumption that standardized regression coefficients are invariably unsuitable for meta-analysis or that bivariate correlations are invariably suitable for meta-analysis. The suitability of any data should be considered on a case-by-case basis, and data indicates that the coefficients included in the "Angry Birds" meta-analysis did not distort results. Study selection, effect size extraction, and interpretation improved upon problematic issues in other recent meta-analyses. Further evidence is also provided to support the contention that publication bias remains problematic in video game literature. Sources of acrimony among scholars are explored as are areas of agreement. Ultimately, debates will only be resolved through a commitment to newer, more rigorous methods and open science. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Combining segmentation and attention: a new foveal attention model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca eMarfil

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Artificial vision systems cannot process all the information that they receive from the world in real time because it is highly expensive and inefficient in terms of computational cost. Inspired by biological perception systems, articial attention models pursuit to select only the relevant part of the scene. Besides, it is well established that the units of attention on human vision are not merely spatial but closely related to perceptual objects (proto-objects. This implies a strong bidirectional relationship between segmentation and attention processes. Therefore, while the segmentation process is the responsible to extract the proto-objects from the scene, attention can guide segmentation, arising the concept of foveal attention. When the focus of attention is deployed from one visual unit to another, the rest of the scene is perceived but at a lower resolution that the focused object. The result is a multi-resolution visual perception in which the fovea, a dimple on the central retina, provides the highest resolution vision. In this paper, a bottom-up foveal attention model is presented. In this model the input image is a foveal image represented using a Cartesian Foveal Geometry (CFG, which encodes the field of view of the sensor as a fovea (placed in the focus of attention surrounded by a set of concentric rings with decreasing resolution. Then multirresolution perceptual segmentation is performed by building a foveal polygon using the Bounded Irregular Pyramid (BIP. Bottom-up attention is enclosed in the same structure, allowing to set the fovea over the most salient image proto-object. Saliency is computed as a linear combination of multiple low level features such us colour and intensity contrast, symmetry, orientation and roundness. Obtained results from natural images show that the performance of the combination of hierarchical foveal segmentation and saliency estimation is good in terms of accuracy and speed.

  11. Attention, Joint Attention, and Social Cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Mundy, Peter; Newell, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Before social cognition there is joint processing of information about the attention of self and others. This joint attention requires the integrated activation of a distributed cortical network involving the anterior and posterior attention systems. In infancy, practice with the integrated activation of this distributed attention network is a major contributor to the development of social cognition. Thus, the functional neuroanatomies of social cognition and the anterior–posterior attention ...

  12. A public health e-learning master's programme with a focus on health workforce development targeting francophone Africa: the University of Geneva experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastonay, Philippe; Zesiger, Véronique; Moretti, Roberto; Cremaschini, Marco; Bailey, Rebecca; Wheeler, Erika; Mattig, Thomas; Avocksouma, Djona Atchenemou; Mpinga, Emmanuel Kabengele

    2015-08-13

    Shortage of a competent public health workforce is as a worldwide problem. The situation is especially bad in sub-Saharan Africa. In 2008, the World Health Organization and the Global Health Workforce Alliance launched a call for proposals for a public health training programme with an emphasis on health workforce development specifically targeting Africa. Our article presents the development, implementation and evaluation of an e-learning Master of Advanced Studies in Public Health on Workforce Development. The project was developed in collaboration with academic partner institutions of 10 French-speaking African countries and local/regional/HQ WHO offices. A five-step approach was adopted. First, a needs assessment study was done in the target countries, with identification of priority health issues. Second, student and tutor selection was done in collaboration with local WHO offices, health authorities and partner universities. Third, the e-platform was developed and a training workshop for tutors was organized. Fourth, the learning objectives were derived from the needs assessment study and an interactive educational approach was adopted. Fifth, the participation of students, their perception of the programme, their performance on assignments and community outcomes were monitored. The needs assessment allowed the identification of 12 priority health issues (trauma related to road accidents, maternal and child health, HIV/AIDS, mental heath, food and malnutrition, health resource management, infectious diseases, access to essential drugs, chronic diseases, health promotion, ageing and violence/conflicts) of which 10 were studied through the lens of the key public health disciplines (epidemiology, human resources, health project/service planning, health policy, communication, health economics/management, informatics and ethics/human rights), each validated through a certifying examination. Student participation, measured through connection hits (total: 58 256

  13. Public perceptions of radon risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainous, A.G. III; Hagen, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    Since 1984, a significant amount of media attention has focused on health threats from radon gas exposure. Using a probability telephone survey of adults (n = 685), we studied public perceptions of risk from radon exposure versus other environmental health risks. The results indicated that 92% of those individuals who had heard of radon believe radon to be a health risk, although only 4% believe they are currently exposed to high levels of radon gas. Perception of risk from radon was positively related to other perceptions of environmental risks. Younger and less educated individuals were more likely to perceive radon as a health risk. Women were three-and-one-half times as likely as men to perceive risk from radon. However, there was no significant relationship between perceived risk from radon and cigarette smoking. Media attention has apparently led to public awareness of radon hazards, but further attention is needed to improve smokers' awareness of their special risks from radon

  14. Material focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Tomas; Vallgårda, Anna K. A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we build on the notion of computational composites, which hold a material perspective on computational technology. We argue that a focus on the material aspects of the technology could be a fruitful approach to achieve new expressions and to gain a new view on the technology's role...... in design. We study two of the computer's material properties: computed causality and connectability and through developing two computational composites that utilize these properties we begin to explore their potential expressions....

  15. Attentional ability among survivors of leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, J; Horrocks, J; Britton, P G; Kernahan, J

    1999-04-01

    Attentional ability in 19 survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and 19 sibling controls was assessed using a neuropsychological model of attention. Analysis revealed that children who had received treatment for leukaemia exhibited significantly poorer performance on measures of the "focus encode" and "focus execute" elements of attention and on measures of the ability to respond to external cues and feedback. No significant differences in performance were found for measures of sustained attention and the ability to shift attention. These results indicate that children who have received treatment for leukaemia may experience highly specific attentional deficits that could have an impact on academic performance, particularly mathematical and reading skills. It is suggested that this underlying attentional deficit might be the source of the neuropsychological sequelae associated with the disease. Future attempts at remediation should incorporate activities specifically designed to ameliorate focusing difficulties.

  16. The Effectiveness of Managing Split Attention among Autistic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliee, Zeinab Shams; Jomhari, Nazean; Rezaei, Reza; Alias, Norlidah

    2013-01-01

    One of the most common problems in autistic children is split attention. Split attention prevents autism children from being able to focus attention on their learning, and tasks. As a result, it is important to identify how to make autistic individuals focus attention on learning. Considering autistic individuals have higher visual abilities in…

  17. CTE's Focus on Continuous Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, John; Kelley, Patricia; Pritz, Sandy; Hodes, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Just one of the ways career and technical education (CTE) is revamping its image is through increased attention to data-driven instructional techniques as a means of improving and focusing instruction on what matters most. Accountability and data have increasingly become a core focus of research, news, and commentary about education in recent…

  18. Effects of Psychological Attention on Pronoun Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Jennifer E.; Lao, Shin-Yi C.

    2015-01-01

    Pronoun comprehension is facilitated for referents that are focused in the discourse context. Discourse focus has been described as a function of attention, especially shared attention, but few studies have explicitly tested this idea. Two experiments used an exogenous capture cue paradigm to demonstrate that listeners’ visual attention at the onset of a story influences their preferences during pronoun resolution later in the story. In both experiments trial-initial attention modulated listeners’ transitory biases while considering referents for the pronoun, whether it was in response to the capture cue or not. These biases even had a small influence on listeners’ final interpretation of the pronoun. These results provide independently-motivated evidence that the listener’s attention influences the on-line processes of pronoun comprehension. Trial-initial attentional shifts were made on the basis of non-shared, private information, demonstrating that attentional effects on pronoun comprehension are not restricted to shared attention among interlocutors. PMID:26191533

  19. Brain activity associated with selective attention, divided attention and distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Emma; Salmela, Viljami; Salmi, Juha; Numminen, Jussi; Alho, Kimmo

    2017-06-01

    Top-down controlled selective or divided attention to sounds and visual objects, as well as bottom-up triggered attention to auditory and visual distractors, has been widely investigated. However, no study has systematically compared brain activations related to all these types of attention. To this end, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure brain activity in participants performing a tone pitch or a foveal grating orientation discrimination task, or both, distracted by novel sounds not sharing frequencies with the tones or by extrafoveal visual textures. To force focusing of attention to tones or gratings, or both, task difficulty was kept constantly high with an adaptive staircase method. A whole brain analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed fronto-parietal attention networks for both selective auditory and visual attention. A subsequent conjunction analysis indicated partial overlaps of these networks. However, like some previous studies, the present results also suggest segregation of prefrontal areas involved in the control of auditory and visual attention. The ANOVA also suggested, and another conjunction analysis confirmed, an additional activity enhancement in the left middle frontal gyrus related to divided attention supporting the role of this area in top-down integration of dual task performance. Distractors expectedly disrupted task performance. However, contrary to our expectations, activations specifically related to the distractors were found only in the auditory and visual cortices. This suggests gating of the distractors from further processing perhaps due to strictly focused attention in the current demanding discrimination tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Attention to information in working memory

    OpenAIRE

    Oberauer Klaus; Hein Laura

    2012-01-01

    Working memory retains information and makes it available for processing. People often need to hold several chunks of information available while concentrating on only one of them. This process requires selective attention to the contents of working memory. In this article we summarize evidence for both a broad focus of attention with a capacity of approximately four chunks and a narrow focus of attention that selects a single chunk at a time.

  1. Plasma Focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, Alain; Jolas, Alain; Garconnet, J.-P.; Mascureau, J. de; Nazet, Christian; Coudeville, Alain; Bekiarian, Andre.

    1977-01-01

    The present report is the edition of the lectures given in a conference on the Focus experiment held at the Centre d'etudes de Limeil, on Oct. 1975. After a survey of the early laboratories one will find the main results obtained in Limeil concerning interferometry, laser scattering, electric and magnetic-measurements, X-ray and neutron emission and also the possible use of explosive current generators instead of capacitor banks at high energy levels. The principal lines of future research are given in the conclusion [fr

  2. Focus: Digital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Technology has been an all-important and defining element within the arts throughout the 20th century, and it has fundamentally changed the ways in which we produce and consume music. With this Focus we investigate the latest developments in the digital domain – and their pervasiveness and rapid...... production and reception of contemporary music and sound art. With ‘Digital’ we present four composers' very different answers to how technology impact their work. To Juliana Hodkinson it has become an integral part of her sonic writing. Rudiger Meyer analyses the relationships between art and design and how...

  3. Experiences and factors influencing a sample of teachers in New York state public elementary and middle schools to focus on environmental education in their teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooker, Gail Patricia

    This study focuses on how fourteen elementary and middle level teachers in New York chose to teach environmental topics as part of their science curricula. Prior research suggested that factors influencing teachers to make curricular decisions are different from those that motivated them to become teachers in the first place (Espinet, et.al. 1992). This was supported by the results of this study, which found that most of these teachers made the decision to begin teaching environmental education (EE) well after deciding to become teachers and that the decision to teach EE was influenced by a variety of factors including participation in EE-oriented in-service programs, media coverage of environmental issues, encouragement from colleagues and school administrators to undertake EE, and personal experiences in childhood or early adulthood with the environment and/or with EE. Studies examining experiences that influence people to practice "environmentally responsible" behaviors (Chawla, 1995; McGarry, 1994; Tanner, 1994) suggested that positive childhood contacts with nature were important predictors for such behavior in adulthood. Findings of this study were largely consistent with these results, however, this sample of teachers viewed their childhood nature experiences as being mostly responsible for the development of their appreciation of the environment, while their actual decision to begin teaching EE was primarily influenced by other experiences, as discussed above. This study also examined how these teachers prepared themselves for teaching EE. The findings indicate that these teachers used a wide variety of preparation strategies. A minority reported becoming prepared for teaching EE through their pre-service teacher education programs. These results were in agreement with prior findings that most teacher education programs in this country do not include a focus on EE. Even where preparation for EE is included, it has been rated by the participants as

  4. Dissociations between developmental dyslexias and attention deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukov, Limor; Friedmann, Naama; Shalev, Lilach; Khentov-Kraus, Lilach; Shalev, Nir; Lorber, Rakefet; Guggenheim, Revital

    2014-01-01

    We examine whether attention deficits underlie developmental dyslexia, or certain types of dyslexia, by presenting double dissociations between the two. We took into account the existence of distinct types of dyslexia and of attention deficits, and focused on dyslexias that may be thought to have an attentional basis: letter position dyslexia (LPD), in which letters migrate within words, attentional dyslexia (AD), in which letters migrate between words, neglect dyslexia, in which letters on one side of the word are omitted or substituted, and surface dyslexia, in which words are read via the sublexical route. We tested 110 children and adults with developmental dyslexia and/or attention deficits, using extensive batteries of reading and attention. For each participant, the existence of dyslexia and the dyslexia type were tested using reading tests that included stimuli sensitive to the various dyslexia types. Attention deficit and its type was established through attention tasks assessing sustained, selective, orienting, and executive attention functioning. Using this procedure, we identified 55 participants who showed a double dissociation between reading and attention: 28 had dyslexia with normal attention and 27 had attention deficits with normal reading. Importantly, each dyslexia with suspected attentional basis dissociated from attention: we found 21 individuals with LPD, 13 AD, 2 neglect dyslexia, and 12 surface dyslexia without attention deficits. Other dyslexia types (vowel dyslexia, phonological dyslexia, visual dyslexia) also dissociated from attention deficits. Examination of 55 additional individuals with both a specific dyslexia and a certain attention deficit found no attention function that was consistently linked with any dyslexia type. Specifically, LPD and AD dissociated from selective attention, neglect dyslexia dissociated from orienting, and surface dyslexia dissociated from sustained and executive attention. These results indicate that

  5. The Attention Cascade Model and Attentional Blink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Shui-I

    2008-01-01

    An attention cascade model is proposed to account for attentional blinks in rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of stimuli. Data were collected using single characters in a single RSVP stream at 10 Hz [Shih, S., & Reeves, A. (2007). "Attentional capture in rapid serial visual presentation." "Spatial Vision", 20(4), 301-315], and single words,…

  6. Focusing horn

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    This was the first magnetic horn developed by Simon Van der Meer to collect antiprotons in the AD complex. It was used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). Making an antiproton beam took a lot of time and effort. Firstly, protons were accelerated to an energy of 26 GeV/c (protons at 26GeV/c, antiprotons at 3.6GeV/c) in the PS and ejected onto a metal target. From the spray of emerging particles, a magnetic horn picked out 3.6 GeV antiprotons for injection into the AA through a wide-aperture focusing quadrupole magnet. For a million protons hitting the target, just one antiproton was captured, 'cooled' and accumulated. It took 3 days to make a beam of 3 x 10^11 -, three hundred thousand million - antiprotons. The development of this technology was a key step to the functioning of CERN's Super Proton Synchrotron as a proton - antiproton collider.

