WorldWideScience

Sample records for public access residential

  1. Differences between out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in residential and public locations and implications for public-access defibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folke, Fredrik; Gislason, Gunnar H; Lippert, Freddy

    2010-01-01

    The majority of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) occur in residential locations, but knowledge about strategic placement of automated external defibrillators in residential areas is lacking. We examined whether residential OHCA areas suitable for placement of automated external...

  2. Designing a 100-unit Residential Complex with Public and Mental Health Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Gholizadeh Maktoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study first discuses different climate conditions in Iran and traditional methods of architecture in these places as well as importance of identification and evaluation of these methods. Then, designing methods of residential complexes on the basis of components and conditions of the favorite climate will be closely taken into consideration. Finally, the impact of different methods and techniques of designing on society’s mental and public health will be examined. Accordingly, designing a 100-unit residential complex with open and local green spaces, dense neighborhoods with mixed land uses, physical and visual access to the nature, creation of cultural-social-business and entertainment opportunities adjacent to the residential complex, reducing car dependency in combination with walking, strategies of improving public health in designing residential complexes and architecture in Yazd city are used. Consequently, a few strategies are provided for enhancement of citizens’ health and development of this type of architecture.

  3. Public and vehicle lighting in residential areas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    Requirements for the lighting of various types of roads and streets in residential areas are discussed. Emphasis in placed on the "woonerf" concept. The lighting of motor vehicles is discussed. The interaction between the two lighting modes is briefly indicated.

  4. Public Access Defibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Marianne; Nielsen, Anne Møller; Hansen, Carolina Malta

    2015-01-01

    of OHCA-cases where an accessible AED was located within 100 m. In addition, we assessed 30-day survival. METHODS: Using data from the Mobile Emergency Care Unit and the Danish Cardiac Arrest Registry, we identified 521 patients with OHCA between October 1, 2011 and September 31, 2013 in Copenhagen......, Denmark. RESULTS: An AED was applied in 20 cases (3.8%, 95% CI [2.4 to 5.9]). Irrespective of AED accessibility, an AED was located within 100 m of a cardiac arrest in 23.4% (n=102, 95% CI [19.5 to 27.7]) of all OHCAs. However, at the time of OHCA, an AED was located within 100 m and accessible in only 15...... to ambulance arrival, but 15.1% of all OHCAs occurred within 100 m of an accessible AED. This indicates the potential of utilising AED networks by improving strategies for AED accessibility and referring bystanders of OHCA to existing AEDs....

  5. Local Residential Sorting and Public Goods Provision: A Classroom Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouhle, Keith; Corrigan, Jay; Croson, Rachel; Farnham, Martin; Garip, Selhan; Habodaszova, Luba; Johnson, Laurie Tipton; Johnson, Martin; Reiley, David

    2005-01-01

    This classroom exercise illustrates the Tiebout (1956) hypothesis that residential sorting across multiple jurisdictions leads to a more efficient allocation of local public goods. The exercise places students with heterogeneous preferences over a public good into a single classroom community. A simple voting mechanism determines the level of…

  6. Stress and Burnout among Superintendents of Public Residential Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluyter, Gary V.

    1985-01-01

    Investigated burnout levels and coping strategies of 162 superintendents of public residential facilities for mentally retarded persons. Results indicated that mean overall burnout scores tended to be lower than those reported for other human service employees. Superintendents tended to favor direct/active strategies for coping with stressors.…

  7. 18 CFR 1304.208 - Shoreline stabilization on TVA-owned residential access shoreland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shoreline stabilization... OF STRUCTURES AND OTHER ALTERATIONS TVA-Owned Residential Access Shoreland § 1304.208 Shoreline... landowners to stabilize eroding shorelines on TVA-owned residential access shoreland. TVA will determine...

  8. 47 CFR 76.702 - Public access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public access. 76.702 Section 76.702... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Television Access § 76.702 Public access. A cable operator may refuse to transmit any public access program or portion of a public access program that the operator...

  9. Solar access of residential rooftops in four California cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Pomerantz, Melvin

    2010-05-14

    Shadows cast by trees and buildings can limit the solar access of rooftop solar-energy systems, including photovoltaic panels and thermal collectors. This study characterizes residential rooftop shading in Sacramento, San Jose, Los Angeles and San Diego, CA. Our analysis can be used to better estimate power production and/or thermal collection by rooftop solar-energy equipment. It can also be considered when designing programs to plant shade trees. High-resolution orthophotos and LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) measurements of surface height were used to create a digital elevation model of all trees and buildings in a well-treed 2.5-4 km{sup 2} residential neighborhood. On-hour shading of roofing planes (the flat elements of roofs) was computed geometrically from the digital elevation model. Values in future years were determined by repeating these calculations after simulating tree growth. Parcel boundaries were used to determine the extent to which roofing planes were shaded by trees and buildings in neighboring parcels. For the subset of S+SW+W-facing planes on which solar equipment is commonly installed for maximum solar access, absolute light loss in spring, summer and fall peaked about two to four hours after sunrise and about two to four hours before sunset. The fraction of annual insolation lost to shading increased from 0.07-0.08 in the year of surface-height measurement to 0.11-0.14 after 30 years of tree growth. Only about 10% of this loss results from shading by trees and buildings in neighboring parcels.

  10. 37 CFR 251.22 - Public access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public access. 251.22 Section... ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE Public Access to and Inspection of Records § 251.22 Public access. (a) Location of records. All of the...

  11. 5 CFR 1320.14 - Public access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public access. 1320.14 Section 1320.14 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES CONTROLLING PAPERWORK BURDENS ON THE PUBLIC § 1320.14 Public access. (a) In order to enable the public to participate in and provide...

  12. 20 CFR 655.550 - Public access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Activities in U.S. Ports Public Access § 655.550 Public access. (a) Public examination at ETA. ETA shall make... this subpart, and for each such employer, a copy of the employer's attestation and accompanying documentation it has received. (b) Notice to public. ETA periodically shall publish a list in the...

  13. 20 CFR 655.350 - Public access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Public access. 655.350 Section 655.350 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT OF... Nurses § 655.350 Public access. (a) Public examination at ETA. ETA shall make available for...

  14. Do PEV Drivers Park Near Publicly Accessible EVSE in San Diego but Not Use Them?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, James Edward [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The PEV charging stations deployed as part of The EV Project included both residential and non-residential sites. Non-residential sites included EVSE installed in workplace environments, fleet applications and those that were publicly accessible near retail centers, parking lots, and similar locations. The EV Project utilized its Micro-Climate® planning process to determine potential sites for publicly accessible EVSE in San Diego. This process worked with local stakeholders to target EVSE deployment near areas where significant PEV traffic and parking was expected. This planning process is described in The Micro-Climate deployment Process in San Diego1. The EV Project issued its deployment plan for San Diego in November 2010, prior to the sale of PEVs by Nissan and Chevrolet. The Project deployed residential EVSE concurrent with vehicle delivery starting in December 2010. The installation of non-residential EVSE commenced in April 2011 consistent with the original Project schedule, closely following the adoption of PEVs. The residential participation portion of The EV Project was fully subscribed by January 2013 and the non-residential EVSE deployment was essentially completed by August 2013.

  15. True Public Access Defibrillator Coverage is Overestimated

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Christopher L.F.; Demirtas, Derya; Brooks, Steven C.; Morrison, Laurie J.; Chan, Timothy C.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) occur at all times of the day and night. Immediate access to an AED increases survival. However, most public-location AEDs are placed in buildings without 24 hour access. Objective: To measure fixed-location public AED coverage of OHCAs by time

  16. Open Access publicering på Metropol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azbi, Trine; Larsen, Bente; Møbjerg, Anna Christine Meinertz

    2016-01-01

    Resultater af en afdækning og analyse af Open Access (OA) publicering på Professionshøjskolen Metropol......Resultater af en afdækning og analyse af Open Access (OA) publicering på Professionshøjskolen Metropol...

  17. 18 CFR 1304.207 - Channel excavation on TVA-owned residential access shoreland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Channel excavation on... Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL OF CONSTRUCTION IN THE TENNESSEE RIVER SYSTEM AND REGULATION... excavation on TVA-owned residential access shoreland. (a) Excavation of individual boat channels shall be...

  18. Perceptions of Personal Well-Being among Youth Accessing Residential or Intensive Home-Based Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preyde, Michele; Watkins, Hanna; Ashbourne, Graham; Lazure, Kelly; Carter, Jeff; Penney, Randy; White, Sara; Frensch, Karen; Cameron, Gary

    2013-01-01

    The outcomes of youth accessing residential treatment or intensive home-based treatment are varied. Understanding youth's perceptions of their well-being may inform service. The purpose of this report was to explore perceptions of youth's mental health, life satisfaction, and outlook for the future. Youth reported ongoing struggles with mental…

  19. 20 CFR 655.950 - Public access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....950 Public access. (a) Public examination at ETA. ETA shall compile and maintain a list of employers who filed attestations specifying the occupation(s), geographical location, and wage rate(s) attested to. The list shall be available for public inspection at the ETA office at which the attestation...

  20. Public Access and Open Access: Is There a Difference? | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Robin Meckley, Contributing Writer, and Tracie Frederick, Guest Writer Open access and public access—are they different concepts or are they the same? What do they mean for the researchers at NCI at Frederick? “Open-access (OA) literature is digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. What makes it possible is the Internet and the consent of the author or copyright-holder,” according to an open access website maintained by Peter Suber, director, Harvard Open Access Project.

  1. Public Access and Open Access: Is There a Difference? | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Robin Meckley, Contributing Writer, and Tracie Frederick, Guest Writer Open access and public access—are they different concepts or are they the same? What do they mean for the researchers at NCI at Frederick? “Open-access (OA) literature is digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. What makes it possible is the Internet and the consent of the author or copyright-holder,” according to an open access website maintained by Peter Suber, director, Harvard Open Access Project.

  2. Public Access Technologies in Public Libraries: Effects and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Carlo Bertot

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Public libraries were early adopters of Internet-based technologies and have provided public access to the Internet and computers since the early 1990s. The landscape of public-access Internet and computing was substantially different in the 1990s as the World Wide Web was only in its initial development. At that time, public libraries essentially experimented with publicaccess Internet and computer services, largely absorbing this service into existing service and resource provision without substantial consideration of the management, facilities, staffing, and other implications of public-access technology (PAT services and resources. This article explores the implications for public libraries of the provision of PAT and seeks to look further to review issues and practices associated with PAT provision resources. While much research focuses on the amount of public access that public libraries provide, little offers a view of the effect of public access on libraries. This article provides insights into some of the costs, issues, and challenges associated with public access and concludes with recommendations that require continued exploration.

  3. Open Access: (Social Sciences as Public Good

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Mruck

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The need to provide open access to articles published in peer-reviewed scholarly journals is becoming apparent to researchers as well as the non-scientific public as a result of "Budapest Open Access Initiative," the "Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities" and other initiatives. The core question that concerns open access is the following: since scientific information is usually financed by public funding, and therefore a public good, shouldn't the access be free of cost to all interested parties. Currently the open access movement is encountering the movement against the "Digital Divide," and therefore it is not surprising that the demand for open access has extended to a political level as reflected in the "WSIS Declaration of Principles" and the "WSIS Plan of Action." This article begins by providing a brief summary of the historical background of the open access movement and its major aims (Section 2. It then lists examples that explain possible links between the open access movement and the initiatives against the "Digital Divide" (Section 3. Section 4 considers some important barriers responsible for the fact that open access publishing is still not part of the everyday scientific publishing practices. This has various consequences. Selected consequences concerning the recent debate on redistribution processes between "information poor" and "information rich" are summarized in Section 5. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0402141

  4. Access to scientific publications: the scientist's perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yegor Voronin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Scientific publishing is undergoing significant changes due to the growth of online publications, increases in the number of open access journals, and policies of funders and universities requiring authors to ensure that their publications become publicly accessible. Most studies of the impact of these changes have focused on the growth of articles available through open access or the number of open-access journals. Here, we investigated access to publications at a number of institutes and universities around the world, focusing on publications in HIV vaccine research--an area of biomedical research with special importance to the developing world. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We selected research papers in HIV vaccine research field, creating: 1 a first set of 50 most recently published papers with keywords "HIV vaccine" and 2 a second set of 200 articles randomly selected from those cited in the first set. Access to the majority (80% of the recently published articles required subscription, while cited literature was much more accessible (67% freely available online. Subscriptions at a number of institutions around the world were assessed for providing access to subscription-only articles from the two sets. The access levels varied widely, ranging among institutions from 20% to 90%. Through the WHO-supported HINARI program, institutes in low-income countries had access comparable to that of institutes in the North. Finally, we examined the response rates for reprint requests sent to corresponding authors, a method commonly used before internet access became widespread. Contacting corresponding authors with requests for electronic copies of articles by email resulted in a 55-60% success rate, although in some cases it took up to 1.5 months to get a response. CONCLUSIONS: While research articles are increasingly available on the internet in open access format, institutional subscriptions continue to play an important role. However

  5. Libraries and Accessibility: Istanbul Public Libraries Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gül Yücel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the study; the assessment of accessibility has been conducted in Istanbul public libraries within the scope of public area. Public libraries commonly serve with its user of more than 20 million in total, spread to the general of Turkey, having more than one thousand branches in the centrums and having more than one million registered members. The building principles and standards covering the subjects such as the selection of place, historical and architectural specification of the region, distance to the centre of population and design in a way that the disabled people could benefit from the library services fully have been determined with regulations in the construction of new libraries. There are works for the existent libraries such as access for the disabled, fire safety precautions etc. within the scope of the related standards. Easy access by everyone is prioritized in the public libraries having a significant role in life-long learning. The purpose of the study is to develop solution suggestions for the accessibility problems in the public libraries. The study based on the eye inspection and assessments carried out within the scope of accessibility in the public libraries subsidiary to Istanbul Culture and Tourism Provincial Directorate Library and Publications Department within the provincial borders of Istanbul. The arrangements such as reading halls, study areas, book shelves etc. have been examined within the frame of accessible building standards. Building entrances, ramps and staircases, horizontal and vertical circulation of building etc. have been taken into consideration within the scope of accessible building standards. The subjects such as the reading and studying areas and book shelf arrangements for the library have been assessed within the scope of specific buildings. There are a total of 34 public libraries subsidiary to Istanbul Culture and Tourism Provincial Directorate on condition that 20 ea. of them are in the

  6. Assessment of Residential History Generation Using a Public-Record Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Wheeler

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In studies of disease with potential environmental risk factors, residential location is often used as a surrogate for unknown environmental exposures or as a basis for assigning environmental exposures. These studies most typically use the residential location at the time of diagnosis due to ease of collection. However, previous residential locations may be more useful for risk analysis because of population mobility and disease latency. When residential histories have not been collected in a study, it may be possible to generate them through public-record databases. In this study, we evaluated the ability of a public-records database from LexisNexis to provide residential histories for subjects in a geographically diverse cohort study. We calculated 11 performance metrics comparing study-collected addresses and two address retrieval services from LexisNexis. We found 77% and 90% match rates for city and state and 72% and 87% detailed address match rates with the basic and enhanced services, respectively. The enhanced LexisNexis service covered 86% of the time at residential addresses recorded in the study. The mean match rate for detailed address matches varied spatially over states. The results suggest that public record databases can be useful for reconstructing residential histories for subjects in epidemiologic studies.

  7. Accessibility of GI for Public Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arleth, Mette; Campagna, Michele

    2005-01-01

    The paper reports an ongoing comparative study on the accessibility of Geographic Information at public authorities’ websites in Denmark and Italy. The purpose of the study is twofold; to give an idea of the latest development and diffusion of GI on public authorities websites, and to identify...

  8. Web accessibility of public universities in Andalusia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alejandro Casasola Balsells

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an analysis conducted in 2015 to evaluate the accessibility of content on Andalusian public university websites. In order to determinate whether these websites are accessible, an assessment has been carried out to check conformance with the latest Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG 2.0 established by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C. For this purpose, we have designed a methodology for analysis that combines the use of three automatic tools (eXaminator, MINHAP web accessibility tool, and TAW with a manual analysis to provide a greater reliability and validity of the results. Although the results are acceptable overall, a detailed analysis shows that more is still needed for achieving full accessibility for the entire university community. In this respect, we suggest several corrections to common accessibility errors for facilitating the design of university web portals.

  9. Estimating solar access of typical residential rooftops: A case study in San Jose, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levinson, Ronnen M.; Gupta, Smita; Akbari, Hashem; Pomerantz, Melvin

    2008-03-03

    Shadows cast by trees and buildings can limit the solar access of rooftop solar-energy systems, including photovoltaic panels and thermal collectors. This study characterizes rooftop shading in a residential neighborhood of San Jose, CA, one of four regions analyzed in a wider study of the solar access of California homes.High-resolution orthophotos and LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) measurements of surface height were used to create a digital elevation model of all trees and buildings in a 4 km2 residential neighborhood. Hourly shading of roofing planes (the flat elements of roofs) was computed geometrically from the digital elevation model. Parcel boundaries were used to determine the extent to which roofing planes were shaded by trees and buildings in neighboring parcels.In the year in which surface heights were measured (2005), shadows from all sources ("total shading") reduced the insolation received by S-, SW-, and W-facing residential roofing planes in the study area by 13 - 16percent. Shadows cast by trees and buildings in neighboring parcels reduced insolation by no more than 2percent. After 30 years of simulated maximal tree growth, annual total shading increased to 19 - 22percent, and annual extraparcel shading increased to 3 - 4percent.

  10. Estimating solar access of typical residential rooftops: A case study in San Jose, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levinson, Ronnen M.; Gupta, Smita; Akbari, Hashem; Pomerantz, Melvin

    2008-03-03

    Shadows cast by trees and buildings can limit the solar access of rooftop solar-energy systems, including photovoltaic panels and thermal collectors. This study characterizes rooftop shading in a residential neighborhood of San Jose, CA, one of four regions analyzed in a wider study of the solar access of California homes.High-resolution orthophotos and LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) measurements of surface height were used to create a digital elevation model of all trees and buildings in a 4 km2 residential neighborhood. Hourly shading of roofing planes (the flat elements of roofs) was computed geometrically from the digital elevation model. Parcel boundaries were used to determine the extent to which roofing planes were shaded by trees and buildings in neighboring parcels.In the year in which surface heights were measured (2005), shadows from all sources ("total shading") reduced the insolation received by S-, SW-, and W-facing residential roofing planes in the study area by 13 - 16percent. Shadows cast by trees and buildings in neighboring parcels reduced insolation by no more than 2percent. After 30 years of simulated maximal tree growth, annual total shading increased to 19 - 22percent, and annual extraparcel shading increased to 3 - 4percent.

  11. Open Access Policy for CERN Physics Publications

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    CERN is committed to Open Access. It represents one of the values written in our Convention sixty years ago and is increasingly important for our Member States.   In the last edition of the Bulletin, this article described how CERN is doing with regards to open access publishing today. On Thursday this week, the Open Access Policy for CERN Physics Publications* was endorsed by the Scientific Information Policy Board (SIPB) and approved by the Director-General the same day . For any clarifications regarding the policy, please contact the Scientific Information Service library.desk@cern.ch. * A French version of the policy will be made available shortly.

  12. Health Care Access Among Asian American Subgroups: The Role of Residential Segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreon, Daisy C; Baumeister, Sebastian E

    2015-10-01

    Few studies have examined differences in health care access across Asian American ethnicities and none have considered the effects of residential segregation. The segregation of Asians by neighborhood has been steadily increasing over the past few decades due in part to the settlement patterns of immigrants. Data from the 2009 National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 746) were used. We examined differences in yearly medical checkups between Asian subgroups as well as among foreign-born and US-born Asians. Results showed that immigrant Filipinos and Vietnamese were less likely to get a checkup compared with foreign-born Chinese. The effect of Asian subgroup was modified by the percentage of Asians in a census tract (p Chinese and Vietnamese residential concentration of Asians had a stronger inverse association with having a yearly checkup.

  13. Adoption of an Outdoor Residential Hall Smoking Policy in a California Public University: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Trit; Fradkin, Nicholas; Moskowitz, Joel M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Because secondhand smoke is a public health concern, many colleges have adopted bans to ensure healthier environments. This study demonstrates how outdoor smoking policy change can be accomplished at a large public university. Participants: The participants were 1,537 students housed in residential communities at the University of…

  14. Open Access Scholarly Publications as OER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Anderson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the rationale, common practices, challenges, and some personal anecdotes from a journal editor on the production, use, and re-use of peer-reviewed scholarly articles as open educational resources (OER. The scholarly and professional discourse related to open educational resources has largely focused on open learning objects, courseware, and textbooks. However, especially in graduate education, articles published in scholarly journals are often a major component of the course content in formal education. In addition, open access journal articles are critical to expanding access to knowledge by scholars in the developing world and in fostering citizen science, by which everyone has access to the latest academic information and research results. In this article, I highlight some of the challenges, economic models, and evidence for quality of open access journal content and look at new affordances provided by the Net for enhanced functionality, access, and distribution.In the 17 years since I graduated with a doctorate degree, the climate and acceptance of open access publishing has almost reversed itself. I recall a conversation with my PhD supervisor in which he argued that publishing online was not a viable option as the product would not have permanency, scholarly recognition, or the prestige of a paper publication. His comments reflect the confusion between online resources and those described as open access, but as well illustrate the change in academic acceptance and use of open access products during the past decade. The evolution from paper to online production and consumption is a disruptive technology in which much lower cost and increased accessibility of online work opens the product to a completely new group of potential users. In the case of OER these consumers are primarily students, but certainly access to scholars from all parts of the globe and the availability to support citizen science (Silvertown, 2009

  15. Accessibility mapping in cultural public buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Gomes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study analyzed issues regarding accessibility in cultural facilities and aimed to analyze accessibility in the municipal cultural institutions and two districts of São Paulo state. Method: All cultural buildings were visited and, using a checklist based on the Brazilian Association of Technical Standards (NBR 9050, 2004, the public spaces were classed as adequate or inadequate with respect to their accessibility to people with a visual and physical disability. The data collected was subjected to descriptive analysis by scoring the most common accessibility resources, their adequacy as well as the resources not installed. Results: The results show that all the external and internal areas of the analyzed buildings need for adaptations, installations or the building of equipment that allows the physically or visually disabled to interact with the environment in the chosen cultural spaces. The work showed that the best evaluated item were the ramps and the worst was the tactile map, absent in all buildings. Conclusion: The data show the “state of the art” in the chosen city and discussed the difficulties in the implementation of Brazilian Association of Technical standards, both in construction and in the adaptations, pointing new accessibility concerns on the studied cities.

  16. Solar Access to Public Capital (SAPC) Mock Securitization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelsohn, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lowder, Travis [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rottman, Mary [Rottman-Associates, San Francisco, CA (United States); Borod, Ronald [DLA Piper, London (United Kingdom); Gabig, Nathan [KPMG, Knoxville, TN (United States); Henne, Stephen [KPMG, Knoxville, TN (United States); Caplin, Conrad [KPMG, Knoxville, TN (United States); Notte, Quentin [Mercatus, Arlington, VA (United States)

    2015-12-21

    In late 2012, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) initiated the Solar Access to Public Capital (SAPC) working group. Backed by a three-year funding facility from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL set out to organize the solar, legal, banking, capital markets, engineering, and other relevant stakeholder communities in order to open lower-cost debt investment for solar asset deployment. SAPC engaged its members to standardize contracts, develop best practices, and comprehend how the rating agencies perceive solar project portfolios as an investment asset class. Rating agencies opine on the future creditworthiness of debt obligations. Issuers often seek investment-grade ratings from the rating agencies in order to satisfy the desires of their investors. Therefore, for the solar industry to access larger pools of capital at a favorable cost, it is critical to increase market participants' understanding of solar risk parameters. The process provided valuable information to address rating agency perceptions of risk that, without such information, could require costly credit enhancement or higher yields to attract institutional investors. Two different securities were developed--one for a hypothetical residential solar portfolio and one for a hypothetical commercial solar portfolio. Five rating agencies (Standard and Poor's, Moody's, KBRA, Fitch, and DBRS) participated and provided extensive feedback, some through conversations that extended several months. The findings represented in this report are a composite summary of that feedback and do not indicate any specific feedback from any single rating agency.

  17. Public goods and private interests: Understanding non-residential demand for green power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan H.; Fowlie, Meredith; Holt, Edward A.

    2001-01-01

    This article presents the results of the first large-scale mail survey of non-residential green power customers in the United States. The survey explored the motivations, attitudes, and experiences of 464 business, non-profit, and public-sector customers that have voluntarily opted to purchase - and frequently pay a premium for - renewable electricity. Results of this study should be of value to marketers interested in targeting these customer segments, to policy makers interested in fostering and understanding non-residential demand for green power, and to academics pondering the motivations for firms to engage in such voluntary environmental initiatives.

  18. PUBLIC ACCESS TO PRIVATE LAND IN SCOTLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Carey Miller

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to understand the radical reform of Scottish land law in its provision for a general right of public access to private land introduced in 2003 as part of land reform legislation, an important aspect of the initial agenda of the Scottish Parliament revived in 1999. The right is to recreational access for a limited period and the right to cross land. Access can be taken only on foot or by horse or bicycle. As a starting point clarification of the misunderstood pre-reform position is attempted. The essential point is that Scots common law does not give civil damages for a simple act of trespass (as English law does but only a right to obtain removal of the trespasser. Under the reforms the longstanding Scottish position of landowners allowing walkers access to the hills and mountains becomes a legal right. A critical aspect of the new right is that it is one of responsible access; provided a landowner co-operates with the spirit and system of the Act access can be denied on the basis that it is not being exercised responsibly. But the onus is on the landowner to show that the exercise of the right is not responsible.Although the right applies to all land a general exception protects the privacy of a domestic dwelling. Early case law suggests that the scope of this limit depends upon particular circumstances although reasonable 'garden ground' is likely to be protected. There are various particular limits such as school land.Compliance with the protection of property under the European Convention on Human Rights is discussed. The article emphasises the latitude, open to nations, for limitations to the right of ownership in land in the public interest. The extent of the Scottish access inroad illustrates this. This leads to the conclusion that 'land governance' – the subject of the Potchefstroom Conference at which the paper was initially presented – largely remains a matter for domestic law; the lex situs concept is alive

  19. Public access computing in health science libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehm, S

    1987-01-01

    Public access computing in health science libraries began with online computer-assisted instruction. Library-based collections and services have expanded with advances in microcomputing hardware and software. This growth presents problems: copyright, quality, instability in the publishing industry, and uncertainty about collection scope; librarians managing the new services require new skills to support their collections. Many find the cooperative efforts of several organizational units are required. Current trends in technology for the purpose of information management indicate that these services will continue to be a significant focus for libraries.

  20. Public Access to NASA's Earth Science Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnke, J.; James, N.

    2013-12-01

    Many steps have been taken over the past 20 years to make NASA's Earth Science data more accessible to the public. The data collected by NASA represent a significant public investment in research. NASA holds these data in a public trust to promote comprehensive, long-term Earth science research. Consequently, NASA developed a free, open and non-discriminatory policy consistent with existing international policies to maximize access to data and to keep user costs as low as possible. These policies apply to all data archived, maintained, distributed or produced by NASA data systems. The Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is a major core capability within NASA Earth Science Data System Program. EOSDIS is designed to ingest, process, archive, and distribute data from approximately 90 instruments. Today over 6800 data products are available to the public through the EOSDIS. Last year, EOSDIS distributed over 636 million science data products to the user community, serving over 1.5 million distinct users. The system supports a variety of science disciplines including polar processes, land cover change, radiation budget, and most especially global climate change. A core philosophy of EOSDIS is that the general user is best served by providing discipline specific support for the data. To this end, EOSDIS has collocated NASA Earth science data with centers of science discipline expertise, called Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs). DAACs are responsible for data management, archive and distribution of data products. There are currently twelve DAACs in the EOSDIS system. The centralized entrance point to the NASA Earth Science data collection can be found at http://earthdata.nasa.gov. Over the years, we have developed several methods for determining needs of the user community including use of the American Customer Satisfaction Index survey and a broad metrics program. Annually, we work with an independent organization (CFI Group) to send this

  1. 76 FR 80418 - Request for Information: Public Access to Peer-Reviewed Scholarly Publications Resulting From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... archiving publications and making them publically accessible be used to grow the economy and improve the... cons of centralized and decentralized approaches to managing public access to peer reviewed scholarly...

  2. Classroom management programs for deaf children in state residential and large public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenkus, M; Rittenhouse, B; Dancer, J

    1999-12-01

    Personnel in 4 randomly selected state residential schools for the deaf and 3 randomly selected large public schools with programs for the deaf were surveyed to assess the types of management or disciplinary programs and strategies currently in use with deaf students and the rated effectiveness of such programs. Several behavioral management programs were identified by respondents, with Assertive Discipline most often listed. Ratings of program effectiveness were generally above average on a number of qualitative criteria.

  3. Public participation GIS for improving wood burning emissions from residential heating and urban environmental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Aparicio, Susana; Vogt, Matthias; Schneider, Philipp; Kahila-Tani, Maarit; Broberg, Anna

    2017-04-15

    A crowdsourcing study supported by a public participation GIS tool was designed and carried out in two Norwegian regions. The aim was to improve the knowledge about emissions from wood burning for residential heating in urban areas based on the collection of citizens' localized insights. We focus on three main issues: 1) type of dwelling and residential heating source; 2) wood consumption and type of wood appliances; and 3) citizens' perception of the urban environment. Our study shows the importance of wood burning for residential heating, and of the resulted particle emissions, in Norwegian urban areas. Citizens' localized insights on environmental perception highlight the areas in the city that require particular attention as part of clean air strategies. Information about environmental perception is combined with existing environmental data showing certain correlation. The results support the urban environmental management based on co-benefit approaches, achieving several outcomes from a single policy measure. Measures to reduce urban air pollution will have a positive impact on the citizens' environmental perception, and therefore on their quality of life, in addition to reducing the negative consequences of air pollution on human health. The characterization of residential heating by fuelwood is still a challenging activity. Our study shows the potential of a crowdsourcing method as means for bottom-up approaches designed to increase our knowledge on human activities at urban scale that result on emissions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Optimizing TCP Performance in Multi-AP Residential Broadband Connections via Minislot Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Giustiniano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The high bandwidth demand of Internet applications has recently driven the need of increasing the residential download speed. A practical solution to the problem is to aggregate the bandwidth of 802.11 access points (APs backhauls in range. Since 802.11 devices are usually single radio, the communication to APs on different radio channels requires a time-division multiple access (TDMA policy at the client station. With an in-depth experimental analysis and a customized 802.11 driver, in this paper, we show that the usage of multi-AP TDMA policy may cause degradation of the TCP throughput and an underutilization of the AP backhauls. We then introduce a simple analytical model that accurately predicts the TCP round-trip time (RTT with a multi-AP TDMA policy and propose a resource allocation algorithm to reduce the observed TCP RTT with a very low computational cost. Our proposed scheme runs locally at the client station and improves the aggregate throughput up to 1.5 times compared to state-of-the-art allocations. We finally show that the throughput achieved by our algorithm is very close to the theoretical upper bound in key simulation scenarios.

  5. Bystander Defibrillation for Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest in Public vs Residential Locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Steen Møller; Hansen, Carolina Malta; Folke, Fredrik; Rajan, Shahzleen; Kragholm, Kristian; Ejlskov, Linda; Gislason, Gunnar; Køber, Lars; Gerds, Thomas A; Hjortshøj, Søren; Lippert, Freddy; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Wissenberg, Mads

    2017-05-01

    Bystander-delivered defibrillation (hereinafter referred to as bystander defibrillation) of patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) remains limited despite the widespread dissemination of automated external defibrillators (AEDs). To examine calendar changes in bystander defibrillation and subsequent survival according to a public or a residential location of the cardiac arrest after nationwide initiatives in Denmark to facilitate bystander-mediated resuscitative efforts, including bystander defibrillation. This nationwide study identified 18 688 patients in Denmark with first-time OHCA from June 1, 2001, to December 31, 2012, using the Danish Cardiac Arrest Registry. Patients had a presumed cardiac cause of arrest that was not witnessed by emergency medical services personnel. Data were analyzed from April 1, 2015, to December 10, 2016. Nationwide initiatives to facilitate bystander resuscitative efforts, including bystander defibrillation, consisted of resuscitation training of Danish citizens, dissemination of on-site AEDs, foundation of an AED registry linked to emergency medical dispatch centers, and dispatcher-assisted guidance of bystander resuscitation efforts. The proportion of patients who received bystander defibrillation according to the location of the cardiac arrest and their subsequent 30-day survival. Of the 18 688 patients with OHCAs (67.8% men and 32.2% women; median [interquartile range] age, 72 [62-80] years), 4783 (25.6%) had a cardiac arrest in a public location and 13 905 (74.4%) in a residential location. The number of registered AEDs increased from 141 in 2007 to 7800 in 2012. The distribution of AED location was consistently skewed in favor of public locations. Bystander defibrillation increased in public locations from 3 of 245 (1.2%; 95% CI, 0.4%-3.5%) in 2001 to 78 of 510 (15.3%; 95% CI, 12.4%-18.7%) in 2012 (P bystander defibrillation increased in public locations from 8.3% (95% CI, 1.5%-35.4%) in 2001/2002 to 57

  6. Residential satisfaction close to highways : The impact of accessibility, nuisances and highway adjustment projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamersma, Marije; Tillema, Taede; Sussman, Joseph; Arts, Jos

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we focus on gaining insight into the residential satisfaction of households near highways, based on survey data collected among 1225 respondents in the Netherlands living within 1000 m from a highway. Ordinal regression was used to study the impact of highway externalities on residenti

  7. Cable Television and the Promise of Public Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenner, Lawrence A.

    The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has made provision for three access channels in new cable television systems: one each for the public, educational authorities, and the local government. The success of these access channels in instituting a two-way relationship between the public and commercial broadcasting is dependent on the presence…

  8. The Impacts of Free Public Internet Access on Public Library Patrons and Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertot, John Carlo; McClure, Charles R.; Jaeger, Paul T.

    2008-01-01

    Public libraries have evolved into a primary source of Internet access in many communities, generating wide-ranging impacts in the communities that public libraries serve. Based on the findings of the 2007 Public Libraries and the Internet study, this article examines the ways in which the Internet access delivered by public libraries affects…

  9. The Impacts of Free Public Internet Access on Public Library Patrons and Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertot, John Carlo; McClure, Charles R.; Jaeger, Paul T.

    2008-01-01

    Public libraries have evolved into a primary source of Internet access in many communities, generating wide-ranging impacts in the communities that public libraries serve. Based on the findings of the 2007 Public Libraries and the Internet study, this article examines the ways in which the Internet access delivered by public libraries affects…

  10. Enhancing Digital Information Access in Public Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Ayers, Kathleen; Liu, Yan Quan

    2006-01-01

    To explore the impact of public digital library resources on urban residents, to elucidate the current usage patterns of public digital library resources/services and levels of satisfaction with the resources/content in urban digital libraries and make recommendations as to steps that would improve service to this population.

  11. Public sector information access policies in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welle Donker, F.M.

    2010-01-01

    In the digital age geo-information has become embedded in our daily lives, such as navigation systems, community platforms, real estate information and weather forecasts. Everybody uses geo-information for their day-to-day decision making. Therefore, access to geo-information is of vital importance

  12. PUBLIC ACCESS TO PRIVATE LAND IN SCOTLAND

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    David

    A possible example of irresponsible behaviour would be an access taker's .... house or other place" be included "among the factors which go to determine what .... standards of the persons affected in the house i.e. that the test was "person .... accordance with the general interest or to secure the payment of taxes or other.

  13. Public sector information access policies in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welle Donker, F.M.

    2010-01-01

    In the digital age geo-information has become embedded in our daily lives, such as navigation systems, community platforms, real estate information and weather forecasts. Everybody uses geo-information for their day-to-day decision making. Therefore, access to geo-information is of vital importance

  14. Barriers to Accessing Detox Facilities, Substance Use Treatment, and Residential Services among Women Impacted by Commercial Sexual Exploitation & Trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerassi, Lara B

    2017-10-06

    More than 50% of women entering substance use treatment in the U.S. reported having traded sex for money or drugs. Women's participation in addiction treatment and related services is essential to their recovery and increased safety, stabilization, and quality of life. This paper's aim is to explore the barriers related to accessing detox facilities and essential services including substance use treatment and residential services for women impacted by commercial sexual exploitation (CSE). Data are drawn from a larger, community-based, grounded theory study. In-depth interview data were collected from 30 adult women who traded sex as adults (through maximum variation and snowball sampling), as well as 20 service providers who come into contact with adult women who trade sex (through nominations and purposive sampling). Finding suggest that women often encountered sobriety requirements, which created barriers to accessing addiction treatment or residential services. Some organizations' policies required evicting women if they were caught using, which created additional challenges for women who relapsed. Women wanted to avoid becoming "dopesick" on the streets or at home, which partially contributed to them needing to maintain their addiction. Consequently, some returned to sex trading, thus increasing their risk of trafficking. Some women engaged in creative strategies, such as claiming they were suicidal, in order to access the detox facilities in hospitals. Some women indicated they were only able to detox when they were forced to do so in jail or prison, often without medical assistance. Implications to improve health care delivery for this population are discussed.

  15. Public access to Indian geographical data - Guest editorial

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Narasimha, R.; Shetye, S.R.

    very un- happy at the way that the availabil- ity of data generated at public expense is restricted. Even where access is in principle possible, the procedures involved are confusing and cumbersome, and many scien- tists often find it more...

  16. Recommendations concerning energy information model documentation, public access, and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, D.O.; Mason, M.J.

    1979-10-01

    A review is presented of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) response to Congressional and management concerns, relating specifically to energy information system documentation, public access to EIA systems, and scientific/peer evaluation. The relevant organizational and policy responses of EIA are discussed. An analysis of the model development process and approaches to, and organization of, model evaluation is presented. Included is a survey of model evaluation studies. A more detailed analysis of the origins of the legislated documentation and public access requirements is presented in Appendix A, and the results of an informal survey of other agency approaches to public access and evaluation is presented in Appendix B. Appendix C provides a survey of non-EIA activities relating to model documentation and evaluation. Twelve recommendations to improve EIA's procedures for energy information system documentation, evaluation activities, and public access are determined. These are discussed in detail. (MCW)

  17. Big Oaks National Wildlife Refuge : Interim Public Access Plan : 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This interim plan covers public access for Big Oaks National Wildlife Refuge. Sections include introduction, safety briefing protocols, entry procedure, types of...

  18. Bystander Defibrillation for Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest in Public vs Residential Locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steen Møller; Hansen, Carolina Malta; Folke, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    Importance: Bystander-delivered defibrillation (hereinafter referred to as bystander defibrillation) of patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) remains limited despite the widespread dissemination of automated external defibrillators (AEDs). Objective: To examine calendar changes...... in bystander defibrillation and subsequent survival according to a public or a residential location of the cardiac arrest after nationwide initiatives in Denmark to facilitate bystander-mediated resuscitative efforts, including bystander defibrillation. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nationwide study......, 2016. Exposures: Nationwide initiatives to facilitate bystander resuscitative efforts, including bystander defibrillation, consisted of resuscitation training of Danish citizens, dissemination of on-site AEDs, foundation of an AED registry linked to emergency medical dispatch centers, and dispatcher...

  19. 47 CFR 76.1505 - Public, educational and governmental access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... governmental access requirements for every cable franchise area with which its system overlaps. (b) An open... access channels within the subscribers' franchise area. (c) An open video system operator may negotiate... relating to such public, educational and governmental use. If a franchise agreement previously existed...

  20. The role of CRIS systems in measuring Open Access publications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scharnhorst, A.M.; Dijk, E.M.S.; Doorn, P.K.; van Berchum, M.

    2016-01-01

    Open Access to scientific results - from publications to data - is high on the agenda of science policy drivers. Since long there is no doubt that making your own research available on the web is the best way to gain visibility and impact (Lawrence 2001). The Open Access movement started with calls

  1. 78 FR 42419 - Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Policy Regarding Access to Airports From Residential Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... into new agreements. Two commenters shared their positive experiences as residential through-the-fence... self-fueling. The FAA will respond to specific comments submitted by organizations and individuals in... users who could be asked to bear a higher burden of the airport's costs or find the value of...

  2. Residential satisfaction close to highways : The impact of accessibility, nuisances and highway adjustment projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamersma, Marije; Tillema, Taede; Sussman, Joseph; Arts, Jos

    In this paper we focus on gaining insight into the residential satisfaction of households near highways, based on survey data collected among 1225 respondents in the Netherlands living within 1000 m from a highway. Ordinal regression was used to study the impact of highway externalities on

  3. 76 FR 15028 - Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Interim Policy Regarding Access to Airports From Residential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... users that are comparable to those charged to airport tenants so that all users bear a fair proportion... excavation or grading of land needed to construct a residential property or construction of a residence... duration of time, not to exceed 20 years. ``Development'' is defined as excavation or grading of...

  4. Writing for Publication While in Graduate School: An Accessible Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Joshua C.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this Writer's Forum is to share eight tips about writing for publication as a graduate student. These tips demonstrate writing for publication as an accessible reality for students. This Writer's Forum advances ideas, advice, and anecdotes focused on helping graduate students to see themselves as valued experts who are…

  5. Open Access And Openly Accessible: A Study Of Scientific Publications Shared Via The Internet

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jonathan D. Wren

    2005-01-01

    ... of the article, and to what degree open access publications are shared on non-journal websites. Design The internet was searched using an application programming interface to Google, a popular and freely available search engine...

  6. 浅谈居住区公共空间的功能建设%Functional Construction in Public Space of Residential Districts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周微

    2014-01-01

    在生活方式不断进步的过程中,人们对人居环境也有了越来越高的要求,居住区的公共空间在一定程度上影响了居住环境的品质。随着居住建筑的集约化发展,功能建设成为影响公共空间品质的重要因素。本文从基础设施的协调性和全面性、功能建设的适应性、无障碍设施以及多功能空间四个方面提出了人性化设计的原则,旨在营造舒适、宜人的生活空间。%In the process of continuous improvement in lifestyle, the demands for living environment has also been increased, to a certain extent public spaces in residential areas affected the quality of the living environment. With the intensive development of residential buildings, functional construction became an important factor in the public space. This article proposed design principles in coordination and comprehensiveness of the infrastructure, adaptability, accessibility features and function space to create a comfortable and pleasant living space.

  7. 78 FR 25484 - Public Access to Federally Supported Research and Development Data and Publications: Two Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Public Access to Federally Supported Research and Development Data and Publications: Two Planning... digital scientific data, as part of the planning process called for in the Memorandum on Expanding Public...

  8. Assessment method of accessibility conditions: how to make public buildings accessible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Isabela Fernandes; Ely, e Vera Helena Moro Bins

    2012-01-01

    The enforcement of accessibility today has faced several difficulties, such as intervention in historic buildings that now house public services and cultural activities, such as town halls, museums and theaters and should allow access, on equal terms to all people. The paper presents the application of a method for evaluating the spatial accessibility conditions and their results. For this, we sought to support the theoretical foundation about the main issue involved and legislation. From the method used--guided walks--it was possible to identify the main barriers to accessibility in historic buildings. From the identified barriers, possible solutions are presented according to the four components of accessibility: spatial orientation, displacement, use and communication. It is hoped also that the knowledge gained in this research contributes to an improvement of accessibility legislation in relation to the listed items.

  9. Publicly Accessible Art Collections in Copenhagen during the Napoleonic Era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the increasing accessibility of private galleries in Copenhagen during the early years of the nineteenth century, which formed an important prelude to the formation of a formal public art gallery in 1824-25. After a period of gradually increasing openness of a few private c...

  10. Public Access to Government Electronic Information. Policy Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science, 1992

    1992-01-01

    This policy framework provides guidelines for federal agencies on public access to government electronic information. Highlights include reasons for disseminating information; defining user groups; which technology to use; pricing flexibility; security and privacy issues; and the private sector and state and local government roles. (LRW)

  11. Legal aspects of open access to publicly funded research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guibault, L.; Margoni, T.

    2015-01-01

    Internet growth, content digitisation, and expanding "big data" and data analytics capabilities have affected the ways in which publicly funded research results are accessed, disseminated and used. While these technological advances have made sharing and processing information easier, that does not

  12. Government databases and public health research: facilitating access in the public interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Carolyn; Allen, Judy

    2014-06-01

    Access to datasets of personal health information held by government agencies is essential to support public health research and to promote evidence-based public health policy development. Privacy legislation in Australia allows the use and disclosure of such information for public health research. However, access is not always forthcoming in a timely manner and the decision-making process undertaken by government data custodians is not always transparent. Given the public benefit in research using these health information datasets, this article suggests that it is time to recognise a right of access for approved research and that the decisions, and decision-making processes, of government data custodians should be subject to increased scrutiny. The article concludes that researchers should have an avenue of external review where access to information has been denied or unduly delayed.

  13. Does the public deserve free access to climate system science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorov, Ivo

    2010-05-01

    Some time ago it was the lack of public access to medical research data that really stirred the issue and gave inertia for legislation and a new publishing model that puts tax payer-funded medical research in the hands of those who fund it. In today's age global climate change has become the biggest socio-economic challenge, and the same argument resonates: climate affects us all and the publicly-funded science quantifying it should be freely accessible to all stakeholders beyond academic research. Over the last few years the ‘Open Access' movement to remove as much as possible subscription, and other on-campus barriers to academic research has rapidly gathered pace, but despite significant progress, the climate system sciences are not among the leaders in providing full access to their publications and data. Beyond the ethical argument, there are proven and tangible benefits for the next generation of climate researchers to adapt the way their output is published. Through the means provided by ‘open access', both data and ideas can gain more visibility, use and citations for the authors, but also result in a more rapid exchange of knowledge and ideas, and ultimately progress towards a sought solution. The presentation will aim to stimulate discussion and seek progress on the following questions: Should free access to climate research (& data) be mandatory? What are the career benefits of using ‘open access' for young scientists? What means and methods should, or could, be incorporated into current European graduate training programmes in climate research, and possible ways forward?

  14. Unequal access to public healthcare facilities: theory and measurement revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Mainardi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Adequate coverage and efficiency of public health services are high priorities for sustainable growth and development. In many countries, public healthcare continues to fall short of demand, and remains unevenly distributed among the population. As in other areas of project appraisal, studies on social equity and access to public utilities are fraught with theoretical and empirical questions. Based on the concepts of marginal disutility with respect to distance, safety thresholds and `equally distributed equivalent' distance, the paper first reassesses utility theory assumptions supporting the rationale for functional re-specifications. Partly drawing on these theoretical refinements, the analysis formulates a stochastic cost frontier hurdle model with an endogenously determined hospital distance threshold. For illustrative purposes, this model is applied to pooled biennial communal data for Chile. Healthcare accessibility in terms of travel cost/time is proxied by distances of administrative centres from the nearest emergency hospitals over the period 2000-2003.

  15. Public access to community documents: a fundamental human right?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy W. Davis

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a marked difference between the culture of open government in some Member States, particularly Sweden, and the culture of secrecy in Britain. Recent calls for a uniform interpretation of the law regarding public access to documents held by the Community Institutions seem to suggest that a Swedish-style right of access should be adopted at EU level, on the grounds that public access to government-held information is a fundamental human right. To date, however, it seems that insufficient arguments have been advanced in order to justify this particular claim. Notable constitutional lawyers remain sceptical, as do some Member State governments. Furthermore, in the absence of a convincing philosophical justification for the claim, a situation may be created in which certain people are said to enjoy a fundamental human right, not because they are human beings, but by virtue of their status as citizens or residents of an EU Member State. This appears to be counter-intuitive, if it is accepted that fundamental human rights should be enjoyed by all and should therefore be justified on the basis of universally-shared fundamental values. It therefore seems that further explanation of the importance of public access to documents is required, and further justification of the claim that this is, or should be regarded as, a fundamental human right.

  16. Residential address errors in public health surveillance data: a description and analysis of the impact on geocoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinszer, Kate; Jauvin, Christian; Verma, Aman; Bedard, Lucie; Allard, Robert; Schwartzman, Kevin; de Montigny, Luc; Charland, Katia; Buckeridge, David L

    2010-07-01

    The residential addresses of persons with reportable communicable diseases are used increasingly for spatial monitoring and cluster detection, and public health may direct interventions based upon the results of routine spatial surveillance. There has been little assessment, however, of the quality of address data in reportable disease notifications and of the corresponding impact of these errors on geocoding and routine public health practices. The objectives of this study were to examine address errors for a selected reportable disease in a large urban center in Canada and to assess the impact of identified errors on geocoding and the estimated spatial distribution of the disease. We extracted data for all notifications of campylobacteriosis from the Montreal public health department from 1995 to 2008 and used an address verification algorithm to determine the validity of the residential address for each case and to suggest corrections for invalid addresses. We assessed the types of address errors as well as the resulting positional errors, calculating the distance between the original address and the correct address as well as changes in disease density. Address errors and missing addresses were prevalent in the public health records (10% and 5%, respectively) and they influenced the observed distribution of campylobacteriosis in Montreal, with address correction changing case location by a median of 1.1 km. Further examination of the extent of address errors in public health data is essential, as is the investigation of how these errors impact routine public health functions.

