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Sample records for pubic hair growth

  1. Removing Pubic Hair (For Young Women)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are special reasons you shouldn’t shave your pubic hair. Call your health care provider if you develop folliculitis or symptoms of infection. Tags: body hair , shaving Related Content Hair Removal I can see tiny black spots under my ...

  2. LSD in pubic hair in a fatality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaulier, Jean-michel; Maublanc, Julie; Lamballais, Florence; Bargel, Sophie; Lachâtre, Gérard

    2012-05-10

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a potent hallucinogen, active at very low dosage and its determination in body fluids in a forensic context may present some difficulties, even more so in hair. A dedicated liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ES-MS/MS) assay in hair was used to document the case of a 24-year-old man found dead after a party. Briefly, after a decontamination step, a 50mg sample of the victim's pubic hair was cut into small pieces (LSD. A LSD concentration of 0.66pg/mg of pubic hair was observed. However, this result remains difficult to interpret owing to the concomitant LSD presence in the victim's post mortem blood and urine, the lack of previously reported LSD concentrations in hair, and the absence of data about LSD incorporation and stability in pubic hair. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Removing Pubic Hair (For Young Men)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... depilatories” or cream hair removers: This method of hair removal is painless, but it’s important to be aware that not all “depilatories” are safe to use in your pubic area. Be sure to read the product label ...

  4. PREVALENCE AND MOTIVATION FOR PUBIC HAIR REMOVAL AMONG WOMEN IN THE UNITED STATES

    OpenAIRE

    Rowen, TS; Gaither, TW; Awad, MA; Osterberg, C; Shindel, AW; Breyer,BN

    2016-01-01

    Pubic hair grooming is a growing phenomenon and is associated with body image and sexual activity. A nationally representative survey of noninstitutionalized adults aged 18 to 65 years residing in the United States was conducted. Differences in demographic and sexual characteristics between groomers and nongroomers were explored. Four thousand one hundred and ninety-eight men completed the survey. Of these men, 2,120 (50.5%) reported regular pubic hair grooming. The prevalence of grooming dec...

  5. Chromium, zinc and magnesium concentrations in the pubic hair of obese and overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiechuła, Danuta; Loska, Krzysztof; Ungier, Dagmara; Fischer, Agnieszka

    2012-07-01

    The study addressed chromium, zinc and magnesium concentrations in the pubic hair of obese and overweight women. It was carried out on hair collected from 85 women at the age of 16-80 living in the Podkarpackie Voivodeship (southern Poland). The experimental and control groups consisted of 39 and 46 females, respectively. The pubic hair was prepared under a procedure established by the International Atomic Energy Agency, followed by wet digestion in a microwave oven. The concentration of the metals in the pubic hair and reference material was assayed with the flame (Mg, Zn) and flameless (Cr) atomic absorption spectrometry. The pubic hair of overweight and obese women from the experimental group revealed significantly higher chromium and magnesium concentrations and significantly lower concentrations of zinc than in the control group. An increase in BMI brought about an increase in chromium and magnesium concentrations while zinc concentration decreased with increasing BMI. The disturbances in the mineral balance of overweight and obese women were also demonstrated by significantly different ratios of the elements compared with the control group.

  6. Hair restoration surgery in patients with pubic atrichosis or hypotrichosis: review of technique and clinical consideration of 507 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Ran; Lee, Sang-Jun; Kim, Jung-Chul; Ogawa, Hideoki

    2006-11-01

    Pubic atrichosis or hypotrichosis is a common condition in Korean women of Mongolian origin. This results in many patients receiving hair restoration surgery, which is currently thought to be the only definitive therapy. To pursue more natural and realistic-appearing results, to define patient characteristics, and to estimate the survival rate of transplanted pubic hair through restoration surgery, we examined our cases of pubic hair restoration surgery with single-hair grafts. We selected 507 patients with pubic atrichosis or hypotrichosis who visited for pubic hair transplantation between March 1, 2001, and February 28, 2005. We reviewed the medical charts of the 507 patients and performed statistical analysis. We also carried out a detailed evaluation of our surgical technique to 100 patients. In addition, 20 patients, who agreed to participate in the study for survival rate, had received transplantation of 40 hairs in a 1.5 x 1.5-cm area after the angular points were tattooed. The number of hairs grown after 1 year of transplantation was counted in each case. Among the 507 subjects, 169(33.3%) were in their 40s. The mean (+/-SD) patient age was 41.3+/-10.8 years. Of these, 115 patients (22.7%) had pubic atrichosis, and 392 patients (77.3%) had pubic hypotrichosis. In addition, 81.7% of atrichosis patients had a family history of atrichosis or hypotrichosis. Pubic atrichosis accompanied axillary atrichosis or hypotrichosis in 60.0 and 38.2% of the cases, respectively. The most common reason for the hair restorative procedure was the subject's sense of inferiority to the same sex (73.8%). The mean number of transplanted hairs was 929.3+/-76.6. The most common design pattern that we used was modified horizontal type (87.0%). The mean survival rate of single-hair grafts on the pubis was 73.6+/-7.6%. This study suggested that pubic hair transplantation surgery is a suitable cosmetic procedure to address the inferiority complex of patients with pubic atrichosis or

  7. Hair follicle growth controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenn, K S; Combates, N J; Eilertsen, K J; Gordon, J S; Pardinas, J R; Parimoo, S; Prouty, S M

    1996-10-01

    Research in hair biology has embarked in the pursuit for molecules that control hair growth. Many molecules already have been associated with the controls of hair patterning, hair maturation, and hair cycling and differentiation. Knowing how these molecules work gives us the tools for understanding and treating patients with hair disorders.

  8. Genital panics: constructing the vagina in women's qualitative narratives about pubic hair, menstrual sex, and vaginal self-image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahs, Breanne

    2014-06-01

    An emerging body of research targets women's relationship to their genitals, particularly as pubic hair removal and the promotion of female genital surgeries increase in popularity and visibility. This study asked women to discuss their subjective feelings about three related but distinct genital attitudes: pubic hair grooming, sex during menstruation, and genital/vaginal self-image. Specifically, this study applied thematic analysis to qualitative interviews with a community sample of 20 women (mean age=34, SD=13.35) from diverse ages, races, and sexual identity backgrounds to illuminate seven themes in women's narratives about their vaginas: (1) "dirty" or "gross"; (2) needing maintenance; (3) unknown or frustrating; (4) unnatural; (5) comparative; (6) ambivalent; (7) affirmative. Overwhelmingly, women used strong emotional language when discussing their genitals, often evoking descriptions of anxiety, excess, and need for control. Fusions between sexuality and body image, and connections between "genital panics" and internalized racism, sexism, and homophobia, also appeared.

  9. Reconstruction of pubic deletion by single hair follicular units grafting%单体毛囊单位移植修复阴毛缺失

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晓波; 沈海燕; 唐亮; 韩蕾; 傅丽; 张菊芳

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨单体毛囊单位移植修复阴毛缺失的临床效果和意义.方法 取枕后部头皮条,在高倍立体显微镜下将头皮条分离成单体毛囊单位,按设计,并以需要移植的形状、方向和密度植入缺损区域.自2005年1月至2010年12月,对12例患者行阴毛移植术.结果 术后随访了其中的9例患者6~38个月,阴毛基本覆盖阴阜部位皮肤者7例,且外形自然,效果满意;阴毛未能完全覆盖皮肤者1例,经Ⅱ期修补后效果满意;因术后未制动也未局部压迫者1例,其效果较差.结论 单体毛囊单位移植治疗阴毛稀缺具有创伤小、手术安全可靠、毛发覆盖率高、形态自然等优点,值得临床推广应用.%Objective To explore the clinical effects of single hair follicular units grafting on the reconstruction of pubic deletion and its significance. Methods The taken scalp strip from the occipital region was separated into single hair follicle unit under high power stereomicroscope, and then the hair follicle units transplanted into the defective area according to design needs of the transplanting shape, direction, density. From January 2005 to December 2010, 12 patients were operated by the method mentioned above. Results Of 12 cases, 9 were followed up for 6 to 38 months, all were satisfied with covered mons pubis by pubic hairs except for 2 cases; One case without complete cover by transplanted hairs was healed by secondary repair, the other was less effective because of neither braking nor local compression after transplantation. Conclusion The single hair follicular unit grafting is a simple , fine , safe and effective method for the reconstruction of pubic hairs with mini-invasion, high coverage rate and nature appearance. It is worth spreading in clinic.

  10. Effect of hair autotransplantation with intact follicle on congenital loss of pubic hair%自体单株毛发移植修复女先天性无阴毛或阴毛发育不良

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋文杰; 景伟明; 张嫣清; 王博

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of autotransplantation of hair with intact follicle on pubic hair reconstruction in patients with congenital loss of pubic hair. Methods The scalps strips of 12 female patients were harvested from the back of the head, close to the hairline. Under the microscope, the strip was then divided into a series of follicular-unit micrografts. The hair was transplanted to defective pubic area with the needle of syringe (0.9 mm × 38. 0 mm). Four hundred to 700 follicle units (U) were transplanted for small areas with the shape of inverted triangle or diamond. The density of transplanted hair was 20 U/cm2 in the area of mons pubis. The further from the area of mons pubis the distance was, the lower the density was. But it was not less than 10 U/cm2. Results The patients were followed-up for nine months to two years. The hairs transplanted grew well. The appearance was close to the normal distribution of pubic hair. All of the patients were treated by this one-session operation, and satisfied with the results. The incision scar of donor area on the back of the head was inconspicuous. Conclusions The above-mentioned technique is a simple, safe and effective method for pubic hair reconstruction. It might be an ideal method for pubic hair reconstruction with the appearance much closer to a normal pubic hair.%目的 探索应用自体毛发单株移植修复女先天性无阴毛或阴毛发育不良的效果.方法 对12例成年女性患者,均采用切取枕后区包含全厚皮肤与完整毛囊的条形头皮组织,在手术放大镜下,将头皮条全部分割成1个个单株毛发备用.用规格为0.9 mm×38.0 mm的针头穿刺打孔,将单株毛发移植到外阴部以增补稀疏的阴毛和扩大分布面积,每例移植400~700个单株毛发,阴毛分布形态多选用倒三角形或菱形,密度为阴阜部阴毛按20株/cm2植入,然后向外扩散密度逐步减小,最少不低于10株/cm2.结果 随访9个月至2年,植入毛发

  11. Supra-Pubic Single Incision Cholecystectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Hagen, Monika E.; Wagner, Oliver J.; Thompson, Kari; Jacobsen, Garth; Spivack, Adam; Wong, Brian; Talamini, Mark; Horgan, Santiago

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Surgery is moving towards less invasive and cosmetically superior approaches such as single incision laparoscopy (SIL). While trans-umbilical SIL is gaining popularity, incisions may lead to post-operative deformations of the umbilicus and the possibility of an increased rate of incisional hernias. Access within the pubic hairline allows preservation of the umbilicus and results in a scar which is concealed within the pubic hair. Methods Supra-pubic single incision cholecystectom...

  12. Human hair growth ex vivo is correlated with in vivo hair growth: selective categorization of hair follicles for more reliable hair follicle organ culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh Sang; Oh, Jun Kyu; Kim, Mi Hyang; Park, So Hyun; Pyo, Hyun Keol; Kim, Kyu Han; Cho, Kwang Hyun; Eun, Hee Chul

    2006-02-01

    Of the numerous assays used to assess hair growth, hair follicle organ culture model is one of the most popular and powerful in vitro systems. Changes in hair growth are commonly employed as a measurement of follicular activity. Hair cycle stage of mouse vibrissa follicles in vivo is known to determine subsequent hair growth and follicle behavior in vitro and it is recommended that follicles be taken at precisely the same cyclic stage. This study was performed to evaluate whether categorization of human hair follicles by the growth in vivo could be used to select follicles of the defined anagen stage for more consistent culture. Occipital scalp samples were obtained from three subjects, 2 weeks later after hair bleaching. Hair growth and follicle length of isolated anagen VI follicles were measured under a videomicroscope. Follicles were categorized into four groups according to hair growth and some were cultured ex vivo for 6 days. Follicles showed considerable variations with respect to hair growth and follicle length; however, these two variables were relatively well correlated. Hair growth in culture was closely related with hair growth rate in vivo. Moreover, minoxidil uniquely demonstrated a significant increase of hair growth in categorized hair follicles assumed at a similar early anagen VI stage of hair cycle. Selection of follicles at a defined stage based on hair-growth rate would permit a more reliable outcome in human hair follicle organ culture.

  13. 6-Gingerol inhibits hair shaft growth in cultured human hair follicles and modulates hair growth in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Miao

    Full Text Available Ginger (Zingiber officinale has been traditionally used to check hair loss and stimulate hair growth in East Asia. Several companies produce shampoo containing an extract of ginger claimed to have anti-hair loss and hair growth promotion properties. However, there is no scientific evidence to back up these claims. This study was undertaken to measure 6-gingerol, the main active component of ginger, on hair shaft elongation in vitro and hair growth in vivo, and to investigate its effect on human dermal papilla cells (DPCs in vivo and in vitro. 6-Gingerol suppressed hair growth in hair follicles in culture and the proliferation of cultured DPCs. The growth inhibition of DPCs by 6-gingerol in vitro may reflect a decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Similar results were obtained in vivo. The results of this study showed that 6-gingerol does not have the ability to promote hair growth, on the contrary, can suppress human hair growth via its inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects on DPCs in vitro, and can cause prolongation of telogen phase in vivo. Thus, 6-gingerol rather than being a hair growth stimulating drug, it is a potential hair growth suppressive drug; i.e. for hair removal.

  14. Computerized assessment of facial hair growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, D M; Berger, U E; Sator, M O; Horak, F; Huber, J C

    1999-10-01

    To evaluate a computer-assisted technique for objective and sensitive monitoring of facial hair growth. Prospective study. Department of Gynecological Endocrinology and Reproductive Medicine and Clinic for Ear, Nose, and Throat, General Hospital, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria. Four men, three hirsute women, and three nonhirsute women. Using video equipment and computer software, we were able to document, analyze, and store data regarding hair growth in specific areas of interest. For digital image analysis, we used the Digi Trace System (Olympus, Vienna, Austria; Imatec, Munich, Germany). Hair growth within 20 days in well-defined regions of interest on the faces of hirsute and nonhirsute women and of men. Hair growth on day 21 was significantly different between hirsute and nonhirsute women as well as in men. The scores for individual hair growth between day 0 and day 21 also were significantly different in hirsute women and in men. No statistically significant difference in hair growth was found within the group of nonhirsute women. With digital image analysis, facial hair growth, especially in hirsute women, can be calculated in a sensitive and objective manner.

  15. Hox in hair growth and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awgulewitsch, Alexander

    2003-05-01

    The evolutionarily conserved Hox gene family of transcriptional regulators has originally been known for specifying positional identities along the longitudinal body axis of bilateral metazoans, including mouse and man. It is believed that subsequent to this archaic role, subsets of Hox genes have been co-opted for patterning functions in phylogenetically more recent structures, such as limbs and epithelial appendages. Among these, the hair follicle is of particular interest, as it is the only organ undergoing cyclical phases of regression and regeneration during the entire life span of an organism. Furthermore, the hair follicle is increasingly capturing the attention of developmental geneticists, as this abundantly available miniature organ mimics key aspects of embryonic patterning and, in addition, presents a model for studying organ renewal. The first Hox gene shown to play a universal role in hair follicle development is Hoxc13, as both Hoxc13-deficient and overexpressing mice exhibit severe hair growth and patterning defects. Differential gene expression analyses in the skin of these mutants, as well as in vitro DNA binding studies performed with potential targets for HOXC13 transcriptional regulation in human hair, identified genes encoding hair-specific keratins and keratin-associated proteins (KAPs) as major groups of presumptive Hoxc13 downstream effectors in the control of hair growth. The Hoxc13 mutant might thus serve as a paradigm for studying hair-specific roles of Hoxc13 and other members of this gene family, whose distinct spatio-temporally restricted expression patterns during hair development and cycling suggest discrete functions in follicular patterning and hair cycle control. The main conclusion from a discussion of these potential roles vis-à-vis current expression data in mouse and man, and from the perspective of the results obtained with the Hoxc13 transgenic models, is that members of the Hox family are likely to fulfill essential roles

  16. Red Ginseng Extract Promotes the Hair Growth in Cultured Human Hair Follicles

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Gyeong-Hun; Park, Ki-young; Cho, Hong-il; Lee, Sang-Min; Han, Ji Su; Won, Chong Hyun; Chang, Sung Eun; Lee, Mi Woo; Choi, Jee Ho; Moon, Kee Chan; Shin, Hyoseung; KANG, YONG JUNG; Lee, Dong Hun

    2015-01-01

    Ginseng has been shown to promote hair growth in several recent studies. However, its effects on human hair follicles and its mechanisms of action have not been sufficiently elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the hair growth-promoting effects of red ginseng extract (RGE) and its ginsenosides. The proliferative activities of cultured human hair follicles treated with RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 were assessed using Ki-67 immunostaining. Their effects on isolated human dermal papilla cells ...

  17. Bleaching phototrichogram: an improved method for hair growth assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Ho; Kwon, Oh Sang; Oh, Jun Kyu; Park, Won Seok; Moon, Sang Eun; Eun, Hee Chul

    2005-10-01

    The phototrichogram (PT) is a non-invasive tool for monitoring hair growth in vivo. However, the majority of PT techniques are of little use to clinicians bacause they are time-consuming and/or difficult to perform. Consequently, there is a need for an easy and time-saving PT technique. This study was performed to evaluate the accuracy and availability of a modified PT, bleaching phototrichogram (BPT), by comparing it with the conventional phototrichogram (CPT). Ten healthy male volunteers (age range 26-33 years) comprised the study subjects. Hairs were clipped from two adjacent circular areas in the occipital region of each subject. The clipped hairs in the first area were bleached and photographed two days later. The second area was photographed just after clipping and two days later. In each area, the following biological parameters of hair growth were analyzed; 1: hair density (number/cm2), 2: anagen hair ratio (%), 3: linear hair growth rate (mm/day), 4: non-vellus hair ratio (%) and 5: anagen hair thickness (microm). The hair density, anagen hair ratio, linear hair growth rate, and anagen hair thickness by BPT were similar to the CPT values with no significant differences, although the non-vellus hair ratio by BPT was higher than the CPT value. The BPT has a higher clinical usefulness than the CPT because it saves much time with satisfactory accuracy.

  18. Insulin-like growth factor 1 and hair growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, H Y; Hickford, J G; Bickerstaffe, R; Palmer, B R

    1999-11-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) has been identified as an important growth factor in many biological systems.[1] It shares considerable structural homology with insulin and exerts insulin-like effects on food intake and glucose metabolism. Recently it has been suggested to play a role in regulating cellular proliferation and migration during the development of hair follicles. [2,3] To exert its biological effects, the IGF-1 is required to activate cells by binding to specific cell-surface receptors. The type I IGF receptor (IGF-1R) is the only IGF receptor to have IGF-mediated signaling functions.[1] In circulation, this growth factor mediates endocrine action of growth hormone (GH) on somatic growth and is bound to specific binding proteins (BPs). The latter control IGF transport, efflux from vascular compartments and association with cell surface receptors.[4] In tissues, IGF-1 is produced by mesenchymal type cells and acts in a paracrine and autocrine fashion by binding to the IGF-1R. This binding activates the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) that triggers the downstream responses and finally stimulates cell division.[5] IGF-1 may therefore be able to stimulate the proliferation of hair follicle cells through cellular signaling pathways of its receptors. Local infusion of IGF-1 into sheep has been reported to be capable of stimulating protein synthesis in the skin.[6] It may also increase the production of wool keratin. Recently, transgenic mice overexpressing IGF-1 in the skin have been shown to have earlier hair follicle development than controls.[7] In addition, this growth factor plays an important role in many cell types as a survival factor to prevent cell death.[8] This anti-apoptotic function of IGF-1 may be important to the development of follicle cells as follicles undergo a growth cycle where the regressive, catagen phase is apoptosis driven. In this review, the effects of IGF-1 on follicle cell proliferation and differentiation are discussed. In

  19. Development and Evaluation of Herbal Formulations for Hair Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipi Purwal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair formulation of Emblica officinalis (Euphorbiaceae, Bacopa, monnieri (Scrophulariaceae, Trigonella foenumgraecum (Leguminosae, Murraya koenigii (Rutaceae in various concentrations in the form of herbal oil were studied for their hair growth activity. Each drug was tested for their hair growth activity in a concentration range for 1-10% separately. Based on these results mixture of crude drugs Murraya koeniigi, leaf (Rutaceae, Bacopa monnieri, leaf (Scrophulariaceae, Trigonella foenumgraecum (Leguminosae, Murraya koenigii (Rutaceae were prepared in varying concentration in the form of herbal hair oil by three different oils preparation techniques and were tested for hair growth activity. The result revealed that the hair growth activity of each drug was found proportional to the concentration range tested. Similarly higher concentrations of drug in the formulation were found to have higher hair growth activities. But looking towards the formulation viscosity the maximum concentration of combined drug was found to be 30% at their maximum level. The formulation containing 7.5% of each drug used for the study and showed excellent hair growth activity with standard (2% minoxidil ethanolic solution by an enlargement of follicular size and prolongation of the anagen phase. It holds the promise of potent herbal alternative for minoxidil. Excellent results of hair growth were seen in formulation prepared by cloth pouch decoction method of oils preparation technique.

  20. Facial and abdominal hair growth in hirsutism: a computerized evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, G; Moran, C; Huerta, R; Folgman, K; Azziz, R

    2001-12-01

    Methods of objectively assessing the growth rate of hairs in hirsute women have generally required some form of shaving and have focused on studying hairs affecting the face, which has reduced the number of patients willing or able to participate in such studies. A possible solution is to assess the terminal hairs on the lower abdomen (ie, the male escutcheon) because these two body areas are the most frequently affected with excess hair growth in hirsute patients. Nonetheless, it is unclear how the growth characteristics (density, diameter, and growth rate) of the hairs on the abdomen and face differ in these patients. We hypothesize that the growth characteristics of terminal hairs on the abdomen and face are similar and that evaluation of either area may be sufficient in assessing the hair growth rate of these patients. To objectively evaluate hair growth in the face and abdomen in hirsute patients, we developed a computer-aided image analysis system capable of measuring several growth parameters. Twenty hirsute women (12 white and 8 black), aged 31.2 +/- 6.1 years, were studied. Facial and abdominal skin areas were shaved, and 3 to 5 days later the areas were photographed through a calibrated glass plate and 5 terminal hairs were plucked from each area. The daily hair growth rate (assessed by photography and by direct measurement of the plucked hair), the density of hairs (number of hairs per surface area assessed by photography), and hair diameter (of the plucked hairs) were determined. The extent of hirsutism was also measured, albeit subjectively, by a modification of the Ferriman-Gallwey method, with each area given a score of 0 (no terminal hairs seen) to 4 (terminal hairs in a pattern similar to that of a very hirsute man). Facial, abdominal, and total Ferriman-Gallwey scores were 1.3 +/- 0.6, 1.8 +/- 0.9, and 12.5 +/- 5.4, respectively. Our results indicated that facial hairs were distributed in greater density and had a greater diameter than abdominal

  1. Red ginseng extract promotes the hair growth in cultured human hair follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gyeong-Hun; Park, Ki-young; Cho, Hong-il; Lee, Sang-Min; Han, Ji Su; Won, Chong Hyun; Chang, Sung Eun; Lee, Mi Woo; Choi, Jee Ho; Moon, Kee Chan; Shin, Hyoseung; Kang, Yong Jung; Lee, Dong Hun

    2015-03-01

    Ginseng has been shown to promote hair growth in several recent studies. However, its effects on human hair follicles and its mechanisms of action have not been sufficiently elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the hair growth-promoting effects of red ginseng extract (RGE) and its ginsenosides. The proliferative activities of cultured human hair follicles treated with RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 were assessed using Ki-67 immunostaining. Their effects on isolated human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) were evaluated using cytotoxicity assays, immunoblot analysis of signaling proteins, and the determination of associated growth factors. We examined the ability of RGE and ginsenosides to protect hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation against dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced suppression and their effects on the expression of androgen receptor. The in vivo hair growth-promoting effect of RGE was also investigated in C57BL/6 mice. Both RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 enhanced the proliferation of hair matrix keratinocytes. hDPCs treated with RGE or ginsenoside-Rb1 exhibited substantial cell proliferation and the associated phosphorylation of ERK and AKT. Moreover, RGE, ginsenoside-Rb1, and ginsenoside-Rg3 abrogated the DHT-induced suppression of hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation and the DHT-induced upregulation of the mRNA expression of androgen receptor in hDPCs. Murine experiments revealed that the subcutaneous injection of 3% RGE resulted in more rapid hair growth than the negative control. In conclusion, RGE and its ginsenosides may enhance hDPC proliferation, activate ERK and AKT signaling pathways in hDPCs, upregulate hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation, and inhibit the DHT-induced androgen receptor transcription. These results suggest that red ginseng may promote hair growth in humans.

  2. Advances in Understanding Hair Growth [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno A. Bernard

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this short review, I introduce an integrated vision of human hair follicle behavior and describe opposing influences that control hair follicle homeostasis, from morphogenesis to hair cycling. The interdependence and complementary roles of these influences allow us to propose that the hair follicle is a true paradigm of a “Yin Yang” type, that is a cold/slow-hot/fast duality. Moreover, a new promising field is emerging, suggesting that glycans are key elements of hair follicle growth control.

  3. Pharmacologic inhibition of JAK-STAT signaling promotes hair growth

    OpenAIRE

    Harel, Sivan; Higgins, Claire A.; Cerise, Jane E.; Dai, Zhenpeng; Chen, James C.; Clynes, Raphael; Angela M Christiano

    2015-01-01

    Several forms of hair loss in humans are characterized by the inability of hair follicles to enter the growth phase (anagen) of the hair cycle after being arrested in the resting phase (telogen). Current pharmacologic therapies have been largely unsuccessful in targeting pathways that can be selectively modulated to induce entry into anagen. We show that topical treatment of mouse and human skin with small-molecule inhibitors of the Janus kinase (JAK)–signal transducer and activator of transc...

  4. Pharmacologic inhibition of JAK-STAT signaling promotes hair growth.

    OpenAIRE

    Harel, S.; Higgins, CA; Cerise, JE; Dai, Z.; Chen, JC; Clynes, R; Christiano, AM

    2015-01-01

    Several forms of hair loss in humans are characterized by the inability of hair follicles to enter the growth phase (anagen) of the hair cycle after being arrested in the resting phase (telogen). Current pharmacologic therapies have been largely unsuccessful in targeting pathways that can be selectively modulated to induce entry into anagen. We show that topical treatment of mouse and human skin with small-molecule inhibitors of the Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transc...

  5. Pharmacologic inhibition of JAK-STAT signaling promotes hair growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Sivan; Higgins, Claire A; Cerise, Jane E; Dai, Zhenpeng; Chen, James C; Clynes, Raphael; Christiano, Angela M

    2015-10-01

    Several forms of hair loss in humans are characterized by the inability of hair follicles to enter the growth phase (anagen) of the hair cycle after being arrested in the resting phase (telogen). Current pharmacologic therapies have been largely unsuccessful in targeting pathways that can be selectively modulated to induce entry into anagen. We show that topical treatment of mouse and human skin with small-molecule inhibitors of the Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway results in rapid onset of anagen and subsequent hair growth. We show that JAK inhibition regulates the activation of key hair follicle populations such as the hair germ and improves the inductivity of cultured human dermal papilla cells by controlling a molecular signature enriched in intact, fully inductive dermal papillae. Our findings open new avenues for exploration of JAK-STAT inhibition for promotion of hair growth and highlight the role of this pathway in regulating the activation of hair follicle stem cells.

  6. Extensive Hair Shaft Growth after Mouse Whisker Follicle Isolation, Cryopreservation and Transplantation in Nude Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenluo Cao

    Full Text Available We previously demonstrated that whole hair follicles could be cryopreserved to maintain their stem-cells differentation potential. In the present study, we demonstrated that cryopreserved mouse whisker hair follicles maintain their hair growth potential. DMSO better cryopreserved mouse whisker follicles compared to glycerol. Cryopreserved hair follicles also maintained the hair follicle-associated-pluripotent (HAP stem cells, evidenced by P75NTR expression. Subcutaneous transplantation of DMSO-cryopreserved hair follicles in nude mice resulted in extensive hair fiber growth over 8 weeks, indicating the functional recovery of hair shaft growth of cryopreserved hair follicles.

  7. Extensive Hair Shaft Growth after Mouse Whisker Follicle Isolation, Cryopreservation and Transplantation in Nude Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wenluo; Li, Lingna; Tran, Benjamin; Kajiura, Satoshi; Amoh, Yasuyuki; Liu, Fang; Hoffman, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that whole hair follicles could be cryopreserved to maintain their stem-cells differentation potential. In the present study, we demonstrated that cryopreserved mouse whisker hair follicles maintain their hair growth potential. DMSO better cryopreserved mouse whisker follicles compared to glycerol. Cryopreserved hair follicles also maintained the hair follicle-associated-pluripotent (HAP) stem cells, evidenced by P75NTR expression. Subcutaneous transplantation of DMSO-cryopreserved hair follicles in nude mice resulted in extensive hair fiber growth over 8 weeks, indicating the functional recovery of hair shaft growth of cryopreserved hair follicles.

  8. Extensive Hair Shaft Growth after Mouse Whisker Follicle Isolation, Cryopreservation and Transplantation in Nude Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wenluo; Li, Lingna; Tran, Benjamin; Kajiura, Satoshi; Amoh, Yasuyuki; Liu, Fang; Hoffman, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that whole hair follicles could be cryopreserved to maintain their stem-cells differentation potential. In the present study, we demonstrated that cryopreserved mouse whisker hair follicles maintain their hair growth potential. DMSO better cryopreserved mouse whisker follicles compared to glycerol. Cryopreserved hair follicles also maintained the hair follicle-associated-pluripotent (HAP) stem cells, evidenced by P75NTR expression. Subcutaneous transplantation of DMSO-cryopreserved hair follicles in nude mice resulted in extensive hair fiber growth over 8 weeks, indicating the functional recovery of hair shaft growth of cryopreserved hair follicles. PMID:26716690

  9. Facial hair growth in a patient with psoriasis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matos, Rita S; Torres, Tiago

    2016-01-01

    A woman, 47 years of age, with chronic plaque-type psoriasis for the past 18 years but otherwise healthy, presented complaining of facial hair growth three months after starting systemic cyclosporine therapy (3.5 mg/kg/day...

  10. Peppermint Oil Promotes Hair Growth without Toxic Signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ji Young; Park, Min Ah; Kim, Young Chul

    2014-12-01

    Peppermint (Mentha piperita) is a plant native to Europe and has been widely used as a carminative and gastric stimulant worldwide. This plant also has been used in cosmetic formulations as a fragrance component and skin conditioning agent. This study investigated the effect of peppermint oil on hair growth in C57BL/6 mice. The animals were randomized into 4 groups based on different topical applications: saline (SA), jojoba oil (JO), 3% minoxidil (MXD), and 3% peppermint oil (PEO). The hair growth effects of the 4-week topical applications were evaluated in terms of hair growth, histological analysis, enzymatic activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and gene expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), known bio-markers for the enhanced hair growth. Of the 4 experimental groups, PEO group showed the most prominent hair growth effects; a significant increase in dermal thickness, follicle number, and follicle depth. ALP activity and IGF-1 expression also significantly increased in PEO group. Body weight gain and food efficiency were not significantly different between groups. These results suggest that PEO induces a rapid anagen stage and could be used for a practical agent for hair growth without change of body weight gain and food efficiency.

  11. Promotion of hair growth by newly synthesized ceramide mimetic compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bu-Mahn; Bak, Soon-Sun; Shin, Kyung-Oh; Kim, Minhee; Kim, Daehwan; Jung, Sang-Hun; Jeong, Sekyoo; Sung, Young Kwan; Kim, Hyun Jung

    2017-09-09

    Based on the crucial roles of ceramides in skin barrier function, use of ceramides or their structural mimetic compounds, pseudoceramides, as cosmetic ingredients are getting more popular. While currently used pseudoceramides are intended to substitute the structural roles of ceramides in stratum corneum, development of bioactive pseudoceramides has been repeatedly reported. In this study, based on the potential involvement of sphingolipids in hair cycle regulation, we investigated the effects of newly synthesized pseudoceramide, bis-oleamido isopropyl alcohol (BOI), on hair growth using cultured human hair follicles and animal models. BOI treatment promoted hair growth in cultured human hair follicles ex vivo and induced earlier conversion of telogen into anagen. Although we did not find a significant enhancement of growth factor expression and follicular cell proliferation, BOI treatment resulted in an increased sphinganine and sphingosine contents as well as increased ceramides contents in cultured dermal papilla (DP) cells. Taken together, our data strongly suggest that biologically active pseudoceramide promotes hair growth by stimulating do novo synthesis of sphingolipids in DP cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Enhancing hair growth in male androgenetic alopecia by a combination of fractional CO2 laser therapy and hair growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yue; Zhuo, Fenglin; Li, Linfeng

    2017-05-21

    Laser therapy and growth factors have been used as alternative treatments for male androgenetic alopecia (MAA). The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy and safety of hair growth factors alone or combined with ablative carbon dioxide (CO2) fractional laser therapy in MAA. Twenty-eight men were enrolled in this randomized half-split study based on a left-head to right-head pattern. Fractional CO2 laser treatment was unilaterally performed; hair growth factors were bilaterally applied. Six sessions with 2-week intervals were performed. Global photographs and dermoscopy assessments were performed at the baseline and 4 months after first treatment. Global photographs underwent blinded review by three independent dermatologists. Scanning electron microscopy was used to compare changes in hair-follicle phase and hair-shaft diameter. Twenty-seven participants completed the 4-month treatment schedule. One patient was lost. Mean hair density increased from 114 ± 27 to 143 ± 25/cm(2) (P < 0.001) in the combined group and from 113 ± 24 to 134 ± 19/cm(2) in the growth factor group (P < 0.001). The mean change from baseline between two groups was also compared (P = 0.003). Global photographs showed improvement in 93% (25/27) patients in the combined group and 67% (18/27) patients in the growth factor group. Under scanning electron microscopy, hair follicles appeared to transition from telogen to anagen, and hair-shaft diameter increased in five randomly selected patients. Ablative fractional CO2 laser combined with hair growth factors may serve as an alternative treatment for MAA in individuals unwilling/unable to undergo medical or surgical treatment.

  13. Cow placenta extract promotes murine hair growth through enhancing the insulin - like growth factor-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongliang Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hair loss is seen as an irreversible process. Most research concentrates on how to elongate the anagen, reduce the negative factors of obstructing hair growth and improve the hair number and size. Aim: In our experiment, we tried to prove that the cow placenta extract can promote hair growth by elongating hair shaft and increasing hair follicle number. Materials and Methods: Cow placenta extract (CPE, water and minoxidil applied separately on the back of depilated B57CL/6 mice for the case, negative and positive control respectively. We checked the proliferation of cells which are resident in hair sheath, and the expression of a few growth factors which stimulate hair growth. Results: Result shows that placenta extract more efficiently accelerates cell division and growth factor expression, by raising the insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1 mRNA and protein level to increase HF size and hair length. Conclusions: The extract is not a purified product; so, it is less effective than minoxidil, which is approved by the US FDA for the treatment of male pattern baldness. If refinement is done, the placenta extract would be a good candidate medicine for hair loss.

  14. [Disorder of hair growth in hyperprolactinemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfanos, C E; Hertel, H

    1988-01-18

    Functional hyperprolactinemia was found in five female patients, 25-35 years old, seeking medical consultation for hair loss, together with hypertrichosis (4x), disturbances of cyclic bleeding periods (4x), secondary amenorrhea (2x), galactorrhea (2x), seborrhea (2x) and persisting acne (1x). Other hormonal parameters including testosterone levels and thyroid gland function tests were unchanged. Prolactinoma was excluded by x-ray diagrams, partly also by computer tomograms of the sella. In two patients increased telogen effluvium was found by trichogram examination with some dystrophic hairs; in one patient only dystrophic hairs were seen, whereas, in two cases, hair loss was not present at the time of our clinical examination. These observations indicate that cutaneous symptoms such as seborrhea, acne, hypertrichosis/hirsutism, alopecia(= SAHA syndrome) may evidently occur in hyperprolactinemia, representing or mimicking androgen-induced skin symptoms. In such cases, therefore, evaluation of prolactin levels together with androgen blood levels and thyroid gland function tests should be performed to exclude underlying endocrinopathy.

  15. Role of Cyperus rotundus oil in decreasing hair growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHADA FAROUK ABD EL-KAREAM

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a lack on the value of Egyptian Cyperus rotundus essential oil in the treatment of Androgenic hair. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of application Egyptian Cyperus rotundus essential oil in comparison to 0.9% saline on androgenic hair. Patients and Methods: Ninety one female patients with Androgenic hair (hirsutism and axillary hair completed the study. They were randomly assigned to two groups: group I (active group (n=47 and group II (control group (n=44. Patients used topical Cyperus rotundus essential oil for six months and were evaluated at 6th month. Results: The topical Cyperus rotundus oil was significantly more effective (p<0.05 than placebo with out side effects. This result was proved by three assessment methods; difference in hair count, independent observer assessment and patients' self assessment. Conclusion: The topical Egyptian Cyperus rotundus essential oil is an effective method in treating moderate degrees of hirsutism and axillary hair. But without affecting serum testosterone. This study is the first report on using Cyperus rotundus essential oil for decreasing hair growth. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2012; 1(2.000: 111-118

  16. Micro-grafs hair grafting for restoration of pubic hair loss with a puncturing-and-seeding techniuque%应用打孔与植入同步的显微毛发单位移植技术行阴毛再造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王继萍; 范金财

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the possibility of using a micro-grafts hair grafting for restoration of pubic hair loss with a puncturing-and-seeding technique. Methods Under local anesthesia, a 4-5 cm long and 1.0-1.5 cm width scalp strip was harvested from the back of the head. The wound was directly closed in layers. A series of follicular-unit grafts with 1-2 hairs were divided in certain amount of the demanded grafts from this strip under a stereomicroscope. The recipient area was prepared for the matched micro-slots with a series of 20-18 G needles to accept the grafts. The process was carried out by implanting the graft into each hole as soon as the needle was got out the hole. Results Thirty-one female patients with congenital loss of their pubic hair were treated by the above-mentioned technique from January 2002 to July 2010. The quantity of the micro-grafts was 280-440 grafts (302 in mean) with 360-760 hairs (556 in mean) per operation. Over 1 year following-ups, all of the patients were satisfactory of their natural appearance in one session with very satisfaction in 28 (90.3%) and satisfaction in 3 (9.7%). The grafted hairs were growing well with 92.5%-97.2% (95.64% in mean) hair survival. Conclusion The above-mentioned technique has the advantages such as less surgical-induced trauma, less bleeding, safety, simplification, quick recovery and effectiveness, as well as distributing the grafts individually. It is an ideal method for pubic hair restoration.%目的 评价应用针具打孔与植入同步的显微毛发单位移植技术行阴毛再造的临床治疗价值.方法 在局部浸润麻醉下,从枕部切取长4~5 cm、宽1.0~1.5 cm的含有完整毛发的头皮组织,其供区伤口直接拉拢分层缝合之.然后,在立体显微镜下将其头皮组织进行分割,制备成一系列含有1~2根毛发的显微毛发移植单位.继之,应用针具打孔,并与其植入同步的技术方法,将备用的移植单位植入到预先设计

  17. Distribution of two basement membrane proteoglycans through hair follicle development and the hair growth cycle in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; King, J L; McCarthy, K J

    1990-01-01

    The distribution of two distinct populations of basement membrane proteoglycans has been monitored through hair growth development in the rat embryo and subsequent hair growth cycle. An antiserum against a small heparan sulfate proteoglycan uniformly stained the dermal-epidermal junction of embry...

  18. Peppermint Oil Promotes Hair Growth without Toxic Signs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ji Young Oh; Min Ah Park; Young Chul Kim

    2014-01-01

    .... This study investigated the effect of peppermint oil on hair growth in C57BL/6 mice. The animals were randomized into 4 groups based on different topical applications: saline (SA), jojoba oil (JO), 3% minoxidil (MXD), and 3% peppermint oil (PEO...

  19. Stimulatory effect of Brazilian propolis on hair growth through proliferation of keratinocytes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Shota; Oda, Yozo; Matsuo, Chika; Kumura, Haruto; Kobayashi, Ken

    2014-12-10

    Propolis is a natural honeybee hive product with the potential for use in the treatment of dermatological conditions, such as cutaneous abrasions, burns, and acne. In this study, we investigated whether propolis stimulates hair growth in mice. Ethanol-extracted propolis, which contains various physiologically active substances such as caffeic acid and kaempferol, stimulated anagen induction in shaved back skin. Anagen induction occurred without any detectable abnormalities in the shape of the hair follicles (HFs), hair stem cells in the bulge, proliferating hair matrix keratinocytes in the hair bulb, or localization of versican in the dermal papilla. Propolis treatment also stimulated migration of hair matrix keratinocytes into the hair shaft in HFs during late anagen in the depilated back skin. Organotypic culture of skin containing anagen stage HFs revealed significant stimulation of hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation by propolis. Furthermore, propolis facilitated the proliferation of epidermal keratinocytes. These results indicate that propolis stimulates hair growth by inducing hair keratinocyte proliferation.

  20. Distribution of two basement membrane proteoglycans through hair follicle development and the hair growth cycle in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; King, J L; McCarthy, K J

    1990-01-01

    The distribution of two distinct populations of basement membrane proteoglycans has been monitored through hair growth development in the rat embryo and subsequent hair growth cycle. An antiserum against a small heparan sulfate proteoglycan uniformly stained the dermal-epidermal junction...... of embryonic rats throughout the period of hair follicle formation. On the other hand, monoclonal antibodies recognizing a basement membrane-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan only weakly stained 16-d embryo dermal-epidermal junction, but strong staining was associated with hair follicle buds...... as they developed. Through the hair growth cycle, it was found that the heparan sulfate proteoglycan persisted around the follicles, while the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan decreased in amount through catagen until it was undetectable at the base and dermal papilla of the telogen follicle. As anagen commenced...

  1. Preclinical and Clinical Studies Demonstrate That the Proprietary Herbal Extract DA-5512 Effectively Stimulates Hair Growth and Promotes Hair Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Young Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The proprietary DA-5512 formulation comprises six herbal extracts from traditional oriental plants historically associated with therapeutic and other applications related to hair. Here, we investigated the effects of DA-5512 on the proliferation of human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs in vitro and on hair growth in C57BL/6 mice and conducted a clinical study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of DA-5512. DA-5512 significantly enhanced the viability of hDPCs in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05, and 100 ppm of DA-5512 and 1 μM minoxidil (MXD significantly increased the number of Ki-67-positive cells, compared with the control group (p<0.05. MXD (3% and DA-5512 (1%, 5% significantly stimulated hair growth and increased the number and length of hair follicles (HFs versus the controls (each p<0.05. The groups treated with DA-5512 exhibited hair growth comparable to that induced by MXD. In clinical study, we detected a statistically significant increase in the efficacy of DA-5512 after 16 weeks compared with the groups treated with placebo or 3% MXD (p<0.05. In conclusion, DA-5512 might promote hair growth and enhance hair health and can therefore be considered an effective option for treating hair loss.

  2. Promotion of hair growth by Rosmarinus officinalis leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Kazuya; Noguchi, Kazuma; Kondo, Masato; Onishi, Mariko; Watanabe, Naoko; Okamura, Katsumasa; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2013-02-01

    Topical administration of Rosmarinus officinalis leaf extract (RO-ext, 2 mg/day/mouse) improved hair regrowth in C57BL/6NCrSlc mice that experienced hair regrowth interruption induced by testosterone treatment. In addition, RO-ext promoted hair growth in C3H/He mice that had their dorsal areas shaved. To investigate the antiandrogenic activity mechanism of RO-ext, we focused on inhibition of testosterone 5α-reductase, which is well recognized as one of the most effective strategies for the treatment of androgenic alopecia. RO-ext showed inhibitory activity of 82.4% and 94.6% at 200 and 500 µg/mL, respectively. As an active constituent of 5α-reductase inhibition, 12-methoxycarnosic acid was identified with activity-guided fractionation. In addition, the extract of R. officinalis and 12-methoxycarnosic acid inhibited androgen-dependent proliferation of LNCaP cells as 64.5% and 66.7% at 5 µg/mL and 5 μM, respectively. These results suggest that they inhibit the binding of dihydrotestosterone to androgen receptors. Consequently, RO-ext is a promising crude drug for hair growth.

  3. Action Mechanism of Chamaecyparis obtusa Oil on Hair Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Ok; Kim, Su-Eun; Kim, Young-Chul

    2013-12-31

    This study was carried out to examine the action mechanism of Chamaecyparis obtusa oil (CO) on hair growth in C57BL/6 mice. For alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GT) activities in the skin tissue, at week 4, the 3% minoxidil (MXD) and 3% CO treatment groups showed an ALP activity that was significantly higher by 85% (p < 0.001) and 48% (p < 0.05) and an γ-GT activity that was significantly higher by 294% (p < 0.01) and 254% (p < 0.05) respectively, as compared to the saline (SA) treatment group. For insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) mRNA expression in the skin tissue, at week 4, the MXD and CO groups showed a significantly higher expression by 204% (p < 0.05) and 426% (p < 0.01) respectively, as compared to the SA group. At week 4, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in the MXD and CO groups showed a significantly higher expression by 74% and 96% (p < 0.05) respectively, however, epidermal growth factor (EGF) expression in the MXD and CO groups showed a significantly lower expression by 66% and 61% (p < 0.05) respectively, as compared to the SA group. Stem cell factor (SCF) expression in the MXD and CO groups was observed by immunohistochemistry as significant in a part of the bulge around the hair follicle and in a part of the basal layer of the epidermis. Taking all the results together, on the basis of effects on ALP and γ-GT activity, and the expression of IGF-1, VEGF and SCF, which are related to the promotion of hair growth, it can be concluded that CO induced a proliferation and division of hair follicle cells and maintained the anagen phase. Because EGF expression was decreased significantly, CO could delay the transition to the catagen phase.

  4. Microtubules guide root hair tip growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieberer, B.; Ketelaar, M.J.; Esseling, J.J.; Emons, A.M.C.

    2005-01-01

    The ability to establish cell polarity is crucial to form and function of an individual cell. Polarity underlies critical processes during cell development, such as cell growth, cell division, cell differentiation and cell signalling. Interphase cytoplasmic microtubules in tip-growing fission yeast

  5. Microtubules guide root hair tip growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieberer, B.; Ketelaar, M.J.; Esseling, J.J.; Emons, A.M.C.

    2005-01-01

    The ability to establish cell polarity is crucial to form and function of an individual cell. Polarity underlies critical processes during cell development, such as cell growth, cell division, cell differentiation and cell signalling. Interphase cytoplasmic microtubules in tip-growing fission yeast

  6. Distribution of epidermal growth factor receptors in rat tissues during embryonic skin development, hair formation, and the adult hair growth cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, M R; Couchman, J R

    1984-01-01

    on the binding distribution of [125I]EGF, representing the tissue localization of available EGF receptors, during embryonic rat skin development including hair follicle formation and the adult hair growth cycle. At 16 days embryonic development a relatively low receptor density is seen over all the epidermal...... condensates marking the first stage of hair follicle development. This restricted and temporary loss of EGF receptors above these specialized mesenchymal condensates implies a role for the EGF receptor and possibly EGF or an EGF-like ligand in stimulating the epithelial downgrowth required for hair follicle...... development. In the anagen hair bulb, receptors for EGF are detected over the outer root sheath and the epithelial cell layers at the base of the follicle and show a correlation with the areas of epithelial proliferation in the hair bulb. During the catagen and telogen phases of the hair cycle, receptors...

  7. Growth hormone treatment in cartilage-hair hypoplasia: effects on growth and the immune system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocca, G.; Weemaes, C.M.R.; Burgt, C.J.A. van der; Otten, B.J.

    2004-01-01

    Cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by metaphyseal chondrodysplasia with severe growth retardation and impaired immunity. We studied the effects of growth hormone treatment on growth parameters and the immune system in four children with CHH. The effe

  8. Enhanced effect of fibroblast growth factor-2-containing dalteparin/protamine nanoparticles on hair growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takabayashi Y

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Yuki Takabayashi,1 Masaki Nambu,1 Masayuki Ishihara,2 Masahiro Kuwabara,1 Koichi Fukuda,2 Shingo Nakamura,2 Hidemi Hattori,2Tomoharu Kiyosawa1 1Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 2Division of Biomedical Engineering, Research Institute, National Defense Medical College, Tokorozawa, Saitama, Japan Purpose: Although treatments for alopecia are in high demand, not all treatments are safe and reliable. Dalteparin/protamine nanoparticles (D/P NPs can effectively carry growth factors (GFs such as fibroblast GF (FGF-2. The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of FGF-2-containing D/P NPs (FGF-2&D/P NPs on hair growth.Patients and methods: In this study, the participants were 12 volunteers with thin hair. One milliliter of FGF-2 (100 ng/mL and D/P NPs (56 μg/mL was applied and massaged on the skin of the scalp by the participants twice a day. They were evaluated for 6 months. Participants were photographed using a digital camera for general observation and a hair diagnosis system for measuring hair diameter.Results: The mean diameter of the hairs was significantly higher following the application of FGF-2&D/P NPs for 6 months. Objective improvements in thin hair were observed in two cases. Nine participants experienced greater bounce and hair resilience.Conclusion: The transdermal application of FGF-2&D/P NPs to the scalp can be used as a new treatment for alopecia. Keywords: hair growth, dalteparin/protamine nanoparticles, fibroblast growth factor, transdermal application

  9. Hair Zinc Level Analysis and Correlative Micronutrients in Children Presenting with Malnutrition and Poor Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Tae Hwan; Lee, Jin; Kim, Yong Joo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Zinc deficiency can induce serious clinical problems in the gastrointestinal (GI) system and immune system and can affect growth and development. It is more severe in younger patients. Chronic zinc deficiency is reflected more precisely in hair than in serum. We studied hair zinc levels and other hair and serum micronutrients in chronic malnourished children to identify which micronutrients are affected or correlated with the other ones. Methods Hair mineral analyses were performed in...

  10. The Promoting Effect of Ishige sinicola on Hair Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Kyoung Kang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the promoting effect of Ishige sinicola, an alga native to Jeju Island, Korea, on hair growth. When vibrissa follicles were cultured in the presence of I. sinicola extract for 21 days, I. sinicola extract increased hair-fiber length. After topical application of I. sinicola extract onto the back of C57BL/6 mice, anagen progression of the hair shaft was induced. The I. sinicola extract significantly inhibited the activity of 5α-reductase. Treatment of immortalized vibrissa dermal papilla cells (DPCs with I. sinicola extract resulted in increase of cell proliferation, which was accompanied by the increase of phospho-GSK3β level, β-catenin, Cyclin E and CDK2, whereas p27kip1 was down-regulated. In particular, octaphlorethol A, an isolated component from the I. sinicola extract, inhibited the activity of 5α-reductase and increased the proliferation of DPCs. These results suggest that I. sinicola extract and octaphlorethol A, a principal of I. sinicola, have the potential to treat alopecia via the proliferation of DPCs followed by the activation of β-catenin pathway, and the 5α-reductase inhibition.

  11. Race, Rather than Skin Pigmentation, Predicts Facial Hair Growth in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Javorsky, Emilia; Perkins, Alexis C.; Hillebrand, Greg; Miyamoto, Kukizo; Boer Kimball, Alexa

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Ferriman-Gallwey hirsutism score is the currently accepted standard for assessing excess hair growth that may indicate hyperandrogenicity. The score was originally based on 60 Caucasian women, and recent studies suggest that it may need modification to be used in other populations. Objectives: To investigate ethnic, racial, and pigmentary variations in hair growth of the upper lip in diverse multinational populations. Results: Variations in hair growth of the upper lip were si...

  12. Diffuse heterochromia of scalp hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W S; Lee, I W; Ahn, S K

    1996-11-01

    Heterochromia of hair is the presence of more than one distinct color of hair in the same person. A color difference between scalp hair and a mustache or sideburns is not uncommon. Pubic and axillary hair and eyebrows and eyelashes are often darker than scalp hair in a fair-haired person. Rarely, a circumscribed patch of hair of different colors occurs. However, diffuse heterochromia of black and red scalp hair has not been previously reported. We describe a father and son with this condition.

  13. Comparison of – Mixture and Minoxidil on Hair Growth Promoting Effect in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Soo Park

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAlgae have traditionally been used for promotion of hair growth. Use of hair regrowth drugs, such as minoxidil, is limited due to side effects. The aim of this study was to examine a mixture of Saccharina japonica and Undaria pinnatifida (L-U mixture on hair growth and to compare the promoting effect of hair growth by a 3% minoxidil and a L-U mixture.MethodsTo evaluate the hair growth-promoting activity, saline, 50% ethanol, 3% minoxidil, and the L-U mixture were applied 2 times a day for a total of 14 days on the dorsal skin of C57BL/6 mice after depilation. Analysis was determined by using a high-resolution hair analysis system, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and H&E staining.ResultsOn day 14, the hair growth effect of the L-U mixture was the same as that of the 3% minoxidil treatment. The L-U mixture significantly (P<0.05 stimulated hair growth-promoting genes, as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and insulin-like growth factor -1. Increase of VEGF was observed in the L-U mixture group compared with minoxidil and the negative control. In contrast, the L-U mixture suppressed the expression of transforming growth factor-β1, which is the hair loss-related gene. In histological examination in the L-U mixture and minoxidil groups, the induction of an anagen stage of hair follicles was faster than that of control groups.ConclusionsThis study provides evidence that the L-U mixture can promote hair growth in mice, similar to the effect from minoxidil, and suggests that there is potential application for hair loss treatments.

  14. Potassium channel conductance: a mechanism affecting hair growth both in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhl, A E; Waldon, D J; Conrad, S J; Mulholland, M J; Shull, K L; Kubicek, M F; Johnson, G A; Brunden, M N; Stefanski, K J; Stehle, R G

    1992-03-01

    The opening of intracellular potassium channels has been suggested as a mechanism regulating hair growth. Enhancing the flux of potassium ions is a mechanism shared by several structurally diverse antihypertensive agents including minoxidil sulfate (the active metabolite of minoxidil), pinacidil, P-1075 (a potent pinacidil analog), RP-49,356, diazoxide, cromakalim, and nicorandil. Of these drugs, minoxidil, pinacidil, and diazoxide have been reported to elicit hypertrichosis in humans. This potassium channel hypothesis was examined by testing these drugs for effects on hair growth both in vitro and in vivo. For the in vitro studies, mouse vibrissae follicles were cultured for 3 d with drug and the effects on hair growth were measured by metabolic labeling. All drugs, except diazoxide, enhanced cysteine incorporation into the hair shafts of the cultured vibrissae. Diazoxide was poorly soluble and thus was tested only at low doses. Minoxidil, P-1075, cromakalim, and RP-49,356 were also evaluated in vivo by measuring hair growth effects in balding stumptail macaque monkeys. The drugs were administered topically to defined sites on balding scalps once per day for 4-5 months and the amount of hair grown was determined by monthly measurements of shaved hair weight. Three of the drugs produced significant increases in hair weight whereas, the RP-49,356 had no effect. These studies provide correlative evidence that the opening of potassium channels is an important regulatory mechanism for hair growth. This provides the impetus for further studies on this potentially important mechanism affecting hair biology.

  15. A 6-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluating the ability of a marine complex supplement to promote hair growth in men with thinning hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablon, Glynis

    2016-12-01

    Male pattern baldness, or androgenetic alopecia, affects approximately 50% of the adult population and can cause poor self-image, low self-esteem and have a significant negative impact on the quality of life. An oral nutraceutical supplement based on a marine complex formulation has previously been reported to significantly increase the number of terminal hairs in women with thinning hair. The objective of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to confirm the beneficial effects of a similar marine complex supplement in adult male subjects with thinning hair (Viviscal(®) Man; Lifes2good, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Healthy adult male subjects with thinning hair associated with clinically diagnosed male pattern hair loss were enrolled and randomized to receive study drug or placebo twice daily. At Day 90, subjects indicated a significant improvement in three of six quality of life measures as well as a significant overall improvement in quality of life. After 180 days, significant increases were observed for total hair count, total hair density, and terminal hair density (for each, P = 0.001). The investigator assessments revealed significant improvements in terminal and vellus hair count and terminal hair density. Hair pull test results were significantly lower (fewer hairs removed) for study drug vs. placebo at Days 90 (P hair shedding and promote hair growth in men with thinning hair. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Improvement in scalp hair growth in androgen-deficient women treated with testosterone: a questionnaire study

    OpenAIRE

    Glaser, RL; Dimitrakakis, C.; Messenger, AG

    2012-01-01

    Background Androgens are thought to have an adverse effect on female scalp hair growth. However, our clinical experience of androgen replacement therapy in women with androgen deficiency, in which hair loss was seldom reported, led us to question this concept. Objectives To evaluate the effect of subcutaneous testosterone therapy on scalp hair growth in female patients. Methods A total of 285 women, treated for a minimum of 1 year with subcutaneous testosterone implants for symptoms of androg...

  17. Modelling hair follicle growth dynamics as an excitable medium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J Murray

    Full Text Available The hair follicle system represents a tractable model for the study of stem cell behaviour in regenerative adult epithelial tissue. However, although there are numerous spatial scales of observation (molecular, cellular, follicle and multi follicle, it is not yet clear what mechanisms underpin the follicle growth cycle. In this study we seek to address this problem by describing how the growth dynamics of a large population of follicles can be treated as a classical excitable medium. Defining caricature interactions at the molecular scale and treating a single follicle as a functional unit, a minimal model is proposed in which the follicle growth cycle is an emergent phenomenon. Expressions are derived, in terms of parameters representing molecular regulation, for the time spent in the different functional phases of the cycle, a formalism that allows the model to be directly compared with a previous cellular automaton model and experimental measurements made at the single follicle scale. A multi follicle model is constructed and numerical simulations are used to demonstrate excellent qualitative agreement with a range of experimental observations. Notably, the excitable medium equations exhibit a wider family of solutions than the previous work and we demonstrate how parameter changes representing altered molecular regulation can explain perturbed patterns in Wnt over-expression and BMP down-regulation mouse models. Further experimental scenarios that could be used to test the fundamental premise of the model are suggested. The key conclusion from our work is that positive and negative regulatory interactions between activators and inhibitors can give rise to a range of experimentally observed phenomena at the follicle and multi follicle spatial scales and, as such, could represent a core mechanism underlying hair follicle growth.

  18. Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to support hair growth. Some teens who are vegetarians also lose their hair if they don't get enough protein from non-meat sources. And some athletes are at higher risk for hair loss because they may be more likely to develop iron-deficiency anemia. Disruption of the hair growth cycle. Some ...

  19. Auxin, the organizer of the environmental/hormonal signals for root hair growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Taeg eCho

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The root hair development is controlled by diverse factors such as fate-determining developmental cues, auxin-related environmental factors, and hormones. In particular, the soil environmental factors are important as they maximize their absorption by modulating root hair development. These environmental factors affect the root hair developmental process by making use of diverse hormones. These hormonal factors interact with each other to modulate root hair development in which auxin appears to form the most intensive networks with the pathways from environmental factors and hormones. Moreover, auxin action for root hair development is genetically located immediately upstream of the root hair-morphogenetic genes. These observations suggest that auxin plays as an organizing node for environmental/hormonal pathways to modulate root hair growth.

  20. Effect of helium-neon laser irradiation on hair follicle growth cycle of Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, S; Sahu, K; Verma, Y; Rao, K D; Dube, A; Gupta, P K

    2010-01-01

    We report the results of a study carried out to investigate the effect of helium-neon (He-Ne) laser (632.8 nm) irradiation on the hair follicle growth cycle of testosterone-treated and untreated mice. Both histology and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were used for the measurement of hair follicle length and the relative percentage of hair follicles in different growth phases. A positive correlation (R = 0.96) was observed for the lengths of hair follicles measured by both methods. Further, the ratios of the lengths of hair follicles in the anagen and catagen phases obtained by both methods were nearly the same. However, the length of the hair follicles measured by both methods differed by a factor of 1.6, with histology showing smaller lengths. He-Ne laser irradiation (at approximately 1 J/cm(2)) of the skin of both the control and the testosterone-treated mice was observed to lead to a significant increase (p < 0.05) in % anagen, indicating stimulation of hair growth. The study also demonstrates that OCT can be used to monitor the hair follicle growth cycle, and thus hair follicle disorders or treatment efficacy during alopecia.

  1. Blockade of S100A3 activity inhibits murine hair growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, W; Deng, Q; Yu, X L; Yuan, Y S; Gao, J; Li, J J; Zhou, L; Xia, P; Han, G Y Q; Han, W; Yu, Y

    2015-10-28

    Using mouse gene expression microarray analysis, we obtained dynamic expression profiles of the whole genome in a depilation-induced hair growth mouse model. S100A3 expression increased during the anagen phase and returned to normal during the telogen phase. The effects of S100A3 blockade on the hair growth cycle were examined in mice after subcutaneous injection of an anti-mouse S100A3 antibody. Protein localization of S100A3 was confined to the hair shafts during the anagen phase and the sebaceous glands during the telogen phase. S100A3 blockade delayed hair follicle entry into the anagen phase, decreased hair elongation, and reduced the number of hair follicles in the subcutis, which correlated with the downregulated expression of hair growth induction-related genes in vivo. The present study demonstrates that anti-S100A3 antibody inhibits mouse hair growth, suggesting that S100A3 can be used as a target for hair loss treatment.

  2. The essential oils of Chamaecyparis obtusa promote hair growth through the induction of vascular endothelial growth factor gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Geun-Shik; Hong, Eui-Ju; Gwak, Ki-Seob; Park, Mi-Jin; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Choi, In-Gyu; Jang, Je-Won; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2010-01-01

    Chamaecyparis obtusa (C. obtusa) is a conifer in the cypress family Cupressaceae, native to northeast Asia. The essential oils of C. obtusa have antibacterial and antifungal effects and several products such as hygienic bands, aromatics, and shampoos contain these oils as a natural source of antimicrobial/antifungal agents. Interestingly, some consumers suffering from baldness and/or other forms of hair loss have reported a hair growth promoting effect of shampoos containing these oils. In the present study, the hair growth promoting effect of C. obtusa oils was elucidated in an animal model. C. obtusa oils promoted the early phase of hair growth in shaved mice. In addition, we examined the molecular effect of C. obtusa oils on the regulation of hair morphogenesis and hair growth using the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT. In the current study of hair growth regulating genes, the expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor (TGF beta 1), and keratinocyte growth factor(KGF) have been analyzed by real-time PCR in HaCaT cells. The essential oils of C. obtusa were divided into seven fractions for treatment of HaCaT cells. VEGF transcripts were induced by fractions 6 and 7; however, TGF beta 1 and KGF mRNA levels were unchanged by C. obtusa oils or fractions. Fraction 7 was separated into seven sub-fractions and studied further. Sub-fractions E and D significantly increased VEGF and KGF gene expression without up-regulating the hair growth inhibition factor, TGF beta 1. The components of the two sub-fractions were further analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Cuminol, eucarvone, and calamenene were common to these two sub-fractions, although the effects of these individual components were not determined. Taken together, these results suggest that C. obtusa oils promote hair growth in an animal model and a positive regulator of hair growth, VEGF, was induced by particular components of these oils.