  7. Analysis of trends in publications and citations of papers on nuclear science and technology field in Korea: Focusing on the Scopus Data Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Young Choon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The data on the top 20 journals in the Science Citation Index(Expanded) for 10 years from 2005 to 2014 indicated the first and second positions for Korean papers were occupied by the Korean journals, which implied the need for globalization of target journals to publish Korean papers. Further study is required for comparative analysis of the factors impacting on the number of papers and citations, which is the criteria for quality evaluation of papers, in other area than the Nuclear Energy and Engineering to which this study was limited. As the media for research process and results, papers play an important role in the evaluation of research projects. While the traditional methods for evaluation of research results have been focused on quantity aspects, the implication of quality aspect is increasingly recognized. Most national labs have begun to shift from quantity to quality in their criteria for overall evaluation of research results. It is therefore desired to maximize the quality level of the research papers for which the trends in citation as quality indicator could be analyzed as well as the quantity aspect. This paper looks at the trends in the number of citation and papers as the indicators of quality and quantify, as drawn from Scopus Data Base. It also suggest top 5 Science Citation Index(Expanded) journals in terms of increase rate in both number of papers and citations. The purpose is to compare them with top 20 Science Citation Index(Expanded) journals in which Korea Atomic Energy Research researchers have published their papers in the past 10 years from 2005 to 2014 were submitted. This paper looked at the trends in the number of papers and citations as an indicator of quality of the research papers in the area of Nuclear Energy and Engineering which is in fact a limitation to the key subject area, not covering the whole nuclear science and technology.

  8. Analysis of trends in publications and citations of papers on nuclear science and technology field in Korea: Focusing on the Scopus Data Base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Young Choon

    2015-01-01

    The data on the top 20 journals in the Science Citation Index(Expanded) for 10 years from 2005 to 2014 indicated the first and second positions for Korean papers were occupied by the Korean journals, which implied the need for globalization of target journals to publish Korean papers. Further study is required for comparative analysis of the factors impacting on the number of papers and citations, which is the criteria for quality evaluation of papers, in other area than the Nuclear Energy and Engineering to which this study was limited. As the media for research process and results, papers play an important role in the evaluation of research projects. While the traditional methods for evaluation of research results have been focused on quantity aspects, the implication of quality aspect is increasingly recognized. Most national labs have begun to shift from quantity to quality in their criteria for overall evaluation of research results. It is therefore desired to maximize the quality level of the research papers for which the trends in citation as quality indicator could be analyzed as well as the quantity aspect. This paper looks at the trends in the number of citation and papers as the indicators of quality and quantify, as drawn from Scopus Data Base. It also suggest top 5 Science Citation Index(Expanded) journals in terms of increase rate in both number of papers and citations. The purpose is to compare them with top 20 Science Citation Index(Expanded) journals in which Korea Atomic Energy Research researchers have published their papers in the past 10 years from 2005 to 2014 were submitted. This paper looked at the trends in the number of papers and citations as an indicator of quality of the research papers in the area of Nuclear Energy and Engineering which is in fact a limitation to the key subject area, not covering the whole nuclear science and technology

  9. Motivation and obstacles for weight management among young women - a qualitative study with a public health focus - the Tromsø study: Fit Futures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, Anne-Sofie; Emaus, Nina; Lian, Olaug S

    2017-05-08

    Due to a worldwide increase in overweight and obesity, weight-management through lifestyle changes has become an important public health issue. Adolescents and young adults comprise a vulnerable group. The transition into adulthood represents a stage in life when establishing good lifestyle habits for the future is important. The aim of this study was to explore motivation and obstacles for weight reduction, weight maintenance and healthy lifestyle choices in young women. We conducted semi-structured in depth interviews with 12 young women, both overweight and normal weight, recruited from a school-based population survey. By the use of thematic analysis we searched the interview text for relevant meaning units that emerged as topics that illuminated our research questions. A strong motivation for obtaining or keeping normal weight was clearly present among the participants. Independent of weight-group, the participants described increased levels of physical activity, better eating habits and regularity in daily life as desirable changes. Parents were described as important influencers regarding lifestyle habits. Several participants expressed a need for more information about healthy nutrition and eating. Their motivation for physical activity depended on a positive social setting and elements of joy. The participants described the transition into adulthood including moving out of their parents' home and other structural changes in everyday life, as challenging. It affected their food choices and eating habits and other lifestyle issues. High costs of healthy food and sports activities were frequently mentioned among the obstacles they encountered. The results revealed an obvious motivation for lifestyle changes in individuals and environmental challenges for young women in the relevant stage of their life-course. There seems to be a need for health strategies that strengthens individuals' capacity to overcome the environmental challenges in the transition to

  10. Motivation and obstacles for weight management among young women – a qualitative study with a public health focus - the Tromsø study: Fit Futures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Sofie Sand

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to a worldwide increase in overweight and obesity, weight-management through lifestyle changes has become an important public health issue. Adolescents and young adults comprise a vulnerable group. The transition into adulthood represents a stage in life when establishing good lifestyle habits for the future is important. The aim of this study was to explore motivation and obstacles for weight reduction, weight maintenance and healthy lifestyle choices in young women. Methods We conducted semi-structured in depth interviews with 12 young women, both overweight and normal weight, recruited from a school-based population survey. By the use of thematic analysis we searched the interview text for relevant meaning units that emerged as topics that illuminated our research questions. Results A strong motivation for obtaining or keeping normal weight was clearly present among the participants. Independent of weight-group, the participants described increased levels of physical activity, better eating habits and regularity in daily life as desirable changes. Parents were described as important influencers regarding lifestyle habits. Several participants expressed a need for more information about healthy nutrition and eating. Their motivation for physical activity depended on a positive social setting and elements of joy. The participants described the transition into adulthood including moving out of their parents’ home and other structural changes in everyday life, as challenging. It affected their food choices and eating habits and other lifestyle issues. High costs of healthy food and sports activities were frequently mentioned among the obstacles they encountered. Conclusion The results revealed an obvious motivation for lifestyle changes in individuals and environmental challenges for young women in the relevant stage of their life-course. There seems to be a need for health strategies that strengthens individuals

  11. Effectiveness evaluation of public policy incentive R&D in technological innovation in Brazil: a focus on law of the well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Zanghelini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper will address pharmaceutical industries that carry out research, development and innovation (RD&I Brazil and their consequent adherence to tax incentives based on ‘Law of the Well’ (Brazilian, Law No. 11,196 / 2005. Our hypothesis evaluates if public policies of incentives for transformation of technological knowledge could encourage firms to invest in RD&I. Our research was based on Government Annual Reports that reported the use of tax incentives during a period between 2006 and 2012; and legal framework destined for supporting research, both provided by Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation of Brazil. During the studied period, an increase of 800% of the participating companies of the ‘Law of the Well’ was observed, demonstrating a need to invest in R&D. The sum of the expenditure of defrayal for the computation of the incentives the companies that operated in real income regime and have chosen to take advantage of tax incentives ‘Law of the Well’ amounted to R $ 40.52 billion. Well although one of the purposes of the ‘Law of the Well’ is to subsidize the establishment of researchers in companies, the total value of capital expenditure does not exceed 4% of the total amount invested in R & D activities. Similarly it is observed that the percentage of encouraging the development and patenting did not exceed 1%. In spite of Good Law be used as institutional apparatus for improvement of the efficiency and competitivity of the companies for the global market, recent indicators of spending on R&D in Brazil demonstrate stagnation of investments in various sectors.Keywords: Law of the Well. Public policy. Pharmaceutical complex. Technological innovation. Avaliação da efetividade das políticas públicas de incentivo a p & d na inovação tecnológica no Brasil: um enfoque na lei do bemO presente artigo abordará sobre as indústrias farmacêuticas que realizam atividades de pesquisa, desenvolvimento e

  12. Public health and Plowshare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrill, Jr, J G [Consumer Protection and Environmental Health Service, U.S. PubIic Health Service, Washington, DC (United States)

    1969-07-01

    The protection of public health and safety is a principal area of concern in any application of nuclear energy. A health and safety analysis must be conducted and reviewed by appropriate agencies and the final results made available to interested agencies and groups, both public and private, prior to the application. This is especially important for the Plowshare Program - the peaceful uses of nuclear explosives - where the public is to be the ultimate beneficiary. Because public health must be a primary concern in the Plowshare Program, it is essential that the potential risk be weighed against the expected benefits to the public. Public health agencies must play an increasingly important role in the planning and operational stages of the peaceful applications of nuclear explosives and in the final stage of consumer use of Plowshare-generated products. There are many long term and long distance ramifications of the Plowshare Program, such a the potential radiological contamination of consumer products that may reach the consumer at long times after the event or at great distances from the site of the event. Criteria for evaluating public exposure to radiation from these products need to be developed based on sound scientific research. Standards for radioactivity in consumer products must be developed in relation to potential exposure of the public. Above all, a clear benefit to the public with a minimum of risk must be shown. The major purpose of this Symposium on the Public Health Aspects of Peaceful Uses of Nuclear-Explosives is to focus attention on the health and safety aspects, present the results of safety analyses accomplished to date and other information necessary to an understanding of the public health aspects, and to identify areas where additional research is required. A general overview of the total symposium content is presented with emphasis on the relationship of the topics to public health. (author)

  13. Public health and Plowshare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrill, J.G. Jr.

    1969-01-01

    The protection of public health and safety is a principal area of concern in any application of nuclear energy. A health and safety analysis must be conducted and reviewed by appropriate agencies and the final results made available to interested agencies and groups, both public and private, prior to the application. This is especially important for the Plowshare Program - the peaceful uses of nuclear explosives - where the public is to be the ultimate beneficiary. Because public health must be a primary concern in the Plowshare Program, it is essential that the potential risk be weighed against the expected benefits to the public. Public health agencies must play an increasingly important role in the planning and operational stages of the peaceful applications of nuclear explosives and in the final stage of consumer use of Plowshare-generated products. There are many long term and long distance ramifications of the Plowshare Program, such a the potential radiological contamination of consumer products that may reach the consumer at long times after the event or at great distances from the site of the event. Criteria for evaluating public exposure to radiation from these products need to be developed based on sound scientific research. Standards for radioactivity in consumer products must be developed in relation to potential exposure of the public. Above all, a clear benefit to the public with a minimum of risk must be shown. The major purpose of this Symposium on the Public Health Aspects of Peaceful Uses of Nuclear-Explosives is to focus attention on the health and safety aspects, present the results of safety analyses accomplished to date and other information necessary to an understanding of the public health aspects, and to identify areas where additional research is required. A general overview of the total symposium content is presented with emphasis on the relationship of the topics to public health. (author)

  14. Direct marketing of parenting programs: comparing a promotion-focused and a prevention-focused strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, Raziye; Backman, Anna

    2017-06-01

    : For parenting programs to achieve a public health impact, it is necessary to develop more effective marketing strategies to increase public awareness of these programs and promote parental participation. In this article, we compared a promotion-focused and a prevention-focused strategy via two studies. : We designed two ads inviting parents to participate in a universal parenting program; one ad focused on the program increasing the likelihood of positive outcomes for children (promotion-focused) and the other on the program reducing the likelihood of negative outcomes (prevention-focused). In study I, the two ads were run online simultaneously. Those who clicked on an ad were directed to a website where they could read about and sign up for the program. In study II, a community sample of 706 parents answered a questionnaire about the ads. : In study I, over 85 days, the prevention ad generated more clicks. There was no difference in the number of pages visited on the website nor in the number of parents who signed up for the program. In study II, parents showed a preference for the promotion ad, perceiving it as more relevant and rating it as more effective in getting them interested in the program. : A prevention strategy may be more effective in drawing public attention, in general. However, a promotion strategy is more likely to reach parents, in particular, and inspire them to consider participating in parenting programs. These strategies should be developed further and tested in both general and clinical populations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  15. Latent Factors in Attention Emerge from 9 Years of Age among Elementary School Children

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Ting; Wang, Ligang; Fan, Chunlei; Gao, Wenbin; Shi, Jiannong

    2017-01-01

    We explored the development of attention among elementary school children. Three hundred and sixty-five primary school children aged 7–12 years completed seven attention tests (alertness, focused attention, divided attention, attentional switching, sustained attention, spatial attention, and supervisory attention). A factor analysis indicated that there was no stable construct of attention among 7- to 8-year-old children. However, from 9 years on, children’s attention could be separated into ...