  17. Authentication and Access: Accommodating Public Users in an Academic World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne Weber

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In the fall of 2004, the Academic Computing Center, a division of the Information Technology Services Department (ITS at Minnesota State University, Mankato took over responsibility for the computers in the public areas of Memorial Library. For the first time, affiliated Memorial Library users were required to authenticate using a campus username and password, a change that effectively eliminated computer access for anyone not part of the university community. This posed a dilemma for the librarians. Because of its Federal Depository status, the library had a responsibility to provide general access to both print and online government publications for the general public. Furthermore, the library had a long tradition of providing guest access to most library resources, and there was reluctance to abandon the practice. Therefore the librarians worked with ITS to retain a small group of six computers that did not require authentication and were clearly marked for community use, along with several standup, open-access computers on each floor used primarily for searching the library catalog. The additional need to provide computer access to high school students visiting the library for research and instruction led to more discussions with ITS and resulted in a means of generating temporary usernames and passwords through a Web form. These user accommodations were implemented in the library without creating a written policy governing the use of open-access computers.

  18. 75 FR 54946 - Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Policy Regarding Access to Airports From Residential Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... Federal Register on October 13, 2009 (74 FR 52524). Comments were due on March 31, 2010. Comments on the... Federal Aviation Administration Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Policy Regarding Access to Airports... Federally obligated airport from an adjacent or nearby property, when that property is used as a...

  19. Scientific Coolections: Informational - Navigational Portal for Scientific Publications Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogatencov, Petru; Kozlenco, Ludmila; Ginculova, Silvia; Keradi, Natalia

    At present there is the tendency of uniting efforts of scientific establishments and libraries for using information - communication medium with the purpose of information support of research and pedagogical activity in Moldova. The efficient access to the scientific and technical literature and, first of all, to the new publications, is necessary practically for all scientists and experts irrespective of a field of knowledge, in which they work. Research institutions, knowing how to receive access to the electron information and to use it intellectually, realize that it effects positively the quality and outcomes of the research process. It is obvious, that to ensure maximum utilization of the new information stream by habitual methods is impossible. New non-traditional approaches are necessary for the increase of the level of information provision of scientists and experts. Creation of electron libraries, realizing qualitatively other level of production, storage, organization and distribution of various information is the most effective way to gin this object. The access to the electron versions of scientific journals allows to reduce the acuteness of shortage of scientific literature, the electron information becomes accessible before the publication of paper version of a journal, and taking into account the delivery time of foreign issues into Moldova, this outstripping can reach several months.

  20. Mentored residential writing retreats: a leadership strategy to develop skills and generate outcomes in writing for publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Debra

    2009-01-01

    There is an increasing expectation that academic and clinical nurses will contribute to disciplinary and professional discourses through scholarly writing. However, the difficulties and challenges associated with writing for publication mean that many papers will never be written. This current paper describes an innovative approach developed to support skill development and outcomes in writing for publication. Intensive residential writing retreats informed by the principles of servant leadership and incorporating strategies such as mentoring and peer learning were conducted in 2005 and 2007. Positive outcomes and benefits included publications submitted to peer-reviewed journals, as well as positive effects on collegial relationships, and team building. Novice writers benefited from intensive and sustained support and coaching by experienced writers. Organisational benefits included increased participation by staff and research higher degree students in publication activities, enhanced collegial relationships and opportunities for senior established writers to work with inexperienced writers.

  1. Public finance policy strategies to increase access to preconception care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kay A

    2006-09-01

    Policy and finance barriers reduce access to preconception care and, reportedly, limit professional practice changes that would improve the availability of needed services. Millions of women of childbearing age (15-44) lack adequate health coverage (i.e., uninsured or underinsured), and others live in medically underserved areas. Service delivery fragmentation and lack of professional guidelines are additional barriers. This paper reviews barriers and opportunities for financing preconception care, based on a review and analysis of state and federal policies. We describe states' experiences with and opportunities to improve health coverage, through public programs such as Medicaid, Medicaid waivers, and the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP). The potential role of Title V and of community health centers in providing primary and preventive care to women also is discussed. In these and other public health and health coverage programs, opportunities exist to finance preconception care for low-income women. Three major policy directions are discussed. To increase access to preconception care among women of childbearing age, the federal and state governments have opportunities to: (1) improve health care coverage, (2) increase the supply of publicly subsidized health clinics, and (3) direct delivery of preconception screening and interventions in the context of public health programs.

  2. Visibility, accessibility and quality of Italian public health institutional websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Chiadò Piat

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Since the large volume of health information available on the Web has the potential to improve health, Public Health institutions must represent a strong Internet presence with accessible and scientific information. The aims of the study were to verify the presence and visibility of Italian Institutions on the Web and to evaluate the accessibility and quality of the information provided.

    Methods: In a focus group setting, 21 keywords were generated, and launched in search-engines Google and MSN. Researchers noted the first 30 results found and determined the position of institutional websites. The accessibility of 303 Public Health websites was assessed in relation to the logo presence and web validation of XHTML, CSS and WAI indicators. Regarding the quality of information, the presence of the HONcode logo in the websites’ homepage was checked.

    Results: A high percentage of the keywords selected did not lead to any institutional website in the first three pages of Google (19.0% and MSN (42.8%. Few institutional websites presented the logo indicator and a full web validation. Considering the XHTML indicator, only for 34.0% of the websites there was concordance between the logo presence/absence and results of direct validation, 50.2% for CSS. The quality level seemed to be extremely low.

    Conclusions:In order to achieve a larger visibility and guarantee accessibility, Public Health websites have to be correctly designed, edited and maintained. Common and strict European laws about health information on the Web have to be arranged, deeply monitored and carefully adjourned in order to guarantee and support the positive role of institutional websites.

  3. 75 FR 14368 - Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps: Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... and heat pumps; the analytical framework, models, and tools that DOE is using to evaluate amended... Heat Pumps, EERE-2008-BT- STD-0006, 1000 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20585-0121. Telephone... industrial equipment, including residential central air conditioners and heat pumps. (42 U.S.C. 6292(3)) In...

  4. 住区公共空间的句法释义--以三类典型布局的住区为例%Syntax Paraphrase for Public Residential Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋敏

    2015-01-01

    住区公共空间的相互关系和构形会影响居民在住区中的认知和行为。三个不同空间结构住区的实证研究表明全局整合度和全局选择度能在一定程度反映住区空间结构的等级性和可达性,从而刻画不同空间结构带来的不同的意念社区。并且,研究表明公共空间自身的构形也会影响空间的使用,空间句法能够有效地刻画空间行为。%The correlation and configuration of public residential space can influence residents' cognition and behavior. It is validated by the study on three residential communities of different space structures that total integration and selection can mirror the hierarchy and accessibility of public residen-tial space, and different virtual communities are presented with different space structures. The study also shows that public space and figuration itself can influence space usage and space syntax can effectively explain space behavior.

  5. The EV Project Price/Fee Models for Publicly Accessible Charging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, James Edward [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-12-01

    As plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are introduced to the market place and gain more consumer acceptance, it is important for a robust and self-sustaining non-residential infrastructure of electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) to be established to meet the needs of PEV drivers. While federal and state financial incentives for electric vehicles were in place and remain so today, future incentives are uncertain. In order for PEVs to achieve mainstream adoption, an adequate and sustainable commercial or publicly available charging infrastructure was pursued by The EV Project to encourage increased PEV purchases by alleviating range anxiety, and by removing adoption barriers for consumers without a dedicated overnight parking location to provide a home-base charger. This included determining a business model for publicly accessible charge infrastructure. To establish this business model, The EV Project team created a fee for charge model along with various ancillary offerings related to charging that would generate revenue. And after placing chargers in the field the Project rolled out this fee structure.

  6. An Energy Efficient Protocol for Gateway-Centric Federated Residential Access Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, Claudio; Chiasserini, Carla-Fabiana

    2011-01-01

    The proliferation of overlapping, always-on IEEE 802.11 Access Points (APs) in urban areas can cause spectrum sharing conflicts, inefficient bandwidth usage and power waste. Cooperation among APs could address these problems (i) by allowing under-used devices to hand over their clients to nearby APs and temporarily switch off, (ii) by balancing the load of clients among APs and thus offloading congested APs. The federated houses model provides an appealing backdrop to implement cooperation among APs. In this paper, we outline a framework that, assuming the presence of a multipurpose gateway with AP capabilities in every household, allows such cooperation through the monitoring of local wireless resources and the triggering of offloading requests toward other federated gateways. We then present simulation results in realistic settings that provide some insight on the capabilities of our framework.

  7. DIRECTORY OF RESIDENTIAL FACILITIES FOR THE MENTALLY RETARDED, A NATIONAL DIRECTORY OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE RESIDENTIAL FACILITIES (SCHOOLS, HOSPITALS, HOMES) FOR THE MENTALLY RETARDED IN THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MILLIGAN, GLENN E.; NISONGER, HERSCHEL W.

    PUBLIC RESIDENTIAL FACILITIES (138 IN THE UNITED STATES AND 10 IN CANADA) RESPONDED TO A MAIL INQUIRY FORM. INFORMATIVE DATA ARE LISTED REGARDING (1) THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF PRESENTLY OPERATIONAL INSITUTIONS, (2) RATED CAPACITIES AND ACTUAL POPULATION, (3) ADMISSION POLICIES, (4) CHARACTERISTICS OF RESIDENT POPULATION, (5) RESIDENT PROGRAMS,…

  8. Remote Sensing Open Access Journal: Increasing Impact through Quality Publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad S. Thenkabail

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Remote Sensing, an open access journal (http://www.mdpi.com/journal/remotesensing has grown at rapid pace since its first publication five years ago, and has acquired a strong reputation. It is a “pathfinder” being the first open access journal in remote sensing. For those academics who were used to waiting a year or two for their peer-reviewed scientific work to be reviewed, revised, edited, and published, Remote Sensing offers a publication time frame that is unheard of (in most cases, less than four months. However, we do this after multiple peer-reviews, multiple revisions, much editorial scrutiny and decision-making, and professional editing by an editorial office before a paper is published online in our tight time frame, bringing a paradigm shift in scientific publication. As a result, there has been a swift increase in submissions of higher and higher quality manuscripts from the best authors and institutes working on Remote Sensing, Geographic Information Systems (GIS, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS, GIScience, and all related geospatial science and technologies from around the world. The purpose of this editorial is to update everyone interested in Remote Sensing on the progress made over the last year, and provide an outline of our vision for the immediate future. [...

  9. Communicative social capital and collective efficacy as determinants of access to health-enhancing resources in residential communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsaganis, Matthew D; Wilkin, Holley A

    2015-04-01

    This article contributes to the burgeoning literature on the social determinants of health disparities. The authors investigate how communication resources and collective efficacy, independently and in combination, shape residents' access to health enhancing resources (including healthcare services, sources of healthier food options, and public recreation spaces) in their communities. Using random digit dial telephone survey data from 833 residents of South Los Angeles communities the authors show that communicative social capital-that is, an information and problem-solving resource that accrues to residents as they become more integrated into their local communication network of neighbors, community organizations, and local media-plays a significant role in access to health resources. This relationship is complicated by individuals' health insurance and health status, as communicative social capital magnifies the sense of absence of resources for those who are in worse health and lack insurance. Communicative social capital builds collective efficacy, which is positively related to access to health-enhancing resources, but it also mediates the negative relationship between communicative social capital and access to health resources. Residents with richer stores of communicative social capital and collective efficacy report better access to health resources. The authors conclude with a discussion of implications of these findings and suggestions for future research.

  10. Licensed Shared Access System Possibilities for Public Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalle Lähetkangas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the licensed shared access (LSA concept based spectrum sharing ideas between public safety (PS and commercial radio systems. While the concept of LSA has been well developed, it has not been thoroughly investigated from the public safety (PS users’ point of view, who have special requirements and also should benefit from the concept. Herein, we discuss the alternatives for spectrum sharing between PS and commercial systems. In particular, we proceed to develop robust solutions for LSA use cases where connections to the LSA system may fail. We simulate the proposed system with different failure models. The results show that the method offers reliable LSA spectrum sharing in various conditions assuming that the system parameters are set properly. The paper gives guidelines to set these parameters.

  11. 76 FR 68518 - Request for Information: Public Access to Peer-Reviewed Scholarly Publications Resulting From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... Technology Policy (OSTP) on behalf of the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC). SUPPLEMENTARY... science maximize the benefit of public access policies to U.S. taxpayers, and their investment in the peer... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND...

  12. Maryland Public Library Services for the Handicapped. A Survey for Handicapped Accessibility to Public Library Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore. Div. of Library Development and Services.

    Prepared as a part of an ongoing effort to make Maryland public libraries readily accessible to the handicapped, this directory identifies equipment, services, and facilities available to library users who are confined to wheel chairs and others who have difficulty with steps or stairs. Supplied by the administrators of Maryland's 24 public…

  13. Access to dental public services by disabled persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal Rocha, Lyana; Vieira de Lima Saintrain, Maria; Pimentel Gomes Fernandes Vieira-Meyer, Anya

    2015-03-13

    According to the World Health Organization, one in every 10 people has a disability, and more than two-thirds of them do not receive any type of oral dental care. The Brazilian Constitution of 1988 guarantees all civilians including disabled people the right to healthcare, shaping the guidelines of the Brazilian National Health Care System (Sistema Único de Saúde--SUS). However, there is limited information about the true accessibility of dental services. This study evaluated the accessibility of public dental services to persons with disabilities in Fortaleza, Ceará, which has the third highest disability rate in Brazil. A cross-sectional quantitative study using structured questionnaires was administered to dentists (n = 89) and people with disabilities (n = 204) to evaluate the geographical, architectural, and organizational accessibility of health facilities, the communication between professionals and patients with disabilities, the demand for dental services, and factors influencing the use of dental services by people with motor, visual, and hearing impairments. 43.1% of people with disabilities do not recognize their service as a priority of Basic Health Units (BHU), 52.5% do not usually seek dental care, and of those who do (n = 97), 76.3% find it difficult to receive care and 84.5% only seek care on an emergency basis. Forty-five percent are unaware of the services offered in the BHU. Of the dentists, 56.2% reported difficulty in communicating with deaf patients, and 97.8% desired interpreters stationed in the BHU. People with disabilities gave better accessibility ratings than dentists (p = 0.001). 37.3% of the patients and 43.8% of dentists reported inadequate physical access infrastructure (including doors, hallways, waiting rooms, and offices). Dentists (60%) reported unsafe environments and transportation difficulties as geographical barriers, while most people with disabilities did not report noticing these barriers. While access to dental

  14. Virtual slides in peer reviewed, open access medical publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayser Klaus

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Application of virtual slides (VS, the digitalization of complete glass slides, is in its infancy to be implemented in routine diagnostic surgical pathology and to issues that are related to tissue-based diagnosis, such as education and scientific publication. Approach Electronic publication in Pathology offers new features of scientific communication in pathology that cannot be obtained by conventional paper based journals. Most of these features are based upon completely open or partly directed interaction between the reader and the system that distributes the article. One of these interactions can be applied to microscopic images allowing the reader to navigate and magnify the presented images. VS and interactive Virtual Microscopy (VM are a tool to increase the scientific value of microscopic images. Technology and Performance The open access journal Diagnostic Pathology http://www.diagnosticpathology.org has existed for about five years. It is a peer reviewed journal that publishes all types of scientific contributions, including original scientific work, case reports and review articles. In addition to digitized still images the authors of appropriate articles are requested to submit the underlying glass slides to an institution (DiagnomX.eu, and Leica.com for digitalization and documentation. The images are stored in a separate image data bank which is adequately linked to the article. The normal review process is not involved. Both processes (peer review and VS acquisition are performed contemporaneously in order to minimize a potential publication delay. VS are not provided with a DOI index (digital object identifier. The first articles that include VS were published in March 2011. Results and Perspectives Several logistic constraints had to be overcome until the first articles including VS could be published. Step by step an automated acquisition and distribution system had to be implemented to the corresponding

  15. Public Response to Residential Grid-Tied PV Systems in Colorado: A Qualitative Market Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhar, Barbara C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Buhrmann, Jan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The early adopters of residential grid-tied photovoltaics (PV) have complex motivations to pay today's costs, including altruistic, environmental, and financial reasons. Focused interviews were conducted with a self-selected purposive sample interested in purchasing 2-kW or 3-kW PV systems with an installed cost of $8,000 to $12,000. The sample tended to be men or married couples ranging in age from their early thirties to their mid-eighties; professionals, managers, or small business owners; relatively financially secure, with experience with energy efficiency and renewable energy. Product attributes they preferred were net metering, warranties, guarantees, utility financing, maintenance, an option to own or lease, a battery option, and an aesthetically pleasing system. Potential PV customers needed more information before making a purchase decision.

  16. Public and vehicle lighting in residential areas : paper presented to the Chartered Institution of Building Services CIBS Annual Conference 1979, Harrogate, 19-23 May 1979.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    Roads in the conventional residential areas serve the purpose of leading to and from the houses in them. Thus, they are essentially traffic routes which may carry all road traffic modes, viz: pedestrians, pedal and motor bicycles, motor cars and trucks, and public service vehicles (buses or trams).

  17. The quasi-market for adult residential care in the UK: Do for-profit, not-for-profit or public sector residential care and nursing homes provide better quality care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, David N; West, Elizabeth

    2017-04-01

    There has been a radical transformation in the provision of adult residential and nursing home care in England over the past four decades. Up to the 1980s, over 80% of adult residential care was provided by the public sector, but today public sector facilities account for only 8% of the available places, with the rest being provided by a mixture of for-profit firms (74%) and non-profit charities (18%). The public sector's role is often now that of purchaser (paying the fees of people unable to afford them) and regulator. While the idea that private companies may play a bigger role in the future provision of health care is highly contentious in the UK, the transformation of the residential and nursing home care has attracted little comment. Concerns about the quality of care do emerge from time to time, often stimulated by high profile media investigations, scandals or criminal prosecutions, but there is little or no evidence about whether or not the transformation of the sector from largely public to private provision has had a beneficial effect on those who need the service. This study asks whether there are differences in the quality of care provided by public, non-profit or for-profit facilities in England. We use data on care quality for over 15,000 homes that are provided by the industry regulator in England: the Care Quality Commission (CQC). These data are the results of inspections carried out between April 2011 and October 2015. Controlling for a range of facility characteristics such as age and size, proportional odds logistic regression showed that for-profit facilities have lower CQC quality ratings than public and non-profit providers over a range of measures, including safety, effectiveness, respect, meeting needs and leadership. We discuss the implications of these results for the ongoing debates about the role of for-profit providers of health and social care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Heterogeneity of publicly accessible online critical values for therapeutic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colt M McClain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Critical values are reported to clinicians when laboratory values are life threatening and require immediate attention. To date no definitive critical value limit recommendations have been produced regarding therapeutic drug monitoring. Some laboratories choose to publish critical value lists online. These publicly available values may be accessed and potentially utilized by laboratory staff, patient care providers, and patients. Materials and Methods: A web-based search of laboratories associated with the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education pathology residency programs was initiated to determine which therapeutic drugs had critical values and to examine the degree of variation in published critical values for these institutions. Results: Of the 107 institutions with university-based pathology training programs, 36 had published critical values online for review. Thirteen therapeutic drugs were investigated and the number of institutions reporting critical value limits for the drug, as well as the median, range, standard deviation, and the coefficient of variation of critical value concentration limits for each drug were determined. A number of the online critical value limits were deemed to be erroneous, most likely due to incorrectly listed units of measurement. Conclusions: There was a large degree of heterogeneity with regard to the chosen critical value limits for therapeutic drugs. This wide variance in critical values appears to be greater than that observed in interassay proficiency testing. Institutions should reexamine the rationale for their current critical value parameters and ensure that critical value limits and associated units are accurately published online.

  19. Strategies Used For Developing Micro-CCHP Structures in Residential and Public Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion PARASCHIV

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The current paper deals with the efficient use of the fossil fuels in the context of DER/DG concept through a unitary approach of the necessary electrical power and thermal energy of an urban residential quarter and proposes the use of micro-CCHP (trigeneration of electrical power, heat and cooling systems. An analysis of theconsumption structures of electrical power and natural gas is provided for the specific conditions of Romanias’ South-Eastern regions. The paper contains a case study which highlights the imbalance between electrical and thermal consumption throughout a year. It also includes a strategy of designing the micro-CCHP systems according to the ratio between generated electrical power and thermal power (P/Pth by the system and the same ratio for the consumers previously analyzed. The paper presents a proposed structure of micro-CCHP which has, as basic, thermal engines with fuel cells as well as the overall thermal result of the systems’ forecast for the critical seasons - winter/summer.

  20. Public Access for Teaching Genomics, Proteomics, and Bioinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    2003-01-01

    When the human genome project was conceived, its leaders wanted all researchers to have equal access to the data and associated research tools. Their vision of equal access provides an unprecedented teaching opportunity. Teachers and students have free access to the same databases that researchers are using. Furthermore, the recent movement to…

  1. Public Access for Teaching Genomics, Proteomics, and Bioinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    2003-01-01

    When the human genome project was conceived, its leaders wanted all researchers to have equal access to the data and associated research tools. Their vision of equal access provides an unprecedented teaching opportunity. Teachers and students have free access to the same databases that researchers are using. Furthermore, the recent movement to…

  2. "Open Access" Requires Clarification: Medical Journal Publication Models Evolve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowitz, James H; Brand, Jefferson C; Rossi, Michael J; Provencher, Matthew T

    2017-03-01

    While Arthroscopy journal is a traditional subscription model journal, our companion journal Arthroscopy Techniques is "open access." We used to believe open access simply meant online and free of charge. However, while open-access journals are free to readers, in 2017 authors must make a greater sacrifice in the form of an article-processing charge (APC). Again, while this does not apply to Arthroscopy, the APC will apply to Arthroscopy Techniques.

  3. Individual public transportation accessibility is positively associated with self-reported active commuting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sune eDjurhuus

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Active commuters have lower risk of chronic disease. Understanding which of the, to some extent, modifiable characteristics of public transportation that facilitate its use is thus important in a public health perspective. The aim of the study was to examine the association between individual public transportation accessibility and self-reported active commuting, and whether the associations varied with commute distance, age and gender. Methods: 28,928 commuters in the Capital Region of Denmark reported self-reported time spent either walking or cycling to work or study each day and the distance to work or study. Data were obtained from the Danish National Health Survey collected in February to April 2010. Individual accessibility by public transportation was calculated using a multimodal network in a GIS. Multilevel logistic regression was used to analyze the association between accessibility, expressed as access area, and being an active commuter.Results: Public transport accessibility area based on all stops within walking and cycling distance was positively associated with being an active commuter. Distance to work, age and gender modified the associations. Residing within 10 km commuting distance and in areas of high accessibility was associated with being an active commuter and meeting the recommendations of physical activity. For the respondents above 29 years, Individual public transportation accessibility was positively associated with being an active commuter. Women having high accessibility had significantly higher odds of being an active commuter compared to having a low accessibility. For men the associations were insignificant.Conclusions: This study extends the knowledge about the driving forces of using public transportation for commuting by examining the individual public transportation accessibility. Findings suggest that transportation accessibility supports active commuting and planning of improved public transit

  4. Availability, Access, Authenticity, and Persistence: Creating the Environment for Permanent Public Access to Electronic Government Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnum, George

    2002-01-01

    Discusses efforts by the Federal Depository Library Program to make information accessible more or mostly by electronic means. Topics include Web-based locator tools; collection development; digital archives; bibliographic metadata; and access tools and user interfaces. (Author/LRW)

  5. 22 CFR 214.51 - Administrative review of denial for public access to records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administrative review of denial for public access to records. 214.51 Section 214.51 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT Administrative Remedies § 214.51 Administrative review of denial for public access to...

  6. Public Access Cable Television: Extending the Production Laboratory for College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Glenn D.

    Noting the difficulties communication departments have in providing students with television production opportunities, this paper proposes the use of cable television public access channels as a means of overcoming those difficulties. After defining and differentiating between local origination and public access programing, the paper discusses the…

  7. 48 CFR 504.602-71 - Federal Procurement Data System-Public access to data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Federal Procurement Data System-Public access to data. 504.602-71 Section 504.602-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Procurement Data System—Public access to data. (a) The FPDS database. The General Services...

  8. Acceptance and Adoption of Open Access Publication (OAP) in University Libraries in South East Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambe, Manasseh Tyungu; Raphael, Gabriel Okplogidi

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the kinds of open access scholarly publication or information resources accepted and adopted by federal university libraries in South East Nigeria. The purpose was to determine the factors that affect open access scholarly publication or information resources acceptance and adoption in university libraries. The study adopted…

  9. The cost of acquiring public hunting access on family forests lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Kilgore; Stephanie A. Snyder; Joesph M. Schertz; Steven J. Taff

    2008-01-01

    To address the issue of declining access to private forest land in the United States for hunting, over 1,000 Minnesota family forest owners were surveyed to estimate the cost of acquiring non-exclusive public hunting access rights. The results indicate landowner interest in selling access rights is extremely modest. Using binary logistic regression, the mean annual...

  10. Residential end-use load research forecasting and DSM planning at Missouri Public Service: Objectives, design, and data issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adkins, R.D.; Watkins, E.L. [Missouri Public Service, Kansas City, MO (United States); Baxter, T.A. [Aspen Systems Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The development of end-use energy consumption and load shape data is important for end-use load forecasting and demand-side management (DSM) planning applications. This paper discusses the objectives, sample design data issues and applications of residential end-use load research and customer survey data at Missouri Public Service (MPS); a combination electric and natural gas utility division of UtiliCorp United Inc. Multiple objectives including rate design, market research, end-use load forecasting and DSM planning, determined that an integrated end-use load research sample design would be the most cost-effective approach. Comprehensive end-use customer survey data was collected and analyzed using XENERGY`s RECAP bill disaggregation program in conjunction with and end-use load research project in 1992 to calibrate EPRI`s REEPS forecasts. The resulting end-use load shapes and UEC`s provide consistent inputs to SRC`s COMPASS model and EPRI`s DSManager model for DSM Planning

  11. 24 CFR 1003.507 - Public access to program records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT BLOCK GRANTS FOR INDIAN TRIBES AND ALASKA NATIVE VILLAGES Grant...), grantees shall provide citizens with reasonable access to records regarding the past use of ICDBG funds...

  12. Open access for operational research publications from low- and middle-income countries: who pays?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariah, R; Kumar, A M V; Reid, A J; Van den Bergh, R; Isaakidis, P; Draguez, B; Delaunois, P; Nagaraja, S B; Ramsay, A; Reeder, J C; Denisiuk, O; Ali, E; Khogali, M; Hinderaker, S G; Kosgei, R J; van Griensven, J; Quaglio, G L; Maher, D; Billo, N E; Terry, R F; Harries, A D

    2014-09-21

    Open-access journal publications aim to ensure that new knowledge is widely disseminated and made freely accessible in a timely manner so that it can be used to improve people's health, particularly those in low- and middle-income countries. In this paper, we briefly explain the differences between closed- and open-access journals, including the evolving idea of the 'open-access spectrum'. We highlight the potential benefits of supporting open access for operational research, and discuss the conundrum and ways forward as regards who pays for open access.

  13. [On the question of occurrence and the problem of hygiene rating of fungal air pollution of the environment of residential and public buildings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubernskiĭ, Iu D; Beliaeva, N N; Kalinina, N V; Mel'nikova, A I; Chuprina, O V

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive sanitary examinations of fungal pollution of the environment of residential and public buildings were performed. There is established the occurrence of sensitization of the population associated with the fungal contamination of the wallings of buildings and presence of viable mold spores in the indoor air environment. Major factors determining the degree of fungal contamination of indoor environments: increasing humidity of indoor air due to leaks and bays, the area of enclosure structures and the temperature factor have been identified.

  14. Public Civil Action : Access to Environmental Justice in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Serra, Tatiana Barreto

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to trace an overview of the role of the State Public Prosecution Offiece in the protection of the environment, notably through public civil action. Thus, it is important to note that in alignment with the evolution of the International Environmental Law, Brazil experienced, especially from the 80's, a major boost to environmental legislation. At the same extent, the legislation improvement gave functional and administratve autonomy to the Public Prosecution Office, wh...

  15. Privacy with Public Access: Digital Memorials on QR Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotved, Stine

    2015-01-01

    takes the departure in gravestones with QR-codes; objects at once physical and digital, underhandedly putting presumably private content within public reach. A plethora of issues of privacy and publicness are at play within the study's two connected but rather different empirical spaces: the physical...... in the borderland between private and public is exemplified, and with the presentation, we are ensuring a continued discussion on privacy as well as legacy in our digital society....

  16. Public Access and Use of Health Research: An Exploratory Study of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Public Access Policy Using Interviews and Surveys of Health Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willinsky, John; Maggio, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Background In 2008, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Public Access Policy mandated open access for publications resulting from NIH funding (following a 12-month embargo). The large increase in access to research that will take place in the years to come has potential implications for evidence-based practice (EBP) and lifelong learning for health personnel. Objective This study assesses health personnel’s current use of research to establish whether grounds exist for expecting, preparing for, and further measuring the impact of the NIH Public Access Policy on health care quality and outcomes in light of time constraints and existing information resources. Methods In all, 14 interviews and 90 surveys of health personnel were conducted at a community-based clinic and an independent teaching hospital in 2010. Health personnel were asked about the research sources they consulted and the frequency with which they consulted these sources, as well as motivation and search strategies used to locate articles, perceived level of access to research, and knowledge of the NIH Public Access Policy. Results In terms of current access to health information, 65% (57/88) of the health personnel reported being satisfied, while 32% (28/88) reported feeling underserved. Among the sources health personnel reported that they relied upon and consulted weekly, 83% (73/88) reported turning to colleagues, 77% (67/87) reported using synthesized information resources (eg, UpToDate and Cochrane Systematic Reviews), while 32% (28/88) reported that they consulted primary research literature. The dominant resources health personnel consulted when actively searching for health information were Google and Wikipedia, while 27% (24/89) reported using PubMed weekly. The most prevalent reason given for accessing research on a weekly basis, reported by 35% (31/88) of survey respondents, was to help a specific patient, while 31% (26/84) were motivated by general interest in research. Conclusions

  17. Facilities Management Service Delivery in Public and Private High Rise Residential Buildings in Nigeria: A case study of Eko Court Complex and Niger Towers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanrele O. O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed and compared the delivery of Facilities Management (FM services in public and private high rise residential buildings in Lagos, Nigeria. While some facilities or services may not be available in some public estates, the efficiency of the available ones is inadequate in comparison with the adequacy and efficiency of services provided in private estates. The objectives set for the study include identification of services that are provided in the case studies, service delivery method, and an assessment of the residents’ satisfaction of the services. This study adopted questionnaire survey for collection of data. 127 questionnaires were distributed to the residents of the case studies and 93 were returned. Three of which were discarded for incompleteness, thus 90 were analysed. The study found that most but not all of the facilities services expected in high rise buildings are available in the case studies and the services are outsourced under a standard Service Level Agreement. The service delivery in private high rise residential building is better than the public residential high rise buildings as revealed by the study. The study recommends improved standardization of services, customized services and meeting customer’s expectation for improved service delivery.

  18. Relationship of public preferences and behavior in residential outdoor spaces using analytic hierarchy process and principal component analysis——a case study of Hangzhou City, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Jian-ren; ZHAO Xiu-min; GE Jian; HOKAO Kazunori; WANG Zhu

    2006-01-01

    This study examined public attitudes concerning the value of outdoor spaces which people use daily. Two successive analyses were performed based on data from common residents and college students in the city of Hangzhou, China. First, citizens registered various items constituting desirable values of residential outdoor spaces through a preliminary questionnaire. The result proposed three general attributes (functional, aesthetic and ecological) and ten specific qualities of residential outdoor spaces. An analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was applied to an interview survey in order to clarify the weights among these attributes and qualities. Second, principal factors were extracted from the ten specific qualities with principal component analysis (PCA) for both the common case and the campus case. In addition, the variations of respondents' groups were classified with cluster analysis (CA)using the results of the PCA. The results of the AHP application found that the public prefers the functional attribute, rather than the aesthetic attribute. The latter is always viewed as the core value of open spaces in the eyes of architects and designers. Furthermore, comparisons of ten specific qualities showed that the public prefers the open spaces that can be utilized conveniently and easily for group activities, because such spaces keep an active lifestyle of neighborhood communication, which is also seen to protect human-regarding residential environments. Moreover, different groups of respondents diverge largely in terms of gender,age, behavior and preference.

  19. Role of public organisations in the creation of new broadband access infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgmeijer, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    Which roles may a public organisation play in the creation of new broadband access infrastructures? The main discussion issues about the roles of public organisations in relation to regulation and market distortion principles are given. Based upon some public policies and principles, the general

  20. Role of public organisations in the creation of new broadband access infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgmeijer, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    Which roles may a public organisation play in the creation of new broadband access infrastructures? The main discussion issues about the roles of public organisations in relation to regulation and market distortion principles are given. Based upon some public policies and principles, the general req

  1. Privacy with Public Access: Digital Memorials on QR Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotved, Stine

    2015-01-01

    Digital memorials are part of a bigger picture of changing rituals for mourning, remembrance, and legacy. However, the focus of this presentation is how digital memorials perforate the (already uneasy) distinction between private and public, both in physical and emotional space. The ongoing study...... takes the departure in gravestones with QR-codes; objects at once physical and digital, underhandedly putting presumably private content within public reach. A plethora of issues of privacy and publicness are at play within the study's two connected but rather different empirical spaces: the physical...

  2. 75 FR 39135 - Voluntary Public Access and Habitat Incentive Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... satisfaction from these opportunities. The benefits will be where landowners permit access. VPA-HIP benefits... sales, and increased restaurant and motel expenditures. VPA-HIP is expected to provide $50 million, the... should show how customers will be identified, key personnel to be involved with administration of the...

  3. Access to forest inventory data: towards transparency in public administration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borghetti M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Transparency in public administration is an important issue in a modern democracy. Thus, we are glad to know the National Forest Service of Italy (Corpo Forestale dello Stato will make soon available on the web the forest inventory data collected in the ongoing National Inventory of Forests and Carbon stocks. We expect all public administrations “storing” important environmental data sets follow this way.

  4. The Association between Access to Public Transportation and Self-Reported Active Commuting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djurhuus, Sune; Hansen, Henning S; Aadahl, Mette

    2014-01-01

    more moderate physical activity than non-users. Understanding how public transportation characteristics are associated with active transportation is thus important from a public health perspective. This study examines the associations between objective measures of access to public transportation...... and self-reported active commuting. Self-reported time spent either walking or cycling commuting each day and the distance to workplace were obtained for adults aged 16 to 65 in the Danish National Health Survey 2010 (n = 28,928). Access to public transportation measures were computed by combining GIS......-based road network distances from home address to public transit stops an integrating their service level. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine the association between access to public transportation measures and active commuting. Distance to bus stop, density of bus stops, and number...

  5. Accessibility of private and public aspects of traits descriptive of oneself and others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrozinski, Blazej; Karylowski, Jerzy J

    2011-12-01

    Previous research has shown that compared to mental representations of others, mental representations of ourselves are characterized by relatively greater accessibility of private, unobservable content, as opposed to content that is public and observable. Are those differences preserved when individuals focus on their own public selves and/or on private selves of others? Participants were asked to make social judgments involving traits that, in their view, were highly descriptive of either public or private selves of themselves, their best friend, or an acquaintance. Results demonstrated that highly self-descriptive traits were more accessible in social judgments involving individuals' private rather than public selves. This was true not only for traits descriptive of one's private self but also for traits descriptive of one's public self. Furthermore, other-descriptive traits, including traits that were highly descriptive of representations of private selves of others, were more accessible in social judgments involving public rather than private selves.

  6. Zoning and mode of rural residential land consolidation based on accessibility to production and living facilities%基于生产生活可达性的农村居民点整治分区及模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘耀林; 范建彬; 孔雪松; 刘艳芳

    2015-01-01

    The consolidation of rural residential land should meet the needs of farmers for their life and for agriculture production, and improve the accessibility to production and living facilities. In this paper, we started with the accessibility to production and living facilities and used the accessibility to production and living facilities in rural residential land as the basis for deciding different zones for consolidation and what consolidation modes to adopt. Firstly, we built an indicator system for assessing the accessibility in terms of the two aspects, the production accessibility and living facilities accessibility. Production accessibility was based on the consideration of both agricultural production sites and non-agricultural employment places. While the living facilities accessibility was based on the accessibility of education, medical care, commercial and recreational facilities. Then, we used the time-cost to demonstrate the accessibility. On the basis of setting the passage time of unit distance (30 m) on the lands of different function, measure the accessibility of various facilities using Path Distance Tool of ARCGIS 10.0 with elevation as its correction factor. After that, by using indicator comprehensive judgment method, and superimposing with map layer of rural residential land, we obtained the accessibility to production and living facilities of rural residential land, which was divided into four grades I, II, III and IV, corresponding to development zone, optimization zone, guidance zone and demolition zone, respectively. Finally, according to different zones of consolidation and the actual situation, six modes of consolidation were presented, including urbanization development mode, urban and rural overall development mode, comprehensive optimization mode, networking guidance mode, land-use increase and decrease linked mode and ecological relocation mode. In the development zone, rural residential lands located in the urban planning area were

  7. Accessibility in Public Buildings: Efficiency of Checklist Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Jonas E; Skehan, Terry

    2016-01-01

    In Sweden, governmental agencies and bodies are required to implement a higher level of accessibility in their buildings than that stipulated by the National Building and Planning Act (PBL). The Swedish Agency for Participation (MFD, Myndigheten för delaktighet) develops holistic guidelines in order to conceptualize this higher level of accessibility. In conjunction to these guidelines, various checklist protocols have been produced. The present study focuses on the efficiency of such checklist protocols. The study revolved around the use of a checklist protocol in assessments of two buildings in Stockholm: the new head office for the National Authority for Social Insurances (ASI) and the School of Architecture at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH). The study included three groups: Group 1 and Group 2 consisted of 50 real estate managers employed by the ASI, while Group 3 consisted of three participants in a course at the KTH. The results were similar in all of the groups. The use of the checklist protocol generated queries, which related mainly to two factors: (1) the accompanying factsheet consisted of textual explanations with no drawings, photographs or illustrations and (2) the order of the questions in the checklist protocol was difficult to correlate with the two buildings' spatial logic of accessing, egressing and making use of the built space.

  8. The Association between Access to Public Transportation and Self-Reported Active Commuting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sune Djurhuus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Active commuting provides routine-based regular physical activity which can reduce the risk of chronic diseases. Using public transportation involves some walking or cycling to a transit stop, transfers and a walk to the end location and users of public transportation have been found to accumulate more moderate physical activity than non-users. Understanding how public transportation characteristics are associated with active transportation is thus important from a public health perspective. This study examines the associations between objective measures of access to public transportation and self-reported active commuting. Self-reported time spent either walking or cycling commuting each day and the distance to workplace were obtained for adults aged 16 to 65 in the Danish National Health Survey 2010 (n = 28,928. Access to public transportation measures were computed by combining GIS-based road network distances from home address to public transit stops an integrating their service level. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine the association between access to public transportation measures and active commuting. Distance to bus stop, density of bus stops, and number of transport modes were all positively associated with being an active commuter and with meeting recommendations of physical activity. No significant association was found between bus services at the nearest stop and active commuting. The results highlight the importance of including detailed measurements of access to public transit in order to identify the characteristics that facilitate the use of public transportation and active commuting.

  9. The relation between residential property and its surroundings and day- and night-time residential burglary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montoya, Lorena; Junger, Marianne; Ongena, Yfke

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how residential property and its surroundings influence day- and night-time residential burglary. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) principles of territoriality, surveillance, access control, target hardening, image maintenance, and activity support underpin

  10. The Public Image of Libraries and Librarians as a Potential Barrier to Rural Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Brad

    1995-01-01

    Examines stereotypes of the librarian as serious barriers to rural information access, and offers strategies for improving the public image of rural libraries and of the people who keep them functioning. (Author/JKP)

  11. CHORUS – providing a scalable solution for public access to scholarly research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Ratner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available CHORUS (Clearinghouse for the Open Research of the United States offers an open technology platform in response to the public access requirements of US federal funding agencies, researchers, institutions and the public. It is focused on five principal sets of functions: 'identification', 'preservation', 'discovery', 'access', and 'compliance' . CHORUS facilitates public access to peer-reviewed publications, after a determined embargo period (where applicable, for each discipline and agency. By leveraging existing tools such as CrossRef, FundRef and ORCID, CHORUS allows a greater proportion of funding to remain focused on research. CHORUS identifies articles that report on federally funded research and enables a reader to access the ‘best available version’ free of charge, via the publisher. It is a scalable solution that offers maximum efficiency for all parties by automating as much of the process as is possible. CHORUS launched in pilot phase in September 2013, and the production phase will begin in early 2014.

  12. Comparable Measures of Accessibility to Public Transport Using the General Transit Feed Specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinjoo Bok

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Public transport plays a critical role in the sustainability of urban settings. The mass mobility and quality of urban lives can be improved by establishing public transport networks that are accessible to pedestrians within a reasonable walking distance. Accessibility to public transport is characterized by the ease with which inhabitants can reach means of transportation such as buses or metros. By measuring the degree of accessibility to public transport networks using a common data format, a comparative study can be conducted between different cities or metropolitan areas with different public transit systems. The General Transit Feed Specification (GTFS by Google Developers allows this by offering a common format based on text files and sharing the data set voluntarily produced and contributed by the public transit agencies of many participating cities around the world. This paper suggests a method to assess and compare public transit accessibility in different urban areas using the GTFS feed and demographic data. To demonstrate the value of the new method, six examples of metropolitan areas and their public transit accessibility are presented and compared.

  13. Maximizing Accessibility of Academic Publications: Applications of Electronic Publishing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffress, Laura; Lyle, Stacey D.

    2012-01-01

    Professors at higher education institutions often feel pressure to "publish or perish" in order to maintain their standing in the academic community, yet a large number of these publications languish in obscure technical journals or are presented only once at a conference or online journal. While these methods achieve the goal of…

  14. Immigrants' Access to Public Assistance: Missed Opportunities following Welfare Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Danielle A.; Hatfield, Bridget E.

    2008-01-01

    The Personal Responsibility and Work Reconciliation Act of 1996 reformed public assistance programs and reduced the safety net of supports for low-income families. Children living in low-income immigrant families face particular challenges in the current policy environment. In this article, the authors consider what these changes have meant for…

  15. An Overview of Public Access Computer Software Management Tools for Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, Richard

    2004-01-01

    An IT decision maker gives an overview of public access PC software that's useful in controlling session length and scheduling, Internet access, print output, security, and the latest headaches: spyware and adware. In this article, the author describes a representative sample of software tools in several important categories such as setup…

  16. Providing Access to Local Government Information: The Nature of Public Library Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrance, Joan C.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a survey of public libraries that examined problems associated with access to local government information. Findings are reported on the nature of requests received, the types of responses given and sources used, and reasons given by librarians for providing access to local government information. (14 notes with references) (CLB)

  17. US Government Information: Selected Current Issues in Public Access vs. Private Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of the dissemination of government information focuses on the debate concerning public versus private access to government information; efforts of the National Technical Information Service (NTIS); electronic access and the need for printed documents; and joint efforts between government agencies and the private sector to charge for…

  18. Using copyright to promote access to public sector information: a comparative survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jasserand, C.; Hugenholtz, P.B.

    2012-01-01

    This study, which is part of a three-part report on Using Copyright to Enhance Access to Information and Creative Content, examines the role that copyright plays in facilitating access to and reuse of public sector information. It briefly describes the laws, national policies and government practice

  19. A National Survey of Public Support for Restrictions on Youth Access to Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, William J.; Crowe, James W.

    1994-01-01

    Reports a national telephone survey that measured public support for seven proposals to restrict youth access to tobacco products. Nearly all respondents believed child and adolescent smoking was a serious problem. Most supported all proposed measures to restrict children's access to tobacco and to increase the cigarette excise tax. (Author/SM)

  20. Public Libraries and Internet Access across the United States: A Comparison by State 2004–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T. Jaeger

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Drawing upon findings from a national survey of U.S. public libraries, this paper examines trends in Internet and public computing access in public libraries across states from 2004 to 2006. Based on library-supplied information about levels and types of Internet and public computing access, the authors offer insights into the network-based content and services that public libraries provide. Examining data from 2004 to 2006 reveals trends and accomplishments in certain states and geographic regions. This paper details and discusses the data, identifies and analyzes issues related to Internet access, and suggests areas for future research.

  1. Perceived Accessibility of Public Transport as a Potential Indicator of Social Inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Lättman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Perceived accessibility has been acknowledged as an important aspect of transport policy since the 70s. Nevertheless, very few empirical studies have been conducted in this field. When aiming to improve social inclusion, by making sustainable transport modes accessible to all, it is important to understand the factors driving perceived accessibility. Unlike conventional accessibility measures, perceived accessibility focuses on the perceived possibilities and ease of engaging in preferred activities using different transport modes. We define perceived accessibility in terms of how easy it is to live a satisfactory life with the help of the transport system, which is not necessarily the same thing as the objective standard of the system. According to previous research, perceived accessibility varies with the subjectively-rated quality of the mode of transport. Thus, improvements in quality (e.g. trip planning, comfort, or safety increase the perceived accessibility and make life easier to live using the chosen mode of transport. This study (n=750 focuses on the perceived accessibility of public transport, captured using the Perceived Accessibility Scale PAC (Lättman, Olsson, & Friman, 2015. More specifically, this study aims to determine how level of quality affects the perceived accessibility in public transport. A Conditional Process Model shows that, in addition to quality, feeling safe and frequency of travel are important predictors of perceived accessibility. Furthermore, elderly and those in their thirties report a lower level of perceived accessibility to their day-to-day activities using public transport. The basic premise of this study is that subjective experiences may be as important as objective indicators when planning and designing for socially inclusive transport systems.

  2. LHC data to be made public via Open Access initiative

    CERN Multimedia

    Achintya Rao

    2013-01-01

    CMS has collected around 64 petabytes of analysable proton-proton data so far. Along with published papers, these data constitute the scientific legacy of the CMS collaboration, and preserving the data for future generations is crucial.   High-school students analysing CMS data. Image: Marzena Lapka. “To preserve not only the data but also the information on how to use them, we intend to make available through open access our data that are no longer under active analysis,” says Kati Lassila-Perini, head of the CMS Data Preservation and Open Access project at the Helsinki Institute of Physics. Although providing open scientific data allows potentially everyone to perform their own analyses, doing so is very difficult. CMS scientists working in groups take many months or even years to perform a single analysis. Each analysis must be scrutinised by the whole collaboration before a scientific paper can be published. CMS therefore decided to launch a pilot project for its ope...

  3. Public access management as an adaptive wildlife management tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouren, Douglas S.; Watts, Raymond D.

    2005-01-01

    Wildlife populations across the United States are benefiting from improved wildlife management techniques. However, these benefits also create new challenges including overpopulation, disease, increased winter kill, and forage degradation. These issues have become the challenges for natural resource managers and landowners. Specifically, elk (Cervus elaphus) populations in the Gunnison River Valley of Colorado are growing and causing increased resource damage on public and private lands. On public lands elk threaten sage grouse habitat and compete with domestic livestock for available forage; on private lands they diminish available livestock forage. Management of elk and elk habitat in this area is a shared responsibility of the NPS (Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park and Curecanti National Recreation Area), BLM (Uncompahgre Field Office), USFS (Gunnison National Forest), and the CDOW (Colorado Division of Wildlife). All of these agencies participate in this research and adaptive management project.

  4. Winter: Public Enemy #1 for Accessibility EXPLORING NEW SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Morales

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Winter is expensive. For countries situated in the northern hemisphere, closer to the north pole, such as Canada, Russia and Scandinavia, winter requires the acquisition of special clothing, car tires, and sports equipment, snow removal or plowing from the streets, and is associated with the presence of ice patches, along with accidents and illnesses associated with cold weather. Fall-related injuries due to winter conditions have been estimated to cost the Canadian health care system $ 2.8 billion a year. However, the greatest cost snow entails every year is the social isolation of seniors as well as wheelchair and walker users. This results from the lack of accessibility, as it is difficult to circulate on snow-covered streets even for the able-bodied. Social isolation has been associated with other negative consequences such as depression and even suicide. This exploratory pilot study aimed at finding possible and feasible design solutions for improving the accessibility of sidewalks during winter conditions. For this project we used a Co-Design methodology. Stakeholders (City of Quebec representatives, designers, urban planners, occupational therapists, and adults with motor, visual and aural disabilities were invited to participate in the design process. In order to meet the objectives, two main steps were carried out: 1. Conception of the design solutions (through Co-design sessions in a Focus-group format with seniors, designers and researchers; and 2. Validation of the design solutions (consultation with experts and stakeholders. The results are a wide variety of possible and feasible solutions, including the reorganisation of the snow-removal procedure and the development of heated curb cuts. This project was funded by the City of Quebec in partnership with the Centre interdisciplinaire de recherche en réadaptation et intégration sociale (CIRRIS. Ultimately, the project sought to explore possible solutions to be implemented

  5. Public access defibrillators and fire extinguishers: are comparisons reasonable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mell, Howard K; Sayre, Michael R

    2008-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death is a major cause of mortality in the United States of America (Circulation 2008;117:e25-146) with approximately 310000 deaths related to coronary heart disease occurring in emergency departments or in the prehospital environment annually. Several organizations have directed resources toward the treatment of sudden cardiac arrest through a paradigm that has come to be known as the "chain of survival"-prompt activation of emergency response by telephone 911, early bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation, early defibrillation, and timely advanced cardiac life support (Circulation 1991;83:1832-1847). The ready availability of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) has been advocated as a key component of this chain. Some authors have suggested a "fire extinguisher model" for AED deployment (Circulation 1998;98:2334-2351; Resuscitation 1995;30:151-156; Ann Intern Med 2001;135:990-998). In this model, AEDs are prominently displayed in public places for use by laypersons, much like fire extinguishers. For example, in Chicago's O'Hare Airport, AEDs are placed alongside fire extinguishers in the public concourse (N Engl J Med 2002;347:1242-1247). Advocates of this model suggest that advancing this practice would be a means to widely disbourse life-saving technology that is easy to use. Several experts have questioned this model, suggesting that the cost-effectiveness of distributing AEDs this widely would be prohibitive (BMJ 2002;325:515; Curr Opin Cardiol 2007;22:5-10; BMJ 2003;326:162; Int J Technol Assess Health Care 2007;23:362-367) and may not be more effective than more targeted distribution of AEDs. This literature review will examine the available data on both AEDs and fire extinguishers to determine if these comparisons are reasonable as a means of guiding public policy.

