WorldWideScience

Sample records for public 2-year community

  1. Community integration 2 years after moderate and severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhaug, Maria; Andelic, Nada; Langhammer, Birgitta; Mygland, Aase

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine community integration by the Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ) 2 years after injury in a divided TBI sample of moderately and severely injured patients. The second aim was to identify social-demographic, injury-related and rehabilitation associated predictors of CIQ. A cohort study. Outpatient follow-up. Fifty-seven patients with moderate (n = 21) or severe (n = 36) TBI were examined with the Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ) at 2 years after injury. Possible predictors were analysed in a regression model using CIQ total score at 2 years as the outcome measure. The Community Integration Questionnaire. At 2 years follow-up, there was significant difference between the moderately and severely injured patients in the productivity scores (p productivity level than the severely injured patients. Marital status, injury severity and rehabilitation after injury were associated with community integration 2 years after TBI.

  2. Fluoridated salt for caries prevention and control - a 2-year field study in a disadvantaged community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wennhall, Inger; Hajem, Samara; Ilros, Susanna

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Salt fluoridation is considered a cost-effective community strategy for reducing caries. AIM: To evaluate the effect of school-based and domestic distribution of F-salt to schoolchildren residing in a disadvantaged community. DESIGN: Seven hundred and thirty-three schoolchildren (12...

  3. Changes in Personality Disorder Traits Following 2 Years of Treatment in a Secure Therapeutic Community Milieu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Catrin; Taylor, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic community treatment models have not previously been applied to forensic patients with mild intellectual disabilities (IDs) with a comorbid diagnosis of personality disorder. Thirteen patients with mild IDs were allocated to a unit within a high secure psychiatric service operating a model of treatment based on the principles and…

  4. Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders in 2-Year-Olds: A Study of Community Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsello, Christina M.; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Stahmer, Aubyn C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Longitudinal research studies have demonstrated that experienced clinicians using standardized assessment measures can make a reliable diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in children under age 3. Limited data are available regarding the sensitivity and specificity of these measures in community settings. The aims of this…

  5. Association between delayed bedtime and sleep-related problems among community-dwelling 2-year-old children in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Shingo; Enomoto, Minori; Kamei, Yuichi; Inada, Naoko; Moriwaki, Aiko; Kamio, Yoko; Mishima, Kazuo

    2015-03-13

    Although delayed sleep timing causes many socio-psycho-biological problems such as sleep loss, excessive daytime sleepiness, obesity, and impaired daytime neurocognitive performance in adults, there are insufficient data showing the clinical significance of a 'night owl lifestyle' in early life. This study examined the association between habitual delayed bedtime and sleep-related problems among community-dwelling 2-year-old children in Japan. Parents/caregivers of 708 community-dwelling 2-year-old children in Nishitokyo City, Tokyo, participated in the study. The participants answered a questionnaire to evaluate their child's sleep habits and sleep-related problems for the past 1 month. Of the 425 children for whom complete data were collected, 90 (21.2%) went to bed at 22:00 or later. Children with delayed bedtime showed significantly more irregular bedtime, delayed wake time, shorter total sleep time, and difficulty in initiating and terminating sleep. Although this relationship indicated the presence of sleep debt in children with delayed bedtime, sleep onset latency did not differ between children with earlier bedtime and those with delayed bedtime. Rather, delayed bedtime was significantly associated with bedtime resistance and problems in the morning even when adjusting for nighttime and daytime sleep time. Even in 2-year-old children, delayed bedtime was associated with various sleep-related problems. The causal factors may include diminished homeostatic sleep drive due to prolonged daytime nap as well as diurnal preference (morning or night type) regulated by the biological clock.

  6. Prevalence and comorbidity of eating disorders among a community sample of adolescents: 2-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo-Moreno, Luis; Arribas, Pilar; Plumed, Javier; Gimeno, Natalia; García-Blanco, Ana; Vaz-Leal, Francisco; Luisa Vila, María; Livianos, Lorenzo

    2015-05-30

    The previous literature about comorbidity between eating disorders (ED) and other DSM-IV psychiatric disorders in adolescence has employed cross-sectional studies with clinical samples, where the comorbid disorders were diagnosed retrospectively. The present study aims to overcome these limitations by the analysis of comorbidity in a community population during 2-year follow-up. A semi-structured interview was applied to a teenager sample. Firstly, a cross-sectional and non-randomized study on psychiatric morbidity was conducted with 993 teenagers between the ages of 12 and 16 from five schools. Secondly, 326 students between 14 and 17 years old of one school were reassessed 2 years later in order to detect ED new cases and find associations with previous psychiatric disorders. The ED prevalence was 3.6%. Cross-sectional analysis revealed that 62.9% of individuals with an ED had comorbid disorders: anxiety disorders (51.4%), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (31.4%), oppositional defiant disorder (11.4%), and obsessive compulsive disorder (8.6%). Prospective longitudinal analysis showed an ED incidence rate of 2.76% over the course of 2 years. 22.2% of new cases had received previous psychiatric diagnoses, of which all were anxiety disorders. Thus, ED exhibited a high comorbidity rate among adolescent populations and anxiety disorders were the most common comorbid diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Outcomes after a 2-year pharmaceutical care program for patients taking vitamin K antagonist therapy? Community pharmacist's perception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongaret, C; Lepage, C; Aubert, L; Lestrille, A; Slimano, F

    2018-03-01

    Since 2013 French community pharmacist are involved in pharmaceutical care program (PCP) for patients treated with vitamin K antagonist (VKA). While PCPs are now extending to other patient populations, we aimed to evaluate pharmacists' perception after 2-years implementation and leading of PCP. A prospective investigational survey from 1st August to 31st December, 2015 from 400 community pharmacies in Champagne-Ardenne Region. Survey focuses on 3 points: first about implementation and leading of PCP; secondly about patient's population description; finally on the global perception by CP about new tasks. Among n=47, 72% of pharmacists performed VKA PCP. Almost all received appropriate training (96%). Remuneration appears to be insufficient given the time spent for 73%. Ninety-five percent met patient's refusal mainly because of interest lacking or time lacking (54% and 22%, respectively). Pharmacists reported 3 main lacks of knowledges of patients: drugs, which increase drug-drug interaction risk (28%), VKA overdose effects (27%) and VKA-food interactions (23%). Overall view of pharmacist for PCP appears to be positive (81%) in part because of improvement of pharmacist-patient relationship perception for 66%. Community pharmacists' perception for PCP for patients treated by VKA is broadly positive. However, organizational or economic constraints can lead to a decreasing adherence by pharmacists to PCPs. A global issue about amount of compensation and communications campaigns to patients and others health professionals will be useful in order to reinforced PCP implementation and leading taxonomy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  8. Understanding community traits - understanding public concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wlodarczyk, T.

    2003-01-01

    No two communities are alike. Therefore, one should not expect that public concerns and socio-economic effects of a proposed undertaking would be the same everywhere. Public concerns and the potential for social and economic effects of nuclear waste management facilities in one community will be different from those in another because communities differ in their fundamental sociological and economic traits. Research and experience with various types of nuclear and hazardous waste management facilities, generating stations and other energy developments across Canada and the United States indicate that an analysis of only a few key community traits can yield a more thorough understanding of the ways in which a community might perceive and respond to a project, the kinds of concerns that might dominate the public agenda, and the types of socio-economic effects that will be of primary concern. (author)

  9. Basic Student Charges at Postsecondary Institutions: Academic Year 1994-95. Tuition and Required Fees and Room and Board Charges at 4-Year, 2-Year, and Public Less-Than-2-Year Institutions. Statistical Analysis Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbett, Samuel F.; And Others

    This document lists the typical tuition and required fees and room and board charges assessed to college students in 1994-95 based on a national "Institutional Characteristics" survey which is part of the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System. The data were collected from over 5,000 of the 5,775 4-year, 2-year, and public…

  10. Infant BMI peak as a predictor of overweight and obesity at age 2 years in a Chinese community-based cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jie; Nwaru, Bright I; Hua, Jing; Li, Xiaohong; Wu, Zhuochun

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Infant body mass index (BMI) peak has proven to be a useful indicator for predicting childhood obesity risk in American and European populations. However, it has not been assessed in China. We characterised infant BMI trajectories in a Chinese longitudinal cohort and evaluated whether BMI peak can predict overweight and obesity at age 2 years. Methods Serial measurements (n=6–12) of weight and length were taken from healthy term infants (n=2073) in a birth cohort established in urban Shanghai. Measurements were used to estimate BMI growth curves from birth to 13.5 months using a polynomial regression model. BMI peak characteristics, including age (in months) and magnitude (BMI, in kg/m2) at peak and prepeak velocities (in kg/m2/month), were estimated. The relationship between infant BMI peak and childhood BMI at age 2 years was examined using binary logistic analysis. Results Mean age at peak BMI was 7.61 months, with a magnitude of 18.33 kg/m2. Boys (n=1022) had a higher average peak BMI (18.60 vs 18.07 kg/m2, pBMI and 1 month increase in peak time, the risk of overweight at age 2 years increased by 2.11 times (OR 3.11; 95% CI 2.64 to 3.66) and 35% (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.21 to 1.50), respectively. Similarly, higher BMI magnitude (OR 2.69; 95% CI 2.00 to 3.61) and later timing of infant BMI peak (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.68) were associated with an increased risk of childhood obesity at age 2 years. Conclusions We have shown that infant BMI peak is valuable for predicting early childhood overweight and obesity in urban Shanghai. Because this is the first Chinese community-based cohort study of this nature, future research is required to examine infant populations in other areas of China. PMID:28988164

  11. Ranking Institutional Settings Based on Publications in Community Psychology Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason, Leonard A.; Pokorny, Steven B.; Patka, Mazna; Adams, Monica; Morello, Taylor

    2007-01-01

    Two primary outlets for community psychology research, the "American Journal of Community Psychology" and the "Journal of Community Psychology", were assessed to rank institutions based on publication frequency and scientific influence of publications over a 32-year period. Three specific periods were assessed (1973-1983, 1984-1994, 1995-2004).…

  12. Community Relations - Public Affairs - Personal Staff - Joint Staff - The

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Public Affairs : Community Relations Community Relations The National Guard Bureau Civic Engagement Report National Commission of the Future of the Army White Papers I am the Guard ARNG Media ARNG Public Public Affairs Executive Support Services Legislative Liaison Special Staff Directorate of Management

  13. "Community" as a Guiding Theme for the Public Speaking Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson-Lepper, Tammy

    2012-01-01

    First-year students at many universities find themselves in new communities, with little understanding of how their new university, city, academic, or career communities function. Developing a student's sense of community can have long-term benefits. Using the theme of "Community" in the basic public speaking course provides students with…

  14. 40 CFR 300.155 - Public information and community relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN Responsibility and Organization for Response § 300.155 Public information and community relations. (a) When an incident occurs, it is imperative to give the public prompt, accurate...

  15. The Perception of Community Radio as Public Sphere and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Levi Manda

    This study takes initial look at the promise of community radio as a public sphere. Given the .... case studies typically contribute only incrementally to our theoretical ..... news and public affairs in mass media communication associated with.

  16. Evaluating community-based public health leadership training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceraso, Marion; Gruebling, Kirsten; Layde, Peter; Remington, Patrick; Hill, Barbara; Morzinski, Jeffrey; Ore, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    Addressing the nation's increasingly complex public health challenges will require more effective multisector collaboration and stronger public health leadership. In 2005, the Healthy Wisconsin Leadership Institute launched an annual, year-long intensive "community teams" program. The goal of this program is to develop collaborative leadership and public health skills among Wisconsin-based multisectoral teams mobilizing their communities to improve public health. To measure the scope of participation and program impacts on individual learning and practice, including application of new knowledge and collective achievements of teams on coalition and short-term community outcomes. End-of-year participant program evaluations and follow-up telephone interviews with participants 20 months after program completion. Community-based public health leadership training program. Sixty-eight participants in the Community Teams Program during the years 2006 to 2007 and 2007 to 2008. Professional diversity of program participants; individual learning and practice, including application of new knowledge; and collective achievements of teams, including coalition and short-term community outcomes. Participants in the Community Teams Program represent a diversity of sectors, including nonprofit, governmental, academic, business, and local public health. Participation increased knowledge across all public health and leadership competency areas covered in the program. Participating teams reported outcomes, including increased engagement of community leadership, expansion of preventive services, increased media coverage, strengthened community coalitions, and increased grant funding. Evaluation of this community-based approach to public health leadership training has shown it to be a promising model for building collaborative and public health leadership skills and initiating sustained community change for health improvement.

  17. Persistence and Variation in Overweight and Obesity Among the Pre-school Population of the Community of Madrid After 2 Years of Follow-up. The ELOIN Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Marrón, Honorato; Ortiz-Pinto, Maira Alejandra; Cuadrado-Gamarra, José I; Esteban-Vasallo, María; Cortés-Rico, Olga; Rey-Gayo, Loreto; Ordobás, María; Galán, Iñaki

    2018-04-30

    The childhood obesity epidemic is a worldwide public health problem which starts at very early ages. The aim of this study was to determine the persistence of and variation in overweight and obesity among a cohort of children followed up from 4 to 6 years of age. The data were drawn from the ELOIN (Longitudinal Childhood Obesity Study), a population-based cohort in the Community of Madrid, Spain. A total of 2435 children were involved. Weight and height were objectively measured and standardised at 4 (2012-2013) and 6 years of age (2014-2015) by 31 purpose-trained pediatricians. Three reference criteria were used: the World Health Organization (WHO-2006), International Obesity Task Force (IOTF-2000), and Spanish tables of the Orbegozo Foundation 2004, were used to define "absence of excess weight", overweight and obesity. According to the above three classification criteria, between the ages of 4 and 6 years the prevalence of overweight increased from 5.7%-16.5% (range of the 3 criteria) to 8.9%-17.0%, and obesity increased from 3.0%-5.4% to 6.1%-10.1%. Three out of every 4 obese children at age 4 years persisted with obesity at age 6 years, whereas 20.6%-29.3% who were overweight became obese. A total of 8.0% to 16.1% of children maintained "excess weight" (overweight/obesity), 7.9% to 11% were new cases, and 2.2% to 5.9% showed remission. Excess weight increased between the ages of 4 and 6 years. Important variations were observed in weight status susceptible to intervention during well-child visits. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Using Community Forums to Enhance Public Engagement in Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.C. Monroe; A. Oxarart; L. McDonell; R. Plate

    2009-01-01

    As environmental issues become more complex, the public may be less interested in becoming knowledgeable enough to participate in decision-making. Yet its input can be critically important in some community-based issues. A community forum is one tool designed to provide information, enable participants to ask questions to experts and create an open atmosphere for...

  19. Charter Public Schools Serving Hispanic Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Alliance for Public Charter Schools, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The innovative and culturally responsive teaching practices provided in high-quality charter schools are not only providing Hispanic students with an excellent alternative to district public schools, but they are also yielding academic results that show neither race/ethnicity nor income level must determine a child's future. The compilation of…

  20. An Informatics Approach to Establishing a Sustainable Public Health Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriseman, Jeffrey Michael

    2012-01-01

    This work involved the analysis of a public health system, and the design, development and deployment of enterprise informatics architecture, and sustainable community methods to address problems with the current public health system. Specifically, assessment of the Nationally Notifiable Disease Surveillance System (NNDSS) was instrumental in…

  1. Building public trust: transnationals in the community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarte, Christoph; Wilson, Emma

    2009-01-15

    Big business and poor communities can make for an uneasy fit. Transnational corporations in oil, gas and mining, for instance, have come under fire from civil society organisations for adverse impacts on local environment and livelihoods. With international pressure for a solution growing, a number of these corporations are working towards inbuilt accountability. As the experience of some shows, corporate grievance and redress mechanisms can fill the gap left by weak governance structures in host countries. Yet will this ensure true accountability and, if so, how likely is it that TNCs will embrace them as good practice?.

  2. Opportunities and challenges for public libraries to enhance community resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veil, Shari R; Bishop, Bradley Wade

    2014-04-01

    This study bridges a gap between public library and emergency management policy versus practice by examining the role of public libraries in the community resource network for disaster recovery. Specifically, this study identifies the opportunities and challenges for public libraries to fulfill their role as a FEMA-designated essential community organization and enhance community resilience. The results indicate there are several opportunities for libraries to enhance community resilience by offering technology resources and assistance; providing office, meeting, and community living room space; serving as the last redundant communication channel and a repository for community information and disaster narratives; and adapting or expanding services already offered to meet the changing needs of the community. However, libraries also face challenges in enhancing community resilience, including the temptation to overcommit library capacity and staff capability beyond the library mission and a lack of long-term disaster plans and collaboration with emergency managers and government officials. Implications for library and emergency management practice and crisis research are discussed. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  3. NASA and Public Libraries: Enhancing STEM Literacy in Underserved Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenbery, P.; LaConte, K.; Harold, J. B.; Randall, C.

    2016-12-01

    NASA research programs are helping humanity understand the origin and evolution of galaxies, stars, and planets, and defining the conditions necessary to support life beyond Earth. The Space Science Institute's (SSI) National Center for Interactive Learning (NCIL) was recently funded by NASA`s Science Mission Directorate (SMD) to develop and implement a project called NASA@ My Library: A National Earth and Space Science Initiative That Connects NASA, Public Libraries and Their Communities. As places that offer their services for free, public libraries have become the "public square" by providing a place where members of a community can gather for information, educational programming, and policy discussions. Libraries are developing new ways to engage their patrons in STEM learning, and NCIL's STAR Library Education Network (STAR_Net) has been supporting their efforts for the last eight years, including through a vibrant community of practice that serves both librarians and STEM professionals. Project stakeholders include public library staff, state libraries, the earth and space science education community at NASA, subject matter experts, and informal science educators. The project will leverage high-impact SMD and library events to catalyze partnerships through dissemination of SMD assets and professional development. It will also develop frameworks for public libraries to increase STEM interest pathways in their communities (with supports for reaching underserved audiences). This presentation will summarize the key activities and expected outcomes of the 5-year project.

  4. Consulting the community: public expectations and attitudes about genetics research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchegary, Holly; Green, Jane; Dicks, Elizabeth; Pullman, Daryl; Street, Catherine; Parfrey, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Genomic discoveries and technologies promise numerous opportunities for improving health. Key to these potential health improvements, however, are health-care consumers' understanding and acceptance of these new developments. We identified community groups and invited them to a public information-consultation session in order to explore public awareness, perception and expectations about genetics and genomics research. One hundred and four members of seven community groups in Newfoundland, Canada took part in the community sessions. Content analysis of participant comments revealed they were largely hopeful about genetics research in its capacity to improve health; however, they did not accept such research uncritically. Complex issues arose during the community consultations, including the place of genetics in primary care, the value of genetics for personal health, and concerns about access to and uses of genetic information. Participants unequivocally endorsed the value of public engagement with these issues. The rapid pace of discoveries in genomics research offers exciting opportunities to improve population health. However, public support will be crucial to realize health improvements. Our findings suggest that regular, transparent dialog between researchers and the public could allow a greater understanding of the research process, as well as assist in the design of efficient and effective genetic health services, informed by the public that will use them. PMID:23591403

  5. Beacon communities' public health initiatives: a case study analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoudi, Barbara L; Marcial, Laura H; Haque, Saira; Bailey, Robert; Chester, Kelley; Cunningham, Shellery; Riley, Amanda; Soper, Paula

    2014-01-01

    The Beacon Communities for Public Health (BCPH) project was launched in 2011 to gain a better understanding of the range of activities currently being conducted in population- and public health by the Beacon Communities. The project highlighted the successes and challenges of these efforts with the aim of sharing this information broadly among the public health community. The Beacon Community Program, designed to showcase technology-enabled, community-based initiatives to improve outcomes, focused on: building and strengthening health information technology (IT) infrastructure and exchange capabilities; translating investments in health IT to measureable improvements in cost, quality, and population health; and, developing innovative approaches to performance measurement, technology, and care delivery. Four multimethod case studies were conducted based on a modified sociotechnical framework to learn more about public health initiative implementation and use in the Beacon Communities. Our methodological approach included using document review and semistructured key informant interviews. NACCHO Model Practice Program criteria were used to select the public health initiatives included in the case studies. Despite differences among the case studies, common barriers and facilitators were found to be present in all areas of the sociotechnical framework application including structure, people, technology, tasks, overarching considerations, and sustainability. Overall, there were many more facilitators (range = 7-14) present for each Beacon compared to barriers (range = 4-6). Four influential promising practices were identified through the work: forging strong and sustainable partnerships; ensuring a good task-technology fit and a flexible and iterative design; fostering technology acceptance; and, providing education and demonstrating value. A common weakness was the lack of a framework or model for the Beacon Communities evaluation work. Sharing a framework or approach

  6. Participation in design between public sector and local communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Zander, Pär-Ola

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses three cases where design was carried out at the intersection between public sector and citizen communities. Based on three dominant traditions meeting there–public (municipal) decision-making, Web 2.0 and participatory design–we identify challenges and solutions regarding......-win situations, rather than to maximize participation; to work with motivation for long-term projects across municipality and communities; to identify and work with early movers, and not just representative citizens; and to create space for local municipal agencies to develop bottom-up technological solutions...

  7. Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HCTT-CHE

    2011-04-14

    The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster—readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that—help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners' (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. While the purpose of the CAT is to further prepare the community for an influenza pandemic, its framework is an extension of the traditional all-hazards approach to planning and preparedness. As such, the information gathered by the tool is useful in preparation for most widespread public health emergencies. This tool is primarily intended for use by those involved in healthcare emergency preparedness (e.g., community planners, community disaster preparedness coordinators, 9-1-1 directors, hospital emergency preparedness coordinators). It is divided into sections based on the core agency partners, which may be involved in the community's influenza pandemic influenza response.

  8. Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ORAU' s Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education (HCTT-CHE)

    2011-04-14

    The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster - readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that - help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. This tool has been reviewed by a variety of key subject matter experts from federal, state, and local agencies and organizations. It also has been piloted with various communities that consist of different population sizes, to include large urban to small rural communities.

  9. Environmental remediation: Addressing public concerns through effective community relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, S.; Heywood, J.; Wood, M.B.; Arellano, M.; Pfister, S.

    1998-01-01

    The public's perception of risk drives their response to any potential environmental remediation project. Even if the actual environmental and health risks may be relatively low, public perception of high risk may doom the project to an uphill struggle characterized by heated public meetings, negative media coverage, reluctant regulators, project delays and increased costs. The ultimate Catch 22 in such a case is that the contamination remains in-place until the public drama is concluded. This paper explores the development and implementation of a Community Relations Plan for the clean up of a Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) site owned and operated by corporate predecessors of Arizona Public Service Company (APS) near the turn of the century. The unique challenges associated with this project were that the former MGP was located in downtown Phoenix at the site of a future federal courthouse. Although the MGP site had been under investigation for some time, the clean-up schedule was driven by a tight courthouse construction schedule. Compounding these challenges were the logistics associated with conducting a large-scale cleanup in a congested, highly visible downtown location. An effective Community Relations Plan can mean the difference between the success and failure of an environmental remediation project. Elements of an effective plan are: identifying key stakeholders and involving them in the project from the beginning; providing timely information and being open and honest about the potential environmental and health risks; involving your company's community relations and media staff; and educating affected company employees. The Community Relations Plan developed for this project was designed to alleviate public concern about potential risks (perceived or real) associated with the project by keeping key stakeholders informed of all activities well in advance

  10. Utilisation of community pharmacists by the general public in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Siew Siang; Lim, Kien Ping; Lee, Hong Gee

    2013-02-01

    The study was conducted to assess how the general public in the Klang Valley, Malaysia, utilised community pharmacists. This was a prospective observational study which documented interactions between community pharmacists and their customers. A researcher was stationed in 10 participating community pharmacies around the Klang Valley to observe and record all the interactions, using a structured data-collection form. KEYS FINDINGS: Interactions between 1914 customers and the pharmacists of the 10 community pharmacies were recorded. A total of 2199 requests were made by these customers. The main types of request were for medications by brand name (32.2%), advice on minor health problems (25.9%) and for health supplements (11.7%). Only 65 prescriptions were received by the community pharmacies; that is, fewer than two prescriptions per pharmacy per day. The pharmacists provided counselling for only 54.4% of the requests where a medication or health supplement was dispensed. Counselling by pharmacist was significantly associated with the type of request (P Malaysia was to purchase a particular medication. Few prescriptions were filled at community pharmacies in Malaysia, indicating the under-utilisation of community pharmacists as a safety net for prescribed medications in primary care. © 2012 The Authors. IJPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  11. Review on the Evaluation System of Public Safety Carrying Capacity about Small Town Community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming; SUN; Tianyu; ZHU

    2014-01-01

    Recently,small town community public safety problem has been increasingly highlighted,but its research is short on public safety carrying capacity. Through the investigation and study of community public safety carrying capacity,this paper analyzes the problem of community public safety in our country,to construct index evaluation system of public safety carrying capacity in small town community. DEA method is used to evaluate public safety carrying capacity in small town community,to provide scientific basis for the design of support and standardization theory about small town community in public safety planning.

  12. Routines and Communities of Practice in Public Environmental Procurement Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Katarina; Svane, Örjan

    2005-01-01

    Environmental procurement has received increasing attention as a policy tool promoting change towards sustainable consumption and production. The successful implementation of public environmental procurement policy requires the establishment of new routines for user-producer-supplier relationships that enable the integration of environmental aspects. The aim of the study is to analyse the roles of different communities of practice and learning patterns in environmental procurement processes. ...

  13. Democratic Public Discourse in the Coming Autarchic Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe-Ilie Farte

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to tackle the problem of living together – as dignified human beings – in a certain territory in the field of social philosophy, on the theoretical grounding ensured by some remarkable exponents of the Austrian School − and by means of the praxeologic method. Because political tools diminish the human nature not only of those who use them, but also of those who undergo their effects, people can live a life worthy of a human being only as members of some autarchic or self-governing communities. As a spontaneous order, every autarchic community is inherently democratic, inasmuch as it makes possible free involvement, peaceful coordination, free expression and the free reproduction of ideas. The members of autarchic communities are moral individuals who avoid aggression, practice self-control, seek a dynamical efficiency and establish (together with their fellow human beings a democratic public discourse.

  14. Engaging students in community health: a public health advocacy curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Nell; Ned, Judith; Winkleby, Marilyn

    2014-03-01

    Individual risk assessment and behavior change dominate the content of high school health education instruction whereas broader social, political, and economic factors that influence health-known as upstream causes-are less commonly considered. With input from instructors and students, we developed a 10-lesson experiential Public Health Advocacy Curriculum that uses classroom-based activities to teach high school students about the upstream causes of health and engages them in community-based health advocacy. The Curriculum, most suitable for health- or advocacy-related elective classes or after-school programs, may be taught in its entirety or as single lessons integrated into existing coursework. Although students at many schools are using the Curriculum, it has been formally evaluated with 110 predominantly Latino students at one urban and one semirural public high school in Northern California (six classes). In pre-post surveys, students showed highly significant and positive changes in the nine questions that covered the three main Curriculum domains (Upstream Causes, Community Exploration, and Public Health Advocacy), p values .02 to Curriculum is being widely disseminated without charge to local, national, and international audiences, with the objective of grooming a generation of youth who are committed to the public health perspective to health.

  15. Well Head Protection Areas For Public Non-Community Water Supply Wells In New Jersey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A Well Head Protection Area for a Public Non-Community Water Supply Well (PNCWS) in New Jersey is a map area calculated around a Public Non-Community Water Supply...

  16. Community energy systems and the law of public utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Nebraska governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitiled ''Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities--Volume One: An Overview.'' This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  17. Defining the activities of publicness for Korea's public community hospitals using the Delphi method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kunsei; Kim, Hyun Joo; You, Myoungsoon; Lee, Jin-Seok; Eun, Sang Jun; Jeong, Hyoseon; Ahn, Hye Mi; Lee, Jin Yong

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to identify which activities of a public community hospital (PHC) should be included in their definition of publicness and tries to achieve a consensus among experts using the Delphi method. We conduct 2 rounds of the Delphi process with 17 panel members using a developed draft of tentative activities for publicness including 5 main categories covering 27 items. The questions remain the same in both rounds and the applicability of each of the 27 items to publicness is measured on a 9-point scale. If the participants believe government funding is needed, we ask how much they think the government should support each item on a 0% to 100% scale. After conducting 2 rounds of the Delphi process, 22 out of the 27 items reached a consensus as activities defining the publicness of the PHCs. Among the 5 major categories, in category C, activities preventing market failure, all 10 items were considered activities of publicness. Nine of these were evaluated as items that should be compensated at 100% of total financial loss by the Korean government. Throughout results, we were able to define the activities of the PCH that encompassed its publicness and confirm that there are "good deficits" in the context of the PCHs. Thus, some PCH deficits are unavoidable and not wasted as these monies support a necessary role and function in providing public health. The Korean government should therefore consider taking actions such as exempting such "good deficits" or providing additional financial aid to reimburse the PHCs for "good deficits."

  18. Public participation and marginalized groups: the community development model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Eileen; Hogg, Christine

    1999-12-01

    OBJECTIVES: To develop ways of reaching house-bound people and enabling them to give their views in planning and monitoring health and social care. STRATEGY: HealthLINK - a project based in a community health council - explored ways of involving older house-bound people in the London Borough of Camden, in planning and monitoring health and social care using community development techniques. RESULTS: HealthLINK set up an infrastructure to enable house-bound people to have access to information and to enable them to give their views. This resulted in access for health and local authorities to the views of house-bound older people and increased the self esteem and quality of life of those who became involved. CONCLUSIONS: Community development approaches that enable an infrastructure to be established may be an effective way of reaching marginalized communities. However, there are tensions in this approach between the different requirements for public involvement of statutory bodies and of users, and between representation of groups and listening to individual voices.

  19. Social Development:: 2 Year Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Social Development: 2 Year Olds Page Content Article Body ... and they serve as valuable rehearsals for future social encounters. They’ll also help you appreciate the ...

  20. The 2017 Solar Eclipse Community Impacts through Public Library Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenbery, P.; Holland, A.; LaConte, K.; Mosshammer, G.; Harold, J. B.; Fraknoi, A.; Schatz, D.; Duncan, D. K.

    2017-12-01

    More than two million pairs of eclipse glasses were distributed free through public libraries in the U.S. for the solar eclipse of the Sun taking place on August 21, 2017. About 7,000 organizations, including public library branches, bookmobiles, tribal libraries, library consortia, and state libraries took part in the celestial event of the century. Many organizations received a package of free safe-viewing glasses, plus a 24-page information booklet about eclipse viewing and suggested program ideas. An educational video was also produced on how best to do public outreach programs about the eclipse. The project was supported, in part, by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, with additional help from Google, NASA, the Research Corporation, and the National Science Foundation (NSF). The program was managed through the Space Science Institute's National Center for Interactive Learning as part of its STAR Library Network (STAR_Net). Resources developed by STAR_Net for this event included an Eclipse Resource Center; a newsletter for participating libraries to learn about eclipses and how to implement an effective and safe eclipse program; eclipse program activities on its STEM Activity Clearinghouse; webinars; and connections to subject matter experts from NASA's and the American Astronomical Society's volunteer networks. This presentation will provide an overview of the extensive collaboration that made this program possible as well as highlight the national impact that public libraries made in their communities.

  1. Improving energy sustainability for public buildings in Italian mountain communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutani, Guglielmina; Cornaglia, Mauro; Berto, Massimo

    2018-05-01

    The objective of this work is to analyze and then optimize thermal energy consumptions of public buildings located within the mountain community of Lanzo, Ceronda and Casternone Valleys. Some measures have been proposed to reduce energy consumption and consequently the economic cost for energy production, as well as the harmful GHG emissions in the atmosphere. Initially, a study of the mountain territory has been carried out, because of its vast extension and climatic differences. Defined the communities and the buildings under investigation, energy dependant data were collected for the analysis of energy consumption monitoring: consumption data of three heating seasons, geometric buildings characteristics, type of opaque and transparent envelope, heating systems information with boiler performance and climatic data. Afterward, five buildings with critical energy performances were selected; for each of these buildings, different retrofit interventions have been hypothesized to reduce the energy consumption, with thermal insulation of vertical or horizontal structures, new windows or boiler substitution. The cost-optimal technique was used to choose the interventions that offered higher energy performance at lower costs; then a retrofit scenario has been planned with a specific financial investment. Finally, results showed possible future developments and scenarios related to buildings energy efficiency with regard to the topic of biomass exploitation and its local availability in this area. In this context, the biomass energy resource could to create a virtuous environmental, economic and social process, favouring also local development.

  2. Socializing the policy on public transportation to the community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmawi, A.; Mariana, D.; Sjoraida, D. F.

    2018-03-01

    This article discusses how public policies on transportation can be communicated to the society in Sukabumi City, West Java, Indonesia. It is important for the community because the development of transportation services has a very close relationship with social welfare and economic growth of the region. This can be demonstrated with an indication that the region whose better transportation system tends to have better levels of social welfare and economic growth. The study here used a multiple case method. The cases consist of activities which were the implementation of the government’s program of socialization to the people of Sukabumi City on transportation. This regency is a door to an expansion of West Java development to the Southwest area that there are things new in government services, including in the field of transportation. Interviews, observation and document analyses were used to collect the data. Face to face interviews using a list of questions were also developed for this study. The findings of the study indicate that in addition to its own designing and implementing transportation development plan in Sukabumi City itself, there is also a transportation development involving West Java provincial government, even the national government of Indonesia in the region. All of the transportation plans could be properly communicated to the public because it used a variety of media, including the traditional, the modern, and the social.

  3. Engaging Communities using a MOOC combined with Public Library Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, S. A.; Mooney, M. E.; Morrill, J.; Handlos, Z.; Morrill, S.

    2015-12-01

    A massive open online course, or MOOC, is an noncredit education activity that delivers learning content to anyone with access to the Internet. Individual courses are generally free of charge, while a certificate can have small costs. The University of Wisconsin-Madison has exploring the use of MOOC as part of its Wisconsin Idea. In the 2015, a series of MOOCs focusing on the environment were offered via Coursera. One of those MOOCS was "Changing Weather and Climate of the Great Lakes Region." This 4-week course features a new season each week through short lectures and activities covering Great Lakes weather, observed changes in the climate, and societal impacts of climate change. (https://www.coursera.org/course/greatlakesclimate) The MOOC conveyed information from NOAA's National Weather Service (NWS) Weather-Ready Nation initiative as well as findings from the recent National Climate Assessment and the Wisconsin Initiative on Climate Change Impacts (WICCI). The course was organized by members of the Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences and the Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies; material included discussion, videos for lectures as well as guest lecturers. There were also weekly visits by the course team to 21 public libraries throughout the state of WI. The library collaboration as facilitated by WiLS (Wisconsin Library Services - wils.org), who organized the application and selection process. The public libraries hosted local residents and course instructors in discussions of course content in the context of their communities as well as strategies to mitigate the climate change impacts. This presentation will discuss the public library discussions experience and the our evaluation of the impact of including a face-to-face component in the MOOC activity on engagement and learning.

  4. Community Consultation and Public Disclosure: Preliminary Results From A New Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Cornelia A.; Quearry, Bonnie; Ripley, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Emergency medicine research conducted under the exception from informed consent (EFIC) regulation enables critical scientific advancements. When EFIC is proposed, there is a requirement for broad community consultation and public disclosure regarding the risks and benefits of the study. At the present time, no clear guidelines or standards exist for conducting and evaluating the community consultation and public disclosure. This preliminary study tested the feasibility and acceptability of a new approach to community consultation and public disclosure for a large-scale EFIC trial by engaging community members in designing and conducting the strategies. The authors enrolled key community members (called Community Advocates for Research, or CARs) to use community-based participatory methods to design and implement community consultation and public disclosure. By partnering with community members who represent target populations for the research study, this new approach has demonstrated a feasible community consultation and public disclosure plan with greater community participation and less cost than previous studies. In a community survey, the percentage of community members reporting having heard about the EFIC trial more than doubled after employing the new approach. This article discusses initial implementation and results. PMID:21729187

  5. The Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project — A Community-Level, Public Health Initiative to Build Community Disaster Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Eisenman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Public health officials need evidence-based methods for improving community disaster resilience and strategies for measuring results. This methods paper describes how one public health department is addressing this problem. This paper provides a detailed description of the theoretical rationale, intervention design and novel evaluation of the Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project (LACCDR, a public health program for increasing community disaster resilience. The LACCDR Project utilizes a pretest–posttest method with control group design. Sixteen communities in Los Angeles County were selected and randomly assigned to the experimental community resilience group or the comparison group. Community coalitions in the experimental group receive training from a public health nurse trained in community resilience in a toolkit developed for the project. The toolkit is grounded in theory and uses multiple components to address education, community engagement, community and individual self-sufficiency, and partnerships among community organizations and governmental agencies. The comparison communities receive training in traditional disaster preparedness topics of disaster supplies and emergency communication plans. Outcome indicators include longitudinal changes in inter-organizational linkages among community organizations, community member responses in table-top exercises, and changes in household level community resilience behaviors and attitudes. The LACCDR Project is a significant opportunity and effort to operationalize and meaningfully measure factors and strategies to increase community resilience. This paper is intended to provide public health and academic researchers with new tools to conduct their community resilience programs and evaluation research. Results are not yet available and will be presented in future reports.

  6. How Do Communities Use a Participatory Public Health Approach to Build Resilience? The Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, Elizabeth; Eisenman, David P; Magana, Aizita; Williams, Malcolm; Kim, Biblia; McCreary, Michael; Chandra, Anita; Wells, Kenneth B

    2017-10-21

    Community resilience is a key concept in the National Health Security Strategy that emphasizes development of multi-sector partnerships and equity through community engagement. Here, we describe the advancement of CR principles through community participatory methods in the Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience (LACCDR) initiative. LACCDR, an initiative led by the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health with academic partners, randomized 16 community coalitions to implement either an Enhanced Standard Preparedness or Community Resilience approach over 24 months. Facilitated by a public health nurse or community educator, coalitions comprised government agencies, community-focused organizations and community members. We used thematic analysis of data from focus groups ( n = 5) and interviews ( n = 6 coalition members; n = 16 facilitators) to compare coalitions' strategies for operationalizing community resilience levers of change (engagement, partnership, self-sufficiency, education). We find that strategies that included bidirectional learning helped coalitions understand and adopt resilience principles. Strategies that operationalized community resilience levers in mutually reinforcing ways (e.g., disseminating information while strengthening partnerships) also secured commitment to resilience principles. We review additional challenges and successes in achieving cross-sector collaboration and engaging at-risk groups in the resilience versus preparedness coalitions. The LACCDR example can inform strategies for uptake and implementation of community resilience and uptake of the resilience concept and methods.

  7. How Do Communities Use a Participatory Public Health Approach to Build Resilience? The Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Bromley

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Community resilience is a key concept in the National Health Security Strategy that emphasizes development of multi-sector partnerships and equity through community engagement. Here, we describe the advancement of CR principles through community participatory methods in the Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience (LACCDR initiative. LACCDR, an initiative led by the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health with academic partners, randomized 16 community coalitions to implement either an Enhanced Standard Preparedness or Community Resilience approach over 24 months. Facilitated by a public health nurse or community educator, coalitions comprised government agencies, community-focused organizations and community members. We used thematic analysis of data from focus groups (n = 5 and interviews (n = 6 coalition members; n = 16 facilitators to compare coalitions’ strategies for operationalizing community resilience levers of change (engagement, partnership, self-sufficiency, education. We find that strategies that included bidirectional learning helped coalitions understand and adopt resilience principles. Strategies that operationalized community resilience levers in mutually reinforcing ways (e.g., disseminating information while strengthening partnerships also secured commitment to resilience principles. We review additional challenges and successes in achieving cross-sector collaboration and engaging at-risk groups in the resilience versus preparedness coalitions. The LACCDR example can inform strategies for uptake and implementation of community resilience and uptake of the resilience concept and methods.

  8. The Public Safety Impact of Community Notification Laws: Rearrest of Convicted Sex Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Naomi J.

    2012-01-01

    Sex offender management is one of the highest-profile issues in public safety today. Although states have enacted community notification laws as a means to protect communities from sexual offending, limited research has been conducted to examine the impact of these laws on public safety. As such, this study used a quasi-experimental design to…

  9. Publicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Joan

    Publicity for preschool cooperatives is described. Publicity helps produce financial support for preschool cooperatives. It may take the form of posters, brochures, newsletters, open house, newspaper coverage, and radio and television. Word of mouth and general good will in the community are the best avenues of publicity that a cooperative nursery…

  10. A community-based participatory research partnership to reduce vehicle idling near public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghbalnia, Cynthia; Sharkey, Ken; Garland-Porter, Denisha; Alam, Mohammad; Crumpton, Marilyn; Jones, Camille; Ryan, Patrick H

    2013-05-01

    The authors implemented and assessed the effectiveness of a public health initiative aimed at reducing traffic-related air pollution exposure of the school community at four Cincinnati public schools. A partnership was fostered with academic environmental health researchers and community members. Anti-idling campaign materials were developed and education and training were provided to school bus drivers, students, parents, and school staff. Pledge drives and pre- and posteducation assessments were documented to measure the effectiveness of the program. After completing the educational component of the public health initiative, bus drivers (n = 397), community members (n = 53), and staff (n = 214) demonstrated significantly increased knowledge about the health effects of idling (p public health intervention. A community-driven public health initiative can be effective in both 1) enhancing community awareness about the benefits of reducing idling vehicles and 2) increasing active participation in idling reduction. The partnership initially developed has continued to develop toward a sustainable and growing process.

  11. Reflections and Challenges for the Public Administration Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouckaert, Geert

    2013-01-01

    The question of whether the field of public administration education is prepared for the future of the public sector in Europe is a complex one, which needs to be unpacked to give a grounded answer. Unpacking this question means that there needs to be discussions on not just what educating the field of public administration means, but also…

  12. A Study of Four Library Programs for Disadvantaged Persons. Part II, Appendices B: Brooklyn Public Library Community Coordinator Project, the New York Public Library North Manhattan Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsor, Charlotte B.; Burrows, Lodema

    This document contains observations of library staff and interviews with community members about the Brooklyn Public Library Community Coordinator Project and the New York Public Library North Manhattan Project. The Community Coordinator Project employs four professional librarians to take an active part in community institutions and organizations…

  13. Financial Reporting Practices in Illinois Public Community Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeadas, Gus J.

    A study was conducted to determine how well Illinois' 38 community college districts satisfied the needs of board members, creditors, investors, and tax payers for financial information. A list of 38 financial reporting requirements was developed from the requirements of the Illinois Community College Board (ICCB) and guidelines from the Audits of…

  14. Public awareness of Pharmaceutical care availability in community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, the awareness of availability of pharmaceutical care services in community pharmacies was 3% while 75% of the respondents believed a community pharmacy was just a place drugs can be obtained. As the profession and pharmacists endeavour to improve knowledge and skill to deliver pharmaceutical care ...

  15. Public health accreditation and metrics for ethics: a case study on environmental health and community engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernheim, Ruth Gaare; Stefanak, Matthew; Brandenburg, Terry; Pannone, Aaron; Melnick, Alan

    2013-01-01

    As public health departments around the country undergo accreditation using the Public Health Accreditation Board standards, the process provides a new opportunity to integrate ethics metrics into day-to-day public health practice. While the accreditation standards do not explicitly address ethics, ethical tools and considerations can enrich the accreditation process by helping health departments and their communities understand what ethical principles underlie the accreditation standards and how to use metrics based on these ethical principles to support decision making in public health practice. We provide a crosswalk between a public health essential service, Public Health Accreditation Board community engagement domain standards, and the relevant ethical principles in the Public Health Code of Ethics (Code). A case study illustrates how the accreditation standards and the ethical principles in the Code together can enhance the practice of engaging the community in decision making in the local health department.

  16. Community members’ initiatives in public open spaces: two case studies from Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Jelenc Krašovec

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with public spaces as open, everyday arenas where people share experiences beyond their immediate circle of friends, family and age group. Public space is understood as a forum for social and personal change (Harvey, 2011; Lefebvre, 2013; Arendt, 1996; Habermas, 1989; 2001. Questions are analysed from the point of view of community members, who are strongly attached to the space and who are interested in belonging and in proactive changes in their living environment (Iecovich, 2014; Kohn 2004; Mean and Tims, 2005. The paper is based on the presumptions that public space has an important role in generating ideas and activities of community members and that it is an important venue for community members’ informal learning. Ethnomethodological research in two public spaces (the Tabor community in Ljubljana and a small community in the coastal town of Izola show that there are differences between both public spaces regarding top-down initiatives and bottom-up, self-organized activities. However, although the activity initiators were in one case different associations rooted in the community, and in the other the local people themselves, most of the activities were conducted by people living in the selected communities/public spaces themselves as is typical of grassroots activities. It was confirmed that learning was not often mentioned by members of either community and was mostly a hidden activity, resulting in tacit knowledge.

  17. Public participatory GIS in community-based disaster risk reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall B. Kemp

    2008-12-01

    Introducing PPGIS tools into community-based DRR is not a neutral effort. The information and communication technologies (ICT embedded in GIS can both aid the DRR efforts as well as impact the community in unintended ways. ICTs may be common in communities engaged in DRR efforts so the introduction of PPGIS may have minimal impact. What are the societal ramifications, however, of PPGIS methods in DRR efforts when ICTs are a relatively new aspect of a given community?  What are the communication methods pertinent to PPGIS in the DRR context?  How does the ICT literature address PPGIS methods?  The paper addresses these and other influences of ICT on societies prone to natural hazards.

  18. Tax-Exempt Hospitals' Investments in Community Health and Local Public Health Spending: Patterns and Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Simone R; Young, Gary J

    2017-12-01

    To investigate whether tax-exempt hospitals' investments in community health are associated with patterns of governmental public health spending focusing specifically on the relationship between hospitals' community benefit expenditures and the spending patterns of local health departments (LHDs). We combined data on tax-exempt hospitals' community benefit spending with data on spending by the corresponding LHD that served the county in which a hospital was located. Data were available for 2 years, 2009 and 2013. Generalized linear regressions were estimated with indicators of hospital community benefit spending as the dependent variable and LHD spending as the key independent variable. Hospital community benefit spending was unrelated to how much local public health agencies spent, per capita, on public health in their communities. Patterns of local public health spending do not appear to impact the investments of tax-exempt hospitals in community health activities. Opportunities may, however, exist for a more active engagement between the public and private sector to ensure that the expenditures of all stakeholders involved in community health improvement efforts complement one another. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  19. Integrating Local Public Health Agencies into the Homeland Security Community

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reed, Patricia D

    2007-01-01

    After more than seven years of funding through The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, local public health agencies have made inconsistent progress in fulfilling their Homeland Security objectives...

  20. Integrating Local Public Health Agencies into the Homeland Security Community

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reed, Patricia D

    2007-01-01

    .... This thesis argues that several factors contribute to this lack of success, including funding structures and guidelines, the reluctance on the part of other responder agencies to include Public...

  1. Public sector employment for community development in South Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-11-26

    Nov 26, 2015 ... South Africa's Community Work Programme (CWP) provides an employment safety net ... IDRC-supported experts at the Centre for the Study of Violence and ... Read the policy brief (in English, PDF, 5MB). ... Copyright · Open access policy · Privacy policy · Research ethics · Transparency · Website usage.

  2. Community Survey Q5: Public safety - Police services

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This question is from the 2015 Chapel Hill Community Survey.Using a scale of 1 to 5 where 5 means “Very Satisfied” and 1 means “Very Dissatisfied,” residents were...

  3. A Public Policy for Neighborhood and Community Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Milton

    1979-01-01

    It is in the interest of federal and local governments to enlarge the power of community and neighborhood organizations for the sake of effective governing. During this era of budgetary and tax restraint, these organizations must be brought into the process of service delivery and development. (Author/RLV)

  4. Community Reinforcement and the Dissemination of Evidence-Based Practice: Implications for Public Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milford, Jaime L.; Austin, Julia L.; Smith, Jane Ellen

    2007-01-01

    The Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA) and Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) are both highly effective and empirically validated psychosocial approaches to the treatment of addictions whose unique designs may help achieve certain public health objectives. Literature will be reviewed to examine the potential impact of CRA and…

  5. Public health impact of community-based nutrition and lifestyle interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijden, M.W.; Kok, F.J.

    2005-01-01

    Community-based interventions have increasingly received attention since researchers and public health professionals have come to acknowledge the importance of an environment that makes the healthy choice the easy choice. All stakeholders including the target community are involved to achieve

  6. Fiscal Year 2006 Salary Report for the Illinois Public Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Community College Board, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Data about compensation received by employees in Illinois' 48 Illinois public community colleges are gathered by the Illinois Community College Board (ICCB). Data in the Fiscal Year 2006 Salary Report reflect the census date of October 1, 2005. Data are presented by peer groups with statewide totals. Most of the 25 tables in this report contain…

  7. Occupy Public Education: A Community's Struggle for Educational Resources in the Era of Privatization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, Gabriel Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    This case study investigates globalization and its growing impact on public school services to disenfranchised urban communities. Using a combination of periodicals, internal documents, and observations from the author, the research provides a narrative analysis of relations between community leaders of a low-income, Mexican immigrant community…

  8. Rural Public Libraries as Community Change Agents: Opportunities for Health Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Mary Grace; Miller, David

    2016-01-01

    Rural residents are at a disadvantage with regard to health status and access to health promotion activities. In many rural communities, public libraries offer support through health information provision; there are also opportunities for engagement in broader community health efforts. In a collaborative effort between an academic researcher and a…

  9. An Assessment of Campus Police Departments across Mississippi's Public Community and Junior Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, Brad D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to provide an assessment of campus police departments throughout the 15 public community and junior colleges in Mississippi. This research could provide Mississippi community and junior college administrators the opportunity to observe and appraise the overall safety of their respective campuses in comparison to safety…

  10. Connection and Community: Diné College Emphasizes Real-World Experience in Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The Summer Research Enhancement Program (SREP) at Diné College provides students with a solid foundation of public health research methods and includes a hands-on internship in their home community to test their newly acquired skills while enhancing the communities' health. Focusing on health issues prioritized by Navajo health leaders, from…

  11. Public Marketing: An Alternative Policy Decision-Making Idea for Small Cities. Community Development Research Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, James; And Others

    The concept of public marketing presents a strategy for the systems approach to community development that would facilitate the community decision making process via improved communication. Basic aspects of the social marketing process include: (1) product policy; (2) channels of distribution; (3) pricing (perceived price vs quality and quantity…

  12. 76 FR 23328 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment; Indian Community Development Block...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... Information Collection for Public Comment; Indian Community Development Block Grant Information Collection... lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Indian Community Development Block Grant Information... Block Grants, requires that grants for Indian Tribes be awarded on a competitive basis. The purpose of...

  13. Community Psychology and Psychosocial Expressions of Poverty: Contributions for Public Policy Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Morais Ximenes, Verônica; Universidade Federal do Ceará; Camurça Cidade, Elívia; Universidade Federal do Ceará.; Barbosa Nepomuceno, Bárbara; Universidade Federal do Ceará.

    2016-01-01

    The purposeis to analyze, from Community Psychology’s perspective, psychosocial expressions of poverty and their contributions for intervention in public policy. Community Psychology accents the critique about the factors that maintain those material and symbolic aspects that interfere with the subjective constitution of the poor. Exploratory research, quantitative and qualitative, was conducted with 417 adult subjects of a rural and urban community in Brazil. Poverty involves moral explanati...

  14. Attitude towards Community Building in Association of Southeast Asian Nations: A Public Opinion Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Ravichandran Moorthy; Guido Benny

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) envisioned an integrated regional community by the year 2015, following the European Union model. However, unlike the European Community which was formed after years of discussion at different levels of society, institutions and government, ASEAN was rather quick to conceptualize this initiative, without seeking the feedbacks for the public. Consequently, ASEAN Community initiative has been criticized for being elitist in i...

  15. Radon-removal techniques for small community public water supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinner, N.E.; Malley, J.P.; Clement, J.A.; Quern, P.A.; Schell, G.S.

    1990-08-01

    The report presents the results of an evaluation, performed by the University of New Hampshire--Environmental Research Group (ERG), of radon removal in small community water supplies using full-scale granular activated carbon adsorption, diffused bubble aeration and packed tower aeration. Various low technology alternatives, such as loss in a distribution system and addition of coarse bubble aeration to a pilot-scale atmospheric storage tank were also evaluated. The report discusses each of the treatment alternatives with respect to their radon removal efficiency, potential problems (i.e., waste disposal, radiation exposure and intermedia pollution), and economics in small community applications. In addition, several sampling methods, storage times, scintillation cocktails and extraction procedures currently used in the liquid scintillation technique for analysis of radon in water were compared

  16. Community views and public health priority setting: how do health department priorities, community views, and health indicator data compare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle-Richardson, Giulia; Scribani, Melissa; Wyckoff, Lynae; Strogatz, David; May, John; Jenkins, Paul

    2015-01-01

    New York, like many other states, provides county-level health statistics for use in local priority settings but does not provide any data on public views about priority health issues. This study assessed whether health department priorities are notably different from community concerns about health, and how both groups' priorities compare with local health statistics. Data from a 2009 rural survey on community health concerns were compared to priorities named by the seven area county health departments, and to local health indicator data. Health care/insurance cost (60%), obesity (53%), and prescription cost (41%) were leading community concerns, regardless of age, education, sex, or Internet in the home. Six of seven county health departments selected access to quality health care (which includes health care/insurance cost) as a leading public health priority, but only three identified obesity. The following leading local health issues were suggested by health indicators: Physical activity and nutrition, Smoking, and Unintentional injury. Health departments diverged from community priorities, from health indicator data, and from one another in choosing priorities. Adding a question about community health priorities to existing state telephone surveys on health behavior and lifestyle would provide an important tool to local health departments. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  17. Resolving community conflicts and problems: public deliberation and sustained dialogue

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lohmann, Roger A; Van Til, Jon

    2011-01-01

    ... into eventual dialogue the disparate leaders of Israel and Egypt. Saunders's work continued through the 1980s and 1990s with the Dartmouth Seminar, developing public conversation between Soviet and American citizen leaders, and has since spread to many other nations under the rubric of "sustained dialogue." During the same period, the Kettering Fo...

  18. Public Relations Opportunities for Schools Utilizing Innovations in Virtual Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Frances L.; Matt, John J.

    2013-01-01

    With the dawn of the Information Age, schools, along with other organizations, must take note of the varied ways individuals and groups in society are communicating. Today, with the many forms of communication, most information is made public in real time. In a qualitative national study in the United States, respondents identified positive and…

  19. Examining Community-Engaged Scholarship in Public Administration Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norvell, Katrina Herndon

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to broaden the understanding of the role that academic professions play in shaping the values and attitudes of faculty toward CES. This study explored faculty perceptions regarding the factors that encourage or dissuade them in the pursuit of CES within public administration programs. As a framework for research, a conceptual…

  20. Governance Factors Affecting Community Participation In Public Development Projects In Meru District In Arusha In Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Estomih Muro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to have a fresh look at the local governance status through exploring governance factors affecting community participation in public development projects. The study also has investigated the actors and factors shaping participation as well as causes for non-participation. For the purpose of the study six wards within two divisions of Poli and Mbuguni and Meru district headquarters were selected. In the wards a total of 80 respondents from among the community members were interviewed through a structured questionnaire. Others were Village chairman Village Executive Officers Ward Executive Officers and Councilors were also interviewed and involved in the FGD. Data were analyzed using SPSS. Simple descriptive statistics and cross tabulation and figures were used in the analysis. The analysis showed that the communities were participated in the public development projects and people were participating through financial material and labor contribution to the public development projects. The analysis also showed that the government supported the ongoing public development projects including through provision of fund and expertise. The study showed the benefit of community participation in the development projects or programs like ownership of the projects and enjoying the benefits accrued from the projects. The study also indicated that there is significant change in terms of governance as influencers of community participation in public development projects. Despite the fortunes study showed some challenges found in wards and villages being the incidence of corruptions and misuse of public resources which were mentioned to slow community participation in public development projects. It was therefore concluded that adhering to the good governance principles contribute positively towards community participation in public development projects.