  3. Nitrogen source interacts with ROP signalling in root hair tip-growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Daria; Monshausen, Gabriele; Singer, Meromit; Gilroy, Simon; Yalovsky, Shaul

    2011-01-01

    Root hairs elongate in a highly polarized manner known as tip growth. Overexpression of constitutively active Rho of Plant (ROP)/RAC GTPases mutants induces swelling of root hairs. Here, we demonstrate that Atrop11(CA)-induced swelling of root hairs depends on the composition of the growth medium. Depletion of ammonium allowed normal root hair elongation in Atrop11(CA) plants, induced the development of longer root hairs in wild-type plants and suppressed the effect of Atrop11(CA) expression on actin organization and reactive oxygen species distribution, whereas membrane localization of the protein was not affected. Ammonium at concentrations higher than 1 mM and the presence of nitrate were required for induction of swelling. Oscillations in wall and cytoplasmic pH are known to accompany tip growth in root hairs, and buffering of the growth medium decreased Atrop11(CA)-induced swelling. Fluorescence ratio imaging experiments revealed that in wild-type root hairs, the addition of NH₄NO₃ to the growth medium induced an increase in the amplitude of extracellular and intracellular pH oscillations and an overall decrease in cytoplasmic pH at the cell apex. Based on these results, we suggest a model in which ROP GTPases and nitrogen-dependent pH oscillations function in parallel pathways, creating a positive feedback loop during root hair growth.

  4. Cornu cervi pantotrichum Pharmacopuncture Solution Facilitate Hair Growth in C57BL/6 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon-Yong Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Cornu cervi pantotrichum (CCP has been widely used in Korean and China, as an anti-fatigue, anti-aging, and tonic agent to enhance the functions of the reproductive and the immune systems. Because CCP has various growth factors that play important roles in the development of hair follicles, we examined whether CCP pharmacopuncture solution (CCPPS was capable of promoting hair growth in an animal model. Methods: One day after hair depilation, CCPPS were topically applied to the dorsal skin of C57BL/6 mice once a day for 15 days. Hair growth activity was evaluated by using macro- and microscopic observations. Dorsal skin tissues were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Expressions of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, and fibroblast growth factor (FGF-7 were examined by using immunohistochemical staining. A reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR analysis was also conducted to measure the messenger RNA (mRNA expression of FGF-7. Results: CCPPS induced more active hair growth than normal saline. Histologic analysis showed enlargement of the dermal papilla, elongation of the hair shaft, and expansion of hair thickness in CCPPS treated mice, indicating that CCPPS effectively induced the development of anagen. CCPPS treatment markedly increased the expressions of BrdU and PCNA in the hair follicles of C57BL/6 mice. In addition, CCPPS up regulated the expression of FGF-7, which plays an important role in the development of hair follicles. Conclusion: These results reveal that CCPPS facilitates hair re-growth by proliferation of hair follicular cells and up-regulation of FGF-7 and suggest that CCPPS can potentially be applied as an alternative treatment for patients with alopecia.

  5. Hair Transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose ... Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose ...

  6. FGF5 as a regulator of the hair growth cycle: evidence from targeted and spontaneous mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, J M; Rosenquist, T; Götz, J; Martin, G R

    1994-09-23

    Fibroblast growth factor 5 (FGF5) is a secreted signaling protein. Mice homozygous for a predicted null allele of the Fgf5 gene, fgf5neo, produced by gene targeting in embryonic stem cells, have abnormally long hair. This phenotype appears identical to that of mice homozygous for the spontaneous mutation angora (go). The fgf5neo and go mutations fail to complement one another, and exon 1 of Fgf5 is deleted in DNA from go homozygotes, demonstrating that go is a mutant allele of Fgf5. Expression of Fgf5 is detected in hair follicles from wild-type mice and is localized to the outer root sheath during the anagen VI phase of the hair growth cycle. These findings provide evidence that FGF5 functions as an inhibitor of hair elongation, thus identifying a molecule whose normal function is apparently to regulate one step in the progression of the follicle through the hair growth cycle.

  7. CD133-positive dermal papilla-derived Wnt ligands regulate postnatal hair growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Linli; Yang, Kun; Carpenter, April; Lang, Richard A; Andl, Thomas; Zhang, Yuhang

    2016-10-01

    Active Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the dermal papilla (DP) is required for postnatal hair cycling. In addition, maintenance of the hair-inducing ability of DP cells in vitro requires external addition of Wnt molecules. However, whether DP cells are a critical source of Wnt ligands and induce both autocrine and paracrine signaling cascades to promote adult hair follicle growth and regeneration remains elusive. To address this question, we generated an animal model that allows inducible ablation of Wntless (Wls), a transmembrane Wnt exporter protein, in CD133-positive (CD133+) DP cells. CD133+ cells have been shown to be a specific subpopulation of cells in the DP, which possesses the hair-inducing capability. Here, we show that ablation of Wls expression in CD133+ DP cells results in a shortened period of postnatal hair growth. Mutant hair follicles were unable to enter full anagen (hair growth stage) and progressed toward a rapid regression. Notably, reduced size of the DP and decreased expression of anagen DP marker, versican, were observed in hair follicles when CD133+ DP cells lost Wls expression. Further analysis showed that Wls-deficient CD133+ DP cells led to reduced proliferation and differentiation in matrix keratinocytes and melanocytes that are needed for the generation of the hair follicle structure and a pigmented hair shaft. These findings clearly demonstrate that Wnt ligands produced by CD133+ DP cells play an important role in postnatal hair growth by maintaining the inductivity of DP cells and mediating the signaling cross-talk between the mesenchyme and the epithelial compartment. © 2016 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  8. Thymosin beta 4 induces hair growth via stem cell migration and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philp, Deborah; St-Surin, Sharleen; Cha, Hee-Jae; Moon, Hye-Sung; Kleinman, Hynda K; Elkin, Michael

    2007-09-01

    Thymosin beta 4 is a small 43-amino-acid molecule that has multiple biological activities, including promotion of cell migration angiogenesis, cell survival, protease production, and wound healing. We have found that thymosin beta 4 promotes hair growth in various rat and mice models including a transgenic thymosin beta 4 overexpressing mouse. We have also determined the mechanism by which thymosin beta 4 acts to promote hair growth by examining its effects on follicle stem cell growth, migration, differentiation, and protease production.

  9. Growth factors have a protective effect on neomycin-induced hair cell loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Xiangxin; Yuan, Huihua; Xie, Jing; Wang, Xianliu; Yang, Liangliang; Zhang, Yanzhong

    2015-01-01

    We have demonstrated that selected growth factors are involved in regulating survival and proliferation of progenitor cells derived from the neonatal rat organ of Corti (OC). The protective and regenerative effects of these defined growth factors on the injured organ of Corti were therefore investigated. The organ of Corti dissected from the Wistar rat pups (P3-P5) was split into apical, middle, and basal parts, explanted and cultured with or without neomycin and growth factors. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), and epidermal growth factor (EGF) protected the inner hair cells (IHCs) and outer hair cells (OHCs) from neomycin ototoxicity. Using EGF, IGF-1, and FGF-2 alone induced no protective effect on the survival of auditory hair cells. Combining 2 growth factors (EGF + IGF-1, EGF + FGF-2, or IGF-1 + FGF-2) gave statistically protective effects. Similarly, combining all three growth factors effectively protected auditory hair cells from the ototoxic insult. None of the growth factors induced regeneration of hair cells in the explants injured with neomycin. Thus various combinations of the three defined factors (IGF-1, FGF-2, and EGF) can protect the auditory hair cells from the neomycin-induced ototoxic damage, but no regeneration was seen. This offers a possible novel approach to the treatment of hearing loss.

  10. Hair growth promoting potential of phospholipids purified from porcine lung tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seong-Hyun; Moon, Jeong-Su; Jeon, Byung-Suk; Jeon, Yeon-Jeong; Yoon, Byung-Il; Lim, Chang-Jin

    2015-03-01

    BP201, porcine lung tissue-derived phospholipids, consists of phosphatidylcholine as a major phospholipid species. BP201 promoted hair growth after application onto the shaved backs of BALB/c and C3H mice. Its effect was enhanced when applied together with minoxidil (MNX) in C3H mice. When the tissue specimens prepared from the shaved skins of BP201-treated and control mice were microscopically examined, the total numbers of hair follicles in both anagen and telogen phases of BP201-treated mice were significantly higher than those of control mice. The numbers of hair follicles in the anagen phase of BP201-treated mice were also higher than those of control mice. In combination with MNX, BP201 further increased the total number of hair follicles, but did not alter the percentage of hair follicles in the anagenic phase. BP201 also increased the proliferation of human hair follicle dermal papilla cells. Collectively, BP201 possesses hair growth promoting potential, which would suggest its use singly or in combination for hair growth products.

  11. Pseudofolliculitis cutis: a vexing disorder of hair growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasterzbski, T J; Schwartz, R A

    2015-04-01

    Pseudofolliculitis cutis (PFC) is a troublesome and potentially disfiguring cutaneous disorder characterized by a chronic inflammatory response to ingrown hair. Despite a simple precipitating stimulus, ingrown hair, PFC has a relatively complex aetiology that can involve grooming practices, hair type, genetic predisposition and medication history. Curly hair and a single-nucleotide substitution in the gene encoding keratin 75 may act synergistically to increase the risk for developing this condition. PFC is most common in men of sub-Saharan African lineage, but can occur in men and women of many different ethnicities, particularly in body areas where hair is coarse, abundant and subject to traumatic removal. Treatment options for PFC can be divided into three main categories: modifying hair removal practices, managing symptoms with medication, and long-term hair removal with laser therapy. Laser hair removal is safe and effective in most skin types and has become increasingly popular among dermatologists in the treatment of PFC. However, it is imperative that the laser system and parameters are specifically matched to the patient's skin type.

  12. Effects of Lycopersicon esculentum extract on hair growth and alopecia prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Suk; Jung, Sung Kyu; Jeon, Min-Hee; Moon, Jin-Nam; Moon, Woi-Sook; Ji, Yi-Hwa; Choi, In Soon; Wook Son, Sang

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the potential hair growth-promoting activity and the expression of cell growth factors of Lycopersicon esculentum extracts, each 3% (w/w) of ethyl acetate extract (EAE), and supercritical CO2 extract (SCE) of L. esculentum and isolated lycopene Tween 80 solution (LTS) and test hair tonic (THT) containing LTS were applied on the dorsal skin of C57BL/6 mice, once a day for 4 weeks. At week 4, LTS and THT exhibited hair growth-promoting potential similar to that of 3% minoxidil as a positive control (PC). Further, in the LTS group, a significant increase of mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), keratinocyte growth factor, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) was observed than PC, as well as the negative control (NC). In the THT group, increases in IGF-1 and decrease in VEGF and transforming growth factor-β expression were significant over the NC. In a histological examination in the THT group, the induction of anagen stage of hair follicles was faster than that of NC. In the Draize skin irritation study for THT, no observable edema or erythema was observed on all four sectors in the back skin after exposure for 24 or 72 h for any rabbit. Therefore, this study provides reasonable evidence that L. esculentum extracts promote hair growth and suggests that applications could be found in hair loss treatments without skin irritation at moderate doses.

  13. Early Arabidopsis root hair growth stimulation by pathogenic strains of Pseudomonas syringae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecenková, Tamara; Janda, Martin; Ortmannová, Jitka; Hajná, Vladimíra; Stehlíková, Zuzana; Žárský, Viktor

    2017-09-01

    Selected beneficial Pseudomonas spp. strains have the ability to influence root architecture in Arabidopsis thaliana by inhibiting primary root elongation and promoting lateral root and root hair formation. A crucial role for auxin in this long-term (1week), long-distance plant-microbe interaction has been demonstrated. Arabidopsis seedlings were cultivated in vitro on vertical plates and inoculated with pathogenic strains Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola (Psm) and P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst), as well as Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Atu) and Escherichia coli (Eco). Root hair lengths were measured after 24 and 48h of direct exposure to each bacterial strain. Several Arabidopsis mutants with impaired responses to pathogens, impaired ethylene perception and defects in the exocyst vesicle tethering complex that is involved in secretion were also analysed. Arabidopsis seedling roots infected with Psm or Pst responded similarly to when infected with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria; root hair growth was stimulated and primary root growth was inhibited. Other plant- and soil-adapted bacteria induced similar root hair responses. The most compromised root hair growth stimulation response was found for the knockout mutants exo70A1 and ein2. The single immune pathways dependent on salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and PAD4 are not directly involved in root hair growth stimulation; however, in the mutual cross-talk with ethylene, they indirectly modify the extent of the stimulation of root hair growth. The Flg22 peptide does not initiate root hair stimulation as intact bacteria do, but pretreatment with Flg22 prior to Psm inoculation abolished root hair growth stimulation in an FLS2 receptor kinase-dependent manner. These early response phenomena are not associated with changes in auxin levels, as monitored with the pDR5::GUS auxin reporter. Early stimulation of root hair growth is an effect of an unidentified component of living plant pathogenic bacteria. The root

  14. Repeated Microneedle Stimulation Induces Enhanced Hair Growth in a Murine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon Seob; Jeong, Kwan Ho; Kim, Jung Eun; Woo, Young Jun; Kim, Beom Joon

    2016-01-01

    Background Microneedle is a method that creates transdermal microchannels across the stratum corneum barrier layer of skin. No previous study showed a therapeutic effect of microneedle itself on hair growth by wounding. Objective The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of repeated microwound formed by microneedle on hair growth and hair growth-related genes in a murine model. Methods A disk microneedle roller was applied to each group of mice five times a week for three weeks. First, to identify the optimal length and cycle, microneedles of lengths of 0.15 mm, 0.25 mm, 0.5 mm, and 1 mm and cycles of 3, 6, 10, and 13 cycles were applied. Second, the effect of hair growth and hair-growth-related genes such as Wnt3a, β-catenin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and Wnt10b was observed using optimized microneedle. Outcomes were observed using visual inspection, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry. Results We found that the optimal length and cycle of microneedle treatment on hair growth was 0.25 mm/10 cycles and 0.5 mm/10 cycles. Repeated microneedle stimulation promoted hair growth, and it also induced the enhanced expression of Wnt3a, β-catenin, VEGF, and Wnt10b. Conclusion Our study provides evidence that microneedle stimulation can induce hair growth via activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and VEGF. Combined with the drug delivery effect, we believe that microneedle stimulation could lead to new approaches for alopecia. PMID:27746638

  15. Hair growth promoting activity of cedrol isolated from the leaves of Platycladus orientalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Han, Ling; Chen, Shan-Shan; Guan, Jian; Qu, Fan-Zhi; Zhao, Yu-Qing

    2016-10-01

    Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco is traditionally known to potentiate hair growth promotion. However, there has been no report on its main active ingredient responsible for the hair growth activity. In the current work, cedrol as a major constituent from P. orientalis was evaluated for its potential on hair growth in vivo. Different concentrations of cedrol (10, 20 and 30mg/mL) were applied topically over the shaved skin of C57BL/6 mice and monitored for 21days. Results indicated that cedrol significantly promoted hair growth in a dose-dependent manner, particularly for the female mice. Both male and female mice groups treated with 30mg/mL cedrol required shorter time than the blank control and 2% minoxidil groups at different growth stages. Compared with the blank control (8.87mm) and 2% minoxidil (9.94mm) groups at 21days, the hair length of female mice treated with 30mg/mL cedrol showed a remarkable increase with the value of 11.07mm. Hair in male and female mice groups treated with 30mg/mL cedrol was heavier than the 2% minoxidil (38.2 and 35.9mg, respectively) groups with the weight of 42.6 and 45.2mg, respectively. Further observation of the hair follicle demonstrated that cedrol exerted a remarkable effect on the hair follicle length. These findings suggested that cedrol may be the main active ingredient of P. orientalis and have the potential of becoming a new hair growth promoter. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Phene synergism between root hair length and basal root growth angle for phosphorus acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Magalhaes Amade; Postma, Johannes Auke; Lynch, Jonathan Paul

    2015-04-01

    Shallow basal root growth angle (BRGA) increases phosphorus acquisition efficiency by enhancing topsoil foraging because in most soils, phosphorus is concentrated in the topsoil. Root hair length and density (RHL/D) increase phosphorus acquisition by expanding the soil volume subject to phosphorus depletion through diffusion. We hypothesized that shallow BRGA and large RHL/D are synergetic for phosphorus acquisition, meaning that their combined effect is greater than the sum of their individual effects. To evaluate this hypothesis, phosphorus acquisition in the field in Mozambique was compared among recombinant inbred lines of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) having four distinct root phenotypes: long root hairs and shallow basal roots, long root hairs and deep basal roots, short root hairs and shallow basal roots, and short root hairs and deep basal roots. The results revealed substantial synergism between BRGA and RHL/D. Compared with short-haired, deep-rooted phenotypes, long root hairs increased shoot biomass under phosphorus stress by 89%, while shallow roots increased shoot biomass by 58%. Genotypes with both long root hairs and shallow roots had 298% greater biomass accumulation than short-haired, deep-rooted phenotypes. Therefore, the utility of shallow basal roots and long root hairs for phosphorus acquisition in combination is twice as large as their additive effects. We conclude that the anatomical phene of long, dense root hairs and the architectural phene of shallower basal root growth are synergetic for phosphorus acquisition. Phene synergism may be common in plant biology and can have substantial importance for plant fitness, as shown here.

  17. Hair Growth-Promoting Effects of Lavender Oil in C57BL/6 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Boo Hyeong; Lee, Jae Soon; Kim, Young Chul

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the hair growth effects of lavender oil (LO) in female C57BL/6 mice. The experimental animals were divided into a normal group (N: saline), a vehicle control group (VC: jojoba oil), a positive control group (PC: 3% minoxidil), experimental group 1 (E1: 3% LO), and experimental group 2 (E2: 5% LO). Test compound solutions were topically applied to the backs of the mice (100 μL per application), once per day, 5 times a week, for 4 weeks. The changes in hair follicle number, dermal thickness, and hair follicle depth were observed in skin tissues stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and the number of mast cells was measured in the dermal and hypodermal layers stained with toluidine blue. PC, E1, and E2 groups showed a significantly increased number of hair follicles, deepened hair follicle depth, and thickened dermal layer, along with a significantly decreased number of mast cells compared to the N group. These results indicated that LO has a marked hair growth-promoting effect, as observed morphologically and histologically. There was no significant difference in the weight of the thymus among the groups. However, both absolute and relative weights of the spleen were significantly higher in the PC group than in the N, VC, E1, or E2 group at week 4. Thus, LO could be practically applied as a hair growth-promoting agent.

  18. Protein palmitoylation is critical for the polar growth of root hairs in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Ling; Li, En; Feng, Qiang-Nan; Zhao, Xin-Ying; Ge, Fu-Rong; Zhang, Yan; Li, Sha

    2015-02-13

    Protein palmitoylation, which is critical for membrane association and subcellular targeting of many signaling proteins, is catalyzed mainly by protein S-acyl transferases (PATs). Only a few plant proteins have been experimentally verified to be subject to palmitoylation, such as ROP GTPases, calcineurin B like proteins (CBLs), and subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins. However, emerging evidence from palmitoyl proteomics hinted that protein palmitoylation as a post-translational modification might be widespread. Nonetheless, due to the large number of genes encoding PATs and the lack of consensus motifs for palmitoylation, progress on the roles of protein palmitoylation in plants has been slow. We combined pharmacological and genetic approaches to examine the role of protein palmitoylation in root hair growth. Multiple PATs from different endomembrane compartments may participate in root hair growth, among which the Golgi-localized PAT24/TIP GROWTH DEFECTIVE1 (TIP1) plays a major role while the tonoplast-localized PAT10 plays a secondary role in root hair growth. A specific inhibitor for protein palmitoylation, 2-bromopalmitate (2-BP), compromised root hair elongation and polarity. Using various probes specific for cellular processes, we demonstrated that 2-BP impaired the dynamic polymerization of actin microfilaments (MF), the asymmetric plasma membrane (PM) localization of phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PIP2), the dynamic distribution of RabA4b-positive post-Golgi secretion, and endocytic trafficking in root hairs. By combining pharmacological and genetic approaches and using root hairs as a model, we show that protein palmitoylation, regulated by protein S-acyl transferases at different endomembrane compartments such as the Golgi and the vacuole, is critical for the polar growth of root hairs in Arabidopsis. Inhibition of protein palmitoylation by 2-BP disturbed key intracellular activities in root hairs. Although some of these effects are likely

  19. Growth Hormone Promotes Hair Cell Regeneration in the Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Inner Ear following Acoustic Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Huifang Sun; Chia-Hui Lin; Smith, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous microarray analysis showed that growth hormone (GH) was significantly upregulated following acoustic trauma in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) ear suggesting that GH may play an important role in the process of auditory hair cell regeneration. Our objective was to examine the effects of exogenous and endogenous GH on zebrafish inner ear epithelia following acoustic trauma. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We induced auditory hair cell damage by exposing zebrafish to acoustic o...

  20. Impaired hair growth and wound healing in mice lacking thyroid hormone receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Jurado, Constanza; García-Serrano, Laura; Martínez-Fernández, Mónica; Ruiz-Llorente, Lidia; Paramio, Jesus M; Aranda, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Both clinical and experimental observations show that the skin is affected by the thyroidal status. In hypothyroid patients the epidermis is thin and alopecia is common, indicating that thyroidal status might influence not only skin proliferation but also hair growth. We demonstrate here that the thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) mediate these effects of the thyroid hormones on the skin. Mice lacking TRα1 and TRβ (the main thyroid hormone binding isoforms) display impaired hair cycling associated to a decrease in follicular hair cell proliferation. This was also observed in hypothyroid mice, indicating the important role of the hormone-bound receptors in hair growth. In contrast, the individual deletion of either TRα1 or TRβ did not impair hair cycling, revealing an overlapping or compensatory role of the receptors in follicular cell proliferation. In support of the role of the receptors in hair growth, TRα1/TRβ-deficient mice developed alopecia after serial depilation. These mice also presented a wound-healing defect, with retarded re-epithelialization and wound gaping, associated to impaired keratinocyte proliferation. These results reinforce the idea that the thyroid hormone nuclear receptors play an important role on skin homeostasis and suggest that they could be targets for the treatment of cutaneous pathologies.

  1. Sox2 in the dermal papilla niche controls hair growth by fine-tuning BMP signaling in differentiating hair shaft progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavel, Carlos; Grisanti, Laura; Zemla, Roland; Rezza, Amelie; Barros, Rita; Sennett, Rachel; Mazloom, Amin Reza; Chung, Chi-Yeh; Cai, Xiaoqiang; Cai, Chen-Leng; Pevny, Larysa; Nicolis, Silvia; Ma'ayan, Avi; Rendl, Michael

    2012-11-13

    How dermal papilla (DP) niche cells regulate hair follicle progenitors to control hair growth remains unclear. Using Tbx18(Cre) to target embryonic DP precursors, we ablate the transcription factor Sox2 early and efficiently, resulting in diminished hair shaft outgrowth. We find that DP niche expression of Sox2 controls the migration speed of differentiating hair shaft progenitors. Transcriptional profiling of Sox2 null DPs reveals increased Bmp6 and decreased BMP inhibitor Sostdc1, a direct Sox2 transcriptional target. Subsequently, we identify upregulated BMP signaling in knockout hair shaft progenitors and demonstrate that Bmp6 inhibits cell migration, an effect that can be attenuated by Sostdc1. A shorter and Sox2-negative hair type lacks Sostdc1 in the DP and shows reduced migration and increased BMP activity of hair shaft progenitors. Collectively, our data identify Sox2 as a key regulator of hair growth that controls progenitor migration by fine-tuning BMP-mediated mesenchymal-epithelial crosstalk.

  2. Mineral requirements for growth of wool and hair lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabelle Auxiliadora Molina de Almeida Teixeira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the body composition and the mineral requirements for growth of wool and hair lambs. A total of 34 castrated lambs with an initial body weight (BW of 19.9±0.8 kg were used; 17 of these lambs were of the genotype Ideal × Ile de France and 17 were Santa Inês. Ten lambs (5 of each genotype were slaughtered at the beginning of the experiment to establish their initial body composition. The remaining lambs were assigned to one of three diets (40% roughage and 60% concentrate, 60% roughage and 40% concentrate, or 80% roughage and 20% concentrate in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. All of the diets were provided ad libitum. When the group under 40% roughage and 60% concentrate reached 35 kg BW, all of the animals were slaughtered. Linear regressions were used to determine the relationship between the shrunk BW and the empty body weight (EBW for each genotype. These equations were compared and revealed differences between the genotypes. The allometric equations were calculated using the relationship between the amount of minerals and the EBW. The equations of a given mineral for each genotype were compared to verify if they were statistically different. The equations for calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and sodium differed between genotypes. The same equations were used to estimate the major body mineral composition per kilogram of EBW. The net requirement for gain of the fleece-free Ideal × Ile de France lambs ranged from 7.77 to 6.80 g Ca, 4.54 to 4.14 g P, 0.30 to 0.27 g Mg, 1.18 to 1.07 g K and 0.84 to 0.76 g Na per kg BW gain, and the requirements of the Santa Inês animals ranged from 9.57 to 8.37 g Ca, 5.39 to 4.91 g P, 0.36 to 0.33 g Mg, 1.18 to 1.07 g K and 0.90 to 0.81 g Na per kg BW gain for the lambs weighting 20 to 35 kg. Santa Inês lambs showed higher requirements for Ca, P, Mg and Na.

  3. Hair growth activity of Crataegus pinnatifida on C57BL/6 mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Heon-Sub; Lee, Jung-Min; Park, Sang-Yong; Yang, Jung-Eun; Kim, Ju-Han; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2013-09-01

    Crataegus pinnatifida has a long history of use in traditional oriental herbal medicine to stimulating digestion and improving blood circulation. Based on nutrition of hair, the present study was conducted to assess the effect of C. pinnatifida extract on hair growth using mouse model and its mechanisms of action. The C. pinnatifida extract containing the contents of total polyphenol of 5.88□0.82 g gallic acid/100 g extract and proanthocyanidin of 9.15□1.58 mg cyaniding chloride/100 g extract was orally administered daily at a dosage of 50 mg/kg weight to the 7-week-old C57BL/6 mice in telogen. The C. pinnatifida extract promoted hair growth by inducing anagen phase in mice in telogen, reflected by color of skin, thickness of hair shaft, and density of hair. The ratio of anagento telogen was determined by shape of hair follicles in vertically sectioned slide and increased by oral administration of C. pinnatifida extract. The number and the size of hair follicles were also enlarged, indicating anagen phase induction. The proliferation of human dermal papilla cells (hDPC) was accelerated by addition of C. pinnatifida extract, which activated the signaling of mitogen-activated protein kinases (Erk, p-38, and JNK) and Akt. Moreover, the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax as the determinant of cell fate was also raised in skin. These results suggest that the C. pinnatifida extract promotes hair growth by inducing anagen phase, which might be mediated by the activation of cellular signalings that enhance the survival of cultured hDPC and the increase of the ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax that protects cells against cell death. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. [Effects nutrients on the seedlings root hair development and root growth of Poncirus trifoliata under hydroponics condition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiu; Xia, Ren-Xue; Zhang, De-Jian; Shu, Bo

    2013-06-01

    Ahydroponics experiment was conducted to study the effects of nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, and Mn) deficiency on the length of primary root, the number of lateral roots, and the root hair density, length, and diameter on the primary root and lateral roots of Poncirus trifoliata seedlings. Under the deficiency of each test nutrient, root hair could generate, but was mainly concentrated on the root base and fewer on the root tip. The root hair density on lateral roots was significantly larger than that on primary root, but the root hair length was in adverse. The deficiency of each test nutrient had greater effects on the growth and development of root hairs, with the root hair density on primary root varied from 55.0 to 174.3 mm(-2). As compared with the control, Ca deficiency induced the significant increase of root hair density and length on primary root, P deficiency promoted the root hair density and length on the base and middle part of primary root and on the lateral roots significantly, Fe deficiency increased the root hair density but decreased the root hair length on the tip of primary root significantly, K deficiency significantly decreased the root hair density, length, and diameter on primary root and lateral roots, whereas Mg deficiency increased the root hair length of primary root significantly. In all treatments of nutrient deficiency, the primary root had the similar growth rate, but, with the exceptions of N and Mg deficiency, the lateral roots exhibited shedding and regeneration.

  5. The influence of sulfur and hair growth on stable isotope diet estimates for grizzly bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowat, Garth; Curtis, P Jeff; Lafferty, Diana J R

    2017-01-01

    growing new hair. The salmon diet fraction increased with later hair collection dates, as expected if samples were from the year of sampling because salmon began to arrive in mid-summer. Bears that ate salmon had shorter hair and δ15N and δ34S values declined with hair length, also suggesting some hair samples were grown the year of sampling. To be sure to capture an entire hair growth period, samples must be collected in late fall. Early spring samples are also likely to be from the previous year but the date when hair begins to grow appears to vary. Choosing the longest hair available should increase the chance the hair was grown during the previous year and, maximize the period for which diet is measured.

  6. The Hair Growth-Promoting Effect of Rumex japonicus Houtt. Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunkyoung Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rumex japonicus Houtt. is traditionally used as a medicinal plant to treat patients suffering from skin disease in Korea. However, the beneficial effect of Rumex japonicus Houtt. on hair growth has not been thoroughly examined. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the hair growth-promoting effect of Rumex japonicus (RJ Houtt. root extract using human dermal papilla cells (DPCs, HaCaT cells, and C57BL/6 mice model. RJ induced antiapoptotic and proliferative effects on DPCs and HaCaT cells by increasing Bcl-2/Bax ratio and activating cellular proliferation-related proteins, ERK and Akt. RJ also increased β-catenin via the inhibition of GSK-3β. In C57BL/6 mice model, RJ promoted the anagen induction and maintained its period. Immunohistochemistry analysis demonstrated that RJ upregulated Ki-67 and β-catenin expressions, suggesting that the hair growth effect of RJ may be mediated through the reinforcement of hair cell proliferation. These results provided important insights for the possible mechanism of action of RJ and its potential as therapeutic agent to promote hair growth.

  7. Extract of Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng Promoted the Hair Growth through Regulating the Expression of IGF-1

    OpenAIRE

    Ki Moon Park; Dong Woo Kim; Seung Ho Lee

    2015-01-01

    Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng (ATRES) has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of abdominal pain, diarrhea, and asthma. In this study, we investigated the hair growth promoting activities of ATRES on telogenic C57BL6/N mice. Hair growth was significantly increased in the dorsal skin of ethanol extract of ATRES treated mouse group compared with the control mouse group. To enrich the hair promoting activity, an ethanol-insoluble fraction was further extracted in sequence w...

  8. Phytochemical investigation and hair growth studies on the rhizomes of Nardostachys jatamansi DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswara Rao Gottumukkala

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nardostachys jatamansi DC rhizomes were subjected to extraction, fractionation, and isolation of terpenoid compounds. Three terpenoid compounds were isolated which are nardal, jatamansic acid, and nardin. These compounds were identified based on physical and spectral data (UV, IR, 1 H and 13 C NMR, 2D NMR, Mass and comparison with authentic compounds. The crude extract, fractions, and two of the isolated compounds were tested for their hair growth activity. The hair growth studies showed good activities for the extract, fraction, and the isolated compounds.

  9. Immunopotentiator from Pantoea agglomerans 1 (IP-PA1) Promotes Murine Hair Growth and Human Dermal Papilla Cell Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakame, Koji; Okawa, Hiroshi; Komatsu, Ken-Ich; Nakata, Akifumi; Sato, Keisuke; Ingawa, Hiroyuki; Kohchi, Chie; Nishizawa, Takashi; Soma, Gen-Ichiro

    2016-07-01

    The lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-like compound derived from Pantoea agglomerans (immunopotentiator from Pantoea agglomerans 1 (IP-PA1)) has been used not only as dietary supplement or cosmetic for humans, but also by Japanese veterinarians as an anti-tumor, anti-allergy, "keep a fine coat of fur" and hair growth-promoting functional food for dogs and cats. In the present study, we focused on the hair growth-promoting effects of IP-PA1 on a hair-shaved animal model and its mechanism of action. We also investigated its potential on gene expression after stimulating human dermal papilla cells with IP-PA1. The hair on the back of a C3H/HeN mouse was shaved and IP-PA1 was orally administered or applied to the skin. The status of hair growth was observed and recorded for 14 days. Skin was collected and histological tissue examination was performed with respect to hair growth status using hematoxylin and eosin staining. After IP-PA1 administration (2 and 10 μg/ml) to human dermal papilla cell culture system for 24 h, fibroblast growth factor-7 (FGF-7) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA expression were measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. IP-PA1, when given orally, showed a tendency to promote hair growth in mice. In addition, skin application also significantly promoted hair growth, while histopathological examinations further demonstrated hair elongation from dermal papilla cells. In the human dermal papilla cell culture system, significant FGF-7 and VEGF mRNA expressions were observed (p<0.05). An underlying mechanism of gene expression by which IP-PA1 promotes hair growth was suggested to be different from that of medicine and traditional hair tonics, such as minoxidil and adenosine. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  10. Diversity in human hair growth, diameter, colour and shape. An in vivo study on young adults from 24 different ethnic groups observed in the five continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loussouarn, Geneviève; Lozano, Isabelle; Panhard, Ségolène; Collaudin, Catherine; El Rawadi, Charles; Genain, Gilles

    2016-04-01

    Based on previous findings, from a worldwide study, classified the shapes of human hair into 8 major types, from straight to highly curly. This clearly extended the usual classification of hair into African, Asian or Caucasian types. However, determinations of hair growth parameters and hair density were excluded from such studies. To measure and compare the hair growth profiles of young adults without alopecia living in the five continents. 2249 young adults (18-35 years, females and males) without alopecia, originating from 24 various human ethnic groups were included in the study. Total hair density, telogen percentage and growth rate on three different scalp areas were measured, using non-invasive validated techniques. Natural hair colour level, curliness and hair diameter were additionally recorded, when practically possible. Diversity in hair growth parameters among the entire cohort was a key finding, with differences linked to scalp area, gender and geographic origin. Statistical approaches depicted African hair as having lower density and a slower growth rate. Asian hair showed a thicker diameter, with faster growth. Caucasian hair showed a high total hair density. On the one hand, this inter-continental study of hair growth parameters provides initial valuable base-line data on hair in young adults without alopecia, and on the other hand, further extends our knowledge of this unique human appendage, with some mosaic features, observed worldwide.

  11. Over-expression of thymosin beta 4 promotes abnormal tooth development and stimulation of hair growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hee-Jae; Philp, Deborah; Lee, Soo-Hyun; Moon, Hye-Sung; Kleinman, Hynda K; Nakamura, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Thymosin beta 4 has multi-functional roles in cell physiology. It accelerates wound healing, hair growth and angiogenesis, and increases laminin-5 expression in corneal epithelium. Furthermore, thymosin beta 4 stimulates tumor growth and metastasis by induction of cell migration and vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated angiogenesis. Using a construct on the skin-specific keratin-5 promoter, we have developed thymosin beta 4 over-expressing transgenic mice to further study its functional roles. Thymosin beta 4 in adult skin and in embryonic stages of the transgenic mouse was analyzed by both Western blot and immunohistochemistry. The over-expression of thymosin beta 4 was observed especially around hair follicles and in the teeth in the transgenic mice. We examined the phenotype of the thymosin beta 4 over-expressing mice. Hair growth was accelerated. In addition, the transgenic mice had abnormally-shaped white teeth and dull incisors. We found that the expression of laminin-5 was up-regulated in the skin of the transgenic mice. We conclude that thymosin beta 4 has an important physiological role in hair growth and in tooth development.

  12. Sulforaphane promotes murine hair growth by accelerating the degradation of dihydrotestosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Mari; Shinozaki, Shohei; Shimokado, Kentaro

    2016-03-25

    Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) causes the regression of human hair follicles in the parietal scalp, leading to androgenic alopecia (AGA). Sulforaphane (SFN) increases the expression of DHT degrading enzymes, such as 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (3α-HSDs), and, therefore, SFN treatment may improve AGA. To determine the effects of SFN on hair growth, we administered SFN (10 mg/kg BW, IP) or vehicle (DMSO) to ob/ob mice for six weeks and examined hair regeneration and the plasma levels of testosterone and DHT. We also tested the effects of SFN on the expression of two forms of 3α-HSD, aldo-keto reductase 1c21 and dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR family) member 9, both in vitro and in vivo. SNF significantly enhanced hair regeneration in ob/ob mice. The mice treated with SFN showed lower plasma levels of testosterone and DHT than those treated with vehicle. SFN increased the mRNA and protein levels of the two forms of 3α-HSD in the liver of the mice and in cultured murine hepatocyte Hepa1c1c7 cells. These results suggest that SFN treatment increases the amount of 3α-HSDs in the liver, accelerates the degradation of blood DHT, and subsequently blocks the suppression of hair growth by DHT.

  13. Levels of hormones and cytokines associated with growth in Honamlı and native hair goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devrim, A K; Elmaz, O; Mamak, N; Sudagidan, M

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to assess alterations of hormone and cytokine levels associated with growth period during puberty in Honamlı goats which were identified as a new goat breed and had one of the highest meat production potential among the other goat breeds in Turkey. Honamlı goats are originated from native hair goats, so parallel studies of sampling and analyzing were conducted also in native hair goats which have moderate meat production. Blood serum samples of Honamlı (n=90) and native hair goats (n=90) were obtained from the pure herds in Korkuteli and Ka districts of Anatolia. Concentrations of growth hormone (GH), myostatin (MSTN), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH), growth hormone releasing peptide (GHRP), leptin, transforming growth factor-betal (TGF-β1) and vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) levels were measured by ELISA in each breed in the age groups of 4, 8 and 12 months. The present results indicate interesting correlations among the age groups and all the examined hormone and cytokine parameters exhibited significant (Phormonal alterations of goats could occur at 4th month of age. The results reported here emphasize the primary role played by GH, MSTN, IGF-1, leptin, GHRH, GHRP, TGF-βi and VEGF in the first year growth period of goats.

  14. In vivo hair growth-promoting effect of rice bran extract prepared by supercritical carbon dioxide fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Suk; Jeon, Min-Hee; Moon, Woi-Sook; Moon, Jin-Nam; Cheon, Eun Jin; Kim, Joo-Wan; Jung, Sung Kyu; Ji, Yi-Hwa; Son, Sang Wook; Kim, Mi-Ryung

    2014-01-01

    The potential hair growth-promoting activity of rice bran supercritical CO2 extract (RB-SCE) and major components of RB-SCE, linoleic acid, policosanol, γ-oryzanol, and γ-tocotrienol, were evaluated with the histological morphology and mRNA expression levels of cell growth factors using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in C57BL/6 mice. RB-SCE showed hair growth-promoting potential to a similar extent as 3% minoxidil, showing that the hair follicles were induced to be in the anagen stage. The numbers of the hair follicles were significantly increased. In addition, mRNA expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) were also significantly increased and that of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) decreased in RB-SCE-treated groups. Among the major components of RB-SCE, linoleic acid and γ-oryzanol induced the formation of hair follicles according to examination of histological morphology and mRNA expression levels of cell growth factors. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that RB-SCE, particularly linoleic acid and γ-oryzanol, promotes hair growth and suggests RB-SCE can be applied as hair loss treatment.

  15. Hair Growth Promoting Potential of Phospholipids Purified from Porcine Lung Tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Seong-Hyun; Moon, Jeong-Su; Jeon, Byung-suk; Jeon, Yeon-Jeong; Yoon, Byung-IL; Lim, Chang-Jin

    2015-01-01

    BP201, porcine lung tissue-derived phospholipids, consists of phosphatidylcholine as a major phospholipid species. BP201 promoted hair growth after application onto the shaved backs of BALB/c and C3H mice. Its effect was enhanced when applied together with minoxidil (MNX) in C3H mice. When the tissue specimens prepared from the shaved skins of BP201-treated and control mice were microscopically examined, the total numbers of hair follicles in both anagen and telogen phases of BP201-treated mi...

  16. Hair cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Madnani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hair cosmetic industry has undergone a revolutionary change over the last two decades. The focus has dramatically veered from merely cleaning to repair, increasing the tensile strength, reducing oxidative damage, and stimulating growth. Newer shorter procedures to make hair look naturally more lustrous, smooth, and manageable have evolved. Specialized grooming products have been formulated to cleanse, calm, and condition the hair, and are tailored for different hair-types, for example, dry, dry-damaged, oily, colored, and gray hair. Other products are formulated to alter the color or structure of the hair shaft, for example, hair dyes, perming/relaxing. Hair sprays and waxes/gels, can alter the ′lift′ of the hair-shaft. Although dermatologists are experts in managing scalp and hair diseases, the esthetic applications of newer cosmetic therapies still remain elusive. This article attempts to fill the lacunae in our knowledge of hair cosmetics and esthetic procedures relevant in today′s rapidly changing beauty-enhancing industry, with special emphasis on the Indian scenario for chemical and ′natural′ hair products.

  17. Hair cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madnani, Nina; Khan, Kaleem

    2013-01-01

    The hair cosmetic industry has undergone a revolutionary change over the last two decades. The focus has dramatically veered from merely cleaning to repair, increasing the tensile strength, reducing oxidative damage, and stimulating growth. Newer shorter procedures to make hair look naturally more lustrous, smooth, and manageable have evolved. Specialized grooming products have been formulated to cleanse, calm, and condition the hair, and are tailored for different hair-types, for example, dry, dry-damaged, oily, colored, and gray hair. Other products are formulated to alter the color or structure of the hair shaft, for example, hair dyes, perming/relaxing. Hair sprays and waxes/gels, can alter the 'lift' of the hair-shaft. Although dermatologists are experts in managing scalp and hair diseases, the esthetic applications of newer cosmetic therapies still remain elusive. This article attempts to fill the lacunae in our knowledge of hair cosmetics and esthetic procedures relevant in today's rapidly changing beauty-enhancing industry, with special emphasis on the Indian scenario for chemical and 'natural' hair products.

  18. Hepatocyte growth factor mimetic protects lateral line hair cells from aminoglycoside exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip eUribe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Loss of sensory hair cells from exposure to certain licit drugs (e.g., aminoglycoside antibiotics, platinum-based chemotherapy agents can result in permanent hearing loss. Here we ask if allosteric activation of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF cascade via Dihexa, a small molecule drug candidate, can protect hair cells from aminoglycoside toxicity. Unlike native HGF, Dihexa is chemically stable and blood-brain barrier permeable. As a synthetic HGF mimetic, it forms a functional ligand by dimerizing with endogenous HGF to activate the HGF receptor and downstream signaling cascades. To evaluate Dihexa as a potential hair cell protectant, we used the larval zebrafish lateral line, which possesses hair cells that are homologous to mammalian inner ear hair cells and show similar responses to toxins. A dose-response relationship for Dihexa protection was established using two ototoxins, neomycin and gentamicin. We found that a Dihexa concentration of 1 µM confers optimal protection from acute treatment with either ototoxin. Pretreatment with Dihexa does not affect the amount of fluorescently tagged gentamicin that enters hair cells, indicating that Dihexa’s protection is likely mediated by intracellular events and not by inhibiting aminoglycoside entry. Dihexa-mediated protection is attenuated by co-treatment with the HGF antagonist 6-AH, further evidence that HGF activation is a component of the observed protection. Additionally, Dihexa’s robust protection is partially attenuated by co-treatment with inhibitors of the downstream HGF targets Akt, TOR and MEK. Addition of an amino group to the N-terminal of Dihexa also attenuates the protective response, suggesting that even small substitutions greatly alter the specificity of Dihexa for its target. Our data suggest that Dihexa confers protection of hair cells through an HGF-mediated mechanism and that Dihexa holds clinical potential for mitigating chemical ototoxicity.

  19. Effects of ractopamine hydrochloride on growth performance and carcass characteristics in wool and hair lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel M. Romero-Maya

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effects of ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC on growth performance and carcass characteristics of wool and hair lambs. For this purpose, 48 lambs averaging 31.3 kg body weight, of which twenty were wool (Ramboullet x Suffolk and twenty eight were hair (Tabasco lambs, and four levels of RAC (0, 10, 20, and 30 mg/kg diet, dry matter basis were used. Wool lambs fed 20 and 30 mg RAC had higher (P<0.05 total gain weight and lower feed conversion than 0 and 10 mg RAC. Wool lambs fed 20 mg RAC had the highest carcass weight, dressing, legs weight and longissimus area as compared to 0, 10 and 30 mg RAC.  In hair lambs there were not effect of RAC on growth performance and carcass characteristics.It was concluded that addition of RAC to finishing diets offered the best growth performance and carcass traits in wool lambs as compared to hair lambs. 

  20. Topical Application of Oleuropein Induces Anagen Hair Growth in Telogen Mouse Skin.

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    Tao Tong

    Full Text Available Oleuropein promoted cultured human follicle dermal papilla cell proliferation and induced LEF1 and Cyc-D1 mRNA expression and β-catenin protein expression in dermal papilla cells. Nuclear accumulation of β-catenin in dermal papilla cells was observed after oleuropein treatment. Topical application of oleuropein (0.4 mg/mouse/day to C57BL/6N mice accelerated the hair-growth induction and increased the size of hair follicles in telogenic mouse skin. The oleuropein-treated mouse skin showed substantial upregulation of Wnt10b, FZDR1, LRP5, LEF1, Cyc-D1, IGF-1, KGF, HGF, and VEGF mRNA expression and β-catenin protein expression.These results demonstrate that topical oleuroepin administration induced anagenic hair growth in telogenic C57BL/6N mouse skin. The hair-growth promoting effect of oleuropein in mice appeared to be associated with the stimulation of the Wnt10b/β-catenin signaling pathway and the upregulation of IGF-1, KGF, HGF, and VEGF gene expression in mouse skin tissue.

  1. Extract of Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng Promoted the Hair Growth through Regulating the Expression of IGF-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Moon Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng (ATRES has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of abdominal pain, diarrhea, and asthma. In this study, we investigated the hair growth promoting activities of ATRES on telogenic C57BL6/N mice. Hair growth was significantly increased in the dorsal skin of ethanol extract of ATRES treated mouse group compared with the control mouse group. To enrich the hair promoting activity, an ethanol-insoluble fraction was further extracted in sequence with n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and distilled water. Interestingly, we found that extraction with n-butanol is most efficient in producing the hair promoting activity. In addition, the soluble fraction of the n-butanol extract was further separated by silica gel chromatography and thin layer chromatography (TLC resulting in isolating four single fractions which have hair growth regeneration potential. Furthermore, administration of ATRES extracts to dorsal skin area increased the number of hair follicles compared with control mouse group. Interestingly, administration of ATRES extract stimulated the expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 but not of keratin growth factor (KGF or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Taken together, these results suggest that ATRES possesses strong hair growth promoting potential which controls the expression of IGF-1.

  2. A protocol to correct for intra- and interspecific variation in tail hair growth to align isotope signatures of segmentally cut tail hair to a common time line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnik Šturm, Martina; Pukazhenthi, Budhan; Reed, Dolores; Ganbaatar, Oyunsaikhan; Sušnik, Stane; Haymerle, Agnes; Voigt, Christian C; Kaczensky, Petra

    2015-06-15

    In recent years, segmental stable isotope analysis of hair has been a focus of research in animal dietary ecology and migration. To correctly assign tail hair segments to seasons or even Julian dates, information on tail hair growth rates is a key parameter, but is lacking for most species. We (a) reviewed the literature on tail hair growth rates in mammals; b) made own measurements of three captive equid species; (c) measured δ(2)H, δ(13)C and δ(15)N values in sequentially cut tail hairs of three sympatric, free-ranging equids from the Mongolian Gobi, using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS); and (d) collected environmental background data on seasonal variation by measuring δ(2)H values in precipitation by IRMS and by compiling pasture productivity measured by remote sensing via the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Tail hair growth rates showed significant inter- and intra-specific variation making temporal alignment problematic. In the Mongolian Gobi, high seasonal variation of δ(2)H values in precipitation results in winter lows and summer highs of δ(2)H values of available water sources. In water-dependent equids, this seasonality is reflected in the isotope signatures of sequentially cut tails hairs. In regions which are subject to strong seasonal patterns we suggest identifying key isotopes which show strong seasonal variation in the environment and can be expected to be reflected in the animal tissue. The known interval between the maxima and minima of these isotope values can then be used to correctly temporally align the segmental stable isotope signature for each individual animal. © 2015 The Authors. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Hair today, gone tomorrow: a comparison of body hair removal practices in gay and heterosexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Yolanda; Tiggemann, Marika; Churchett, Libby

    2008-09-01

    Although hairlessness is rapidly becoming a component of the ideal male body, little research has examined men's concerns about their body hair or their hair removal practices. Samples of gay and heterosexual men completed questionnaires that assessed whether they had ever removed their back, buttock or pubic hair, the frequency with which they did so, the methods used and their self-reported reasons for removing this hair, as well as their level of appearance investment. Results indicated that many gay and heterosexual men remove their back, buttock and pubic hair regularly and that their primary reason for doing so is to maintain or improve their appearance. The frequency of hair removal was also associated with the motivational salience component of appearance investment. The findings offer further support to the premise that gay and heterosexual men exhibit similar body image concerns.

  4. The retarded hair growth (rhg mutation in mice is an allele of ornithine aminotransferase (Oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason J. Bisaillon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the similar phenotypes they generate and their proximate reported locations on Chromosome 7, we tested the recessive retarded hair growth (rhg and frizzy (fr mouse mutations for allelism, but found instead that these defects complement. To discover the molecular basis of rhg, we analyzed a large intraspecific backcross panel that segregated for rhg and restricted this locus to a 0.9 Mb region that includes fewer than ten genes, only five of which have been reported to be expressed in skin. Complementation testing between rhg and a recessive null allele of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 eliminated Fgfr2 as the possible basis of the retarded hair growth phenotype, but DNA sequencing of another of these candidates, ornithine aminotransferase (Oat, revealed a G to C transversion specifically associated with the rhg allele that would result in a glycine to alanine substitution at residue 353 of the gene product. To test whether this missense mutation might cause the mutant phenotype, we crossed rhg/rhg mice with mice that carried a recessive, perinatal-lethal, null mutation in Oat (designated OatΔ herein. Hybrid offspring that inherited both rhg and OatΔ displayed markedly delayed postnatal growth and hair development, indicating that these two mutations are allelic, and suggesting strongly that the G to C mutation in Oat is responsible for the retarded hair growth phenotype. Comparisons among +/+, +/rhg, rhg/rhg and rhg/OatΔ mice showed plasma ornithine levels and ornithine aminotransferase activities (in liver lysates consistent with this assignment. Because histology of 7- and 12-month-old rhg/rhg and rhg/OatΔ retinas revealed chorioretinal degeneration similar to that described previously for OatΔ/OatΔ mice, we suggest that the rhg mutant may offer an ideal model for gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina (GACR in humans, which is also caused by the substitution of glycine 353 in some families.

  5. Promotive Effect of Minoxidil Combined with All-trans Retinoic Acid (tretinoin) on Human Hair Growth in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh Sang; Pyo, Hyun Keol; Oh, Youn Jin; Han, Ji Hyun; Lee, Se Rah; Chung, Jin Ho; Eun, Hee Chul

    2007-01-01

    Minoxidil induces hair growth in male pattern baldness and prolongs the anagen phase. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has been reported to act synergistically with minoxidil in vivo: they can enhance more dense hair regrowth than either compound alone. We evaluated the effect of minoxidil combined with ATRA on hair growth in vitro. The effect of co-treatment of minoxidil and ATRA on hair growth was studied in hair follicle organ culture. In cultured human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) and normal human epidermal keratinocytes, the expressions of Erk, Akt, Bcl-2, Bax, P53 and P21 were evaluated by immunoblot analysis. Minoxidil plus ATRA additively promoted hair growth in vitro, compared with minoxidil alone. In addition, minoxidil plus ATRA elevated phosphorylated Erk, phosphorylated Akt and the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax, but decreased the expressions of P53 and P21 more effectively than by minoxidil alone. Our results suggest that minoxidil plus ATRA would additively enhance hair growth by mediating dual functions: 1) the prolongation of cell survival by activating the Erk and Akt signaling pathways, and 2) the prevention of apoptosis of DPCs and epithelial cells by increasing the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and downregulating the expressions of P53 and P21. PMID:17449938

  6. Co-regulation of root hair tip growth by ROP GTPases and nitrogen source modulated pH fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Daria; Monshausen, Gabriele; Gilroy, Simon; Yalovsky, Shaul

    2011-03-01

    Growth of plant cells involves tight regulation of the cytoskeleton and vesicle trafficking by processes including the action of the ROP small G proteins together with pH-modulated cell wall modifications. Yet, little is known on how these systems are coordinated. In a paper recently published in Plant Cell and Environment we show that ROPs/RACs function synergistically with NH4NO3-modulated pH fluctuations to regulate root hair growth. Root hairs expand exclusively at their apical end in a strictly polarized manner by a process known as tip growth. The highly polarized secretion at the apex is maintained by a complex network of factors including the spatial organization of the actin cytoskeleton, tip-focused ion gradients and by small G proteins. Expression of constitutively active ROP mutants disrupts polar growth, inducing the formation of swollen root hairs. Root hairs are also known to elongate in an oscillating manner, which is correlated with oscillatory H(+) fluxes at the tip. Our analysis shows that root hair elongation in wild type plants and swelling in transgenic plants expressing a constitutively active ROP11 (rop11(CA)) is sensitive to the presence of NH4(+) at concentrations higher than 1 mM and on NO3(-). The NH4(+) and NO3(-) ions did not affect the localization of ROP in the membrane but modulated pH fluctuations at the root hair tip. Actin organization and reactive oxygen species distribution were abnormal in rop11CA root hairs but were similar to wild type root hairs when seedlings were grown on medium lacking NH4(+) and / or NO3(-). These observations suggest that the nitrogen source-modulated pH fluctuations may function synergistically with ROP regulated signaling during root hair tip growth. Interestingly, under certain growth conditions, expression of rop11 (CA) suppressed ammonium toxicity, similar to auxin resistant mutants. In this Addendum article we discuss these findings and their implications.

  7. Human platelet lysate versus minoxidil stimulates hair growth by activating anagen promoting signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastan, Maryam; Najafzadeh, Nowruz; Abedelahi, Ali; Sarvi, Mohammadreza; Niapour, Ali

    2016-12-01

    Minoxidil and human platelet lysate (HPL) are commonly used to treat patients with hair loss. However, the roles of HPL versus minoxidil in hair follicle biology largely remain unknown. Here, we hypothesized that bulge and dermal papilla (DP) cells may express specific genes, including Kras, Erk, Akt, Shh and β-catenin after exposure to minoxidil or HPL. The mouse hair follicles were isolated on day 10 after depilation and bulge or DP regions were dissected. The bulge and DP cells were cultured for 14days in DMEM/F12 medium. Then, the cells were treated with 100μM minoxidil and 10% HPL for 10 days. Nuclear morphology was identified using DAPi staining. Reverse transcriptase and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis were also performed to examine the expression of Kras, Erk, Akt, Shh and β-catenin mRNA levels in the treated bulge and DP regions after organ culture. Here, we found that minoxidil influences bulge and DP cell survival (Pminoxidil treatment in both bulge and DP cells. HPL mediated Erk upregulation in both bulge and DP cells (Pminoxidil-treated bulge cells. In contrast, the expression of β-cateinin and Shh in the DP cells was not meaningfully increased after treatment with HPL. Our results suggest that minoxidil and HPL can promote hair growth by activating the main anagen inducing signaling pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. The actin-binding proteins eps8 and gelsolin have complementary roles in regulating the growth and stability of mechanosensory hair bundles of mammalian cochlear outer hair cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Olt

    Full Text Available Sound transduction depends upon mechanosensitive channels localized on the hair-like bundles that project from the apical surface of cochlear hair cells. Hair bundles show a stair-case structure composed of rows of stereocilia, and each stereocilium contains a core of tightly-packed and uniformly-polarized actin filaments. The growth and maintenance of the stereociliary actin core are dynamically regulated. Recently, it was shown that the actin-binding protein gelsolin is expressed in the stereocilia of outer hair cells (OHCs and in its absence they become long and straggly. Gelsolin is part of a whirlin scaffolding protein complex at the stereocilia tip, which has been shown to interact with other actin regulatory molecules such as Eps8. Here we investigated the physiological effects associated with the absence of gelsolin and its possible overlapping role with Eps8. We found that, in contrast to Eps8, gelsolin does not affect mechanoelectrical transduction during immature stages of development. Moreover, OHCs from gelsolin knockout mice were able to mature into fully functional sensory receptors as judged by the normal resting membrane potential and basolateral membrane currents. Mechanoelectrical transducer current in gelsolin-Eps8 double knockout mice showed a profile similar to that observed in the single mutants for Eps8. We propose that gelsolin has a non-overlapping role with Eps8. While Eps8 is mainly involved in the initial growth of stereocilia in both inner hair cells (IHCs and OHCs, gelsolin is required for the maintenance of mature hair bundles of low-frequency OHCs after the onset of hearing.

  9. HvEXPB7, a novel β-expansin gene revealed by the root hair transcriptome of Tibetan wild barley, improves root hair growth under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoyan; Zeng, Jianbin; Cao, Fangbin; Ahmed, Imrul Mosaddek; Zhang, Guoping; Vincze, Eva; Wu, Feibo

    2015-12-01

    Tibetan wild barley is a treasure trove of useful genes for crop improvement including abiotic stress tolerance, like drought. Root hair of single-celled structures plays an important role in water and nutrition uptake. Polyethylene-glycol-induced drought stress hydroponic/petri-dish experiments were performed, where root hair morphology and transcriptional characteristics of two contrasting Tibetan wild barley genotypes (drought-tolerant XZ5 and drought-sensitive XZ54) and drought-tolerant cv. Tadmor were compared. Drought-induced root hair growth was only observed in XZ5. Thirty-six drought tolerance-associated genes were identified in XZ5, including 16 genes specifically highly expressed in XZ5 but not Tadmor under drought. The full length cDNA of a novel β-expansin gene (HvEXPB7), being the unique root hair development related gene in the identified genes, was cloned. The sequence comparison indicated that HvEXPB7 carried both DPBB_1 and Pollon_allerg_1 domains. HvEXPB7 is predominantly expressed in roots. Subcellular localization verified that HvEXPB7 is located in the plasma membrane. Barley stripe mosaic virus induced gene silencing (BSMV-VIGS) of HvEXPB7 led to severely suppressed root hairs both under control and drought conditions, and significantly reduced K uptake. These findings highlight and confer the significance of HvEXPB7 in root hair growth under drought stress in XZ5, and provide a novel insight into the genetic basis for drought tolerance in Tibetan wild barley.

  10. Basic fibroblast growth factor protects auditory neurons and hair cells from noise exposure and glutamate neurotoxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟所强; 王大君; 王嘉陵

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine protectivie effects of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on cochlear neurons and hair cells in vitro and in vivo. In experiment I, cultured spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) prepared from P3 mice were exposed to 20mM glutamate for 2 hours before the culture medium was replaced with fresh medium containing 0, 25, 50, and 100 ng/ml bFGF, respectively. Fourteen days later, all cultures were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde, and stained with 1% toluidine blue. The number of surviving SGNs were counted and the length of SGNs neurites were measured. Exposure to 20 mM glutamate for 24 hours resulted in an inhibition on neurite outgrowth of SGNs and elevated cell death. Treatment of the cultures with bFGF led to promotion of neurite outgrowth and elevated number of surviving SGNs. Effects of bFGF were dose dependent with the highest potency at 100 ng/ml. In experiment Ⅱ, in vivo studies were carried out with guinea pigs in which bFGF or artificial perilymph was perfused into the cochlea to assess possible protective effects of bFGF on cochlear hair cells and compound action potentials(CAP). The CAPs were measured before, immediatly and 48 hours after exposure to noise. Significant differences in CAP were observed (p<0. 05 ) among the bFGF perfused group, control group(t =3. 896 ) and artificial perilymph perfused group (t =2. 520) at 48 hours after noise exposure, Cochleae were removed and hair cell Loss was analyzed in surface preparations prepared from all experimental animals. Acoustic trauma caused loss of 651 and 687 inner hair cells in the control and artificial perilymph perfused group, respectively. In sharp contrast, only 31 inner hair cells were lost in the bFGF perfused ears. Similarly, more outer hair cells died in the control and perilymph perfuesed group (41830 and 41968, respectively) than in the group treated with bFGF (34258). Our results demonstrate that bFGF protected SGNs against glutmate

  11. Hair growth-promoting effect of Geranium sibiricum extract in human dermal papilla cells and C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisvert, William A; Yu, Miri; Choi, Youngbin; Jeong, Gi Hee; Zhang, Yi-Lin; Cho, Sunghun; Choi, Changsun; Lee, Sanghyun; Lee, Bog-Hieu

    2017-02-13

    Geranium sibiricum L. has been used as a medicinal plant to treat diarrhea, bacterial infection, and cancer in Bulgaria, Peru, and Korea. However, its hair growth-promoting effect was not investigated so far. This study examined the effects of Geranium sibiricum L. extract (GSE) on hair growth, using in vitro and in vivo models. Antioxidant, proliferation and migration assay of GSE was performed with human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs). Hair-growth promoting effect was measured in animal model. Relative expression of interleukin-1, vascular endothelial growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor, and transforming growth factor beta 1 was determined by real time RT-PCR. Expression of Ki-67 and stem cell factor were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. GSE treatment proliferated and migrated human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) more than treatment of 10 μM minoxidil. GSE significantly stimulated the expression of Ki-67 protein and the mRNA levels of hepatocyte growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor in hDPCs. Topical application of 1,000 ppm GSE for 3 weeks promoted more significant hair growth on shaved C57BL/6 mice than did 5% minoxidil. The histological morphology of hair follicles demonstrated an active anagen phase with the induction of stem cell factor. GSE treatment significantly reduced the number of mast cells and the expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 in mouse skin tissues. These results demonstrated that GSE promotes hair growth in vitro and in vivo by regulating growth factors and the cellular response.

  12. Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Osteomyelitis of the Pubic Bone: a Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golrokhy, Raheleh; Jamali, Saeed; Samaei, Mehrnoosh; SeyedAlinaghi, SeyedAhmad

    2017-07-13

    Pubic osteomyelitis is a rare disease that typically occurs as a complication of various gynecologic and urologic surgeries. We present a 78 year old woman admitted to the Infectious Department of Imam Khomeini Hospital in June 2014 with pubic osteomyelitis caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa followed by hysterectomy. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Multi-layered environmental regulation on the homeostasis of stem cells: The saga of hair growth and alopecia

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chih-Chiang; Chuong, Cheng Ming

    2012-01-01

    Stem cells are fascinating because of their potential in regenerative medicine. Stem cell homeostasis has been thought to be mainly regulated by signals from their adjacent micro-environment named the “stem cell niche”. However, recent studies reveal that there can be multiple layers of environmental controls. Here we review these environmental controls using the paradigm of hair stem cells, because to observe and analyze the growth of hair is easier due to their characteristic cyclic regener...