  6. Photovoltaics for residential applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-02-01

    Information is given about the parts of a residential photovoltaic system and considerations relevant to photovoltaic power use in homes that are also tied to utility lines. In addition, factors are discussed that influence implementation, including legal and environmental factors such as solar access and building codes, insurance, utility buyback, and system longevity. (LEW)

  7. Photovoltaics for residential applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-02-01

    Information is given about the parts of a residential photovoltaic system and considerations relevant to photovoltaic power use in homes that are also tied to utility lines. In addition, factors are discussed that influence implementation, including legal and environmental factors such as solar access and building codes, insurance, utility buyback, and system longevity. (LEW)

  8. Role of public organisations in the creation of new broadband access infrastructures

    OpenAIRE

    Burgmeijer, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    Which roles may a public organisation play in the creation of new broadband access infrastructures? The main discussion issues about the roles of public organisations in relation to regulation and market distortion principles are given. Based upon some public policies and principles, the general requirements in making choices related to infrastructure in a specific broadband project are presented. The issues about the way how governments may fulfil the general requirements are presented. Exam...

  9. Role of public organisations in the creation of new broadband access infrastructures

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Which roles may a public organisation play in the creation of new broadband access infrastructures? The main discussion issues about the roles of public organisations in relation to regulation and market distortion principles are given. Based upon some public policies and principles, the general requirements in making choices related to infrastructure in a specific broadband project are presented. The issues about the way how governments may fulfil the general requirements are presented. Exam...

  10. Analysis on interior public space design of high-rise residential%高层住宅内部公共空间设计分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨立红

    2015-01-01

    Taking the Jinxiu garden high-rise residential engineering for example,this paper analyzed the interior public space of high-rise resi-dential,analyzed its concept,characteristic,development current situation and problems,and from the comfort,security,and communication re-quirements and other angles explored the design strategy and design method of interior public space of high-rise residential,so as to reasonable design of public space,improved the quality of life of residents.%以锦绣园高层住宅小区工程为例,对高层住宅中的公共空间进行了概述,分析了其概念、特点、发展现状及出现的问题,并从舒适性、安全感、交往需求等角度对高层住宅内部公共空间相关的设计策略以及设计方法进行了探究,以合理设计公共空间,提高住户的生活质量。

  11. Managing the Accessibility on Mass Public Transit: the Case of Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siman Tang

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Public transit services (PTS improve mobility and accessibility, and reduce car dependence. It is ideal if PTS are financially sustainable, with affordable fares and expedient quality. The success of PTS on accessibility improvement can be reflected by their level of patronage: do travelers choose to use them in lieu of their private cars? PTS in Hong Kong are renowned for their quality and profitability, superbly addressing the accessibility need for the city; they carry over 90% of the 11 million daily trips. A comparison of the per capita train-car and bus-vehicle kilometer run of PTS in Hong Kong with those in London and Singapore, however, suggests that it is not purely the supply that affects the use or accessibility of PTS in Hong Kong. By tracing and analyzing the development of PTS in Hong Kong over the past two decades, we found evidence that the high level of accessibility on mass public transit in the territory can be attributed to the land use policy of developing compact, high-density township, accompanying transport policies of granting high priority to the development of mass transit facilities and providing ways to ensure the financial viability of privately operated PTS, especially the innovative approach of integrating the development of public transport facility and property so as to exploit their synergy. In this paper, we study and highlight elements that contribute to the development of high accessibility on mass public transit in Hong Kong.

  12. LBVS: an online platform for ligand-based virtual screening using publicly accessible databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Minghao; Liu, Zhihong; Yan, Xin; Ding, Qianzhi; Gu, Qiong; Xu, Jun

    2014-11-01

    Abundant data on compound bioactivity and publicly accessible chemical databases increase opportunities for ligand-based drug discovery. In order to make full use of the data, an online platform for ligand-based virtual screening (LBVS) using publicly accessible databases has been developed. LBVS adopts Bayesian learning approach to create virtual screening models because of its noise tolerance, speed, and efficiency in extracting knowledge from data. LBVS currently includes data derived from BindingDB and ChEMBL. Three validation approaches have been employed to evaluate the virtual screening models created from LBVS. The tenfold cross validation results of twenty different LBVS models demonstrate that LBVS achieves an average AUC value of 0.86. Our internal and external testing results indicate that LBVS is predictive for lead identifications. LBVS can be publicly accessed at http://rcdd.sysu.edu.cn/lbvs.

  13. Location-allocation and accessibility models for improving the spatial planning of public health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo, Gina; Acosta, C Mera; Ferreira, Fernando; Dias, Ricardo Augusto

    2015-01-01

    This study integrated accessibility and location-allocation models in geographic information systems as a proposed strategy to improve the spatial planning of public health services. To estimate the spatial accessibility, we modified the two-step floating catchment area (2SFCA) model with a different impedance function, a Gaussian weight for competition among service sites, a friction coefficient, distances along a street network based on the Dijkstra's algorithm and by performing a vectorial analysis. To check the accuracy of the strategy, we used the data from the public sterilization program for the dogs and cats of Bogot´a, Colombia. Since the proposed strategy is independent of the service, it could also be applied to any other public intervention when the capacity of the service is known. The results of the accessibility model were consistent with the sterilization program data, revealing that the western, central and northern zones are the most isolated areas under the sterilization program. Spatial accessibility improvement was sought by relocating the sterilization sites using the maximum coverage with finite demand and the p-median models. The relocation proposed by the maximum coverage model more effectively maximized the spatial accessibility to the sterilization service given the non-uniform distribution of the populations of dogs and cats throughout the city. The implementation of the proposed strategy would provide direct benefits by improving the effectiveness of different public health interventions and the use of financial and human resources.

  14. Location-allocation and accessibility models for improving the spatial planning of public health services.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Polo

    Full Text Available This study integrated accessibility and location-allocation models in geographic information systems as a proposed strategy to improve the spatial planning of public health services. To estimate the spatial accessibility, we modified the two-step floating catchment area (2SFCA model with a different impedance function, a Gaussian weight for competition among service sites, a friction coefficient, distances along a street network based on the Dijkstra's algorithm and by performing a vectorial analysis. To check the accuracy of the strategy, we used the data from the public sterilization program for the dogs and cats of Bogot´a, Colombia. Since the proposed strategy is independent of the service, it could also be applied to any other public intervention when the capacity of the service is known. The results of the accessibility model were consistent with the sterilization program data, revealing that the western, central and northern zones are the most isolated areas under the sterilization program. Spatial accessibility improvement was sought by relocating the sterilization sites using the maximum coverage with finite demand and the p-median models. The relocation proposed by the maximum coverage model more effectively maximized the spatial accessibility to the sterilization service given the non-uniform distribution of the populations of dogs and cats throughout the city. The implementation of the proposed strategy would provide direct benefits by improving the effectiveness of different public health interventions and the use of financial and human resources.

  15. Essays on the Impacts of Geography and Institutions on Access to Energy and Public Infrastructure Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibong, Belinda

    While previous literature has emphasized the importance of energy and public infrastructure services for economic development, questions surrounding the implications of unequal spatial distribution in access to these resources remain, particularly in the developing country context. This dissertation provides evidence on the nature, origins and implications of this distribution uniting three strands of research from the development and political economy, regional science and energy economics fields. The dissertation unites three papers on the nature of spatial inequality of access to energy and infrastructure with further implications for conflict risk , the historical institutional and biogeographical determinants of current distribution of access to energy and public infrastructure services and the response of households to fuel price changes over time. Chapter 2 uses a novel survey dataset to provide evidence for spatial clustering of public infrastructure non-functionality at schools by geopolitical zone in Nigeria with further implications for armed conflict risk in the region. Chapter 3 investigates the drivers of the results in chapter 2, exploiting variation in the spatial distribution of precolonial institutions and geography in the region, to provide evidence for the long-term impacts of these factors on current heterogeneity of access to public services. Chapter 4 addresses the policy implications of energy access, providing the first multi-year evidence on firewood demand elasticities in India, using the spatial variation in prices for estimation.

  16. Impacts of Public Access to the Internet through Pennsylvania Public Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertot, John Carlo; McClure, Charles R.

    1997-01-01

    Presents an evaluation of the OnLine at PA Libraries (1996-97) Internet-based information services and resources project for Pennsylvania residents. The project provided a statewide demonstration to improve public library services; connect public libraries to the Internet; provide a range of new services and resources to their communities; and…

  17. Digital divide and stability of access in African American women visiting urban public health centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haughton, Lorna Tanya; Kreuter, Matthew; Hall, Jasmine; Holt, Cheryl L; Wheetley, Eric

    2005-05-01

    This exploratory study examines access to communication technologies, its association with health-related variables and study attrition, and its stability over time in a study of lower income African American women visiting urban public health centers. Participants (n = 1,227) provided information about cancer-related behaviors in a baseline questionnaire that also assessed their e-mail and cell phone/pager access. Interviews conducted at 1-, 6-, and 18-month follow up determined attrition, and an e-mail message sent to participants at 6-month follow up determined stability of access. Fewer than 10% of women reported e-mail access; 26% reported cell/phone pager access. At 6-month follow up, 45% of e-mail accounts were inactive; accounts from pay access providers were more likely to be inactive than work- or school-based accounts (58% versus 25%). Cell phone/pager access was positively associated with mammography knowledge. Attrition rates were lower among women with access than among those without access. Priorities for future research based on these preliminary findings are discussed.

  18. [Youth and health: discourse analysis on supply and access to public facilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Cinoélia Leal; Souzas, Raquel

    2012-01-01

    From the standpoint of sociodemographic, teens today represent an important portion of the Brazilian population. In 2005 the Brazilian government published the National Youth Policy. Despite of this, many teens still find difficulties in accessing public services, especially the ones involving health. This study aimed to analyze young students' speeches about the conditions of access to public services and health through qualitative research. The students inquired live in rural and urban areas of the city of Vitória da Conquista - Bahia. The method used was the content analysis proposed by Bardin (1979) and Minayo (2006), and the technique of discussion groups for youth proposed by Weller (2006).

  19. Restricting access to publications from funded research: Ethical issues and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manikandan S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available India is becoming one of the hubs of clinical research. Commensurate with these advances, the government funding for biomedical research in thrust areas is also increasing. The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR, Department of Biotechnology (DBT, Department of Science and Technology (DST are some of the government organizations which provide financial support for various research projects. The results of the funded research projects are published in various international journals. Most of these journals have an access to paid subscribers only. Hence it is unethical to use the research grants from government (people′s money and not allow the scientific community free access to the results of the study. To tackle such issues, these agencies should sign the Berlin declaration and create open access repositories. A public access policy should be formulated and listed in JULIET. The funding bodies in India should also join Pubmed Central (PMC to form PMC India so that every investigator who has received grants would submit the full text of the paper published from his study and these can be made freely accessible to everyone. Universities and research institutions should also develop institutional open access repositories. The public access policy has definitive advantages and should be implemented.

  20. Restricting access to publications from funded research: ethical issues and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, S; Vani, N Isai

    2010-01-01

    India is becoming one of the hubs of clinical research. Commensurate with these advances, the government funding for biomedical research in thrust areas is also increasing. The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), Department of Biotechnology (DBT), Department of Science and Technology (DST) are some of the government organizations which provide financial support for various research projects. The results of the funded research projects are published in various international journals. Most of these journals have an access to paid subscribers only. Hence it is unethical to use the research grants from government (people's money) and not allow the scientific community free access to the results of the study. To tackle such issues, these agencies should sign the Berlin declaration and create open access repositories. A public access policy should be formulated and listed in JULIET. The funding bodies in India should also join Pubmed Central (PMC) to form PMC India so that every investigator who has received grants would submit the full text of the paper published from his study and these can be made freely accessible to everyone. Universities and research institutions should also develop institutional open access repositories. The public access policy has definitive advantages and should be implemented.

  1. Individual public transportation accessibility is positively associated with self-reported active commuting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djurhuus, Sune; Hansen, Henning Sten; Aadahl, Mette;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Active commuters have lower risk of chronic disease. Understanding which of the, to some extent, modifiable characteristics of public transportation that facilitate its use is thus important in a public health perspective. The aim of the study was to examine the association between...... individual public transportation accessibility and self-reported active commuting, and whether the associations varied with commute distance, age, and gender. METHODS: Twenty-eight thousand nine hundred twenty-eight commuters in The Capital Region of Denmark reported self-reported time spent either walking...... or cycling to work or study each day and the distance to work or study. Data were obtained from the Danish National Health Survey collected in February to April 2010. Individual accessibility by public transportation was calculated using a multi-modal network in a GIS. Multilevel logistic regression was used...

  2. Patent Law, Antitrust Enforcement, and Public Access to Pharmaceuticals and Medical Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Sigman, Laura J.

    2003-01-01

    Patent and antitrust laws impact public access to pharmaceuticals and medical technologies. Two instances—one involving Roche’s new class of HIV/AIDS drugs, the other an antitrust action brought against Boston Scientific Corporation for violations of an anticompetitive agreement pertaining to cardiac treatment technology—illustrate the salient effects that medical products can have on public welfare. This paper provides a summary of pat...

  3. The SDSS SkyServer Public Access to the Sloan Digital Sky Server Data

    CERN Document Server

    Szalay, A S; Thakar, A R; Kunszt, Zoltán; Malik, T; Raddick, J; Stoughton, C; Van den Berg, J

    2002-01-01

    The SkyServer provides Internet access to the public Sloan Digi-tal Sky Survey (SDSS) data for both astronomers and for science education. This paper describes the SkyServer goals and archi-tecture. It also describes our experience operating the SkyServer on the Internet. The SDSS data is public and well-documented so it makes a good test platform for research on database algorithms and performance.

  4. Residential Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by the scouts...... twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the source......Residential waste comes from residential areas with multi-family and single-family housing and includes four types of waste: household waste, garden waste, bulky waste and household hazardous waste. Typical unit generation rates, material composition, chemical composition and determining factors...

  5. Residential Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Residential waste comes from residential areas with multi-family and single-family housing and includes four types of waste: household waste, garden waste, bulky waste and household hazardous waste. Typical unit generation rates, material composition, chemical composition and determining factors...... are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by the scouts...... twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the source...

  6. Residential Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Last name: Email: * Zip: * *required We will not sell or share your name. Residential Care Tweet Bookmark ... for the future. Use Alzheimer's Navigator ™ - our free online tool - to guide you as you map out ...

  7. TRANSFORMING THE LEGACY OF INDIAN RESIDENTIAL SCHOOLS IN CANADA INTO A PUBLIC ISSUE: A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF MICHAEL BURAWOY’S PUBLIC SOCIOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petoukhov, Konstantin S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian government designed Indian residential school (IRS system to assimilate Indigenous children into European settler society by dispossessing them of their cultures, languages and traditions. By severing the children’s ties to families and communities, and thus integrating them into Euro-Canadian society, the Crown sought to gain control of Indigenous lands (Miller, 2000. In the schools, which were run by church officials, many children died of neglect and diseases and often faced various other injustices perpetrated by staff, including physical, emotional, cultural, and sexual abuse. (Milloy, 1999. Although the last school was closed in 1996, IRS left behind a devastating legacy characterized by sexual and physical abuse in Indigenous communities, substance abuse, loss of Indigenous languages, over-representation of Indigenous people in correctional facilities, and others. Until recently, these were considered to be private issues. However, the growing body of evidence demonstrates that IRS were responsible for the negative impacts and the government and churches were compelled to recognize the damage done. This article explores Michael Burawoy’s (2005 four types of sociology (policy, critical, professional, and public and assesses the relative contributions of each type in the process of transforming “private troubles” of the IRS legacy into “public issues.” The main thesis of the article is that each type of sociology, with varying degrees of success, promotes the recognition of the injustices inflicted by IRS. The article concludes that Burawoy’s sociology possesses its strengths and weaknesses in identifying private troubles as public issues.Le gouvernement canadien a conçu des pensionnats autochtones (PA pour assimiler les enfants indigènes dans la société des colons européens en les dépossédant de leurs cultures, langues et traditions. En rompant les liens de l'enfant avec ses familles et communautés, et

  8. Researchers' perspectives on open access scholarly communication in Tanzanian public universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.W. Dulle

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This research explored the awareness, usage and perspectives of Tanzanian researchers on open access as a mode of scholarly communication. A survey questionnaire targeted 544 respondents selected through stratified random sampling from a population of 1088 university researchers of the six public universities in Tanzania. With a response rate of 73%, the data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. The study reveals that the majority of the researchers were aware of and were positive towards open access. Findings further indicate that the majority of researchers in Tanzanian public universities used open access outlets more to access scholarly content than to disseminate their own research findings. It seems that most of these researchers would support open access publishing more if issues of recognition, quality and ownership were resolved. Thus many of them supported the idea of establishing institutional repositories at their respective universities as a way of improving the dissemination of local content. The study recommends that public universities and other research institutions in the country should consider establishing institutional repositories, with appropriate quality assurance measures, to improve the dissemination of research output emanating from these institutions.

  9. Towards a Methodology for the Design of Multimedia Public Access Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Jennifer

    1998-01-01

    Discussion of information systems methodologies that can contribute to interface design for public access systems covers: the systems life cycle; advantages of adopting information systems methodologies; soft systems methodologies; task-oriented approaches to user interface design; holistic design, the Star model, and prototyping; the…

  10. 76 FR 80417 - Request for Information: Public Access to Digital Data Resulting From Federally Funded Scientific...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2011-32947] OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY Request for Information: Public Access... Technology Policy (OSTP) on behalf of the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC) SUPPLEMENTARY... costs. Federal science agencies already have some experience with policies to promote long- term...

  11. Towards a Methodology for the Design of Multimedia Public Access Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Jennifer

    1998-01-01

    Discussion of information systems methodologies that can contribute to interface design for public access systems covers: the systems life cycle; advantages of adopting information systems methodologies; soft systems methodologies; task-oriented approaches to user interface design; holistic design, the Star model, and prototyping; the…

  12. State Challenges to "Plyler v. Doe": Undocumented Immigrant Students and Public School Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Lenford C.; Stewart, Tricia J.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a review and analysis of selected state laws and initiatives that have attempted to restrict public school access for undocumented immigrant children in the wake of the landmark U.S. Supreme Court decision of "Plyler v. Doe." Sutton and Stewart begin with an overview of the Court's ruling in "Plyler," then…

  13. Documenting Attitudes toward Undocumented Immigrant Access to Public Education: A Multilevel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Felisha A.; Garibay, Juan C.; Garcia, Gina A.; Johnston, Marc P.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates how students' views toward undocumented immigrants' access to public education change during college. A multilevel analysis among a national sample of 12,388 undergraduates, drawn from the Cooperative Institutional Research Program's (CIRP) Freshman Survey and College Senior Survey, revealed that significant…

  14. Public Internet Access Points (PIAPs) and Their Social Impact: A Case Study from Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afacan, Gulgun; Er, Erkan; Arifoglu, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Building public Internet access points (PIAPs) is a significant contribution of governments towards achieving an information society. While many developing countries are investing great amounts to establish PIAPs today, people may not use PIAPs effectively. Yet, the successful implementation of PIAPs is the result of citizens' acceptance to use…

  15. Effects of Job Accessibility Improved by Public Transport System: Natural Experimental Evidence from the Copenhagen Metro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pons Rotger, Gabriel Angel; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    2015-01-01

    and Metro system resulting from the construction of a new terminal Metro station connecting southern townships to Copenhagen city centre. The results show that public transport based job accessibility has a positive and permanent effect on individual earnings. The increase in earnings is associated...

  16. Effects of Job Accessibility Improved by Public Transport System: Natural Experimental Evidence from the Copenhagen Metro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotger, Gabriel Pons; Sick Nielsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    and Metro system due to the construction of a new terminal Metro station connecting southern townships to the city centre of Copenhagen. The results show that public transport based job accessibility has a positive and permanent effect on individual earnings. The increase in earnings is associated...

  17. Building a multimodal network and determining individual accessibility by public transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djurhuus, Sune; Hansen, Henning Sten; Aadahl, Mette

    2016-01-01

    The increased availability of transit schedules from web sites or travel planners as well as more disaggregate data has led to a growing interest in creating individual public transportation accessibility measures. However, used extensively, standard GIS software does not have direct capabilities...

  18. Policy and role of public organisations and their requirements on new broadband access infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfswinkel, R.N. van; Burgmeijer, J.W.; Beek, S.S. op de; Mioulet, K.

    2004-01-01

    This paper is based on actual experiences of our institute in supporting city councils and public organisations aiming to stimulate the broadband access evolution. It highlights the current situation in the Netherlands and stimulates the discussion of the possible roles of government in modern

  19. Online Public Access Catalog: The Google Maps of the Library World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Kieren

    2011-01-01

    What do Google Maps and a library's Online Public Access Catalog (OPAC) have in common? Google Maps provides users with all the information they need for a trip in one place; users can get directions and find out what attractions, hotels, and restaurants are close by. Librarians must find the ultimate OPAC that will provide, in one place, all the…

  20. The purpose of peer review in the case of an open-access publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrov Georgii A

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract First scientific journals were simply a way of informing colleagues about new research findings. In due course, they started filtering out unreasonable claims, and introduced a peer-review system. The purpose of peer reviewing changed with time. Since the middle of the past century, commercial publishers have owned a large number of scientific journals and as a result, the marketable value of a submitted manuscript has become an increasingly important factor in publishing decisions. Recently some publishers have developed business schemes which may stop this tendency. In the case of an open-access publication, the marketable value of a manuscript is not the primary consideration, since access to the research is not being sold. This innovation challenges scientists to re-consider the purpose of peer review. This editorial indicates some of the commonly used criteria for publication that consequently should receive less or little emphasis under the open-access model.

  1. Open Access Data Centers as an Essential Partner to a Data Publication Journal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, D.; Pfeiffenberger, H.

    2016-12-01

    The success of Earth System Science Data derives in part from key infrastructure: digital object identifiers (doi) and open access data centers. Our concept that a data journal should promote access and exchange through publication of reviewed data descriptions presupposed third parties to hold the data. As minimum criteria for those data centers we expected international reputation for quality of service and an active lifetime extending at least a decade into the future. We also expected modern access interfaces offering geographic, topical and parameter-based browsing - so that users could discover related holdings through an ESSD link or discover ESSD by way of links in data sets revealed through the center's browse tools - and true open access. True open access means one or two clicks from abstract in ESSD to the data itself without barriers. We started with Pangaea and CDIAC. Data providers already used these centers, the staff welcomed the ESSD initiative and all parties cooperated on doi. With this initial support ESSD proved the basic concept of data publication and demonstrated utility to a larger group of data providers, many of whom suggested additional centers. So long as those data centers met expectations for open access and quality and durability of service, ESSD agreed to collaborate. Through back-door collaborations - e.g. service on particular data sets - ESSD developed working partnerships with more than 30 data centers in 13 countries. Data centers ask to join our list. We encourage those centers to stimulate local providers to submit a data set to ESSD, thus preserving our practical data-set by data-set partnership mode. For a few data centers where national policies impose a registration step, center staff and ESSD editors created bypass access routes to facilitate anonymous reviews. For ESSD purposes, open access and doi cooperation leading to reliable curation allows a win, win, win partnership among centers, providers, and journal.

  2. Intellectual property rights vs. public access rights: ethical aspects of the DeCSS decryptation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Vaagan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In 1999-2000, a Norwegian youth cracked a DVD-access code and published a decryptation program on the Internet. He was sued by the US DVD Copy Control Association (DVD-CCA and the Norwegian Motion Picture Association (MAP, allies of the US Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA, arrested by Norwegian police and charged with data crime. Two Norwegian court rulings in 2003 unanimously ruled that the program did not amount to a breach of Norwegian law, and he was fully acquitted. In the US, there have been related cases, some with other outcomes. Method. Based on a theoretical framework developed by Zwass, the paper discusses these court rulings and the wider issues of intellectual property rights versus public access rights. Analysis. The DVD-Jon case illustrates that intellectual property rights can conflict with public access rights, as the struggle between proprietary software and public domain software, as well as the SPARC and Open Archives Initiative reflect. Results. An assessment of the DVD-Jon case based on the Zwass framework does not give a clear information ethics answer. The analysis depends on whether one ascribes to consequentialist (e.g., utilitarian or de-ontological reflection, and also on which side of the digital gap is to be accorded most weight. Conclusion. While copyright interests are being legally strengthened, there may be ethically- grounded access rights that outweigh property rights.

  3. Open access of evidence-based publications: the case of the orthopedic and musculoskeletal literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yammine, Kaissar

    2015-11-01

    The open access model, where researchers can publish their work and make it freely available to the whole medical community, is gaining ground over the traditional type of publication. However, fees are to be paid by either the authors or their institutions. The purpose of this paper is to assess the proportion and type of open access evidence-based articles in the form of systematic reviews and meta-analyses in the field of musculoskeletal disorders and orthopedic surgery. PubMed database was searched and the results showed a maximal number of hits for low back pain and total hip arthroplasty. We demonstrated that despite a 10-fold increase in the number of evidence-based publications in the past 10 years, the rate of free systematic reviews in the general biomedical literature did not change for the last two decades. In addition, the average percentage of free open access systematic reviews and meta-analyses for the commonest painful musculoskeletal conditions and orthopedic procedures was 20% and 18%, respectively. Those results were significantly lower than those of the systematic reviews and meta-analyses in the remaining biomedical research. Such findings could indicate a divergence between the efforts engaged at promoting evidence-based principles and those at disseminating evidence-based findings in the field of musculoskeletal disease and trauma. The high processing fee is thought to be a major limitation when considering open access model for publication.

  4. Public Access Points, Lake Access point locations, Published in 2007, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Iredell County GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Public Access Points dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2007. It is described as...

  5. Public Access Points, not all are accessibly via vehicles, Published in 2013, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Oneida County Wisconsin.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Public Access Points dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2013. It is described as 'not all...

  6. 41 CFR 102-79.65 - May Executive agencies outlease space on major public access levels, courtyards and rooftops of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May Executive agencies outlease space on major public access levels, courtyards and rooftops of public buildings? 102-79.65... Utilization of Space Outleasing § 102-79.65 May Executive agencies outlease space on major public...

  7. An Intelligent System Proposal for Improving the Safety and Accessibility of Public Transit by Highway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Carmelo R; Quesada-Arencibia, Alexis; Cristóbal, Teresa; Padrón, Gabino; Pérez, Ricardo; Alayón, Francisco

    2015-08-18

    The development of public transit systems that are accessible and safe for everyone, including people with special needs, is an objective that is justified from the civic and economic points of view. Unfortunately, public transit services are conceived for people who do not have reduced physical or cognitive abilities. In this paper, we present an intelligent public transit system by highway with the goal of facilitating access and improving the safety of public transit for persons with special needs. The system is deployed using components that are commonly available in transport infrastructure, e.g., sensors, mobile communications systems, and positioning systems. In addition, the system can operate in non-urban transport contexts, e.g., isolated rural areas, where the availability of basic infrastructure, such as electricity and communications infrastructures, is not always guaranteed. To construct the system, the principles and techniques of Ubiquitous Computing and Ambient Intelligence have been employed. To illustrate the utility of the system, two cases of services rendered by the system are described: the first case involves a surveillance system to guarantee accessibility at bus stops; the second case involves a route assistant for blind people.

  8. An Intelligent System Proposal for Improving the Safety and Accessibility of Public Transit by Highway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo R. García

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of public transit systems that are accessible and safe for everyone, including people with special needs, is an objective that is justified from the civic and economic points of view. Unfortunately, public transit services are conceived for people who do not have reduced physical or cognitive abilities. In this paper, we present an intelligent public transit system by highway with the goal of facilitating access and improving the safety of public transit for persons with special needs. The system is deployed using components that are commonly available in transport infrastructure, e.g., sensors, mobile communications systems, and positioning systems. In addition, the system can operate in non-urban transport contexts, e.g., isolated rural areas, where the availability of basic infrastructure, such as electricity and communications infrastructures, is not always guaranteed. To construct the system, the principles and techniques of Ubiquitous Computing and Ambient Intelligence have been employed. To illustrate the utility of the system, two cases of services rendered by the system are described: the first case involves a surveillance system to guarantee accessibility at bus stops; the second case involves a route assistant for blind people.

  9. 36 CFR 1254.32 - What rules apply to public access use of the Internet on NARA-supplied computers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... access use of the Internet on NARA-supplied computers? 1254.32 Section 1254.32 Parks, Forests, and Public... of the Internet on NARA-supplied computers? (a) Public access computers (workstations) are available... use personally owned diskettes on NARA personal computers. You may not load files or any type of...

  10. A typology of intellectual property management for public health innovation and access: design considerations for policymakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubman, Antony

    2010-01-19

    This paper seeks to set the practical discipline of public interest intellectual property (IP) management in public health into its broader policy context. The most immediate and direct impact of IP systems on public welfare results not from international standards nor from national legislation - though these norms are fundamentally important - but rather from the accumulated impact of numerous practical choices whether or not to seek IP protection; where and where not; and how any exclusive rights are deployed, by whom, and to what end. IP management is the essentially practical exercise of limited exclusive rights over protected subject matter, the judicious use of those rights to leverage outcomes that advance an institution's or a firm's objectives. Exclusive rights are used to construct and define knowledge-based relationships, to leverage access to technology and other necessary resources, and to enhance market-based incentives. IP management choices range across a broad spectrum, spanning public domain strategies, open or exclusive licensing, and strong exclusivity. The idea of 'exclusive rights', as a specific legal mechanism, can run counter to expectations of greater openness and accessibility, but actual outcomes will depend very much on how these mechanisms are used in practice. For public interest or public sector institutions concerned with health research and development, particularly the development of new medicines, IP management choices can be just as critical as they are for private firms, although a predominant institutional concentration on advancing direct public interest objectives may lead to significantly different approaches in weighing and exercising practical choices for IP management: even so, a private sector approach should not be conflated with exclusivity as an end in itself, nor need public interest IP management eschew all leverage over IP. This paper offers a tentative framework for a richer typology of those choices, to give a

  11. From community outreach to reaching students: using public access television as an educational strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBartolo, Mary C; Seldomridge, Lisa A

    2010-01-01

    Nursing faculty are not only charged with educating students in creative and engaging ways but also expected to participate in service activities that benefit the surrounding community. One such initiative was the creation of a television health education series hosted by nursing faculty. The authors describe the evolution of a partnership between a university-based public access television channel and the nursing department that provided community education while enriching both the undergraduate and graduate nursing curricula.

  12. Promoting stair climbing in public-access settings: an audit of intervention opportunities in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Oliver J; Smith, Lee

    2011-10-01

    Introducing message prompts at the 'point-of-choice' (POC) between stairs and escalators increases stair choice in 'public-access' settings (e.g. malls). For nationwide campaigns, plentiful POCs appear needed. We audited the availability of POCs in public-access settings across England. Boundaries for 25 urban areas (population=6,829,874) were verified using Ordinance Survey maps, which showed all airports and train/tram stations. Malls and bus stations were identified from commercial listings and local authority web-pages. From September 2010-March 2011 two investigators visually inspected all venues (N=410), counting 'true' POCs and 'quasi' POCs (i.e. instances where stairs were visible from, but not adjacent to, escalators). 5% of venues had ≥1 true POC (quasi POC=3%). Aggregating across areas, there was a true and quasi POC for every 243,924 and 379,437 people, respectively. There were regional variations; one area had 10 true/quasi POCs, whilst 10/24 remaining areas had none. POCs were more common in airports (4/6 venues) than malls (11/85) and train stations (4/215). Although public-access POCs reach sizeable audiences, their availability in England is sporadic, precluding nationwide campaigns. Interventions should be considered locally, based on available POCs. Work/community venues (e.g. offices, hospitals), where pedestrians choose between stairs and elevators, may provide greater intervention opportunities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Residential mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morris, Tim; Manley, David; Sabel, Clive

    2016-01-01

    lacks the detail and temporal perspectives now seen as critical to understanding residential mobility decisions. Through a critical re-think of mobility processes with respect to health outcomes and an exploitation of longitudinal analytical techniques we argue that health geographers have the potential...

  14. Genomics and Public Health Research: Can the State Allow Access to Genomic Databases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Stanton Jean

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Because many diseases are multifactorial disorders,the scientific progress in genomics and genetics should be taken into consideration in public health research. In this context, genomic databases will constitute an important source of information. Consequently, it is important to identify and characterize the State's role and authority on matters related to public health,in order to verify whether it has access to such databases while engaging in public health genomic research. We first consider the evolution of the concept of public health, as well as its core functions, using a comparative approach (e.g. WHO, PAHO, CDC and the Canadian province of Quebec. Following an analysis of relevant Quebec legislation, the precautionary principle is examined as a possible avenue to justify State access to and use of genomic databases for research purposes. Finally, we consider the Influenza pandemic plans developed by WHO, Canada, and Quebec,as examples of key tools framing public health decision-making process.We observed that State powers in public health, are not,in Quebec,well adapted to the expansion of genomics research.We propose that the scope of the concept of research in public health should be clear and include the following characteristics:a commitment to the health and well-being of the population and to their determinants; the inclusion of both applied research and basic research; and, an appropriate model of governance (authorization, follow-up,consent, etc..We also suggest that the strategic approach version of the precautionary principle could guide collective choices in these matters.

  15. Beyond information access: Support for complex cognitive activities in public health informatics tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedig, Kamran; Parsons, Paul; Dittmer, Mark; Ola, Oluwakemi

    2012-01-01

    Public health professionals work with a variety of information sources to carry out their everyday activities. In recent years, interactive computational tools have become deeply embedded in such activities. Unlike the early days of computational tool use, the potential of tools nowadays is not limited to simply providing access to information; rather, they can act as powerful mediators of human-information discourse, enabling rich interaction with public health information. If public health informatics tools are designed and used properly, they can facilitate, enhance, and support the performance of complex cognitive activities that are essential to public health informatics, such as problem solving, forecasting, sense-making, and planning. However, the effective design and evaluation of public health informatics tools requires an understanding of the cognitive and perceptual issues pertaining to how humans work and think with information to perform such activities. This paper draws on research that has examined some of the relevant issues, including interaction design, complex cognition, and visual representations, to offer some human-centered design and evaluation considerations for public health informatics tools.

  16. Introduction: priority setting, equitable access and public involvement in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weale, Albert; Kieslich, Katharina; Littlejohns, Peter; Tugendhaft, Aviva; Tumilty, Emma; Weerasuriya, Krisantha; Whitty, Jennifer A

    2016-08-15

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to introduce the special issue on improving equitable access to health care through increased public and patient involvement (PPI) in prioritization decisions by discussing the conceptualization, scope and rationales of PPI in priority setting that inform the special issue. Design/methodology/approach - The paper employs a mixed-methods approach in that it provides a literature review and a conceptual discussion of the common themes emerging in the field of PPI and health priority setting. Findings - The special issue focuses on public participation that is collective in character, in the sense that the participation relates to a social, not personal, decision and is relevant to whole groups of people and not single individuals. It is aimed at influencing a decision on public policy or legal rules. The rationales for public participation can be found in democratic theory, especially as they relate to the social and political values of legitimacy and representation. Originality/value - The paper builds on previous definitions of public participation by underlining its collective character. In doing so, it develops the work by Parry, Moyser and Day by arguing that, in light of the empirical evidence presented in this issue, public participatory activities such as protests and demonstrations should no longer be labelled unconventional, but should instead be labelled as "contestatory participation". This is to better reflect a situation in which these modes of participation have become more conventional in many parts of the world.

  17. Accessibility to Specialized Public Oral Health Services from the Perspective of Brazilian Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Ricardo Dias; Rangel, Marianne de Lucena; da Silva, Marcos André Azevedo; de Lucena, Brunna Thaís Lucwu; Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite; Bonan, Paulo Rogério Ferreti; Oliveira, Julyana de Araújo

    2016-01-01

    The Specialized Dental Clinics (SDCs) represent the first government initiative in Latin America aimed at providing specialized oral health services. This study sought to evaluate the organizational accessibility to specialized oral health care services in Brazil and to understand the factors that may be associated with accessibility from the user’s perspective. This epidemiological, cross-sectional and quantitative study was conducted by means of interviews with individuals who sought specialized public oral health services in the city of João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil, and consisted of a sample of 590 individuals. Users expressed a favorable view of the classification and resolutive nature of specialized services offered by Brazilian public health. The binary logistic regression analysis revealed weak points highlighting the difficulty involved in obtaining such treatments leading to unfavorable evaluations. In the resolutive nature item, difficulty in accessing the location, queues and lack of materials and equipment were highlighted as statistically significant unfavorable aspects. While many of the users considered the service to be resolutive, weaknesses were mentioned that need to be detected to promote improvements and to prevent other health models adopted worldwide from reproducing the same flaws. PMID:27775584

  18. Accessibility to Specialized Public Oral Health Services from the Perspective of Brazilian Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Ricardo Dias; Rangel, Marianne de Lucena; da Silva, Marcos André Azevedo; de Lucena, Brunna Thaís Lucwu; Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite; Bonan, Paulo Rogério Ferreti; Oliveira, Julyana de Araújo

    2016-10-19

    The Specialized Dental Clinics (SDCs) represent the first government initiative in Latin America aimed at providing specialized oral health services. This study sought to evaluate the organizational accessibility to specialized oral health care services in Brazil and to understand the factors that may be associated with accessibility from the user's perspective. This epidemiological, cross-sectional and quantitative study was conducted by means of interviews with individuals who sought specialized public oral health services in the city of João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil, and consisted of a sample of 590 individuals. Users expressed a favorable view of the classification and resolutive nature of specialized services offered by Brazilian public health. The binary logistic regression analysis revealed weak points highlighting the difficulty involved in obtaining such treatments leading to unfavorable evaluations. In the resolutive nature item, difficulty in accessing the location, queues and lack of materials and equipment were highlighted as statistically significant unfavorable aspects. While many of the users considered the service to be resolutive, weaknesses were mentioned that need to be detected to promote improvements and to prevent other health models adopted worldwide from reproducing the same flaws.

  19. The Making of a Sustainable Wireless City? Mapping Public Wi-Fi Access in Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingfeng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the global information economy, ready access to the Internet is critical to a city’s competitiveness, which has prompted a number of cities to launch plans to establish wireless networks. Most literature on the development of wireless cities focuses on cities in Western countries, and few have discussed how Chinese cities have adopted wireless technologies in their urban infrastructure development efforts. This paper examines recent development and spatial distribution of public Wi-Fi access in Shanghai, a leading business hub in China. We mapped Wi-Fi hotspots through the government sponsored “i-Shanghai” project and China Mobile Communications Corporation (CMCC. We find that while telecommunication providers have been proactively deploying WLAN (wireless local area network,a proxy of public Wi-Fi or wireless access hotspots in Shanghai, neither government sponsored WLAN hotspots nor facilities established by CMCC could cover the old traditional neighborhoods in the central city and sub-districts in remote rural areas. We also address the development of a more sustainable wireless city in Shanghai with a particular focus on digital divide and social equity issues.

  20. Resolving the problem of multiple accessions of the same transcript deposited across various public databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weirick, Tyler; John, David; Uchida, Shizuka

    2017-03-01

    Maintaining the consistency of genomic annotations is an increasingly complex task because of the iterative and dynamic nature of assembly and annotation, growing numbers of biological databases and insufficient integration of annotations across databases. As information exchange among databases is poor, a 'novel' sequence from one reference annotation could be annotated in another. Furthermore, relationships to nearby or overlapping annotated transcripts are even more complicated when using different genome assemblies. To better understand these problems, we surveyed current and previous versions of genomic assemblies and annotations across a number of public databases containing long noncoding RNA. We identified numerous discrepancies of transcripts regarding their genomic locations, transcript lengths and identifiers. Further investigation showed that the positional differences between reference annotations of essentially the same transcript could lead to differences in its measured expression at the RNA level. To aid in resolving these problems, we present the algorithm 'Universal Genomic Accession Hash (UGAHash)' and created an open source web tool to encourage the usage of the UGAHash algorithm. The UGAHash web tool (http://ugahash.uni-frankfurt.de) can be accessed freely without registration. The web tool allows researchers to generate Universal Genomic Accessions for genomic features or to explore annotations deposited in the public databases of the past and present versions. We anticipate that the UGAHash web tool will be a valuable tool to check for the existence of transcripts before judging the newly discovered transcripts as novel. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Public Access Points, Our current file was compiled from our parcel mapping & locating on records & maps, areas of public access. Areas have been reviewed by the DNR, Published in 2011, Not Applicable scale, Chippewa County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Public Access Points dataset, published at Not Applicable scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2011. It is described as...

  2. Access for All! Neuro-architecture and Equal Enjoyment of Public Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Gillen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the enactment of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA, 1990, many impaired Americans are no longer disabled by socially condoned conditions in the built environment. However, many people with cognitive and neurological impairments continue to face significant barriers to access, due to disabling environmental hyper-sensitivity and sensory processing disorders. These people are equally protected under the ADA, therefore mitigation is required. Neuroarchitecture, where consideration of the impact of the built environment on the central nervous system informs design paradigms, must complement current ADA compliance guidelines. This paper serves to open the topic to discussion, and is a call for attention, and action, for the removal of these generally unrecognized barriers to access and the equal use and enjoyment of public facilities.

  3. Intelligent Urban Public Transportation for Accessibility Dedicated to People with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The traditional urban public transport system generally cannot provide an effective access service for people with disabilities, especially for disabled, wheelchair and blind (DWB passengers. In this paper, based on advanced information & communication technologies (ICT and green technologies (GT concepts, a dedicated public urban transportation service access system named Mobi+ has been introduced, which facilitates the mobility of DWB passengers. The Mobi+ project consists of three subsystems: a wireless communication subsystem, which provides the data exchange and network connection services between buses and stations in the complex urban environments; the bus subsystem, which provides the DWB class detection & bus arrival notification services; and the station subsystem, which implements the urban environmental surveillance & bus auxiliary access services. The Mobi+ card that supports multi-microcontroller multi-transceiver adopts the fault-tolerant component-based hardware architecture, in which the dedicated embedded system software, i.e., operating system micro-kernel and wireless protocol, has been integrated. The dedicated Mobi+ embedded system provides the fault-tolerant resource awareness communication and scheduling mechanism to ensure the reliability in data exchange and service provision. At present, the Mobi+ system has been implemented on the buses and stations of line ‘2’ in the city of Clermont-Ferrand (France. The experiential results show that, on one hand the Mobi+ prototype system reaches the design expectations and provides an effective urban bus access service for people with disabilities; on the other hand the Mobi+ system is easily to deploy in the buses and at bus stations thanks to its low energy consumption and small form factor.

  4. In an Age of Open Access to Research Policies: Physician and Public Health NGO Staff Research Use and Policy Awareness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura L Moorhead

    Full Text Available Through funding agency and publisher policies, an increasing proportion of the health sciences literature is being made open access. Such an increase in access raises questions about the awareness and potential utilization of this literature by those working in health fields.A sample of physicians (N=336 and public health non-governmental organization (NGO staff (N=92 were provided with relatively complete access to the research literature indexed in PubMed, as well as access to the point-of-care service UpToDate, for up to one year, with their usage monitored through the tracking of web-log data. The physicians also participated in a one-month trial of relatively complete or limited access.The study found that participants' research interests were not satisfied by article abstracts alone nor, in the case of the physicians, by a clinical summary service such as UpToDate. On average, a third of the physicians viewed research a little more frequently than once a week, while two-thirds of the public health NGO staff viewed more than three articles a week. Those articles were published since the 2008 adoption of the NIH Public Access Policy, as well as prior to 2008 and during the maximum 12-month embargo period. A portion of the articles in each period was already open access, but complete access encouraged a viewing of more research articles.Those working in health fields will utilize more research in the course of their work as a result of (a increasing open access to research, (b improving awareness of and preparation for this access, and (c adjusting public and open access policies to maximize the extent of potential access, through reduction in embargo periods and access to pre-policy literature.

  5. In an Age of Open Access to Research Policies: Physician and Public Health NGO Staff Research Use and Policy Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhead, Laura L; Holzmeyer, Cheryl; Maggio, Lauren A; Steinberg, Ryan M; Willinsky, John

    2015-01-01

    Through funding agency and publisher policies, an increasing proportion of the health sciences literature is being made open access. Such an increase in access raises questions about the awareness and potential utilization of this literature by those working in health fields. A sample of physicians (N=336) and public health non-governmental organization (NGO) staff (N=92) were provided with relatively complete access to the research literature indexed in PubMed, as well as access to the point-of-care service UpToDate, for up to one year, with their usage monitored through the tracking of web-log data. The physicians also participated in a one-month trial of relatively complete or limited access. The study found that participants' research interests were not satisfied by article abstracts alone nor, in the case of the physicians, by a clinical summary service such as UpToDate. On average, a third of the physicians viewed research a little more frequently than once a week, while two-thirds of the public health NGO staff viewed more than three articles a week. Those articles were published since the 2008 adoption of the NIH Public Access Policy, as well as prior to 2008 and during the maximum 12-month embargo period. A portion of the articles in each period was already open access, but complete access encouraged a viewing of more research articles. Those working in health fields will utilize more research in the course of their work as a result of (a) increasing open access to research, (b) improving awareness of and preparation for this access, and (c) adjusting public and open access policies to maximize the extent of potential access, through reduction in embargo periods and access to pre-policy literature.

  6. Datasets will not be made accessible to the public due to the fact that they include household level data with PII.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Datasets will not be made accessible to the public due to the fact that they include household level data with PII. This dataset is not publicly accessible because:...

  7. Public Access Points, Landings, Published in 2008, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Effingham County Board Of Commissioners.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Public Access Points dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2008. It is described as...

  8. Barriers to electronic access and delivery of educational information in resource constrained public schools: a case of Greater Tubatse Municipality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pholotho, T

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are capable of expanding access to quality education, educational resources and provide teachers with new skills. Nevertheless, a majority of rural public schools have limited ICTs, mainly due...

  9. The digital divide in public e-health: barriers to accessibility and privacy in state health department websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Darrell M; Miller, Edward Alan

    2006-08-01

    State health departments have placed a tremendous amount of information, data, and services online in recent years. With the significant increase in online resources at official health sites, though, have come questions concerning equity of access and the confidentiality of electronic medical materials. This paper reports on an examination of public health department websites maintained by the 50 state governments. Using a content analysis of health department sites undertaken each year from 2000 to 2005, we investigate several dimensions of accessibility and privacy: readability levels, disability access, non-English accessibility, and the presence of privacy and security statements. We argue that although progress has been made at improving the accessibility and confidentiality of health department electronic resources, there remains much work to be done to ensure quality access for all Americans in the area of public e-health.

  10. A new public policy to ensure access to scientific information resources: the case of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Soledad Bravo-Marchant

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The design and implementation of public policies to grant access to scientific information is now a marked trend among numerous countries of Latin America. The creation of specific instruments, the allocation of an ongoing budget and the accumulation of experience in negotiation and contracting of national licences have all been clear signs of the achievements resulting from recent initiatives in these countries. This article reviews the experience of the Consorcio para el Acceso a la Información Cientifíca Electrónica (CINCEL Corporation, a Chilean consortium created in 2002, the public policy that made it possible and the evaluation experience of its main programme, the Electronic Library of Scientific Information (BEIC.

  11. Making tenofovir accessible in the brazilian public health system: patent conflicts and generic production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veras, Juliana

    2014-08-01

    In May 2011, the Brazilian Ministry of Health announced the distribution of the first batch of locally produced generic tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) to support its program of universal and free access for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. The inclusion of TDF in the public health program illustrates what has been considered the 'Brazilian model' of HIV/AIDS response, as it illustrates the current phase of the Brazilian pharmaceutical economy. Brazil is known for having managed to control the expansion of HIV/AIDS through a unique initiative combining the public health and the industrial production of generics. But, if at first local manufacturers could freely copy ARVs and produce cheaper generic versions that were delivered to the Ministry of Health, since the country started to grant patents on drugs in 1996, the sustainability of this policy has been challenged by the high cost of patented second-line HIV/AIDS treatments. In order to assure continuity of the local production of ARVs, and keep the program of public health alive, Brazilians are now forced to deal with conflicts of drugs' intellectual property rights in order to open the path to generic production. This article aims to describe the experiences surrounding TDF in Brazil and the unprecedented conflicts and challenges it has brought for our different interviewees. Blurring the frontier between the public and the private, the TDF case was driven at the same time by an ethic of drug access and regulation of drug quality, which has inspired Brazilians to intervene and transform the world they live in.