  1. Brookings supports breastfeeding: using public deliberation as a community-engaged approach to dissemination of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jenn; Kuehl, Rebecca A; Mehltretter Drury, Sara A; Tschetter, Lois; Schwaegerl, Mary; Yoder, Julia; Gullickson, Heidi; Lamp, Jamison; Bachman, Charlotte; Hildreth, Marilyn

    2017-12-01

    Empirical evidence demonstrates myriad benefits of breastfeeding for mother and child, along with benefits to businesses that support breastfeeding. Federal and state legislation requires workplace support for pumping and provides protections for public breastfeeding. Yet, many are unaware of these laws, and thus, support systems remain underdeveloped. We used a community-based approach to spread awareness about the evidence-based benefits of breastfeeding and breastfeeding support. We worked to improve breastfeeding support at the local hospital, among local employers, and throughout the broader community. Our coalition representing the hospital, the chamber of commerce, the university, and local lactation consultants used a public deliberation model for dissemination. We held focus groups, hosted a public conversation, spoke to local organizations, and promoted these efforts through local media. The hospital achieved Baby-Friendly status and opened a Baby Café. Breastfeeding support in the community improved through policies, designated pumping spaces, and signage that supports public breastfeeding at local businesses. Community awareness of the benefits of breastfeeding and breastfeeding support increased; the breastfeeding support coalition remains active. The public deliberation process for dissemination engaged the community with evidence-based promotion of breastfeeding support, increased agency, and produced sustainable results tailored to the community's unique needs.

  2. Design of an online health-promoting community: negotiating user community needs with public health goals and service capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekberg, Joakim; Timpka, Toomas; Angbratt, Marianne; Frank, Linda; Norén, Anna-Maria; Hedin, Lena; Andersen, Emelie; Gursky, Elin A; Gäre, Boel Andersson

    2013-07-04

    An online health-promoting community (OHPC) has the potential to promote health and advance new means of dialogue between public health representatives and the general public. The aim of this study was to examine what aspects of an OHPC that are critical for satisfying the needs of the user community and public health goals and service capabilities. Community-based participatory research methods were used for data collection and analysis, and participatory design principles to develop a case study OHPC for adolescents. Qualitative data from adolescents on health appraisals and perspectives on health information were collected in a Swedish health service region and classified into categories of user health information exchange needs. A composite design rationale for the OHPC was completed by linking the identified user needs, user-derived requirements, and technical and organizational systems solutions. Conflicts between end-user requirements and organizational goals and resources were identified. The most prominent health information needs were associated to food, exercise, and well-being. The assessment of the design rationale document and prototype in light of the regional public health goals and service capabilities showed that compromises were needed to resolve conflicts involving the management of organizational resources and responsibilities. The users wanted to discuss health issues with health experts having little time to set aside to the OHPC and it was unclear who should set the norms for the online discussions. OHPCs can be designed to satisfy both the needs of user communities and public health goals and service capabilities. Compromises are needed to resolve conflicts between users' needs to discuss health issues with domain experts and the management of resources and responsibilities in public health organizations.

  3. Community Health Centers: The Untapped Resource for Public Health and Medical Preparedness

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Kanen M.

    2008-01-01

    This article appeared in Homeland Security Affairs (January 2009), v.5 no.1 HSPD-21 was recently released to the public calling for a transformation in the national approach to public health and medical preparedness in the United States. The latest deliberations, as prioritized by this strategy, are to bolster the nation's ability to manage a public health crisis by stimulating improvements in the areas of biosurveillance, countermeasure distribution, mass casualty care, and community resi...

  4. Social capital in Japan: What characteristics do public health nurses see in their communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hikaru; Kawaharada, Mariko; Shindo, Yukari; Tanaka, Rie; Nakajima, Ayaka; Nimura, Yuki

    2018-04-01

    A concept of social capital that accounts for a community's cultural background and incorporates social capital into public health nursing practice are needed. This study aimed to describe the characteristics of social capital in the context of public health nursing in Japan. The study interviewed 11 veteran public health nurses from five municipalities across Japan and undertook a qualitative research analysis. A digital voice recorder was used to collect qualitative data by using a background data sheet and semistructured interviews. Trustworthiness in interpreting the data was ensured by conducting 13 additional interviews with residents and collating the two sets of results. All the participants were female: 10 were veterans with ≥15 years' experience. Nine worked in management. The methods yielded six categories: (i) the richness of the interactions among the residents; (ii) the community residents who showed concern for those in need; (iii) community civic activities; (iv) the residents' willingness to contribute to the community; (v) the health promotion volunteers who work alongside the public health nurses; and (vi) an enriched community environment. The results contribute to an understanding of social capital in the context of public health nursing activities and further research on social capital. It also is discussed how social capital can be incorporated into public health nursing activities in the future. © 2017 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  5. Community-scale solar photovoltaics: housing and public development examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komoto, K.

    2008-03-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 10 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at community-scale photovoltaics. The mission of the Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to enhance the international collaboration efforts which accelerate the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. The aim of Task 10 is stated as being to enhance the opportunities for wide-scale, solution-oriented application of photovoltaics in the urban environment. This report provides examples of housing developments and incorporated townships that have integrated multiple stakeholder values into business solutions. The authors are of the opinion that builders, developers, architects and engineers need to consider orientation, aesthetics, load diversity, energy efficiency, grid infrastructure and end use. Residential and commercial building owners or occupants need to consider the design of electric services relative to loads, green image, and economic opportunities such as feed-in tariffs. Local government should give preference to granting permission to high-performance building projects. It is suggested that the finance and insurance sector consider the operational savings in overall debt allowances. System manufacturers and integrators should develop standardised systems. In the emerging PV community market, utilities are quickly gaining awareness of business opportunities. The need for professionals and skilled labour is quoted as having grown as drastically as the PV market itself.

  6. SEX PREFERENCESAMONG RURAL COMMUNITY: PUBLIC HEALTH AND SOCIAL CONCERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aalok Kumar Singh, Sunil Thitame, Reecha Ghimire

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sex preference is choice of selecting the sex of children by their parents or family members. The objective of the study was to study the existence of sex preference among rural community. Material and methods: A Cross-sectional study was carried out among 200 ever married women of reproductive age group. Random digits sampling method was used to select 10 villages in Rahata Tehsil of Ahmednagar, while systematic sampling was applied for selection of 20 samples in each village. Results: In the previous sex preference for male child was 37.3%, 58.75%, 88.5%, 100% and 100% from firstchild to fifth respectively, while female preference and either sexpreference was decreasing. In the current sex preference for male, female and either was 36.8%, 25% and 38.2% respectively. Future sex preference was 40.9% for male child, 22.7% for female child and 36.4% for either sex. The main reason for son preference was for old age care and support, to continue the family name and earning member in the family. Conclusion: Study confirms that son preference still existsin the rural community of Maharashtra. Attitude for son preference is mainly because of the economic earning, old age care and continuation of the family nameamong all groups.

  7. Building sustainable community partnerships into the structure of new academic public health schools and programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaughan, Monica; Gillman, Laura B; Boumbulian, Paul; Davis, Marsha; Galen, Robert S

    2011-01-01

    We describe and assess how the College of Public Health at the University of Georgia, established in 2005, has developed formal institutional mechanisms to facilitate community-university partnerships that serve the needs of communities and the university. The College developed these partnerships as part of its founding; therefore, the University of Georgia model may serve as an important model for other new public health programs. One important lesson is the need to develop financial and organizational mechanisms that ensure stability over time. Equally important is attention to how community needs can be addressed by faculty and students in academically appropriate ways. The integration of these 2 lessons ensures that the academic mission is fulfilled at the same time that community needs are addressed. Together, these lessons suggest that multiple formal strategies are warranted in the development of academically appropriate and sustainable university-community partnerships.

  8. Explaining turnover intention in Korean public community hospitals: occupational differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jee-In; Chang, Hyejung

    2008-01-01

    Personnel in public hospitals had relatively low job satisfaction despite of tenure employment. High turnover rates degrade hospital image and incur additional costs related to recruitment and training. The purposes of this study were to describe the occupational differences and to identify factors affecting turnover intention among public hospital personnel. A questionnaire survey was conducted as part of Administrative Services Quality Evaluation Program by Seoul metropolitan municipality from 1 November to 1 December in 2003. The subjects were 1251 entire hospital personnel in four hospitals. The questionnaire was designed to measure job satisfaction, organizational commitment, turnover intention, and demographic characteristics. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine factors influencing turnover intention. There were significant differences in job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention according to the occupations. The turnover intention rates were highest among physicians, followed by paramedicals and nursing staffs and then administrators. The significant factors affecting turnover intention were involvement and loyalty among physicians, hospital type, satisfaction with systems and loyalty among nursing staffs, satisfaction with relationship and loyalty among administrators, and loyalty among paramedicals. There were different moderators that influence turnover intentions of hospital personnel. Loyalty had the most important effect upon turnover intention in all occupations. 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  9. Community as classroom: teaching and learning public health in rural Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florence, James; Behringer, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Traditional models for public health professional education tend to be didactic, with brief, discrete practica appended. National reports of both practitioners and academicians have called for more competency-driven, interdisciplinary-focused, community-based, service-oriented, and experientially-guided learning for students across the curriculum. East Tennessee State University began its own curricular revisioning in health professions education nearly 2 decades ago with a grant from the W.K. Kellogg Foundation, emphasizing competencies development through community-based learning in community-academic partnerships. This article describes 3 examples that grew from that initiative. In the first example, students in multiple classes delivered a longitudinal community-based employee wellness intervention for a rural county school district. BS public health students conducted needs assessments and prepared health education materials; MPH students conducted health assessments and worked with school wellness councils to deliver client-centered interventions; DrPH students supervised the project and provided feedback to the schools using participatory methods. In the second example, MPH students in a social-behavioral foundations course used experiential learning to investigate the region's elevated cancer mortality ranking. Following meetings with multiple community groups, students employed theoretical constructs to frame regional beliefs about cancer and presented findings to community leaders. One outcome was a 5-year community-based participatory research study of cancer in rural Appalachia. In the third example, MPH students in a health-consulting course assessed local African Americans' awareness of the university's health and education programs and perceptions of their community health issues. Students learned consultation methods by assisting at multiple regional African American community meetings to discover issues and interest that resulted in the

  10. Public health program planning logic model for community engaged type 2 diabetes management and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Joseph F

    2014-02-01

    Diabetes remains a growing epidemic with widening health inequity gaps in disease management, self-management knowledge, access to care and outcomes. Yet there is a paucity of evaluation tools for community engaged interventions aimed at closing the gaps and improving health. The Guide to Community Preventive Services (the Community Guide) developed by the Task Force on Community Preventive Services (the Task Force) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends two healthcare system level interventions, case management interventions and disease management programs, to improve glycemic control. However, as a public health resource guide for diabetes interventions a model for community engagement is a glaringly absent component of the Community Guide recommendations. In large part there are few evidence-based interventions featuring community engagement as a practice and system-level focus of chronic disease and Type 2 diabetes management. The central argument presented in this paper is that the absence of these types of interventions is due to the lack of tools for modeling and evaluating such interventions, especially among disparate and poor populations. A conceptual model emphasizing action-oriented micro-level community engagement is needed to complement the Community Guide and serve as the basis for testing and evaluation of these kinds of interventions. A unique logic model advancing the Community Guide diabetes recommendations toward measureable and sustainable community engagement for improved Type 2 diabetes outcomes is presented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Enablers and Barriers to Community Engagement in Public Health Emergency Preparedness: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsbottom, Anna; O'Brien, Eleanor; Ciotti, Lucrezio; Takacs, Judit

    2018-04-01

    Public health emergency preparedness (PHEP) all too often focusses only on institutional capabilities, including their technical expertise and political influence, while overlooking community capabilities. However, the success of institutional emergency preparedness plans depends upon communities and institutions working together to ensure successful anticipation, response and recovery. Broader community engagement is therefore recommended worldwide. This literature review was carried out to identify enablers and barriers to community and institutional synergies in emergency preparedness. Searches were undertaken across bibliographic databases and grey literature sources. The literature identified was qualitative in nature. A qualitative, 'best fit' framework approach using a pre-existing framework was used to analyse the literature, whereby themes were added and changed as analysis progressed. A working definition of community was identified, based on a 'whole community' approach, inclusive of the whole multitude of stakeholders including community residents and emergency management staff. Given the diversity in community make-up, the types of emergencies that could be faced, the socio-economic, environmental and political range of communities, there are no set practices that will be effective for all communities. The most effective way of engaging communities in emergency preparedness is context-dependent and the review did draw out some important key messages for institutions to consider.

  12. Patterns of Intergroup Contact in Public Spaces: Micro-Ecology of Segregation in Australian Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Priest

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of public spaces can promote social cohesion and facilitate interpersonal interactions within the community. However, the ways racial and ethnic groups interact in public spaces can also reflect and influence informal segregation in the wider community. The present study aimed to examine patterns of intergroup contact within public spaces in Victoria, Australia through short-term observation in four localities. Data were collected on within-group, intergroup and absence of contact for people from minority and majority groups. A total of 974 contacts were observed. Findings indicate that in the observed public spaces, people from visible minority groups tended to have no contact with others or to interact with people from other ethnic/racial groups. In contrast, those from the majority group tended to interact predominately with other majority group members. This suggests that majority group members are more likely to ‘self-segregate’ in public spaces than those from minority groups.

  13. Using public health and community partnerships to reduce density of alcohol outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, David H; Sparks, Michael; Yang, Evelyn; Schwartz, Randy

    2013-04-11

    Excessive alcohol use causes approximately 80,000 deaths in the United States each year. The Guide to Community Preventive Services recommends reducing the density of alcohol outlets - the number of physical locations in which alcoholic beverages are available for purchase either per area or per population - through the use of regulatory authority as an effective strategy for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. We briefly review the research on density of alcohol outlets and public health and describe the powers localities have to influence alcohol outlet density. We summarize Regulating Alcohol Outlet Density: An Action Guide, which describes steps that local communities can take to reduce outlet density and the key competencies and resources of state and local health departments. These include expertise in public health surveillance and evaluation methods, identification and tracking of outcome measures, geographic information systems (GIS) mapping, community planning and development of multisector efforts, and education of community leaders and policy makers. We illustrate the potential for partnerships between public health agencies and local communities by presenting a contemporary case study from Omaha, Nebraska. Public health agencies have a vital and necessary role to play in efforts to reduce alcohol outlet density. They are often unaware of the potential of this strategy and have strong potential partners in the thousands of community coalitions nationwide that are focused on reducing alcohol-related problems.

  14. Tangible Evidence, Trust and Power: Public Perceptions of Community Environmental Health Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen; Senier, Laura; Darrah-Okike, Jennifer; Brown, Phil; Santos, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Communities with environmental health concerns in the USA frequently request studies from their local or state departments of public health. This paper presents findings from three focus groups conducted in communities north of Boston that have been the subject of two different environmental health studies. The focus groups were designed to elicit residents’ perceptions of environmental health, and of the particular studies conducted in their communities. In all focus groups, participants had difficulty accepting the findings of health studies that contradicted their own experiences of environmental exposures and illness. Our results suggest that lay knowledge, informed in varying degrees by the experience of what we term “tangible evidence,” creates a lens through which communities interpret a health study’s findings. The differences in reliance on tangible evidence were related to participants’ sense of trust in public officials, and the institutions responsible for conducting health studies. Participants from the wealthier, predominantly white communities discussed trust in study design and methodologies used. In contrast, participants from the lower income, higher minority communities assessed health studies with reference to their trust (or lack thereof) in study sponsors and public health institutions. Participants’ experience of tangible evidence, trust or distrust in health agencies and research institutions, and a sense of relative community power, influence how they assess the findings of environmental health studies and may have implications for pubic health. PMID:18995942

  15. Treating co-occurring Axis I disorders in recurrently suicidal women with borderline personality disorder: a 2-year randomized trial of dialectical behavior therapy versus community treatment by experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harned, Melanie S; Chapman, Alexander L; Dexter-Mazza, Elizabeth T; Murray, Angela; Comtois, Katherine A; Linehan, Marsha M

    2008-12-01

    This study evaluated whether dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) was more efficacious than treatment by nonbehavioral psychotherapy experts in reducing co-occurring Axis I disorders among suicidal individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Women with BPD and recent and repeated suicidal and/or self-injurious behavior (n = 101) were randomly assigned to 1 year of DBT or community treatment by experts (CTBE), plus 1 year of follow-up assessment. For substance dependence disorders (SDD), DBT patients were more likely to achieve full remission, spent more time in partial remission, spent less time meeting full criteria, and reported more drug- and alcohol-abstinent days than did CTBE patients. These findings suggest that improvements in co-occurring SDD among suicidal BPD patients are specific to DBT and cannot be attributed to general factors associated with nonbehavioral expert psychotherapy. Further, group differences in SDD remission were not explained by either psychotropic medication usage or changes in BPD criterion behaviors. DBT and CTBE did not significantly differ in the reduction of anxiety disorders, eating disorders, or major depressive disorder.

  16. Fertility treatment for the transgender community: a public opinion study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Randi H; Kaser, Daniel J; Missmer, Stacey A; Farland, Leslie V; Scout; Ashby, Rachel K; Ginsburg, Elizabeth S

    2017-11-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate public opinion regarding fertility treatment and gamete cryopreservation for transgender individuals and identify how support varies by demographic characteristics. This is a cross-sectional web-based survey study completed by a representative sample of 1111 US residents aged 18-75 years. Logistic regression was used to calculate odd ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of support for/opposition to fertility treatments for transgender people by demographic characteristics, adjusting a priori for age, gender, race, and having a biological child. Of 1336 people recruited, 1111 (83.2%) agreed to participate, and 986 (88.7%) completed the survey. Most respondents (76.2%) agreed that "Doctors should be able to help transgender people have biological children." Atheists/agnostics were more likely to be in support (88.5%) than Christian-Protestants (72.4%; OR = 3.10, CI = 1.37-7.02), as were younger respondents, sexual minorities, those divorced/widowed, Democrats, and non-parents. Respondents who did not know a gay person (10.0%; OR = 0.20, CI = 0.09-0.42) or only knew a gay person without children (41.4%; OR = 0.29, CI = 0.17-0.50) were more often opposed than those who knew a gay parent (48.7%). No differences in gender, geography, education, or income were observed. A smaller majority of respondents supported doctors helping transgender minors preserve gametes before transitioning (60.6%) or helping transgender men carry pregnancies (60.1%). Most respondents who support assisted and third-party reproduction also support such interventions to help transgender people have children.

  17. A Ground-Up Model for Gun Violence Reduction: A Community-Based Public Health Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrdsong, T Rashad; Devan, Angela; Yamatani, Hide

    2016-01-01

    The suggested strategy for the reduction of violence is to collaboratively address the problem, based on an intervention system focused on prevention, rehabilitation, and development. This strategy is capable of engaging community residents in positive ways, and it empowers them to take ownership and sustain much-needed resident commitments to achieve long-term public safety. The community residents largely insist that over-reliance on law enforcement to control violence invites further affliction among Black youth and adults.

  18. A qualitative exploration of opinions on the community pharmacists' role amongst the general public in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidman, Wendy; Cowley, Joseph

    2013-10-01

    To understand members of the public's opinions and experiences of pharmacy services. This exploratory study employed qualitative methods. Five focus groups were conducted with 26 members of the public resident in Scotland in March 2010. The groups comprised those perceived to be users and non-users of community pharmacy. A topic guide was developed to prompt discussion. Each focus group was recorded, transcribed, anonymised and analysed using thematic analysis. Participants made positive comments about pharmacy services although many preferred to see a general practitioner (GP). Participants discussed using pharmacies for convenience, often because they were unable to access GPs. Pharmacists were perceived principally to be suppliers of medicine, although there was some recognition of roles in dealing with minor ailments and providing advice. For those with serious and long-standing health matters GPs were usually the professional of choice for most health needs. Community pharmacy was seen to offer incomplete services which did not co-ordinate well with other primary-care services. The pharmacy environment and retail setting were not considered to be ideal for private healthcare consultations. This study suggests that despite recent initiatives to extend the role of community pharmacists many members of the general public continue to prefer a GP-led service. Importantly GPs inspire public confidence as well as offering comprehensive services and private consultation facilities. Improved communication and information sharing between community pharmacists and general practice could support community pharmacist-role expansion. © 2012 The Authors. IJPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  19. Risk-communication capability for public health emergencies varies by community diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viswanath Kasisomayajula

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health emergencies heighten several challenges in risk-communication: providing trustworthy sources of information, reaching marginalized populations, and minimizing fear and public confusion. In emergencies, however, information may not diffuse equally among all social groups, and gaps in knowledge may increase. Such knowledge gaps vary by social structure and the size, socioeconomic status, and diversity of the population. This study explores the relationship between risk-communication capabilities, as perceived by public officials participating in emergency tabletop exercises, and community size and diversity. Findings For each of the three communication functions tested, risk-communication capabilities are perceived to be greater in communities with fewer then 10% of the population speaking a language other than English at home, decreasing as the percentage grows to 20% (ANOVA P ≤ 0.02. With respect to community size, however, we found an N-shaped relationship between perceived risk communication capabilities and population size. Capabilities are perceived highest in the largest communities and lowest in the smallest, but lower in communities with 20,000–49,999 inhabitants compared to those with 2,500–19,999. Conclusion The results of this study suggest the need to factor population diversity into risk communication plans and the need for improved state or regional risk-communication capabilities, especially for communities with limited local capacity.

  20. [Dynamics and interactions between the university community and public health 2.0].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gómez, Rodolfo

    2016-01-01

    To explore the experiences of a group of participants in a university community with the web in general and with digital contents on public health, to describe their motivations and to understand how social networks influence their interaction with content on public health. Qualitative research. Deep semi-structured interviews were conducted to understand the phenomenon. Five categories emerged after the study: socialization and internalization of the cyberculture, social marketing linked to the web and public health, culture of fear and distrust, the concept of health, and the health system and public health. Participants have internalized the web and have given it a strong symbolic capital. The challenges of public health 2.0 are not only to achieve interaction with users and to get a place in cyberspace, but also to fight against the stigma of the "public" and to take advantage of the influence of the web on small-world networks to communicate.

  1. Patient and public perspectives of community pharmacies in the United Kingdom: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindi, Ali M K; Schafheutle, Ellen I; Jacobs, Sally

    2018-04-01

    The United Kingdom has been at the forefront of enhancing pharmacist roles and community pharmacy services, particularly over the past decade. However, patient and public awareness of community pharmacy services has been limited. To identify and synthesize the research literature pertaining to patient and public perspectives on: existing community pharmacy services, extended pharmacist roles and strategies to raise awareness of community pharmacy services. Systematic search of 8 electronic databases; hand searching of relevant journals, reference lists and conference proceedings. UK studies investigating patient or public views on community pharmacy services or pharmacist roles from 2005 to 2016. Data were extracted into a grid and subjected to narrative synthesis following thematic analysis. From the 3260 unique papers identified, 30 studies were included. Manual searching identified 4 additional studies. Designs using questionnaires (n = 14, 41%), semi-structured interviews (n = 8, 24%) and focus groups (n = 6, 18%) made up the greatest proportion of studies. Most of the studies (n = 28, 82%) were published from 2010 onwards and covered perceptions of specific community pharmacy services (n = 31). Using a critical appraisal checklist, the overall quality of studies was deemed acceptable. Findings were grouped into 2 main themes "public cognizance" and "attitudes towards services" each with 4 subthemes. Patients and the public appeared to view services as beneficial. Successful integration of extended pharmacy services requires pharmacists' clinical skills to be recognized by patients and physicians. Future research should explore different approaches to increase awareness. © 2017 The Authors. Health Expectations published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Your Child's Development: 2 Years (24 Months)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2 Years (24 Months) Print en español El desarrollo de su hijo: 2 años (24 meses) Tired ... and circular scribbles feeds himself or herself well Social and Emotional Development plays alongside other children fears ...

  3. The extent of community and public support available to families caring for orphans in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidman, Rachel; Heymann, S Jody

    2009-04-01

    There are an estimated 15 million AIDS orphans worldwide. Families play an important role in safeguarding orphans, but they may be increasingly compromised by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The international aid community has recognized the need to help families continue caring for orphaned children by strengthening their safety nets. Before we build new structures, however, we need to know the extent to which community and public safety nets already provide support to families with orphans. To address this gap, we analyzed nationally representative data from 27,495 children in the 2004-2005 Malawi Integrated Household Survey. We found that communities commonly assisted orphan households through private transfers; organized responses to the orphan crisis were far less frequent. Friends and relatives provided assistance to over 75% of orphan households through private gifts, but the value of such support was relatively low. Over 40% of orphans lived in a community with support groups for the chronically ill and approximately a third of these communities provided services specifically for orphans and other vulnerable children. Public programs, which form a final safety net for vulnerable households, were more widespread. Free/subsidized agricultural inputs and food were the most commonly used public safety nets by children's households in the past year (44 and 13%, respectively), and households with orphans were more likely to be beneficiaries. Malawi is poised to drastically expand safety nets to orphans and their families, and these findings provide an important foundation for this process.

  4. Comparing Perceptions of Campus Crime Severity among Community College and Public Four-Year University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundstrom, Loren M.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years violent crimes on several university campuses have been highlighted by mass media, drawing national attention to the issue of campus crime. Not all college campuses, however, experience the same level of crime. While community colleges serve roughly half of all undergraduates in the U.S., statistically these public institutions…

  5. The Public Library on the Electronic Frontier: Starting a Community Online Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Carol J.

    1995-01-01

    Details the Rockford (Illinois) Public Library's activities involved with developing a community online information system and the not-for-profit organization established to run the system. Includes mission statement; guiding principles, policy statements; standing committees and goals for first year of operation; funding; adding users and…

  6. Turning Schools Inside Out: Connecting Schools and Communities through Public Arts and Literacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charest, Brian C.; Bell, Lauren D.; Gonzalez, Marialuisa; Parker, Veronica L.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we tell a story about how we partnered with a Chicago high school in order to turn the school inside out by displaying larger-than-life teacher portraits and statements at street level throughout the community. This paper explores how public art and activism can help teachers and students develop notions of civic literacy and…

  7. The Development and Implementation of Successful School-Community Partnerships in Public Elementary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Record, Vincent N.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The study aimed to define common characteristics of successful school-community partnerships supporting the improvement of academic achievement in public elementary schools. Based on the perceptions of elementary school administrators, this study identified important factors of, barriers to, and benefits of successful school-community…

  8. Socio-semantic Networks of Research Publications in the Learning Analytics Community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fazeli, Soude; Drachsler, Hendrik; Sloep, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Fazeli, S., Drachsler, H., & Sloep, P. B. (2013). Socio-semantic Networks of Research Publications in the Learning Analytics Community. In M. d'Aquin, S. Dietze, H. Drachsler, E. Herder, & D. Taibi (Eds.), Linked data challenge, Learning Analytic and Knowledge (LAK13) (pp. 6-10). Vol. 974, Leuven,

  9. Public perceptions of opportunities for community-based renewable energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.C.; Simmons, E.A.; Convery, I.; Weatherall, A.

    2008-01-01

    It now widely acknowledged that the UK needs to increase renewable energy capacity and it has been claimed that community-based renewable energy projects, with high levels of public participation, are more likely to be accepted by the public than top-down development of large-scale schemes and may bring additional benefits such as increased engagement with sustainable energy issues. However, little research has investigated public expectations of how people would like to participate in such projects and why. The aim of this study was to explore one rural community's response to a proposed sustainable energy project. A questionnaire survey and semi-structured interviews provided quantitative and qualitative data. There was widespread support for local generation and use of renewable energy, with respondents expecting benefits from a project in terms of increased community spirit and conservation of natural resources. However, desire for active involvement was lower and residents viewed themselves participating as consultees, rather than project leaders. We suggest community renewable energy projects are likely to gain public acceptance but are unlikely to become widespread without greater institutional support

  10. Solving Real Community Problems to Improve the Teaching of Public Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghi, Abdulfattah; Alibeli, Madalla

    2014-01-01

    In order to achieve their course learning outcomes, public affairs instructors can train students to solve real community problems (SRCP). This approach focuses on the learners themselves and aims to transform the role of college professors from traditional teaching (lecturing) to facilitating and coaching students' learning activities. This study…

  11. PATIENT - 2 year report (2013 - 2014) public version

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drachsler, Hendrik; Henn, Patrick; Hynes, Helen; Stieger, Lina; Schroeder, Hanna; Sopka, Sasa; Hartkopf, Kathleen; Orrego, Carola

    2014-01-01

    This report extends the first project report with a summary of the latest activities of the second year of the PATIENT project. The first report provided an overview about empirical studies of the stakeholder needs, as conducted in WP2, and the target learning outcomes of the handover study

  12. Views of the Scottish general public on community pharmacy weight management services: international implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidmann, Anita Elaine; Cunningham, Scott; Gray, Gwen; Hansford, Denise; Bermano, Giovanna; Stewart, Derek

    2012-04-01

    Obesity has reached pandemic levels, with more than 1.5 billion adults being affected worldwide. In Scotland two-thirds of men and more than half of women are either overweight or obese, placing Scotland overall third behind the United States of America and Mexico. All community pharmacies in Scotland are contracted to provide public health services such as smoking cessation and there is increasing interest in their contribution to weight management. Researching this area in Scotland may provide valuable information to facilitate the development of community pharmacy services in other parts of the UK and internationally. To describe the views of the Scottish general public on the provision of weight management services via community pharmacies. General public in Scotland. A cross-sectional postal questionnaire survey of 6,000 randomly selected members of the Scottish general public aged 18 years and over. Views on community pharmacy led weight management services. Questionnaires were returned by 20.6% (n = 1,236). Over half 60.1% (n = 751) agreed or strongly agreed that they had easy access to pharmacy services in general and around one-third agreed (35%; n = 438) that it was more convenient to obtain weight management advice from a pharmacist than it is to make an appointment with a GP. Most respondents however lacked awareness of the types of health services available through community pharmacy (13.2%; n = 162) and would not feel comfortable speaking to a pharmacist or medicines counter assistant about weight related issues (25%; n = 320). Concerns over privacy (47.3%; n = 592) and perceived lack of pharmacists' specialist knowledge (open comments) were identified as potential barriers to service uptake by the general public. Overall, respondents appear to be receptive to the idea of accessing weight management services through community pharmacy but a perceived lack of privacy, poor knowledge of pharmacists' skill level and of public health services available to

  13. Public sector effects and social impact assessment of nuclear generating facilities: Information for community mitigation management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pijawka, K.D.

    1984-01-01

    One of the major issues in community impact management is the gap between revenues generated by energy projects and expenditures for public facilities and services because of project-induced growth. Of issue is the experience of communities experiencing rapid growth where project revenues are not generated until operations commence and yet, considerable investments are needed to accommodate growth during the construction phase. Such revenue imbalances have resulted in communities demanding ''up-front'' capital investments or revenue prior to and during construction. However, with the construction and operation of nuclear facilities, the few available studies have found substantial revenue gains allocated to local jurisdiction and little adverse expenditure effects. The analyses of twelve nuclear stations found that the demand for new and expanded public facilities and the social services attributable to the plants were generally small, that adverse impacts were controllable and mitigatable, and that utility revenue payments varied substantially amount the host areas

  14. Applying social science and public health methods to community-based pandemic planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danforth, Elizabeth J; Doying, Annette; Merceron, Georges; Kennedy, Laura

    2010-11-01

    Pandemic influenza is a unique threat to communities, affecting schools, businesses, health facilities and individuals in ways not seen in other emergency events. This paper aims to outline a local government project which utilised public health and social science research methods to facilitate the creation of an emergency response plan for pandemic influenza coincidental to the early stages of the 2009 H1N1 ('swine flu') outbreak. A multi-disciplinary team coordinated the creation of a pandemic influenza emergency response plan which utilised emergency planning structure and concepts and encompassed a diverse array of county entities including schools, businesses, community organisations, government agencies and healthcare facilities. Lessons learned from this project focus on the need for (1) maintaining relationships forged during the planning process, (2) targeted public health messaging, (3) continual evolution of emergency plans, (4) mutual understanding of emergency management concepts by business and community leaders, and (5) regional coordination with entities outside county boundaries.

  15. Unconventional natural gas development and public health: toward a community-informed research agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korfmacher, Katrina Smith; Elam, Sarah; Gray, Kathleen M.; Haynes, Erin; Hughes, Megan Hoert

    2015-01-01

    Unconventional natural gas development (UNGD) using high-volume horizontal hydraulic fracturing (“fracking”) has vastly increased the potential for domestic natural gas production in recent years. However, the rapid expansion of UNGD has also raised concerns about its potential impacts on public health. Academics and government agencies are developing research programs to explore these concerns. Community involvement in activities such as planning, conducting, and communicating research is widely recognized as having an important role in promoting environmental health. Historically, however, communities most often engage in research after environmental health concerns have emerged. This community information needs assessment took a prospective approach to integrating community leaders' knowledge, perceptions, and concerns into the research agenda prior to initiation of local UNGD. We interviewed community leaders about their views on environmental health information needs in three states (New York, North Carolina, and Ohio) prior to widespread UNGD. Interviewees emphasized the cumulative, long-term, and indirect determinants of health, as opposed to specific disease outcomes. Responses focused not only on information needs, but also on communication and transparency with respect to research processes and funding. Interviewees also prioritized investigation of policy approaches to effectively protect human health over the long term. Although universities were most often cited as a credible source of information, interviewees emphasized the need for multiple strategies for disseminating information. By including community leaders' concerns, insights, and questions from the outset, the research agenda on UNGD is more likely to effectively inform decision making that ultimately protects public health. PMID:25204212

  16. Narratives of community engagement: a systematic review-derived conceptual framework for public health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunton, Ginny; Thomas, James; O'Mara-Eves, Alison; Jamal, Farah; Oliver, Sandy; Kavanagh, Josephine

    2017-12-11

    Government policy increasingly supports engaging communities to promote health. It is critical to consider whether such strategies are effective, for whom, and under what circumstances. However, 'community engagement' is defined in diverse ways and employed for different reasons. Considering the theory and context we developed a conceptual framework which informs understanding about what makes an effective (or ineffective) community engagement intervention. We conducted a systematic review of community engagement in public health interventions using: stakeholder involvement; searching, screening, appraisal and coding of research literature; and iterative thematic syntheses and meta-analysis. A conceptual framework of community engagement was refined, following interactions between the framework and each review stage. From 335 included reports, three products emerged: (1) two strong theoretical 'meta-narratives': one, concerning the theory and practice of empowerment/engagement as an independent objective; and a more utilitarian perspective optimally configuring health services to achieve defined outcomes. These informed (2) models that were operationalized in subsequent meta-analysis. Both refined (3) the final conceptual framework. This identified multiple dimensions by which community engagement interventions may differ. Diverse combinations of intervention purpose, theory and implementation were noted, including: ways of defining communities and health needs; initial motivations for community engagement; types of participation; conditions and actions necessary for engagement; and potential issues influencing impact. Some dimensions consistently co-occurred, leading to three overarching models of effective engagement which either: utilised peer-led delivery; employed varying degrees of collaboration between communities and health services; or built on empowerment philosophies. Our conceptual framework and models are useful tools for considering appropriate and

  17. Community energy systems and the law of public utilities. Volume 20. Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Louisiana governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities--Volume One: An overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One--An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enchance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  18. Community electricity for sustainable livelihoods through public-private partnership (Ethiopia, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Uganda)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    In the past, public-private partnerships have been developed in all four countries involved in the project with varying levels of success. There are clear lessons to be learned from these approaches, and much potential to develop models which build on their success factors. Models that will be developed within the course of this research will address the inequalities and social exclusion within existing public-private partnership models in order to broaden access to electricity services. Fieldwork will be carried out in communities, using a sustainable livelihoods approach to assess existing approaches and develop the most promising models through a series of pilot projects in each country. The objective of this work was to define and test models for public-private partnerships to deliver electricity services to rural and under-served urban communities, to enable the provision of electricity for communal and domestic access. (author)

  19. Community-managed Data Sharing, Curation, and Publication: SEN on SEAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R. L.; Myers, J.; Hsu, L.

    2017-12-01

    While data publication in support of reuse and scientific reproducibility is increasingly being recognized as a key aspect of modern research practice, best practices are still to be developed at the level of scientific communities. Often, such practices are discussed in the abstract - as community standards for data plans or as requirements for yet-to-be-built software - with no clear path to community adoption. In contrast, the Sediment Experimentalist Network, supported through the National Science Foundation's (NSF) EarthCube initiative, has encouraged an iterative, practice-based approach within its community that has resulted in the publication of dozens of datasets, comprised of millions of files totaling more than 4 TB in size, and the documentation of more than 100 experimental procedures, instruments, and facilities, by multiple research teams. A key element of SEN's approach has been to leverage cloud-based data services that provide robust core capabilities with community-based management and customization capabilities. These services - data sharing, curation, and publication services developed through the NSF-supported Sustainable Environment - Actionable Data (SEAD) project and the wiki-based SEN Knowledge Base (KB) - have allowed the SEN team to ground discussions in reality and leverage the practical questions arising as researchers publish data to drive discussion and evolve towards better practices. In this presentation we summarize how SEN interacts with researchers, the best practices that have been developed, and the capabilities of SEAD and the SEN KB that support them. We also describe issues that have arisen in the community - related, for example, to recommended and required metadata, individual, project and community branding, and data version and derivation relationships - and describe how SEN's outreach activities, collaboration with the SEAD team, and the flexible design of the data services themselves have, in combination, been able to

  20. Public-speaking fears in a community sample. Prevalence, impact on functioning, and diagnostic classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, M B; Walker, J R; Forde, D R

    1996-02-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies have revealed that social phobia is more prevalent than has been previously believed. An unresolved issue is the extent to which public-speaking fears constitute a recognizable form of social phobia in a community sample and, moreover, to what extent these fears are associated with functional morbidity. To examine the prevalence and impact of public-speaking fears and their relationship to social phobia in a community sample, we conducted a randomized telephone survey of 499 residents of Winnipeg, Manitoba, a medium-sized midwestern metropolitan area. One third of the respondents reported that they had excessive anxiety when they spoke to a large audience. The onset of fears was early (ie, 50%, 75%, and 90% by the ages of 13, 17, and 20 years, respectively). Anxious cognitions about public speaking included the following fears: doing or saying something embarrassing (64%), one's mind going blank (74%), being unable to continue talking (63%), saying foolish things or not making sense (59%), and trembling, shaking, or showing other signs of anxiety (80%). In total, 10% (n = 49) of the respondents reported that public-speaking anxiety had resulted in a marked interference with their work (2%), social life (1%), or education (4%), or had caused them marked distress (8%). Twenty-three persons (5%) had public-speaking anxiety in isolation (ie, without evidence of additional kinds of social fears). These data support the inclusion of severe forms of public-speaking fears within the social phobia construct and, furthermore, suggest that public-speaking anxiety may have a detrimental impact on the lives of many individuals in the community.

  1. Public/private partners. Key factors in creating a strategic alliance for community health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, J C; Rashid, H; Galvin, V G; Essien, J D; Levine, L M

    1999-04-01

    The rapidly evolving American health system creates economic and societal incentives for public and private health organizations to collaborate. Despite the apparent benefits of collaboration, there is a paucity of information available to help local agencies develop partnerships. This study, itself a collaboration between a school of public health (SPH) and a Georgia health district, was undertaken to identify critical factors necessary to successfully initiate and sustain a public/private community health collaboration. Professional staff at the SPH conducted 26 standardized interviews involving participants from Cobb and Douglas counties Boards of Health; Promina Northwest (now known as Wellstar), a not-for-profit health system; and community stakeholders. Content analysis of each interview question was performed and comparisons were made both within each group and across groups. Trends were identified in the following key areas: vision of health care for Cobb and Douglas counties, forces driving collaboration, strengths of each organization, critical negotiating issues, and potential community gain resulting from the partnership. A shared vision between potential collaborators facilitates communication regarding strategies to achieve common goals. A previous history of working together in limited capacities allowed the partners to develop trust and respect for one another prior to entering negotiations. These factors, when taken in conjunction with each organization's strong leadership and knowledge of the community, build a strong foundation for a successful partnership.

  2. Public Relations for Physics Departments: Convincing the Community that Quarks are Cool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Alaina G.

    2002-03-01

    A strong public relations program can be of great importance to a physics department. Not only can effective PR improve the reputation of an individual department, but it can also serve the greater physics community by convincing the public that quarks, quantum dots, and nanostructures are cool. Building a solid reputation with the many constituents that a physics department serves can lead to greater media exposure, improved quality of student applicants, community and industrial partnerships, and even financial support. It isn’t difficult to create a strategic PR program, but it does take planning and commitment of resources. I will discuss the techniques and tactics of effective media, community, alumni, and internal relations, with special emphasis placed on establishing connections with media outlets, creating and publicizing outreach programs for the community, initiating a newsletter, organizing an external board of advisors, and developing an effective alumni relations program. The University of Arizona Physics Department serves as a case study, but other physics departments with similar communications programs will also be incorporated.

  3. The Public Collaboration Lab—Infrastructuring Redundancy with Communities-in-Place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Thorpe

    Full Text Available In this article we share an example of challenge-driven learning in design education and consider the contribution of such approaches to the weaving of communities-in-place. We describe the research and practice of the Public Collaboration Lab (PCL, a prototype public social innovation lab developed and tested via a collaborative action research partnership between a London borough council and an art and design university. We make the case that this collaboration is an effective means of bringing capacity in design to public service innovation, granting the redundancy of resources necessary for the experimentation, reflection, and learning that leads to innovation—particularly at a time of financial austerity. We summarize three collaborative design experiments delivered by local government officers working with student designers and residents supported by design researchers and tutors. We identify particular qualities of participatory and collaborative design that foster the construction of meaningful connections among participants in the design process—connections that have the potential to catalyze or strengthen the relationships, experiences, and understandings that contribute to enrich communities-in-place, and infrastructure community resilience in the process. Keywords: Participatory design, Public social innovation, Redundancy, Infrastructuring, Local government

  4. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 77 - DD Form 2581-1, Public and Community Service Organization Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false DD Form 2581-1, Public and Community Service Organization Validation C Appendix C to Part 77 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY..., App. C Appendix C to Part 77—DD Form 2581-1, Public and Community Service Organization Validation...

  5. Community nurses' child protection role: views of public health nurses in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kent, Susan

    2011-11-01

    Public health nurses in Ireland are generalist practitioners with a wide range of roles that address the needs of clients in the community across their lifespan. Child protection is one of many of the roles of Irish public health nurses. However, with increasing caseloads, birth rates and aging populations, their child protection role is becoming more difficult to define and practise safely. This paper presents a key finding of a qualitative study that explored the views of a group of public health nurses (n = 10) regarding their role with pre-school children. A significant theme following analysis of the interviews were the nurses\\' expressed concerns on their role in child protection. There is a need to define the role practised by public health nurses in child protection and to achieve a standard for this nationally.

  6. The Fukushima accident, 2 years after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, Didier; Cessac, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Two experts of the French radiation protection and nuclear safety institute (IRSN) gave this presentation at the French Embassy in Tokyo, 2 years after the Fukushima accident. Their presentation focus in particular on the environmental situation and the food safety which raised many question at the time

  7. Community attitudes toward breastfeeding in public places among Western Australia Adults, 1995-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xingqiong; Daly, Alison; Pollard, Christina Mary; Binns, Colin William

    2013-05-01

    Community attitudes toward breastfeeding in public influence how comfortable women feel about continuing breastfeeding. Knowledge of the social context helps target breastfeeding-promoting interventions. To examine trends in Western Australian adult attitudes toward breastfeeding in public places. As part of 5 cross-sectional surveys from the Western Australian Nutrition Monitor Survey Series conducted between 1995 and 2009, 5496 adults aged 18 to 64 years were asked whether it was acceptable for mothers to breastfeed their babies in public places, including shopping centers, workplaces, and restaurants, and on public transport. Descriptive statistics and multinomial regressions were used to describe factors associated with attitudes toward publicly breastfeeding. There was no change in the acceptance of breastfeeding in shopping centers, restaurants, and workplaces and on public transport over time, but in 2009, significantly fewer people said that it was unacceptable to breastfeed in public compared with 1995. Women, people older than 44 years, those born outside Australia, and the less educated were those most likely to say that breastfeeding in public was unacceptable. In the years that the question was asked, more than 97% of respondents said that breastfeeding was acceptable if a separate room was provided. Making breastfeeding acceptable and pleasant for mothers in public spaces is a key policy recommendation. Women, people older than 44 years, and those born outside Australia were most likely to respond that breastfeeding in public was unacceptable unless a room was provided. Given that, on average, 70% of the population said that breastfeeding in public was acceptable, investigation into why some women do not think so is warranted.

  8. Community liberalisation of the electric power market and public service obligations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristoforetti, Brice

    2008-06-01

    After an overview of original economic and social objectives at the basis of the creation of the European common market, the author examines whether the Community liberalisation of the European domestic electricity market has been an opportunity to acknowledge public service obligations in the European law, and more particularly examines the existence or relevance of the notion of electric power public service. This discussion addresses a period extending from the beginning of the 1960's to the Lisbon Treaty prepared in 2007. The author analyses rules of the European law, and the modalities and consequences of their adoption in the French law, as he considers that the evolution of French administrative legal evolution is the most relevant framework for this study on public service and electric power market. Thus, he first shows that the sector liberalisation, through the conflict between competition and defence of the general interest, actually allowed the existence of public service obligations for State members to be consecrated by the Community law. However, through the study of the electric power public service, the author shows that ambitions which had been initially put forward, are hardly compatible with some modalities of opening to competition

  9. Public support for restrictions on fast food company sponsorship of community events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Simone; Pescud, Melanie; Rosenberg, Michael; Ferguson, Renee; Houghton, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated community attitudes to fast food companies' sponsorship of community events. The aim was to inform future efforts to introduce greater restrictions on these marketing activities to reduce child obesity. While previous research has focused on the sponsorship of sporting events, the present study included all community events and gauged public support for fast food company sponsorships in general as well as specific sponsorship activities such as securing event naming rights, advertising on event premises, and distributing free items to children in the form of food and redeemable vouchers. A large and diverse sample of Western Australian adults (n=2,005) responded to a community attitudes telephone survey that included questions relating to event sponsorship. Almost half of the respondents reported that the promotion of fast foods is inappropriate at community events, and only a third considered it appropriate at events where children are likely to be present. Around two-thirds agreed that promoting fast foods at such events sends contradictory messages to children and just a quarter of respondents considered it acceptable for free fast food to be distributed at events or for children to be rewarded for participation with fast food vouchers. The results suggest that efforts to reduce child obesity that involve restrictions on the sponsorship of community events by organisations promoting unhealthy foods may be supported by a substantial proportion of the population.

  10. The Community Environmental Monitoring Program: Reducing Public Perception of Risk through Stakeholder Involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    William T. Hartwell

    2007-01-01

    The Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) has promoted stakeholder involvement, awareness, and understanding of radiological surveillance in communities surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) since 1981. It involves stakeholders in the operation, data collection, and dissemination of information obtained from a network of 29 stations across a wide area of Nevada, Utah and California. It is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration's Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) and administered by the Desert Research Institute (DRI) of the Nevada System of Higher Education. Integration of a near real-time communications system, a public web site, training workshops for involved stakeholders, and educational programs all help to alleviate public perception of risk of health effects from past activities conducted at the NTS

  11. The Public Health Community Platform, Electronic Case Reporting, and the Digital Bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Mary Ann; Iademarco, Michael F; Huang, Monica; MacKenzie, William R; Davidson, Arthur J

    At the intersection of new technology advancements, ever-changing health policy, and fiscal constraints, public health agencies seek to leverage modern technical innovations and benefit from a more comprehensive and cooperative approach to transforming public health, health care, and other data into action. State health agencies recognized a way to advance population health was to integrate public health with clinical health data through electronic infectious disease case reporting. The Public Health Community Platform (PHCP) concept of bidirectional data flow and knowledge management became the foundation to build a cloud-based system connecting electronic health records to public health data for a select initial set of notifiable conditions. With challenges faced and lessons learned, significant progress was made and the PHCP grew into the Digital Bridge, a national governance model for systems change, bringing together software vendors, public health, and health care. As the model and technology advance together, opportunities to advance future connectivity solutions for both health care and public health will emerge.

  12. Skills acquired in research and public health in the specialty of family and community nursing in the Valencian Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martínez, Pedro; Lozano-Vidal, Ruth; Herraiz-Ortiz, María Del Carmen; Collado-Boira, Eladio

    To evaluate the acquisition of skills in research and public health specialists in family and community nursing. Descriptive and analytical study on a population of specialist nurse members of with the Valencian Primary Nurse Society. Measured with anonymous self-administered questionnaire on activities implemented and turnaround time in the training period. The questionnaire was conducted and reviewed based on the training programme of the specialty. Sixteen of the 41 specialists responded. The four year groups of nurses who had finished their training were represented as well as seven national teaching units. The results show high heterogeneity in the activities developed in the training. The average rotation in public health is 7.07 weeks, with range of 0 to 16 weeks. The mean number of educational sessions is 2.69 in the two years. The average number of research projects is 1.19. The result shows a specialisation process with training gaps in the skills of research and public health that could be remedied. Some practitioners claim that they finish their specialisation without undertaking research activities or completing the minimum proposed shifts. There is no process of improvement in the four year groups studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. E-Community: Mobile application for reporting incidents of public services of a city

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Suárez; Elvia Aispuro; Mónica Carreño; Andrés Sandoval; Italia Estrada; Jesús Hernández; Javier Aguilar; Yoshio Valles; Emma Ibarra

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the mobile application call E-Community, an application of a social nature with the objective that the civilian population in the city of La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico, have an alternative to report incidents that deal with services public. Generally, citizens reported by telephone different types of incidents such as traffic accidents, water leaks, lighting shabby, fire, garbage collection, however sometimes the phone is not attended for various reasons so regularly ...

  14. Feasibility of an experiential community garden and nutrition programme for youth living in public housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Karissa; Hill, Jennie L; Reese, Felicia; Covington, Constance; Bennette, Franchennette; MacAuley, Lorien; Zoellner, Jamie

    2015-10-01

    Few published community garden studies have focused on low socio-economic youth living in public housing or used a community-based participatory research approach in conjunction with youth-focused community garden programmes. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility (i.e. demand, acceptability, implementation and limited-effectiveness testing) of a 10-week experiential theory-based gardening and nutrition education programme targeting youth living in public housing. In this mixed-methods feasibility study, demand and acceptability were measured using a combination of pre- and post-programme surveys and interviews. Implementation was measured via field notes and attendance. Limited-effectiveness was measured quantitatively using a pre-post design and repeated-measures ANOVA tests. Two public housing sites in the Dan River Region of south central Virginia, USA. Forty-three youth (primarily African American), twenty-five parents and two site leaders. The positive demand and acceptability findings indicate the high potential of the programme to be used and be suitable for the youth, parents and site leaders. Field notes revealed numerous implementation facilitators and barriers. Youth weekly attendance averaged 4·6 of 10 sessions. Significant improvements (Pgardening knowledge, knowledge of MyPlate recommendations), but not all limited-effectiveness measures (e.g. willingness to try fruits and vegetables, fruit and vegetable eating self-efficacy). This community-based participatory research study demonstrates numerous factors that supported and threatened the feasibility of a gardening and nutrition programme targeting youth in public housing. Lessons learned are being used to adapt and strengthen the programme for future efforts targeting fruit and vegetable behaviours.

  15. Practical and ethical considerations for using social media in community consultation and public disclosure activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Kyle L

    2014-10-01

    Social media are becoming increasingly integrated into both the clinical and the research dimensions of emergency medicine. They can provide methods for sharing crucial information to targeted individuals or groups in a rapid fashion. As a result, investigators conducting emergency research under the exception from prospective informed consent requirements are beginning to turn to social media platforms as they engage in required community consultation and public disclosure activities before their research begins. At present, there are limited data regarding how effectively social media have been used for performing those consultation and disclosure activities. This article offers investigators four specific areas to consider before using social media in consultation and outreach efforts. First, understand the forms of outreach social media platforms can provide. Second, recognize how those outreach methods relate to the specific goals of community consultation and public disclosure. Third, consider whether or not the intended audiences of community consultation and public disclosure will be available via social media. Finally, think about how social media outreach efforts will be measured and assessed before consultation and disclosure activities are under way. © 2014 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  16. Descriptive analysis of individual and community factors among African American youths in urban public housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebbitt, Von E; Williams, James Herbert; Lombe, Margaret; McCoy, Henrika; Stephens, Jennifer

    2014-07-01

    African American adolescents are disproportionately represented in urban public housing developments. These neighborhoods are generally characterized by high rates of poverty, crime, violence, and disorganization. Although evidence is emerging on youths in these communities, little is known about their depressive symptoms, perceived efficacy, or frequency of substance use and sex-risk behavior. Further, even less is known about their exposure to community and household violence, their parents' behavior, or their sense of connection to their communities. Using a sample of 782 African American adolescents living in public housing neighborhoods located in four large U.S. cities, this article attempts to rectify the observed gap in knowledge by presenting a descriptive overview of their self-reported depressive symptoms; self-efficacy; frequencies of delinquent and sexual-risk behavior; and alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use. The self-reported ratings of their parents' behavior as well as their exposure to community and household violence are presented. Analytic procedures include descriptive statistics and mean comparisons between genders and across research cities. Results suggest several differences between genders and across research sites. However, results are not very different from national data. Implications for social work practice are discussed.

  17. The hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum: An emerging public health risk in Australian tropical rainforests and Indigenous communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smout, Felicity A; Skerratt, Lee F; Butler, James R A; Johnson, Christopher N; Congdon, Bradley C; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2017-06-01

    Ancylostoma ceylanicum is the common hookworm of domestic dogs and cats throughout Asia, and is an emerging but little understood public health risk in tropical northern Australia. We investigated the prevalence of A. ceylanicum in soil and free-ranging domestic dogs at six rainforest locations in Far North Queensland that are Indigenous Australian communities and popular tourist attractions within the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area. By combining PCR-based techniques with traditional methods of hookworm species identification, we found the prevalence of hookworm in Indigenous community dogs was high (96.3% and 91.9% from necropsy and faecal samples, respectively). The majority of these infections were A. caninum. We also observed, for the first time, the presence of A. ceylanicum infection in domestic dogs (21.7%) and soil (55.6%) in an Indigenous community. A. ceylanicum was present in soil samples from two out of the three popular tourist locations sampled. Our results contribute to the understanding of dogs as a public health risk to Indigenous communities and tourists in the Wet Tropics. Dog health needs to be more fully addressed as part of the Australian Government's commitments to "closing the gap" in chronic disease between Indigenous and other Australians, and encouraging tourism in similar locations.