  16. Researchers focus attention on coastal response to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, John; Rodriguez, Antonio; Fletcher, Charles; Fitzgerald, Duncan

    The world's population has been steadily migrating toward coastal cities, resulting in severe stress on coastal environments. But the most severe human impact on coastal regions may lie ahead as the rate of global sea-level rise accelerates and the impacts of global warming on coastal climates and oceanographic dynamics increase [Varekamp and Thomas, 1998; Hinrichsen, 1999; Goodwin et al., 2000]. Little is currently being done to forecast the impact of global climate change on coasts during the next century and beyond. Indeed, there are still many politicians, and even some scientists, who doubt that global change is a real threat to society.

  17. Working Memory Capacity and Focused and Sustained Attention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Engle, Randall

    2003-01-01

    .... We see WM as a system consisting of those long-term memory traces active above threshold, the procedures and skills necessary to achieve and maintain that activation and, what we call executive...

  18. Focus-of-attention for human activity recognition from UAVs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghouts, G.J.; Eekeren, A.W.M. van; Dijk, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a system to extract metadata about human activities from full-motion video recorded from a UAV. The pipeline consists of these components: tracking, motion features, representation of the tracks in terms of their motion features, and classification of each track as one of the

  19. Culture, attention, and emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Igor; Ellsworth, Phoebe C; Hong, Ying-yi

    2012-02-01

    This research provides experimental evidence for cultural influence on one of the most basic elements of emotional processing: attention to positive versus negative stimuli. To this end, we focused on Russian culture, which is characterized by brooding and melancholy. In Study 1, Russians spent significantly more time looking at negative than positive pictures, whereas Americans did not show this tendency. In Study 2, Russian Latvians were randomly primed with symbols of each culture, after which we measured the speed of recognition for positive versus negative trait words. Biculturals were significantly faster in recognizing negative words (as compared with baseline) when primed with Russian versus Latvian cultural symbols. Greater identification with Russian culture facilitated this effect. We provide a theoretical discussion of mental processes underlying cultural differences in emotion research.

  20. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Marguerite; Nigg, Joel T.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, there have been numerous technical and methodological advances available to clinicians and researchers to better understand attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its etiology. Despite the growing body of literature investigating the disorder’s pathophysiology, ADHD remains a complex psychiatric disorder to characterize. This chapter will briefly review the literature on ADHD, with a focus on its history, the current genetic insights, neurophysiologic theories, and the use of neuroimaging to further understand the etiology. We address some of the major concerns that remain unclear about ADHD, including subtype instability, heterogeneity, and the underlying neural correlates that define the disorder. We highlight that the field of ADHD is rapidly evolving; the descriptions provided here will hopefully provide a sturdy foundation for which to build and improve our understanding of the disorder. PMID:24214656

  1. Cold-Blooded Attention: Finger Temperature Predicts Attentional Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Rodrigo C; Moënne-Loccoz, Cristóbal; Maldonado, Pedro E

    2017-01-01

    Thermal stress has been shown to increase the chances of unsafe behavior during industrial and driving performances due to reductions in mental and attentional resources. Nonetheless, establishing appropriate safety standards regarding environmental temperature has been a major problem, as modulations are also be affected by the task type, complexity, workload, duration, and previous experience with the task. To bypass this attentional and thermoregulatory problem, we focused on the body rather than environmental temperature. Specifically, we measured tympanic, forehead, finger and environmental temperatures accompanied by a battery of attentional tasks. We considered a 10 min baseline period wherein subjects were instructed to sit and relax, followed by three attentional tasks: a continuous performance task (CPT), a flanker task (FT) and a counting task (CT). Using multiple linear regression models, we evaluated which variable(s) were the best predictors of performance. The results showed a decrement in finger temperature due to instruction and task engagement that was absent when the subject was instructed to relax. No changes were observed in tympanic or forehead temperatures, while the environmental temperature remained almost constant for each subject. Specifically, the magnitude of the change in finger temperature was the best predictor of performance in all three attentional tasks. The results presented here suggest that finger temperature can be used as a predictor of alertness, as it predicted performance in attentional tasks better than environmental temperature. These findings strongly support that peripheral temperature can be used as a tool to prevent unsafe behaviors and accidents.

  2. Cold-Blooded Attention: Finger Temperature Predicts Attentional Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo C. Vergara

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal stress has been shown to increase the chances of unsafe behavior during industrial and driving performances due to reductions in mental and attentional resources. Nonetheless, establishing appropriate safety standards regarding environmental temperature has been a major problem, as modulations are also be affected by the task type, complexity, workload, duration, and previous experience with the task. To bypass this attentional and thermoregulatory problem, we focused on the body rather than environmental temperature. Specifically, we measured tympanic, forehead, finger and environmental temperatures accompanied by a battery of attentional tasks. We considered a 10 min baseline period wherein subjects were instructed to sit and relax, followed by three attentional tasks: a continuous performance task (CPT, a flanker task (FT and a counting task (CT. Using multiple linear regression models, we evaluated which variable(s were the best predictors of performance. The results showed a decrement in finger temperature due to instruction and task engagement that was absent when the subject was instructed to relax. No changes were observed in tympanic or forehead temperatures, while the environmental temperature remained almost constant for each subject. Specifically, the magnitude of the change in finger temperature was the best predictor of performance in all three attentional tasks. The results presented here suggest that finger temperature can be used as a predictor of alertness, as it predicted performance in attentional tasks better than environmental temperature. These findings strongly support that peripheral temperature can be used as a tool to prevent unsafe behaviors and accidents.

  3. Collective focusing ion accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldin, F.J.

    1986-01-01

    The principal subject of this dissertation is the trapping confinement of pure electron plasmas in bumpy toroidal magnetic fields, with particular attention given to the trapping procedure and the behavior of the plasma during the final equilibrium. The most important aspects of the equilibrium studied were the qualitative nature of the plasma configuration and motion and its density, distribution and stability. The motivation for this study was that an unneutralized cloud of electrons contained in a toroidal system, sufficiently dense and stable, may serve to electrostatically focus ions (against centrifugal and self space charge forces) in a cyclic ion accelerator. Such an accelerator, known as a Collective Focusing Ion Accelerator (CFIA) could be far smaller than conventional designs (which use external magnetic fields directly to focus the ions) due to the smaller gyro-radium of an electron in a magnetic field of given strength. The electron cloud generally drifted poloidally at a finite radius from the toroidal minor axis. As this would preclude focusing ions with such clouds, damping this motion was investigated. Finite resistance in the normally perfectly conductive vessel wall did this. In further preparation for a working CFIA, additional experiments studied the effect of ions on the stability of the electron cloud

  4. Adolescence, Attention Allocation, and Driving Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Romer, Daniel; Lee, Yi-Ching; McDonald, Catherine C.; Winston, Flaura K.

    2014-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading source of morbidity and mortality in adolescents in the United States and the developed world. Inadequate allocation of attention to the driving task and to driving hazards are important sources of adolescent crashes. We review major explanations for these attention failures with particular focus on the roles that brain immaturity and lack of driving experience play in causing attention problems. The review suggests that the potential for overcoming inexp...

  5. Remediation of attention deficits in head injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Nag S; Rao S

    1999-01-01

    Head injury is associated with psychological sequelae which impair the patient′s psychosocial functioning. Information processing, attention and memory deficits are seen in head injuries of all severity. We attempted to improve deficits of focused, sustained and divided attention. The principle of overlapping sources of attention resource pools was utilised in devising the remediation programme. Tasks used simple inexpensive materials. Four head injured young adult males with post conc...

  6. Timing divided attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogendoorn, Hinze; Carlson, Thomas A; VanRullen, Rufin; Verstraten, Frans A J

    2010-11-01

    Visual attention can be divided over multiple objects or locations. However, there is no single theoretical framework within which the effects of dividing attention can be interpreted. In order to develop such a model, here we manipulated the stage of visual processing at which attention was divided, while simultaneously probing the costs of dividing attention on two dimensions. We show that dividing attention incurs dissociable time and precision costs, which depend on whether attention is divided during monitoring or during access. Dividing attention during monitoring resulted in progressively delayed access to attended locations as additional locations were monitored, as well as a one-off precision cost. When dividing attention during access, time costs were systematically lower at one of the accessed locations than at the other, indicating that divided attention during access, in fact, involves rapid sequential allocation of undivided attention. We propose a model in which divided attention is understood as the simultaneous parallel preparation and subsequent sequential execution of multiple shifts of undivided attention. This interpretation has the potential to bring together diverse findings from both the divided-attention and saccade preparation literature and provides a framework within which to integrate the broad spectrum of divided-attention methodologies.

  7. When attention wanders: Pupillometric signatures of fluctuations in external attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Mahiko; Brown, Kevin; Battaglini, Luca; Smallwood, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    Attention is not always directed to events in the external environment. On occasion our thoughts wander to people and places distant from the here and now. Sometimes, this lack of external attention can compromise ongoing task performance. In the current study we set out to understand the extent to which states of internal and external attention can be determined using pupillometry as an index of ongoing cognition. In two experiments we found that periods of slow responding were associated with elevations in the baseline pupil signal over three and a half seconds prior to a behavioural response. In the second experiment we found that unlike behavioural lapses, states of off-task thought, particularly those associated with a focus on the past and with an intrusive quality, were associated with reductions in the size of the pupil over the same window prior to the probe. These data show that both states of large and small baseline pupil size are linked to states when attention is not effectively focused on the external environment, although these states have different qualities. More generally, these findings illustrate that subjective and objective markers of task performance may not be equivalent and underscore the importance of developing objective indicators that can allow these different states to be understood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Secretly political: Civic engagement in online publics in Kazakhstan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shklovski, Irina; Valtysson, Bjarki

    2012-01-01

    The proliferation of networked forms of communication has captured the attention of media and scholars alike. We have never had quite as many resources for communication as we have today, and such communicative potential has implications for social change. In this article we consider public spheres...... that emerge through communication in the digital realm, paying atten- tion to how networked publics operate within such spheres. We present results from a study of a popular local online discussion forum in Kazakhstan. Steeped in Habermas’s idea of the public sphere, this study focuses on cultural public...... spheres defined through engagement and participation of diverse publics. We consider a range of publics that might emerge, such as mundane-publics, issue-publics, and counter-publics and how these differ in their content and purpose. While the majority of work on networked publics has been situated...

  9. Solitude or co-existence – or learning-together-apart with digital dialogic technologies for kids with developmental and attention difficulties (accepted for publication in EAI-Journal, Special Issue - eds. Eva Brooks)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Elsebeth Korsgaard; Voldborg, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    This study reports on research into the impact of digital technological interventions for including kids with attention and developmental deficits into school class contexts. It describes, how the authors have approached the challenge of researching inclusion of kids with attention...... interventions with digital technologies, e.g. Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs), may promote inclusion through stimulating the participation in life and learning of kids with attention and developmental deficits....

  10. Why visual attention and awareness are different

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamme, V.A.F.

    2003-01-01

    Now that the study of consciousness is warmly embraced by cognitive scientists, much confusion seems to arise between the concepts of visual attention and visual awareness. Often, visual awareness is equated to what is in the focus of attention. There are, however, two sets of arguments to separate

  11. Online Attention Training for Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Wennberg, Alexandra; Kueider, Alexandra; Spira, Adam; Adams, Gregory; Rager, Robert; Rebok, George

    2014-01-01

    Evidence suggests that cognitive training interventions can improve older adults' cognitive performance. Successful training programs are adaptable and train multiple cognitive domains to target individual strengths and weaknesses. Computerized training programs are useful because they allow older adults to easily access training. This pilot study used an online attention training program, ATTENTION WORKOUT™, to enhance three aspects of attention– coordination, allocation, and selective focus...

  12. Attentional capture within and between objects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mortier, K.; Donk, M.; Theeuwes, J.