  12. Geographically weighted regression for modelling the accessibility to the public hospital network in Concepción Metropolitan Area, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Marcela Martínez Bascuñán; Carolina Rojas Quezada

    2016-01-01

    Accessibility models in transport geography based on geographic information systems have proven to be an effective method in determining spatial inequalities associated with public health. This work aims to model the spatial accessibility from populated areas within the Concepción metropolitan area (CMA), the second largest city in Chile. The city’s public hospital network is taken into consideration with special reference to socio-regional inequalities. The use of geographically weighted reg...

  13. Public access to the Internet and social change: an experience in El Carmen de Bolivar, between silence and hope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Barón Porras

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study of public access venues to Information and Communication Technologies (ICT in the small municipality of Carmen de Bolívar, a town in Northern Colombia. The case study assesses the contribution of public access to ICT to community development, in a region that has not only a long strong tradition of community organization for social development, but also a long history of violence that has weakened its social fabric

  14. Internet Access in U.S. Public Schools and Classrooms: 1994-2005. Highlights. NCES 2007-020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, John; Lewis, Laurie

    2006-01-01

    The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) has employed its Fast Response Survey System (FRSS) to track access to information technology in schools and classrooms since 1994. This report presents key findings from the 2005 FRSS survey on Internet access in U.S. public schools and selected comparisons with data from previous FRSS…

  15. From access to re-use: a user’s perspective on public sector information availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederika Welle Donker

    2016-11-01

    restricting (re-use through licences and licence fees, geo-information can be commercially exploited and used to recover some of the investment costs.Geo-information is considered special for a number of legal reasons. First, as geo-information has a geographic component, e.g. a reference to a location, geoinformation may contain personal data, sensitive company data, environmentally sensitive data, or data that may pose a threat to the national security. Therefore, the dataset may have to be adapted, aggregated or anonymised before it can be made public. Secondly, geo-information may be subject to intellectual property rights. There may be a copyright on cartographic images or database rights on digital information. Such intellectual property rights may be claimed by third parties involved in the information chain, e.g. a private company supplying aerial photography to the National Mapping Authority. The data holder may also claim intellectual property rights to commercially exploit the dataset and recoup some of the vast investment costs made to produce the dataset. Lastly, there may be other (international legislation or agreements that may either impede or promote publishing public sector information, whereby in some cases, these policies may contradict each other.It has been recognised that to deal with national, regional and global challenges, it is essential that geo-information collected by one level of government or government organisation be shared between all levels of government via a so-called Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI. The main principles governing SDIs are that data are collected once and (re-used many times; that data should be easy to discover, access and use; and that data are harmonised so that it is possible to combine spatial data from different sources seamlessly. In line with the SDI governing principles, this dissertation considers accessibility of information to include all these aspects. Accessibility concerns not only access to data, i.e. to

  16. Public Access to Documents after the entry into force of the Amsterdam Treaty: Much Ado About Nothing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Öberg

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a trend towards recognising a general principle of public access to documents held by public authorities, both in national and in Community law. Once such a fundamental principle of Community law is established, the exceptions to public access to documents laid down in the internal rules of the institutions must not be construed or interpreted in a manner which will render it impossible to attain the objective of openness. To this effect, and in the light of the increasing but still marginal judicial review of the institutions refusals of access to documents, the European Ombudsman's inquires into public access to documents and his decisions on individual complaints of maladministration have provided an efficient and cost-effective recourse for European citizens. However, the entry into force of the Amsterdam Treaty and the subsequent adoption of secondary legislation is unlikely to resolve all the inadequacies of the current public access regime in Community law. This calls for a uniform interpretation of the law on public access to documents in the Community legal order.

  17. Guidelines for residential commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wray, Craig P.; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-01-31

    Currently, houses do not perform optimally or even as many codes and forecasts predict, largely because they are field assembled and there is no consistent process to identify problems or to correct them. Residential commissioning is a solution to this problem. This guide is the culmination of a 30-month project that began in September 1999. The ultimate objective of the project is to increase the number of houses that undergo commissioning, which will improve the quality, comfort, and safety of homes for California citizens. The project goal is to lay the groundwork for a residential commissioning industry in California focused on end-use energy and non-energy issues. As such, we intend this guide to be a beginning and not an end. Our intent is that the guide will lead to the programmatic integration of commissioning with other building industry processes, which in turn will provide more value to a single site visit for people such as home energy auditors and raters, home inspectors, and building performance contractors. Project work to support the development of this guide includes: a literature review and annotated bibliography, which facilitates access to 469 documents related to residential commissioning published over the past 20 years (Wray et al. 2000), an analysis of the potential benefits one can realistically expect from commissioning new and existing California houses (Matson et al. 2002), and an assessment of 107 diagnostic tools for evaluating residential commissioning metrics (Wray et al. 2002). In this guide, we describe the issues that non-experts should consider in developing a commissioning program to achieve the benefits we have identified. We do this by providing specific recommendations about: how to structure the commissioning process, which diagnostics to use, and how to use them to commission new and existing houses. Using examples, we also demonstrate the potential benefits of applying the recommended whole-house commissioning approach to

  18. Open access to scientific publications - an analysis of the barriers to change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Professor Bo-Christer Björk

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the effects of the Internet is that the dissemination of scientific publications in a few years has migrated to electronic formats. The basic business practices between libraries and publishers for selling and buying the content have, however, not changed much. Scientists have in protest against the high subscription prices of mainstream publishers started Open Access (OA journals and e-print repositories, which distribute scientific information freely. Despite widespread agreement among academics that OA would be the optimal distribution mode for publicly financed research results, OA channels still constitute only a marginal phenomenon in the global scholarly communication system. This paper discusses, in view of the experiences of the last ten years, the many barriers hindering a rapid proliferation of Open Access. The discussion is structured according to the main OA channels; peer-reviewed journals for primary publishing, subject-specific and institutional repositories for secondary parallel publishing. It also discusses the types of barriers, which can be classified as: legal framework, IT-infrastructure, business models, indexing services and standards, academic reward system, marketing and critical mass.

  19. Technologic advances and program initiatives in public access defibrillation using automated external defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R D

    2001-06-01

    Widespread provision of early defibrillation following cardiac arrest holds major promise for improved survival from ventricular fibrillation. The critical element in predicting a successful outcome is the rapidity with which defibrillation is achieved. A worldwide awareness of this potential and its advocacy by such organizations as the American Heart Association have been pivotal in the evolution of initiatives to make defibrillation more widely and more rapidly available. The feasibility of this initiative, known as public access defibrillation, is in large measure a direct consequence of major technologic advances in automated external defibrillators (AEDs). New low-energy waveforms with biphasic morphology have been shown to be more effective in terminating ventricular fibrillation and may do so with less myocardial injury. Placement of AEDs in a variety of nontraditional settings such as police cars, aircraft and airport terminals, and gambling casinos has been shown to yield an impressive number of survivors of cardiac arrest in ventricular fibrillation. Questions yet to be answered center on the appropriate disposition of AEDs in public access defibrillation settings, training and retraining issues, device maintenance, and collection of accurate data to document benefit and to identify areas of needed improvement or expansion of AED availability.

  20. Open access of publications by veterinary faculty in the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nault, André J

    2011-01-01

    The free availability of full-text veterinary publications in MEDLINE-indexed journals by US and Canadian veterinary faculty from 2006-7 was determined. Additionally, publishing databases were searched to obtain general statistics on veterinary publishing. A survey of institutional initiatives to promote open-access journals and institutional repositories was also performed. Veterinary faculty published a total of 4,872 articles indexed by MEDLINE in 679 different journals. Of these articles, 1,334 (27%) were available as free full text and were published in 245 different journals. Although 51 veterinary-specific journals offering immediate and free full-text access were identified, few articles in this study appeared in these titles. Rather, most free scholarly articles by veterinary faculty appeared in journals with an embargo period. Academic veterinary institutions may want to recommend acceptance of alternate forms of information dissemination (such as open-access journals and journals published only digitally) to encourage greater global dissemination of their research findings. The promotion and use of digital institutional repositories is also an area for future investment and warrants additional research.

  1. Public Sector Education Institution's Analysis: A Way Forward to Curtail Rural-Regional Education Accessibility Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Aftab Hussain Talpur

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The availability of accessible educational facilities is essential for the better rural education. However, because of the huge population, lack of resources and absence of proper policy plans; the distance between educational facilities and rural communities is mounting as time progresses. These sorts of problematic circumstances put damaging effects on education standards and become responsible for the declining literacy rate. Hence, the goal of this research is to investigate the lack of educational institutions with respect to indigenous standards. Therefore, in this study, the dearth of education institutions was determined for the one of the most deprived sub-regions of Pakistan, i.e. Badin. The data were collected through observations, questionnaire survey, and from secondary sources, like census report and other pertinent public sector documents. The outcome of this study can be taken as an input to develop policy plans, targeting the education accessibility issues of backward communities. This research could show a guiding-path to local planning agencies, as these can come-up with the policy plans to trounce the education accessibility issues from the bucolic sub-regions of developing countries

  2. Accessibility of a cadeirante in a public institution of higher education: routes and routines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Silveira Cambruzzi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The physical disability is group is heterogeneous, even within a “category”, since that covers a diversity, because each has a mechanism to organize in spaces in which attends but all participate of the same challenges. However, due to the challenges encountered by persons with disabilities in establishing routes and routines within a University is that we have developed this research. We chose search access of physically disabled person in your external displacement of student housing to the classroom and the classroom until the Secretariat Department that frequents. Research whose goal is the identification and analysis of routes as its accessibility, on the campus of a public institution of higher education. The survey was submitted to the Ethics Committee that approves their implementation. Direct observations were performed, as well as records via photos and footage, which were authorized by the University. The information collected were analyzed qualitatively as the standards of the Brazilian Association of technical norms and the guiding document for the Regional Council of engineering and architecture, Rio Grande do Sul, titled: Roadmap survey. In data analysis, we see that there are needs for providing accessibility with safety and convenience, as well as establish mechanisms for the community library and the University restaurant part of living as part of the University community and also, in the exercise of their constitutional rights.

  3. Pool chemical-associated health events in public and residential settings - United States, 2003-2012, and Minnesota, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavsa, Michele C; Robinson, Trisha J; Collier, Sarah A; Beach, Michael J

    2014-05-16

    Pool chemicals are added to treated recreational water venues (e.g., pools, hot tubs/spas, and interactive fountains) primarily to protect public health by inactivating pathogens and maximizing the effectiveness of disinfection by controlling pH. However, pool chemicals also can cause injuries when handled or stored improperly. To estimate the number of emergency department (ED) visits for injuries associated with pool chemicals in the United States per year during 2003-2012, CDC analyzed data from the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission's National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS). This report summarizes the results of that analysis. In 2012 alone, an estimated 4,876 persons (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2,821-6,930) visited an ED for injuries associated with pool chemicals. Almost half of the patients were aged pool chemical-associated health event that occurred in Minnesota in 2013, which sent seven children and one adult to an ED. An investigation by the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) determined the cause to be poor monitoring of or response to pool chemistry. Pool chemical-associated health events are preventable. CDC's Model Aquatic Health Code (MAHC) (1) is a resource that state and local agencies can use to optimize prevention of injuries and illnesses associated with public treated recreational water venues, including pool chemical-associated health events.

  4. Health risks of residential wood heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Curtis C.; Etnier, Elizabeth L.; Meyer, H. Robert

    1985-05-01

    The resurgence in the use of wood in the United States for residential heating has been accompanied by a dramatic increase in deaths and injuries from residential fires. Toxic materials present in woodsmoke also appear to present a significant public health hazard. As a result of these factors, production of residential wood heat can be up to two orders of magnitude more hazardous than generation of an equivalent amount of electric energy at a coal-fired power plant. Proper care in installation and operation of wood stoves, as well as technological innovations that control wood-stove emissions, can greatly reduce the health and safety hazards of residential heating with wood.

  5. Socioeconomic residential segregation and public housing policies. An approach from the Program “Mi Casa, Mi Vida”. Case study in the city of Cordoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Molinatti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the possible effects of the housing program “Mi Casa, Mi Vida” in socioeconomic residential segregation in the city of Córdoba (Argentina. These effects are estimated from the study of the socioeconomic residential composition (before and after the implementation of the program, the mapping of residential movements generated by the program and the application of bivariate autocorrelation techniques. Among the key findings, most of the program beneficiaries are concentrated in poor areas surrounded by others in similar conditions. This fact favors the existence of a large cluster of poverty in the peripheries of the city and promotes marginalization and social exclusion.

  6. Math and science technology access and use in South Dakota public schools grades three through five

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwietert, Debra L.

    The development of K-12 technology standards, soon to be added to state testing of technology proficiency, and the increasing presence of computers in homes and classrooms reflects the growing importance of technology in current society. This study examined math and science teachers' responses on a survey of technology use in grades three through five in South Dakota. A researcher-developed survey instrument was used to collect data from a random sample of 100 public schools throughout the South Dakota. Forced choice and open-ended responses were recorded. Most teachers have access to computers, but they lack resources to purchase software for their content areas, especially in science areas. Three-fourths of teachers in this study reported multiple computers in their classrooms and 67% reported access to labs in other areas of the school building. These numbers are lower than the national average of 84% of teachers with computers in their classrooms and 95% with access to computers elsewhere in the building (USDOE, 2000). Almost eight out of 10 teachers noted time as a barrier to learning more about educational software. Additional barriers included lack of school funds (38%), access to relevant training (32%), personal funds (30%), and poor quality of training (7%). Teachers most often use math and science software as supplemental, with practice tutorials cited as another common use. The most common interest for software was math for both boys and girls. The second most common choice for boys was science and for girls, language arts. Teachers reported that there was no preference for either individual or group work on computers for girls or boys. Most teachers do not systematically evaluate software for gender preferences, but review software over subjectively.

  7. The Role of Parliamentary Libraries in Eastern Europe in Ensuring Public Access to Government Information: The Case of Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Irina A.; Kirkwood, Francis T.

    This paper discusses the role of the Parliamentary Library in Russia. The first section provides historical background. The second section addresses two prerequisites of the Parliamentary Library, i.e., the official documents collections and the rule of public law. The third section describes implementing public access to government information…

  8. Geographically weighted regression for modelling the accessibility to the public hospital network in Concepción Metropolitan Area, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Martínez Bascuñán

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Accessibility models in transport geography based on geographic information systems have proven to be an effective method in determining spatial inequalities associated with public health. This work aims to model the spatial accessibility from populated areas within the Concepción metropolitan area (CMA, the second largest city in Chile. The city’s public hospital network is taken into consideration with special reference to socio-regional inequalities. The use of geographically weighted regression (GWR and ordinary least squares (OLS for modelling accessibility with socioeconomic and transport variables is proposed. The explanatory variables investigated are: illiterate population, rural housing, alternative housing, homes with a motorised vehicle, public transport routes, and connectivity. Our results identify that approximately 4.1% of the population have unfavourable or very unfavourable accessibility to public hospitals, which correspond to rural areas located south of CMA. Application of a local GWR model (0.87 R2 adjusted helped to improve the settings over the use of traditional OLS methods (multiple regression (0.67 R2 adjusted and to find the spatial distribution of both coefficients of the explanatory variables, demonstrating the local significance of the model. Thus, accessibility studies have enormous potential to contribute to the development of public health and transport policies in turn to achieve equality in spatial accessibility to specialised health care.

  9. Solar Access to Public Capital (SAPC) Working Group: Best Practices in PV System Installation; Version 1.0, March 2015; Period of Performance, October 2014 - September 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, C. [IBTS and Dividend Solar, Austin, TX (United States). Dividend Solar; Truitt, A. [Acuity Power Group, Denver, CO (United States); Inda, D. [Clean Power Finance, San Francisco, CA (United States); Lawrence, R. [North American Board of Certified Energy Practitioners, Clifton Park, NY (United States); Lockhart, R. [Acuity Power Group, Wellesley Hills, MA (United States); Golden, M. [Efficiency.org and IBTS, Sausalito, CA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The following Photovoltaics Installation Best Practices Guide is one of several work products developed by the Solar Access to Public Capital (SAPC) working group, which works to open capital market investment. SAPC membership includes over 450 leading solar developers, financiers and capital managers, law firms, rating agencies, accounting and engineering firms, and other stakeholders engaged in solar asset deployment. SAPC activities are directed toward foundational elements necessary to pool project cash flows into tradable securities: standardization of power purchase and lease contracts for residential and commercial end customers; development of performance and credit data sets to facilitate investor due diligence activities; comprehension of risk perceived by rating agencies; and the development of best practice guides for PV system installation and operations and maintenance (O&M) in order to encourage high-quality system deployment and operation that may improve lifetime project performance and energy production. This PV Installation Best Practices Guide was developed through the SAPC Installation Best Practices subcommittee, a subgroup of SAPC comprised of a wide array of solar industry leaders in numerous fields of practice. The guide was developed over roughly one year and eight months of direct engagement by the subcommittee and two working group comment periods.

  10. Are pediatric Open Access journals promoting good publication practice? An analysis of author instructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolff Robert F

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies analyzed whether conventional journals in general medicine or specialties such as pediatrics endorse recommendations aiming to improve publication practice. Despite evidence showing benefits of these recommendations, the proportion of endorsing journals has been moderate to low and varied considerably for different recommendations. About half of pediatric journals indexed in the Journal Citation Report referred to the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE but only about a quarter recommended registration of trials. We aimed to investigate to what extent pediatric open-access (OA journals endorse these recommendations. We hypothesized that a high proportion of these journals have adopted recommendations on good publication practice since OA electronic publishing has been associated with a number of editorial innovations aiming at improved access and transparency. Methods We identified 41 journals publishing original research in the subject category "Health Sciences, Medicine (General, Pediatrics" of the Directory of Open Access Journals http://www.doaj.org. From the journals' online author instructions we extracted information regarding endorsement of four domains of editorial policy: the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts, trial registration, disclosure of conflicts of interest and five major reporting guidelines such as the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials statement. Two investigators collected data independently. Results The Uniform Requirements were mentioned by 27 (66% pediatric OA journals. Thirteen (32% required or recommended trial registration prior to publication of a trial report. Conflict of interest policies were stated by 25 journals (61%. Advice about reporting guidelines was less frequent: CONSORT was referred to by 12 journals (29% followed by other reporting guidelines (MOOSE, PRISMA or STARD (8 journals, 20

  11. Are pediatric Open Access journals promoting good publication practice? An analysis of author instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerpohl, Joerg J; Wolff, Robert F; Antes, Gerd; von Elm, Erik

    2011-04-09

    Several studies analyzed whether conventional journals in general medicine or specialties such as pediatrics endorse recommendations aiming to improve publication practice. Despite evidence showing benefits of these recommendations, the proportion of endorsing journals has been moderate to low and varied considerably for different recommendations. About half of pediatric journals indexed in the Journal Citation Report referred to the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) but only about a quarter recommended registration of trials. We aimed to investigate to what extent pediatric open-access (OA) journals endorse these recommendations. We hypothesized that a high proportion of these journals have adopted recommendations on good publication practice since OA electronic publishing has been associated with a number of editorial innovations aiming at improved access and transparency. We identified 41 journals publishing original research in the subject category "Health Sciences, Medicine (General), Pediatrics" of the Directory of Open Access Journals http://www.doaj.org. From the journals' online author instructions we extracted information regarding endorsement of four domains of editorial policy: the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts, trial registration, disclosure of conflicts of interest and five major reporting guidelines such as the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) statement. Two investigators collected data independently. The Uniform Requirements were mentioned by 27 (66%) pediatric OA journals. Thirteen (32%) required or recommended trial registration prior to publication of a trial report. Conflict of interest policies were stated by 25 journals (61%). Advice about reporting guidelines was less frequent: CONSORT was referred to by 12 journals (29%) followed by other reporting guidelines (MOOSE, PRISMA or STARD) (8 journals, 20%) and STROBE (3 journals, 7%). The EQUATOR

  12. Evaluation of Public E-Services and Information Technology Accessibility in Different Social Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramutė Naujikienė

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop an approach based on the social quality evaluation square model for evaluation of information technology usage in different social groups. Componential view to the accessibility of e-services including IT means providing the possibility to research the influences of different life conditions to usage of the public e-services. The task of this empirical study is directed towards revealing the differences of e-inclusion and e-services accessibility for social groups of citizens of Lithuania, and to compare this accessibility data with other EU countries.Design/methodology/approach—the approach is based on the square model of social quality evaluation of information technology usage in different social groups. The social division square model includes an assessment of quality according to the evaluation of socioeconomic security, social inclusion, social cohesion, and empowerment. Empowerment can be defined as consisting of individual or collective decisions to act on one’s own life.Findings—the results are demonstrated by the accessibility of public e-services data, which are evaluated by the quality of social group development according to IT applications. The hypothesis was confirmed that the e-government activities can be realized by properly selecting and installing technologies, and using technology facilities. E-services influence the capabilities of state officials to apply modern technology and increase the availability of e-services for social groups. Results consist of individual or collective decisions to act on one’s own life, to implementation of effective information technologies in the e-government activities and using of e-services. An important indicator is the implementation of e-services in the activity of citizens. It is submitted as the index of e-participation in dealing with the activities of citizens and the possibilities of authorities directly related with providing services

  13. Reflection in Russian public opinion accession to the throne of Emperor Alexander II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim N. Krot

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the perception of Russian society coming to the throne of Emperor Alexander II in 1855. The author analyzes the internal and external situation in Russia in this period, identifying the most significant factors that influenced the public's attitude to the new monarch, and the expectations that were associated with his coming to power. The article draws parallels between the initial period of the reign of the two liberal Russian monarchs of the XIX century – Alexander I and Alexander II, most clearly expressed not so much in the circumstances of their accession, but in the public mood that prevailed in the country. It presents a broad picture of the "awakening" of public consciousness and activity after the stagnation and oppression of the preceding reign, which was reflected primarily in an effort to think freely and to discuss pressing issues facing the country, as well as contribute to the supreme power in the modernization of social and political relations, awareness where necessary, at this time it becomes clearly. The author identifies semantic levels of social consciousness of the period, indicating the particular circumstances that have shaped them. Much attention is paid to the influence of Russian society of the Crimean War, which in many ways was the starting point of social upheaval transformed in 1855 from a national-patriotic in the socio-political. The author points out that at this time has unique conditions for overcoming the contradictions between state and society and their successful cooperation in the reform of the country. This suggests a significant, perhaps - the crucial role of the public in the selection of the vector conversion of Russia, which has become a feature of the reign of Alexander II.

  14. Virtual anastylosis of Greek sculpture as museum policy for public outreach and cognitive accessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanco, Filippo; Tanasi, Davide; Allegra, Dario; Milotta, Filippo Luigi Maria; Lamagna, Gioconda; Monterosso, Giuseppina

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with a virtual anastylosis of a Greek Archaic statue from ancient Sicily and the development of a public outreach protocol for those with visual impairment or cognitive disabilities through the application of three-dimensional (3-D) printing and haptic technology. The case study consists of the marble head from Leontinoi in southeastern Sicily, acquired in the 18th century and later kept in the collection of the Museum of Castello Ursino in Catania, and a marble torso, retrieved in 1904 and since then displayed in the Archaeological Museum of Siracusa. Due to similar stylistic features, the two pieces can be dated to the end of the sixth century BC. Their association has been an open problem, largely debated by scholars, who have based their hypotheses on comparisons between pictures, but the reassembly of the two artifacts was never attempted. As a result the importance of such an artifact, which could be the only intact Archaic statue of a kouros ever found in Greek Sicily, has not fully been grasped by the public. Consequently, the curatorial dissemination of the knowledge related with such artifacts is purely based on photographic material. As a response to this scenario, the two objects have been 3-D scanned and virtually reassembled. The result has been shared digitally with the public via a web platform and, in order to include increased accessibility for the public with physical or cognitive disabilities, copies of the reassembled statue have been 3-D printed and an interactive test with the 3-D model has been carried out with a haptic device.

  15. Mental health leadership and patient access to care: a public-private initiative in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Christopher Paul; Fine, Jennifer; Mayers, Pat; Naidoo, Shan; Zabow, Tuviah

    2017-01-01

    Mental health leadership is a critical component of patient access to care. More specifically, the ability of mental health professionals to articulate the needs of patients, formulate strategies and engage meaningfully at the appropriate level in pursuit of resources. This is not a skill set routinely taught to mental health professionals. A public-private mental health leadership initiative, emanating from a patient access to care programme, was developed with the aim of building leadership capacity within the South African public mental health sector. The express aim was to equip health care professionals with the requisite skills to more effectively advocate for their patients. The initiative involved participants from various sites within South Africa. Inclusion was based on the proposal of an ongoing "project", i.e. a clinician-initiated service development with a multidisciplinary focus. The projects were varied in nature but all involved identification of and a plan for addressing an aspect of the participants' daily professional work which negatively impacted on patient care due to unmet needs. Six such projects were included and involved 15 participants, comprising personnel from psychiatry, psychology, occupational therapy and nursing. Each project group was formally mentored as part of the initiative, with mentors being senior professionals with expertise in psychiatry, public health and nursing. The programme design thus provided a unique practical dimension in which skills and learnings were applied to the projects with numerous and diverse outcomes. Benefits were noted by participants but extended beyond the individuals to the health institutions in which they worked and the patients that they served. Participants acquired both the skills and the confidence which enabled them to sustain the changes that they themselves had initiated in their institutions. The initiative gave impetus to the inclusion of public mental health as part of the curriculum

  16. The lighting of residential yards.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    The "woonerf" is conceived in order to enhance the amenity in residential districts. It is put into effect by a series of legal measures, road construction and traffic management measures, planning measures and social measures. The quality requirements for the public lighting include apart of

  17. Intangible Capital: Four years of growth as an open-access scientific publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pep Simo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This issue opens the fourth volume of the Intangible Capital journal, which makes its way towards the fifth year of publication. As usually, we start this volume by evaluating the previous one and tracing new directions. Among the main contributions during the year 2007, we consider important to highlight the following aspects: the renewal of the scientific indexation agreements, the platform change to OJS, the appointment of a new editor, new members included in the editorial board, the board of reviewers, the change towards a bilingual model, the new financing obtained and, the last but not the least, the work undertaken together with many scientific editors of open access Spanish journals for obtaining the positive evaluation of the CNEAI (National Commission for the Evaluation of the Research Activity and thus, being a proof of scientific excellence.

  18. The Role of Residential Communities for the Academic and Social Success of Undergraduate Women in STEM Majors: The Case of a Public University in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuhib, Frehiwot Wondimu

    This study is an exploratory case study which explored the residential environment of an Ethiopian public university on its role for the social and academic integration of undergraduate women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields. It also explained how the social and academic integration of the women contributed for their overall college success. There were three groups of participants; undergraduate women in STEM, female resident proctors, and relevant officials from the university and the Ministry of Education of the Ethiopian government. Each of the participants were interviewed on a one-on-one basis and the interviews were transcribed and coded for the analysis. Supportive quantitative data about the enrollment, performance and retention of students were also gathered from the university's registrar office and analyzed quantitatively to support the qualitative data obtained through interviews. The study was framed by Tinto's Integration Model and data were interpreted using Third World feminist theory. The findings showed that due to the fact that all same-sex, same-major women living in the same rooms, and all who live in one dorm take similar courses throughout their program, and dormitories serving multiple roles, including being collaboration spaces, played a big role for better social and academic integration of the women. It is also found that their social and academic integration helped them to better perform in their majors by enhancing their sense of belonging in the male-dominated STEM majors, enhancing their commitment, and promoting peer encouragement. On the other hand, the findings also showed that there were some factors which have negative influence in the integration process such as negative stereotypes against the presence and good performance of women in STEM, lack of support system, and limited interaction with faculty. So, the study recommends that working on improving the negatively influencing factors will

  19. Achieving human and machine accessibility of cited data in scholarly publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Joan; Castro, Eleni; Crosas, Mercè; Dumontier, Michel; Downs, Robert R.; Duerr, Ruth; Haak, Laurel L.; Haendel, Melissa; Herman, Ivan; Hodson, Simon; Hourclé, Joe; Kratz, John Ernest; Lin, Jennifer; Nielsen, Lars Holm; Nurnberger, Amy; Proell, Stefan; Rauber, Andreas; Sacchi, Simone; Smith, Arthur; Taylor, Mike; Clark, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Reproducibility and reusability of research results is an important concern in scientific communication and science policy. A foundational element of reproducibility and reusability is the open and persistently available presentation of research data. However, many common approaches for primary data publication in use today do not achieve sufficient long-term robustness, openness, accessibility or uniformity. Nor do they permit comprehensive exploitation by modern Web technologies. This has led to several authoritative studies recommending uniform direct citation of data archived in persistent repositories. Data are to be considered as first-class scholarly objects, and treated similarly in many ways to cited and archived scientific and scholarly literature. Here we briefly review the most current and widely agreed set of principle-based recommendations for scholarly data citation, the Joint Declaration of Data Citation Principles (JDDCP). We then present a framework for operationalizing the JDDCP; and a set of initial recommendations on identifier schemes, identifier resolution behavior, required metadata elements, and best practices for realizing programmatic machine actionability of cited data. The main target audience for the common implementation guidelines in this article consists of publishers, scholarly organizations, and persistent data repositories, including technical staff members in these organizations. But ordinary researchers can also benefit from these recommendations. The guidance provided here is intended to help achieve widespread, uniform human and machine accessibility of deposited data, in support of significantly improved verification, validation, reproducibility and re-use of scholarly/scientific data. PMID:26167542

  20. Achieving human and machine accessibility of cited data in scholarly publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Starr

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Reproducibility and reusability of research results is an important concern in scientific communication and science policy. A foundational element of reproducibility and reusability is the open and persistently available presentation of research data. However, many common approaches for primary data publication in use today do not achieve sufficient long-term robustness, openness, accessibility or uniformity. Nor do they permit comprehensive exploitation by modern Web technologies. This has led to several authoritative studies recommending uniform direct citation of data archived in persistent repositories. Data are to be considered as first-class scholarly objects, and treated similarly in many ways to cited and archived scientific and scholarly literature. Here we briefly review the most current and widely agreed set of principle-based recommendations for scholarly data citation, the Joint Declaration of Data Citation Principles (JDDCP. We then present a framework for operationalizing the JDDCP; and a set of initial recommendations on identifier schemes, identifier resolution behavior, required metadata elements, and best practices for realizing programmatic machine actionability of cited data. The main target audience for the common implementation guidelines in this article consists of publishers, scholarly organizations, and persistent data repositories, including technical staff members in these organizations. But ordinary researchers can also benefit from these recommendations. The guidance provided here is intended to help achieve widespread, uniform human and machine accessibility of deposited data, in support of significantly improved verification, validation, reproducibility and re-use of scholarly/scientific data.

  1. Achieving human and machine accessibility of cited data in scholarly publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Joan; Castro, Eleni; Crosas, Mercè; Dumontier, Michel; Downs, Robert R; Duerr, Ruth; Haak, Laurel L; Haendel, Melissa; Herman, Ivan; Hodson, Simon; Hourclé, Joe; Kratz, John Ernest; Lin, Jennifer; Nielsen, Lars Holm; Nurnberger, Amy; Proell, Stefan; Rauber, Andreas; Sacchi, Simone; Smith, Arthur; Taylor, Mike; Clark, Tim

    Reproducibility and reusability of research results is an important concern in scientific communication and science policy. A foundational element of reproducibility and reusability is the open and persistently available presentation of research data. However, many common approaches for primary data publication in use today do not achieve sufficient long-term robustness, openness, accessibility or uniformity. Nor do they permit comprehensive exploitation by modern Web technologies. This has led to several authoritative studies recommending uniform direct citation of data archived in persistent repositories. Data are to be considered as first-class scholarly objects, and treated similarly in many ways to cited and archived scientific and scholarly literature. Here we briefly review the most current and widely agreed set of principle-based recommendations for scholarly data citation, the Joint Declaration of Data Citation Principles (JDDCP). We then present a framework for operationalizing the JDDCP; and a set of initial recommendations on identifier schemes, identifier resolution behavior, required metadata elements, and best practices for realizing programmatic machine actionability of cited data. The main target audience for the common implementation guidelines in this article consists of publishers, scholarly organizations, and persistent data repositories, including technical staff members in these organizations. But ordinary researchers can also benefit from these recommendations. The guidance provided here is intended to help achieve widespread, uniform human and machine accessibility of deposited data, in support of significantly improved verification, validation, reproducibility and re-use of scholarly/scientific data.

  2. Community Services and Residential Institutions for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gula, Martin

    1974-01-01

    Describes constructive "deinstitutionalization", the movement away from the establishment of large, custodial public residential institutions for dependent, delinquent, retarded or emotionally disturbed children, to more decentralized, informal community services. (CS)

  3. Difficulties in accessing and availing of public health care systems among rural population in Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Lakshmi Sreerama

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Despite policies to make health care accessible to all, it is not universally accessible. Frequent evaluation of barriers to accessibility of health care services paves path for improvement. Hence, present study is undertaken to evaluate the factors and public health policies influencing health care access to rural people in Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, which can be interpolated for other regions. Aims: To assess knowledge, perceptions, availing of public health care services, barriers to health care access in Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional, hospital-based survey in the Government Maternity Hospital (GMH, Tirupati, a tertiary care center. Materials and Methods: Fifty women delivered normally in GMH through convenient sampling technique. Data collected on standardized pro forma as per IMS Institute of Healthcare Informatics. Statistical Analysis Used: Is done through MS Excel 2007, Epi Info 7 (of Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA and frequencies were described. Results: Distance, waiting hours, societal responsibility, nature of the illness, presumed commercialization of Medicare system, attitudes of health care providers, and loss of wages were not barriers for accessing health care. Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA and availability of ambulance services made great improvements in health care accessibility. Absenteeism of health care providers is a problem. Conclusions: Expanding the ambulance services and ASHA network will be an effective measure for further accessibility to health care. Absenteeism of health care providers needs correction.

  4. ASHRAE and residential ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.

    2003-10-01

    In the last quarter of a century, the western world has become increasingly aware of environmental threats to health and safety. During this period, people psychologically retreated away from outdoors hazards such as pesticides, smog, lead, oil spills, and dioxin to the seeming security of their homes. However, the indoor environment may not be healthier than the outdoor environment, as has become more apparent over the past few years with issues such as mold, formaldehyde, and sick-building syndrome. While the built human environment has changed substantially over the past 10,000 years, human biology has not; poor indoor air quality creates health risks and can be uncomfortable. The human race has found, over time, that it is essential to manage the indoor environments of their homes. ASHRAE has long been in the business of ventilation, but most of the focus of that effort has been in the area of commercial and institutional buildings. Residential ventilation was traditionally not a major concern because it was felt that, between operable windows and envelope leakage, people were getting enough outside air in their homes. In the quarter of a century since the first oil shock, houses have gotten much more energy efficient. At the same time, the kinds of materials and functions in houses changed in character in response to people's needs. People became more environmentally conscious and aware not only about the resources they were consuming but about the environment in which they lived. All of these factors contributed to an increasing level of public concern about residential indoor air quality and ventilation. Where once there was an easy feeling about the residential indoor environment, there is now a desire to define levels of acceptability and performance. Many institutions--both public and private--have interests in Indoor Air Quality (IAQ), but ASHRAE, as the professional society that has had ventilation as part of its mission for over 100 years, is the

  5. Predictors of access to sex education for children with intellectual disabilities in public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Schmidt, Marcelo; Chesnut, Steven; Wei, Tianlan; Richman, David

    2014-04-01

    Data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 ( SRI International, 2002 ) were analyzed to identify variables that predicted whether individuals with intellectual disability (ID) received sex education in public schools across the United States. Results suggested that individuals receiving special education services without ID were only slightly more likely to receive sex education than students with mild ID (47.5% and 44.1%, respectively), but the percentage of students with moderate to profound ID that received sex education was significantly lower (16.18%). Analysis of teacher opinions and perceptions of the likelihood of the students benefiting from sex education found that most teachers indicated that students without ID or with mild ID would benefit (60% and 68%, respectively), but the percentage dropped to 25% for students with moderate to profound ID. Finally, across all students, the only significant demographic variable that predicted receipt of sex education was more expressive communication skills. Results are discussed in terms of ensuring equal access to sex education for students with ID in public schools.

  6. Suppression of AC railway power-line interference in ECG signals recorded by public access defibrillators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dotsinsky Ivan

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public access defibrillators (PADs are now available for more efficient and rapid treatment of out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrest. PADs are used normally by untrained people on the streets and in sports centers, airports, and other public areas. Therefore, automated detection of ventricular fibrillation, or its exclusion, is of high importance. A special case exists at railway stations, where electric power-line frequency interference is significant. Many countries, especially in Europe, use 16.7 Hz AC power, which introduces high level frequency-varying interference that may compromise fibrillation detection. Method Moving signal averaging is often used for 50/60 Hz interference suppression if its effect on the ECG spectrum has little importance (no morphological analysis is performed. This approach may be also applied to the railway situation, if the interference frequency is continuously detected so as to synchronize the analog-to-digital conversion (ADC for introducing variable inter-sample intervals. A better solution consists of rated ADC, software frequency measuring, internal irregular re-sampling according to the interference frequency, and a moving average over a constant sample number, followed by regular back re-sampling. Results The proposed method leads to a total railway interference cancellation, together with suppression of inherent noise, while the peak amplitudes of some sharp complexes are reduced. This reduction has negligible effect on accurate fibrillation detection. Conclusion The method is developed in the MATLAB environment and represents a useful tool for real time railway interference suppression.

  7. Public library computer training for older adults to access high-quality Internet health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bo; Bugg, Julie M

    2009-09-01

    An innovative experiment to develop and evaluate a public library computer training program to teach older adults to access and use high-quality Internet health information involved a productive collaboration among public libraries, the National Institute on Aging and the National Library of Medicine of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and a Library and Information Science (LIS) academic program at a state university. One hundred and thirty-one older adults aged 54-89 participated in the study between September 2007 and July 2008. Key findings include: a) participants had overwhelmingly positive perceptions of the training program; b) after learning about two NIH websites (http://nihseniorhealth.gov and http://medlineplus.gov) from the training, many participants started using these online resources to find high quality health and medical information and, further, to guide their decision-making regarding a health- or medically-related matter; and c) computer anxiety significantly decreased (p libraries, LIS academic programs, and other organizations interested in providing similar programs in their communities.

  8. Accessibility of general practitioners and selected specialist physicians by car and by public transport in a rural region of Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Stentzel, Ulrike; Piegsa, Jens; Fredrich, Daniel; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; van den Berg, Neeltje

    2016-01-01

    Background The accessibility of medical care facilities in sparsely populated rural regions is relevant especially for elderly people which often represent a large segment of the population in such regions. Elderly people have higher morbidity risks and a higher demand for medical care. Although travelling with private cars is the dominating traffic mode in rural regions, accessibility by public transport is increasingly important especially because of limited mobility of elderly people. The ...

  9. BPO crude oil analysis data base user`s guide: Methods, publications, computer access correlations, uses, availability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellers, C.; Fox, B.; Paulz, J.

    1996-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has one of the largest and most complete collections of information on crude oil composition that is available to the public. The computer program that manages this database of crude oil analyses has recently been rewritten to allow easier access to this information. This report describes how the new system can be accessed and how the information contained in the Crude Oil Analysis Data Bank can be obtained.

  10. Ensuring access to public information in Mexico: Proposal for treatment of the information portal of the Ministry of Federal Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alfredo Hernández Landeros

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Reflect on the need to ensure access to information to everyone as the foundation of a information society. The case of Mexico and its public policy information from the Federal Institute of Access to Information. A proposal to adopt an information management system documentation for the Federal Ministry of Health of Mexico, based on international norms and standards in order to control, organize and retrieve information within your site.

  11. Editors View the Continuous Publication Model as a Satisfactory Alternative for Open Access LIS Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hayman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Cirasella, J., & Bowdoin, S. (2013. Just roll with it? Rolling volumes vs. discrete issues in open access library and information science journals. Journal of Librarianship and Scholarly Communication, 1(4. http://dx.doi.org/10.7710/2162-3309.1086 Abstract Objective – To understand the prevalence of, motivations for, and satisfaction with using a rolling-volume publishing model, as opposed to publishing discrete issues, across open access academic journals in library and information science. Design – A 12 question survey questionnaire. Setting – English-language, open access library and information science (LIS journals published in the United States of America. Subjects – A total of 21 open access LIS journals identified via the Directory of Open Access Journals that were actively publishing, and that also met the authors’ standard of scholarliness, which they established by identifying a journal’s peer-review process or other evidence of rigorous review. Based on responses, 12 journals published using discrete issues, while 9 published as rolling volumes or as rolling volumes with some discrete issues. Methods – In late 2011, the study’s authors invited lead editors or primary journal contacts to complete the survey. Survey participants were asked to identify whether their journal published in discrete issues, rolling volumes, or rolling volumes with occasional discrete issues, with the latter two categories combined as one for ease of results analysis. Survey logic split respondents into two groups, either discrete-issue or rolling-volume. Respondents in both categories were posed similar sets of questions, with the key difference being that the questions directed at each category accounted for the publication model the journals themselves identified as using. Editors from both groups were asked about the reasons for using the publication model they identified for their journal: within the survey tool, authors

  12. Linking People to the Global Networked Society. Evaluation of the Online at PA Libraries Project: Public Access to the Internet through Public Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Charles R.; Bertot, John Carlo

    This report provides an evaluation of the Online at PA Libraries project which was initiated in the Fall of 1996 by the Pennsylvania Department of Education's Office of Commonwealth Libraries and the Schuylkill Intermediate Unit. The report documents that the following goals were accomplished: (1) provide public access to the Internet through…

  13. Review of naloxone safety for opioid overdose: practical considerations for new technology and expanded public access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wermeling, Daniel P

    2015-02-01

    Opioid overdose and mortality have increased at an alarming rate prompting new public health initiatives to reduce drug poisoning. One initiative is to expand access to the opioid antidote naloxone. Naloxone has a long history of safe and effective use by organized healthcare systems and providers in the treatment of opioid overdose by paramedics/emergency medicine technicians, emergency medicine physicians and anesthesiologists. The safety of naloxone in a prehospital setting administered by nonhealthcare professionals has not been formally established but will likely parallel medically supervised experiences. Naloxone dose and route of administration can produce variable intensity of potential adverse reactions and opioid withdrawal symptoms: intravenous administration and higher doses produce more adverse events and more severe withdrawal symptoms in those individuals who are opioid dependent. More serious adverse reactions after naloxone administration occur rarely and may be confounded by the effects of other co-intoxicants and the effects of prolonged hypoxia. One component of the new opioid harm reduction initiative is to expand naloxone access to high-risk individuals (addicts, abusers, or patients taking high-dose or extended-release opioids for pain) and their close family or household contacts. Patients or their close contacts receive a naloxone prescription to have the medication on their person or in the home for use during an emergency. Contacts are trained on overdose recognition, rescue breathing and administration of naloxone by intramuscular injection or nasal spraying of the injection prior to the arrival of emergency medical personnel. The safety profile of naloxone in traditional medical use must be considered in this new context of outpatient prescribing, dispensing and treatment of overdose prior to paramedic arrival. New naloxone delivery products are being developed for this prehospital application of naloxone in treatment of opioid

  14. Moving toward More Effective Public Internet Access: The 1998 National Survey of Public Library Outlet Internet Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertot, John Carlo; McClure, Charles R.

    This publication reports on research conducted to follow up on a 1997 survey of public libraries and the Internet, co-sponsored by the National Commission on Libraries and Information Science and the American Library Association. The 1998 survey is based on a sample of 2,500 of the nation's 15,718 public library outlets. The survey found that…

  15. Moral Progress in the Public Safety Net: Access for Transgender and LGB Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Stephan; Berlinger, Nancy

    2014-09-01

    As a population, people who self-identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender face significant risks to health and difficulty in obtaining medical and behavioral health care, relative to the general public. These issues are especially challenging in safety-net health care institutions, which serve a range of vulnerable populations with limited access, limited options, and significant health disparities. Safety-net hospitals, particularly public hospitals with fewer resources than academic medical centers and other nonprofit hospitals that also serve as safety nets, are under immense financial pressures. However, with the introduction in 2011 of standards for LGBT inclusion by The Joint Commission, showing progress on LGBT health care has become a compliance issue for hospitals. And because the health care community itself has contributed to LGBT health disparities through prejudice, disrespect, or inadequate knowledge that have made it difficult for LGB and especially T people to seek care or to obtain the care they need, there is a moral case for allocating scarce resources to this population: we owe them some investment in righting wrongs that the health care system itself has produced. So, where to begin in the typical safety-net hospital or clinic? Beyond staff training, which is essential and for which good models now exist, what does justice demand from a service-utilization perspective? Given the range of health care services that an LGBT person in the safety net may need or want, how should we set priorities? And what can't we promise to do for this member of our community? © 2014 by The Hastings Center.

  16. Inheritance as Intimate, Implicated Publics: Building Practices of Remembrance with Future Teachers in Response to Residential School Survivor Testimonial Media and Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I contextualize and outline my use of testimonial literature, including orature, by residential school survivors in a preservice course focused on building practices of witness-­as-study (Simon & Eppert, 2005). My theorization of the course curriculum and pedagogy draws on key texts by Roger Simon as a means of proposing…

  17. Health care access for refugees and immigrants with precarious status: public health and human right challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Cécile; ter Kuile, Sonia; Munoz, Marie; Nadeau, Lucie; Ouimet, Marie-Jo; Kirmayer, Laurence; Crépeau, François

    2008-01-01

    Migration flux is being transformed by globalization, and the number of people with either undocumented or with a precarious status is growing in Canada. There are no epidemiological data on the health and social consequences of this situation, but clinicians working in primary care with migrants and refugees are increasingly worried about the associated morbidity. This commentary summarizes findings from a pilot study with health professionals in the Montreal area and suggests that the uninsured population predicament is a national problem. Although ethical and legal issues associated with data collection by clinicians, institutions and governments need to be examined, estimating the public health consequences and long-term cost associated with problems in access to health care due to migratory status should be a priority. Current regulations and administrative policies appear to be at odds with the principles of equal rights set out by the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. Beyond the commitment of individual clinicians, Canadian medical associations should take an advocacy role and scrutinize the ethical and medical implications of the present system.

  18. State Public Policies and the Racial/Ethnic Stratification of College Access and Choice in the State of Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Laura W.; Steele, Patricia; Woda, Susan; Hibbert, Taifa

    2005-01-01

    This study uses descriptive analyses of data from multiple sources to examine changes during the 1990s in the racial/ethnic stratification of college access and choice in Maryland and to explore state public policies that may have influenced changes in the demand for and supply of higher education for students of different racial/ethnic groups…

  19. Student Search Behaviour in an Online Public Access Catalogue: An Examination of "Searching Mental Models" and "Searcher Self-Concept"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, Rebekah; Given, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This paper presents a qualitative exploration of university students' experience of searching an online public access catalogue. The study investigated how students conceptualise their searching process, as well as how students understand themselves as seekers of information. Method: Following a search task, thirty-eight…

  20. Awareness of Accessibility Barriers in Computer-Based Instructional Materials and Faculty Demographics at South Dakota Public Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Advances in technology and course delivery methods have enabled persons with disabilities to enroll in higher education at an increasing rate. Federal regulations state persons with disabilities must be granted equal access to the information contained in computer-based instructional materials, but faculty at the six public universities in South…

  1. Public access to New Hampshire state waters: a comparison of three cohorts of residents across three distinct geographic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim Pawlawski; Robert A. Robertson; Laura Pfister

    2003-01-01

    This study was intended to provide New Hampshire agencies with a better understanding of public access-related demand information. Through an analysis of three groups of New Hampshire residents based upon geographic location and length of residency, important issues and attitudes were identified from all over the State. The results of this study will assist in policy-...

  2. Providing access to research data, publications and current research information at Data Archiving and Networked Services - DANS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, E.M.S.; Doorn, P.K.

    2014-01-01

    Data Archiving and Networked Services (DANS) promotes sustained access to digital research data in the Netherlands. Researchers can deposit their data through the online archiving system EASY. Via the portal NARCIS the research data are shown in context, namely in relation to publications, and other

  3. Public Perception of the Millennium Development Goals on Access to Safe Drinking Water in Cross River State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eni, David D.; Ojong, William M.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the public perception of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of environmental sustainability with focus on the MDG target which has to do with reducing the proportion of people without access to safe drinking water in Cross River State, Nigeria. The stratified and systematic sampling techniques were adopted for the study,…

  4. U.S. Government Publications: Their Value, Online Accessibility for International Information Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usdane, Bernice S.