  18. The hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum: An emerging public health risk in Australian tropical rainforests and Indigenous communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity A. Smout

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ancylostoma ceylanicum is the common hookworm of domestic dogs and cats throughout Asia, and is an emerging but little understood public health risk in tropical northern Australia. We investigated the prevalence of A. ceylanicum in soil and free-ranging domestic dogs at six rainforest locations in Far North Queensland that are Indigenous Australian communities and popular tourist attractions within the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area. By combining PCR-based techniques with traditional methods of hookworm species identification, we found the prevalence of hookworm in Indigenous community dogs was high (96.3% and 91.9% from necropsy and faecal samples, respectively. The majority of these infections were A. caninum. We also observed, for the first time, the presence of A. ceylanicum infection in domestic dogs (21.7% and soil (55.6% in an Indigenous community. A. ceylanicum was present in soil samples from two out of the three popular tourist locations sampled. Our results contribute to the understanding of dogs as a public health risk to Indigenous communities and tourists in the Wet Tropics. Dog health needs to be more fully addressed as part of the Australian Government's commitments to “closing the gap” in chronic disease between Indigenous and other Australians, and encouraging tourism in similar locations.

  19. Revealing the Universe to Our Community: NMSU's Society of Astronomy Students' Dedication to Public Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Mercedes; Rees, S.; Medina, A.; Beasley, D.; Campos, A.; Chanover, N. J.; Uckert, K.; McKeever, J.

    2014-01-01

    The New Mexico State University (NMSU) Society of Astronomy Students (SAS) is an undergraduate organization centered on students’ passions for learning and sharing knowledge about the field of astronomy. The SAS strives to become one of the most active clubs on the NMSU campus by their involvement in both astronomy and non-astronomy related public outreach and community service events. NMSU is located in Las Cruces, NM, where Clyde Tombaugh made great contributions both to the field of astronomy and to our local community. He was able to spark the community's interest in astronomy and science in general; this is an aspect of his career that the SAS strives to emulate. To do this, the SAS participates in community outreach events with the goal of stimulating curiosity and providing opportunities for the public to observe and understand exciting phenomenon occurring in our universe. With help from the NMSU Astronomy Department, the SAS is able to volunteer alongside the Astronomy Graduate Student Organization (AGSO) at events for people of all ages. Working jointly with the AGSO allows us to be mentored by the very students who were in our shoes not long ago; they educate us about the wonders of the universe, just as we wish to educate the community. This provides an enlightening and enriching environment for both club and community members. The NMSU Astronomy Department hosts events for the entire community, such as observing nights held at Tombaugh Observatory — which SAS members attend and help advertise — where community members learn about and view objects in the night sky through telescopes. SAS members assist with field trips where local middle and elementary school students attend presentations and participate in astronomy-related activities on the NMSU campus. These hands-on activities are presented in an understandable way, and are meant to increase appreciation for all of the exciting subjects our universe has to offer. Other outreach events include

  20. A Policy Framework for Joint Use: Enabling and Supporting Community Use of K-12 Public School Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filardo, Mary; Vincent, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Joint use of public school facilities is a complex but manageable approach to efficiently enhancing the services and programs available to students and supporting the community use of public schools. Building upon on our 2010 paper titled "Joint Use of Public Schools: A Framework for a New Social Contract," this paper identifies the…

  1. Contracts on electric power supply set up between communities (communal associations, countries) and public electricity utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedrich, B

    1976-01-01

    There is not any original communal right to energy supply for the population. The affiliation of local power supply to the local administration cannot be justified either by the public purpose of service or by the term provision of existence. The utilities do not get a communal license when getting the so-called licensing contract. According to its legal nature, the licensing contract is a mixture of legal positions composed of elements of the civil law and the public law. (Administrative lawsuit). The so-called power supply contract is a mutual legal relationship under civil law on the utilization of electric power, made to last. (Permanent obligation for utilization). When concluding both contracts, it is a matter of economic activities undertaken by the communities. Fiscal considerations are in the foreground. Legal regulations concerning roads and distances and serving as starting points for concluding a licensing contract are alien to the system and are to be abolished. Communities should only be responsible for local energy supply on a basis under public law. In lieu of it a stronger obligation to be met by large utilities ought to be ensured by ties under public law.

  2. Community health events for enrolling uninsured into public health insurance programs: implications for health reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Scott; Tsai, Kai-ya; Nascimento, Lori M; Cousineau, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether enrollment events may serve as a venue to identify eligible individuals, enroll them into health insurance programs, and educate them about the changes the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act will bring about. More than 2900 surveys were administered to attendees of 7 public health insurance enrollment events in California. Surveys were used to identify whether participants had any change in understanding of health reform after participating in the event. More than half of attendees at nearly all events had no knowledge about health reform before attending the event. On average, more than 80% of attendees knew more about health reform following the event and more than 80% believed that the law would benefit their families. Enrollment events can serve as an effective method to educate the public on health reform. Further research is recommended to explore in greater detail the impact community enrollment events can have on expanding public understanding of health reform.

  3. Move the Neighborhood: study design of a community-based participatory public open space intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Winge, Laura; Carroll, Sidse

    evaluation will be used to gain knowledge of the intervention processes. DISCUSSION: The study presents new methods and approaches in the field of public open space interventions through interdisciplinary collaboration, participatory co-design approach and combination of measurements. Using both effect......BACKGROUND: A limited amount of research has examined the effect of changing public open spaces on active living. This abstract presents the study protocol of an intervention study designed in an interdisciplinary collaboration built on principles of Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR...... and process evaluations the study will provide unique insights in the role and importance of the interdisciplinary collaboration, participatory processes, tailoring changes in public open space to local needs and wishes. These results can be used to guide urban renewal projects in deprived neighbourhoods...

  4. "This is My Community": Reproducing and Resisting Boundaries of Exclusion in Contested Public Spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toolis, Erin E; Hammack, Phillip L

    2015-12-01

    The way that public space is structured has significant implications for identity, social interaction, and participation in society. For those experiencing homelessness, with no or limited private space, survival hinges on the accessibility and livability of public space. However, the increasing privatization of public space in the United States has contributed to the implementation of anti-homeless ordinances in cities, restricting sitting, standing, panhandling, and sleeping in public. This study analyzes data from interviews with housed and unhoused community members, text from a local policy document, and ethnographic observations to explore how boundaries between "insiders" and "outsiders" are drawn in public space and mediated through individual discourse. Our findings suggest that boundaries of exclusion are constructed through dominant narratives that portray the unhoused as a threat to safety and economic vitality, thus justifying the need for regulation and punishment through the criminalization of homelessness. Yet, informants also demonstrate resistance to this narrative by discussing how criminalization of homelessness perpetuates dehumanization, violence, and economic inequality. Policy implications for the regulation of public space are discussed.

  5. Public Health Spending and Medicare Resource Use: A Longitudinal Analysis of U.S. Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Glen P; Mamaril, Cezar B

    2017-12-01

    To examine whether local expenditures for public health activities influence area-level medical spending for Medicare beneficiaries. Six census surveys of the nation's 2,900 local public health agencies were conducted between 1993 and 2013, linked with contemporaneous information on population demographics, socioeconomic characteristics, and area-level Medicare spending estimates from the Dartmouth Atlas of Health Care. Measures derive from agency survey data and aggregated Medicare claims. A longitudinal cohort design follows the geographic areas served by local public health agencies. Multivariate, fixed-effects, and instrumental-variables regression models estimate how area-level Medicare spending changes in response to shifts in local public health spending, controlling for observed and unmeasured confounders. A 10 percent increase in local public health spending per capita was associated with 0.8 percent reduction in adjusted Medicare expenditures per person after 1 year (p health insurance coverage, and health professional shortages. Expanded financing for public health activities may provide an effective way of constraining Medicare spending, particularly in low-resource communities. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  6. Genomics as public health? Community genetics and the challenge of personalised medicine in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbon, Sahra

    2009-08-01

    Making use of a comparative perspective on the emergence of 'breast cancer genetics' in the different cultural context of the UK and Cuba, this article examines the tensions between the modern promise of genomics as personalised medicine and a commitment to public health. Focusing primarily on the Cuba context and drawing on ethnographic research as part of a collaborative project working with genetic professionals and publics, the article examines the particular technologies, identities and socialities at stake in an emerging and evolving field of genetic medicine. It highlights how long-standing continuities in the commitment to the equitable provision of public health, particularly as this relates to 'family medicine', are central to understanding the scope and expansion of 'community genetics' interventions, even when at the level of local practice, public health is also now subject to the unequal dynamics of economic necessity through the working out of 'lo informal'. Illuminating the different ways agency, risk, responsibility, citizenship and activism get configured by and between publics and health professionals in Cuba, the article reveals the challenges and opportunities posed by predictive genomic medicine in relation to the dynamic and shifting terrain of public health.

  7. Public health in community pharmacy: A systematic review of pharmacist and consumer views

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    previously. In order to improve the public health services provided in community pharmacy, training must aim to increase pharmacists' confidence in providing these services. Confident, well trained pharmacists should be able to offer public health service more proactively which is likely to have a positive impact on customer attitudes and health. PMID:21777456

  8. Public health in community pharmacy: a systematic review of pharmacist and consumer views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eades, Claire E; Ferguson, Jill S; O'Carroll, Ronan E

    2011-07-21

    health services provided in community pharmacy, training must aim to increase pharmacists' confidence in providing these services. Confident, well trained pharmacists should be able to offer public health service more proactively which is likely to have a positive impact on customer attitudes and health.

  9. Public health in community pharmacy: A systematic review of pharmacist and consumer views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferguson Jill S

    2011-07-01

    conducted nearly 10 years previously. In order to improve the public health services provided in community pharmacy, training must aim to increase pharmacists' confidence in providing these services. Confident, well trained pharmacists should be able to offer public health service more proactively which is likely to have a positive impact on customer attitudes and health.

  10. Community/hospital indicators in South African public sector mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Crick; Flisher, Alan J

    2003-12-01

    The need to balance resources between community and hospital-based mental health services in the post-deinstitutionalisation era has been well-documented. However, few indicators have been developed to monitor the relationship between community and hospital services, in either developed or developing countries. There is a particular need for such indicators in the South African context, with its history of inequitable services based in custodial institutions under apartheid, and a new policy that proposes the development of more equitable community-based care. Indicators are needed to measure the distribution of resources and the relative utilisation of community and hospital-based services during the reform process. These indicators are potentially useful for assessing the implementation of policy objectives over time. To develop and document community/hospital indicators in public sector mental health services in South Africa. A questionnaire was distributed to provincial mental health coordinators requesting numbers of full-time equivalent (FTE) staff who provide mental health care at all service levels, annual patient admissions to hospitals and annual patient attendances at ambulatory care facilities. The information was supplemented by consultations with mental health coordinators in each of the 9 provinces. Population data were obtained from preliminary findings of the 1996 census. The community/hospital indicator measuring staff distribution was defined as the ratio of staff employed in community settings to all staff, expressed as a percentage. The community/hospital indicator measuring patient service utilisation was defined as the ratio of the annual ambulatory care attendance rate per 100,000 population to the sum of this rate and the annual hospital admission rate per 100,000 population, expressed as a percentage. Of psychiatric public sector staff, 25% are located in community settings in South Africa (provincial range: 11-70%). If hospital outpatient

  11. A knowledge translation project on community-centred approaches in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, J; South, J

    2018-03-01

    This article examines the development and impact of a national knowledge translation project aimed at improving access to evidence and learning on community-centred approaches for health and wellbeing. Structural changes in the English health system meant that knowledge on community engagement was becoming lost and a fragmented evidence base was seen to impact negatively on policy and practice. A partnership started between Public Health England, NHS England and Leeds Beckett University in 2014 to address these issues. Following a literature review and stakeholder consultation, evidence was published in a national guide to community-centred approaches. This was followed by a programme of work to translate the evidence into national strategy and local practice.The article outlines the key features of the knowledge translation framework developed. Results include positive impacts on local practice and national policy, for example adoption within National Institute for Health and Care Evidence (NICE) guidance and Local Authority public health plans and utilization as a tool for local audit of practice and commissioning. The framework was successful in its non-linear approach to knowledge translation across a range of inter-connected activity, built on national leadership, knowledge brokerage, coalition building and a strong collaboration between research institute and government agency.

  12. Community perspectives on public health biobanking: an analysis of community meetings on the Michigan BioTrust for Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Daniel B; Platt, Tevah; Platt, Jodyn; King, Susan B; Kardia, Sharon L R

    2014-04-01

    Biobanks raise challenges for developing ethically sound and practicable consent policies. Biobanks comprised of dried bloodspots (DBS) left over from newborn screening, maintained for long-term storage, and potential secondary research applications are no exception. Michigan has been a leader in transforming its DBS collection, marketing its biobank of de-identified samples for health research use. The Michigan BioTrust for Health includes approximately 4 million unconsented retrospective samples collected as early as 1984 and prospective samples added since the fall of 2010 with blanket parental consent. We engaged Michigan citizens to ascertain public attitudes, knowledge, and beliefs about the BioTrust and informed consent. A convenience sampling of 393 participants from communities around the state of Michigan (oversampling for minority populations) participated in meetings addressing newborn screening, the BioTrust and informed consent, yielding quantitative and qualitative survey and discussion data. Participants affirmed the principle of voluntary informed participation in research and advocated for greater public awareness of the existence of the BioTrust. Most expressed support for the use of DBS for research and a desire for greater involvement in granting permission for research use. Opinions varied as to which specific research uses were acceptable. Participants indicated a desire for greater engagement, public awareness, and more active decision making on the part of biobank participants and parents. Diversity of opinion over which research areas were deemed acceptable problematizes the blanket consent model that currently applies to the BioTrust's prospective DBS collection and that could become the new norm for research using de-identified data under proposed changes to the Common Rule.

  13. Public Outreach and Educational Experiences in Mexico and Latin American communities in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres De Leo-Winkler, Mario; Canalizo, Gabriela; Pichardo, Barbara; Arias, Brenda

    2015-08-01

    I have created and applied diverse methods in public outreach at National Autonomous Univerisity of Mexico (UNAM) since 2001.A student-led volunteer astronomical club has been created, the biggest in Mexico. We serve over 10,000 people per year. We have created public outreach activities for the general audience: archeo-astronomical outings, scientific movie debates, conferences, courses, public telescope viewings. We have also worked with juvenile delinquents to offer them scientific opportunities when released from jail.I've also created and worked the social media for the Institute of Astronomy UNAM, which is currently the biggest social media site on astronomy in Spanish in the world. I've created and organized a mass photo exhibition (over 1 million people served) for the Institute of Astronomy, UNAM which was citizen-funded through an online platform, the first of its kind in the country. Together with my colleages, we created workshops on astronomy for children with the Mexican's government funding.I've participated in several radio and television programs/capsules designed to bring astronomy to the general audience, one in particular ("Astrophysics for Dummies") was very successful in nation-wide Mexican radio.I am currently applying all experiences to develop a new public outreach project on astronomy for the University of California - Riverside and its on-campus and surrounding Latin American communities. We are offering new workshops for blind and deaf children. We want to integrate the Latino community to our outreach activities and offer science in their language in a simple and entertaining fashion. We have also successfully applied astrophotography as a course which brings social-science and arts undergraduate students into natural sciences.Sharing experiences, success and failure stories will help new and experienced educators and public outreach professionals learn and better from past experiences.

  14. Public Lab: Community-Based Approaches to Urban and Environmental Health and Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Mazón, Pablo; Keysar, Hagit; Dosemagen, Shannon; D'Ignazio, Catherine; Blair, Don

    2018-05-03

    This paper explores three cases of Do-It-Yourself, open-source technologies developed within the diverse array of topics and themes in the communities around the Public Laboratory for Open Technology and Science (Public Lab). These cases focus on aerial mapping, water quality monitoring and civic science practices. The techniques discussed have in common the use of accessible, community-built technologies for acquiring data. They are also concerned with embedding collaborative and open source principles into the objects, tools, social formations and data sharing practices that emerge from these inquiries. The focus is on developing processes of collaborative design and experimentation through material engagement with technology and issues of concern. Problem-solving, here, is a tactic, while the strategy is an ongoing engagement with the problem of participation in its technological, social and political dimensions especially considering the increasing centralization and specialization of scientific and technological expertise. The authors also discuss and reflect on the Public Lab's approach to civic science in light of ideas and practices of citizen/civic veillance, or "sousveillance", by emphasizing people before data, and by investigating the new ways of seeing and doing that this shift in perspective might provide.

  15. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Eight. Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Colorado governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  16. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Seventeen. Iowa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Iowa governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  17. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Thirty-two. New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of New Jersey governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  18. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Nineteen. Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Kentucky governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  19. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-eight. Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Virginia governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  20. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Eleven. Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Florida governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  1. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Eighteen. Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Kansas governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  2. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Thirteen. Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Hawaii governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  3. Public Community Support and Involvement around Vandellos ITER (EISS-Vandellos 2002/2003). Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sola, R.; Prades, A.; Riba, D.; Doval, E.; Munoz, J.; Garay, A.; Viladrich, C.

    2006-01-01

    The Report summarizes a year and a half research on the social perception and expectations regarding the possible siting of ITER in Vandellos carried out in the framework of the European ITER Site Studies (EISS). The aims were to examine the needs and preferences in terms of public information and communication; to explore the risks and benefits the community links to the Centre; and to analyse the local expectations concerning public participation. A methodological strategy integrating qualitative methodologies [semi-structured interviews to key informants at the local level, and to key research groups in the surrounding area, together with a focus group with local opinion leaders], and quantitative techniques [Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI) applied to a sample of 400 participants] was implemented. The local community has lived with complex and high risk facilities for decades, thus local people has a strong familiarity with technological and energy production systems, but no experience with large research installations. In such a context the global opinion towards the possibility of hosting ITER was clearly favourable, and linked to a strong demand in terms of public information and participation. (Author) 19 refs

  4. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twenty-one. Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Maine governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  5. Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA) for cocaine dependence in the Spanish public health system: 1 year outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secades-Villa, Roberto; Sánchez-Hervás, Emilio; Zacarés-Romaguera, Francisco; García-Rodríguez, Olaya; Santonja-Gómez, Francisco J; García-Fernández, Gloria

    2011-11-01

    The development and dissemination of effective treatments for cocaine dependence is an important public health priority in Europe, and especially in Spain, given the increase in treatment demand over recent years. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA) for cocaine dependents at an outpatient clinic within the Spanish public health system. A total of 82 cocaine-dependent patients were randomly assigned to one of two treatment conditions: Standard Treatment (n = 35) or CRA (n = 47). Dependent variables were treatment retention, cocaine abstinence and composite scores from the European version of the Addiction Severity Index at 12 month follow up. Of the patients who received CRA, 55% completed 6 months of treatment, versus 40% who received Standard Treatment. At the 12 month follow up, patients assigned to the CRA condition achieved higher rates of abstinence (95.2%) by comparison with Standard Treatment (69.2%). In the CRA group, 27% of the patients achieved continuous cocaine abstinence, versus 21% in the Standard Treatment group. The CRA group also obtained lower scores than the Standard Treatment group in all Addiction Severity Index composite scores. This study showed that CRA is a feasible treatment for cocaine addiction in a public community setting in Spain. © 2010 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  6. Public Community Support and Involvement around Vandellos ITER (EISS-Vandellos 2002/2003). Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sola, R.; Prades, A.; Riba, D.; Doval, E.; Munoz, J.; Garay, A.; Viladrich, C.

    2006-07-01

    The Report summarizes a year and a half research on the social perception and expectations regarding the possible siting of ITER in Vandellos carried out in the framework of the European ITER Site Studies (EISS). The aims were to examine the needs and preferences in terms of public information and communication; to explore the risks and benefits the community links to the Centre; and to analyse the local expectations concerning public participation. A methodological strategy integrating qualitative methodologies [semi-structured interviews to key informants at the local level, and to key research groups in the surrounding area, together with a focus group with local opinion leaders], and quantitative techniques [Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI) applied to a sample of 400 participants] was implemented. The local community has lived with complex and high risk facilities for decades, thus local people has a strong familiarity with technological and energy production systems, but no experience with large research installations. In such a context the global opinion towards the possibility of hosting ITER was clearly favourable, and linked to a strong demand in terms of public information and participation. (Author) 19 refs.

  7. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-five. Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Texas governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  8. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-two. South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of South Carolina governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  9. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-six. Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Utah governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilites, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  10. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Fifty-two. Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Wyoming governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  11. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-nine. Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Washington governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  12. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-three. South Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of South Dakota governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  13. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Fifty-one. Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Wisconsin governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  14. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-one. Rhode Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Rhode Island governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  15. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Thirty-one. New Hampshire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of New Hampshire governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One. An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  16. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twenty-three. Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Massachusetts governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  17. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Nine. Connecticut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description of the laws and programs of the State of Connecticut governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  18. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Six. Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Arkansas governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  19. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Five. Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Arizona governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  20. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Three. Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Alabama governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  1. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Fifty. West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of West Virginia governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  2. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-four. Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Tennessee governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  3. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Thirty-seven. Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Ohio governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  4. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Sixteen. Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Indiana governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  5. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twelve. Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description of the laws and programs of the State of Georgia governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  6. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Thirty-nine. Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Oregon governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  7. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Thirty. Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Nevada governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  8. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twenty-eight. Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Montana governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  9. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twenty-five. Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Minnesota governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  10. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Seven. California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of California governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  11. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Ten. Delaware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Delaware governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  12. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twenty-two. Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Maryland governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  13. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Thirty-six. North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of North Dakota governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  14. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twenty-seven. Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Missouri governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  15. Community energy systems and the law of public utilities. Volume thirty-four. New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of New York governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  16. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Fifteen. Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Illinois governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  17. Innovative partnerships to advance public health training in community-based academic residency programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo JC

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Joan C Lo,1–3 Thomas E Baudendistel,2,3 Abhay Dandekar,3,4 Phuoc V Le,5 Stanton Siu,2,3 Bruce Blumberg6 1Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, CA, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Kaiser Permanente Oakland Medical Center, Oakland, CA, USA; 3Graduate Medical Education, Kaiser Permanente East Bay, Oakland, CA, USA; 4Department of Pediatrics, Kaiser Permanente Oakland Medical Center, Oakland, CA, USA; 5School of Public Health, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA; 6Graduate Medical Education, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, CA, USA Abstract: Collaborative partnerships between community-based academic residency ­training programs and schools of public health, represent an innovative approach to training future physician leaders in population management and public health. In Kaiser Permanente Northern California, development of residency-Masters in Public Health (MPH tracks in the Internal Medicine Residency and the Pediatrics Residency programs, with MPH graduate studies completed at the University of California Berkeley School of Public Health, enables physicians to integrate clinical training with formal education in epidemiology, biostatistics, health policy, and disease prevention. These residency-MPH programs draw on more than 50 years of clinical education, public health training, and health services research – creating an environment that sparks inquiry and added value by developing skills in patient-centered care through the lens of population-based outcomes. Keywords: graduate medical education, public health, master’s degree, internal medicine, pediatrics, residency training

  18. Teaching/learning strategies for the essentials of baccalaureate nursing education for entry-level community/public health nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callen, Bonnie; Smith, Claudia M; Joyce, Barbara; Lutz, Jayne; Brown-Schott, Nancy; Block, Derryl

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe teaching/learning strategies for each of the 15 Essentials of Baccalaureate Nursing Education for Entry-Level Community/Public Health Nursing (ACHNE, 2009). Carper's ways of knowing serve as foundations for creating classroom and clinical experiences that focus on clinical action with community as client. Each community/public health essential is defined with relevance to community/public health nursing practice. Five teaching/learning strategies have been delineated for each essential with suggestions of teaching resources and/or target population application. Teaching/learning strategies that focus on community as client, population health, and the essential knowledge and competencies of C/PH nursing will help ensure preparation of baccalaureate prepared nurses with knowledge and skills to improve the health of populations. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Know your public: the importance of the EMS provider in community and media relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvester, A

    1997-10-01

    In the hundreds, and even the thousands, of hours that are spent in EMS training, none of the time is dedicated to community relations and public information. You have learned how to provide a service, but not how to sell the product. We relate to stories about physicians who were unsuccessful because of a poor "bedside manner." The patient's perception of you has very little to do with your score on the final exam or the terminology used as you explain an illness. You are judged by the same rules by which store clerks, telephone operators, waitresses and all others in the field of public service are gauged everyday. You may never do great things, but you can do small things in a great way. Just calling 911 is not enough to save a life. The very idea that we can get everywhere in the nick of time to snatch victims from the jaws of death is a fallacy. You most be concerned with the training provided for the lay public as you are with your own continuing education. There is no better way to make your service more effective than to train your entire community to save lives. There are many reasons why you should know how to deal with the media. A strong relationship can be formed simply by knowing how to make their job easier. Following the golden rules for news releases and interviews help us all appear more professional. The career of an EMT is in metamorphosis. You have been accepted by the patients you served and your fellow members of the medical community. Now you must continue to evolve as practitioners; your skills must change to meet the demands of modern medicine, and your knowledge base must continue to increase as new information becomes available. The one thing that must remain the same is your total commitment to patient care.

  20. Community/public health nursing faculty's knowledge, skills and attitudes of the Quad Council Competencies for Public Health Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Barbara L; Harmon, Monica; Johnson, Regina Gina H; Hicks, Vicki; Brown-Schott, Nancy; Pilling, Lucille; Brownrigg, Vicki

    2018-05-02

    A multisite collaborative team of community/public health nursing (C/PHN) faculty surveyed baccalaureate nursing faculty to explore their knowledge, skills, attitudes, and application of the Quad Council Competencies for Public Health Nurses (QCC-PHN). (1) Evaluate the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of the 2011 QCC-PHN by academic C/PHN faculty; (2) Evaluate the application of 2011 QCC-PHN by C/PHN faculty in the clinical practicum for undergraduate baccalaureate C/PHN students; and (3) Determine if a significant difference existed in the knowledge for each domain. A mixed methods descriptive research design was used to answer three specific hypotheses related to the study objectives. A convenience sample of 143 faculty teaching C/PHN in baccalaureate schools of nursing completed an online survey. ANOVA was used to determine the difference between knowledge, skills, attitudes, and application of nursing faculty regarding the QCC-PHN based on years of nursing experience, C/PHN experience, and nursing specialty preparation. Participants' qualitative comments for each domain were analyzed for themes. C/PHN nursing faculty are described and differences in knowledge, skills, and attitudes delineated. A statistically significant difference was found in skills based on years of experience in C/PHN and in the application of the competencies based on nursing specialty preparation. Variations in knowledge of the QCC-PHN are identified. Ten recommendations are proposed for key skill sets and necessary preparation for faculty to effectively teach C/PHN in baccalaureate schools of nursing. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Funded Research of Faculty at 2-Year Institutions by Geographic Locations and Funding Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about how faculty at 2-year institutions secure grants. Although the mission of community colleges focuses more on teaching than research, many of the faculty desire to pursue grants and some actually engage in this activity. The purpose of this research was to better understand faculty at 2-year institutions regarding several…

  2. Building Community: A 2005 Conference for Education and Public Outreach Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, T. F.; Bennett, M.; Garmany, K.

    2004-12-01

    In support of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific's (ASP) mission to increase the understanding and appreciation of astronomy, the ASP will host an international meeting in September 14-16, 2005 in Tucson focused on building and supporting a vibrant and connected community of individuals and groups engaged in educational and public outreach (EPO) in the disciplines of astronomy, astrobiology, space, and earth science. This conference is specially designed for individuals who are bringing the excitement of astronomy to non-astronomers. This community of science communicators includes: NASA and NSF-funded EPO program managers, developers, evaluators, PIOs, and others who support outreach efforts by government agencies and commercial industries; Scientists working with or assigned to EPO programs or efforts; Individuals working in formal science education: K-14 schools/colleges and minority-serving institutions as faculty or curriculum developers; Informal educators working in widely diverse settings including science centers, planetariums, museums, parks, and youth programs; Amateur astronomers involved in or interested in engaging children and adults in the excitement of astronomy; Public outreach specialists working in observatories, visitor centers, public information offices, and in multimedia broadcasting and journalism. The conference goals are to improve the quality and increase the effective dissemination of EPO materials, products, and programs through a multi-tiered professional development conference utilizing: Visionary plenary talks; Highly interactive panel discussions; Small group workshops and clinics focused on a wide range of EPO topics including evaluation and dissemination, with separate sessions for varying experience levels; Poster and project exhibition segments; Opportunities to increase program leveraging through structured and unstructured networking sessions; and Individual program action planning sessions. There will both separate and

  3. 75 FR 66773 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment; FY 2010 Capital Fund Community and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... Information Collection for Public Comment; FY 2010 Capital Fund Community and Education Training Facilities... 2010 Capital Fund Community and Education Training Facilities NOFA. OMB Control Number: 2577-0268...) enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the information to be collected; and (4) minimize the burden...

  4. Pedagogical Scholarship in Public Health: A Call for Cultivating Learning Communities to Support Evidence-Based Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merzel, Cheryl; Halkitis, Perry; Healton, Cheryl

    Public health education is experiencing record growth and transformation. The current emphasis on learning outcomes necessitates attention to creating and evaluating the best curricula and learning methods for helping public health students develop public health competencies. Schools and programs of public health would benefit from active engagement in pedagogical research and additional platforms to support dissemination and implementation of educational research findings. We reviewed current avenues for sharing public health educational research, curricula, and best teaching practices; we identified useful models from other health professions; and we offered suggestions for how the field of public health education can develop communities of learning devoted to supporting pedagogy. Our goal was to help advance an agenda of innovative evidence-based public health education, enabling schools and programs of public health to evaluate and measure success in meeting the current and future needs of the public health profession.

  5. ISSUES IN ACHIEVING TARGETED FUNDING FOR LEADING SCIENTISTS AND SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITIES USING INDEXES OF PUBLICATION ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kurakova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase the competitiveness of the Russian scientific-technological complex in the global environment, it is planned to increase competition through State funding, spent on research and development. This will allow the focus of investment resources on the most perspective ideas and projects of the most efficient scientists, communities and organisations. The article suggests that we will witness the widening of competitive forms of funding against the simultaneous and gradual cuts in the share of financing through State contracts.One of the key criteria for evaluating the competency of team leaders and research applicants for State funding are measuring those who have «achieved high scientific results in concrete field of science», as a scientometric indicator, characterising their publication activity and citation rating.The article provides evidence showing that evaluation of individual scientists and whole scientific communities based on their publication activity indicators and impact is limited and challenges the ability for targeted funding and transparency in the selection process for executive projects.

  6. Community Resilience: Increasing Public Understanding of Risk and Vulnerability to Natural Hazards through Informal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salna, E.

    2017-12-01

    The Extreme Events Institute's (EEI) International Hurricane Research Center (IHRC) at Florida International University (FIU) in Miami, Florida, as a NOAA Weather-Ready Nation Ambassador, is dedicated to make South Florida, Ready, Responsive and Resilient. IHRC with funding from the Florida Division of Emergency Management (FDEM) has developed several museum exhibits and events. This includes the hands-on FIU Wall of Wind exhibit for the National Building Museum in Washington, DC, the Frost Science Museum in Miami, Florida, and the Museum of Discovery and Science (MODS) in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. The exhibit teaches the public about hurricane wind engineering research, enhanced building codes, and the importance of protecting your home's windows and doors with code-approved shutters. In addition, IHRC and MODS facilitate Eye of the Storm, a free-of-charge, community event with interactive hurricane science, and preparedness activities, including the entertaining Owlie Skywarn live theater show and live air cannon missile impact demonstrations. This annual event includes many local, state and federal partners, including NOAA and NWS. The IHRC also developed the FIU Wall of Wind Mitigation Challenge. As the next generation of engineers to address natural hazards and extreme weather, this STEM education event features a competition between high school teams to develop innovative wind mitigation concepts and real-life human safety and property protection solutions. IHRC and MODS are also developing a new exhibit of a Hazard/Risk Equation that will "come to life," through virtual reality (VR) technology in a state-of-the art 7D theater. The exhibit will provide a better public understanding of how changes in exposures and vulnerabilities will determine whether a community experiences an emergency, disaster or catastrophe. It will raise public consciousness and drive home the point that communities need not passively accept natural hazard risks. Ultimately, if we raise

  7. Variation of Community Consultation and Public Disclosure for a Pediatric Multi-centered “Exception from Informed Consent” Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holsti, Maija; Zemek, Roger; Baren, Jill; Stanley, Rachel M.; Prashant, Mahajan; Vance, Cheryl; Brown, Kathleen M.; Gonzalez, Victor; King, Denise; Jacobsen, Kammy; Shreve, Kate; van de Bruinhorst, Katrina; Jones, Anne Marie; Chamberlain, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The U.S. federal regulation “Exception from Informed Consent (EFIC) for Emergency Research,” 21 Code of Federal Regulations 50.24, permits emergency research without informed consent under limited conditions. Additional safeguards to protect human subjects include requirements for community consultation and public disclosure prior to starting the research. Because the regulations are vague about these requirements, Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) determine the adequacy of these activities at a local level. Thus there is potential for broad interpretation and practice variation. Aim To describe the variation of community consultation and public disclosure activities approved by IRBs, and the effectiveness of this process for a multi-center, EFIC, pediatric status epilepticus clinical research trial. Methods: Community consultation and public disclosure activities were analyzed for each of 15 participating sites. Surveys were conducted with participants enrolled in the status epilepticus trial to assess the effectiveness of public disclosure dissemination prior to study enrollment. Results Every IRB, among the 15 participating sites, had a varied interpretation of EFIC regulations for community consultation and public disclosure activities. IRBs required various combinations of focus groups, interviews, surveys, and meetings for community consultation; news releases, mailings, and public service announcements for public disclosure. At least 4,335 patients received information about the study from these efforts. 158 chose to be included in the “Opt Out” list. Of the 304 participants who were enrolled under EFIC, 12 (5%) had heard about the study through community consultation or public disclosure activities. The activities reaching the highest number of participants were surveys and focus groups associated with existing meetings. Public disclosure activities were more efficient and cost-effective if they were part of an in-hospital resource for

  8. The Community Environmental Monitoring Program: Reducing Public Perception of Risk Through Stakeholder Involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. Hartwell

    2007-01-01

    Between 1951 and 1992, 928 nuclear tests were conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), including 100 atmospheric and 828 underground tests. Initial public reaction to the tests was largely supportive, but by the late 1950s this began to change, largely as a result of fear of the potential for adverse health effects to be caused by exposure to ionizing radiation resulting from the tests. The nuclear power plant accident at Three Mile Island in 1979 served to heighten these fears, as well as foster a general distrust of the federal agencies involved and low public confidence in monitoring results. Modeled after a similar program that involved the public in monitoring activities around the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant, the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) has promoted stakeholder involvement, awareness, and understanding of radiological surveillance in communities surrounding the NTS since 1981. It involves stakeholders in the operation, data collection, and dissemination of information obtained from a network of 29 stations across a wide area of Nevada, Utah, and California. It is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) and administered by the Desert Research Institute (DRI) of the Nevada System of Higher Education. Since assuming administration of the program in 2000, DRI has accomplished significant enhancements to the network's data collection and transmission capabilities. A robust datalogging and communications system allows for the near real-time transmission of data to a platform maintained by DRI's Western Regional Climate Center, where the data are uploaded and displayed on a publicly accessible web site (http://cemp.dri.edu/). Additionally, the CEMP can serve as part of an emergency response network in the event of an unplanned radiological release from the NTS, and also provides an excellent platform for testing new environmental sensor technologies

  9. Using public relations strategies to prompt populations at risk to seek health information: the Hanford Community Health Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gregory D; Smith, Stephen M; Turcotte, Joseph A

    2009-01-01

    The Hanford Community Health Project (HCHP) addressed health concerns among "downwinders" exposed to releases of radioactive iodine (I-131) from the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in the 1940s and 1950s. After developing educational materials and conducting initial outreach, HCHP had to decide whether to apply its limited resources to an advertising or public relations approach. The decision to apply public relations strategies was effective in driving awareness of the risk communication message at the community level, reinvigorating the affected community, and ultimately increasing the number of people who sought information about their risk of exposure and related health issues. HCHP used a series of communication tools to reach out to local and regional media, medical and health professionals, and community organizations. The campaign was successful in increasing the number of unique visitors to HCHP Web site and educating and activating the medical community around the releases of I-131 and patient care choices.

  10. Teaching Young Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Community-Based Navigation Skills to Take Public Transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Richard; Marsh, Abbie J; Fisher, Marisa H

    2018-03-01

    Facilitating the use of public transportation enhances opportunities for independent living and competitive, community-based employment for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). Four young adults with IDD were taught through total-task chaining to use the Google Maps application, a self-prompting, visual navigation system, to take the bus to locations around a college campus and the community. Three of four participants learned to use Google Maps to independently navigate public transportation. Google Maps may be helpful in supporting independent travel, highlighting the importance of future research in teaching navigation skills. Learning to independently use public transportation increases access to autonomous activities, such as opportunities to work and to attend postsecondary education programs on large college campuses.Individuals with IDD can be taught through chaining procedures to use the Google Maps application to navigate public transportation.Mobile map applications are an effective and functional modern tool that can be used to teach community navigation.

  11. Public Library Staff as Community Health Partners: Training Program Design and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Anna U; D'Alonzo, Bernadette A; Dupuis, Roxanne; Whiteman, Eliza D; Kallem, Stacey; McClintock, Autumn; Fein, Joel A; Klusaritz, Heather; Cannuscio, Carolyn C

    2018-05-01

    Public libraries are free and open to all-and accessed at high rates by vulnerable populations-which positions them to be key public health allies. However, library staff themselves often feel ill-equipped to address the health and social concerns of their patrons. To fill this gap, we developed a case-based training curriculum to help library staff recognize, engage, and refer vulnerable patrons to appropriate resources. Topics addressed in the training, including homelessness, mental health and substance use disorders, immigration, and trauma, were selected based on findings from a prior community needs assessment. Using a modified measure of self-efficacy, participants ( n = 33) were surveyed before and after each session. Several participants ( n = 7) were also interviewed 4 months after the training was completed. Overall, staff reported significant increases in comfort, confidence, and preparedness in assisting vulnerable patrons across all topic areas. Qualitative findings reflected positive perceived impact and value of the trainings. Staff felt training resources should be made more readily accessible. Improving library staff capacity to address the health and social needs of their patrons can further establish public libraries as partners in improving population health.

  12. Preventing cancer: a community-based program for youths in public housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunin, Lee; Wulach, Laura; Yang, Grace J; Evans, Tegan C; Hamdan, Sami U; Davis, Gregory L; Bowen, Deborah J

    2013-05-01

    This article describes a feasibility study of a program that mentors boys aged 14-18 living in inner city public housing, engages them in a basketball league, and provides educational sessions on life skills and ways to resolve conflicts without violence. Such programs have the potential to engage adolescent males living in public housing in activities that reduce cancer-related behaviors and increase protective behaviors. We conducted a feasibility evaluation of the program, which included a survey of participants, interviews with coaches, and observations of games and practices. Lifetime and previous-30-day substance use was common among participants, and many were exposed to and had experienced various forms of violence. Keeping youths active helps prevent their joining gangs and using drugs. Youths from disadvantaged backgrounds are at a high risk for cancer because they are at greater risk for obesity and other adverse health-related conditions than are more affluent youths. Implementing and sustaining community programs for youths in public housing can reduce the effects of exposure to factors that put them at risk for cancer during adulthood: chronic poverty, lack of safe areas for recreation, easy access to alcohol and drugs, and exposure to violence. In addition, workshops to prevent substance use and violence and to teach leadership, sportsmanship, conflict resolution, and healthy youth development are needed for youths, coaches, and parents or guardians. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Domestic violence against women, public policies and community health workers in Brazilian Primary Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorelli, Marcos Claudio; Taft, Angela; Pereira, Pedro Paulo Gomes

    2018-01-01

    Domestic violence creates multiple harms for women's health and is a 'wicked problem' for health professionals and public health systems. Brazil recently approved public policies to manage and care for women victims of domestic violence. Facing these policies, this study aimed to explore how domestic violence against women is usually managed in Brazilian primary health care, by investigating a basic health unit and its family health strategy. We adopted qualitative ethnographic research methods with thematic analysis of emergent categories, interrogating data with gender theory and emergent Brazilian collective health theory. Field research was conducted in a local basic health unit and the territory for which it is responsible, in Southern Brazil. The study revealed: 1) a yawning gap between public health policies for domestic violence against women at the federal level and its practical application at local/decentralized levels, which can leave both professionals and women unsafe; 2) the key role of local community health workers, paraprofessional health promotion agents, who aim to promote dialogue between women experiencing violence, health care professionals and the health care system.

  14. Public health preparedness of health providers: meeting the needs of diverse, rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chiehwen Ed; Mas, Francisco Soto; Jacobson, Holly E; Harris, Ann Marie; Hunt, Victoria I; Nkhoma, Ella T

    2006-11-01

    Meeting the needs of public health emergency and response presents a unique challenge for health practitioners with primary responsibilities for rural communities that are often very diverse. The present study assessed the language capabilities, confidence and training needs of Texas rural physicians in responding to public health emergencies. In the first half of year 2004, a cross-sectional, semistructured survey questionnaire was administered in northern, rural Texas. The study population consisted of 841 practicing or retired physicians in the targeted area. One-hundred-sixty-six physicians (30%) responded to the survey. The responses were geographically referenced in maps. Respondents reported seeing patients with diverse cultural backgrounds. They communicated in 16 different languages other than English in clinical practice or at home, with 40% speaking Spanish at work. Most were not confident in the diagnosis or treatment of public health emergency cases. Geographic information systems were found useful in identifying those jurisdictions with expressed training and cultural needs. Additional efforts should be extended to involve African-American/Hispanic physicians in preparedness plans for providing culturally and linguistically appropriate care in emergencies.

  15. Stabilizing Dog Populations and Improving Animal and Public Health Through a Participatory Approach in Indigenous Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurer, J M; Phipps, K; Okemow, C; Beatch, H; Jenkins, E

    2015-09-01

    Free-roaming dog populations are a global concern for animal and human health including transmission of infectious disease (e.g. rabies, distemper and parasites), dog bite injuries/mortalities, animal welfare and adverse effects on wildlife. In Saskatchewan (SK), Canada, veterinary care is difficult to access in the remote and sparsely inhabited northern half of the province, where the population is predominately Indigenous. Even where veterinary clinics are readily available, there are important barriers such as cost, lack of transportation, unique cultural perspectives on dog husbandry and perceived need for veterinary care. We report the effects of introducing a community action plan designed to improve animal and human health, increase animal health literacy and benefit community well-being in two Indigenous communities where a dog-related child fatality recently occurred. Initial door-to-door dog demographic surveys indicated that most dogs were sexually intact (92% of 382 dogs), and few had ever been vaccinated (6%) or dewormed (6%). Approximately three animal-related injuries requiring medical care were reported in the communities per 1000 persons per year (95% CL: 1.6-6.6), and approximately 86% of 145 environmentally collected dog faecal samples contained parasites, far above levels reported in other urban or rural settings in SK. Following two subsidized spay/neuter clinics and active rehoming of dogs, parasite levels in dog faeces decreased significantly (P important changes were observed in the dog demographic profile. This project demonstrates the importance of engaging people using familiar, local resources and taking a community specific approach. As well, it highlights the value of integrated, cross-jurisdictional cooperation, utilizing the resources of university researchers, veterinary personnel, public health, environmental health and community-based advocates to work together to solve complex issues in One Health. On-going surveillance on dog

  16. A Proposed Collaboration Against Big Tobacco: Common Ground Between the Vaping and Public Health Community in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, Theodore L; Meier, Ellen; Tackett, Alayna P; Matheny, James D; Pechacek, Terry F

    2016-05-01

    An unfortunate conflict is underway between the public health community and the vaping community over e-cigarettes' harmfulness or lack thereof. This conflict is made worse by an information vacuum that is being filled by vocal members on both sides of the debate; a perceived lack of credibility of public health officials by those in the vaping community; the tobacco industry's recent involvement in e-cigarettes; and the constant evolution of different styles and types of e-cigarettes. This conflict is avoidable; common ground exists. If both groups rally around what is in their own and the public's best interest-the end of combustible tobacco--all will benefit significantly. If not, the result may be missed opportunities, misguided alliances, and--ultimately-poorer public health. This study brings light to the contentious debate between the vaping and public health communities. It addresses how both sides are responsible for bringing misleading information to the public and vocal leaders on both sides are unknowingly intensifying and polarizing the debate-likely at the expense of public health. It also describes how this conflict is avoidable, and provides a starting point for potential positions of common ground against Big Tobacco. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Exploring the role of GIS during community health assessment problem solving: experiences of public health professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scotch Matthew

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A Community health assessment (CHA involves the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS in conjunction with other software to analyze health and population data and perform numerical-spatial problem solving. There has been little research on identifying how public health professionals integrate this software during typical problem solving scenarios. A better understanding of this is needed to answer the "What" and the "How". The "What" identifies the specific software being used and the "How" explains the way they are integrated together during problem solving steps. This level of understanding will highlight the role of GIS utilization during problem solving and suggest to developers how GIS can be enhanced to better support data analysis during community health assessment. Results An online survey was developed to identify the information technology used during CHA analysis. The tasks were broken down into steps and for our analysis these steps were categorized by action: Data Management/Access, Data Navigation, Geographic Comparison, Detection of Spatial Boundaries, Spatial Modelling, and Ranking Analysis. 27 CHA professionals completed the survey, with the majority of participants (14 being from health departments. Statistical software (e.g. SPSS was the most popular software for all but one of the types of steps. For this step (detection of spatial boundaries, GIS was identified as the most popular technology. Conclusion Most CHA professionals indicated they use statistical software in conjunction with GIS. The statistical software appears to drive the analysis, while GIS is used primarily for simple spatial display (and not complex spatial analysis. This purpose of this survey was to thoroughly examine into the process of problem solving during community health assessment data analysis and to gauge how GIS is integrated with other software for this purpose. These findings suggest that GIS is used more for spatial

  18. The Impact of Course Delivery Systems on Student Achievement and Sense of Community: A Comparison of Learning Community versus Stand-Alone Classroom Settings in an Open-Enrollment Inner City Public Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of two types of course delivery systems (learning community classroom environments versus stand-alone classroom environments) on the achievement of students who were simultaneously enrolled in remedial and college-level social science courses at an inner city open-enrollment public community college. This study was…

  19. A community's response to suicide through public art: stakeholder perspectives from the Finding the Light Within project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohatt, Nathaniel V; Singer, Jonathan B; Evans, Arthur C; Matlin, Samantha L; Golden, Jane; Harris, Cathy; Burns, James; Siciliano, Catherine; Kiernan, Guy; Pelleritti, Margaret; Tebes, Jacob Kraemer

    2013-09-01

    Suicide is a preventable public health problem and a leading cause of death in the United States. Despite recognized need for community-based strategies for suicide prevention, most suicide prevention programs focus on individual-level change. This article presents seven first person accounts of Finding the Light Within, a community mobilization initiative to reduce the stigma associated with suicide through public arts participation that took place in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania from 2011 through 2012. The stigma associated with suicide is a major challenge to suicide prevention, erecting social barriers to effective prevention and treatment and enhancing risk factors for people struggling with suicidal ideation and recovery after losing a loved one to suicide. This project engaged a large and diverse audience and built a new community around suicide prevention through participatory public art, including community design and production of a large public mural about suicide, storytelling and art workshops, and a storytelling website. We present this project as a model for how arts participation can address suicide on multiple fronts-from raising awareness and reducing stigma, to promoting community recovery, to providing healing for people and communities in need.

  20. Challenges created by data dissemination and access restrictions when attempting to address community concerns: individual privacy versus public wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colquhoun, Amy; Aplin, Laura; Geary, Janis; Goodman, Karen J; Hatcher, Juanita

    2012-05-08

    Population health data are vital for the identification of public health problems and the development of public health strategies. Challenges arise when attempts are made to disseminate or access anonymised data that are deemed to be potentially identifiable. In these situations, there is debate about whether the protection of an individual's privacy outweighs potentially beneficial public health initiatives developed using potentially identifiable information. While these issues have an impact at planning and policy levels, they pose a particular dilemma when attempting to examine and address community concerns about a specific health problem. Research currently underway in northern Canadian communities on the frequency of Helicobacter pylori infection and associated diseases, such as stomach cancer, is used in this article to illustrate the challenges that data controls create on the ability of researchers and health officials to address community concerns. Barriers are faced by public health professionals and researchers when endeavouring to address community concerns; specifically, provincial cancer surveillance departments and community-driven participatory research groups face challenges related to data release or access that inhibit their ability to effectively address community enquiries. The resulting consequences include a limited ability to address misinformation or to alleviate concerns when dealing with health problems in small communities. The development of communication tools and building of trusting relationships are essential components of a successful investigation into community health concerns. It may also be important to consider that public wellbeing may outweigh the value of individual privacy in these situations. As such, a re-evaluation of data disclosure policies that are applicable in these circumstances should be considered.

  1. Factors impacting the decision to participate in and satisfaction with public/community psychiatry fellowship training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Michael; LeMelle, Stephanie; Ranz, Jules

    2014-10-01

    During yearly meetings of the recently developed network of 15 public/community psychiatry fellowships, it has been noted that programs are having varying degrees of success with regard to recruitment. To understand factors that impact recruitment, a quality improvement survey of fellows and alumni was conducted. Respondents were asked to rate overall satisfaction with their fellowship training as well as perceived benefits and obstacles to participating in a fellowship program, and impact on their careers. A total of 155 (57%) fellows and alumni responded. Factor analysis was used to condense the variables, and a multiple regression explored factors predicting overall fellowship program satisfaction. Factors that represented perceived benefits had higher means than did factors that represent obstacles. Respondents highly valued the extent to which these fellowships enhanced their careers, with regard to job opportunities, academics, networking and leadership.

  2. Can a community of practice equip public health nutritionists to work with remote retail to improve the food supply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Stacey; Ferguson, Megan; Brimblecombe, Julie; Palermo, Claire E

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the influence on practice of a community of practice designed for public health nutritionists who work with retail stores in remote Indigenous communities in Australia. A descriptive evaluation of the community of practice participants' perspectives using the most significant change technique and individual in-depth interviews was conducted. Data were analysed using thematic and content analysis with a focus on answering the evaluation questions. Twelve public health nutritionists employed to work with remote Indigenous community stores were involved. The community of practice was reported to develop competence through problem solving, knowledge sharing and building confidence for innovative work. Building competence was achieved through accessible and timely professional support. Sharing stories and being encouraged to reflect on practice was valued and supported the participant's practice. Working to improve the food supply is challenging but there is value in being supported by like-minded colleagues to stay focused on this work. Most participants perceived the community of practice intervention to be an effective strategy to improve their work. These findings provide evidence of a promising intervention for building the public health nutrition workforce in remote Indigenous community store retail settings.

  3. Participation, Poverty and Public Policies: 3P Challenging Community Environmental Psychology (The Case of the Communal Councils in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Wiesenfeld

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Participation, poverty and public policy are three relevant topics for the state, society and academy, particularly for environmental and community social psychology. Meanings and ways of addressing these topics by the above mentioned sector have varied across time and places. Recent impact of new governance models, such as participative democracy, has provoked changes in public policy modes of influence, as a strategy for poverty reduction. Such changes’ orientations coincide with those of environmental community psychology, social constructionist theoretical perspective and qualitative methodology. In Venezuela, only Latin American country where participation has been given a constitutional and legal status, it is important to study participation’s meanings and its implications in public management as a strategy for poverty reduction. Communal councils constitute the main community participatory structure, which integrates poor sectors and vehicles their requirements together with governmental entities. Conscious as we are of existing gaps between discourses and actions, the present research analyses official discourses on participation, through the Venezuelan Constitution and the Organic Communal Councils Law, and compares them with participatory meanings and experiences provided by communal councils’ members and other community stakeholders’ narratives. Results show differences between official and community perspectives on participation in communal councils, as well as discrepancies within communities: they also point out to the difficulties of state induced participation, as is the venezuelan case, for its protagonists’ limitations for transcending projects and exerting power outside community boundaries.

  4. Collaborative leadership and the implementation of community-based fall prevention initiatives: a multiple case study of public health practice within community groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markle-Reid, Maureen; Dykeman, Cathy; Ploeg, Jenny; Kelly Stradiotto, Caralyn; Andrews, Angela; Bonomo, Susan; Orr-Shaw, Sarah; Salker, Niyati

    2017-02-16

    Falls among community-dwelling older adults are a serious public health concern. While evidence-based fall prevention strategies are available, their effective implementation requires broad cross-sector coordination that is beyond the capacity of any single institution or organization. Community groups comprised of diverse stakeholders that include public health, care providers from the public and private sectors and citizen volunteers are working to deliver locally-based fall prevention. These groups are examples of collective impact and are important venues for public health professionals (PHPs) to deliver their mandate to work collaboratively towards achieving improved health outcomes. This study explores the process of community-based group work directed towards fall prevention, and it focuses particular attention on the collaborative leadership practices of PHPs, in order to advance understanding of the competencies required for collective impact. Four community groups, located in Ontario, Canada, were studied using an exploratory, retrospective, multiple case study design. The criteria for inclusion were presence of a PHP, a diverse membership and the completion of an initiative that fit within the scope of the World Health Organization Fall Prevention Model. Data were collected using interviews (n = 26), focus groups (n = 4), and documents. Cross-case synthesis was conducted by a collaborative team of researchers. The community groups differed by membership, the role of the PHP and the type of fall prevention initiatives. Seven practice themes emerged: (1) tailoring to address context; (2) making connections; (3) enabling communication; (4) shaping a vision; (5) skill-building to mobilize and take action; (6) orchestrating people and projects; and (7) contributing information and experience. The value of recognized leadership competencies was underscored and the vital role of institutional supports was highlighted. To align stakeholders working

  5. Community Perceptions on Integrating Animal Vaccination and Health Education by Veterinary and Public Health Workers in the Prevention of Brucellosis among Pastoral Communities of South Western Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansiime, Catherine; Atuyambe, Lynn M.; Asiimwe, Benon B.; Mugisha, Anthony; Mugisha, Samuel; Guma, Victor; Rwego, Innocent B.; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus

    2015-01-01

    Background Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of veterinary, public health, and economic significance in most developing countries, yet there are few studies that show integrated human and veterinary health care intervention focusing on integration at both activity and actors levels. The aim of our study, therefore, was to explore community perceptions on integration of animal vaccination and health education by veterinary and public health workers in the management of brucellosis in Uganda. Methods This study used a qualitative design where six Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) that were homogenous in nature were conducted, two from each sub-county, one with the local leaders, and another with pastoralists and farmers. Five Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) with two public health workers and three veterinary extension workers from three sub-counties in Kiruhura district, Uganda were conducted. All FGDs were conducted in the local language and tape recorded with consent from the participants. KIIs were in English and later transcribed and analyzed using latent content data analysis method. Results All the groups mentioned that they lacked awareness on brucellosis commonly known as Brucella and its vaccination in animals. Respondents perceived improvement in human resources in terms of training and recruiting more health personnel, facilitation of the necessary activities such as sensitization of the communities about brucellosis, and provision of vaccines and diagnostic tests as very important in the integration process in the communities. The FGD participants also believed that community participation was crucial for sustainability and ownership of the integration process. Conclusions The respondents reported limited knowledge of brucellosis and its vaccination in animals. The community members believed that mass animal vaccination in combination with health education about the disease is important and possible if it involves government and all other stakeholders such

  6. Community Perceptions on Integrating Animal Vaccination and Health Education by Veterinary and Public Health Workers in the Prevention of Brucellosis among Pastoral Communities of South Western Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Kansiime

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of veterinary, public health, and economic significance in most developing countries, yet there are few studies that show integrated human and veterinary health care intervention focusing on integration at both activity and actors levels. The aim of our study, therefore, was to explore community perceptions on integration of animal vaccination and health education by veterinary and public health workers in the management of brucellosis in Uganda.This study used a qualitative design where six Focus Group Discussions (FGDs that were homogenous in nature were conducted, two from each sub-county, one with the local leaders, and another with pastoralists and farmers. Five Key Informant Interviews (KIIs with two public health workers and three veterinary extension workers from three sub-counties in Kiruhura district, Uganda were conducted. All FGDs were conducted in the local language and tape recorded with consent from the participants. KIIs were in English and later transcribed and analyzed using latent content data analysis method.All the groups mentioned that they lacked awareness on brucellosis commonly known as Brucella and its vaccination in animals. Respondents perceived improvement in human resources in terms of training and recruiting more health personnel, facilitation of the necessary activities such as sensitization of the communities about brucellosis, and provision of vaccines and diagnostic tests as very important in the integration process in the communities. The FGD participants also believed that community participation was crucial for sustainability and ownership of the integration process.The respondents reported limited knowledge of brucellosis and its vaccination in animals. The community members believed that mass animal vaccination in combination with health education about the disease is important and possible if it involves government and all other stakeholders such as wildlife authorities

  7. Tacit knowledge of public health nurses in identifying community health problems and need for new services: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka-Maeda, Kyoko; Murashima, Sachiyo; Asahara, Kiyomi

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the tacit knowledge of public health nurses in identifying community health problems and developing relevant new projects. Previous research only roughly showed those skills for creating new community health services, such as lobbying. Nine Japanese public health nurses who had created new projects in their municipalities were selected by theoretical sampling and interviewed in 2002-2003. Yin's Case Study Method, especially the multiple-case study design, was used. All 9 public health nurses used similar approaches in identifying community health problems and the need for creating new services, even though their experiences differed and the kinds of projects varied. They identified the difficulties of clients, recognized clients who had the same problems, elucidated the limitations of existing services, and forecasted outcomes from the neglect of the clients' problems. Then they succeeded in creating a new project by examining individual health problems in the context of their community's characteristics, societal factors, and using existing policies to support their clients. This is the first study to explore the skills of public health nurses and their intention to use such skills in creating new projects as well as the exact process. They could identify community health problems that will be the basis for developing new services to provide care for individual clients. This is different from the traditional community assessment approach that requires the collection of a huge amount of information to clarify community health problems. The tacit knowledge of public health nurses will help to create needs-oriented new services more smoothly.