  14. Hair follicle growth by stromal vascular fraction-enhanced adipose transplantation in baldness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perez-Meza D

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available David Perez-Meza,1 Craig Ziering,2 Marcos Sforza,3 Ganesh Krishnan,4 Edward Ball,5 Eric Daniels6 1Ziering Medical, Marbella, Spain; 2Ziering Medical, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 3The Hospital Group, Bromsgrove, Worcestershire, 4Ziering Medical, Birmingham, 5Ziering Medical, London, UK; 6Kerastem Technologies, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: Great interest remains in finding new and emerging therapies for the treatment of male and female pattern hair loss. The autologous fat grafting technique is >100 years old, with a recent and dramatic increase in clinical experience over the past 10–15 years. Recently, in 2001, Zuk et al published the presence of adipose-derived stem cells, and abundant research has shown that adipose is a complex, biological active, and important tissue. Festa et al, in 2011, reported that adipocyte lineage cells support the stem cell niche and help drive the complex hair growth cycle. Adipose-derived regenerative cells (also known as stromal vascular fraction [SVF] is a heterogeneous group of noncultured cells that can be reliably extracted from adipose by using automated systems, and these cells work largely by paracrine mechanisms to support adipocyte viability. While, today, autologous fat is transplanted primarily for esthetic and reconstructive volume, surgeons have previously reported positive skin and hair changes posttransplantation. This follicular regenerative approach is intriguing and raises the possibility that one can drive or restore the hair cycle in male and female pattern baldness by stimulating the niche with autologous fat enriched with SVF. In this first of a kind patient series, the authors report on the safety, tolerability, and quantitative, as well as photographic changes, in a group of patients with early genetic alopecia treated with subcutaneous scalp injection of enriched adipose tissue. The findings suggest that scalp stem cell-enriched fat grafting may represent a promising alternative approach to

  15. Syntaxin of plant proteins SYP123 and SYP132 mediate root hair tip growth in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Mie; Hirano, Tomoko; Enami, Kazuhiko; Fuselier, Taylor; Kato, Naohiro; Kwon, Chian; Voigt, Boris; Schulze-Lefert, Paul; Baluška, František; Sato, Masa H

    2014-04-01

    Root hairs are fast-growing tubular protrusions on root epidermal cells that play important roles in water and nutrient uptake in plants. The tip-focused polarized growth of root hairs is accomplished by the secretion of newly synthesized materials to the tip via the polarized membrane trafficking mechanism. Here, we report the function of two different types of plasma membrane (PM) Qa-SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors), SYP123 and SYP132, in the growth of root hair in Arabidopsis. We found that SYP123, but not SYP132, localizes in the tip region of root hairs by recycling between the brefeldin A (BFA)-sensitive endosomes and the PM of the expanding tip in an F-actin-dependent manner. The vesicle-associated membrane proteins VAMP721/722/724 also exhibited tip-focused localization in root hairs and formed ternary SNARE complexes with both SYP123 and SYP132. These results demonstrate that SYP123 and SYP132 act in a coordinated fashion to mediate tip-focused membrane trafficking for root hair tip growth.

  16. Long-Term Extensive Ectopic Hair Growth on the Spinal Cord of Mice from Transplanted Whisker Follicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenluo Cao

    Full Text Available We have previously demonstrated that hair follicles contain nestin-expressing pluripotent stem cells that can effect nerve and spinal cord repair upon transplantation. In the present study, isolated whisker follicles from nestin-driven green fluorescent protein (ND-GFP mice were histocultured on Gelfoam for 3 weeks for the purpose of transplantation to the spinal cord to heal an induced injury. The hair shaft was cut off from Gelfoam-histocultured whisker follicles, and the remaining part of the whisker follicles containing GFP-nestin expressing pluripotent stem cells were transplanted into the injured spinal cord of nude mice, along with the Gelfoam. After 90 days, the mice were sacrificed and the spinal cord lesion was observed to have healed. ND-GFP expression was intense at the healed area of the spinal cord, as observed by fluorescence microscopy, demonstrating that the hair follicle stem cells were involved in healing the spinal cord. Unexpectedly, the transplanted whisker follicles sprouted out remarkably long hair shafts in the spinal cord during the 90 days after transplantation of Gelfoam whisker histocultures to the injured spine. The pigmented hair fibers, grown from the transplanted whisker histocultures, curved and enclosed the spinal cord. The unanticipated results demonstrate the great potential of hair growth after transplantation of Gelfoam hair follicle histocultures, even at an ectopic site.

  17. Long-Term Extensive Ectopic Hair Growth on the Spinal Cord of Mice from Transplanted Whisker Follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wenluo; Li, Lingna; Mii, Sumiyuki; Amoh, Yasuyuki; Liu, Fang; Hoffman, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that hair follicles contain nestin-expressing pluripotent stem cells that can effect nerve and spinal cord repair upon transplantation. In the present study, isolated whisker follicles from nestin-driven green fluorescent protein (ND-GFP) mice were histocultured on Gelfoam for 3 weeks for the purpose of transplantation to the spinal cord to heal an induced injury. The hair shaft was cut off from Gelfoam-histocultured whisker follicles, and the remaining part of the whisker follicles containing GFP-nestin expressing pluripotent stem cells were transplanted into the injured spinal cord of nude mice, along with the Gelfoam. After 90 days, the mice were sacrificed and the spinal cord lesion was observed to have healed. ND-GFP expression was intense at the healed area of the spinal cord, as observed by fluorescence microscopy, demonstrating that the hair follicle stem cells were involved in healing the spinal cord. Unexpectedly, the transplanted whisker follicles sprouted out remarkably long hair shafts in the spinal cord during the 90 days after transplantation of Gelfoam whisker histocultures to the injured spine. The pigmented hair fibers, grown from the transplanted whisker histocultures, curved and enclosed the spinal cord. The unanticipated results demonstrate the great potential of hair growth after transplantation of Gelfoam hair follicle histocultures, even at an ectopic site.

  18. Sterol intermediates of cholesterol biosynthesis inhibit hair growth and trigger an innate immune response in cicatricial alopecia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreejith P Panicker

    Full Text Available Primary cicatricial alopecia (PCA is a group of inflammatory hair disorders that cause scarring and permanent hair loss. Previous studies have implicated PPARγ, a transcription factor that integrates lipogenic and inflammatory signals, in the pathogenesis of PCA. However, it is unknown what triggers the inflammatory response in these disorders, whether the inflammation is a primary or secondary event in disease pathogenesis, and whether the inflammatory reaction reflects an autoimmune process. In this paper, we show that the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway is impaired in the skin and hair follicles of PCA patients. Treatment of hair follicle cells with BM15766, a cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitor, or 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC, a sterol precursor, stimulates the expression of pro-inflammatory chemokine genes. Painting of mouse skin with 7-DHC or BM15766 inhibits hair growth, causes follicular plugging and induces the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the interfollicular dermis. Our results demonstrate that cholesterologenic changes within hair follicle cells trigger an innate immune response that is associated with the induction of toll-like receptor (TLR and interferon (IFN gene expression, and the recruitment of macrophages that surround the hair follicles and initiate their destruction. These findings reveal a previously unsuspected role for cholesterol precursors in PCA pathogenesis and identify a novel link between sterols and inflammation that may prove transformative in the diagnosis and treatment of these disorders.

  19. [Hair and their environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piérard-Franchimont, C; Piérard, G E

    2015-02-01

    Hair is influenced by the effects of the daily environment. Some toxic xenobiotics slow down or block the cell renewal of the hair matrix, thus inhibiting hair growth. The ultraviolet light obviously influences the physical structure and physiology of the hair follicle. Tobacco is similarly responsible for negative influences on the evolution of various alopecias. Several cosmetic procedures for maintaining and making hair more attractive are not always harmless, and they occasionally represent a possible origin for alopecia.

  20. Utilizing electromagnetic radiation for hair growth: a critical review of phototrichogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalia, Sunil; Lui, Harvey

    2013-01-01

    Hair loss has a high prevalence in the general population and can have significant medical and psychological sequelae. Pattern hair loss and alopecia areata represent the major reasons patients present to dermatologists in relation to hair loss. Because conventional treatment options are generally incompletely effective, novel methods for hair grown induction are being developed. The role of using electromagnetic radiation, including low-level laser therapy for the management of hair loss through phototrichogenesis, is reviewed in this article.

  1. Comparative Evaluation of Drug Deposition in Hair Samples Collected from Different Anatomical Body Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Alegakis, Athanasios K; Kavvalakis, Matthaios P; Vakonaki, Elena; Stivaktakis, Polychronis D; Kanaki, Katerina; Vardavas, Alexander I; Barbounis, Emmanouil G; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we focused on the validation of a method for the simultaneous detection and quantification of cannabinoids, cocaine and opiates in hair as well as on the distribution of the drugs deposition in hair collected from different anatomical body sites. The proposed analytical procedure was validated for various parameters such as selectivity, linearity, limit of quantification, precision, accuracy, matrix effect and recovery. Four hundred and eighty-one samples were collected during 2010-2015 from 231 drug abusers. A 6-h ultrasonic-assisted methanolic extraction was applied for the isolation of the drugs. The analysis was performed in an liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry system for the opiates and cocaine and in a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry system for the cannabinoids. Cocaine was the most frequent detected drug (68.8-80.5%) followed by cannabinoids (47.6-63.3%) and opiates (34.7-46.7%) depending on the body site that the samples were collected. The mean concentrations of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) were 0.63 ± 2.11 for head, 0.54 ± 1.03 for pubic, 0.34 ± 0.51 for axillary and 0.18 ± 0.18 ng/mg for chest hair samples. The values of cocaine were 6.52 ± 15.98, 4.64 ± 10.77, 6.96 ± 38.21 and 3.94 ± 6.35 ng/mg, while the values of 6-monoacetylmorphine (MAM) were 3.33 ± 5.89, 3.06 ± 9.33, 1.37 ± 1.37 and 16.4 ± 1.77 ng/mg for head, pubic, axillary and chest samples, respectively. Differences between the detected concentrations of cocaine and opiates between the hair samples of different anatomical sites, as well as the ratio of drug metabolites to the parent compounds were observed in some cases. Statistically significant differences in the mean detected levels were noticed for morphine and heroin between head and pubic hair and also for cocaine and benzoylecgonine, between head and axillary hair samples. Moreover, the ratio of MAM to morphine and THC to cannabinol seems to correlate statistically with the total opiate or

  2. Multi-layered environmental regulation on the homeostasis of stem cells: The saga of hair growth and alopecia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Chiang; Chuong, Cheng Ming

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells are fascinating because of their potential in regenerative medicine. Stem cell homeostasis has been thought to be mainly regulated by signals from their adjacent micro-environment named the “stem cell niche”. However, recent studies reveal that there can be multiple layers of environmental controls. Here we review these environmental controls using the paradigm of hair stem cells, because to observe and analyze the growth of hair is easier due to their characteristic cyclic regeneration pattern. The length of hair fibers is regulated by the duration of the growth period. In the hair follicles, hair stem cells located in the follicle bulge interact with signals from the dermal papilla. Outside of the follicle, activation of hair stem cells has been shown to be modulated by molecules released from the intra-dermal adipose tissue as well as body hormone status, immune function, neural activities, and aging. The general physiological status of an individual is further influenced by circadian rhythms and changing seasons. The interactive networks of these environmental factors provide new understanding on how stem cell homeostasis is regulated, inspiring new insights for regenerative medicine. Therapies do not necessarily have to be achieved by using stem cells themselves which may constitute a higher risk but by modulating stem cell activity through targeting one or multiple layers of their micro- and macro-environments. PMID:22391240

  3. Multi-layered environmental regulation on the homeostasis of stem cells: the saga of hair growth and alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Chiang; Chuong, Cheng Ming

    2012-04-01

    Stem cells are fascinating because of their potential in regenerative medicine. Stem cell homeostasis has been thought to be mainly regulated by signals from their adjacent micro-environment named the "stem cell niche". However, recent studies reveal that there can be multiple layers of environmental controls. Here we review these environmental controls using the paradigm of hair stem cells, because to observe and analyze the growth of hair is easier due to their characteristic cyclic regeneration pattern. The length of hair fibers is regulated by the duration of the growth period. In the hair follicles, hair stem cells located in the follicle bulge interact with signals from the dermal papilla. Outside of the follicle, activation of hair stem cells has been shown to be modulated by molecules released from the intra-dermal adipose tissue as well as body hormone status, immune function, neural activities, and aging. The general physiological status of an individual is further influenced by circadian rhythms and changing seasons. The interactive networks of these environmental factors provide new understanding on how stem cell homeostasis is regulated, inspiring new insights for regenerative medicine. Therapies do not necessarily have to be achieved by using stem cells themselves which may constitute a higher risk but by modulating stem cell activity through targeting one or multiple layers of their micro- and macro-environments.

  4. Hair shape of curly hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Bruno A

    2003-06-01

    The hair follicle is a unique composite organ, composed of epithelial and dermal compartments interacting with each other in a surprisingly autonomous way. This is a self-renewing organ that seems to be a true paradigm of epithelial and mesenchymal interactions. Each of the follicular compartments is endowed with a specific differentiation pathway under the control of an intricate network of growth factors, cytokines, and hormones. As observed for ethnic hairs, even the shape of the hair shaft is intrinsically programmed from the bulb.

  5. Structural Sterols Are Involved in Both the Initiation and Tip Growth of Root Hairs in Arabidopsis thaliana[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovečka, Miroslav; Berson, Tobias; Beck, Martina; Derksen, Jan; Šamaj, Jozef; Baluška, František; Lichtscheidl, Irene K.

    2010-01-01

    Structural sterols are abundant in the plasma membrane of root apex cells in Arabidopsis thaliana. They specifically accumulate in trichoblasts during the prebulging and bulge stages and show a polar accumulation in the tip during root hair elongation but are distributed evenly in mature root hairs. Thus, structural sterols may serve as a marker for root hair initiation and growth. In addition, they may predict branching events in mutants with branching root hairs. Structural sterols were detected using the sterol complexing fluorochrome filipin. Application of filipin caused a rapid, concentration-dependent decrease in tip growth. Filipin-complexed sterols accumulated in globular structures that fused to larger FM4-64–positive aggregates in the tip, so-called filipin-induced apical compartments, which were closely associated with the plasma membrane. The plasma membrane appeared malformed and the cytoarchitecture of the tip zone was affected. Trans-Golgi network/early endosomal compartments containing molecular markers, such as small Rab GTPase RabA1d and SNARE Wave line 13 (VTI12), locally accumulated in these filipin-induced apical compartments, while late endosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, plastids, and cytosol were excluded from them. These data suggest that the local distribution and apical accumulation of structural sterols may regulate vesicular trafficking and plasma membrane properties during both initiation and tip growth of root hairs in Arabidopsis. PMID:20841426

  6. EDXRF analysis of Marajoara pubic covers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calza, Cristiane; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: ccalza@lin.ufrj.br; ricardo@lin.ufrj.br; Anjos, Marcelino Jose dos [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]. E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.br; Lima, Tania Andrade [Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: talima@montreal.com.br

    2005-07-01

    This work evaluated the elemental composition of decorated pottery pubic covers (tangas) from the Marajoara culture of Marajo Island (located at the mouth of the Amazon River, Brazil). The tangas were used by Marajoara girls probably as part of puberty rites and were anatomically adjustable to the body, containing holes on its corners for string attachment. The samples included two tangas and four fragments from the National Museum collection. One fragment (sample 22245) presented a different design pattern that seemed to indicate a different provenance. EDXRF was performed at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory (COPPE/UFRJ), using a Si(Li) detector from ORTEC with resolution of 180 eV at 5.9 keV and a mini x-ray tube with Mo anode. The angle of the incident x-ray beam was 16 deg and the detector was placed at 90 deg to the sample surface. The elements identified in the samples were: S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ga, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr and Pb. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to evaluate the provenance of the samples. (author)

  7. Labial swelling: a rare presentation of pubic bone tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shende, Prajakta; Gandhewar, Manisha; Gaikwad, Pradip; Nanaware, Sandip; Risbud Joshi, Prachi

    2016-09-14

    Tuberculosis (TB), being a global health problem, represents variedly. Its presentation as a labial swelling secondary to pubic bone TB has been reported rarely in literature. We report a case of pubic bone TB presenting as a labial swelling in a woman of reproductive age. Early diagnosis with fine needle aspiration cytology, acid-fast bacillus (AFB) staining, AFB culture and magnetic resonance imaging with early initiation of treatment resulted in a favourable outcome.

  8. Potential synergistic effects of human placental extract and minoxidil on hair growth-promoting activity in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, T-R; Oh, C T; Park, H M; Han, H J; Ji, H J; Kim, B J

    2015-08-01

    Human placenta extract (HPE) has been used to alleviate tiredness and promote wound healing, and for its antiageing functions; however, it has not yet been studied for its effects on hair growth. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro effect of HPE on hair growth by observing its actions on human dermal papilla cells (DPCs). To define how HPE promotes induction of anagen hair growth during the telogen phase, and to understand the synergistic molecular mechanisms of HPE and minoxidil (MXD) actions on hair growth. We examined the effects of HPE and MXD on C57BL6/J mice using haematoxylin and eosin staining, quantitative histomorphometry, hair growth scoring, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence on the dorsal skins of C57BL/6J mice. We found that HPE synergistically augmented the effects of MXD, a promoter of hair growth. In particular, histomorphometric analysis data indicated that subcutaneous injection of HPE induced an earlier anagen phase and prolonged the anagen phase. It also stimulated increases in both the number and size of hair follicles in groups treated with HPE alone and HPE + MXD. From our data, we conclude that HPE increases β-catenin and Wnt3a expression levels. Overall, our findings suggest that HPE in combination with MXD has hair growth-promoting activity and is a potential novel therapeutic treatment for alopecia or baldness in humans. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  9. Estimating age from the pubic symphysis: A new component-based system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudzik, Beatrix; Langley, Natalie R

    2015-12-01

    The os pubis is one of the most widely used areas of the skeleton for age estimation. Current pubic symphyseal aging methods for adults combine the morphology associated with the developmental changes that occur into the mid-30s with the degenerative changes that span the latter portion of the age spectrum. The most popular methods are phase-based; however, the definitions currently used to estimate age intervals may not be adequately defined and/or accurately understood by burgeoning researchers and seasoned practitioners alike. This study identifies patterns of growth and maturation in the pubic symphysis to derive more precise age estimates for individuals under 40 years of age. Emphasis is placed on young adults to provide more informative descriptions of epiphyseal changes associated with the final phases of skeletal maturation before degeneration commences. This study investigated macroscopic changes in forensically relevant modern U.S. samples of known age, sex, and ancestry from the Maricopa County Forensic Science Center in Phoenix, Arizona as well as donated individuals from the William M. Bass Forensic and Donated Collections at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville (n=237). Age-related traits at locations with ontogenetic and biomechanical relevance were broken into components and scored. The components included the pubic tubercle, the superior apex of the face, the ventral and dorsal demifaces, and the ventral and dorsal symphyseal margins. Transition analysis was applied to elucidate the transition ages between the morphological states of each component. The categorical scores and transition analysis ages were subjected to multinomial logistic regression and decision tree analysis to derive accurate age interval estimates. Results of these analyses were used to construct a decision tree-style flow chart for practitioner use. High inter-rater agreement of the individual component traits (linear weighted kappa values ≥0.665 for all traits in the

  10. Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. essential oil slows hair-growth and lightens skin in axillae; a randomised, double blinded trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivilai, Jukkarin; Phimnuan, Preeyawass; Jaisabai, Jiraporn; Luangtoomma, Nantakarn; Waranuch, Neti; Khorana, Nantaka; Wisuitiprot, Wudtichai; Scholfield, C Norman; Champachaisri, Katechan; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok

    2017-02-15

    Androgenic hair-growth contributes to secondary gender characteristics but can be troublesome in women. Inhibiting axillary hair-growth via 5-α-reductases using the Thai medicinal plant, Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. is an attractive treatment strategy. C. aeruginosa essential oil (CA-oil) formulated as a lotion is an efficacious and safe inhibitor of axillary hair growth. This trial was a single center, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled 10 weeks, intervention in 60 women (18-23 years) and 2 weeks washout with axillary hair length was the primary end-point. Bioactive-enriched essential oil of C. aeruginosa was formulated with a base lotion. All participants were pre-challenged with lotions by 4-h patch irritation tests to exclude skin reactions. Participants were randomly allocated to use either 1 or 5%w/w CA-oil lotion on one axilla and base-lotion (placebo) to the other for 10 weeks followed by placebo in both axillae for 2 weeks. Every week, the axillae were photographed to measure hair lengths, shaved, and roll-on applicators containing appropriate lotion replaced. Also, skin melanin by spectrophotometry and hair density were measured. From weeks 5-11 of trial, 1 and 5%w/w CA-oil retarded growth by 13 ± 1.5% and 16 ± 0.9% respectively, while placebo was ineffective. CA-oil had no influence on hair density. Both concentrations of CA-oil rapidly and equally effectively brightened skin within 3 weeks which persisted 2 weeks after treatment ceased while placebo darkened the skin. Adherence appeared good as judged by consistency of lotion consumption and between axillae. Participants were satisfied with the treatment and reported reduced hairiness, freedom from any discomforts, but product odour attracted some negative comment. No adverse reactions ascribed to CA-oil were detected or reported. This study points to a safe and efficacious dual action on retarding hair-growth and skin lightening by CA-oil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights

  11. Efficacy, tolerability, and safety of a long-pulsed ruby laser system in the removal of unwanted hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polderman, M C; Pavel, S; le Cessie, S; Grevelink, J M; van Leeuwen, R L

    2000-03-01

    Unwanted hair growth is a common, usually physiologic phenomenon. In this study the efficacy and tolerability of a long-pulsed ruby laser system was compared with needle electrolysis and hot wax on three parts of the body. Thirty volunteers were treated three times on the forearm (n = 10), on the face (n = 10), or in the pubic area (n = 10) with 25 J/cm2 laser, 40 J/cm2 laser, needle electrolysis, and hot wax therapy. The 25 J/cm2 and 40 J/cm2 laser treated sites showed a statistically significant decrease (38% and 49%, respectively) in the number of hairs at the first visit after the last treatment compared to the pretreatment hair counts. No significant decrease was observed in the needle electrolysis and hot wax treated sites. Laser therapy yielded better results on the forearm than on the face or pubic area and was scored as the least painful. The long-pulsed ruby laser is a promising, well-tolerated method of epilation.

  12. Evaluation of wavelength-dependent hair growth effects on low-level laser therapy: an experimental animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Hoon; Kim, Nam-Jeong; Youn, Jong-In

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the wavelength-dependent effects of hair growth on the shaven backs of Sprague-Dawley rats using laser diodes with wavelengths of 632, 670, 785, and 830 nm. Each wavelength was selected by choosing four peak wavelengths from an action spectrum in the range 580 to 860 nm. The laser treatment was performed on alternating days over a 2-week period. The energy density was set to 1.27 J/cm(2) for the first four treatments and 1.91 J/cm(2) for the last four treatments. At the end of the experiment, both photographic and histological examinations were performed to evaluate the effect of laser wavelength on hair growth. Overall, the results indicated that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) with a 830-nm wavelength resulted in greater stimulation of hair growth than the other wavelengths examined and 785 nm also showed a significant effect on hair growth.

  13. Effects of different dietary protein levels and DL-methionine supplementation on hair growth and pelt quality in mink (Neovision vision).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H H; Jiang, Q K; Sun, W L; Xu, C; Cong, B; Yang, F H; Li, G Y

    2013-12-01

    The effect of different dietary protein levels and DL-methionine (Met) supplementation on hair growth and the resulting pelt quality in mink was studied. Four groups of male mink were fed with four isocaloric diets containing 32% (P32), 24% (P24), 16% (P16) or P24+Met (0.8%) crude protein of dry matter (DM) from September to December. Skin biopsies were taken at the pelting. Histological techniques and computer-assisted light microscopy were used to determine the ratio of activity (ROA) of under hairs and guard hairs respectively. The results showed that when the dietary protein level reduced from 32% to 16%, body length, number and diameter of under hairs and guard hairs of minks declined, and pelt length and pelt weight of minks decreased significantly (p  0.05). The hair follicle density of the winter coat was not influenced by the dietary protein levels and Met supplementation (p > 0.05). Low-protein diets content led to a reduction of hair follicle developing to next phase. It was documented that 24% crude protein of DM with Met supplementation during growing-furring period was sufficient for minks to express their genetic capacity to develop hair follicles and achieve the prime fur characteristics. Overall this study demonstrated that hair growth and hair properties in pelts are very dependent on the dietary protein and Met supply in the growing-furring period of minks.

  14. Hair Growth Defects in Insig-Deficient Mice Caused by Cholesterol Precursor Accumulation and Reversed by Simvastatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Bret M.; Farooqi, Midhat S.; Shelton, John M.; Richardson, James A.; Goldstein, Joseph L.; Brown, Michael S.; Liang, Guosheng

    2010-01-01

    Insig-1 and Insig-2, two closely related proteins, are essential for feedback inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis. Here, we characterized a line of epidermal-specific, Insig-double knockout (Epi-Insig-DKO) mice lacking both Insigs in epidermis. At birth, Epi-Insig-DKO mice were indistinguishable from control littermates, but thereafter they failed to thrive and died before 6 weeks of age. By 14 days of age, 100% of Epi-Insig-DKO mice exhibited defects in hair growth along with other skin abnormalities, including hyperkeratosis. Hair follicles in Epi-Insig-DKO mice developed normally through postnatal day 7, but they failed to progress to later stages and thus exhibited defects in postnatal hair cycling. Insig deficiency caused a marked buildup of cholesterol precursors in skin associated with a marked increase in 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase protein. Topical treatment of Epi-Insig-DKO mice with simvastatin, an inhibitor of reductase, reduced sterol precursors in skin and corrected the hair and skin defects. We conclude that Insig deficiency in skin causes accumulation of cholesterol precursors, and this impairs normal hair development. These findings have implications for several human genetic diseases in which mutations in cholesterol biosynthetic enzymes lead to accumulation of sterol precursors and multiple cutaneous abnormalities. PMID:20090767

  15. Hair-Growth-Promoting Effect of Conditioned Medium of High Integrin α6 and Low CD 71 (α6bri/CD71dim Positive Keratinocyte Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Hyun Won

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Keratinocyte stem/progenitor cells (KSCs reside in the bulge region of the hair follicles and may be involved in hair growth. Hair follicle dermal papilla cells (HFDPCs and outer root sheath (ORS cells were treated with conditioned medium (CM of KSCs. Moreover, the effects of KSC-CM on hair growth were examined ex vivo and in vivo. A human growth factor chip array and RT-PCR were employed to identify enriched proteins in KSC-CM as compared with CM from keratinocytes. KSC-CM significantly increased the proliferation of HFDPCs and ORS cells, and increased the S-phase of the cell cycle in HFDPCs. KSC-CM led to the phosphorylation of ATK and ERK1/2 in both cell types. After subcutaneous injection of KSC-CM in C3H/HeN mice, a significant increase in hair growth and increased proliferation of hair matrix keratinocytes ex vivo was observed. We identified six proteins enriched in KSC-CM (amphiregulin, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5, granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor, Platelet-derived growth factor-AA, and vascular endothelial growth factor. A growth-factor cocktail that contains these six recombinant growth factors significantly increased the proliferation of HFDPCs and ORS cells and enhanced the hair growth of mouse models. These results collectively indicate that KSC-CM has the potential to increase hair growth via the proliferative capacity of HFDPCs and ORS cells.

  16. A Microarray-Based Analysis Reveals that a Short Photoperiod Promotes Hair Growth in the Arbas Cashmere Goat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Liu

    Full Text Available Many animals exhibit different behaviors in different seasons. The photoperiod can have effects on migration, breeding, fur growth, and other processes. The cyclic growth of the fur and feathers of some species of mammals and birds, respectively, is stimulated by the photoperiod as a result of hormone-dependent regulation of the nervous system. To further examine this phenomenon, we evaluated the Arbas Cashmere goat (Capra hircus, a species that is often used in this type of research. The goats were exposed to an experimentally controlled short photoperiod to study the regulation of cyclic cashmere growth. Exposure to a short photoperiod extended the anagen phase of the Cashmere goat hair follicle to increase cashmere production. Assessments of tissue sections indicated that the short photoperiod significantly induced cashmere growth. This conclusion was supported by a comparison of the differences in gene expression between the short photoperiod and natural conditions using gene chip technology. Using the gene chip data, we identified genes that showed altered expression under the short photoperiod compared to natural conditions, and these genes were found to be involved in the biological processes of hair follicle growth, structural composition of the hair follicle, and the morphogenesis of the surrounding skin appendages. Knowledge about differences in the expression of these genes as well as their functions and periodic regulation patterns increases our understanding of Cashmere goat hair follicle growth. This study also provides preliminary data that may be useful for the development of an artificial method to improve cashmere production by controlling the light cycle, which has practical significance for livestock breeding.

  17. Endoscopic Pubic Symphysectomy for Athletic Osteitis Pubis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Dean K; Sehgal, Bantoo; Matsuda, Nicole A

    2015-06-01

    Osteitis pubis is a common form of athletic pubalgia associated with femoroacetabular impingement. Endoscopic pubic symphysectomy was developed as a less invasive option than open surgical curettage for recalcitrant osteitis pubis. This technical note demonstrates the use of the anterior and suprapubic portals in the supine lithotomy position for endoscopic burr resection of pubic symphyseal fibrocartilage and hyaline endplates. Key steps include use of the suprapubic portal for burr resection of the posteroinferior symphysis and preservation of the posterior and arcuate ligaments. Endoscopic pubic symphysectomy is a minimally invasive bone-conserving surgery that retains stability and may be useful in the treatment of recalcitrant osteitis pubis or osteoarthritis. It nicely complements arthroscopic surgery for femoroacetabular impingement and may find broader application in this group of co-affected athletes.

  18. Spontaneous Septic Arthritis of Pubic Symphysis in an Elite Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, F Jasmijn; Frima, Herman; Schaeffeler, Christoph; Sommer, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Septic arthritis of the pubic symphysis is a potentially severe disease. Athletes are at risk of this form of spontaneous arthritis, as inflammation of the pubic bone due to muscular stress is relatively common. Oedema due to inflammation might predispose to infection through bacteraemia or local bacterial translocation. Suspicion should be raised when an athlete complains of groin pain and has signs of infection (i.e., fever, elevated white blood cell count, and elevated C-reactive protein). Diagnosis is made by imaging showing signs of inflammation combined with positive (blood) cultures. Broad spectrum antibiotics should be started upon suspicion and adjusted according to cultures. An abscess causing clinical deterioration under antibiotic treatment is an indication for invasive intervention (i.e., surgical or image-guided drainage). This is the first case of spontaneous septic arthritis of the pubic symphysis in an athlete requiring surgical and additional image-guided drainage.

  19. Spontaneous Septic Arthritis of Pubic Symphysis in an Elite Athlete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jasmijn Smits

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Septic arthritis of the pubic symphysis is a potentially severe disease. Athletes are at risk of this form of spontaneous arthritis, as inflammation of the pubic bone due to muscular stress is relatively common. Oedema due to inflammation might predispose to infection through bacteraemia or local bacterial translocation. Suspicion should be raised when an athlete complains of groin pain and has signs of infection (i.e., fever, elevated white blood cell count, and elevated C-reactive protein. Diagnosis is made by imaging showing signs of inflammation combined with positive (blood cultures. Broad spectrum antibiotics should be started upon suspicion and adjusted according to cultures. An abscess causing clinical deterioration under antibiotic treatment is an indication for invasive intervention (i.e., surgical or image-guided drainage. This is the first case of spontaneous septic arthritis of the pubic symphysis in an athlete requiring surgical and additional image-guided drainage.

  20. The role of oxidative damage in poor scalp health: ramifications to causality and associated hair growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, J R; Henry, J P; Kerr, K M; Mizoguchi, H; Li, L

    2015-12-01

    The oxidative stress element of unhealthy scalp leads to compromised pre-emergent hair formation and poorly formed hair as it grows. Only cosmetic solutions can minimize the impact of unhealthy hair and to achieve healthy looking and feeling hair, the scalp health must be normalized first. The objectives of this research were to both investigate whether oxidative stress was a relevant aetiological element in scalp dandruff and seborrhoeic dermatitis and whether scalp condition affects the quality of hair that grows from it. Further, this research was designed to determine whether an effective anti-dandruff shampoo would repair and protect the scalp and pre-emergent hair from oxidative stress. This study demonstrated that oxidative stress is an aetiological element relevant to the dandruff condition and that a potentiated ZPT shampoo effectively improves scalp condition, including a reduction in oxidative stress. The compromised hair condition associated with dandruff is concomitantly improved when the scalp condition is improved. It appears that there is a direct link between hair quality and scalp health.

  1. Creeping hair: an isolated hair burrowing in the uppermost dermis resembling larva migrans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Rie; Higashi, Kushio; Ohta, Miyuki; Sugimoto, Yasushi; Ikoma, Yukiko; Horiguchi, Yuji

    2006-01-01

    A 55-year-old Japanese male presented with a slowly moving linear erythema that looked like an eruption of creeping disease, or cutaneous larva migrans. The eruption extended linearly along Langer's line of the lateral side of the abdomen to the lower back, leaving wave-like erythema. In the top third of the erythematous eruption, close examination demonstrated a black thin line, which was revealed to be a hair shaft by a shallow incision of the skin. After removal of the hair, the eruption diminished immediately, leaving a slight pigmentation. An ingrown pubic hair seemed to have migrated with the lower end forward along Langer's line, because of the arrangement of hair cuticle and the force of body motion. Linearly moving erythematous eruptions that look like that of larva migrans should be differentiated from creeping hair by close examination detecting burrowing hair.

  2. Hair-inspired crystal growth of HOA in cavities of cellulose matrix via hydrophobic-hydrophilic interface interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Meng; Kwok, Ryan T K; Wang, Zhenggang; Duan, Bo; Tang, Ben Zhong; Zhang, Lina

    2014-06-25

    As one of the most ordinary phenomena in nature, numerous pores on animal skins induce the growth of abundant hairs. In this study, cavities of a cellulose matrix were used as hard templates to lead the hair-inspired crystal growth of 12-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid (HOA) through hydrophobic-hydrophilic interface interaction, and short hair-like HOA crystals with a smooth surface were formed on cellulose films. In our findings, by using solvent evaporation induced crystallization, hydrophobic HOA grew along the hydrophilic cellulose pore wall to form regular vertical worm-like and pillar-like crystals with an average diameter of about 200 nm, depending on the experimental conditions and HOA concentration. The formation mechanism of the short hair-like HOA crystals as well as the structure and properties of the cellulose/HOA submicrometer composite films were studied. The pores of the cellulose matrix supplied not only cavities for the HOA crystals fixation but also hydrophilic shells to favor the vertical growth of the relatively hydrophobic HOA crystals. The cellulose/HOA submicrometer composite films exhibited high hydrophobicity, as a result of the formation of the solid/air composite surface. Furthermore, 4-(1,2,2-triphenylethenyl) benzoic acid, an aggregation-induced emission luminogen, was used to aggregate on the cellulose surface with HOA to emit and monitor the HOA crystal growth, showing bifunctional photoluminscence and self-cleaning properties. This work opens up a novel one-step pathway to design bio-inspired submicrometer materials by utilizing natural products, showing potential applications in self-cleaning optical devices.

  3. Induction of Root Hair Growth in a Phosphorus-Buffered Culture Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Guo-dong; James Dunlop; Thai Phung

    2006-01-01

    A system to control the release of phosphate in water was successfully established, based on solubility product of [Ca2+] and [PO43-] using tricalcium phosphate as P source in the hydroponic solution, and adding CaC12 for supplementing extra Ca2+. The system, similar to soil solutions, was a P nutrient buffer solution with very low bioavailable P. The buffer solution induced the roots of both monocotyledon and dicotyledon species to grow abundant root hairs, 3 mm in maximum length. The monocotyledons were corn (Zea mays L.) (var. Yellow Rose), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (var.Yanzhong 144), Triticale secale L. (var. Jingsong 5), and ryegrass (Lolium rigidum L.) (var. Ruanni), and the dicotyledons were Arabidopsis thaliana L. (var. Columbia), white clover (Trifolium repens) (var. Kopu), Lotus (Lotus peduncucatus Cav. Luliginosus Schkuhr) (var. Grasslands Maku). For these species we proved that the root environment controls the induction of root hair formation. However, the hydroponic buffer solution failed to induce root hairs on the roots of onion (Allium cepa L.). Other investigators have concluded that corn does not form root hairs in hydroponics, but abundant long root hairs on corn were induced by this buffer system. The roots with abundant long root hairs are called "hedgehog roots" because they have hairs everywhere just like a hedgehog.

  4. Hair Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? Choosing the Right Sport for You Shyness Hair Removal KidsHealth > For Teens > Hair Removal Print A ... you need any of them? Different Types of Hair Before removing hair, it helps to know about ...

  5. Oily hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair - oily ... are some tips for preventing and treating oily hair: Shampoo your hair every day. Leaving the shampoo on your head ... minutes before rinsing may help. Avoid brushing your hair too often or too vigorously, since the brushing ...

  6. HSL Attenuates the Follicular Oxidative Stress and Enhances the Hair Growth in ob/ob Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Minematsu, PhD

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary: We demonstrated enhanced hair regeneration following topical administration of N-(3-oxododecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (HSL in ob/ob mice. The ob/ob mice showed delayed hair regeneration (more than 6 wk after depilation, which rapidly induced transition to anagen in the hair cycle in wild-type mice. Vehicle and HSL solutions were applied to the depilated dorsal skin of ob/ob mice. The depilated skin of the HSL-treated mice was fully covered with hair, whereas no macroscopic alteration was observed in vehicle-treated group by the fourth week after depilation. Oxidative stress was drastically decreased and the expression of the antioxidative enzymes PON1 and PON3 was increased in the HSL-treated skin with highly proliferative anagen follicles. These results suggest that HSL is a candidate therapeutic agent for alopecia in metabolic syndrome.

  7. Plant Growth Promotion Activity of Keratinolytic Fungi Growing on a Recalcitrant Waste Known as “Hair Waste”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana A. Cavello

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpureocillium lilacinum (Thom Samsom is one of the most studied fungi in the control of plant parasitic nematodes. However, there is not specific information on its ability to inhibit some pathogenic bacteria, fungi, or yeast. This work reports the production of several antifungal hydrolytic enzymes by a strain of P. lilacinum when it is grown in a medium containing hair waste. The growth of several plant-pathogenic fungi, Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, and Fusarium culmorum, was considerably affected by the presence of P. lilacinum’s supernatant. Besides antifungal activity, P. lilacinum demonstrates the capability to produce indoleacetic acid and ammonia during time cultivation on hair waste medium. Plant growth-promoting activity by cell-free supernatant was evidenced through the increase of the percentage of tomato seed germination from 71 to 85% after 48 hours. A 21-day plant growth assay using tomato plants indicates that crude supernatant promotes the growth of the plants similar to a reference fertilizer (p>0.05. These results suggest that both strain and the supernatant may have potential to be considered as a potent biocontrol agent with multiple plant growth-promoting properties. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the antifungal, IAA production and tomato growth enhancing compounds produced by P. lilacinum LPSC #876.

  8. Plant Growth Promotion Activity of Keratinolytic Fungi Growing on a Recalcitrant Waste Known as “Hair Waste”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavello, Ivana A.; Crespo, Juan M.; García, Sabrina S.; Zapiola, José M.; Luna, María F.; Cavalitto, Sebastián F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpureocillium lilacinum (Thom) Samsom is one of the most studied fungi in the control of plant parasitic nematodes. However, there is not specific information on its ability to inhibit some pathogenic bacteria, fungi, or yeast. This work reports the production of several antifungal hydrolytic enzymes by a strain of P. lilacinum when it is grown in a medium containing hair waste. The growth of several plant-pathogenic fungi, Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, and Fusarium culmorum, was considerably affected by the presence of P. lilacinum's supernatant. Besides antifungal activity, P. lilacinum demonstrates the capability to produce indoleacetic acid and ammonia during time cultivation on hair waste medium. Plant growth-promoting activity by cell-free supernatant was evidenced through the increase of the percentage of tomato seed germination from 71 to 85% after 48 hours. A 21-day plant growth assay using tomato plants indicates that crude supernatant promotes the growth of the plants similar to a reference fertilizer (p > 0.05). These results suggest that both strain and the supernatant may have potential to be considered as a potent biocontrol agent with multiple plant growth-promoting properties. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the antifungal, IAA production and tomato growth enhancing compounds produced by P. lilacinum LPSC #876. PMID:26697226

  9. Acute Stress-Induced Changes in Follicular Dermal Papilla Cells and Mobilization of Mast Cells: Implications for Hair Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyoseung; Choi, Soon-Jin; Cho, A-Ri; Kim, Dong Young; Kim, Kyu Han

    2016-01-01

    Background Stress is a known cause of hair loss in many species. Objective In this study, we investigated the role of acute stress on hair growth using a rat model. Methods Rats were immobilized for 24 hours and blood samples, and skin biopsies were taken. The effect of stress-serum on the in vitro proliferation of rat and human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs), as well as serum cortisol and corticotropin-releasing hormone levels, were measured. Mast cell staining was performed on the biopsied tissue. In addition, Western blot and quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction were used to assess mast cell tryptase and cytokine expression, respectively in rat skin biopsies. Results Stress-serum treatment reduced significantly the number of viable hDPCs and arrested the cell cycle in the G1 phase, compared to serum from unrestrained rats (p<0.05, respectively). Moreover, restrained rats had significantly higher levels of cortisol in serum than unrestrained rats (p<0.01). Acute stress serum increased mast cell numbers and mast cell tryptase expression, as well as inducing interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β up-regulation. Conclusion These results suggest that acute stress also has an inhibitory effect on hair growth via cortisol release in addition to substance P-mast cell pathway. PMID:27746640

  10. Morphological analysis of the growth stages of in-vivo mouse hair follicles by using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Rakesh Kumar; Kim, Kanghae; Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeehyun; Kang, Minyoung; Han, Insook; Kim, Moonkyu

    2016-09-01

    Swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT), a bio-photonic imaging modality, was used to demonstrate an initial feasibility experiment for detecting morphological variations of in-vivo mouse hair follicles for the anagen and the telogen growth stages. Two C57BL/6 adult male mice, one undergoing the anagen stage and the other undergoing the telogen stage of the hair follicle growth cycle, were selected for the experiment. The OCT cross-sectional images of mice skin were acquired in-vivo within an interval of 15 days, and the observed morphological changes were analyzed. The micro-structural features of mice skin on the 15th experimental day were further compared with corresponding histological observations. The preliminary result of this study provides clear insights into the structural details of mouse skin, confirming the resemblance of the OCT images with the corresponding histological measurements, and ensures the suitability of SS-OCT for non-invasive analysis of hair follicle conditions.

  11. Cutaneous consequences of inhibiting EGF receptor signaling in vivo: normal hair follicle development, but retarded hair cycle induction and inhibition of adipocyte growth in Egfr(Wa5) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Koji; Schneider, Marlon R; Dahlhoff, Maik; Kloepper, Jennifer E; Paus, Ralf

    2010-03-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) network is essential for proper development and homeostasis of skin and hair. However, detailed dissection of the role of the EGFR in hair follicle development and cycling have been impaired by the early mortality of EGFR knockout mice. We have studied in Waved-5 mice carrying an antimorphic EGFR allele (Egfr(wa5)), whose product acts as a dominant-negative receptor, whether strongly reduced EGFR signaling impacts on the hair and skin phenotype. Histomorphometry and immunohistochemistry were employed to study hair follicle morphogenesis stages and cycle induction in Waved-5 mice and control littermates during embryonic development and postnatal life. By routine histology and quantitative histomorphometry, no significant abnormalities in the epidermis and in hair follicle morphogenesis were detected, while the initiation of hair follicle cycling was slightly, but significantly retarded. Proliferation and apoptosis of epidermal and hair matrix keratinocytes of Waved-5 mice appeared unaltered. Intriguingly, the thickness of the subcutis and the percentage of proliferating subcutaneous adipocytes were significantly reduced in Waved-5 mice around days P8.5 to P10.5. Although no differences in total body weight gain could be detected, Wa5 mice showed a significant reduction in the percentage of body fat at P8.5. Our results suggest the presence of effective compensatory mechanisms in murine skin in vivo that ensure nearly normal epidermal and hair follicle keratinocyte function despite very low levels of EGFR-mediated signaling. Our unexpected findings of transiently reduced subcutaneous adipose tissue indicate a role for the EGFR in regulating subcutaneous fat. 2009 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Dieckol, a Component of Ecklonia cava, on the Promotion of Hair Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Cheol Kim

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Ecklonia cava, a marine alga native to Jeju Island in Korea, on the promotion of hair growth. When vibrissa follicles were cultured in the presence of E. cava enzymatic extract (which contains more than 35% of dieckol for 21 days, E. cava enzymatic extract increased hair-fiber length. In addition, after topical application of the 0.5% E. cava enzymatic extract onto the back of C57BL/6 mice, anagen progression of the hair-shaft was induced. The treatment with E. cava enzymatic extract resulted in the proliferation of immortalized vibrissa dermal papilla cells (DPC. Especially, dieckol, among the isolated compounds from the E. cava enzymatic extract, showed activity that increased the proliferation of DPC. When NIH3T3 fibroblasts were treated with the E. cava enzymatic extract and the isolated compounds from the E. cava enzymatic extract, the E. cava enzymatic extract increased the proliferation of NIH3T3 fibroblasts, but the isolated compounds such as eckol, dieckol, phloroglucinol and triphlorethol-A did not affect the proliferation of NIH3T3 fibroblasts. On the other hand, the E. cava enzymatic extract and dieckol significantly inhibited 5α-reductase activity. These results suggest that dieckol from E. cava can stimulate hair growth by the proliferation of DPC and/or the inhibition of 5α-reductase activity.

  13. Vigorous root growth is a better indicator of early nutrient uptake than root hair traits in spring wheat grown under low fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yaosheng; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2016-01-01

    . Vigorous root growth, however, was a better indicator of early nutrient acquisition than RHL and RHD. Vigorous root growth and long and dense root hairs ensured efficient acquisition of macro- and micronutrients during early growth and a high root length to shoot dry matter ratio favored high macronutrient...

  14. Identification and localization of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP) messenger RNAs in human hair follicle dermal papilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batch, J A; Mercuri, F A; Werther, G A

    1996-03-01

    The role of the insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) in hair follicle biology has recently been recognized, although their actions, sites of production, and modulation by the insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins (IGFBPs) have not to date been defined. IGF-I is essential for normal hair growth and development, and may be important in regulation of the hair growth cycle. In many culture systems, IGF-I actions are modulated by the IGFBPs. Thus, if IGFBPs are produced in the human hair follicle, they may play a role in targeting IGF-I to its receptor or may modulate IGF-I action by interaction with matrix proteins. We have used in situ hybridization to localize messenger RNA for the six IGFBPs in anagen hair follicles. Anti-sense and sense RNA probes for the IGFBPs (IGFBP-1 to -6) were produced, and 5-micrometer sections of adult facial skin were probed. Messenger RNA for IGFBP-3, -4, and -5 were identified, with predominantly IGFBP-3 and -5 mRNA found in the dermal papilla, and to a lesser extent IGFBP-4 mRNA. IGFBP-4 mRNA was also found at the dermal papilla/epithelial matrix border. Messenger RNAs for both IGFBP-4 and -5 were also demonstrated in the dermal sheath surrounding the hair follicle. Messenger RNAs for IGFBP-1, -2, and -6 were not identified. These studies demonstrate specific localization of IGFBP mRNAs in hair follicles, suggesting that they each play specific roles in the local modulation of IGF action during the hair growth cycle.

  15. Class III myosins shape the auditory hair bundles by limiting microvilli and stereocilia growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelli, Andrea; Michel, Vincent; Boutet de Monvel, Jacques; Cortese, Matteo; Bosch-Grau, Montserrat; Aghaie, Asadollah; Perfettini, Isabelle; Dupont, Typhaine; Avan, Paul; El-Amraoui, Aziz; Petit, Christine

    2016-01-18

    The precise architecture of hair bundles, the arrays of mechanosensitive microvilli-like stereocilia crowning the auditory hair cells, is essential to hearing. Myosin IIIa, defective in the late-onset deafness form DFNB30, has been proposed to transport espin-1 to the tips of stereocilia, thereby promoting their elongation. We show that Myo3a(-/-)Myo3b(-/-) mice lacking myosin IIIa and myosin IIIb are profoundly deaf, whereas Myo3a-cKO Myo3b(-/-) mice lacking myosin IIIb and losing myosin IIIa postnatally have normal hearing. Myo3a(-/-)Myo3b(-/-) cochlear hair bundles display robust mechanoelectrical transduction currents with normal kinetics but show severe embryonic abnormalities whose features rapidly change. These include abnormally tall and numerous microvilli or stereocilia, ungraded stereocilia bundles, and bundle rounding and closure. Surprisingly, espin-1 is properly targeted to Myo3a(-/-)Myo3b(-/-) stereocilia tips. Our results uncover the critical role that class III myosins play redundantly in hair-bundle morphogenesis; they unexpectedly limit the elongation of stereocilia and of subsequently regressing microvilli, thus contributing to the early hair bundle shaping.

  16. Class III myosins shape the auditory hair bundles by limiting microvilli and stereocilia growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelli, Andrea; Michel, Vincent; Boutet de Monvel, Jacques; Cortese, Matteo; Bosch-Grau, Montserrat; Aghaie, Asadollah; Perfettini, Isabelle; Dupont, Typhaine; Avan, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The precise architecture of hair bundles, the arrays of mechanosensitive microvilli-like stereocilia crowning the auditory hair cells, is essential to hearing. Myosin IIIa, defective in the late-onset deafness form DFNB30, has been proposed to transport espin-1 to the tips of stereocilia, thereby promoting their elongation. We show that Myo3a−/−Myo3b−/− mice lacking myosin IIIa and myosin IIIb are profoundly deaf, whereas Myo3a-cKO Myo3b−/− mice lacking myosin IIIb and losing myosin IIIa postnatally have normal hearing. Myo3a−/−Myo3b−/− cochlear hair bundles display robust mechanoelectrical transduction currents with normal kinetics but show severe embryonic abnormalities whose features rapidly change. These include abnormally tall and numerous microvilli or stereocilia, ungraded stereocilia bundles, and bundle rounding and closure. Surprisingly, espin-1 is properly targeted to Myo3a−/−Myo3b−/− stereocilia tips. Our results uncover the critical role that class III myosins play redundantly in hair-bundle morphogenesis; they unexpectedly limit the elongation of stereocilia and of subsequently regressing microvilli, thus contributing to the early hair bundle shaping. PMID:26754646

  17. Evaluation of Not-Activated and Activated PRP in Hair Loss Treatment: Role of Growth Factor and Cytokine Concentrations Obtained by Different Collection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Pietro; Cole, John P.; Cole, Megan A.; Garcovich, Simone; Bielli, Alessandra; Scioli, Maria Giovanna; Orlandi, Augusto; Insalaco, Chiara; Cervelli, Valerio

    2017-01-01

    Platelet rich plasma (PRP) was tested as a potential therapy for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) through two different clinical protocols in which one population (18 participants) received half-head treatment with autologous non-activated PRP (A-PRP) produced by CPunT Preparation System (Biomed Device, Modena, Italy) and the other half-head with placebo, and a second separated population in which all participants (n = 6, 3 participants per group) received treatment with calcium-activated PRP (AA-PRP) produced from one of two different PRP collection devices (Regen Blood Cell Therapy or Arthrex Angel System). For the A-PRP study, three treatments were administered over 30-day intervals. Trichoscan analysis of patients, three months post-treatment, showed a clinical improvement in the number of hairs in the target area (36 ± 3 hairs) and in total hair density (65 ± 5 hair cm2), whereas negligible improvements in hair count (1.1 ± 1.4 hairs) and density (1.9 ± 10.2 hair cm2) were seen in the region of the scalp that received placebo. Microscopic evaluation conducted two weeks after treatment showed also an increase in epidermal thickness, Ki67+ keratinocytes, and in the number of follicles. The AA-PRP treatment groups received a singular set of injections, and six months after the treatments were administered, notable differences in clinical outcomes were obtained from the two PRP collection devices (+90 ± 6 hair cm2 versus −73 ± 30 hair cm2 hair densities, Regen versus Arthrex). Growth factor concentrations in AA-PRP prepared from the two collection devices did not differ significantly upon calcium activation. PMID:28216604

  18. Evaluation of Not-Activated and Activated PRP in Hair Loss Treatment: Role of Growth Factor and Cytokine Concentrations Obtained by Different Collection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Gentile

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Platelet rich plasma (PRP was tested as a potential therapy for androgenetic alopecia (AGA through two different clinical protocols in which one population (18 participants received half-head treatment with autologous non-activated PRP (A-PRP produced by CPunT Preparation System (Biomed Device, Modena, Italy and the other half-head with placebo, and a second separated population in which all participants (n = 6, 3 participants per group received treatment with calcium-activated PRP (AA-PRP produced from one of two different PRP collection devices (Regen Blood Cell Therapy or Arthrex Angel System. For the A-PRP study, three treatments were administered over 30-day intervals. Trichoscan analysis of patients, three months post-treatment, showed a clinical improvement in the number of hairs in the target area (36 ± 3 hairs and in total hair density (65±  5 hair cm2, whereas negligible improvements in hair count (1.1±  1.4 hairs and density (1.9 ± 10.2 hair cm2 were seen in the region of the scalp that received placebo. Microscopic evaluation conducted two weeks after treatment showed also an increase in epidermal thickness, Ki67+ keratinocytes, and in the number of follicles. The AA-PRP treatment groups received a singular set of injections, and six months after the treatments were administered, notable differences in clinical outcomes were obtained from the two PRP collection devices (+90 ± 6 hair cm2 versus -73 ± 30 hair cm2 hair densities, Regen versus Arthrex. Growth factor concentrations in AA-PRP prepared from the two collection devices did not differ significantly upon calcium activation.

  19. Evaluation of Not-Activated and Activated PRP in Hair Loss Treatment: Role of Growth Factor and Cytokine Concentrations Obtained by Different Collection Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Pietro; Cole, John P; Cole, Megan A; Garcovich, Simone; Bielli, Alessandra; Scioli, Maria Giovanna; Orlandi, Augusto; Insalaco, Chiara; Cervelli, Valerio

    2017-02-14

    Platelet rich plasma (PRP) was tested as a potential therapy for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) through two different clinical protocols in which one population (18 participants) received half-head treatment with autologous non-activated PRP (A-PRP) produced by CPunT Preparation System (Biomed Device, Modena, Italy) and the other half-head with placebo, and a second separated population in which all participants (n = 6, 3 participants per group) received treatment with calcium-activated PRP (AA-PRP) produced from one of two different PRP collection devices (Regen Blood Cell Therapy or Arthrex Angel System). For the A-PRP study, three treatments were administered over 30-day intervals. Trichoscan analysis of patients, three months post-treatment, showed a clinical improvement in the number of hairs in the target area (36 ± 3 hairs) and in total hair density (65±  5 hair cm2), whereas negligible improvements in hair count (1.1±  1.4 hairs) and density (1.9 ± 10.2 hair cm2) were seen in the region of the scalp that received placebo. Microscopic evaluation conducted two weeks after treatment showed also an increase in epidermal thickness, Ki67+ keratinocytes, and in the number of follicles. The AA-PRP treatment groups received a singular set of injections, and six months after the treatments were administered, notable differences in clinical outcomes were obtained from the two PRP collection devices (+90 ± 6 hair cm2 versus -73 ± 30 hair cm2 hair densities, Regen versus Arthrex). Growth factor concentrations in AA-PRP prepared from the two collection devices did not differ significantly upon calcium activation.

  20. Lack of the vitamin D receptor is associated with reduced epidermal differentiation and hair follicle growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhongjion; Komuves, László; Yu, Qian-Chun; Elalieh, Hashem; Ng, Dean C; Leary, Colin; Chang, Sandra; Crumrine, Debra; Yoshizawa, Tatsuya; Kato, Shigeaki; Bikle, Daniel D

    2002-01-01

    The active vitamin D metabolite, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, acting through the vitamin D receptor, regulates the expression of genes in a variety of vitamin D-responsive tissues, including the epidermis. To investigate the role of the vitamin D receptor in mediating epidermal differentiation, we examined the histomorphology and expression of differentiation markers in the epidermis of vitamin D receptor knockout mice generated by gene targeting. The homozygous knockout mouse displayed a phenotype that closely resembles vitamin D-dependent rickets type II in humans, including the development of rickets and alopecia. Hair loss developed by 3 mo after birth and gradually led to nearly total hair loss by 8 mo. Histologic analysis of the skin of homozygous knockout mice revealed dilation of the hair follicles with the formation of dermal cysts starting at the age of 3 wk. These cysts increased in size and number with age. Epidermal differentiation markers, including involucrin, profilaggrin, and loricrin, detected by immunostaining and in situ hybridization, showed decreased expression levels in homozygous knockout mice from birth until 3 wk, preceding the morphologic changes observed in the hair follicles. Keratin 10 levels, however, were not reduced. At the ultrastructural level, homozygous knockout mice showed increased numbers of small dense granules in the granular layer with few or no surrounding keratin bundles and a loss of keratohyalin granules. Thus, both the interfollicular epidermis and the hair follicle appear to require the vitamin D receptor for normal differentiation. The temporal abnormalities between the two processes reflect the apparent lack of requirement for the vitamin D receptor during the anagen phase of the first (developmental) hair cycle, but with earlier effects on the terminal differentiation of the interfollicular epidermis.

  1. [Post-surgical septic arthritis of the pubic symphysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, S; Lasselin-Boyard, P; Lasselin, J; Goëb, V

    2015-03-01

    The post-surgical septic arthritis of the pubic symphysis is a rare infection, often unrecognized because sometimes it is difficult to diagnose. It should be suspected in the presence of pelvic pain with fever and sometimes lameness or painful radiation to the lower limbs but the symptoms can be misleading. We report 3 cases of post surgical septic arthritis of the pubic symphysis to illustrate it. Differential diagnoses are numerous and additional tests not always specific. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations are essential to substantiate the diagnosis or to guide sampling. The appropriate antibiotic treatment against the identified germ, which is extended at least six weeks, will most often, when started early, allow the healing though pain can persist for several months.

  2. Ingrown Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases and Conditions Ingrown hair By Mayo Clinic Staff An ingrown hair occurs when a shaved or tweezed hair grows back into the skin. It can cause ... and tiny bumps in the area where the hair was removed. Ingrown hair is a common condition ...

  3. Ischio-pubic-patellar hypoplasia: is it a new syndrome?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habboub, H.K. [Department of Radiology - 3953 JPP, University of Iowa College of Medicine, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Thneibat, W.A. [Department of Radiology - 3953 JPP, University of Iowa College of Medicine, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Aplasia/hypoplasia of the patella has been described as an isolated finding or, more commonly, as a part of congenital syndromes. We describe here bilateral absence of the patella in an 11-year-old girl with absence of the ischial and inferior pubic rami bilaterally. Other associated skeletal and soft-tissue deformities are also reported. To our knowledge, the constellation of these findings has not been described previously and represents a unique syndrome. (orig.). With 1 fig.

  4. Isolated loss of inferior pubic ramus: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Aly

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction It has been stated that regulation of the development of the iliac bone is different from that of the ischium and pubis. There are well-known clinical syndromes concerned with hypoplasia of ischiopubic bone, such as small patella syndrome, nail-patella syndrome, ischiopubic-patellar hypoplasia, and ischiopubic hypoplasia. Case presentation A fit and otherwise healthy 35-year-old woman presented with pain in the left lower limb of 6 months duration. She sought advice from an orthopedic surgeon and was referred for exclusion of a primary soft tissue neoplasm. There was no history of trauma, chronic medical illness or surgical operations. Full systemic examination, laboratory investigations and whole body imaging showed no soft tissue swelling or any other bony defects. Isolated loss of the left inferior pubic ramus and thinning of the superior pubic ramus were detected, raising the question of whether the lesion was a secondary osteolytic lesion, a primary osteolytic lesion or due to endocrine disease. Conclusion Isolated loss of the inferior pubic ramus with no concomitant bony or soft tissue anomalies is previously unreported. To the best of the author's knowledge, this finding has not been described previously.

  5. Chiropractic management of postpartum pubic symphysis diastasis: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Lucian

    2015-03-01

    This case report describes the chiropractic management of a 30-year-old female patient with severe postpartum pelvic pain secondary to pubic symphysis diastasis. No literature was found on the chiropractic management of postpartum symphysis pubis diastasis. The existing literature concerning chiropractic care for symphysis pubis dysfunction during pregnancy is limited and indicates a potential benefit. Separation of the pubic symphysis may include ligamentous injury to the sacroiliac joints and may lead to chronic pain. Pubic symphysis separation of 17 millimeters was present on digital radiograph. Management consisted of chiropractic adjustments, trigger point release, electrical stimulation, moist heat, sacroiliac belt, and specific stabilizing exercises. The patient's pain improved immediately following treatment on the initial visit. Pain was reduced from 8/10 VAS at the first visit to 2/10 at the fourth visit. She was able to resume normal activities and reached a final pain level of 1/10. The diastasis was reduced by 7 millimeters at 14-weeks post radiograph for a final separation of just under 10 millimeters. Collaboration between obstetricians, midwives and chiropractors may be warranted.

  6. [Cellular dynamics of the outer layers of the hair follicle of fine-wool sheep during the phase of stable hair growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vsevolodov, É B; Golichenkov, V A; Latypov, I F

    2014-01-01

    The structure, origin, and migration of outer sheath cells of the hair follicles of domestic sheep were studied by electron microscopic, autoradiographic, and histochemical (glycogen) in order to understand the role of this layer in hair morphogenesis. We demonstrated that the cells of the outer layers of the outer sheath interpose into the inner "companion" layer of the outer sheath. Although this process takes place all along the hair follicle from the lower bulb up to the sebaceous glands orifices, it mainly takes place over the bulb. Labeled cells interposed into the companion layer move towards sebaceous glands orifices more than 24 hours faster than labeled cells of the inner sheath and hair, because these cells included the label not in the bulb cambium (as hair and inner sheath) but over the bulb, and from this point they start movement. Interposition of cells into the companion layer must cause increase of its volume and additional volume supposed to be led away into the pillar canal around the hair near the sebaceous glands orifices. This can provide the mechanism for the propagation of the hair and inner sheath promotion to sebaceous gland orifices.

  7. Low-level laser treatment stimulates hair growth via upregulating Wnt10b and β-catenin expression in C3H/HeJ mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tiran; Liu, Liqiang; Fan, Jincai; Tian, Jia; Gan, Cheng; Yang, Zengjie; Jiao, Hu; Han, Bing; Liu, Zheng

    2017-07-01

    This study was conducted in order to evaluate the role of low-level laser treatment (LLLT) in hair growth in C3H/HeJ mice. Healthy C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into two groups: with and without low-level laser treatment. The skin color of each mouse was observed each day. Skin samples were collected for H&E, immunofluorescence, PCR, and western blot analysis, to observe the morphology of hair follicles and detect the expression levels of Wnt10b and β-catenin. Observation of skin color demonstrated that black pigmentation started significantly earlier in the laser group than in the control group. Hair follicle number in both groups showed no difference; however, the hair follicle length presented a significant difference. Wnt10b protein was detected on the second day in hair matrix cells in the LLLT group but not in the control group. PCR and western blot results both illustrated that expression of Wnt10b and β-catenin was significantly higher in the LLLT group than in the control group. Our study illustrated that low-level laser treatment can promote hair regrowth by inducing anagen phase of hair follicles via initiating the Wnt10b/β-catenin pathway.

  8. Dry hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normally style your hair? Do you use a hair dryer? What type? How often? What other symptoms are also present? Diagnostic tests that may be performed include: Examination of the hair under a microscope Blood tests

  9. Hair Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Hair Removal KidsHealth > For Teens > Hair Removal A A A ... recommend an electrologist with the proper credentials. Laser Hair Removal How It Works: A laser is directed through ...