    2003-01-01

    The present study addressed the question whether attentional capture by abrupt onsets is affected by object-like properties of the stimulus field. Observers searched for a target circle at one of four ends of two solid rectangles. In the focused attention condition the location of the upcoming

  13. Management challenges at the intersection of public policy environments and strategic decision making in public hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longest, Beaufort B

    2012-01-01

    Hospitals in the United States are heavily impacted by public policies that affect them. For example, Medicare and Medicaid programs account for more than half the revenue in most of the nation's almost 5,000 community hospitals, including the almost 1,100 public hospitals controlled by state and local governments (American Hospital Association, 2012). The public hospitals are especially closely aligned with and controlled by governmental entities compared with hospitals with other kinds of sponsorship. This article addresses the management challenges at the intersection of the strategic management of public hospitals and their public policy environments. Public hospitals are complicated entities designed not only to provide health services but also in many cases to play key roles in health-related research and education and to play important general economic development roles in their communities. The multi-faceted strategic decision making in these organizations is as heavily affected by their public policy environments as by their business, demographic, technological or other external environments. Effectively managing the intersection of their public policy environments and their strategic management is indeed vital for contemporary public hospitals. This article is intended to clarify certain aspects of this intersection through a description and model of the strategic activity in public hospitals and the connection between this activity and their external environments. Specific attention is focused on the concept of public policy environments and their features. Attention is also given to how managers can assess public policy environments and incorporate the results into strategic activities.

  14. The role of attention in illusory conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsal, Y; Meiran, N; Lavie, N

    1994-03-01

    In five experiments, we investigated the effects of attention on illusory conjunctions formed between features of unrelated objects. The first three experiments used a weak manipulation of attention and found that illusory conjunctions formed either among features receiving high attentional priority or among features receiving low attentional priority were not more frequent than were conjunctions formed between mixed features of different attentional priority. The last two experiments used a strong manipulation of attention and failed to reveal any evidence of true illusory conjunctions. The results are inconsistent with the feature-integration theory, which predicts that when attention is focused on a subset of items, illusory conjunctions ought to occur within and outside of the attended subset, but not between the attended and unattended items.

  15. Selective Attention, Diffused Attention, and the Development of Categorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wei (Sophia); Sloutsky, Vladimir M.

    2016-01-01

    How do people learn categories and what changes with development? The current study attempts to address these questions by focusing on the role of attention in the development of categorization. In Experiment 1, participants (adults, 7-year-olds, and 4-year-olds) were trained with novel categories consisting of deterministic and probabilistic features, and their categorization and memory for features were tested. In Experiment 2, participants’ attention was directed to the deterministic feature, and in Experiment 3 it was directed to the probabilistic features. Attentional cuing affected categorization and memory in adults and 7-year-olds: these participants relied on the cued features in their categorization and exhibited better memory of cued than of non-cued features. In contrast, in 4-year-olds attentional cueing affected only categorization, but not memory: these participants exhibited equally good memory for both cued and non-cued features. Furthermore, across the experiments, 4-year-olds remembered non-cued features better than adults. These results coupled with computational simulations provide novel evidence (1) pointing to differences in category representation and mechanisms of categorization across development, (2) elucidating the role of attention in the development of categorization, and (3) suggesting an important distinction between representation and decision factors in categorization early in development. These issues are discussed with respect to theories of categorization and its development. PMID:27721103

  16. Selective attention, diffused attention, and the development of categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wei Sophia; Sloutsky, Vladimir M

    2016-12-01

    How do people learn categories and what changes with development? The current study attempts to address these questions by focusing on the role of attention in the development of categorization. In Experiment 1, participants (adults, 7-year-olds, and 4-year-olds) were trained with novel categories consisting of deterministic and probabilistic features, and their categorization and memory for features were tested. In Experiment 2, participants' attention was directed to the deterministic feature, and in Experiment 3 it was directed to the probabilistic features. Attentional cueing affected categorization and memory in adults and 7-year-olds: these participants relied on the cued features in their categorization and exhibited better memory of cued than of non-cued features. In contrast, in 4-year-olds attentional cueing affected only categorization, but not memory: these participants exhibited equally good memory for both cued and non-cued features. Furthermore, across the experiments, 4-year-olds remembered non-cued features better than adults. These results coupled with computational simulations provide novel evidence (1) pointing to differences in category representation and mechanisms of categorization across development, (2) elucidating the role of attention in the development of categorization, and (3) suggesting an important distinction between representation and decision factors in categorization early in development. These issues are discussed with respect to theories of categorization and its development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Netherlands: ERM Comparative Analytical Report on 'Public policy and support for restructuring in SMEs'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van het Kaar, R.H.

    2013-01-01

    Although SMEs get a lot of attention in the Netherlands, there is no specific debate on SMEs and restructuring. A range of public instruments directed at SMEs exists, but their focus is mainly on growth and expansion. Many instruments are fiscal in nature. There are no public or social partner

  18. Understanding New Hybrid Professions: Bourdieu, "Illusio" and the Case of Public Service Interpreters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colley, Helen; Guéry, Frédérique

    2015-01-01

    Public spending reductions across the advanced capitalist world are creating new professions that have a "hybrid" status and/or role. However, research on professional learning has paid little attention to them. This qualitative study of one such profession, public service interpreting (PSI), addresses that lacuna. The paper focuses on…

  19. Mechanism of Perceptual Attention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Zhong-Lin

    2000-01-01

    .... Attention may affect the perceived clarity of visual displays and improve performance. In this project, a powerful external noise method was developed to identify and characterize the effect of attention on perceptual performance in visual tasks...

  20. Mechanisms of Perceptual Attention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dosher, Barbara

    2000-01-01

    .... Attention may affect the perceived clarity of visual displays and improve performance. In this project, a powerful external noise method was developed to identify and characterize the effect of attention on perceptual performance in visual tasks...

  1. Causes of Fiscal Illusion: Lack of Information or Lack of Attention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Martin; Serritzlew, Søren; Blom-Hansen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    the implications of fiscal illusions, whereas the question why fiscal illusions occur at all has received less attention. According to the standard argument, individuals base their opinion of policy proposals on a valuation of benefits and costs. We formalize the standard argument and show that it is a special......According to fiscal illusion theory, voters misperceive fiscal parameters because of incomplete information. The costs of public services are underestimated, implying that if voters had full information, their support for public services would drop. The literature has focused on testing...... case of the attention model of fiscal illusion. In this model, opinion depends on the saliency of attributes of the proposal. We show that the attention model can better explain fiscal illusion by deriving competing hypotheses, which are tested in a survey experiment. We conclude that the mechanism...

  2. Developmental Psychology: How Social Context Influences Infants' Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wass, Sam V; Leong, Victoria

    2016-05-09

    A recent study shows that changes in the focus of a social partner's attention associate, on a second-by-second scale, with changes in how much attention infants pay to objects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Attention and Representational Momentum

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Amy; Freyd, Jennifer J

    1995-01-01

    Representational momentum, the tendency for memory to be distorted in the direction of an implied transformation, suggests that dynamics are an intrinsic part of perceptual representations. We examined the effect of attention on dynamic representation by testing for representational momentum under conditions of distraction. Forward memory shifts increase when attention is divided. Attention may be involved in halting but not in maintaining dynamic representations.

  4. A computational model of focused attention meditation and its transfer to a sustained attention task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moye, Amir Sep; van Vugt, Marieke; van Vugt, Marieke K; Banks, Adrian P; Kennedy, William G

    2017-01-01

    Although meditation and mindfulness practices are widely discussed and studied more and more in the scientific literature, there is little theory about the cognitive mechanisms that comprise it. Here we begin to develop such a theory by creating a computational cognitive model of a particular type

  5. Attention competition with advertisement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O.

    2014-09-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant.

  6. Making Publics: Mobilizing Audiences in High School Makerspaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stornaiuolo, Amy; Nichols, T. Philip

    2018-01-01

    Background/Context: Researchers, policy makers, and practitioners are paying increasing attention to the educational opportunities afforded by the maker movement--a growing public interested in do-it-yourself designing, remixing, and tinkering using physical and digital tools. While education research on "making" has often focused on…

  7. Innovation environments and innovation capacity in the public sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Jenny; Ricard, Lykke Margot; Klijn, Erik-Hans

    Social innovation in the public sector has become an important focus for governments around the world over the last decade, as they try to solve intractable policy problems. The pressure on governments to do more with less in response to shrinking budgets and expanding community expectations...... and obligations has increased attention on how the public sector manages change and innovation. This heightened focus has created a need to understand the social innovation capacity of public sector environments. Work package 1of the LIPSE project on social innovation, examined this for four municipalities...

  8. Principles of visual attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundesen, Claus; Habekost, Thomas

    research as a field that is fundamentally fragmented. This book takes a different perspective and presents a unified theory of visual attention: the TVA model. The TVA model explains the many aspects of visual attention by just two mechanisms for selection of information: filtering and pigeonholing......The nature of attention is one of the oldest and most central problems in psychology. A huge amount of research has been produced on this subject in the last half century, especially on attention in the visual modality, but a general explanation has remained elusive. Many still view attention....... These mechanisms are described in a set of simple equations, which allow TVA to mathematically model a large number of classical results in the attention literature. The theory explains psychological and neuroscientific findings by the same equations; TVA is a complete theory of visual attention, linking mind...

  9. The behavioral ecology of a cognitive constraint: limited attention

    OpenAIRE

    Colin W. Clark; Reuven Dukas

    2003-01-01

    Limited attention may constrain animal behavior in situations in which the rate of relevant information exceeds the threshold processing capacity of the brain. In the present study, we examine why attention is limited by quantifying how attention affects the ubiquitous problem of balancing foraging and antipredator activity. We analyze how a given attentional capacity affects feeding requirements, the optimal attentional focus during predator scanning, and the probability of detecting predato...

  10. Inflexible minds: impaired attention switching in recent-onset schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henderikus G O M Smid

    Full Text Available Impairment of sustained attention is assumed to be a core cognitive abnormality in schizophrenia. However, this seems inconsistent with a recent hypothesis that in schizophrenia the implementation of selection (i.e., sustained attention is intact but the control of selection (i.e., switching the focus of attention is impaired. Mounting evidence supports this hypothesis, indicating that switching of attention is a bigger problem in schizophrenia than maintaining the focus of attention. To shed more light on this hypothesis, we tested whether schizophrenia patients are impaired relative to controls in sustaining attention, switching attention, or both. Fifteen patients with recent-onset schizophrenia and fifteen healthy volunteers, matched on age and intelligence, performed sustained attention and attention switching tasks, while performance and brain potential measures of selective attention were recorded. In the sustained attention task, patients did not differ from the controls on these measures. In the attention switching task, however, patients showed worse performance than the controls, and early selective attention related brain potentials were absent in the patients while clearly present in the controls. These findings support the hypothesis that schizophrenia is associated with an impairment of the mechanisms that control the direction of attention (attention switching, while the mechanisms that implement a direction of attention (sustained attention are intact.

  11. Is trait resilience characterized by specific patterns of attentional bias to emotional stimuli and attentional control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Judith; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Höfler, Michael; Heinrich, Anke; Zimmermann, Peter; Siegel, Stefan; Schönfeld, Sabine

    2015-09-01

    Attentional processes have been suggested to play a crucial role in resilience defined as positive adaptation facing adversity. However, research is lacking on associations between attentional biases to positive and threat-related stimuli, attentional control and trait resilience. Data stem from the follow-up assessment of a longitudinal study investigating mental health and related factors among German soldiers. Trait resilience was assessed with the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale and attentional control with the Attentional Control Scale. A subset of n = 198 soldiers also completed a dot probe task with happy, neutral and threatening faces. Attentional control was positively related to trait resilience. Results revealed no associations between both attentional biases and trait resilience. However, there was a negative association between attentional bias to threat and trait resilience when attentional control was low and a positive association between attentional bias to threat and trait resilience when attentional control was high. No such associations were found for attentional bias to positive stimuli. Generalizability to other populations may be limited since we exclusively focused on male soldiers. Also, the cross-sectional design does not allow for causal conclusions. Findings suggest that attentional processing may promote trait resilience. Future research on preventive interventions should consider these findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Methylphenidate-induced improvements of various measures of attention in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucha, O; Mecklinger, L; Laufkötter, R; Klein, H E; Walitza, S; Lange, K W

    2006-10-01

    The present study examined the effect of the stimulant medication methylphenidate (MPH) on attentional functioning of adults with ADHD. Sixteen adults with a diagnosed ADHD without comorbidity were assessed twice, at baseline off MPH and following MPH treatment. The assessment battery consisted of reaction time tasks of low complexity, including measures of alertness--subdivided into tonic and phasic alertness, vigilance, divided attention, flexibility and such aspects of selective attention as including focused attention, inhibition and integration of sensory information. In addition, 16 healthy participants who were matched to adults with ADHD according to sex, age, education level and intellectual functions were also assessed twice using the same test battery. The results of the present study suggest that adults with ADHD off stimulant medication are seriously impaired in various components of attention including vigilance, divided attention, selective attention and flexibility. These impairments of attention were observed primarily in regard to reaction time and its variability. Treatment of adults with ADHD using individually tailored doses of MPH has a positive effect on measures of alertness, vigilance, selective attention, divided attention and flexibility. However, even on MPH adults with ADHD displayed considerable deficits in vigilance and integration of sensory information. The present findings indicate that adults with ADHD are not differentially impaired in attentional processes but may suffer from a more global deficit of attention. Although MPH treatment has been found to be effective in the treatment of the attention deficit of adults with ADHD, additional treatment appears to be necessary.