  8. Perceived Need Versus Current Spending: Gaps in Providing Foundational Public Health Services in Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekemeier, Betty; Marlowe, Justin; Squires, Linda Sharee; Tebaldi, Jennifer; Park, Seungeun

    Our objective was to estimate the gap between the costs for local health jurisdictions (LHJs) to provide foundational public health services (FPHS) and actual spending on FPHS and to examine factors associated with that gap. We employed resource-based cost estimation methods for this observational study and conducted multivariate analyses with measures derived from secondary administrative data. We used primary data collected from LHJ leaders that depicted 2014 spending and perceived need. We also included secondary administrative data depicting annual 2000-2013 expenditures organized into categories containing key elements of FPHS areas. We included primary data from a representative sample of 10 LHJs in Washington State and secondary data for all 35 LHJs in Washington. Participants were public health practice leaders from each sample LHJ. Our main outcome of interest was the gap identified between current spending and the perceived spending needed to provide FPHS in a jurisdiction. Actual FPHS spending was approximately 65% of spending needed to provide overall FPHS for our sample LHJs, but the size of the gap varied substantially by program. Some gaps also varied widely by LHJ, with spending gaps widest among rural and high poverty communities. Percent poverty and the metropolitan nature of a jurisdiction were factors significantly related to FPHS spending in our multivariate analyses. Actual spending lags far behind local officials' estimates of spending needed to provide FPHS and is likely influenced by local conditions. Major apparent gaps between spending and need, particularly in areas such as costly Business Competencies, underscore the need for cross-cutting capabilities to support public health system responsiveness and for attention to be paid to local conditions.

  9. The effect of service delivery in publiccommunity service centres’: A case of an emerging economy

    OpenAIRE

    Ndabazinhle Ngobese; Roger B. Mason; Mandusha Maharaj

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated public perceptions of the service delivery provided by the Community Service Centres (CSC) of the South African Police Service (SAPS) Durban, South Africa. The study focuses on measuring service quality and service delivery. SERVQUAL was used to compare clients’ perceptions against expectations of service quality. Four hundred respondents were surveyed at three community service centres (previously known as ‘police stations’), with expectations and perceptions being as...

  10. A burn center paradigm to fulfill deferred consent public disclosure and community consultation requirements for emergency care research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackford, Martha G; Falletta, Lynn; Andrews, David A; Reed, Michael D

    2012-09-01

    To fulfill Food and Drug Administration and Department of Health and Human Services emergency care research informed consent requirements, our burn center planned and executed a deferred consent strategy gaining Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval to proceed with the clinical study. These federal regulations dictate public disclosure and community consultation unique to acute care research. Our regional burn center developed and implemented a deferred consent public notification and community consultation paradigm appropriate for a burn study. Published accounts of deferred consent strategies focus on acute care resuscitation practices. We adapted those strategies to design and conduct a comprehensive public notification/community consultation plan to satisfy deferred consent requirements for burn center research. To implement a robust media campaign we engaged the hospital's public relations department, distributed media materials, recruited hospital staff for speaking engagements, enlisted community volunteers, and developed initiatives to inform "hard-to-reach" populations. The hospital's IRB determined we fulfilled our obligation to notify the defined community. Our communication strategy should provide a paradigm other burn centers may appropriate and adapt when planning and executing a deferred consent initiative. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of community engagement on public acceptance towards waste-to-energy incineration projects: Empirical evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Sun, Chenjunyan; Xia, Bo; Cui, Caiyun; Coffey, Vaughan

    2018-02-20

    As one of the most popular methods for the treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW), waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration offers effective solutions to deal with the MSW surge and globe energy issues. Nevertheless, the construction of WTE facilities faces considerable and strong opposition from local communities due to the perceived potential risks. The present study aims to understand whether, and how, community engagement improves local residents' public acceptance towards waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration facilities using a questionnaire survey conducted with nearby residents of two selected WTE incineration plants located in Zhejiang province, China. The results of data analysis using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) reveal that firstly, a lower level of public acceptance exists among local residents of over the age of 35, of lower education levels, living within 3 km from the WTE Plant and from WTE incineration Plants which are under construction. Secondly, the public trust of local government and other authorities was positively associated with the public acceptance of the WTE incineration project, both directly and indirectly based on perceived risk. Thirdly, community engagement can effectively enhance public trust in local government and other authorities related to the WTE incineration project. The findings contribute to the literature on MSW treatment policy-making and potentially hazardous facility siting, by exploring the determinants of public acceptance towards WTE incineration projects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Strategies to improve treatment coverage in community-based public health programs: A systematic review of the literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina V Deardorff

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Community-based public health campaigns, such as those used in mass deworming, vitamin A supplementation and child immunization programs, provide key healthcare interventions to targeted populations at scale. However, these programs often fall short of established coverage targets. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the impact of strategies used to increase treatment coverage in community-based public health campaigns.We systematically searched CAB Direct, Embase, and PubMed archives for studies utilizing specific interventions to increase coverage of community-based distribution of drugs, vaccines, or other public health services. We identified 5,637 articles, from which 79 full texts were evaluated according to pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Twenty-eight articles met inclusion criteria and data were abstracted regarding strategy-specific changes in coverage from these sources. Strategies used to increase coverage included community-directed treatment (n = 6, pooled percent change in coverage: +26.2%, distributor incentives (n = 2, +25.3%, distribution along kinship networks (n = 1, +24.5%, intensified information, education, and communication activities (n = 8, +21.6%, fixed-point delivery (n = 1, +21.4%, door-to-door delivery (n = 1, +14.0%, integrated service distribution (n = 9, +12.7%, conversion from school- to community-based delivery (n = 3, +11.9%, and management by a non-governmental organization (n = 1, +5.8%.Strategies that target improving community member ownership of distribution appear to have a large impact on increasing treatment coverage. However, all strategies used to increase coverage successfully did so. These results may be useful to National Ministries, programs, and implementing partners in optimizing treatment coverage in community-based public health programs.

  13. Environmental Public Health Indicators Impact Report: Data and methods that support environmental public health decision-making by communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report presents the results of twenty competitively funded Science-To-Achieve-Results (STAR) grants in EPA's Environmental Public Health Indicators (EPHI) research program. The grantsdirectly supported health interventions, informed policy and decision-making, and improved t...

  14. The Influence of a Career Exploration Course on New First-Time Student Retention at a Public Midwest Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Brenda F.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether a relationship exists between new first- time students enrolled in a career exploration course and retention during the academic years of 2009 to 2011 at a public Midwest community college. Change of major after the first semester was also investigated. The study utilized quantitative, archival data…

  15. Community Intellectual Disability Nurses' Public Health Roles in the United Kingdom: An Exploratory Documentary Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafuba, Kay; Gates, Bob; Cozens, Maria

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore how public health policy in the United Kingdom was reflected in community intellectual disability nurses' (CIDNs)' job descriptions and person's specifications. The role of CIDNs has evolved due to policy changes. As these roles evolve, job descriptions and person specifications are important in highlighting…

  16. Community Development Workers Programme: Mentoring for Social Transformation in the Public Service in Post-Apartheid South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Hilary; Motlhake, Bona

    2008-01-01

    The new public sector community development workers (CDWs) programme was established in 2004 following ineffective service delivery through chronic under-spending on annual budgets in post-apartheid South Africa. CDWs receive training in learnerships within the National Skills Development Strategy to ensure access to and spending of local…

  17. Enhancing Your Public Relations. A Guide for Designing Effective Communication Strategies for Community-Based Vocational Rehabilitation Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePoint, Beth

    This document is intended to assist agencies in formulating and initiating a financially realistic public relations plan specifically designed for their community-based vocational rehabilitation organizations. The document consists of 6 chapters, a 43-item bibliography, a glossary, and information about the author. Chapter 1 defines public…

  18. Anticoagulant rodenticides on our public and community lands: spatial distribution of exposure and poisoning of a rare forest carnivore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad W Gabriel; Leslie W. Woods; Robert Poppenga; Rick A. Sweitzer; Craig Thompson; Sean M. Matthews; J. Mark Higley; Stefan M. Keller; Kathryn Purcell; Reginald H. Barrett; Greta M. Wengert; Benjamin N. Sacks; Deanna L. Clifford

    2012-01-01

    Anticoagulant rodenticide (AR) poisoning has emerged as a significant concern for conservation and management of nontarget wildlife. The purpose for these toxicants is to suppress pest populations in agricultural or urban settings. The potential of direct and indirect exposures and illicit use of ARs on public and community forest lands have recently raised concern for...

  19. The Multigenerational Workforce within Two-Year Public Community Colleges: A Study of Generational Factors Affecting Employee Learning and Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starks, Florida Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study is to broaden multigenerational workforce research involving factors affecting employee learning and interaction by using a population of Baby Boomer, Generation X, and Millennial faculty and staff age cohorts employed at two-year public community college organizations. Researchers have studied…

  20. Why Public Health Researchers Should Consider Using Disability Data from the American Community Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siordia, Carlos; Hoepner, Lori A; Lewis, Allen N

    2018-02-10

    The United States (US) federal government allocates hundreds of billions of dollars to provide resources to Americans with disabilities, older adults, and the poor. The American Community Survey (ACS) influences the distribution of those resources. The specific aim of the project is to introduce health researchers to Public Use Microdata Sample file from 2009 to 2011. The overall goal of our paper is to promote the use of ACS data relevant to disability status. This study provides prevalence estimates of three disability related items for the population at or over the age of 15 years who reside in one of the continental states. When population weights are applied to the 7,198,221 individuals in the sample under analysis, they are said to represent 239,641,088 of their counterparts in the US population. Detailed tabulations by state (provided as Microsoft Excel® spreadsheets in ACS output) clearly show disability prevalence varies from state-to-state. Because analyses of the ACS data have the ability to influence resources aiding individuals with physical mobility challenges, its use should be promoted. Particular attention should be given to monetary allocations which will improve accessibility of the existing built environment for the individuals with mobility impairment.

  1. Community drinking water quality monitoring data: utility for public health research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachael M; Graber, Judith M; Anderson, Robert; Rockne, Karl; Turyk, Mary; Stayner, Leslie T

    2014-01-01

    Environmental Public Health Tracking (EPHT) tracks the occurrence and magnitude of environmental hazards and associated adverse health effects over time. The EPHT program has formally expanded its scope to include finished drinking water quality. Our objective was to describe the features, strengths, and limitations of using finished drinking water quality data from community water systems (CWSs) for EPHT applications, focusing on atrazine and nitrogen compounds in 8 Midwestern states. Water quality data were acquired after meeting with state partners and reviewed and merged for analysis. Data and the coding of variables, particularly with respect to censored results (nondetects), were not standardized between states. Monitoring frequency varied between CWSs and between atrazine and nitrates, but this was in line with regulatory requirements. Cumulative distributions of all contaminants were not the same in all states (Peto-Prentice test P water as the CWS source water type. Nitrate results showed substantial state-to-state variability in censoring (20.5%-100%) and in associations between concentrations and the CWS source water type. Statistical analyses of these data are challenging due to high rates of censoring and uncertainty about the appropriateness of parametric assumptions for time-series data. Although monitoring frequency was consistent with regulations, the magnitude of time gaps coupled with uncertainty about CWS service areas may limit linkage with health outcome data.

  2. Symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Among Young Children 2 Years After the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Yagi, Junko; Homma, Hiroaki; Mashiko, Hirofumi; Nagao, Keizo; Okuyama, Makiko

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and its association with each traumatic experience among 5- to 8-year-old children 2 years after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Children ages 5-8 years who were in selected preschool classes on March 11, 2011, in 3 prefectures affected by the earthquake and 1 prefecture that was unaffected, participated in the study (N=280). PTSD symptoms were assessed through questionnaires completed by caregivers and interviews by psychiatrists or psychologists conducted between September 2012 and May 2013 (ie, 1.5-2 years after the earthquake). Among children who experienced the earthquake, 33.8% exhibited PTSD symptoms. Of the different traumatic experiences, experiencing the earthquake and the loss of distant relatives or friends were independently associated with PTSD symptoms; prevalence ratios: 6.88 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.06-23.0) and 2.48 (95% CI: 1.21-5.08), respectively. Approximately 1 in 3 young children in the affected communities exhibited PTSD symptoms, even 2 years after the Great East Japan Earthquake. These data may be useful for preventing PTSD symptoms after natural disasters and suggest the importance of providing appropriate mental health services for children. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:207-215).

  3. Feeding patterns and diet - children 6 months to 2 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeding children 6 months to 2 years; Diet - age appropriate - children 6 months to 2 years; Babies - feeding solid food ... per day, but will eat more at each feeding than the first 6 months. If you feed ...

  4. Public Interest in Medical Research Participation: Does It Matter if Patients or Community Members Have Helped Design the Study?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Enesha M; Gebremariam, Achamyeleh; Singer, Dianne; Davis, Matthew M

    2015-10-01

    We determined national levels of public participation in medical research study design. We compared public interest in medical research participation (MRP) in studies overall, versus studies explicitly designed with public involvement. Cross-sectional household survey of US population in June 2013. Descriptive statistics estimated participation in medical research study design. Chi-square test compared levels of interest in MRP if respondent knew patients or community members helped design the study. Of 2,048 respondents (participation rate 60%), 5% knew someone who had helped design a medical research study. There was no association between having known someone or personal participation in study design and willingness to engage in MRP. Although the overall proportion of respondents who would consider MRP initially (51%) was similar to the proportion who would consider MRP with community member involvement in study design (49%), the changes in respondents' views across the different scenarios were significantly greater than what would have been expected by chance. We found similar levels of interest in MRP whether or not the public is involved in medical research study design. This finding may indicate that public involvement in study design, like community-based participatory research, may not affect overall rates of MRP. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Housing conditions and respiratory health in a Boston public housing community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugge, D; Rice, P W; Terry, P; Howard, L; Best, J

    2001-01-01

    To determine frequency of and possible associations between environmental housing factors and self-reported respiratory symptoms in public housing. We used a community-participatory method in which trained residents conducted in-person interviews with a random sample of 53 households in one housing development in Boston, Massachusetts. Environmental factors suspected of affecting respiratory health that were reported by more than 30 percent of respondents included: Moisture (43 percent), mold (43 percent), cracks in walls, floors and ceilings (49 percent), sewage leaks (33 percent), unexplained odor (35 percent), use of air fresheners (91 percent), use of gas ovens for heating (38 percent), no vent for the oven (74 percent), stuffy air (66 percent), overheating at least part of the winter (73 percent), cockroaches (70 percent), rodents (40 percent), pets (39 percent), frequent renovations (40 percent), repeated requests for repairs (52 percent), dust from construction (45 percent), use of more than three hazardous household products (32 percent), vehicle traffic nearby (81 percent), and smoking in the household (57 percent). Forty percent of respondents reported having asthma. Respondents also reported that 56 percent of their children had asthma. Forty percent of respondents reported wheeze and 48 percent reported coughing or sneezing episodes in the preceding month. We found the following positive statistically significant associations, adjusted for age, sex, Black or Hispanic origin, and years lived in public housing: wheeze with moisture problems (OR = 4.8; CI = 1.2, 19.3), sewage leaks (OR = 6.3; CI = 1.3, 30.3), odor (OR = 7.5; CI = 1 .4, 39.0), cracks in walls,floors and ceilings (OR = 8.6; CI 1.9, 38.0), and frequency of renovations (OR = 9.8; CI = 1.8, 54.4); cough with moisture problems (OR = 5.3; CI = 1.3, 20.8), stuffy air (OR = 4.4; CI = 1.2, 16.7), cockroaches (OR = 5.4; CI = 1.2, 24.2), smoking (OR = 5.0; CI = 1.2, 20.5), odor (OR = 10.9; CI = 2

  6. Measuring the cost and effect of current community consultation and public disclosure techniques in emergency care research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchett, Gerald; Ryan, Timothy J; Sunna, Mary C; Lee, Simon C; Pepe, Paul E

    2018-04-30

    U.S. federal regulations for research involving exception from informed consent (EFIC) include stipulations for community consultation (CC) and public disclosure (PD) (FDA 21 CFR 50.24). Published descriptions of PD campaigns include letters to community leaders, media outreach, paid advertising, and community meetings. Whether or not these activities provide measurable impact is unknown, as few prior works have evaluated PD activities with probabilistic polling. The aim of this study is to use polling to assess how much public awareness PD efforts generate. A 3-month PD campaign similar in scope and scale to PD campaigns described in several recent publications was implemented across a large urban county (pop. 2.55 million). PD included a study website (www.evktrial.org), letters to 300 community leaders/organizations, bilingual media outreach and also phased roll-outs, weeks apart, of newspaper advertisements, mass e-mail messaging, and paid advertising in Facebook ® and Twitter ® augmented by volunteer social media outreach. During PD we used repeated zip code-targeted online polling via Google Consumer Surveys ® to assess community awareness of the proposed EFIC study. Over 3-months all-source exposures to >1 million individuals were estimated, generating ∼5,000 website visits (12-month cumulative, ∼9000). However, general community awareness evaluated through repeated county-wide polling never rose above baseline measurements. CC/PD campaign costs were estimated at $60,000 (USD). A PD campaign in scope and scale common for EFIC studies may not provide measurable impact in a community. Investigators, review boards and regulators could consider these findings when re-examining and/or creating policies for PD for EFIC studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. It takes a community to engage a community: a model for public engagement about the impacts of nuclear research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalzell, M.T.J.; Main, M.G.; Root, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    The Forum for Accountability and Communities Talking nuclear Science - 'nuclearFACTS' - is a cornerstone of the Sylvia Fedoruk Canadian Centre for Nuclear Innovation's strategy to engage the people of Saskatchewan in evidence-based conversations about the impacts of the nuclear research, development and training activities supported by the Fedoruk Centre. The event is the primary mechanism through which the Fedoruk Centre's community of researchers reports on the progress of their work to the Fedoruk Centre and to their peers in a collegial environment. Intended to be an annual event, the inaugural nuclearFACTS was held 28 August 2013, with leaders of five projects in nuclear medicine, energy and safety systems, materials research using nuclear techniques and social environmental research. The one day event included a peer-to-peer forum as well as a public colloquium and press briefing. The public colloquium clearly demonstrated that this unique approach, enlisting the participation of a willing community of experts, highlighting the impacts of their work using straightforward, concise explanations can lead to successful public engagement. This paper will discuss some of the lessons learned from the first nuclearFACTS and plans for future events. (author)

  8. It takes a community to engage a community: a model for public engagement about the impacts of nuclear research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalzell, M.T.J.; Main, M.G.; Root, J.H., E-mail: matthew.dalzell@usask.ca, E-mail: marci.main@usask.ca, E-mail: john.root@usask.ca [Sylvia Fedoruk Canadian Centre for Nuclear Innovation, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    The Forum for Accountability and Communities Talking nuclear Science - 'nuclearFACTS' - is a cornerstone of the Sylvia Fedoruk Canadian Centre for Nuclear Innovation's strategy to engage the people of Saskatchewan in evidence-based conversations about the impacts of the nuclear research, development and training activities supported by the Fedoruk Centre. The event is the primary mechanism through which the Fedoruk Centre's community of researchers reports on the progress of their work to the Fedoruk Centre and to their peers in a collegial environment. Intended to be an annual event, the inaugural nuclearFACTS was held 28 August 2013, with leaders of five projects in nuclear medicine, energy and safety systems, materials research using nuclear techniques and social environmental research. The one day event included a peer-to-peer forum as well as a public colloquium and press briefing. The public colloquium clearly demonstrated that this unique approach, enlisting the participation of a willing community of experts, highlighting the impacts of their work using straightforward, concise explanations can lead to successful public engagement. This paper will discuss some of the lessons learned from the first nuclearFACTS and plans for future events. (author)

  9. Mental health literacy among refugee communities: differences between the Australian lay public and the Iraqi and Sudanese refugee communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Samantha; Rapee, Ronald M; Coello, Mariano; Momartin, Shakeh; Aroche, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated differences in mental health knowledge and beliefs between participants from the Iraqi and Sudanese refugee communities, and Australian-born individuals, in Sydney, Australia. Ninety-seven participants were given vignettes of characters describing symptoms of major depressive disorder and posttraumatic stress. They were required to identify psychological symptoms as disorders, rate beliefs about the causes of and helpful treatments for these disorders, and rate attitude statements regarding the two characters. Australian participants recognized the presented symptoms as specific mental disorders significantly more than Iraqi and Sudanese participants did, and reported causal and treatment beliefs which were more congruent with expert beliefs as per the western medical model of mental disorder. The Sudanese group endorsed supernatural and religious causal beliefs regarding depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms most often; but both Sudanese and Iraqi participants strongly supported options from the supernatural and religious treatment items. However, evidence for pluralistic belief systems was also found. Although sampling was non-random, suggesting caution in the interpretation of results, it appears that the mental health literacy of lay Australians may be more aligned with the western medical model of mental disorder than that of Iraqi and Sudanese refugee communities. Mental health literacy support needs of Iraqi and Sudanese refugee communities resettled in western countries such as Australia might include education about specific symptoms and causes of mental disorder and the effectiveness of psychiatric treatments. These findings provide useful directions for the promotion of optimal service utilization among such communities.

  10. Review : Public service motivation—practical problems, scientific evidence and the role of a research community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenabeele, Wouter; Skelcher, Chris

    2015-01-01

    This review article introduces Public Money & Management's theme papers and articles on public service motivation (PSM). PSM has proven to be a promising road in creating public performance and public value and this theme brings it to an even wider audience, ensuring that policy-makers and those

  11. Community-onset sepsis and its public health burden: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsertsvadze, Alexander; Royle, Pam; Seedat, Farah; Cooper, Jennifer; Crosby, Rebecca; McCarthy, Noel

    2016-05-18

    Sepsis is a life-threatening condition and major contributor to public health and economic burden in the industrialised world. The difficulties in accurate diagnosis lead to great variability in estimates of sepsis incidence. There has been even greater uncertainty regarding the incidence of and risk factors for community-onset sepsis (COS). We systematically reviewed the recent evidence on the incidence and risk factors of COS in high income countries (North America, Australasia, and North/Western Europe). Cohort and case-control studies were eligible for inclusion. Medline and Embase databases were searched from 2002 onwards. References of relevant publications were hand-searched. Two reviewers screened titles/abstracts and full-texts independently. One reviewer extracted data and appraised studies which were cross-checked by independent reviewers. Disagreements were resolved via consensus. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95 percent confidence intervals (95 % CIs) were ascertained by type of sepsis (non-severe, severe, and septic shock). Ten cohort and 4 case-control studies were included. There was a wide variation in the incidence (# cases per 100,000 per year) of non-severe sepsis (range: 64-514), severe sepsis (range: 40-455), and septic shock (range: 9-31). Heterogeneity precluded statistical pooling. Two cohort and 4 case-control studies reported risk factors for sepsis. In one case-control and one cohort study, older age and diabetes were associated with increased risk of sepsis. The same case-control study showed an excess risk for sepsis in participants with clinical conditions (e.g., immunosuppression, lung disease, and peripheral artery disease). In one cohort study, higher risk of sepsis was associated with being a nursing home resident (OR = 2.60, 95 % CI: 1.20, 5.60) and in the other cohort study with being physically inactive (OR = 1.33, 95 % CI: 1.13, 1.56) and smoking tobacco (OR = 1.85, 95 % CI: 1.54, 2.22). The evidence on sex, ethnicity, statin use, and

  12. Achieving public health impact in youth violence prevention through community-research partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massetti, Greta M; Vivolo, Alana M

    2010-01-01

    Violence is a leading cause of death and disability for U.S. youth. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)'s Division of Violence Prevention (DVP) is committed to developing communities' capacity to engage in evidence-based youth violence (YV) prevention. We discuss the characteristics of communities that exert influence on the development and epidemiology of YV, and discuss opportunities for how community-research partnerships can enhance efforts to prevent violence in communities. The needs for YV prevention are unique; the nature and phenomenology of violence are community specific. Communities also vary widely in infrastructure and systems to support coordinated, evidence-based YV prevention strategies. These conditions highlight the need for community-research partnerships to enhance community capacity, employ local resources, and engage community members in the research process. DVP is committed to working towards creating communities in which youth are safe from violence. Approaches to YV prevention that emphasize community-research partnerships to build capacity and implement evidence-based prevention strategies can provide a supportive context for achieving that goal.

  13. A case study in the use of community-based participatory research in public health nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Christine L; Xu, Yin; Lee, Rebecca; Rose, Barbara L; Kappesser, Mary; Anthony, Jean Spann

    2006-01-01

    There is growing demand for research using a community-based participatory (CBPR) approach. CBPR requires that the academic research team actively partner with community members and stakeholders in the entire research process. The community members are full partners with the researchers in relation to the development and implementation of the study, analysis of the data, and dissemination of the findings. The purpose of this article is to review four basic principles of CBPR and provide an example of how these CBPR principles were used in an ethnographic study related to the culture of African American infant health. In the pilot study, CBPR provided the framework for recruitment and retention of participants, ongoing data analysis, and dissemination of findings. Using CBPR provided the researchers an introduction into the selected community. Community members served as key informants about the culture of the community and provided access to potential participants. The community partners contributed to analysis of emerging themes and in the dissemination of findings to the community, stakeholders, and the scientific community. CBPR provides opportunities for community health nurse researchers to conduct research with vulnerable populations and sets the stage for implementing evidenced-based nursing interventions in the community.

  14. An integrated approach to preventing cardiovascular disease: community-based approaches, health system initiatives, and public health policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Karwalajtys

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Tina Karwalajtys1, Janusz Kaczorowski2,31Department of Family Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; 2Primary Care & Community Research, Child & Family Research Institute, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 3Department of Family Practice, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, CanadaAbstract: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is largely the product of interactions among modifiable risk factors that are common in developed nations and increasingly of concern in developing countries. Hypertension is an important precursor to the development of CVD, and although detection and treatment rates have improved in recent years in some jurisdictions, effective strategies and policies supporting a shift in distribution of risk factors at the population level remain paramount. Challenges in managing cardiovascular health more effectively include factors at the patient, provider, and system level. Strategies to reduce hypertension and CVD should be population based, incorporate multilevel, multicomponent, and socioenvironmental approaches, and integrate community resources with public health and clinical care. There is an urgent need to improve monitoring and management of risk factors through community-wide, primary care-linked initiatives, increase the evidence base for community-based prevention strategies, further develop and evaluate promising program components, and develop new approaches to support healthy lifestyle behaviors in diverse age, socioeconomic, and ethnocultural groups. Policy and system changes are critical to reduce risk in populations, including legislation and public education to reduce dietary sodium and trans-fatty acids, food pricing policies, and changes to health care delivery systems to explicitly support prevention and management of CVD.Keywords: risk factors, blood pressure determination, community health services, community health planning, public health practice

  15. Community Responses to School Reform in Chicago: Opportunities for Local Stakeholder Engagement. A Report by Public Agenda for the Joyce Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Agenda, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This is a report on how community stakeholders, including parents, teachers, community leaders and advocates, think about current efforts by Chicago Public Schools (CPS) to "turn around" Chicago's lowest-performing schools, and their expectations for future school reform actions. It was prepared by Public Agenda, with support from the…

  16. Peer, professional, and public: an analysis of the drugs policy advocacy community in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, Aileen; Quigley, Eoghan; Zobel, Frank; Moore, Kerri

    2014-09-01

    In recent decades a range of advocacy organisations have emerged on the drugs policy landscape seeking to shape the development of policy at national and international levels. This development has been facilitated by the expansion of 'democratic spaces' for civil society participation in governance fora at national and supranational level. However, little is known about these policy actors - their aims, scope, organisational structure, or the purpose of their engagement. Drug policy advocacy organisations were defined as organisations with a clearly stated aim to influence policy and which were based in Europe. Data on these organisations was collected through a systematic tri-lingual (English, French and Spanish) Internet search, supplemented by information provided by national agencies in the 28 EU member states, Norway and Turkey. In order to differentiate between the diverse range of activities, strategies and standpoints of these groups, information from the websites was used to categorise the organisations by their scope of operation, advocacy tools and policy constituencies; and by three key typologies - the type of advocacy they engaged in, their organisational type, and their advocacy objectives and orientation. The study identified over two hundred EU-based advocacy organisations (N=218) which included civil society associations, NGOs, and large-scale alliances and coalitions, operating at local, national and European levels. Three forms of advocacy emerged from the data analysis - peer, professional and public policy. These groups focused their campaigns on practice development (harm reduction or abstinence) and legislative reform (reducing or strengthening drug controls). The findings from this study provide a nuanced profile of civil society advocacy as a policy community in the drugs field; their legitimacy to represent cases, causes, social values and ideals; and their focus on both insider and outsider strategies to achieve their goals. The level of

  17. "Everybody knows psychology is not a real science": Public perceptions of psychology and how we can improve our relationship with policymakers, the scientific community, and the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J

    2015-09-01

    In a recent seminal article, Lilienfeld (2012) argued that psychological science is experiencing a public perception problem that has been caused by both public misconceptions about psychology, as well as the psychological science community's failure to distinguish itself from pop psychology and questionable therapeutic practices. Lilienfeld's analysis is an important and cogent synopsis of external problems that have limited psychological science's penetration into public knowledge. The current article expands upon this by examining internal problems, or problems within psychological science that have potentially limited its impact with policymakers, other scientists, and the public. These problems range from the replication crisis and defensive reactions to it, overuse of politicized policy statements by professional advocacy groups such as the American Psychological Association (APA), and continued overreliance on mechanistic models of human behavior. It is concluded that considerable problems arise from psychological science's tendency to overcommunicate mechanistic concepts based on weak and often unreplicated (or unreplicable) data that do not resonate with the everyday experiences of the general public or the rigor of other scholarly fields. It is argued that a way forward can be seen by, on one hand, improving the rigor and transparency of psychological science, and making theoretical innovations that better acknowledge the complexities of the human experience. (PsycINFO Database Record (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Navigating digital publics for playful production: A cross-case analysis of two interest-driven online communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenia A. Korobkova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that the set of skills and strategies associated with managing digital publics online represent an emergent literacy practice of importance to literacy researchers and educators. Drawing on two case studies of online communities popular with contemporary youth to learn, play, and socialize, we articulate how youth participants strategically negotiate multiple audiences online with varying levels of publicity in order to achieve learning outcomes. In one case, players of a popular production-centered video game share their content in ways that garner the specific kind of audience and feedback they need for their projects. In another, members of an online fan fiction community analyze and negotiate expectations of their audience in order to craft media that garners attention and sustains readership. Both examples identify how skills centered on navigating and managing publics – that is, multiple audiences that are permeable across a wider public online – constitute a recognizable and important “new literacy” in digitally mediated learning environments. We situate our empirical studies in sociocultural theories of learning and historicize the work in contemporary digital cultures and the general move from the writer-reader relationship to writer-audience relationships to more complex relationships within digital publics. The article ends with considerations for literacy researchers, policymakers, and practitioners interested in technology-mediated practices of today’s youth.

  19. Governing how we care: contesting community and defining difference in U.S. public health programs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shaw, Susan J., Dr

    2012-01-01

    "As local governments and organizations assume more responsibility for ensuring the public health, identity politics play an increasing yet largely unexamined role in public and policy attitudes toward local problems...

  20. How Are 2-Year US Colleges Addressing Student Alcohol Use and Related Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenk, Kathleen M.; Nelson, Toben F.; Erickson, Darin J.; Toomey, Traci L.

    2015-01-01

    A considerable amount of attention and research has been dedicated to addressing alcohol use and related problems among students at 4-year colleges; however, less attention has been given to alcohol-related issues among students at 2-year technical/community colleges. This article describes research that expands on a study by Chiauzzi and…

  1. Mediators of the Relation Between Community Violence and Sexual Risk Behavior Among Adults Attending a Public Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Theresa E; Walsh, Jennifer L; Carey, Michael P

    2016-07-01

    Prior research shows that violence is associated with sexual risk behavior, but little is known about the relation between community violence (i.e., violence that is witnessed or experienced in one's neighborhood) and sexual risk behavior. To better understand contextual influences on HIV risk behavior, we asked 508 adult patients attending a publicly funded STI clinic in the U.S. (54 % male, M age = 27.93, 68 % African American) who were participating in a larger trial to complete a survey assessing exposure to community violence, sexual risk behavior, and potential mediators of the community violence-sexual risk behavior relation (i.e., mental health, substance use, and experiencing intimate partner violence). A separate sample of participants from the same trial completed measures of sexual behavior norms, which were aggregated to create measures of census tract sexual behavior norms. Data analyses controlling for socioeconomic status revealed that higher levels of community violence were associated with more sexual partners for men and with more episodes of unprotected sex with non-steady partners for women. For both men and women, substance use and mental health mediated the community violence-sexual risk behavior relation; in addition, for men only, experiencing intimate partner violence also mediated this relation. These results confirm that, for individuals living in communities with high levels of violence, sexual risk reduction interventions need to address intimate partner violence, substance use, and mental health to be optimally effective.

  2. Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    stability Science & Innovation Collaboration Careers Community Environment Science & Innovation Recruitment Events Community Commitment Giving Campaigns, Drives Economic Development Employee Funded neighbor pledge: contribute to quality of life in Northern New Mexico through economic development

  3. What Is Your Library Worth? Extension Uses Public Value Workshops in Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, Jane E.; Morse, George W.

    2015-01-01

    Public libraries are seeing flat or reduced funding even as demands for new services are increasing. Facing an identical problem, Extension developed a program to identify the indirect benefits to non-participants of Extension programs in order to encourage their public funding support. This educational approach was customized to public libraries…

  4. The role of community, state, territorial, and tribal public health in obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, Janice K; Heiser, Claire

    2013-01-01

    This article explores how governmental public health authorities can contribute to public health efforts to address obesity by monitoring the prevalence of obesity and associated risk factors, investigating the contributing factors, informing the public, and working with the citizens in their jurisdiction to develop solutions that fit the needs and sensibilities of the people. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  5. Academic Community Consumer Assessment an Institution of Public Higher Education in Relation to Green it Practices in Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Hernan Contreras Pinochet

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is understanding the consumers of the academic community community in a public higher education institution in relation to Green IT practices in organizations. This study aims to confirm the model developed by Lunardi et al. (2011 Lunardi et al. (2014 through the application of multivariate statistical technique of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. The survey research was conducted in a public higher education institution, based in the city of Osasco, using structured questionnaire with five point likert scale options and the respondents were: the students and professors from graduate school in Business Administration, in addition to employees administrative technician education. The results confirmed the highly significant and demonstrate that the model is consistent with proper adjustment can be used in future research.

  6. Automated Library Networking in American Public Community College Learning Resources Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Adbul J.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the need for community colleges to assess their participation in automated library networking systems (ALNs). Presents results of questionnaires sent to 253 community college learning resource center directors to determine their use of ALNs. Reviews benefits of automation and ALN activities, planning and communications, institution size,…

  7. The Law, Policy, and Politics of Formal Hypnosis in the Public Community College Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Steven Mark

    Information from printed sources, legal documents, and interviews with community college administrators formed the basis of an investigation of the legal, policy, and political implications of the use of formal hypnosis as an instructional augmentation in the community college classroom. Study findings included the following: (1) no formal policy…

  8. Using social media for community consultation and public disclosure in exception from informed consent trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Shannon W; Williams, Carolyn; Gray, Randal; Kerby, Jeffrey D; Wang, Henry E; Bosarge, Patrick L

    2016-06-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration and the Department of Health and Human Services outline regulations allowing an exception from informed consent (EFIC) for research conducted in an emergency setting. Acute care clinical trials using EFIC must include community consultation and public disclosure (CC/PD) activities. We describe our experience using social media to facilitate the CC/PD process in two trauma resuscitation clinical trials. We conducted local CC/PD activities for two multicenter trauma clinical trials, Pragmatic, Randomized Optimal Platelet and Plasma Ratios (PROPPR) and Prehospital Tranexamic Acid Use for Traumatic Brain Injury (ROC-TXA). As part of the CC/PD process, we developed research study advertisements using the social media Web site Facebook. The Facebook advertisements directed users to a regional study Web site that contained trial information. We targeted the advertisements to specific demographic users, in specific geographic areas. We analyzed the data using descriptive statistics. During the study periods, the PROPPR Facebook advertisement was displayed 5,001,520 times (12 displays per target population) with 374 individuals selecting the advertisement. The ROC-TXA Facebook advertisement was displayed 3,806,448 times (8 per target population) with 790 individuals selecting the advertisement. Respondents to both Facebook advertisements were mostly male (52.6%), with the highest proportion between the ages 15 years and 24 years (28.2%). Collectively, 26.9% of individuals that clicked on the Facebook advertisement spent more than 3 minutes on the study Web site (3-49 minutes). Commonly accessed Web pages were "contact us" (PROPPR, 5.5%; ROC-TXA, 7.7%), "study-specific FAQs" (PROPPR, 2.4%; ROC-TXA, 6.7%), and "opt out of research" (PROPPR, 2.5%; ROC-TXA, 3.8%). Of 51 total individuals viewing the opt out of research information (PROPPR, 19; ROC-TXA, 32), time spent on that specific page was modest (PROPPR, 62 seconds; ROC-TXA, 55 seconds

  9. Utilizing Social Media for Community Consultation and Public Disclosure in Exception from Informed Consent Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Shannon W.; Williams, Carolyn; Gray, Randal; Kerby, Jeffrey D.; Wang, Henry E.; Bosarge, Patrick L.

    2016-01-01

    Background The U.S. Food and Drug Administration and Department of Health and Human Services outline regulations allowing an Exception From Informed Consent (EFIC) for research conducted in an emergency settings. Acute care clinical trials utilizing EFIC must include community consultation and public disclosure (CC/PD) activities. We describe our experience using social media to facilitate the CC/PD process in two trauma resuscitation clinical trials. Methods We conducted local CC/PD activities for two multicenter trauma clinical trials, Pragmatic, Randomized Optimal Platelet and Plasma Ratios (PROPPR) and Prehospital Tranexamic Acid Use for Traumatic Brain Injury (ROC TXA). As part of the CC/PD process, we developed research study advertisements using the social media website Facebook. The Facebook advertisements directed users to a regional study website that contained trial information. We targeted the advertisements to specific demographic users, in specific geographic areas. We analyzed the data using descriptive statistics. Results During the study periods, the PROPPR Facebook advertisement was displayed 5,001,520 times, (12 displays per target population) with 374 individuals selected the advertisement. The ROC-TXA Facebook advertisement was displayed 3,806,448 times (8 per target population) with 790 individuals selecting the advertisement. Respondents to both Facebook advertisements were mostly male (52.6%), with the highest proportion between the ages 15-24 (28.2%). Collectively, 26.9% of individuals that clicked on the Facebook advertisement, spent > 3 minutes on the study website [3min – 49 min]. Commonly accessed webpages were “Contact Us” (PROPPR 5.5%, TXA 7.7%), “Study-specific FAQs” (PROPPR 2.4%), ROC-TXA 6.7%) and “Opt-Out of Research” (PROPPR 2.5%, ROC-TXA 3.8%). Of 51 total individuals viewing the opt-out of research information (PROPPR 19, ROC-TXA 32), Time spent on that specific page was modest (PROPPR 62 seconds, ROC-TXA 55

  10. The Use of Personal Value Estimations to Select Images for Preservation in Public Library Digital Community Collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Copeland

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A considerable amount of information, particularly in image form, is shared on the web through social networking sites. If any of this content is worthy of preservation, who decides what is to be preserved and based on what criteria. This paper explores the potential for public libraries to assume this role of community digital repositories through the creation of digital collections. Thirty public library users and thirty librarians were solicited from the Indianapolis metropolitan area to evaluate five images selected from Flickr in terms of their value to public library digital collections and their worthiness of long-term preservation. Using a seven-point Likert scale, participants assigned a value to each image in terms of its importance to self, family and society. Participants were then asked to explain the reasoning behind their valuations. Public library users and librarians had similar value estimations of the images in the study. This is perhaps the most significant finding of the study, given the importance of collaboration and forming partnerships for building and sustaining community collections and archives.

  11. Public health in community pharmacy: A systematic review of pharmacist and consumer views

    OpenAIRE

    Eades, Claire E; Ferguson, Jill S; O'Carroll, Ronan E

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The increasing involvement of pharmacists in public health will require changes in the behaviour of both pharmacists and the general public. A great deal of research has shown that attitudes and beliefs are important determinants of behaviour. This review aims to examine the beliefs and attitudes of pharmacists and consumers towards pharmaceutical public health in order to inform how best to support and improve this service. Methods Five electronic databases were searched ...

  12. Understanding the Public Service Obligation in the Electricity Sector. Lessons for the Contracting Parties of the Energy Community Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karova, R. [Energy Community Secretariat, Vienna (Austria)

    2012-01-15

    The paper underlines that the EU energy acquis does not simply require the Contracting Parties to the Energy Community Treaty to liberalize their electricity markets, but it also provides for a 'safety net' to ensure the available of public services through the imposition of Public Service Obligations (PSO). Nevertheless, the paper points out that the present understanding of the PSOs in the Contracting Parties is not in compliance with the conditions provided byArtide 3 of the Electricity Directive. Therefore, it includes some policy recommendations and a proposal for introducing a duty of notification, which should be instructive for the Contracting Parties to improve their understanding of PSO in line with EU law, by thus effectively safeguarding the availability of public services in the electricity sector to their citizens without jeopardizing the effective electricity market liberalization.

  13. Rajiv Aarogyasri Community Health Insurance Scheme in Andhra Pradesh, India: a comprehensive analytic view of private public partnership model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sunita; Mary, Immaculate

    2013-01-01

    The Rajiv Aarogyasri Community Health Insurance (RACHI) in Andhra Pradesh (AP) has been very popular social insurance scheme with a private public partnership model to deal with the problems of catastrophic medical expenditures at tertiary level care for the poor households. A brief analysis of the RACHI scheme based on officially available data and media reports has been undertaken from a public health perspective to understand the nature and financing of partnership and the lessons it provides. The analysis of the annual budget spent on the surgeries in private hospitals compared to tertiary public hospitals shows that the current scheme is not sustainable and pose huge burden on the state exchequers. The private hospital association's in AP, further acts as pressure groups to increase the budget or threaten to withdraw services. Thus, profits are privatized and losses are socialized.

  14. Public interface and waste management planning: An approach for integrating community involvement in waste strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiques, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    Public involvement and information programs have bridged a communication abyss and allowed waste management policy-makers to understand legitimate public concerns. The perception often held by waste generators that technical concerns had greater validity than institutional issues is being altered as managers realize that information failures can halt a program as abruptly as technical ones. The role and level of involvement of the public in establishing waste management policies has changed dramatically over the past decade. Once the domain only of the generators and regulators, effective waste management strategy development must now make early provisions for public and local government involvement. By allowing public decision makers to participate in the initial planning process and maintain involvement throughout the implementation, many institutional barriers can be avoided. In today's climate, such barriers may represent direct costs, such as litigation, or indirect costs, such as delay, deferral, or duplication of work. Government programs have historically enjoyed a degree of insulation from public involvement factors on the basis of national security, defense, or the greater public good. However, such programs are no longer sacrosanct. Today, the cost of cleaning up past environmental impact can leave little or no money to meet present program objectives. Thus failure to get a public consensus before beginning remedial action can have a major impact on the allocation of scarce resources. Specific approaches to integrating the public into the planning phase of waste management will be addressed, including audience identification, issue analysis and tracking, prioritization of concerns, and information tool development

  15. Assessing Emergency Preparedness and Response Capacity Using Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response Methodology: Portsmouth, Virginia, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurkjian, Katie M; Winz, Michelle; Yang, Jun; Corvese, Kate; Colón, Ana; Levine, Seth J; Mullen, Jessica; Ruth, Donna; Anson-Dwamena, Rexford; Bayleyegn, Tesfaye; Chang, David S

    2016-04-01

    For the past decade, emergency preparedness campaigns have encouraged households to meet preparedness metrics, such as having a household evacuation plan and emergency supplies of food, water, and medication. To estimate current household preparedness levels and to enhance disaster response planning, the Virginia Department of Health with remote technical assistance from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducted a community health assessment in 2013 in Portsmouth, Virginia. Using the Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) methodology with 2-stage cluster sampling, we randomly selected 210 households for in-person interviews. Households were questioned about emergency planning and supplies, information sources during emergencies, and chronic health conditions. Interview teams completed 180 interviews (86%). Interviews revealed that 70% of households had an emergency evacuation plan, 67% had a 3-day supply of water for each member, and 77% had a first aid kit. Most households (65%) reported that the television was the primary source of information during an emergency. Heart disease (54%) and obesity (40%) were the most frequently reported chronic conditions. The Virginia Department of Health identified important gaps in local household preparedness. Data from the assessment have been used to inform community health partners, enhance disaster response planning, set community health priorities, and influence Portsmouth's Community Health Improvement Plan.

  16. EPA Seeks Public Input for National Plan to Manage PFAS at First Community Engagement Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Englanders know that our part of the country is special. New England boasts vibrant communities, many with histories dating to before the American Revolution. Our environment is also unique and wonderful.

  17. Community Based Research Network: Opportunities for Coordination of Care, Public Health Surveillance, and Farmworker Research

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Sharon P.; Heyer, Nicholas; Shipp, Eva M.; Ryder, E. Roberta; Hendrikson, Edward; Socias, Christina M; del Junco, Deborah J.; Valerio, Melissa; Partida, Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The lack of aggregated longitudinal health data on farmworkers has severely limited opportunities to conduct research to improve their health status. To correct this problem, we have created the infrastructure necessary to develop and maintain a national Research Data Repository of migrant and seasonal farmworker patients and other community members receiving medical care from Community and Migrant Health Centers (C/MHCs). Project specific research databases can be easily extrac...

  18. Engaging Communities through Vision Development: A Systems Approach to Public Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chance, Patty L.

    2005-01-01

    The implementation of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) federal legislation in 2001 exemplifies extreme reaction to an escalating public unrest with educational systems over the past several decades of "educational reform." Effective public relations and communication with stakeholders is threatened during this time of increased public…

  19. University Intervention into Community Issues as Dialogic Public Relations: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Jamie M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines a study of the wastewater collection and treatment issues of Little Rock and North Little Rock, Arkansas by University of Arkansas at Little Rock personnel and how it constitutes dialogic public relations. The paper defines dialogic public relations using Kent and Taylor's work and then uses their criteria to describe how this…

  20. Participatory public health systems research: value of community involvement in a study series in mental health emergency preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, O Lee; Marum, Felicity; Semon, Natalie; Mosley, Adrian; Gwon, Howard; Perry, Charlene; Moore, Suzanne Straub; Links, Jonathan M

    2012-01-01

    Concerns have arisen over recent years about the absence of empirically derived evidence on which to base policy and practice in the public health system, in general, and to meet the challenge of public health emergency preparedness, in particular. Related issues include the challenge of disaster-caused, behavioral health surge, and the frequent exclusion of populations from studies that the research is meant to aid. To characterize the contributions of nonacademic collaborators to a series of projects validating a set of interventions to enhance capacity and competency of public mental health preparedness planning and response. Urban, suburban, and rural communities of the state of Maryland and rural communities of the state of Iowa. Study partners and participants (both of this project and the studies examined) were representatives of academic health centers (AHCs), local health departments (LHDs), and faith-based organizations (FBOs) and their communities. A multiple-project, case study analysis was conducted, that is, four research projects implemented by the authors from 2005 through 2011 to determine the types and impact of contributions made by nonacademic collaborators to those projects. The analysis involved reviewing research records, conceptualizing contributions (and providing examples) for government, faith, and (nonacademic) institutional collaborators. Ten areas were identified where partners made valuable contributions to the study series; these "value-areas" were as follows: 1) leadership and management of the projects; 2) formulation and refinement of research topics, aims, etc; 3) recruitment and retention of participants; 4) design and enhancement of interventions; 5) delivery of interventions; 6) collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; 7) dissemination of findings; 8) ensuring sustainability of faith/government preparedness planning relationships; 9) optimizing scalability and portability of the model; and 10) facilitating

  1. Sharing NASA's Scientific Explorations with Communities Across the Country: A Study of Public Libraries Collaborating with NASA STEM Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenbery, P.; LaConte, K.; Holland, A.; Harold, J. B.; Johnson, A.; Randall, C.; Fitzhugh, G.

    2017-12-01

    NASA research programs are helping humanity understand the origin and evolution of galaxies, stars, and planets, how our Sun varies and impacts the heliosphere, and defining the conditions necessary to support life beyond Earth. As places that offer their services for free, public libraries have become the "public square" by providing a place where members of a community can gather for information, educational programming, and policy discussions. Libraries are also developing new ways to engage their patrons in STEM learning. The Space Science Institute's (SSI) National Center for Interactive Learning (NCIL) was funded by NASA`s Science Mission Directorate (SMD) to develop and implement a project called NASA@ My Library: A National Earth and Space Science Initiative That Connects NASA, Public Libraries and Their Communities. NCIL's STAR Library Network (STAR_Net) is providing important leverage to expand its community of practice that serves both librarians and STEM professionals. Seventy-five libraries were selected through a competitive application process to receive NASA STEM Facilitation Kits, NASA STEM Backpacks for circulation, financial resources, training, and partnership opportunities. Initial survey data from the 75 NASA@ My Library partners showed that, while they are actively providing programming, few STEM programs connected with NASA science and engineering. With the launch of the initiative - including training, resources, and STEM-related event opportunities - all 75 libraries are engaged in offering NASA-focused programs, including with NASA subject matter experts. This talk will highlight the impacts the initiative is having on both public library partners and many others across the country.

  2. Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer, Kit, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Art in context of community is the theme of this newsletter. The theme is introduced in an editorial "Community-Enlarging the Definition" (Kit Grauer). Related articles include: (1) "The Children's Bridge is not Destroyed: Heart in the Middle of the World" (Emil Robert Tanay); (2) "Making Bridges: The Sock Doll…

  3. An integrated approach to preventing cardiovascular disease: community-based approaches, health system initiatives, and public health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwalajtys, Tina; Kaczorowski, Janusz

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is largely the product of interactions among modifiable risk factors that are common in developed nations and increasingly of concern in developing countries. Hypertension is an important precursor to the development of CVD, and although detection and treatment rates have improved in recent years in some jurisdictions, effective strategies and policies supporting a shift in distribution of risk factors at the population level remain paramount. Challenges in managing cardiovascular health more effectively include factors at the patient, provider, and system level. Strategies to reduce hypertension and CVD should be population based, incorporate multilevel, multicomponent, and socioenvironmental approaches, and integrate community resources with public health and clinical care. There is an urgent need to improve monitoring and management of risk factors through community-wide, primary care-linked initiatives, increase the evidence base for community-based prevention strategies, further develop and evaluate promising program components, and develop new approaches to support healthy lifestyle behaviors in diverse age, socioeconomic, and ethnocultural groups. Policy and system changes are critical to reduce risk in populations, including legislation and public education to reduce dietary sodium and trans-fatty acids, food pricing policies, and changes to health care delivery systems to explicitly support prevention and management of CVD.

  4. Development of a Community-Based Palliative Care Model for Advance Cancer Patients in Public Health Centers in Busan, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sook-Nam; Choi, Soon-Ock; Shin, Seong Hoon; Ryu, Ji-Sun; Baik, Jeong-Won

    2017-07-01

    A feasible palliative care model for advance cancer patients is needed in Korea with its rapidly aging population and corresponding increase in cancer prevalence. This study describes the process involved in the development of a community-based palliative care (CBPC) model implemented originally in a Busan pilot project. The model development included steps I and II of the pilot project, identification of the service types, a survey exploring the community demand for palliative care, construction of an operational infrastructure, and the establishment of a service delivery system. Public health centers (including Busan regional cancer centers, palliative care centers, and social welfare centers) served as the regional hubs in the development of a palliative care model. The palliative care project included the provision of palliative care, establishment of a support system for the operations, improvement of personnel capacity, development of an educational and promotional program, and the establishment of an assessment system to improve quality. The operational infrastructure included a service management team, provision teams, and a support team. The Busan Metropolitan City CBPC model was based on the principles of palliative care as well as the characteristics of public health centers that implemented the community health projects. The potential use of the Busan CBPC model in Korea should be explored further through service evaluations.

  5. Public Community Support and Involvement around Vandellos ITER Site (EISS-Vandellos 2002/2003). Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sola, R.; Prades, A.; Riba, D.; Doval, E.; Munoz, J.; Garay, A.; Viladrich, C.