    1980-01-01

    Classifies the types of online databases available through System Development Corporation (ORBIT) and Lockheed Information Systems (DIALOG) that access government information; briefly describes those which include access to government sources; and discusses in greater depth five databases which exclusively access U.S. Federal Government Documents.…

  5. 浅谈寒地城市混合型住区公共空间环境设计%Introduction to Cold City Mixed Residential Public Space Environment Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佳艺; 胡阳琴

    2015-01-01

    Cold Mixed Residential Public Space in city is an important part in bearing life and communication. The function and form directly affect people”s physical and mental health and harmony. On the cold ground city mixed residential public space environment analyzed the current situation and existing problems, to create good public space environment. This paper puts forward the good ideas.%寒地城市混合型住区公共空间是承载居民生活、交往的重要场所,其功能和形式直接影响到居民的身心健康与和睦相处。针对目前寒地城市混合型住区公共空间环境现状和存在问题进行了剖析,对良好公共空间环境的营造提出有利设想。

  6. Residential Energy Management Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecca, Stephen J.; Robertshaw, Joseph E.

    1980-01-01

    Describes two formal programs in the area of energy management education: a Residential Energy Management Summer Institute (part of a faculty development program funded by the Department of Energy), and a Residential Energy Management curriculum for Energy Auditors. (CS)

  7. Ethical policies on animal experiments are not compromised by whether a journal is freely accessible or charges for publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rands, S A

    2009-11-01

    The advent of the open access (OA) movement in publishing has been instrumental in causing a shift in the accessibility of research findings published in academic journals. The adoption of OA and other online publication models means that the results of scientific research published in journals using a free access (FA) framework are now available, free of charge, to anyone with access to the Internet. FA journals typically require a payment from the authors of a manuscript, which has raised concerns about the quality of work published in them; accepting payment from an author may compromise a journal's acceptance criteria. This study addresses whether journal policy on the treatment of animals is influenced by whether a journal follows a FA publishing model, and whether a requirement to pay for publication has an influence. A random sample of 332 biomedical journals listed in the ISI Web of Knowledge and Directory of Open Access Journals databases were assessed for whether they had an ethical policy on publishing animal studies, and what form of publication framework they used (103 of the journals followed a FA framework; 101 charged in some way for publication). Only 135 (40.7%) of the journals surveyed demanded that submissions comply with a pre-defined ethical stance. FA journals are just as likely to have an ethical policy on the treatment and presentation of animal studies as 'traditional', non-FA journals (significance of there being a difference: P = 0.98), and there is no relationship between policy and whether an author is required to pay for publication (significance of there being a difference: P = 0.57). Older journals are more likely to have an ethical policy (P = 0.03). There is, therefore, no obvious compromise shown by FA journals in the explicit policies on reporting studies involving animals. However, since anyone can read published FA studies online, FA journals that do not have an explicit policy about publishing animal research are urged to

  8. Can free open access resources strengthen knowledge-based emerging public health priorities, policies and programs in Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambo, Ernest; Madjou, Ghislaine; Khayeka-Wandabwa, Christopher; Tekwu, Emmanuel N.; Olalubi, Oluwasogo A.; Midzi, Nicolas; Bengyella, Louis; Adedeji, Ahmed A.; Ngogang, Jeanne Y.

    2016-01-01

    Tackling emerging epidemics and infectious diseases burden in Africa requires increasing unrestricted open access and free use or reuse of regional and global policies reforms as well as timely communication capabilities and strategies. Promoting, scaling up data and information sharing between African researchers and international partners are of vital importance in accelerating open access at no cost. Free Open Access (FOA) health data and information acceptability, uptake tactics and sustainable mechanisms are urgently needed. These are critical in establishing real time and effective knowledge or evidence-based translation, proven and validated approaches, strategies and tools to strengthen and revamp health systems.  As such, early and timely access to needed emerging public health information is meant to be instrumental and valuable for policy-makers, implementers, care providers, researchers, health-related institutions and stakeholders including populations when guiding health financing, and planning contextual programs. PMID:27508058

  9. Can free open access resources strengthen knowledge-based emerging public health priorities, policies and programs in Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambo, Ernest; Madjou, Ghislaine; Khayeka-Wandabwa, Christopher; Tekwu, Emmanuel N; Olalubi, Oluwasogo A; Midzi, Nicolas; Bengyella, Louis; Adedeji, Ahmed A; Ngogang, Jeanne Y

    2016-01-01

    Tackling emerging epidemics and infectious diseases burden in Africa requires increasing unrestricted open access and free use or reuse of regional and global policies reforms as well as timely communication capabilities and strategies. Promoting, scaling up data and information sharing between African researchers and international partners are of vital importance in accelerating open access at no cost. Free Open Access (FOA) health data and information acceptability, uptake tactics and sustainable mechanisms are urgently needed. These are critical in establishing real time and effective knowledge or evidence-based translation, proven and validated approaches, strategies and tools to strengthen and revamp health systems.  As such, early and timely access to needed emerging public health information is meant to be instrumental and valuable for policy-makers, implementers, care providers, researchers, health-related institutions and stakeholders including populations when guiding health financing, and planning contextual programs.

  10. Validating the accuracy of GIS-based accessibility analysis in determining public primary health care demand in metropolitan areas: conference presentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokgalaka, H

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available -Based Accessibility Analysis in Determining Public Primary Health Care Demand in Metropolitan Areas Hunadi Mokgalaka July 2014 Contents • Service access planning • GIS-based accessibility analysis • Key challenges to application • Methodology... • Accessibility modelling - improved means of measuring facility access and of identifying poorly served areas and backlogs (spatially) • Inform long term plans • Measure progress w.r.t. service delivery of services • Assist in setting service standards...

  11. Service Differentiation in Residential Broadband Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, Halldór Matthias

    2004-01-01

    As broadband gains widespread adoption with residential users, revenue generating voice- and video-services have not yet taken off. This slow uptake is often attributed to lack of Quality of Service management in residential broadband networks. To resolve this and induce service variety, network...... access providers are implementing service differentiation in their networks where voice and video gets prioritised before data. This paper discusses the role of network access providers in multipurpose packet based networks and the available migration strategies for supporting multimedia services...... in digital subscriber line (DSL) based residential broadband networks. Four possible implementation scenarios and their technical characteristics and effects are described. To conclude, the paper discusses how network access providers can be induced to open their networks for third party service providers....

  12. Open access to the scientific literature: a peer commons open to the public. [Le libre accès à la littérature scientifique : un bien commun aux chercheurs ouvert au public

    OpenAIRE

    Bosc, Hélène

    2008-01-01

    Communication : Copyright Regulation in Europe ? An Enabling or Disabling Factor for Science Communication. European Workshop, Nov. 14-15, 2008, Berlin, Germany; Ninety percent of research worldwide is publicly funded, hence the results of these research should be made publicly accessible online. Research publications, a common good, created by researchers for researchers, need to be freely accessible to all. Immediate "open access" can be provided through author self-archiving in the growing...

  13. Online medical books: their availability and an assessment of how health sciences libraries provide access on their public Websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCall, Steven L

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the number and topical range of available online medical books and to assess how health sciences libraries were providing access to these resources on their public Websites. The collection-based evaluative technique of list checking was used to assess the number and topical range of online medical books of the six largest publishers. Publisher inventory lists were downloaded over a two-day period (May 16-17, 2004). Titles were counted and compared with the 2003 Brandon/Hill list. A sample of health sciences libraries was subsequently derived by consulting the 2004 "Top Medical Schools-Research" in U.S. News & World Report. Bibliographic and bibliothecal access methods were evaluated based on an inspection of the publicly available Websites of the sample libraries. Of 318 currently published online medical books, 151 (47%) were Brandon/Hill titles covering 42 of 59 Brandon/Hill topics (71%). These 151 titles represented 22% (N = 672) of the Brandon/Hill list, which further broke down as 52 minimal core, 41 initial purchase, and 58 other recommended Brandon/Hill titles. These numbers represented 50%, 28%, and 12%, respectively, of all Brandon/Hill titles corresponding to those categories. In terms of bibliographic access, 20 of 21 of sampled libraries created catalog records for their online medical books, 1 of which also provided analytical access at the chapter level, and none provided access at the chapter section level. Of the 21 libraries, 19 had library Website search engines that provided title-level access and 4 provided access at the chapter level and none that at the chapter section level. For bibliothecal access, 19 of 21 libraries provided title-level access to medical books, 8 of which provided classified and alphabetic arrangements, 1 provided a classified arrangement only, and 10 provided an alphabetic arrangement only. No library provided a bibliothecal arrangement for medical book chapters or chapter

  14. The tobacco industry, researchers, and ethical access to UK Biobank: using the public interest and public good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Benjamin James; van der Eijk, Yvette

    2014-10-01

    We have asked whether the strategic purpose of the tobacco industry is something that a public resource, such as UK Biobank, should support. Tobacco industry health research has been known to work irreconcilably with the purposes of such institutions, which can be surmised as for the public good and defined to improve the provision, diagnosis, and treatment of illness and the promotion of health throughout society. We have isolated possible conflicts of interest that underlie vested research agendas of the tobacco industry and that may extend to tobacco industry-funded researchers. With respect to research, we find that the tobacco industry is entirely at odds with the purposes of public biobanking.

  15. Use and Perception of Podium Gardens in Residential Neighborhoods in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Man Lui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how a residential podium garden design can enhance the use of a garden and the satisfaction of its users. Two public and private housing estates are selected to analyze and compare spatial use and the perception of space in podium gardens for public use. First, this paper explores the relationship between residential satisfaction and the physical conditions of podium gardens in public and private housing estates in Hong Kong. A total of 135 questionnaires are collected from two cohorts for each of these groups. People’s perceptions are compared with the physical conditions of the podium gardens. Second, this paper investigates how visibility and accessibility influence the quality and usability of podium gardens. The sense of community, safety and hygiene, and accessibility are examined and compared between public and private housing estate cohorts. In conclusion, opening a podium garden to public use can promote the degree of tolerance and enhance community cohesion. Regardless of whether a podium garden is open to the public or not, according to the responses, more people using the podium garden can increase its usability. Since public monitoring can enhance safety and hygiene, podium gardens should be highly visible from the surrounding buildings. A well-planned podium design thus can improve the social and physical qualities of living environments.

  16. Integrating open-source technologies to build low-cost information systems for improved access to public health data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oberle Mark W

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Effective public health practice relies on the availability of public health data sources and assessment tools to convey information to investigators, practitioners, policy makers, and the general public. Emerging communication technologies on the Internet can deliver all components of the "who, what, when, and where" quartet more quickly than ever with a potentially higher level of quality and assurance, using new analysis and visualization tools. Open-source software provides the opportunity to build low-cost information systems allowing health departments with modest resources access to modern data analysis and visualization tools. In this paper, we integrate open-source technologies and public health data to create a web information system which is accessible to a wide audience through the Internet. Our web application, "EpiVue," was tested using two public health datasets from the Washington State Cancer Registry and Washington State Center for Health Statistics. A third dataset shows the extensibility and scalability of EpiVue in displaying gender-based longevity statistics over a twenty-year interval for 3,143 United States counties. In addition to providing an integrated visualization framework, EpiVue's highly interactive web environment empowers users by allowing them to upload their own geospatial public health data in either comma-separated text files or MS Excel™ spreadsheet files and visualize the geospatial datasets with Google Maps™.

  17. Residential mobility microsimulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifei; Wu, Lun

    2010-09-01

    Residential mobility refers to the spatial movement of individuals and households between dwellings within an urban area. This considerable amount of intra-urban movement affects the urban structure and has significant repercussions for urban transportation. In order to understand and project related impacts, a considerable number of residential mobility models has been developed and used in the regional planning process. Within this context, the history and state-of-art residential mobility models are discussed and indicated. Meanwhile, a residential mobility Microsimulation model, called URM-Microsim (Urban Residential Mobility Microsimulation), is introduced and discussed.

  18. Access and use of the Internet for health information seeking: a survey of local public health professionals in the northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Anne M; Petrochilos, Deanna; Nelson, David E; Allen, Eileen; Liddy, Elizabeth D

    2009-01-01

    We conducted an on-line survey of 164 local health departments' staff in five Northwestern states in 2006-2007 to assess Internet access and use by staff. Most (96%) respondents had full-time access to their own worksite computer. The most important selection criterion for selecting Web sites was credibility of the sponsoring organization (55%). Accuracy (46%), reputable source (30%), and currency of information (19%) were considered most critical for assessing information quality. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (80%) and state health department (60%) sites were used most commonly. These findings can be used to improve public health Web sites and support decision making in practice.

  19. 日常生活视角下的住区外部公共空间--借鉴香港公屋外部公共空间设计%Study on Residential Outdoor Public Space from the Perspective of Everyday Life:With Reference to the Outdoor Public Space of Hong Kong Public Housing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭兰

    2013-01-01

    This article observes the outdoor public space of Hong Kong public housing from the perspective of everyday life, and analyzes the characteristics of the residential outdoor public space and their dynamic interaction with the residents’ everyday lives. On the basis of the study on the related theory, this article emphasizes the importance of focusing on“daily lives”during residential public space design, the six aspects of which are “back to life”, “to stimulate communication”, “to encourage public participate”, “safety and convenience”,“place identification”,“ecological regulation”. It is expected to use the land resources more effectively and intensively, as wel as to improve the outdoor environment in residential area for the low-income groups.%  以“日常生活”的视角对香港公屋的室外公共空间进行亲身观察和体验,从城市、场所与设施三个层面分析了香港住区公共空间的特征及其与居民日常生活之间的相互作用和影响;在对“日常生活”相关理论的研究基础上,强调住区公共空间设计应注意营造“日常生活”,总结并讨论了营造“日常生活”的六个方面的内容:回归生活、激发交往、公众参与、安全便利、场所认同、生态调节,以期在今后的住区建设中能够高效利用国家土地资源、提高低收入者的室外空间环境质量。

  20. Overcoming Spatial and Temporal Barriers to Public Access Defibrillators Via Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Christopher L.F.; Demirtas, Derya; Brooks, Steven C.; Morrison, Laurie J.; Chan, Timothy C.Y.

    2016-01-01

    Background Immediate access to an automated external defibrillator (AED) increases the chance of survival for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Current deployment usually considers spatial AED access, assuming AEDs are available 24 h a day. Objectives The goal of this study was to develop an o

  1. The Tobacco Industry, Researchers, and Ethical Access to UK Biobank: Using the Public Interest and Public Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Eijk, Yvette

    2014-01-01

    We have asked whether the strategic purpose of the tobacco industry is something that a public resource, such as UK Biobank, should support. Tobacco industry health research has been known to work irreconcilably with the purposes of such institutions, which can be surmised as for the public good and defined to improve the provision, diagnosis, and treatment of illness and the promotion of health throughout society. We have isolated possible conflicts of interest that underlie vested research agendas of the tobacco industry and that may extend to tobacco industry–funded researchers. With respect to research, we find that the tobacco industry is entirely at odds with the purposes of public biobanking. PMID:25122018

  2. 以西镇江胡同为例谈居住区公共空间的设计%On design for public space of residential districts by taking Xizhenjiang alleyway as example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭嘉; 贾东

    2012-01-01

    通过对西镇江胡同现状的调研与分析,进而寻求胡同的生命力来源,并探讨了当前城市中居住区公共空间的设计,从而为创造符合地域风格和文化脉络的公共空间提供了思路。%According to the investigation and analysis of the current status of Xizhenjiang alleyway, the paper seeks for the origin for the vitality of alleyway, and explores the design for the public space for the residential district of the current cities, so as to provide the ideas for the public space adhering to the regional style and the cultural context.

  3. A Typology of Intellectual Property Management for Public Health Innovation and Access: Design Considerations for Policymakers§

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubman, Antony

    2010-01-01

    This paper seeks to set the practical discipline of public interest intellectual property (IP) management in public health into its broader policy context. The most immediate and direct impact of IP systems on public welfare results not from international standards nor from national legislation – though these norms are fundamentally important - but rather from the accumulated impact of numerous practical choices whether or not to seek IP protection; where and where not; and how any exclusive rights are deployed, by whom, and to what end. IP management is the essentially practical exercise of limited exclusive rights over protected subject matter, the judicious use of those rights to leverage outcomes that advance an institution's or a firm's objectives. Exclusive rights are used to construct and define knowledge-based relationships, to leverage access to technology and other necessary resources, and to enhance market-based incentives. IP management choices range across a broad spectrum, spanning public domain strategies, open or exclusive licensing, and strong exclusivity. The idea of ‘exclusive rights’, as a specific legal mechanism, can run counter to expectations of greater openness and accessibility, but actual outcomes will depend very much on how these mechanisms are used in practice. For public interest or public sector institutions concerned with health research and development, particularly the development of new medicines, IP management choices can be just as critical as they are for private firms, although a predominant institutional concentration on advancing direct public interest objectives may lead to significantly different approaches in weighing and exercising practical choices for IP management: even so, a private sector approach should not be conflated with exclusivity as an end in itself, nor need public interest IP management eschew all leverage over IP. This paper offers a tentative framework for a richer typology of those choices, to

  4. Validation of Walk Score for estimating access to walkable amenities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Lucas J; Dunsiger, Shira I; Marcus, Bess H

    2011-11-01

    Proximity to walkable destinations or amenities is thought to influence physical activity behaviour. Previous efforts attempting to calculate neighbourhood walkability have relied on self-report or time-intensive and costly measures. Walk Score is a novel and publicly available website that estimates neighbourhood walkability based on proximity to 13 amenity categories (eg, grocery stores, coffee shops, restaurants, bars, movie theatres, schools, parks, libraries, book stores, fitness centres, drug stores, hardware stores, clothing/music stores). The purpose of this study is to test the validity and reliability of Walk Score for estimating access to objectively measured walkable amenities. Walk Scores of 379 residential/non-residential addresses in Rhode Island were manually calculated. Geographic information systems (GIS) was used to objectively measure 4194 walkable amenities in the 13 Walk Score categories. GIS data were aggregated from publicly available data sources. Sums of amenities within each category were matched to address data, and Pearson correlations were calculated between the category sums and address Walk Scores. Significant correlations were identified between Walk Score and all categories of aggregated walkable destinations within a 1-mile buffer of the 379 residential and non-residential addresses. Test-retest reliability correlation coefficients for a subsample of 100 addresses were 1.0. These results support Walk Score as a reliable and valid measure of estimating access to walkable amenities. Walk Score may be a convenient and inexpensive option for researchers interested in exploring the relationship between access to walkable amenities and health behaviours such as physical activity.

  5. 76 FR 68517 - Request for Information: Public Access to Digital Data Resulting From Federally Funded Scientific...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... unclassified digital data that result from federally funded scientific research. The public input provided... unclassified digital data that result from federally funded scientific research. The public input provided... to digital data resulting from federally funded research, and a summary of public input...

  6. Transparency in Public Administration: Free Access to Public Information. A Topical Comparative Analysis of Several Jurisdictions from Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGOȘ Dacian C.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Many expected freedom of information laws to be among the first priorities of the new governments of countries in transition after the 1989 changes, but instead there was little public pressure to adopt general sunshine laws relating to all categories of information. After adopting the laws, however, there are still many powerful forces that are working against extensive access to information – they can be static - opaque administrative practices, general inaptitude or the lack of sufficient human and material resources - or active – agents that resist openness due to private interests, or agents that use institutional scenarios to prevent public scrutiny over corruption and incompetence. The paper approaches the jurisdictions from Hungary, Poland, Czech Republic and Romania, emphasising aspects like: different models in regulating freedom of information regimes, obstacles in the implementation of the law, public bodies that should apply the law, timeframes, etc.

  7. Access to planetary science for the broad public: a more familiar planetary nomenclature and terminology system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargitai, H.

    world), since it can bring planetary sciences closer to public, and this way it can be more easity understable and accessible. REFERENCE: [1] Fábián, Pál: Szaknyelvi helyesírási szabályzataink mérlege Magyar Nyelvor , 117/4, 1993. o t-d e c . pp595-599. (Account of our terminologyk regulations)

  8. Wheelchair Users’ Accessibility Problems in Public Transportation-Case of Metro Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Nilay Evcil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Every day, in urban areas, the mobility of people and goods forms inner urban transportation. When urban transportation is carried in the form of public transportation, it becomes a public service. The urban public transport is one of the important services for all citizens since it is a public service provision. This service is provided by local government and it has been offered as a service without any distinctions between young, old, children, men, women, disabled, employee or retired or briefly to the society.  Additionally, traffic congestion and the expence of owing and maintaining vehicles increase public transport usage in cities.

  9. MULTILINGUAL PUBLICATION AS A LEGITIMATE TOOL TO INCREASE ACCESS TO SCIENCE (English translated version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Aragón-Vargas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Duplicate publication, including the submission or publication of the same manuscript in two or more languages, is considered scientific misconduct. Meanwhile, properly conducted multilingual publication has been an exception difficult to deal with, rather than part of the normal scientific publishing process. While publication of a manuscript in a second or third language should not receive the same credit as the original publication, it should not be punished. Provided the appropriate disclosures and preliminary steps are taken, it should be highly encouraged instead, as it will enhance scientific communication and may reduce the knowledge gap around the world. Different types of multilingual publications are summarized and some basic guidelines are offered for the sanctioned publication of the same paper in multiple languages. ALSO AVAILABLE IN SPANISH AND PORTUGUESE FROM THIS JOURNAL.

  10. Funding agency responses to federal requirements for public access to research results

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kozlowski, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    .... While each agency has more or less stringent policies in place for preserving data and making it accessible, the mandate expands their application without additional resources or guidance on writing...

  11. Access to Financial Services: A Review of the Issues and Public Policy Objectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stijn Claessens

    2006-01-01

    .... It provides data on the use of basic financial services by households and firms across a sample of countries, assesses the desirability of universal access, and provides an overview of the macro...

  12. Phase I - Smart Grid Data Access Pilot Program: Utilizing STEM Education as a Catalyst for Residential Consumer Decision Making and Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lishness, Alan [Gulf Of Maine Research Inst., Portland, ME (United States); Peake, Leigh [Gulf Of Maine Research Inst., Portland, ME (United States)

    2014-11-19

    Under Phase I of the Smart Grid Data Access Pilot Program, the Gulf of Maine Research Institute (GMRI) partnered with Central Maine Power (CMP), and the Maine Mathematics and Science Alliance (MMSA) and engaged key vendors Tilson Government Services, LLC (Tilson), and Image Works to demonstrate the efficacy of PowerHouse, an interactive online learning environment linking middle school students with their home electricity consumption data provided through CMP’s Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI). The goal of the program is to harness the power of youth to alter home energy consumption behaviors using AMI data. Successful programs aimed at smoking cessation, recycling, and seat belt use have demonstrated the power of young people to influence household behaviors. In an era of increasing concern about energy costs, availability, and human impacts on global climate, GMRI sought to demonstrate the effectiveness of a student-focused approach to understanding and managing household energy use. We also sought to contribute to a solid foundation of science-literate students who can analyze evidence to find solutions to increasingly complex energy challenges.

  13. Residential RF Exposures (invited paper)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahme, M

    1999-07-01

    In many areas of the world there are publications on Governmental Regulations, Standards or Guidelines to protect workers and the general public against harmful effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields. Against this background, information is given about different radiation sources of electromagnetic fields in the RF part of the spectrum, which may be typical for residential exposure. Relevant radiation characteristics of the sources and field strength numbers and distributions are given. In addition some general aspects of field structure in the near- and far-field of RF radiation sources are described. On this basis principles of measurement and calculation of RF fields are explained. (author)

  14. Spatial Variations of Values of Residential Land Use in Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    The paper suggests the need to improve both physical and economic access to residential ... They are research works on land values on cities in developed and developing regions cities of ...... to clean the drainage channels. Noise pollution ...

  15. The case for developing publicly-accessible datasets for health services research in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Jardali Fadi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The existence of publicly-accessible datasets comprised a significant opportunity for health services research to evolve into a science that supports health policy making and evaluation, proper inter- and intra-organizational decisions and optimal clinical interventions. This paper investigated the role of publicly-accessible datasets in the enhancement of health care systems in the developed world and highlighted the importance of their wide existence and use in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA region. Discussion A search was conducted to explore the availability of publicly-accessible datasets in the MENA region. Although datasets were found in most countries in the region, those were limited in terms of their relevance, quality and public-accessibility. With rare exceptions, publicly-accessible datasets - as present in the developed world - were absent. Based on this, we proposed a gradual approach and a set of recommendations to promote the development and use of publicly-accessible datasets in the region. These recommendations target potential actions by governments, researchers, policy makers and international organizations. Summary We argue that the limited number of publicly-accessible datasets in the MENA region represents a lost opportunity for the evidence-based advancement of health systems in the region. The availability and use of publicly-accessible datasets would encourage policy makers in this region to base their decisions on solid representative data and not on estimates or small-scale studies; researchers would be able to exercise their expertise in a meaningful manner to both, policy makers and the public. The population of the MENA countries would exercise the right to benefit from locally- or regionally-based studies, versus imported and in 'best cases' customized ones. Furthermore, on a macro scale, the availability of regionally comparable publicly-accessible datasets would allow for the

  16. Marketing of residential realestate

    OpenAIRE

    Taradi, Danijel

    2013-01-01

    When Slovenia joined the European Union the marketing of real estate has expended over the country's borders. The thesis discusses the marketing of residential real estates in the municipality of Gorizia and municipality of Nova Gorica in the time period from January 2013 to February 2013. We assume that the prices of residential real estates in the municipality of Gorizia are lower than the prices in the municipality of Nova Gorica. Based on this, we analyse the residential real estate mark...

  17. The use of automated external defibrillators and public access defibrillators in the mountains: official guidelines of the international commission for mountain emergency medicine ICAR-MEDCOM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsensohn, Fidel; Agazzi, Giancelso; Syme, David; Swangard, Michael; Facchetti, Gianluca; Brugger, Hermann

    2006-01-01

    In this article we propose guidelines for rational use of automated external defibrillators and public access defibrillators in the mountains. In cases of ventricular fibrillation and pulseless ventricular tachycardia, early defibrillation is the most effective therapy. Easy access to mountainous areas permits visitation by persons with high risks for sudden cardiac death, and medical trials show the benefit of exercising in moderate altitude. The introduction of public access defibrillators in popular areas in the mountains may lead to a reduction of fatal outcome of cardiac arrest. Public access defibrillators should be placed with priority in popular ski areas, in busy mountain huts and restaurants, at mass-participation events, and in remote but often-visited locations that do not have medical coverage. Automated external defibrillators should be available to first-responder groups and mountain-rescue teams. It is important that people know how to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation and how to use public access defibrillators and automated external defibrillators.

  18. Enhancing Residential Treatment for Drug Court Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koob, Jeff; Brocato, Jo; Kleinpeter, Christine

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the authors describe and evaluate the impact of increased access to residential treatment added to traditional drug court services in Orange County, California, with a goal of increasing program retention, successful completion, and graduation rates for a high-risk drug offender population participating in drug court between January…

  19. Access to contraception by minors in Jamaica: A public health concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tazhmoye V. Crawford

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Access to contraceptive by minors (pre-adolescents and adolescents has spurred policy and legislative debates, part of which is that in an effort to successfully meet government’s objective of a healthy sexual lifestyle among minors. Aims: This study examined factors affecting sexual reproductive health in minors, namely: access to contraceptive advice and treatment, pregnancy, number of sexual partners, sexually transmitted infections (STIs and confidentiality. Materials and Methods: This research involved quantitative and qualitative data. Two hundred and thirty eight sexually active cases were investigated in Jamaica by the researchers, during the period 2006-2007. The age group population was 9-11, 12-14, and 15-17. Results: The study showed that access to contraceptive advice and treatment by minors was more favorable to males than females. The difference in access to contraceptive between male and female was statistically significant (x² = 20.16, p<0.05. Of the 80 male respondents, who are contraceptive users, 11 encountered challenges in legitimately accessing contraceptive methods, while 38 of the 40 female users also encountered challenges. This resulted in unintended pregnancies and impregnation (33.2%, as well as the contracting of STIs (21%. Conclusion: The findings of this study will be important in informing the development of reproductive health services and family life education programs for pre-adolescents and adolescents in Jamaica and other Caribbean countries.

  20. Access to contraception by minors in Jamaica: A public health concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tazhmoye V Crawford

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Access to contraceptive by minors (pre-adolescents and adolescents has spurred policy and legislative debates, part of which is that in an effort to successfully meet government′s objective of a healthy sexual lifestyle among minors. Aims : This study examined factors affecting sexual reproductive health in minors, namely: access to contraceptive advice and treatment, pregnancy, number of sexual partners, sexually transmitted infections (STIs and confidentiality. Materials and Methods: This research involved quantitative and qualitative data. Two hundred and thirty eight sexually active cases were investigated in Jamaica by the researchers, during the period 2006-2007. The age group population was 9-11, 12-14, and 15-17. Results : The study showed that access to contraceptive advice and treatment by minors was more favorable to males than females. The difference in access to contraceptive between male and female was statistically significant (x΂ = 20.16, p<0.05. Of the 80 male respondents, who are contraceptive users, 11 encountered challenges in legitimately accessing contraceptive methods, while 38 of the 40 female users also encountered challenges. This resulted in unintended pregnancies and impregnation (33.2%, as well as the contracting of STIs (21%. Conclusion : The findings of this study will be important in informing the development of reproductive health services and family life education programs for pre-adolescents and adolescents in Jamaica and other Caribbean countries.

  1. Public and private dental services in NSW: a geographic information system analysis of access to care for 7 million Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willie-Stephens, Jenny; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the distribution of public and private dental practices in NSW in relation to population distribution and socioeconomic status. Dental practices (public and private) were mapped and overlayed with Census data on Collection District population and Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA). Overall, there was an uneven geographic distribution of public and private dental practices across NSW. When the geographic distribution was compared to population socioeconomics it was found that in rural NSW, 12% of the most disadvantaged residents lived further than 50km from a public dental practice, compared to 0% of the least disadvantaged. In Sydney, 9% of the three most disadvantaged groups lived greater than 7.5km from a public dental practice, compared to 21% of the three least disadvantaged groups. The findings of this study can contribute to informing decisions to determine future areas for focus of dental resource development (infrastructure and workforce) and identifying subgroups in the population (who are geographically isolated from accessing care) where public health initiatives focused on amelioration of disease consequences should be a focus.

  2. Modelling public transport route choice, with multiple access and egress modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brands, T.; Romph, de E.; Veitch, T.; Cook, J.

    2014-01-01

    Public transport (PT) is important, because the current traffic system faces well known problems like congestion, environmental impact and use of public space. To be able to assess the effects of policy measures properly, it is necessary to model the behavior of the (PT) traveler in a realistic way.

  3. How Public Universities Can Promote Access and Success for All Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Antoinette

    2014-01-01

    The nation's public universities--a key vehicle of upward mobility--must do more to even the playing field for all students. As it currently stands, students from the least advantaged populations earn degrees at a lower rate and are burdened with a greater portion of debt than their peers. However, some standout public universities are reversing…

  4. Novel Phenotypic Outcomes Identified for a Public Collection of Approved Drugs from a Publicly Accessible Panel of Assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A Lee

    Full Text Available Phenotypic assays have a proven track record for generating leads that become first-in-class therapies. Whole cell assays that inform on a phenotype or mechanism also possess great potential in drug repositioning studies by illuminating new activities for the existing pharmacopeia. The National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS pharmaceutical collection (NPC is the largest reported collection of approved small molecule therapeutics that is available for screening in a high-throughput setting. Via a wide-ranging collaborative effort, this library was analyzed in the Open Innovation Drug Discovery (OIDD phenotypic assay modules publicly offered by Lilly. The results of these tests are publically available online at www.ncats.nih.gov/expertise/preclinical/pd2 and via the PubChem Database (https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ (AID 1117321. Phenotypic outcomes for numerous drugs were confirmed, including sulfonylureas as insulin secretagogues and the anti-angiogenesis actions of multikinase inhibitors sorafenib, axitinib and pazopanib. Several novel outcomes were also noted including the Wnt potentiating activities of rotenone and the antifolate class of drugs, and the anti-angiogenic activity of cetaben.

  5. Cybersecurity in radiology: Access of public hot spots and public Wi-Fi and prevention of cybercrimes and HIPAA violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerard, Perry; Kapadia, Neil; Acharya, Jay; Chang, Patricia T; Lefkovitz, Zvi

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the steps that can be taken to ensure secure transfer of information over public and home networks, given the increasing utilization of mobile devices in radiology. With the rapid technologic developments in radiology, knowledge of various technical aspects is crucial for any practicing radiologist. Utilization of mobile devices, such as laptops, tablets, and even cellular phones, for reading radiologic studies has become increasingly prevalent. With such usage comes a need to ensure that both the user's and the patient's private information is protected. There are several steps that can be taken to protect sensitive information while using public networks. These steps include being diligent in reviewing the networks to which one connects, ensuring encrypted connections to web-sites, using strong passwords, and using a virtual private network and a firewall. As the role of information technology in modern radiology practice becomes more critical, these safety mechanisms must be addressed when viewing studies on any mobile device.

  6. A Comparative Study of Students' Access to and Utilization of Learning Resources in Selected Public and Private Universities in Southwest, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, B. O.; Viatonu, Olumuyiwa

    2017-01-01

    The study investigated students' access to and utilization of some learning resources in selected public and private universities in southwest Nigeria. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select 585 (295 public and 290 private) students from 12 (six public and six private) universities in southwest Nigeria. Two instruments--Cost and…

  7. Study on Public Communication Space of Residential District in New and Old District of Guiyang%贵阳市新旧城区居住小区公共交往空间调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘应珍; 张志军

    2013-01-01

    为探讨居住小区规划设计中公共交往空间建设的重要性和必要性,对贵阳市金阳新区和老城贵阳市区几个典型的居住小区公共交往空间进行了调查。结果表明:新旧城区居住小区内公共空间的占有面积、人均比例、舒适度及使用人群等都存在很大差距。但就新建小区而言,也存在公共空间形式单一、分布不均、利用不均等问题,有的甚至被设计成为一种景观而不能使用,该文对其提出了科学合理地布局公共休闲场所、增强公共空间功能的匹配性、改建或扩建公共空间、发挥公共空间作用等建议。%To explore the importance and necessity of construction of public communication space in residential area ,several typical public communication spaces of new and old district in Guiyang were investigated .The re-sults showed that there were large differences between new and old district on occupied area of public space , proportion per capita ,comfort and crowd who used .But in terms of new residential area ,there were also some problems such as singleness ,unequal distribution and utilization ,some were even designed to a landscape and could not be used ,suggestions had been proposed :design public leisure places scientifically and reasonably , strengthen the matching of functions ,rebuild or expand public space ,give the role of the public space and so on .

  8. Sustainability and public access to nature: Contesting the right to roam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Williams

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of cultural and institutional differences in rights of access to nature for sustainable tourism management. Drawing on the insights from the papers contained in this issue of the Journal of Sustainable Tourism, this introduction highlights two overarching themes. The first is the ambiguous/problematic role of science...

  9. 5 CFR 2634.603 - Custody of and access to public reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... financial disclosure reports filed by persons within that agency. The agency personnel director, who does... statement with her agency. The financial institution cannot be given access to the disclosure form for... EXECUTIVE BRANCH FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE, QUALIFIED TRUSTS, AND CERTIFICATES OF DIVESTITURE Procedure §...

  10. Fulfilling an Institutional and Public Good Mission: A Case Study of Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batman, Renee F.

    2013-01-01

    Access to higher education has been and remains a critical issue, yet research typically focuses on students and programs which may overlook the role of the faculty. Through an in-depth case study, the perspectives of tenured and tenure-track faculty at a predominately White, Midwestern land-grant, research institution are described as they relate…

  11. On Open Access to Research: The Green, the Gold, and the Public Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Audra K.; Gainer, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    In this column the authors discuss barriers to worldwide open access to peer-reviewed journal articles online and how they might be addressed by literacy scholars. They highlight economic and ethical problems associated with the current subscription-based system for distributing articles (which sometimes works against the ideals of research and…

  12. On Open Access to Research: The Green, the Gold, and the Public Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Audra K.; Gainer, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    In this column the authors discuss barriers to worldwide open access to peer-reviewed journal articles online and how they might be addressed by literacy scholars. They highlight economic and ethical problems associated with the current subscription-based system for distributing articles (which sometimes works against the ideals of research and…

  13. Increasing Public Access to University Qualifications: Evolution of The University of the West Indies Open Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael L.; Soares, Judith

    2009-01-01

    This paper traces the evolution of The University of the West Indies' Open Campus (UWIOC), which is expected to expand service and increase access to the underserved communities of the Eastern Caribbean. At present, UWI, which caters to the needs of the 16 far flung countries of the Commonwealth Caribbean, has not been able to fully serve these…

  14. Simply Analyzing the Public Ethic in the Residential Life of the Record of Rites%浅析《礼记》日常居住生活的公共伦理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丛兰

    2014-01-01

    The public ethic of the residential life,namely it is a valuable view and basic norms of conducts,which people re-flect in the public fields of daily lives,and should follow In the Record of Rites,does the public not contains the meanings of the monarch and his community in the early and middle periods of pre-Qin,also the ethical expression of “justice”in the late. There are the two spaces of the public field of resident,the family interior public one and external one around the house. Through ethical division of living space,public manners and language taboo way,does the rite mold a moral sense,that people make a judgment of right or wrong about the public behaviors,and gain life stability and social order.%居住生活的“公共伦理”为人们在日常居住的公共领域中反映出来的价值观及应遵循的基本行为规范。《礼记》中的“公”既有先秦早中期对国君的称呼及其管辖的共同体之义,亦有晚期表达“公平”的伦理含义;居住的“公共领域”包括家庭内部的公共空间和围绕居宅的公共领域。通过居住空间的伦理分割、公共举止规范和交往语言禁忌的方式,“礼”塑造了人们关于公共行为是非判断的道德感,获得生活的安定和社会的秩序。

  15. Introduction and some Ideas as well as Visions on an Open Access European Psychology Publication Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GÜNTER KRAMPEN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available After a short description of the organization, tasks, and activities of the Institute for Psychology Information (ZPID – Leibniz-Institute/Germany possibilities of enhancing European cooperation on psychology publication issues are stressed upon. Arguments for its necessity refer to some turning points of history in the languages of science and to some problems of Anglo-American dominance in psychology publications, which are illustrated by bibliometric results on authors’ affiliations and publication languages represented in the PsycINFO database. The vision of a European Psychology Publication Platform (EPPP is developed including some considerations about its objectives and scope, principles, submission procedure and guidelines as well as review process and evaluation.

  16. Development of a Selection Measure for Access to Public Employment Assistance Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Gary W.

    1986-01-01

    Provides a prototype measure of employability to be used as a tool in public employment programs. Considers political and ethical implications pertaining to the use of such a selection instrument for welfare recipients. (Author/ABB)

  17. 76 FR 64924 - Updating State Residential Building Energy Efficiency Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... with low-emissivity coatings that have an SHGC of 0.4 or below even in the absence of a specific SHGC... achieve greater energy efficiency in low-rise residential buildings than the 2009 IECC. Upon publication... buildings for energy code purposes. Low-rise residential buildings include one- and two-family detached and...

  18. 77 FR 29322 - Updating State Residential Building Energy Efficiency Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... and 2012 IECC usually implies the use of windows with low-emissivity coatings that have an SHGC of 0.4... greater energy efficiency in low-rise residential buildings than the 2009 IECC. Upon publication of this... height as commercial buildings for energy code purposes. Low-rise residential buildings include one- and...

  19. Data publication and dissemination of interactive keys under the open access model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubomir Penev

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of publication, citation and dissemination of interactive keys and other online keys are discussed and illustrated by a sample paper published in the present issue (doi: 10.3897/zookeys.21.271. The present model is based on previous experience with several existing examples of publishing online keys. However, this model also suggests ways to publish, cite, preserve, disseminate and reuse the original data files to the benefit of the authors, future workers, and society in general. To be regarded as a ''formal scientific publication,'' an online key should satisfy the same criteria of peer review, registration, persistence, bibliographic description, etc., as conventional publications. Keys can be published in a form of either ''static'\\''dynamic'' publications. We define a ''static'' publication as a discrete unit of information preserved in a persistent and unchangeable way on the publisher’s Web site and/or on paper and consequently in conventional/electronic libraries and archives. This contrasts with the nature of the Internet, which allows and tends to encourage updating and improvement on a continuing basis. We call ''dynamic'' a publication of an interactive key on a Web site where its contents can be continuously updated. ''Dynamic'' publications meet some of the criteria of a ''formal scientific publication'' (identification, citation and location, while they lack other important features of it (persistence, archiving, indexing, science metric and citation metric services. Dynamic Web-based interactive keys may benefit from publishing the first version of their underlying datasets in a form of “formal scientific publication”. We define here the minimum set of data files to be published for several different platforms (Intkey, Lucid2, Lucid3, MX to ensure both (1 priority, identification, location and citation of the firstly published work and (2 future use and re-use of the keys.

  20. Public Funding and Budgetary Challenges To Providing Universal Access To Primary Education in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omwami, Edith Mukudi; Keller, Edmond J.

    2010-02-01

    Budgetary capacity that would allow for the public funding of the provision of universal access to primary education is lacking in many sub-Saharan economies. National revenues significantly lag behind the overall economic productivity measure of GDP. Analysis of data derived from UNESCO and UNDP for 2004 shows that governments in the region spend far less in US dollars per unit cost on primary education than do developed countries. Increasing the unit cost of education in order to enable a government to guarantee universal primary education would take away resources from other tiers of the education system in many countries in the region. The alternative is to universalise access, despite existing budget allocation constraints, and thereby further compound the problems of poor infrastructure and limited human resource capacity that continue to compromise education quality in sub-Saharan Africa.

  1. APLIKASI ONLINE PUBLIC ACCESS CATALOQUE (OPAC BERBASIS ANDROID SEBAGAI SARANA TEMU KEMBALI INFORMASI DI PERPUSTAKAAN UNIVERSITAS PENDIDIKAN GANESHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Tika Parmawati

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan perangkat lunak aplikasi Online Public Access Cataloque (OPAC berbasis android. Jenis penelitian ini merupakan Research and Development (R & D dengan metode pengembangan menggunakan model prototyping. Pengembangan sistem informasi layanan audio visual berbasis video streaming dengan enam tahap, yaitu : 1 Tahap pengumpulan kebutuhan dan perbaikan, 2 Tahap perancangan desain cepat (desain awal, 3 Tahap membangun prototipe, 4 Tahap evaluasi prototype, 5 Tahap perbaikan prototype, dan 6 Tahap rekayasa produk. Penentuan tingkat kelayakan aplikasi Online Public Access Cataloque (OPAC berbasis android berdasarkan uji validasi ahli bidang teknologi informasi dan uji coba terbatas pada pengguna. Hasil uji coba sebagai berikut : 1 Pengembangan aplikasi Online Public Access Cataloque (OPAC berbasis android sudah sesuai dengan spesifikasi yang telah ditentukan sebagai aplikasi penelusuran informasi koleksi buku teks umum secara online melalui smartphone. 2 Indikator penilaian dari program ini adalah kebenaran atau ketepatan operasional sistem, ketegaran, keterluasan, keterpakaian ulang, efisiensi atau kinerja, portabilitas, integritas, modularitas, keterbacaan mendapat kualifikasi cukup baik, sedangkan verifikasi mendapat kualifikasi baik. 3 Secara umum dari hasil penilaian tersebut aplikasi OPAC berbasis android ini cukup layak untuk digunakan sebagai alternatif pelengkap pemberian layanan penelusuran informasi koleksi buku teks umum di Perpustakaan Undiksha. Kata Kunci: OPAC, android, dan temu kembali informasi Abstract Aim of this study to develop the software of Online Public Access Cataloque (OPAC based on android. Research and Development (R & D design was applied in this study which was developed through prototyping models. The software was constructed through six stages, namely: 1 needs analysis and repairment, 2 rapid design (preliminary design, 3 prototypes building, 4 prototype evaluation, 5

  2. Residential use of photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, E.C. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Residential electricity demand data and forecasts for France, Japan and the United States are presented as background information pertinent to the market for solar photovoltaic power systems. Current residential photovoltaic system development activities in the United States are reviewed. Issues related to the eventual adoption of such systems are discussed.

  3. [Open access to academic scholarship as a public policy resource: a study of the Capes database on Brazilian theses and dissertations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Rosa, Teresa; Carneiro, Maria José

    2010-12-01

    Access to scientific knowledge is a valuable resource than can inform and validate positions taken in formulating public policy. But access to this knowledge can be challenging, given the diversity and breadth of available scholarship. Communication between the fields of science and of politics requires the dissemination of scholarship and access to it. We conducted a study using an open-access search tool in order to map existent knowledge on a specific topic: agricultural contributions to the preservation of biodiversity. The present article offers a critical view of access to the information available through the Capes database on Brazilian theses and dissertations.

  4. Assessment inequality in access to public cardiovascular health services in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskarpour-Amiri, Mohammad; Dopeykar, Nooredin; Ameryoun, Ahmad; Mehrabi Tavana, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Timely access to cardiovascular health services is necessary to prevent heart damages. The present study examined inequality in geographical distribution of cardiovascular health services in Iran. Methods: Present study is a cross-sectional study conducted using demographic data from all Iranian provinces (31 provinces) from 2012 census by the Statistics Center of Iran (SCI). The Gini coefficients of CCU beds and cardiologists were used to assess equality in access to cardiovascular health services in Iran. MS Excel software was used to calculate Gini coefficients. Results: The proportions of CCU bed and cardiologist per 100,000 population were 4.88 and 1.27, respectively; also the Gini coefficients were 0.129 and 0.045, respectively. Conclusion: Descriptive statistics showed a skewness in distribution of pubic cardiovascular health services in Iran, though Gini coefficient revealed no significant inequality. However, equal distribution of CCU beds and cardiovascular specialists does not mean they are sufficiently available in Iran. PMID:28210585

  5. Open access publishing: A review of publications originating from a medical college in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasiu Lanre Adeyemo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Open Access (OA publishing has gained tremendous acceptance in academic publishing over the last decade. This paper reviews the number and trend of OA publishing of research papers originating from College of Medicine University of Lagos (CMUL, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A computerized literature search of PubMed for all published articles originating from CMUL between 1976 and 2013 was conducted. The search phrase used was "College of Medicine University of Lagos". The search was conducted on March 30, 2013. All articles tagged "Free article" or "Free PubMed article" were selected. Results: A total of 1255 articles appeared in PubMed between 1976 and 2013 (37 years. At the first level of screening, 162 articles were identified as "Open Access". Second level of screening to eliminate articles not originating from CMUL identified 124 articles. Only 15 OA articles were published between 1976 and 2000 (24 years, 11 articles appeared as "Open Access" journals between 2001 and 2005 (5 years, 44 between 2006 and 2010 (5 years, and 54 articles were published between 2011 and 2013. Twenty-four of these articles were published in Nigerian OA Journals, and the remaining articles (100 in foreign journals. Conclusions: OA publishing is becoming popular among researchers at CMUL. This trend has been observed worldwide. Nigerian researchers are advised that while going along with the worldwide trend, they should however, be aware of predatory OA journals and publishers. The criteria for determining predatory OA publishers can be accessed via: www.scholarlyoa.com/publishers.

  6. World Wide Webs: Crossing the Digital Divide through Promotion of Public Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, Liezl

    “As Bill Gates and Steve Case proclaim the global omnipresence of the Internet, the majority of non-Western nations and 97 per cent of the world's population remain unconnected to the net for lack of money, access, or knowledge. This exclusion of so vast a share of the global population from the Internet sharply contradicts the claims of those who posit the World Wide Web as a ‘universal' medium of egalitarian communication.” (Trend 2001:2)

  7. Public Access Points, Boat and Canoe Launches, Published in 2006, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Jefferson County Land Information Office.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Public Access Points dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2006. It is...

  8. Erotized, AIDS-HIV information on public-access television: a study of obscenity, state censorship and cultural resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukenbill, W B

    1998-06-01

    This study analyzes court records of a county-level obscenity trial in Austin, Texas, and the appeal of the guilty verdict beginning with a Texas appellate court up to the U.S. Supreme Court of two individuals who broadcast erotized AIDS and HIV safer sex information on a public-access cable television. The trial and appellate court decisions are reviewed in terms of argument themes, and the nature of sexual value controversy is outlined. Erotic materials often conflict with broad-based sexual and community values, and providing erotized HIV and AIDS information products can be a form of radical political action designed to force societal change. This study raises question as to how this trial and this type of informational product might affect the programs and activities of information resource centers, community-based organizations, libraries, and the overall mission of public health education.