  13. Internal and external attention and the default mode network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibner, Hannah J; Bogler, Carsten; Gleich, Tobias; Haynes, John-Dylan; Bermpohl, Felix

    2017-03-01

    Focused attention meditations have been shown to improve psychological health and wellbeing and are nowadays an integral part of many psychotherapies. While research on the neural correlates of focused attention meditation is increasing, findings vary on whether meditations are associated with high or low activity in the default mode network (DMN). To clarify the relationship between focused attention meditation and the activity in DMN regions, it may be helpful to distinguish internal and external attention as well as different phases within one meditation: During focused attention meditation, the practitioner switches between mindful attention, mind-wandering and refocusing. Here, we employed a thought-probe paradigm to study the neural correlates of these different phases. Twenty healthy, meditation naïve participants were introduced to external (mindfulness of sound) and internal (mindfulness of breathing) attention meditation and then practiced the meditation at home for four consecutive days. They then performed the same focused attention meditations during fMRI scanning, in four runs alternating between internal and external attention. At pseudorandom intervals, participants were asked whether they had just been focused on the task (mindful attention) or had been distracted (mind-wandering). During mindful attention, brain regions typically associated with the DMN, such as the medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex and left temporoparietal junction showed significantly less neural activation compared to mind-wandering phases. Reduced activity of the DMN was found during both external and internal attention, with stronger deactivation in the posterior cingulate cortex during internal attention compared to external attention. Moreover, refocusing after mind-wandering was associated with activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus. Our results support the theory that mindful attention is associated with reduced DMN activity compared to mind

  14. Attention in schizophrenia and in epileptic psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.C.J Kairalla

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The adaptive behavior of human beings is usually supported by rapid monitoring of outstanding events in the environment. Some investigators have suggested that a primary attention deficit might trigger symptoms of schizophrenia. In addition, researchers have long discussed the relationship between schizophrenia and the schizophrenia-like psychosis of epilepsy (SLPE. On the basis of these considerations, the objective of the present study was to investigate attention performance of patients with both disorders. Patient age was 18 to 60 years, and all patients had received formal schooling for at least four years. Patients were excluded if they had any systemic disease with neurologic or psychiatric comorbidity, or a history of brain surgery. The computer-assisted TAVIS-2R test was applied to all patients and to a control group to evaluate and discriminate between selective, alternating and sustained attention. The TAVIS-2R test is divided into three parts: one for selective attention (5 min, the second for alternating attention (5 min, and the third for the evaluation of vigilance or sustained attention (10 min. The same computer software was used for statistical analysis of reaction time, omission errors, and commission errors. The sample consisted of 36 patients with schizophrenia, 28 with interictal SLPE, and 47 healthy controls. The results of the selective attention tests for both patient groups were significantly lower than that for controls. The patients with schizophrenia and SLPE performed differently in the alternating and sustained attention tests: patients with SLPE had alternating attention deficits, whereas patients with schizophrenia showed deficits in sustained attention. These quantitative results confirmed the qualitative clinical observations for both patient groups, that is, that patients with schizophrenia had difficulties in focusing attention, whereas those with epilepsy showed perseveration in attention focus.

  15. Attention Mosaics: Studies of Organizational Attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Carvalho de Mesquita Ferreira (Luciana)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractOrganizational studies emphasizing the role of attention in organizational behavior depart from the idea that organizations, like individuals, have limited capacity to attend to environmental stimuli. The bounded capacity of the organizations to respond to stimuli is conditioned by the

  16. Attention networks in adolescent anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinbach, Noam; Sher, Helene; Lock, James D; Henik, Avishai

    2018-03-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) usually develops during adolescence when considerable structural and functional brain changes are taking place. Neurocognitive inefficiencies have been consistently found in adults with enduring AN and were suggested to play a role in maintaining the disorder. However, such findings are inconsistent in children and adolescents with AN. The current study conducted a comprehensive assessment of attention networks in adolescents with AN who were not severely underweight during the study using an approach that permits disentangling independent components of attention. Twenty partially weight-restored adolescents with AN (AN-WR) and 24 healthy adolescents performed the Attention Network Test which assesses the efficiency of three main attention networks-executive control, orienting, and alerting. The results revealed abnormal function in the executive control network among adolescents with AN-WR. Specifically, adolescents with AN-WR demonstrated superior ability to suppress attention to task-irrelevant information while focusing on a central task. Moreover, the alerting network modulated this ability. No difference was found between the groups in the speed of orienting attention, but reorienting attention to a target resulted in higher error rates in the AN-WR group. The findings suggest that adolescents with AN have attentional abnormalities that cannot be explained by a state of starvation. These attentional dysregulations may underlie clinical phenotypes of the disorder such as increased attention of details.

  17. Announcements to Attentive Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; van Ditmarsch, Hans; Herzig, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    -based announcement can also be described as an action model. We extend our logic by integrating attention change. Finally, we add the notion of common belief to the language, we exploit this to formalize the concept of joint attention, that has been widely discussed in the philosophical and cognitive science...... literature, and we provide a corresponding axiomatization. This axiomatization also employs the auxiliary notion of attention-based relativized common belief....

  18. The Interplay of Attention and Emotion: Top-down Attention Modulates Amygdala Activation in Psychopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, Christine L.; Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R.; Stout, Daniel M.; Balderston, Nicholas L.; Curtin, John J.; Schultz, Douglas H.; Kiehl, Kent A.; Newman, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    Psychopathic behavior has long been attributed to a fundamental deficit in fear that arises from impaired amygdala function. Growing evidence demonstrates that fear potentiated startle (FPS) and other psychopathy-related deficits are moderated by focus of attention but, to date, no work on adult psychopathy has examined attentional modulation of the amygdala, or concomitant recruitment of relevant attention-related circuitry. Consistent with previous FPS findings, here we report that psychopa...

  19. Attention and Implicit Memory: Priming-Induced Benefits and Costs Have Distinct Attentional Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Keane, Margaret M.; Cruz, Matt E.; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    Attention at encoding plays a critical and ubiquitous role in explicit memory performance, but its role in implicit memory performance (i.e., priming) is more variable: Some, but not all, priming effects are reduced by division of attention at encoding. A wealth of empirical and theoretical work has aimed to define the critical features of priming effects that do or do not require attention at encoding. This work, however, has focused exclusively on priming effects that are beneficial in natu...

  20. Beyond and within public engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cañada, Jose A.; Tupasela, Aaro Mikael; Snell, Karoliina

    2015-01-01

    Social studies on biobanking have traditionally focused on public engagement, that is, engagement with donors, patients and the general public as an important factor of sustainability. In this article, we claim that, in order to fully understand the way biobanks work, it is necessary to pay...... attention to a number of other actors, which have an equal, if not greater, impact on their practices and strategies. This means taking a broadened approach to biobank engagement. By using data collected from interviews with different biobank experts based in five different countries (UK, Canada, Finland......, Spain and Iceland), we identify seven communities, including the public, that emerge as relevant. Such relationships condition the way biobanks develop, act and plan. The discussion illustrates how the relationships with those seven communities are articulated. We conclude that there is a need...

  1. 47 CFR 10.520 - Common audio attention signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Common audio attention signal. 10.520 Section... Equipment Requirements § 10.520 Common audio attention signal. A Participating CMS Provider and equipment manufacturers may only market devices for public use under part 10 that include an audio attention signal that...

  2. Sleep Deprivation Diminishes Attentional Control Effectiveness and Impairs Flexible Adaptation to Changing Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Paul; Hinson, John M; Satterfield, Brieann C; Grant, Devon A; Honn, Kimberly A; Van Dongen, Hans P A

    2017-11-22

    Insufficient sleep is a global public health problem resulting in catastrophic accidents, increased mortality, and hundreds of billions of dollars in lost productivity. Yet the effect of sleep deprivation (SD) on decision making and performance is often underestimated by fatigued individuals and is only beginning to be understood by scientists. The deleterious impact of SD is frequently attributed to lapses in vigilant attention, but this account fails to explain many SD-related problems, such as loss of situational awareness and perseveration. Using a laboratory study protocol, we show that SD individuals can maintain information in the focus of attention and anticipate likely correct responses, but their use of such a top-down attentional strategy is less effective at preventing errors caused by competing responses. Moreover, when the task environment requires flexibility, performance under SD suffers dramatically. The impairment in flexible shifting of attentional control we observed is distinct from lapses in vigilant attention, as corroborated by the specificity of the influence of a genetic biomarker, the dopaminergic polymorphism DRD2 C957T. Reduced effectiveness of top-down attentional control under SD, especially when conditions require flexibility, helps to explain maladaptive performance that is not readily explained by lapses in vigilant attention.

  3. The impact of globalization on public health: implications for the UK Faculty of Public Health Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K

    2000-09-01

    There has been substantial discussion of globalization in the scholarly and popular press yet limited attention so far among public health professionals. This is so despite the many potential impacts of globalization on public health. Defining public health broadly, as focused on the collective health of populations requiring a range of intersectoral activities, globalization can be seen to have particular relevance. Globalization, in turn, can be defined as a process that is changing the nature of human interaction across a wide range of spheres and along at least three dimensions. Understanding public health and globalization in these ways suggests the urgent need for research to better understand the linkages between the two, and effective policy responses by a range of public health institutions, including the UK Faculty of Public Health Medicine. The paper is based on a review of secondary literature on globalization that led to the development of a conceptual framework for understanding potential impacts on the determinants of health and public health. The paper then discusses major areas of public health in relation to these potential impacts. It concludes with recommendations on how the UK Faculty of Public Health Medicine might contribute to addressing these impacts through its various activities. Although there is growing attention to the importance of globalization to public health, there has been limited research and policy development in the United Kingdom. The UK Faculty of Public Health Medicine needs to play an active role in bringing relevant issues to the attention of policy makers, and encourage its members to take up research, teaching and policy initiatives. The potential impacts of globalization support a broader understanding and practice of public health that embraces a wide range of health determinants.

  4. A Componential Analysis of Visual Attention in Children With ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAvinue, Laura P; Vangkilde, Signe; Johnson, Katherine A; Habekost, Thomas; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Bundesen, Claus; Robertson, Ian H

    2015-10-01

    Inattentive behaviour is a defining characteristic of ADHD. Researchers have wondered about the nature of the attentional deficit underlying these symptoms. The primary purpose of the current study was to examine this attentional deficit using a novel paradigm based upon the Theory of Visual Attention (TVA). The TVA paradigm enabled a componential analysis of visual attention through the use of a mathematical model to estimate parameters relating to attentional selectivity and capacity. Children's ability to sustain attention was also assessed using the Sustained Attention to Response Task. The sample included a comparison between 25 children with ADHD and 25 control children aged 9-13. Children with ADHD had significantly impaired sustained attention and visual processing speed but intact attentional selectivity, perceptual threshold and visual short-term memory capacity. The results of this study lend support to the notion of differential impairment of attentional functions in children with ADHD. © 2012 SAGE Publications.

  5. Strategic Environmental Assessment and Environmental Auditing in Large-scale Public Infrastructure Construction: the case of Qinghai-Tibet Railway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, G.; Zhang, L.; Lu, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Large-scale public infrastructure projects have featured in China’s modernization course since the early 1980s. During the early stages of China’s rapid economic development, public attention focused on the economic and social impact of high-profile construction projects. In recent years, however,

  6. Attention and choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob Lund; Mueller Loose, Simone

    2013-01-01

    satisfaction models. Although most theories were confirmed with regard to certain predictions, none of the theories adequately accounted for the role of attention during decision making. Several observations emerged concerning the drivers and down-stream effects of attention on choice, suggesting......This paper reviews studies on eye movements in decision making, and compares their observations to theoretical predictions concerning the role of attention in decision making. Four decision theories are examined: rational models, bounded rationality, evidence accumulation, and parallel constraint...... that attention processes plays an active role in constructing decisions. So far, decision theories have largely ignored the constructive role of attention by assuming that it is entirely determined by heuristics, or that it consists of stochastic information sampling. The empirical observations reveal...

  7. Using frequency tagging to quantify attentional deployment in a visual divided attention task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toffanin, Paolo; de Jong, Ritske; Johnson, Addie; Martens, Sander

    2009-06-01

    Frequency tagging is an EEG method based on the quantification of the steady state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) elicited from stimuli which flicker with a distinctive frequency. Because the amplitude of the SSVEP is modulated by attention such that attended stimuli elicit higher SSVEP amplitudes than do ignored stimuli, the method has been used to investigate the neural mechanisms of spatial attention. However, up to now it has not been shown whether the amplitude of the SSVEP is sensitive to gradations of attention and there has been debate about whether attention effects on the SSVEP are dependent on the tagging frequency used. We thus compared attention effects on SSVEP across three attention conditions-focused, divided, and ignored-with six different tagging frequencies. Participants performed a visual detection task (respond to the digit 5 embedded in a stream of characters). Two stimulus streams, one to the left and one to the right of fixation, were displayed simultaneously, each with a background grey square whose hue was sine-modulated with one of the six tagging frequencies. At the beginning of each trial a cue indicated whether targets on the left, right, or both sides should be responded to. Accuracy was higher in the focused- than in the divided-attention condition. SSVEP amplitudes were greatest in the focused-attention condition, intermediate in the divided-attention condition, and smallest in the ignored-attention condition. The effect of attention on SSVEP amplitude did not depend on the tagging frequency used. Frequency tagging appears to be a flexible technique for studying attention.

