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Sample records for puberty suggestions range

  1. Delayed Puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolby, Nanna; Busch, Alexander Siegfried; Juul, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Delayed puberty can be a source of great concern and anxiety, although it usually is caused by a self-limiting variant of the normal physiological timing named constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP). Delayed puberty can, however, also be the first presentation of a permanent condition ...... mineral density) and psychological (e.g., low self-esteem) and underline the importance of careful clinical assessment of the patients.......Delayed puberty can be a source of great concern and anxiety, although it usually is caused by a self-limiting variant of the normal physiological timing named constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP). Delayed puberty can, however, also be the first presentation of a permanent condition...

  2. Genome-wide screening in human growth plates during puberty in one patient suggests a role for RUNX2 in epiphyseal maturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emons, Joyce; Dutilh, Bas E.; Decker, Eva; Pirzer, Heide; Sticht, Carsten; Gretz, Norbert; Rappold, Gudrun; Cameron, Ewan R.; Neil, James C.; Stein, Gary S.; Wijnen, van Andre J.; Wit, Jan Maarten; Post, Janine N.; Karperien, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    In late puberty, estrogen decelerates bone growth by stimulating growth plate maturation. In this study, we analyzed the mechanism of estrogen action using two pubertal growth plate specimens of one girl at Tanner stage B2 and Tanner stage B3. Histological analysis showed that progression of puberty

  3. Genome-wide screening in human growth plates during puberty in one patient suggests a role for RUNX2 in epiphyseal maturation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emons, J.; Dutilh, B.E.; Decker, E.; Pirzer, H.; Sticht, C.; Gretz, N.; Rappold, G.; Cameron, E.R.; Neil, J.C.; Stein, G.S.; Wijnen, A.J. van; Wit, J.M.; Post, J.N.; Karperien, M.

    2011-01-01

    In late puberty, estrogen decelerates bone growth by stimulating growth plate maturation. In this study, we analyzed the mechanism of estrogen action using two pubertal growth plate specimens of one girl at Tanner stage B2 and Tanner stage B3. Histological analysis showed that progression of puberty

  4. [Precocious puberty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysiak, Robert; Okopień, Bogusław; Herman, Zbigniew Stanisław

    2006-04-01

    Precocious puberty is usually defined as the appearance of secondary sexual development before the age of 8 years in girls and 9 years in boys. Precocious puberty is a heterogenous condition generally divided into central and peripheral forms driven respectively by hypothalamic-pituitary axis or by excessive production of sex steroids. Taking into account the risk associated with the underlying disorder as well as the impact of precocious puberty on stature growth and development of reproductive and mental functions, this condition has important consequences for affected children and their families. In this paper, the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, laboratory and radiological features, and treatment of the disorders leading to precocious puberty are reviewed. Particular attention is devoted to the results of the recently published studies.

  5. Puberty in girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Well child - puberty in girls; Development - puberty in girls; Menstruation - puberty in girls; Breast development - puberty in girls ... 2 to 4 inches (5 to 10 centimeters) in a year. When you are done going through ...

  6. Treatment of Peripheral Precocious Puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoelwer, Melissa; Eugster, Erica A.

    2017-01-01

    There are many etiologies of peripheral precocious puberty (PPP) with diverse manifestations resulting from exposure to androgens, estrogens, or both. The clinical presentation depends on the underlying process and may be acute or gradual. The primary goals of therapy are to halt pubertal development and restore sex steroids to prepubertal values. Attenuation of linear growth velocity and rate of skeletal maturation in order to maximize height potential are additional considerations for many patients. McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) and familial male-limited precocious puberty (FMPP) represent rare causes of PPP that arise from activating mutations in GNAS1 and the LH receptor gene, respectively. Several different therapeutic approaches have been investigated for both conditions with variable success. Experience to date suggests that the ideal therapy for precocious puberty secondary to MAS in girls remains elusive. In contrast, while the number of treated patients remains small, several successful therapeutic options for FMPP are available. PMID:26680582

  7. Women's preferences for masculinity in male faces are highest during reproductive age range and lower around puberty and post-menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Anthony C; Saxton, Tamsin K; Roberts, S Craig; Jones, Benedict C; Debruine, Lisa M; Vukovic, Jovana; Perrett, David I; Feinberg, David R; Chenore, Todd