  10. From Hair in India to Hair India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2017-01-01

    In all cultures, human hair and hairdo have been a powerful metaphor. Tracing back the importance and significance of human hair to the dawn of civilization on the Indian subcontinent, we find that all the Vedic gods are depicted as having uncut hair in mythological stories as well as in legendary pictures. The same is true of the Hindu avatars, and the epic heroes of the Ramayana, and the Mahabharata. Finally, there are a number of hair peculiarities in India pertinent to the creed and religious practices of the Hindu, the Jain, and the Sikh. Shiva Nataraja is a depiction of the Hindu God Shiva as the cosmic dancer who performs his divine dance as creator, preserver, and destroyer of the universe and conveys the Indian conception of the never-ending cycle of time. The same principle manifests in the hair cycle, in which perpetual cycles of growth, regression, and resting underly the growth and shedding of hair. Finally, The Hair Research Society of India was founded as a nonprofit organisation dedicated to research and education in the science of hair. Notably, the HRSI reached milestones in the journey of academic pursuit with the launch of the International Journal of Trichology, and with the establishment of the Hair India conference. Ultimately, the society aims at saving the public from being taken for a ride by quackery, and at creating the awareness that the science of hair represents a subspecialty of Dermatology. In analogy again, the dwarf on which the Nataraja dances represents the demon of egotism, and thus symbolizes Shiva's, respectively, the HRSI's victory over ignorance. PMID:28761257

  11. AGE DETERMINATION FROM PUBIC SYMPHYSEAL CHANGES- AN AUTOPSY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinesh Parambathettu Sasidharan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Biological identity is one of the first things to be established when analysing skeletal, badly decomposed or otherwise unidentified human remains. The determination of age at death is an important component of identity establishment. Pubic symphysis examination is one of the reliable methods of age estimation. We attempt to determine the age of deceased from pubic symphysis using Suchey-Brooks method and to find the accuracy of Suchey-Brooks method in our population. From among the cases brought for autopsy at Department of Forensic Medicine, Government Medical College, Kottayam, Kerala, from 01/03/2012 to 28/02/2013, 316 cases were included in the study. Their pubic symphysis were harvested. Age determined using SucheyBrooks method and compared with their chronological age. The aim of the study is to- 1. Determine the age of deceased from pubic symphysis using Suchey-Brooks method. 2. Compare the age determined by Suchey-Brooks method and chronological age and find the accuracy of Suchey-Brooks method in our population. MATERIALS AND METHODS Study Design- Descriptive study- Cross-sectional study, Centre of Study- Department of Forensic Medicine, Government Medical College, Kottayam, Study Sample- From the cases brought for medicolegal postmortem examination in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Government Medical College, Kottayam, Kerala, a sample of 316 cases were selected. To make the distribution among various age groups, even the total sample divided for the age group, which resulted in having 60 samples per age group. Age groups were considered as Group 1- Age between 18-25 years; Group 2- Age between 25-35 years; Group 3- Age between 35-45 years; Group 4- Age between 45-55 years; Group 5- Age between 55-65 years. Inclusion Criteria- 1. Cases with known age; 2. Cases whose age between 18 and 65 years. Exclusion Criteria- 1. Unknown cases; 2. Known cases with doubtful age; 3. Individuals having pubic bone trauma involving the

  12. Effect of Pumpkin Seed Oil on Hair Growth in Men with Androgenetic Alopecia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Hye Cho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin seed oil (PSO has been shown to block the action of 5-alpha reductase and to have antiandrogenic effects on rats. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study was designed to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of PSO for treatment of hair growth in male patients with mild to moderate androgenetic alopecia (AGA. 76 male patients with AGA received 400 mg of PSO per day or a placebo for 24 weeks. Change over time in scalp hair growth was evaluated by four outcomes: assessment of standardized clinical photographs by a blinded investigator; patient self-assessment scores; scalp hair thickness; and scalp hair counts. Reports of adverse events were collected throughout the study. After 24 weeks of treatment, self-rated improvement score and self-rated satisfaction scores in the PSO-treated group were higher than in the placebo group (P = 0.013, 0.003. The PSO-treated group had more hair after treatment than at baseline, compared to the placebo group (P<0.001. Mean hair count increases of 40% were observed in PSO-treated men at 24 weeks, whereas increases of 10% were observed in placebo-treated men (P<0.001. Adverse effects were not different in the two groups.

  13. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...

  14. Hair cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draelos, Z K

    1991-01-01

    Alterations in the cuticle, cortex, and medulla are necessary to modify the hair cosmetically. The hair can be modified externally by the use of shampoos to remove excess sebum, conditioners to restore shine, and styling aids to increase manageability. Several different formulations of all these products exist, depending on the needs of the patient. Furthermore, the hair can be modified both externally and internally through the use of hair dyes, permanent waving lotions, and hair straighteners. Use of these products causes external damage to the hair shaft by disrupting the overlapping cuticular scales, rendering the hair susceptible to static electricity and the effects of humidity while decreasing manageability and shine. Internal damage created by these products decreases the hair shaft's elastic properties, allowing increased hair breakage. The dermatologist can better aid the patient with hair difficulties if he or she has an understanding of the formulation and effects of products designed to cleanse, beautify, and modify the hair.

  15. Serum prolactin and dehydroepiandrosterone concentrations during the summer and winter hair growth cycles of mink (Mustela vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, J; Kennedy, M; Johnston, B; Foster, W

    1998-11-01

    We investigated the relationship between serum concentrations of prolactin (PRL) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) during initiation and development of summer and winter hair growth (anagen) cycles in mink. In the spring, haloperidol (HAL) increased PRL concentrations and induced summer anagen earlier than controls, whereas melatonin (MEL) inhibited PRL secretion and completely blocked summer anagen. In the fall, HAL increased PRL concentrations, inducing anagen at an earlier time than controls, although the resulting fur was abnormal being almost devoid of underhair fibers. Exogenous MEL during the fall reduced PRL concentrations, initiating winter anagen 4 weeks earlier than controls. Adrenalectomy (ADX) induced earlier onset of summer and winter anagen and neutralized the inhibitory effects of HAL in the fall and MEL in the spring. No change in serum DHEA concentrations was observed during the onset of summer or winter anagen in any group although MEL increased DHEA levels from 27 March through 5 June relative to HAL-treated mink. We conclude that changes in serum levels of DHEA and PRL are not requisite to onset of summer or winter anagen in mink. It is possible that metabolites of DHEA and/or PRL may still affect other aspects of the hair growth cycle.

  16. Alterations in Hair Follicle Dynamics in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Claudine Piérard-Franchimont; Piérard, Gérald E.

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine changes supervening after parturition and menopause participate in the control of sebum production and hair growth modulation. The ensuing conditions include some peculiar aspects of hair loss (effluvium), alopecia, and facial hirsutism. The hair cycling is of major clinical relevance because most hair growth disorders result from disturbances in this chronobiological feature. Of note, any correlation between a biologic abnormality and hair cycling disturbance does not prove a relat...

  17. Radiographic findings after pubic symphysiotomy: mean time to follow-up of 41.6 years.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Galbraith, John G

    2014-01-01

    Pubic symphysiotomy is a rarely performed procedure in which the pubic symphysis is divided to facilitate vaginal delivery in cases of obstructed labor. Recently, many obstetricians have shown renewed interest in this procedure. The purpose of this paper is to report the long-term radiographic findings for patients who had undergone pubic symphysiotomy compared with the radiographic appearance of a group of age-matched and parity-matched controls.

  18. Pubic inguinal pain syndrome: the so-called sports hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalli, Marta; Bombini, Grazia; Campanelli, Giampiero

    2014-03-01

    The "sportsman's hernia" commonly presents as a painful groin in those sports that involve kicking and twisting movements while running, particularly in rugby, football, soccer, and ice hockey players. Moreover, sportsman's hernia can be encountered even in normally physically active people. The pain experienced is recognized at the common point of origin of the rectus abdominis muscle and the adductor longus tendon on the pubic bone and the insertion of the inguinal ligament on the pubic bone. It is accepted that this chronic pain caused by abdominal wall weakness or injury occurs without a palpable hernia. We proposed the new name "pubic inguinal pain syndrome." In the period between January 2006 and November 2013 all patients afferent in our ambulatory clinic for chronic groin pain without a clinically evident hernia were assessed with medical history, physical examination, dynamic ultrasound, and pelvic and lumbar MRI. All patients were proposed for a conservative treatment and then, if it was not effective, for a surgical treatment. Our etiopathogenetic theory is based on three factors: (1) the compression of the three nerves of the inguinal region, (2) the imbalance in strength of adductor and abdominal wall muscles caused by the hypertrophy and stiffness of the insertion of rectus muscle and adductor longus muscle, and (3) the partial weakness of the posterior wall. Our surgical procedure includes the release of all three nerves of the region, the correction of the imbalance in strength with the partial tenotomy of the rectus and adductor longus muscles, and the repair of the partial weakness of the posterior wall with a lightweight mesh. This treatment reported excellent results with complete relief of symptoms after resumption of physical activity in all cases.

  19. The biology of hair diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgate, Gillian E; Botchkareva, Natalia V; Tobin, Desmond J

    2013-08-01

    Hair diversity, its style, colour, shape and growth pattern is one of our most defining characteristics. The natural versus temporary style is influenced by what happens to our hair during our lifetime, such as genetic hair loss, sudden hair shedding, greying and pathological hair loss in the various forms of alopecia because of genetics, illness or medication. Despite the size and global value of the hair care market, our knowledge of what controls the innate and within-lifetime characteristics of hair diversity remains poorly understood. In the last decade, drivers of knowledge have moved into the arena of genetics where hair traits are obvious and measurable and genetic polymorphisms are being found that raise valuable questions about the biology of hair growth. The recent discovery that the gene for trichohyalin contributes to hair shape comes as no surprise to the hair biologists who have believed for 100 years that hair shape is linked to the structure and function of the inner root sheath. Further conundrums awaiting elucidation include the polymorphisms in the androgen receptor (AR) described in male pattern alopecia whose location on the X chromosome places this genetic contributor into the female line. The genetics of female hair loss is less clear with polymorphisms in the AR not associated with female pattern hair loss. Lifestyle choices are also implicated in hair diversity. Greying, which also has a strong genetic component, is often suggested to have a lifestyle (stress) influence and hair follicle melanocytes show declining antioxidant protection with age and lowered resistance to stress. It is likely that hair research will undergo a renaissance on the back of the rising information from genetic studies as well as the latest contributions from the field of epigenetics. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  20. 64-year-old male with septic arthritis of the pubic symphysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Lee

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Septic arthritis of the pubic symphysis is a rare disease. Typical clinical features include fever, pubic or groin pain, pain with hip motion, and painful or waddling gait. Identified predisposing factors to develop an infection in pubic joint include female incontinence surgery or postpartum period; sports, especially soccer; pelvic malignancy; and intravenous drug abuse. The most often identified microorganisms were Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Osteomyelitis complicates the majority of cases, and about half of the patients require surgical debridement along with a prolonged antibiotic treatment. We report a case of Streptococcus anginosus septic arthritis of the pubic symphysis. The patient did not have any of the above risk factors.

  1. Synostosis Between Pubic Bones due to Neurogenic, Heterotopic Ossification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian Vaidyanathan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurogenic, heterotopic ossification is characterised by the formation of new, extraosseous (ectopic bone in soft tissue in patients with neurological disorders. A 33-year-old female, who was born with spina bifida, paraplegia, and diastasis of symphysis pubis, had indwelling urethral catheter drainage and was using oxybutynin bladder instillations. She was prescribed diuretic for swelling of feet, which aggravated bypassing of catheter. Hence, suprapubic cystostomy was performed. Despite anticholinergic therapy, there was chronic urine leak around the suprapubic catheter and per urethra. Therefore, the urethra was mobilised and closed. After closure of the urethra, there was no urine leak from the urethra, but urine leak persisted around the suprapubic catheter. Cystogram confirmed the presence of a Foley balloon inside the bladder; there was no urinary fistula. The Foley balloon ruptured frequently, leading to extrusion of the Foley catheter. X-ray of abdomen showed heterotopic bone formation bridging the gap across diastasis of symphysis pubis. CT of pelvis revealed heterotopic bone lying in close proximity to the balloon of the Foley catheter; the sharp edge of heterotopic bone probably acted like a saw and led to frequent rupture of the balloon of the Foley catheter. Unique features of this case are: (1 temporal relationship of heterotopic bone formation to suprapubic cystostomy and chronic urine leak; (2 occurrence of heterotopic ossification in pubic region; (3 complications of heterotopic bone formation viz. frequent rupture of the balloon of the Foley catheter by the irregular margin of heterotopic bone and difficulty in insertion of suprapubic catheter because the heterotopic bone encroached on the suprapubic track; (4 synostosis between pubic bones as a result of heterotopic ossification..Common aetiological factors for neurogenic, heterotopic ossification, such as forceful manipulation, trauma, or spasticity, were absent in this

  2. Hair Treatments and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatments include hair coloring, hair curling (permanents), hair bleaching, and hair straightening (relaxers) agents. For this fact sheet, hair ... permanent wave chemicals include ammonium thioglycolate and ammonia. Hair bleaching chemicals include hydrogen peroxide. Hair straighteners (relaxers) use ...

  3. Influence of Rough Hair Coats and Steroidal Implants on Hair Growth, Rectal Temperatures, and Sweating by Steers Grazed on Toxic Tall Fescue During the Summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattle grazing toxic tall fescue months [Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.)] typically retain their rough hair coats into the summer, which can exacerbate heat stress induced by fescue toxicosis. Further, previous research has indicated that progesterone and estradiol implants may increase body tem...

  4. The biology, structure, and function of eyebrow hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Jennifer V

    2014-01-01

    Eyebrow hair serves many important biologic and aesthetic functions. This article reviews the structure and function of the hair follicle, as well as hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling. Eyebrow hair follicles share the same basic structure as hair follicles elsewhere on the body, but are distinguished by their shorter anagen (growing) phase. Knowledge of the hair follicle structure and cycle is important for understanding the pathophysiology of alopecia, as diseases affecting the stem cell portion of the hair follicle in the bulge region may cause permanent hair loss. Furthermore, therapeutic agents that target distinct phases and hormones involved in the hair cycle may be useful for promoting hair growth.

  5. Drug-induced hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Hair loss can have major psychological consequences. It can be due to a wide variety of causes, including hormonal disorders, dietary factors, infections, inflammation, trauma, emotional factors, and cancer. Drugs can also induce hair loss, by interacting with the hair growth cycle. Drug-induced hair loss may be immediate or delayed, sudden or gradual, and diffuse or localised. It is usually reversible after drug discontinuation. The drugs most often implicated in hair loss are anticancer agents, interferon, azole antifungals, lithium, immunosuppressants, and many other drugs belonging to a variety of pharmacological classes.

  6. Two cases of pyogenic osteomyelitis of pubic bone after irradiation for cervical carcinoma of the uterine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriyama, Ichiro; Matsumoto, Morio; Yamauchi, Kenji; Horiuchi, Kiwamu; Morisue, Hikaru; Yamagishi, Masaaki; Tanaka, Mamoru [Tachikawa Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-03-01

    Two cases of pyogenic osteomyelitis of pubic bone occurred after irradiation of cervical carcinoma were reported. Case 1: A 69-year-old female received external irradiation of 50 Gy from November 1993 to April 1994 after supravaginal uterine amputation. The left melosalgia and pain at left pubic region appeared from July 1994. On the MRI, bone marrow of the left pubic region showed low brightness by T1 weighted image and equal brightness by T2 weighted image, and the image was enhanced by gadolinium. An abscess in external obturator muscle was suspected. High accumulation was recognized by bone scintigram at the left pubic region. No bacterial infection was recognized. Focus was removed in May 1995. Case 2: A 80-year-old female received external irradiation of 50 Gy and intracavitary irradiation of 30 Gy in May 1992. Pain at left pubic region appeared from June 1993. Dilation of pubic symphysis and osteoclasia of the left pubic bone were detected on the plain radiograph in March 1995. On the MRI, the left pubic bone marrow showed low brightness by T1 weighted image and equal brightness by T2 weighted image, and image was enhanced by gadolinium. An abscess in small pelvic cavity was suspected. Streptococcus agalactae was detected in abscess, and PIPC was administered by drip infusion for five weeks. They are currently alive and doing well about three years later. (K.H.)

  7. Expression of basement membrane components through morphological changes in the hair growth cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Gibson, W T

    1985-01-01

    membrane separating this from the epithelial cells of the hair bulb, and in the basement membrane and connective tissue sheath which underly the cells of the outer root sheath. Early in catagen, the transitional stage, staining of the dermal papilla matrix disappeared. Fibronectin persisted in the basement...... membrane and connective tissue sheath, which undergo corrugation and apparent thickening in catagen. After follicle shortening, the telogen (resting) stage is reached, at which point fibronectin staining was found to be minimal, being restricted to the basement membrane around the secondary germ. The onset...... the increase in fibronectin expression. However, growing cells, even in a suprabasal position, always had some fibronectin at their surface. Immunoelectron microscopy of early anagen follicles confirmed the light microscopic findings and also showed that fibronectin was present in small vesicles close...

  8. Hair as a biomarker for exposure to tobacco smoke

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Al-Delaimy, W K

    2002-01-01

    .... There are still unresolved issues in relation to this biomarker such as influence of hair treatment, hair colour, and growth rate on nicotine levels in hair, which need to be addressed in order...

  9. Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... loss at the scarred areas. These conditions include lichen planus, some types of lupus and sarcoidosis. Hair- ... increase your risk of hair loss, including: Family history Age Poor nutrition Certain medical conditions, such as ...

  10. Hair transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007205.htm Hair transplant To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A hair transplant is a surgical procedure to improve baldness. Description ...

  11. Your Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or some other combination? Hair color comes from melanin (say: MEL-uh-nun), the substance that gives ... its pigment. The lighter someone's hair, the less melanin there is. A person with brown or black ...

  12. Body Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To avoid spreading infections, don’t share razors. Hair removal creams, gels, and liquids (depilatories) These use chemicals ... electrologist with a current license or certification. Laser hair removal Light is beamed through the skin to stop ...

  13. Root hairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grierson, C.; Nielsen, E.; Ketelaar, T.; Schiefelbein, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roots hairs are cylindrical extensions of root epidermal cells that are important for acquisition of nutrients, microbe interactions, and plant anchorage. The molecular mechanisms involved in the specification, differentiation, and physiology of root hairs in Arabidopsis are reviewed here. Root hair

  14. Nod factor-induced root hair curling: continuous polar growth towards the point of nod factor application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esseling, J.J.; Lhuissier, F.G.P.; Emons, A.M.C.

    2003-01-01

    A critical step in establishing a successful nitrogen-fixing symbiosis between rhizobia and legume plants is the entrapment of the bacteria between root hair cell walls, usually in characteristic 180degrees to 360degrees curls, shepherd's crooks, which are formed by the host's root hairs. Purified b

  15. The Success of Thread-embedding Therapy in Generating Hair Re-growth in Mice Points to Its Possibly Having a Similar Effect in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Jong Shin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Recently, thread-embedding therapy (TET has been widely applied in Korean medicine for cosmetic purposes such as reducing skin wrinkles. An inserted thread was reported to have induced continuous stimulation, followed by support for connective tissue regeneration. However, the potential role of TET in hairgrowth has not yet been reported. Methods: We designed this study to evaluate whether TET has a hair-growth-promoting effect. C57 black 6 (C57BL/6 mice were divided into three groups: normal saline-treated, minoxidil-treated, and thread-embedded groups. Normal saline or 5% minoxidil was topically sprayed on the dorsal skin of the mice once a day for 16 days. Medical threads were embedded into the dorsal skin of the mice in a single application. Hair growth activity was evaluated by using dermoscopic and microscopic observations. Sections of the dorsal skin were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Expressions of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, fibroblast growth factor-7 (FGF-7, and fibroblast growth factor-5 (FGF-5 were detected by using immunohistochemical staining. A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR analysis was adopted to measure the messenger RNA (mRNA expressions of FGF-7 and FGF-5. Results: TET enhanced anagen development in the hair follicles of C57BL/6 mice. The expressions of BrdU and PCNA, both of which imply active cellular proliferation, were increased by using TET. Moreover, TET increased the expression of FGF-7, an anagen-inducing growth factor, while decreasing the expression of FGF-5, an anagen-cessation growth factor, both at the protein and the mRNA levels. Conclusion: TET enhanced hair re-growth in C57BL/6 mice. TET regulated the expressions of anagen-associated growth factors and activated the proliferation of hair follicular cells in depilated skin lesions. Considering its long-lasting effect, TET may be a good alternative therapeutic for the treatment of

  16. De Novo Transcriptome Assembly and Differential Gene Expression Profiling of Three Capra hircus Skin Types during Anagen of the Hair Growth Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite that goat is one of the best nonmodel systems for villus growth studies and hair biology, limited gene resources associated with skin or hair follicles are available. In the present study, using Illumina/Solexa sequencing technology, we de novo assembled 130 million mRNA-Seq reads into a total of 49,115 contigs. Searching public databases revealed that about 45% of the total contigs can be annotated as known proteins, indicating that some of the assembled contigs may have previously uncharacterized functions. Functional classification by KOG and GO showed that activities associated with metabolism are predominant in goat skin during anagen phase. Many signaling pathways was also created based on the mapping of assembled contigs to the KEGG pathway database, some of which have been previously demonstrated to have diverse roles in hair follicle and hair shaft formation. Furthermore, gene expression profiling of three skin types identified ~6,300 transcript-derived contigs that are differentially expressed. These genes mainly enriched in the functional cluster associated with cell cycle and cell division. The large contig catalogue as well as the genes which were differentially expressed in different skin types provide valuable candidates for further characterization of gene functions.

  17. Hair casts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweta S Parmar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair casts or pseudonits are circumferential concretions,which cover the hair shaft in such a way that, it could be easily removed. They are thin, cylindrical, and elongated in length. We present an unusual case of an 8-year-old girl presenting with hair casts. Occurrence of these is unusual, and they may have varied associations. This patient was suffering from developmental delay. It is commonly misdiagnosed as and very important to differentiate from pediculosis capitis.

  18. Diastasis of the pubic symphysis peculiar to horse riders: modern aspects of pelvic pommel injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulhall, K J; Khan, Y; Ahmed, A; O'Farrell, D; Burke, T E; Moloney, M

    2002-02-01

    Diastasis of the pubic symphysis is a well documented injury typically associated with high energy trauma. Three cases in horse riders are here described, emphasising the appropriate modern investigation, including computed tomography, and orthopaedic and urological management.

  19. Morphometric assessment of hip dysplasia in a cat treated by juvenile pubic symphysiodesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Alen; Culvenor, John; Bailey, Craig

    2016-09-20

    To quantitatively evaluate the change of the coxofemoral joints using computed tomography and distraction index in a cat with hip dysplasia treated by juvenile pubic symphysiodesis. Case report. Eighteen-week-old female entire Maine Coon cat. Juvenile pubic symphysiodesis resulted in changes in the distraction index, acetabular angle, dorsal acetabular rim angle, dorsal acetabular sector angle, and clinical improvement at the six month follow-up. No intra-operative or postoperative complications were recorded. Juvenile pubic symphysiodesis performed at 18 weeks of age resulted in improvement in hip joint conformation and hip laxity in a dysplastic cat. Juvenile pubic symphysiodesis may be a promising treatment for feline hip dysplasia and is a safe and technically simple procedure to perform. Further investigations are warranted.

  20. Simultaneous Disruption of the Pubic Symphysis and Sacroiliac Joint during Vaginal Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Çıçek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Puerperal diastasis of the pubic symphysis is a rare intrapartum complication. This report presents the case of a woman who experienced synchronous pubic symphysis and sacroiliac joint separations induced by vaginal delivery. Case. A 32-year-old woman (gravida 2, parity 2 with an uncomplicated prenatal course developed acute-onset anterior pubic pain during vaginal delivery. The pain persisted postpartum and was exacerbated by leg movement. Physical and radiographic examinations showed a pubic symphyseal separation of 2.4 cm, accompanied by a 10 mm disruption of the left sacroiliac joint. The patient was treated conservatively with pain-relief medication; bed rest, mostly in the left lateral decubitus position; closed reduction and application of a pelvic binder; use of a walker; and physical therapy. Conclusion. The patient responded to conservative management. She was essentially pain-free and regained movement and ambulation by 12 weeks postpartum.

  1. Human Wharton's Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells plasticity augments scar-free skin wound healing with hair growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabapathy, Vikram; Sundaram, Balasubramanian; V M, Sreelakshmi; Mankuzhy, Pratheesh; Kumar, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising candidate for cell-based transplantation and regenerative medicine therapies. Thus in the present study Wharton's Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells (WJ-MSCs) have been derived from extra embryonic umbilical cord matrix following removal of both arteries and vein. Also, to overcome the clinical limitations posed by fetal bovine serum (FBS) supplementation because of xenogeneic origin of FBS, usual FBS cell culture supplement has been replaced with human platelet lysate (HPL). Apart from general characteristic features of bone marrow-derived MSCs, wharton jelly-derived MSCs have the ability to maintain phenotypic attributes, cell growth kinetics, cell cycle pattern, in vitro multilineage differentiation plasticity, apoptotic pattern, normal karyotype-like intrinsic mesenchymal stem cell properties in long-term in vitro cultures. Moreover, the WJ-MSCs exhibited the in vitro multilineage differentiation capacity by giving rise to differentiated cells of not only mesodermal lineage but also to the cells of ectodermal and endodermal lineage. Also, WJ-MSC did not present any aberrant cell state upon in vivo transplantation in SCID mice and in vitro soft agar assays. The immunomodulatory potential assessed by gene expression levels of immunomodulatory factors upon exposure to inflammatory cytokines in the fetal WJ-MSCs was relatively higher compared to adult bone marrow-derived MSCs. WJ-MSCs seeded on decellularized amniotic membrane scaffold transplantation on the skin injury of SCID mice model demonstrates that combination of WJ-MSCs and decellularized amniotic membrane scaffold exhibited significantly better wound-healing capabilities, having reduced scar formation with hair growth and improved biomechanical properties of regenerated skin compared to WJ-MSCs alone. Further, our experimental data indicate that indocyanin green (ICG) at optimal concentration can be resourcefully used for labeling of stem cells and in vivo

  2. Human Wharton's Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells plasticity augments scar-free skin wound healing with hair growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Sabapathy

    Full Text Available Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are a promising candidate for cell-based transplantation and regenerative medicine therapies. Thus in the present study Wharton's Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells (WJ-MSCs have been derived from extra embryonic umbilical cord matrix following removal of both arteries and vein. Also, to overcome the clinical limitations posed by fetal bovine serum (FBS supplementation because of xenogeneic origin of FBS, usual FBS cell culture supplement has been replaced with human platelet lysate (HPL. Apart from general characteristic features of bone marrow-derived MSCs, wharton jelly-derived MSCs have the ability to maintain phenotypic attributes, cell growth kinetics, cell cycle pattern, in vitro multilineage differentiation plasticity, apoptotic pattern, normal karyotype-like intrinsic mesenchymal stem cell properties in long-term in vitro cultures. Moreover, the WJ-MSCs exhibited the in vitro multilineage differentiation capacity by giving rise to differentiated cells of not only mesodermal lineage but also to the cells of ectodermal and endodermal lineage. Also, WJ-MSC did not present any aberrant cell state upon in vivo transplantation in SCID mice and in vitro soft agar assays. The immunomodulatory potential assessed by gene expression levels of immunomodulatory factors upon exposure to inflammatory cytokines in the fetal WJ-MSCs was relatively higher compared to adult bone marrow-derived MSCs. WJ-MSCs seeded on decellularized amniotic membrane scaffold transplantation on the skin injury of SCID mice model demonstrates that combination of WJ-MSCs and decellularized amniotic membrane scaffold exhibited significantly better wound-healing capabilities, having reduced scar formation with hair growth and improved biomechanical properties of regenerated skin compared to WJ-MSCs alone. Further, our experimental data indicate that indocyanin green (ICG at optimal concentration can be resourcefully used for labeling of stem cells

  3. Recovery of the pubic symphysis on primiparous young and multiparous senescent mice at postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consonni, Silvio Roberto; Rosa, Renata Giardini; Nascimento, Maria Amália Cavinato; Vinagre, Cristiane Mendes; Toledo, Olga Maria Szymanski; Joazeiro, Paulo Pinto

    2012-07-01

    It has been observed that parturition has a significant effect on female skeletal architecture and that age alters musculoskeletal tissues and their functions. We therefore hypothesized that multiparity affects the recovery of the pubic symphysis in senescent mice at postpartum and the morphology of the interpubic tissues. The pubic symphysis of primiparous young, virgin senescent (VS) and multiparous senescent (MS) Swiss mice was examined by light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, morphometric analysis and immunohistochemistry. The mouse pubic symphysis was remodeled during the first pregnancy: the cellular phenotype and morphology changed to ensure a structurally safe birth canal, followed by recovery of the interpubic articulation after birth. The morphology of the pubic symphysis in the VS group was maintained in a state similar to that observed in virgin young mice. In contrast, MS mice exhibited an interpubic ligament characterized by extended fibrocyte-like cells, an opened interpubic articulation gap, compacted and thin collagen fibrils and scarce galectin-3-positive cells. Thus, we found that the cellular and extracellular characteristics of the pubic symphysis were altered by multiparity in senescent mice. These particular tissue characteristics of the MS group might be associated with an impaired recovery process at postpartum. Thus, a better understanding of the alterations that occur in the birth canal, including the pubic symphysis, due to multiparity in reproductively aged mice may contribute to our comprehension of the biological mechanisms that modify the skeleton and pelvic ligaments and even play a role in the murine model of pelvic organ prolapse.

  4. The basic science of hair biology: what are the causal mechanisms for the disordered hair follicle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitkopf, Trisia; Leung, Gigi; Yu, Mei; Wang, Eddy; McElwee, Kevin J

    2013-01-01

    A hair disorder can be difficult to define, but patients are typically motivated to seek treatment when their hair growth patterns are significantly different from their cultural group or when growth patterns change significantly. The causes of hair disorders are many and varied, but fundamentally the disorder is a consequence of aberrant alterations of normal hair biology. The potential trigger factors for hair disorders can be attributed to inflammation, genetics, the environment, or hormones, of which the relative contributions vary for different diagnoses, between individuals, and over time. This article discusses the causal mechanisms for the disordered hair follicle.

  5. The amazing miniorgan: Hair follicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çiler Çelik Özenci

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hair is a primary characteristic of mammals, and exerts a wide range of functions including thermoregulation, physical protection, sensory activity, and social interactions. The hair shaft consists of terminally differentiated keratinocytes that are produced by the hair follicle. Hair follicle development takes place during fetal skin development and relies on tightly regulated ectodermal–mesodermal interactions. Hair follicles form during embryonic development and, after birth, undergo recurrent cycling of growth (anagen, apoptosis-driven regression (catagen, and relative quiescence (telogen. As a functional mini-organ, the hair follicle develops in an environment with dynamic and alternating changes of diverse molecular signals. Our molecular understanding of hair follicle biology relies heavily on genetically engineered mouse models with abnormalities in hair structure, growth, and/or pigmentation and significant advances have been made toward the identification of key signaling pathways and the regulatory genes involved. In this review, the basic concepts of hair follicle, a mini-complex organ, biology will be presented and its importance in clinical applications will be summarized.

  6. The role of hair follicle nestin-expressing stem cells during whisker sensory-nerve growth in long-term 3D culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mii, Sumiyuki; Duong, Jennifer; Tome, Yasunori; Uchugonova, Aisada; Liu, Fang; Amoh, Yasuyuki; Saito, Norimitsu; Katsuoka, Kensei; Hoffman, Robert M

    2013-07-01

    We have previously reported that nestin-expressing hair follicle stem cells can differentiate into neurons, Schwann cells, and other cell types. In the present study, vibrissa hair follicles, including their sensory nerve stump, were excised from transgenic mice in which the nestin promoter drives green fluorescent protein (ND-GFP mice), and were placed in 3D histoculture supported by Gelfoam®. β-III tubulin-positive fibers, consisting of ND-GFP-expressing cells, extended up to 500 µm from the whisker nerve stump in histoculture. The growing fibers had growth cones on their tips expressing F-actin. These findings indicate that β-III tubulin-positive fibers elongating from the whisker follicle sensory nerve stump were growing axons. The growing whisker sensory nerve was highly enriched in ND-GFP cells which appeared to play a major role in its elongation and interaction with other nerves in 3D culture, including the sciatic nerve, the trigeminal nerve, and the trigeminal nerve ganglion. The results of the present report suggest a major function of the nestin-expressing stem cells in the hair follicle is for growth of the follicle sensory nerve. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Hair copper in intrauterine copper device users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiery, M; Heyndrickx, A; Uyttersprot, C

    1984-03-01

    The antifertility effect of copper-bearing IUDs is based on continuous release of copper, which is a result of the reaction between the metal and the uterine secretions. Released cupric ions collect in the endometrium and in the uterine fluid but significant accumulation has not been found in the bloodstream or elsewhere. Following Laker's suggestion that hair be used for monitoring essential trace elements, e.g., copper, we checked the copper content of the hair of women wearing copper-bearing IUDs. Samples of untreated pubic hair removed by clipping before diagnostic curettage were obtained from 10 young (24-34 years old), white caucasian females who until then had been wearing an MLCu250 IUD for more than 1 year. Pubes from 10 comparable (sex, age, race) subjects who had never used a Cu-containing device served as controls. The unwashed material was submitted to the toxicology laboratory, where the copper content was assessed by flameless atomic absorption, a technique whose lower limit of measurement lies at a concentration of 0.05 mcg Cu/ml fluid (50 ppb). Hair samples were washed to remove extraneous traces of metal according to the prescriptions of the International Atomic Energy Agency, weighed, and mineralized, after which a small volume (10 mcl) of the diluted fluid was fed into the graphite furnace. Each sample (75-150 mg) was analyzed 4 times, both before and after washing. Since the cleaning procedure reduces the weight of the sample (mainly by the removal of fat, dust, etc.) this explains why the percentage copper content of washed hair is higher than that of unwashed hair belonging to the same subject. The results indicate that there was no significant difference (Mann-Whitney U test) between the mean copper levels of both unwashed and washed pubes from women who were using or had never used an MLCu250 IUD. We therefore conclude that the use of this copper-containing device is not associated with significant accumulation of copper in (pubic) hair.

  8. Hair Growth Promoting and Anticancer Effects of p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1 Inhibitors Isolated from Different Parts of Alpinia zerumbet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nozomi Taira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available PAK1 (p21-activated kinase 1 is an emerging target for the treatment of hair loss (alopecia and cancer; therefore, the search for PAK1 blockers to treat these PAK1-dependent disorders has received much attention. In this study, we evaluated the anti-alopecia and anticancer effects of PAK1 inhibitors isolated from Alpinia zerumbet (alpinia in cell culture. The bioactive compounds isolated from alpinia were found to markedly promote hair cell growth. Kaempferol-3-O-β-d-glucuronide (KOG and labdadiene, two of the isolated compounds, increased the proliferation of human follicle dermal papilla cells by approximately 117%–180% and 132%–226%, respectively, at 10–100 μM. MTD (2,5-bis(1E,3E,5E-6-methoxyhexa-1,3,5-trien-1-yl-2,5-dihydrofuran and TMOQ ((E-2,2,3,3-tetramethyl-8-methylene-7-(oct-6-en-1-yloctahydro-1H-quinolizine showed growth-promoting activity around 164% and 139% at 10 μM, respectively. The hair cell proliferation induced by these compounds was significantly higher than that of minoxidil, a commercially available treatment for hair loss. Furthermore, the isolated compounds from alpinia exhibited anticancer activity against A549 lung cancer cells with IC50 in the range of 67–99 μM. Regarding the mechanism underlying their action, we hypothesized that the anti-alopecia and anticancer activities of these compounds could be attributed to the inhibition of the oncogenic/aging kinase PAK1.

  9. Influence of melatonin on hair growth%褪黑素对毛发生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李子海; 范卫新

    2008-01-01

    褪黑素主要是由松果体合成的一种激素,作为脊椎动物内分泌系统生物钟的同步器,其受体广泛分布于垂体、下丘脑、视网膜、肾脏和皮肤及其附属器,有着多种生理活性,按光周期信号调节生物体昼夜节律和季节节律.除了参与中枢、生殖及免疫系统的生理活动,研究表明,褪黑素与毛发生长也有密切关系,还可影响动物皮毛的季节性更替.目前已有用褪黑素制品治疗雄激素性秃发的实验性研究.%Melatonin is a hormone produced by pineal gland.As a synchronizer of endocrine svstem bioclock in vertebrate,melatonin possesses many physiological activities.e.g.regulating the biologic rhythm according to photoperiod,by its receptors widely distributed in pituitary gland,hypothalamus,optomeninx,kidneys,skin and its appendages,etc.In addition to central nervous system,genital system and immune system,melatonin is closely related to hair growth,and can affect the seasonal shift of animals' fur.So far.pilot trials have been conducted on the treatment of androgenetic alopecia with melatonin.

  10. Hair care practices and structural evaluation of scalp and hair shaft parameters in African American and Caucasian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewallen, Robin; Francis, Shani; Fisher, Brian; Richards, Jeanette; Li, Jim; Dawson, Tom; Swett, Katrina; McMichael, Amy

    2015-09-01

    How African American hair fragility relates to hair care practices and biologic differences between races is not well understood. To assess the differences between perceptions of hair health, hair care practices, and several biologic hair parameters between Caucasian and African American women. A questionnaire on perceptions of hair health and hair care practices was administered. Biological and structural parameters of hair shaft and scalp, including growth, density, diameter, cycle, breakage, and scalp blood flow were also assessed in this case-control study. Significant differences between the Caucasian and African American women were observed in the questionnaire and biologic study data. Regarding self-reported perceptions of hair health, there were differences in the following: hair shaft type (P hair breakage (P = 0.040), and desire to change hair (P = 0.001). Regarding self-reported hair care practices, there were differences in the following: location of haircutting (P = 0.002) and washing (P = 0.010), washing frequency (P hair dryer use (P hair shaft conditioner use (P = 0.005). The two groups had similar practices in regard to the use of hair color, frequency of hair color use, chemical curling agents, and handheld blow dryer use. Regarding biological and structural parameters, there were differences in the following: hair growth rate (P hairs (P hair cycle parameters.The differences in hair care practices and hair fiber morphology among African American women may contribute to clinically observed variation in hair fragility and growth.

  11. Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of hair loss have found patients’ self-esteem, body image and self-confidence to be negatively affected. 1-2 Known psychosocial complications include depression, low self-esteem, altered self-image, and less frequent and enjoyable ...

  12. Hair loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SA, Stough DB, Rogers NE. Hair restoration. In: Bolognia JL, Jorizzo JL, Schaffer JV, eds. Dermatology . 3rd ... Sinclair RD, El Shabrawi-Caelen L. Alopecias. In: Bolognia JL, Jorizzo JL, Schaffer JV, eds. Dermatology . 3rd ...

  13. Hair Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hædersdal, Merete

    2011-01-01

    and chromophore. Longer wavelengths and cooling are safer for patients with darker skin types. Hair removal with lasers and IPL sources are generally safe treatment procedures when performed by properly educated operators. However, safety issues must be addressed since burns and adverse events do occur. New...... suitable for targeting follicular and hair shaft melanin: normal mode ruby laser (694 nm), normal mode alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources (590-1,200 nm). The ideal patient has thick dark terminal hair...... systems. Evidence has been found for long-term hair removal efficacy beyond 6 months after repetitive treatments with alexandrite, diode, and long-pulse Nd:YAG lasers, whereas the current long-term evidence is sparse for IPL devices. Treatment parameters must be adjusted to patient skin type...

  14. Hair removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, Merete; Haak, Christina S

    2011-01-01

    and chromophore. Longer wavelengths and cooling are safer for patients with darker skin types. Hair removal with lasers and IPL sources are generally safe treatment procedures when performed by properly educated operators. However, safety issues must be addressed since burns and adverse events do occur. New...... suitable for targeting follicular and hair shaft melanin: normal mode ruby laser (694 nm), normal mode alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources (590-1,200 nm). The ideal patient has thick dark terminal hair...... systems. Evidence has been found for long-term hair removal efficacy beyond 6 months after repetitive treatments with alexandrite, diode, and long-pulse Nd:YAG lasers, whereas the current long-term evidence is sparse for IPL devices. Treatment parameters must be adjusted to patient skin type...

  15. Managing hair loss in midlife women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmirani, Paradi

    2013-02-01

    Hair is considered one of the most defining aspects of human appearance. Hair loss, or alopecia in women is often met with significant emotional distress and anxiety. In midlife, women may encounter various hormonal and age-related physiologic changes that can lead to alterations in hair texture and growth. The most significant hormonal alteration is the onset of menopause in which there is a cessation of ovarian estrogen production. This decrease in estrogen is known to have deleterious effects on the skin and cutaneous appendages. As our understanding of the molecular and hormonal controls on the hair follicle has grown, there has been increased interest in the various modulators of hair growth, including the potential role of estrogen. Further study of hair changes in midlife women provides an important opportunity for identification of the complex regulation of hair growth as well as identification of treatment targets that may specifically benefit women. In this review, management of hair loss in midlife women is discussed with a focus on three most commonly encountered clinical conditions: female pattern hair loss, hair shaft alterations due to hair care, and telogen effluvium.

  16. Alterations in hair follicle dynamics in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine; Piérard, Gérald E

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine changes supervening after parturition and menopause participate in the control of sebum production and hair growth modulation. The ensuing conditions include some peculiar aspects of hair loss (effluvium), alopecia, and facial hirsutism. The hair cycling is of major clinical relevance because most hair growth disorders result from disturbances in this chronobiological feature. Of note, any correlation between a biologic abnormality and hair cycling disturbance does not prove a relationship of causality. The proportion of postmenopausal women is rising in the overall population. Therefore, the prevalence of these hair follicle disturbances is globally on the rise. Current therapies aim at correcting the underlying hormonal imbalances, and at improving the overall cosmetic appearance. However, in absence of pathogenic diagnosis and causality criteria, chances are low that a treatment given by the whims of fate will adequately control hair effluvium. The risk and frequency of therapeutic inertia are further increased. When the hair loss is not controlled and/or compensated by growth of new hairs, several clinical aspects of alopecia inexorably develop. Currently, there is little evidence supporting any specific treatment for these endocrine hair disorders in post-partum and postmenopausal women. Current hair treatment strategies are symptomatic and nonspecific so current researchers aim at developing new, targeted methods.

  17. Alterations in Hair Follicle Dynamics in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudine Piérard-Franchimont

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine changes supervening after parturition and menopause participate in the control of sebum production and hair growth modulation. The ensuing conditions include some peculiar aspects of hair loss (effluvium, alopecia, and facial hirsutism. The hair cycling is of major clinical relevance because most hair growth disorders result from disturbances in this chronobiological feature. Of note, any correlation between a biologic abnormality and hair cycling disturbance does not prove a relationship of causality. The proportion of postmenopausal women is rising in the overall population. Therefore, the prevalence of these hair follicle disturbances is globally on the rise. Current therapies aim at correcting the underlying hormonal imbalances, and at improving the overall cosmetic appearance. However, in absence of pathogenic diagnosis and causality criteria, chances are low that a treatment given by the whims of fate will adequately control hair effluvium. The risk and frequency of therapeutic inertia are further increased. When the hair loss is not controlled and/or compensated by growth of new hairs, several clinical aspects of alopecia inexorably develop. Currently, there is little evidence supporting any specific treatment for these endocrine hair disorders in post-partum and postmenopausal women. Current hair treatment strategies are symptomatic and nonspecific so current researchers aim at developing new, targeted methods.

  18. Chondromyxoid fibroma of the pubic ramus: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arıkan, Murat; Toğral, Güray; Yıldırım, Ahmet; Aktaş, Erdem

    2016-01-01

    Chondromyxoid fibromas (CMF) are benign cartilaginous bone tumors which are found most frequently in the metaphyses of long bones. They comprise less than 1% of primary bone neoplasms. We report an interesting incidental case of a 43-year-old woman with a CMF of the left pubic ramus, presenting with complaints of gradual onset of left groin pain over a period of 2 years. According to radiological examination, a malign chondroid bone tumor was excluded, and histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of CMF. The patient underwent aggressive curettage and bone grafting 6 years ago. Pelvic bones are encountered as rare localizations for CMFs. Pubic ramus is accepted as an exceptional site for this benign bone tumor of cartilaginous origin. To our knowledge, no any other CMF case in this localization has been reported in the literature. In atypical regions such as the pelvis and pubic ramus, CMF must be considered for differential diagnosis of malign tumors.

  19. [Hair shaft abnormalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itin, P H; Düggelin, M

    2002-05-01

    Hair shaft disorders may lead to brittleness and uncombable hair. In general the hair feels dry and lusterless. Hair shaft abnormalities may occur as localized or generalized disorders. Genetic predisposition or exogenous factors are able to produce and maintain hair shaft abnormalities. In addition to an extensive history and physical examination the most important diagnostic examination to analyze a hair shaft problem is light microscopy. Therapy of hair shaft disorders should focus to the cause. In addition, minimizing traumatic influences to hair shafts, such as dry hair with an electric dryer, permanent waves and dyes is important. A short hair style is more suitable for such patients with hair shaft disorders.

  20. Guidelines for laser hair removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Angela S; Goldberg, David

    2008-03-01

    Requests for removal of unwanted body hair are common in dermatologic and surgical practices. Technology continues to improve the achievement of a more permanent reduction through the use of lasers. Despite the increased use of lasers, to date, few guidelines exist in terms of how to approach laser hair removal. Specifically, one must understand the mechanism of hair growth and how lasers work to target the hair follicle. There is significant variation among practitioners in pre-and post-laser recommendations to patients as well as intervals between treatment sessions. We performed a thorough review of the literature in order to determine evidence for the ideal interval between treatment sessions and the ideal number of sessions. We also sought to establish, based on published reports, the recommendations for shaving, plucking, waxing or other hair removal methods prior to laser hair removal and the guidelines for sun exposure before and after laser treatments. Finally, we searched the literature to find out whether there are areas that should not be treated with laser hair removal. The evidence and recommendations in this article aim to help guide practitioners in their approach to laser hair removal.

  1. Understanding breakage in curly hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Bragado, G A; Balooch, G; Dixon-Parks, F; Porter, C; Bryant, H

    2015-07-01

    In 2005, the L'Oréal Institute for hair and skin research carried out a multiethnic study to investigate hair breakage in women residing in the U.S.A. In this study it was reported that a large percentage (96%) of the African-American respondents experience breakage. A combination of structural differences and grooming-induced stresses seem to contribute to the higher breakage incidence in the African-American group as the chemical composition of African-American hair is not significantly different from other ethnic groups. Some authors have proposed that the repeated elongation, torsion and flexion actions may affect the components of the hair fibre. However, considering the different properties of cuticle and cortex, one would expect a different wearing mechanism of each, leading to the ultimate failure of hair. Knowing in detail how each part of the structure fails can potentially lead to better ways to protect the hair from physical insults. To investigate crack propagation and fracture mechanisms in African-American hair. Virgin hair of excellent quality was collected, with informed consent, from a female African-American volunteer. A series of controlled mechanical stresses was applied to 10-mm hair sections using a high-resolution mechanical stage (20 mN) up to the fracture of the fibre. The surface was monitored using scanning electron microscopy imaging during the stress application. X-ray tomographic microscopy images were acquired and quantified to detect changes in energy absorption as a function of applied stress that could be linked to increase in crack density. Analysis of the mechanical response of hair combined with the two imaging techniques led us to propose the following mechanism of hair breakage: cuticle sliding; failure of the cuticle-cortex interface; nucleation of intercellular cracks and growth of cracks at the cuticle-cortex junction; and propagation of intercellular cracks towards the surface of the hair and final breakage when these

  2. [Hair shaft anomalies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itin, P H

    1997-06-01

    Hair shaft disorders lead to brittle and uncombable hair. As a rule the hair feels dry and lusterless. Hair shaft abnormalities may present as localized of generalized alterations. Genetic predisposition and exogenous factors are able to produce hair shaft abnormalities. The most important examination to analyze a hair shaft problem is light microscopy. Treatment of hair shaft disorders should focus on the cause. In addition, minimizing traumatic influences to hair shafts, such as electric dryer, permanent waves and dyes is important.

  3. Deficiency in nucleotide excision repair family gene activity, especially ERCC3, is associated with non-pigmented hair fiber growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Yu

    Full Text Available We conducted a microarray study to discover gene expression patterns associated with a lack of melanogenesis in non-pigmented hair follicles (HF by microarray. Pigmented and non-pigmented HFs were collected and micro-dissected into the hair bulb (HB and the upper hair sheaths (HS including the bulge region. In comparison to pigmented HS and HBs, nucleotide excision repair (NER family genes ERCC1, ERCC2, ERCC3, ERCC4, ERCC5, ERCC6, XPA, NTPBP, HCNP, DDB2 and POLH exhibited statistically significantly lower expression in non- pigmented HS and HBs. Quantitative PCR verified microarray data and identified ERCC3 as highly differentially expressed. Immunohistochemistry confirmed ERCC3 expression in HF melanocytes. A reduction in ERCC3 by siRNA interference in human melanocytes in vitro reduced their tyrosinase production ability. Our results suggest that loss of NER gene function is associated with a loss of melanin production capacity. This may be due to reduced gene transcription and/or reduced DNA repair in melanocytes which may eventually lead to cell death. These results provide novel information with regard to melanogenesis and its regulation.

  4. Hair colouring, permanent styling and hair structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, S; Sinclair, R

    2003-07-01

    Hair is an important component of body image and has immense psychological importance for both men and women. Women, in particular, over the ages have modified their appearance through changing their hair colour or style. Hair can be straight, wavy or curly, blonde, black, brown or red. These natural variations are an important part of our identity that can be manipulated according to the dictates of fashion, culture or society. Different types of hair have varying affinity for the different colouring and waving methods. Damaged hair also has a different affinity for hair products than normal healthy hair. The hair shaft is remarkably strong and resistant to the extremes of nature. Hair cosmetics are widely available and manipulate the structural properties of hair. Whilst most procedures are safe, there is considerable potential for damage to the hair and hair problems of acute onset, including hair breakage, hair loss and loss of condition, are frequently blamed on the last product used on the hair. Hair problems are particularly prevalent among people who repeatedly alter the natural style of their hair.

  5. A toddler with hair fascination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Patricia; Needlman, Robert D; Stein, Martin T

    2010-04-01

    Joseph is a 24-months old boy referred by his pediatrician because of an "obsession" with pulling and eating hair. When Joseph was 14 months old, he enjoyed touching and twirling his mother's long hair. She observed that it seemed to provide comfort to him. At 18 months, he initiated pulling out and eating his own hair, twirling his mother's hair around his thumb and then sucking on it. Currently, he searches the carpet or a hard floor and looks for hair to eat. The identical behavior is observed at daycare. Joseph's teacher commented, "He pulled hair from a girl who has the longest hair of all the children. We try to distract him from this habit, but he is not distracted for long." Less frequently, Joseph has also eaten sand, chalk, and crayons at daycare. Joseph's mother describes him as a "happy and outgoing" child who interacts with his peers and has a best friend at the daycare. There have not been recent changes or stressful events in his life. Joseph separates from his mother with ease and he sleeps comfortably through the night in his own bed. There have been no episodes of nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, or constipation. Strands of hair are occasionally seen in the stool. Prenatal and perinatal history was unremarkable. Joseph was breast-fed for 11 months, described as an "easy" baby, achieved motor, social, and language developmental milestones at the usual time, and has been in excellent health. He lives with his mother and maternal grandparents; the biological father has never been involved in his care. At 20 months, Joseph's pediatrician suggested cutting his hair. After several haircuts, Joseph stopped pulling his own hair. However, he continued to search the floor for hair. Hemoglobin and a blood lead level were normal. Joseph appeared pleasant and friendly with normal growth parameters and facial features. He was sitting comfortably on his mother's lap, sucking on his thumb. Social interactions with his mother were appropriate and reciprocal. He

  6. Three-dimensional finite element models of the human pubic symphysis with viscohyperelastic soft tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuoping; Alonso, Jorge E; Kim, Jong-Eun; Davidson, James S; Etheridge, Brandon S; Eberhardt, Alan W

    2006-09-01

    Three-dimensional finite element (FE) models of human pubic symphyses were constructed from computed tomography image data of one male and one female cadaver pelvis. The pubic bones, interpubic fibrocartilaginous disc and four pubic ligaments were segmented semi-automatically and meshed with hexahedral elements using automatic mesh generation schemes. A two-term viscoelastic Prony series, determined by curve fitting results of compressive creep experiments, was used to model the rate-dependent effects of the interpubic disc and the pubic ligaments. Three-parameter Mooney-Rivlin material coefficients were calculated for the discs using a heuristic FE approach based on average experimental joint compression data. Similarly, a transversely isotropic hyperelastic material model was applied to the ligaments to capture average tensile responses. Linear elastic isotropic properties were assigned to bone. The applicability of the resulting models was tested in bending simulations in four directions and in tensile tests of varying load rates. The model-predicted results correlated reasonably with the joint bending stiffnesses and rate-dependent tensile responses measured in experiments, supporting the validity of the estimated material coefficients and overall modeling approach. This study represents an important and necessary step in the eventual development of biofidelic pelvis models to investigate symphysis response under high-energy impact conditions, such as motor vehicle collisions.

  7. Hair care and dyeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2015-01-01

    Alopecia can be effectively camouflaged or worsened through the use of hair care techniques and dyeing. Proper hair care, involving hair styling and the use of mild shampoos and body-building conditioners, can amplify thinning scalp hair; however, chemical processing, including hair dyeing, permanent waving, and hair straightening, can encourage further hair loss through breakage. Many patients suffering from alopecia attempt to improve their hair through extensive manipulation, which only increases problems. Frequent haircuts to minimize split ends, accompanied by gentle handling of the fragile fibers, is best. This chapter offers the dermatologist insight into hair care recommendations for the alopecia patient.

  8. Treatments for unwanted facial hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, J; Lui, H

    Twenty-two percent of women in North America have unwanted facial hair, which can cause embarrassment and result in a significant emotional burden. Treatment options include plucking, waxing (including the sugar forms), depilatories, bleaching, shaving, electrolysis, laser, intense pulsed light (IPL), and eflornithine 13.9% cream (Vaniqa, Barrier Therapeutics in Canada and Shire Pharmaceuticals elsewhere). Eflornithine 13.9% cream is a topical treatment that does not remove the hairs, but acts to reduce the rate of growth and appears to be effective for unwanted facial hair on the mustache and chin area. Eflornithine 13.9% cream can be used in combination with other treatments such as lasers and IPL to give the patient the best chance for successful hair removal.

  9. Biologic rhythms derived from Siberian mammoths' hairs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Spilde

    Full Text Available Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was ∼31 cms/year and ∼16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios, which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna.

  10. Growing hairs in shorn cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília José Veríssimo

    2013-12-01

    10, hair decreased from average 21.26 ± 5.72 mm to 4.50 ± 0.83 mm. On the sheared side a hair growth of 26 mm was observed during the first two weeks, increasing to 40 mm for the next two weeks and at the end of 28 days there was still a significant difference (Z= -3.195; P= 0.001 for the non sheared hair (19.42 ± 7.33 mm and sheared hair (11.15 ± 3.23 mm. Such procedure was done by the beginning of August, still winter time. Using the blade size 30, sheared hair had an average of 4.76 ± 1.1 mm. A 24 mm hair growth was observed for the first two weeks and 20 mm for the next two weeks, decreasing its growth speed to 9 mm and after 57 days no significant difference was observed between sheared side (11.47 ± 5.61 mm and non sheared side (14.78 ± 8.06 mm, Z= -1.915; P= 0.055. Second cut was performed by  the beginning of October, spring time, period where there is a change of hair in European cattle  from winter season (thin and long hair to summer season (thick and short hair, starting on spring time. In this work we could observe the fast growing of hair when cut was done in winter time and the closer to the skin the better the benefits to the animals, as heat tolerance and fewer tick infestations. If shearing is done in spring time, it must be every 45-50 days.

  11. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are signs of hormone imbalance, such as excess facial or body hair, a hormone evaluation should be done. Hormonal changes are a common cause of female hair loss. Many women do not realize that hair loss can occur ...

  12. Premature graying of hair

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pandhi, Deepika; Khanna, Deepshikha

    2013-01-01

    .... It needs to be differentiated from various genetic hypomelanotic hair disorders. Reduction in melanogenically active melanocytes in the hair bulb of gray anagen hair follicles with resultant pigment loss is central to the pathogenesis of graying...

  13. Hair Pulling (Trichotillomania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts for Families Guide Facts for Families - Vietnamese Hair Pulling (Trichotillomania) No. 96; Reviewed July 2013 It ... for children and adolescents to play with their hair. However, frequent or obsessive hair pulling can lead ...

  14. Laser hair removal for genital gender affirming surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, William R; Garrett, Giorgia L; Arron, Sarah T; Garcia, Maurice M

    2016-06-01

    Genital gender affirming surgery (GAS) involves reconstruction of the genitals to match a patient's identified sex. The use of hair-bearing flaps in this procedure may result in postoperative intra-vaginal and intra-urethral hair growth and associated complications, including lower satisfaction with genital GAS. Despite the significant increase in genital GAS within the past 50 years, there is limited data regarding hair removal practices in preparation for genital GAS and notable variation in hair removal techniques among dermatologists and other practitioners. We present a literature review, recommendations from our experience, and a practical laser hair removal (LHR) approach to hair removal prior to genital GAS.

  15. Gas-filled parasymphyseal pubic cyst associated with degenerative joint disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martel, J.P.; Spouge, A.R. [London Health Science Centre, Diagnostic Imaging University Hospital, London, ON (Canada)

    2007-06-15

    Parasymphyseal cysts are a rare and poorly understood entity. This case report describes a gas-containing parasymphyseal cystic lesion associated with degenerative change and vacuum phenomenon in the pubic symphysis. The mass was discovered incidentally in a 72-year-old asymptomatic male who underwent a transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy of the prostate and the nature of the lesion was confirmed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT). We hypothesize that the gas within the parasymphyseal cystic mass arose from a vacuum phenomenon in the pubic symphysis, with subsequent extrusion of gas from the joint into the cyst itself. It is important for radiologists to be aware of the existence of this entity to avoid unnecessary surgery for patients. (orig.)

  16. Spontaneous septic arthritis of the pubic symphysis in an afebrile patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Erin L; Kovacs, Mitch; Gair, Leslie

    2016-05-01

    Septic arthritis is a rare infection usually involving the knee or hip but can infrequently affect less obvious joints such as the pubic symphysis.Risk factors for septic arthritis include joint repair or replacement surgery, systemic infection, intravenous recreational drug use, and alcoholism.We present the case of a 48-year-old man with a final diagnosis of septic arthritis of the pubic symphysis who had no risk factors besides alcoholism. The presentation was unusual in that the patient was afebrile,and the infection seemed to be spontaneous. The infecting pathogen was identified as Streptococcus anginosus or S constellatus, both being normal intestinal flora. Infection by either bacterium is rare in septic arthritis.

  17. [An unusual clinical variant of pubic pain in females: the case of an athlete].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeyens, L

    1987-01-01

    Gynaecological types of pain in high-powered sportswomen can be of traumatic origin (bony, muscular or cartilaginous) in the region around the pubis. A case of vaginal pain which proved to be due to adductor tendinitis in the hip in a long distance walker is described. A review of the differential diagnosis of gynaecological pain that can occur in sportswomen is carried out. These consist of instability in the symphysis of the pubis as well as muscular lesions of the abdominal muscles of the hip adductors and of the ilio-psoas muscles. In addition, stress fractures of the pubic rami as well as inflammation of the symphysis due to stress, and pubic osteomyelitis are described.

  18. Three dimensional surface analyses of pubic symphyseal faces of contemporary Japanese reconstructed with 3D digitized scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biwasaka, Hitoshi; Sato, Kei; Aoki, Yasuhiro; Kato, Hideaki; Maeno, Yoshitaka; Tanijiri, Toyohisa; Fujita, Sachiko; Dewa, Koji

    2013-09-01

    Three dimensional pubic bone images were analyzed to quantify some age-dependent morphological changes of the symphyseal faces of contemporary Japanese residents. The images were synthesized from 145 bone specimens with 3D measuring device. Phases of Suchey-Brooks system were determined on the 3D pubic symphyseal images without discrepancy from those carried out on the real bones because of the high fidelity. Subsequently, mean curvatures of the pubic symphyseal faces to examine concavo-convex condition of the surfaces were analyzed on the 3D images. Average values of absolute mean curvatures of phase 1 and 2 groups were higher than those of phase 3-6 ones, whereas the values were approximately constant over phase 3 presumably reflecting the inactivation of pubic faces over phase 3. Ratio of the concave areas increased gradually with progressing phase or age classes, although convex areas were predominant in every phase.

  19. Ion beam microanalysis of human hair follicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kertesz, Zs. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4001 Debrecen, P.O. Box 51 (Hungary)]. E-mail: zsofi@atomki.hu; Szikszai, Z. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4001 Debrecen, P.O. Box 51 (Hungary); Pelicon, P. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P.O. Box 3000, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Simcic, J. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P.O. Box 3000, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Telek, A. [Department of Physiology and Cell Physiology Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, University of Debrecen, Medical and Health Science Center, Research Center for Molecular Medicine, H-4012, Debrecen, Nagyerdei krt. 98 (Hungary); Biro, T. [Department of Physiology and Cell Physiology Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, University of Debrecen, Medical and Health Science Center, Research Center for Molecular Medicine, H-4012, Debrecen, Nagyerdei krt. 98 (Hungary)

    2007-07-15

    Hair follicle is an appendage organ of the skin which is of importance to the survival of mammals and still maintains significance for the human race - not just biologically, but also through cosmetic and commercial considerations. However data on composition of hair follicles are scarce and mostly limited to the hair shaft. In this study we provide detailed information on the elemental distribution in human hair follicles in different growth phases (anagen and catagen) using a scanning proton microprobe. The analysis of skin samples obtained from human adults undergoing plastic surgery and of organ-cultured human hair follicles may yield a new insight into the function, development and cyclic activity of the hair follicle.

  20. Ion beam microanalysis of human hair follicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertész, Zs.; Szikszai, Z.; Pelicon, P.; Simčič, J.; Telek, A.; Bíró, T.

    2007-07-01

    Hair follicle is an appendage organ of the skin which is of importance to the survival of mammals and still maintains significance for the human race - not just biologically, but also through cosmetic and commercial considerations. However data on composition of hair follicles are scarce and mostly limited to the hair shaft. In this study we provide detailed information on the elemental distribution in human hair follicles in different growth phases (anagen and catagen) using a scanning proton microprobe. The analysis of skin samples obtained from human adults undergoing plastic surgery and of organ-cultured human hair follicles may yield a new insight into the function, development and cyclic activity of the hair follicle.

  1. Hair dye poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair tint poisoning ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. The harmful ingredients in permanent dyes are: Naphthylamine Other aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene ...

  2. Effect of pubic bone marrow edema on recovery from endoscopic surgery for athletic pubalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuikka, L; Hermunen, H; Paajanen, H

    2015-02-01

    Athletic pubalgia (sportsman's hernia) is often repaired by surgery. The presence of pubic bone marrow edema (BME) in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may effect on the outcome of surgery. Surgical treatment of 30 patients with athletic pubalgia was performed by placement of totally extraperitoneal endoscopic mesh behind the painful groin area. The presence of pre-operative BME was graded from 0 to 3 using MRI and correlated to post-operative pain scores and recovery to sports activity 2 years after operation. The operated athletes participated in our previous prospective randomized study. The athletes with (n = 21) or without (n = 9) pubic BME had similar patients' characteristics and pain scores before surgery. Periostic and intraosseous edema at symphysis pubis was related to increase of post-operative pain scores only at 3 months after surgery (P = 0.03) but not to long-term recovery. Two years after surgery, three athletes in the BME group and three in the normal MRI group needed occasionally pain medication for chronic groin pain, and 87% were playing at the same level as before surgery. This study indicates that the presence of pubic BME had no remarkable long-term effect on recovery from endoscopic surgical treatment of athletic pubalgia.