  8. Understanding and Working with Attention Deficit Disorder Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttery, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    From a holistic perspective the term attention refers to a student's capacity to focus, direct and sustain their attention on a particular stimulus within their environment for a significant period of time. The development of students' attention spans develops progressively from the time they enter school. From the beginning some students have…

  9. Visual Attention and Applications in Multimedia Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Le Callet, Patrick; Niebur, Ernst

    2013-01-01

    Making technological advances in the field of human-machine interactions requires that the capabilities and limitations of the human perceptual system are taken into account. The focus of this report is an important mechanism of perception, visual selective attention, which is becoming more and more important for multimedia applications. We introduce the concept of visual attention and describe its underlying mechanisms. In particular, we introduce the concepts of overt and covert visual atte...

  10. Attentional mechanisms in the generation of sympathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Dickert

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Empathic responses, such as sympathy towards others, are a key ingredient in the decision to provide help to those in need. The determinants of empathic responses are usually thought to be the vividness, similarity, and proximity of the victim. However, recent research highlights the role that attention plays in the generation of feelings. We expanded on this idea by investigating whether sympathy depends on cognitive mechanisms such as attention. In two studies we found that sympathy responses were lower and reaction times were longer when targets were presented with distractors. In addition, online sympathy judgments that allow attentional focusing on a target lead to greater affective responses than judgments made from memory. We conclude that attention is an ingredient in the generation of sympathy, and discuss implications for research on prosocial behaviour and the interaction between attention and emotions.

  11. Unimodal and crossmodal gradients of spatial attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Föcker, J.; Hötting, K.; Gondan, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) studies have shown that spatial attention is gradually distributed around the center of the attentional focus. The present study compared uni- and crossmodal gradients of spatial attention to investigate whether the orienting of auditory and visual...... spatial attention is based on modality specific or supramodal representations of space. Auditory and visual stimuli were presented from five speaker locations positioned in the right hemifield. Participants had to attend to the innermost or outmost right position in order to detect either visual...... or auditory deviant stimuli. Detection rates and event-related potentials (ERPs) indicated that spatial attention is distributed as a gradient. Unimodal spatial ERP gradients correlated with the spatial resolution of the modality. Crossmodal spatial gradients were always broader than the corresponding...

  12. Adolescence, attention allocation, and driving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romer, Daniel; Lee, Yi-Ching; McDonald, Catherine C; Winston, Flaura K

    2014-05-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading source of morbidity and mortality in adolescents in the United States and the developed world. Inadequate allocation of attention to the driving task and to driving hazards are important sources of adolescent crashes. We review major explanations for these attention failures with particular focus on the roles that brain immaturity and lack of driving experience play in causing attention problems. The review suggests that the potential for overcoming inexperience and immaturity with training to improve attention to both the driving task and hazards is substantial. Nevertheless, there are large individual differences in both attentional abilities and risky driving tendencies that pose challenges to novice driver policies. Research that can provide evidence-based direction for such policies is urgently needed. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Holistic processing from learned attention to parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Kao-Wei; Richler, Jennifer J; Gauthier, Isabel

    2015-08-01

    Attention helps us focus on what is most relevant to our goals, and prior work has shown that aspects of attention can be learned. Learned inattention to parts can abolish holistic processing of faces, but it is unknown whether learned attention to parts is sufficient to cause a change from part-based to holistic processing with objects. We trained subjects to individuate nonface objects (Greebles) from 2 categories: Ploks and Glips. Diagnostic information was in complementary halves for the 2 categories. Holistic processing was then tested with Plok-Glip composites that combined the kind of part that was diagnostic or nondiagnostic during training. Exposure to Greeble parts resulted in general failures of selective attention for nondiagnostic composites, but face-like holistic processing was only observed for diagnostic composites. These results demonstrated a novel link between learned attentional control and the acquisition of holistic processing. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Adolescence, Attention Allocation, and Driving Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romer, Daniel; Lee, Yi-Ching; McDonald, Catherine C.; Winston, Flaura K.

    2014-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading source of morbidity and mortality in adolescents in the United States and the developed world. Inadequate allocation of attention to the driving task and to driving hazards are important sources of adolescent crashes. We review major explanations for these attention failures with particular focus on the roles that brain immaturity and lack of driving experience play in causing attention problems. The review suggests that the potential for overcoming inexperience and immaturity with training to improve attention to both the driving task and hazards is substantial. Nevertheless, there are large individual differences in both attentional abilities and risky driving tendencies that pose challenges to novice driver policies. Research that can provide evidence-based direction for such policies is urgently needed. PMID:24759442

  15. Sequential sampling of visual objects during sustained attention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianrong Jia

    2017-06-01

    that selective attention, in addition to the classically posited attentional "focus," involves a dynamic mechanism for monitoring all objects outside of the focus. Our findings also suggest that attention implements a space (object-to-time transformation by acting as a series of concatenating attentional chunks that operate on 1 object at a time.

  16. Users’ attention behaviors and features in internet forum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Zhong Sha

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Attention resource is scarce. Organizing community activities in online forums faces the challenge of attracting users’ limited attention. Understanding how users of online forums allocate, maintain, and change their attentional focus and what features of online forms influence their attention behaviors is critical for effective information design. This paper seeks understanding of users’ attention behaviors and features when they participate in discussions in online forums. Design/methodology/approach: A conceptual model was established to explore the indicator system of attention’s measurement. The related attention data were collected from Alexa Access Statistics Tool and Katie community. Then this paper computed the correlation coefficient and regression relationship between the indicators of visual attention and cognitive attention. Thereafter this paper analyzed and discussed users’ attention behaviors and features in Internet forum. Findings: Relevant bivariate correlation analysis and regression analysis discovers that Internet forum's attention is mainly as visual attention in users’ early involvement. Attention resources can be transformed. In a deep participation, users’ cognitive attention is more significant. Meanwhile cognitive attention behaviors’ further development will lead to the phenomenon that cognitive attention input is prone to increase faster in the early duration. That means in-depth discussion and interaction are more likely to appear in the early stages of participation. Research limitations/implications: There are some limitations about this study. The indicators are not comprehensive enough because factors affecting the distribution of attention resources in Internet forums are complex. We didn’t distinguish different types of Internet forums when we collected the relevant data. Future research will focus more on how to obtain comprehensive attention data. Originality/value: T his paper

  17. Attention profiles in autism spectrum disorder and subtypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxhoorn, Sara; Lopez, Eva; Schmidt, Catharina; Schulze, Diana; Hänig, Susann; Freitag, Christine M

    2018-03-06

    Attention problems are observed in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Most neuropsychological studies that compared both disorders focused on complex executive functions (EF), but missed to contrast basic attention functions, as well as ASD- and ADHD subtypes. The present study compared EF as well as basic attention functioning of children with the combined subtype (ADHD-C), the predominantly inattentive subtype (ADHD-I), and autism spectrum disorder without ADHD (ASD-) with typically developing controls (TD). Basic attention functions and EF profiles were analysed by testing the comprehensive attention function model of van Zomeren and Brouwer using profile analysis. Additionally, neurocognitive impairments in ASD- and ADHD were regressed on dimensional measures of attention- and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms across and within groups. ADHD-C revealed a strong impairment across measures of EF compared to ASD- and TD. The ADHD-C profile furthermore showed disorder specific impairments in interference control, whereas the ASD- profile showed a disorder specific impairment in basic attention component divided attention. Attention- and hyperactive-impulsive symptom severity did not predict neurocognitive impairments across- or within groups. Study findings thus support disorder and subtype specific attention/EF profiles, which refute the idea of a continuum of ADHD-I, ADHD-C, and ASD with increasing neurocognitive impairments.

  18. Attention-like processes in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nityananda, Vivek

    2016-11-16

    Attention is fundamentally important for sensory systems to focus on behaviourally relevant stimuli. It has therefore been an important field of study in human psychology and neuroscience. Primates, however, are not the only animals that might benefit from attention-like processes. Other animals, including insects, also have to use their senses and select one among many stimuli to forage, avoid predators and find mates. They have evolved different mechanisms to reduce the information processed by their brains to focus on only relevant stimuli. What are the mechanisms used by insects to selectively attend to visual and auditory stimuli? Do these attention-like mechanisms achieve the same functions as they do in primates? To investigate these questions, I use an established framework for investigating attention in non-human animals that proposes four fundamental components of attention: salience filters, competitive selection, top-down sensitivity control and working memory. I discuss evidence for each of these component processes in insects and compare the characteristics of these processes in insects to what we know from primates. Finally, I highlight important outstanding questions about insect attention that need to be addressed for us to understand the differences and similarities between vertebrate and insect attention. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. Online Attention Training for Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennberg, Alexandra; Kueider, Alexandra; Spira, Adam; Adams, Gregory; Rager, Robert; Rebok, George

    Evidence suggests that cognitive training interventions can improve older adults' cognitive performance. Successful training programs are adaptable and train multiple cognitive domains to target individual strengths and weaknesses. Computerized training programs are useful because they allow older adults to easily access training. This pilot study used an online attention training program, ATTENTION WORKOUT™, to enhance three aspects of attention- coordination , allocation , and selective focus -in community-dwelling older adults randomized to either an abbreviated (n=13) or an extended (n=17) practice training program over a 6-week period. Participants in the extended practice group significantly improved on selective focus reading distraction tasks with unrelated words (U=39.5; Z=-2.34; p =.02) and blanks (U=26.5; Z=-3.05; p =.002) as well as a matching attributes task (U=49.5; Z=-2.33; p =.02). The extended practice group significantly improved on three tasks of coordinating attention - radio-tuning (U=30; Z=-2.73; p =.01), circuit-breaker resetting (U=46; Z=-2.24; p =.03), and the combination of the two tasks (U=15; Z=-3.51; p attention training programs, like ATTENTION WORKOUT, can improve attention-related skills in community-dwelling older adults.

  20. Attention deficits and divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Geneviève; Saint-Aubin, Jean

    2014-09-01

    Building on previous work on the role of attention deficits associated with the regulation of executive control in psychiatric disorders, we examine whether these attention deficits are related to an interpersonal disturbance, the experience of divorce. Attentional capacities of 95 randomly selected couples from the general population were measured with a well-established task, the Attentional Network Task, which assesses the efficiency of 3 attention networks (that is, alerting, orienting, and executive control). Among the 190 participants, 32 had experienced a divorce in the past. ANCOVAs were used to compare divorced people in marital or cohabiting unions with people in first unions in their performance on this purely cognitive task. Our findings indicate that divorced people who are currently living in a cohabiting relationship show significantly lower executive control than other adults living as couples, after controlling for sex, age, income, and education. This subgroup of divorced people not only exhibit greater difficulty in responding to some stimuli while ignoring irrelevant ones but also manifest cognitive deficits in conflict resolution. This study highlights the links between attention and the long-term maintenance of intimate relationships. Our results may have important implications for the identification of people at risk for divorce.

  1. Cognition, emotion, and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Oehring, Eva M; Schulte, Tilman

    2014-01-01

    Deficits of attention, emotion, and cognition occur in individuals with alcohol abuse and addiction. This review elucidates the concepts of attention, emotion, and cognition and references research on the underlying neural networks and their compromise in alcohol use disorder. Neuroimaging research on adolescents with family history of alcoholism contributes to the understanding of pre-existing brain structural conditions and characterization of cognition and attention processes in high-risk individuals. Attention and cognition interact with other brain functions, including perceptual selection, salience, emotion, reward, and memory, through interconnected neural networks. Recent research reports compromised microstructural and functional network connectivity in alcoholism, which can have an effect on the dynamic tuning between brain systems, e.g., the frontally based executive control system, the limbic emotion system, and the midbrain-striatal reward system, thereby impeding cognitive flexibility and behavioral adaptation to changing environments. Finally, we introduce concepts of functional compensation, the capacity to generate attentional resources for performance enhancement, and brain structure recovery with abstinence. An understanding of the neural mechanisms of attention, emotion, and cognition will likely provide the basis for better treatment strategies for developing skills that enhance alcoholism therapy adherence and quality of life, and reduce the propensity for relapse. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Coping with divided attention: the advantage of familiarity.

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, S. W.; Brockmark, S.; Höjesjö, J.; Johnsson, J. I.

    2004-01-01

    The ability of an animal to perform a task successfully is limited by the amount of attention being simultaneously focused on other activities. One way in which individuals might reduce the cost of divided attention is by preferentially focusing on the most beneficial tasks. In territorial animals where aggression is lower among familiar individuals, the decision to associate preferentially with familiar conspecifics may therefore confer advantages by allowing attention to be switched from ag...

  3. Selective Attention and Attention Switching: Towards a Unified Developmental Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanania, Rima; Smith, Linda B.