    2010-07-01

    Masculinity in male faces is thought to be a sign of mate quality and is associated with measures of long-term health. Previous studies have demonstrated that women's masculinity preferences change across the menstrual cycle with women preferring more masculine men during phases of the menstrual cycle where fertility is highest (i.e. the late follicular phase). Given the hormonal correlates of such preferences and that these hormones change across the life span, we tested for differences in female masculinity preferences at different ages. We compared the masculinity preferences of peri-pubescent girls and young adult women (Study 1), circum-menopausal women reporting to either be pre- or post-menopause (Study 2), and a large sample of women across a wide range of ages (Study 3). In all three studies, preferences for masculinity in male faces were highest in women who were at a reproductively active age. Preferences for masculinity were lower when females were peri-pubescent, post-menopausal, or at ages corresponding to these groups. These data support the notion that masculinity in male faces is an important trait for reproductively relevant mate choice decisions. These data also highlight a shift in female visual preferences for men that is associated with important stages of the lifespan. Visual preferences appear to track important hormonal changes associated with age; as women pass puberty their preferences shift towards facial traits associated with mate quality and as women undergo menopause their preferences for such facial traits decrease. Overall, these results demonstrate the important role of reproductive status and support the notion that preferences for male faces are tied to reproductively relevant hormones. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. All about Puberty (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Want to Know About Puberty Train Your Temper All About Puberty KidsHealth > For Kids > All About Puberty Print A A A What's in ... thing everyone has in common is that we all go through puberty. Usually, puberty starts between ages ...

  9. Circulating MKRN3 levels decline during puberty in healthy boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Alexander S; Hagen, Casper P; Almstrup, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Initiation and progression of puberty requires concerted action of hypothalamic activating and inhibiting factors. Recently, cases of familial central precocious puberty have been linked to loss-of-function mutations of makorin RING-finger protein 3 (MKRN3) indicating a pivotal inhibitory.......8) years at baseline followed for 6.0 (0.5 - 7.6) years (2006 - 2014) with blood sampling every 6 months. INTERVENTION: None Main Outcome Measures: Serum levels of MKRN3: 623 samples, median (range) 12 (2 - 14) per boy. RESULTS: MKRN3 levels declined prior to onset of puberty; the geometric mean (95% CI) 5...... years prior to onset of puberty vs. last visit before onset of puberty was 216 (169 - 272) pg/ml vs. 128 (118 - 139) pg/ml (p puberty progressed. MKRN3 levels were not associated with age at onset of puberty. CONCLUSION: Declining MKRN3 prior...

  10. Suggestion of a dynamic model of North China basin-range system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    It is found from preliminary studies that previous basin-range models have difficulties in explaining the formation of the Mesozoic North-China basin-range system. This work suggests a new model-"tectonic thermal erosion" model, which considers the North China basin of Late Mesozoic and its peripheral ranges as a unified system, identifies relationship between upwelling and lateral spreading of the asthenolith with horizontal movement and deformation of the upper crust in the system, clarifies the effects of underplating erosion on the crustal evolution, and tries to establish an earth-dynamic model of the North China Mesozoic basin-range supported by numerical simulation.

  11. Hypomelanosis of Ito associated with precocious puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutland, Beth M; Edgar, Mark A; Horenstein, Marcelo G

    2006-01-01

    Hypomelanosis of Ito has been associated with precocious puberty in two cases. This study reports a third case involving a female with hypomelanosis of Ito including severe mental retardation and seizure disorder with autonomic symptoms (gastroesophageal reflux and asthma). At age 5 she developed vaginal discharge, thelarche, and adrenarche. Soon after, she died of pneumonia stemming from her neurologic deficits. A postmortem examination revealed normal gonads and endocrine organs. The breasts and vulva were prematurely developed. Central nervous system findings included megalencephaly, neuronal eosinophilic inclusions, leptomeningeal neuroglial heterotopias, and cortical dysplasia. Both previously reported cases of hypomelanosis of Ito associated with precocious puberty had abnormal gonads and responded to cyproterone acetate therapy, indicating a peripheral mechanism of precocious puberty (gonadotrophin-independent). The current case, which was autopsied, lacks significant gonadal pathology, and has extensive neurologic involvement that suggests that a central mechanism of precocious puberty (gonadotrophin-dependent) can also be associated with hypomelanosis of Ito.

  12. Delayed Puberty (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Puberty en español El retraso puberal Jeff hates gym class. It's not that he minds playing soccer ... more muscular. These changes are caused by the sex hormones (testosterone in guys and estrogen in girls) ...