    2006-01-01

    The Report summarizes a year and a half research on the social perception and expectations regarding the possible sitting of ITER in Vandellos carried out in the framework of the European ITER Site Studies (EISS). The aims were to examine the needs and preferences in terms of public information and communication; to explore the risks and benefits the community links to the Centre; and to analyse the local expectations concerning public participation. A methodological strategy integrating qualitative methodologies [semi structured interviews to key informants at the local level, and to key research groups in the surrounding area, together with a focus group with local opinion leaders], and quantitative techniques [Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI) applied to a sample of 400 participants] was implemented. The local community has lived with complex and high risk facilities for decades, thus local people has a strong familiarity with technological and energy production systems, but no experience with large research installations. In such a context the global opinion towards the possibility of hosting ITER was clearly favourable, and linked to a strong demand in terms of public information and participation. (Author) 45 refs

  6. Public Community Support and Involvement around Vandellos ITER Site (EISS-Vandellos 2002/2003). Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sola, R.; Prades, A.; Riba, D.; Doval, E.; Munoz, J.; Garay, A.; Viladrich, C.

    2006-07-01

    The Report summarizes a year and a half research on the social perception and expectations regarding the possible sitting of ITER in Vandellos carried out in the framework of the European ITER Site Studies (EISS). The aims were to examine the needs and preferences in terms of public information and communication; to explore the risks and benefits the community links to the Centre; and to analyse the local expectations concerning public participation. A methodological strategy integrating qualitative methodologies [semi structured interviews to key informants at the local level, and to key research groups in the surrounding area, together with a focus group with local opinion leaders], and quantitative techniques [Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI) applied to a sample of 400 participants] was implemented. The local community has lived with complex and high risk facilities for decades, thus local people has a strong familiarity with technological and energy production systems, but no experience with large research installations. In such a context the global opinion towards the possibility of hosting ITER was clearly favourable, and linked to a strong demand in terms of public information and participation. (Author) 45 refs.

  7. Meeting baccalaureate public/community health nursing education competencies in nurse-managed wellness centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Cheryl W; Bucher, Julia A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe how community health competencies for baccalaureate nursing education have been met by locating clinical experiences in nurse-managed wellness centers. Such centers are an ideal setting for students to integrate theoretical concepts into clinical practice while building on previous learning. Students are able to develop skills in community health nursing practice at individual, family, and population level. In addition, the practice setting provides other advantages. Clients who represent a vulnerable population group receive valuable health services. Students gain learning opportunities that are broader than community health competencies, and faculty are provided clinical practice, research, and scholarship opportunities. The challenges to year-round sustainability of nurse-managed centers are burdensome; however, the benefits outweigh the difficulty of those challenges. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Social Mobilization and Community Engagement Central to the Ebola Response in West Africa: Lessons for Future Public Health Emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Amaya M; Obregon, Rafael; El Asawi, Rania; Richey, Catherine; Manoncourt, Erma; Joshi, Kshiitij; Naqvi, Savita; Pouye, Ade; Safi, Naqibullah; Chitnis, Ketan; Quereshi, Sabeeha

    2016-12-23

    Following the World Health Organization (WHO) declaration of a Public Health Emergency of International Concern regarding the Ebola outbreak in West Africa in July 2014, UNICEF was asked to co-lead, in coordination with WHO and the ministries of health of affected countries, the communication and social mobilization component-which UNICEF refers to as communication for development (C4D)-of the Ebola response. For the first time in an emergency setting, C4D was formally incorporated into each country's national response, alongside more typical components such as supplies and logistics, surveillance, and clinical care. This article describes the lessons learned about social mobilization and community engagement in the emergency response to the Ebola outbreak, with a particular focus on UNICEF's C4D work in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. The lessons emerged through an assessment conducted by UNICEF using 4 methods: a literature review of key documents, meeting reports, and other articles; structured discussions conducted in June 2015 and October 2015 with UNICEF and civil society experts; an electronic survey, launched in October and November 2015, with staff from government, the UN, or any partner organization who worked on Ebola (N = 53); and key informant interviews (N = 5). After triangulating the findings from all data sources, we distilled lessons under 7 major domains: (1) strategy and decentralization: develop a comprehensive C4D strategy with communities at the center and decentralized programming to facilitate flexibility and adaptation to the local context; (2) coordination: establish C4D leadership with the necessary authority to coordinate between partners and enforce use of standard operating procedures as a central coordination and quality assurance tool; (3) entering and engaging communities: invest in key communication channels (such as radio) and trusted local community members; (4) messaging: adapt messages and strategies continually as patterns

  9. Governing how we care: contesting community and defining difference in U.S. public health programs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shaw, Susan J., Dr

    2012-01-01

    ... the meanings of cultural difference, ethnicity, and inequality in health care. Drawing on ethnographic research conducted over six years in a small New England city, Shaw presents critical perspectives on public health intervention efforts...

  10. 76 FR 40686 - Public Input for the Launch of the Strong Cities, Strong Communities Visioning Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... growth; creative cities; healthy cities; sustainable economic development; regional innovation clusters... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Economic Development Administration [Docket No.: 110705370-1370-01] Public... Development Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice and request for information. SUMMARY...

  11. OA38 From service delivery to community enablement: a public health approach to palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoughlin, Kathleen; Rhatigan, Jim; Richardson, Marie; Lloyd, Rebecca

    2015-04-01

    : Milford Care Centre is the only hospice in Ireland to make a strategic decision to embrace a public health approach to palliative care, through the development, implementation and evaluation of the Compassionate Communities Project. This presentation seeks to examine why Milford made the decision to move toward a community enablement model, describes the development and implementation of the Compassionate Communities Project to date, presents key findings from recent evaluations and highlights our plans for the future. The presentation uses a reflective, story telling approach to meet it's aims, coupled with data and statistics gathered from the evaluations, and includes a new short film 'Tell Me' developed by recent Computer Science graduates for the Project to use to engage with communities during Café Conversations. The presentation will highlight the relevance of Health Promoting Palliative Care theory to the development of a three-tier model of programme activity, examine the challenges in implementing such an approach and will discuss the impact of upstream intervention to downstream service provision using case studies. © 2015, Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. The effect of service delivery in publiccommunity service centres’: A case of an emerging economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndabazinhle Ngobese

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated public perceptions of the service delivery provided by the Community Service Centres (CSC of the South African Police Service (SAPS Durban, South Africa. The study focuses on measuring service quality and service delivery. SERVQUAL was used to compare clients’ perceptions against expectations of service quality. Four hundred respondents were surveyed at three community service centres (previously known as ‘police stations’, with expectations and perceptions being assessed via the dimensions of tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy. The results indicate that in all five dimensions there is a significant negative quality gap, implying that the quality of service received is below what is expected by clients. Improvements are required in all five dimensions if service delivery is to be improved. Actions needed to improve service quality include regular assessment and monitoring of clients’ experiences, as well as employees’ behaviour

  13. Expanding a community's justice response to sex crimes through advocacy, prosecutorial, and public health collaboration: introducing the RESTORE program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Mary P; Bachar, Karen J; Hopkins, C Quince; Carlson, Carolyn

    2004-12-01

    Problems in criminal justice system response to date-acquaintance rape and nonpenetration sexual offenses include (a) they are markers of a sexual offending career, yet are viewed as minor; (b) perpetrators are not held accountable in ways that reduce reoffense; and (c) criminal justice response disappoints and traumatizes victims. To address these problems, a collaboration of victim services, prosecutors, legal scholars, and public health professionals are implementing and evaluating RESTORE, a victim-driven, community-based restorative justice program for selected sex crimes. RESTORE prepares survivors, responsible persons (offenders), and both parties' families and friends for face-to-face dialogue to identify the harm and develop a redress plan. The program then monitors the offender's compliance for 12 months. The article summarizes empirical data on problems in criminal justice response, defines restorative justice models, and examines outcome. Then the RESTORE program processes and goals are described. The article highlights community collaboration in building and sustaining this program.

  14. Body composition at birth and height at 2 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Admassu, Bitiya; Wells, Jonathan C; Girma, Tsinuel

    2017-01-01

    -free mass (FFM) were measured using air-displacement plethysmography within 48 h of birth. Linear regression models were applied to study the relationship between BC at birth and HAZ at 24 months (±3 months). RESULTS: A total of 268 children with height assessment at 2 years were included. Mean±s.d. HAZ...... at 2 years of age was -1.2±1.2, with 25.8% classified as stunted (HAZFFM at birth was positively associated with HAZ at 2 years, independent of length at birth. When adjusted for potential confounders, HAZ at 2 years was 0.73 higher for each additional kg FFM at birth (β=0.73, 95%CI (0.08, 1.......38). FM was not associated with HAZ at 2 years in any model. CONCLUSION: The FFM component of birth weight, independent of length, explains variability in HAZ at 2 years. Further studies are required to explore how changes in early infant BC are associated with linear growth.Pediatric Research accepted...

  15. Being in Community: A Food Security Themed Approach to Public Scholarship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Barbara; Nelson, Connie; Stroink, Mirella

    2013-01-01

    For six years the Food Security Research Network at Lakehead University, Canada, has been engaged in an interdisciplinary theme-based service-learning initiative focusing on food security. Informed by complexity theory, the contextual fluidity partnership model brings community partners, students, and faculty into a nexus through which new…

  16. Community based fish culture in the public and private floodplains of Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahfuzul Haque, A.B.

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal floodplains are water bodies that retain water for 5-6 months during which they are suitable to grow fish and other aquatic animals. Out of 2.8 million ha of medium and deep-flooded areas, about 1.5 million ha are estimated to be suitable for Community-Based Fish Culture (CBFC).

  17. Evaluating public participation in environmental decision-making: EPA's superfund community involvement program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Charnley; Bruce. Engelbert

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses an 8-year, ongoing project that evaluates the Environmental Protection Agency's Superfund community involvement program. The project originated as a response to the Government Performance and Results Act, which requires federal agencies to articulate program goals, and evaluate and report their progress in meeting those goals. The evaluation...

  18. The Development of Public Relation Skills in Aspiring Community College Presidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Houten, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies warn community colleges about a growing shortage of available presidents in the coming decade (Duree, 2007). The American Council on Education pointed to this problem in a 2012 American College President Study that found 51 percent of presidents in 2011 were 61 to 70 years old, up from 37 percent only five years prior. Eddy (2012)…

  19. A Plan for Environmental/Energy Education in the Public Community College System of Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Field Research Center Inc., Iowa City, IA.

    This report examines the environmental training efforts of community colleges in Illinois. The text includes a series of nine model environmental protection curricula and outlines appropriate course descriptions for pollution control and abatement, radiation, and general environmental technology. A final section offers recommendations which…

  20. The perception of community radio as public sphere and its potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... within the African context. Data for the study came from a field research conducted in the United Republic of Tanzania. The study combines a survey with focus group and in-depth interviews. Relationships between engagement with community radio, political participation and interest, and political efficacy were examined, ...

  1. Promoting social responsibility for health: health impact assessment and healthy public policy at the community level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelmark, M B

    2001-09-01

    The 1997 Jakarta Declaration on Health Promotion into the 21st Century called for new responses to address the emerging threats to health. The declaration placed a high priority on promoting social responsibility for health, and it identified equity-focused health impact assessment as a high priority for action. This theme was among the foci at the 2000 Fifth Global Conference on Health Promotion held in Mexico. This paper, which is an abbreviation of a technical report prepared for the Mexico conference, advances arguments for focusing on health impact assessment at the local level. Health impact assessment identifies negative health impacts that call for policy responses, and identifies and encourages practices and policies that promote health. Health impact assessment may be highly technical and require sophisticated technology and expertise. But it can also be a simple, highly practical process, accessible to ordinary people, and one that helps a community come to grips with local circumstances that need changing for better health. To illustrate the possibilities, this paper presents a case study, the People Assessing Their Health (PATH) project from Eastern Nova Scotia, Canada. It places ordinary citizens, rather than community elites, at the very heart of local decision-making. Evidence from PATH demonstrates that low technology health impact assessment, done by and for local people, can shift thinking beyond the illness problems of individuals. It can bring into consideration, instead, how programmes and policies support or weaken community health, and illuminate a community's capacity to improve local circumstances for better health. This stands in contrast to evidence that highly technological approaches to community-level health impact assessment can be self-defeating. Further development of simple, people-centred, low technology approaches to health impact assessment at the local level is called for.

  2. Exploring the value of a design for service approach to develop public services in the Community Voluntary Sector: a comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Warwick, Laura; Young, Robert; Lievesley, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from two action research case studies that explore the value of using a ‘design for service’ approach to develop public services in the community voluntary sector (CVS). Each case study was conducted within a CVS organisation that was developing or offering public services. Both were local charities that are part of UK federations; the first offering mental health and wellbeing services, the second providing community education services. \\ud \\ud The paper will...

  3. Sustainability in local public health nutrition programmes: beyond nutrition education, towards community collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiee, Fatemeh

    2006-11-01

    The present paper presents the approach, results and outcome of an innovative piece of action research amongst professionals (health and non-health) and the public (women and young people from low-income families in one of the deprived areas of Birmingham, UK). A cooperative inquiry approach was used and data were collected on concerns about health of professionals (n 15) and the public (n 19), as well as dietary practices, smoking pattern and access to healthy foods amongst the public (n 49). The methods of data collection were: desk research; observation; semi-structured individual and focus-group interviews; structured individual interviews. The findings highlight diverse views and expectations about health amongst the public and the professionals, and suggest the existence of tensions between the partnership and the ownership of inter-agency collaboration. It argues the importance of having a shared vision amongst health and non-health professionals regarding health strategy and the way forward for working together to promote the public's health. It recommends that by using the tenet of action research, and adapting a cooperative inquiry approach, members of a partnership project could learn through reflection on action and achieve personal development and social action.

  4. Drivers Motivating Community Health Improvement Plan Completion by Local Public Health Agencies and Community Partners in the Rocky Mountain Region and Western Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Anne; Wolf, Holly J; Scallan, Elaine; Case, Jenny; Kellar-Guenther, Yvonne

    There are numerous drivers that motivate completion of community health improvement plans (CHIPs). Some are more obvious and include voluntary public health accreditation, state requirements, federal and state funding, and nonprofit hospital requirements through IRS regulations. Less is known about other drivers, including involvement of diverse partners and belief in best practices, that may motivate CHIP completion. This research investigated the drivers that motivated CHIP completion based on experiences of 51 local public health agencies (LPHAs). An explanatory mixed-methods design, including closed- and open-ended survey questions and key informant interviews, was used to understand the drivers that motivated CHIP completion. Analysis of survey data involved descriptive statistics. Classical content analysis was used for qualitative data to clarify survey findings. The surveys and key informant interviews were conducted in the Rocky Mountain Region and Western Plains among 51 medium and large LPHAs in Colorado, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. More than 50% of respondents were public health directors; the balance of the respondents were division/program directors, accreditation coordinators, and public health planners. CHIP completion. Most LPHAs in the Rocky Mountains and Western Plains have embraced developing and publishing a CHIP, with 80% having completed their plan and another 13% working on it. CHIP completion is motivated by a belief in best practices, with LPHAs and partners seeing the benefit of quality improvement activities linked to the CHIP and the investment of nonprofit hospitals in the process. Completing a CHIP is strengthened through engagement of diverse partners and a well-functioning partnership. The future of CHIP creation depends on LPHAs and partners investing in the CHIP as a best practice, dedicating personnel to CHIP activities, and enhancing leadership skills to contribute to a synergistic

  5. A review of water quality policies in relation to public good benefits and community engagement in rural Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daly Karen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines current recreational water use in the rural landscape in Ireland and reviews current EU policies and national regulations aimed at protecting water quality and the wider environment under agri-environmental schemes. Specifically, we review policy instruments that protect water for recreational use, their impacts and the challenges they pose for rural development against current requirements to increase public awareness and participation. In Ireland, there is limited experience in public participation in water quality protection and restoration and we highlight how this can be addressed by focussing on the specific contribution of water quality in rural areas in relation to the provision of recreational ecosystem services. These services provide the infrastructure for much of Ireland’s rural tourism sector. In this context, emerging participatory approaches to policy implementation are also assessed as national and local government prioritise community engagement for the second cycle under the EU Water Framework Directive.

  6. Adequacy of benefits, distributive justice and individual attitudes and behaviors: A case of public community colleges staff Adequacy of benefits, distributive justice and individual attitudes and behaviors: A case of public community colleges staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Cheekiong

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine the indirect effect of distributive justice in the relationship between adequacy of benefits and individual attitudes and behaviors (i.e., job satisfaction and organizational commitment using 190 usable questionnaires gathered from employees in Malaysian public community colleges (MPCOLLEGE sector. The outcome of stepwise regression analysis showed that the inclusion of distributive justice in the analysis had increased the effect of adequacy of benefits on job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Furthermore, this finding confirms that distributive justice does act as a full mediating variable in the benefits program model of the organizational sector sample. In addition, implications and limitations of this study, as well as directions for future research are discussed.This study was conducted to examine the indirect effect of distributive justice in the relationship between adequacy of benefits and individual attitudes and behaviors (i.e., job satisfaction and organizational commitment using 190 usable questionnaires gathered from employees in Malaysian public community colleges (MPCOLLEGE sector. The outcome of stepwise regression analysis showed that the inclusion of distributive justice in the analysis had increased the effect of adequacy of benefits on job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Furthermore, this finding confirms that distributive justice does act as a full mediating variable in the benefits program model of the organizational sector sample. In addition, implications and limitations of this study, as well as directions for future research are discussed.

  7. Cultivating a community of practice: the evolution of a health information specialists program for public librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Shari; Jo, Phill; Longo, Jean Marie; Malone, Tara

    2017-07-01

    To help improve the culture of health in Oklahoma-a state that frequently ranks poorly on multiple measures of health and wellness-faculty librarians from an academic health sciences library sought to create a collaborative network of health information professionals in Oklahoma's public libraries through the implementation of the Health Information Specialists Program. Health sciences librarians offered a variety of consumer health information courses for public library staff across the state of Oklahoma for three years. Courses were approved by the Medical Library Association for credit toward the Consumer Health Information Specialization. A total of seventy-two participants from public libraries attended the courses, sixty-five achieved a Level I Consumer Health Information Specialization, and nine went on to achieve Level II. Feedback from participants in the Health Information Specialists Program has indicated a positive impact on the health information expertise of participants, who in turn have used the knowledge that they gained to help their patrons.

  8. Co-production of community mental health services: Organising the interplay between public services and civil society in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaeggemose, Ulla; Ankersen, Pia Vedel; Aagaard, Jørgen; Burau, Viola

    2018-01-01

    Co-production involves knowledge and skills based on both lived experiences of citizens and professionally training of staff. In Europe, co-production is viewed as an essential tool for meeting the demographic, political and economic challenges of welfare states. However, co-production is facing challenges because public services and civil society are rooted in two very different logics. These challenges are typically encountered by provider organisations and their staff who must convert policies and strategies into practice. Denmark is a welfare state with a strong public services sector and a relatively low involvement of volunteers. The aim of this study was to investigate how provider organisations and their staff navigate between the two logics. The present analysis is a critical case study of two municipalities selected from seven participating municipalities, for their maximum diversity. The study setting was the Community Families programme, which aim to support the social network of mental health users by offering regular contact with selected private families/individuals. The task of the municipalities was to initiate and support Community Families. The analysis built on qualitative data generated at the organisational level in the seven participating municipalities. Within the two "case study" municipalities, qualitative interviews were conducted with front-line co-ordinators (six) and line managers (two). The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded using the software program NVivo. The results confirm the central role played by staff and identify a close interplay between public services and civil society logics as essential for the organisation of co-production. Corresponding objectives, activities and collaborative relations of provider organisations are keys for facilitating the co-productive practice of individual staff. Organised in this way, co-production can succeed even in a mental health setting associated with social stigma

  9. The School of Public Safety at Valencia College: Visioning and Implementation of a College-Wide Distributive and Collaborative Program Model for the Central Florida Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goltz, Jeffrey W.

    2016-01-01

    The central Florida region, faced with record tourism, a large service population, and significant population growth over the next few decades, must rely on a community-based institution of higher education with lifelong learning offerings, a local community college, to create world class public safety education and training for the region.…

  10. Prevalence and determinants of caesarean section in private and public health facilities in underserved South Asian communities: Cross-sectional analysis of data from Bangladesh, India and Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Neuman (Melissa); G. Alcock (Glyn); K. Azad (Kishwar); A. Kuddus (Abdul); D. Osrin (David); N. Shah More (Neena); N. Nair (Nirmala); P. Tripathy (Prasanta); C. Sikorski (Catherine); N. Saville (Naomi); A. Sen (Aman); T. Colbourn (Tim); A.J. Houweling (Tanja); N. Seward (Nadine); A. Manandhar; B. Shrestha (Bhim); A. Costello (Anthony); A. Prost (Audrey)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: To describe the prevalence and determinants of births by caesarean section in private and public health facilities in underserved communities in South Asia. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: 81 community-based geographical clusters in four locations in Bangladesh, India

  11. Development of public health program for type 1 diabetes in a university community: preliminary evaluation of behavioural change wheel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwose, Ezekiel Uba; Digban, K A; Anyasodor, A E; Bwititi, P T; Richards, R S; Igumbor, E O

    2017-10-23

    Diabetes mellitus, including type 1 is a global public health problem among the young persons. While public health campaign and screening program is a potential strategy, but communication skills, knowledge and opinion of the healthcare personnel are indicated as variables that can impact patient's education, which will lead to better outcome of care. Thus, in designing or planning a program for public health, workforce development considers opinion and behavioural change wheel of prospective personnel. The purpose of this preliminary study was to evaluate if a university academic department has the behavioural change wheel to function as workforce infrastructure for an envisioned program. Survey of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of a university community regarding diabetes type 1 was performed. The KAP were translated into behavioural change wheel comprising capacity, motivation and opportunity (CMO). There are baseline indications of the behavioural change wheel potential of the public health department to run a T1D screening program. The number of participants who knew someone with T1D was significantly higher than the subgroup with no such knowledge (pwheel or CMO to develop a workforce infrastructure for T1D screening program, the experience that comes with age of lecturers will be an important factor to enable such program to succeed.

  12. Translating Public Policy: Enhancing the Applicability of Social Impact Techniques for Grassroots Community Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Edwards

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an exploratory action research study designed to understand how grassroots community organisations engage in the measurement and reporting of social impact and how they demonstrate their social impact to local government funders. Our findings suggest that the relationships between small non-profit organisations, the communities they serve or represent and their funders are increasingly driven from the top down formalised practices. Volunteer-run grassroots organisations can be marginalized in this process. Members may lack awareness of funders’ strategic approaches or the formalized auditing and control requirements of funders mean grassroots organisations lose capacity to define their programs and projects. We conclude that, to help counter this trend, tools and techniques which open up possibilities for dialogue between those holding power and those seeking support are essential.

  13. Zoonoses: an occupational hazard for livestock workers and a public health concern for rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeJeune, J; Kersting, A

    2010-07-01

    Farming employs one of the most diverse work forces, while at the same time it is one of the most dangerous occupations in the U.S. Individuals associated with the livestock industry face an additional risk: zoonotic diseases. In an effort to improve the overall well-being of the farming community, this review addresses zoonoses as a health concern for the farming community. The discussion of agriculturally acquired zoonoses includes infections naturally transmitted from vertebrate animals to man (e.g., rabies) and those common to animals and man (e.g., Salmonella). Special consideration is given to identifying individuals potentially at higher risk for developing disease. Case reports and epidemiological studies are reviewed from published veterinary and human-health literature to illustrate exposure scenarios and associated health outcomes. Additionally, key livestock zoonoses in the U.S. are summarized, and an overview of prevention and control strategies is provided. Findings show that livestock can transmit many zoonoses directly and indirectly, and human health can be significantly impacted, but the number of people adversely impacted is largely unknown. This review concludes that more education about zoonosis transmission and prevention is needed, and healthcare providers serving rural communities are a critical link in providing this information. In order for healthcare providers to address the educational gap, we recommend greater collaboration with veterinary specialists schooled in population medicine, zoonosis prevention and control, and animal production.

  14. Community Benefits of Public Procurement: A Comparison between Local Governments in Wales (UK) and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lynch, Jane; Uenk, Niels; Walker, Helen; Schotanus, Fredo

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable and social procurement are growing practices being applied across the public and private sectors in different countries. Yet, little is known about the drivers for and wider impact of these strategic procurement approaches. Using an institutional theory perspective, we focus on social

  15. Fine-Scale Environmental Indicators of Public Health and Well-Being for Urban Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban ecosystem services contribute to public health and well-being by buffering natural and man-made hazards, and by promoting healthful lifestyles that include physical activity, social interaction, and engagement with nature. As part of the EnviroAtlas online mapping tool, EP...

  16. Public Libraries in an Age of Financial Complexity: Toward Enhancing Community Financial Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Catherine Arnott; Eschenfelder, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    This report describes several linked empirical studies that examine the activities of public libraries in increasing the financial literacy of their service population. A qualitative field study examines librarians' perceptions of the challenges in offering information and services in this domain; a second set of interviews centers on the…

  17. The First Amendment, the Public Schools, and the Inculcation of Community Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Malcolm

    1989-01-01

    Focuses First Amendment claims within the public schools: (1) claims of students to free expression; (2) right of students to receive information; (3) right of teachers to use materials and teaching methods of choice; and (4) right of parents to have their children exempted from assertedly objectionable materials. (MLF)

  18. Evaluating Public Plantation and Community Planted Forests under the CDM and REDD+ Mechanism for Carbon Stock in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Asheshwar MANDAL

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Public plantations (PPs and Community planted forests (CPFs are inimitable types of participatory forest management practices in Nepal, but their eligibility issues under the framework of clean development mechanism (CDM and reducing emission from the deforestation and forest degradation mechanism (REDD+ are not evaluated. So, to explore the management system of PP and CPF, we compared forest carbon stocks in plantations and evaluated these plantations under these mechanisms as objectives of this research. The relevant documents were revised and altogether 55 samples were collected from Shreepur, Banauta and Bisbity PPs and Sita, Ramnagar and Jogikuti CPFs, in Mahottary district, Nepal. The equation of Chave et al was used to calculate the biomass, which was further converted into carbon. Meanwhile, management practices were evaluated under the framework of CDM and REDD+. The PPs are public land managed, especially by disadvantaged communities, while CPFs are the patches of national forest managed by users. The variation in carbon stock was found to be highest (148.89 ton ha-1 in Sita CPF and lowest (30.34 ton ha-1 in Bisbitty PP. In fact, it is difficult to certify plantations under CDM, due to its complexity, but they can easily be candidate to the REDD+ mechanism, if they are bundled with large forest blocks.

  19. Survey on Public Awareness On AIDS- Role Of Government And Non Government Agencies In A Rural South Indian Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balagnesh G

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What is the level of Public awareness on AIDS in a rural community and to what extent the government and non-government agencies have played their role in creating the awareness? Objectives: (i To study the public awareness on AIDS in a rural community (ii To Study role of government and non-government agencies in creating the awareness on AIDS. Design: Cross-sectional study Setting: Rural area under S. V. Medical College Triputi (AP Participants: 100 males (15-45 yrs and 100 females (15-45 yrs. Study variables: Awareness on AIDS, Government and non-government agencies. Statistical Analysis: Percentages Results: Most of the persons interviewed had minimal knowledge on AIDS. Quite a large section of the ‘ study population was ignorant over the safety offered by condoms in preventing AIDS. Doordarshan and Newspaper agencies played much role in creation the awareness on AIDS, while the non-government agencies like Lions’ Club, Rotary Club. Indian Junior Chamber etc. played no role in creating the awareness on AIDS in the study area. Recommendations: Government health sector should take more responsibility in educating the people and creating adequate awareness on AIDS. Non-government agencies should involve themselves in creating awareness on AIDS.

  20. Diversity and Adaptation of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Genotypes Circulating in Two Distinct Communities: Public Hospital and Day Care Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Rocha Garcia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available HRSV is one of the most important pathogens causing acute respiratory tract diseases as bronchiolitis and pneumonia among infants. HRSV was isolated from two distinct communities, a public day care center and a public hospital in São José do Rio Preto – SP, Brazil. We obtained partial sequences from G gene that were used on phylogenetic and selection pressure analysis. HRSV accounted for 29% of respiratory infections in hospitalized children and 7.7% in day care center children. On phylogenetic analysis of 60 HRSV strains, 48 (80% clustered within or adjacent to the GA1 genotype; GA5, NA1, NA2, BA-IV and SAB1 were also observed. SJRP GA1 strains presented variations among deduced amino acids composition and lost the potential O-glycosilation site at amino acid position 295, nevertheless this resulted in an insertion of two potential O-glycosilation sites at positions 296 and 297. Furthermore, a potential O-glycosilation site insertion, at position 293, was only observed for hospital strains. Using SLAC and MEME methods, only amino acid 274 was identified to be under positive selection. This is the first report on HRSV circulation and genotypes classification derived from a day care center community in Brazil.

  1. PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP OFFERS NO MAGIC SOLUTIONS, BUT A METHOD FOR RESOLVING COMMUNITY NEEDS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pana Elena Cristina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Public-private partnership (PPP is considered an important tool in financing public sector investments, its purpose being to provide more capital to invest in the most efficient manner. PPPs development has become more important as the economic and financial crisis has challenged the ability of the public bugets to raise adequate financial means and to allocate resources to specific projects. Local governments agree with the participation in realization of PPPs, which leads to increased efficiency, a shorter implementation and a value of the provision of services as large as possible. The advantages of implementing concern: appropriate sharing of risks and responsibilities; mainly public sector retains sovereign powers and the private sector has tasks requiring the implementation; private investment lifecycle as decisive elements of the forms of stimulation of PPP is long; it provides a long-term contractual relationship and offers innovation, in particular by specification of results, level of service and payment mechanisms . In the Member States of the European Union, the adoption of public-private partnership was made differently from one sector to another and from one country to another. At this point one can distinguish three types, namely: " Advanced PPP adopters" with very important projects in the transport sector (road, rail and in the construction of public buildings and equipment (schools, hospitals, prisons but also in the environment sector( water / waste treatment, waste management ; "Medium PPP adopters ", with projects completed or under execution and excellent results in the transport sector; " PPP adopters at a low level ", where PPP is lacking in all sectors and is in a preliminary stage of adoption. Great Britain, Spain and Romania are three countries and at the same time three levels of adopting, corresponding to the three types of PPP adopters. Although the partnership is thought as one which must bring benefits to both

  2. Hippocampal sclerosis in children younger than 2 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadom, Nadja [Children' s National Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Washington, DC (United States); Tsuchida, Tammy; Gaillard, William D. [Children' s National Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is rarely considered as a diagnosis in children younger than 2 years. To describe imaging features in conjunction with clinical information in patients with hippocampal sclerosis who are younger than 2 years. We retrospectively reviewed MR brain imaging and clinical information in five children in whom the diagnosis of HS was made both clinically and by MRI prior to 2 years of age. Imaging features establishing the diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis were bright T2 signal and volume loss, while the internal architecture of the hippocampal formation was preserved in almost all children. Clinically, all children had an infectious trigger. It is necessary for radiologists to consider HS in children with certain clinical features to plan an MRI protocol that is appropriate for detection of hippocampal pathology. (orig.)

  3. Hippocampal sclerosis in children younger than 2 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadom, Nadja; Tsuchida, Tammy; Gaillard, William D.

    2011-01-01

    Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is rarely considered as a diagnosis in children younger than 2 years. To describe imaging features in conjunction with clinical information in patients with hippocampal sclerosis who are younger than 2 years. We retrospectively reviewed MR brain imaging and clinical information in five children in whom the diagnosis of HS was made both clinically and by MRI prior to 2 years of age. Imaging features establishing the diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis were bright T2 signal and volume loss, while the internal architecture of the hippocampal formation was preserved in almost all children. Clinically, all children had an infectious trigger. It is necessary for radiologists to consider HS in children with certain clinical features to plan an MRI protocol that is appropriate for detection of hippocampal pathology. (orig.)

  4. Solar public engagement: the prospective study on FELDA community in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamiah Tun Jamil, Siti; Azfahani Ahmad, Nur

    2017-05-01

    Malaysia Energy Outlook 2016 has highlighted that Malaysia's electricity generation mix has always been highly dependent on fossil fuels. There is a concern on energy security for Malaysia recently, since the depletion of fossil fuel occurs and its effect increases the price of electricity tariff. Nevertheless, the energy demand continues to increase, which make the non-fossil renewable energy sources is back on demand. Malaysia's highest potential for renewable energy comes from solar energy and the large roofs of rural houses offer potential to contribute solar electricity for the people. Indeed, the engagement of solar energy to the public is very important in allowing this energy to be accepted by the locals. The paper will review the related literature on public engagement for solar energy project. This paper also tries to prospect the potential of implementing solar electricity for a well-known rural organization in Malaysia, known as FELDA.

  5. ‘‘A Public sense of ourselves’’: communication and community-building in Canada’s LesbiaNews/LNews, 1989–98

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Barbara M

    2011-01-01

    LesbiaNews, later known as LNews, was an alternative media monthly, written and produced in Victoria, British Columbia by a dedicated group of women who devoted themselves to raising the public profile of the lesbian community through its pages. It was an outstanding example of a counter-public sphere publication, produced by and for a female minority group. Using critical feminist analysis of its contents and oral history interviews with its key editors, this article explores how LesbiaNews/...

  6. Complications and 2-year valve survival following Ahmed valve implantation during the first 2 years of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almobarak, F; Al-Mobarak, F; Khan, A O

    2009-06-01

    To report complications and 2-year valve survival following Ahmed valve implantation during the first 2 years of life. Retrospective institutional case series. Forty-two eyes of 36 patients with Ahmed valve implantation (without prior drainage device surgery) during the first 2 years of life and 2 years' postsurgical follow-up were identified. Most eyes had primary congenital glaucoma (28/42, 66.7%), aphakic glaucoma (5/42, 11.9%) or Peters anomaly (5/42, 11.9%). All but three eyes had prior ocular surgery. Surgery was at a mean age of 11.83 months (m) (SD 5.63). The most common significant postoperative complications were tube malpositioning requiring intervention (11/42, 26.2%), endophthalmitis (3/42, 7.1%; one with tube exposure) and retinal detachment (3/42, 7.1%). Thirty-six eyes (85.8%) required resumption of antiglaucoma medications to maintain intraocular pressure (IOP) valve survival (IOPendophthalmitis and retinal detachment are known potential complications following any incisional surgery for advanced buphthalmos; however, tube exposure is a unique potential problem following aqueous shunt implantation that can lead to intraocular infection. Cumulative valve survival 2 years following implantation was 63.3%.

  7. Public policy, health system, and community actions against illness as platforms for response to NCDs in Tanzania: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metta, Emmy; Msambichaka, Beverly; Mwangome, Mary; Nyato, Daniel J; Dieleman, Marjolein; Haisma, Hinke; Klatser, Paul; Geubbels, Eveline

    2014-01-01

    Most low- and middle- income countries are facing a rise of the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) alongside the persistent burden of infectious diseases. This narrative review aims to provide an inventory of how the existing policy environment, health system, and communities are addressing the NCDs situation in Tanzania and identify gaps for advancing the NCD research and policy agenda. A literature search was performed on PubMed and Google scholar with full text retrieval from HINARI of English language articles published between 2000 and 2012. Documents were read to extract information on what Tanzanian actors were doing that contributed to NCDs prevention, treatment, and control, and a narration was written out of these. Reference lists of all retrieved articles were searched for additional relevant articles. Websites of organizations active in the field of NCDs including the Government of Tanzania and WHO were searched for reports and grey literature. Lack of a specific and overarching NCD policy has slowed and fragmented the implementation of existing strategies to prevent and control NCDs and their determinants. The health system is not prepared to deal with the rising NCD burden although there are random initiatives to improve this situation. How the community is responding to these emerging conditions is still unknown, and the current health-seeking behavior and perceptions on the risk factors may not favor control of NCDs and their risk factors. There is limited information on the burden and determinants of NCDs to inform the design of an integrative and multisectorial policy. Evidence on effective interventions for NCD services in primary care levels and on community perceptions on NCDs and their care seeking is virtually absent. Research and public health interventions must be anchored in the policy, health system, and community platforms for a holistic response.

  8. Nature of local benefits to communities impacted by sour gas development : Public safety and sour gas recommendation 79 : Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    The Provincial Advisory Committee on Public Safety and Sour Gas of Alberta issued a report in December 2002, in which recommendations were made on how to improve the sour gas regulatory system and reduce the impacts of sour gas on public safety and health. Recommendation 79 of this report called for a study to determine the nature of local benefits such as property taxes and local business opportunities, to communities affected by sour gas development. The present document was prepared by a multi-stake holder committee consisting of representatives from municipal government, academia, industry associations, the provincial government, and the public. One of its objectives was to identify matters of importance to stake holders concerning the study. The committee examined three major areas: economic benefit, net financial benefit to municipalities, and impact of sour gas development on local residents. The results indicated that the province and municipalities in which sour gas activities take place benefit from these activities. All Albertans benefit somewhat, and those living in areas where the sour gas industry operates might benefit through employment or the net benefit accrued to municipal government. A detailed quantification of local benefits at the municipal level for individuals was provided in this document. A full accounting of costs or negative impacts that may affect some individuals was not provided. refs., 6 tabs

  9. Clinico-Electroencephalography Pattern and Determinant of 2-year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinico-Electroencephalography Pattern and Determinant of 2-year Seizure Control in Patients with Complex Partial Seizure Disorder in Kano, Northwestern ... Ability to predict seizure control on first diagnosis can be very useful in the management of patients with CPS. ... Data were analyzed using STATA version 10.

  10. Results of 2-year vitamin B treatment on cognitive performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaluw, van der N.L.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Wijngaarden, van J.P.; Brouwer, E.M.; Rest, van de O.; Veld, in 't P.H.; Enneman, A.W.; Dijk, van S.C.; Ham, A.C.; Swart, K.M.A.; Velde, van der N.; Schoor, van N.M.; Cammen, van der T.J.M.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Lips, P.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the effects of 2-year folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation on cognitive performance in elderly people with elevated homocysteine (Hcy) levels. Methods: This multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial included 2,919 elderly participants (65 years

  11. TVT versus TOT, 2-year prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadie, Bassem S; El-Hefnawy, Ahmed S; Elhefnawy, Ahmed S

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate in a comprehensive way TVT in comparison with TOT, the results of a single-center RCT are presented. Many studies addressed efficacy and safety of TVT and TOT. Women included were adults having predominant SUI with positive stress test. They were randomized to get either TVT (Gynecare(®)) or TOT (Aris(®)). All women were seen 1 week, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Seventy-one women completed 2-year follow-up. Median age was 47 (range 33-60 years). Mean ± SD BMI in TVT group was 34 ± 5 while in TOT group was 32 ± 5 kg/m(2). POP of any degree was seen in 50 % (35 women). At 1 year, pad test-negative women were 31 and 29 for TVT and TOT, respectively. At 2 years, figures became 28 in TVT group and 27 in TOT. At 1 year, UDI 6 and IIQ 7 decreased by 78.5 and 81 % for TVT and by 69 % and 75 % for TOT group. At 2 year, comparable percentages were 73 and 79 % for TVT and 69 and 82 % for TOT. Fifteen unique patients had adverse events, 10 of them had TOT. Both tapes have similar efficacy, regarding cure of incontinence. TVT is more effective, albeit insignificantly, than TOT at 2 years. However, serious adverse events were more frequent with TVT, yet TOT has more unique adverse events.

  12. Literary Art in the Formation of the Great Community: John Dewey's Theory of Public Ideas in "The Public and Its Problems"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waks, Leonard J.

    2014-01-01

    In his books "Public Opinion" and "The Phantom Public," Walter Lippmann argued that policy leaders should deny the public a significant role in policymaking. Public opinion, he argued, would inevitably be ill-informed, self-interested and readily manipulated. In "The Public and its Problems," Dewey countered Lippmann…

  13. Needlestick and sharps injuries among health care workers at public tertiary hospitals in an urban community in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsolmon Muugolog

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Needlestick and sharps injuries (NSSIs are one of the major risk factors for blood-borne infections at healthcare facilities. This study examines the current situation of NSSIs among health care workers at public tertiary hospitals in an urban community in Mongolia and explores strategies for the prevention of these injuries. Findings A survey of 621 health care workers was undertaken in two public tertiary hospitals in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, in July 2006. A semi-structured and self-administered questionnaire was distributed to study injection practices and the occurrence of NSSIs. A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate factors associated with experiencing NSSIs. Among the 435 healthcare workers who returned a completed questionnaire, the incidence of NSSIs during the previous 3 months was 38.4%. Health care workers were more likely to report NSSIs if they worked longer than 35 hours per week (odds ratio, OR: 2.47; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.31-4.66 and administered more than 10 injections per day (OR: 4.76; 95% CI: 1.97-11.49. The likelihood of self-reporting NSSIs significantly decreased if health care workers adhered to universal precautions (OR: 0.34; 95% CI: 0.17-0.68. Conclusions NSSIs are a common public health problem at public tertiary hospitals in Mongolia. The promotion of adequate working conditions, elimination of excessive injection use, and adherence to universal precautions will be important for the future control of potential infections with blood-borne pathogens due to occupational exposures to sharps in this setting.

  14. The Art Of Planetary Science: An Exhibition - Bringing Together The Art And Science Communities To Engage The Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molaro, Jamie; Keane, Jamies; Peacock, Sarah; Schaefer, Ethan; Tanquary, Hannah

    2014-11-01

    The University of Arizona’s Lunar and Planetary Laboratory (LPL) presents the 2nd Annual The Art of Planetary Science: An Exhibition (TAPS) on 17-19 October 2014. This art exhibition and competition features artwork inspired by planetary science, alongside works created from scientific data. It is designed to connect the local art and science communities of Tucson, and engage the public together in celebration of the beauty and elegance of the universe. The exhibition is organized by a team of volunteer graduate students, with the help of LPL’s Space Imaging Center, and support from the LPL administration. Last year’s inaugural event featured over 150 works of art from 70 artists and scientists. A variety of mediums were represented, including paintings, photography, digital prints, sculpture, glasswork, textiles, film, and written word. Over 300 guests attended the opening. Art submission and event attendance are free, and open to anyone.The primary goal of the event is to present a different side of science to the public. Too often, the public sees science as dull or beyond their grasp. This event provides scientists the opportunity to demonstrate the beauty that they find in their science, by creating art out of their scientific data. These works utilized, for example, equations, simulations, visual representations of spacecraft data, and images of extra-terrestrial material samples. Viewing these works alongside more traditional artwork inspired by those same scientific ideas provided the audience a more complex, multifaceted view of the content that would not be possible viewing either alone. The event also provides a way to reach out specifically to the adult community. Most science outreach is targeted towards engaging children in STEM fields. While this is vital for the long term, adults have more immediate control over the perception of science and public policy that provides funding and research opportunities to scientists. We hope this event raises

  15. Cost of Delivering Health Care Services in Public Sector Primary and Community Health Centres in North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinja, Shankar; Gupta, Aditi; Verma, Ramesh; Bahuguna, Pankaj; Kumar, Dinesh; Kaur, Manmeet; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    With the commitment of the national government to provide universal healthcare at cheap and affordable prices in India, public healthcare services are being strengthened in India. However, there is dearth of cost data for provision of health services through public system like primary & community health centres. In this study, we aim to bridge this gap in evidence by assessing the total annual and per capita cost of delivering the package of health services at PHC and CHC level. Secondly, we determined the per capita cost of delivering specific health services like cost per antenatal care visit, per institutional delivery, per outpatient consultation, per bed-day hospitalization etc. We undertook economic costing of fourteen public health facilities (seven PHCs and CHCs each) in three North-Indian states viz., Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and Punjab. Bottom-up costing method was adopted for collection of data on all resources spent on delivery of health services in selected health facilities. Analysis was undertaken using a health system perspective. The joint costs like human resource, capital, and equipment were apportioned as per the time value spent on a particular service. Capital costs were discounted and annualized over the estimated life of the item. Mean annual costs and unit costs were estimated along with their 95% confidence intervals using bootstrap methodology. The overall annual cost of delivering services through public sector primary and community health facilities in three states of north India were INR 8.8 million (95% CI: 7,365,630-10,294,065) and INR 26.9 million (95% CI: 22,225,159.3-32,290,099.6), respectively. Human resources accounted for more than 50% of the overall costs at both the level of PHCs and CHCs. Per capita per year costs for provision of complete package of preventive, curative and promotive services at PHC and CHC were INR 170.8 (95% CI: 131.6-208.3) and INR162.1 (95% CI: 112-219.1), respectively. The study estimates can be used

  16. The Einstein Observatory: A New Public/Private Observatory Complex for Community Education and Scientific Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowell, J.

    1999-12-01

    The Development Authority of Cherokee County (Georgia) is leading a public/private partnership of business/industry professionals, educators, and university scientists that seeks to develop a national prototype educational and scientific research facility for grades K-12, as well as college-level research, that will inspire our youth to become literate in science and technology. In particular, the goal is to make this complex a science, math, and engineering magnet learning facility and to raise the average SAT scores of local area students by 100 points. A dark-site mountain, nestled on the foothills of the Blue Ridge Mountains at the northern-most edge of Atlanta, will become the home for the "Einstein" Observatory. The complex will have four telescopes: one 50-inch, one 24-inch, and two 16-inch telescopes. Each telescope will have digital cameras and an optic-fiber feed to a single, medium-resolution spectroscope. All four telescopes will be electronically accessible from local schools. Professional astronomers will establish suitable observational research projects and will lead K-12 and college students in the acquisition and analysis of data. Astronomers will also assist the local area schoolteachers in methods for nurturing children's scientific inquiry. The observatory mountain will have 100 platform locations for individual viewing by visiting families, school groups, and amateur astronomers. The Atlanta Astronomer Club will provide numerous evening programs and viewing opportunities for the general public. An accompanying Planetarium & Science Center will be located on the nearby campus of Reinhardt College. The Planetarium & Science Center will be integrated with Reinhardt College's theme of learning focused upon studying the past and present as a basis for projecting the future.

  17. [Family and acquaintances of illicit drug users: community perspectives on laws and public policies in Western Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jaqueline da; Brands, Bruna; Adlaf, Edward; Giesbrecht, Norman; Simich, Laura; Wright, Maria da Gloria Miotto

    2009-01-01

    This article is part of the study 'Illicit Drug Use in Seven Latin American Countries and Canada: Critical Perspectives of Family and Familiars' (7LACC), which investigated four domains: protective and risk factors; preventive initiatives; treatment facilities; and laws and policies. The article presents a section of the results based on four items of the laws and policies domain--as perceived by the family and acquaintances of illicit drug users living in the community. Participants were recruited in urban primary health care units located in Western Rio de Janeiro (city), Brazil. This multi-method, cross-temporal study performed interviews with 100 adults (18 years of age or older), all cognitively healthy. Results and key conclusions included non-compliance with the fundamental principles of the Unique Health System Legislation / Law 8.080/90 and the erroneous implementation of laws and public policies on illicit drug.

  18. Identifying Persuasive Public Health Messages to Change Community Knowledge and Attitudes About Bulimia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Siân A; Paxton, Susan J; Massey, Robin; Hay, Phillipa J; Mond, Jonathan M; Rodgers, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Addressing stigma through social marketing campaigns has the potential to enhance currently low rates of treatment seeking and improve the well-being of individuals with the eating disorder bulimia nervosa. This study aimed to evaluate the persuasiveness of health messages designed to reduce stigma and improve mental health literacy about this disorder. A community sample of 1,936 adults (48.2% male, 51.8% female) from Victoria, Australia, provided (a) self-report information on knowledge and stigma about bulimia nervosa and (b) ratings of the persuasiveness of 9 brief health messages on dimensions of convincingness and likelihood of changing attitudes. Messages were rated moderately to very convincing and a little to moderately likely to change attitudes toward bulimia nervosa. The most persuasive messages were those that emphasized that bulimia nervosa is a serious mental illness and is not attributable to personal failings. Higher ratings of convincingness were associated with being female, with having more knowledge about bulimia nervosa, and with lower levels of stigma about bulimia nervosa. Higher ratings for likelihood of changing attitudes were associated with being female and with ratings of the convincingness of the corresponding message. This study provides direction for persuasive content to be included in social marketing campaigns to reduce stigma toward bulimia nervosa.

  19. Public awareness of warning signs and symptoms of cancer in oman: a community-based survey of adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Azri, Mohammed; Al-Hamedi, Ibtisam; Al-Awisi, Huda; Al-Hinai, Mustafa; Davidson, Robin

    2015-01-01

    The majority of deaths from cancer occur in low and middle income countries, partly due to poor public awareness of the signs and symptoms of cancer. A community based survey using the Cancer Awareness Measure (CAM) questionnaire was conducted in three different communities in Oman. Omani adults aged 18 years and above were invited to participate in the study. A total of 345 responded from 450 invited participants (response rate=76.7%). The majority of respondents were unable to identify the common signs and symptoms of cancer identified in the CAM (average awareness was 40.6%). The most emotional barrier to seeking help was worry about what the doctor might find (223, 64.6%); a practical barrier was too busy to make an appointment (259, 75.1%) and a service barrier was difficulty talking to the doctor (159, 46.1%). The majority of respondents (more than 60% for seven out of ten symptoms) would seek medical help in two weeks for most signs or symptoms of cancer. Females were significantly more likely than males to be embarrassed (pawareness of the signs and symptoms of cancer in Oman. This might leads to earlier diagnosis, improved prognosis and reduced mortality from cancer.

  20. Do no harm: the role of community pharmacists in regulating public access to prescription drugs in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahnassi, Anas

    2016-04-01

    Pharmacists have a crucial role to ensure regulated public access to prescription drugs. The study aimed to investigate the views of community pharmacists practising in Saudi Arabia on their role in the unauthorised supply of prescription drugs, consider the possible contributory factors and report pharmacists' suggested strategies to regulate supply. One hundred community pharmacists were invited to participate in an interview-based survey, including questions on demographic characteristics, and the unauthorised supply of prescription drugs. Descriptive statistics were conducted, and associations between categorical responses tested; a P value of ≤0.05 was considered significant. Responses to open questions were analysed thematically. In Saudi Arabia, there is widespread unregulated supply of prescription drugs; pharmacists are under pressure from patients to provide prescription drugs for a wide range of clinical conditions. There are safety and appropriateness concerns when drugs are provided based on patient demand rather than clinical need. Pharmacists do not maintain patient records with information on drugs supplied and associated actions. While most pharmacists supply prescription drugs without the necessary prescriber authorisation, they also this may jeopardise patients safety. While we have many concerns about this practice its present form, we believe pharmacists should have certain prescribing privileges within their areas of competence. A legal framework is needed to guarantee proper pharmacists' training, support, mentorship and access to the tools required to provide safe pharmacy practice. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  1. [Tools to assess the impact on health of public health programmes and community interventions from an equity perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez Álvarez, Óscar; Fernández-Feito, Ana; Vallina Crespo, Henar; Aldasoro Unamuno, Elena; Cofiño, Rafael

    2018-05-11

    It is essential to develop a comprehensive approach to institutionally promoted interventions to assess their impact on health from the perspective of the social determinants of health and equity. Simple, adapted tools must be developed to carry out these assessments. The aim of this paper is to present two tools to assess the impact of programmes and community-based interventions on the social determinants of health. The first tool is intended to assess health programmes through interviews and analysis of information provided by the assessment team. The second tool, by means of online assessments of community-based interventions, also enables a report on inequality issues that includes recommendations for improvement. In addition to reducing health-related social inequities, the implementation of these tools can also help to improve the efficiency of public health interventions. Copyright © 2018 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of sedentary communities in the Maya lowlands: coexisting mobile groups and public ceremonies at Ceibal, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Takeshi; MacLellan, Jessica; Triadan, Daniela; Munson, Jessica; Burham, Melissa; Aoyama, Kazuo; Nasu, Hiroo; Pinzón, Flory; Yonenobu, Hitoshi

    2015-04-07

    Our archaeological investigations at Ceibal, a lowland Maya site located in the Pasión region, documented that a formal ceremonial complex was built around 950 B.C. at the onset of the Middle Preclassic period, when ceramics began to be used in the Maya lowlands. Our refined chronology allowed us to trace the subsequent social changes in a resolution that had not been possible before. Many residents of Ceibal appear to have remained relatively mobile during the following centuries, living in ephemeral post-in-ground structures and frequently changing their residential localities. In other parts of the Pasión region, there may have existed more mobile populations who maintained the traditional lifestyle of the preceramic period. Although the emerging elite of Ceibal began to live in a substantial residential complex by 700 B.C., advanced sedentism with durable residences rebuilt in the same locations and burials placed under house floors was not adopted in most residential areas until 500 B.C., and did not become common until 300 B.C. or the Late Preclassic period. During the Middle Preclassic period, substantial formal ceremonial complexes appear to have been built only at a small number of important communities in the Maya lowlands, and groups with different levels of sedentism probably gathered for their constructions and for public rituals held in them. These collaborative activities likely played a central role in socially integrating diverse groups with different lifestyles and, eventually, in developing fully established sedentary communities.

  3. Who Is a Stream? Epistemic Communities, Instrument Constituencies and Advocacy Coalitions in Public Policy-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishani Mukherjee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available John Kingdon’s Multiple Streams Framework (MSF was articulated in order to better understand how issues entered onto policy agendas, using the concept of policy actors interacting over the course of sequences of events in what he referred to as the “problem”, “policy” and “politics” “streams”. However, it is not a priori certain who the agents are in this process and how they interact with each other. As was common at the time, in his study Kingdon used an undifferentiated concept of a “policy subsystem” to group together and capture the activities of various policy actors involved in this process. However, this article argues that the policy world Kingdon envisioned can be better visualized as one composed of distinct subsets of actors who engage in one specific type of interaction involved in the definition of policy problems: either the articulation of problems, the development of solutions, or their enactment. Rather than involve all subsystem actors, this article argues that three separate sets of actors are involved in these tasks: epistemic communities are engaged in discourses about policy problems; instrument constituencies define policy alternatives and instruments; and advocacy coalitions compete to have their choice of policy alternatives adopted. Using this lens, the article focuses on actor interactions involved both in the agenda-setting activities Kingdon examined as well as in the policy formulation activities following the agenda setting stage upon which Kingdon originally worked. This activity involves the definition of policy goals (both broad and specific, the creation of the means and mechanisms to realize these goals, and the set of bureaucratic, partisan, electoral and other political struggles involved in their acceptance and transformation into action. Like agenda-setting, these activities can best be modeled using a differentiated subsystem approach.

  4. Determinants of meeting the public health recommendations for physical activity among community-dwelling elderly Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Koichiro; Shibata, Ai

    2012-02-01

    Although regular physical activity can facilitate healthy aging, improve functional capacity, and prevent chronic diseases in the elderly, many of the Japanese elderly are not sufficiently active. Thus, examining the determinants is an important prerequisite for designing effective programs. The present study investigated the demographic, behavioral, psychosocial, and environmental determinants of meeting the national pedometer-determined physical activity recommendations for the elderly Japanese. Data were analyzed for 137 community-dwelling elderly Japanese aged 70 to 89 years (47% male, mean age = 74.5 years), who completed a questionnaire and wore a pedometer. Demographic (gender, age, marital status), behavioral (BMI, smoking, alcohol consumption), psychosocial (self-efficacy, social support, health professional advice), and environmental (perceived neighborhood environment) variables were self-reported. Averaged daily steps were obtained using 1-year pedometer measurements. Based on the national physical activity recommendations in Japan (males: 6700 steps; females: 5900 steps), the participants were divided into two categories - sufficiently active and insufficiently active. An adjusted logistic regression model was utilized. Totally, 47.4% of the participants (males: 51.5%; females: 43.8%) met the national recommendations. When adjusting for all other variables, a higher self-efficacy for exercise (AOR = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.04-1.28) and positive perception of the neighborhood environment (AOR = 1.43; 95% CI: 1.03-1.98) significantly influenced the meeting of the national recommendations. The findings clarified the need to identify effective intervention strategies to promote physical activity and suggest that an intervention design that accounts for these determinants may more effectively promote physical activity among the elderly Japanese.