    2010-01-01

    We review and relate two literatures on the development of attention in children: one concerning flexible attention switching and the other concerning selective attention. The first is a growing literature on preschool children's performances in an attention-switching task indicating that children become more flexible in their attentional control…

  4. Connectivity supporting attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita D. Barber

    2015-01-01

    While CON–DMN anti-correlation is associated with improved attention in ADHD, other circuitry supports improved attention in TD children. Greater CON–DMN anti-correlation supported better attentional control in children with ADHD, but worse attentional control in TD children. On the other hand, greater DMN–occipital anti-correlation supported better attentional control in TD children.

  5. Issues in focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    The issues worldwide that deserve attention pertain to international migration, the education of women, family planning, missing female children, and prevention and control of AIDS cases. Migration outside country borders has been increasing due to economic and social disparities, and uncounted and unrecognized refugees are fleeing environmental disasters. The educational status of women has increased over the past 30 years. For example, female illiteracy has declined among women aged 20-24 years from 19% to 8% in Latin America, from 38% to 12% in eastern and western Asia, and from 80% to 49% in Africa. These improvements are significant, but the problem remains, where, for instance in Africa, there is still extensive illiteracy (75% of females aged under 25 years). A 1993 Population Action International Report states that low female educational levels and weak family planning and health programs are related to large family size and high child death rates. During the 1980s family planning was linked with ecological concerns. Progress has been made in the increase in contraceptive users in developing countries from 14% to 53% during 1965-70. Fertility has declined from 6.1 children per woman in the 1950s to 3.7. Kenya is a good example of a country with high fertility that reduced fertility through its emphasis on family planning. Obstacles to increased prevalence of contraception still remain. In Mexico more than 50% of public birth control services are provided to women in secret due to fear of their husband's abuse. Population pressure can result in the loss of girl children through higher mortality, better nutrition, neglect, or gender preference in the early fetal stages. The challenge of AIDS will be in caring for the sick and adjusting to social changes due to the expected increases in orphaned children.

  6. Focus on Microalbuminuria to Improve Cardiac and Renal Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Paul E.; Gansevoort, Ron T.

    2009-01-01

    With the recent attention to diagnose earlier stages of chronic kidney diseases (CKD), most attention focuses on screening for an impaired estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), i.e. CKD stages 3-5. Less attention is given to the impact of the urinary leakage of albumin. Its presence is not

  7. Public Space and Plurality of Beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Rovira i Llopart

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the author deals with how the issue of religion can be managed in the public space. For this, he wonders and argues whether or not the public space should be a homogeneous space from the point of view of convictions or if it can give room to heterogeneousexpressions, stemming from the plurality of profound convictions existing among the citizens. In addition, he lays out the concept of public space, discusses its “contaminations” and focuses fundamentally on its meaning as a place in which the supply, exchangeand debate of ideas, principles, intuitions, etc. are openly developed, although he devotes a little bit of attention to their most tangible or physical aspects. And he underscores the idea that in a context of democratically chosen public powers and a secular institutional framework, there should not exist privileges nor discriminations.

  8. Attention in Urban Foraging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm McCullough

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This position paper argues how there has to be much more to smart city learning than just wayshowing, and something better as augmented reality than covering the world with instructions. Attention has become something for many people to know better in an age of information superabundance. Embodied cognition explains how the work-ings of attention are not solely a foreground task, as if attention is something to pay. As digital media appear in ever more formats and contexts, their hybrids with physical form increasing influence how habitual engagement with persistent situations creates learning. Ambient information can just add to the distraction by multitasking, or it can support more favorable processes of shifting among different kinds of information with a particular intent. As one word for this latter process, foraging deserves more consideration in smart city learning

  9. Novel mathematical neural models for visual attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Kang

    for the visual attention theories and spiking neuron models for single spike trains. Statistical inference and model selection are performed and various numerical methods are explored. The designed methods also give a framework for neural coding under visual attention theories. We conduct both analysis on real......Visual attention has been extensively studied in psychology, but some fundamental questions remain controversial. We focus on two questions in this study. First, we investigate how a neuron in visual cortex responds to multiple stimuli inside the receptive eld, described by either a response...... system, supported by simulation study. Finally, we present the decoding of multiple temporal stimuli under these visual attention theories, also in a realistic biophysical situation with simulations....

  10. Managerial Attention in International SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, Jiasi

    2017-01-01

    Managerial attention affects organizational strategies and the resulting consequences. In the international business context, it is noted that how much attention managers give to the international marketplace, i.e., international attention, has profound implications for large global companies’

  11. Attention: Moral-Cognitive Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Yi-Fu

    1987-01-01

    This article is an essay on the importance of attention as a personal trait. Offers a definition of attention, reviews symptoms of inattention, and identifies the categories of objects which typically hold a person's attention. (JDH)

  12. Vision in Flies: Measuring the Attention Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Sebastian; Wolf, Reinhard; Heisenberg, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A visual stimulus at a particular location of the visual field may elicit a behavior while at the same time equally salient stimuli in other parts do not. This property of visual systems is known as selective visual attention (SVA). The animal is said to have a focus of attention (FoA) which it has shifted to a particular location. Visual attention normally involves an attention span at the location to which the FoA has been shifted. Here the attention span is measured in Drosophila. The fly is tethered and hence has its eyes fixed in space. It can shift its FoA internally. This shift is revealed using two simultaneous test stimuli with characteristic responses at their particular locations. In tethered flight a wild type fly keeps its FoA at a certain location for up to 4s. Flies with a mutation in the radish gene, that has been suggested to be involved in attention-like mechanisms, display a reduced attention span of only 1s.

  13. Vision in Flies: Measuring the Attention Span.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Koenig

    Full Text Available A visual stimulus at a particular location of the visual field may elicit a behavior while at the same time equally salient stimuli in other parts do not. This property of visual systems is known as selective visual attention (SVA. The animal is said to have a focus of attention (FoA which it has shifted to a particular location. Visual attention normally involves an attention span at the location to which the FoA has been shifted. Here the attention span is measured in Drosophila. The fly is tethered and hence has its eyes fixed in space. It can shift its FoA internally. This shift is revealed using two simultaneous test stimuli with characteristic responses at their particular locations. In tethered flight a wild type fly keeps its FoA at a certain location for up to 4s. Flies with a mutation in the radish gene, that has been suggested to be involved in attention-like mechanisms, display a reduced attention span of only 1s.

  14. Hierarchical nonlinear dynamics of human attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, Mikhail I; Tristan, Irma; Varona, Pablo

    2015-08-01

    Attention is the process of focusing mental resources on a specific cognitive/behavioral task. Such brain dynamics involves different partially overlapping brain functional networks whose interconnections change in time according to the performance stage, and can be stimulus-driven or induced by an intrinsically generated goal. The corresponding activity can be described by different families of spatiotemporal discrete patterns or sequential dynamic modes. Since mental resources are finite, attention modalities compete with each other at all levels of the hierarchy, from perception to decision making and behavior. Cognitive activity is a dynamical process and attention possesses some universal dynamical characteristics. Thus, it is time to apply nonlinear dynamical theory for the description and prediction of hierarchical attentional tasks. Such theory has to include the analyses of attentional control stability, the time cost of attention switching, the finite capacity of informational resources in the brain, and the normal and pathological bifurcations of attention sequential dynamics. In this paper we have integrated today's knowledge, models and results in these directions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Joint Attention Enhances Visual Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Samantha E. A.; Jackson, Margaret C.

    2017-01-01

    Joint attention--the mutual focus of 2 individuals on an item--speeds detection and discrimination of target information. However, what happens to that information beyond the initial perceptual episode? To fully comprehend and engage with our immediate environment also requires working memory (WM), which integrates information from second to…

  16. Humorous Relations: Attentiveness, Pleasure and Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Cris

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the structures of humor and joke telling that require particular kinds of attentiveness and particular relationships between speaker and audience, or more specifically, between classmates. First, I will analyze the pedagogical and relational preconditions that are necessary for humor to work. If humor is to work well, the…

  17. Beyond time and space: The effect of a lateralized sustained attention task and brain stimulation on spatial and selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalev, Nir; De Wandel, Linde; Dockree, Paul; Demeyere, Nele; Chechlacz, Magdalena

    2017-10-03

    The Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) provides a mathematical formalisation of the "biased competition" account of visual attention. Applying this model to individual performance in a free recall task allows the estimation of 5 independent attentional parameters: visual short-term memory (VSTM) capacity, speed of information processing, perceptual threshold of visual detection; attentional weights representing spatial distribution of attention (spatial bias), and the top-down selectivity index. While the TVA focuses on selection in space, complementary accounts of attention describe how attention is maintained over time, and how temporal processes interact with selection. A growing body of evidence indicates that different facets of attention interact and share common neural substrates. The aim of the current study was to modulate a spatial attentional bias via transfer effects, based on a mechanistic understanding of the interplay between spatial, selective and temporal aspects of attention. Specifically, we examined here: (i) whether a single administration of a lateralized sustained attention task could prime spatial orienting and lead to transferable changes in attentional weights (assigned to the left vs right hemi-field) and/or other attentional parameters assessed within the framework of TVA (Experiment 1); (ii) whether the effects of such spatial-priming on TVA parameters could be further enhanced by bi-parietal high frequency transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) (Experiment 2). Our results demonstrate that spatial attentional bias, as assessed within the TVA framework, was primed by sustaining attention towards the right hemi-field, but this spatial-priming effect did not occur when sustaining attention towards the left. Furthermore, we show that bi-parietal high-frequency tRNS combined with the rightward spatial-priming resulted in an increased attentional selectivity. To conclude, we present a novel, theory-driven method for attentional modulation

  18. Are You Paying Attention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørmen, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    and sustained. To study such attention practices, 16 semi-structured interviews with adult Danes are carried out. Through a thematic analysis of these interviews, the chapter explores how ways of attending relate to individual media and how patterns of daily life enable some practices and constrain others...

  19. Visual attention and stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathot, Sebastiaan; Theeuwes, Jan

    2011-01-01

    In the present review, we address the relationship between attention and visual stability. Even though with each eye, head and body movement the retinal image changes dramatically, we perceive the world as stable and are able to perform visually guided actions. However, visual stability is not as

  20. Deep Visual Attention Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenguan; Shen, Jianbing

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we aim to predict human eye fixation with view-free scenes based on an end-to-end deep learning architecture. Although Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have made substantial improvement on human attention prediction, it is still needed to improve CNN based attention models by efficiently leveraging multi-scale features. Our visual attention network is proposed to capture hierarchical saliency information from deep, coarse layers with global saliency information to shallow, fine layers with local saliency response. Our model is based on a skip-layer network structure, which predicts human attention from multiple convolutional layers with various reception fields. Final saliency prediction is achieved via the cooperation of those global and local predictions. Our model is learned in a deep supervision manner, where supervision is directly fed into multi-level layers, instead of previous approaches of providing supervision only at the output layer and propagating this supervision back to earlier layers. Our model thus incorporates multi-level saliency predictions within a single network, which significantly decreases the redundancy of previous approaches of learning multiple network streams with different input scales. Extensive experimental analysis on various challenging benchmark datasets demonstrate our method yields state-of-the-art performance with competitive inference time.

  1. Automated visual attention manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Lambalgen, R. van; Maanen, P.P. van; Treur, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a system for visual attention manipulation is introduced and formally described. This system is part of the design of a software agent that supports naval crew in her task to compile a tactical picture of the situation in the field. A case study is described in hich the system is used

  2. Attention: oscillations and neuropharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deco, Gustavo; Thiele, Alexander

    2009-08-01

    Attention is a rich psychological and neurobiological construct that influences almost all aspects of cognitive behaviour. It enables enhanced processing of behaviourally relevant stimuli at the expense of irrelevant stimuli. At the cellular level, rhythmic synchronization at local and long-range spatial scales complements the attention-induced firing rate changes of neurons. The former is hypothesized to enable efficient communication between neuronal ensembles tuned to spatial and featural aspects of the attended stimulus. Recent modelling studies suggest that the rhythmic synchronization in the gamma range may be mediated by a fine balance between N-methyl-D-aspartate and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate postsynaptic currents, whereas other studies have highlighted the possible contribution of the neuromodulator acetylcholine. This review summarizes some recent modelling and experimental studies investigating mechanisms of attention in sensory areas and discusses possibilities of how glutamatergic and cholinergic systems could contribute to increased processing abilities at the cellular and network level during states of top-down attention.