  9. Auditing Access to Outpatient Rehabilitation Services for Children With Traumatic Brain Injury and Public Insurance in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Molly M; Thompson, Leah; Quistberg, D Alex; Haaland, Wren L; Rhodes, Karin; Kartin, Deborah; Kerfeld, Cheryl; Apkon, Susan; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Rivara, Frederick P

    2017-09-01

    To identify insurance-based disparities in access to outpatient pediatric neurorehabilitation services. Audit study with paired calls, where callers posed as a mother seeking services for a simulated child with history of severe traumatic brain injury and public or private insurance. Outpatient rehabilitation clinics. Sample of rehabilitation clinics (N=287): 195 physical therapy (PT) clinics, 109 occupational therapy (OT) clinics, 102 speech therapy (ST) clinics, and 11 rehabilitation medicine clinics. Not applicable. Acceptance of public insurance and the number of business days until the next available appointment. Therapy clinics were more likely to accept private insurance than public insurance (relative risk [RR] for PT clinics, 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22-1.44; RR for OT clinics, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.24-1.57; and RR for ST clinics, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.25-1.62), with no significant difference for rehabilitation medicine clinics (RR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.90-1.34). The difference in median wait time between clinics that accepted public insurance and those accepting only private insurance was 4 business days for PT clinics and 15 days for ST clinics (P≤.001), but the median wait time was not significantly different for OT clinics or rehabilitation medicine clinics. When adjusting for urban and multidisciplinary clinic statuses, the wait time at clinics accepting public insurance was 59% longer for PT (95% CI, 39%-81%), 18% longer for OT (95% CI, 7%-30%), and 107% longer for ST (95% CI, 87%-130%) than that at clinics accepting only private insurance. Distance to clinics varied by discipline and area within the state. Therapy clinics were less likely to accept public insurance than private insurance. Therapy clinics accepting public insurance had longer wait times than did clinics that accepted only private insurance. Rehabilitation professionals should attempt to implement policy and practice changes to promote equitable access to care. Copyright © 2017

  10. Franchise Fees and Public, Educational and Government (PEG) Access. Report to the Minnesota Legislature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Public Service, St. Paul. Energy Div.

    Franchise fees are a tax imposed on a private entity to compensate a municipality for use of a public property for private gain. The Telecommunications Act of 1996 grants municipalities the right to assess a 5% franchise fee to both cable companies and competitors of cable companies, such as operators of open video systems. The Minnesota State…

  11. 77 FR 197 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Public Access to the Federal Awardee Performance and Integrity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ... will soon be able to evaluate the business ethics and quality of potential contractor clients... public the data in FAPIIS will benefit contractors with records of business integrity and performance... and authorized users performing business on behalf of the Government will be able to view the...

  12. 76 FR 4188 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Public Access to the Federal Awardee Performance and Integrity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... business ethics and quality of prospective contractors competing for Federal contracts. That rulemaking... personal and/or business confidential information provided. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Edward... business integrity, but lacks the functionality to make information immediately available to the public as...

  13. Predictors of Access to Sex Education for Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Schmidt, Marcelo; Chesnut, Steven; Wei, Tianlan; Richman, David

    2014-01-01

    Data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (SRI International, 2002) were analyzed to identify variables that predicted whether individuals with intellectual disability (ID) received sex education in public schools across the United States. Results suggested that individuals receiving special education services without ID were only…

  14. Accessing and Using Public Educational Data Sources for School and Leadership Research. Implications from UCEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Much educational policy research can be conducted with existing data sources, either created for research purposes or for managing and maintaining information on public schooling systems. These often under-used resources offer rich research opportunities on the relationship between teacher and principal careers, school and district differences and…

  15. Data publication and dissemination of interactive keys under the open access model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concepts of publication, citation and dissemination of interactive keys and other online keys are discussed and illustrated by a sample paper published in the present issue (doi: 10.3897/zookeys.21.271). The present model is based on previous experience with several existing examples of publishi...

  16. Predictors of Access to Sex Education for Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Schmidt, Marcelo; Chesnut, Steven; Wei, Tianlan; Richman, David

    2014-01-01

    Data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (SRI International, 2002) were analyzed to identify variables that predicted whether individuals with intellectual disability (ID) received sex education in public schools across the United States. Results suggested that individuals receiving special education services without ID were only…

  17. Identifying strategies to improve access to credible and relevant information for public health professionals: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simpson E Hatheway

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Movement towards evidence-based practices in many fields suggests that public health (PH challenges may be better addressed if credible information about health risks and effective PH practices is readily available. However, research has shown that many PH information needs are unmet. In addition to reviewing relevant literature, this study performed a comprehensive review of existing information resources and collected data from two representative PH groups, focusing on identifying current practices, expressed information needs, and ideal systems for information access. Methods Nineteen individual interviews were conducted among employees of two domains in a state health department – communicable disease control and community health promotion. Subsequent focus groups gathered additional data on preferences for methods of information access and delivery as well as information format and content. Qualitative methods were used to identify themes in the interview and focus group transcripts. Results Informants expressed similar needs for improved information access including single portal access with a good search engine; automatic notification regarding newly available information; access to best practice information in many areas of interest that extend beyond biomedical subject matter; improved access to grey literature as well as to more systematic reviews, summaries, and full-text articles; better methods for indexing, filtering, and searching for information; and effective ways to archive information accessed. Informants expressed a preference for improving systems with which they were already familiar such as PubMed and listservs rather than introducing new systems of information organization and delivery. A hypothetical ideal model for information organization and delivery was developed based on informants' stated information needs and preferred means of delivery. Features of the model were endorsed by the subjects who

  18. Identifying strategies to improve access to credible and relevant information for public health professionals: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPelle, Nancy R; Luckmann, Roger; Simpson, E Hatheway; Martin, Elaine R

    2006-04-05

    Movement towards evidence-based practices in many fields suggests that public health (PH) challenges may be better addressed if credible information about health risks and effective PH practices is readily available. However, research has shown that many PH information needs are unmet. In addition to reviewing relevant literature, this study performed a comprehensive review of existing information resources and collected data from two representative PH groups, focusing on identifying current practices, expressed information needs, and ideal systems for information access. Nineteen individual interviews were conducted among employees of two domains in a state health department--communicable disease control and community health promotion. Subsequent focus groups gathered additional data on preferences for methods of information access and delivery as well as information format and content. Qualitative methods were used to identify themes in the interview and focus group transcripts. Informants expressed similar needs for improved information access including single portal access with a good search engine; automatic notification regarding newly available information; access to best practice information in many areas of interest that extend beyond biomedical subject matter; improved access to grey literature as well as to more systematic reviews, summaries, and full-text articles; better methods for indexing, filtering, and searching for information; and effective ways to archive information accessed. Informants expressed a preference for improving systems with which they were already familiar such as PubMed and listservs rather than introducing new systems of information organization and delivery. A hypothetical ideal model for information organization and delivery was developed based on informants' stated information needs and preferred means of delivery. Features of the model were endorsed by the subjects who reviewed it. Many critical information needs of PH

  19. Open-access public-private partnerships to enable drug discovery--new approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Susanne; Weigelt, Johan

    2010-03-01

    The productivity of the pharmaceutical industry, as assessed by the number of NMEs produced per US dollar spent in R&D, has been in steady decline during the past 40 years. This decline in productivity not only poses a significant challenge to the pharmaceutical industry, but also to society because of the importance of developing drugs for the treatment of unmet medical needs. The major challenge in progressing a new drug to the market is the successful completion of clinical trials. However, the failure rate of drugs entering trials has not decreased, despite various technological and scientific breakthroughs in recent decades, and despite intense target validation efforts. This lack of success suggests limitations in the fundamental understanding of target biology and human pharmacology. One contributing factor may be the traditional secrecy of the pharmaceutical sector, a characteristic that does not promote scientific discovery in an optimal manner. Access to broader knowledge relating to target biology and human pharmacology is difficult to obtain because interactions between researchers in industry and academia are typically restricted to closed collaborations in which the knowledge gained is confidential.However, open-access collaborative partnerships are gaining momentum in industry, and are also favored by funding agencies. Such open-access collaborations may be a powerful alternative to closed collaborations; the sharing of early-stage research data is expected to enable scientific discovery by engaging a broader section of the scientific community in the exploration of new findings. Potentially, the sharing of data could contribute to an increased understanding of biological processes and a decrease in the attrition of clinical programs.

  20. Impact of the information age on residency training: communication, access to public information, and clinical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilty, Donald M; Belitsky, Richard; Cohen, Mitchell B; Cabaniss, Deborah L; Dickstein, Leah J; Bernstein, Carol A; Kaplan, Allan S; Scheiber, Stephen C; Crisp-Han, Holly D; Wrzosek, Marika I; Silberman, Edward K

    2015-02-01

    Access to technology in practice helps physicians manage information, communicate, and research topics; however, those in training receive almost no formal preparation for integrating web-based technologies into practice. One reason for this is that many faculty-aside from junior faculty or those in recent generations-did not grow up using Internet communication, may use it minimally, if at all, in their own practices, and may know little about its forms and varieties. This report presents a case to illustrate how these disparities may play out in the supervisory situation and makes suggestions about helping supervisors integrate technology-awareness into their teaching.

  1. Retention in a public health care system with free access to treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helleberg, Marie; Engsig, Frederik N; Kronborg, Gitte;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: We aimed to assess retention of HIV infected individuals in the Danish health care system over a 15-year period. METHODS:: Loss to follow-up (LTFU) was defined as 365 days without contact to the HIV care system. Data were obtained from the nationwide Danish HIV Cohort study, The Danis......, especially after initiation of HAART. Absence from HIV care is associated with increased mortality. We conclude that high rates of retention can be achieved in a health care system with free access to treatment and is associated with a favorable outcome....

  2. Increasing Public Access to University Qualifications: Evolution of The University of the West Indies Open Campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L. Thomas

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper traces the evolution of The University of the West Indies’ Open Campus (UWIOC, which is expected to expand service and increase access to the underserved communities of the Eastern Caribbean. At present, UWI, which caters to the needs of the 16 far flung countries of the Commonwealth Caribbean, has not been able to fully serve these countries, the UWI-12, in a way that is commensurate with their developmental needs. Historically, the institution has been dominated by campus-based education, and its three campuses have been poles of attraction for scholars and scholarship to the significant advantage of the countries in which they are located: Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago, and Barbados. The University’s creation of an open campus, a fourth campus, enables it to expand its scope, enhance its appeal, and improve the efficiency of its services to individuals, communities, and countries. This new campus, a merger of UWI’s Outreach sector, which comprises the School of Continuing Studies, the Tertiary Level Institute Unit, and The UWI Distance Education Centre, will have a physical presence in each contributing country and will function as a network of real and virtual modes to deliver education and training to anyone with access to Internet facilities.

  3. MOVING THE SIGNPOST: GOOD GOVERNANCE AND DEVELOPMENT IN THE CONTEXT OF PUBLIC ACCESS TO INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneliu Bjola

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available In both economic and political terms, Romania lags behind most of the CEE developing countries. This situation deteriorates on a constant basis and is largely accounted for by very poor governance practices. The solution proposed by this study consists of recommending the implementation of a reformist agenda of e-governance based on two pillars: robust development of public sector information and large-scale application of Information and Communication Technologies. In conceptual terms, this strategy is assumed to produce a gradual shift from the citizen-as-customer to the more participative citizen-as-shareholder model of governance. In concrete terms, the medium-term benefits of this policy are political (enhancing the democratization process, increasing political accountability, and improving the tattered government-citizen relationship, economic (combating corruption, creating a transparent and competitive economic environment, and speeding up standard administrative processes for citizens and business, and social (restoring public trust, rebuilding social capital, and increasing the transparency, quality and efficiency of public services.

  4. Effects of television modeling on residential energy conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winett, R A; Leckliter, I N; Chinn, D E; Stahl, B; Love, S Q

    1985-01-01

    A combination of social marketing, communications, social learning (particularly modeling), and behavior analysis may provide an effective framework for behavior change via films and television. We used this approach in developing special television programs about residential energy conservation. The programs were tailored and directed to preselected middle-class homeowners (N = 150), and delivered over a public access channel of a cable TV system. The results indicated that after one program exposure (about 20 minutes), viewers adopted simple strategies modeled in the programs which led to savings of approximately 10% on their home energy use for a substantial part of the cooling and heating season. Although the potential benefits to costs of large-scale media efforts seemed great, institutional barriers for such programs were identified. Less expensive, more local programs seem more viable.

  5. Environmental impacts during the operational phase of residential buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, I.S.

    2010-01-01

    To date, the focus in the field of sustainable building has been on new building design. However, existing residential buildings inflict great environmental burden through three causes: continuous energy consumption, regular building maintenance and replacements. This publication analyses and compa

  6. EPUB as publication format in Open Access journals: Tools and workflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trude Eikebrokk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present a case study of how the main publishing format of an Open Access journal was changed from PDF to EPUB by designing a new workflow using JATS as the basic XML source format. We state the reasons and discuss advantages for doing this, how we did it, and the costs of changing an established Microsoft Word workflow. As an example, we use one typical sociology article with tables, illustrations and references. We then follow the article from JATS markup through different transformations resulting in XHTML, EPUB and MOBI versions. In the end, we put everything together in an automated XProc pipeline. The process has been developed on free and open source tools, and we describe and evaluate these tools in the article. The workflow is suitable for non-professional publishers, and all code is attached and free for reuse by others.

  7. Free Access to Public Information: Enforcement, Appeals and Judicial Review. A Comparative Perspective from Cee Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca V. COBÂRZAN

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available FOIAs were adopted in Central and EasternEurope rather late after the regime changes. Afteradopting the laws, however, there are still manypowerful forces that are working against extensiveaccess to information – they can be static - opaqueadministrative practices, general inaptitudeor the lack of sufficient human and materialresources – or active – agents that resist opennessdue to private interests, or agents that useinstitutional scenarios to prevent public scrutinyover corruption and incompetence. The paperapproaches the jurisdictions from Hungary, Poland,Czech Republic and Romania, emphasizing thetopic of enforcement mechanisms provided by theFOIAs. It is a follow up of an article published twoyears ago in the same journal.

  8. 小议上海市居住区配套公共服务设施指标变迁%Brief Discussion on Transition of the Index of Supporting Public Service Facilities of Residential Areas in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓靖

    2015-01-01

    As an important component of urban construction, the conifguration of public service facilities is an important index for measuring the convenience of a city. By analyzing the changes of supporting public service facility index of residential area of Shanghai, it reveals the improvement of people’s living standard, increasing of urban convenience and different of residents’ living requirement that are relfected behind the changes.%居住区公共服务设施配置是城市建设中重要的组成部分,是衡量城市方便度的重要指标。通过对上海市居住区配套公共服务设施指标变化的分析,展示了变化背后所反映的居民生活水平的提高、城市方便度的增加以及居民生活需求的不同。

  9. Open access high throughput drug discovery in the public domain: a Mount Everest in the making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Anuradha; McDonald, Peter R; Sittampalam, Sitta; Chaguturu, Rathnam

    2010-11-01

    High throughput screening (HTS) facilitates screening large numbers of compounds against a biochemical target of interest using validated biological or biophysical assays. In recent years, a significant number of drugs in clinical trails originated from HTS campaigns, validating HTS as a bona fide mechanism for hit finding. In the current drug discovery landscape, the pharmaceutical industry is embracing open innovation strategies with academia to maximize their research capabilities and to feed their drug discovery pipeline. The goals of academic research have therefore expanded from target identification and validation to probe discovery, chemical genomics, and compound library screening. This trend is reflected in the emergence of HTS centers in the public domain over the past decade, ranging in size from modestly equipped academic screening centers to well endowed Molecular Libraries Probe Centers Network (MLPCN) centers funded by the NIH Roadmap initiative. These centers facilitate a comprehensive approach to probe discovery in academia and utilize both classical and cutting-edge assay technologies for executing primary and secondary screening campaigns. The various facets of academic HTS centers as well as their implications on technology transfer and drug discovery are discussed, and a roadmap for successful drug discovery in the public domain is presented. New lead discovery against therapeutic targets, especially those involving the rare and neglected diseases, is indeed a Mount Everestonian size task, and requires diligent implementation of pharmaceutical industry's best practices for a successful outcome.

  10. A surveillance system for monitoring, public reporting, and improving minority access to cancer clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, William R; Tyree, Seth; Wu, Yang; Meyer, Anne-Marie; DiMartino, Lisa; Zullig, Leah; Godley, Paul A

    2012-08-01

    The Institute of Medicine (IOM) has recommended that each person with cancer should have access to clinical trials, which have been associated with improving care quality and disparities. With no effective enrollment monitoring system, patterns of trial enrollment remain unclear. We developed a population-based, statewide system designed to facilitate monitoring of cancer trial enrollment and targeting of future interventions to improve it. Person-level cancer incidence data from the North Carolina Central Cancer Registry (NCCCR), person-level treatment trial accrual data from the National Cancer Institute (NCI), and county-level Area Resource Files (ARF) measures for 12 years, 1996-2007, were studied. Deidentified person-level data necessitated county-level analysis. Enrollment rates were estimated as the ratio of trial enrollment to cancer incidence for each race, gender, year, and county combination. Multivariable analysis examined factors associated with trial accrual. Sensitivity analyses examined spurious fluctuations and temporal discordance of incidence and enrollment. The NCI treatment trial enrollment rate was 2.39% for whites and 2.20% for minorities from 1996 to 2007, and 2.88% and 2.47%, respectively, from 2005 to 2007. Numerous counties had no minority enrollment. The 2005-2007 enrollment rates for white and minority females was 4.04% and 3.59%, respectively, and for white and minority males was 1.74% and 1.36%, respectively. Counties with a medical school or NCI Community Clinical Oncology Program (CCOP)-affiliated practice had higher trial enrollment. We examined NCI trial accrual only - industry-sponsored and investigator-initiated trials were excluded; however, studies comprise the majority of all clinical trial participants. Delays in data availability may hinder the immediacy of population-based analyses. Model stability and consistency suggest that this system is effective for population-based enrollment surveillance. For North Carolina, it

  11. Public service or commodity goods? Electricity reforms, access, and the politics of development in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanadan, Rebecca Hansing

    Since the 1990s, power sector reforms have become paramount in energy policy, catalyzing a debate in Africa about market-based service provision and the effects of reforms on access. My research seeks to move beyond the conceptual divide by grounding attention not in abstract 'market forces' but rather in how development institutions shape energy services and actually practice policy on the ground. Using the case of Tanzania, a country known for having instituted some of the most extensive reforms and a 'success story' in Africa, I find that reforms are creating large burdens and barriers for access and use of services, including: increasing costs, enforcement pressures, and measures to impose 'market' discipline. However, I also find that many of the most significant outcomes are not found in direct 'market' changes, but rather how reforms are selective, partial, and shaped by the wider needs and claims of the institutions driving reforms, so that questions of how reforms are implemented, how they are measured, and who tells the story become as important as the policies themselves. Using a multiple-arenas framework, including (i) a household and community level study of urban energy conditions, (ii) a study of service and management conditions at the national electric utility, (iii) an examination of the international policy process, and (iv) a study of the history of electricity services across colonial, post-independence, and reform periods, I show that African energy reforms are a technical and political project connecting energy to international investments, donor aid programs, and elite interests within national governments. Energy reforms also involve fundamental service changes that are reorganizing how the costs and benefits of energy systems are distributed, allocated, and managed. The effects of reform extend beyond formal services to have wide-reaching repercussions within natural resources, and uneven social dynamics on the ground. These features point

  12. Use of herbal medicine during pregnancy among women with access to public healthcare in Nairobi, Kenya: a cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Mothupi, Mamothena Carol

    2014-01-01

    Background Maternal health is a public health priority in many African countries, but little is known about herbal medicine use in pregnancy. This study aimed to determine the pattern of use of herbal medicine in an urban setting, where women have relatively high access to public healthcare. Methods This cross-sectional study included 333 women attending a childcare clinic in a district public health hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, during January and February, 2012, and who had delivered a baby w...

  13. Problems of preservation and accessibility of cartographic publications in the National Libraries of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmilla Kildushevskaya

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The preservation of cartographic publications are considered in the context of the National Program of Preservation of the Library Collections of the Russian Federation approved by the government of the Russian Federation in 2000. This Program is the first goal_oriented national library programme in the history of the country. The Program is planned for ten years and includes a number of subprogrammes: 1. Collection conservation. 2. Creation of the insurance stock of library documents and information preservation. 3. Book Monuments of the Russian Federation. 4. Library collection safety. 5. Collection preservation through specifying usage conditions. 6. Registration of library stocks. 7. Personnel ensuring the collection preservation processes. It is impossible to describe in one report all the ranges of work reflected in this extensive programme. Therefore, I will dwell on the special measures carried out by the divisions of cartography within the first three subprogrammes and the fifth one.

  14. Line and Form: linear, areal, inclusive and accessible public spaces. Hoofbogen in Rotterdam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Francesco Errigo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary city places more and more lose their character of physical stock and became space of flow; the city isn’t characterized by its immobile uniqueness, but is modified and reassembled at the rate of circulation in it comes to life. Today the city is presented as a set of discontinuous fragments, which return an image of plural spaces, places and non-places, past and present. Disappearing borders, perimeters, which marked the places, neighborhoods are uncommon spaces, undefined areas between built and unbuilt. The square is the gap in the building density; it has lost its significance as a place of socialization. The recent planning instruments (plans and programs that belong to the city of Rotterdam are geared to transform the city into a “child-friendly city" (city suitable for children, the city attracts young couples and middle-class families just for the fact that the city is distancing itself from the modernist planning based on the zoning and is encouraging the mix of urban functions; particular emphasis in this phase of planning and urban design is given by the statement of the urban Vision Rotterdam 2030. The case dealt with in the article is related to the area of ​​Bergpolder, in the north of Rotterdam, an area affected by a strong identity disposed element, a railway viaduct, and is characterized by a strong strategic value for the location and proximity with the urban center and is affected by both social and economic problem due to the insufficiency of public spaces, the use of spaces and public facilities, to the social mixité, characterized by the mixture of different ethnic groups.

  15. Community Public Space Planning Guided by Sustainable Development:A Case Study on Wei’an Nanli Residential Area of Tianjin City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The public space of community is not only significant to ensure the quality of residents’ daily life but also the important means to realize urban sustainability.It is necessary to bridge the gap between the physical and social development of city in order to build a harmonious and livable city.The sustainable development indicators are very useful tools.The design of the indicators involves the site investigation,and selection and modification of indicators.It can provide guidance to related plans by making scientific decision on the core target of the public space development of community.

  16. Es ist das Einfache, das schwer zu machen ist – Open Access im wissenschaftlichen Publikationsprozess / It is the simple things that are hard to do: Open Access and scholarly publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Böske, Julia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last years the scientific system of publication was challenged increasingly. Open Access – the free access to scientific information – has contributed a lot to it. Therefore is a profound discussion with the phenomenon Open Access worthwhile. In this context the business model of traditional publishing is compared to that of the Open Access. This comparison should give the impulse to think over the interpretation of the Open Access referring to the Berlin Declaration and to open to new forms of the Open Access. However, for this purpose existing enemy images must be destroyed which were aroused since the last years above all between commercial publishing companies and the science. In this respect the following implementations are not only a dialogue help, but they also refresh the legitimization of commercial publishing companies in the publication process and offer them a new action basis. Because Open Access should be understood not only as a danger – above all it is a challenge and chance for the continuity of commercial scientific publishing companies. The point is that it is possible to break into electronic markets of tomorrow.

  17. The exclusion of the right to access public policy determined by the adopted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Roberto Feitoza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The municipality of Vargem Alta requested Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MAPA for their inclusion in the conilon coffee zoning. The discontent of local farmers with this exclusion was the first indication that the information used in the zoning by MAPA was insufficient to reveal the appropriate ecosystems for the cultivation of this species. The Natural Zones employed to define the suitable environments for conilon cultivation and the field crop checks to confirm the species, were the basis of this study which was used by MAPA to review the decision to include Vargem Alta in the conilon coffee zoning. MAPA published this addition in the Official Gazette of 04/10/2012 giving the local farmers the right to benefit from public policies that are related to this subject. It is suggested that alterations are applied to the legal documents concerning agricultural zoning, with the aim of authorising the inclusion of those beneficiaries who are excluded due to limitations of the zoning method used.

  18. The Impact of Rural Non-Farm Residential Development on the Provision of Local Public Services. Iowa Land Use Research Report Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Peter S.

    Using multiple regression analysis for each county and a case study of selected services in Johnson County, Iowa, the study estimated the impacts of rural non-farm development in Iowa on the demand for local public services, on the cost of providing these services, and on the distribution of service benefits and tax burdens among population…

  19. Effect of high up front charges on access to surgery for poor patients at a public hospital in New Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skipper Betty

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A public hospital in New Mexico required collection of 50% of estimated costs prior to elective surgeries for self-pay patients. This study assesses the impact of this policy on access to elective surgical procedures. Methods Chi-square tests determined if there was a statistically significant difference between the number of self-pay and insured patient cancellations for financial reasons. A multivariate binomial regression model was used to calculate risk ratios and confidence limits for effects of race/ethnicity, and insurance status, controlling for gender, on these cancellations. Results Of the 667 cancellations, there were 99 self-pay and 568 insured patients. Cancellations for financial reasons occurred in 55.6% of self-pay and 9.3% of insured patients (p Conclusion Self-pay patients, regardless of race/ethnicity, have elective surgical procedures cancelled for financial reasons significantly more often than insured patients. The hospital's 50% up-front payment policy represents a significant financial barrier to accessing elective surgical procedures for self-pay patients.

  20. Efficient Priority Access to the Shared Commercial Radio with Offloading for Public Safety in LTE Heterogeneous Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chafika Tata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the algorithm Courteous Priority Access to the shared commercial radio with offloading (CPAwO, for public safety network (PSN over LTE heterogeneous networks (HetNets. We propose a solution for prioritization of PSN users with access to the commercial radio network resources. Our model offers additional radio resources to the PSN. Furthermore, it ensures a certain priority for commercial users by assigning quantities of additional radio resources through the courteous scheme. This allows delaying preemption and blocking bearers when the radio resources are limited. The other part of CPAwO model is to apply the principle of offloading in order to reduce the impact of the macrocell congestion. This technique is to switch the new bearers arriving at the LTE macrocells to small cells, in order to decrease the number of the blocked and interrupted bearers in the network. The results of the simulation showed that the allocation of radio resources via the courteous mechanism with offloading of new bearers to small cells reduces the rate of blocking bearers and delays the preemption of active bearers present in the LTE HetNets. It also reduces the cost of the end-to-end communications, thanks to the reallocation of free frequencies.

  1. Public Funding and Open Access to Research: A Review of Canadian Multiple Sclerosis Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Carol; Stephenson, Erin; Chaves, Debbie

    2017-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS), a progressive demyelinating disease of the brain and spinal cord, is the leading cause of nontraumatic neurological damage in young adults. Canada has one of the highest reported incidents of MS, with estimates between 55 and 240 per 100,000 individuals. Between 2009 and 2014, the MS Society of Canada provided over Can $90 million to researchers and, since 2013, has encouraged researchers to make both current and previous research products openly available. Objective The goal of the study was to determine the open access (OA) cost implications and repository policies of journals frequently used by a sample of MS researchers. This study benchmarked current publishing preferences by MS Society of Canada researchers by examining the OA full-text availability of journal articles written by researchers funded between 2009 and 2014. Methods Researchers were identified from the 2009 to 2014 annual MS Society of Canada Research Summaries. Articles were identified through searches in Web of Science, Scopus, Medline and Embase (both via OVID). Journal level analysis included comparison of OA policies, including article processing charges (APCs) and repository policies. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results There were 758 articles analyzed in this study, of which 288 (38.0%) were OA articles. The majority of authors were still relying on journal policies for deposit in PubMed Central or availability on publisher websites for OA. Gold OA journals accounted for 10.2% of the journals in this study and were associated with significantly lower APCs (US $1900) than in hybrid journals (US $3000). Review of the journal self-archiving options highlighted the complexity of stipulations that authors would have to navigate to legally deposit a version of their article. Conclusions This study found that there are currently researcher- and publisher-imposed barriers to both the gold and green roads to OA. These results provide a

  2. Public Funding and Open Access to Research: A Review of Canadian Multiple Sclerosis Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Caitlin; Stephenson, Carol; Stephenson, Erin; Chaves, Debbie

    2017-02-27

    Multiple sclerosis (MS), a progressive demyelinating disease of the brain and spinal cord, is the leading cause of nontraumatic neurological damage in young adults. Canada has one of the highest reported incidents of MS, with estimates between 55 and 240 per 100,000 individuals. Between 2009 and 2014, the MS Society of Canada provided over Can $90 million to researchers and, since 2013, has encouraged researchers to make both current and previous research products openly available. The goal of the study was to determine the open access (OA) cost implications and repository policies of journals frequently used by a sample of MS researchers. This study benchmarked current publishing preferences by MS Society of Canada researchers by examining the OA full-text availability of journal articles written by researchers funded between 2009 and 2014. Researchers were identified from the 2009 to 2014 annual MS Society of Canada Research Summaries. Articles were identified through searches in Web of Science, Scopus, Medline and Embase (both via OVID). Journal level analysis included comparison of OA policies, including article processing charges (APCs) and repository policies. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. There were 758 articles analyzed in this study, of which 288 (38.0%) were OA articles. The majority of authors were still relying on journal policies for deposit in PubMed Central or availability on publisher websites for OA. Gold OA journals accounted for 10.2% of the journals in this study and were associated with significantly lower APCs (US $1900) than in hybrid journals (US $3000). Review of the journal self-archiving options highlighted the complexity of stipulations that authors would have to navigate to legally deposit a version of their article. This study found that there are currently researcher- and publisher-imposed barriers to both the gold and green roads to OA. These results provide a current benchmark against which efforts to enhance

  3. Accessing evidence to inform public health policy: a study to enhance advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, R G; Eyler, A A; Dodson, E A; Brownson, R C

    2015-06-01

    evidence-based policy change. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Does small equal predatory? Analysis of publication charges and transparency of editorial policies in Croatian open access journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovski, Jadranka; Marušić, Ana

    2017-06-15

    We approach the problem of "predatory" journals and publishers from the perspective of small scientific communities and small journals that may sometimes be perceived as "predatory". Among other characteristics of "predatory" journals two most relevant are their business model and the quality of the editorial work. We analysed 444 Croatian open access (OA) journals in the Hrčak (portal of Croatian scientific journals) digital journal repository for the presence of article processing charges as a business model and the transparency of editorial policies. The majority of journals do not charge authors or require submission or article processing charges, which clearly distinguishes them from "predatory" journals. Almost all Hrčak OA journals have publicly available information on editorial boards, including full names and affiliations, and detailed contact information for the editorial office at the Hrčak website. The journal names are unique and cannot be easily confused with another journal or intend to mislead about the journal's origin. While most journals provide information on peer review process, many do not provide guidelines for reviewers or other editorial and publication ethics standards. In order to clearly differentiate themselves from predatory journals, it is not enough for journals from small research communities to operate on non-commercial bases, but also to have transparent editorial policies.

  5. Drug discovery and beyond: the role of public-private partnerships in improving access to new malaria medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwaka, Solomon

    2005-10-01

    Traditional pharmaceutical research and development (R&D) strategy has failed to address the desperate need for new antimalarial drugs. The populations affected are too poor to attract commercially-driven R&D. Over the last few years, a new model, the public-private partnership for product development, has radically changed the antimalarial R&D landscape. The partnerships bring together academic and industry expertise with funding from governmental, philanthropic and charitable sources. The Medicines for Malaria Venture, a not-for-profit foundation based in Geneva, aims to develop new antimalarials for developing countries through public-private partnership. It is currently managing a portfolio of around 20 projects at various stages of development. However, as in all drug R&D, some of these projects will fail. The portfolio approach helps to maximize the chances of success, but there are obvious challenges, including financial and managerial ones. Proactive management of the two vital interfaces in the drug supply chain is important for success. Upstream, basic research must be aligned with translational research in order to ensure a continuous supply of leads into the development pipeline. Meanwhile, downstream, drug discovery and development must be aligned with access to ensure optimal health impact. All stages require partnership, sustainable financing and the engagement of disease-endemic countries. The recent G8 report on Africa has lent support to mechanisms aimed at improving health and achieving the Millenium Development Goals.

  6. Increasing Public Awareness of Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Tests: Health Care Access, Internet Use, and Population Density Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lila J. Finney Rutten

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainty around the value of and appropriate regulatory models for direct-to-consumer (DTC genetic testing underscores the importance of tracking public awareness of these services. We analyzed nationally representative, cross-sectional data from the Health Information National Trends Survey in 2008 (n=7,674 and 2011 (n=3,959 to assess population-level changes in awareness of DTC genetic testing in the U.S. and to explore sociodemographic, health care, Internet use, and population density correlates. Overall, awareness increased significantly from 29% in 2008 to 37% in 2011. The observed increase in awareness from 2008 to 2011 remained significant (OR=1.39 even when adjusted for sociodemographic variables, health care access, Internet use, and population density. Independent of survey year, the odds of awareness of DTC genetic tests were significantly higher for those aged 50–64 (OR=1.64, and 65–74 (OR=1.60; college graduates (OR=2.02; those with a regular source of health care (OR=1.27; those with a prior cancer diagnosis (OR=1.24; those who use the Internet (OR=1.27; and those living in urban areas (OR=1.25. Surveillance of awareness—along with empirical data on use of and response to genetic risk information—can inform public health and policy efforts to maximize benefits and minimize risks of DTC genetic testing.

  7. Data Publication: Addressing the Issues of Provenance, Attribution, Citation, and Accessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, L. M.; Chandler, C. L.; Lowry, R. K.; Urban, E. R.; Moncoiffe, G.; Pissierssens, P.; Norton, C.

    2010-12-01

    technology. We will report on the successful implementation of the e-repository model for publication of data associated with the pilot projects and summarize the strategies for meeting the cultural and technical challenges.

  8. Residential tourism and migration of foreign retirees in Mexico: A case study on the environmental impacts and public services in Baja California Sur

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Armando Casas-Beltrán; Luis Felipe Beltrán-Morales; Aradit Castellanos; Aurora Breceda Solís-Cámara

    2013-01-01

    Migration of foreign retirees in Mexico has increased, especially in Los Cabos, where settlements trailer type are increasing and are moving into rural coastal areas of high ecological value, without the knowledge of impacts that may result. Thus the aim of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of this type of settlement, by documenting a case study, the characteristics of their community, their environmental impacts and implications for the provision of public services. We conclud...

  9. Alternatives to project-specific consent for access to personal information for health research: insights from a public dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willison, Donald J; Swinton, Marilyn; Schwartz, Lisa; Abelson, Julia; Charles, Cathy; Northrup, David; Cheng, Ji; Thabane, Lehana

    2008-11-19

    The role of consent for research use of health information is contentious. Most discussion has focused on when project-specific consent may be waived but, recently, a broader range of consent options has been entertained, including broad opt-in for multiple studies with restrictions and notification with opt-out. We sought to elicit public values in this matter and to work toward an agreement about a common approach to consent for use of personal information for health research through deliberative public dialogues. We conducted seven day-long public dialogues, involving 98 participants across Canada. Immediately before and after each dialogue, participants completed a fixed-response questionnaire rating individuals' support for 3 approaches to consent in the abstract and their consent choices for 5 health research scenarios using personal information. They also rated how confident different safeguards made them feel that their information was being used responsibly. Broad opt-in consent for use of personal information garnered the greatest support in the abstract. When presented with specific research scenarios, no one approach to consent predominated. When profit was introduced into the scenarios, consent choices shifted toward greater control over use. Despite lively and constructive dialogues, and considerable shifting in opinion at the individual level, at the end of the day, there was no substantive aggregate movement in opinion. Personal controls were among the most commonly cited approaches to improving people's confidence in the responsible use of their information for research. Because no one approach to consent satisfied even a simple majority of dialogue participants and the importance placed on personal controls, a mechanism should be developed for documenting consent choice for different types of research, including ways for individuals to check who has accessed their medical record for purposes other than clinical care. This could be done, for

  10. Alternatives to project-specific consent for access to personal information for health research: Insights from a public dialogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abelson Julia

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of consent for research use of health information is contentious. Most discussion has focused on when project-specific consent may be waived but, recently, a broader range of consent options has been entertained, including broad opt-in for multiple studies with restrictions and notification with opt-out. We sought to elicit public values in this matter and to work toward an agreement about a common approach to consent for use of personal information for health research through deliberative public dialogues. Methods We conducted seven day-long public dialogues, involving 98 participants across Canada. Immediately before and after each dialogue, participants completed a fixed-response questionnaire rating individuals' support for 3 approaches to consent in the abstract and their consent choices for 5 health research scenarios using personal information. They also rated how confident different safeguards made them feel that their information was being used responsibly. Results Broad opt-in consent for use of personal information garnered the greatest support in the abstract. When presented with specific research scenarios, no one approach to consent predominated. When profit was introduced into the scenarios, consent choices shifted toward greater control over use. Despite lively and constructive dialogues, and considerable shifting in opinion at the individual level, at the end of the day, there was no substantive aggregate movement in opinion. Personal controls were among the most commonly cited approaches to improving people's confidence in the responsible use of their information for research. Conclusion Because no one approach to consent satisfied even a simple majority of dialogue participants and the importance placed on personal controls, a mechanism should be developed for documenting consent choice for different types of research, including ways for individuals to check who has accessed their medical record

  11. Experiences and Perceptions of Adults Accessing Publicly Available Nutrition Behavior-Change Mobile Apps for Weight Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieffers, Jessica R L; Arocha, Jose F; Grindrod, Kelly; Hanning, Rhona M

    2017-06-15

    Nutrition mobile apps have become accessible and popular weight-management tools available to the general public. To date, much of the research has focused on quantitative outcomes with these tools (eg, weight loss); little is known about user experiences and perceptions of these tools when used outside of a research trial environment. Our aim was to understand the experiences and perceptions of adult volunteers who have used publicly available mobile apps to support nutrition behavior change for weight management. We conducted one-on-one semi-structured interviews with individuals who reported using nutrition mobile apps for weight management outside of a research setting. Twenty-four healthy adults (n=19 females, n=5 males) who had used publicly available nutrition mobile apps for weight management for ≥1 week within the past 3 to 4 months were recruited from the community in southern Ontario and Edmonton, Canada, using different methods (eg, social media, posters, and word of mouth). Interviews were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, and transcripts were verified against recordings. Data were coded inductively and organized into categories using NVivo, version 10 (QSR International). Participants used nutrition apps for various amounts of time (mean=approximately 14 months). Varied nutrition apps were used; however, MyFitnessPal was the most common. In the interviews, the following four categories of experiences with nutrition apps became apparent: food data entry (database, data entry methods, portion size, and complex foods); accountability, feedback, and progress (goal setting, accountability, monitoring, and feedback); technical and app-related factors; and personal factors (self-motivation, privacy, knowledge, and obsession). Most participants used apps without professional or dietitian support. This work reveals that numerous factors affect use and ongoing adherence to use of nutrition mobile apps. These data are relevant to professionals looking to

  12. CUAHSI-HIS: an Internet based system to facilitate public discovery, access, and exploration of different water science data sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigo, J. S.; Hooper, R. P.; Choi, Y.; Ames, D. P.; Kadlec, J.; Whiteaker, T.

    2011-12-01

    "Water is everywhere." This sentiment underscores the importance of instilling hydrologic and earth science literacy in educators, students, and the general public, but also presents challenges for water scientists and educators. Scientific data about water is collected and distributed by several different sources, from federal agencies to scientific investigators to citizen scientists. As competition for limited water resources increase, increasing access to and understanding of the wealth of information about the nation's and the world's water will be critical. The CUAHSI-HIS system is a web based system for sharing hydrologic data that can help address this need. HydroDesktop is a free, open source application for finding, getting, analyzing and using hydrologic data from the CUAHSI-HIS system. It works with HydroCatalog which indexes the data to find out what data exists and where it is, and then it retrieves the data from HydroServers where it is stored communicating using WaterOneFlow web services. Currently, there are over 65 services registered in HydroCatalog providing central discovery of water data from several federal and state agencies, university projects, and other sources. HydroDesktop provides a simplified GIS that allows users to incorporate spatial data, and simple analysis tools to facilitate graphing and visualization. HydroDesktop is designed to be useful for a number of different groups of users with a wide variety of needs and skill levels including university faculty, graduate and undergraduate students, K-12 students, engineering and scientific consultants, and others. This presentation will highlight some of the features of HydroDesktop and the CUAHSI-HIS system that make it particularly appropriate for use in educational and public outreach settings, and will present examples of educational use. The incorporation of "real data," localization to an area of interest, and problem-based learning are all recognized as effective strategies for

  13. Accessibility of Water-Related Cultural Ecosystem Services through Public Transport—A Model for Planning Support in the Stockholm Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Kalantari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Planning for sustainable cities involves supporting compact, energy-efficient urban form as well as maintaining attractive and liveable urban landscapes. Attractive cities depend highly on services provided by ecosystems, especially cultural ecosystem services (ES, which give direct benefits to urban citizens. Therefore, access to a diversity of urban functions and publicly available ES by walking and public transport should be considered when planning for sustainable cities. This could be facilitated by user-friendly planning support models. The aim of this study was to develop a GIS-based model for assessing accessibility to ES, more specifically, water-related cultural ecosystem services (WCES, via walking and public transport, with input from stakeholders. The model was applied to the Stockholm region in Sweden. Travel times and census data were used to derive measures and maps of accessibility to prioritised WCES in the region, today and in urbanisation scenarios for 2050. The results showed how access to WCES varied spatially within the region. The number of potential visitors to different WCES sites now and in the future urbanisation scenarios was estimated, and areas in need for future development of the public transport system as well as WCES were identified. The GIS-based accessibility model has potential to be used as planning support in urban planning.

  14. Residential care for the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alber, J

    1992-01-01

    This article maps variations in a standardized way in residential care for elderly people in three Western nations. Measured by the number of available places per person aged sixty-five and over and by the number of staff members per bed in nursing homes, the United Kingdom has the most highly developed standards. The United States ranks second, with Germany lagging considerably behind. The variations are explained by four variables: the pressure of the problem, as defined by the percentage of the population aged sixty-five and over; the caretaker potential in the family system, which alleviates this pressure; the structure and financing of the supply of residential care; and decision-making procedures in health care policy-making. My analysis emphasizes the last two variables. In the United Kingdom and the United States, the public and private providers who supply care have either political or market incentives to expand their services. Germany's mix of public and private, by contrast, is dominated by voluntary associations that are neither responsible to an electorate nor allowed to make profits. Thus, their clients do not have opportunities to articulate their needs. Health care decision making in Germany takes place through a collective bargaining process between the sickness funds and the providers. In such a system, the interests of groups who are not represented at the negotiation table--such as the elderly--tend to be neglected. A national health system of the British type links political decision makers via the election mechanism more closely to the concerns of the public. As older people represent growing proportions of the electorate, their needs find more adequate consideration in the policy process. In the United States, political officeholders also have to pay attention to the needs of increasingly organized older people, since the tax-financed and federally regulated Medicaid system is largely responsible for financing long-term care for the elderly.

  15. Residential ventilation standards scoping study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-10-01

    The goals of this scoping study are to identify research needed to develop improved ventilation standards for California's Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards. The 2008 Title 24 Standards are the primary target for the outcome of this research, but this scoping study is not limited to that timeframe. We prepared this scoping study to provide the California Energy Commission with broad and flexible options for developing a research plan to advance the standards. This document presents the findings of a scoping study commissioned by the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) program of the California Energy Commission to determine what research is necessary to develop new residential ventilation requirements for California. This study is one of three companion efforts needed to complete the job of determining the ventilation needs of California residences, determining the bases for setting residential ventilation requirements, and determining appropriate ventilation technologies to meet these needs and requirements in an energy efficient manner. Rather than providing research results, this scoping study identifies important research questions along with the level of effort necessary to address these questions and the costs, risks, and benefits of pursuing alternative research questions. In approaching these questions and corresponding levels of effort, feasibility and timing were important considerations. The Commission has specified Summer 2005 as the latest date for completing this research in time to update the 2008 version of California's Energy Code (Title 24).

  16. Mobility, Fertility, and Residential Crowding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Earl W.

    1977-01-01

    Regression analyses predicting fertility and mobility in a sample of a metropolitan county in New York State indicate that residential mobility serves to release the negative pressure that residential crowding might exert on fertility behavior. (Author)

  17. Fishing Access Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Vermont Fish & Wildlife Department maintains developed fishing access areas. These sites provide public access to waters in Vermont for shore fishing...

  18. Residential tourism and migration of foreign retirees in Mexico: A case study on the environmental impacts and public services in Baja California Sur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Armando Casas-Beltrán

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Migration of foreign retirees in Mexico has increased, especially in Los Cabos, where settlements trailer type are increasing and are moving into rural coastal areas of high ecological value, without the knowledge of impacts that may result. Thus the aim of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of this type of settlement, by documenting a case study, the characteristics of their community, their environmental impacts and implications for the provision of public services. We conclude that the town will become a short-term retreat site, because while it does not have high densities, its environmental implications are significant and broad coverage. Its current demand for services is minimal, but may cause conflicts in the future, especially with the water

  19. Family ties and residential locations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, C.H.; Cooke, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, and in the Special Issue it introduces, the focus is on the role of family ties in residential location choice and, conversely, the role of residential locations in maintaining family ties. Not only do events in the nuclear family trigger residential relocations, but nearby family mem

  20. Residential Mechanical Precooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, a. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This research conducted by the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team evaluated mechanical air conditioner pre-cooling strategies in homes throughout the United States. EnergyPlus modeling evaluated two homes with different performance characteristics in seven climates. Results are applicable to new construction homes and most existing homes built in the last 10 years, as well as fairly efficient retrofitted homes.

  1. Residential Continuing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Cyril O.

    The theme of this discursive essay is residential continuing education: its definition, its development along somewhat different lines in Europe and in America, and its practice in university centers in the United States. Continuing education includes any learning or teaching program that is based on the assumptions that the learners have studied…

  2. FIRST REPORT ON Cryptococcus neoformans IN PIGEON EXCRETA FROM PUBLIC AND RESIDENTIAL LOCATIONS IN THE METROPOLITAN AREA OF CUIABÁ, STATE OF MATO GROSSO, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doracilde Terumi Takahara

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Cryptococcosis is a severe systemic mycosis caused by two species of Cryptococcus that affect humans and animals: C. neoformans and C. gattii. Cosmopolitan and emergent, the mycosis results from the interaction between a susceptible host and the environment. The occurrence of C. neoformans was evaluated in 122 samples of dried pigeon excreta collected in 49 locations in the City of Cuiabá, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, including public squares (n = 5, churches (n = 4, educational institutions (n = 3, health units (n = 8, open areas covered with asbestos (n = 4, residences (n = 23, factory (n = 1 and a prison (n = 1. Samples collected from July to December of 2010 were seeded on Niger seed agar (NSA. Dark brown colonies were identified by urease test, carbon source assimilation tests and canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue medium. Polymerase chain reaction primer pairs specific for C. neoformans were also used for identification. Cryptococcus neoformans associated to pigeon excreta was isolated from eight (6.6% samples corresponding to six (12.2% locations. Cryptococcus neoformans was isolated from urban areas, predominantly in residences, constituting a risk of acquiring the disease by immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals.

  3. Determinants of sexual risk behavior among men who have sex with men accessing public sex environments in Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, P A; Chakrapani, V; Cook, C; Shunmugam, M; Kakinami, L

    2008-01-01

    We conducted structured interviews with 200 men who have sex with men (MSM) recruited using time-space sampling from public sex environments (PSEs) in Chennai, India. Predictors of sexual risk behavior were assessed with chi2 tests and multiple logistic regression. One-third reported unprotected receptive anal sex (URAS) last time and 36% inconsistent condom use in the past month. URAS was associated with younger age, less than high school education, low income, and low HIV transmission knowledge (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.1, 2.5, 3.7 and 2.5, respectively). Inconsistent condom use was associated with less than high school education (AOR = 3.2) and low HIV transmission knowledge (AOR = 3.5). Multilevel HIV prevention strategies tailored for low socioeconomic kothis and other MSM in PSEs in Chennai should include peer interventions to increase knowledge of HIV transmission risks and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and structural interventions to expand economic and educational opportunities, and accessible STI testing and treatment.

  4. Access to nutritious food, socioeconomic individualism and public health ethics in the USA: a common good approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azétsop, Jacquineau; Joy, Tisha R

    2013-10-29

    Good nutrition plays an important role in the optimal growth, development, health and well-being of individuals in all stages of life. Healthy eating can reduce the risk of chronic diseases, such as heart disease, stroke, diabetes and some types of cancer. However, the capitalist mindset that shapes the food environment has led to the commoditization of food. Food is not just a marketable commodity like any other commodity. Food is different from other commodities on the market in that it is explicitly and intrinsically linked to our human existence. While possessing another commodity allows for social benefits, food ensures survival. Millions of people in United States of America are either malnourished or food insecure. The purpose of this paper is to present a critique of the current food system using four meanings of the common good--as a framework, rhetorical device, ethical concept and practical tool for social justice. The first section of this paper provides a general overview of the notion of the common good. The second section outlines how each of the four meanings of the common good helps us understand public practices, social policies and market values that shape the distal causal factors of nutritious food inaccessibility. We then outline policy and empowerment initiatives for nutritious food access.

  5. USE OF THE BLOG AT A PUBLIC SCHOOL MUNICIPAL AS A TOOL FOR ACCESS TO REALITY SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurícia Simões dos Santos Palácio

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This research, related to the Post- graduate Program in Education and its search line “Education´s Practices and Formative processes”, from Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho", Campus of Presidente Prudente, contemplated a case study of a blog´s content from a municipal public school located in the interior of São Paulo State. Still, talks about this school blog which configures itself as an access´ tool to the school reality and that serves as a reflection point for the school manager. From the analysis of published texts on, this work had as general objective to analyze whether the use of the blog can be an information space and a way to manage the institutional and pedagogical/ administrative profile, capable to unleash the participation of all the school within the vision of democratic management. The use of Blogs by schools is still a recent habit and there is much to be found out. In this perspective, this study proposed to unravel some resources that will contribute somehow with the school manager's role in relation to Information and Communication Technology (ICT, specially concerning the use of the blog and the establishment of an integrative and interactionist process with the school community.