  3. Massive haemorrhage after a low‐energy pubic ramus fracture in a 71‐year‐old woman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, D J M; Tollan, C J; Robertson, I; Rana, B S

    2006-01-01

    We describe a case of a patient receiving warfarin who presented with a superior pubic ramus fracture after a trivial fall at home. She developed a massive retroperitoneal haematoma as a result of vascular injury and subsequently died. This case emphasises the importance of admitting and observing patients with pubic rami fractures who are receiving antithrombotic treatment, and haemorrhage should be considered if they become haemodynamically compromised. PMID:17068268

  4. Massive haemorrhage after a low-energy pubic ramus fracture in a 71-year-old woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, D J M; Tollan, C J; Robertson, I; Rana, B; Rana, B S

    2006-10-01

    We describe a case of a patient receiving warfarin who presented with a superior pubic ramus fracture after a trivial fall at home. She developed a massive retroperitoneal haematoma as a result of vascular injury and subsequently died. This case emphasises the importance of admitting and observing patients with pubic rami fractures who are receiving antithrombotic treatment, and haemorrhage should be considered if they become haemodynamically compromised.

  5. Trichotillomania: Bizzare Patern of Hair Loss at 11-Year-old Girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zímová, Jana; Zímová, Pavlína

    2016-06-01

    are "high-risk" situations for hair-pulling (5). Men and women also differed in terms of the hair pulling site (men pull hair from the stomach/back and the moustache/beard areas, while women pull from the scalp) (3). Pulling hair from siblings, pets, dolls, and stuffed animals has also been documented, often occurring in the same pattern as in the patient (5). Genetic factors contributing to the development of TTM are mutations of the SLITRK1 gene, which plays a role in cortex development and neuronal growth. The protein SAPAP3 has been present in 4.2% of TTM cases and patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). It may be involved in the development of the spectrum of OCD. A significantly different concordance rate for TTM was found in monozygotic (38.1%) compared with dizygotic (0%) twins in 34 pairs (3). The core diagnostic feature is the repetitive pulling of hairs from one`s own body, resulting in hair loss. The targeted hair is mostly on the scalp (75%), but may also be from the eyebrows (42%), eyelashes (53%), beard (10%), and pubic area (17%) (3,5). There are three subtypes of hair pulling - early onset, automatic, and focused. Diagnostic criteria for TTM according to DSM-IV criteria are (2,3,5): 1) recurrent pulling of one`s hair resulting in noticeable hair loss; 2) an increasing sense of tension immediately prior to pulling out the hair or when attempting to resist the behavior; 3) pleasure, gratification, or relief when pulling out the hair; 4) the disturbance is not better accounted for by another mental disorder and is not due to a general medical condition (e.g., a dermatologic condition); 5) the disturbance causes clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. The differential diagnosis includes alopecia areata (Table 1) (6), tinea capitis, telogen effluvium, secondary syphilis, traction alopecia, loose anagen syndrome, lichen planopilaris, alopecia mucinosa, and scleroderma (2

  6. Human hair shaft proteomic profiling: individual differences, site specificity and cuticle analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea N. Laatsch

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Hair from different individuals can be distinguished by physical properties. Although some data exist on other species, examination of the individual molecular differences within the human hair shaft has not been thoroughly investigated. Shotgun proteomic analysis revealed considerable variation in profile among samples from Caucasian, African–American, Kenyan and Korean subjects. Within these ethnic groups, prominent keratin proteins served to distinguish individual profiles. Differences between ethnic groups, less marked, relied to a large extent on levels of keratin associated proteins. In samples from Caucasian subjects, hair shafts from axillary, beard, pubic and scalp regions exhibited distinguishable profiles, with the last being most different from the others. Finally, the profile of isolated hair cuticle cells was distinguished from that of total hair shaft by levels of more than 20 proteins, the majority of which were prominent keratins. The cuticle also exhibited relatively high levels of epidermal transglutaminase (TGM3, accounting for its observed low degree of protein extraction by denaturants. In addition to providing insight into hair structure, present findings may lead to improvements in differentiating hair from various ethnic origins and offer an approach to extending use of hair in crime scene evidence for distinguishing among individuals.

  7. Biochemical and ultrastructural processing of (/sup 125/I)epidermal growth factor in rat epidermis and hair follicles: accumulation of nuclear label

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, M.R.; Mycock, C.; Smith, C.G.; Couchman, J.R.

    1987-03-01

    Although the intracellular ultrastructural processing of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptor have been described in cell culture systems, very few studies have examined this phenomenon in intact tissues. We have examined the ultrastructural and biochemical handling of (/sup 125/I)EGF in the epidermis and hair follicle bulb of intact, viable, 3- to 5-day-old rat skin the EGF receptor distribution of which has already been documented and in which EGF has been shown to be biologically active. After incubation of explants with 10 nM (/sup 125/I)EGF for 2.5 h at 25 degrees or 37 degrees C, radiolabel was detected over the basal cells of the epidermis and hair follicle outer root sheath, confirming previous light microscope observations. More specifically, silver grains were observed near coated and uncoated plasma membrane and coated membrane invaginations, Golgi apparatus, lysosomal structures, and nuclei. Sodium azide inhibited internalization of label, whereas a series of lysosomal inhibitors (chloroquine, monensin, and iodoacetamide) caused a slight increase in silver grains associated with lysosomal vesicles and a decrease in nuclear label. Biochemical analysis indicated that greater than 35% of radioactivity following incubation at 37 degrees C was in the form of degraded (/sup 125/I)EGF fragments and that inclusion of chloroquine, monensin, and iodoacetamide reduced this value to 20.8%, 8.6%, and 4.0%, respectively. In addition, chloramine T-prepared (/sup 125/I)EGF was found to be covalently cross-linked with low efficiency to a protein having the molecular weight of the EGF receptor. These data are discussed in the light of the effects of EGF on epithelial cell proliferation in skin.

  8. 产前备皮方式的临床对照研究%Clinical control study in methods of pre-labor pubic preparation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏玉; 韩月清; 王小环; 王青; 黄敏

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine whether it is necessary to execute pre-labor pubic shaving.Methods Women(336 cases)who received pubic shaving through vaginal delivery from 2003 to 2006 were set as the control group.Women(103 cases)who were waiting for delivery currently in our hospital were set as the test group.The test group only received perineal cleaning without pubic shaving.If episiotomy was needed during the operation,the perineal hair Was cut by scissors.The perineum infectious rate and postpartal infection Was compared in the two groups.We interviewed the patients attitude for pubic shaving and counted the numing time used for pubic shaving.Results The perineal infection in the test group was 5.8%,which was no statistically different from that of the control group(2.4%),U=0.33,P>0.05.Totally 95% women in the test group support this method demonstrated humanization.In the telephone folow-up visit for patients in the control group they comphined itch and discomfort during the regeneration of pubes.The average numing time for pubic shaving Was(4.6±0.6)minutes.Conclusions No pubic shaving for pre-labor skin preparation was feasible.If operation was disturbed by pubes we could use scissors to cut it short.This method could reduce the skin infection and propagation of blood-derived infectious disease.It increased the comfort of parturient,saved time and proved to be a nursing method of humanization.%目的 确定产前备皮时是否需要剃除阴毛.方法 开展临床对照研究,将2003-2006年经阴道分娩产前剃除阴毛的产妇336例作为对照组,以目前待产的产妇103例作为实验组.实验组产前备皮时只清洁会阴,不剃除阴毛,如需要行会阴切开术,在术前用剪刀将手术区阴毛剪短.比较2组会阴感染率及产褥感染率.并通过访谈了解2组产妇对此措施的主观感受.计算备皮剃除阴毛时所用护理时间.结果 实验组会阴感染率为5.8%,对照组会阴感染率为2.4%,2组比

  9. Measurement of Growth and Other Growth Related Characters of White Hairs from Both Temples of an Adult Man%中年男性两鬓白发的生长速度等有关性状测量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳宇; 张伟

    2011-01-01

    在985 d内,连续拔取一位中年男性两鬓的白发样本左右各12份,每份5~7根.测量其白色段的长度和距发根1 cm处头发的微观性状.用SPSS17.0软件对各性状配对样本T检验和二元定距变量相关分析.结果表明:两鬓头发生长速度差异不显著(P>0.05):左鬓(0.59±0.05)mm/d;右鬓(0.58±0.06)mm/d.距发根1 cm处,两鬓发干细度差异不显著(P>0.05):左鬓(92.52±6.34)μm,右鬓(91.18±4.47)μm;髓质细度存在极显著差异(p=0.01):左鬓(28.44±9.25)μm,右鬓(21.59±3.69)μm;髓质指数有差异(0.05>p>0.01):左鬓(30.41±8.26)%,右鬓(23.59±4.21)%;鳞片游离缘间距差异不显著(P>0.05):左鬓(5.00±0.37)μm,右鬓:(4.78±0.16)μm.头发生长速度、距发根1 cm处发干细度、鳞片游离缘间距两侧对称.其中生长速度有季节差异.各相关性状间存在相关关系.%Twelve samples with 5-7 growing white hairs each were obtained respectively from each side of temples of an adult man during 985 days. The lengths of the white segments of each sample were measured by ruler, and the microcosmic structure of the hair segments 1 cm away from their hairy root was studied. The analysis of paired-samples T test and Bivariate correlation with SPSS17.0 software were made. An insignificant difference in hair growth rate was observed between the left temple and the fight temple. The average rate of the white hair growth for the left temple is (0.59±0.05)mm/d and that for the right is (0.58±0.06)mm/d. The average diameter of hair segments 1 cm away from their hairy root is (92. 52±6. 34) μm for the left temple and that for the right is (91.18±4.47) μm. There is an extremely significant difference in hair medullar diameter between the left and the right temples. The average medullar diameter is (28.44±9.25) μm for the left temple and (21.59 ±3.69 ) μm for the right. The average medullar index is ( 30.41 ±8.26 ) percent for the left temple and (23.59±4.21) percent for

  10. Determinants of hair cortisol and hair cortisone concentrations in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staufenbiel, Sabine M; Penninx, Brenda W J H; de Rijke, Yolanda B; van den Akker, Erica L T; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C

    2015-10-01

    The analysis of hair cortisol concentrations (HairF) is a promising new tool for the assessment of long-term cortisol. With the development of multiple steroid analyses by means of liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), the analysis of cortisone in hair (HairE) has also been facilitated. However, the influence of various types of determinants on HairF and HairE is still largely unknown. This study systematically assesses the influence of sociodemographic, health, lifestyle, and hair (treatment) characteristics on HairF and HairE. Data of 760 psychiatrically healthy participants (71.8% female, mean age 45.89 years) of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) were used. HairF and HairE were measured in the proximal 3 cm of scalp hair, using LC-MS/MS. HairF and HairE strongly correlated. In simple linear regressions, HairF and HairE were higher in older age, in presence of diabetes mellitus, and in men compared to women. More frequent washing of the hair was associated with lower HairF and HairE. Darker hair colours were associated with higher HairF and HairE. An effect of season and of use of oral contraceptives was found for HairF. After full mutual adjustment, only age, presence of diabetes mellitus, hair washing frequency, and season remained significant determinants of HairF. This large-scale study shows that HairF and HairE are upregulated in older age and in the presence of diabetes mellitus. This suggests that these levels are important for somatic health and should be taken into account when using hair corticosteroid analysis in future studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Excess salt and pepper hair treated with a combination of laser hair removal and topical eflornithine HCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganger, Laura K; Hamzavi, Iltefat H

    2006-06-01

    A common problem among aging women, salt and pepper facial hair poses a significant psychosocial impact as well as a challenge for treatment. Various laser therapies or topical eflornithine HCl 13.9% cream are commonly used to reduce the rate of hair growth. We report a case of a woman with salt and pepper hair in the beard distribution. A combination of laser hair removal with concurrent use of topical eflornithine was used in the treatment.

  12. Hair cosmetics: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavazzoni Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis

    2015-01-01

    Hair cosmetics are an important tool that helps to increase patient's adhesion to alopecia and scalp treatments. This article reviews the formulations and the mode of action of hair cosmetics: Shampoos, conditioners, hair straightening products, hair dyes and henna; regarding their prescription and safetiness. The dermatologist's knowledge of hair care products, their use, and their possible side effects can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources and help dermatologists to better treat hair and scalp conditions according to the diversity of hair types and ethnicity.

  13. Hair transplantation: Standard guidelines of care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patwardhan Narendra

    2008-03-01

    that proper hair growth can be expected after about 9 months after transplantation. Preoperative laboratory studies to be performed include Hb%, blood counts including platelet count, bleeding and clotting time (or prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time, blood chemistry profile including sugar. Methods : Follicular unit hair transplantation is the gold standard method of hair transplantation; it preserves the natural architecture of the hair units and gives natural results. Mini-micro-grafting is a method hair transplantation involving randomly assorted groups of hairs, with out consideration of their natural configuration of follicular units, under loupe or naked eye examination. Mini-grafts consist of 4-5-6 hairs while micro-grafts consist of 1-3 hairs. Punch gives ugly cosmetically unacceptable results and should no longer be used. Patient Selection : Hair transplantation can be performed in any person with pattern hair loss, with good donor area, in good general health and reasonable expectations. Caution should be exercised in, very young patients whose early alopecia is still evolving, patients with Norwood grade VI or VII with poor density, patients with unrealistic expectations, and patients with significant systemic health problems. Medical therapy: Most patients will need concurrent medical treatment since the process of pattern hair loss is progressive and may affect the remaining hairs. Manpower : Hair transplantation is a team effort. Particularly, performing large sessions, needs a well trained team of trained assistants. Anesthesia: 2% lignocaine with adrenaline is generally used for anesthesia; tumescent technique is preferred. Bupivacaine has been used by some authors in view of its prolonged duration of action. Donor dissection : Strip dissection by single blade is recommended for donor area. Steromicroscopic dissection is recommended for dissection of hair units in follicular unit transplantation; mini-micro-grafting does not need

  14. Human hair genealogies and stem cell latency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavaré Simon

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stem cells divide to reproduce themselves and produce differentiated progeny. A fundamental problem in human biology has been the inability to measure how often stem cells divide. Although it is impossible to observe every division directly, one method for counting divisions is to count replication errors; the greater the number of divisions, the greater the numbers of errors. Stem cells with more divisions should produce progeny with more replication errors. Methods To test this approach, epigenetic errors (methylation in CpG-rich molecular clocks were measured from human hairs. Hairs exhibit growth and replacement cycles and "new" hairs physically reappear even on "old" heads. Errors may accumulate in long-lived stem cells, or in their differentiated progeny that are eventually shed. Results Average hair errors increased until two years of age, and then were constant despite decades of replacement, consistent with new hairs arising from infrequently dividing bulge stem cells. Errors were significantly more frequent in longer hairs, consistent with long-lived but eventually shed mitotic follicle cells. Conclusion Constant average hair methylation regardless of age contrasts with the age-related methylation observed in human intestine, suggesting that error accumulation and therefore stem cell latency differs among tissues. Epigenetic molecular clocks imply similar mitotic ages for hairs on young and old human heads, consistent with a restart with each new hair, and with genealogies surreptitiously written within somatic cell genomes.

  15. Beam shaping for cosmetic hair removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizotte, Todd E.; Tuttle, Tracie

    2007-09-01

    Beam shaping has the potential to provide comfort to people who require or seek laser based cosmetic skin procedures. Of immediate interest is the procedure of aesthetic hair removal. Hair removal is performed using a variety of wavelengths from 480 to 1200 nm by means of filtered Xenon flash lamps (pulsed light) or 810 nm diode lasers. These wavelengths are considered the most efficient means available for hair removal applications, but current systems use simple reflector designs and plane filter windows to direct the light to the surface being exposed. Laser hair removal is achieved when these wavelengths at sufficient energy levels are applied to the epidermis. The laser energy is absorbed by the melanin (pigment) in the hair and hair follicle which in turn is transformed into heat. This heat creates the coagulation process, which causes the removal of the hair and prevents growth of new hair [1]. This paper outlines a technique of beam shaping that can be applied to a non-contact based hair removal system. Several features of the beam shaping technique including beam uniformity and heat dispersion across its operational treatment area will be analyzed. A beam shaper design and its fundamental testing will be discussed in detail.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: cartilage-hair hypoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorder of bone growth characterized by short stature (dwarfism) with other skeletal abnormalities; fine, sparse hair ( hypotrichosis ); ... Additional Information & Resources MedlinePlus (1 link) Health Topic: Dwarfism Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (1 link) ...

  17. Analysis of the efficiency of hair removal by different optical methods: comparison of Trichoscan, reflectance confocal microscopy, and optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuck, Monika; Schanzer, Sabine; Ulrich, Martina; Bartels, Natalie Garcia; Meinke, Martina C.; Fluhr, Joachim; Krah, Martin; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Stockfleth, Eggert; Lademann, Jürgen

    2012-10-01

    Noninvasive diagnostic tools, such as Trichoscan, reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM), and optical coherence tomography (OCT), are efficient methods of hair shaft and growth evaluation. The aim of this study was to carry out a comparative assessment of these three medical procedures by measuring the hair shaft and hair growth after hair removal for a defined period of five days. The application of these techniques was demonstrated by measuring hair growth on the lower leg of six female volunteers. After removal of the hair shaft with a shaving system, the hair follicle infundibula and the length of the growing hairs were measured with the Trichoscan, RCM, and OCT method. All three methods are reliable hair measuring tools after hair removal. Trichoscan is best suited in the implementation of hair growth measurement and RCM in the analysis of hair follicles, whereas the OCT system can be consulted as an additional measurement for the evaluation of the hair follicle and length.

  18. A nonsymbiotic root hair tip growth phenotype in NORK-mutated legumes: implications for nodulation factor-induced signaling and formation of a multifaceted root hair pocket for bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esseling, J.J.; Lhuissier, F.G.P.; Emons, A.M.C.

    2004-01-01

    The Medicago truncatula Does not Make Infections (DMI2) mutant is mutated in the nodulation receptor-like kinase, NORK. Here, we report that NORK-mutated legumes of three species show an enhanced touch response to experimental handling, which results in a nonsymbiotic root hair phenotype. When care

  19. Rhizosphere competent Mesorhizobiumloti MP6 induces root hair curling, inhibits Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and enhances growth of Indian mustard (Brassica campestris)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shikha Chandra; Kamlesh Choure; Ramesh C. Dubey; Dinesh K. Maheshwari

    2007-01-01

    .... loti MP6 in rhizosphere due to root exudates of B. campestris. In dual culture technique the strain showed a strong antagonistic effect against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, a white rot pathogen of Brassica campestris. The growth of S...

  20. Aging of hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2005-06-01

    The appearance of hair plays an important role in people's overall physical appearance and self-perception. With today's increasing life expectation, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever. The hair care industry has become aware of this and also more capable to deliver active products that are directed toward meeting this consumer demand. The discovery of pharmacological targets and the development of safe and effective drugs also indicate strategies of the drug industry for maintenance of healthy and beautiful hair. Hair aging comprises weathering of the hair shaft and aging of the hair follicle. The latter manifests as decrease of melanocyte function or graying, and decrease in hair production in androgenetic and senescent alopecia. The scalp is also subject to intrinsic or physiologic aging and extrinsic aging caused by external factors. Intrinsic factors are related to individual genetic and epigenetic mechanisms with interindividual variation. Prototypes are familial premature graying and androgenetic alopecia. Extrinsic factors include ultraviolet radiation and smoking. Experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress plays a role in skin and hair aging. Topical anti-aging compounds for hair include humefactants, hair conditioners, photoprotectors, and antioxidants. Current available treatment modalities with proven efficacy for treatment of androgenetic alopecia are topical minoxidil, oral finasteride, and autologous hair transplantation. In the absence of another way to reverse hair graying, hair colorants are the mainstays of recovering lost hair color. Topical liposome targeting for melanins, genes, and proteins selectively to hair follicles are under current investigation.

  1. Over half the hair cells in the mouse utricle first appear after birth, with significant numbers originating from early postnatal mitotic production in peripheral and striolar growth zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Joseph C; On, Doan; Baker, Wendy; Collado, M Sol; Corwin, Jeffrey T

    2012-10-01

    Many non-mammalian vertebrates produce hair cells throughout life and recover from hearing and balance deficits through regeneration. In contrast, embryonic production of hair cells declines sharply in mammals where deficits from hair cell losses are typically permanent. Hair cell density estimates recently suggested that the vestibular organs of mice continue to add hair cells after birth, so we undertook comprehensive counting in murine utricles at different ages. The counts show that 51% of the hair cells in adults arise during the 2 weeks after birth. Immature hair cells are most common near the neonatal macula's peripheral edge and striola, where anti-Ki-67 labels cycling nuclei in zones that appear to contain niches for supporting-cell-like stem cells. In vivo lineage tracing in a novel reporter mouse where tamoxifen-inducible supporting cell-specific Cre expression switched tdTomato fluorescence to eGFP fluorescence showed that proteolipid-protein-1-expressing supporting cells are an important source of the new hair cells. To assess the contributions of postnatal cell divisions, we gave mice an injection of BrdU or EdU on the day of birth. The labels were restricted to supporting cells 1 day later, but by 12 days, 31% of the labeled nuclei were in myosin-VIIA-positive hair cells. Thus, hair cell populations in neonatal mouse utricles grow appreciably through two processes: the progressive differentiation of cells generated before birth and the differentiation of new cells arising from divisions of progenitors that progress through S phase soon after birth. Subsequent declines in these processes coincide with maturational changes that appear unique to mammalian supporting cells.

  2. Evidence for biological shaping of hair ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Hofmann

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An unusual ice type, called hair ice, grows on the surface of dead wood of broad-leaf trees at temperatures slightly below 0 °C. We describe this phenomenon and present physical, chemical, and biological investigations to gain insight in the properties and processes related to hair ice. Tests revealed that the biological activity of a winter-active fungus is required in the wood for enabling the growth of hair ice. We confirmed the fungus hypothesis originally suggested by Wegener (1918 by reproducing hair ice on wood samples. Treatment by heat and fungicide, respectively, suppresses the formation of hair ice. Fruiting bodies of Asco- and Basidiomycota are identified on hair-ice carrying wood. One species, Exidiopsis effusa (Ee, has been present on all investigated samples. Both hair-ice producing wood samples and those with killed fungus show essentially the same temperature variation, indicating that the heat produced by fungal metabolism is very small, that the freezing rate is not influenced by the fungus activity and that ice segregation is the common mechanism of ice growth at the wood surface. The fungus plays the role of shaping the ice hairs and to prevent them from recrystallisation. Melted hair ice indicates the presence of organic matter. Chemical analyses show a complex mixture of several thousand CHO(N,S-compounds similar to fulvic acids in dissolved organic matter (DOM. The evaluation reveals decomposed lignin as the main constituent. Further work is needed to clarify its role in hair-ice growth and to identify the recrystallisation inhibitor.

  3. Evidence for biological shaping of hair ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, D.; Preuss, G.; Mätzler, C.

    2015-07-01

    An unusual ice type, called hair ice, grows on the surface of dead wood of broad-leaf trees at temperatures slightly below 0 °C. We describe this phenomenon and present physical, chemical, and biological investigations to gain insight in the properties and processes related to hair ice. Tests revealed that the biological activity of a winter-active fungus is required in the wood for enabling the growth of hair ice. We confirmed the fungus hypothesis originally suggested by Wegener (1918) by reproducing hair ice on wood samples. Treatment by heat and fungicide suppresses the formation of hair ice. Fruiting bodies of Asco- and Basidiomycota are identified on hair-ice-carrying wood. One species, Exidiopsis effusa (Ee), was present on all investigated samples. Both hair-ice-producing wood samples and those with killed fungus show essentially the same temperature variation, indicating that the heat produced by fungal metabolism is very small, that the freezing rate is not influenced by the fungus activity, and that ice segregation is the common mechanism of ice growth on the wood surface. The fungus plays the role of shaping the ice hairs and preventing them from recrystallisation. Melted hair ice indicates the presence of organic matter. Chemical analyses show a complex mixture of several thousand CHO(N,S) compounds similar to fulvic acids in dissolved organic matter (DOM). The evaluation reveals decomposed lignin as being the main constituent. Further work is needed to clarify its role in hair-ice growth and to identify the recrystallisation inhibitor.

  4. Hair transplantation in alopecia androgenetica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Gurinderjit

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred patients suffering from male pattern baldness were given 3 to 4 sittings of hair transplantation at an interval of about 4 to 6 weeks each. They included 46 patients of type III baldness, 23 patients of type III (vertex baldness, and 31 patients of type IV baldness. It needed 3 sittings in type III as well as type III (vertex patients, whereas type IV patients needed 4 sittings for cosmetically acceptable results. Sixty percent patients of type III (including type III vertex showed excellent results; whereas 24 percent patients showed good response. Thirty-four percent patients of type IV got excellent cosmetic appearance; whereas, good results could be obtained in 17 percent patients. The reasons for poor results in certain patients were poor density of hair at donor sites and poor growth of hair in some of the transplanted plugs.

  5. Catechol, a major component of smoke, influences primary root growth and root hair elongation through reactive oxygen species-mediated redox signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming; Schoettner, Matthias; Xu, Shuqing; Paetz, Christian; Wilde, Julia; Baldwin, Ian T; Groten, Karin

    2017-03-01

    Nicotiana attenuata germinates from long-lived seedbanks in native soils after fires. Although smoke signals have been known to break seed dormancy, whether they also affect seedling establishment and root development remains unclear. In order to test this, seedlings were treated with smoke solutions. Seedlings responded in a dose-dependent manner with significantly increased primary root lengths, due mainly to longitudinal cell elongation, increased numbers of lateral roots and impaired root hair development. Bioassay-driven fractionations and NMR were used to identify catechol as the main active compound for the smoke-induced root phenotype. The transcriptome analysis revealed that mainly genes related to auxin biosynthesis and redox homeostasis were altered after catechol treatment. However, histochemical analyses of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the inability of auxin applications to rescue the phenotype clearly indicated that highly localized changes in the root's redox-status, rather than in levels of auxin, are the primary effector. Moreover, H2 O2 application rescued the phenotype in a dose-dependent manner. Chemical cues in smoke not only initiate seed germination, but also influence seedling root growth; understanding how these cues work provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms by which plants adapt to post-fire environments.

  6. New trichoscopy findings in trichotillomania: flame hairs, V-sign, hook hairs, hair powder, tulip hairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakowska, Adriana; Slowinska, Monika; Olszewska, Malgorzata; Rudnicka, Lidia

    2014-05-01

    Differential diagnosis of trichotillomania is often difficult in clinical practice. Trichoscopy (hair and scalp dermoscopy) effectively supports differential diagnosis of various hair and scalp diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of trichoscopy in diagnosing trichotillomania. The study included 370 patients (44 with trichotillomania, 314 with alopecia areata and 12 with tinea capitis). Statistical analysis revealed that the main and most characteristic trichoscopic findings of trichotillomania are: irregularly broken hairs (44/44; 100% of patients), v-sign (24/44; 57%), flame hairs (11/44; 25%), hair powder (7/44; 16%) and coiled hairs (17/44; 39%). Flame hairs, v-sign, tulip hairs, and hair powder were newly identified in this study. In conclusion, we describe here specific trichoscopy features, which may be applied in quick, non-invasive, in-office differential diagnosis of trichotillomania.

  7. Illegal treatment of barrows with nandrolone ester: effect on growth, histology and residue levels in urine and hair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.J.; Lasaroms, J.J.P.; Bennekom, van E.O.; Meijer, T.; Vinyeta, E.; Klis, van der J.D.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of 17ß-19-nortestosterone (17ßNT) treatment of barrows on residue levels and growth was evaluated. Five barrows were treated three times during the fattening period with 17ßNT phenylpropionate (Nandrosol, nandrolone phenylpropionate 50¿mg/ml,1¿mg/kg body weight). Another five barrows were

  8. Radiographic changes of the pelvis in Labrador and Golden Retrievers after juvenile pubic symphysiodesis: objective and subjective evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiocchi, S; Vezzoni, L; Vezzoni, A; Bronzo, V; Rossi, F

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis of this study was that juvenile pubic symphysiodesis (JPS) results in pelvic changes that can be identified radiographically in adult dogs. The medical records at the Clinica Veterinaria Vezzoni were searched for standard ventro-dorsal views of the pelvis of adult Labrador and Golden Retrievers that had undergone JPS or had not undergone surgery. The objective assessment of radiographs included the analysis of various pelvic measurements. Subjective evaluation of radiographs was undertaken by 18 specialists and 21 general practitioners and was based on five criteria relating to 1) the acetabular fossae, 2) the pubic symphysis, 3) the margin of the cranial pubic area, 4) the pubic rami, and 5) the obturator foramen. The radiographs of 42 Labrador Retrievers and 16 Golden Retrievers were evaluated. The most useful criteria were the radiographic measurement of the shape of the obturator foramen and two different ratios of length to width of the pubic rami; these values were significantly smaller in dogs after JPS. The pelvic canal width was the same in both groups. All objective measurements were repeatable within and between evaluators. The most reliable subjective criterion was number 4, followed by number 5 in Golden Retrievers and by 2 in Labrador Retrievers. Our objective and subjective evaluations were simple and yielded useful and repeatable results. There was no significant difference between general practitioners and specialists with regard to subjective evaluation, which indicates that these evaluation criteria can be used by small animal clinicians after minimal training.

  9. Pubic apophysitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sailly, Matthieu; Whiteley, Rod; Read, John W

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sport-related pubalgia is often a diagnostic challenge in elite athletes. While scientific attention has focused on adults, there is little data on adolescents. Cadaveric and imaging studies identify a secondary ossification centre located along the anteromedial corner of pubis beneat...

  10. Targeted expression of GFP in the hair follicle using ex vivo viral transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Robert M; Li, Lingna

    2008-03-17

    There are many cell types in the hair follicle, including hair matrix cells which form the hair shaft and stem cells which can initiate the hair shaft during early anagen, the growth phase of the hair cycle, as well as pluripotent stem cells that play a role in hair follicle growth but have the potential to differentiate to non-follicle cells such as neurons. These properties of the hair follicle are discussed. The various cell types of the hair follicle are potential targets for gene therapy. Gene delivery system for the hair follicle using viral vectors or liposomes for gene targeting to the various cell types in the hair follicle and the results obtained are also discussed [corrected].

  11. Integral hair lipid in human hair follicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won-Soo

    2011-12-01

    Integral hair lipid (IHL) is bound to the keratinized cell surface to make an environmentally resistant lipid envelope. It is mainly positioned on the hair cuticle and inner root sheath. IHL in the hair follicle may regard as hair barrier to be similar to the epidermal lipid layer functioning as skin barrier. Major constituents of IHL are fatty acid, phytosphingosine, ceramide in decreasing order. Minor constituents of IHL are cholesterol, cholesterol sulfate and cholesterol oleate. Cuticle or cortical cell surface in hair are abundant in fatty acids unlike the keratinized area of epidermis or sebaceous gland, and about 30-40% of such fatty acids are composed of 18-methyl-eicosanoic acid which is known to be bound to proteins by ester or thioester bond. Various factors including moisture, solvent, oxidative damage during bleaching or permanent waving affect IHL. Photochemical changes also can occur in IHL as well as in hair protein and hair pigment. Lipid metabolism is thought to play an essential role in lipid envelope of hair, but also involvement in hair development and function. Copyright © 2011 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Percutaneous augmentation of the superior pubic ramus with polymethyl methacrylate: treatment of acute traumatic and chronic insufficiency fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beall, Douglas P. [University of Oklahoma, Clinical Radiology of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); D' Souza, Sharon L. [University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Costello, Richard F.; Stapp, Annette M. [Clinical Radiology of Oklahoma, Edmond, OK (United States); Prater, Scott D. [University of Oklahoma College of Medicine, Edmond, OK (United States); Van Zandt, Bryan L. [University of Oklahoma College of Medicine, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Martin, Hal D. [Oklahoma Sports Science and Orthopaedics, Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    2007-10-15

    The injection of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) is a minimally invasive image-guided procedure that is typically used to treat vertebral body fractures due to osteoporosis or neoplastic involvement. The injection of PMMA into various other locations including the sacrum, acetabulum, pedicles, femur and tibia has been reported previously, and these procedures have, overall, been highly effective at alleviating pain and discomfort. Although the injection of PMMA into the vertebral body is a very common procedure that has been performed for over 2 decades for the percutaneous treatment of vertebral body fractures, the percutaneous injection of PMMA has not been reported in the English literature as treatment for superior pubic ramus fractures. We report the percutaneous treatment of an acute superior pubic ramus fracture and of a chronic insufficiency fracture of the superior pubic ramus using a parasymphyseal approach to access the region of injury. (orig.)

  13. Fractured Inferior Pubic Ramus with Ipsilateral Total Hip Replacement: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkhell Radha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pubic rami fractures are common. They are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. These fractures are usually classified as stable injuries and traditionally receive limited orthopaedic input. Management typically involves hospital admission and early input from physiotherapists and occupational therapists. Early mobilisation is advocated as a central part of managing these patients, with emphasis on secondary prevention. We report a case diagnosed as minimally displaced inferior pubic ramus fracture in a patient with an ipsilateral total hip replacement (THR. The patient was mobilised early and despite analgesia continued to complain of groin pain. Repeat radiographs showed a fracture of the acetabulum with displacement of the acetabular component of the hip replacement. We advocate early orthopaedic input for all pubic rami fractures, particularly in patients with hip arthroplasty, and thorough investigation including a CT scan of the pelvis to exclude acetabular extension prior to mobilisation.

  14. Idiopathic hirsutism: excessive bodily and facial hair in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elghblawi, Ebtisam

    Hirsutism is the excessive and increased bodily and facial hair growth in women in locations where hair is normally minimal or absent. It refers to the growth of hair in a pattern normally occurring only in men, and therefore primarily raises psychological, cosmetic and social concerns. Idiopathic hirsutism (IH), where the cause of excessive hair growth is unknown, is considered to be the most common form of hirsutism. It is suspected that this type of hirsutism may be familial, as there is often a family history of the condition. Women with IH will generally have normal menses and normal levels of testosterone. There are many treatment modalities that fall into two broad groups: medical and mechanical treatment. An example of a medical treatment is when an agent is used, which interferes with the synthesis of androgen at the ovarian or adrenal level, or by inhibiting the effect of androgen at the receptor level. An example of a mechanical treatment is laser hair removal, where the hair follicle is destroyed; however, much depends on the on the skill of the treating practitioner, laser type, laser spot size, skin type, hair colour, and the stage at which the hair follicles were during their hair growth cycle, and the delivered wavelength. Laser offers the fastest method of hair loss. Other mechanical treatments include electrolysis, depilatory creams, plucking and waxing. This article presents a general overview of IH, including a definition, diagnostic measures, clinical manifestations, normal and abnormal physiology, and treatment options.

  15. Endometriosis of the Vermiform Appendix within a Hernia Sac Infiltrating the Pubic Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Ziaja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Appendicular endometriosis mimicking appendicitis is a rare finding. Inguinal tumor in the course of appendicular endometriosis located within an inguinal hernia sac and infiltrating the periosteum of the pubic bone has not yet been described. Case Report. This paper describes a case of a rapidly enlarging, solid, unmovable, very painful upon palpation inguinal tumor, in a 36-year-old nulliparous woman. During surgery, a hard (approximately 4 cm in diameter tumor infiltrating the periosteum of the right pubic bone and continuous with the inguinal hernia sac was dissected. The distal segment of the vermiform appendix was an element of the dissected tumor. Histological examination revealed endometriosis of the distal vermiform appendix. After 6 months of hormone treatment, she was referred for reoperation due to tumor recurrence. Once again histological examination of the resected tissue revealed endometriosis. There was no further recurrence of the disease with goserelin therapy. In addition to the case report, we present a review of the literature about endometriosis involving the vermiform appendix and the inguinal canal (Amyand’s hernia. Conclusion. This case expands the list of differential diagnoses of nodules found in the inguinal region of women.

  16. Massive Intrapelvic Hematoma after a Pubic Ramus Fracture in an Osteoporotic Patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haruki, Funao, E-mail: hfunao@yahoo.co.jp; Takahiro, Koyanagi [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kawasaki Municipal Kawasaki Hospital, 12-1 Shinkawadori, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, 210-0013 (Japan)

    2016-03-24

    An 88-year-old female presented with a left thigh pain and dysuria. She visited our hospital 2 week after she noticed her symptoms. She stated that she might have a low-energy fall, but she could not identify the exact onset. Her radiograph of the pelvis (Figure 1) showed displaced left pubic ramus fracture. Her computed tomographic scanning of the pelvis (Figure 2) showed massive intrapelvic hematoma (axial size, 11 cm by 5 cm) around the fracture site, although she did not use any anticoagulants. Because her bone mineral density was 0.357 g/cm{sup 2}, and T score was -4.8 SD, she started a bisphosphonate therapy. She received a bed-rest physical therapy for 6 weeks, and the hematoma regressed spontaneously. She started full weight bearing after 6 weeks, and walked by a walker after 8 weeks. Although it is extremely rare to develop massive chronic intra-pelvic hematoma after a lowenergy pubic ramus fracture without any use of anticoagulants, it may occur in elderly and severely osteoporotic patient.

  17. Forensic Science: Hair Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Elhannan L.

    1980-01-01

    Presented is an activity in which students use a microscope to do a forensic hair comparative study and a medullary classification. Mounting methods, medulla types, hair photographs, and activities are described. (DS)

  18. Hair removal in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Pereira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to hormonal stimulation during puberty, changes occur in hair type and distribution. In both sexes, body and facial unwanted hair may have a negative psychological impact on the teenager. There are several available methods of hair removal, but the choice of the most suitable one for each individual can raise doubts. Objective: To review the main methods of hair removal and clarify their indications, advantages and disadvantages. Development: There are several removal methods currently available. Shaving and depilation with chemicals products are temporary methods, that need frequent repetition, because hair removal is next to the cutaneous surface. The epilating methods in which there is full hair extraction include: epilation with wax, thread, tweezers, epilating machines, laser, intense pulsed light, and electrolysis. Conclusions: The age of beginning hair removal and the method choice must be individualized and take into consideration the skin and hair type, location, dermatological and endocrine problems, removal frequency, cost and personal preferences.

  19. Hair straightener poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002706.htm Hair straightener poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair straightener poisoning occurs when someone swallows products that ...

  20. Hair spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002705.htm Hair spray poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) ...

  1. Positive EtG findings in hair as a result of a cosmetic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporkert, Frank; Kharbouche, Hicham; Augsburger, Marc P; Klemm, Clementine; Baumgartner, Markus R

    2012-05-10

    In a case of a driving ability assessment, hair analysis for ethyl glucuronide (EtG) was requested by the authorities. The person concerned denied alcohol consumption and did not present any clinical sign of alcoholism. However, EtG was found in concentrations of up to 910pg/mg in hair from different sampling dates suggesting an excessive drinking behavior. The person declared to use a hair lotion on a regularly base. To evaluate a possible effect of the hair lotion, prospective blood and urine controls as well as hair sampling of scalp and pubic hair were performed. The traditional clinical biomarkers of ethanol consumption, CDT and GGT, were inconspicuous in three blood samples taken. EtG was not detected in all collected urine samples. The hair lotion was transmitted to our laboratory. The ethanol concentration in this lotion was determined with 35g/L. The EtG immunoassay gave a positive result indicating EtG, which could be confirmed by GC-MS/MS-NCI. In a follow-up experiment the lotion was applied to the hair of a volunteer over a period of six weeks. After this treatment, EtG could be measured in the hair at a concentration of 72pg/mg suggesting chronic and excessive alcohol consumption. Overnight incubation of EtG free hair in the lotion yielded an EtG concentration of 140pg/mg. In the present case, the positive EtG hair findings could be interpreted as the result of an EtG containing hair care product. To our knowledge, the existence of such a product has not yet been reported, and it is exceptionally unusual to find EtG in cosmetics. Therefore, external sources for hair contamination should always be taken into account when unusual cosmetic treatment is mentioned. In those cases, it is recommended to analyze the hair product for a possible contamination with EtG. The analysis of body hair can help to reveal problems occurring from cosmetic treatment of head hair. As a consequence, the assessment of drinking behavior should be based on more than one

  2. Hair loss induced by lopinavir-ritonavir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrás-Blasco, Joaquín; Belda, Alberto; Rosique-Robles, Dolores; Casterá, Elvira; Abad, Javier; Amorós-Quiles, Isabel

    2007-08-01

    A 38-year-old Caucasian woman with uncontrolled human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection was treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) consisting of zidovudine, lamivudine, and nevirapine. Because her therapeutic response was inadequate, the HAART regimen was changed to abacavir, lamivudine, and lopinavir-ritonavir. Three months after this therapy was started, the patient developed progressive and notable hair loss. Her hair became fair and thin, and her appearance deteriorated considerably. Hair loss due to HAART was diagnosed. Lopinavir-ritonavir was stopped, and efavirenz was substituted; abacavir and lamivudine were continued. After 4 weeks, her hair growth substantially improved, as evidenced by rapid growth of new hair. Her general condition also improved. No relapse was observed with the new HAART regimen, and the patient's hair loss completely reversed in 8 weeks. Alopecia is a possible adverse event in HIV-infected patients treated with protease inhibitors, particularly indinavir. Our patient's severe and generalized alopecia was temporally related to the initiation and discontinuation of lopinavir-ritonavir. On the basis of the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale, the adverse reaction was considered probable. Although generalized hair loss due to lopinavir-ritonavir is rare, clinicians should be aware of this potential adverse reaction of this widely used drug. If alopecia is severe or particularly distressing to the patient, the offending drug should be discontinued, and therapy with another HIV drug should be started.

  3. Results of hair analyses for drugs of abuse and comparison with self-reports and urine tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musshoff, F; Driever, F; Lachenmeier, K; Lachenmeier, D W; Banger, M; Madea, B

    2006-01-27

    Urine as well as head and pubic hair samples from drug abusers were analysed for opiates, cocaine and its metabolites, amphetamines, methadone and cannabinoids. Urine immunoassay results and the results of hair tests by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were compared to the self-reported data of the patients in an interview protocol. With regard to the study group, opiate abuse was claimed from the majority in self-reports (89%), followed by cannabinoids (55%), cocaine (38%), and methadone (32%). Except for opiates the comparison between self-reported drug use and urinalysis at admission showed a low correlation. In contrast to urinalysis, hair tests revealed consumption in more cases. There was also a good agreement between self-reports of patients taking part in an official methadone maintenance program and urine test results concerning methadone. However, hair test results demonstrated that methadone abuse in general was under-reported by people who did not participate in a substitution program. Comparing self-reports and the results of hair analyses drug use was dramatically under-reported, especially cocaine. Cocaine hair tests appeared to be highly sensitive and specific in identifying past cocaine use even in settings of negative urine tests. In contrast to cocaine, hair lacks sensitivity as a detection agent for cannabinoids and a proof of cannabis use by means of hair analysis should include the sensitive detection of the metabolite THC carboxylic acid in the lower picogram range.

  4. Hair follicle transcriptome profiles during the transition from anagen to catagen in Cashmere goat (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Y X; Wu, R B; Qiao, X; Zhang, Y J; Wang, R J; Su, R; Wu, J H; Dong, Y; Li, J Q

    2015-12-22

    Previous molecular genetic studies of the goat hair life cycle have focused primarily on a limited number of genes and proteins. To identify additional genes that may play important roles in hair follicle cycle regulation, Illumina sequencing technology was used to catalog differential gene expression profiles in the hair growth cycle (anagen to catagen) of goat, comparing the primary hair follicle with the secondary hair follicle. There were 13,769 and 12,240 unigenes assembled from the reads obtained from primary hair follicle and secondary hair follicle, respectively. Genes encoding keratin proteins and keratin-associated proteins were the most highly expressed. A total of 5899 genes were differentially expressed in anagen vs catagen primary hair follicles, with 532 genes up-regulated and 5367 genes down-regulated. A total of 5208 genes were differentially expressed in anagen vs catagen secondary hair follicle, including 545 genes that were up-regulated and 4663 genes that were down-regulated. Numerous hair growth genes are expressed in the goat hair follicle, of which 73 genes showed co-up-regulation in both hair follicles during the anagen stage. Many of these up-regulated genes, such as STC2, VEGFR, and ROR2, are known to be transfactors in the process of cell differentiation and in the cell cycle. The differential gene expression profiles between primary hair follicles and secondary hair follicles obtained provide a foundation for future studies examining the network of gene expression controlling hair growth cycle in Cashmere goat.

  5. 毛发生长周期对小鼠皮肤创伤愈合的影响%Impact of hair growth phase on mouse skin wound healing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔亚男; 张敏; 崔梦卿; 李良平; 周志涛; 张琳

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨处于不同毛发生长周期的C57BL/6小鼠皮肤创伤愈合速度.方法 制备小鼠皮肤创伤模型,计算术后0、3、7d创面愈合率,愈合率=(原始创面面积—未愈合的创面面积)/原始创面面积×100%,比较毛发静止期(Hair telogen stages)小鼠和毛发生长期(Hair anagen stages)小鼠伤口愈合速度.采用HE染色比较伤口愈合的组织形态结构差异,利用BrdU检测伤口周围细胞增殖.结果 毛发生长期的小鼠皮肤伤口愈合率显著高于毛发静止期的小鼠伤口愈合率.HE染色显示毛发生长期小鼠伤口周围表皮细胞层较多,且表皮细胞向伤口迁移增强;BrdU检测显示毛发生长期小鼠皮肤伤口周围表皮BrdU+细胞数多于毛发静止期小鼠.结论 毛发生长期的小鼠皮肤创伤愈合率高于毛发静止期小鼠,这—结果为进一步探讨毛囊在创伤愈合过程中的作用提供研究基础,也为选择皮肤创伤愈合动物模型提供指导.%Objective To investigate the skin wound healing speed of C57BL/6 mice at various stages of hair growth cycle.Methods Mouse skin wounding models were established and wound healing rate in the following manner was calculated:Wound closure rate (%) =[(Original wound area-Open area on the final day)/Original wound area] × 100%.Wound healing speed of mouse at hair anagen stages and at hair telogen stages was compared.H&E staining was adopted to compare differences in morphological and histological characteristics of wound healing.BrdU was used to detect cell proliferation around wounds.Results Wound healing rate of mouse at hair anagen stages was significant higher than that of mouse at telogen stages.H&E staining showed that mice presented relatively more epidermal cell layers around wounds and epidermal cell layers migrated faster at hair anagen stages.BrdU detection showed that mice at hair anagen stages had a larger number of BrdU+ epidermal cells around wounds than mouse at telogen

  6. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to iron and maintenance of normal hair growth pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Pierre Fabre Dermo-Cosmétique, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of France, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a hea......Following an application from Pierre Fabre Dermo-Cosmétique, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of France, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation...... of a health claim based on newly developed scientific evidence related to iron and maintenance of normal hair growth. Iron is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect is “reduction of excessive hair loss”. The target population proposed by the applicant is non-menopausal women, aged between 19 and 49...

  7. The actin Cytoskeleton in Root Hairs: a cell elongation device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, T.; Emons, A.M.C.

    2009-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton plays an important role in root hair development. It is involved in both the delivery of growth materials to the expanding tip of root hairs and the regulation of the area of tip growth. This review starts with a discussion of the techniques that are available to visualize the

  8. The actin Cytoskeleton in Root Hairs: a cell elongation device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, T.; Emons, A.M.C.

    2009-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton plays an important role in root hair development. It is involved in both the delivery of growth materials to the expanding tip of root hairs and the regulation of the area of tip growth. This review starts with a discussion of the techniques that are available to visualize the

  9. Boys With Long Hair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙利英

    2005-01-01

    Long hair is popular among the young people.Even the boy students in high school join in this group.Some boy students would rather wear long hair,some even change their hair's color into golden,red,brown and pink.Why?

  10. Phthirus pubis infestation of the eyelashes and scalp hairs in a girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Nariko; Nomoto, Hiroo; Hayasaka, Seiji; Nagaki, Yasunori

    2003-01-01

    A 4-year-old girl was seen because of foreign bodies on the eyelashes. Parasites and their nits were seen on the patient's eyelashes and scalp. Her parents denied having Phthirus pubis infection of the axillary, pubic, or body hair, despite confirmation of the infestation in their child. The parasites were removed and the lashes with nits were cut off at the base. The parasite was identified as P. pubis. The scalp was washed with phenothrin shampoo. One month later no P. pubis infestation was found. Removal of the parasites, cutting the lashes at the base, and using phenothrin shampoo on the scalp were effective in resolving phthiriasis.

  11. An overview of chemical straightening of human hair: technical aspects, potential risks to hair fibre and health and legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Vilela, A L; Botelho, A J; Muehlmann, L A

    2014-02-01

    Personal image, as it relates to external beauty, has attracted much attention from the cosmetic industry, and capillary aesthetics is a leader in consumption in this area. There is a great diversity of products targeting both the treatment and beautification of hair. Among them, hair straighteners stand out with a high demand by costumers aiming at beauty, social acceptance and ease of daily hair maintenance. However, this kind of treatment affects the chemical structure of keratin and of the hair fibre, bringing up some safety concerns. Moreover, the development of hair is a dynamic and cyclic process, where the duration of growth cycles depends not only on where hair grows, but also on issues such as the individual's age, dietary habits and hormonal factors. Thus, although hair fibres are composed of dead epidermal cells, when they emerge from the scalp, there is a huge variation in natural wave and the response to hair cosmetics. Although it is possible to give the hair a cosmetically favourable appearance through the use of cosmetic products, for good results in any hair treatment, it is essential to understand the mechanisms of the process. Important information, such as the composition and structure of the hair fibres, and the composition of products and techniques available for hair straightening, must be taken into account so that the straightening process can be designed appropriately, avoiding undesirable side effects for hair fibre and for health. This review aims to address the morphology, chemical composition and molecular structure of hair fibres, as well as the products and techniques used for chemical hair relaxing, their potential risk to hair fibre and to health and the legal aspects of their use. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  12. Effect of Homemade Chilblain Ointment on Hair Growth of Frostbite Rabbits%自制冻疮软膏对兔冻伤后毛发的促生长作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘璟; 修彬华; 曾平; 张莉; 尹东锋; 周军

    2012-01-01

    Objective To establish a model of frostbite rabbits and observe the effect of homemade chilblain ointment on frostbite rabbits'hair growth. Methods Twenty rabbits were equally randomized into the control and treatment group. Models of grade Ⅱ were prepared using the liquid nitrogen after hair removal. Skin was taken at different time, fixed by formalin, paraffin embedding, slice, and stained by conventional hematoxylin-eosin. Pathological analysis was observed after fixing. Results During the treatment, the pathology of the hair follicle was different between the treatment group and control group. Conclusion Homemade chilblain ointment has certain curative effect on the hair growth of frostbite rabbit.%目的 建立兔冻伤模型,观察自制冻疮软膏对兔冻伤后毛发的促生长作用.方法 选择普通新西兰大白兔20只,对照组、实验组各10只.备皮,脱毛,经液氮致深Ⅱ度冻伤后进行动物治疗实验,在不同时间取皮,经福尔马林固定,石蜡包埋,切片,常规苏木精-伊红染色,封片固定,观察分析病理切片.结果 对照组和实验组比较,毛发生长情况有明显差别.结论 自制冻疮软膏对冻伤后毛发生长有一定的疗效.

  13. The Effects of Negative Pressure by External Tissue Expansion Device on Epithelial Cell Proliferation, Neo-Vascularization and Hair Growth in a Porcine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Hui-Yi; Liu, Jia-Wei; Brey, Eric M; Cheng, Ming-Huei

    2016-01-01

    While pre-treating a fat transplant recipient site with negative pressure has shown promise for increasing the fat survival rate, the underlying mechanisms have not been investigated, partly due to challenges related to immobilization of vacuum domes on large animal subjects. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of negative pressure treatment by External Tissue Expansion Device (ETED) on fat grating recipient sites in a porcine model. The ETED was designed to provide negative pressure on the dorsum of swine. Pressure treatment (-70 mmHg) was applied for 1 or 3 hours every other day for 10 and 20 treatments. The treated areas (3.5 cm in diameter) were harvested and examined for histological changes, vessel density, cell proliferation (Ki67) and growth factor expression (FGF-1, VEGF and PDGB-bb). The application of the ETED increased epidermis thickness even after 1-hour treatments repeated 10 times. The results of Ki67 analysis suggested that the increasing thickness was due to cell proliferation in the epidermis. There was a more than two-fold increase in the vessel density, indicating that the ETED promotes vascularization. Unexpectedly, the treatment also increased the number of hair follicles. Negative pressure provided by the ETED increases the thickness of epidermis section of tissue, cell proliferation and vessel density. The porcine model provides a better representation of the effect of the ETED on skin tissue compared to small animal models and provides an environment for studying the mechanisms underlying the clinical benefits of negative pressure treatment.

  14. 毛囊细胞移植法诱导毛囊的初步研究%Follicular cell implantation for induce hair follicle growth in nude mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭挺; 胡志奇

    2009-01-01

    目的 构建一个可靠有效的移植毛囊细胞诱导毛发发育的模型,以治疗脱发.方法 取自愿捐献的成人头皮标本,联用显微分离与免疫磁珠法获得人毛囊干细胞;消化法获得毛乳头细胞.培养后混合植入裸鼠皮下,观察毛囊形成情况.结果 在裸鼠的皮肤切片中可以看到较为完整的毛囊结构形成.结论 毛囊细胞移植法可以在体内诱导出毛囊样结构,为将来治疗脱发奠定了基础.%Objective To establish a convenient and reliable method for inducing hair regeneration by follicular cell implantation for the treatment of alopecia. Methods The human hair follicle stem cells were separated and purified by micromanipulation and magnetic cell sorting, and human scalp dermal papilla cells were isolated by enzyme digestion. The two cells were mixed and implanted subcutaneously in nude mice to observe the regeneration of the hair follicles. Results Formation of intact hair follicle-like structures was observed in the skin sections of the recipient nude mice. Conclusion Follicular cell implantation can induce hair follicle-like structures in nude mice, which provides a means for efficient hair regeneration for treatment of hair loss.

  15. Biologic Rhythms Derived from Siberian Mammoths Hairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M Spilde; A Lanzirotti; C Qualls; G Phillips; A Ali; L Agenbroad; O Appenzeller

    2011-12-31

    Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was {approx}31 cms/year and {approx}16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios), which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna.

  16. Gene and stem cell therapy of the hair follicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Robert M

    2005-01-01

    The hair follicle is a highly complex appendage of the skin containing a multiplicity of cell types. The follicle undergoes constant cycling through the life of the organism including growth and resorption with growth dependent on specific stem cells. The targeting of the follicle by genes and stem cells to change its properties, in particular, the nature of the hair shaft is discussed. Hair follicle delivery systems are described such as liposomes and viral vectors for gene therapy. The nature of the hair follicle stem cells is discussed, in particular, its pluripotency.

  17. Body hair counts during hair length reduction procedures: a comparative study between Computer Assisted Image Analysis after Manual Processing (CAIAMP) and Trichoscan(™).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Neste, D J J

    2015-08-01

    To compare two measurement methods for body hair. Calibration of computer assisted image analysis after manual processing (CAIAMP) showed variation hair and skin' were taken before hair dye, after hair dye or after hair length reduction without hair extraction or destruction. Data in the same targets were compared with Trichoscan(™) quoted for 'unambiguous evaluation of the hair growth after shaving'. CAIAMP detected a total of 337 hair and showed no statistically significant differences with the three procedures confirming 'good natural contrast between hair and skin' and that reduction methods did not affect hair counts. While CAIAMP found a mean number of 19 thick hair (≥30 μm) before dye, 18 after dye and 20 after hair reduction, Trichoscan(™) found in the same sites respectively 44, 73 and 61. Trichoscan(™) generated counts differed statistically significantly from CAIAMP-data. Automated analyses were considered un-specifically influenced by hair medulla and natural or artificial skin background. Quality control including all steps of human intervention and measurement technology are mandatory for body hair measurements during experimental or clinical trials on body hair grooming, shaving or removal. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. 复方斯亚旦生发酊促大鼠毛发生长实验研究%Study on Hair Growth Effects in Rats of Compound Siyadan Tincture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵海娇; 王园姬; 任全霞; 李桂华; 陈文

    2011-01-01

    目的:考察复方斯亚旦生发酊的生发作用.方法:对大鼠背部局部区域剃毛后,采用自身对照法,连续21 d给予不同浓度的复方斯亚旦生发酊及阳性药,分别以大鼠的给药区域毛长、毛重及显微镜下毛囊数为指标,考察各给药组对大鼠毛发的影响.结果:中、高剂量组与2%的米诺地尔组相比,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05),且各给药组与95%乙醇组相比,差异均具有统计学意义(P<0.05);H-E染色后镜下观察,毛囊数与95%乙醇组相比,差异均具有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:复方斯亚旦生发酊具有一定的促大鼠毛发生长作用.%Objective: To investigate the roles of Compound Siyadan Tincture in hair growth in rats. Methods: After shaving the hairs of rats partly, the methods of own control to rats was used and different concentration of Compound Siyadan Tincture and control drug were administered partly on the back of the rats for 21 days continuously. Then using the length,weight and the number of the hair follicles as the targets, the effects of Compound Siyadan Tincture in promoting hair growth were studied. Results: The middle and high dose groups showed significant difference compared with 2% minoxidiI(P<0.05);each medication administration team showed significant difference compared with 95% ethanol group(P<0.05). Conclusion: Compound Siyadan Tincture had a good effect in promoting the hair growth of rats.

  19. Hair dye contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søsted, Heidi; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2004-01-01

    Colouring of hair can cause severe allergic contact dermatitis. The most frequently reported hair dye allergens are p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and toluene-2,5-diamine, which are included in, respectively, the patch test standard series and the hairdressers series. The aim of the present study...... was to identify dye precursors and couplers in hair dyeing products causing clinical hair dye dermatitis and to compare the data with the contents of these compounds in a randomly selected set of similar products. The patient material comprised 9 cases of characteristic clinical allergic hair dye reaction, where...... exposure history and patch testing had identified a specific hair dye product as the cause of the reaction. The 9 products used by the patients were subjected to chemical analysis. 8 hair dye products contained toluene-2,5-diamine (0.18 to 0.98%). PPD (0.27%) was found in 1 product, and m-aminophenol (0...

  20. Hair cosmetics: dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Tapia, A; Gonzalez-Guerra, E

    2014-11-01

    Hair plays a significant role in body image, and its appearance can be changed relatively easily without resort to surgical procedures. Cosmetics and techniques have therefore been used to change hair appearance since time immemorial. The cosmetics industry has developed efficient products that can be used on healthy hair or act on concomitant diseases of the hair and scalp. Dyes embellish the hair by bleaching or coloring it briefly, for temporary periods of longer duration, or permanently, depending on the composition of a dye (oxidative or nonoxidative) and its degree of penetration of the hair shaft. The dermatologist's knowledge of dyes, their use, and their possible side effects (contact eczema, cancer, increased porosity, brittleness) can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources that also treat hair and scalp conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  1. Image analysis of pubic bone for sex determination in a computed tomography sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Alcaraz, Manuel; Garamendi González, Pedro Manuel; Alemán Aguilera, Inmaculada; Botella López, Miguel

    2013-11-01

    Radiology has demonstrated great utility for sex determination, but most studies are based in metrical and morphological methods in order to perform an identification profile. It is presented an easy image analysis-based method aimed to demonstrate the relationship between the bony tissue ultrastructure and sex by using several grey level histogram variables obtained from computed tomography images using sagittal sections of the pubic symphysis surface and the body of the pubis. The CT sample consisted of 169 hospital DICOM archives of known sex and age. The multivariate binary logistic regression models calculated showed reliabilities for sex determination between 87.4 and 95.8 %, with a high intra and inter-observer agreement. The suggested method is not only considered useful to perform an identification profile during Virtopsy, but even for application in further studies in order to attach a quantitative correlation for tissue ultrastructure characteristics without complex and expensive methods beyond image analysis.

  2. [The efficacy of drug therapy in structural lesions of the hair and in diffuse effluvium--comparative double blind study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, H; Pierchalla, P; Tronnier, H

    1990-11-20

    Growth and quality of hair was studied after treatment with Pantogar, another prescription (Verum-2) and placebo for four months in 60 patients with diffuse effluvium capillorum and agnogenic structural alternations of hair. Efficacy was assessed by measurements of swelling, dye-binding and thickness for hair-quality and evaluation of hair-density and trichograms for hair-growth. Statistical analysis of swelling properties and trichogram data indicated that Pantogar was effective, the second preparation improved quality of hair and retarded hair loss. Placebo was ineffective judged by the used parameters. Tolerance of the treatment was good and adverse effects could not be substantiated.

  3. Topical liposome targeting of dyes, melanins, genes, and proteins selectively to hair follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, R M

    1998-01-01

    For therapeutic and cosmetic modification of hair, we have developed a hair-follicle-selective macromolecule and small molecule targeting system with topical application of phosphatidylcholine-based liposomes. Liposome-entrapped melanins, proteins, genes, and small-molecules have been selectively targeted to the hair follicle and hair shafts of mice. Liposomal delivery of these molecules is time dependent. Negligible amounts of delivered molecules enter the dermis, epidermis, or bloodstream thereby demonstrating selective follicle delivery. Naked molecules are trapped in the stratum corneum and are unable to enter the follicle. The potential of the hair-follicle liposome delivery system for therapeutic use for hair disease as well as for cosmesis has been demonstrated in 3-dimensional histoculture of hair-growing skin and mouse in vivo models. Topical liposome selective delivery to hair follicles has demonstrated the ability to color hair with melanin, the delivery of the active lac-Z gene to hair matrix cells and delivery of proteins as well. Liposome-targeting of molecules to hair follicles has also been achieved in human scalp in histoculture. Liposomes thus have high potential in selective hair follicle targeting of large and small molecules, including genes, opening the field of gene therapy and other molecular therapy of the hair process to restore hair growth, physiologically restore or alter hair pigment, and to prevent or accelerate hair loss.

  4. Laser hair removal for genital gender affirming surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, William R.; Garrett, Giorgia L.; Arron, Sarah T.; Garcia, Maurice M.

    2016-01-01

    Genital gender affirming surgery (GAS) involves reconstruction of the genitals to match a patient’s identified sex. The use of hair-bearing flaps in this procedure may result in postoperative intra-vaginal and intra-urethral hair growth and associated complications, including lower satisfaction with genital GAS. Despite the significant increase in genital GAS within the past 50 years, there is limited data regarding hair removal practices in preparation for genital GAS and notable variation i...

  5. Hair cosmetics and camouflage technics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahide Eriş Eken

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hair is composed of a mixture of trace elements in small quantities, proteins, lipids and water. Proteins consist of helical polypeptide amino acid molecules. In the hair cells; polypeptide chains of keratin protein would be organized in filaments. In recent years, hair cosmetics showed a significant change and development. The content of shampoos which is used to cleanse the hair has enhanced significantly. Hair conditioner, hair styling products, pomades, brilliantine, and gloss sprays, hair protective products, camouflage products are most commonly used hair cosmetics. Hair shaping procedures are frequently applied.