  5. Science organisations and Coca-Cola's 'war' with the public health community: insights from an internal industry document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Pepita; Serôdio, Paulo; Ruskin, Gary; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2018-03-14

    Critics have long accused food and beverage companies of trying to exonerate their products from blame for obesity by funding organisations that highlight alternative causes. Yet, conclusions about the intentions of food and beverage companies in funding scientific organisations have been prevented by limited access to industry's internal documents. Here we allow the words of Coca-Cola employees to speak about how the corporation intended to advance its interests by funding the Global Energy Balance Network (GEBN). The documents reveal that Coca-Cola funded and supported the GEBN because it would serve as a 'weapon' to 'change the conversation' about obesity amidst a 'growing war between the public health community and private industry'. Despite its close links to the Coca-Cola company, the GEBN was to be portrayed as an 'honest broker' in this 'war'. The GEBN's message was to be promoted via an extensive advocacy campaign linking researchers, policy-makers, health professionals, journalists and the general public. Ultimately, these activities were intended to advance Coca-Cola's corporate interests: as they note, their purpose was to 'promote practices that are effective in terms of both policy and profit'. Coca-Cola's proposal for establishing the GEBN corroborates concerns about food and beverage corporations' involvement in scientific organisations and their similarities with Big Tobacco. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Evaluation of community-based oral health promotion and oral disease prevention--WHO recommendations for improved evidence in public health practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Kwan, Stella

    2004-01-01

    Systematic evaluation is an integral part of the organisation and delivery of community oral health care programmes, ensuring the effectiveness of these community-based interventions. As for general health promotion programmes the common problems from effectiveness reviews of oral health...... a challenge to oral health professionals to integrate community oral health programmes into a wider health agenda. Public health research focusing on the development of evaluation methodologies has identified a variety of issues including the importance of using pluralistic evaluation approaches (quantitative...... of the evaluation of oral health promotion and oral disease prevention programmes. The aims of the workshop were to: (1) identify common problems and challenges in evaluating community-based oral health interventions; (2) explore developments in the evaluation approaches in public health; (3) share experiences...

  7. Anticoagulant rodenticides on our public and community lands: spatial distribution of exposure and poisoning of a rare forest carnivore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad W Gabriel

    Full Text Available Anticoagulant rodenticide (AR poisoning has emerged as a significant concern for conservation and management of non-target wildlife. The purpose for these toxicants is to suppress pest populations in agricultural or urban settings. The potential of direct and indirect exposures and illicit use of ARs on public and community forest lands have recently raised concern for fishers (Martes pennanti, a candidate for listing under the federal Endangered Species Act in the Pacific states. In an investigation of threats to fisher population persistence in the two isolated California populations, we investigate the magnitude of this previously undocumented threat to fishers, we tested 58 carcasses for the presence and quantification of ARs, conducted spatial analysis of exposed fishers in an effort to identify potential point sources of AR, and identified fishers that died directly due to AR poisoning. We found 46 of 58 (79% fishers exposed to an AR with 96% of those individuals having been exposed to one or more second-generation AR compounds. No spatial clustering of AR exposure was detected and the spatial distribution of exposure suggests that AR contamination is widespread within the fisher's range in California, which encompasses mostly public forest and park lands Additionally, we diagnosed four fisher deaths, including a lactating female, that were directly attributed to AR toxicosis and documented the first neonatal or milk transfer of an AR to an altricial fisher kit. These ARs, which some are acutely toxic, pose both a direct mortality or fitness risk to fishers, and a significant indirect risk to these isolated populations. Future research should be directed towards investigating risks to prey populations fishers are dependent on, exposure in other rare forest carnivores, and potential AR point sources such as illegal marijuana cultivation in the range of fishers on California public lands.

  8. Benefits and tensions in delivering public health in community pharmacies - a qualitative study of healthy living pharmacy staff champions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Richard J; Tsoneva, Jo

    2017-10-01

    Healthy Living Pharmacies (HLP) were introduced in the United Kingdom (UK) in a further attempt to deliver public health benefits in community pharmacy settings. Central to the initiative are staff trained as Healthy Living Champions (HLC) and this study sought to explore HLC perceptions of positive and negative aspect of their work and the wider scheme. A qualitative study was undertaken with a purposive sample of HLCs working in pathfinder HCPs in the Sheffield area in 2014. Participants were recruited by email to either a focus group (n = 7) held at a training event or later semi-structured one-to-one interviews in pharmacies (n = 6). Four stages of interpretative phenomenological analysis were used to code and identify themes. Four main themes emerged relating to the positive workforce development impact HLPs had upon HLCs themselves and on perceived customer and patient engagement and benefits. Tensions were identified with existing commercial business demands and negative views overall of the pharmacy setting with a perceived lack of not only integration with other services but also awareness among the public and health care staff. HLCs felt empowered and more confident in initiating conversation about health issues with patients, but identified barriers relating to workload, a lack of time to perform their role, isolation, tensions with non-HLC staff and logistical barriers such as poor Internet access. Delivering public health activities through the HLC role in UK pharmacies is associated with several perceived benefits for different stakeholders, but may be threatened by well recognised barriers in UK pharmacies related to the commercial setting. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  9. Disparities in dental health of rural Australians: hospitalisation rates and utilisation of public dental services in three communities in North Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Karen; Larkins, Sarah; Croker, Felicity

    2017-01-01

    The oral health of rural Australians continues to lag behind that of those living in metropolitan areas. Research has shown that people living in rural areas are more likely to suffer from dental caries (decay), visit the dentist less often and have poorer access to oral health services. The purpose of the study was to examine hospitalisations for dental conditions and utilisation of public dental services in three rural communities in Queensland compared with the whole of Queensland. Aggregated hospitalisation data for dental conditions and counts of public outpatient service data were requested for residents of three rural communities in Queensland and for the whole of Queensland for the calendar year 2013. Hospitalisation rates per 1000 and risk ratios were calculated to examine the risk of hospitalisation for dental procedures for those living in the selected rural communities and the rest of Queensland. Data were grouped by gender, age and Indigenous status and comparisons made between Queensland and the rural communities. Outpatient service data were converted to percentage of all services delivered to allow comparisons between groups of different sizes. Population data were grouped into age cohorts and compared with the proportion of public oral health services delivered to each age cohort. Residents of the rural communities were twice as likely to be hospitalised and children aged 0-14 years living in the communities were three times more likely to be hospitalised for dental conditions compared to residents of the rest of Queensland. Outpatient oral service data showed that the proportion of services delivered to children aged up to 14 years living in the rural communities was less than the whole of Queensland. Interestingly, in one rural community where the public dental service was open to all, the distribution of public oral health services aligned with the age distribution of the population. The study showed that residents of these rural communities

  10. Public relations: a re-examination of definition, role, and function based on community relations of the Standard Oil (Indiana) refinery at Sugar Creek, MO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruckeberg, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    This study describes public relations as it is commonly practiced today as: a vocation utilizing persuasive communication to obtain a vested nonmarketing goal on behalf of a represented client. It argues that public relation is better defined and practiced as: the active attempt to restore/maintain a sense of community. To illustrate what this dissertation advocates, a case study is used. Probably no organization had designed a community relations program with the specific and express purpose of fostering a sense of community, at least to the extent this dissertation calls for. However, the Standard Oil Company (Indiana) refinery at Sugar Creek, MO, has done this sufficiently to merit study. Based on the findings of the case study, which covers a 75-year period of time, specific recommendations are made in practicing public relations as advocated in this dissertation: the active attempt to restore/maintain a sense of community. The theoretical basis comes from the writings of the Chicago School of Social Thought. It is demonstrated that the Chicago School can provide an excellent theoretical basis to provide insight into public relations practice from a perspective that eliminates the problems that now exist in the role and function of public relations.

  11. Association between perceptions of public drinking water quality and actual drinking water quality: A community-based exploratory study in Newfoundland (Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoo, Benjamin; Valcour, James; Sarkar, Atanu

    2017-11-01

    Studying public perception on drinking water quality is crucial for managing of water resources, generation of water quality standards, and surveillance of the drinking-water quality. However, in policy discourse, the reliability of public perception concerning drinking water quality and associated health risks is questionable. Does the public perception of water quality equate with the actual water quality? We investigated public perceptions of water quality and the perceived health risks and associated with the actual quality of public water supplies in the same communities. The study was conducted in 45 communities of Newfoundland (Canada) in 2012. First, a telephone survey of 100 households was conducted to examine public perceptions of drinking water quality of their respective public sources. Then we extracted public water quality reports of the same communities (1988-2011) from the provincial government's water resources portal. These reports contained the analysis of 2091 water samples, including levels of Disinfection By-Products (DBPs), nutrients, metals, ions and physical parameters. The reports showed that colour, manganese, total dissolved solids, iron, turbidity, and DBPs were the major detected parameters in the public water. However, the majority of the respondents (>56%) were either completely satisfied or very satisfied with the quality of drinking water. Older, higher educated and high-income group respondents were more satisfied with water quality than the younger, less educated and low-income group respondents. The study showed that there was no association with public satisfaction level and actual water quality of the respective communities. Even, in the communities, supplied by the same water system, the respondents had differences in opinion. Despite the effort by the provincial government to make the water-test results available on its website for years, the study showed existing disconnectedness between public perception of drinking water

  12. Clinical outcomes of pars plicata anterior vitrectomy: 2-year results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Narang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To demonstrate the safety and outcome of a surgical approach that uses pars plicata site for anterior vitrectomy during phacoemulsification procedure complicated by posterior capsule rupture and residual cortical matter. Design: Single center, retrospective, interventional, noncomparative study. Materials and Methods: Medical records of a consecutive series of 35 eyes of 35 patients who underwent pars plicata anterior vitrectomy (PPAV were reviewed. The main outcome measures were corrected and uncorrected distance visual acuity (CDVA, UDVA, early and late postoperative complications and intraocular pressure (IOP. Ultrasound biomicroscopic (UBM evaluation of sclerotomy site and spectral domain optical coherence tomography analysis for central macular thickness (CMT was performed. The final visual outcome at 2 years was evaluated. Results: At 2 years follow-up, the mean postoperative UDVA (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR] and CDVA (logMAR was 0.49 ± 0.26 and 0.19 ± 0.14, respectively. There was no significant change in the IOP (P = 0.061 and the mean CMT at 2 years was 192.5 ± 5.54 mm. The postoperative UBM image of the sclerotomy site at 8 weeks demonstrated a clear wound without any vitreous adhesion or incarceration. Intraoperative hyphema was seen in 1 (2.8% case and postoperative uveitis was seen in 2 (5.7% cases, which resolved with medications. No case of an iatrogenic retinal break or retinal detachment was reported. Conclusions: PPAV enables a closed chamber approach, allows thorough cleanup of vitreous in the pupillary plane and anterior chamber and affords better access to the subincisional and retropupillary cortical remnant with a significant visual outcome and an acceptable complication rate.

  13. Ballpoint pen ingestion in a 2-year-old child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameau, Anaïs; Anand, Sumeet M; Nguyen, Lily H

    2011-07-01

    A 2-year-old girl ingested a ballpoint pen, which was found on chest x-ray to have lodged in the lower esophagus and stomach. The pen, which measured nearly 15 cm in length, was removed via rigid esophagoscopy without complication. To the best of our knowledge, this is the longest nonflexible foreign body ingested by a young child ever reported in the English-language literature. We describe the presentation of this case and the current guidelines for safety as enumerated in the Small Parts Regulations established by the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission.

  14. Hurricane Season Public Health Preparedness, Response, and Recovery Guidance for Health Care Providers, Response and Recovery Workers, and Affected Communities - CDC, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-22

    CDC and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) have guidance and technical materials available in both English and Spanish to help communities prepare for hurricanes and floods (Table 1). To help protect the health and safety of the public, responders, and clean-up workers during response and recovery operations from hurricanes and floods, CDC and ATSDR have developed public health guidance and other resources; many are available in both English and Spanish (Table 2).

  15. The Prevalence of Harmful Content on Outdoor Advertising in Los Angeles: Land Use, Community Characteristics, and the Spatial Inequality of a Public Health Nuisance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloane, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Our study sought to examine associations between the content of outdoor advertising and neighborhood ethnic/racial and socioeconomic composition to see whether particular communities disproportionately host harmful content. Methods. We constructed a spatial database of photographs taken from June 2012 until December 2012 in 7 identically zoned communities in Los Angeles, California, to compare outdoor advertising area and content. We selected communities to contrast by ethnicity/race, income, education, and youth population. Results. At-risk communities and communities of color hosted more outdoor advertising depicting harmful content than other communities. Among included neighborhoods, harmful content and the proportion of outdoor advertising overall were most prevalent in communities of Asian Americans and Latino Americans. In all communities, harmful content represented at least 24% of outdoor advertising space. Conclusions. This study provides evidence of the potential for land-use decisions to result in spatially inequitable health impacts. Although dictating the placement of outdoor advertising through zoning may seem sensible, such a decision might have the unintended consequence of disadvantaging the well-being of local communities. Neighborhood factors require more contextually nuanced public health and land-use policy. PMID:24524512

  16. The prevalence of harmful content on outdoor advertising in Los Angeles: land use, community characteristics, and the spatial inequality of a public health nuisance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Bryce C; Sloane, David C

    2014-04-01

    Our study sought to examine associations between the content of outdoor advertising and neighborhood ethnic/racial and socioeconomic composition to see whether particular communities disproportionately host harmful content. We constructed a spatial database of photographs taken from June 2012 until December 2012 in 7 identically zoned communities in Los Angeles, California, to compare outdoor advertising area and content. We selected communities to contrast by ethnicity/race, income, education, and youth population. At-risk communities and communities of color hosted more outdoor advertising depicting harmful content than other communities. Among included neighborhoods, harmful content and the proportion of outdoor advertising overall were most prevalent in communities of Asian Americans and Latino Americans. In all communities, harmful content represented at least 24% of outdoor advertising space. This study provides evidence of the potential for land-use decisions to result in spatially inequitable health impacts. Although dictating the placement of outdoor advertising through zoning may seem sensible, such a decision might have the unintended consequence of disadvantaging the well-being of local communities. Neighborhood factors require more contextually nuanced public health and land-use policy.

  17. 2-year patient-related versus stent-related outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Thayssen, Per; Christiansen, Evald Høj

    2012-01-01

    years were further assessed with specific focus on patient-related composite (all death, all MI, or any revascularization) and stent-related composite outcomes (cardiac death, target vessel MI, or symptom-driven target lesion revascularization). A total of 1,390 patients were assigned to receive the EES......, and 1,384 patients were assigned to receive the SES. RESULTS: At 2 years, the composite primary endpoint occurred in 8.3% in the EES group and in 8.7% in the SES group (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.94, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.73 to 1.22). The patient-related outcome: 15.0% in the EES group versus 15.......80). CONCLUSIONS: At 2-year follow-up, the EES was found to be noninferior to the SES with regard to both patient-related and stent-related clinical outcomes. (Scandinavian Organization for Randomized Trials With Clinical Outcome IV [SORT OUT IV]; NCT00552877)....

  18. DEFINING THE "COMMUNITY" FOR A COMMUNITY-BASED PUBLIC HEALTH INTERVENTION ADDRESSING LATINO IMMIGRANT HEALTH DISPARITIES: AN APPLICATION OF ETHNOGRAPHIC METHODS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edberg, Mark; Cleary, Sean; Simmons, Lauren B; Cubilla-Batista, Idalina; Andrade, Elizabeth L; Gudger, Glencora

    2015-01-01

    Although Latino and other immigrant populations are the driving force behind population increases in the U.S., there are significant gaps in knowledge and practice on addressing health disparities in these populations. The Avance Center for the Advancement of Immigrant/Refugee Health, a health disparities research center in the Washington, DC area, includes as part of its mission a multi-level, participatory community intervention (called Adelante) to address the co-occurrence of substance abuse, violence and sex risk among Latino immigrant youth and young adults. Research staff and community partners knew that the intervention community had grown beyond its Census-designated place (CDP) boundaries, and that connection and attachment to community were relevant to an intervention. Thus, in order to understand current geographic and social boundaries of the community for sampling, data collection, intervention design and implementation, the research team conducted an ethnographic study to identify self-defined community boundaries, both geographic and social. Beginning with preliminary data from a pilot intervention and the original CDP map, the research included: geo-mapping de-identified addresses of service clients from a major community organization; key informant interviews; and observation and intercept interviews in the community. The results provided an expanded community boundary profile and important information about community identity.

  19. Water systems, sanitation, and public health risks in remote communities: Inuit resident perspectives from the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Kiley; Castleden, Heather; Jamieson, Rob; Furgal, Chris; Ell, Lorna

    2015-06-01

    Safe drinking water and wastewater sanitation are universally recognized as critical components of public health. It is well documented that a lack of access to these basic services results in millions of preventable deaths each year among vulnerable populations. Water and wastewater technologies and management practices are frequently tailored to local environmental conditions. Also important, but often overlooked in water management planning, are the social, cultural and economic contexts in which services are provided. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to identify and understand residents' perceptions of the functionality of current water and wastewater sanitation systems in one vulnerable context, that of a remote Arctic Aboriginal community (Coral Harbour, Nunavut), and to identify potential future water related health risks. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 28 Inuit residents and 9 key informants in 2011 and 2012. Findings indicate that the population's rapid transition from a semi-nomadic hunting and gathering lifestyle to permanent settlements with municipally provided utilities is influencing present-day water usage patterns, public health perceptions, and the level of priority decision-makers place on water and wastewater management issues. Simultaneously environmental, social and cultural conditions conducive to increased human exposure to waterborne health risks were also found to exist and may be increasing in the settlements. While water and wastewater system design decisions are often based on best practices proven suitable in similar environmental conditions, this study reinforces the argument for inclusion of social, cultural, and economic variables in such decisions, particularly in remote and economically challenged contexts in Canada or elsewhere around the world. The results also indicate that the addition of qualitative data about water and wastewater systems users' behaviours to technical knowledge of systems and

  20. "I Love Fruit But I Can't Afford It": Using Participatory Action Research to Develop Community-Based Initiatives to Mitigate Challenges to Chronic Disease Management in an African American Community Living in Public Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Courtney; Johnson, Joy; Nueslein, Brianne; Edmunds, David; Valdez, Rupa S

    2018-03-12

    As chronic conditions are on the rise in the USA, management initiatives outside of the inpatient setting should be explored to reduce associated cost and access disparities. Chronic conditions disproportionately affect African American public housing residents due to the effects of historical marginalization on the manifestation of economic and social problems exacerbating health disparities and outcomes. Informed by participatory research action tenets, this study focused on identifying the challenges to management of chronic conditions and developing community-envisioned initiatives to address these challenges in a predominantly African American public housing community. Two focus groups were conducted with former and current public housing residents and were analyzed using inductive content analysis. Physical activity, the cost associated with healthy eating, and lack of information were noted as challenges to chronic disease management. Initiatives discussed were the formation of a walking partner's program to promote physical activity, a shopper's club to exchange coupons and learn how to prepare healthy meals, and a natural remedy's book to share information intergenerationally about management tactics. Challenges identified existed predominantly on the individual and the system level, while the initiatives generated target engaging interpersonal and community relationships. These community-envisioned approaches should be explored to facilitate chronic disease management in public housing neighborhoods.

  1. A Comparison of Centralized and Decentralized Developmental Education Courses in Four Public Appalachian Community Colleges and Students' Perceptions regarding the Seven Principles for Good Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Philip M.

    2011-01-01

    Developmental education courses have become a standard in community colleges in the United States. An overwhelming majority of these public two-year schools offer developmental courses to a wide array of students. At the same time, developmental programs are under a constant barrage of attacks from a variety of stakeholder organizations that view…

  2. A Study of the Impact of Default Management Practices and Other Factors on Student Loan Default Rates in Public Two-Year Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Randell W.

    2013-01-01

    Default management practices and their relationship to the student loan default rate in public two-year community colleges was the focus of this investigation. Five research questions regarding written default management plans, default management practices, process management, accountability, and other factors impacting default guided the study.…

  3. The Effectiveness of a Cohort Model as a Predictor of Grade Point Average and Graduation Status of Pre-Health Sciences Students in a Public Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Elvis Nash

    2017-01-01

    There is a college completion crisis in the United States. In today's competitive job market, health sciences students cannot afford to fail in their educational attainment. The purpose of this study was to determine if participation in the cohort model is a predictor of the success of public community college pre-health sciences students.…

  4. Time course of recovery of erectile function after radical retropubic prostatectomy: does anyone recover after 2 years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbani, Farhang; Schiff, Jeffrey; Piecuch, Michael; Yunis, Luis Herran; Eastham, James A; Scardino, Peter T; Mulhall, John P

    2010-12-01

    Given the paucity of literature on the time course of recovery of erectile function (EF) after radical prostatectomy (RP), many publications have led patients and clinicians to believe that erections are unlikely to recover beyond 2 years after RP. We sought to determine the time course of recovery of EF beyond 2 years after bilateral nerve sparing (BNS) RP and to determine factors predictive of continued improved recovery beyond 2 years. EF was assessed prospectively on a 5-point scale: (i) full erections; (ii) diminished erections routinely sufficient for intercourse; (iii) partial erections occasionally satisfactory for intercourse; (iv) partial erections unsatisfactory for intercourse; and (v) no erections. From 01/1999 to 01/2007, 136 preoperatively potent (levels 1-2) men who underwent BNS RP without prior treatment and who had not recovered consistently functional erections (levels 1-2) at 24 months had further follow-up regarding EF. Median follow-up after the 2-year visit was 36.0 months. Recovery of improved erections at a later date: recovery of EF level 1-2 in those with level 3 EF at 2 years and recovery of EF level 1-3 in those with level 4-5 EF at 2 years. The actuarial rates of further improved recovery of EF to level 1-2 in those with level 3 EF at 2 years and to level 1-3 in those with level 4-5 EF at 2 years were 8%, 20%, and 23% at 3, 4, and 5 years postoperatively, and 5%, 17%, and 21% at 3, 4, and 5 years postoperatively, respectively. Younger age was predictive of greater likelihood of recovery beyond 2 years. There is continued improvement in EF beyond 2 years after BNS RP. Discussion of this prolonged time course of recovery may allow patients to have a more realistic expectation. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  5. The Two Rivers of Public Education: Why Our Representative Democracy Relies on Both Individualism and Community to Be Delivered through Its Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draayer, Donald

    2011-01-01

    America is blessed with two river systems that feed and nourish the country by their periodic flooding. One mighty river is "individualism" (the entrepreneurial drive to advance and make a difference). The other river is "community" (wherein communal interests strengthen the whole community over the parts). Monitoring and regulating these two…

  6. Tetanus trismus in a 2 year old child: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menon Narayanankutty Sunilkumar, Vadakut Krishnan Parvathy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Tetanus is still a major cause of mortality and morbidity in developing countries. It occurs in children mainly in the unimmunized, due to parental ignorance and objection to vaccination. This potentially fatal disease caused by a neurotoxin, tetanospasmin released from wounds infected with Clostridium tetani, an anaerobic gram–positive bacillus. As tetanus becomes less common, cases are likely to be misdiagnosed or go unrecognized. In this case report, we present a case of tetanus in a partially immunized 2 year old girl who presented with trismus. She was treated with the recent recommendations and adequate supportive care. Detection of tetanus at a very early stage can favor lifesaving interventions. Trismus, infected wound and partially immunized/unimmunized status of a child were the key features leading to the prompt diagnosis and early treatment.

  7. Psychopathology 8 1/2 years post parasuicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, S; Fitzgerald, M; Greene, V T

    1999-01-01

    There are few long-term follow-up studies of parasuicides incorporating face-to-face interviews. To date no study has evaluated the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity at long-term follow-up of parasuicides using diagnostic rating scales, nor has any study examined parental bonding issues in this population. We attempted a prospective follow-up of 85 parasuicide cases an average of 8 1/2 years later. Psychiatric morbidity, social functioning, and recollections of the parenting style of their parents were assessed using the Clinical Interview Schedule, the Social Maladjustment Scale, and the Parental Bonding Instrument, respectively. Thirty-nine persons in total were interviewed, 19 of whom were well and 20 of whom had psychiatric morbidity. Five and died during the follow-up period, 3 by suicide. Migration, refusals, and untraceability were common. Parasuicide was associated with parental overprotection during childhood. Long-term outcome is poor, especially among those who engaged in repeated parasuicides.

  8. Environmental assessment of PSS, feedback on 2 years of experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allais, Romain; Gobert, Julie

    2018-05-01

    This communication details the sustainability assessment of the partial transition of business model from selling products to product renting for small household equipment (SHE). Perceived by the French SHE manufacturer as a strategic opportunity to meet customers' expectations and environmental regulation, 2-years experimentation was performed on a specific territory with the support of a network of new competencies (B-to-B-to-C market). Researchers were mandated for the sustainability assessment of such a transition but this communication focuses on the environmental performance of the experimentation. The results of the comparative LCA are presented and the main environmental impacts linked to this business model transition are specified and discussed. Then, different eco-design scenarios are explored and recommendations for this specific case are proposed.

  9. [Violence against women in transnational communities in San Luis Potosí, Mexico: a public health problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Yesica Yolanda Rangel

    2016-08-01

    Violence against women is a worldwide problem due to its impact on quality of life for those living under the complicity of a patriarchal culture and a state that makes such violence invisible. This article aims to give visibility to the contexts of violence affecting female "partners of migrants" in their places of origin, problematizing how such violence assaults their physical and mental health. This was a qualitative study with an interpretative anthropological focus, drawing on a sample of 21 women from rural and urban areas in San Luis Potosí, Mexico. Interviews were based on daily life history and discourse analysis. According to the results, women experience more violence when their spouses migrate, new forms of violence are committed against them, and the violence occurs in both the household and the community. Violence against women is a public health problem that should be treated through a framework that is sensitive to the social and cultural dynamics characterizing the contexts in which health programs are implemented.

  10. Protein Structure Initiative Material Repository: an open shared public resource of structural genomics plasmids for the biological community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Catherine Y.; Mohr, Stephanie E.; Zuo, Dongmei; Hu, Yanhui; Rolfs, Andreas; Kramer, Jason; Taycher, Elena; Kelley, Fontina; Fiacco, Michael; Turnbull, Greggory; LaBaer, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    The Protein Structure Initiative Material Repository (PSI-MR; http://psimr.asu.edu) provides centralized storage and distribution for the protein expression plasmids created by PSI researchers. These plasmids are a resource that allows the research community to dissect the biological function of proteins whose structures have been identified by the PSI. The plasmid annotation, which includes the full length sequence, vector information and associated publications, is stored in a freely available, searchable database called DNASU (http://dnasu.asu.edu). Each PSI plasmid is also linked to a variety of additional resources, which facilitates cross-referencing of a particular plasmid to protein annotations and experimental data. Plasmid samples can be requested directly through the website. We have also developed a novel strategy to avoid the most common concern encountered when distributing plasmids namely, the complexity of material transfer agreement (MTA) processing and the resulting delays this causes. The Expedited Process MTA, in which we created a network of institutions that agree to the terms of transfer in advance of a material request, eliminates these delays. Our hope is that by creating a repository of expression-ready plasmids and expediting the process for receiving these plasmids, we will help accelerate the accessibility and pace of scientific discovery. PMID:19906724

  11. Healthy End of Life Project (HELP): a progress report on implementing community guidance on public health palliative care initiatives in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindrod, Andrea; Rumbold, Bruce

    2018-04-01

    Contemporary end of life care policies propose increasing community capacity by developing sustainable skills, policies, structures, and resources to support members of a community in caring for each other at the end of life. Public health approaches to palliative care provide strategies to bring this about. Practical implementation can however be ineffective, principally due to failures to grasp the systemic nature of public health interventions, or to ensure that programs are managed and owned by community members, not the professionals who may have introduced them. This article outlines a comprehensive community development project that identifies local end of life needs and meets them through the efficient use of community resources. The project is the product of a three-phase enquiry. The first phase, carried out in a local community, examined carers' experiences of home-based dying, the networks that supported them during care, and broader community networks with the potential to extend care. Data were collected through in-depth research interviews, focus groups and consultation with a community research reference group. Findings were key issues to be targeted by a local community development strategy. In the second phase, these local findings were compared with other practice accounts to identify themes common to many contexts. A public health palliative care framework was then used to produce an evidence-informed community development model for end of life care. The third phase involves implementing and evaluating this model in different Australian contexts. A major theme emerging in phase one of the enquiry was the reluctance of carers to ask for, or even accept, offers of help from family, friends and community networks despite their evident need for support while providing end of life care at home. Others' willingness to provide support was thus hindered by uncertainty about what to offer, and concern about infringing on people's privacy. To develop

  12. Methods Used to Assess the Susceptibility to Contamination of Transient, Non-Community Public Ground-Water Supplies in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arihood, Leslie D.; Cohen, David A.

    2006-01-01

    The Safe Water Drinking Act of 1974 as amended in 1996 gave each State the responsibility of developing a Source-Water Assessment Plan (SWAP) that is designed to protect public-water supplies from contamination. Each SWAP must include three elements: (1) a delineation of the source-water protection area, (2) an inventory of potential sources of contaminants within the area, and (3) a determination of the susceptibility of the public-water supply to contamination from the inventoried sources. The Indiana Department of Environmental Management (IDEM) was responsible for preparing a SWAP for all public-water supplies in Indiana, including about 2,400 small public ground-water supplies that are designated transient, non-community (TNC) supplies. In cooperation with IDEM, the U.S. Geological Survey compiled information on conditions near the TNC supplies and helped IDEM complete source-water assessments for each TNC supply. The delineation of a source-water protection area (called the assessment area) for each TNC ground-water supply was defined by IDEM as a circular area enclosed by a 300-foot radius centered at the TNC supply well. Contaminants of concern (COCs) were defined by IDEM as any of the 90 contaminants for which the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has established primary drinking-water standards. Two of these, nitrate as nitrogen and total coliform bacteria, are Indiana State-regulated contaminants for TNC water supplies. IDEM representatives identified potential point and nonpoint sources of COCs within the assessment area, and computer database retrievals were used to identify potential point sources of COCs in the area outside the assessment area. Two types of methods-subjective and subjective hybrid-were used in the SWAP to determine susceptibility to contamination. Subjective methods involve decisions based upon professional judgment, prior experience, and (or) the application of a fundamental understanding of processes without the collection and

  13. Public awareness and self-efficacy of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in communities and outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: A multi-level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Young Sun; Shin, Sang Do; Song, Kyoung Jun; Hong, Sung Ok; Kim, Young Taek; Lee, Dong-Woo; Cho, Sung-Il

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to test the association between capacity of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) at community level and survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Emergency medical service (EMS)-treated OHCAs with cardiac etiology in Korea between 2012 and 2013 were analyzed, excluding cases witnessed by EMS providers. Exposure variables were five indexes of community CPR capacity: awareness of CPR (CPR-Awareness), any training experience of CPR (CPR-Any-Training), recent CPR training within the last 2 years (CPR-Recent-Training), CPR training with a manikin (CPR-Manikin-Training), and CPR self-efficacy (CPR-Self-Efficacy). All measures of capacity were calculated as aggregated values for each county level using the national Korean Community Health Survey database of 228,921 responders sampled representatively from 253 counties in 2012. Endpoints were bystander CPR (BCPR) and survival to discharge. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (AORs) per 10% increment in community CPR capacity using multi-level logistic regression models, adjusting for potential confounders at individual levels. Of 29,052 eligible OHCAs, 11,079 (38.1%) received BCPR. Patients were more likely to receive BCPR in communities with higher proportions of residents with CPR-Awareness, CPR-Any-Training, CPR-Recent-Training, CPR-Manikin-Training, and CPR-Self-Efficacy (all pCPR-Awareness, 1.10 (1.04-1.15) for CPR-Any-Training, and 1.08 (1.03-1.13) for CPR-Self-Efficacy. For survival to discharge, AORs (95% CIs) were 1.34 (1.23-1.47) per 10% increment in CPR-Awareness, 1.36 (1.20-1.54) for CPR-Any-Training, and 1.29 (1.15-1.45) for CPR-Self-Efficacy. Higher CPR capacity at community level was associated with higher bystander CPR and survival to discharge rates after OHCA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Recovering With Acquired Apraxia of Speech: The First 2 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Katarina L; Shafer, Jennifer N; Harmon, Tyson G; Jacks, Adam

    2016-12-01

    This study was intended to document speech recovery for 1 person with acquired apraxia of speech quantitatively and on the basis of her lived experience. The second author sustained a traumatic brain injury that resulted in acquired apraxia of speech. Over a 2-year period, she documented her recovery through 22 video-recorded monologues. We analyzed these monologues using a combination of auditory perceptual, acoustic, and qualitative methods. Recovery was evident for all quantitative variables examined. For speech sound production, the recovery was most prominent during the first 3 months, but slower improvement was evident for many months. Measures of speaking rate, fluency, and prosody changed more gradually throughout the entire period. A qualitative analysis of topics addressed in the monologues was consistent with the quantitative speech recovery and indicated a subjective dynamic relationship between accuracy and rate, an observation that several factors made speech sound production variable, and a persisting need for cognitive effort while speaking. Speech features improved over an extended time, but the recovery trajectories differed, indicating dynamic reorganization of the underlying speech production system. The relationship among speech dimensions should be examined in other cases and in population samples. The combination of quantitative and qualitative analysis methods offers advantages for understanding clinically relevant aspects of recovery.

  15. Public knowledge of diabetes in Karen Ethnic rural residents: a community-based questionnaires study in the far north-west of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorga, Thaworn; Srithong, Kannapatch; Manokulanan, Pratumpan; Aung, Thin Nyein Nyein; Aung, Myo Nyein

    2012-01-01

    The public knowledge of diabetes is important for prevention of disease. This study aimed to evaluate knowledge of diabetes, risk factors, and the common warning signs of diabetes and complications among community participants in a rural Karen ethnic community. Participants were asked to answer a questionnaire regarding their knowledge of diabetes. Fasting blood glucose testing, blood pressure measurement, and body mass index (BMI) assessment were provided to the participants. The study was conducted at Thasongyang district, Tak province, Thailand. A total of 299 Karen rural residents were included in the study. The median age was 45 years and median fasting blood glucose was 88 mg/dL. The response rate to the questionnaires was 91.97%. Half of the participants knew diabetes is a noncommunicable disease needing lifelong treatment. Overall, one-third of the community participants could correctly answer the knowledge assessment questions regarding risk factors and common features of diabetes. whereas the other two-thirds either gave a wrong answer or were "not sure". Female participants had poorer diabetes knowledge than the males. The public knowledge of diabetes, as represented by this sample of the Karen ethic community, is alarmingly low. There is significant gender difference in knowledge level. Culturally tailored and gender-sensitive diabetes health education interventions are urgently needed in this minority ethnic community.

  16. HOBE+, a case study: a virtual community of practice to support innovation in primary care in Basque Public Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abos Mendizabal, Galder; Nuño Solinís, Roberto; Zaballa González, Irune

    2013-11-05

    A virtual professional community of practice (VCoP), HOBE+, has been set up to foster and facilitate innovation in primary care. It is aimed at all primary care professionals of the Basque Public Health Service (Osakidetza) in the provinces of Biscay and Araba. HOBE + is a VCoP that incorporates innovation management from the generation of ideas to their implementation in primary care practice. We used a case study method, based on the data provided by the technology platform that supports the VCoP, and from a survey completed by HOBE + users. The target population was all primary care staff (including all professional categories) from Araba and Biscay provinces of the Basque Country (Spain), who represent the target users of the VCoP. From a total of 5190 professionals across all the professional categories invited to join, 1627 (31.3%) actually registered in the VCoP and, during the study period, 90 (5.5% of the registered users) participated actively in some way. The total number of ideas proposed by the registered users was 133. Of these, 23 ideas (17.2%) are being implemented. Finally, 80% of the users who answered the satisfaction survey about their experience with HOBE + considered the initiative useful in order to achieve continuous improvement and real innovation in clinical and managerial processes. The experience shows that it is possible to create a virtual CoP for innovation in primary care where professionals from different professional categories propose ideas for innovation that are ultimately implemented.This manuscript objectives are to assess the process of developing and implementing a VCoP open to all primary care professionals in Osakidetza, including the take-up, participation and use of this VCoP in the first 15 months after its launch in October 2011. In addition, the usefulness of the VCoP was assessed through a survey gathering the opinions of the professionals involved.

  17. Public acceptance and willingness-to-pay for a future dengue vaccine: a community-based survey in Bandung, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadisoemarto, Panji Fortuna; Castro, Marcia C

    2013-01-01

    All four serotypes of dengue virus are endemic in Indonesia, where the population at risk for infection exceeds 200 million people. Despite continuous control efforts that were initiated more than four decades ago, Indonesia still suffers from multi-annual cycles of dengue outbreak and dengue remains as a major public health problem. Dengue vaccines have been viewed as a promising solution for controlling dengue in Indonesia, but thus far its potential acceptability has not been assessed. We conducted a household survey in the city of Bandung, Indonesia by administering a questionnaire to examine (i) acceptance of a hypothetical pediatric dengue vaccine; (ii) participant's willingness-to-pay (WTP) for the vaccine, had it not been provided for free; and (iii) whether people think vector control would be unnecessary if the vaccine was available. A proportional odds model and an interval regression model were employed to identify determinants of acceptance and WTP, respectively. We demonstrated that out of 500 heads of household being interviewed, 94.2% would agree to vaccinate their children with the vaccine. Of all participants, 94.6% were willing to pay for the vaccine with a median WTP of US$1.94. In addition, 7.2% stated that vector control would not be necessary had there been a dengue vaccination program. Our results suggest that future dengue vaccines can have a very high uptake even when delivered through the private market. This, however, can be influenced by vaccine characteristics and price. In addition, reduction in community vector control efforts may be observed following vaccine introduction but its potential impact in the transmission of dengue and other vector-borne diseases requires further study.

  18. Supporting women with postpartum anxiety: exploring views and experiences of specialist community public health nurses in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashford, Miriam T; Ayers, Susan; Olander, Ellinor K

    2017-05-01

    Anxiety is common among postpartum women and can have adverse effects on mother's and child's somatic and psychological health if left untreated. In the UK, nurses or midwifes with a specialisation in community public health nursing, also called health visitors (HVs), work with families who have children younger than 5 years of age and are therefore in a key position to identify and support women with postpartum mental health issues. Until recently, postpartum mental health support provided by HVs mainly focused on identifying and managing depression, but the updated clinical guidance by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence also includes guidance regarding screening and psychological interventions for perinatal anxiety. This study therefore aimed to explore HVs' experiences of supporting women with postpartum anxiety and their views on currently available care. Using a qualitative approach, in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 HVs from the UK between May and October 2015. Participants were interviewed in person at their workplace or on the phone/Skype. Using thematic analysis, four main themes emerged: identification and screening issues; importance of training; service usage; and status of current service provision. Women with postpartum anxiety were commonly encountered by HVs in their clinical practice and described as often heavily using their or other related healthcare services, which puts additional strain on HVs' already heavy workload. Issues with identifying and screening for postpartum anxiety were raised and the current lack of perinatal mental health training for HVs was highlighted. In addition, HVs described a current lack of good perinatal mental health services in general and specifically for anxiety. The study highlights the need for HV perinatal mental health training in general and postpartum anxiety specifically, as well as better coverage of specialist mental health services and the need for development

  19. Public acceptance and willingness-to-pay for a future dengue vaccine: a community-based survey in Bandung, Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panji Fortuna Hadisoemarto

    Full Text Available All four serotypes of dengue virus are endemic in Indonesia, where the population at risk for infection exceeds 200 million people. Despite continuous control efforts that were initiated more than four decades ago, Indonesia still suffers from multi-annual cycles of dengue outbreak and dengue remains as a major public health problem. Dengue vaccines have been viewed as a promising solution for controlling dengue in Indonesia, but thus far its potential acceptability has not been assessed.We conducted a household survey in the city of Bandung, Indonesia by administering a questionnaire to examine (i acceptance of a hypothetical pediatric dengue vaccine; (ii participant's willingness-to-pay (WTP for the vaccine, had it not been provided for free; and (iii whether people think vector control would be unnecessary if the vaccine was available. A proportional odds model and an interval regression model were employed to identify determinants of acceptance and WTP, respectively. We demonstrated that out of 500 heads of household being interviewed, 94.2% would agree to vaccinate their children with the vaccine. Of all participants, 94.6% were willing to pay for the vaccine with a median WTP of US$1.94. In addition, 7.2% stated that vector control would not be necessary had there been a dengue vaccination program.Our results suggest that future dengue vaccines can have a very high uptake even when delivered through the private market. This, however, can be influenced by vaccine characteristics and price. In addition, reduction in community vector control efforts may be observed following vaccine introduction but its potential impact in the transmission of dengue and other vector-borne diseases requires further study.

  20. Organized Communities and Potable Water Public Utilities in Colombia: Advocacy for the Third Economic Option Based on the Common-pool Resources Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhonny Moncada Mesa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the theory and institutional principles proposed by Elinor Ostrom, this paper explores whether Colombian organized communities are able to provide potable water public utility in a sustainable manner and manage it as a common-pool resource (CPR. For this purpose, a set of Colombian community aqueducts is selected and compared against the eight principles proposed by this theory. The results have shown that, in general it complies with institutional principles but it also highlights difficulties, particularly in regards to the "minimal recognition of organization rights" principle.

  1. Metabolic syndrome 2 years after laparoscopic gastric bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbert, Lizbeth; Ortiz, Cristian J; Espinosa, Omar; Sepúlveda, Elisa M; Piña, Tatiana; Joo, Paul; Zerrweck, Carlos

    2018-04-01

    The latest diabetes consensus identified obesity as key component of the metabolic syndrome. The role of bariatric surgery over such syndrome has been less explored with a lack of long term studies, and especially among Mexicans. Retrospective study including patients with metabolic syndrome submitted to laparoscopic gastric bypass at a single institution with complete data after 24 months. The objective was to analyze the improvement of the syndrome and each component. Demographic, anthropometric, biochemical and clinical parameters were analyzed at 12 and 24 months. Secondarily weight loss and other parameters were also analyzed. Finally, an analysis of syndrome improvement related to weight loss was performed. Sixty-three patients were included. The 2 most common components associated with obesity were reduced HDL and raised glucose or Type 2 diabetes. There was a significant improvement of metabolic syndrome and its components, as well as for the rest of the analyzed data, from the first check point and throughout follow-up. Prevalence of such syndrome was 6.3% at 12 and 24 months. Hypertension and raised glucose or Type 2 diabetes were the components with the greatest and fastest improvement; HDL levels and obesity were the least improved. There was a direct relationship between percentage of excess weight loss or percentage of excess BMI loss, and syndrome's improvement. Patients with metabolic syndrome improved after gastric bypass, with results lasting after 2 years; other metabolic parameters important for cardiovascular risk were also positively affected. There was a relationship between the amount of weight loss and improvement of metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2018 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Neonatal Glycemia and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes at 2 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinlay, Christopher J D; Alsweiler, Jane M; Ansell, Judith M; Anstice, Nicola S; Chase, J Geoffrey; Gamble, Gregory D; Harris, Deborah L; Jacobs, Robert J; Jiang, Yannan; Paudel, Nabin; Signal, Matthew; Thompson, Benjamin; Wouldes, Trecia A; Yu, Tzu-Ying; Harding, Jane E

    2015-10-15

    Neonatal hypoglycemia is common and can cause neurologic impairment, but evidence supporting thresholds for intervention is limited. We performed a prospective cohort study involving 528 neonates with a gestational age of at least 35 weeks who were considered to be at risk for hypoglycemia; all were treated to maintain a blood glucose concentration of at least 47 mg per deciliter (2.6 mmol per liter). We intermittently measured blood glucose for up to 7 days. We continuously monitored interstitial glucose concentrations, which were masked to clinical staff. Assessment at 2 years included Bayley Scales of Infant Development III and tests of executive and visual function. Of 614 children, 528 were eligible, and 404 (77% of eligible children) were assessed; 216 children (53%) had neonatal hypoglycemia (blood glucose concentration, Hypoglycemia, when treated to maintain a blood glucose concentration of at least 47 mg per deciliter, was not associated with an increased risk of the primary outcomes of neurosensory impairment (risk ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75 to 1.20; P=0.67) and processing difficulty, defined as an executive-function score or motion coherence threshold that was more than 1.5 SD from the mean (risk ratio, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.56 to 1.51; P=0.74). Risks were not increased among children with unrecognized hypoglycemia (a low interstitial glucose concentration only). The lowest blood glucose concentration, number of hypoglycemic episodes and events, and negative interstitial increment (area above the interstitial glucose concentration curve and below 47 mg per deciliter) also did not predict the outcome. In this cohort, neonatal hypoglycemia was not associated with an adverse neurologic outcome when treatment was provided to maintain a blood glucose concentration of at least 47 mg per deciliter. (Funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and others.).

  3. SECKEL SYNDROME IN A - 2 YEAR OLD GIRL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imanuel Yulius Malino

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Seckel syndrome is a frequent autosomal recessive that cause microcephalic osteodysplastic dwarfisms. It characterized with proportionate dwarfism of prenatal onset, dysmorphic features including severe microcephaly and “bird-headed” like appearance, mental retardation and autosomal recessive inheritance, becausedefect on chromosome 3q22.1-q24 (SCKL1, chromosome 18p11.31-q11.2 (SCKL2 and chromosome 14q23 (SCKL3. We reported, 2 years, 8 months female with intrauterine growth restriction, severe proportionately short stature, a “bird-headed” profile with receding forehead, large eyes, breaks like protrusion of the nose, narrow face, receding lower jaw and micrognathia and from bone survey we found a retarded bone age on which was appropriate for 6 months of age.There was no other systems dissorder have been found and no specific medication has been given. Patient was hospitalized to establish diagnosis and was dischargedafter ten days of hospitalization Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  4. Reducing rural maternal mortality and the equity gap in northern Nigeria: the public health evidence for the Community Communication Emergency Referral strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aradeon SB

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Susan B Aradeon,1 Henry V Doctor2 1Freelance International Consultant (Social and Behavioral Change Communication, Aventura, FL, USA; 2Department of Information, Evidence and Research, Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean, World Health Organization, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt Abstract: The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG maternal mortality target risks being underachieved like its Millennium Development Goal (MDG predecessor. The MDG skilled birth attendant (SBA strategy proved inadequate to end preventable maternal deaths for the millions of rural women living in resource-constrained settings. This equity gap has been successfully addressed by integrating a community-based emergency obstetric care strategy into the intrapartum care SBA delivery strategy in a large scale, northern Nigerian health systems strengthening project. The Community Communication Emergency Referral (CCER strategy catalyzes community capacity for timely evacuations to emergency obstetric care facilities instead of promoting SBA deliveries in environments where SBA availability and accessibility will remain inadequate for the near and medium term. Community Communication is an innovative, efficient, equitable, and culturally appropriate community mobilization approach that empowers low- and nonliterate community members to become the communicators. For the CCER strategy, this community mobilization approach was used to establish and maintain emergency maternal care support structures. Public health evidence demonstrates the success of integrating the CCER strategy into the SBA strategy and the practicability of this combined strategy at scale. In intervention sites, the maternal mortality ratio reduced by 16.8% from extremely high levels within 4 years. Significantly, the CCER strategy contributed to saving one-third of the lives saved in the project sites, thereby maximizing the effectiveness of the SBAs and upgraded emergency obstetric care facilities. Pre- and

  5. General practice vocational training and public health medicine: a novel collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, H; Money, P; Quinn, R

    1994-06-01

    The incorporation of a module of public health teaching into a general practice vocational training programme is described. This programme is itself innovative in that in addition to the 2 years of hospital-based training, it provides 2 years of community-based training. While the curriculum of the public health module is evolving with time, the objectives have remained the same, and are being met. The module has been appraised by external observers, and has been evaluated by participating trainees. The public health module is now an established feature of the Sligo general practice training programme.

  6. Ethnic Differences for Public Health Knowledge, Health Advocacy Skills, and Health Information Seeking Among High School Students: Community Agents of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Rao, Satya; Marquez, Ruben

    2018-03-06

    Although adult health advocacy programs have been examined in communities, little is known about integrated adolescent health advocacy programs in high schools. The purpose of this study was to examine the health advocacy program impact and ethnic differences among high school students. Using a cross-sectional study, high school students participating in the school-based program completed evaluation surveys. The program domains included upstream causes of health, community assets, and public health advocacy. Bivariate analyses were conducted to examine ethnic differences for public health knowledge, health advocacy skills, and health information seeking behaviors. Using thematic analysis, open-ended survey item responses were coded to identify themes for students' perceptions of community health. Non-Hispanic (n = 72) and Hispanic high school students (n = 182) in ten classes reported owning smartphones (95%) and laptops (76%). Most students (72%) reported seeking online health information. Non-Hispanic students reported significantly higher health advocacy skills for speaking with the class about health issues, identifying community services, or creating health awareness at school than Hispanic students. Non-Hispanic students were more likely to seek health information from fathers and television than Hispanic students. Hispanic students were more likely to seek health information from hospital or clinic staff than non-Hispanic students. Emergent themes included health advocacy skills, community awareness, and individual and community health changes. High schools benefit from integrating health advocacy programs into the core curriculum. Adolescents gain important skills to improve their individual health and engage in changing community health.

  7. Public/community engagement in health research with men who have sex with men in sub-Saharan Africa: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molyneux, Sassy; Sariola, Salla; Allman, Dan; Dijkstra, Maartje; Gichuru, Evans; Graham, Susan; Kamuya, Dorcas; Gakii, Gloria; Kayemba, Brian; Kombo, Bernadette; Maleche, Allan; Mbwambo, Jessie; Marsh, Vicki; Micheni, Murugi; Mumba, Noni; Parker, Michael; Shio, Jasmine; Yah, Clarence; van der Elst, Elise; Sanders, Eduard

    2016-05-27

    Community engagement, incorporating elements of the broader concepts of public and stakeholder engagement, is increasingly promoted globally, including for health research conducted in developing countries. In sub-Saharan Africa, community engagement needs and challenges are arguably intensified for studies involving gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men, where male same-sex sexual interactions are often highly stigmatised and even illegal. This paper contextualises, describes and interprets the discussions and outcomes of an international meeting held at the Kenya Medical Research Institute-Wellcome Trust in Kilifi, Kenya, in November 2013, to critically examine the experiences with community engagement for studies involving men who have sex with men. We discuss the ethically charged nature of the language used for men who have sex with men, and of working with 'representatives' of these communities, as well as the complementarity and tensions between a broadly public health approach to community engagement, and a more rights based approach. We highlight the importance of researchers carefully considering which communities to engage with, and the goals, activities, and indicators of success and potential challenges for each. We suggest that, given the unintended harms that can emerge from community engagement (including through labelling, breaches in confidentiality, increased visibility and stigma, and threats to safety), representatives of same-sex populations should be consulted from the earliest possible stage, and that engagement activities should be continuously revised in response to unfolding realities. Engagement should also include less vocal and visible men who have sex with men, and members of other communities with influence on the research, and on research participants and their families and friends. Broader ethics support, advice and research into studies involving men who have sex with men is needed to ensure that ethical challenges

  8. Public knowledge of diabetes in Karen Ethnic rural residents: a community-based questionnaires study in the far north-west of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorga T

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Thaworn Lorga,1 Kannapatch Srithong,1 Pratumpan Manokulanan,1 Thin Nyein Nyein Aung,2 Myo Nyein Aung1,31Boromrajonani College of Nursing Nakhon Lampang (BCNLP, Lampang, Thailand; 2University of Medicine, Mandalay, Myanmar; 3Department of Public Health, Graduate School of Medicine Juntendo University, Tokyo, JapanBackground and purpose: The public knowledge of diabetes is important for prevention of disease. This study aimed to evaluate knowledge of diabetes, risk factors, and the common warning signs of diabetes and complications among community participants in a rural Karen ethnic community.Methods: Participants were asked to answer a questionnaire regarding their knowledge of diabetes. Fasting blood glucose testing, blood pressure measurement, and body mass index (BMI assessment were provided to the participants. The study was conducted at Thasongyang district, Tak province, Thailand.Results: A total of 299 Karen rural residents were included in the study. The median age was 45 years and median fasting blood glucose was 88 mg/dL. The response rate to the questionnaires was 91.97%. Half of the participants knew diabetes is a noncommunicable disease needing lifelong treatment. Overall, one-third of the community participants could correctly answer the knowledge assessment questions regarding risk factors and common features of diabetes. Whereas the other two-thirds either gave a wrong answer or were “not sure”. Female participants had poorer diabetes knowledge than the males.Conclusion: The public knowledge of diabetes, as represented by this sample of the Karen ethic community, is alarmingly low. There is significant gender difference in knowledge level. Culturally tailored and gender-sensitive diabetes health education interventions are urgently needed in this minority ethnic community.Keywords: health education, gender differences, ethnic minority, diabetes, Karen

  9. Effects of Institutional Climate and Culture on the Perceptions of the Working Environments of Public Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephanie J.; Taylor, Colette M.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have found that, although community colleges continue to remain gendered organizations, their climates and cultures are perceived to be more open to women than are their college and university peers. Community colleges may in fact still have the male orientation of the higher education system despite their efforts to be…

  10. J.C. Nalle Community School: A Study of a School Turnaround Effort. Publication #2015-14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redd, Zakia; Princiotta, Daniel; Stratford, Brandon; Caal, Selma; Li, Weilin; Murphy, Kelly; Coffey, Amelia; Carrington, Nicholas; Carney, Rachel; Oster, Maryjo; Horton, Susannah

    2015-01-01

    J.C. Nalle is a Community School located in the Marshall Heights neighborhood of Ward 7 in Washington, D.C. The community in which J.C. Nalle is located, historically one of the more economically disadvantaged areas of the city, has experienced a number of changes in recent years. This report of evaluation findings begins with an introduction to…

  11. Company as mediator for sustainable development: work in the TRANSPETRO nearest community of Chacaras Douradinho for public policy of Uberlandia, MG-Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boloni, Leonardo [WBS Empreendimentos Ltda., Salvador, BA (Brazil); Vidal, Marlon; Castro, Newton Camelo de [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In this paper we will present the experience of relationship between the team of keeping track of pro pipelines and TRANSPETRO and the Chacaras Douradinho community, particularly in this community approach to public bodies of the city of Uberlandia, MG, in view of the population's access to public policies available in the region. Through these links with public agencies and also with an association of residents, has been made, more intensively between 2006 and 2008, activities of environmental in nature Chacaras Douradinho, a community across the range of Pipeline Sao Paulo - Brazil - OSBRA situated in rural area of the city and still is considered by the local mayor as an irregular. This impossible to receive the various services offered by municipal authorities. Chacaras Douradinho residing in approximately 200 families, most low-income, who do not have documentation of their land, living in temporary work, family agriculture and the resources that they possess. The proposed work aligns with the concept of sustainability, based on the National Program of Social and Environmental Responsibility TRANSPETRO. (author)

  12. Creating a low carbon tourism community by public cognition, intention and behaviour change analysisa case study of a heritage site (Tianshan Tianchi, China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenjie; Zhang, Xiaolei; Yang, Zhaoping; Wall, Geoffrey; Wang, Fang

    2017-06-01

    This study attempts to explore the establishment of a low-carbon tourism community by public cognition, intention, and behaviour change analysis in a case study of a heritage site, China. Low carbon tourism advocates a way of travel with low energy consumption, low pollution and low CO2 emissions during personal activities. Behaviour change is not only influenced by internal individual aspects including a person's awareness, attitudes, and capacity to change, but is also driven by external social aspects including the culture and environments in which a person lives. In this paper, questionnaire surveys and field interviews were used to obtain basic information, and with reference to TPB, studied and analyzed the characteristics of cognition, intention and behaviour change practice by low carbon tourism community economy participants. With the help of SPSS analysis software, we found that a person's educational level or occupation might affect cognition of low carbon tourism, and motives for participating in low carbon tourism could reflect the public's perception of its emotional value, cognitive value and functional value. Most respondents knew about low carbon tourism; however, when putting it into practice, habitual behaviour was the main barrier for tourists while the residents were passive and followed the needs and choices of the tourists. Therefore, a comprehensive low carbon tourism community system was proposed not only for addressing the aspects of awareness, intention, and practice from individual behavior, but also for covering policy, infrastructure, institution systems and mechanisms at the community level.