  6. Residential landfill remedial action construction case history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creamer, P.D.; Martin, K.E. [RMT, Inc., Madison, WI (United States); Fahrney, J.S. [City of Madison, WI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The City of Madison - Mineral Point Park is located on Madison`s west side within a well-established neighborhood on approximately 11 acres of open green space, which was formerly the Mineral Point Landfill. In 1994, a comprehensive remedial action construction project was implemented to more effectively extract methane gas and control gas migration, to minimize potential groundwater contamination, and to improve surface water run-off controls. This was accomplished by installing two new gas extraction systems, constructing a 4-foot-thick composite final cover with a geosynthetic subsurface drainage system, and adding 12 feet of relief and a storm sewer system to promote positive surface water drainage. While these features alone are not uncommon to many other landfills, the challenging aspect of this project was to install them in extreme proximity to homes, condominiums, and a school that were quickly developed shortly after the landfill closed. Some of the issues unique to this project due to the residential setting included strict noise, dust, and odor controls, easement negotiations, limited hours of operation, limited material storage areas, utility relocations and crossings, continuous operation of the existing gas extraction system, limited construction access, and increased health and safety concerns for the general public. The need to keep the neighboring residents informed, as well as to address their concerns and requests, was also a critical requirement in both the design and construction phases. This paper will review the design of the remedial action plan and present the construction process, highlighting the constructability issues encountered and the innovative means to overcome them. The program for communication with the neighbors throughout the design and construction phases will also be addressed.

  7. Accessible tourism in Brazil: an exploratory study about the public policies and the process of inclusion of persons with disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donária Coelho Duarte

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest challenges of society Brazilian is confronting the issue of equality and social exclusion. It is estimated that there are approximately 45 million people with disabilities in Brazil (IBGE, 2010, many of them still unable to enjoy leisure and tourism activities due to their physical limitations and lack of adaptation of the environment. The purpose of this article is to verify if public policy focused tourism for people with disabilities (PWD have been able to meet demands for inclusion these  segment, also seeks the perception of these people as to the inclusion process. The focus of this study, therefore, refers to people who were born or have acquired some kind of permanent limitation, not being object of this survey people who have had temporary physical limitations and/or sporadic or who have reduced mobility. In terms of methodology, a exploratory and qualitative research was made with interviews of semi-structured scripts.  The participants of study were nine managers chosen from representatives of government, of representatives of the tourist trade and of associations of people with disabilities. From the interviews with the public, given the diversity of actions and their characteristics, it proposed the classification of programs/government actions. As result, the research shows that the government has to attack the problem and sought to create and implement policies directed to this segment. However, people with disabilities consider that what has been done is not enough to include them really in tourist activities and say they are not being heard enough. All disabled associations mentions that the limitations/difficult environment hamper achievement of tourism. It was noticed also that the private sector does not consider the disabled person as a consumer public and that are not done research to understand the profile and the needs of this segment. Both the private sector as PWD associations, showed little

  8. Open For Business? An Historical, Comparative Study of Public Access to Information about Two Controversial Coastal Developments in North-East Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Graeme

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This paper compares public access to information about two controversial coastal developments in North-east Scotland: the construction of a gas terminal by the British Gas Council and Total in the 1970s, and the current development of "the world's greatest golf course" by the tycoon Donald Trump. Method: Data has been…

  9. Layers of Influence: Exploring Institutional- and State-Level Effects on College Student Views toward Access to Public Education for Undocumented Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garibay, Juan C.; Herrera, Felisha A.; Johnston-Guerrero, Marc P.; Garcia, Gina A.

    2016-01-01

    Providing undocumented immigrants access to public education remains a pertinent issue facing both institutions of higher education and state governments. While instate resident tuition (ISRT) has remained a contentious policy, little is known about how such policies, as well as other state contexts, influence college students' attitudes toward…

  10. A Post-September 11th Balancing Act: Public Access to U.S. Government Information versus Protection of Sensitive Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, E.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to suggest realistic guidelines that balance public access to government information and the need to protect sensitive data. Emphasis is on lessons learned from a 1979 case where the government attempted to prohibit the Progressive Magazine from publishing an article about making a hydrogen bomb and government…

  11. A Post-September 11th Balancing Act: Public Access to U.S. Government Information versus Protection of Sensitive Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, E.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to suggest realistic guidelines that balance public access to government information and the need to protect sensitive data. Emphasis is on lessons learned from a 1979 case where the government attempted to prohibit the Progressive Magazine from publishing an article about making a hydrogen bomb and government…

  12. RESEARCH ON PROBLEMS WITH PROJECTS AND PARTNERSHIPS THAT PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS IN THE CENTRE REGION FACED IN ACCESSING EUROPEAN FUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUMITRASCU DANUT

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available European project management is the main filed of the article. Assuming a connection between the degree of absorption of European funds and the degree of maturity of the Romanian society in terms of project management, the article seeks to identify the negative factors on accessing and carrying out European projects. The identified problem is a low degree of absorption of European funds in Romania, and the main objective of the research is to identify the problems faced by the public institutions in the Centre Region in accessing European funds and also the causes that led to the low absorption of European funds. This article’s research is based on a preliminary analysis performed by the authors on the rate of accessing of European funds published in the article called “The current state of European funds absorption through funding programmes – measure of the Romanian performances in the project management practice”. The conclusion of this article was a low rate of absorption of European funds in Romania, a fact that reveals a poor practice of the theory on project management. This article identifies part of the causes of this situation by identifying a part of the problems that stood in the way of beneficiaries of European funds The qualitative and quantitative research methods are used in combination in the research. The investigation has however a highly quantitative character, the purpose of the qualitative research being to provide the prerequisites for achieving the quantitative research. The interview-based qualitative research enabled the researcher to get acquainted with the subjects’ problems related to the theme of investigation, the causes that have generated these problems. This preliminary investigation to the questionnaire-based research aims to provide information that would help the researcher prepare the questionnaire, so that the questions allow getting the most comprehensive information to

  13. Analyzing Residential End-Use Energy Consumption Data to Inform Residential Consumer Decisions and Enable Energy Efficiency Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Derrick R.

    While renewable energy is in the process of maturing, energy efficiency improvements may provide an opportunity to reduce energy consumption and consequent greenhouse gas emissions to bridge the gap between current emissions and the reductions necessary to prevent serious effects of climate change and will continue to be an integral part of greenhouse gas emissions policy moving forward. Residential energy is a largely untapped source of energy reductions as consumers, who wish to reduce energy consumption for monetary, environmental, and other reasons, face barriers. One such barrier is a lack of knowledge or understanding of how energy is consumed in a home and how to reduce this consumption effectively through behavioral and technological changes. One way to improve understanding of residential energy consumption is through the creation of a model to predict which appliances and electronics will be present and significantly contribute to the electricity consumption of a home on the basis of various characteristics of that home. The basis of this model is publically available survey data from the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). By predicting how households are likely to consume energy, homeowners, policy makers, and other stakeholders have access to valuable data that enables reductions in energy consumption in the residential sector. This model can be used to select homes that may be ripe for energy reductions and to predict the appliances that are the basis of these potential reductions. This work suggests that most homes in the U.S. have about eight appliances that are responsible for about 80% of the electricity consumption in that home. Characteristics such as census region, floor space, income, and total electricity consumption affect which appliances are likely to be in a home, however the number of appliances is generally around 8. Generally it takes around 4 appliances to reach the 50% threshold and 12 appliances to reach 90% of electricity

  14. ASTM residential green building standard guide development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, B.D. [Building Environmental Science and Technology, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Reed, W. [Hillier Group, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The authors have led development of a Standard Guide for Residential Green Buildings through the consensus process of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). The voluntary guidance document has been processed through two public peer reviews in ASTM`s E-50.06 sub-committee on the environment. The guide`s purpose is to present general criteria for home builders, residential designers and developers on how to systematically approach the creation of a green home--from the design phase on through to eventual de-commissioning of residential structures. This paper briefly reviews the standards process, includes an overview of the Standard Guides` principal criteria, and provides a robust resource listing for further investigation by readers. During development of the Standard Guide, authors emphasized thorough review of the available literature on sustainable residential development. This was then reflected in the technical contents of the Standard Guide to provide criteria useful to builders to: provide a standardized framework for evaluating whether homes (new or remodeled) meet minimum consensus guidelines on resource efficiency; reduce environmental impact of new-home developments and major remodeling projects; improve long tern sustainability of the nation`s new and existing housing; and help to effectively recognize and promote the benefit of efficiency and renewable energy.

  15. Reducing Gridlock on the Grid: Utility Trends in Managing Peak Electric Load through Residential Demand Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Betsy

    Utilities across the United States are piloting residential demand response programs to help manage peak electric demand. Using publicly available program evaluations, this thesis analyzes nine such programs to uncover and synthesize the range of program offerings, goals, enrollment strategies, and customer experiences. This review reveals that program participation, components, and results differ based on a variety of factors, including geographic characteristics, program goals, and implementation strategies. The diversity of program designs and evaluation findings suggests an underlying tension between the need to generate cost-effective program impacts and the desire to increase accessibility so that program benefits are not exclusive to certain segments of the population. For more significant and impactful engagement, program goals may need to shift. State level policy support could help shift program goals toward increasing program accessibility. Future research should explore creative strategies that target existing barriers and allow for more inclusive deployment.

  16. Sharing your urban residential WiFi (UR-WiFi)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kawade, Santosh; Bloem, van Jan-Willem; Abhayawardhana, V.S.; Wisely, D.

    2006-01-01

    Cheap and ubiquitous broadband wireless access is what most of the operators are aiming for. This paper analyses an innovative proposal to extend the traditional fixed coverage offered by residential broadband into an urban wireless coverage using urban residential wireless fidelity (UR-WiFi) projec

  17. A Calculation Method of Area Public Transit Accessibility Based on GIS%基于GIS的区域公交可达性计算方法0

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈艳艳; 魏攀一; 赖见辉; 张伟伟; 冯国臣

    2015-01-01

    为计算城市内部特定区域对周边其他区域的公交可达性,更加直观地得到不同区域公交可达性差异程度,提出区域公交可达性概念。借助GIS空间分析功能,提出基于公交站点权重和公交线路辐射范围权重的区域公交可达性计算方法。以北京市朝阳区为例,计算朝阳区30个交通小区的区域公交可达性值。结果表明,区域公交可达性值,可以更加直观地展现城市内部不同区域对周边其他区域的公交可达性水平,这为选址分析、公交优化等提供了定量化的公交可达性信息。%To calculate the public transit accessibility between a specific area and its surrounding areas, and to show the differences of the public transit accessibility more intuitive, a new concept is raised, this is area public transit accessibility (APTA). Using the GIS spatial analysis, a method is introduced to calculate the APTA based on bus station and the boundary of the bus routes. Finally, a case study of Beijing Chaoyang district is conducted. The results show that the APTA can give us a clearly description, about the different levels of the public transit accessibility between a specific area and its surrounding areas. This provides quantitative information of public transit accessibility for location analysis and transit network optimizing.

  18. Can free open access resources strengthen knowledge-based emerging public health priorities, policies and programs in Africa? [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Tambo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tackling emerging epidemics and infectious diseases burden in Africa requires increasing unrestricted open access and free use or reuse of regional and global policies reforms as well as timely communication capabilities and strategies. Promoting, scaling up data and information sharing between African researchers and international partners are of vital importance in accelerating open access at no cost. Free Open Access (FOA health data and information acceptability, uptake tactics and sustainable mechanisms are urgently needed. These are critical in establishing real time and effective knowledge or evidence-based translation, proven and validated approaches, strategies and tools to strengthen and revamp health systems.  As such, early and timely access to needed emerging public health information is meant to be instrumental and valuable for policy-makers, implementers, care providers, researchers, health-related institutions and stakeholders including populations when guiding health financing, and planning contextual programs.

  19. Length Calculation for Vehicle Access of Large Public Buildings%大型公共建筑机动车出入口长度计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卓曦; 钱振东; 胡亮

    2012-01-01

    为提高出入口通行能力与城市道路交通安全水平,分析大型公共建筑机动车出入口长度影响因素,考虑大型公共建筑用地出行生成率与城市道路车辆反应视距,建立出入口长度模型.该模型利用建筑交通生成计算出入口道路排队长度,并利用视距三角形计算出入口车辆安全距离,取其中较大值为出入口长度.最后以某市公交枢纽站为例进行试算与仿真.仿真结果表明:应用模型所得出入口长度后,公交站出入口道路与临近城市道路的单车平均延误分别减少5.05s与6.37s,平均车速分别提高5.1 km/h与4.81 km/h.可见研究成果有利于大型公建机动车出入口交通渠化与线形改善.%To increase the access capacity and heighten the urban street traffic safety level, impact factors of the vehicle access length of large public buildings are analyzed. Then considering the land trip generation rate of large public buildings and vehicle decision sight distance of urban streets, the access length model is put forward. The model uses the building trip generation for calculating the access queue length and adopts the sight triangle to calculate the vehicle safety distance in the access, the larger one of which is considered as the access length. Finally, one urban public traffic transfer hub is taken as the example for calculating and simulating. The simulation result indicates that, after applying the access length from the model, the delay per vehicle of the public traffic station driveway and the adjacent urban street separately decreases 5. 05 s and 6. 37 s, while the average speed increases 5. 1 km/h and 4. 81 km/h. It can be seen that, research results are beneficial to improving the vehicle access traffic channelization and alignment of large public buildings.

  20. Difficulties in access and estimates of public beds in intensive care units in the state of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Sonia Goldwasser

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the required number of public beds for adults in intensive care units in the state of Rio de Janeiro to meet the existing demand and compare results with recommendations by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. METHODS The study uses a hybrid model combining time series and queuing theory to predict the demand and estimate the number of required beds. Four patient flow scenarios were considered according to bed requests, percentage of abandonments and average length of stay in intensive care unit beds. The results were plotted against Ministry of Health parameters. Data were obtained from the State Regulation Center from 2010 to 2011. RESULTS There were 33,101 medical requests for 268 regulated intensive care unit beds in Rio de Janeiro. With an average length of stay in regulated ICUs of 11.3 days, there would be a need for 595 active beds to ensure system stability and 628 beds to ensure a maximum waiting time of six hours. Deducting current abandonment rates due to clinical improvement (25.8%, these figures fall to 441 and 417. With an average length of stay of 6.5 days, the number of required beds would be 342 and 366, respectively; deducting abandonment rates, 254 and 275. The Brazilian Ministry of Health establishes a parameter of 118 to 353 beds. Although the number of regulated beds is within the recommended range, an increase in beds of 122.0% is required to guarantee system stability and of 134.0% for a maximum waiting time of six hours. CONCLUSIONS Adequate bed estimation must consider reasons for limited timely access and patient flow management in a scenario that associates prioritization of requests with the lowest average length of stay.

  1. Difficulties in access and estimates of public beds in intensive care units in the state of Rio de Janeiro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwasser, Rosane Sonia; Lobo, Maria Stella de Castro; de Arruda, Edilson Fernandes; Angelo, Simone Aldrey; Lapa e Silva, José Roberto; de Salles, André Assis; David, Cid Marcos

    2016-01-01

    To estimate the required number of public beds for adults in intensive care units in the state of Rio de Janeiro to meet the existing demand and compare results with recommendations by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The study uses a hybrid model combining time series and queuing theory to predict the demand and estimate the number of required beds. Four patient flow scenarios were considered according to bed requests, percentage of abandonments and average length of stay in intensive care unit beds. The results were plotted against Ministry of Health parameters. Data were obtained from the State Regulation Center from 2010 to 2011. There were 33,101 medical requests for 268 regulated intensive care unit beds in Rio de Janeiro. With an average length of stay in regulated ICUs of 11.3 days, there would be a need for 595 active beds to ensure system stability and 628 beds to ensure a maximum waiting time of six hours. Deducting current abandonment rates due to clinical improvement (25.8%), these figures fall to 441 and 417. With an average length of stay of 6.5 days, the number of required beds would be 342 and 366, respectively; deducting abandonment rates, 254 and 275. The Brazilian Ministry of Health establishes a parameter of 118 to 353 beds. Although the number of regulated beds is within the recommended range, an increase in beds of 122.0% is required to guarantee system stability and of 134.0% for a maximum waiting time of six hours. Adequate bed estimation must consider reasons for limited timely access and patient flow management in a scenario that associates prioritization of requests with the lowest average length of stay.

  2. Estimated United States Residential Energy Use in 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C A; Johnson, D M; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

    2011-12-12

    A flow chart depicting energy flow in the residential sector of the United States economy in 2005 has been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of national energy use patterns. Approximately 11,000 trillion British Thermal Units (trBTUs) of electricity and fuels were used throughout the United States residential sector in lighting, electronics, air conditioning, space heating, water heating, washing appliances, cooking appliances, refrigerators, and other appliances. The residential sector is powered mainly by electricity and natural gas. Other fuels used include petroleum products (fuel oil, liquefied petroleum gas and kerosene), biomass (wood), and on-premises solar, wind, and geothermal energy. The flow patterns represent a comprehensive systems view of energy used within the residential sector.

  3. 'Nothing works' in secure residential youth care?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souverein, F.A.; van der Helm, G.H.P.; Stams, G.J.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    A debate about the effectiveness of secure residential youth care is currently going on. While some continue to support secure residential youth care, others conclude that ‘nothing works’ in secure residential youth care, and argue that non-residential treatment is superior to secure residential tre

  4. Differences and determinants in access to essential public health services in China: a case study with hypertension people and under-sixes as target population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niu Hongli; Tian Miaomiao; Ma Anning; Wang Chunping; Zhang Liang

    2014-01-01

    Background Since 2009,health reform had launched in China and essential public health services were provided for all residents to ensure service equity and accessibility,and to achieve sustained population-wide health improvement.This study aimed to investigate the differences and determinants among populations with different characteristics access to essential public health services in China,especially hypertension people and children aged 0-6 years.Methods A cross-sectional study with socio-demographic data analysis was undertaken to estimate distribution characteristics of receiving essential public health services of hypertension patients and children.Regular follow-ups and effective blood pressure control reflected the effective management for hypertension patients,and for children,public services provided were vaccination on schedule and regular physical check-up.Logistic regression was used to determine the predictors for effective management.Results A total of 1 505 hypertension patients and 749 children were involved; 39.14% of hypertension participants could control their blood pressure in the normal range,and the rate in urban areas (43.61%) was higher than that in rural (31.88%).And 34.68% of them could receive more than 4 times follow-ups by the medical technician.Of 754 children,79.84% could receive the periodic physical examination and 98.40% had vaccinated regularly.Children living in rural areas were more likely to have regular check-ups (83.96%) and regular vaccination (nearly 99%).Overall,geographic location and education level were the determinants of people access to essential public health services.Conclusions Implementation of the health reform since 2009 has headed China's public health system in the right direction and promoted the improvement of public health system development.Our study highlights the growing needs for more public health services in China,and China's public health system needs to be greatly improved in

  5. Electricity demand for South Korean residential sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sa' ad, Suleiman, E-mail: suleimansaad@gmail.co [Surrey Energy Economics Centre (SEEC), Department of Economics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    This study estimates the electricity demand function for the residential sector of South Korea with the aim of examining the effects of improved energy efficiency, structural factors and household lifestyles on electricity consumption. In the study, time series data for the period from 1973 to 2007 is used in a structural time series model to estimate the long-term price and income elasticities and annual growth of underlying energy demand trend (UEDT) at the end of the estimation period. The result shows a long-term income elasticity of 1.33 and a long-term price elasticity of -0.27% with -0.93% as the percentage growth of UEDT at the end of the estimation period. This result suggests that, in order to encourage energy efficiency in the residential sector, the government should complement the market based pricing policies with non-market policies such as minimum energy efficiency standards and public enlightenment.

  6. Electricity demand for South Korean residential sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sa' ad, Suleiman [Surrey Energy Economics Centre (SEEC), Department of Economics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    This study estimates the electricity demand function for the residential sector of South Korea with the aim of examining the effects of improved energy efficiency, structural factors and household lifestyles on electricity consumption. In the study, time series data for the period from 1973 to 2007 is used in a structural time series model to estimate the long-term price and income elasticities and annual growth of underlying energy demand trend (UEDT) at the end of the estimation period. The result shows a long-term income elasticity of 1.33 and a long-term price elasticity of -0.27% with -0.93% as the percentage growth of UEDT at the end of the estimation period. This result suggests that, in order to encourage energy efficiency in the residential sector, the government should complement the market based pricing policies with non-market policies such as minimum energy efficiency standards and public enlightenment. (author)

  7. Relating attitudes to residential energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, L.J.; Seligman, C.; Fazio, R.H.; Darley, J.M.

    1981-09-01

    Along with technological advances, part of the solution to the energy problem will come from a change in the public's attitudes that will place a higher value on energy conservation. The authors examine the results of surveys designed to identify consumer attitudes on a seasonal basis in terms of comfort, family finances, optimism, legitimacy of the energy crisis, savings, individual responsibility, and health. They find a positive correlation between the summer and winter comfort factors, which suggests that the large energy users are people with narrow ranges of acceptable temperatures. The best predictor of residential energy consumption is the one involving attitudes about thermal comfort and energy use. Residential energy consumption, however, is not behavior; it is a consequence of behavior, primarily thermostat setting. 15 references.

  8. Estimating spatial accessibility to facilities on the regional scale: an extended commuting-based interaction potential model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charreire Hélène

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing interest in the study of the relationships between individual health-related behaviours (e.g. food intake and physical activity and measurements of spatial accessibility to the associated facilities (e.g. food outlets and sport facilities. The aim of this study is to propose measurements of spatial accessibility to facilities on the regional scale, using aggregated data. We first used a potential accessibility model that partly makes it possible to overcome the limitations of the most frequently used indices such as the count of opportunities within a given neighbourhood. We then propose an extended model in order to take into account both home and work-based accessibility for a commuting population. Results Potential accessibility estimation provides a very different picture of the accessibility levels experienced by the population than the more classical "number of opportunities per census tract" index. The extended model for commuters increases the overall accessibility levels but this increase differs according to the urbanisation level. Strongest increases are observed in some rural municipalities with initial low accessibility levels. Distance to major urban poles seems to play an essential role. Conclusions Accessibility is a multi-dimensional concept that should integrate some aspects of travel behaviour. Our work supports the evidence that the choice of appropriate accessibility indices including both residential and non-residential environmental features is necessary. Such models have potential implications for providing relevant information to policy-makers in the field of public health.

  9. Packet loss characteristics of IPTV-like traffic on residential links

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Packet loss is one of the principal threats to quality of experience for IPTV systems. However, the packet loss characteristics of the residential access networks which carry IPTV are not widely understood. We present packet level measurements of streaming IPTV-like traffic over four residential access links, and describe the extent and nature of packet loss we encountered. We discuss the likely impact of these losses for IPTV traffic, and outline steps which can ameliorate this.

  10. Public Open Access and Private Timber Harvests: Theory and Application to the Effects of Trade Liberalization in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon

    2000-01-01

    A common popular assertion is that trade liberalization encourages deforestation. But whether this is true depends on how trade policies affect the allocation of land among competing uses and how they influence illegal cutting of public forests. A model is presented that allows for forests to be either public or private, and public forests are divided into protected (...

  11. Ethical, Political and Societal Implications of the Open Access Journal Movement in the Era of Economic Crisis, with Emphasis on Public Health Pharmacogenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi

    2013-12-01

    Publication of the research outputs is a vital step of the research processes and a gateway between the laboratory and the global society. Open Access is revolutionizing the dissemination of scientific ideas, particularly in the field of public health pharmacogenomics that examines the ways in which pharmacogenomics impacts health systems and services at a societal level, rather than a narrow bench to bedside model of translation science. This manuscript argues that despite some limitations and drawbacks, open access has profound ethical, political and societal implications especially on underdeveloped and developing countries, and that it provides opportunities for science to grow in these resource-limited countries, particularly in the era of a severe economic and financial crisis that is imposing cuts and restrictions to research.

  12. Study on Constructing the Accessible Architectural Environment of Public Libraries%构建公共图书馆无障碍建筑环境研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单瑞芳

    2011-01-01

    公共图书馆无障碍建筑环境应具备便捷性、安全性、实用性及可持续性。目前,美国、日本及我国台湾地区的公共图书馆无障碍建筑环境已经在政策、理论及实践方面取得了较好的成绩,而我国大陆地区的公共图书馆无障碍建筑环境的实践刚刚起步,仍需要进一步完善和更新。2011年文化部对公共图书馆提出“无障碍、零门槛进入”的要求,公共图书馆应该抓住时代赋予的新机遇,将无障碍建筑环境建设纳入图书馆立法体系,引入“多方参与”的设计理念,注重无障碍设计细节,并加入通用设计理念,以创建公共图书馆无障碍建筑新环境。%The accessible architectural environment of public libraries should have some characteristics of convenience, safety, practicality and sustainability. At present, the accessible architectural environment of public libraries in the United States, Japan and Taiwan have been made great achievements in policy, theory and practice, while the practice of the accessible architectual environment in our country starts just, it needs to be perfected and modified. In 2011, the Ministry of Culture puts forward requirements of "accessible and free service" for public libraries. Public libraries should seize the opportunity and put the establishment of accessible architectural environment into the library legislation system, introduce the design idea of multilateral participation, pay attention to detail designs, and introduce universal design idea, in order to realize the accessible architectural environment of public libraries.

  13. BEING IMMIGRANT AND LIVING IN SPAIN IN A CONTEXT OF INTERNATIONAL CRISIS: CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE EVOLUTION OF IMMIGRATION AND HOUSING PUBLIC POLICIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Pacual López-Carmona

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The access to and the stay in a decent housing are key elements in social inclusion processes. Immigrants are a traditionally vulnerable group to residential exclusion processes and since the beginning of this economic crisis, this vulnerability has greatly increased due to immigrants have been excluded from the labour market. From the approach of the immigrants’ residential trajectories, the current residential situation of immigrants in Spain has been analysed. For that purpose, quantitative techniques and the review of previous studies and legislations have been combined. By the quantitative analysis carried out with data from the official statistical sources, the main problems affecting immigrants in terms of residential exclusion have been analysed. Subsequently, an analysis of the evolution and impact of the public policies aimed at combating the immigrants’ social exclusion in Spain has been carried out. Finally, a diagnosis of the current situation is submitted.

  14. The shrinking world of girls at puberty: violence and gender-divergent access to the public sphere among adolescents in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Kelly K; Kenworthy, Nora J; Diers, Judith; Swan, Nick; Devnarain, Bashi

    2015-01-01

    Participatory mapping was undertaken with single-sex groups of grade 5 and grade 8-9 children in KwaZulu-Natal. Relative to grade 5 students, wide gender divergence in access to the public sphere was found at grade 8-9. With puberty, girls' worlds shrink, while boys' expand. At grade 5, female-defined community areas were equal or larger in size than those of males. Community area mapped by urban grade 8-9 girls, however, was only one-third that of male classmates and two-fifths that of grade 5 girls. Conversely, community area mapped by grade 8-9 boys was twice that of grade 5 boys. Similar differences emerged in the rural site. No female group rated a single community space as more than 'somewhat safe'. Although curtailed spatial access is intended to protect girls, grade 8-9 girls reported most places in their small navigable areas as very unsafe. Expanded geographies of grade 8-9 boys contained a mix of safe and unsafe places. Reducing girls' access to the public sphere does not increase their perceived safety, but may instead limit their access to opportunities for human development. The findings emphasise the need for better violence prevention programming for very young adolescents.

  15. Policies to Spur Energy Access. Executive Summary; Volume 1, Engaging the Private Sector in Expanding Access to Electricity; Volume 2, Case Studies to Public-Private Models to Finance Decentralized Electricity Access

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, Terri [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rai, Neha [International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), London (England); Esterly, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Reber, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Muzammil, Maliha [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom); Mahmood, Tasfiq [International Center for Climate Change and Development, Baridhara (Bangladesh); Kaur, Nanki [International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), London (England); Tesfaye, Lidya [Echnoserve Consulting (Ethiopia); Mamuye, Simret [Echnoserve Consulting (Ethiopia); Knuckles, James [Univ. of London (England). Cass Business School; Morris, Ellen [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); de Been, Merijn [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Steinbach, Dave [International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), London (England); Acharya, Sunil [Digo Bikas Inst. (Nepal); Chhetri, Raju Pandit [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bhushal, Ramesh [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Government policy is one of the most important factors in engaging the private sector in providing universal access to electricity. In particular, the private sector is well positioned to provide decentralized electricity products and services. While policy uncertainty and regulatory barriers can keep enterprises and investors from engaging in the market, targeted policies can create opportunities to leverage private investment and skills to expand electricity access. However, creating a sustainable market requires policies beyond traditional electricity regulation. The report reviews the range of policy issues that impact the development and expansion of a market for decentralized electricity services from establishing an enabling policy environment to catalyzing finance, building human capacity, and integrating energy access with development programs. The case studies in this report show that robust policy frameworks--addressing a wide range of market issues--can lead to rapid transformation in energy access. The report highlights examples of these policies in action Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Mali, Mexico, and Nepal.

  16. What Do They Do at Home? The Literacies of Children Living in Residential Care in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an ethnographic study of the out of school literacy practices of children living in residential care in Malaysia. Although residential homes generate much publicity, especially during the festive seasons, not much is known about the children living within the confines of these homes. Even more lacking is research on their…

  17. Struggles over access to the Muslim public sphere: Multiple publics and discourses on agency, belonging and citizenship (Introduction to the Themed Section)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.L.A. Willemse (Karin); S.I. Bergh (Sylvia)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAbstract This introductory essay provides the context for the articles in this Themed Section. Despite the diversity in locations, historical backgrounds and contemporary processes of change, all contributors to this Themed Section focus on the struggle of Muslim groups over access to

  18. Congestion and residential moving behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Marott; Pilegaard, Ninette; Van Ommeren, Jos

    2008-01-01

    we study how congestion and residential moving behaviour are interrelated, using a two-region job search model. Workers choose between interregional commuting and residential moving, in order to live closer to their place of work. This choice affects the external costs of commuting, due...

  19. Residential fuel quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santa, T. [Santa Fuel, Inc., Bridgeport, CT (United States)

    1997-09-01

    This report details progress made in improving the performance of No. 2 heating oil in residential applications. Previous research in this area is documented in papers published in the Brookhaven Oil Heat Technology Conference Proceedings in 1993, 1994 and 1996. By way of review we have investigated a number of variables in the search for improved fuel system performance. These include the effect of various additives designed to address stability, dispersion, biotics, corrosion and reaction with metals. We have also investigated delivery methods, filtration, piping arrangements and the influence of storage tank size and location. As a result of this work Santa Fuel Inc. in conjunction with Mobile Oil Corporation have identified an additive package which shows strong evidence of dramatically reducing the occurrence of fuel system failures in residential oil burners. In a broad market roll-out of the additized product we have experienced a 29% reduction in fuel related service calls when comparing the 5 months ending January 1997 to the same period ending January 1996.

  20. Residential Mechanical Precooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, Alea [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States). Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI); Hoeschele, Marc [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States). Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI)

    2014-12-01

    Residential air conditioning (AC) represents a challenging load for many electric utilities with poor load factors. Mechanical precooling improves the load factor by shifting cooling operation from on-peak to off-peak hours. This provides benefits to utilities and the electricity grid, as well as to occupants who can take advantage of time-of-use (TOU) electricity rates. Performance benefits stem from reduced compressor cycling, and shifting condensing unit operation to earlier periods of the day when outdoor temperatures are more favorable to operational efficiency. Finding solutions that save energy and reduce demand on the electricity grid is an important national objective and supports key Building America goals. The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team evaluated mechanical AC precooling strategies in homes throughout the United States. EnergyPlus modeling was used to evaluate two homes with different performance characteristics in seven climates. Results are applicable to new construction homes and most existing homes built in the last 10 years, as well as fairly efficient retrofitted homes. A successful off-peak AC strategy offers the potential for increased efficiency and improved occupant comfort, and promotes a more reliable and robust electricity grid. Demand response capabilities and further integration with photovoltaic TOU generation patterns provide additional opportunities to flatten loads and optimize grid impacts.

  1. Controle público e eqüidade no acesso a hospitais sob gestão pública não estatal Public control and equity of access to hospitals under non-State public administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivaldo Carneiro Junior

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar as organizações sociais de saúde à luz do controle público e da garantia da eqüidade no acesso aos serviços de saúde. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se a técnica de estudo de caso e foram selecionadas duas organizações sociais de saúde na região metropolitana de São Paulo. As categorias analíticas foram eqüidade no acesso e controle público, baseando-se em entrevistas com informantes-chave e relatórios técnico-administrativos. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que financiamento global e o controle administrativo das organizações sociais de saúde são atribuições do gestor estadual. A presença do gestor local é importante para a garantia da eqüidade no acesso, sendo que o controle público se expressa por ações fiscalizadoras mediante procedimentos contábil-financeiros. CONCLUSÕES: A eqüidade no acesso e o controle público não são contemplados na gestão dessas organizações. A questão central encontra-se na capacidade do poder público se fazer presente na implementação dessa modalidade no âmbito local, garantido a eqüidade no acesso e contemplando o controle público.OBJECTIVE: To analyze social health organizations in the light of public control and the guarantee of equity of access to health services. METHODS: Utilizing the case study technique, two social health organizations in the metropolitan region of São Paulo were selected. The analytical categories were equity of access and public control, and these were based on interviews with key informants and technical-administrative reports. RESULTS: It was observed that the overall funding and administrative control of the social health organizations are functions of the state administrator. The presence of a local administrator is important for ensuring equity of access. Public control is expressed through supervisory actions, by means of accounting and financial procedures. CONCLUSIONS: Equity of access and public control are not taken into consideration

  2. Parental perceptions of residential location: Impacts on children's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Fiona J

    2010-03-01

    This study explored families' views and experiences of their residential location in relation to their children's health. Thematic analysis of interviews with mothers revealed that decisions to live in an outer Melbourne municipality were strongly influenced by ideals around children however; all spoke of experiencing difficulties in raising children in terms of accessing services, recreation facilities, transport and work. Analysis of these findings using Bronfenbrenner's Social Ecology Model revealed how factors could interact to affect children's health and wellbeing. The study findings highlight the importance of parental perceptions of residential location in understanding the relationship between children's health and place. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Prioritizing Residential Land Value Determinants in Onitsha, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidelis Ifeanyi Emoh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to analyze the various determinants of residential land values and the strength of the different factors contributing to land value variations in Onitsha, Nigeria. The factor analysis and the principal component techniques were applied in the analysis of spatial variations and the relationship between 31 identifiable factors influencing residential land values in Onitsha, Anambra State of Nigeria. By using regression analysis, the 13 main factors shaping land values in Onitsha were established, prioritized and ranked as accessibility, neighborhood quality, land title, zoning regulations, transportation, rent, improvement tax, environmental quality, view of amenities, travel time to the city centre and irrevocable power of attorney.

  4. 图书馆公共文化服务在提升居民幸福感方面的重要作用%The Public Cultural Services of Library Play an Important Role to Promote the Residential Sensation of Happiness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李婷

    2012-01-01

    公共文化服务体系的构建,扩大了政府服务的公益性影响,图书馆在保障居民基本文化权利,实现国民精神满足感,拥有生活“幸福感”方面起到了十分重要的作用。%The construction of the public cultural service system has expanded the public influence of the government services. As one of the important parts of the public cultural service system, libraries play a very important role in protecting residential basic cultural rights and realizing people's spirit of satisfaction and promoting people's sensation of happiness.

  5. Lack of proportionality. Seven specifications of public interest that override post-approval commercial interests on limited access to clinical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strech Daniel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For the protection of commercial interests, licensing bodies such as the EMA and health technology assessment institutions such as NICE restrict full access to unpublished evidence. Their respective policies on data transparency, however, lack a systematic account of (1 what kinds of commercial interests remain relevant after market approval has been granted, (2 what the specific types of public interest are that may override these commercial interests post approval, and, most importantly, (3 what criteria guide the trade-off between public interest and legitimate measures for the protection of commercial interest. Comparing potential commercial interests with seven specifications of relevant public interest reveals the lack of proportionality inherent in the current practices of EMA and NICE.

  6. CAN MARKETING SUPPORT THE IMPLEMENTATION OF EFFECTIVE EGOVERNMENT? ANALYSIS OF THE SINGLE POINT OF ACCESS PORTAL FOR ROMANIAN ELECTRONIC PUBLIC SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velicu Bogdan Calin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The advances in technology hold great potential for helping Romanian government respond to its challenges namely, better service delivery, better procurement, efficient working and better communication with citizens and businesses. While the European Commission develops the main strategies on eGovernment, every member state has the freedom to identify its own necessities and decide according to specific social, administrative and economic context. Designing, cost setting, choosing the best supply channels or communicating with involved actors, are all marketing instruments which, if used accordingly, can ensure modern and efficient public services. This paper presents an analysis of the degree of development of public services available at the www.e-guvernare.ro portal, the single point of access for specific Romanian electronic public services.

  7. The contribution of Australian residential early parenting centres to comprehensive mental health care for mothers of infants: evidence from a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisher Jane RW

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Australia's public access residential early parenting services provide programs to assist parents who self-refer, to care for their infants and young children. Treatment programs target infant feeding and sleeping difficulties and maternal mental health. There is limited systematic evidence of maternal and infant mental health, psychosocial circumstances or presenting problems, or the effectiveness of the programs. The aim of this study was to contribute to the evidence base about residential early parenting services. Methods A prospective cohort design was used. A consecutive sample of mothers with infants under one year old recruited during admission to a public access residential early parenting service for a 4 or 5 night stay in Melbourne, Australia was recruited. They completed structured self-report questionnaires, incorporating standardised measures of infant behaviour and maternal mood, during admission and at one and six months after discharge. Changes in infant behaviour and maternal psychological functioning after discharge were observed. Results 79 women completed the first questionnaire during admission, and 58 provided complete data. Women admitted to the residential program have poor physical and mental health, limited family support, and infants with substantial behaviour difficulties. One month after discharge significant improvements in infant behaviour and maternal psychological functioning were observed (mean (SD daily crying and fussing during admission = 101.02 (100.8 minutes reduced to 37.7 (55.2 at one month post discharge, p Conclusions This psycho-educational approach is an effective and acceptable early intervention for parenting difficulties and maternal mood disturbance, and contributes to a system of comprehensive mental health care for mothers of infants.

  8. GIS-based accessibility analysis- a mixed method approach to determine public primary health care demand in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokgalaka, H

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The spatial realities and dynamics of a changing population with changing health care needs require regular and logical methods to evaluate and assist in primary health care (PHC) planning. Geographical access is an important aspect in the planning...

  9. Keep Those Kids Out: Nativism and Attitudes toward Access to Public Education for the Children of Undocumented Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Theresa; Burson, Karlye

    2017-01-01

    Despite the 1982 "Plyler v. Doe" decision guaranteeing education for undocumented children, access appears to be under threat as some states and localities reconsider existing policy. The basis of these attitudes should be better understood. We are unaware of research that has examined nativist sentiment as a predictor of attitudes…

  10. 78 FR 10110 - Accessibility Guidelines for Pedestrian Facilities in the Public Right-of-Way; Shared Use Paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... the Use of Tactile Paving Surfaces, ``Chapter 5--Segregated Shared Cycle Track/Footway Surface and... on July 26, 2011. See 76 FR 44664 (July 26, 2011). A copy of the proposed accessibility guidelines... for trails and other outdoor developed areas in 2007. See 72 FR 34074 (June 20, 2007). A trail...

  11. GIS-based accessibility analysis: An approach to determine public primary health care demand in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokgalaka, H

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The spatial realities and dynamics of a changing population with changing health care needs require regular and logical methods to evaluate and assist in primary health care (PHC) planning. Geographical access is an important aspect in the planning...

  12. 78 FR 951 - Accessible Medical Device Labeling in a Standard Content and Format Public Workshop; Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ... caregivers, and patients themselves. As more medical devices migrate out of clinical care environments and... Labeling 1. Review the outline for a draft standard content and format of medical device labeling. 2... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Accessible Medical Device Labeling in a Standard Content...

  13. MetIDB: A Publicly Accessible Database of Predicted and Experimental 1H NMR Spectra of Flavonoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihaleva, V.V.; Beek, te T.A.; Zimmeren, van F.; Moco, S.I.A.; Laatikainen, R.; Niemitz, M.; Korhonen, S.P.; Driel, van M.A.; Vervoort, J.

    2013-01-01

    Identification of natural compounds, especially secondary metabolites, has been hampered by the lack of easy to use and accessible reference databases. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is the most selective technique for identification of unknown metabolites. High quality 1H NMR (proton

  14. Mass surveillance, privacy, and freedom : A case for public access to information about mass government surveillance programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newell, Bryce; Moore, Adam D.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines judicial decisions about the legality of mass surveillance in the United States and Europe (at the European Court of Human Rights), and explores how the existence of these programs threatens individual freedom. In doing so, the chapter presents a theory of information access an

  15. Keep Those Kids Out: Nativism and Attitudes toward Access to Public Education for the Children of Undocumented Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Theresa; Burson, Karlye

    2017-01-01

    Despite the 1982 "Plyler v. Doe" decision guaranteeing education for undocumented children, access appears to be under threat as some states and localities reconsider existing policy. The basis of these attitudes should be better understood. We are unaware of research that has examined nativist sentiment as a predictor of attitudes…

  16. A multi-modal network approach to model public transport accessibility impacts of bicycle-train integration policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurs, Karst Teunis; La Paix Puello, Lissy Cesarina; van Weperen, Sander

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In the Netherlands, the bicycle plays an important in station access and, to a lesser extent, in station egress. There is however fairly little knowledge in the potential effects of bicycle-train integration policies. The aim of this paper is to examine the impacts of bicycle-train

  17. 78 FR 6825 - Accessible Medical Device Labeling in a Standard Content and Format Public Workshop; Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... Administration (FDA) is correcting a document that appeared in the Federal Register of January 7, 2013 (78 FR 951... Federal Register of January 7, 2013, in FR Doc. 951-953, on page 952, the following correction is made... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Accessible Medical Device Labeling in a Standard Content...

  18. Residential Energy Performance Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Wright

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Techniques for residential energy monitoring are an emerging field that is currently drawing significant attention. This paper is a description of the current efforts to monitor and compare the performance of three solar powered homes built at Missouri University of Science and Technology. The homes are outfitted with an array of sensors and a data logger system to measure and record electricity production, system energy use, internal home temperature and humidity, hot water production, and exterior ambient conditions the houses are experiencing. Data is being collected to measure the performance of the houses, compare to energy modeling programs, design and develop cost effective sensor systems for energy monitoring, and produce a cost effective home control system.

  19. The Importance of California Public Libraries in Increasing Public Access to the Internet: Findings from the InFoPeople Site Visits. Stage II Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertot, John Carlo; McClure, Charles R.; Ryan, Joe

    In less than five years, the California State Library-sponsored InFoPeople project connected 46% of California's public libraries to the Internet and established a highly regarded, sustained training program to assist librarians in taking advantage of the new networked resources and services. The primary objective of this Stage II report was to…

  20. Comparison of open access publication environments in domestic and foreign academic journals%国内外学术期刊开放存取出版环境比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王颖; 王天津; 黄思敏; 刘娜; 杨春华

    2016-01-01

    After the characteristics and significance of domestic and foreign open access publication were analyzed, the open access publication environments in domestic and foreign academic journals were compared in aspects of open access policy, scientific research management evaluation system and awareness of open access publication in persons engaged in scientific research, journal management system and journal management model, open access publication journals and open access publication papers in order to know the advantages of open access publication and the difficulties it is faced.Certain suggestions were proposed for its future development.%分析了国内外开放存取出版的特征及意义,从开放存取政策、科研管理评价体制和科研人员的认识、期刊管理体制与经营模式、开放出版期刊及论文传播途径等6个方面对国内外学术期刊开放存取出版环境进行了对比,以了解我国学术期刊实现开放存取出版的优势和面临的困难,并提出其未来发展的措施.

  1. Multi-channel Dual Clocks three-dimensional probability Random Multiple Access protocol for Wireless Public Bus Networks based on RTS/CTS mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Sheng Jie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A MAC protocol for public bus networks, called Bus MAC protocol, designed to provide high quality Internet service for bus passengers. The paper proposed a multi-channel dual clocks three-demission probability random multiple access protocol based on RTS/CTS mechanism, decreasing collisions caused by multiple access from multiple passengers. Use the RTS/CTS mechanism increases the reliability and stability of the system, reducing the collision possibility of the information packets to a certain extent, improves the channel utilization; use the multi-channel mechanism, not only enables the channel load balancing, but also solves the problem of the hidden terminal and exposed terminal. Use the dual clocks mechanism, reducing the system idle time. At last, the different selection of the three-dimensional probabilities can make the system throughput adapt to the network load which could realize the maximum of the system throughput.

  2. Increasing Public Access to Scientific Research through Stakeholder Involvement: Ecological Effects of Sea Level Rise in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, S. C.; Stephens, S. H.; DeLorme, D. E.; Ruple, D.; Graham, L.

    2013-12-01

    Sea level rise (SLR) has the potential to have a myriad of deleterious effects on coastal ecology and human infrastructure. Stakeholders, including managers of coastal resources, must be aware of potential consequences of SLR and adjust their plans accordingly to protect and preserve the resources under their care. Members of the public, particularly those who live or work in coastal areas, should also be informed about the results of scientific research on the effects of SLR. However, research results are frequently published in venues or formats to which resource managers and the broader public have limited access. It is imperative for scientists to move beyond traditional publication venues in order to more effectively disseminate the results of their research (Dennison, W. 2007, Estu. Coast. Shelf Sci. 77, 185). One potentially effective way to advance public access to research is to incorporate stakeholder involvement into the research project process in order to target study objectives and tailor communication products toward stakeholder needs (Lemos, M. & Morehouse, B. 2005, Glob. Env. Chg. 15, 57). However, it is important to manage communication and clarify participant expectations during this type of research (Gawith, M. et al. 2009, Glob. Env. Chg. 19, 113). This presentation describes the process being undertaken by an ongoing 5-year multi-disciplinary NOAA-funded project, Ecological Effects of Sea Level Rise in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (EESLR-NGOM), to improve accessibility and utility of scientific research results through stakeholder engagement. The EESLR-NGOM project is assessing the ecological risks from SLR along the Mississippi, Alabama and Florida Panhandle coasts, coastal habitats, and floodplains. It has incorporated stakeholder involvement throughout the research process so as to better target and tailor the emerging research products to meet resource managers' needs, as well as to facilitate eventual public dissemination of results. An

  3. European digital archive on soil maps (EuDASM): preserving important soil data for public free access

    OpenAIRE

    PANAGOS Panagiotis; Jones, Arwyn; BOSCO CLAUDIO; Kumar, S

    2011-01-01

    Historical soil survey paper maps are valuable resources that underpin strategies to support soil protection and promote sustainable land use practices, especially in developing countries where digital soil information is often missing. However, many of the soil maps, in particular those for developing countries, are held in traditional archives that are not easily accessible to potential users. Additionally, many of these documents are over 50 years old and are beginning to deteriorate. R...

  4. Internet sites of public utilities. Customers wish for interactive access; Die Internetauftritte der Versorger. Kunden wuenschen interaktive Anbindung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knechtel, Karsten [Process Management Consulting GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Electric and gas utilities all have internet sites for private customers. Many of them provide interactive access to all relevant services for both regular and interested new customers. To the end users, innovative aspects of energy supply in the deregulated market are currently of increasing interest. A recent industry barometer shows the extent to which utilities have installed interactive integration of both their current and prospective private customers in their business processes. Especially multimedia criteria are gaining increasing importance. (orig.)

  5. Effect of a Publicly Accessible Disclosure System on Food Safety Inspection Scores in Retail and Food Service Establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jihee; Scharff, Robert L

    2017-07-01

    The increased frequency with which people are dining out coupled with an increase in the publicity of foodborne disease outbreaks has led the public to an increased awareness of food safety issues associated with food service establishments. To accommodate consumer needs, local health departments have increasingly publicized food establishments' health inspection scores. The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of the color-coded inspection score disclosure system in place since 2006 in Columbus, OH, by controlling for several confounding factors. This study incorporated cross-sectional time series data from food safety inspections performed from the Columbus Public Health Department. An ordinary least squares regression was used to assess the effect of the new inspection regime. The introduction of the new color-coded food safety inspection disclosure system increased inspection scores for all types of establishments and for most types of inspections, although significant differences were found in the degree of improvement. Overall, scores increased significantly by 1.14 points (of 100 possible). An exception to the positive results was found for inspections in response to foodborne disease complaints. Scores for these inspections declined significantly by 10.2 points. These results should be useful for both food safety researchers and public health decision makers.