  6. Megasessions for Robotic Hair Restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Joa O Carlos; Pereira Filho, Joa O Carlos; Cabrera Pereira, Joa O Pedro

    2016-11-01

    A robotic system can select and remove individual hair follicles from the donor area with great precision and without fatigue. This report describes the use of the robotic system in a megasession for hair restoration. Patients were instructed to cut their hair to 1.0 to 1.2 mm before surgery. The robot selected and removed 600 to 800 grafts per hour so the follicular units (FU)s could be transplanted manually to recipient sites. The robot arm consists of a sharp inner punch and a blunt outer punch which together separate FUs from the sur- rounding tissue. Stereoscopic cameras controlled by image processing software allow the system to identify the angle and direction of hair growth. The physician and one assistant control the harvesting with a hand-held remote control and computer monitor while the patient is positioned in an adjustable chair. When the robot has harvested all the FUs they are removed by technicians with small forceps. Hairline design, creation of recipient sites, and graft placement are performed manually by the physician. Clinical photographs before and after surgery show that patients experience excellent outcomes with the robotic megasession. Phy- sician fatigue during graft extraction is reduced because the robot performs the repetitive movements without fatigue. Variability of graft extraction is minimized because the robot's optical system can be programmed to choose the best FUs. The transection rate is reduced because the robot's graft extraction system uses two needles, a sharp one to piece the skin and a blunt needle to dissect the root without trauma. A robotic megasession for hair restoration is minimally invasive, does not result in linear scars in the donor area, and is associated with minimal fatigue and discomfort for both patient and physician. Healing is rapid and patients experience a high level of satisfaction with the results. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(11):1407-1412..

  7. Circumferential ′ Woolly Hair Naevus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thadeus J

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Woolly hair naevus presents as a circumscribed area of tightly coiled hair since birth, in an individual of non-negroid origin. We report a 10 year old boy of Indian origin who presented with woolly hair in the periphery of the scalp and normal straight hair in the center-mimicking a straight hair naevus.

  8. Analysis of Dermal Papilla Cell Interactome Using STRING Database to Profile the ex Vivo Hair Growth Inhibition Effect of a Vinca Alkaloid Drug, Colchicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Wu Hsia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Dermal papillae (DPs control the formation of hair shafts. In clinical settings, colchicine (CLC induces patients’ hair shedding. Compared to the control, the ex vivo hair fiber elongation of organ cultured vibrissa hair follicles (HFs declined significantly after seven days of CLC treatment. The cultured DP cells (DPCs were used as the experimental model to study the influence of CLC on the protein dynamics of DPs. CLC could alter the morphology and down-regulate the expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP, the marker of DPC activity, and induce IκBα phosphorylation of DPCs. The proteomic results showed that CLC modulated the expression patterns (fold > 2 of 24 identified proteins, seven down-regulated and 17 up-regulated. Most of these proteins were presumably associated with protein turnover, metabolism, structure and signal transduction. Protein-protein interactions (PPI among these proteins, established by Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins (STRING database, revealed that they participate in protein metabolic process, translation, and energy production. Furthermore, ubiquitin C (UbC was predicted to be the controlling hub, suggesting the involvement of ubiquitin-proteasome system in modulating the pathogenic effect of CLC on DPC.

  9. Effect of heavy training in contact sports on MRI findings in the pubic region of asymptomatic competitive athletes compared with non-athlete controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paajanen, Hannu [Kuopio University Hospital, Department of Surgery, Kuopio (Finland); Hermunen, Heikki; Karonen, Jari [Central Hospital of Mikkeli, Department of Radiology, Mikkeli (Finland)

    2011-01-15

    Bone marrow edema (BME) at the pubic symphysis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is usually associated with groin pain and stress injury of the pubic bone. Little is known of the pubic MR imaging findings of asymptomatic heavy training athletes in contact sports. Pelvic MRI of male asymptomatic soccer (n = 10), ice hockey (n = 10), bandy (n = 10) and female floor-ball players (n = 10) were compared with non-athlete controls (10 males, 10 females) without groin pain to analyse the presence of BME (on a four-point scale). To study the possible changes of BME directly following heavy physical activity, 10 bandy players underwent MRI before and immediately after a 2-h training session. Magnetic resonance imaging showed minimal BME (grade 1) at the pubic symphysis in 19 of the 40 athletes (48%). Two soccer and 2 ice hockey players (20%) had moderate grade 2 pubic edema, but severe grade 3 BME findings were not found. Also 10 out of 20 (50%) of controls had grade 1 BME. The extent of increased signal was equally distributed in the asymptomatic athletes of different contact sports and controls. A heavy 2-h training session did not cause any enhanced signal at the pubic symphysis. This study indicates that the presence of grade 1 pubic BME was a frequent finding in contact sports and comparable to that in non-athletes. Grade 2 BME was found only in asymptomatic athletes undergoing heavy training. (orig.)

  10. Adrenocortical carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... buffalo hump ) Flushed, rounded face with pudgy cheeks ( moon face ) Obesity Stunted growth ( short stature ) Virilization - the appearance of male characteristics, including increased body hair (especially on the face), pubic hair, acne , deepening ...

  11. The treatment of female pattern hair loss and other applications of surgical hair restoration in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Jeffrey S

    2004-05-01

    In the specialty of surgical hair restoration, men comprise more than 90% of the patients treated; however, in the last few years the number of women undergoing the procedure has increased significantly. The reasons for this growth are many and include the increase in public awareness of the efficacy of hair transplantation from such sources as the media,the Internet, advertising and word of mouth. More importantly, advances in technique have significantly improved results, increasing the confidence level in women to undergo the procedure and in hair transplant specialists to offer it.

  12. Effects of IGF-binding protein 5 in dysregulating the shape of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwiriyanont, Penkanok; Hachiya, Akira; Pickens, William L; Moriwaki, Shigeru; Kitahara, Takashi; Visscher, Marty O; Kitzmiller, William J; Bello, Alexander; Takema, Yoshinori; Kobinger, Gary P

    2011-02-01

    The hair follicle has a unique dynamic property to cyclically regenerate throughout life. Despite significant progress in hair structure and hair shape determination using animal models, the mechanisms controlling the architecture and the shape of the human hair remain largely unexplored. In this study, comparison of the genetic expression of several human genes, especially those involved in growth, development, and differentiation, between Caucasian curly hair and naturally straight hair was performed. Thereafter, analyses using human recombinant and lentiviral vector technologies were conducted to further dissect and elucidate a molecular mechanism that regulates hair growth and development, particularly in controlling the shape of the hair shaft. Overexpression of IGF-binding protein 5 (IGFBP-5) in the human hair xenografts obtained from straight- and curly-haired individuals was found to result in the decreased expression of several extracellular matrix proteins and disassembly of adhesional junctions, resulting in twisted hair shafts as well as an unusual deposition of hair cuticle that may be derived from the disturbance of normal proliferation and differentiation. This study provides evidence that IGFBP-5 has an effect on human hair shape, and that lentiviral transduction regimen can be used for functional analysis of genes involved in human hair morphogenesis.

  13. Female hair restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Robin H

    2013-08-01

    Female hair loss is a devastating issue for women that has only relatively recently been publicly acknowledged as a significant problem. Hair transplant surgery is extremely successful in correcting the most cosmetically problematic areas of alopecia. This article discusses the surgical technique of hair transplantation in women in detail, including pearls to reduce postoperative sequelae and planning strategies to ensure a high degree of patient satisfaction. A brief overview of some of the medical treatments found to be helpful in slowing or reversing female pattern hair loss is included, addressing the available hormonal and topical treatments.

  14. Laser hair removal pearls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Emily P; Goldberg, David J

    2008-03-01

    A number of lasers and light devices are now available for the treatment of unwanted hair. The goal of laser hair removal is to damage stem cells in the bulge of the follicle through the targeting of melanin, the endogenous chromophore for laser and light devices utilized to remove hair. The competing chromophores in the skin and hair, oxyhemoglobin and water, have a decreased absorption between 690 nm and 1000 nm, thus making this an ideal range for laser and light sources. Pearls of laser hair removal are presented in this review, focusing on four areas of recent development: 1 treatment of blond, white and gray hair; 2 paradoxical hypertrichosis; 3 laser hair removal in children; and 4 comparison of lasers and IPL. Laser and light-based technologies to remove hair represents one of the most exciting areas where discoveries by dermatologists have led to novel treatment approaches. It is likely that in the next decade, continued advancements in this field will bring us closer to the development of a more permanent and painless form of hair removal.

  15. Photoaggravation of Hair Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won-Soo

    2009-01-01

    Photoaggravation of hair aging includes various chemical and physical changes in fiber properties which lead to an increase in fiber porosity, loss of mechanical strength and an increase in surface roughness. These changes come from lipid oxidation, disulfide bond cleavage, tryptophan degradation and cysteic acid formation. Hair exposed to sunlight is claimed to be more brittle, stiffer and drier than before irradiation and exhibits a reduced water-absorption capacity. Hair pigments function to provide photochemical protection to hair proteins. Hair pigments accomplish this protection by absorbing and filtering the impinging radiation and subsequently dissipating this energy as heat. However, in the process of protecting the hair proteins from light, the pigments are degraded or bleached. Dark hair is more resistant to photodegradation than light hair, because of the higher photostability of eumelanin compared to pheomelanin. Integral lipids of hair fibers are degraded by ultraviolet light, as well as by visible light, helping to explain the weakening of the cell membrane complex exposed to light radiation. PMID:20927230

  16. Hair alteration in black patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonidas, J R

    1987-06-01

    Four black men with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) demonstrated profound alterations in hair patterns two to three years after their first symptoms appeared. The hair became longer, lighter, softer, and silky, and it was occasionally discolored. One patient was thought to be of Indian extraction. These changes may not be as apparent in nonblack persons. Possible explanations are a retrogression of hair pattern to an earlier stage of growth, a phenomenon reminiscent of, but not similar to, malnutrition trichosis, or a combination of both. Closer attention should be paid to the hair of AIDS patients. Histologic and chemical analysis may be appropriate.

  17. Standard guidelines of care: Laser and IPL hair reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buddhadev Rajesh

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Laser-assisted hair removal, Laser hair removal, Laser and light-assisted hair removal, Laser and light-assisted, long-term hair reduction, IPL photodepilation, LHE photodepilation; all these are acceptable synonyms. Laser (Ruby, Nd Yag, Alexandrite, Diode, intense pulse light, light and heat energy system are the different light-/Laser-based systems used for hair removal; each have its advantages and disadvantages. The word "LONG-TERM HAIR REDUCTION" should be used rather than permanent hair removal. Patient counseling is essential about the need for multiple sessions. Physicians′ qualifications: Laser hair removal may be practiced by any dermatologist, who has received adequate background training during postgraduation or later at a centre that provides education and training in Lasers or in focused workshops providing such training. The dermatologist should have adequate knowledge of the machines, the parameters and aftercare. The physician may allow the actual procedure to be performed under his/her direct supervision by a trained nurse assistant/junior doctor. However, the final responsibility for the procedure would lie with the physician. Facility: The procedure may be performed in the physician′s minor procedure room. Investigations to rule out any underlying cause for hair growth are important; concurrent drug therapy may be needed. Laser parameters vary with area, type of hair, and the machine used. Full knowledge about the machine and cooling system is important. Future maintenance treatments may be needed.

  18. A Guide to Studying Human Hair Follicle Cycling In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ji Won; Kloepper, Jennifer; Langan, Ewan A; Kim, Yongsoo; Yeo, Joongyeub; Kim, Min Ji; Hsi, Tsai-Ching; Rose, Christian; Yoon, Ghil Suk; Lee, Seok-Jong; Seykora, John; Kim, Jung Chul; Sung, Young Kwan; Kim, Moonkyu; Paus, Ralf; Plikus, Maksim V

    2016-01-01

    Hair follicles (HFs) undergo lifelong cyclical transformations, progressing through stages of rapid growth (anagen), regression (catagen), and relative "quiescence" (telogen). Given that HF cycling abnormalities underlie many human hair growth disorders, the accurate classification of individual cycle stages within skin biopsies is clinically important and essential for hair research. For preclinical human hair research purposes, human scalp skin can be xenografted onto immunocompromised mice to study human HF cycling and manipulate long-lasting anagen in vivo. Although available for mice, a comprehensive guide on how to recognize different human hair cycle stages in vivo is lacking. In this article, we present such a guide, which uses objective, well-defined, and reproducible criteria, and integrates simple morphological indicators with advanced, (immuno)-histochemical markers. This guide also characterizes human HF cycling in xenografts and highlights the utility of this model for in vivo hair research. Detailed schematic drawings and representative micrographs provide examples of how best to identify human HF stages, even in suboptimally sectioned tissue, and practical recommendations are given for designing human-on-mouse hair cycle experiments. Thus, this guide seeks to offer a benchmark for human hair cycle stage classification, for both hair research experts and newcomers to the field.

  19. Biochemical and ultrastructural processing of [125I]epidermal growth factor in rat epidermis and hair follicles: accumulation of nuclear label

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, M R; Mycock, C; Smith, C G

    1987-01-01

    was detected over the basal cells of the epidermis and hair follicle outer root sheath, confirming previous light microscope observations. More specifically, silver grains were observed near coated and uncoated plasma membrane and coated membrane invaginations, Golgi apparatus, lysosomal structures, and nuclei....... Sodium azide inhibited internalization of label, whereas a series of lysosomal inhibitors (chloroquine, monensin, and iodoacetamide) caused a slight increase in silver grains associated with lysosomal vesicles and a decrease in nuclear label. Biochemical analysis indicated that greater than 35...

  20. Hair and nail relationship.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baran, R.; Dawber, R.P.; Haneke, E.

    2005-01-01

    Hair and nails are often stated to have much in common in relation to their origin, anatomical structures, and common involvement in many diseases. Hair and nails are predominantly epithelial structures derived from primitive epidermis and made up of keratinous fibrils embedded in a sulfur-rich matr

  1. Hair and nail relationship.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baran, R.; Dawber, R.P.; Haneke, E.

    2005-01-01

    Hair and nails are often stated to have much in common in relation to their origin, anatomical structures, and common involvement in many diseases. Hair and nails are predominantly epithelial structures derived from primitive epidermis and made up of keratinous fibrils embedded in a sulfur-rich matr

  2. Help! It's Hair Loss!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Help! It's Hair Loss! KidsHealth > For Kids > Help! It's Hair Loss! Print A A A What's in ... part above the skin, is dead. (That's why it doesn't hurt to get a haircut!) This ...

  3. Safety and Efficacy of Rice Bran Supercritical CO2 Extract for Hair Growth in Androgenic Alopecia: A 16-Week Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Suk; Park, Jae Beom; Moon, Woi-Sook; Moon, Jin-Nam; Son, Sang Wook; Kim, Mi-Ryung

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a 16-week double-blind randomized controlled single-center trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of dermal rice bran supercritical CO2 extract (RB-SCE) in the treatment of androgenic alopecia. Fifty alopecia patients were randomly assigned to the experimental and placebo groups. The experimental group received a dermal application of 0.5% RB-SCE (8 mL/d) to the head skin for 16 weeks while the control group received a dermal application of placebo. Changes in hair count, diameter, and density were evaluated with a Folliscope(®). Patient satisfaction was evaluated via questionnaire and clinical photographs were rated by dermatologists. The results showed that RB-SCE significantly increased hair density and hair diameter in male subjects. Patient satisfaction and the evaluation of photographs by dermatologists also confirmed the effectiveness of RB-SCE in the treatment of alopecia. No adverse reactions related to RB-SCE were reported. Therefore, RB-SCE shows promise for use in functional cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.

  4. Epidermal Growth Factor Induces Proliferation of Hair Follicle-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Through Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-Mediated Activation of ERK and AKT Signaling Pathways Associated with Upregulation of Cyclin D1 and Downregulation of p16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Tingting; Liu, Feilin; Zou, Fei; Zhao, Guifang; Jiang, Yixu; Liu, Li; Shi, Jiahong; Hao, Deshun; Zhang, Qi; Zheng, Tong; Zhang, Yingyao; Liu, Mingsheng; Li, Shilun; Qi, Liangchen; Liu, Jin Yu

    2017-01-15

    The maintenance of highly proliferative capacity and full differentiation potential is a necessary step in the initiation of stem cell-based regenerative medicine. Our recent study showed that epidermal growth factor (EGF) significantly enhanced hair follicle-derived mesenchymal stem cell (HF-MSC) proliferation while maintaining the multilineage differentiation potentials. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Herein, we investigated the role of EGF in HF-MSC proliferation. HF-MSCs were isolated and cultured with or without EGF. Immunofluorescence staining, flow cytometry, cytochemistry, and western blotting were used to assess proliferation, cell signaling pathways related to the EGF receptor (EGFR), and cell cycle progression. HF-MSCs exhibited surface markers of mesenchymal stem cells and displayed trilineage differentiation potentials toward adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteoblasts. EGF significantly increased HF-MSC proliferation as well as EGFR, ERK1/2, and AKT phosphorylation (p-EGFR, p-ERK1/2, and p-AKT) in a time- and dose-dependent manner, but not STAT3 phosphorylation. EGFR inhibitor (AG1478), PI3K-AKT inhibitor (LY294002), ERK inhibitor (U0126), and STAT3 inhibitor (STA-21) significantly blocked EGF-induced HF-MSC proliferation. Moreover, AG1478, LY294002, and U0126 significantly decreased p-EGFR, p-AKT, and p-ERK1/2 expression. EGF shifted HF-MSCs at the G1 phase to the S and G2 phase. Concomitantly, cyclinD1, phosphorylated Rb, and E2F1expression increased, while that of p16 decreased. In conclusion, EGF induces HF-MSC proliferation through the EGFR/ERK and AKT pathways, but not through STAT-3. The G1/S transition was stimulated by upregulation of cyclinD1 and inhibition of p16 expression.

  5. Modeling Bone Surface Morphology: A Fully Quantitative Method for Age-at-Death Estimation Using the Pubic Symphysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slice, Dennis E; Algee-Hewitt, Bridget F B

    2015-07-01

    The pubic symphysis is widely used in age estimation for the adult skeleton. Standard practice requires the visual comparison of surface morphology against criteria representing predefined phases and the estimation of case-specific age from an age range associated with the chosen phase. Known problems of method and observer error necessitate alternative tools to quantify age-related change in pubic morphology. This paper presents an objective, fully quantitative method for estimating age-at-death from the skeleton, which exploits a variance-based score of surface complexity computed from vertices obtained from a scanner sampling the pubic symphysis. For laser scans from 41 modern American male skeletons, this method produces results that are significantly associated with known age-at-death (RMSE = 17.15 years). Chronological age is predicted, therefore, equally well, if not, better, with this robust, objective, and fully quantitative method than with prevailing phase-aging systems. This method contributes to forensic casework by responding to medico-legal expectations for evidence standards.

  6. A Review: Hair Health, Concerns of Shampoo Ingredients and Scalp Nourishing Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chin-Hsien T; Huang, Shu-Hung; Wang, Hui-Min D

    2015-01-01

    Human hair serves a biological purpose of protecting the scalp, as well as physical attractiveness to the perception of beauty. Hair loss, graying of hair, dandruff and other conditions affecting hair conditions can be distressing to patients, as hair condition is often considered important in people's own assessment of physical beauty. Different hair types can benefit from different treatment methods to promote hair health and growth. External factors like exposure to the sun and smoking, dietary factors including malnutrition of essential fatty acids and vitamins, and chemicals applied to the hair and scalp in shampoos and other treatments can all cause damage to existing hair and impair hair growth. Specific chemicals found in many shampoos, including antimicrobial agents, surfactants and preservatives, can all impair different aspects of hair health. In this review, we aim to discuss the main hair issues, such as hair loss, followed by the safety assessments of selected ingredients in shampoo, and possible nourishment for scalp improvement. This review highlights areas of disagreement in the existing literature, and points to new directions for future studies. Key conclusions include the carcinogenic chemicals to avoid, alternatives of such ingredients, and scalp nourishing treatments with micronutrients.

  7. Hair dyeing, hair washing and hair cortisol concentrations among women from the healthy start study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Sheila K.; Larsen, Sofus C.; Olsen, Nanna J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) has been suggested as a promising marker for chronic stress. However, studies investigating the influence of hair dyeing and hair washing frequency on HCC have shown inconsistent results. Objective: To examine associations between HCC and hair dyeing...... status or weekly hair washing frequency among women. Methods: This cross-sectional study was based on data from 266 mothers participating in the Healthy Start intervention study. HCC was measured in the proximal end of the hair (1–2 cm closest to the scalp) while hair dyeing status, frequency of hair...... washing and covariates were reported by the women. Linear regression analyses were applied to assess the associations between HCC and hair dyeing or weekly frequency of hair washing. Results: No statistically significant difference (p = 0.91) in HCC was found between women who dyed hair (adjusted mean...

  8. 含硫氨基酸对獭兔生长及被毛发育的影响%Influences of Sulphur-Amino Acids on Growth and Hair Coat Development of Rex Rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅祥超; 文斌; 汪平; 张凯; 刘汉中

    2013-01-01

    In order to determine the optimal supplemental levels of methionine and cysteine in diets and their correlations of influences on growth and hair coat development of Rex rabbits, the related indices of growth and hair development were measured. A total of 315 new born Rex rabbits with the same birthday were allocated into 7 groups at random in litters. There were 7 replicates in each group and 6 rabbits in each replicate. The rabbits in the control group were fed a basal diet which contained 0. 24% methionine and 0. 23% cysteine, and the rabbits in the experimental groups were fed the diets supplemented with 0.10% , 0. 25% and 0.40% methionine or cysteine based on the basal diet, respectively. The feeding trial lasted from birth to 151 days old. The results showed as follows; supplementation of sulphur-amino acids could increased the body weight at 151 days of age and average daily gain, and above indices in the 0. 25% and 0. 40% groups had significant differences compared with the control group (P 0. 05), while the average daily feed intake showed an increasing trend (P>0.05). Compared with the control group, completion ratio of molt and hair coat density in the 0. 25% and 0. 40% groups were significantly increased (P 0. 05). From the perspective of hair coat scores at 92 and 151 days of age, supplementation of sulphur-amino acids could not significantly boost the hair coat quality of rex rabbits (P >0. 05) , and hair coat quality only showed an increasing trend with the supplemental level increasing. No significant differences were found in the above indices between methionine and cysteine groups with the corresponding levels (P >0. 05). Growth curve-fitting suggested that supplemental level of sulphur-amino acids could only change the maximum growth rate, but had little effect on the adult body weight. These results indicate that both of methionine and cysteine can promote growth and enhance hair coat development of Rex rabbits, and 0.25% dosage is the optimal

  9. Mutant laboratory mice with abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, cycling, and/or structure: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Motonobu; Schneider, Marlon R; Schmidt-Ullrich, Ruth; Paus, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Human hair disorders comprise a number of different types of alopecia, atrichia, hypotrichosis, distinct hair shaft disorders as well as hirsutism and hypertrichosis. Their causes vary from genodermatoses (e.g. hypotrichoses) via immunological disorders (e.g. alopecia areata, autoimmune cicatrical alopecias) to hormone-dependent abnormalities (e.g. androgenetic alopecia). A large number of spontaneous mouse mutants and genetically engineered mice develop abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, cycling, and/or hair shaft formation, whose analysis has proven invaluable to define the molecular regulation of hair growth, ranging from hair follicle development, and cycling to hair shaft formation and stem cell biology. Also, the accumulating reports on hair phenotypes of mouse strains provide important pointers to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying human hair growth disorders. Since numerous new mouse mutants with a hair phenotype have been reported since the publication of our earlier review on this matter a decade ago, we present here an updated, tabulated mini-review. The updated annotated tables list a wide selection of mouse mutants with hair growth abnormalities, classified into four categories: Mutations that affect hair follicle (1) morphogenesis, (2) cycling, (3) structure, and (4) mutations that induce extrafollicular events (for example immune system defects) resulting in secondary hair growth abnormalities. This synthesis is intended to provide a useful source of reference when studying the molecular controls of hair follicle growth and differentiation, and whenever the hair phenotypes of a newly generated mouse mutant need to be compared with existing ones. Copyright © 2012 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Photo yellowing of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, A C S; Richena, M; Dicelio, L E; Joekes, I

    2007-09-25

    In general, human hair is claimed to turn yellower after sun exposure. This is particularly affirmed for white hair. However, quantitative data relating yellowness to hair type and to the radiation wavelength are missing. This work shows results of the effect of full or UVB-filtered radiation of a mercury vapor or a xenon-arc lamp on the yellowness of virgin white, dark-brown, blond and red hair. All hair types showed a substantial change in yellowness after irradiation, which is dependent on the hair type and radiation wavelength. Surprisingly, white hair turns less yellow after both full and UVB-filtered radiation exposure. This effect is more pronounced when UVB is filtered from the radiation system. The only radiation that shows a photo-yellowing effect on white hair is infrared. As the yellowness of white hair is commonly related to tryptophan degradation, fluorescence experiments with hair solutions were performed to identify the natural degradation of tryptophan which occurs in hair after light irradiation. Pigmented hairs were also studied, as well as hair treated with a bleaching solution. Although we observe a decrease in tryptophan content of hair after lamp radiation, a direct correlation with hair yellowness was not achieved. Results are discussed in terms of hair type, composition and melanin content.

  11. Hair removal-related injuries in the United States, 1991-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Thomas A; Tully, Albert Scott; Redford, Travis; McGwin, Gerald

    2016-12-01

    Hair removal practices have changed in frequency and location on the body. Previous research on hair removal injuries has focused on a specific body region, age, or gender. This study sought to take a broader perspective of hair removal-associated injuries in the United States which sought treatment at emergency departments. Data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) from 1991 to 2014 were used to identify hair removal-related injuries. Incidence rates were determined for the overall population and stratified by gender and age category using US Census Bureau population estimates. From 1991 to 2014, there were an estimated 292 053 hair removal-associated injuries in the United States. The overall incidence rate was highest in 2013 (9/100 000). Those aged 65+ had the highest incidence from 1991 to 2010 with those aged 19-34 having the highest rate starting in 2011. When stratified by body region injured, males had highest injury rates to the face and females had highest rates to the lower limbs. Starting in 2010, those aged 19-34 had higher incidence particularly for pubic and trunk regions. The incidence of hair removal-associated injuries seen by emergency departments increased nearly ninefold between 1991 and 2013. Due to the increased incidence among 19- to 34-year-olds, caution should be taken particularly for this age group when undergoing depilatory practices. Overall, individuals should practice safe and acceptable usage of hair removal products to reduce the risk of injury. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Effect of ultraviolet radiation, smoking and nutrition on hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2015-01-01

    Similar to the rest of the skin, the hair is exposed to noxious environmental factors. While ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and smoking are well appreciated as major factors contributing to the extrinsic aging of the skin, their effects on the condition of hair have only lately attracted the attention of the medical community. Terrestrial solar UVR ranges from approximately 290 to 400 nm; UV-B (290-315 nm) reaches only the upper dermis, while the penetration of UV-A (315-400 nm) into the dermis increases with wavelength. The two most important chronic effects of UVR on the skin and bald scalp are photocarcinogenesis and solar elastosis; however, the effects of UVR on hair have largely been ignored. As a consequence of increased leisure time and a growing popularity of outdoor activities and holidays in the sun, the awareness of sun protection of the skin has become important and should also apply to the hair. Besides being the single-most preventable cause of significant cardiovascular and pulmonary morbidity and an important cause of death, the association of tobacco smoking with various adverse effects on the skin and hair has also been recognized. Increasing public awareness of the association between smoking and hair loss seems to offer a good opportunity for the prevention or cessation of smoking, since the appearance of hair plays an important role in the overall physical appearance and self-perception of people. Finally, the quantity and quality of hair are closely related to the nutritional state of an individual. Normal supply, uptake, and transport of proteins, calories, trace elements, and vitamins are of fundamental importance in tissues with high biosynthetic activity, such as the hair follicle. In instances of protein and calorie malnutrition as well as essential amino acid, trace element, and vitamin deficiencies, hair growth and pigmentation may be impaired. Ultimately, important commercial interest lies in the question of whether increasing the

  13. Issues about axial diffusion during segmental hair analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintz, Pascal

    2013-06-01

    The detection of a single drug exposure in hair (doping offence, drug-facilitated crime) is based on the presence of the compound of interest in the segment corresponding to the period of the alleged event. However, in some cases, the drug is detected in consecutive segments. As a consequence, interpretation of the results is a challenge that deserves particular attention. Literature evaluation and data obtained from the 20-year experience in drug testing in hair of the author are used as the basis to establish a theory to validate the concept of single exposure in authentic forensic cases where the drug is detected in 2 or 3 segments. The gained experience recommends to wait for 4-5 weeks after the alleged event and then to collect strands of hair. Assuming normal hair growth rate (1 cm/mo), it is advisable to cut the strand into 3 segments of 2 cm to document eventual exposure. Administration of a single dose would be confirmed by the presence of the drug in the proximal 2-cm segment (root), whereas not detected in the 2 other segments. However, in the daily experience of the author, it was noticed that sometimes (about 1 case from 10 examinations), the drug can be detected in 2 or 3 consecutive segments. Such a disposition was even observed in volunteer experiments in the literature. As it was also described for cocaine in early 1996, there is considerable variability in the area over which incorporated drug can be distributed in the hair shaft and in the rate of axial distribution of drug along the hair shaft. This can explain why a small amount of drug, as compared with the concentration in the proximal segment, can be measured in the second segment, as a result of an irregular movement. Another explanation for broadening the band of positive hair from a single dose is that drugs and metabolites are incorporated into hair during formation of the hair shaft via diffusion from sweat and other secretions. The presence of confounding interferences in the hair

  14. Advances in hair transplantation: longitudinal partial follicular unit transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gho, Coen G; Neumann, H A Martino

    2015-01-01

    There are different techniques of hair transplantation. The most common and known hair transplantation methods are the 'strip' method, where a strip of skin containing hair follicles is removed, cut into grafts and implanted in the recipient area, and the follicle unit extraction (FUE) method, in which whole follicle units are extracted one by one and implanted one by one back into the recipient area. The FUE method is more patient friendly and leaves only tiny scars compared to the strip method, which leaves visible linear scars at the donor area. Both methods, however, have the major disadvantage that the extracted hair follicles are removed and the availability of donor hair follicles are limited and results in a decrease in hair density, as no re-grow will occur in the donor area. Since partial longitudinal-follicular unit transplantation (PL-FUT) extracts partial longitudinal follicular units that can be used as complete follicular units to regenerate completely differentiated hair growth and the partial follicular units that remain in the dermis in the donor area can survive and produce hair, PL-FUT enables us to multiply hair follicles in vivo while preserving the donor area. Although this technique is suitable for androgenic alopecia, PL-FUT could also be suitable in persons who have a relative small donor area compared to the recipient area like burn victims, as well as scarring alopecia's like frontal fibrosing alopecia.

  15. Use of image analysis techniques for objective quantification of the efficacy of different hair removal methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielfeldt, S; Brandt, M; Wilhelm, K-P

    2006-01-01

    In the field of consumer-used cosmetics for hair removal and hair growth reduction, there is a need for improved quantitative methods to enable the evaluation of efficacy and claim support. Optimized study designs and investigated endpoints are lacking to compare the efficacy of standard methods, like shaving or plucking, with new methods and products, such as depilating instruments or hair-growth-reducing cosmetics. Non-invasive image analysis, using a high-performance microscope combined with an optimized image analysis tool, was investigated to assess hair growth. In one step, high-resolution macrophotographs of the legs of female volunteers after shaving and plucking with cold wax were compared to observe short-term hair regrowth. In a second step, images obtained after plucking with cold wax were taken over a long-term period to assess the time, after which depilated hairs reappeared on the skin surface. Using image analysis, parameters like hair length, hair width, and hair projection area were investigated. The projection area was found to be the parameter most independent of possible image artifacts such as irregularities in skin or low contrast due to hair color. Therefore, the hair projection area was the most appropriate parameter to determine the time of hair regrowth. This point of time is suitable to assess the efficacy of different hair removal methods or hair growth reduction treatments by comparing the endpoint after use of the hair removal method to be investigated to the endpoint after simple shaving. The closeness of hair removal and visible signs of skin irritation can be assessed as additional quantitative parameters from the same images. Discomfort and pain rating by the volunteers complete the set of parameters, which are required to benchmark a new hair removal method or hair-growth-reduction treatment. Image analysis combined with high-resolution imaging techniques is a powerful tool to objectively assess parameters like hair length, hair

  16. A prototypic mathematical model of the human hair cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nuaimi, Yusur; Goodfellow, Marc; Paus, Ralf; Baier, Gerold

    2012-10-07

    The human hair cycle is a complex, dynamic organ-transformation process during which the hair follicle repetitively progresses from a growth phase (anagen) to a rapid apoptosis-driven involution (catagen) and finally a relative quiescent phase (telogen) before returning to anagen. At present no theory satisfactorily explains the origin of the hair cycle rhythm. Based on experimental evidence we propose a prototypic model that focuses on the dynamics of hair matrix keratinocytes. We argue that a plausible feedback-control structure between two key compartments (matrix keratinocytes and dermal papilla) leads to dynamic instabilities in the population dynamics resulting in rhythmic hair growth. The underlying oscillation consists of an autonomous switching between two quasi-steady states. Additional features of the model, namely bistability and excitability, lead to new hypotheses about the impact of interventions on hair growth. We show how in silico testing may facilitate testing of candidate hair growth modulatory agents in human HF organ culture or in clinical trials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Chemotherapy-induced alopecia: advice and support for hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Helen

    This article provides insight into the growth cycle of a hair follicle and the potential impact chemotherapy agents can have on this process, which often results in hair loss (alopecia). It explores the psychological consequences of chemotherapy-induced alopecia for an individual as a result of the perceptions of others as well as an individual's perception of his or her self-image. Despite the development of various forms of scalp cooling, chemotherapy-induced alopecia remains a major side effect for patients receiving chemotherapy; however, there have been improvements in wig provision and changing public opinion relating to baldness. Although chemotherapy-induced alopecia affects both males and females and all age groups, this article focuses on the potential impact for patients receiving chemotherapy as a form of treatment for breast cancer. As professionals we need to understand the social significance of hair in relation to a person's outward presentation and social interactions, along with the possible psychological implications of a person losing his or her bodily hair, and not just the head hair. We must aim to minimize the distress alopecia can cause by: ensuring we provide patients with up-to-date verbal and written information to enable them to prepare for losing their hair; helping them to preserve their self-image and minimize the psychological consequences of hair loss while receiving chemotherapy; and preparing them for their hair re-growth following completion of chemotherapy.

  18. Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g., death of a loved one or divorce) can cause hair loss. Dieting and poor nutrition ... Immediately stopping some medicines can cause serious side effects. If you think a medicine may be causing ...

  19. Black Hair is Beautiful

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    On June 9, the 1994 ⅩⅢ Asian Make-up and Hairstyling Competition was held in Beijing. More than 200 contestants from 12 countries and regions across Asia participated. The competition is now considered the largest and most prestigious exchange activity in Asian beauty and hair circles. Black Hair is Beautiful" was the theme of this competition, which stressed Asian physical characteristics and aesthetics.

  20. Probing allelochemical biosynthesis in sorghum root hairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimando, Agnes M; Pan, Zhiqiang

    2008-01-01

    Allelopathic interaction between plants is thought to involve the release of phytotoxic allelochemicals by one species, thus inhibiting the growth of neighboring species in competition for limited resources. Sorgoleone represents one of the more potent allelochemicals characterized to date, and its prolific production in root hair cells of Sorghum spp. has made the investigation of its biosynthetic pathway ideally-suited for functional genomics investigations. Through the use of a recently-released EST data set generated from isolated Sorghum bicolor root hair cells, significant inroads have been made toward the identification of genes and the corresponding enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of this compound in root hairs. Here we provide additional information concerning our recent report on the identification of a 5-n-alk(en) ylresorcinol utilizing O-methyltransferase, as well as other key enzymes likely to participate in the biosynthesis of this important allelochemical. PMID:19704820

  1. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to capsaicin and maintenance of body weight after weight loss (ID 2039, 2041, 2042), increase in carbohydrate oxidation (ID 2040), and contribution to normal hair growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to capsaicin and contribution to the maintenance or achievement of a normal body weight, increase in carbohydrate oxidation, and contribution to normal hair growth. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list...

  2. Advances and challenges in hair restoration of curly Afrocentric hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Nicole E; Callender, Valerie D

    2014-04-01

    Although the biochemical composition of hair is similar among racial and ethnic groups, the hair structure between them varies, and individuals with curly hair pose specific challenges and special considerations when a surgical option for alopecia is considered. Hair restoration in this population should therefore be approached with knowledge on the clinical characteristics of curly hair, hair grooming techniques that may influence the management, unique indications for the procedure, surgical instrumentation used, and the complications that may arise. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Conditioned Media for Hair Regeneration Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdasi, Sushilkumar; Tiwari, Shashi Kant

    Hair loss can have major psychological impact on affected population belonging to varied ethnic background. Hair is a mini organ in itself and serves many distinguishing functions ranging from maintaining body temperature to promoting social interactions. Major cause of hair loss is androgenic alopecia. Hair follicles possess receptor for androgen. However, DHT (Dihydrotestosterone) in excess results into shrinkage of hair follicle affecting hair growth adversely. The present review is focused on etiology of hair loss, traditional treatment approach and their limitations with side effects with special emphasis on unique properties of stem cells, favourable growth factors secreted by stem cells and strategies to enhance favourable growth factor/cytokine production for hair loss therapeutics. We discussed in details the present available treatment options for hair loss like drugs (Finasteride and Minoxidil), follicular hair transplant, laser therapy and serum therapy. These treatment options have their own disadvantages and side effects with appropriate alerts from regulatory authorities. The side effects of these modalities cannot be ignored and demands alternate therapy approach with less or no side effects. We feel that the stem cell therapy is advancing and is a promising modality in near future owing to its advantages and promising outcomes. This review article discusses possible stem cell therapy for hair regrowth and its advantages. We focused on use of conditioned media derived from stem cells instead of using stem cells directly for the therapy.

  4. Essential of Hair Care Cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Alessandrini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, hair care and style play a very important role in people’s physical aspect and self-perception. Hair cosmetics can be distinguished into two main categories: cosmetics with temporary effect on the hair, for example shampoos, conditioners, sprays, and temporary colors; and cosmetics with permanent effect on the hair, such as permanent waves, relaxers, bleaches and permanent colors. These cosmetic procedures may induce hair abnormalities. We provide an overview on the most important characteristics of these procedures, analyzing components and effects on the hair. Finally, we evaluated new camouflage techniques and tattoo scalp.

  5. Micro-RNA-31 controls hair cycle-associated changes in gene expression programs of the skin and hair follicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardaryev, Andrei N; Ahmed, Mohammed I; Vlahov, Nikola V; Fessing, Michael Y; Gill, Jason H; Sharov, Andrey A; Botchkareva, Natalia V

    2010-10-01

    The hair follicle is a cyclic biological system that progresses through stages of growth, regression, and quiescence, which involves dynamic changes in a program of gene regulation. Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are critically important for the control of gene expression and silencing. Here, we show that global miRNA expression in the skin markedly changes during distinct stages of the hair cycle in mice. Furthermore, we show that expression of miR-31 markedly increases during anagen and decreases during catagen and telogen. Administration of antisense miR-31 inhibitor into mouse skin during the early- and midanagen phases of the hair cycle results in accelerated anagen development, and altered differentiation of hair matrix keratinocytes and hair shaft formation. Microarray, qRT-PCR and Western blot analyses revealed that miR-31 negatively regulates expression of Fgf10, the components of Wnt and BMP signaling pathways Sclerostin and BAMBI, and Dlx3 transcription factor, as well as selected keratin genes, both in vitro and in vivo. Using luciferase reporter assay, we show that Krt16, Krt17, Dlx3, and Fgf10 serve as direct miR-31 targets. Thus, by targeting a number of growth regulatory molecules and cytoskeletal proteins, miR-31 is involved in establishing an optimal balance of gene expression in the hair follicle required for its proper growth and hair fiber formation.

  6. Teaching Your Child Healthy Hair Care Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... public", "mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c Teaching your child healthy hair care habits Many common ... your hair. Damaged hair looks and feels unhealthy. Teaching your child how to shampoo Healthy hair care ...

  7. Pubic osteolysis mimicking a malignant lesion: report a case with a fracture dislocation of the sacroiliac joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, K. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga 520-21 (Japan); Hukuda, S. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga 520-21 (Japan); Ishizawa, Michihito [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga 520-21 (Japan); Chano, Tokuhiro [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga 520-21 (Japan); Okabe, Hidetoshi [Division of Surgical Pathology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga (Japan); Maeno, Motoyuki [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Shigaraki National Hospital, Koga, Shiga (Japan)

    1997-07-07

    We report the case of a 67-year-old woman who presented to our institution with osteoblastic and osteolytic lesions of the pubis and fracture dislocation of the left sacroiliac joint. She had presented 7 months earlier to an outside institution with a left gluteal mass, which had been biopsied and had been believed to represent malignancy. A second biopsy at our institution showed no evidence of malignancy and was felt to represent fracture healing. A diagnosis of pubic osteolysis was made based on the radiographic and histologic findings. A follow-up radiograph 6 years after presentation revealed healing of the lesions, confirming its benignity. (orig.). With 6 figs.

  8. Targeted Expression of GFP in the Hair Follicle Using Ex Vivo Viral Transduction

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Robert M.; Li, Lingna

    2008-01-01

    The hair follicle is a highly complex appendage of the skin containing a multiplicity of cell types. The follicle undergoes constant cycling through the life of the organism including growth and resorption with growth dependent on specific stem cells. The targeting of the follicle by genes and stem cells to change its properties, in particular, the nature of the hair shaft is, discussed. Hair follicle delivery systems are described, such as liposomes and viral vectors for gene therapy. The na...

  9. Hair to document drug-facilitated crimes: four cases involving bromazepam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villain, Marion; Chèze, Marjorie; Dumestre, Véronique; Ludes, Bertrand; Kintz, Pascal

    2004-09-01

    The use of a drug to modify a person's behavior for criminal gain is not a recent phenomenon. However, the recent increase in reports of drug-facilitated crimes (sexual assault, so-called DFSA, robbery) has caused alarm in the general public. Drugs used can be difficult to detect (active products at low dosages, chemical instability), possess amnesic properties, and can be quickly cleared from body fluids. In case of long delay between the alleged crime and clinical examination, collection of blood or even urine can be of little value. This is the reason why this laboratory developed an original approach based on hair testing by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. To explore the detectability of a single absorption of bromazepam in hair, two volunteers (male and female) received a 6-mg dose. A strand of hair was sampled about one month after exposure and was cut into three segments of 2-cm long. After pulverization, 20 mg of hair was incubated overnight in a phosphate buffer (pH 8.4). The aqueous phase was extracted with 5 mL of a mixture of diethyl ether/methylene chloride (80:20) in the presence of diazepam-d5, which was used as internal standard (IS). Hair extract was separated on a XTerra MS C18 column using a gradient of acetonitrile and formate buffer. Detection was based on two daughter ions: transitions m/z 316.0 to 182.2 and 209.3 and m/z 290.1 to 154.1 and 198.2 for bromazepam and the IS, respectively. In the hair of the two subjects, bromazepam was detected in the proximal segment at 0.8 and 4.7 pg/mg, respectively. Hair analysis was applied to four authentic criminal cases. In the two first cases, bromazepam tested positive in the corresponding hair segment at 5.7, and 10.3 pg/mg. In another case, head hair was sampled 19 weeks after the alleged offense, and its length (bromazepam was quantified in the victim's pubic hair. In these three cases, concentrations were consistent with a single exposure to bromazepam. In the last case, bromazepam

  10. Runx3 is involved in hair shape determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveh, Eli; Cohen, Shulamit; Levanon, Ditsa; Groner, Yoram; Gat, Uri

    2005-08-01

    Transcriptional regulators of the Runx family play critical roles in normal organ development and, when mutated, lead to genetic diseases and cancer. Runx3 functions during cell lineage decisions in thymopoiesis and neurogenesis and mediates transforming growth factor-beta signaling in dendritic cells. Here, we study the function of Runx3 in the skin and its appendages, primarily the hair follicle, during mouse development. Runx3 is expressed predominantly in the dermal compartment of the hair follicles as they form and during the hair cycle, as well as in the nail and sweat gland skin appendages. Distinct expression is also detected periodically in isolated cells of the epidermis and in melanocytes, populating the hair bulb. Runx3-deficient mice display a perturbation of the normal hair coat, which we show to be due to hair type and hair shape changes. Thus, one of the functions of Runx3 in skin may be to regulate the formation of the epithelial derived structural hair by affecting dermal to epidermal interactions.

  11. Incubatory environment of the scalp impacts pre-emergent hair to affect post-emergent hair cuticle integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, James R; Henry, James P; Kerr, Kathy M; Flagler, Michael J; Page, Steve H; Redman-Furey, Nancy

    2017-05-14

    To determine whether the oxidative stress transmitted to newly grown hair from an unhealthy scalp has physical consequences to the cuticular condition and function. A uniquely designed 24-week clinical study included 8 weeks of pretreatment with a cosmetic shampoo and 16 weeks of treatment with either a potentiated zinc pyrithione (ZPT) antidandruff shampoo or a placebo cosmetic shampoo. This clinical design allowed the growth and acquisition of hair samples under conditions of varying but known scalp health as a result of treating a dandruff/seborrheic dermatitis (D/SD) population. Two complementary methods were used to characterize the integrity of the cuticular surface. Hair surface hydrophobicity was assessed by quantifying water wetting force using a Wilhelmy balance method. Surface structure and porosity were assessed using dynamic vapor sorption (DVS) to gravimetrically quantify water sorption. Chemical oxidative stress to pre-emergent hair has been shown to have negative consequences to hair surface structure. Compared to a placebo shampoo control, use of a potentiated ZPT shampoo improved scalp health and significantly improved the following attributes associated with healthy hair: hair surface hydrophobicity (surface energy) and cuticular moisture barrier effectiveness (dynamic vapor sorption). Pre-emergent hair can be negatively impacted by the oxidative stress that occurs with an unhealthy scalp, possibly due to metabolic activity of resident microbes. Manifestations of the oxidative stress include altered cuticle surface properties that are responsible for its protective function; these effects are similar in type to those observed by bleaching post-emergent hair. These alterations have the potential to make the hair, once emerged from the scalp, more susceptible to the cumulative physical and chemical insults responsible for hair feel and look, fiber integrity, and overall retention. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Society of Hair Testing guidelines for drug testing in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Gail A A; Kronstrand, Robert; Kintz, Pascal

    2012-05-10

    The Society of Hair Testing (SoHT) Guidelines for Drug Testing in Hair provide laboratories with recommended best practice guidelines whether they are currently offering drug testing in hair, or plan to offer a hair testing service in the future. The guidelines include reference to recommended sample collection and storage procedures, through sample preparation, pre-treatment and analysis and the use of cut-offs.

  13. Comparative Hair Restorer Efficacy of Medicinal Herb on Nude (Foxn1nu Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Begum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eclipta alba (L. Hassk, Asiasarum sieboldii (Miq. F. Maek (Asiasari radix, and Panax ginseng C. A. Mey (red ginseng are traditionally acclaimed for therapeutic properties of various human ailments. Synergistic effect of each standardized plant extract was investigated for hair growth potential on nude mice, as these mutant mice genetically lack hair due to abnormal keratinization. Dried plant samples were ground and extracted by methanol. Topical application was performed on the back of nude mice daily up to completion of two hair growth generations. The hair density and length of Eclipta alba treated mice were increased significantly P>0.001 than control mice. Hair growth area was also distinctly visible in Eclipta alba treated mice. On the other hand, Asiasari radix and Panax ginseng treated mice developing hair loss were recognized from the abortive boundaries of hair coverage. Histomorphometric observation of nude mice skin samples revealed an increase in number of hair follicles (HFs. The presence of follicular keratinocytes was confirmed by BrdU labeling, S-phase cells in HFs. Therefore, Eclipta alba extract and/or phytochemicals strongly displayed incomparability of hair growth promotion activity than others. Thus, the standardized Eclipta alba extract can be used as an effective, alternative, and complementary treatment against hair loss.

  14. Body hair transplant: An additional source of donor hair in hair restoration surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poswal Arvind

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Androgenic alopecia (pattern baldness is a condition in which there is androgen mediated progressive miniaturization and loss of hair follicles in a genetically susceptible individual. A 47-year-old male patient with advanced degree of hair loss (Norwood 6 category wanted to go for full hair restoration surgery. Due to the limited availability of donor hair in the scalp, a small session with 700-chest hair was performed. On follow-up at eight months it was observed that chest hair grew and formed a cosmetically acceptable forelock.

  15. The interpretation of hair analysis for drugs and drug metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuypers, Eva; Flanagan, Robert J

    2017-09-22

    Head hair analysis for drugs and drug metabolites has been used widely with the aim of detecting exposure in the weeks or months prior to sample collection. However, inappropriate interpretation of results has likely led to serious miscarriages of justice, especially in child custody cases. The aim of this review is to assess critically what can, and perhaps more importantly, what cannot be claimed as regards the interpretation of hair test results in a given set of circumstances in order to inform future testing. We searched the PubMed database for papers published 2010-2016 using the terms "hair" and "drug" and "decontamination", the terms "hair" and "drug" and "contamination", the terms "hair" and "drug-facilitated crime", the terms "hair" and "ethyl glucuronide", and the terms "hair", "drug testing" and "analysis". Study of the reference lists of the 46 relevant papers identified 25 further relevant citations, giving a total of 71 citations. Hair samples: Drugs, drug metabolites and/or decomposition products may arise not only from deliberate drug administration, but also via deposition from a contaminated atmosphere if drug(s) have been smoked or otherwise vaporized in a confined area, transfer from contaminated surfaces via food/fingers, etc., and transfer from sweat and other secretions after a single large exposure, which could include anesthesia. Excretion in sweat of endogenous analytes such as γ-hydroxybutyric acid is a potential confounder if its use is to be investigated. Cosmetic procedures such as bleaching or heat treatment of hair may remove analytes prior to sample collection. Hair color and texture, the area of the head the sample is taken from, the growth rate of individual hairs, and how the sample has been stored, may also affect the interpretation of results. Toxicological analysis: Immunoassay results alone do not provide reliable evidence on which to base judicial decisions. Gas or liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection

  16. Time-Course Expression Profiles of Hair Cycle-Associated Genes in Male Mini Rats after Depilation of Telogen-Phase Hairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya Umeda-Ikawa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Jcl:WistarTGN(ARGHGEN1Nts rat (Mini rat is a growth hormone (GH-deficient transgenic rat. The hair cycle in the dorsal skin of male Mini rats enters a long-lasting telogen phase after eights weeks of age, but depilation can induce a transient hair cycle again. In this study, a time-course profiling of genes expression was done on the dorsal skin of male Mini rats along the progression of depilation-induced hair cycle using DNA microarray analysis. As a result, 1,215 probe sets including 1,171 hair cycle-related ones showed more than 3-fold changes in expression compared with that in before-depilation telogen phase. The present data will contribute to elucidating the mechanisms of hair cycle regulation and should lead to the identification of novel molecular targets for hair growth and/or depilation agents.

  17. Hair breakage during combing. IV. Brushing and combing hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Clarence; Kamath, Yash

    2007-01-01

    During combing of hair, longer fiber breaks (>2.5 cm) occur principally by impact loading of looped crossover hairs, while short segment breaks (bleaching hair, a longer comb stroke, increasing fiber curvature, wet combing versus dry combing, and brushing versus combing all provide for an increase in long segment breaks and this ratio, with the largest effect produced by brushing.

  18. Hair corticosterone measurement in mouse models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Rebecca L; Browne, Caroline A; Lucki, Irwin

    2017-09-01

    In diabetes, glucocorticoid secretion increases secondary to hyperglycemia and is associated with an extensive list of disease complications. Levels of cortisol in humans, or corticosterone in rodents, are usually measured as transitory biomarkers of stress in blood or saliva. Glucocorticoid concentrations accumulate in human or animal hair over weeks and could more accurately measure the cumulative stress burden of diseases like chronic diabetes. In this study, corticosterone levels were measured in hair in verified rodent models of diabetes mellitus. To induce type 1 diabetes, C57BL/6J mice were injected with streptozotocin and blood and hair samples were collected 28days following induction. Leptin receptor deficient (db/db) mice were used as a spontaneous model of type 2 diabetes and blood and hair samples were collected at 8weeks of age, after the development of hyperglycemia and obesity. Corticosterone levels from serum, new growth hair and total growth hair were analyzed using an enzyme immunoassay. Corticosterone levels in new growth hair and serum were significantly elevated in both models of diabetes compared to controls. In contrast, corticosterone levels in old hair growth did not differ significantly between diabetic and non-diabetic animals. Thus, hair removal and sampling of new hair growth was a more sensitive procedure for detecting changes in hair corticosterone levels induced by periods of hyperglycemia lasting for 4weeks in mice. These results validate the use of hair to measure long-term changes in corticosterone induced by diabetes in rodent models. Further studies are now needed to validate the utility of hair cortisol as a tool for measuring the stress burden of individuals with diabetes and for following the effects of long-term medical treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Drosophila planar polarity gene multiple wing hairs directly regulates the actin cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qiuheng; Schafer, Dorothy A; Adler, Paul N

    2015-07-15

    The evolutionarily conserved frizzled/starry night (fz/stan) pathway regulates planar cell polarity (PCP) in vertebrates and invertebrates. This pathway has been extensively studied in the Drosophila wing, where it is manifested by an array of distally pointing cuticular hairs. Using in vivo imaging we found that, early in hair growth, cells have multiple actin bundles and hairs that subsequently fuse into a single growing hair. The downstream PCP gene multiple wing hairs (mwh) plays a key role in this process and acts to antagonize the actin cytoskeleton. In mwh mutants hair initiation is not limited to a small region at the distal edge of pupal wing cells as in wild type, resulting in multiple hairs with aberrant polarity. Extra actin bundles/hairs are formed and do not completely fuse, in contrast to wild type. As development proceeded additional hairs continued to form, further increasing hair number. We identified a fragment of Mwh with in vivo rescue activity and that bound and bundled F-actin filaments and inhibited actin polymerization in in vitro actin assays. The loss of these activities can explain the mwh mutant phenotype. Our data suggest a model whereby, prior to hair initiation, proximally localized Mwh inhibits actin polymerization resulting in polarized activation of the cytoskeleton and hair formation on the distal side of wing cells. During hair growth Mwh is found in growing hairs, where we suggest it functions to promote the fusion of actin bundles and inhibit the formation of additional actin bundles that could lead to extra hairs.

  20. Laser assisted hair-removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, S; Elsaie, M L; Nouri, K

    2009-10-01

    A number of lasers and light devices are now available for the treatment of unwanted hair. The goal of laser hair removal is to damage stem cells in the bulge of the hair follicle by targeting melanin, the endogenous chromophore for laser and light devices utilized to remove hair. The competing chromophores in the skin and hair, oxyhemoglobin and water, have a decreased absorption between 690 nm and 1000 nm, thus making this an ideal range for laser and light sources. Laser hair removal is achieved through follicular unit destruction based on selective photothermolysis. The principle of selective photothermolysis predicts that the thermal injury will be restricted to a given target if there is sufficient selective absorption of light and the pulse duration is shorter than the thermal relaxation time of the target. This review will focus on the mechanisms of laser assisted hair removal and provide an update on the newer technologies emerging in the field of lasers assisted hair removal.

  1. Formin homology 1 (OsFH1) regulates submergence-dependent root hair development in rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Liu, Jingmiao; Han, Chang-Deok

    2013-08-01

    By using a forward genetic approach, a formin homology 1 gene (OsFH1) was identified as a critical regulator of rice root hair development. The phenotypic effect of OsFH1 on root hair development was verified by using three independent mutants, one point mutation and two T-DNA insertions. The study showed that OsFH1 is required for the elongation of root-hairs. However, Osfh1 exhibited growth defect of root hairs only when roots were grown submerged in solution. To understand how OsFH1 impinges on plant responses to root submergence, the growth responses of Osfh1 root hairs to anoxia, carbohydrate supplementation and exogenous hormones (auxin and ethylene) and nutrients (Fe and Pi) were examined. However, none of these treatments rescued the growth defects of Osfhl1 root hairs. This study demonstrates that OsFH1 could be involved in preventing submergence-induced inhibition of root hair growth.

  2. Nutrition of women with hair loss problem during the period of menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goluch-Koniuszy, Zuzanna Sabina

    2016-03-01

    During the period of menopause as an effect of changes in hormone status, one of the most common ailments for women is hair loss. Taking into consideration fact that the ingredients of diet contained in various groups of consumed food products are both precursors in steroid hormones synthesis as well as have direct impact on structure, growth and keeping hair in skin integument, this is the reason why nourishing support for women during this period of life as well as during the hair loss therapy is reasonable. Standard value proteins containing Sulphur amino-acids: cysteine and methionine as precursor to keratin hair protein synthesis are basic element of diet conditioning of hair building. Irreplaceable having impact on keeping hair in skin integument is exogenous L-lysine, mainly present in the inner part of hair root is responsible for hair shape and volume. Fats present in the diet take part in steroid hormones synthesis (from cholesterol) thus have influence on keeping hair in skin integument. Women diet should contain products rich in complex carbohydrates, with low glycemic index and load containing fiber regulating carbohydrate-lipid metabolism of the body. Vitamins also have impact on the state of hair: C vitamin, group B and A vitamins. Minerals which influence hair growth are: Zn, Fe, Cu, Se, Si, Mg and Ca. It is worthwhile to pay closer attention to diet in women who besides hormone changes and undertaken pharmacotherapy are additionally exposed to chronic stress and improperly conducted cosmetic's and hairdresser's treatments.

  3. Mercury analysis in hair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esteban, Marta; Schindler, Birgit K; Jiménez-Guerrero, José A

    2015-01-01

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an effective tool for assessing actual exposure to chemicals that takes into account all routes of intake. Although hair analysis is considered to be an optimal biomarker for assessing mercury exposure, the lack of harmonization as regards sampling and analytical...... assurance program (QAP) for assessing mercury levels in hair samples from more than 1800 mother-child pairs recruited in 17 European countries. To ensure the comparability of the results, standard operating procedures (SOPs) for sampling and for mercury analysis were drafted and distributed to participating...

  4. Segmented heterochromia in scalp hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Kyeong Han; Kim, Daehwan; Sohn, Seonghyang; Lee, Won Soo

    2003-12-01

    Segmented heterochromia of scalp hair is characterized by the irregularly alternating segmentation of hair into dark and light bands and is known to be associated with iron deficiency anemia. The authors report the case of an 11-year-old boy with segmented heterochromia associated with iron deficiency anemia. After 11 months of iron replacement, the boy's segmented heterochromic hair recovered completely.

  5. Why Does Hair Turn Gray?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can get gray hair at any age. Some people go gray at a young age — as early as when they are in ... around the same age that our parents or grandparents first did. Gray hair is more noticeable in people with darker hair because it stands out, but ...

  6. crinkle, a novel symbiotic mutant that affects the infection thread growth and alters the root hair, trichome, and seed development in Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansengco, Myra L; Hayashi, Makoto; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Imaizumi-Anraku, Haruko; Murooka, Yoshikatsu

    2003-03-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms involved in Rhizobium-legume symbiosis, we examined a novel symbiotic mutant, crinkle (Ljsym79), from the model legume Lotus japonicus. On nitrogen-starved medium, crinkle mutants inoculated with the symbiont bacterium Mesorhizobium loti MAFF 303099 showed severe nitrogen deficiency symptoms. This mutant was characterized by the production of many bumps and small, white, uninfected nodule-like structures. Few nodules were pale-pink and irregularly shaped with nitrogen-fixing bacteroids and expressing leghemoglobin mRNA. Morphological analysis of infected roots showed that nodulation in crinkle mutants is blocked at the stage of the infection process. Confocal microscopy and histological examination of crinkle nodules revealed that infection threads were arrested upon penetrating the epidermal cells. Starch accumulation in uninfected cells and undeveloped vascular bundles were also noted in crinkle nodules. Results suggest that the Crinkle gene controls the infection process that is crucial during the early stage of nodule organogenesis. Aside from the symbiotic phenotypes, crinkle mutants also developed morphological alterations, such as crinkly or wavy trichomes, short seedpods with aborted embryos, and swollen root hairs. crinkle is therefore required for symbiotic nodule development and for other aspects of plant development.

  7. Artritis séptica del pubis en dos deportistas Septic arthritis of the pubic symphysis in two athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Andrews

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La artritis séptica de pubis u osteomielitis púbica es la infección que compromete la sínfisis pubiana y su articulación. Es poco frecuente, representando menos del 1% de las osteomielitis. Afecta más a menudo a atletas jóvenes y a mujeres que se someten a cirugía ginecológica o urológica. Se presenta con fiebre y dolor púbico, irradiado a genitales, que aumenta con la movilización de la cadera lo que produce claudicación de la marcha. Debe hacerse el diagnóstico diferencial con la osteítis del pubis que es una condición inflamatoria estéril. La punción guiada por imagen suele ser necesaria para el diagnóstico diferencial con la osteítis del pubis. El diagnóstico se basa en la clínica apoyada en el aislamiento microbiológico, métodos por imágenes e incremento de las proteínas de fase aguda. Los agentes etiológicos más comúnmente encontrados son Staphylococcus aureus, seguidos de bacilos gram negativos, o pueden ser polimicrobianos en posquirúrgicos. El tratamiento antibiótico se ajusta al germen aislado por cultivo, además de antiinflamatorios y reposo. El desbridamiento quirúrgico se requiere hasta en el 55% de los casos. Se recomiendan antibióticos por 6 semanas. Se presentan dos casos de osteomielitis del pubis por S. aureus, con buena respuesta al tratamiento. Ambos pacientes eran jóvenes y deportistas.Septic arthritis of the pubic symphysis, so called osteomyelitis pubis is the infection which involves pubic symphysis and its joint. It is a rare condition, representing less than one percent of all cases of osteomyelitis. It affects most frequently young athletes and women undergoing gynecologic or urologic surgery. It presents itself with fever and pubic pain which irradiates to the genitals and increases when hip is mobilized, and this fact produces gait claudication. Differential diagnosis should be made with pubic osteitis, which is a sterile inflammatory condition. Diagnosis is based on clinic

  8. Thinning Hair and Hair Loss: Could it be Female Pattern Hair Loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... effective treatment for FPHL. Supplements: Many supplements, including biotin and folic acid, are said to help grow ... that the supplement helps regrow hair. Hair loss shampoos: These shampoos tend to do one of the ...

  9. Hair organ regeneration via the bioengineered hair follicular unit transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Kyosuke; Toyoshima, Koh-ei; Ishibashi, Naoko; Tobe, Hirofumi; Iwadate, Ayako; Kanayama, Tatsuya; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Nakao, Kazuhisa; Toki, Hiroshi; Noguchi, Shotaro; Ogawa, Miho; Sato, Akio; Tsuji, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Organ regenerative therapy aims to reproduce fully functional organs to replace organs that have been lost or damaged as a result of disease, injury, or aging. For the fully functional regeneration of ectodermal organs, a concept has been proposed in which a bioengineered organ is developed by reproducing the embryonic processes of organogenesis. Here, we show that a bioengineered hair follicle germ, which was reconstituted with embryonic skin-derived epithelial and mesenchymal cells and ectopically transplanted, was able to develop histologically correct hair follicles. The bioengineered hair follicles properly connected to the host skin epithelium by intracutaneous transplantation and reproduced the stem cell niche and hair cycles. The bioengineered hair follicles also autonomously connected with nerves and the arrector pili muscle at the permanent region and exhibited piloerection ability. Our findings indicate that the bioengineered hair follicles could restore physiological hair functions and could be applicable to surgical treatments for alopecia. PMID:22645640

  10. The hair follicle and its stem cells as drug delivery targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Robert M

    2006-05-01

    The hair follicle is a skin appendage with a complex structure containing many cell types that produce highly specialised proteins. The hair follicle is in a continuous cycle: anagen is the hair growth phase, catagen the involution phase and telogen is the resting phase. The follicle offers many potential therapeutic targets. Hoffman and colleagues have pioneered hair-follicle-specific targeting using liposomes to deliver small and large molecules, including genes. They have also pioneered ex vivo hair-follicle targeting with continued expression of the introduced gene following transplantation. Recently, it has been discovered that hair follicle stem cells are highly pluripotent and can form neurons, glial cells and other cell types, and this has suggested that hair follicle stem cells may serve as gene therapy targets for regenerative medicine.