  13. Mobilizing Communities to Implement Tested and Effective Programs to Help Youth Avoid Risky Behaviors: The Communities That Care Approach. Research Brief. Publication #2011-25

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, J. David; Catalano, Richard F.; Kuklinski, Margaret R.

    2011-01-01

    Communities across the country have a vested interest in making sure that young people develop into healthy productive citizens and avoid behaviors that can jeopardize their own health and well-being and threaten the well-being of their families and neighborhoods as well. Substance abuse and delinquency are prime examples of behaviors that get in…

  14. Outcomes in elderly Danish citizens admitted with community-acquired pneumonia. Regional differences, in a public healthcare system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard Klausen, Henrik; Petersen, J; Lindhardt, T

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate regional differences in and risk factors for admission, length of stay, mortality, and readmission for community-acquired pneumonia in elderly Danish patients. METHODS: National registry study on elderly Danish citizens with an acute admission in 2009 owing to community....... RESULTS: A total of 11,332 elderly citizens were admitted with community-acquired pneumonia. Mortality during admission and 30-days from discharge were 11.6% and 16.2%, respectively. Readmission rates within 30 days of discharge were 12.3%. There were significantly differences between hospitals in length...

  15. Alcohol use risk in adolescents 2 years after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Meg H; Washington, Gia A; Mitchell, James E; Sarwer, David B; Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Jenkins, Todd M; Courcoulas, Anita P; Peugh, James L; Michalsky, Marc P; Inge, Thomas H

    2017-01-01

    Problematic alcohol use and increased sensitivity postoperatively in adult weight loss surgery patients heightens concerns. No data have characterized these behaviors in adolescents-a gap, given adolescent alcohol use and heavy drinking are public health concerns. To examine alcohol use behavior in adolescents who underwent weight loss surgery across the first two post-operative years in comparison to nonsurgical adolescents. Five academic medical centers. Utilizing a prospective controlled design, adolescents undergoing weight loss surgery (n = 242) and nonsurgical adolescents with severe obesity (n = 83) completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Test. Analyses included 216 surgical (M age = 17.1 ± 1.5, M BMI = 52.9 ± 9.3, 91.8% female, 67.6% white) and 79 nonsurgical participants (M age = 16.2 ± 1.4, M BMI = 46.9 ± 6.1, 82.3% female, 53.2% white), with baseline data and at 12 or 24 months postoperatively. The majority reported never consuming alcohol within the year before surgery (surgical, 92%; nonsurgical, 91%) or by 24 months (surgical, 71%; nonsurgical, 74%), when alcohol use disorder approached 9%. Among alcohol users at 24 months (n = 52 surgical, 17 nonsurgical), 35% surgical and 29% nonsurgical consumed 3+drinks on a typical drinking day; 42% surgical and 35% nonsurgical consumed 6+drinks on at least 1 occasion. For the surgical group, alcohol use changed as a function of older age (odds ratio [OR] = 2.47, P = .01) and lower body mass index (OR = .94, PBariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Early life risk exposure and stunting in urban South African 2-year old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slemming, W; Kagura, J; Saloojee, H; Richter, L M

    2017-06-01

    Stunting is a measure of overall nutritional status and is a major public health concern because of its association with child mortality and morbidity and later adult performance. This study examined the effects of pregnancy events, birth characteristics and infant risk exposure on stunting at age 2 years. The study, established in 1990 in Soweto, an urban South African township, included 1098 mother-infant pairs enroled in the Birth to Twenty Plus longitudinal birth cohort study. In total, 22% of children were stunted at age 2 years, with males at greater risk than females [24.8 v. 19.4%, odds ratio (OR)=1.38; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.83]. In unadjusted analysis, male sex, household socio-economic status (SES), overcrowding, maternal age, maternal education, single motherhood, ethnicity, birth weight, gestational age and duration of infant breastfeeding were all significantly associated with stunting. In multivariable analysis, higher birth weight was protective against stunting for both sexes. Higher maternal education was protective for females only (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=0.35; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.87), whereas wealthier household SES protected males (AOR for richest SES group=0.39; 95% CI: 0.16, 0.92). In this and other similar settings, current stunting prevention efforts focussing on primarily providing targeted proximal interventions, such as food supplements, risk undermining the critical importance of addressing key distal determinants of stunting such as SES and maternal education.

  17. Community Laboratory Testing for Cryptosporidium: Multicenter Study Retesting Public Health Surveillance Stool Samples Positive for Cryptosporidium by Rapid Cartridge Assay with Direct Fluorescent Antibody Testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn M Roellig

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium is a common cause of sporadic diarrheal disease and outbreaks in the United States. Increasingly, immunochromatography-based rapid cartridge assays (RCAs are providing community laboratories with a quick cryptosporidiosis diagnostic method. In the current study, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, the Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL, and four state health departments evaluated RCA-positive samples obtained during routine Cryptosporidium testing. All samples underwent "head to head" re-testing using both RCA and direct fluorescence assay (DFA. Community level results from three sites indicated that 54.4% (166/305 of Meridian ImmunoCard STAT! positives and 87.0% (67/77 of Remel Xpect positives were confirmed by DFA. When samples were retested by RCA at state laboratories and compared with DFA, 83.3% (155/186 of Meridian ImmunoCard STAT! positives and 95.2% (60/63 of Remel Xpect positives were confirmed. The percentage of confirmed community results varied by site: Minnesota, 39.0%; New York, 63.9%; and Wisconsin, 72.1%. The percentage of confirmed community results decreased with patient age; 12.5% of community positive tests could be confirmed by DFA for patients 60 years of age or older. The percentage of confirmed results did not differ significantly by sex, storage temperature, time between sample collection and testing, or season. Findings from this study demonstrate a lower confirmation rate of community RCA positives when compared to RCA positives identified at state laboratories. Elucidating the causes of decreased test performance in order to improve overall community laboratory performance of these tests is critical for understanding the epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis in the United States (US.

  18. Hawai‘i in Public Health: Community Strengthening Through Canoe Culture: Ho'omana'o Mau as Method and Metaphor

    OpenAIRE

    Ho-Lastimosa, Ilima; Hwang, Phoebe W; Lastimosa, Bob

    2014-01-01

    Historical trauma occurs across generations and is evidenced by indigenous disparities. Efforts made to address this issue commonly utilize European ethnocentric methods. Rather, a community-based approach should be used to empower indigenous communities. God's Country Waimanalo (GCW) is a grassroots organization developed by Native Hawaiians for Native Hawaiians. Its wa‘a (canoe) project, Ho‘omana‘o Mau (everlasting memories; abbreviated Ho‘o) is meant to perpetuate pre-colonial Hawaiian pra...

  19. Chiropractic care and public health : answering difficult questions about safety, care through the lifespan, and community action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, Claire; Rubinstein, Sidney M; Côté, Pierre; Hestbaek, Lise; Injeyan, H Stephen; Puhl, Aaron; Green, Bart; Napuli, Jason G; Dunn, Andrew S; Dougherty, Paul; Killinger, Lisa Zaynab; Page, Stacey A; Stites, John S; Ramcharan, Michael; Leach, Robert A; Byrd, Lori D; Redwood, Daniel; Kopansky-Giles, Deborah R

    The purpose of this collaborative summary is to document current chiropractic involvement in the public health movement, reflect on social ecological levels of influence as a profession, and summarize the relationship of chiropractic to the current public health topics of: safety, health issues

  20. School-Public Library Services within a Community; Problems & Questions on Consolidation. A Policy Statement. Bulletin No. 6539.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison. Div. of Library Services.

    Wisconsin state library, school library, and public school agencies advise against the consolidation of school and public libraries as a response to budget pressures. Adult library use generally declines under such arrangements. Inequity of support for various geographical areas could result. In addition, legal questions concerning the use of…

  1. Community energy systems and the law of public utilities. Volume thirty-eight. Oklahoma. Final report of a study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of integrated community energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Oklahoma governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities, Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One: An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  2. Healthy Libraries Develop Healthy Communities: Public Libraries and their Tremendous Efforts to Support the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Lydia N

    This article is about the dedication of public library staff and my role as the Consumer Health Coordinator for the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, Middle Atlantic Region (NN/LM MAR) to support outreach efforts for health insurance enrollment under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). ACA was created in order to ensure that all Americans have access to affordable health care. What we didn't know is that public libraries across the nation would play such an integral role in the health insurance enrollment process. The National Network of Libraries of Medicine (NN/LM) worked closely with public libraries in order to assist with this new role. As we approach the second enrollment and re-enrollment periods, public libraries are gearing up once again to assist with ACA.

  3. DOE public hearing held at the Penobscot Nation Community Building, Indian Island, Maine: Volume 3, April 1, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This document contains a transcript of the comments of 24 witnesses. These meetings were held to hear public comments regarding the selection of a site for a second high-level nuclear waste repository

  4. The Intelligent Transportation Systems Public Safety Program : opportunities for technological advancement in detecting, responding, and recovering from community emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    During the summer and fall of 2000, a group of high level public safety and transportation officials was brought together by the US Department of Transportations (USDOT) Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Program to consider the interaction bet...

  5. Exploring the interaction of activity limitations with context, systems, community and personal factors in accessing public health care services: A presentation of South African case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mji, Gubela; Braathen, Stine H; Vergunst, Richard; Scheffler, Elsje; Kritzinger, Janis; Mannan, Hasheem; Schneider, Marguerite; Swartz, Leslie; Visagie, Surona

    2017-02-08

    There are many factors that influence access to public health services, such as the context people live in, the existing health services, and personal, cultural and community factors. People with disabilities (activity limitations), through their experience of health services, may offer a particular understanding of the performance of the health services, thus exposing health system limitations more clearly than perhaps any other health service user. This article explores how activity limitations interact with factors related to context, systems, community and personal factors in accessing public health care services in South Africa. We present four case studies of people with disabilities from four low-resource diverse contexts in South Africa (rural, semi-rural, farming community and peri-urban) to highlight challenges of access to health services experienced by people with activity limitations in a variety of contexts. One case study of a person with disabilities was chosen from each study setting to build evidence using an intensive qualitative case study methodology to elucidate individual and household experiences of challenges experienced by people with activity limitations when attempting to access public health services. In-depth interviews were used to collect data, using an interview guide. The analysis was conducted in the form of a thematic analysis using the interview topics as a starting point. First, these four case studies demonstrate that equitable access to health services for people with activity limitations is influenced by a complex interplay of a variety of factors for a single individual in a particular context. Secondly, that while problems with access to public health services are experienced by everyone, people with activity limitations are affected in particular ways making them particularly vulnerable in using public health services. The revitalisation of primary health care and the introduction of national health

  6. Population-level assessments should be emphasized over community/ecosystem-level assessments. Environmental Sciences Division Publication No. 1535

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Winkle, W.

    1980-01-01

    Arguments are presented in favor of emphasizing population-level assessments over community/ecosystem-level assessments. The two approaches are compared on each of four issues: (1) the nature of entrainment/impingement impacts; (2) the ability to forecast reliably for a single fish population as contrasted to the ability to forecast for an aquatic community or ecosystem; (3) practical considerations involving money, manpower, time, and the need to make decisions; and (4) the nature of societal and economic concerns. The conclusion on each of these four issues is that population-level assessments provide the optimal approach for evaluating the effects of entrainment and impingement mortality

  7. A consultant paediatrician led and public health nurse (PHN) provided Community Enuresis Clinic as a model of care.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Noone, D

    2011-02-01

    A dedicated Community Enuresis Clinic was established in 2004 in Cavan and Monaghan. The service was audited using ERIC (Education and Resources for Improving Childhood Continence) guidelines. There were 106 males and 47 females, giving an M: F ratio of 2.3:1. Monosymptomatic Nocturnal Enuresis (MNE) accounted for 127 (83%). Adequate follow-up was available for 108 children with MNE and in this group Initial Success was 49% (ERIC target 50%). 71% were dry at 1 year. There was a dropout rate of 20% in the MNE group (ERIC minimum standard < 25%). We believe the structure of this community based clinic and its approach to MNE management has been successful.

  8. Creating a low carbon tourism community by public cognition, intention and behaviour change analysisa case study of a heritage site (Tianshan Tianchi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Wenjie

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to explore the establishment of a low-carbon tourism community by public cognition, intention, and behaviour change analysis in a case study of a heritage site, China. Low carbon tourism advocates a way of travel with low energy consumption, low pollution and low CO2 emissions during personal activities. Behaviour change is not only influenced by internal individual aspects including a person’s awareness, attitudes, and capacity to change, but is also driven by external social aspects including the culture and environments in which a person lives. In this paper, questionnaire surveys and field interviews were used to obtain basic information, and with reference to TPB, studied and analyzed the characteristics of cognition, intention and behaviour change practice by low carbon tourism community economy participants. With the help of SPSS analysis software, we found that a person’s educational level or occupation might affect cognition of low carbon tourism, and motives for participating in low carbon tourism could reflect the public’s perception of its emotional value, cognitive value and functional value. Most respondents knew about low carbon tourism; however, when putting it into practice, habitual behaviour was the main barrier for tourists while the residents were passive and followed the needs and choices of the tourists. Therefore, a comprehensive low carbon tourism community system was proposed not only for addressing the aspects of awareness, intention, and practice from individual behavior, but also for covering policy, infrastructure, institution systems and mechanisms at the community level.

  9. International cooperation Brazil-Cuba-Haiti: the role of community radios in strengthening social mobilization in the public health context in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Renata Machado Dos Santos; Oliveira, Valdir de Castro

    2015-01-01

    The present article investigates the role of Haitian community radios in strengthening social mobilization, with the aim of supporting the actions undertaken in the field of public health in Haiti, based on the development of the Workshop for community radios, as part of the Tripartite Cooperation Brazil-Cuba-Haiti. The qualitative methodology is justified because of the study content, an analysis of documents and direct observation, through a case study presented at the Workshop held in the department of Hinches, in Haiti. This meeting was held in the context of the Working Group on Tripartite Communication, under the responsibility of the Health Channel/Fiocruz, in partnership with the Department for Health Promotion and Environmental Prevention of the Ministry of Health and Population of Haiti (DPSPE/MSPP/Haiti), with a proposal to better structure a network of multipliers in health promotion.

  10. Feedback from community pharmacy users on the contribution of community pharmacy to improving the public's health: a systematic review of the peer reviewed and non‐peer reviewed literature 1990–2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Claire; Blenkinsopp, Alison; Armstrong, Miriam

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Objective  To systematically review feedback from pharmacy users on their perceptions and experiences of health‐related advice and services provided from community pharmacies. Methods  The focus of the review was community pharmacy activities in relation to promoting health and well‐being, preventing ill‐health and maintaining health. Searches were conducted for peer‐reviewed (international) and non‐peer‐reviewed (UK) research. Electronic databases searched included MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts; hand searches of key journals and conference abstracts, key informants. Key informants in the UK were contacted to identify unpublished studies. The inclusion period was 1990 onwards. Data extraction and synthesis  Data were abstracted into a matrix by one author with a sample checked by a second. The Health Development Agency's Evidence Base 2000 standards and the evidence categories used by the Department of Health in the National Service Frameworks were applied to each item. Main results  Seven peer reviewed papers and 13 non‐peer reviewed reports were identified for inclusion in the review. Consumer usage of pharmacies is almost universal with prescription supplies and purchase of over the counter medicines predominating. Evidence shows that not only is usage low for general health advice, but that pharmacists are perceived as ‘drugs experts’ rather than experts on health and illness. Emergency hormonal contraception and head lice management schemes have been well received. There is a need to consider privacy and confidentiality surrounding advice giving. Conclusions  Users of community pharmacy‐based health development initiatives express a high level of satisfaction. If community pharmacies are to be used to their full extent, then actions to extending the public's awareness and acceptance of the pharmacist's role in giving advice will be crucial. Further research will be needed to

  11. Homeland security and public health: role of the Department of Veterans Affairs, the US Department of Homeland Security, and implications for the public health community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Kristi L

    2003-01-01

    The terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 led to the largest US Government transformation since the formation of the Department of Defense following World War II. More than 22 different agencies, in whole or in part, and >170,000 employees were reorganized to form a new Cabinet-level Department of Homeland Security (DHS), with the primary mission to protect the American homeland. Legislation enacted in November 2002 transferred the entire Federal Emergency Management Agency and several Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) assets to DHS, including the Office of Emergency Response, and oversight for the National Disaster Medical System, Strategic National Stockpile, and Metropolitan Medical Response System. This created a potential separation of "health" and "medical" assets between the DHS and HHS. A subsequent presidential directive mandated the development of a National Incident Management System and an all-hazard National Response Plan. While no Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) assets were targeted for transfer, the VA remains the largest integrated healthcare system in the nation with important support roles in homeland security that complement its primary mission to provide care to veterans. The Emergency Management Strategic Healthcare Group (EMSHG) within the VA's medical component, the Veteran Health Administration (VHA), is the executive agent for the VA's Fourth Mission, emergency management. In addition to providing comprehensive emergency management services to the VA, the EMSHG coordinates medical back-up to the Department of Defense, and assists the public via the National Disaster Medical System and the National Response Plan. This article describes the VA's role in homeland security and disasters, and provides an overview of the ongoing organizational and operational changes introduced by the formation of the new DHS. Challenges and opportunities for public health are highlighted.

  12. Move the Neighbourhood: Study design of a community-based participatory public open space intervention in a Danish deprived neighbourhood to promote active living

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Skau Pawlowski

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A limited amount of research has examined the effect of changing public open spaces on active living. This paper will present the study protocol of a community-based intervention study co-designed in an interdisciplinary collaboration with community members to develop urban installations highly tailored to promote active living among children (10–13-years-old and seniors (>60-years-old in a deprived neighbourhood in Copenhagen. Methods The study builds on a quasi-experimental study design with two sub-studies: 1 a children study and 2 a senior study. The interventions will be developed, designed and implemented in collaboration with local children and seniors, respectively, using different co-design tools and methods. We will evaluate the effect of the interventions on children’s and senior’s use of the new-built urban installations using accelerometers in combination with GPS as well as systematic observation using the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC. A process evaluation with focus groups consisting of the various stakeholders in the two sub-studies will be used to gain knowledge of the intervention processes. Discussion The paper presents new approaches in the field of public open space interventions through interdisciplinary collaboration, participatory co-design approach and combination of measurements. Using both effect and process evaluations the study will provide unique insights in the role and importance of the interdisciplinary collaboration, participatory processes, and tailoring changes in public open space to local needs and wishes. These results can be used to guide urban renewal projects in deprived neighbourhoods in the future. Trial registration Retrospectively registered with study ID ISRCTN50036837 . Date of registration: 16 December 2016.

  13. Move the Neighbourhood: Study design of a community-based participatory public open space intervention in a Danish deprived neighbourhood to promote active living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Winge, Laura; Carroll, Sidse; Schmidt, Tanja; Wagner, Anne Margrethe; Nørtoft, Kamilla Pernille Johansen; Lamm, Bettina; Kural, René; Schipperijn, Jasper; Troelsen, Jens

    2017-05-19

    A limited amount of research has examined the effect of changing public open spaces on active living. This paper will present the study protocol of a community-based intervention study co-designed in an interdisciplinary collaboration with community members to develop urban installations highly tailored to promote active living among children (10-13-years-old) and seniors (>60-years-old) in a deprived neighbourhood in Copenhagen. The study builds on a quasi-experimental study design with two sub-studies: 1) a children study and 2) a senior study. The interventions will be developed, designed and implemented in collaboration with local children and seniors, respectively, using different co-design tools and methods. We will evaluate the effect of the interventions on children's and senior's use of the new-built urban installations using accelerometers in combination with GPS as well as systematic observation using the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC). A process evaluation with focus groups consisting of the various stakeholders in the two sub-studies will be used to gain knowledge of the intervention processes. The paper presents new approaches in the field of public open space interventions through interdisciplinary collaboration, participatory co-design approach and combination of measurements. Using both effect and process evaluations the study will provide unique insights in the role and importance of the interdisciplinary collaboration, participatory processes, and tailoring changes in public open space to local needs and wishes. These results can be used to guide urban renewal projects in deprived neighbourhoods in the future. Retrospectively registered with study ID ISRCTN50036837 . Date of registration: 16 December 2016.

  14. Public Rhetoric in the Shadow of Ferguson: Co-Creating Rhetorical Theory in the Community and the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermark, Lauren E.

    2017-01-01

    This multimedia article focuses on my experience as a professor working on a campus adjacent to Ferguson, Missouri. I discuss the ways that Ferguson and Black Lives Matter pushed me to intentionally and meaningfully connect my teaching, research, and the local community. Through narrative, video and audio excerpts and analysis of conversations…

  15. Public policy, health system, and community actions against illness as platforms for response to NCDs in Tanzania : a narrative review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metta, Emmy; Msambichaka, Beverly; Mwangome, Mary; Nyato, Daniel J; Dieleman, Marjolein; Haisma, Hinke; Klatser, Paul; Geubbels, Eveline

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most low- and middle- income countries are facing a rise of the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) alongside the persistent burden of infectious diseases. This narrative review aims to provide an inventory of how the existing policy environment, health system, and communities are

  16. Public policy, health system, and community actions against illness as platforms for response to NCDs in Tanzania: a narrative review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metta, Emmy; Msambichaka, Beverly; Mwangome, Mary; Nyato, Daniel J.; Dieleman, Marjolein; Haisma, Hinke; Klatser, Paul; Geubbels, Eveline

    2014-01-01

    Most low- and middle- income countries are facing a rise of the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) alongside the persistent burden of infectious diseases. This narrative review aims to provide an inventory of how the existing policy environment, health system, and communities are addressing

  17. Public Libraries and Community Economic Development: Partnering for Success. Rural Research Report. Volume 18, Issue 10, Winter 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton-Pennell, Christine

    2008-01-01

    In the past decade, economic development experts have moved away from traditional approaches to economic development that have relied upon recruiting or attracting large businesses with offers of tax breaks, financial incentives, and other subsidies. Increasingly, communities are focusing their economic development resources on supporting the…

  18. The Public Community College in America: Its History, Present Condition, and Future Outlook with Special Reference to Finance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Nancy Joan

    The development, current status, and future prospects of community colleges are examined in this study with special emphasis on finance and funding concerns. Introductory material outlines study objectives, methodology, and purposes; defines key terms; and emphasizes the importance of college planning. Chapter 1 presents a history of the community…

  19. Not yet Sold: What Employers and Community College Students Think about Online Education. A Taking Stock Report from Public Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Agenda, 2013

    2013-01-01

    New survey data from employers and community college students raise important questions about the state of online education today. Both groups remain skeptical about the value of this fast-spreading mode of learning. Important findings from this research include the following:(1) Most employers would prefer a job applicant with a traditional…

  20. Connecting communities and business: Public-private partnerships as the panacea for land reform in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierenburg, M.J.; Cousins, B.; Bos, A.; Ntsholo, M.; Bruijn, M. de; Dijk, R. van

    2012-01-01

    Scattered among large-scale citrus orchards and game farms in Limpopo Province lie the densely populated former homelands of Venda, Gazankulu, and Lebowa. With few possibilities for development in these barren areas, many communities have lodged claims for the restitution of land from which they

  1. A Different Result of Community Participation in Education: An Indonesian Case Study of Parental Participation in Public Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriah, Amaliah; Sumintono, Bambang; Subekti, Nanang Bagus; Hassan, Zainudin

    2013-01-01

    Parental participation in school management is regarded as a good thing according to the rationale that local people know better and are able to be more responsive to their own needs. However, little is understood about the implications of the School Operational Support policy for community participation in education. This study investigated…

  2. Collective response to public health emergencies and large-scale disasters: putting hospitals at the core of community resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paturas, James L; Smith, Deborah; Smith, Stewart; Albanese, Joseph

    2010-07-01

    Healthcare organisations are a critical part of a community's resilience and play a prominent role as the backbone of medical response to natural and manmade disasters. The importance of healthcare organisations, in particular hospitals, to remain operational extends beyond the necessity to sustain uninterrupted medical services for the community, in the aftermath of a large-scale disaster. Hospitals are viewed as safe havens where affected individuals go for shelter, food, water and psychosocial assistance, as well as to obtain information about missing family members or learn of impending dangers related to the incident. The ability of hospitals to respond effectively to high-consequence incidents producing a massive arrival of patients that disrupt daily operations requires surge capacity and capability. The activation of hospital emergency support functions provides an approach by which hospitals manage a short-term shortfall of hospital personnel through the reallocation of hospital employees, thereby obviating the reliance on external qualified volunteers for surge capacity and capability. Recent revisions to the Joint Commission's hospital emergency preparedness standard have impelled healthcare facilities to participate actively in community-wide planning, rather than confining planning exclusively to a single healthcare facility, in order to harmonise disaster management strategies and effectively coordinate the allocation of community resources and expertise across all local response agencies.

  3. The effect of a faith community nurse network and public health collaboration on hypertension prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jennifer; Zimmerman, Wendy

    2017-09-01

    As part of the Association of State and Territorial Health Official's Million Hearts State Learning Collaborative in 2014 and 2015, Washington County, Maryland formed a collaboration between the local health department, health system and faith community nurse network to address the undiagnosed and uncontrolled hypertension in the county. Data were analyzed to determine the effect of a faith community nursing intervention of teaching blood pressure self-monitoring and coaching blood pressure and lifestyle changes in the at-risk and hypertensive population. Thirty-nine faith community nurses offered a 3-month blood pressure self-monitoring and coaching intervention in 2014 and 2015 to 119 participants. A secondary data analysis using a repeated measure ANOVA to assess the differences in pre- and post-intervention systolic and diastolic blood pressure readings and a paired t-test to compare pre- and post-lifestyle scores was completed. A total of 109 participants completed the program and were included in the analysis and were showing decreased blood pressure readings and improved lifestyle satisfaction scores in six out of seven areas across the program period. Coaching by faith community nurses creates an environment of sustained support that can promote improved lifestyles and blood pressure changes over time. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Public Transparency

    OpenAIRE

    UNCTAD; World Bank

    2018-01-01

    This note provides guidance on the type of information about agricultural investments that investors and governments can make publicly available. Transparency about certain aspects of investments can improve relations between investors and communities, enable external stakeholders to hold investors to commitments, and improve investors’ public image. Although some information should be kep...

  5. Applying Various Methods of Communicating Science for Community Decision-Making and Public Awareness: A NASA DEVELOP National Program Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, T. N.; Brumbaugh, E. J.; Barker, M.; Ly, V.; Schick, R.; Rogers, L.

    2015-12-01

    The NASA DEVELOP National Program conducts over eighty Earth science projects every year. Each project applies NASA Earth observations to impact decision-making related to a local or regional community concern. Small, interdisciplinary teams create a methodology to address the specific issue, and then pass on the results to partner organizations, as well as providing them with instruction to continue using remote sensing for future decisions. Many different methods are used by individual teams, and the program as a whole, to communicate results and research accomplishments to decision-makers, stakeholders, alumni, and the general public. These methods vary in scope from formal publications to more informal venues, such as social media. This presentation will highlight the communication techniques used by the DEVELOP program. Audiences, strategies, and outlets will be discussed, including a newsletter, microjournal, video contest, and several others.

  6. The evolution of public policies for the promotion of SMEs in the Andean Community of Nations and the European Union: A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Heredia Rodríguez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the policies designed to promote SMEs implemented in the Andean Community of Nations (ACN and the European Union (EU in the past few decades. Based on an analytical and comparative methodology, it is set out that, with regard to synchronous or sequential adoption hypotheses, public policies that support SMEs respond to an independent adoption model and are determined by their own historical and political context, according to the different arenas in which the economic integration process of both regions is found. The paper also highlights that in the ACN, in contrast to the EU, it is difficult to find abiding lines of action in the design of these public policies.

  7. Assessment of the public health in the course of the Eurasian Economic Community programme 'Reclamation of areas of the Eurasian Economic Community member-states affected by the uranium mines'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, M.F.; Tukov, A.R.; Metlyaev, E.G.; Seregin, V.A.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: The inter-state target programme of the Eurasian Economic Community 'Reclamation of areas of the Eurasian Economic Community member-states affected by the uranium mines' includes assessment of impact of these facilities on the public health at the adjacent areas and estimation of potential risk of radiation induced diseases. This work will be carried out as follows: collection of indicators of the State medical statistic reporting by areas of natural uranium mining and milling waste storage to be reclaimed; data input to the database, data verification, calculation of relative indexes and estimation of potential risk of radiation induced diseases; comparative analysis of the public health at inspected and reference areas, estimation of potential risk of radiation induced diseases; development of recommendations on enhancing medical service of the population. Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Centre developed the method of data collection in order to assess and to perform the comparative analysis of the public health. At the early stage of the programme, for the purpose of the comparative analysis of the public health at the contaminated areas, we are going to identify areas affected by uranium plants and some reference areas with approximately same quality of health-care service. When collecting medical data of the public, the special attention will be paid to malignant neoplasm incidence, including trachea, bronchus, lung cancer and psycho-somatic diseases (hypertension, coronary heart disease, peptic ulcer and duodenal ulcers, and others). This kind of data will be collected as the number of registered patients by sex and age groups in the report of the state medical statistics 'Information on malignant neoplasm incidence over 1990 - 2014' (according to the reporting form 'Information on the number of diseases registered at the area under the clinic service'). The statistical bodies of the Eurasian Economic Community member-states will organize the

  8. What did the public think of health services reform in Bangladesh? Three national community-based surveys 1999–2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain Md Zakir

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Supported by development partners, the Government of Bangladesh carried out a comprehensive reform of health services in Bangladesh between 1998 and 2003, intended to make services more responsive to public needs: the Health and Population Sector Programme (HPSP. They commissioned a series of surveys of the public, as part of evaluation of the HPSP. This article uses the survey findings to examine the changes in public opinions, use and experience of health services in the period of the HPSP. Methods We carried out three household surveys (1999, 2000 and 2003 of a stratified random sample of 217 rural sites and 30 urban sites. Each site comprised 100–120 contiguous households. Each survey included interviews with 25,000 household respondents and managers of health facilities serving the sites, and gender-stratified focus groups in each site. We measured: household ratings of government health services; reported use of services in the preceding month; unmet need for health care; user reports of waiting times, payments, explanations of condition, availability of prescribed medicines, and satisfaction with service providers. Results Public rating of government health services as "good" fell from 37% to 10% and the proportion using government treatment services fell from 13% to 10%. Unmet need increased from 3% to 9% of households. The proportion of visits to government facilities fell from 17% to 13%, while the proportion to unqualified practitioners rose from 52% to 60%. Satisfaction with service providers' behaviour dropped from 66% to 56%. Users were more satisfied when waiting time was shorter, prescribed medicines were available, and they received explanations of their condition. Conclusion Services have retracted despite increased investment and the public now prefer unqualified practitioners over government services. Public opinion of government health services has deteriorated and the reforms have not specifically

  9. Children's Readiness Gains in Publically Funded, Community-Based Pre-Kindergarten Programs for 4 Year Olds and Preschool for 3 Year Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Peggy; Warde, Beverly; Peluso, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background: Many states provide public funding to facilitate school readiness for community-based pre-K and preschool programs for 4 year old children and "at risk" 3 year old children. Little research exists on the school readiness gains of children participating in these "garden variety" community-based programs. Objective:…

  10. Radicals and reactionaries : the polarisation of community and government in the name of public safety and security

    OpenAIRE

    Weeks, Douglas M.

    2013-01-01

    The contemporary threat of terrorism has changed the ways in which government and the public view the world. Unlike the existential threat from nation states in previous centuries, today, government and the public spend much of their effort looking for the inward threat. Brought about by high profile events such as 9/11, 7/7, and 3/11, and exacerbated by globalisation, hyper-connected social spheres, and the media, the threats from within are reinforced daily. In the UK, government has taken ...

  11. Weight-Gain Reduction Among 2-Year College Students: The CHOICES RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytle, Leslie A; Laska, Melissa N; Linde, Jennifer A; Moe, Stacey G; Nanney, Marilyn S; Hannan, Peter J; Erickson, Darin J

    2017-02-01

    The young adult years have been recognized as an influential period for excess weight gain. Non-traditional students and those attending 2-year community colleges are at particularly high risk for a range of adverse weight-related outcomes. Choosing Healthy Options in College Environments and Settings was an RCT with students randomly assigned into a control or intervention condition after baseline assessment. The study was designed to evaluate if a 24-month weight-gain prevention intervention reduces the expected increase in BMI and overweight prevalence in young adults attending 2-year colleges. Two cohorts were recruited, corresponding to the fall and spring semesters. Data collection occurred at four time points for each cohort, with baseline occurring in fall 2011 for Cohort 1 and spring 2012 for Cohort 2. The 24-month follow-up occurred in fall 2013 for Cohort 1 and spring 2014 for Cohort 2. Data analysis occurred in 2015-2016. This research was conducted with 441 students from three community colleges in Minnesota. The 24-month intervention began with a 1-credit college course on healthy weight behaviors. A social networking and social support website was introduced as part of the course and participation encouraged for the duration of the trial. Changes in BMI, weight, body fat percentage, waist circumference, and weight status were assessed. Retention of the cohorts at 24 months was 83.4%. There was not a statistically significant difference in BMI between conditions at the end of the trial. However, there was a statically significant difference in the prevalence of overweight/obesity between treatment conditions at 24 months. Also, participants randomized to the intervention who were overweight or obese at baseline were more than three times as likely to transition to a healthy weight by the end of the trial as compared with control students. The intervention was not successful in achieving BMI differences between treatment groups. However, an 8

  12. Weight Gain Reduction Among 2-Year College Students: The CHOICES RCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytle, Leslie A.; Laska, Melissa N.; Linde, Jennifer A.; Moe, Stacey G.; Nanney, Marilyn S.; Hannan, Peter J.; Erickson, Darin J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The young adult years have been recognized as an influential period for excess weight gain. Non-traditional students and those attending 2-year community colleges are at particularly high risk for a range of adverse weight-related outcomes. Design Choosing Healthy Options in College Environments and Settings was an RCT with students randomly assigned into a control or intervention condition after baseline assessment. The study was designed to evaluate if a 24-month weight gain prevention intervention reduces the expected increase in BMI and overweight prevalence in young adults attending 2-year colleges. Two cohorts were recruited, corresponding to the fall and spring semesters. Data collection occurred at four time points for each cohort, with baseline occurring in fall 2011 for Cohort 1 and spring 2012 for Cohort 2. The 24-month follow-up occurred in fall 2013 for Cohort 1 and spring 2014 for Cohort 2. Data analysis occurred in 2015–2016. Setting/participants This research was conducted with 441 students from three community colleges in Minnesota. Intervention The 24-month intervention began with a 1-credit college course on healthy weight behaviors. A social networking and social support website was introduced as part of the course and participation encouraged for the duration of the trial. Main outcome measures Changes in BMI, weight, body fat percentage, waist circumference, and weight status were assessed. Results Retention of the cohorts at 24 months was 83.4%. There was not a statistically significant difference in BMI between conditions at the end of the trial. However, there was a statically significant difference in the prevalence of overweight/obesity between treatment conditions at 24 months. Also, participants randomized to the intervention who were overweight or obese at baseline were more than three times as likely to transition to a healthy weight by the end of the trial as compared with control students. Conclusions The intervention

  13. Community managers: la dirección de Relaciones Públicas en la red.- Community managers: Public Reltions management on the net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Silva Robles

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available La proliferación de ofertas de empleo solicitando community managers y la multiplicación de cursos que preparan para ejercer como tales, han convertido esta confusa profesión en un oscuro objeto de deseo y en un terreno abonado, dada la coyuntura socioeconómica en la que nos encontramos, donde desempleados y profesionales de diversas áreas relacionadas con la comunicación, marketing e informática luchan por ocupar dichos puestos; en una batalla en la que la mayoría de las veces triunfan los becarios. Existe un gran desconocimiento sobre esta figura profesional que están desarrollando la dirección de Relaciones Públicas en el ámbito on line. Pero ¿qué son realmente?, ¿qué lugar ocupan en las corporaciones?, ¿qué funciones desempeñan? Son algunas de las dudas que en este artículo se pretenden resolver.

  14. Public transport

    OpenAIRE

    Lethbridge, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Public transport plays an essential role in enabling people from low income and other disadvantaged groups to access employment and services. It also contributes to the development of social networks and social capital, by helping people to visit friends and relatives and take part in community and other social activities. Public policy makers have begun to recognise that adequate public transport provision can play an important role in reducing social exclusion. [Taken from introductory para...

  15. Utilizing Science to Ensure Safe Access to Cultural Resources on Public Lands: The Portland Native American Community and Traditional Gathering of Camas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, C.

    2017-12-01

    Native Americans have been conducting and contributing to science for millenia. We have observed nature and passed on evidence-based Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) from generation to generation. Prior to colonization, this knowledge enabled our people to live with ample nutritional resources. Our long-standing relationship to nature continues today in tribal, rural, and urban communities, yet access to cultural resources (traditional food and medicines) proves challenging due to modern land management practices. The Native American community and public land managers in Portland, Oregon are addressing this challenge through the restoration of cultural resources across the landscape. One focus in these efforts is the camas plant (Camssia quamash), which grows in wetland and prairie ecosystems. The harvested bulbs are traditionally pit roasted, converting the indigestible inulin into carbohydrates of high nutritional value. Access to local natural areas has been granted for Native American community members to gather camas, yet pesticide and herbicide application as land management practices have created uncertainty regarding the safety of ingesting the camas bulbs. The Native American community gathered camas bulbs in November 2015 for analysis, which resulted in glyphosate (pesticide) and triclopyr (herbicide). There are various factors which may influence the uptake of pesticide and herbicide residuals in camas which need further investigation, including pesticide/herbicide application details (date, location), preferential uptake of pesticide/herbicides in camas among the present plant community, the impact of pit roasting bulbs on residuals, and traditional land management practices like prescribed burning. Utilizing TEK and science to ensure safe access to cultural resources is paramount in preserving our cultures and enhancing the value of indigenous perspectives on land management practices and policies.

  16. Smoking Patterns, Attitudes and Motives: Unique Characteristics among 2-Year versus 4-Year College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, C. J.; An, L. C.; Thomas, J. L.; Lust, K. A.; Sanem, J. R.; Swan, D. W.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    Given the previously documented higher rates of smoking among 2-year college students in comparison with 4-year university students, this study compares smoking patterns, attitudes and motives among 2-year and 4-year college students. Two thousand two hundred and sixty-five undergraduate students aged 18-25 years at a 2-year college and a 4-year…

  17. Advocacy for Quality School Health Education: The Role of Public Health Educators as Professionals and Community Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, David A.; Priest, Hannah M.; Mitchell, Qshequilla P.

    2015-01-01

    Advocacy at the local school or school district level has received emphasis as a strategy for improving school health education. The involvement of health educators in advocacy for school health education has been described as "imperative" at all levels of school-based policy. Allensworth's 2010 Society for Public Health Education…

  18. Reading and Writing with a Public Purpose: Fostering Middle School Students' Academic and Critical Community Literacies through Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirra, Nicole; Honoroff, Benjamin; Elgendy, Suzanne; Pietrzak, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Middle school is a crucial transition period for adolescents; in addition to beginning to grapple with the academic literacy demands of college and career readiness, they are working to find their place in public life and developing opinions about civic issues. This article presents debate as a literacy practice that is uniquely suited to helping…

  19. Developing public health clinical decision support systems (CDSS for the outpatient community in New York City: our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singer Jesse

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Developing a clinically relevant set of quality measures that can be effectively used by an electronic health record (EHR is difficult. Whether it is achieving internal consensus on relevant priority quality measures, communicating to EHR vendors' whose programmers generally lack clinical contextual knowledge, or encouraging implementation of EHR that meaningfully impacts health outcomes, the path is challenging. However, greater transparency of population health, better accountability, and ultimately improved health outcomes is the goal and EHRs afford us a realistic chance of reaching it in a scalable way. Method In this article, we summarize our experience as a public health government agency with developing measures for a public health oriented EHR in New York City in partnership with a commercial EHR vendor. Results From our experience, there are six key lessons that we share in this article that we believe will dramatically increase the chance of success. First, define the scope and build consensus. Second, get support from executive leadership. Third, find an enthusiastic and competent software partner. Fourth, implement a transparent operational strategy. Fifth, create and test the EHR system with real life scenarios. Last, seek help when you need it. Conclusions Despite the challenges, we encourage public health agencies looking to build a similarly focused public health EHR to create one both for improved individual patient as well as the larger population health.

  20. STIGMA AND DISCRIMINATION AMONG THE PERSONS LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS: PUBLIC SECTOR AND COMMUNITY PERSPECTIVE’S IN BITUNG MUNICIPALITY NORTH SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy G.A. Massie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Stigma and discrimination persist resulting many people living with HIV hide their status for fear of losing their jobs, social status, and the support of their families and communities. Methods: This case study presents collecting evidence and reviews factors relate to HIVIAIDS programme provided by public in Bitung Municipality, North Sulawesi Province, lndonesia. The objectives of this ca se study are to identify policy of HIVIAIDS program in local con text and to leam the collaboration of local public services' activities relate to health particularly to lessen the stigma and discrimination of HIVIAIDS. Results: Stigma and discrimination may be reduced through structural intervention at local level, community intervention and individual intervention. The interventions should be understood by health providers relate to HIVIAIDS prevention and control program at all stages. To reduce stigma at the community level can be integrated into HIVIAIDS programs by facilitating the participation of people living with HIVIAIDS. Key words: stigma, discrimination, HIVIAIDS ABSTRAK Adanya stigma dan diskriminasi terhadap penderita penyakit HIVIAIDS dimasyarakat menyebabkan penderita menyembunyikan keberadaaan mereka. Hal tersebut dikarenakan mereka merasa akan kehilangan pekerjaan, status sosial yang direndahkan dan berkurangnya dukungan dari keluarga dan masyarakat. Studi kasus ini mempresentasikan hasil pengumpulan data yang berbasis bukti, dan mengkaji faktor-faktor yang berhubungan dengan program penanggulangan HIVIAIDS dari sektor publik, terutama pada konteks lokal serta mempelajari kolaborasi sektor-sektor publik yang terkait dengan kebijakan program penanggulanggan HIVIAID, khususnya mempelajari stigma dan diskriminasi dari penyakit ini pada masyarakat. Stigma dan diskriminasi dapat ditanggulangi melalui beberapa struktur intervensi di tingkat nasional dan khususnya tingkat lokal. Demikian juga intervensi terhadap masyarakat

  1. Changes in Sugary Beverage Consumption and Public Perceptions in Upstate New York After Implementation of a Community Awareness Campaign and Healthier Vending Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, Danielle J; Lowenfels, Ann; Ren, Jia; Brissette, Ian; Martin, Erika G

    2018-02-23

    We evaluated the impact of a community-based healthy beverage procurement and serving practices program, and educational media campaign, on residents' behaviors and beliefs regarding sugary beverages. Repeated cross-sectional population surveys in 2013 and 2014 were conducted, as well as semistructured interviews with key informants. We employed multivariate differences-in-differences regression analysis, adjusting for demographics and weight status, using the survey data. Key informant interviews were reviewed for common themes. Three rural counties in upstate New York with high prevalence of children living in poverty and childhood obesity. Residents of Broome, Cattaraugus, and Chautauqua, with Chemung as a control, reached through cross-sectional random-digit-dial landline and cellular telephones, and practitioners involved in intervention implementation. Community organizations were encouraged through presentations to leadership to adopt healthier vending policies, providing more low- and no-sugar options, and were provided assistance with implementation. In addition, a media campaign supported by presentations to the public aimed to educate residents regarding the health consequences of sugary beverage consumption. The survey measured population demographics and sugary beverage consumption frequency, availability, beliefs about harmfulness, and support for regulation, pre- and postintervention. Key informant interviews elicited perceived program challenges and successes. Compared with temporal trends in the control county, availability of regular soda in the intervention counties decreased (differences-in-differences estimator: β = -.341, P = .04) and support for regulation increased (differences-in-differences estimator: β = .162, P = .02). However, there were no differences regarding beliefs about harmfulness or consumption. Practitioners confirmed that the intervention increased awareness but was insufficient to spur action. Although public education on

  2. Radon and radon daughters in public, private and commercial buildings in communities associated with uranium mining and processing in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, R.S.

    1982-01-01

    The elevated indoor radon levels in certain communities in Canada have been studied. An overview of the investigational and remedial action programs are presented in this paper. It is suggested that radon daughter concentrations can be controlled by: (a) removing source; (b) placing a barrier between the source and the living space; (c) diverting the radon before it enters a building: (d) increasing the ventilation rate. All methods have been proven but no one technique is the most cost effective because of widely varying conditions found in older housing

  3. Approaching Inclusion – constitutive mechanisms of social and academic communities investigated through professionals’ practices and collaboration in public schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Maria Christina Secher; Molbæk, Mette; Jensen, Charlotte Riis

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this project is to shift the scientific focus in educational research from a focus on educational, didactic practices and organizations to a focus on the importance of the constitution of communities through inclusion and exclusion processes. On this background this project...... examines how dilemmas related to both inclusion and exclusion processes unfold in different kinds of professional practices and cross-professional practices in order to develop new strategies, a new knowledge base and a new scientific basis for further knowledge about and research related to inclusion....

  4. Effect of physical activity counseling on disability in older people: a 2-year randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B; Leinonen, Raija; Kujala, Urho M; Heikkinen, Eino; Törmäkangas, Timo; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Rasinaho, Minna; Karhula, Sirkka; Mänty, Minna; Rantanen, Taina

    2008-12-01

    To study the effect of a physical activity counseling intervention on instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) disability. Primary care-based, single-blind, randomized controlled trial. City of Jyväskylä, central Finland. Six hundred thirty-two people aged 75 to 81 who were able to walk 500 meters without assistance, were at most moderately physically active, had a Mini-Mental State Examination score greater than 21, had no medical contraindications for physical activity, and gave informed consent for participation. A single individualized physical activity counseling session with supportive phone calls from a physiotherapist every 4 months for 2 years and annual lectures on physical activity. Control group received no intervention. The outcome was IADL disability defined as having difficulties in or inability to perform IADL tasks. Analyses were carried out according to baseline IADL disability, mobility limitation, and cognitive status. At the end of the follow-up, IADL disability had increased in both groups (Pphysical activity counseling intervention had no effect on older sedentary community-dwelling persons with a wide range of IADL disability, although it prevented incident IADL disability. The results warrant further investigation to explore the benefits of a primary care-based physical activity counseling program on decreasing and postponing IADL disability.

  5. Characteristics of health professions schools, public school systems, and community-based organizations in successful partnerships to increase the numbers of underrepresented minority students entering health professions education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carline, Jan D; Patterson, Davis G

    2003-05-01

    To identify characteristics of health professions schools, public schools, and community-based organizations in successful partnerships to increase the number of underrepresented minority students entering health professions. The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and the W. K. Kellogg Foundation funded the Health Professions Partnership Initiative program developed from Project 3000 by 2000 of the Association of American Medical Colleges. Semi-structured interviews were completed with awardees and representatives of the funding agencies, the national program office, and the national advisory committee between the fall of 2000 and the summer of 2002. Site visits were conducted at ten sites, with representatives of partner institutions, teachers, parents, and children. Characteristics that supported and hindered development of successful partnerships were identified using an iterative qualitative approach. Successful partnerships included professional schools that had a commitment to community service. Successful leaders could work in both cultures of the professional and public schools. Attitudes of respect and listening to the needs of partners were essential. Public school governance supported innovation. Happenstance and convergence of interests played significant roles in partnership development. The most telling statement was "We did it, together." This study identifies characteristics associated with smoothly working partnerships, and barriers to successful program development. Successful partnerships can form the basis on which educational interventions are built. The study is limited by the definition of success used, and its focus on one funded program. The authors were unable to identify outcomes in terms of numbers of children influenced by programs or instances in which lasting changes in health professions schools had occurred.

  6. RE-AIM in Clinical, Community, and Corporate Settings: Perspectives, Strategies, and Recommendations to Enhance Public Health Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha M. Harden

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The RE-AIM Framework is a planning and evaluation model that has been used in a variety of settings to address various programmatic, environmental, and policy innovations for improving population health. In addition to the broad application and diverse use of the framework, there are lessons learned and recommendations for the future use of the framework across clinical, community, and corporate settings. The purposes of this article are to: (A provide a brief overview of the RE-AIM Framework and its pragmatic use for planning and evaluation; (B offer recommendations to facilitate the application of RE-AIM in clinical, community, and corporate settings; and (C share perspectives and lessons learned about employing RE-AIM dimensions in the planning, implementation, and evaluation phases within these different settings. In this article, we demonstrate how the RE-AIM concepts and elements within each dimension can be applied by researchers and practitioners in diverse settings, among diverse populations and for diverse health topics.

  7. The Aggregate Risk Index: An intuitive tool providing the health risks of air pollution to health care community and public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard, Pierre; Talbot, Charles; Lesne, Olivia; Mangin, Antoine; Alexandre, Nicolas; Collomp, Rémy

    2012-01-01

    In the framework of the European project PASODOBLE (FP7), we set up downstream information services by combining environmental and health data with a view to support the health care community and to improve vulnerable people welfare. Indeed there is a profound relationship between human health, well-being and air pollution levels. The main objectives are to establish correlations between air quality, exposure of populations and their reactivity, to develop and validate air quality indexes and to construct a prediction model of this sanitary index. This index will be implemented on 3 European sites: Greece (Athens and Thessaloniki), the Netherlands and "Provence Alpes Côte d'Azur" (South East of France). The selected region and cities are among the most affected by the atmospheric pollution in Europe and leads to serious sanitary concerns. The service aims to provide up-to-date, detailed information on air quality discomfort. The Aggregate Risk Index is based on the Cairncross's concept, obtained from the Relative Risk associated with short-term exposure to common air pollutants and takes into account the possible effects of a mixture of pollutants. This communication tool, easy to use and intuitive, about the levels of air pollution and the associated health risks, will be used to communicate information to the general population, authorities and to the health care community and will provide advanced warning of potentially health-damaging air pollution events.

  8. Impact of the 2004 tsunami on self-reported physical health in Thailand for the subsequent 2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaranuwatchai, Wanrudee; Coyte, Peter C; McKenzie, Kwame; Noh, Samuel

    2013-11-01

    We examined self-reported physical health during the first 2 years following the 2004 tsunami in Thailand. We assessed physical health with the revised Short Form Health Survey. We evaluated 6 types of tsunami exposure: personal injury, personal loss of home, personal loss of business, loss of family member, family member's injury, and family's loss of business. We examined the relationship between tsunami exposure and physical health with multivariate linear regression. One year post-tsunami, we interviewed 1931 participants (97.2% response rate), and followed up with 1855 participants 2 years after the tsunami (96.1% follow-up rate). Participants with personal injury or loss of business reported poorer physical health than those unaffected (P women and older individuals. Exposure to the tsunami disaster adversely affected physical health, and its impact may last for longer than 1 year, which is the typical time when most public and private relief programs withdraw.

  9. Re-designing an Earth Sciences outreach program for Rhode Island public elementary schools to address new curricular standards and logistical realities in the community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, N.; Vachula, R. S.; Pascuzzo, A.; Prilipko Huber, O.

    2017-12-01

    volunteer resources, (4) meeting new state curricular standards, (5) developing publicly available lesson plans for other teachers and outreach programs, (6) institutionalizing the outreach program within the DEEPS community, and (7) cultivating STEM retention at the grassroots level.

  10. Utilization of the state led public private partnership program "Chiranjeevi Yojana" to promote facility births in Gujarat, India: a cross sectional community based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasobant, Sandul; Vora, Kranti Suresh; Shewade, Hemant Deepak; Annerstedt, Kristi Sidney; Isaakidis, Petros; Mavalankar, Dileep V; Dholakia, Nishith B; De Costa, Ayesha

    2016-07-15

    "Chiranjeevi Yojana (CY)", a state-led large-scale demand-side financing scheme (DSF) under public-private partnership to increase institutional delivery, has been implemented across Gujarat state, India since 2005. The scheme aims to provide free institutional childbirth services in accredited private health facilities to women from socially disadvantaged groups (eligible women). These services are paid for by the state to the private facility with the intention of service being free to the user. This community-based study estimates CY uptake among eligible women and explores factors associated with non-utilization of the CY program. This was a community-based cross sectional survey of eligible women who gave birth between January and July 2013 in 142 selected villages of three districts in Gujarat. A structured questionnaire was administered by trained research assistant to collect information on socio-demographic details, pregnancy details, details of childbirth and out-of-pocket (OOP) expenses incurred. A multivariable inferential analysis was done to explore the factors associated with non-utilization of the CY program. Out of 2,143 eligible women, 559 (26 %) gave birth under the CY program. A further 436(20 %) delivered at free public facilities, 713(33 %) at private facilities (OOP payment) and 435(20 %) at home. Eligible women who belonged to either scheduled tribe or poor [aOR = 3.1, 95 % CI:2.4 - 3.8] or having no formal education [aOR = 1.6, 95 % CI:1.1, 2.2] and who delivered by C-section [aOR = 2.1,95 % CI: 1.2, 3.8] had higher odds of not utilizing CY program. Of births at CY accredited facilities (n = 924), non-utilization was 40 % (n = 365) mostly because of lack of required official documentation that proved eligibility (72 % of eligible non-users). Women who utilized the CY program overall paid more than women who delivered in the free public facilities. Uptake of the CY among eligible women was low after almost a decade

  11. Tracking Success: Outputs Versus Outcomes-A Comparison of Accredited and Non-Accredited Public Health Agencies' Community Health Improvement Plan objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrault, Evan K; Inderstrodt-Stephens, Jill; Hintz, Elizabeth A

    2018-06-01

    With funding for public health initiatives declining, creating measurable objectives that are focused on tracking and changing population outcomes (i.e., knowledge, attitudes, or behaviors), instead of those that are focused on health agencies' own outputs (e.g., promoting services, developing communication messages) have seen a renewed focus. This study analyzed 4094 objectives from the Community Health Improvement Plans (CHIPs) of 280 local PHAB-accredited and non-accredited public health agencies across the United States. Results revealed that accredited agencies were no more successful at creating outcomes-focused objectives (35% of those coded) compared to non-accredited agencies (33% of those coded; Z = 1.35, p = .18). The majority of objectives were focused on outputs (accredited: 61.2%; non-accredited: 63.3%; Z = 0.72, p = .47). Outcomes-focused objectives primarily sought to change behaviors (accredited: 85.43%; non-accredited: 80.6%), followed by changes in knowledge (accredited: 9.75%; non-accredited: 10.8%) and attitudes (accredited: 1.6%; non-accredited: 5.1%). Non-accredited agencies had more double-barreled objectives (49.9%) compared to accredited agencies (32%; Z = 11.43, p < .001). The authors recommend that accreditation procedures place a renewed focus on ensuring that public health agencies strive to achieve outcomes. It is also advocated that public health agencies work with interdisciplinary teams of Health Communicators who can help them develop procedures to effectively and efficiently measure outcomes of knowledge and attitudes that are influential drivers of behavioral changes.