  3. Attention Capture by Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langton, Stephen R. H.; Law, Anna S.; Burton, A. Mike; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2008-01-01

    We report three experiments that investigate whether faces are capable of capturing attention when in competition with other non-face objects. In Experiment 1a participants took longer to decide that an array of objects contained a butterfly target when a face appeared as one of the distracting items than when the face did not appear in the array.…

  4. Spatial attention in written word perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica eMontani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The role of attention in visual word recognition and reading aloud is a long debated issue. Studies of both developmental and acquired reading disorders provide growing evidence that spatial attention is critically involved in word reading, in particular for the phonological decoding of unfamiliar letter strings. However, studies on healthy participants have produced contrasting results. The aim of this study was to investigate how the allocation of spatial attention may influence the perception of letter strings in skilled readers. High frequency words, low frequency words and pseudowords were briefly and parafoveally presented either in the left or the right visual field. Attentional allocation was modulated by the presentation of a spatial cue before the target string. Accuracy in reporting the target string was modulated by the spatial cue but this effect varied with the type of string. For unfamiliar strings, processing was facilitated when attention was focused on the string location and hindered when it was diverted from the target. This finding is consistent the assumptions of the CDP+ model of reading aloud, as well as with familiarity sensitivity models that argue for a flexible use of attention according with the specific requirements of the string. Moreover, we found that processing of high-frequency words was facilitated by an extra-large focus of attention. The latter result is consistent with the hypothesis that a broad distribution of attention is the default mode during reading of familiar words because it might optimally engage the broad receptive fields of the highest detectors in the hierarchical system for visual word recognition.

  5. Spatial attention in written word perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montani, Veronica; Facoetti, Andrea; Zorzi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The role of attention in visual word recognition and reading aloud is a long debated issue. Studies of both developmental and acquired reading disorders provide growing evidence that spatial attention is critically involved in word reading, in particular for the phonological decoding of unfamiliar letter strings. However, studies on healthy participants have produced contrasting results. The aim of this study was to investigate how the allocation of spatial attention may influence the perception of letter strings in skilled readers. High frequency words (HFWs), low frequency words and pseudowords were briefly and parafoveally presented either in the left or the right visual field. Attentional allocation was modulated by the presentation of a spatial cue before the target string. Accuracy in reporting the target string was modulated by the spatial cue but this effect varied with the type of string. For unfamiliar strings, processing was facilitated when attention was focused on the string location and hindered when it was diverted from the target. This finding is consistent the assumptions of the CDP+ model of reading aloud, as well as with familiarity sensitivity models that argue for a flexible use of attention according with the specific requirements of the string. Moreover, we found that processing of HFWs was facilitated by an extra-large focus of attention. The latter result is consistent with the hypothesis that a broad distribution of attention is the default mode during reading of familiar words because it might optimally engage the broad receptive fields of the highest detectors in the hierarchical system for visual word recognition.

  6. External Versus Two Different Internal Foci of Attention in Long-Distance Throwing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Yuta; Kokubu, Masahiro; Nakagomi, Shiro

    2018-02-01

    The present study examined the influence of attentional focus on performance during a long-distance throwing task. Twelve participants executed three maximum-effort, long-distance baseball throwing attempts in three focus conditions: internal focus on wrist flexion (wrist internal focus), internal focus on the separation between pelvis and upper torso orientations (torso internal focus), and external focus on the ball path (external focus). Compared with the external focus and torso internal focus conditions, performance was poorer in the wrist internal focus condition. Performances were not different in the torso internal and external focus conditions. In addition, attentional focus affected the release angle of the ball but not its initial velocity. Our results reveal that the body part targeted for internal focus of attention and the forcefulness of the motor activity can be as important to motor performance as whether the attention is internal or external.

  7. Instructions to Adopt an External Focus Enhance Muscular Endurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, David C.; Greig, Matt; Bullough, Jonathan; Hitchen, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The influence of internal (movement focus) and external (outcome focus) attentional-focusing instructions on muscular endurance were investigated using three exercise protocols with experienced exercisers. Twenty-three participants completed a maximal repetition, assisted bench-press test on a Smith's machine. An external focus of attention…

  8. Visual attention and goal pursuit: deliberative and implemental mindsets affect breadth of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, Oliver B; Wieber, Frank; Schulz, Anna Maria; Bayer, Ute C; Florack, Arnd; Gollwitzer, Peter M

    2014-10-01

    Mindset theory suggests that a deliberative mindset entails openness to information in one's environment, whereas an implemental mindset entails filtering of information. We hypothesized that this open- versus closed-mindedness influences individuals' breadth of visual attention. In Studies 1 and 2, we induced an implemental or deliberative mindset, and measured breadth of attention using participants' length estimates of x-winged Müller-Lyer figures. Both studies demonstrate a narrower breadth of attention in the implemental mindset than in the deliberative mindset. In Study 3, we manipulated participants' mindsets and measured the breadth of attention by tracking eye movements during scene perception. Implemental mindset participants focused on foreground objects, whereas deliberative mindset participants attended more evenly to the entire scene. Our findings imply that deliberative versus implemental mindsets already operate at the level of visual attention. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  9. Visual attention: Linking prefrontal sources to neuronal and behavioral correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kelsey; Squire, Ryan Fox; Merrikhi, Yaser; Noudoost, Behrad

    2015-09-01

    Attention is a means of flexibly selecting and enhancing a subset of sensory input based on the current behavioral goals. Numerous signatures of attention have been identified throughout the brain, and now experimenters are seeking to determine which of these signatures are causally related to the behavioral benefits of attention, and the source of these modulations within the brain. Here, we review the neural signatures of attention throughout the brain, their theoretical benefits for visual processing, and their experimental correlations with behavioral performance. We discuss the importance of measuring cue benefits as a way to distinguish between impairments on an attention task, which may instead be visual or motor impairments, and true attentional deficits. We examine evidence for various areas proposed as sources of attentional modulation within the brain, with a focus on the prefrontal cortex. Lastly, we look at studies that aim to link sources of attention to its neuronal signatures elsewhere in the brain. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. The plethora of publics and their participation in policy making: How can they properly participate?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnes, S.A.

    1995-07-01

    This paper examines the theoretical bases of publics and stakeholder participation in decision making, with special attention to mixed issues, including federal government actions such as remedial action programs and hazardous facility sitings. Empowerment associated with participation is addressed, focusing on differences between power and authority.

  11. [Pre-verbality in focusing and the need for self check. An attempt at "focusing check"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masui, T; Ikemi, A; Murayama, S

    1983-06-01

    Though the Focusing process is not entirely non-verbal, in Focusing, careful attention is paid by the Focuser and the Listener to the pre-verbal experiential process. In other words, Focusing involves attending to the felt sense that is not easily expressed in words immediately. Hence, during the process of learning to Focus, the Focusing teacher attempts to communicate the experiences of Focusing to the student which are not easily done by words. Due to such difficulties, the Focusing student may (and quite frequently does) mistake the experiential process in Focusing with other processes. Often, the felt sense can be confused with other phenomena such as "autogenic discharge". Also the Focuser may not stay with the felt sense and drift into "free association" or frequently, certain processes in "meditation" can be confused with Focusing. Therefore, there is a need for a "check" by which the Focusing student can confirm the Focusing experience for himself. For the Focusing student, such a "check" serves not only to confirm the Focusing process, but also an aid to learning Focusing. We will report here a "Focusing Check" which we developed by translating Eugene Gendlin's "Focusing Check" and making several modifications in it so that it will be more understandable to the Japanese. Along with the "Focusing Check" we developed, the authors discuss the need for such a check.

  12. Selective Attention and Attention Switching: Toward a Unified Developmental Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hanania, Rima; Smith, Linda B.

    2010-01-01

    We review and relate two literatures on the development of attention in children: one concerning flexible attention switching and the other concerning selective attention. The first is a growing literature on preschool children’s performances in an attention switching task indicating that children become more flexible in their attentional control during the preschool years. The second literature encompasses a large and robust set of phenomena for the same developmental period that indicate a ...

  13. The interplay of attention and emotion: top-down attention modulates amygdala activation in psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Christine L; Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R; Stout, Daniel M; Balderston, Nicholas L; Curtin, John J; Schultz, Douglas H; Kiehl, Kent A; Newman, Joseph P

    2013-12-01

    Psychopathic behavior has long been attributed to a fundamental deficit in fear that arises from impaired amygdala function. Growing evidence has demonstrated that fear-potentiated startle (FPS) and other psychopathy-related deficits are moderated by focus of attention, but to date, no work on adult psychopathy has examined attentional modulation of the amygdala or concomitant recruitment of relevant attention-related circuitry. Consistent with previous FPS findings, here we report that psychopathy-related differences in amygdala activation appear and disappear as a function of goal-directed attention. Specifically, decreased amygdala activity was observed in psychopathic offenders only when attention was engaged in an alternative goal-relevant task prior to presenting threat-relevant information. Under this condition, psychopaths also exhibited greater activation in selective-attention regions of the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) than did nonpsychopaths, and this increased LPFC activation mediated psychopathy's association with decreased amygdala activation. In contrast, when explicitly attending to threat, amygdala activation did not differ in psychopaths and nonpsychopaths. This pattern of amygdala activation highlights the potential role of LPFC in mediating the failure of psychopathic individuals to process fear and other important information when it is peripheral to the primary focus of goal-directed attention.

  14. Attentional Lapses in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Blank Rather Than Wandering Thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Driessche, Charlotte; Bastian, Mikaël; Peyre, Hugo; Stordeur, Coline; Acquaviva, Éric; Bahadori, Sara; Delorme, Richard; Sackur, Jérôme

    2017-10-01

    People with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have difficulties sustaining their attention on external tasks. Such attentional lapses have often been characterized as the simple opposite of external sustained attention, but the different types of attentional lapses, and the subjective experiences to which they correspond, remain unspecified. In this study, we showed that unmedicated children (ages 6-12) with ADHD, when probed during a standard go/no-go task, reported more mind blanking (a mental state characterized by the absence of reportable content) than did control participants. This increase in mind blanking happened at the expense of both focused and wandering thoughts. We also found that methylphenidate reverted the level of mind blanking to baseline (i.e., the level of mind blanking reported by control children without ADHD). However, this restoration led to mind wandering more than to focused attention. In a second experiment, we extended these findings to adults who had subclinical ADHD. These results suggest that executive functions impaired in ADHD are required not only to sustain external attention but also to maintain an internal train of thought.

  15. Visual attention capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Starrfelt, Randi

    2009-01-01

    Psychophysical studies have identified two distinct limitations of visual attention capacity: processing speed and apprehension span. Using a simple test, these cognitive factors can be analyzed by Bundesen's Theory of Visual Attention (TVA). The method has strong specificity and sensitivity......, and measurements are highly reliable. As the method is theoretically founded, it also has high validity. TVA-based assessment has recently been used to investigate a broad range of neuropsychological and neurological conditions. We present the method, including the experimental paradigm and practical guidelines...... to patient testing, and review existing TVA-based patient studies organized by lesion anatomy. Lesions in three anatomical regions affect visual capacity: The parietal lobes, frontal cortex and basal ganglia, and extrastriate cortex. Visual capacity thus depends on large, bilaterally distributed anatomical...

  16. Scene incongruity and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Arien; Clarke, Jason; Erol, Muge; Bert, John

    2017-02-01

    Does scene incongruity, (a mismatch between scene gist and a semantically incongruent object), capture attention and lead to conscious perception? We explored this question using 4 different procedures: Inattention (Experiment 1), Scene description (Experiment 2), Change detection (Experiment 3), and Iconic Memory (Experiment 4). We found no differences between scene incongruity and scene congruity in Experiments 1, 2, and 4, although in Experiment 3 change detection was faster for scenes containing an incongruent object. We offer an explanation for why the change detection results differ from the results of the other three experiments. In all four experiments, participants invariably failed to report the incongruity and routinely mis-described it by normalizing the incongruent object. None of the results supports the claim that semantic incongruity within a scene invariably captures attention and provide strong evidence of the dominant role of scene gist in determining what is perceived. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Publicity and public relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosha, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses approaches to using publicity and public relations to meet the goals of the NASA Space Grant College. Methods universities and colleges can use to publicize space activities are presented.

  18. First unitary, then divided: the temporal dynamics of dividing attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Lisa N; Witt, Joseph B

    2018-04-24

    Whether focused visual attention can be divided has been the topic of much investigation, and there is a compelling body of evidence showing that, at least under certain conditions, attention can be divided and deployed as two independent foci. Three experiments were conducted to examine whether attention can be deployed in divided form from the outset, or whether it is first deployed as a unitary focus before being divided. To test this, we adapted the methodology of Jefferies, Enns, and Di Lollo (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 40: 465, 2014), who used a dual-stream Attentional Blink paradigm and two letter-pair targets. One aspect of the AB, Lag-1 sparing, has been shown to occur only if the second target pair appears within the focus of attention. By presenting the second target pair at various spatial locations and assessing the magnitude of Lag-1 sparing, we probed the spatial distribution of attention. By systematically manipulating the stimulus-onset-asynchrony between the targets, we also tracked changes to the spatial distribution of attention over time. The results showed that even under conditions which encourage the division of attention, the attentional focus is first deployed in unitary form before being divided. It is then maintained in divided form only briefly before settling on a single location.

  19. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime O. Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is considered as among the most common yet serious brain disorders significant number of children are subjected to; the seriousness of which manifests in the ability of the disorder to continue to show up even after the childhood years, during the period of adolescence as well as adulthood. Considering the findings delivered by Brain Imaging Studies conducted on youth, it is revealed that people suffering from ADHD experiences del...

  20. Attention and Distraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to examine the interrelationship between attention and distraction in the reception of video installation art, a genre which is commonly associated with "immersion" and an intensified feeling of presence in the discourses on new media art and installation art. This tends to veil......, on the other hand, the cultural formations of television, film and computers have fundamentally re-configured "aesthetic experience."...