  11. Hair shafts in trichoscopy: clues for diagnosis of hair and scalp diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnicka, Lidia; Rakowska, Adriana; Kerzeja, Marta; Olszewska, Małgorzata

    2013-10-01

    Trichoscopy (hair and scalp dermoscopy) analyzes the structure and size of growing hair shafts, providing diagnostic clues for inherited and acquired causes of hair loss. Types of hair shaft abnormalities observed include exclamation mark hairs (alopecia areata, trichotillomania, chemotherapy-induced alopecia), Pohl-Pinkus constrictions (alopecia areata, chemotherapy-induced alopecia, blood loss, malnutrition), comma hairs (tinea capitis), corkscrew hairs (tinea capitis), coiled hairs (trichotillomania), flame hairs (trichotillomania), and tulip hairs (in trichotillomania, alopecia areata). Trichoscopy allows differential diagnosis of most genetic hair shaft disorders. This article proposes a classification of hair shaft abnormalities observed by trichoscopy. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Predicting hair cortisol levels with hair pigmentation genes: A possible hair pigmentation bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann, A. (Alexander); G. Noppe (Gerard); F. Liu; M.H. Kayser (Manfred); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); E.F.C. van Rossum (Liesbeth); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractCortisol concentrations in hair are used to create hormone profiles spanning months. This method allows assessment of chronic cortisol exposure, but might be biased by hair pigmentation: dark hair was previously related to higher concentrations. It is unclear whether this association

  13. Biological characterization of cultured dermal papilla cells and hair follicle regeneration in vitro and in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lü Zhong-fa; CAI Sui-qing; WU Jin-jin; ZHENG Min

    2006-01-01

    Background Dermal papilla cells (DPC) are a group of mesenchyme-derived cells at the base of the hair follicle, where they regulate and control hair follicle growth through the expression and secretion of cytokines. Nevertheless, the role of DPC derived chemokines and other cytokines in the hair follicle biology remain speculative. In this study, we investigated the expression of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), endothelin-1 (ET-1) and stem cell factor (SCF) in different passages of cultured DPC and their effects on the biological behaviour of DPC.Methods The expression of bFGF, ET-1 and SCF in different passages of cultured DPC and their possible effects on the biological behavior of DPC are investigated using in situ hybridization and immunochemistry. In addition, we performed transplantation of hair follicle cells into nude mice. The cultured DPC, dermal sheath cells and fibroblast of human scalp, respectively, were mixed with cells of the hair follicle epithelium in different ratios, and then were cultured in hair follicle organotypic cultures or implanted into the subcutis of nude mice.Results The expression of ET-1 and SCF in early passages of cultured DPC became stronger, but turned weaker and even negative in late passages (>6 passages). Hair follicle-like structures were formed after DPC combined with the cells of hair follicle epithelium cells in hair follicle organotypic cultures. When hair follicle organotypic cultures were implanted into the subcutis of nude mice, the relative intact hair follicles were formed. After the transplantation of hair follicle cells into the nude mice, the hair follicle-like structure was formed in the group that contained DPC mixed with hair follicle epithelium cells. However, no hair follicles were formed in the other two groups. It was found that the higher the expression of ET-1 and SCF in DPC, the stronger the ability of DPC to induce hair follicle regeneration.Conclusions The cultured DPC can induce hair follicle

  14. Mitochondrial aerobic respiration is activated during hair follicle stem cell differentiation, and its dysfunction retards hair regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Tang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Emerging research revealed the essential role of mitochondria in regulating stem/progenitor cell differentiation of neural progenitor cells, mesenchymal stem cells and other stem cells through reactive oxygen species (ROS, Notch or other signaling pathway. Inhibition of mitochondrial protein synthesis results in hair loss upon injury. However, alteration of mitochondrial morphology and metabolic function during hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs differentiation and how they affect hair regeneration has not been elaborated upon. Methods. We compared the difference in mitochondrial morphology and activity between telogen bulge cells and anagen matrix cells. Expression levels of mitochondrial ROS and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2 were measured to evaluate redox balance. In addition, the level of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH were estimated to present the change in energetic metabolism during differentiation. To explore the effect of the mitochondrial metabolism on regulating hair regeneration, hair growth was observed after application of a mitochondrial respiratory inhibitor upon hair plucking. Results. During HFSCs differentiation, mitochondria became elongated with more abundant organized cristae and showed higher activity in differentiated cells. SOD2 was enhanced for redox balance with relatively stable ROS levels in differentiated cells. PDK increased in HFSCs while differentiated cells showed enhanced PDH, indicating that respiration switched from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation during differentiation. Inhibiting mitochondrial respiration in differentiated hair follicle cells upon hair plucking repressed hair regeneration in vivo. Conclusions. Upon HFSCs differentiation, mitochondria are elongated with more abundant cristae and show higher activity, accompanying with activated aerobic respiration in differentiated cells for higher energy supply. Also, dysfunction of mitochondrial

  15. Skin pigmentation and texture changes after hair removal with the normal-mode ruby laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haedersdal, M; Egekvist, H; Efsen, J; Bjerring, P

    1999-11-01

    Promising clinical results have been obtained with the normal mode ruby laser for removal of unwanted hair. Melanin within the hair follicles is thought to act as target for the ruby laser pulses, whereas epidermal melanin is thought to be a competitive chromophore, responsible for potential side effects. This study aimed (i) to objectify postoperative changes in skin pigmentation and texture and (ii) to evaluate the importance of variations in preoperative skin pigmentation for the development of side effects 12 weeks after 1 treatment with the normal-mode ruby laser. A total of 17 volunteers (skin types I-IV) were laser-treated in the hairy pubic region (n = 51 test areas). A shaved test area served as control. Skin reflectance spectroscopical measurements, 3-dimensional surface contour analysis and ultrasonography objectified postoperative changes in skin pigmentation and texture. Blinded clinical assessments revealed postoperative hyperpigmentation (2% of test areas) and hypopigmentation (10%), whereas no textural changes were seen. Reflectance spectroscopically-determined pigmentary changes depended on the degree of preoperative skin pigmentation, fairly pigmented skin types experiencing subclinical hyperpigmentation and darkly pigmented skin types experiencing subclinical hypopigmentation. Three-dimensional surface profilometry documented similar pre- and postoperative surface contour parameters, indicating that the skin surface texture is preserved after laser exposure. Ultrasonography revealed similar skin thicknesses in laser-exposed and untreated control areas. It is concluded that normal-mode ruby laser treatment is safe for hair removal in skin types I-IV.

  16. Female pattern hair loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Singal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Female pattern hair loss (FPHL is a common cause of hair loss in women characterized by diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline. Its prevalence increases with advancing age and is associated with significant psychological morbidity. The pathophysiology of FPHL is still not completely understood and seems to be multifactorial. Although androgens have been implicated, the involvement of androgen-independent mechanisms is evident from frequent lack of clinical or biochemical markers of hyperandrogenism in affected women. The role of genetic polymorphisms involving the androgen and estrogen receptors is being increasingly recognized in its causation and predicting treatment response to anti-androgens. There are different clinical patterns and classifications of FPHL, knowledge of which facilitates patient management and research. Chronic telogen effluvium remains as the most important differential diagnosis. Thorough history, clinical examination, and evaluation are essential to confirm diagnosis. Patients with clinical signs of androgen excess require assessment of biochemical parameters and imaging studies. It is prudent to screen the patients for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors. The treatment comprises medical and/or surgical modalities. Medical treatment should be initiated early as it effectively arrests hair loss progression rather than stimulating regrowth. Minoxidil continues to be the first line therapy whereas anti-androgens form the second line of treatment. The progressive nature of FPHL mandates long-term treatment for sustained effect. Medical therapy may be supplemented with cosmetic concealment in those desirous of greater hair density. Surgery may be worthwhile in some carefully selected patients.

  17. Dermal papilla cell number specifies hair size, shape and cycling and its reduction causes follicular decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Woo; Wu, Eleanor; Morgan, Bruce A

    2013-04-01

    Although the hair shaft is derived from the progeny of keratinocyte stem cells in the follicular epithelium, the growth and differentiation of follicular keratinocytes is guided by a specialized mesenchymal population, the dermal papilla (DP), that is embedded in the hair bulb. Here we show that the number of DP cells in the follicle correlates with the size and shape of the hair produced in the mouse pelage. The same stem cell pool gives rise to hairs of different sizes or types in successive hair cycles, and this shift is accompanied by a corresponding change in DP cell number. Using a mouse model that allows selective ablation of DP cells in vivo, we show that DP cell number dictates the size and shape of the hair. Furthermore, we confirm the hypothesis that the DP plays a crucial role in activating stem cells to initiate the formation of a new hair shaft. When DP cell number falls below a critical threshold, hair follicles with a normal keratinocyte compartment fail to generate new hairs. However, neighbouring follicles with a few more DP cells can re-enter the growth phase, and those that do exploit an intrinsic mechanism to restore both DP cell number and normal hair growth. These results demonstrate that the mesenchymal niche directs stem and progenitor cell behaviour to initiate regeneration and specify hair morphology. Degeneration of the DP population in mice leads to the types of hair thinning and loss observed during human aging, and the results reported here suggest novel approaches to reversing hair loss.

  18. Clinical, Biomechanical, and Anatomic Investigation of Colles Fascia and Pubic Ramus Periosteum for Use During Medial Thighplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Martin J; Matatov, Tim; Freeman, Matthew; Miller, John; Vemula, Rahul; Schuster, Jason; Dancisak, Michael; Lindsey, John; Rae, Guenevere

    2017-06-01

    The medial thighplasty is a procedure where patients may attain superior mobility, hygiene, and cosmesis. Most surgeons use attachment of the superficial fascial system (SFS) of the thigh flap to the Colles fascia, whereas others attach the SFS to the pubic ramus periosteum. Because of a high complication profile, we aim to elucidate the clinical, biomechanical, and anatomic qualities of the Colles fascia versus the pubic ramus periosteum. We performed a 17-year retrospective review documenting clinical complications, a biomechanical analysis of sutures placed in different tissue layers of the thigh, and a histologic analysis surrounding the ischiopubic ramus. Separate suture pull-out strength testing was conducted on cadaveric tissue using an Admet MTEST Quattro with no. 1 Vicryl suture and tissue grips at a displacement rate of 2.12 mm/s. Simultaneous displacement and force were acquired at 100 Hz and with measurements obtained at regular intervals between the pubic symphysis and the ischial tuberosity in both the Colles fascia and the deeper periosteal layers of the thigh. A histologic analysis was performed at 3 points along the ischiopubic ramus using paraffin-embedded large mount tissue sections stained with hematoxylin, eosin, and Gomori trichrome. Thirty-nine patients underwent medial thighplasty with a 46.16% complication rate. Suture pull-out force of the suspected superficial Colles fascia sites was, on average, 72.8% less than values from the deeper periosteum tissue. Anchor points in the Colles fascia elongated 17.4% further before failure than those in the periosteum. There was noticeable variability between anchor points and across samples. The histologic sections suggest that the Colles fascia from the different regions of the ischiopubic ramus varies considerably in both continuity and collagen fiber content with no discernible pattern. The periosteal and muscular fascial layers were more continuous histologically with direct attachments into the

  19. Quantifying hair shape and hair damage induced during reshaping of hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Roger L; Zhang, Guojin; Gillece, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    The manipulation of hair shape, either to straighten or curl hair, is carried out on a grand scale in the hair care consumer market. Often, such changes are brought about through chemical or physical treatment, resulting in changes to hair chemistry. In this article, we review existing and present new data on methods to assess the efficacy of such treatments, mostly concentrating on imaging technologies used in conjunction with image analysis. In addition, we introduce spectroscopic imaging techniques and fluorescence spectrophotometry as tools to assess the biochemical state of the hair fiber as a result of hair shape modification regimens. Finally, we demonstrate how the structural integrity of the fiber is monitored with dynamic scanning calorimetry and traditional mechanical testing of the tensile properties of hair.

  20. Suppression of hair follicle development inhibits induction of sonic hedgehog, patched, and patched-2 in hair germs in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamago, G; Takata, Y; Furuta, I; Urase, K; Momoi, T; Huh, N

    2001-09-01

    Embryonic induction of hair follicles is a fascinating model of localized morphogenesis from a simple homogeneous epithelial cell sheet. Accumulating evidence indicates that Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling plays a central role in hair follicle formation. We quantitated the expression levels of Shh and its receptor genes, Patched (Ptc) and Patched-2 (Ptch2), in two distinct experimental systems in which the development of hair follicles was suppressed. Shh, Ptc, and Ptch2 were induced about six- to tenfold in normal embryonic hair germs in vivo as well as in developing skin tissue maintained in organ culture. This induction was almost completely inhibited both in the developing skin tissue of ICR mice cultured with 30ng/ml epidermal growth factor and in embryos of Tabby mutant mice (a model of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia) at 14.5-15.5 days postcoitus. Expression of Shh, Ptc and Ptch2 was induced in the Tabby embryos at 16.5 days postcoitus, indicating that Shh signaling may be involved in the formation not only of the well-studied guard hair but also of the awl hair. The potential of the two biological systems for studying molecular mechanisms in hair follicle formation, particularly at an early phase including Shh signaling, is discussed.

  1. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to spermidine and contribution to normal hair growth (ID 1705) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to spermidine and contribution to normal hair growth. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders......Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health....... On the basis of the data presented, the Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of spermidine and contribution to normal hair growth....

  2. Delayed Bleeding and Pelvic Haematoma after Low-Energy Osteoporotic Pubic Rami Fracture in a Warfarin Patient: An Unusual Cause of Abdominal Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Sandri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Acute abdominal pain may be the presenting symptom in a wide range of diseases in the elderly. Acute abdominal pain related to a delayed bleeding and pelvic haematoma after a low-energy pubic rami fracture is rare and can have important consequences; to the best of our knowledge, only one case has been previously described. Case Report. We present an unusual case of an 83-year-old woman taking warfarin for atrial fibrillation, admitted to the Emergency Department (ED with acute abdominal pain and progressive anemia related to a delayed bleeding and pelvic haematoma 72 hours after a low-energy osteoporotic pubic rami fracture. Warfarin was withheld, anticoagulation was reversed by using fresh frozen plasma and vitamin K, and concentrated red blood cells were given. Haemoglobin level gradually returned to normal with a progressive resorption of the haematoma. Conclusion. Delayed bleeding and pelvic haematoma after osteoporotic pubic rami fracture should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute abdominal pain in the elderly. This case indicates the need for hospital admission, careful haemodynamic monitoring, and early identification of bleeding in patients with “benign” osteoporotic pubic rami fracture, especially those receiving anticoagulants, to provide an adequate management and prevent severe complications.

  3. Complex Regulation of Prolyl-4-Hydroxylases Impacts Root Hair Expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velasquez, Silvia M; Ricardi, Martiniano M; Poulsen, Christian Peter

    2015-01-01

    Root hairs are single cells that develop by tip growth, a process shared with pollen tubes, axons, and fungal hyphae. However, structural plant cell walls impose constraints to accomplish tip growth. In addition to polysaccharides, plant cell walls are composed of hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein...

  4. [Laser hair removal for urethral hair after hypospadias repair].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Tomoyuki; Nishimatsu, Hiroaki; Ogushi, Tetsuo; Sugimoto, Masayuki; Asakage, Yasuyuki; Kitamura, Tadaichi

    2008-01-01

    A 56-year-old male was admitted for induration of ventral side of the penile shaft. Computed tomography showed a large urethral calculus in the distal urethra. About 50 years previously, he had undergone multi-staged urethroplasty for hypospadias. He had also suffered from recurrent urethral calculi managed by urethrolithotomy 5 and 2 years before the admission. Urethrolithotomy revealed hair-bearing urethral calculus. Instillation of depilating agent containing thioglycolate into the neourethra for preventing hair regrowth was ineffective. Transurethral laser hair removal of neourethra was subsequently performed. All the neourethral follicles were ablated with GaAlAs diode laser (wave length 810 nm; at a power of 15W for 2 seconds) through a side-firing laser fiber. Another three operations were performed for a few regrown hairs at a power of 20-30W. Convalescence was uneventful. The patient is free of hair regrowth except for a hair at five months of follow-up.

  5. Active Hair-Bundle Motility by the Vertebrate Hair Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinevez, J.-Y.; Martin, P.; Jülicher, F.

    2009-02-01

    The hair bundle is both a mechano-sensory antenna and a force generator that might help the vertebrate hair cell from the inner ear to amplify its responsiveness to small stimuli. To study active hair-bundle motility, we combined calcium iontophoresis with mechanical stimulation of single hair bundles from the bullfrog's sacculus. A hair bundle could oscillate spontaneously, or be quiescent but display non-monotonic movements in response to abrupt force steps. Extracellular calcium changes or static biases to the bundle's position at rest could affect the kinetics of bundle motion and evoke transitions between the different classes of motility. The calcium-dependent location of a bundle's operating point within its nonlinear force-displacement relation controlled the type of movements observed. A unified theoretical description, in which mechanical activity stems from myosin-based adaptation and electro-mechanical feedback by Ca2+, could account for the fast and slow manifestations of active hair-bundle motility.

  6. 重组人角质细胞生长因子-2对实验秃毛大鼠的毛发再生作用%Effects of recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor-2 on hair regeneration in experimental bald rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王泽; 黄鹏煌; 赵海洋; 李海燕; 田海山; 李校堃

    2012-01-01

    Aim To establish the experimental bald rat model and study the effect of recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor -2( rhKGF2 )on hair regeneration in experimental bald rat. Methods The hair of SD rats was removed by paste, and these SD rats were then randomly divided into seven groups, including normal group,5% minoxidil group,aFGF group,rhKGF2 high-dose group, rhKGF2 middle-dose group, rhKGF2 low-dose group,0. 9% saline group. Skin was treated with different medications as described above the day after hair removal. Body weight, hair length, hair weight, and the hair growth conditions were recorded on days 1,5,9 and 14 after treatment. The rats were sacrificed on day 14, and the experimental skin was used for his-topathological examination. Results Body weight of rats: compared with normal group, there was no significant difference in each group ( P > 0. 05 ) on days 1, 5,9, and 14; Hair length of rats: compared to 0. 9% saline group, there were significant differences in rh-KGF2 high-dose ( P 0.05);毛长方面:与0.9%生理盐水组相比,在第5、9天,rhKGF2高、中剂量组存在显著性差异(P<0.05,P<0.01).在第14天,高、中、低剂量组差异有显著性(P<0.05,P<0.01,P<0.05);毛重方面:在第14天,与0.9%生理盐水组相比,各组(正常对照组除外)差异有显著性(P<0.01);病理检查结果显示:rhKGF2具有促进实验秃毛大鼠毛囊新生与成熟的作用.结论 rhKGF2具有促进实验秃毛大鼠毛发再生的作用.rhKGF2具有很好的临床应用前景.

  7. A 4-month, open-label study evaluating the efficacy of eflornithine 11.5% cream in the treatment of unwanted facial hair in women using TrichoScan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    Eflornithine 11.5% cream is an effective treatment for unwanted facial hair (UFH) in women with the effect on facial hair growth starting to be seen from 1 month after treatment initiation. TrichoScan is a validated method of assessing hair length, thickness, density, and growth rate using contact skin microscopy. The study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of eflornithine cream in women with UFH, as assessed by TrichoScan. In this open-label, single-centre study, 25 women (aged 25-63 years) applied eflornithine 11.5% cream to the upper lip twice daily for 4 months. Hair density, mean and cumulative hair length, mean hair thickness and hair growth rate were assessed at baseline and Month 1, 2 and 4 using TrichoScan. Eflornithine cream significantly decreased hair density from baseline to Month 1 (- 11.4 hairs/cm2, p = 0.014), Month 2 (- 16.5 hairs/cm2, p = 0.013) and Month 4 (- 12.05 hairs/cm2, p = 0.05). In addition, cumulative hair length decreased from baseline to Month 1 (- 7.104 mm, p = 0.001), Month 2 (- 10.054 mm, p hair growth rate. Mean hair thickness did not change significantly. Eflornithine 11.5% cream is an effective treatment for UFH in women with the effect on facial hair growth starting to be seen from 1 month after treatment initiation.

  8. Age- and gender-related characteristics of the pubic symphysis and triradiate cartilage in pediatric computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayer, Joerg; Suedkamp, Norbert P.; Reising, Kilian [Medical Centre -University of Freiburg, Department of Orthopedics and Trauma Surgery, Freiburg (Germany); Neubauer, Jakob [Medical Centre - University of Freiburg, Department of Radiology, Freiburg (Germany); Saueressig, Ulrich [Kreiskrankenhaus Emmendingen, Department of Radiology, Emmendingen (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    There is little information on the pubic symphysis' normal CT appearance in children. We sought to generate age-, gender- and maturity-related symphyseal width appearances in CT scans. Pelvic CT scans performed for any reason during a 6-year period in patients younger than 18 years were retrospectively analyzed. The symphysis width was measured in the axial plane and the triradiate cartilage was classified as open or closed. Four hundred twenty-seven CT scans were evaluated and 350 remained for analysis. Age- and gender-related measurements of the symphysis width are illustrated on various centile graphs. When grouping children by age in years 0-6, 7-11, 12-15 and 16-17, mean (standard deviation) symphysis width was 5.4 mm (0.9), 5.3 mm (1.1), 4.1 mm (1.1) and 3.5 mm (1.0), respectively, in girls and 5.9 mm (1.3), 5.4 mm (1.2), 5.2 mm (1.1) and 4.0 mm (1.0), respectively, in boys. Boys and girls were significantly different in the age groups 12-15 years (P<0.001) and 16-17 years (P=0.04). In the mature pelvis, the symphyseal gap is significantly (P<0.001) shorter in both genders, and in girls compared to boys (P=0.04). The pubic symphysis width in children differs according to age, gender and maturity. The reference values published herein may help detect symphyseal injury. (orig.)

  9. Hair follicle proteoglycans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R

    1993-01-01

    structure. These classes include cell surface proteoglycans, basement membrane proteoglycans, small leucine-rich proteoglycans, large proteoglycans aggregating with hyaluronan, and intracellular granule proteoglycans. They have a wide range of functions, but little is known of the proteoglycans...... that are present in the epithelial and stromal compartments of hair follicles. However, the transmembrane proteoglycan syndecan may be important in follicle morphogenesis, both with respect to the epithelium and dermal papilla cells. Syndecan may possess both heparan and chondroitin sulfate chains, interacts...... basement membranes, including those surrounding the epithelial compartment of hair follicles. Additionally, and quite unlike the dermis, the dermal papilla is enriched in basement-membrane components, especially a chondroitin 6-sulfate-containing proteoglycan, BM-CSPG. The function of this proteoglycan...

  10. Hair Styling Appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Key tool of Redken Laboratories new line of hair styling appliances is an instrument called a thermograph, a heat sensing device originally developed by Hughes Aircraft Co. under U.S. Army and NASA funding. Redken Laboratories bought one of the early models of the Hughes Probeye Thermal Video System or TVS which detects the various degrees of heat emitted by an object and displays the results in color on a TV monitor with colors representing different temperatures detected.

  11. Without Turning A Hair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周立

    2003-01-01

    [英语对话] A:You see,our happiness depends on other people,and theirs depends on us, too. B:I know the philosophy.but in practice many things do not work that way. A:You don’t care?What about when people are trying to enrage you? B:I remain as what I am without turning a hair,of course.[对话译文

  12. Normal and aging hair biology and structure 'aging and hair'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodier, Molly; Hordinsky, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Much like an individual's hairstyle, hair fibers along the scalp see a number of changes over the course of one's lifetime. As the decades pass, the shine and volume synonymous with youthful hair may give way to thin, dull, and brittle hair commonly associated with aging. These changes are a result of a compilation of genetic and environmental elements influencing the cells of the hair follicle, specifically the hair follicle stem cells and melanocytes. Telomere shortening, decrease in cell numbers, and particular transcription factors have all been implicated in this process. In turn, these molecular alterations lead to structural modifications of the hair fiber, decrease in melanin production, and lengthening of the telogen phase of the hair cycle. Despite this inevitable progression with aging, there exists an array of treatments such as light therapy, minoxidil, and finasteride which have been designed to mitigate the effects of aging, particularly balding and thinning hair. Although each works through a different mechanism, all aim to maintain or potentially restore the youthful quality of hair. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Mast cells as modulators of hair follicle cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, M; Paus, R; Czarnetzki, B M

    1995-08-01

    While the central role of mast cells (MC) in allergy and inflammation is well-appreciated, much less is known about their physiological functions. The impressive battery of potent growth modulatory MC products, and increasing evidence of MC involvement in hyperproliferative and fibrotic disorders suggest that tissue remodelling may be one of those, namely in the skin. Here, we delineate why this may best be studied by analysing the potential role of MC in hair growth regulation. On the background of numerous, yet widely under-appreciated hints from the older literature, we summarize and discuss our recent observations from the C57BL/6 mouse model for hair research which support the concept that MC are functionally important modulators of hair follicle cycling, specifically during anagen development. This invites to exploit the murine hair cycle as a model for dissecting the physiological growth modulatory functions of MC and encourages the exploration of MC-targeting pharmaceutical strategies for the treatment of hair growth disorders.

  14. Rotating black hole hair

    CERN Document Server

    Gregory, Ruth; Wills, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    A Kerr black hole sporting cosmic string hair is studied in the context of the abelian Higgs model vortex. It is shown that a such a system displays much richer phenomenology than its static Schwarzschild or Reissner--Nordstrom cousins, for example, the rotation generates a near horizon `electric' field. In the case of an extremal rotating black hole, two phases of the Higgs hair are possible: Large black holes exhibit standard hair, with the vortex piercing the event horizon. Small black holes on the other hand, exhibit a flux-expelled solution, with the gauge and scalar field remaining identically in their false vacuum state on the event horizon. This solution however is extremely sensitive to confirm numerically, and we conjecture that it is unstable due to a supperradiant mechanism similar to the Kerr-adS instability. Finally, we compute the gravitational back reaction of the vortex, which turns out to be far more nuanced than a simple conical deficit. While the string produces a conical effect, it is con...

  15. Spatial Distribution of Stem Cell-Like Keratinocytes in Dissected Compound Hair Follicles of the Dog.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique J Wiener

    Full Text Available Hair cycle disturbances are common in dogs and comparable to some alopecic disorders in humans. A normal hair cycle is maintained by follicular stem cells which are predominately found in an area known as the bulge. Due to similar morphological characteristics of the bulge area in humans and dogs, the shared particularity of compound hair follicles as well as similarities in follicular biomarker expression, the dog is a promising model to study human hair cycle and stem cell disorders. To gain insight into the spatial distribution of follicular keratinocytes with stem cell potential in canine compound follicles, we microdissected hair follicles in anagen and telogen from skin samples of freshly euthanized dogs. The keratinocytes isolated from different locations were investigated for their colony forming efficiency, growth and differentiation potential as well as clonal growth. Our results indicate that i compound and single hair follicles exhibit a comparable spatial distribution pattern with respect to cells with high growth potential and stem cell-like characteristics, ii the lower isthmus (comprising the bulge harbors most cells with high growth potential in both, the anagen and the telogen hair cycle stage, iii unlike in other species, colonies with highest growth potential are rather small with an irregular perimeter and iv the keratinocytes derived from the bulbar region exhibit characteristics of actively dividing transit amplifying cells. Our results now provide the basis to conduct comparative studies of normal dogs and those with hair cycle disorders with the possibility to extend relevant findings to human patients.

  16. [Neurocutaneous syndrome with hair alterations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Martínez, F

    1997-09-01

    There are multiple neurocutaneous syndromes that may show hair alterations such as the interglabellar peak or 'widow's peak', which is an alteration of the hair implantation, in addition to the genohypotrichosis, hypertrichosis and hair shaft dysplasias. In this chapter we will focus on the latter. Out of the unspecific hair shaft dysplasias the only ones showing neurological alterations are trichorrhexis invaginata, observed in the syndrome of Netherton. Among the specific dysplasias we would like to point out monilethrix, and very especially the moniliform hair syndrome, the trichorrhexis nodosa, the pili torti and trichotiodystrophy. The latter is actually a group of syndromes which associates a series of diverse symptoms that have in common hair brittleness, fertility problems and physical and mental retardation, and they constitute the basic syndrome know as 'BIDS syndrome.

  17. Hair removal on dermoscopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglogiannis, Ilias; Delibasis, Kostantinos

    2015-08-01

    Digital Dermoscopy is a tool commonly used by dermatologists for assisting the diagnosis of skin lesions. The presence of hair in such dermoscopic images frequently occludes significant diagnostic information and reduces their value. In this work we propose algorithms that successfully identify and remove hair from the dermoscopic images. The proposed algorithms consist of two parts; the first deals with the identification of hair, while the second part concerns the image restoration using interpolation. For the evaluation of the algorithms we used ground truth images with synthetic hair and compared the results with the commonly used in the literature DullRazor tool. According to the experimental results the proposed hair removal algorithms can be used successfully in the detection and removal of both dark and light colored hair.

  18. Bleaching of Black Human Hair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林琳

    2001-01-01

    Bleaching of black human hair has been studied systematically. On the basis of experimental data the technology of human hair bleaching through five processes was established. The optimum technology of improving the whiteness and reducing damage on fibers has been found. The technology can provide good luster,smooth handle and relatively high strength retention to human hair used for wigs or drama articles, meeting the needs of people better. Moreover, it also has important reference value to bleaching of other colored fibers.

  19. The proteomic profile of hair damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, R; Flagler, M J; Jones, L; Rufaut, N; Davis, M G

    2012-06-01

    Monilethrix is a congenital hair shaft disorder with associated fragility. Many of the changes seen in monilethrix hair on light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy are also seen in hair weathering and cosmetic damage to hair. We used monilethrix as a model to investigate the relationship between hair protein structure and hair strength and resistance to cosmetic insult. We applied proteomic techniques to identify novel peptide damage markers for chemical oxidative damage to hair. The findings suggest that specific sites in the protein structure of hair are targeted during oxidative damage from bleaching, a unique insight into how chemical damage compromises the structural integrity of the hair shaft at the molecular level. Applying proteomics to the study of congenital and acquired hair shaft disorders can deliver new insights into hair damage and novel strategies to strengthen hair. © 2012 The Authors. BJD © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  20. Contrasting phosphate acquisition of mycorrhizal fungi with that of root hairs using the root hairless barley mutant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, I.; Chen, B.D.; Munkvold, L.

    2005-01-01

    colonization structures and a radioactive tracer confirmed P transport by the extraradical mycelium. This is the first direct evaluation of the relative effectiveness of root hairs and mycorrhizas. Mycorrhizas effectively substituted root hairs in P uptake, whereas the additional P was most often used less......Comparisons between plant species or cultivars differing in root hair length have indicated a major impact of root hairs on the mycorrhizal dependency of plants with respect to phosphate (P) uptake. The current study aimed to investigate this relationship by comparing directly the mycorrhizal...... effectively in promoting plant growth than P provided by root hairs....

  1. Rat hair follicle dermal papillae have an extracellular matrix containing basement membrane components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R

    1986-01-01

    Dermal papillae are small mesenchymally derived zones at the bases of hair follicles which have an important role in hair morphogenesis in the embryo and control of the hair growth cycle in postnatal mammals. The cells of the papilla are enmeshed in a dense extracellular matrix which undergoes...... extensive changes in concert with the hair cycle. Here it is shown that this matrix in anagen pelage follicles of postnatal rats contains an abundance of basement membrane components rather than dermal components such as interstitial collagens. In particular, type IV collagen, laminin, and basement membrane...

  2. From flint razors to lasers: a timeline of hair removal methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Alexandra A; França, Katlein; Chacon, Anna H; Nouri, Keyvan

    2013-06-01

    Today, most do not go a day without practicing or hearing about new hair removal methods. However, little is discussed about the history of hair removal and the development of most hair removal methods since the period of cavemen. Avoiding decapitation and fitting in with society are two of many reasons for the development of this now normative practice. Knowledge of the hair growth cycle is vital in understanding the efficacy of various hair removal methods as well as the difference between epilation and depilation. While laser hair removal (LHR) is one of the most common cosmetic procedures practiced in the world, according to the FDA, the only current permanent form of hair removal is electrolysis. These two methods as well as various other ones are discussed in this article. Further developments are being made every day to better treat the removal of blonde and white hair as well as to diminish the pain of hair removal. With these developments, dermatologists will better understand the advancement of hair removal methods and the reasons why patients may seek treatment.

  3. Smokers′ hair: Does smoking cause premature hair graying?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman A Zayed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To determine if there is a significant association between premature hair graying and cigarette smoking. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in a nonclinical setting on 207 participants on August 24 until 25, 2010. Participants were classified into two groups [premature hair graying (PHG and normal hair graying]. PHG was defined as the first appearance of gray hair before the age of 30. Data were collected using an interview questionnaire and measurements of body mass index, waist circumference, fasting blood glucose and blood pressure. Collected data were statistically analyzed using SPSS 16, Chicago, IL. Results: Of the 207 subjects, 104 (50.2% had first appearance of gray hair before the age of 30 (PHG group while the other 103 (49.8% were considered normal hair graying group. The prevalence of smokers in the "PHG" group was higher (40.2% vs. 24.7%, P = 0.031. Smokers had earlier onset of hair graying (smokers: 31 (7.4 vs. nonsmokers: 34 (8.6, P = 0.034. Using multiple logistic regression with conditional likelihood, smokers were two and half times (95% CI: 1.5-4.6 more prone to develop PHG. Conclusion: This study suggests that there is a significant relation (with adjusted odds ratio of two and half between onset of gray hair before the age of 30 and cigarette smoking.

  4. The effects of hair regrowth with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG therapy. Two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph A. Cahill

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG is an immune modulating treatment used in a variety of immune mediated diseases. We report, two patients of different demographics, treated with IVIG for different neurological diagnoses who reported significant hair growth after starting IVIG treatments. To date, there have been no reports of using IVIG as a treatment for hair loss due to androgenic alopecia (AGA.

  5. Extensive Hair-Shaft Elongation by Isolated Mouse Whisker Follicles in Very Long-Term Gelfoam® Histoculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wenluo; Li, Lingna; Mii, Sumiyuki; Amoh, Yasuyuki; Liu, Fang; Hoffman, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    We have previously studied mouse whisker follicles in Gelfoam® histoculture to determine the role of nestin-expressing plutipotent stem cells, located within the follicle, in the growth of the follicular sensory nerve. Long-term Gelfoam® whisker histoculture enabled hair follicle nestin-expressing stem cells to promote the extensive elongation of the whisker sensory nerve, which contained axon fibers. Transgenic mice in which the nestin promoter drives green fluorescent protein (ND-GFP) were used as the source of the whiskers allowing imaging of the nestin-expressing stem cells as they formed the follicular sensory nerve. In the present report, we show that Gelfoam®-histocultured whisker follicles produced growing pigmented and unpigmented hair shafts. Hair-shaft length increased rapidly by day-4 and continued growing until at least day-12 after which the hair-shaft length was constant. By day-63 in histoculture, the number of ND-GFP hair follicle stem cells increased significantly and the follicles were intact. The present study shows that Gelfoam® histoculture can support extensive hair-shaft growth as well as hair follicle sensory-nerve growth from isolated hair follicles which were maintained over very long periods of time. Gelfoam® histoculture of hair follicles can provide a very long-term period for evaluating novel agents to promote hair growth.

  6. The COW1 locus of arabidopsis acts after RHD2, and in parallel with RHD3 and TIP1, to determine the shape, rate of elongation, and number of root hairs produced from each site of hair formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grierson, C S; Roberts, K; Feldmann, K A; Dolan, L

    1997-11-01

    Two recessive mutant alleles at CAN OF WORMS1 (COW1), a new locus involved in root hair morphogenesis, have been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana L. Heynh. Root hairs on Cow1- mutants are short and wide and occasionally formed as pairs at a single site of hair formation. The COW1 locus maps to chromosome 4. Root hairs on Cow1- plants form in the usual positions, suggesting that the phenotype is not the result of abnormal positional signals. Root hairs on Cow1- roots begin hair formation normally, forming a small bulge, or root hair initiation site, of normal size and shape and in the usual position on the hair-forming cell. However, when Cow1- root hairs start to elongate by tip growth, abnormalities in the shape and elongation rate of the hairs become apparent. Genetic evidence from double-mutant analysis of cow1-1 and other loci involved in root hair development supports our conclusion that COW1 is required during root hair elongation.

  7. Promotion of anagen, increased hair density and reduction of hair fall in a clinical setting following identification of FGF5-inhibiting compounds via a novel 2-stage process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burg D

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Dominic Burg,1 Masakuni Yamamoto,2 Masato Namekata,2 Joseph Haklani,1 Koichiro Koike,2 Maria Halasz1 1Cellmid Limited, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Hair Gene Research Laboratory, Advangen Inc. Kashiwanoha, Chiba-ken, Japan Background: There are very few effective, scientifically validated treatments with known mechanisms of action for treatment of hair loss in both men and women. Fibroblast growth factor 5 (FGF5 is an important factor in the irreversible transition from anagen to catagen, and inhibition of FGF5 prolongs anagen phase and reduces hair loss. Objective: We aimed to screen botanically derived molecules for FGF5 inhibitory activity in vitro and assess efficacy in a clinical setting. Methods: We screened for FGF5 inhibitory efficacy via a novel 2-step in vitro pipeline consisting of an engineered FGF5 responsive cell line, followed by an activated dermal papillae (DP cell method. Efficacy in a clinical setting was assessed in a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled trial against early- to mid-stage pattern hair loss in men and women. Results: We observed FGF5 inhibitory activity for a number of compounds from the monoterpenoid family, many showing greater inhibitory efficacy than our previously reported crude plant extracts. Evaluation of a lead candidate in a clinical study over 112 days showed a significant improvement in anagen:telogen (AT ratio (p = 0.002, reduced hair fall (p = 0.007 and improved visual grading (p = 0.004. Scientifically matched photography on a subgroup of randomly chosen participants highlighted significant improvement in hair density, with increases evident in all tested participants compared to baseline. Conclusion: Isolates from the monoterpenoid family displayed efficacy in FGF5 inhibition in vitro. A topical formulation containing a leading isolate significantly improved AT ratio, reduced hair fall and increased apparent hair density in the tested population of men and women. Keywords: hair growth, hair

  8. Sources of variation in hair cortisol in wild and captive non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourie, Nicolaas H; Brown, Janine L; Jolly, Clifford J; Phillips-Conroy, Jane E; Rogers, Jeffrey; Bernstein, Robin M

    2016-04-01

    Hair cortisol analysis is a potentially powerful tool for evaluating adrenal function and chronic stress. However, the technique has only recently been applied widely to studies of wildlife, including primates, and there are numerous practical and technical factors that should be considered to ensure good quality data and the validity of results and conclusions. Here we report on various intrinsic and extrinsic sources of variation in hair cortisol measurements in wild and captive primates. Hair samples from both wild and captive primates revealed that age and sex can affect hair cortisol concentrations; these effects need to be controlled for when making comparisons between individual animals or populations. Hair growth rates also showed considerable inter-specific variation among a number of primate species. We describe technical limitations of hair analyses and variation in cortisol concentrations as a function of asynchronous hair growth, anatomical site of collection, and the amount and numbers of hair/s used for cortisol extraction. We discuss these sources of variation and their implications for proper study design and interpretation of results.

  9. Evaluation of sexual maturity among adolescent male sickle cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acceptance. Tanner staging assesses pubic hair growth and increase in genital size, the latter factor being best reflected by ..... Research Methodology with Statistics for Health and Social. Sciences. ... observation in one practice. Ann Trop ...

  10. An isotopic comparison of cross-latitudinal horse hair data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Elisabeth; Ramsey, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    This study explores whether the Rayleigh distillation process latitude effect, of depleted δ18O in precipitation toward the poles, can be observed in horse hair. This study specifically compares δ18O values in horse hair with meteorological variables, and examines whether regional changes in global climate can be observed. The sampling sites and the pony breeds used in this study will add to the increasing network of isotopic horse hair data and will create an even better understanding of the intra-species variation within the δ18O values of horse hair. By directly correlating the meteorological variables to δ18O variations, the effects of specific weather events at different latitudes can also be explored at a very high resolution. 24 horses were sampled within approximately 24 hours on the 7th March 2016 from Thordale Stud in Shetland; the Icelandic Food And Veterinary Authority in Iceland; the Exmoor Pony Centre in Exmoor; and the Pigeon House Equestrian Centre in Oxfordshire. Starting the sampling process from the most recent growth at the follicle, the sampling date becomes a chronological marker, temporally fixing the first sample within a sequential set of data points extending for one year or longer, depending on the length of each individual hair. Preliminary results confirm the hypothesis, demonstrating that a study of oxygen isotope ratios in horse hair from Oxfordshire to Iceland shows a latitudinal depletion gradient, consistent with a depletion of oxygen isotope ratios due to decreasing temperatures.

  11. Investigation of hair dye deposition, hair color loss, and hair damage during multiple oxidative dyeing and shampooing cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guojin; McMullen, Roger L; Kulcsar, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Color fastness is a major concern for consumers and manufacturers of oxidative hair dye products. Hair dye loss results from multiple wash cycles in which the hair dye is dissolved by water and leaches from the hair shaft. In this study, we carried out a series of measurements to help us better understand the kinetics of the leaching process and pathways associated with its escape from the fiber. Hair dye leaching kinetics was measured by suspending hair in a dissolution apparatus and monitoring the dye concentration in solution (leached dye) with an ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. The physical state of dye deposited in hair fibers was evaluated by a reflectance light microscopy technique, based on image stacking, allowing enhanced depth of field imaging. The dye distribution within the fiber was monitored by infrared spectroscopic imaging of hair fiber cross sections. Damage to the ultrafine structure of the hair cuticle (surface, endocuticle, and cell membrane complex) and cortex (cell membrane complex) was determined in hair cross sections and on the hair fiber surface with atomic force microscopy. Using differential scanning calorimetry, we investigated how consecutive coloring and leaching processes affect the internal proteins of hair. Further, to probe the surface properties of hair we utilized contact angle measurements. This study was conducted on both pigmented and nonpigmented hair to gain insight into the influence of melanin on the hair dye deposition and leaching processes. Both types of hair were colored utilizing a commercial oxidative hair dye product based on pyrazole chemistry.

  12. Professionalizing hair care in Tonga

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Besnier

    2013-01-01

    In the course of the last two decades, Nuku'alofa, the capital of Tonga, witnessed an explosion of a particular kind of business, hair salons. For owners, workers, and customers alike, hair salons represent modernity and cosmopolitanism, and they thus attract a particular kind of clientele and labou

  13. "Dissection" of a Hair Dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenstein, Stan; Simpson, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    The electrical design of the common hair dryer is based almost entirely on relatively simple principles learned in introductory physics classes. Just as biology students dissect a frog to see the principles of anatomy in action, physics students can "dissect" a hair dryer to see how principles of electricity are used in a real system. They can…

  14. Introduction to Hair-Follicle-Associated Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Robert M

    2016-01-01

    Nestin-expressing stem cells of the hair follicle, discovered by our laboratory, have been shown to be able to form outer-root sheaths of the follicle as well as neurons and many other non-follicle cell types. We have termed the nestin-expressing stem cells of the hair follicle as hair-follicle-associated pluripotent (HAP) stem cells. We have shown that the HAP stem cells from the hair follicle can effect the repair of peripheral nerve and spinal cord injury. The hair follicle stem cells differentiate into neuronal and glial cells after transplantation to the injured peripheral nerve and spinal cord, and enhance injury repair and locomotor recovery. When the excised hair follicle with its nerve stump was placed in Gelfoam(®) 3D histoculture, HAP stem cells grew and extended the hair follicle nerve which consisted of βIII-tubulin-positive fibers with F-actin expression at the tip. These findings indicate that βIII-tubulin-positive fibers elongating from the whisker follicle sensory nerve stump were growing axons. The growing whisker sensory nerve was highly enriched in HAP stem cells, which appeared to play a major role in its elongation and interaction with other nerves in 3D Gelfoam(®) histoculture, including the sciatic nerve, the trigeminal nerve, and the trigeminal nerve ganglion. These results suggest that a major function of the HAP stem cells in the hair follicle is for growth of the follicle sensory nerve. Recently, we have shown that HAP stem cells can differentiate into beating cardiac muscle cells. HAP stem cells have critical advantages for regenerative medicine over embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells in that they are highly accessible from each patient, thereby eliminating immunological issues since they are autologous, require no genetic manipulation, are non-tumorigenic, and do not present ethical issues.

  15. Genuine cosmic hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastor, David; Ray, Sourya; Traschen, Jennie

    2017-02-01

    We show that asymptotically future de Sitter (AFdS) spacetimes carry ‘genuine’ cosmic hair; information that is analogous to the mass and angular momentum of asymptotically flat spacetimes and that characterizes how an AFdS spacetime approaches its asymptotic form. We define new ‘cosmological tension’ charges associated with future asymptotic spatial translation symmetries, which are analytic continuations of the ADM mass and tensions of asymptotically planar AdS spacetimes, and which measure the leading anisotropic corrections to the isotropic, exponential de Sitter expansion rate. A cosmological Smarr relation, holding for AFdS spacetimes having exact spatial translation symmetry, is derived. This formula relates cosmological tension, which is evaluated at future infinity, to properties of the cosmology at early times, together with a ‘cosmological volume’ contribution that is analogous to the thermodynamic volume of AdS black holes. Smarr relations for different spatial directions imply that the difference in expansion rates between two directions at late times is related in a simple way to their difference at early times. Hence information about the very early universe can be inferred from cosmic hair, which is potentially observable in a late time de Sitter phase. Cosmological tension charges and related quantities are evaluated for Kasner–de Sitter spacetimes, which serve as our primary examples.

  16. Direct hair transplantation: A modified follicular unit extraction technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Sethi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In hair transplantation, the survival rate of harvested grafts depends upon many factors like maintenance of hydration, cold temperature, reduced mechanical handling and asepsis. All these factors are favourably improved if time out of body is reduced significantly. We have tried a modification called direct hair transplantation in the existing follicular unit extraction technique, in which the follicular unit grafts are implanted as soon as they are harvested. In this article, we have described the detailed methodology and a series of 29 patients who underwent direct hair transplantation. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of direct hair transplantation. Subjects and Methods: The patients willing to undergo hair transplantation by the technique of follicular unit extraction were enrolled for the surgery. After administration of local anaesthesia, the recipient sites were created. Thereafter, the processes of scoring the skin with a motorized punch, graft extraction and implantation were performed simultaneously. These patients were followed up to look for the time period of initiation of hair growth, the growth achieved at the end of 6-8 months and any adverse events. The results of patients with noticeable improvement in the photographs and reduction in baldness grade were taken as ′good′, whereas, in other patients, it was classified as ′poor′. Results: All patients were males with age ranging from 21 to 66 years (median 30 years. Twenty-six patients had androgenetic alopecia, 1 patient had traction alopecia and 2 patients had scarring alopecia. Twenty-seven patients showed ′good′ results, whereas 2 patients showed ′poor′ results. Conclusion: Direct hair transplantation is a simple and feasible modification in the follicular unit extraction technique. It is an efficacious surgical treatment modality for baldness.

  17. Significant damage of the skin and hair following hair bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Mi-Sook; Lee, Chang-Moon; Jeong, Won-Ji; Kim, Seong-Jin; Lee, Ki-Young

    2010-10-01

    Scalp burns can be caused by hair bleaching with excess procedures such as unnecessary heating and excessive treatment with bleaching agents. The aim of this study was to investigate the morphological and histological changes of the hair and skin after bleaching. Ammonium persulfate and hydrogen peroxide (6% or 9%) solution mixed at a ratio of 1:2 (weight ratio) were sufficiently applied to human hairs and rat skin. The bleached hairs were brightened up to yellow by increasing the concentration of hydrogen peroxide and time of bleach treatment. After bleaching, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe that the cuticle scales of the hairs were irregular and lifted. The mechanical properties of the bleached hairs, such as tensile strength and elongation, were slightly different than the untreated hairs. The tested rat skin showed severe swelling after treatment of the bleaching agent (9% hydrogen peroxide). The rat skin bleached with 9% hydrogen peroxide exhibited epidermal thinning and subepidermal vesicle formation. The extracellular matrix of the skin was seriously disrupted after bleaching. Therefore, the use of only suitable bleaching procedures is suggested in order to avoid injuries. © 2010 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  18. Analysis of the penetration of a caffeine containing shampoo into the hair follicles by in vivo laser scanning microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lademann, J.; Richter, H.; Schanzer, S.; Klenk, A.; Sterry, W.; Patzelt, A.

    2010-02-01

    In previous in vitro investigations, it was demonstrated that caffeine is able to stimulate the hair growth. Therefore, a penetration of caffeine into the hair follicle is necessary. In the present study, in vivo laser scanning microscopy (LSM) was used to investigate the penetration and storage of a caffeine containing shampoo into the hair follicles. It was shown that a 2-min contact time of the shampoo with the skin was enough to accumulate significant parts of the shampoo in the hair follicles. A penetration of the shampoo up to a depth of approx. 200 μm could be detected, which represents the detection limit of the LSM. At this depth, the close network of the blood capillaries surrounding the hair follicles commences. Even after 24 h, the substance was still detectable in the hair follicles. This demonstrates the long-term reservoir function of the hair follicles for topically applied substances such as caffeine.

  19. Photodynamic therapy for hair removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H. M. Ali

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unwanted hair is one of the most common medical problems affecting women of reproductive age inducing a lot of psychological stress and threatening their femininity and self-esteem. Old methods of removing unwanted hair include shaving, waxing, chemical depilation, and electrolysis, all of which have temporary results. However laser-assisted hair removal is the most efficient method of long-term hair removal currently available. It is desirable to develop a reduced cost photodynamic therapy (PDT system whose properties should include high efficiency and low side-effects. Method: Mice skin tissues were used in this study and divided into six groups such as controls, free methylene blue (MB incubation, liposome methylene blue (MB incubation, laser without methylene blue (MB, free methylene blue (MB for 3 and 4 hrs and laser, liposome methylene blue (MB for 3 hrs and laser. Methylene blue (MBwas applied to wax epilated areas. The areas were irradiated with CW He-Ne laser system that emits orange-red light with wavelength 632.8 nm and 10 mW at energy density of 5 J/ cm2 for 10 minutes. The UV-visible absorption spectrum was collected by Cary spectrophotometer. Results: Methylene blue (MB is selectively absorbed by actively growing hair follicles due to its cationic property. Methylene blue (MBuntreated sections showed that hair follicle and sebaceous gland are intact and there is no change due to the laser exposure. Free methylene blue (MB sections incubated for 3 hrs showed that He:Ne laser induced destruction in hair follicles, leaving an intact epidermis. Treated section with free methylene blue (MB for 4 hrs showed degeneration and necrosis in hair follicle, leaving an intact epidermis. Liposomal methylene blue (MB sections incubated for 3 hrs showed He:Ne laser induced destruction in hair follicles with intradermal leucocytic infiltration. Conclusions: Low power CW He:Ne laser and methylene blue (MB offered a successful PDT system

  20. Harvesting electricity from human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulachan, Brindan; Singh, Sushil K; Philip, Deepu; Das, Mainak

    2016-01-01

    Electrical conductivity of human hair is a debatable issue among hair experts and scientists. There are unsubstantiated claims that hair conducts electricity. However, hair experts provided ample evidence that hair is an insulator. Although wet hair exhibited drastic reduction in resistivity; scientists regarded hair as a proton semiconductor at the best. Here, we demonstrate that hair filaments generate electricity on absorbing water vapor between 50 degrees and 80 degrees C. This electricity can operate low power electronic systems. Essentially, we are exposing the hydrated hair polymer to a high temperature (50 degrees-80 degrees C). It has long been speculated that when certain biopolymers are simultaneously hydrated and exposed to high temperature, they exhibit significant proton hopping at a specific temperature regime. This happens due to rapid movement of water molecules on the polymer surface. This lead us to speculate that the observed flow of current is partly ionic and partly due to "proton hopping" in the hydrated nano spaces of hair filament. Such proton hopping is exceptionally high when the hydrated hair polymer is exposed to a temperature between 50 degrees and 80 degrees C. Differential scanning calorimetry data further corroborated the results and indicated that indeed at this temperature range, there is an enormous movement of water molecules on the hair polymer surface. This enormously rapid movement of water molecules lead to the "making and breaking" of innumerable hydrogen bonds and thus resulting in hopping of the protons. What is challenging is "how to tap these hopping protons to obtain useful electricity?" We achieved this by placing a bundle of hair between two different electrodes having different electro negativities, and exposing it to water vapor (water + heat). The two different electrodes offered directionality to the hopping protons and the existing ions and thus resulting in the generation of useful current. Further, by

  1. Hair and stress: A pilot study of hair and cytokine balance alteration in healthy young women under major exam stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Eva M J; Müller, Yvonne; Snaga, Wenke; Fliege, Herbert; Reißhauer, Anett; Schmidt-Rose, Thomas; Max, Heiner; Schweiger, Dorothea; Rose, Matthias; Kruse, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Mouse models show that experimental stress mimicking prolonged life-stress exposure enhances neurogenic inflammation, induces adaptive immunity cytokine-imbalance characterized by a shift to Type 1 T-helper cell cytokines and increases apoptosis of epithelial cells. This affects hair growth in otherwise healthy animals. In this study, we investigate whether a prolonged naturalistic life-stress exposure affects cytokine balance and hair parameters in healthy humans. 33 (18 exam, 15 comparison) female medical students with comparable sociobiological status were analyzed during a stressful final examination period, at three points in time (T) 12 weeks apart. T1 was before start of the learning period, T2 between the three-day written exam and an oral examination, and T3 after a 12 week rest and recovery from the stress of the examination period. Assessments included: self-reported distress and coping strategies (Perceived Stress Questionnaire [PSQ], Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress [TICS]), COPE), cytokines in supernatants of stimulated peripheral blood mononucleocytes (PBMCs), and trichogram (hair cycle and pigmentation analysis). Comparison between students participating in the final medical exam at T2 and non-exam students, revealed significantly higher stress perception in exam students. Time-wise comparison revealed that stress level, TH1/TH2 cytokine balance and hair parameters changed significantly from T1 to T2 in the exam group, but not the control. However, no group differences were found for cytokine balance or hair parameters at T2. The study concludes that in humans, naturalistic stress, as perceived during participation in a major medical exam, has the potential to shift the immune response to TH1 and transiently hamper hair growth, but these changes stay within a physiological range. Findings are instructive for patients suffering from hair loss in times of high stress. Replication in larger and more diverse sample populations is

  2. Fragments analysis of Marajoara pubic covers using a portable system of X-ray fluorescence and multivariate statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Renato [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Rio de Janeiro (CPAR/IFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Curso de Licenciatura em Matematica; Calza, Cristiane Ferreira; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Rabello, Angela; Lima, Tania [Museu Nacional (MN/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: In this work it was characterized the elemental composition of 102 fragments of Marajoara pubic covers, belonging to the National Museum collection, using EDXRF and multivariate statistics analysis. The objective was to identify possible groups of samples that presented similar characteristics. This information will be useful in the development of a systematic classification of these artifacts. Provenance studies of ancient ceramics are based on the assumption that pottery produced from a specific clay will present a similar chemical composition, which will distinguish them from pottery produced from a different clay. In this way, the pottery is assigned to particular production groups, which are then correlated with their respective origins. EDXRF measurements were carried out with a portable system, developed in the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, consisting of an X-ray tube Oxford TF3005 with tungsten (W) anode, operating at 25 kV and 100 {mu}A, and a Si-PIN XR-100CR detector from Amptek. In each one of the 102 fragments, six points were analyzed (three in the front part and three in the reverse) with an acquisition time of 600 s and a beam collimation of 2 mm. The spectra were processed and analyzed using the software QXAS-AXIL from IAEA. PCA was applied to the XRF results revealing a clear cluster separation to the samples. (author)

  3. A new, simple operative approach for bilateral inguinal hernia repair in girls: A single transverse supra-pubic incision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla E Zarroug

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inguinal hernia repair remains one of the most common operations performed by pediatric surgeons. We described a new surgical approach for treating bilateral inguinal hernias in girls through a small single transverse supra-pubic incision. Materials and Methods: A new approach was performed on female children 12-years-old and younger with bilateral inguinal hernias between January 2005 and April 2012. Technique: A single transverse suprapubic incision (1-1.5 cm was made. Using sharp and blunt dissection bilateral hernias were exposed and repaired using a standard high ligation. Results: Ninety-nine girls with a preoperative clinical diagnosis of bilateral inguinal hernia were included. Median age was 2 years (range: 1 month to 12 years. All patients underwent general anesthesia. Median operative time was 12 minutes (range 5-22. There were no intra-operative complications or misdiagnosis. Two patients had bilateral sliding hernias and the remainder had indirect hernias. Post-operatively two patients developed non-expanding small hematomas, both treated non-operatively without sequelae. There were zero hernia recurrence and median follow-up was 5 years (range: 1-8 years on 99% of patients. Conclusion: We described a new, safe, simple, and rapid approach for bilateral inguinal hernia repair in female pediatric population. A single transverse suprapubic skin incision was adequate for exposing both inguinal regions with excellent postoperative results.

  4. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to an inmate hair care services which comply with applicable health and sanitation requirements. ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b)...

  5. Quantitative analysis of the morphological changes of the pubic symphyseal face and the auricular surface and implications for age at death estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Chiara; Buckberry, Jo; Cattaneo, Cristina; Frohlich, Bruno; Lynnerup, Niels

    2015-05-01

    Age estimation methods are often based on the age-related morphological changes of the auricular surface and the pubic bone. In this study, a mathematical approach to quantify these changes has been tested analyzing the curvature variation on 3D models from CT and laser scans. The sample consisted of the 24 Suchey-Brooks (SB) pubic bone casts, 19 auricular surfaces from the Buckberry and Chamberlain (BC) "recording kit" and 98 pelvic bones from the Terry Collection (Smithsonian Institution). Strong and moderate correlations between phases and curvature were found in SB casts (ρ 0.60-0.93) and BC "recording kit" (ρ 0.47-0.75), moderate and weak correlations in the Terry Collection bones (pubic bones: ρ 0.29-0.51, auricular surfaces: ρ 0.33-0.50) but associated with large individual variability and overlap of curvature values between adjacent decades. The new procedure, requiring no expert judgment from the operator, achieved similar correlations that can be found in the classic methods.

  6. Removal of unwanted facial hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenenberger, Donald W; Utecht, Lynn M

    2002-11-15

    Unwanted facial hair is a common problem that is seldom discussed in the primary care setting. Although men occasionally request removal of unwanted facial hair, women most often seek help with this condition. Physicians generally neglect to address the problem if the patient does not first request help. The condition may be caused by androgen overproduction, increased sensitivity to circulating androgens, or other metabolic and endocrine disorders, and should be properly evaluated. Options for hair removal vary in efficacy, degree of discomfort, and cost. Clinical studies on the efficacy of many therapies are lacking. Short of surgical removal of the hair follicle, the only permanent treatment is electrolysis. However, the practice of electrolysis lacks standardization, and regulation of the procedure varies from state to state. Shaving, epilation, and depilation are the most commonly attempted initial options for facial hair removal. Although these methods are less expensive, they are only temporary. Laser hair removal, although better studied than most methods and more strictly regulated, has yet to be proved permanent in all patients. Eflornithine, a topical treatment, is simple to apply and has minimal side effects. By the time most patients consult a physician, they have tried several methods of hair removal. Family physicians can properly educate patients and recommend treatment for this common condition if they are armed with basic knowledge about the treatment options.

  7. Proteomic Analysis of Hair Follicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishioka, Noriaki; Terada, Masahiro; Yamada, Shin; Seki, Masaya; Takahashi, Rika; Majima, Hideyuki J.; Higashibata, Akira; Mukai, Chiaki

    2013-02-01

    Hair root cells actively divide in a hair follicle, and they sensitively reflect physical conditions. By analyzing the human hair, we can know stress levels on the human body and metabolic conditions caused by microgravity environment and cosmic radiation. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has initiated a human research study to investigate the effects of long-term space flight on gene expression and mineral metabolism by analyzing hair samples of astronauts who stayed in the International Space Station (ISS) for 6 months. During long-term flights, the physiological effects on astronauts include muscle atrophy and bone calcium loss. Furthermore, radiation and psychological effects are important issue to consider. Therefore, an understanding of the effects of the space environment is important for developing countermeasures against the effects experienced by astronauts. In this experiment, we identify functionally important target proteins that integrate transcriptome, mineral metabolism and proteome profiles from human hair. To compare the protein expression data with the gene expression data from hair roots, we developed the protein processing method. We extracted the protein from five strands of hair using ISOGEN reagents. Then, these extracted proteins were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. These collected profiles will give us useful physiological information to examine the effect of space flight.

  8. Carcinogenicity of hair dye components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Duuren, B L

    1980-03-01

    The available animal carcinogenicity data on hair dye components was reviewed. From this review it became clear that certain hair dye components, some of which are still in hair dye formulations now on the market, are animal carcinogens. The compounds of concern that are still in use are: 3-amino-4-methoxyaniline, 2-nitro-4-aminoaniline and 3-nitro-4-hydroxyaniline. Certain azo dyes formerly used, and related compounds still in use, contain the benzidine moiety. Two of these compounds, Direct Blue 6 and Direct Black 38, have been shown to be metabolized in animals to the human carcinogen benzidine. Furthermore, skin absorption studies carried out with radiolabeled hair dye components applied to animal or human skin have conclusively shown that these compounds are systemically absorbed and excreted. Known cocarcinogens such as catechol and pyrogallol, which enhance benzo(a)pyrene carcinogenicity on mouse skin, are used as hair dye components. It is not known whether such compounds will enhance the carcinogenicity of substituted aniline hair dye chemicals. The available epidemiologic data are not sufficient to link hair dye use with an increased incidence in human cancer.

  9. Prevention of hair surface aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesche, Erik Schulze Zur; Körner, Andrea; Schäfer, Karola; Wortmann, Franz-Josef

    2011-01-01

    The hydrophobic character of the surface of human hair is particularly attributed to the lipid components of the epicuticle and to a layer of covalently bound fatty acids. This outer f-layer mainly consists of 18-methyl eicosanoic acid (18-MEA), which is covalently bound to the underlying protein matrix, forming the epicuticle as composite surface structure. Daily weathering and chemical treatments, specifically oxidative bleaching, decrease the hydrophobicity of the outer hair surface drastically.Multiple daily stress, simulated by an automatic test device including shampooing, blow drying and sun light exposure, changed the lipid composition of hair significantly. A marked loss of 18-MEA was observed. Decreasing contact angles are the direct consequence. A new method to determine the "pseudo-static" contact angle on hair was developed. The results correlate with the corresponding data obtained by dynamic contact angle measurements according to Wilhelmy. Besides that, the resorption time of water droplets by the hair surface provides additional information about the intactness of the outer f-layer.Specific proteolipids, which are lipid-modified keratins, are able to reconstruct the surface layer of damaged hair by creating renewed surface hydrophobicity and extending the water resorption time by the hair surface.