  6. Requirements Elicitation of Passengers With Reduced Mobility for the Design of High Quality, Accessible and Inclusive Public Transport Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starzyńska Beata

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article the authors present the methodology adopted and the results obtained in the first stage of the research encompassing focus group interviews (FGI about the needs of public transport users in a selected city (Poznań. The elicitation and assessment of the requirements were carried out for three groups of people with disabilities using public transport in the city of Poznań: blind and partially sighted people, deaf and hearing-impaired people, as well as people with locomotor dysfunctions. A study carried out on the basis of a scenario especially designed for the FGI purpose has made it possible to identify barriers for people with disabilities and, consequently, to formulate their pre-trip,on-trip and post-trip requirements when it comes to urban public transport services. The results will be used to construct a questionnaire to be used further on in the project.

  7. Review of Residential Ventilation Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armin Rudd

    2005-08-30

    This paper reviews current and potential ventilation technologies for residential buildings, including a variety of mechanical systems, natural ventilation, and passive ventilation. with particular emphasis on North American climates and construction.

  8. ENERGY STAR Certified Residential Dishwashers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 6.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Residential Dishwashers that are effective as of...

  9. Improving Flexibility and Accessibility of Higher Education with Web 2.0 Technologies: Needs Analysis of Public Health Education Programs in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sarieva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The case study presented in this paper aims to address the issues related to the use of Web 2.0 technology in public health education in a particular college in Bulgaria in relation to providing flexible and accessible education consistent with the current trends in public health practices. The outcomes of the case study suggest that systematic steps are needed in order to assure effective inclusion of technology into the learning process; these steps include the completion of systematic studies of attrition rate and the reasons for student drop-out, training of administration and faculty members in effective incorporation of Web 2.0 technologies, introduction and promotion of Medicine 2.0 practices, and initiating the planning of design and development of Web 2.0 learning applications and environments in Bulgarian which is the language of instruction.

  10. Searching for economic rationale behind gated communities: a public choice approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cséfalvay, Zoltán

    2011-01-01

    As millions of people world-wide now live in residential areas with restricted access to the public, the ascent of gated communities can no longer be attributed to incidental or deviant development. Hence this paper makes an attempt to discover the economic rationale behind the gated community phenomenon; it discusses the mainstream theses and outlines 10 theorems for an alternative proposition based on theories of public choice and fiscal federalism. The core theorem asserts that a centrally featured system of government diminishes the ability of local municipalities properly to reflect citizens' demands for local public goods and services, and that this constitutes a strong incentive for people to move into gated communities. In particular, gated and guarded residential developments represent an exit option when local municipalities fail to deploy vital governmental rules and instruments, such as fiscal equivalence and benefit taxation.

  11. RESIDENTIAL BUILDING DESIGN CONSIDERING THE BRAZILIAN PERFORMANCE STANDARD: ANALYSES TO WALL PARTITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Alves Oliveira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In many countries, the design begins by the performance definition of the building parts. The data are then used as a reference to select the viable construction technologies. In Brazil, this practice is still uncommon, mostly in residential projects, because, first, it is defined the architectural characteristics, technological solutions and cost for after consider the technical performance requirements. However, this scenario tends to change due to the publication of the Brazilian performance standard ABNT NBR 15575 (2008 that establishes requirements and quantitative parameters to the five main residential building subsystems (structure, floors, wall partition, envelope and covering, and hydraulic installations, besides to the general requirements for all building. The current version contains requirements for structural performance, fire safety, watertightness, thermal and acoustic performances, functionality, accessibility, environmental impact, durability and maintenance. This standard also considers the concepts of Service Life, Design Life and guaranties periods. The aim of this paper is to present some considerations which must be included to the design process of wall partition for the accomplishment of the performance requirements of ABNT NBR 15575-4 (2008. The considerations are designed to wall partitions, but they can be used as an example to the others building subsystems. This paper was developed based on the bibliographical research and on four case studies, which illustrate how the design process of the wall partition needs to change and what needs to be worked on in order to attend the performance concept and requirements of NBR 15575 (2008.

  12. The Effect of Child Health Insurance Access on Schooling: Evidence from Public Insurance Expansions. NBER Working Paper No. 20178

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohodes, Sarah; Kleiner, Samuel; Lovenheim, Michael F.; Grossman, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Public health insurance programs comprise a large share of federal and state government expenditure, and these programs are due to be expanded as part of the 2010 Affordable Care Act. Despite a large literature on the effects of these programs on health care utilization and health outcomes, little prior work has examined the long-term effects of…

  13. The Effect of Child Health Insurance Access on Schooling: Evidence from Public Insurance Expansions. NBER Working Paper No. 20178

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohodes, Sarah; Kleiner, Samuel; Lovenheim, Michael F.; Grossman, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Public health insurance programs comprise a large share of federal and state government expenditure, and these programs are due to be expanded as part of the 2010 Affordable Care Act. Despite a large literature on the effects of these programs on health care utilization and health outcomes, little prior work has examined the long-term effects of…

  14. Validating the accuracy of GIS-based accessibility analysis in determining public primary health care demand in Metropolitan areas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokgalaka, H

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available dual system made up of private and public health care facilities. Private PHC is expensive and only affordable to affluent citizens or people with medical insurance, and does not form a part of this study. Two challenges regarding GIS...

  15. Middle School Math Acceleration and Equitable Access to Eighth-Grade Algebra: Evidence from the Wake County Public School System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Shaun M.; Goodman, Joshua S.; Hill, Darryl V.; Litke, Erica G.; Page, Lindsay C.

    2015-01-01

    Taking algebra by eighth grade is considered an important milestone on the pathway to college readiness. We highlight a collaboration to investigate one district's effort to increase middle school algebra course-taking. In 2010, the Wake County Public Schools began assigning middle school students to accelerated math and eighth-grade algebra based…

  16. Middle School Math Acceleration and Equitable Access to Eighth-Grade Algebra: Evidence from the Wake County Public School System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Shaun M.; Goodman, Joshua S.; Hill, Darryl V.; Litke, Erica G.; Page, Lindsay C.

    2015-01-01

    Taking algebra by eighth grade is considered an important milestone on the pathway to college readiness. We highlight a collaboration to investigate one district's effort to increase middle school algebra course-taking. In 2010, the Wake County Public Schools began assigning middle school students to accelerated math and eighth-grade algebra based…

  17. 78 FR 17934 - Accessible Medical Device Labeling in a Standard Content and Format Public Workshop; Extension of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    ... January 7, 2013 (78 FR 951). In the notice, FDA requested comments on the public workshop entitled... INFORMATION: I. Background In the Federal Register of January 7, 2013 (78 FR 951), FDA published a notice of..., including topics outlined in section II of that document (78 FR 951 at 952). The agency has received...

  18. Digitisation and public accessibility of old Polish guides on self-treatment and quality-of-life improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Nowak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This letter to the Editor can prove useful as a mini-guide. Interest in health and quality of life is continuing to grow in the second decade of the 21st century, both among professionals actively involved in giving advice to others and among diverse social groups, as well as individually, among those sick and those healthy. Along with recent novelties, traditional Old Polish methods also feature prominently in discussions, but those interested know relatively little about how to access source materials. This letter therefore describes the possibilities for open access to Polish-language health guides from the Renaissance and Baroque era, whose authors included medical doctors and which focused on describing food and herbs used in self-treatment and promoting the healthy life style of the period. The works of Andrzej from Kobylin, Zawacki, Śleszkowski, Olszowski and Haur are briefly described and information is given about their availability in full-text on-line data bases.

  19. OGIS Access System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — The OGIS Access System (OAS) provides case management, stakeholder collaboration, and public communications activities including a web presence via a web portal.

  20. Solar Energy Systems for Ohioan Residential Homeowners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckett, Rickey D.

    Dwindling nonrenewable energy resources and rising energy costs have forced the United States to develop alternative renewable energy sources. The United States' solar energy industry has seen an upsurge in recent years, and photovoltaic holds considerable promise as a renewable energy technology. The purpose of this case study was to explore homeowner's awareness of the benefits of solar energy. Disruptive-innovation theory was used to explore marketing strategies for conveying information to homeowners about access to new solar energy products and services. Twenty residential homeowners were interviewed face-to-face to explore (a) perceived benefits of solar energy in their county in Ohio, and (b) perceptions on the rationale behind the marketing strategy of solar energy systems sold for residential use. The study findings used inductive analyses and coding interpretation to explore the participants' responses that revealed 3 themes: the existence of environmental benefits for using solar energy systems, the expensive cost of equipment associated with government incentives, and the lack of marketing information that is available for consumer use. The implications for positive social change include the potential to enable corporate leaders, small business owners, and entrepreneurs to develop marketing strategies for renewable energy systems. These strategies may promote use of solar energy systems as a clean, renewable, and affordable alternative electricity energy source for the 21st century.

  1. Limited access to HIV prevention in French prisons (ANRS PRI2DE: implications for public health and drug policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanche Jerôme

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overpopulation, poor hygiene and disease prevention conditions in prisons are major structural determinants of increased infectious risk within prison settings but evidence-based national and WHO guidelines provide clear indications on how to reduce this risk. We sought to estimate the level of infectious risk by measuring how French prisons adhere to national and WHO guidelines. Methods A nationwide survey targeting the heads of medical (all French prisons and psychiatric (26 French prisons units was conducted using a postal questionnaire and a phone interview mainly focusing on access to prevention interventions, i.e. bleach, opioid substitution treatment (OST, HBV vaccination and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP for French prisoners. Two scores were built reflecting adherence to national and WHO international guidelines, ranging from 0 (no adherence to 10 (maximum adherence and 0 to 9 respectively. Results A majority (N = 113 (66% of the 171 prisons answered the questionnaires, representing 74% coverage (46,786 prisoners of the French prison population: 108 were medical units and 12 were psychiatric units. Inmate access to prevention was poor. The median[IQR] score measuring adherence to national guidelines was quite low (4.5[2.5; 5.5] but adherence to WHO guidelines was even lower 2.5[1.5; 3.5]; PEP was absent despite reported risky practices. Unsuitable OST delivery practices were frequently observed. Conclusions A wide gap exists between HIV prevention policies and their application in prisons. Similar assessments in other countries may be needed to guide a global policy reform in prison settings. Adequate funding together with innovative interventions able to remove structural and ideological barriers to HIV prevention are now needed to motivate those in charge of prison health, to improve their working environment and to relieve French prisoners from their currently debilitating conditions.

  2. A national analysis of dental waiting lists and point-in-time geographic access to subsidised dental care: can geographic access be improved by offering public dental care through private dental clinics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudko, Yevgeni; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Australia is one of the least densely populated countries in the world, with a population concentrated on or around coastal areas. Up to 33% of the Australian population are likely to have untreated dental decay, while people with inadequate dentition (fewer than 21 teeth) account for up to 34% of Australian adults. Historically, inadequate access to public dental care has resulted in long waiting lists, received much media coverage and been the subject of a new federal and state initiative. The objective of this research was to gauge the potential for reducing the national dental waiting list through geographical advantage, which could arise from subcontracting the delivery of subsidised dental care to the existing network of private dental clinics across Australia. Eligible population data were collected from the Australian Bureau of Statistics website. Waiting list data from across Australia were collected from publicly available sources and confirmed through direct communication with each individual state or territory dental health body. Quantum geographic information system software was used to map distribution of the eligible population across Australia by statistical area, and to plot locations of government and private dental clinics. Catchment areas of 5 km for metropolitan clinics and 5 km and 50 km for rural clinics were defined. The number of people on the waiting list and those eligible for subsidised dental care covered by each of the catchment areas was calculated. Percentage of the eligible population and those on the waiting list that could benefit from the potential improvement in geographic access was ascertained for metropolitan and rural residents. Fifty three percent of people on the waiting list resided within metropolitan areas. Rural and remote residents made up 47% of the population waiting to receive care. The utilisation of both government and private dental clinics for the delivery of subsidised dental care to the eligible population

  3. Generation and analysis of a 29,745 unique Expressed Sequence Tags from the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas assembled into a publicly accessible database: the GigasDatabase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klopp Christophe

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although bivalves are among the most-studied marine organisms because of their ecological role and economic importance, very little information is available on the genome sequences of oyster species. This report documents three large-scale cDNA sequencing projects for the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas initiated to provide a large number of expressed sequence tags that were subsequently compiled in a publicly accessible database. This resource allowed for the identification of a large number of transcripts and provides valuable information for ongoing investigations of tissue-specific and stimulus-dependant gene expression patterns. These data are crucial for constructing comprehensive DNA microarrays, identifying single nucleotide polymorphisms and microsatellites in coding regions, and for identifying genes when the entire genome sequence of C. gigas becomes available. Description In the present paper, we report the production of 40,845 high-quality ESTs that identify 29,745 unique transcribed sequences consisting of 7,940 contigs and 21,805 singletons. All of these new sequences, together with existing public sequence data, have been compiled into a publicly-available Website http://public-contigbrowser.sigenae.org:9090/Crassostrea_gigas/index.html. Approximately 43% of the unique ESTs had significant matches against the SwissProt database and 27% were annotated using Gene Ontology terms. In addition, we identified a total of 208 in silico microsatellites from the ESTs, with 173 having sufficient flanking sequence for primer design. We also identified a total of 7,530 putative in silico, single-nucleotide polymorphisms using existing and newly-generated EST resources for the Pacific oyster. Conclusion A publicly-available database has been populated with 29,745 unique sequences for the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. The database provides many tools to search cleaned and assembled ESTs. The user may input and submit

  4. Forecasting the Spread of Mosquito-Borne Disease using Publicly Accessible Data: A Case Study in Chikungunya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Kathryn M.; Bastola, Dhundy R.; Gandhi, Robin; Ghersi, Dario; Hinrichs, Steven; Morien, Marsha; Fruhling, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases account for multiple public health challenges in our modern world. The international health community has seen a number of mosquito-borne diseases come to the forefront in recent years, including West Nile virus, Chikungunya virus, and currently, Zika virus. Predicting the spread of mosquito-borne disease can aid early decision support for when and how to employ public health interventions within a community; however, accurate and fast predictions, months into the future, are difficult to achieve in urgent scenarios, particularly when little information is known about infection rates. New sources of information including social media have been proposed to accelerate the development of predictive models of disease progression. In this research, we adapted a previously described model for the spread of mosquito-borne disease using open intelligence sources. The novel implementation of a mixed-model for mosquito-borne disease was capable of being executed in minimal runtime. The results indicate that this model yields fast and relevant results with acceptable margins of error. PMID:28269838

  5. 公共图书馆政府信息获取调查分析%The Analysis of Public Library Readers’ Access of Government Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐毅; 陈娇; 周娜

    2014-01-01

    This paper takes Hunan Provincial Public Library services about government information to readers as the object of the research. We know the status of readers access to government information in the public libraries by the way of questionnaires, aim to analyze the role of libraries in the government information disclosure, and explore the new methods of how the Public Library to improve efficiency of reader’s service.%文章以湖南省公共图书馆对读者的政府信息服务为研究对象,通过问卷调查的方式,了解读者在公共图书馆获取政府信息的现状,从而分析出图书馆在政务信息公开中的作用,进一步探索公共图书馆提高读者服务效率的新方法。

  6. Analysis of Open Access Landscape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Helen Doyle; Andy Gass; Debra Lappin; Rebecca Kennison

    2005-01-01

    This paper is created by bounding 5 editorials of Public Library of Science (PLoS ) which have written on various aspects of open access. It covers wide range topics of important open access issues, such as from paying for open access to copyright to open access as a public issue, which may be more or less of interest of our audience.

  7. Computer support system for residential environment evaluation for citizen participation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Jian; TEKNOMO Kardi; LU Jiang; HOKAO Kazunori

    2005-01-01

    Though the method of citizen participation in urban planning is quite well established, for a specific segment of residential environment, however, existing participation system has not coped adequately with the issue. The specific residential environment has detailed aspects that need positive and high level involvement of the citizens in participating in all stages and every field of the plan. One of the best and systematic methods to obtain a more involved citizen is through a citizen workshop. To get a more "educated" citizen who participates in the workshop, a special session to inform the citizen on what was previously gathered through a survey was revealed to be prerequisite before the workshop. The computer support system is one of the best tools for this purpose. This paper describes the development of the computer support system for residential environment evaluation system, which is an essential tool to give more information to the citizens before their participation in public workshop. The significant contribution of this paper is the educational system framework involved in the workshop on the public participation system through computer support, especially for residential environment. The framework, development and application of the computer support system are described. The application of a workshop on the computer support system was commented on as very valuable and helpful by the audience as it resulted in greater benefit to have wider range of participation, and deeper level of citizen understanding.

  8. Research and adaptation for public access to the protohistoric sanctuary of Cancho Roano (Zalamea de la Serena, Badajoz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celestino Pérez, Sebastián

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years work has been done on the protohistoric sanctuary of Cancho Roano in preparation for its opening to the public in the coming months. All these activities have been large financed by two different projects sponsored by European income, and public funds and private enterprise, without forgetting scientific research goals. In this way, archaeological excavations have been finished both inside the buildings of the complex and on the outside structures; a new covering was erected last year to protect the archaeological remains; although restoration activities and the restitution of a few structures were finished a year ago. On the other hand, some adjoining private properties have been acquired by public institutions while the enclosure of the site was already finished; and finally an Interpretation Centre has been built to explain the complex to visitors. The sanctuary has been the start of research on many other sites in surrounding areas and has created a regional infrastructure aimed at stimulating cultural tourism.

    En los últimos años se están llevando a cabo una serie de intervenciones en el santuario protohistórico de Cancho Roano que desembocarán en los próximos meses en su definitiva apertura al público. Todos estos trabajos se han elaborado bajo sendos proyectos financiados con fondos europeos, por las administraciones públicas y por la iniciativa privada, pero sin que se haya abandonado en ningún momento el objetivo científico: así, se han realizado las excavaciones de los edificios inferiores y de las estructuras arquitectónicas del exterior, se ha levantado una nueva cubierta para proteger las nuevas zonas exhumadas, se han acometido obras de restauración, consolidación y restitución de las estructuras arquitectónicas, se ha llevado a cabo la compra de terrenos y la realización de un nuevo cierre del espacio protegido y, por último, se están finalizando las obras de un Centro de Interpretaci

  9. Part-sales as an investment strategy : Analysis of part-selling of residential units in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hordijk, A.C.; Janssen, J.E.; Teuben, B.

    2006-01-01

    The ROZ/IPD Property index was established in 1994 to publicize an independent index on directly held real estate in the Netherlands. The real estate universe is split into the sectors: retail, offices, industrial, residential and mixed use/other. The residential sector consists of almost 50 % of th

  10. Residual residential space as commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Rabinowitz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Research on common pool resources (CPR, which began with a focus on rural communities and their defining agricultural practices, shifted recently also to the urban context, looking at community gardens, city parks and other recreational facilities. This article extends the use of CPR theory to residential complexes. Courtyards, lawns, lobbies, cellars, stairwells and other parts that fall outside individual apartments are aggregated as a new sub-set of CPR, defined herewith as Residual Residential Space (RRS. Based on findings from three main types of RRS in Israel, the article evaluates some of the mechanisms designed to regulate such space. In line with earlier work on CPR, the article suggests that legal instruments, important as they are for general guidance, do not suffice. To be effective they need to echo popular framings of Residual Residential Space, to be congruent with local sensibilities regarding micro-history, and to concur with expectations stake-holders might have from their own community.

  11. The IRIS Education and Outreach Program: Providing access to data and equipment for educational and public use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, J.; Toigo, M.; Bravo, T. K.; Hubenthal, M.; McQuillan, P. J.; Welti, R.

    2009-12-01

    The IRIS Education and Outreach Program has been an integral part of IRIS for the past 10 years and during that time has worked to advance awareness and understanding of seismology and earth science while inspiring careers in geophysics. The focus on seismology and the use of seismic data has allowed the IRIS E&O program to develop and disseminate a unique suite of products and services for a wide range of audiences. One result of that effort has been increased access to the IRIS Data Management System by non-specialist audiences and simplified use of location and waveform data. The Seismic Monitor was one of the first Web-based tools for observing near-real-time seismicity. It continues to be the most popular IRIS web page, and thus it presents aspects of seismology to a very wide audience. For individuals interested in more detailed ground motion information, waveforms can be easily viewed using the Rapid Earthquake Viewer, developed by the University of South Carolina in collaboration with IRIS E&O. The Seismographs in Schools program gives schools the opportunity to apply for a low-cost educational seismograph and to receive training for its use in the classroom. To provide better service to the community, a new Seismographs in Schools website was developed in the past year with enhanced functions to help teachers improve their teaching of seismology. The site encourages schools to make use of seismic data and communicate with other educational seismology users throughout the world. Users can view near-real-time displays of other participating schools, upload and download data, and use the “find a teacher” tool to contact nearby schools that also may be operating seismographs. In order to promote and maintain program participation and communication, the site features a discussion forum to encourage and support the growing global community of educational seismograph users. Any data that is submitted to the Seismographs in Schools Website is also accessible

  12. Housing tenure, residential moves and children's educational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Housing tenure, residential moves and children's educational performance in Accra, Ghana. ... Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) ... a positive home ownership effect and a negative residential moves effect remain with significant ...

  13. The network on the other side of the net: a multietnographic study on the public spaces with paid access to the Internet in Novo Hamburgo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Marcelo Miranda

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the interaction and new social habits in public spaces with paid access to the Internet downtown in Novo Hamburgo. For this, raises the multiethnograpy, a method that combines ethnography, photoethnography, and net(with wi-fi, cybercafés, and lan houses are observed, reported and discussed some of the characteristics of those places, which can be viewed as aggregations to cyberspace. Concrete examples are shown from photographs on the places, and urban notes describing the reality of online and off line spaces that serve as the link between physicaland virtual. They are places where contemporary sociability happen, emerging from new forms of socialization, new lifestyles and new forms of social organization.

  14. Open Access Centre at the Nature Research Centre: a facility for enhancement of scientific research, education and public outreach in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šerpenskienė, Silvija; Skridlaitė, Gražina

    2014-05-01

    Open Access Centre (OAC) was established in Vilnius, Lithuania in 2013 as a subdivision of the Nature Research Centre (NRC) operating on the principle of open access for both internal and external users. The OAC consists of 15 units, i.e. 15 NRC laboratories or their branches. Forty four sets of research equipment were purchased. The OAC cooperates with Lithuanian science and studies institutions, business sector and other governmental and public institutions. Investigations can be carried in the Geosciences, Biotaxonomy, Ecology and Molecular Research, and Ecotoxicology fields. Environmental radioactivity, radioecology, nuclear geophysics, microscopic and chemical composition of natural compounds (minerals, rocks etc.), paleomagnetic, magnetic and environmental investigations, as well as ground and water contamination by oil products and other organic environment polluting compounds, identification of fossils, rocks and minerals can be studied in the Georesearch field. Ecosystems and identification of plants, animals and microorganisms are main subjects of the Biotaxonomy, Ecology and Molecular Research field. The Ecotoxicologal Research deals with toxic and genotoxic effects of toxic substances and other sources of pollution on macro- and microorganisms and cell cultures. Open access is guaranteed by: (1) providing scientific research and experimental development services; (2) implementing joint business and science projects; (3) using facilities for the training of specialists of the highest qualifications; (4) providing properly qualified and technically trained users with opportunities to carry out their scientific research and/or experiments in the OAC laboratories by themselves. Services provided in the Open Access Centre can be received by both internal and external users: persons undertaking innovative economic activities, students of other educational institutions, interns, external teams of researchers engaged in scientific research activities, teachers

  15. Performance-based potential for residential energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Performance-based potential for residential energy efficiency

    2013-01-15

    Energy performance contracts (EPCs) have proven an effective mechanism for increasing energy efficiency in nearly all sectors of the economy since their introduction nearly 30 years ago. In the modern form, activities undertaken as part of an EPC are scoped and implemented by experts with specialized technical knowledge, financed by commercial lenders, and enable a facility owner to limit risk and investment of time and resources while receiving the rewards of improved energy performance. This report provides a review of the experiences of the US with EPCs and discusses the possibilities for the residential sector to utilize EPCs. Notably absent from the EPC market is the residential segment. Historically, research has shown that the residential sector varies in several key ways from markets segments where EPCs have proven successful, including: high degree of heterogeneity of energy use characteristics among and within households, comparatively small quantity of energy consumed per residence, limited access to information about energy consumption and savings potential, and market inefficiencies that constrain the value of efficiency measures. However, the combination of recent technological advances in automated metering infrastructure, flexible financing options, and the expansion of competitive wholesale electricity markets to include energy efficiency as a biddable supply-side resource present an opportunity for EPC-like efforts to successfully engage the residential sector, albeit following a different model than has been used in EPCs traditionally.(Author)

  16. THE ROLE OF THE LOCAL PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION, IN ACCESSING EUROPEAN FUNDS. CASE STUDY, CĂLĂRAŞI COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Stefan DRĂGULIN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The major significance of the actual financing context is that, through the community budget, the rural communities can receive money in order to support development strategies, the financing under programs specific to the rural sector can be correlated to the financing programs by regional policy, environment policy, enterprise policy, education sector policy, etc. But, in order to benefit efficiently by the community interventions system, the major problem for the Romanian rural communities is related to: the identification of the different funding opportunities;the elaboration of a project portfolio adequate for the won development options; finding co-financing sources.Taking into consideration the complexity of such an approach and considering the particular situation of the Romanian rural sector it results that the key role in the rural development and use of the opportunities provided by the European context belongs to the public administration. The good information and information dissemination at the community level, possibly with best practice examples from other EU counties can have an essential role in attracting funds and projects that improve the effectiveness of the development strategies.

  17. False security or greater social inclusion? Exploring perceptions of CCTV use in public and private spaces accessed by the homeless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huey, Laura

    2010-03-01

    It has been well documented that owing to the vulnerability inherent in their situation and status, the homeless experience high rates of harassment and criminal victimization. And yet, the question of whether CCTV surveillance of public and private spaces - so frequently viewed by the middle classes as a positive source of potential security - might also be viewed by the homeless in similar ways. Within the present paper, I address this issue by considering the possibility that CCTV might be seen by some homeless men and women as offering: a) a measure of enhanced security for those living in the streets and in shelters, and; b) to the extent that security is conceived of as a social good, the receipt of which marks one as a citizen of the state, a means by which they can be reconstituted as something more than 'lesser citizens'. To test these ideas, I rely on data from interviews conducted with homeless service users, service providers for the homeless, and police personnel in three cities. What is revealed is a mixed set of beliefs as to the relative security and meaning of CCTV.

  18. Policy Transparency and College Enrollment: Did the Texas Top 10% Law Broaden Access to the Public Flagships?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Mark C; Saenz, Victor B; Tienda, Marta

    2010-01-01

    By guaranteeing college admission to all students who graduate in the top 10% of their high school class, H.B. 588 replaced an opaque de facto practice of admitting nearly all top 10% graduates with a transparent de jure policy that required public institutions to admit all applicants eligible for the guarantee. The transparency of the new admission regime sent a clear message to students attending high schools that previously sent few students to the University of Texas at Austin and Texas A&M University. Using 18 years of administrative data to examine sending patterns, we find a sizeable decrease in the concentration of flagship enrollees originating from select feeder schools and growing shares of enrollees originating from high schools located in rural areas, small towns, and midsize cities, as well as schools with concentrations of poor and minority students. We also find substantial year-to-year persistence in sending behavior once a campus becomes a sending school, and this persistence increased after the top-10% policy was implemented.

  19. The Impact of the Dual System of Residential Land Supply on the Development of Public Rental Housing%住房用地二元体制对公共租赁房产业化发展的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程大涛

    2011-01-01

    研究目的:研究出让与划拨两种不同性质住房用地对公共租赁房产业化发展的影响,探讨用地制度改革以推进公共租赁房可持续发展。研究方法:归纳分析法与规范分析方法。研究结果:在住房用地二元体制下,地方政府不具有持续扩大公共租赁房有效供给的内在动力,房地产企业市场化开发的业务模式无法支撑公共租赁房产业化发展。通过用地制度调整和相关政策设计,可降低完全产权公共租赁房的开发成本,吸引社会资金进入投资开发领域,形成地方政府、房地产企业、居民家庭多赢的公共租赁房发展模式。研究结论:通过住房用地制度改革与相关配套政策调整,可实%The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of the dual system of residential land supply in the urban land market, i.e., the conveyance system and the free administrative allocation system, on the development of public rental housing. The methods used are deduction and normative analysis. The results show that under the dual system of residential land supply, the local governments do not have the internal incentive of continuously supplying land for the public rental houses, and meanwhile the normal pattern of real estate business can hardly support the development of public rental housing. Therefore, the adjustment of land institution and the redesign of the related policy are needed so as to reduce the costs of public rental housing with completely legal ownership. It further attracts the social investment, forming the common-interests model of local governments, companies and households. The conclusion is that the current development pattern with local governments' dominating role can be complemented by the market forces through the reform of related land institution, which is crucial for the sustainable development of the public rental housing in China.

  20. 24 CFR 203.672 - Residential areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Residential areas. 203.672 Section... FAMILY MORTGAGE INSURANCE Servicing Responsibilities Occupied Conveyance § 203.672 Residential areas. (a) For the purposes of occupied conveyance considerations, a residential area is any area...

  1. Understanding Residential Polarization in a Globalizing City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Rotimi Aliu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the spatial polarization that characterizes the dwellings in the African leading megacity of Lagos. Data were collected through an extensive housing survey carried out on 1,485 household residences in 56 wards within 12 administrative units in Lagos megacity. The spatial dimension of residential density in the city generates three unique residential patterns which are low residential density (LRD, medium residential density (MRD, and high residential density (HRD areas. Descriptive and multivariate inferential statistics were used to render explanations for the spatial variations in the residential quality variables in the study area. Findings indicated that a clear difference exists in the residential quality within the three residential density areas of Lagos. High correlations exist among the residential quality indicators and housing type. The principal component analysis shows that residential polarizations that occur in the LRD, MRD, and HRD are based on the location, dwelling facility, interior and exterior quality, neighborhood integrity, social bond, barrier to entry, and security. The practical implications of residential polarizations along the residential density areas are explicitly expressed.

  2. Utilizing Public Access Data and Open Source Statistical Programs to Teach Climate Science to Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, L.

    2014-12-01

    Students in the Environmental Studies major at the University of Southern California fulfill their curriculum requirements by taking a broad range of courses in the social and natural sciences. Climate change is often taught in 1-2 lectures in these courses with limited examination of this complex topic. Several upper division elective courses focus on the science, policy, and social impacts of climate change. In an upper division course focused on the scientific tools used to determine paleoclimate and predict future climate, I have developed a project where students download, manipulate, and analyze data from the National Climatic Data Center. Students are required to download 100 or more years of daily temperature records and use the statistical program R to analyze that data, calculating daily, monthly, and yearly temperature averages along with changes in the number of extreme hot or cold days (≥90˚F and ≤30˚F, respectively). In parallel, they examine population growth, city expansion, and changes in transportation looking for correlations between the social data and trends observed in the temperature data. Students examine trends over time to determine correlations to urban heat island effect. This project exposes students to "real" data, giving them the tools necessary to critically analyze scientific studies without being experts in the field. Utilizing the existing, public, online databases provides almost unlimited, free data. Open source statistical programs provide a cost-free platform for examining the data although some in-class time is required to help students navigate initial data importation and analysis. Results presented will highlight data compiled over three years of course projects.

  3. Support for a tax increase to provide unrestricted access to an Alzheimer's disease medication: a survey of the general public in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarride Jean-Eric

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public drug insurance plans provide limited reimbursement for Alzheimer's disease (AD medications in many jurisdictions, including Canada and the United Kingdom. This study was conducted to assess Canadians' level of support for an increase in annual personal income taxes to fund a public program of unrestricted access to AD medications. Methods A telephone survey was administered to a national sample of 500 adult Canadians. The survey contained four scenarios describing a hypothetical, new AD medication. Descriptions varied across scenarios: the medication was alternatively described as being capable of treating the symptoms of cognitive decline or of halting the progression of cognitive decline, with either no probability of adverse effects or a 30% probability of primarily gastrointestinal adverse effects. After each scenario, participants were asked whether they would support a tax increase to provide unrestricted access to the drug. Participants who responded affirmatively were asked whether they would pay an additional $75, $150, or $225 per annum in taxes. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the determinants of support for a tax increase. Results Eighty percent of participants supported a tax increase for at least one scenario. Support was highest (67% for the most favourable scenario (halt progression - no adverse effects and lowest (49% for the least favourable scenario (symptom treatment - 30% chance of adverse effects. The odds of supporting a tax increase under at least one scenario were approximately 55% less for participants who attached higher ratings to their health state under the assumption that they had moderate AD and almost five times greater if participants thought family members or friends would somewhat or strongly approve of their decision to support a tax increase. A majority of participants would pay an additional $150 per annum in taxes, regardless of scenario. Less

  4. Exploring efficacy of residential energy efficiency programs in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nicholas Wade

    Electric utilities, government agencies, and private interests in the U.S. have committed and continue to invest substantial resources in the pursuit of energy efficiency and conservation through demand-side management (DSM) programs. Program investments, and the demand for impact evaluations that accompany them, are projected to grow in coming years due to increased pressure from state-level energy regulation, costs and challenges of building additional production capacity, fuel costs and potential carbon or renewable energy regulation. This dissertation provides detailed analyses of ex-post energy savings from energy efficiency programs in three key sectors of residential buildings: new, single-family, detached homes; retrofits to existing single-family, detached homes; and retrofits to existing multifamily housing units. Each of the energy efficiency programs analyzed resulted in statistically significant energy savings at the full program group level, yet savings for individual participants and participant subgroups were highly variable. Even though savings estimates were statistically greater than zero, those energy savings did not always meet expectations. Results also show that high variability in energy savings among participant groups or subgroups can negatively impact overall program performance and can undermine marketing efforts for future participation. Design, implementation, and continued support of conservation programs based solely on deemed or projected savings is inherently counter to the pursuit of meaningful energy conservation and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. To fully understand and optimize program impacts, consistent and robust measurement and verification protocols must be instituted in the design phase and maintained over time. Furthermore, marketing for program participation must target those who have the greatest opportunity for savings. In most utility territories it is not possible to gain access to the type of large scale

  5. [Can court injunctions guarantee access to medicines in the public sector? The experience in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messeder, Ana Márcia; Osorio-de-Castro, Claudia Garcia Serpa; Luiza, Vera Lucia

    2005-01-01

    There are increasing numbers of legal suits concerning access to medicines brought against the Rio de Janeiro State Health Department. The situation indicated the need for a study to clarify the underlying issues. A sample of 389 court suits from January 1991 to December 2001 (stratified by year) was used. A cross-sectional design was used to describe and analyze the legal suits in relation to the responsibilities defined under the Unified National Health System (SUS). Results suggest major delays in court decisions. Most suits are filed by the Public Defender's Office for users of the National Health System. The most frequent cases involve medicines for the cardiovascular and nervous systems, many of which involve continuous use. Prescribing practices are institutionalized through the inclusion of the most frequently prescribed drugs in public financing lists, which makes rational drug use difficult to achieve. Municipalities are not fulfilling their responsibility to supply medicines to users, and the State is thus encumbered with these responsibilities. However, the State does not adequately supply medicines to the municipalities. The apparent lack of awareness among both lawyers and clients generates stress between the Executive and Judiciary branches and limits the resources for collective pharmaceutical services.

  6. Residential solar-heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Complete residential solar-heating and hot-water system, when installed in highly-insulated energy-saver home, can supply large percentage of total energy demand for space heating and domestic hot water. System which uses water-heating energy storage can be scaled to meet requirements of building in which it is installed.

  7. Rebound effects in residential heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aydin, Erdal; Brounen, Dirk; Kok, N.

    2016-01-01

    Over the years, various efficiency policies have been designed and implemented to reduce residential energy consumption. However, it is very common that the policy expectations that are based upon engineering calculations do not come true. The widely accepted explanation for the gap between expectat

  8. Main challenges of residential areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Luca

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article is a position paper aiming to initiate a professional debate related to the aspects related to the urban dysfunctions leading to the wear of the residential areas. The paper proposes a definition of the wear process, identify the main causes leading to its occurrence and propose a number of solutions to neutralise the dysfunctions. The three wearing phases of residential areas components are emphasized, exploring their lifecycle. In order to perform the study of urban wear, the status of the residential areas components can be established and monitored, and also the variables of the function that can mathematically model the specific wear process may be considered. The paper is considered a first step for the model adjustment, to be tested and validated in the following steps. Based on the mathematical method and model, there can be created, in a potential future research, the possibility of determining the precarity degree for residential areas/neighbourhoods and cities, by minimising the subjective component of the analyses preceding the decision for renovation or regeneration.

  9. Citizen Science as a Tool for Conservation in Residential Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caren B. Cooper

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Human activities, such as mining, forestry, and agriculture, strongly influence processes in natural systems. Because conservation has focused on managing and protecting wildlands, research has focused on understanding the indirect influence of these human activities on wildlands. Although a conservation focus on wildlands is critically important, the concept of residential area as an ecosystem is relatively new, and little is known about the potential of such areas to contribute to the conservation of biodiversity. As urban sprawl increases, it becomes urgent to construct a method to research and improve the impacts of management strategies for residential landscapes. If the cumulative activities of individual property owners could help conserve biodiversity, then residential matrix management could become a critical piece of the conservation puzzle. "Citizen science" is a method of integrating public outreach and scientific data collection locally, regionally, and across large geographic scales. By involving citizen participants directly in monitoring and active management of residential lands, citizen science can generate powerful matrix management efforts, defying the "tyranny of small decisions" and leading to positive, cumulative, and measurable impacts on biodiversity.

  10. Access rules for imports and exports on the French public power transmission network; Regles d'acces au reseau public de transport francais pour des importations et des exportations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    These rules define the technical, financial and legal conditions applied to imports and/or exports made by the user on the French public power transmission grid (Reseau Public de Transport - RPT), considering the available capacity on interconnections and any particular technical constraints of the European interconnected network, notably in terms of safety: 1 - definitions; 2 - general conditions (scope, participation conditions, user obligations, signature, enforcement and duration of the participation agreement, attachment of transactions to a balance responsible entity, rules modification procedure, access to the information system, financial conditions, guarantee of exchange programmes, transfer of rights and obligations, intellectual property, confidentiality, force majeure, responsibility, termination, notifications and operational exchange procedures, territorial application of the rules, applicable law and language, dispute resolution); 3 - conditions for the application of imports and exports (allocating transmission capacity on interconnections, allocating import capacity, changing a capacity allocation mechanism, the different categories of exchange programmes, standard programmes, weekly programmes, daily programmes, nominations in the event of a failure in the information system, information published by RTE); 4 - conditions for the application of intra-day transactions (intra-day transaction requests, processing intra-day transaction requests, modification of an intra-day transactions programme). 16 models of correspondence documents are given in appendixes.

  11. Enabling dynamic access to dynamic petascale Earth Systems and Environmental data collections is easy: citing and reproducing the actual data extracts used in research publications is NOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyborn, L. A.; Wang, J.; Si, W.; Druken, K. A.; Evans, B. J. K.; Klump, J. F.; Car, N. J.; Trenham, C.

    2015-12-01

    The National Computational Infrastructure (NCI) at the Australian National University (ANU) has collocated over 10 PB of national and international Earth Systems and Environmental data assets within a HPC facility to create the National Environmental Research Data Interoperability Platform (NERDIP). Data are replicated to, or are produced at, NCI: in many cases they are processed to higher-level data products. Individual data sets within these collections can range from multi-petabyte climate models and large volume raster arrays, down to gigabyte size, ultra-high resolution data sets. All data are quality assured to being 'published' and made accessible as services. Persistent identifiers are assigned during publishing at both the collection and data set level: the granularity and version control on persistent identifiers depend on the dataset. However, most NERDIP collections are dynamic: either new data is being appended, or else models/derivative products are being revised with new data, or changed as processing methods are improved. Further, because the data are accessible as services, researchers can log in and dynamically create user-defined subsets for specific research projects: inevitably such extracts underpin traditional 'publications'. Being able to reproduce these exact data extracts can be difficult and for the very larger data sets preserving a copy of large data extracts is out of the question. A solution is for the researcher to use provenance workflows that at a minimum capture the version of the data set used, the query and the time of extraction. In parallel, the data provider needs to implement version controls on the data and deploy tracking systems that time stamp when new data are appended, or when modifications are made to existing data and record what these changes are. Where, when and how persistent identifiers are minted on these large and dynamically changing data sets is still open to debate.

  12. Tracking the Sun IX: The Installed Price of Residential and Non-Residential Photovoltaic Systems in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area; Darghouth, Naïm [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area; Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cates, Sarah [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); DiSanti, Nicholas [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Widiss, Rebecca [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States)

    2016-08-16

    Now in its ninth edition, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)’s Tracking the Sun report series is dedicated to summarizing trends in the installed price of grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States. The present report focuses on residential and non-residential systems installed through year-end 2015, with preliminary trends for the first half of 2016. An accompanying LBNL report, Utility-Scale Solar, addresses trends in the utility-scale sector. This year’s report incorporates a number of important changes and enhancements from prior editions. Among those changes, LBNL has made available a public data file containing all non-confidential project-level data underlying the analysis in this report. Installed pricing trends presented within this report derive primarily from project-level data reported to state agencies and utilities that administer PV incentive programs, solar renewable energy credit (SREC) registration systems, or interconnection processes. Refer to the text box to the right for several key notes about these data. In total, data were collected and cleaned for more than 820,000 individual PV systems, representing 85% of U.S. residential and non-residential PV systems installed cumulatively through 2015 and 82% of systems installed in 2015. The analysis in this report is based on a subset of this sample, consisting of roughly 450,000 systems with available installed price data.

  13. 42 CFR 483.354 - General requirements for psychiatric residential treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General requirements for psychiatric residential treatment facilities. 483.354 Section 483.354 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR STATES AND LONG TERM CARE FACILITIES Condition...

  14. Scaling up access to antiretroviral drugs in a middle-income country: public sector drug delivery in the Free State, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyn, Francois; Schneider, Helen; Engelbrecht, Michelle C; van Rensburg-Bonthuyzen, Ega Janse; Jacobs, Nandipha; van Rensburg, Dingie H C J

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the distribution and management of drugs and supplies in scaling up access to public sector antiretroviral treatment (ART) in a middle-income country. More specifically, a case study of the Free State Province of South Africa is presented focusing on: the mobilisation and training of pharmaceutical staff for ART, processes related to the ordering, distribution and storage of medicines, continuity of ART supplies and the impact of ART delivery on other drugs and supplies. Data were obtained from longitudinal research conducted between April 2004 and July 2006 comprising three surveys of the first 20 health facilities providing ART in the province, key informant interviews and observations made of provincial ART Task Team meetings. The supply of ART in the Province was managed through the existing drug supply system but with special mechanisms to ensure integrity of ART supplies and security of stock within the existing supply system. Initial hiccups in the procurement of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs for South Africa (a national function) caused delays in putting patients on ART, although these supply problems were short-lived. At provincial level, not all pharmacist posts created for the programme were filled, and pharmacists working in the rest of the health system were subsequently trained to take on ART programme functions. Electronic systems were not established at all service sites, which in part contributed to delays in the delivery of drugs and supplies to more peripheral units. Adequate space to safely store ARV drugs remained problematic. The introduction of the ART programme did not create disruptions in the supply of non-ART essential drugs, which in fact improved over the period of observation. It is concluded that despite some process, human resource and infrastructural challenges, the drug management system in the Free State succeeded in incorporating public sector ART within its existing drug distribution network and functions, at

  15. Los catálogos en línea de acceso público del Mercosur disponibles en entorno web Web accessible online public access catalogs in the Mercosur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Barber

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan las interfaces de usuario de los catálogos en línea de acceso público (OPACs en entorno web de las bibliotecas universitarias, especializadas, públicas y nacionales de los países parte del Mercosur (Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay, Uruguay, para elaborar un diagnóstico de situación sobre: descripción bibliográfica, análisis temático, mensajes de ayuda al usuario, visualización de datos bibliográficos. Se adopta una metodología cuali-cuantitativa, se utiliza como instrumento de recolección de datos la lista de funcionalidades del sistema que proporciona Hildreth (1982, se actualiza, se obtiene un formulario que permite, mediante 38 preguntas cerradas, observar la frecuencia de aparición de las funcionalidades básicas propias de cuatro áreas: Área I - control de operaciones; Área II - control de formulación de la búsqueda y puntos de acceso; Área III - control de salida y Área IV - asistencia al usuario: información e instrucción. Se trabaja con la información correspondiente a 297 unidades. Se delimitan estratos por tipo de software, tipo de biblioteca y país. Se aplican a los resultados las pruebas de Chi-cuadrado, Odds ratio y regresión logística multinomial. El análisis corrobora la existencia de diferencias significativas en cada uno de los estratos y verifica que la mayoría de los OPACs relevados brindan prestaciones mínimas.User interfaces of web based online public access catalogs (OPACs of academic, special, public and national libraries in countries belonging to Mercosur (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay are studied to provide a diagnosis of the situation of bibliographic description, subject analisis, help messages and bibliographic display. A cuali-cuantitative methodology is adopted and a checklist of systems functions created by Hildreth (1982 is updated and used as data collection tool. The resulting 38 closed questions checklist has allowed to observe the frequency of appearance of the

  16. Residual residential space as commons

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Research on common pool resources (CPR), which began with a focus on rural communities and their defining agricultural practices, shifted recently also to the urban context, looking at community gardens, city parks and other recreational facilities. This article extends the use of CPR theory to residential complexes. Courtyards, lawns, lobbies, cellars, stairwells and other parts that fall outside individual apartments are aggregated as a new sub-set of CPR, defined herewith as Residual Resid...

  17. Open Access Policy

    OpenAIRE

    University of East London, .

    2013-01-01

    The University of East London is committed to and supports open access to its research publications.\\ud There is a worldwide move towards free and unrestricted access to research publications, with benefits\\ud for researchers, universities and wider society. UEL supports this initiative and recognises the\\ud importance of open access in increasing the visibility and impact of research. This policy is aligned with\\ud and supports HEFCE’s Policy for Open Access in the Post‐2014 REF, and is alig...

  18. Espacios públicos integrados y accesibilidad como objetivo cívico. / Integrated public spaces, and accessibility as civic objective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavez R.,María Isabel

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Una reflexión que considere los conceptos esenciales de la ciudad occidental, sin soslayar las mutaciones de la ciudad de fines del siglo XX, debería plantear una diversificación e integración mayor de los espacios públicos, y la accesibilidad a ellos como un "objetivo cívico". En el marco de una aproximación ecológica a los asentamientos humanos, interesan las maneras según las cuales el ciudadano entra en contacto con sus semejantes y con su entorno en sentido amplio: físico y sensible, pero también social, económico, cultural. Esto supone asumir las modalidades efectivas de la habitación, las que no se reducen a la "casa" o al "apartamento", sino que significan también habitar un vecindario, un barrio, una ciudad, una región, un país, una cultura, una naturaleza. Y, las modalidades efectivas de la sociabilización, las que no se reducen a una pertenencia comunitaria o laboral, sino que incluyen co-presencias y encuentros imprevistos en ese amplio territorio. /A reflection that considers the essential concepts of the western city, without ignoring the mutations of the city of the late twentieth century, should raise a greater diversification and integration of public spaces, and accessibility to them as a "civic purpose".

  19. New National Drug Policy in Iran leading to Expanded Pharma¬ceutical Market and Extended Access of Public to Medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Dinarvand

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "nPharmaceutical market in Iran has been expanding since 2001 when the new development act was approved in the parlia­ment of the Islamic republic of Iran. The pharma market size has annually increased 6.8% in terms of volume and 18.5% in terms of value.  However, the growth rate of imported items has been greater than locally produced items both in terms of value and volume. This may be mainly due to the introduction of free market regulations at macroeconomic point of view that has influenced the pharmaceutical market as well. The expansion of pharmaceutical market is welcomed by the industry which is investing heavily in the manufacturing and research and development capacity of pharma sector in Iran. However it does also mean greater access of the public to essential and vital medicines. In the same situation the presence of extra choices in the market may be a challenge for the local industry as the demand for higher quality medicines grows. Market forces are always a challenge for the advocacy of rational prescription and use of medicines.

  20. The Strategic Combination of Open-Access Peer-Review, Mainstream Media and Social Media to Improve Public Climate Literacy (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, J.; Nuccitelli, D. A.; Jacobs, P.

    2013-12-01

    The Skeptical Science website began in 2007, with the goal of refuting climate misinformation with peer-reviewed science. It achieved this by embracing a diversity of message formats and delivery methods. Myth rebuttals are available at beginner, intermediate and advanced levels, spanning from long, technical treatments to tweetable one-liners. Content has been translated into 20 different languages and made available via the web, an iPhone app and books while adopted by third parties in textbooks, university and MOOC curricula, books, Senate testimonies and TV documentaries. While social media has been a fruitful medium, we experimented with a new model in 2013, employing the strategic combination of open-access peer-review, mainstream media outreach and social media marketing. This strategy was adopted with the release of a paper quantifying the level of scientific consensus in published climate papers, resulting in broad mainstream media attention as well as acknowledgement from key public figures such as Al Gore, the UK Minister for Energy Edward Davey and President Obama. Our approach was informed by psychological research into both the importance of scientific consensus and how to reduce the influence of misconceptions. While multiple methods of delivery are important, equally important is the construction of the messages themselves. I will examine the science of crafting compelling messages and how combination with diverse message delivery can lead to impactful outcomes.