  12. Public participation in post-Fordist urban green space governance: the case of community gardens in Berlin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosol, Marit

    2010-01-01

    This article examines citizen participation in the governance of contemporary urban green space. Rather than exploring normative questions of ideal forms of participatory democracy, it focuses on changing roles and relationships between local state and non-state actors in order to identify and explain the changing nature of participation. I argue that neoliberal urban restructuring has changed the conditions for participation and thus participation itself in fundamental ways and that we need an account of changes in statehood and governance in order to capture this conceptually. Based on the case of community gardens in Berlin, the article discusses the extent to which this changed relationship is expressed by current citizen participation as well as the potential and problems that result from it. My empirical results show the emergence of a new political acceptance of autonomously organized projects and active citizen participation in urban green space governance. The central argument of this article is that this new acceptance can be conceptualized as an expression of the neoliberalization of cities. Nevertheless, this neoliberal strategy at the same time leads to complex and contradictory outcomes and the resulting benefits are also acknowledged.

  13. Środowiskowe Centrum Zdrowia Psychicznego a zadania zdrowia publicznego = Community Mental Health Center in the context of public health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Furtak-Niczyporuk

    2017-02-01

    programów, choć są dla samorządów obowiązkowe, bądź też ich istnienie wyłącznie na papierze. Realizacja zadań zdrowia publicznego wymaga ich uszczegółowienia w obszarze monitorowania stanu zdrowia społeczeństwa, edukacji na różnych poziomach oraz współpracy międzysektorowej.   Wnioski. Potrzeba wprowadzenia sprawnych i skutecznych działań, które przyczynią się do upowszechnienia środowiskowej opieki psychiatrycznej. Niewątpliwie potrzeba określenia precyzyjnych zadań i źródeł ich finansowania do efektywnych działań pomocy osobom dotkniętym zaburzeniami psychicznymi w ich środowisku lokalnym. Tu właśnie dużą rolę pełnią jednostki samorządu terytorialnego poprzez działalność podległych sobie gminnych/miejskich/powiatowych ośrodków pomocy społecznej i innych jednostek organizacyjnych wykonujących zadania ochrony zdrowia psychicznego. Z pewnością realizacja zadań z zakresu zdrowia publicznego, za którą także odpowiadają  jednostki samorządu terytorialnego wymaga ich uszczegółowienia. Zaproponowane rozwiązania realizacji zadań publicznych dają szansę na ograniczenie lub wyeliminowanie wieli chorób, w tym zaburzeń psychicznych. Szczególnie realizacja zadań zdrowie publicznego przez Środowiskowe Centra Zdrowia Psychicznego przyczyni się do szybszego zdrowienia osób dotkniętych zaburzeniami psychicznymi, a też wyeliminowania ich marginalizacji i wykluczenia społecznego. Słowa kluczowe: jednostki samorządu terytorialnego, środowiskowa opieka psychiatryczna     Abstract Introduction. An increasing number of people affected by mental disorders, both worldwide and countrywide, draws public attention to providing community mental health care. The establishment of the Community Mental Health Center could provide all psychiatric services and social assistance within the area of local government units.   Object. The object of the study was to evaluate and suggest the most effective way of performing

  14. Brokering: a process for establishing long-term and stable links with gay male communities for research and public health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, A J

    1994-02-01

    The success of efforts to prevent continued transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and to increase compliance with HIV prophylactic interventions among homosexual and bisexual men will depend in part on health care professionals' understanding of and ability to establish linkages with these men. In order to recruit men into a research project and an educational program, staff at the Pitt Men's Study, an epidemiological investigation of HIV infection, developed a process described here as "brokering," which was based on community organizing and marketing principles. Brokering is a dynamic process by which researchers and public health professionals exchange goods and services with formal and informal leaders of the gay community in order to establish strong, long-term linkages. To date, this process yielded 2,989 homosexual and bisexual recruits into the study, which began in 1983. After 8 years, 79% of those still alive continue to return for follow-up. While recruitment techniques will need to vary from city to city, the importance of establishing linkages with the local indigenous leadership remains of major importance.

  15. Optimal Decision Model for Sustainable Hospital Building Renovation—A Case Study of a Vacant School Building Converting into a Community Public Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Yi-Kai; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Perng, Yeng-Horng; Castro-Lacouture, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to hospitals environments since modern pandemics have emerged. The building sector is considered to be the largest world energy consumer, so many global organizations are attempting to create a sustainable environment in building construction by reducing energy consumption. Therefore, maintaining high standards of hygiene while reducing energy consumption has become a major task for hospitals. This study develops a decision model based on genetic algorithms and A* graph search algorithms to evaluate existing hospital environmental conditions and to recommend an optimal scheme of sustainable renovation strategies, considering trade-offs among minimal renovation cost, maximum quality improvement, and low environmental impact. Reusing vacant buildings is a global and sustainable trend. In Taiwan, for example, more and more school space will be unoccupied due to a rapidly declining birth rate. Integrating medical care with local community elder-care efforts becomes important because of the aging population. This research introduces a model that converts a simulated vacant school building into a community public hospital renovation project in order to validate the solutions made by hospital managers and suggested by the system. The result reveals that the system performs well and its solutions are more successful than the actions undertaken by decision-makers. This system can improve traditional hospital building condition assessment while making it more effective and efficient. PMID:27347986

  16. Optimal Decision Model for Sustainable Hospital Building Renovation-A Case Study of a Vacant School Building Converting into a Community Public Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Yi-Kai; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Perng, Yeng-Horng; Castro-Lacouture, Daniel

    2016-06-24

    Much attention has been paid to hospitals environments since modern pandemics have emerged. The building sector is considered to be the largest world energy consumer, so many global organizations are attempting to create a sustainable environment in building construction by reducing energy consumption. Therefore, maintaining high standards of hygiene while reducing energy consumption has become a major task for hospitals. This study develops a decision model based on genetic algorithms and A* graph search algorithms to evaluate existing hospital environmental conditions and to recommend an optimal scheme of sustainable renovation strategies, considering trade-offs among minimal renovation cost, maximum quality improvement, and low environmental impact. Reusing vacant buildings is a global and sustainable trend. In Taiwan, for example, more and more school space will be unoccupied due to a rapidly declining birth rate. Integrating medical care with local community elder-care efforts becomes important because of the aging population. This research introduces a model that converts a simulated vacant school building into a community public hospital renovation project in order to validate the solutions made by hospital managers and suggested by the system. The result reveals that the system performs well and its solutions are more successful than the actions undertaken by decision-makers. This system can improve traditional hospital building condition assessment while making it more effective and efficient.

  17. Prevalence of the use of cancer related self-tests by members of the public: a community survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marriott John

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-tests are those where an individual can obtain a result without recourse to a health professional, by getting a result immediately or by sending a sample to a laboratory that returns the result directly. Self-tests can be diagnostic, for disease monitoring, or both. There are currently tests for more than 20 different conditions available to the UK public, and self-testing is marketed as a way of alerting people to serious health problems so they can seek medical help. Almost nothing is known about the extent to which people self-test for cancer or why they do this. Self-tests for cancer could alter perceptions of risk and health behaviour, cause psychological morbidity and have a significant impact on the demand for healthcare. This study aims to gain an understanding of the frequency of self-testing for cancer and characteristics of users. Methods Cross-sectional survey. Adults registered in participating general practices in the West Midlands Region, will be asked to complete a questionnaire that will collect socio-demographic information and basic data regarding previous and potential future use of self-test kits. The only exclusions will be people who the GP feels it would be inappropriate to send a questionnaire, for example because they are unable to give informed consent. Freepost envelopes will be included and non-responders will receive one reminder. Standardised prevalence rates will be estimated. Discussion Cancer related self-tests, currently available from pharmacies or over the Internet, include faecal occult blood tests (related to bowel cancer, prostate specific antigen tests (related to prostate cancer, breast cancer kits (self examination guide and haematuria tests (related to urinary tract cancers. The effect of an increase in self-testing for cancer is unknown but may be considerable: it may affect the delivery of population based screening programmes; empower patients or cause unnecessary anxiety

  18. Integrating the Public in Mosquito Management: Active Education by Community Peers Can Lead to Significant Reduction in Peridomestic Container Mosquito Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Kristen; Hamilton, George; Crepeau, Taryn; Healy, Sean; Unlu, Isik; Farajollahi, Ary; Fonseca, Dina M.

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito species that utilize peridomestic containers for immature development are commonly aggressive human biters, and because they often reach high abundance, create significant nuisance. One of these species, the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, is an important vector of emerging infectious diseases, such as dengue, chikungunya, and Zika fevers. Integrated mosquito management (IMM) of Ae. albopictus is particularly difficult because it requires access to private yards in urban and suburban residences. It has become apparent that in the event of a public health concern due to this species, homeowners will have to be active participants in the control process by reducing mosquito habitats in their properties, an activity known as source reduction. However, limited attempts at quantifying the effect of source reduction by homeowners have had mixed results. Of note, many mosquito control programs in the US have some form of education outreach, however the primary approach is often passive focusing on the distribution of education materials as flyers. In 2010, we evaluated the use of active community peer education in a source reduction program, using AmeriCorps volunteers. The volunteers were mobilized over a 4-week period, in two areas with approximately 1,000 residences each in urban Mercer and suburban Monmouth counties in New Jersey, USA. The volunteers were first provided training on peridomestic mosquitoes and on basic approaches to reducing the number of container habitats for mosquito larvae in backyards. Within the two treatment areas the volunteers successfully engaged 758 separate homes. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed a significant reduction in container habitats in the sites where the volunteers actively engaged the community compared to untreated control areas in both counties. Our results suggest that active education using community peer educators can be an effective means of source reduction, and a critical tool in the arsenal

  19. A Culture-Proven Case of Community-Acquired Legionella Pneumonia Apparently Classified as Nosocomial: Diagnostic and Public Health Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Bargellini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of Legionella pneumonia in a 78-year-old patient affected by cerebellar haemangioblastoma continuously hospitalised for 24 days prior to the onset of overt symptoms. According to the established case definition, this woman should have been definitely classified as a nosocomial case (patient spending all of the ten days in hospital before onset of symptoms. Water samples from the oncology ward were negative, notably the patient’s room and the oxygen bubbler, and the revision of the case history induced us to verify possible contamination in water samples collected at home. We found that the clinical strain had identical rep-PCR fingerprint of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 isolated at home. The description of this culture-proven case of Legionnaires’ disease has major clinical, legal, and public health consequences as the complexity of hospitalised patients poses limitations to the rule-of-thumb surveillance definition of nosocomial pneumonia based on 2–10-day incubation period.

  20. From Terra incognita to Terra firma: the logbook of the voyage of gay men's community into the Israeli public sphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kama, A

    2000-01-01

    This article charts the winding and tumultuous course Israeli gay men have taken in their struggles to claim a visible and audible place within the Israeli public sphere. Whereas for the greater part of history, Jewish gay men were symbolically annihilated by various social institutions, for the past decade they have been active as agents of social change. The paper's objectives are to offer an account of the developments that enabled such a transformation, to review socio-political strategies in an arena not yet discussed in academic literature, and to examine the roles mass media play in these processes. The article is composed of four chapters: literature review, detailed descriptions of the erstwhile and present legal, social, and cultural status of gay men in Israel, and a brief discussion of Orthodox-Jews' reactions. As this is a preliminary, and the first of its kind, study, it combines analyses of a diversified melange of sources. The author deliberately employs an eccletic methodological framework, nonetheless with an emphasis on newspapers as viable texts.

  1. The IDEFICS Community-Oriented Intervention Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Henauw, Stefaan; Verbestel, Vera; Mårild, Staffan

    2011-01-01

    to develop new pathways for sustainable health-promoting communities. Against this background, the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) study developed and implemented innovative community-oriented intervention programmes for obesity....... The sphere of action encompassed both children and their (grand) parents, schools, local public authorities and influential stakeholders in the community. All materials for the interventions were centrally developed and culturally adapted. Results: So far, the following has been achieved: focus group...... research, literature review and expert consultations were done in an early phase as a basis for the development of the intervention modules. The intervention mapping protocol was followed as guide for structuring the intervention research. The overall intervention programme's duration was 2 years...

  2. Child wasting is a severe public health problem in the predominantly rural population of Ethiopia: A community based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariku, Amare; Bikis, Gashaw Andargie; Woldie, Haile; Wassie, Molla Mesele; Worku, Abebaw Gebeyehu

    2017-01-01

    In Ethiopia, child wasting has remained a public health problem for a decade's, suggesting the need to further monitoring of the problem. Hence, this study aimed at assessing the prevalence of wasting and associated factors among children aged 6-59 months at Dabat District, northwest Ethiopia. A Community based cross-sectional study was undertaken from May to June, 2015, in Dabat District, northwest Ethiopia. A total of 1184 children aged under five years and their mothers/caretakers were included in the study. An interviewer-administered, pre-tested, and structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Standardized anthropometric body measurements were employed to assess the height and weight of the participants. Anthropometric body measurements were analyzed by the WHO Anthro Plus software version 1.0.4. Wasting was defined as having a weight-for-height of Z-score lower than two standard deviations (WHZ public health problem in Dabat District. Therefore, there is a need to strengthen the implementation of optimal breastfeeding practice and dietary diversity. In addition, improving the coverage of mothers ' postnatal vitamin-A supplementation is essential to address the burden of child wasting.

  3. Street-level bureaucracy and policy implementation in community public health nursing: a qualitative study of the experiences of student and novice health visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Alison; Condon, Louise

    2016-11-01

    Aim To explore the experiences of student and novice health visitors in implementing health visiting policy reform pre- and post-qualification. In England, public health nursing has been subject to major policy reform. The Health Visitor Implementation Plan (2011) set out a plan to recruit increasing numbers of nurses and midwives to the profession to deliver an expanded and refocussed health visiting service. Exploring this policy change from the viewpoint of those new to health visiting offers a unique perspective into how a specific policy vision is translated into nursing practice. A descriptive qualitative study in which participants were enrolled on a one-year post-graduate health visiting course at a University in South West of England. Qualitative data were collected pre- and post-qualification. A total of 16 interviews and a focus group were conducted with nine participants between September 2012 and March 2013. Findings Descriptive data were interpreted using Lipsky's theoretical framework of street-level bureaucracy. Three themes emerged which relate to this 'bottom-up' perspective on policy implementation; readiness to operationalise policy, challenges in delivering the service vision; and using discretion in delivering the vision. Community public health nurses operate as street-level bureaucrats in negotiating the demands of policy and practice, and by this means, attempt to reconcile professional values with institutional constraints. Barriers to policy implementation at a local level mediate the effects of policy reform, ultimately impacting upon outcomes for children and families.

  4. [Community Nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranceta, Javier

    2004-06-01

    In the last 20 years, Public Health Nutrition focused mainly on the qualitative aspects which may influence the onset of chronic diseases, quality of life, physical and mental performance and life expectancy. This applied knowledge organised as part of preventive and health promotion programs led to the development of Community Nutrition. The aim of Community Nutrition actions is to adequate lifestyles related to food consumption patterns in order to improve the quality of life and contribute to health promotion of the population in the community where programs and services are delivered. Key functions to develop in a Community Nutrition Unit consist in the identification and assessment of nutrition problems in the community as well as the design, implementation and evaluation of intervention programs by means of appropriate strategies. These should aim at different populations groups and settings, such as work places, schools, high risk groups or the general public. Nowadays, Community Nutrition work efforts should focus on three main aspects: nutrition education in schools and in the community; food safety and food security and the development and reinforcement of food preparation skills across all age groups. Social catering services, either in schools, the work place or at the community level, need to ensure adequate nutritional supply, provide foods contributing to healthy eating practices as well as to enhance culinary traditions and social learning. Food safety and food security have become a top priority in Public Health. The concepts referes to the availability of food safe and adequate as well as in sufficient amount in order to satisfy nutrition requirements of all individuals in the community. Social changes along new scientific developments will introduce new demands in Community Nutrition work and individual dietary counselling will become a key strategy. In order to face new challenges, community nutrition pactitioners require a high quality

  5. Sleep duration, but not insomnia, predicts the 2-year course of depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mill, Josine G; Vogelzangs, Nicole; van Someren, Eus J W; Hoogendijk, Witte J G; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the predictive role of insomnia and sleep duration on the 2-year course of depressive and anxiety disorders. METHOD: This study is a secondary data analysis based on data from the baseline (2004-2007) and 2-year assessment of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety.

  6. Sleep Duration, but Not Insomnia, Predicts the 2-Year Course of Depressive and Anxiety Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mill, Josine G.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; van Someren, Eus J. W.; Hoogendijk, Witte J. G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Objective: To examine the predictive role of insomnia and sleep duration on the 2-year course of depressive and anxiety disorders. Method: This study is a secondary data analysis based on data from the baseline (2004-2007) and 2-year assessment of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety.

  7. Infantile Amnesia across the Years: A 2-Year Follow-Up of Children's Earliest Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Carole; Warren, Kelly L.; Short, Megan M.

    2011-01-01

    Although infantile amnesia has been investigated for many years in adults, only recently has it been investigated in children. This study was a 2-year follow-up and extension of an earlier study. Children (4-13 years old) were asked initially and 2 years later for their earliest 3 memories. At follow-up, their age at the time of these memories…

  8. Night-vision goggles for night-blind subjects : subjective evaluation after 2 years of use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartong, D. T.; Kooijman, A. C.

    Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of night-vision goggles (NVG) for night-blind subjects after 1 and 2 years of use. Methods: Eleven night-blind subjects with retinitis pigmentosa used NVG for a 2-year period. At the end of each year, they were requested to fill-in two questionnaires regarding

  9. Evaluation of the impact of 2 years of a dosing intervention on canine echinococcosis in the Alay Valley, Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAN Kesteren, F; Mastin, A; Torgerson, P R; Mytynova, Bermet; Craig, P S

    2017-09-01

    Echinococcosis is a re-emerging zoonotic disease in Kyrgyzstan. In 2012, an echinococcosis control scheme was started that included dosing owned dogs in the Alay Valley, Kyrgyzstan with praziquantel. Control programmes require large investments of money and resources; as such it is important to evaluate how well these are meeting their targets. However, problems associated with echinococcosis control schemes include remoteness and semi-nomadic customs of affected communities, and lack of resources. These same problems apply to control scheme evaluations, and quick and easy assessment tools are highly desirable. Lot quality assurance sampling was used to assess the impact of approximately 2 years of echinococcosis control in the Alay valley. A pre-intervention coproELISA prevalence was established, and a 75% threshold for dosing compliance was set based on previous studies. Ten communities were visited in 2013 and 2014, with 18-21 dogs sampled per community, and questionnaires administered to dog owners. After 21 months of control efforts, 8/10 communities showed evidence of reaching the 75% praziquantel dosing target, although only 3/10 showed evidence of a reduction in coproELISA prevalence. This is understandable, since years of sustained control are required to effectively control echinococcosis, and efforts in the Alay valley should be and are being continued.

  10. Climate changes, environment and infection: facts, scenarios and growing awareness from the public health community within Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezirtzoglou, Christos; Dekas, Konstantinos; Charvalos, Ekatherina

    2011-12-01

    increased exposure to ultraviolet radiation and malnutrition due to alterations in agricultural products. Different kind of incidents in Europe with extreme weather events demonstrated effects on public health. The recent outbreak of the insect-borne Chikungunya virus in Italy in 2007 is an example of the kind of new health threat that the EU must be vigilant to confront. In addition, health effects of flooding, have been related to an excess cases of leptospirosis and campylobacter enteritis. Such examples have been demonstrated reported after flooding in the Czech Republic. Similarly, an increase of cryptosporidiosis in the United Kingdom has been related to flooding. Changing vector distributions associated with tickborne encephalitis and malaria have also been demonstrated in EU. A recently reported case of malaria in Italy in June 2008, suspected to be indigenously acquired, has shown how easily malaria could be reintroduced into several countries in the region. Another case of malaria in Greece in May 2010 affecting a young man living in a forestry region was claimed at KEELPNO-the Greek Center for disease control. Would this latest case be considered closely related to the one from Italy? If yes, then Public Health Services should elaborate plans to affront possible tickborne diseases. Heat waves are important causes of mortality on mortality are important. The deaths seen in France in 2003 from a heat wave are projected to be repeated, as heat waves become more severe. However, heat waves impacts on the transmission and severity of infectious diseases have not been elucidated. Finally scientific challenges include the elucudation of climate changes and extreme weather condition impact on infection transmission and outcome, human immune system changes and infection response, outbreak scenarios, animal and plant health and public health preparedness. European action plans to affront climate changes related health and infection problems are developed by the EU

  11. Risk Assessment and Community Participation Model for Environmental Asthma Management in an Elementary Public School: A Case Study in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Rivera-Rentas

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a rapidly growing chronic disease in the general population of the world, mostly in children. Puerto Ricans have the highest prevalence of children with asthma among the Hispanic community in the US and its territories. Asthma and air quality are becoming a significant and potentially costly public health issue in Puerto Rico. The CDC has reported that in Puerto Rico, 320,350 adults have asthma and this number represents 11.5% of the island adult population. The north east municipality of Carolina, Puerto Rico, has the highest asthma prevalence in the 0 to 17 year old range (2001 data. In this study, we address the potential relationship between anthropogenic and naturally occurring environmental factors, and asthma prevalence in an urban elementary public school in Carolina in an effort to empower and engage communities to work on their environmental health issues. We integrated geographic information systems (GIS data of anthropogenic activities near the school as well as the natural resources and geomorphology of the region. We found that as Carolina is close by to Caribbean National Forest (El Yunque, this together with the temperature and precipitation cycles in the zone creates the ideal environmental conditions for increased humidity and pollen, mold and fungi development through out the year. We also collected health and socio economic data to generate an asthma profile of the students, employees and parents from the school community, and through a survey we identified perceptions on environmental asthma triggers, and indoor air quality in the school and homes of the students and employees. Finally, we implemented a workshop on indoor air quality designed to engage the school community in managing asthma triggers and the school environment. Our results showed that nearly 30 % of its student’s population has asthma, and from this group 58% are males and 42% are female students. Of all asthmatic children, only 43

  12. Community organizing and community health: piloting an innovative approach to community engagement applied to an early intervention project in south London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Matthew; Moore, Imogen; Ferreira, Ana; Day, Crispin; Bolton, Derek

    2016-03-01

    The importance of community engagement in health is widely recognized, and key themes in UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) recommendations for enhancing community engagement are co-production and community control. This study reports an innovative approach to community engagement using the community-organizing methodology, applied in an intervention of social support to increase social capital, reduce stress and improve well-being in mothers who were pregnant and/or with infants aged 0-2 years. Professional community organizers in Citizens-UK worked with local member civic institutions in south London to facilitate social support to a group of 15 new mothers. Acceptability of the programme, adherence to principles of co-production and community control, and changes in the outcomes of interest were assessed quantitatively in a quasi-experimental design. The programme was found to be feasible and acceptable to participating mothers, and perceived by them to involve co-production and community control. There were no detected changes in subjective well-being, but there were important reductions in distress on a standard self-report measure (GHQ-12). There were increases in social capital of a circumscribed kind associated with the project. Community organizing provides a promising model and method of facilitating community engagement in health. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.

  13. Double half-cone flap umbilicoplasty for proboscoid umbilical hernia in a 2 years old child with satisfactory results 2 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashu, Eseme Ebai; Leroy, Guifo Marc; Aristide, Bang Guy; Joss, Bitang Mafok Louis; Bonaventure, Jemea; Patrick, Savom Eric; Myriam, Fotso Guegne

    2015-01-01

    Surgical repair of large umbilical hernias may present a challenging surgical problem; standard surgical techniques have proven to be inadequate for both closing the fascial defect of the umbilicus and providing a satisfactory cosmetic result. We describe here a case of double half-cone flap umbilicoplasty that was performed in a 2 years old boy. The case of a 2 years old child with proboscoid umbilical hernia. The protruding umbilical skin was excised sharply by two V-shaped cuts leaving two half cones, a short cephalic (0.5cm) and a long caudal (1cm). A classic herniotomy was carried out, with repair of the facial defect. The caudal half cone was sutured from its apex till half it's length upon itself with interrupted sutures and it was anchored deeply to the fascia. Then we inverted the cephalic half cone which was sutured to the caudal cone to form the new umbilicus. The early result was excellent with no complications and the result after 2years revealed a cosmetically satisfactory shape of the umbilicus. this technique provides a good solution for reconstruction of the protruding umbilical skin and it is easy to learn, easy to be taught and perform in surgical environments and may be applicable for any kind of umbilical reconstruction.

  14. Snakebites in Two Rural Districts in Lao PDR: Community-Based Surveys Disclose High Incidence of an Invisible Public Health Problem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inthanomchanh Vongphoumy

    Full Text Available The Lao PDR (Laos is one of the least developed countries in Asia with an estimated 25% of the population living in poverty. It is the habitat of some highly venomous snakes and the majority of the population earns their living from agricultural activities. Under these circumstances the incidence of snakebites is expected to be high.Two cross-sectional, community-based surveys were performed in Champone and Phin district, Savannakhet province, Lao PDR to estimate snakebite incidence. Multistage random sampling was used. In the first stage approximately 40% of all villages in each district were randomly selected. In the second stage 33% of all households in each village were randomly chosen. Members of the selected households were interviewed about snakebites during the previous 12 months.Thirty-five of 9856 interviewees reported a snakebite in a 12 month period in Champone district and 79 of 7150 interviewees in Phin district. The estimated incidence is 355 snakebites per 100,000 persons per year and 1105 per 100,000 in Champone and Phin district respectively. All snakebite victims received treatment by traditional healers or self-treatment at home and nobody went to a hospital. Incidence of snakebites, calculated on the basis of hospital records of 14 district hospitals and Savannakhet provincial hospital, ranged from 3 to 14 cases per 100,000 persons per year between 2012 and 2014.Incidence of snakebites is high in rural communities in Laos with significant regional differences. Poverty most likely contributes significantly to the higher number of snakebites in Phin district. Hospital statistics profoundly underestimates snakebite incidence, because the majority of snakebite victims receive only treatment by traditional healers or self-treatment in their village. There is an urgent need to train medical staff and students in management of snakebite patients and make snake antivenom available to cope effectively with this important public

  15. Snakebites in Two Rural Districts in Lao PDR: Community-Based Surveys Disclose High Incidence of an Invisible Public Health Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongphoumy, Inthanomchanh; Phongmany, Panom; Sydala, Sengdao; Prasith, Nouda; Reintjes, Ralf; Blessmann, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    The Lao PDR (Laos) is one of the least developed countries in Asia with an estimated 25% of the population living in poverty. It is the habitat of some highly venomous snakes and the majority of the population earns their living from agricultural activities. Under these circumstances the incidence of snakebites is expected to be high. Two cross-sectional, community-based surveys were performed in Champone and Phin district, Savannakhet province, Lao PDR to estimate snakebite incidence. Multistage random sampling was used. In the first stage approximately 40% of all villages in each district were randomly selected. In the second stage 33% of all households in each village were randomly chosen. Members of the selected households were interviewed about snakebites during the previous 12 months. Thirty-five of 9856 interviewees reported a snakebite in a 12 month period in Champone district and 79 of 7150 interviewees in Phin district. The estimated incidence is 355 snakebites per 100,000 persons per year and 1105 per 100,000 in Champone and Phin district respectively. All snakebite victims received treatment by traditional healers or self-treatment at home and nobody went to a hospital. Incidence of snakebites, calculated on the basis of hospital records of 14 district hospitals and Savannakhet provincial hospital, ranged from 3 to 14 cases per 100,000 persons per year between 2012 and 2014. Incidence of snakebites is high in rural communities in Laos with significant regional differences. Poverty most likely contributes significantly to the higher number of snakebites in Phin district. Hospital statistics profoundly underestimates snakebite incidence, because the majority of snakebite victims receive only treatment by traditional healers or self-treatment in their village. There is an urgent need to train medical staff and students in management of snakebite patients and make snake antivenom available to cope effectively with this important public health problem in

  16. Research into Mercury Exposure and Health Education in Subsistence Fish-Eating Communities of the Amazon Basin: Potential Effects on Public Health Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G. Dórea

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The neurotoxic effects of fish-methylmercury (meHg consumed regularly are considered hazardous to fetuses and newborn infants; as a result fish consumption advisories are an important asset to control meHg exposure in affluent societies. These concerns are now part of health promotion programs for Amazon subsistence villagers. While urban dwellers in affluent societies can choose an alternative nutritious diet, traditional and subsistence communities are caught up in controversial issues and lifestyle changes with unintended health consequences. Traditional fish-eating populations of industrialized and non-industrialized regions may be exposed to different neurotoxic substances: man-made pollutants and environmentally occurring meHg. Additionally, in non-industrialized countries, pregnant women and infants are still being immunized with thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCVs which degrade to ethylmercury (etHg. Therefore, the complexity involving fish-meHg associated with wild-fish choices and Hg exposure derived from TCVs is difficult to disentangle and evaluate: are villagers able to distinguish exposure to differently hazardous chemical forms of Hg (inorganic, fish-meHg, and injected etHg? Is it possible that instead of helping to prevent a plausible (unperceived fish-meHg associated neurocognitive delay we may inadvertently arouse panic surrounding Hg exposure and disrupt subsistence fish-eating habits (necessary for survival and life-saving vaccination programs (required by public health authorities? These questions characterize the incompleteness of information related on the various chemical forms of Hg exposure and the need to convey messages that do not disrupt nutritional balance and disease prevention policies directed at Amazonian subsistence communities.

  17. The pedagogical value of a student-run community-based experiential learning project: The Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine Public Health Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Liang En; Yeo, Wei Xin; Tay, Clifton M; Lee, Jeannette J M; Koh, Gerald C H

    2010-09-01

    We assessed the pedagogical value of a student-led community-based experiential learning project called the Public Health Screening (PHS) run by medical and nursing students of the National University of Singapore's Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (NUS YLLSoM). We conducted a cross-sectional study using a self-administered anonymised questionnaire on medical and nursing students who participated in PHS using the Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education (FIPSE) Survey Instrument. Participants also gave an overall score for their learning experience at the PHS. The participation rate was 93.1% (576/619) for medical students and 100% (37/37) for nursing students. All participants gave the PHS learning experience a high rating (median = 8 out of maximum of 10, inter-quartile range, 7 to 9). A majority of participants felt that PHS had helped them to improve across all domains surveyed. For medical students, those in preclinical years and females were independently more likely to feel that PHS had helped them to improve in communication skills, teamwork, ability to identify social issues, taking action, and gaining and applying their knowledge than those in clinical years and males. Improved ability to interact with patients (β=1.64, 95%CI, 1.01-2.27), appreciation of challenges to healthcare faced by Singaporeans from lower income groups (β=0.93, 95%CI, 0.49-1.37), thinking of others (β=0.70, 95%CI, 0.04-1.37) and tolerance of different people (β =0.63, 95%CI, 0.17-1.10) were strongly associated with the overall rating score. PHS was a positive learning experience in a wide range of domains for all students involved. This suggests that student-organised community-based experiential learning projects have potential educational value for both medical and nursing students.

  18. Limited Knowledge of Chronic Kidney Disease and Its Main Risk Factors among Iranian Community: An Appeal for Promoting National Public Health Education Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Roomizadeh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of this survey was to explore the baseline knowledge of the Iranian community about Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD definition and its two main risk factors, i.e. diabetes and hypertension. This study also introduced a model of public education program with the purpose of reducing the incidence of CKD in high-risk groups and thereby decreasing the economic burden of CKD in Iran. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on world kidney day 2013 in Isfahan, Iran. Self-administered anonymous questionnaires evaluating the knowledge of CKD and its risk factors were distributed among subjects who participated in a kidney disease awareness campaign. Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were used to examine the differences in the level of knowledge across different socio-demographic groups. Results The questionnaires were completed by 748 respondents. The majority of these respondents believed that “pain in the flanks” and “difficulty in urination” was the early symptoms of CKD. Roughly, 10.4% knew that CKD could be asymptomatic in the initial stages. Only 12.7% knew diabetes and 14.4% knew hypertension was a CKD risk factor. The respondents who had a CKD risk factor (i.e. diabetes and/or hypertension were significantly more likely than respondents without CKD risk factor to select “unmanaged diabetes” [Odds Ratio (OR= 2.2, Confidence Interval (CI (95%: 1.4–3.6] and “unmanaged hypertension” [OR= 1.9, CI(95%: 1.2–3.0] as “very likely to result in CKD”. No more than 34.6% of all respondents with diabetes and/or hypertension reported that their physician has ever spoken with them about their increased risk for developing CKD. Conclusion The knowledge of Iranian population about CKD and its risk factors is low. Future public health education programs should put efforts in educating Iranian community about the asymptomatic nature of CKD in its initial stages and highlighting the importance of regular

  19. Public Relations and Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Daniel D.

    1987-01-01

    Urges community colleges to adopt pro-active public relations strategies. Examines the role of the public information officer in such areas as coordination of public relations and marketing activities, relations with media, and the development of a comprehensive public relations plan. (AYC)

  20. Are hygiene and public health interventions likely to improve outcomes for Australian Aboriginal children living in remote communities? A systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brewster David

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Australian Aboriginal children living in remote communities still experience a high burden of common infectious diseases which are generally attributed to poor hygiene and unsanitary living conditions. The objective of this systematic literature review was to examine the epidemiological evidence for a relationship between various hygiene and public health intervention strategies, separately or in combination, and the occurrence of common preventable childhood infectious diseases. The purpose was to determine what intervention/s might most effectively reduce the incidence of skin, diarrhoeal and infectious diseases experienced by children living in remote Indigenous communities. Methods Studies were identified through systematically searching electronic databases and hand searching. Study types were restricted to those included in Cochrane Collaboration Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Review Group (EPOC guidelines and reviewers assessed the quality of studies and extracted data using the same guidelines. The types of participants eligible were Indigenous populations and populations of developing countries. The types of intervention eligible for inclusion were restricted to those likely to prevent conditions caused by poor personal hygiene and poor living environments. Results The evidence showed that there is clear and strong evidence of effect of education and handwashing with soap in preventing diarrhoeal disease among children (consistent effect in four studies. In the largest well-designed study, children living in households that received plain soap and encouragement to wash their hands had a 53% lower incidence of diarrhoea (95% CI, 0.35, 0.59. There is some evidence of an effect of education and other hygiene behaviour change interventions (six studies, as well as the provision of water supply, sanitation and hygiene education (two studies on reducing rates of diarrhoeal disease. The size of these effects is

  1. [Community Service Program, Westmont College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Christina

    This report describes a 2-year project at Westmont College, California, which established a Community Service Program with the purposes of decreasing student debt and increasing student participation in community organizations. Eligible students worked 8-10 hours per week for a qualified community agency and received credit towards tuition for the…

  2. Psychological reactions after multifetal pregnancy reduction: a 2-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garel, M; Stark, C; Blondel, B; Lefebvre, G; Vauthier-Brouzes, D; Zorn, J R

    1997-03-01

    This study had two objectives. Firstly we assessed the effects of multifetal pregnancy reduction on the mothers' emotional well-being and the relationship with the children during the 2 years following intervention. Secondly at 2 years we compared mothers who had a reduction with mothers who had not and had delivered triplets. The comparisons focused on the mothers' health and their relationship with the children. Women having had a reduction in two hospitals in Paris, between May 1992 and June 1993, were contacted just after intervention for a prospective study. In all, 18 women were included. At 1 and 2 years, 10 women participated. At 2 years, 10 additional women were included. The answers of these 20 mothers were compared to those of 11 consecutive mothers of 2 year old triplets, assessed by the same psychologist in a previous prospective study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted at home. The mothers' social characteristics, their parity, the children's condition at birth and 4 months were very similar between the reduction and triplet groups. One year after birth one-third of the women in the reduction group reported persistent depressive symptoms related to the reduction, mainly sadness and guilt. The others made medical and rational comments expressing no emotion. At 2 years all but two women seemed to have overcome the emotional pain associated with the reduction. The comparison with mothers of triplets indicated that the mothers' anxiety and depression, and difficult relationship with the children were less acute in the reduction group. These results presented some limitations, since a high number of women who miscarried or refused to participate in the follow-up were not assessed at 1 and 2 years. However, a majority of women who participated in the study 2 years after intervention seemed able to accept a multifetal pregnancy reduction to achieve parental goals.

  3. Public participation in the social policies and services of the community of Madrid: the institutional system / El sistema institucional de participación ciudadana en las políticas y los servicios sociales de la comunidad de Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Pastor Albaladejo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the Community of Madrid’s institutional public participation system, to determine whether the different existing formal mechanisms (regulatory framework and permanent participation organisms have an appropriate institutional design to ensure that citizens have access to, and the ability to intervene in, those deliberative processes that may in some way influence the regional social policies and services.

  4. Application of the Intervention Mapping Framework to Develop an Integrated Twenty-First Century Core Curriculum-Part 1: Mobilizing the Community to Revise the Masters of Public Health Core Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBate, Rita; Corvin, Jaime A; Wolfe-Quintero, Kate; Petersen, Donna J

    2017-01-01

    Twenty-first century health challenges have significantly altered the expanding role and functions of public health professionals. Guided by a call from the Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health's (ASPPH) and the Framing the Future: The Second 100 Years of Education for Public Health report to adopt new and innovative approaches to prepare public health leaders, the University of South Florida College of Public Health aimed to self-assess the current Masters of Public Health (MPH) core curriculum with regard to preparing students to meet twenty-first century public health challenges. This paper describes how Intervention Mapping was employed as a framework to increase readiness and mobilize the COPH community for curricular change. Intervention Mapping provides an ideal framework, allowing organizations to access capacity, specify goals, and guide the change process from curriculum development to implementation and evaluation of competency-driven programs. The steps outlined in this paper resulted in a final set of revised MPH core competencies that are interdisciplinary in nature and fulfill the emergent needs to address changing trends in both public health education and challenges in population health approaches. Ultimately, the competencies developed through this process were agreed upon by the entire College of Public Health faculty, signaling one college's readiness for change, while providing the impetus to revolutionize the delivery of public health education at the University of South Florida.

  5. COMPLEAT (Community-Oriented Model for Planning Least-Cost Energy Alternatives and Technologies): A planning tool for publicly owned electric utilities. [Community-Oriented Model for Planning Least-Cost Energy Alternatives and Technologies (Compleat)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    COMPLEAT takes its name, as an acronym, from Community-Oriented Model for Planning Least-Cost Energy Alternatives and Technologies. It is an electric utility planning model designed for use principally by publicly owned electric utilities and agencies serving such utilities. As a model, COMPLEAT is significantly more full-featured and complex than called out in APPA's original plan and proposal to DOE. The additional complexity grew out of a series of discussions early in the development schedule, in which it became clear to APPA staff and advisors that the simplicity characterizing the original plan, while highly desirable in terms of utility applications, was not achievable if practical utility problems were to be addressed. The project teams settled on Energy 20/20, an existing model developed by Dr. George Backus of Policy Assessment Associates, as the best candidate for the kinds of modifications and extensions that would be required. The remainder of the project effort was devoted to designing specific input data files, output files, and user screens and to writing and testing the compute programs that would properly implement the desired features around Energy 20/20 as a core program. This report presents in outline form, the features and user interface of COMPLEAT.

  6. Patient Satisfaction and Prognosis for Functional Improvement and Deterioration, Institutionalization, and Death Among Medicare Beneficiaries Over 2 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogner, Hillary R; de Vries McClintock, Heather F; Kurichi, Jibby E; Kwong, Pui L; Xie, Dawei; Hennessy, Sean; Streim, Joel E; Stineman, Margaret G

    2017-01-01

    To examine how patient satisfaction with care coordination and quality and access to medical care influence functional improvement or deterioration (activity limitation stage transitions), institutionalization, or death among older adults. National representative sample with 2-year follow-up. Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey from calendar years 2001 to 2008. Community-dwelling adults (N=23,470) aged ≥65 years followed for 2 years. Not applicable. A multinomial logistic regression model taking into account the complex survey design was used to examine the association between patient satisfaction with care coordination and quality and patient satisfaction with access to medical care and activities of daily living (ADL) stage transitions, institutionalization, or death after 2 years, adjusting for baseline socioeconomics and health-related characteristics. Out of 23,470 Medicare beneficiaries, 14,979 (63.8% weighted) remained stable in ADL stage, 2508 (10.7% weighted) improved, 3210 (13.3% weighted) deteriorated, 582 (2.5% weighted) were institutionalized, and 2281 (9.7% weighted) died. Beneficiaries who were in the top quartile of satisfaction with care coordination and quality were less likely to be institutionalized (adjusted relative risk ratio [RRR], .68; 95% confidence interval [CI], .54-.86). Beneficiaries who were in the top quartile of satisfaction with access to medical care were less likely to functionally deteriorate (adjusted RRR, .87; 95% CI, .79-.97), be institutionalized (adjusted RRR, .72; 95% CI, .56-.92), or die (adjusted RRR, .86; 95% CI, .75-.98). Knowledge of patient satisfaction with medical care and risk of functional deterioration may be helpful for monitoring and addressing disability-related health care disparities and the effect of ongoing policy changes among Medicare beneficiaries. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Public Perspectives of Mobile Phones' Effects on Healthcare Quality and Medical Data Security and Privacy: A 2-Year Nationwide Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Joshua E; Ancker, Jessica S

    2015-01-01

    Given growing interest in mobile phones for health management (mHealth), we surveyed consumer perceptions of mHealth in security, privacy, and healthcare quality using national random-digit-dial telephone surveys in 2013 and 2014. In 2013, 48% thought that using a mobile phone to communicate data with a physician's electronic health record (EHR) would improve the quality of health care. By 2014, the proportion rose to 57% (p privacy concerns yet nearly two-thirds expressed privacy concerns. In 2013 alone, respondents were more likely to express privacy concerns about medical data on mobile phones than they were to endorse similar concerns with EHRs or health information exchange (HIE). Consumers increasingly believe that mHealth improves healthcare quality, but security and privacy concerns need to be addressed for quality improvement to be fully realized.

  8. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of acute community acquired pneumonia in children at a reference public hospital in Pernambuco State, Brazil (2010-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Coelho Moraes de Brito

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of acute community acquired pneumonia in children at a reference public hospital in Pernambuco State, Brazil (2010-2011 Methods: pneumonia case series of 80 children aged 28 days to 14 years old at Hospital da Restauração in Pernambuco, Brazil, from 2010 to 2011. Information was noted from medical files, and two comparison groups were created according to the severity of the disease, considering the presence of pleural effusion. Fisher or Mann-Whitney tests were used for comparative analyses. Results: severe pneumonia with pleural effusion was more frequent in children under five years of age (p=0,025, and was associated with longer period of fever (19 x 15 days and coughing (17 x 13 days, when compared to non-complicated pneumonia cases. Six children (7,5%, 6/80 died, 50% before the fourth day of hospitalization (p=0,001. All deaths were from the pleural effusion group in children from the countryside (p=0,026. Conclusions: the severity of pneumonia in children attended at this hospital is related to younger children, and those transferred from the health units in the countryside, so, early diagnosis and medical intervention are limited by infrastructure and available resources for the health.

  9. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation: pushing the boundaries of what is possible in public health - perspectives and challenges to the global community

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: In July 2008, Bill Gates will transition out of a day-to-day role at Microsoft, to spend more time on his philanthropic work with the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. As the world’s largest philanthropic organization, the Gates Foundation has set ambitious goals to tackle some of the world’s worst diseases. In this talk, Julie Jacobson will outline some of the objectives of the Gates Foundation and how it is impacting public health and challenging the global community. Speaker Bio: As Senior Programme Officer at the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Julie Jacobson currently supports grants working toward the control of neglected tropical diseases and works with the development and implementation of new vaccines in the infectious disease group of Global Health. Previously Dr. Jacobson was Scientific Director of Immunization Solutions and Director of Japanese encephalitis (JE) project at PATH, an international non-profit organization. As director of the JE project, she managed a US$35 ...

  10. Using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to estimate public health impacts of PM2.5 from individual power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonocore, Jonathan J; Dong, Xinyi; Spengler, John D; Fu, Joshua S; Levy, Jonathan I

    2014-07-01

    We estimated PM2.5-related public health impacts/ton emitted of primary PM2.5, SO2, and NOx for a set of power plants in the Mid-Atlantic and Lower Great Lakes regions of the United States, selected to include varying emission profiles and broad geographic representation. We then developed a regression model explaining variability in impacts per ton emitted using the population distributions around each plant. We linked outputs from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model v 4.7.1 with census data and concentration-response functions for PM2.5-related mortality, and monetized health estimates using the value-of-statistical-life. The median impacts for the final set of plants were $130,000/ton for primary PM2.5 (range: $22,000-230,000), $28,000/ton for SO2 (range: $19,000-33,000), and $16,000/ton for NOx (range: $7100-26,000). Impacts of NOx were a median of 34% (range: 20%-75%) from ammonium nitrate and 66% (range: 25%-79%) from ammonium sulfate. The latter pathway is likely from NOx enhancing atmospheric oxidative capacity and amplifying sulfate formation, and is often excluded. Our regression models explained most of the variation in impact/ton estimates using basic population covariates, and can aid in estimating impacts averted from interventions such as pollution controls, alternative energy installations, or demand-side management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. COMMUNITY HEALTH & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2Department of Community Health, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. ... Mental morbidity is a public health problem that can lead to a great burden of disability in the community. ..... community study in Sao Paulo, Brazil where.

  12. Public Libraries: Adapting to Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrance, Joan; Van Fleet, Connie

    1992-01-01

    Reports on a study of changing trends in public libraries. Interviews with public library leaders identified five areas of changing emphasis: information technology, community needs, strategic planning, public relations and marketing, and funding. (seven references) (EA)

  13. Community College Program Planning: A Method to Measure and Meet Community Need

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Vergara, Kelly; Lathrop, Rachel; Orlowski, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Offering academic programs that meet community need has long been a core mission of community colleges. However, determining which job skills and credentials are needed for employment in the community is challenging. In order to facilitate a holistic and community-based perspective, our 2-year community college developed a structured curricular…

  14. Relation between body composition at birth and child development at 2 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abera, Mubarek; Tesfaye, Markos; Girma, Tsinuel

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Birth weight (BW), independent of socioeconomic status, has been identified as a predictor for childhood cognitive development. However, it is not known whether this relation is related to low BW per se or particularly related to a deficit in fat mass (FM) or fat-free mass ...... (FFM) at birth. This study therefore aimed at investigating the relation between body composition at birth and child development at 2 years of age. SUBJECTS/METHODS: An Ethiopian birth cohort was followed up at 2 years. Body composition was measured within 48 h of birth using infant air......-displacement plethysmography. Child development was assessed at 2 years of age using Denver developmental screening test. Associations between body composition at birth and development at 2 years of age were tested using linear regression analysis. RESULTS: FFM but not FM at birth was positively associated with higher global......, FFM at birth but not FM predicted better global and language development at 2 years of age. Higher FFM at birth might have exerted a positive effect on the growth and differentiation of the brain and neuronal circuits for better development. This study therefore highlights the need to improve mother...

  15. Community concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Thomas; Bates, Tony

    2004-03-01

    Since the publication of "Sustainable Communities--building for the future", Government attention has focused largely on high-density affordable housing in the four "growth areas": Thames Gateway; Ashford; Milton Keynes--South Midlands, and London--Stansted--Cambridge. In this article, Thomas Yeung and Tony Bates suggest that a greater and more sustainable impact would be achieved if architects, planners, and developers considered the potential for community-based water and waste management and on-site energy generation and distribution right from the start of the project. In particular, they consider that the communal nature of hospitals, universities, and public/community housing provides a great opportunity for on-site renewable CHP and/or distributed heating, which could combine global environmental benefits with improved local amenities. They describe a simple model for prioritising energy management in the built environment, and draw on lessons learnt at ETRCL in Dagenham and BedZED in Surrey to offer a few recommendations for Government and developers. Tony Bates is the business development manager for Scott Wilson in the South East and is responsible for the promotion of sustainable communities through relationships with architects, developers, land owners and local authorities. Thomas Yeung leads the Energy Infrastructure Technologies group in Scott Wilson. This team offers an integrated approach to clean community-based energy generation, energy management, waste and water management, sustainable transport, and sustainable buildings/communities.

  16. Impact of living environment on 2-year mortality in elderly maintenance hemodialysis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hung Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies on risk factors of mortality in elderly patients with hemodialysis usually focus on comorbidities, nutrition, and inflammation. Discussion on the correlation between living environment and mortality of these patients is limited. METHODS: A total of 256 elderly hemodialysis patients participated in this 2-year prospective observational study. The subjects were divided into 2 subgroups based on whether they were living in Taipei Basin (n = 63 or not (n = 193. Demographic, hematological, nutritional, inflammatory, biochemical, and dialysis-related data were obtained for cross-sectional analysis. Causes of death and mortality rates were also analyzed for each subgroup. RESULTS: Patients in the basin group had a higher incidence of combined protein-energy wasting and inflammation than those in the around basin group. At the end of the 2-year follow-up, 68 patients had died. Univariate binary logistic regression analysis revealed that a very advanced age, basin group, serum albumin levels, serum creatinine levels, non-anuria, and the complications of stroke and CAD were associated with 2-year mortality. Meanwhile, log high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP levels were not associated with 2-year mortality. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that basin group, serum albumin levels, and the complications of stroke and CAD were significant risk factors for 2-year mortality in these patients. CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate that factors such as living in the Taipei Basin with higher air pollutant levels in elderly hemodialysis patients is associated with protein-energy wasting and inflammation, as well as 2-year mortality. These findings suggest that among this population, living environment is as important as comorbidities and nutrition. Furthermore, air pollution should be getting more attention especially in the overcrowding Basin topography.

  17. Impact of living environment on 2-year mortality in elderly maintenance hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Hung; Lin, Ja-Liang; Lin-Tan, Dan-Tzu; Chen, Kuan-Hsing; Hsu, Ching-Wei; Yen, Tzung-Hai

    2013-01-01

    Studies on risk factors of mortality in elderly patients with hemodialysis usually focus on comorbidities, nutrition, and inflammation. Discussion on the correlation between living environment and mortality of these patients is limited. A total of 256 elderly hemodialysis patients participated in this 2-year prospective observational study. The subjects were divided into 2 subgroups based on whether they were living in Taipei Basin (n = 63) or not (n = 193). Demographic, hematological, nutritional, inflammatory, biochemical, and dialysis-related data were obtained for cross-sectional analysis. Causes of death and mortality rates were also analyzed for each subgroup. Patients in the basin group had a higher incidence of combined protein-energy wasting and inflammation than those in the around basin group. At the end of the 2-year follow-up, 68 patients had died. Univariate binary logistic regression analysis revealed that a very advanced age, basin group, serum albumin levels, serum creatinine levels, non-anuria, and the complications of stroke and CAD were associated with 2-year mortality. Meanwhile, log high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were not associated with 2-year mortality. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that basin group, serum albumin levels, and the complications of stroke and CAD were significant risk factors for 2-year mortality in these patients. The results of this study indicate that factors such as living in the Taipei Basin with higher air pollutant levels in elderly hemodialysis patients is associated with protein-energy wasting and inflammation, as well as 2-year mortality. These findings suggest that among this population, living environment is as important as comorbidities and nutrition. Furthermore, air pollution should be getting more attention especially in the overcrowding Basin topography.

  18. [Dimenhydrinate overdosage in a 3(1/2) year-old-girl with dilative cardiomyopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girisch, M; Hofbeck, M; Rauch, R; Apitz, C; Sieverding, L

    2009-01-01

    Dimenhydrinate overdosage in a 3(1/2) year-old-girl with dilative cardiomyopathy. Dimenhydrinate (Vomex(R)) is frequently used in the treatment of sickness and vomiting. The symptoms of overdosage present like an anticholinergic syndrome. We report on the clinical findings of an intoxication with dimenhydrinate in a 3(1/2) year-old-girl with functional dilative cardiomyopathy following a congenital left ventricular diverticle. Especially in small children, with the application of 40 mg suppositories once or twice per day the maximum dose of 3.75 mg/kgBW/d is achieved.

  19. [Health impact and treatment costs of community-acquired pneumonia in children in the first level of public attention in Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernztein, Ricardo; Drake, Ignacio

    2009-04-01

    Community acquired pneumonia in children remains an important cause of childhood deaths throughout the world that can be prevented by the use of antibiotics and access to medical care. Both were reduced in 2001 when Argentina suffered a severe social crisis. Among the responses to the crisis, the Remediar Program provided free essential medicines to the socially vulnerable population. Assess the health impact and costs of the provision of free medicines at the first level of public attention for childhood pneumonia. Three designs: 1. Ecological study with cross comparisons of diagnoses, prescriptions, beneficiaries by individual provinces of Remediar forms. children under 15 years old attended at 6 thousand health centres in Argentina, encompassing 24 Argentine provinces from March 2005 until February 2006. 2. Counterfactual approach. 3. Calculation of drug costs per unit of outcome. Over 15 million prescriptions were identified, 2,420 children under 1 year, 19,205 of 1 to 4 years and 15,977 from 5 to 14 years old with pneumonia. 90% of beneficiaries received antibiotics, most often amoxicillin. In children's under 5 years of age, Remediar coverage was 27.8%, with greater impact in the poorest provinces. The likely impact was 4,322 lives saved or 310,325 years of life lost avoided if mortality without antibiotics was 20%. Indigents who had children with pneumonia saved by medicines 14.3% of their income. Each life saved could have cost US $ 6.46 and each year of life lost averted US $ 0.09. This work highlights the impact of a low-cost health program for the treatment of vulnerable populations with childhood pneumonia in Argentina.

  20. Community-based learning in a challenging context: the development and evaluation of an outreach dental public health programme in Damascus University, Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joury, E

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to describe the development and evaluation of an outreach dental public health (DPH) programme in Damascus University, in terms of developing undergraduates' required knowledge, skills and attitudes (KSA), improving the quality aspects of training and assessment (T&A), and achieving the satisfaction of served children and their social network. The outreach DPH programme offered opportunities to undergraduates to carry out outreach health-promotion activities, conduct and communicate the results of applied DPH research, and build partnership with students in other higher education sectors. A cross-sectional evaluation collected mixed qualitative and quantitative data, by a means of a short-essay and a self-completed questionnaire, from 400 third-year dental undergraduates, on KSA gained from outreach activities and quality aspects of T&A. The latter were compared with corresponding figures of other traditional dental programmes (TDP). Satisfaction with the outreach activities were collected from 215 children with special needs and 130 parents and school staff, by questionnaires. The response rates were 74.8%, 100% and 100% for undergraduates, children and parents/school staff, respectively. The derived categories of students' gained KSA included the following: unique clinical skills, social responsibility, voluntarism, communication, team working, personal growth, reflection on career aspirations and self-satisfaction with the contribution to needy groups. Their satisfaction with quality aspects of T&A was significantly higher than TDP (P < 0.001). Children's and parents/school staff's satisfaction was high. The outreach DPH programme in Damascus University is a successful example of developing undergraduates' required KSA, improving the quality aspects of T&A, and achieving the satisfaction of served community. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.