  10. Time-course mass spectrometry imaging for depicting drug incorporation into hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Tooru; Shima, Noriaki; Sasaki, Keiko; Matsuta, Shuntaro; Takei, Shiori; Katagi, Munehiro; Miki, Akihiro; Zaitsu, Kei; Nakanishi, Toyofumi; Sato, Takako; Suzuki, Koichi; Tsuchihashi, Hitoshi

    2015-06-01

    In order to investigate the incorporation of drugs into hair, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) imaging was performed on the longitudinal sections of single scalp hair shafts sampled from volunteers after a single oral administration of methoxyphenamine (MOP), a noncontrolled analogue of methamphetamine. Hair specimens were collected by plucking out with the roots intact, and these specimens were prepped by an optimized procedure based on freeze-sectioning to detect the drug inside the hair shaft and hair root. Time-course changes in the imaging results, with confirmatory quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis for each 1-mm segment of single hair strands, revealed a substantial concentration of the drug first onto the hair bulbs after ingestion, while only a small portion appeared to be incorporated into the hair matrix, forming a 2-3 mm distinctive drug band with tailing. Comparable amount of the drug also appeared to be incorporated into the keratinized hair shaft in the upper dermis zone, forming another distinct drug band of about 2 mm, which both moved toward the distal side, following the strand's growth rate. These findings provide forensically crucial information: there are two major drug incorporation sites, at least for MOP, which cause overlap of the recordings and deteriorates its chronological resolution down to about 11 days or perhaps longer.

  11. Body Hair Transplant by Follicular Unit Extraction: My Experience With 122 Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Sanusi

    2016-01-01

    Background Body hair shafts from the beard, trunk, and extremities can be used to treat baldness when patients have inadequate amounts of scalp donor hair, but reports in the literature concerning use of body hair to treat baldness are confined to case reports. Objectives This study aimed to assess the outcome of body hair transplanted to bald areas of the scalp in selected patients. Methods From 2005 through 2011, 122 patients preselected for adequate body hair had donor hair transplanted from the beard, trunk, and the extremities to the scalp by follicular unit extraction (FUE) by the author at a single center. All patients were emailed surveys to assess surgical outcomes and overall satisfaction. Results Seventy-nine patients (64.8%) responded with a mean time of 2.9 years between date of last surgery and time of survey. Patients were generally very satisfied with results of their procedure, giving mean scores of at least a 7.8 on a Likert-like scale of 0 to 10 for their healing status, hair growth in recipient areas, and overall satisfaction with their surgeries. These scores were comparable to mean scores provided by patients whose transplants included scalp donor sources. Conclusions FUE using body hair can be an effective hair transplantation method for a select patient population of hirsute individuals who suffer from severe baldness or have inadequate scalp donor reserve. Level of Evidence: 4 Therapeutic PMID:27241361

  12. Black hole hair removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Mandal, Ipsita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-07-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair — degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  13. Black Hole Hair Removal

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-01-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair, -- degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  14. Genuine Cosmic Hair

    CERN Document Server

    Kastor, David; Traschen, Jennie

    2016-01-01

    We show that asymptotically future deSitter (AFdS) spacetimes carry 'genuine' cosmic hair; information that is analogous to the mass and angular momentum of asymptotically flat spacetimes and that characterizes how an AFdS spacetime approaches its asymptotic form. We define new 'cosmological tension' charges associated with future asymptotic spatial translation symmetries, which are analytic continuations of the ADM mass and tensions of asymptotically planar AdS spacetimes, and which measure the leading anisotropic corrections to the isotropic, exponential deSitter expansion rate. A cosmological Smarr relation, holding for AFdS spacetimes having exact spatial translation symmetry, is derived. This formula relates cosmological tension, which is evaluated at future infinity, to properties of the cosmology at early times, together with a 'cosmological volume' contribution that is analogous to the thermodynamic volume of AdS black holes. Smarr relations for different spatial directions imply that the difference i...

  15. Contact Allergy to Hair Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Louise Anna Schuttelaar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Many strong and extreme sensitizing chemicals, such as para-phenylenediamine (PPD, toluene-2,5-diamine (TDA and other aromatic amines or cross-reacting substances, are ingredients in hair dye products. The chemistry of hair dyeing and the immunological reactions to the potent sensitizing hair dye components are complex and have not been fully clarified up until now. Recently 2-methoxymethyl-p-phenylenediamine (ME-PPD, a PPD derivate with moderate skin-sensitizing properties, was developed. Although developed for the prevention of sensitization, ME-PPD appears to be tolerated in some PPD/TDA-allergic individuals.

  16. Photodamage determination of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Estibalitz; Barba, Clara; Alonso, Cristina; Martí, Meritxell; Parra, José Luis; Coderch, Luisa

    2012-01-05

    Sunlight on human hair causes photo-degradation. This results in bleaching due to melanin oxidation through free radicals, and induces keratin impairment. Protein degradation, tryptophan degradation, lipidic peroxidation and electron paramagnetic resonance can be used to evaluate proteic and lipidic photodecomposition and free radical formation in hair fibres subjected to antioxidant action and different UV intensities. All these methodologies have been optimised to determine protein, lipid and melanin degradation in hair subjected to different UV intensities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The structure of people's hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fei-Chi; Zhang, Yuchen; Rheinstädter, Maikel C

    2014-01-01

    Hair is a filamentous biomaterial consisting mainly of proteins in particular keratin. The structure of human hair is well known: the medulla is a loosely packed, disordered region near the centre of the hair surrounded by the cortex, which contains the major part of the fibre mass, mainly consisting of keratin proteins and structural lipids. The cortex is surrounded by the cuticle, a layer of dead, overlapping cells forming a protective layer around the hair. The corresponding structures have been studied extensively using a variety of different techniques, such as light, electron and atomic force microscopes, and also X-ray diffraction. We were interested in the question how much the molecular hair structure differs from person to person, between male and female hair, hair of different appearances such as colour and waviness. We included hair from parent and child, identical and fraternal twins in the study to see if genetically similar hair would show similar structural features. The molecular structure of the hair samples was studied using high-resolution X-ray diffraction, which covers length scales from molecules up to the organization of secondary structures. Signals due to the coiled-coil phase of α-helical keratin proteins, intermediate keratin filaments in the cortex and from the lipid layers in the cell membrane complex were observed in the specimen of all individuals, with very small deviations. Despite the relatively small number of individuals (12) included in this study, some conclusions can be drawn. While the general features were observed in all individuals and the corresponding molecular structures were almost identical, additional signals were observed in some specimen and assigned to different types of lipids in the cell membrane complex. Genetics seem to play a role in this composition as identical patterns were observed in hair from father and daughter and identical twins, however, not for fraternal twins. Identification and characterization

  18. Do You Have Hair Loss or Hair Shedding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... loved one who is sick, going through a divorce, losing a job) Had high fever Undergone an ... hair loss, talk with your doctor. Serious side effects can occur if you immediately stop a treatment ...

  19. Local positive feedback regulation determines cell shape in root hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Seiji; Gapper, Catherine; Kaya, Hidetaka; Bell, Elizabeth; Kuchitsu, Kazuyuki; Dolan, Liam

    2008-02-29

    The specification and maintenance of growth sites are tightly regulated during cell morphogenesis in all organisms. ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE 2 reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (RHD2 NADPH) oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) stimulate a Ca2+ influx into the cytoplasm that is required for root hair growth in Arabidopsis thaliana. We found that Ca2+, in turn, activated the RHD2 NADPH oxidase to produce ROS at the growing point in the root hair. Together, these components could establish a means of positive feedback regulation that maintains an active growth site in expanding root hair cells. Because the location and stability of growth sites predict the ultimate form of a plant cell, our findings demonstrate how a positive feedback mechanism involving RHD2, ROS, and Ca2+ can determine cell shape.

  20. Essentials of Hair Care often Neglected: Hair Cleansing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draelos, Zoe D

    2010-01-01

    Why does the selection of hair cleansing products and conditioners seem complex? Why are there clear, opalescent, green, blue, glittery, cheap, expensive, thick, thin, fragrant, and unscented varieties of shampoos and conditioners? Why the whole cleansing process cannot be simplified by using the same bar soap used on the body for the hair? Does the shampoo selected really make a difference? What can a conditioner accomplish?

  1. Nutrition of women with hair loss problem during the period of menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Sabina Goluch-Koniuszy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available During the period of menopause as an effect of changes in hormone status, one of the most common ailments for women is hair loss. Taking into consideration fact that the ingredients of diet contained in various groups of consumed food products are both precursors in steroid hormones synthesis as well as have direct impact on structure, growth and keeping hair in skin integument, this is the reason why nourishing support for women during this period of life as well as during the hair loss therapy is reasonable. Standard value proteins containing Sulphur amino-acids: cysteine and methionine as precursor to keratin hair protein synthesis are basic element of diet conditioning of hair building. Irreplaceable having impact on keeping hair in skin integument is exogenous L-lysine, mainly present in the inner part of hair root is responsible for hair shape and volume. Fats present in the diet take part in steroid hormones synthesis (from cholesterol thus have influence on keeping hair in skin integument. Women diet should contain products rich in complex carbohydrates, with low glycemic index and load containing fiber regulating carbohydrate-lipid metabolism of the body. Vitamins also have impact on the state of hair: C vitamin, group B and A vitamins. Minerals which influence hair growth are: Zn, Fe, Cu, Se, Si, Mg and Ca. It is worthwhile to pay closer attention to diet in women who besides hormone changes and undertaken pharmacotherapy are additionally exposed to chronic stress and improperly conducted cosmetic’s and hairdresser’s treatments.

  2. Nutrition of women with hair loss problem during the period of menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Sabina Goluch-Koniuszy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available During the period of menopause as an effect of changes in hormone status, one of the most common ailments for women is hair loss. Taking into consideration fact that the ingredients of diet contained in various groups of consumed food products are both precursors in steroid hormones synthesis as well as have direct impact on structure, growth and keeping hair in skin integument, this is the reason why nourishing support for women during this period of life as well as during the hair loss therapy is reasonable. Standard value proteins containing Sulphur amino-acids: cysteine and methionine as precursor to keratin hair protein synthesis are basic element of diet conditioning of hair building. Irreplaceable having impact on keeping hair in skin integument is exogenous L-lysine, mainly present in the inner part of hair root is responsible for hair shape and volume. Fats present in the diet take part in steroid hormones synthesis (from cholesterol thus have influence on keeping hair in skin integument. Women diet should contain products rich in complex carbohydrates, with low glycemic index and load containing fiber regulating carbohydrate-lipid metabolism of the body. Vitamins also have impact on the state of hair: C vitamin, group B and A vitamins. Minerals which influence hair growth are: Zn, Fe, Cu, Se, Si, Mg and Ca. It is worthwhile to pay closer attention to diet in women who besides hormone changes and undertaken pharmacotherapy are additionally exposed to chronic stress and improperly conducted cosmetic’s and hairdresser’s treatments.

  3. Determination of physicochemical properties of delipidized hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Roger L; Laura, Donna; Chen, Susan; Koelmel, Donald; Zhang, Guojin; Gillece, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Using various physicochemical methods of analysis, we examined human hair in its virgin and delipidized state. Free lipids were removed by a solvent extraction technique (covalently bound lipids were not removed) using a series of solvents with varying polarity. We analyzed the surface properties of hair by conducting mechanical combing and dynamic contact angle analysis. In addition, we used inverse gas chromatography surface energy analysis to explore the chemical composition of the hair surface based on interactions of various nonpolar and polar probes with biological molecules residing on the hair surface. Further, we investigated the importance that free lipids play in the internal structural properties of hair using dynamic scanning calorimetry and tensile strength measurements. The microstructure of the hair surface was probed by atomic force microscopy, whereas the lipid content of hair's morphological components was determined by infrared spectroscopic imaging. We also monitored the water management properties of virgin and delipidized hair by dynamic vapor sorption, which yielded unique water sorption isotherms for each hair type. Using all these techniques, differences were found in the chemical composition and physical behavior of virgin and delipidized hair. To better understand the influence of hair lipid composition on hair styling treatments, we conducted mechanical analyses of hair shaped into omega loops to determine the stiffness, elasticity, and flexibility of hair-polymer assemblies. Although there were no discernible differences between untreated virgin and delipidized hair, in terms of stiffness and elasticity, we found that treatment with hair styling agents produced different effects depending on the hair type used. Likewise, streaming potential measurements were carried out to monitor the binding capacity of rinse-off treatments on virgin and delipidized hair. Using this technique, we monitored the surface potential of hair and found

  4. New activators and inhibitors in the hair cycle clock: targeting stem cells' state of competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plikus, Maksim V

    2012-05-01

    The timing mechanism of the hair cycle remains poorly understood. However, it has become increasingly clear that the telogen-to-anagen transition is controlled jointly by at least the bone morphogenic protein (BMP), WNT, fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling pathways. New research shows that Fgf18 signaling in hair follicle stem cells synergizes BMP-mediated refractivity, whereas Tgf-β2 signaling counterbalances it. Loss of Fgf18 signaling markedly accelerates anagen initiation, whereas loss of Tgf-β2 signaling significantly delays it, supporting key roles for these pathways in hair cycle timekeeping.

  5. Shh maintains dermal papilla identity and hair morphogenesis via a Noggin-Shh regulatory loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Wei-Meng; Zhen, Hanson H; Oro, Anthony E

    2012-06-01

    During hair follicle morphogenesis, dermal papillae (DPs) function as mesenchymal signaling centers that cross-talk with overlying epithelium to regulate morphogenesis. While the DP regulates hair follicle formation, relatively little is known about the molecular basis of DP formation. The morphogen Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is known for regulating hair follicle epithelial growth, with excessive signaling resulting in basal cell carcinomas. Here, we investigate how dermal-specific Shh signaling contributes to DP formation and hair growth. Using a Cre-lox genetic model and RNAi in hair follicle reconstitution assays, we demonstrate that dermal Smoothened (Smo) loss of function results in the loss of the DP precursor, the dermal condensate, and a stage 2 hair follicle arrest phenotype reminiscent of Shh(-/-) skin. Surprisingly, dermal Smo does not regulate cell survival or epithelial proliferation. Rather, molecular screening and immunostaining studies reveal that dermal Shh signaling controls the expression of a subset of DP-specific signature genes. Using a hairpin/cDNA lentiviral system, we show that overexpression of the Shh-dependent gene Noggin, but not Sox2 or Sox18, can partially rescue the dermal Smo knockdown hair follicle phenotype by increasing the expression of epithelial Shh. Our findings suggest that dermal Shh signaling regulates specific DP signatures to maintain DP maturation while maintaining a reciprocal Shh-Noggin signaling loop to drive hair follicle morphogenesis.

  6. New activators and inhibitors in the hair cycle clock: targeting stem cells’ state of competence

    OpenAIRE

    Plikus, Maksim V.

    2012-01-01

    The timing mechanism of the hair cycle remains poorly understood. However, it has become increasingly clear that the telogen-to-anagen transition is controlled jointly by at least the bone morphogenic protein (BMP), WNT, fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling pathways. New research shows that Fgf18 signaling in hair follicle stem cells synergizes BMP-mediated refractivity, whereas Tgf-β2 signaling counterbalances it. Loss of Fgf18 signaling markedly a...

  7. Hair dryer burns in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, P R

    1990-11-01

    Three children with burn injuries caused by home hair dryers are described. In one patient the injury was believed to be accidental, and in the other two cases the injuries were deliberately caused by a caretaker. The lack of prior experience with hair dryer burns initially led to suspicion of other causes. The characteristics of each case aided in the final determination of accidental vs nonaccidental injury. These cases prompted testing of home hair dryers to determine their heat output. At the highest heat settings, the dryers rapidly generated temperatures in excess of 110 degrees C. After the dryers were turned off, the protective grills maintained sufficient temperatures to cause full-thickness burns for up to 2 minutes. These cases and the results of testing demonstrate that hair dryers must be added to the list of known causes of accidental and nonaccidental burns in children.

  8. Hair-Thread Tourniquet Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Gokcen

    2016-01-01

    Two month-old male infant was brought to the emergency service with the complaint of fever, uneasiness, and swelling on 4th-5th toes of right foot.  Apparent swelling, rubescence and increase in heat were seen and a constrictive band was observed to surround proximal phalanges of both toes in the physical examination of the patient (Figure 1.  A hair was found on the constrictive band surrounding both toes. The hair was removed by means of forceps. Oral antibiotic was administered to the patient. The patient was treated successfully by not letting a necrosis develop on the toes. It should be remembered that hair-thread tourniquet syndrome may be observed in the infant patients applying to the hospital with the complaints of unexplained fever and uneasiness. Figure 1: Appearance of the toes right after the hair was removed. Arrows show the constrictive band. 

  9. Hair bleaching and skin burning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Forster, K; Lingitz, R; Prattes, G; Schneider, G; Sutter, S; Schintler, M; Trop, M

    2012-01-01

    .... We report a unique case of a 16-yr-old girl who suffered full-thickness chemical and thermal burns to the nape of her neck and superficial burns to the occiput after her hair had been dyed blond...

  10. Micro-RNA-31 controls hair cycle-associated changes in gene expression programs of the skin and hair follicle

    OpenAIRE

    Mardaryev, Andrei N.; Ahmed, Mohammed I.; Vlahov, Nikola V.; Fessing, Michael Y.; Gill, Jason H.; Sharov, Andrey A.; Botchkareva, Natalia V.

    2010-01-01

    The hair follicle is a cyclic biological system that progresses through stages of growth, regression, and quiescence, which involves dynamic changes in a program of gene regulation. Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are critically important for the control of gene expression and silencing. Here, we show that global miRNA expression in the skin markedly changes during distinct stages of the hair cycle in mice. Furthermore, we show that expression of miR-31 markedly increases during anagen and decreases duri...

  11. Evidence of a major gene influencing hair length and heat tolerance in Bos taurus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, T A; Lucena, C; Chase, C C; Hammond, A C

    2003-01-01

    Evidence was found that supports the existence of a major gene (designated as the slick hair gene), dominant in mode of inheritance, that is responsible for producing a very short, sleek hair coat. Cattle with slick hair were observed to maintain lower rectal temperatures (RT). The gene is found in Senepol cattle and criollo (Spanish origin) breeds in Central and South America. This gene is also found in a Venezuelan composite breed, the Carora, formed from the Brown Swiss and a Venezuelan criollo breed. Two sets of backcross matings of normal-haired sire breeds to Senepol crossbred dams assumed to be heterozygous for the slick hair gene resulted in ratios of slick to normal-haired progeny that did not significantly differ from 1:1. Data from Carora x Holstein crossbred cows in Venezuela also support the concept of a major gene that is responsible for the slick hair coat of the Carora breed. Cows that were 75% Holstein: 25% Carora in breed composition segregated with a ratio that did not differ from 1:1, as would be expected from a backcross matinginvolving a dominant gene. The effect of the slick hair gene on RT depended on the degree of heat stress and appeared to be affected by age and/or lactation status. The decreased RT observed for slick-haired crossbred calves compared to normal-haired contemporaries ranged from 0.18 to 0.4 degrees C. An even larger decrease in RT (0.61 degrees C; P heat stress. The improved thermotolerance of crossbred calves due to their slick hair coats did not result in increased weaning weights, possibly because both the slick and normal-haired calves were being nursed by slick-haired dams. There were indications that the slick-haired calves grew faster immediately following weaning and that their growth during the cooler months of the year was not compromised significantly by their reduced quantity of hair. In the Carora x Holstein crossbred cows there was a positive effect of slick hair on milk yield under dry, tropical conditions.

  12. Up-to-date Clinical Trials of Hair Regeneration using Conditioned Media of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells in Male and Female Pattern Hair Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyoseung; Won, Chong Hyun; Chung, Woon-Kyung; Park, Byung-Soon

    2017-05-04

    The primary roles of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are to maintain the stem cell niche, facilitate recovery after injury, and ensure healthy aging and the homeostasis of organ and tissues. MSCs have recently emerged as a new therapeutic option for hair loss. Since adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are the most accessible sources of MSCs, ADSC-based hair regeneration is currently under investigation. Besides replacing degenerated cells in affected organs, ADSCs exhibit their beneficial effects through the paracrine actions of various cytokines and growth factors. Several laboratory experiments and animal studies have shown that ADSC-related proteins can stimulate hair growth. In this paper, we introduce our clinical pilot studies using conditioned media of ADSCs for pattern hair loss in men and women. We also discuss practical therapeutic challenges and the direction of future research. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Msi2 Maintains Quiescent State of Hair Follicle Stem Cells by Directly Repressing the Hh Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xianghui; Tian, Yuhua; Song, Yongli; Shi, Jianyun; Xu, Jiuzhi; Xiong, Kai; Li, Jia; Xu, Wenjie; Zhao, Yiqiang; Shuai, Jianwei; Chen, Lei; Plikus, Maksim V; Lengner, Christopher J; Ren, Fazheng; Xue, Lixiang; Yu, Zhengquan

    2017-05-01

    Hair follicles (HFs) undergo precisely regulated cycles of active regeneration (anagen), involution (catagen), and relative quiescence (telogen). Hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) play important roles in regenerative cycling. Elucidating mechanisms that govern HFSC behavior can help uncover the underlying principles of hair development, hair growth disorders, and skin cancers. RNA-binding proteins of the Musashi (Msi) have been implicated in the biology of different stem cell types, yet they have not been studied in HFSCs. Here we utilized gain- and loss-of-function mouse models to demonstrate that forced MSI2 expression retards anagen entry and consequently delays hair growth, whereas loss of Msi2 enhances hair regrowth. Furthermore, our findings show that Msi2 maintains quiescent state of HFSCs in the process of the telogen-to-anagen transition. At the molecular level, our unbiased transcriptome profiling shows that Msi2 represses Hedgehog signaling activity and that Shh is its direct target in the hair follicle. Taken together, our findings reveal the importance of Msi2 in suppressing hair regeneration and maintaining HFSC quiescence. The previously unreported Msi2-Shh-Gli1 pathway adds to the growing understanding of the complex network governing cyclic hair growth. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Hairless controls hair fate decision via Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kuicheng; Xu, Cunshuan; Liu, Mengduan; Zhang, Jintao

    2017-09-23

    The hairless (Hr) gene plays a central role in the hair cycle, considering that mutations in the gene result in hair loss with the exception of a few vibrissae after the first hair growth cycle in both mice and humans. This study examinedthe uncommon phenotype and using microarray analyses and functional studies, we found that β-catenin was mediated by Hr. Progenitor keratinocytes from the bulge region differentiate into both epidermis and sebaceous glands, and fail to adopt the hair keratinocytes fate in the mutant scalp, due to the decreased Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the absence of the hairless protein. This may be attributed to the dysfunction of normal epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in the hair follicle (HF). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth Head Neck & Nervous System Heart Infections Learning Disabilities Obesity Orthopedic Prevention Sexually Transmitted Skin Tobacco Treatments Injuries & ...

  16. Genetic variation at hair length candidate genes in elephants and the extinct woolly mammoth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tisdale Michele

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Like humans, the living elephants are unusual among mammals in being sparsely covered with hair. Relative to extant elephants, the extinct woolly mammoth, Mammuthus primigenius, had a dense hair cover and extremely long hair, which likely were adaptations to its subarctic habitat. The fibroblast growth factor 5 (FGF5 gene affects hair length in a diverse set of mammalian species. Mutations in FGF5 lead to recessive long hair phenotypes in mice, dogs, and cats; and the gene has been implicated in hair length variation in rabbits. Thus, FGF5 represents a leading candidate gene for the phenotypic differences in hair length notable between extant elephants and the woolly mammoth. We therefore sequenced the three exons (except for the 3' UTR and a portion of the promoter of FGF5 from the living elephantid species (Asian, African savanna and African forest elephants and, using protocols for ancient DNA, from a woolly mammoth. Results Between the extant elephants and the mammoth, two single base substitutions were observed in FGF5, neither of which alters the amino acid sequence. Modeling of the protein structure suggests that the elephantid proteins fold similarly to the human FGF5 protein. Bioinformatics analyses and DNA sequencing of another locus that has been implicated in hair cover in humans, type I hair keratin pseudogene (KRTHAP1, also yielded negative results. Interestingly, KRTHAP1 is a pseudogene in elephantids as in humans (although fully functional in non-human primates. Conclusion The data suggest that the coding sequence of the FGF5 gene is not the critical determinant of hair length differences among elephantids. The results are discussed in the context of hairlessness among mammals and in terms of the potential impact of large body size, subarctic conditions, and an aquatic ancestor on hair cover in the Proboscidea.

  17. Nutrition and hair: deficiencies and supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finner, Andreas M

    2013-01-01

    Hair follicle cells have a high turnover. A caloric deprivation or deficiency of several components, such as proteins, minerals, essential fatty acids, and vitamins, caused by inborn errors or reduced uptake, can lead to structural abnormalities, pigmentation changes, or hair loss, although exact data are often lacking. The diagnosis is established through a careful history, clinical examination of hair loss activity, and hair quality and confirmed through targeted laboratory tests. Examples of genetic hair disorders caused by reduced nutritional components are zinc deficiency in acrodermatitis enteropathica and copper deficiency in Menkes kinky hair syndrome.

  18. Automatic hair detection in the wild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julian, Pauline; Dehais, Christophe; Lauze, Francois Bernard

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for segmenting the hair region in uncontrolled, real life conditions images. Our method is based on a simple statistical hair shape model representing the upper hair part. We detect this region by minimizing an energy which uses active shape and active contour....... The upper hair region then allows us to learn the hair appearance parameters (color and texture) for the image considered. Finally, those parameters drive a pixel-wise segmentation technique that yields the desired (complete) hair region. We demonstrate the applicability of our method on several real images....

  19. Repigmentation of hair following adalimumab therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tintle, Suzanne J; Dabade, Tushar S; Kalish, Robert A; Rosmarin, David M

    2015-06-16

    Repigmentation of canities, or age-related grey or white hair, is a rare occurrence. Generalized repigmentation of grey-white hair has been reported following inflammatory processes, and heterochromia (localized patches of hair repigmentation) is even more unusual, reported in association with medication use and malignancy. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors are increasingly utilized medications for inflammatory disorders, including psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Hair loss, or alopecia, has been described among the side effects of these medications, but changes in hair pigmentation in association with this class of drugs have not previously been reported. We describe a patient with hair repigmentation associated with adalimumab therapy.

  20. Determination of hair structure and shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlake, Thomas

    2007-04-01

    The hair follicle attracted significant attention as a model for the investigation of diverse biological problems. Whereas its morphology and the structure of the hair shaft are known in detail, the molecular biology of this miniorgan is significantly less characterised. Many efforts focussed on the development of the hair follicle and its stem cell reservoir; by contrast, the follicular product, the hair, which is interesting not only in terms of cosmetics was neglected. This review highlights our current knowledge of the control of hair structure and shape with emphasis on mouse hair follicle biology and discusses continuing problems.

  1. Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway mediates oriented differentiation of hair-follicle-generating stem cells induced by keratinocyte growth factor and lithium chloride%角质细胞生长因子及氯化锂诱导毛囊干细胞定向分化中的信号通路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨斌; 邓立欢; 李秉航; 吴小莹; 丁榆德; 董雪

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The proliferation and differentiation of hair-folicle-generating stem cels are influenced by the joint action of their own genes and external signals. Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays an important role in the development of hair folicles, but the detailed mechanisms are not yet clear. OBJECTIVE:To investigate, with interruption of keratinocyte growth factor and lithium chloride, the function and the interrelationship of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway with other signal factors when human hair-folicle-generating stem cels differentiate into dermal papila cels or epidermal cels. METHODS: Hair-folicle-generating stem cels were isolated from the bulge and cultivated. Then the growth curve of hair-folicle-generating stem cels was tested and formed in order to observe the cellproliferation ability cultivated at different densities (1×106/L, 1×107/L, 1×108/L, 1×109/L) at each time. Immunoflurorescene staining was performed to identify hair-folicle-generating stem cels and their differentiated cels. Lithium chloride (0, 0.5, 1.5, 10, 25 mmol/L individualy) and keratinocyte growth factor(0, 10, 25, 50, 100 μg/L individualy) were used to induce the differentiation of hair-folicle-generating stem cels. Then, we contrasted and analyzed the proliferation ability in each case, thereby investigating the most appropriate concentration of keratinocyte growth factor and lithium chloride to spur the differentiation of hair-folicle-generating stem cels. At days 3, 5, 7 and 9, we tested and compared the mRNA expressions of β-catenin, APC, GSK-3β, Axin and Lef1 from cels in control group, 10 mmol/L lithium chloride group and 10 μg/L keratinocyte growth factor group. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Isolating cultured hair-folicle-generating stem cels stil had a great reproductive activity and multi-lineage potential even after various times subculturein vitro. With higher lithium chloride concentration, the proliferation ability of hair-folicle-generating stem cels

  2. Planar cell polarity in the inner ear: how do hair cells acquire their oriented structure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Julian; Davies, Alex

    2002-11-05

    Sensory hair cells in the ear and lateral line have an asymmetrical hair-bundle structure, essential for their function as directional mechanotransducers. We examine four questions: (1) how does the planar asymmetry of the individual hair cell originate? (2) How are the orientations of neighboring hair cells coordinated? (3) How is the orientation of a group of hair cells controlled in relation to the ear as a whole? (4) How does the initial cell asymmetry lead to creation of the asymmetrical hair bundle? Studies of the development of hairs and bristles in Drosophila, combined with genetic data from vertebrates, suggest that the answer to questions (1) and (2) lies in asymmetries that develop at the cell cortex and at cell-cell junctions, generated by products of a set of primary planar cell polarity genes, including the transmembrane receptor Frizzled. A separate and largely independent mechanism controls asymmmetric allocation of cell fate determinants such as Numb at mitosis, in Drosophila and possibly in the ear also. Little is known about long-range signals that might orient hair cells globally in the ear, but progress has been made in identifying a set of genes responsible for read-out of the primary polarity specification. These genes, in flies and vertebrates, provide a link to assembly of the polarized cytoskeleton; myosin VIIA appears to belong in this group. The mechanism creating the staircase pattern of stereocilium lengths is unknown, but could involve regulation of stereocilium growth by Ca(2+) ions entering via transduction channels.

  3. Hair biology and its comprehensive sequence in female pattern baldness: diagnosis and treatment modalities--Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Srivastava, Govind; Aggarwal, Ashok K; Midha, Rashmi

    2013-01-01

    Hair may be a source of concern for patients when there is a change in its texture, amount, or thickness. It can present in women as androgenic alopecia also called female pattern baldness, and in men as adrogenic alopecia, also called male pattern baldness. Thinning/rarefaction affecting the vertex is a progressive condition, and hair loss in women has been interpreted and classified differently from that in men. The Ludwig classification for women's hair loss seems to be the most accepted assessment, which will be outlined in this review, along with the hair growth cycle that encompasses anagen, catagen, telogen, exogen, and kenogen.

  4. Keratins and lipids in ethnic hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, C F; Fernandes, M M; Gomes, A C; Coderch, L; Martí, M; Méndez, S; Gales, L; Azoia, N G; Shimanovich, U; Cavaco-Paulo, A

    2013-06-01

    Human hair has an important and undeniable relevance in society due to its important role in visual appearance and social communication. Hair is mainly composed of structural proteins, mainly keratin and keratin associated proteins and lipids. Herein, we report a comprehensive study of the content and distribution of the lipids among ethnic hair, African, Asian and Caucasian hair. More interestingly, we also report the study of the interaction between those two main components of hair, specifically, the influence of the hair internal lipids in the structure of the hair keratin. This was achieved by the use of a complete set of analytical tools, such as thin layer chromatography-flame ionization detector, X-ray analysis, molecular dynamics simulation and confocal microscopy. The experimental results indicated different amounts of lipids on ethnic hair compositions and higher percentage of hair internal lipids in African hair. In this type of hair, the axial diffraction of keratin was not observed in X-ray analysis, but after hair lipids removal, the keratin returned to its typical packing arrangement. In molecular dynamic simulation, lipids were shown to intercalate dimers of keratin, changing its structure. From those results, we assume that keratin structure may be influenced by higher concentration of lipids in African hair. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  5. Soft Hair on Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, Stephen W.; Perry, Malcolm J.; Strominger, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units.

  6. Soft Hair on Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, Stephen W; Perry, Malcolm J; Strominger, Andrew

    2016-06-10

    It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units.

  7. Soft Hair on Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Hawking, Stephen W; Strominger, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    It has recently been shown that BMS supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft ($i.e.$ zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This paper gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the ho...

  8. A Fast Method of Pubic Symphysis Age Estimation Using Excel%采用Excel计算耻骨联合年龄

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴东; 王凯

    2015-01-01

    The traditional method to calculate age by observing the pubic symphysis requires the investigator to import obtained variable value into equation one by one, therefore relatively time-consuming and prone to miscalculation. A simple and convenient approach is introduced for age estimation of pubic symphysis using Excel. There are three steps. Firstly, the equation of quantitative theory Ι and that of stepwise multiple regression are implanted into Excel. Secondly, LOOKUP and SUM formulas in Excel are used for data processing. And thirdly, Excel table is converted into a specific format where the pubic symphysis age will come up after “morphological changes” is simply clicked sequentially. This method is relatively simple, quick and prone to few errors.%传统的计算耻骨联合年龄的方法需要操作者将肉眼观察后得出的各变量值逐一代入方程,然后再进行计算,这种方法相对耗时而且容易出现计算错误。本文介绍了一种利用 Excel 快速推断耻骨联合年龄的方法,将数量化理论Ⅰ方程、多元逐步回归方程植入 Excel 中,利用 LOOKUP 和 SUM 公式对数据进行处理,制作成特定的格式,操作者只需依次点击“形态变化”便可最终得出耻骨联合的年龄。这种方法相对简便、快捷,不容易出现错误。

  9. Effects of a Closed Space Environment on Gene Expression in Hair Follicles of Astronauts in the International Space Station.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Terada

    Full Text Available Adaptation to the space environment can sometimes pose physiological problems to International Space Station (ISS astronauts after their return to earth. Therefore, it is important to develop healthcare technologies for astronauts. In this study, we examined the feasibility of using hair follicles, a readily obtained sample, to assess gene expression changes in response to spaceflight adaptation. In order to investigate the gene expression changes in human hair follicles during spaceflight, hair follicles of 10 astronauts were analyzed by microarray and real time qPCR analyses. We found that spaceflight alters human hair follicle gene expression. The degree of changes in gene expression was found to vary among individuals. In some astronauts, genes related to hair growth such as FGF18, ANGPTL7 and COMP were upregulated during flight, suggesting that spaceflight inhibits cell proliferation in hair follicles.

  10. Effects of a Closed Space Environment on Gene Expression in Hair Follicles of Astronauts in the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Masahiro; Seki, Masaya; Takahashi, Rika; Yamada, Shin; Higashibata, Akira; Majima, Hideyuki J; Sudoh, Masamichi; Mukai, Chiaki; Ishioka, Noriaki

    2016-01-01

    Adaptation to the space environment can sometimes pose physiological problems to International Space Station (ISS) astronauts after their return to earth. Therefore, it is important to develop healthcare technologies for astronauts. In this study, we examined the feasibility of using hair follicles, a readily obtained sample, to assess gene expression changes in response to spaceflight adaptation. In order to investigate the gene expression changes in human hair follicles during spaceflight, hair follicles of 10 astronauts were analyzed by microarray and real time qPCR analyses. We found that spaceflight alters human hair follicle gene expression. The degree of changes in gene expression was found to vary among individuals. In some astronauts, genes related to hair growth such as FGF18, ANGPTL7 and COMP were upregulated during flight, suggesting that spaceflight inhibits cell proliferation in hair follicles.

  11. The effect of hair bundle shape on hair bundle hydrodynamics of inner ear hair cells at low and high frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatz, L F

    2000-03-01

    The relationship between size and shape of the hair bundle of a hair cell in the inner ear and its sensitivity at asymptotically high and low frequencies was determined, thereby extending the results of an analysis of hair bundle hydrodynamics in two dimensions (Freeman and Weiss, 1990. Hydrodynamic analysis of a two-dimensional model for micromechanical resonance of free-standing hair bundles. Hear. Res. 48, 37-68) to three dimensions. A hemispheroid was used to represent the hair bundle. The hemispheroid had a number of advantages: it could represent shapes that range from thin, pencil-like shapes, to wide, flat, disk-like shapes. Also analytic methods could be used in the high frequency range to obtain an exact solution to the equations of motion. In the low frequency range, where an approximate solution was found using boundary element methods, the sensitivity of the responses of hair cells was mainly proportional to the cube of the heights of their hair bundles, and at high frequencies, the sensitivity of the hair cells was mainly proportional to the inverse of their heights. An excellent match was obtained between measurements of sensitivity curves in the basillar papilla of the alligator and bobtail lizards and the model's predictions. These results also suggest why hair bundles of hair cells in vestibular organs which are sensitive to low frequencies have ranges of heights that are an order of magnitude larger than the range of heights of hair bundles of hair cells found in auditory organs.

  12. Mechanical characterization of curly hair: Influence of the use of nonconventional hair straightening treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, M G A; Maia Campos, P M B G

    2017-03-21

    Hair straighteners are very popular around the world, although they can cause great damage to the hair. Thus, the characterization of the mechanical properties of curly hair using advanced techniques is very important to clarify how hair straighteners act on hair fibers and to contribute to the development of effective products. On this basis, we chose two nonconventional hair straighteners (formaldehyde and glyoxylic acid) to investigate how hair straightening treatments affect the mechanical properties of curly hair. The mechanical properties of curly hair were evaluated using a tensile test, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements, scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), a torsion modulus, dynamic vapor sorption (DVS), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The techniques used effectively helped the understanding of the influence of nonconventional hair straighteners on hair properties. For the break stress and the break extension tests, formaldehyde showed a marked decrease in these parameters, with great hair damage. Glyoxylic acid had a slight effect compared to formaldehyde treatment. Both treatments showed an increase in shear modulus, a decrease in water sorption and damage to the hair surface. A combination of the techniques used in this study permitted a better understanding of nonconventional hair straightener treatments and also supported the choice of the better treatment, considering a good relationship between efficacy and safety. Thus, it is very important to determine the properties of hair for the development of cosmetics used to improve the beauty of curly hair. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. 'Uncombable' Hair? Maybe Genes Are to Blame

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_162727.html 'Uncombable' Hair? Maybe Genes Are to Blame Condition is rare, tends to ... combed normally. Now researchers say they've found genes linked to what's known as "uncombable hair syndrome." " ...

  14. Biological application of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy technique for determination of trace elements in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emara, Elshaimaa M; Imam, Hisham; Hassan, Mouyed A; Elnaby, Salah H

    2013-12-15

    Analysis of trace elements in mammalian hair has the potential to reveal retrospective information about an individual's nutritional status and exposure. As trace elements are incorporated into the hair during the growth process, longitudinal segments of the hair may reflect the body burden during growth. Using LIBS technique, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Si, Fe, Pb and Zn were detected in a single strand of horse hair. The results obtained through LIBS technique on hair samples were compared with the traditional technique (AAS) on digested acidified solution of the same samples. The effects of the experimental parameters on the emission lines were studied and the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) in produced plasma was investigated. The transient plasma condition was verified at specific time region (1500-2000 ns) in the plasma evolution corresponding to its dynamic expanding characteristic. The relative mass concentrations of Fe and Zn were calculated by setting the concentration of C as the calibration. The information obtained from the trace elements' spectra of horse hair in this study substantiates the potential of hair as a biomarker. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Therapeutic potential of stem cells in auditory hair cell repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuji Hata

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of acquired hearing loss is very high. About 10% of the total population and more than one third of the population over 65 years suffer from debilitating hearing loss. The most common type of hearing loss in adults is idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL. In the majority of cases, ISSHL is permanent and typically associated with loss of sensory hair cells in the organ of Corti. Following the loss of sensory hair cells, the auditory neurons undergo secondary degeneration. Sensory hair cells and auditory neurons do not regenerate throughout life, and loss of these cells is irreversible and cumulative. However, recent advances in stem cell biology have gained hope that stem cell therapy comes closer to regenerating sensory hair cells in humans. A major advance in the prospects for the use of stem cells to restore normal hearing comes with the recent discovery that hair cells can be generated ex vivo from embryonic stem (ES cells, adult inner ear stem cells and neural stem cells. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence that stem cells can promote damaged cell repair in part by secreting diffusible molecules such as growth factors. These results suggest that stem-cell-based treatment regimens can be applicable to the damaged inner ear as future clinical applications.Previously we have established an animal model of cochlear ischemia in gerbils and showed progressive hair cell loss up to 4 days after ischemia. Auditory brain stem response (ABR recordings have demonstrated that this gerbil model displays severe deafness just after cochlear ischemia and gradually recovers thereafter. These pathological findings and clinical manifestations are reminiscent of ISSHL in humans. In this study, we have shown the effectiveness of stem cell therapy by using this animal model of ISSHL.

  16. Stable isotope ratios in hair and teeth reflect biologic rhythms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Appenzeller

    Full Text Available Biologic rhythms give insight into normal physiology and disease. They can be used as biomarkers for neuronal degenerations. We present a diverse data set to show that hair and teeth contain an extended record of biologic rhythms, and that analysis of these tissues could yield signals of neurodegenerations. We examined hair from mummified humans from South America, extinct mammals and modern animals and people, both healthy and diseased, and teeth of hominins. We also monitored heart-rate variability, a measure of a biologic rhythm, in some living subjects and analyzed it using power spectra. The samples were examined to determine variations in stable isotope ratios along the length of the hair and across growth-lines of the enamel in teeth. We found recurring circa-annual periods of slow and fast rhythms in hydrogen isotope ratios in hair and carbon and oxygen isotope ratios in teeth. The power spectra contained slow and fast frequency power, matching, in terms of normalized frequency, the spectra of heart rate variability found in our living subjects. Analysis of the power spectra of hydrogen isotope ratios in hair from a patient with neurodegeneration revealed the same spectral features seen in the patient's heart-rate variability. Our study shows that spectral analysis of stable isotope ratios in readily available tissues such as hair could become a powerful diagnostic tool when effective treatments and neuroprotective drugs for neurodegenerative diseases become available. It also suggests that similar analyses of archaeological specimens could give insight into the physiology of ancient people and animals.

  17. [New and established methods in therapy of hair diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüeb, R M

    2003-08-01

    Recently rational drug therapy and potent technologies have been introduced for the treatment of the most frequent hair problems, i.e. finasteride in the treatment of male pattern hair loss, and laser-assisted hair removal systems for hypertrichosis and hirsutism. Together with the availability of such treatments, high technical standards for evaluating their efficacy have been developed, e.g. computer-assisted epiluminiscence microscopy. Besides these physical aspects, life quality has also become an important issue in clinical studies, and is assessed by standardized patient questionnaires. In the treatment of hair loss, women have become reluctant about taking systemic hormones since the results of large epidemiological studies on the risks of hormonal replacement therapy have become public. Topical 17alpha-estradiol offers an alternative, though its efficacy has not been proven. The results of double-blinded, placebo-controlled studies demonstrating efficacy are yet only available for topical minoxidil. In the treatment of alopecia areata, there is no treatment that guarantees regrowth and stable growth of recovered hair. Only topical immunotherapy produces a higher remission rate that the natural evolution of disease. Scarring alopecias are not frequent but they need a careful evaluation, including scalp biopsy, for a precise diagnosis, because of irreversibility and potentially grave cosmetic consequences. The introduction of the modern broad spectrum antimycotic agents has greatly improved the management of infectious scarring alopecias. Finally, developments in hair care and anti-aging medicine are discussed, with special referral to the evolving difficulty of delineating medical science from marketing strategies in this trendy field.

  18. Hair Manganese as an Exposure Biomarker among Welders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Boris; Simpson, Christopher D; Baker, Marissa G; Stover, Bert; Sheppard, Lianne; Seixas, Noah S

    2016-03-01

    Quantifying exposure and dose to manganese (Mn) containing airborne particles in welding fume presents many challenges. Common biological markers such as Mn in blood or Mn in urine have not proven to be practical biomarkers even in studies where positive associations were observed. However, hair Mn (MnH) as a biomarker has the advantage over blood and urine that it is less influenced by short-term variability of Mn exposure levels because of its slow growth rate. The objective of this study was to determine whether hair can be used as a biomarker for welders exposed to manganese. Hair samples (1cm) were collected from 47 welding school students and individual air Mn (MnA) exposures were measured for each subject. MnA levels for all days were estimated with a linear mixed model using welding type as a predictor. A 30-day time-weighted average MnA (MnA30d) exposure level was calculated for each hair sample. The association between MnH and MnA30d levels was then assessed. A linear relationship was observed between log-transformed MnA30d and log-transformed MnH. Doubling MnA30d exposure levels yields a 20% (95% confidence interval: 11-29%) increase in MnH. The association was similar for hair washed following two different wash procedures designed to remove external contamination. Hair shows promise as a biomarker for inhaled Mn exposure given the presence of a significant linear association between MnH and MnA30d levels.

  19. Ethnic hair care products may increase false positives in hair drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, David A; Smith, Frederick P; Shepherd, Arica R

    2015-12-01

    The question of why different races appear more susceptible to hair contamination by external drugs remains controversial. This research studied susceptibility of head hair to external cocaine and methamphetamine when hair products have been applied. Three different chemical classes of ethnic hair products were applied to Caucasian, Asian, and African hair. Some products increased the methamphetamine and cocaine concentrations in all hair types. A unique finding of this research is that certain ethnic hair products can replace moisture as a diffusion medium, thereby increasing the susceptibility to contamination over 100-fold compared to petroleum-based products.

  20. Management of hair loss diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Ohyama

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of hair loss diseases is sometimes difficult because of insufficient efficacy and limited options. However, recent advances in understanding of the pathophysiology and development of new remedies have improved the treatment of refractory hair loss conditions. In this article, an update on the management of hair loss diseases is provided, especially focusing on recently reported therapeutic approaches for alopecia areata (AA. An accurate diagnosis is indispensable to optimize treatment. Dry dermoscopy represents new diagnostic techniques, which could enable the differentiation of barely indistinguishable alopecias, e.g. AA and trichotillomania. An organized scalp biopsy adopting both vertical and transverse sectioning approaches also provides a deep insight into the pathophysiology of ongoing alopecias. Among various treatments for AA, intraregional corticosteroid and contact immunotherapy have been recognized as first-line therapies. However, some AA cases are refractory to both treatments. Recent studies have demonstrated the efficacy of pulse corticosteroid therapy or the combination of oral psoralen ultraviolet A therapy and systemic corticosteroids for severe AA. Previous clinical observations have suggested the potential role of antihistamines as supportive medications for AA. Experimental evaluation using AA model mice further supports their effectiveness in AA treatment. Finasteride opens up new possibilities for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia. For androgenetic alopecia patients refractory to finasteride, the combination of finasteride with topical minoxidil or the administration of dutasteride, another 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor, may provide better outcomes. Scarring alopecia is the most difficult form of hair loss disorder to treat. The bulge stem cell area is destroyed by unnecessary immune reactions with resultant permanent loss of hair follicle structures in scarring alopecia. Currently, treatment options for

  1. Immunohistochemical study of hair follicle stem cells in regenerated hair follicles induced by Wnt10b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiming; Xing, Yizhan; Guo, Haiying; Ma, Xiaogen; Li, Yuhong

    2016-01-01

    The regulation of the periodic regeneration of hair follicles is complicated. Although Wnt10b has been reported to induce hair follicle regeneration, the characteristics of induced hair follicles, especially the target cells of Wnt10b, have not yet been clearly elucidated. Thus, we systematically evaluated the expression and proliferation patterns of Wnt10b-induced hair follicles. We found that Wnt10b promoted the proliferation of hair follicle stem cells from 24 hours after AdWnt10b injection. Seventy-two hours after AdWnt10b injection, cells outside of bulge area began to proliferate. When the induced hair follicle entered full anagen, although the hair follicle stem cells were normal, canonical Wnt signaling was maintained in the hair precortex cells. Our results reveal that the target cells that overexpressed Wnt10b included hair follicle stem cells, hair precortex cells, and matrix cells.

  2. Nutrition of women with hair loss problem during the period of menopause

    OpenAIRE

    Zuzanna Sabina Goluch-Koniuszy

    2016-01-01

    During the period of menopause as an effect of changes in hormone status, one of the most common ailments for women is hair loss. Taking into consideration fact that the ingredients of diet contained in various groups of consumed food products are both precursors in steroid hormones synthesis as well as have direct impact on structure, growth and keeping hair in skin integument, this is the reason why nourishing support for women during this period of life as well as during the hair loss ther...

  3. Development of terminal hair following skin lesion treatments with an intense pulsed light source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachos, Spiros P; Kontoes, Paraskevas P

    2002-01-01

    Laser and other light sources have been used to treat vascular and pigmented skin lesions and to remove tattoos and unwanted hair, with varying degrees of success and various side effects. It has not yet been reported that hair growth can occur as a side effect of such treatments. In this paper two cases are presented, one port wine stain and one tattoo, that were each treated several times with an intense pulsed light source (IPLS) for removal. Terminal hair, not present before treatment, partially developed in treated areas of both lesions. Local inflammatory reactions are believed to trigger such outcomes.

  4. ``Dissection'' of a Hair Dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenstein, Stan; Simpson, Jeff

    2008-12-01

    The electrical design of the common hair dryer is based almost entirely on relatively simple principles learned in introductory physics classes. Just as biology students dissect a frog to see the principles of anatomy in action, physics students can "dissect" a hair dryer to see how principles of electricity are used in a real system. They can discover how engineers solve problems such as how to vary between low and high heat and fan speed by simply moving the position of a single switch. Principles of alternating versus direct current, series and parallel circuits, electrical safety, voltage dividing, ac rectification, power, and measurement of resistance and continuity all come in to play.

  5. The hair of the Prophet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    This paper explore the politics of (in)visibility in Islam by discussing the affective presence and agency of relics - in this case a single hair of the Prophet Muhammad. The relic is obviously not the Prophet, but it is also not-not the Prophet, as the hair is filled with the baraka (blessings......) of the Prophet and thereby seems to confirm Sir James Frazer’s thesis of ‘sympathetic magic’ where part and wholes are forever connected. Based on a study of the Naqshbandi Mujaddidi Saifi tariqa, this paper set out to ‘follow the hair’ in different settings in Denmark, Norway and Pakistan in order to discuss...

  6. Natural remedies in hair care and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan Karabacak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For thousands of years, people benefited from natural products to have healthy hair. Nowadays this one of complementary and alternative medicine methods are preferred as an increasing frequency. Natural products used in hair care may vary by geographic region and ethnic origin. In this review, natural products used in hair care and diseases were studied.

  7. Natural remedies in hair care and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Ercan Karabacak; Bilal Doğan

    2014-01-01

    For thousands of years, people benefited from natural products to have healthy hair. Nowadays this one of complementary and alternative medicine methods are preferred as an increasing frequency. Natural products used in hair care may vary by geographic region and ethnic origin. In this review, natural products used in hair care and diseases were studied.

  8. Diseases that turn African hair silky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajose, Frances O A

    2012-11-01

    African hair in its natural state poses tenacious grooming challenges; consequently a large portion of the African cosmetic industry is focused on means to relax the tight curls of African hair to make the hair more manageable. In malnourished and hypoproteinemic states, African hair straightens in an uncomplimentary manner. Recently, we observed that in certain diseases African hair changes to a desirable silky wavy texture. To identify the diseases that turn African hair silky and their parameters we examined 5612 dermatology patients at a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. We then studied the clinical and basic laboratory parameters of those patients whose diseases were accompanied by the silky hair change. Silky hair change similar to the hair of the African neonatal child was observed in five diseases, namely AIDS, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, pulmonary tuberculosis with cachexia, and Behçet's disease. Our study identified retrogression of African hair to the neonatal structure in five diseases. Anemia of chronic illness, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and mild hypocalcemia were significant laboratory parameters. This is an important observation, which should excite and advance research into the nature and structure of African hair. The causes of structural hair changes should include these five diseases. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.

  9. A comparative study of hair removal at an NHS hospital: Luminette intense pulsed light versus electrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Karen; Ferguson, Janice; Hills, Samantha

    2014-04-01

    Twenty-five women, referred for hair removal by electrolysis, were enrolled in a split face study to treat facial hirsutism. Each patient was treated on six occasions: one-half of the face with electrolysis and the other side with an intense pulsed light source. Patients were evaluated with respect to reduction in hair counts, side effects and discomfort during treatment. Re-growth was assessed at 3, 6 and 9 months following treatment. All patients, except one with very sparse, fair hair growth, preferred treatment with the Intense Pulsed Light and rated their average hair reduction with this method as 77% after five treatments. The overall patient satisfaction rates as determined by visual analogue scales were 8.3 out of 10 for IPL and 5.4 out of 10 for electrolysis.

  10. Hair Shaft Damage from Heat and Drying Time of Hair Dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoonhee; Kim, Youn-Duk; Hyun, Hye-Jin; Pi, Long-quan; Jin, Xinghai

    2011-01-01

    Background Hair dryers are commonly used and can cause hair damage such as roughness, dryness and loss of hair color. It is important to understand the best way to dry hair without causing damage. Objective The study assessed changes in the ultra-structure, morphology, moisture content, and color of hair after repeated shampooing and drying with a hair dryer at a range of temperatures. Methods A standardized drying time was used to completely dry each hair tress, and each tress was treated a total of 30 times. Air flow was set on the hair dryer. The tresses were divided into the following five test groups: (a) no treatment, (b) drying without using a hair dryer (room temperature, 20℃), (c) drying with a hair dryer for 60 seconds at a distance of 15 cm (47℃), (d) drying with a hair dryer for 30 seconds at a distance of 10 cm (61℃), (e) drying with a hair dryer for 15 seconds at a distance of 5 cm (95℃). Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and lipid TEM were performed. Water content was analyzed by a halogen moisture analyzer and hair color was measured with a spectrophotometer. Results Hair surfaces tended to become more damaged as the temperature increased. No cortex damage was ever noted, suggesting that the surface of hair might play a role as a barrier to prevent cortex damage. Cell membrane complex was damaged only in the naturally dried group without hair dryer. Moisture content decreased in all treated groups compared to the untreated control group. However, the differences in moisture content among the groups were not statistically significant. Drying under the ambient and 95℃ conditions appeared to change hair color, especially into lightness, after just 10 treatments. Conclusion Although using a hair dryer causes more surface damage than natural drying, using a hair dryer at a distance of 15 cm with continuous motion causes less damage than drying hair naturally. PMID:22148012

  11. Hairdressers' skin exposure to hair dyes during different hair dyeing tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Marie-Louise; Johnsson, Stina; Lidén, Carola; Meding, Birgitta; Boman, Anders

    2017-08-09

    The high risk of occupational skin disease among hairdressers, caused by skin exposure to irritants and sensitizers, such as hair dye substances, is of great concern. The aim of the present study was to assess how the various tasks involved in hair dyeing contribute to hairdressers' exposure to hair dye, in order to enable the formulation of well-founded recommendations on working routines that will reduce exposure and prevent occupational disease. Skin exposure to hair dye was measured for 20 hairdressers applying highlights and all-over hair colour with the hand rinsing technique. Resorcinol was used as a proxy for hair dye exposure. Applying hair dye and cutting the newly dyed hair were the tasks that contributed most to exposure in treatments for highlights. After cutting all-over-coloured hair, all hairdressers had measurable amounts of hair dyes on both hands. Hairdressers are exposed to hair dye ingredients during all steps of the hair dyeing procedure. Cutting newly dyed hair contributes significantly to exposure. As initial steps for the prevention of occupational disease resulting from hair dye exposure, we suggest cutting hair before dyeing it, and wearing gloves during all other work tasks. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Auxin and ethylene response interactions during Arabidopsis root hair development dissected by auxin influx modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Abidur; Hosokawa, Satoko; Oono, Yutaka; Amakawa, Taisaku; Goto, Nobuharu; Tsurumi, Seiji

    2002-12-01

    The plant hormones auxin and ethylene have been shown to play important roles during root hair development. However, cross talk between auxin and ethylene makes it difficult to understand the independent role of either hormone. To dissect their respective roles, we examined the effects of two compounds, chromosaponin I (CSI) and 1-naphthoxyacetic acid (1-NOA), on the root hair developmental process in wild-type Arabidopsis, ethylene-insensitive mutant ein2-1, and auxin influx mutants aux1-7, aux1-22, and double mutant aux1-7 ein2. Beta-glucuronidase (GUS) expression analysis in the BA-GUS transgenic line, consisting of auxin-responsive domains of PS-IAA4/5 promoter and GUS reporter, revealed that 1-NOA and CSI act as auxin uptake inhibitors in Arabidopsis roots. The frequency of root hairs in ein2-1 roots was greatly reduced in the presence of CSI or 1-NOA, suggesting that endogenous auxin plays a critical role for the root hair initiation in the absence of an ethylene response. All of these mutants showed a reduction in root hair length, however, the root hair length could be restored with a variable concentration of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). NAA (10 nM) restored the root hair length of aux1 mutants to wild-type level, whereas 100 nM NAA was needed for ein2-1 and aux1-7 ein2 mutants. Our results suggest that insensitivity in ethylene response affects the auxin-driven root hair elongation. CSI exhibited a similar effect to 1-NOA, reducing root hair growth and the number of root hair-bearing cells in wild-type and ein2-1 roots, while stimulating these traits in aux1-7and aux1-7ein2 roots, confirming that CSI is a unique modulator of AUX1.

  13. The Current Status of Microscopical Hair Comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter F. Rowe

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the microscopical comparison of human hairs has been accepted in courts of law for over a century, recent advances in DNA technology have called this type of forensic examination into question. In a number of cases, post-conviction DNA testing has exonerated defendants who were convicted in part on the results of microscopical hair comparisons. A federal judge has held a Daubert hearing on the microscopical comparison of human hairs and has concluded that this type of examination does not meet the criteria for admission of scientific evidence in federal courts. A review of the available scientific literature on microscopical hair comparisons (including studies conducted by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and the Federal Bureau of Investigation leads to three conclusions: (1 microscopical comparisons of human hairs can yield scientifically defensible conclusions that can contribute to criminal investigations and criminal prosecutions, (2 the reliability of microscopical hair comparisons is strongly affected by the training of the forensic hair examiner, (3 forensic hair examiners cannot offer estimates of the probability of a match of a questioned hair with a hair from a randomly selected person. In order for microscopical hair examinations to survive challenges under the U.S. Supreme Court’s Daubert decision, hair microscopists must be better trained and undergo frequent proficiency testing. More research on the error rates of microscopical hair comparisons should be undertaken, and guidelines for the permissible interpretations of such comparisons should be established. Until these issues have been addressed and satisfactorily resolved, microscopical hair comparisons should be regarded by law enforcement agencies and courts of law as merely presumptive in nature, and all microscopical hair comparisons should be confirmed by nuclear DNA profiling or mitochondrial DNA sequencing.

  14. Trace elements in scalp hair of leukaemia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuder Ali

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb in scalp hair of leukaemia patients and healthy volunteers, using the optimised XRF method. Leukaemia hair samples were classifi ed corresponding to type, growth and age of the participants. The results showed that the studied trace elements (TEs in both of leukaemia and control groups were positively skewed. In comparison with the control group, lower Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb and higher of Ni medians were found in all studied leukaemia patients. The median rank obtained by Mann-Whitney U-test revealed insignifi cant differences between the leukaemia patients subgroups and the controls. An exact probability (α 0.70 in the scalp hair of control group were observed between Ni/Fe-Ni, Cu/Fe-Cu, Zn/Fe-Zn, Pb/Fe-Pb, Cu/Ni-Zn/Ni, Cu/Ni-Pb/Ni, Zn/Ni-Pb/Ni, Zn/Fe-Zn/Cu, Pb/Ni-Ni and Ni/Fe-Pb/Ni, whereas only very strong positive ratios in the scalp hair of leukaemia patients group were observed between Ni/Fe-Ni, Cu/Fe-Cu, Zn/Fe-Zn and Pb/Fe-Pb, all correlations were signifi cant at p < 0.05. Other strong and signifi cant correlations were also observed in scalp hair of both groups. Signifi cant differences between grouping of studied TEs in all classifi ed leukaemia groups and controls were found using principal component analysis (PCA. The results of PCA confi rmed that the type and the growth of leukaemia factors were more important in element loading than the age factor.

  15. Hair as a marker for pesticides exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Baker, Charlotte; Saleh, Mahmoud A

    2011-01-01

    Rats were orally treated with mixtures of chlorinated pesticides. Hair was collected and analyzed for pesticide residues over a period of up to four weeks. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of the recovered pesticides in hair were determined using gas chromatography with electron capture detector. Results suggest that hair can be used as a biomarker for the monitoring of organochlorinated pesticide residues at low parts per billion levels. Chlorinated pesticides were also detected in human hair of environmentally exposed and occupationally exposed individuals, which indicates that hair can be used for monitoring pesticides exposure.

  16. Clofazimine-induced Hair Pigmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Mariam; Samson, Joan Felicita; Simi, Puthenveedu Salahudeen

    2012-01-01

    A 45-year-old man was treated with WHO multibacillary multidrug therapy for borderline leprosy and high dose daily Clofazimine for lepra reaction. Along with the expected side effect of skin pigmentation, the patient also noticed darkening of previously grey hair. This colour persisted eight months after completing multibacillary multidrug therapy. PMID:23180930

  17. Clofazimine-induced Hair Pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Mariam; Samson, Joan Felicita; Simi, Puthenveedu Salahudeen

    2012-07-01

    A 45-year-old man was treated with WHO multibacillary multidrug therapy for borderline leprosy and high dose daily Clofazimine for lepra reaction. Along with the expected side effect of skin pigmentation, the patient also noticed darkening of previously grey hair. This colour persisted eight months after completing multibacillary multidrug therapy.

  18. Female pattern hair loss: Current treatment concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Q Dinh

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Quan Q Dinh, Rodney SinclairDepartment of Dermatology, St Vincent’s Hospital, Fitzroy, Victoria, AustraliaAbstract: Fewer than 45% of women go through life with a full head of hair. Female pattern hair loss is the commonest cause of hair loss in women and prevalence increases with advancing age. Affected women may experience psychological distress and impaired social functioning. In most cases the diagnosis can be made clinically and the condition treated medically. While many women using oral antiandrogens and topical minoxidil will regrow some hair, early diagnosis and initiation of treatment is desirable as these treatments are more effective at arresting progression of hair loss than stimulating regrowth. Adjunctive nonpharmacological treatment modalities such as counseling, cosmetic camouflage and hair transplantation are important measures for some patients. The histology of female pattern hair loss is identical to that of male androgenetic alopecia. While the clinical pattern of the hair loss differs between men, the response to oral antiandrogens suggests that female pattern hair loss is an androgen dependant condition, at least in the majority of cases. Female pattern hair loss is a chronic progressive condition. All treatments need to be continued to maintain the effect. An initial therapeutic response often takes 12 or even 24 months. Given this delay, monitoring for treatment effect through clinical photography or standardized clinical severity scales is helpful.Keywords: female pattern hair loss, androgenetic alopecia

  19. Hair Image Generation Using Connected Texels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiaopeng; CHEN Yanyun; WU Enhua

    2001-01-01

    Generation of photo-realistic images of human hair is a challenging topic in computer graphics. The difficulty in solving the problem in this aspect comes mainly from the extremely large number of hairs and the high complexity of the hair shapes. Regarding to the modeling and rendering of hair-type objects,Kajiya proposed a so-called texel model for producing furry surfaces. However,Kajiya's model could be only used for the generation of short hairs. In this paper,a concise and practical approach is presented to solve the problem of rendering long hairs, and in particular the method of rendering the smooth segmental texels for the generation of long hairs is addressed.

  20. Biophysics of Human Hair Structural, Nanomechanical, and Nanotribological Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Bhushan, Bharat

    2010-01-01

    This book presents the biophysics of hair. It deals with the structure of hair, its mechanical properties, the nanomechanical characterization, tensile deformation, tribological characterization, the thickness distribution and binding interactions on hair surface. Another important topic of the book is the health of hair, human hair and skin, hair care, cleaning and conditioning treatments and damaging processes. It is the first book on the biophysical properties of hair.