  13. Puberty and adolescent sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". Sexuality emerges as a major developmental element of puberty and the adolescent years that follow. However, connecting the sexuality that emerges with puberty and elements of adult sexuality is difficult because much adolescent sexuality research addresses the transition to partnered sexual behaviors (primarily coitus) and consequences such as unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. This review proposes a framework of an expanded understanding of puberty and adolescent sexuality from the perspective of four hallmarks of adult sexuality: sexual desire; sexual arousal; sexual behaviors; and, sexual function. This approach thus addresses important gaps in understanding of the ontogeny of sex and the continuum of sexuality development from adolescence through the adult lifespan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of central infusion and immunoneutralization of growth hormone on the timing of puberty and plasma leptin levels in the female rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeinoaldini, S.; Swarts, J.J.M.; Heijning, van de B.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) levels increase during puberty though its role in puberty onset is still unclear. An interaction is suggested between GH and leptin, as triggering factor of puberty. To evaluate the role of GH on the timing of puberty and its relation with leptin, we centrally administered recomb

  15. Agricultural pesticides and precocious puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozen, Samim; Goksen, Damla; Darcan, Sukran

    2014-01-01

    The onset and course of puberty is under the control of the neuroendocrine system. Factors affecting the regulation of timing and order of this system's functions may alter the onset and course of puberty. Several environmental endocrine disruptors (EDs) with significant influences on the normal course of puberty have been identified. Despite the numerous animal and human studies on EDs that may extensively affect human health, there are still several issues that need to be clarified. This chapter discusses the effects of pesticides, which constitute a significant portion of disruptors and have been increasingly used in agriculture, on precocious puberty.

  16. Suggestion for aircraft flying qualities requirements of a short-range air combat mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin WANG

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the lack of a direct link with the operations in short-range air combat, conventional aircraft flying qualities criteria are inappropriate to guide the design of a task-tailored flight control law. By applying the mission-oriented flying qualities evaluation approach, various aircraft with different control law parameters are evaluated on a ground-based simulator. This paper compares the evaluation results with several conventional flying qualities criteria, and discusses the appropriate parameter combination to reflect the flying qualities requirements of short-range air combat. The comparison and analysis show that a short-range air combat mission requires a higher minimum short period mode natural frequency and a smaller maximum roll mode time constant, and allows a lower minimum pitch attitude bandwidth and a higher maximum short period mode damp ratio than those of conventional flying qualities criteria. Furthermore, a combination of the pitch attitude bandwidth, the pitch attitude magnitude at the bandwidth frequency, and the pitch attitude transfer function gain can define the flying qualities requirements of short-range air combat. The new metric can successfully predict the flying quality levels of aircraft in a short-range air combat mission.

  17. Suggestion for aircraft flying qualities requirements of a short-range air combat mission

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lixin; Youguang GUO; Zhang, Qi; Yue, Ting

    2017-01-01

    Owing to the lack of a direct link with the operations in short-range air combat, conventional aircraft flying qualities criteria are inappropriate to guide the design of a task-tailored flight control law. By applying the mission-oriented flying qualities evaluation approach, various aircraft with different control law parameters are evaluated on a ground-based simulator. This paper compares the evaluation results with several conventional flying qualities criteria, and discusses the appropr...

  18. "When You're a Baby You Don't Have Puberty": Understanding of Puberty and Human Reproduction in Late Childhood and Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Lisa B; Lauricella, Alexis R; Hightower, Brianna; Sroka, Iris; Woodruff, Teresa K; Wartella, Ellen

    2017-08-01

    Basic knowledge of human reproduction can help youth prepare for puberty and make later classes focused on advanced reproductive health topics manageable. With the intention of potentially informing the creation of learning materials, we conducted a needs assessment among children ages 7 to 12 in our suburban Chicago community to ascertain their current understanding of, and beliefs and misconceptions about, human reproduction, and to determine their needs for additional reproductive health education. We held qualitative focus group interviews with local children. Participants primarily reported learning about these topics from their parents prior to receiving school-based education in fifth grade. Their level of understanding was relatively low. They had little knowledge of internal sexual organs, expressed a range of beliefs about conception ranging from inaccurate to accurate but incomplete, and voiced concerns about transitioning into adolescence. This suggests a need for additional resources that provide comprehensible descriptions of reproductive health processes and mitigate puberty-related concerns.

  19. Age at puberty and the emerging obesity epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, Lise; Juul, Anders; Olsen, Lina W

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that puberty starts at younger ages than previously. It has been hypothesized that the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity is contributing to this trend. The purpose of this study was to analyze the association between prepubertal body mass index (BMI....... Irrespective of level of BMI at age seven, there was a downward trend in the age at attaining puberty in both boys and girls, which suggests that the obesity epidemic is not solely responsible for the trend....

  20. Puberty and type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhankar Chowdhury

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Various data on type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM have showed that the incidence of T1DM peaks at puberty. However, diabetes control and complications could be adversely affected by the physiological changes of puberty. In early years of insulin therapy, severe growth retardation with pubertal delay, like in Mauriac syndrome, have been reported. Insulin and leptin are metabolic factors, circulating in the periphery, which participate in the hypothalamic control of metabolism and reproduction. Insulin may be an important regulator of leptin in humans. Increased levels of advanced glycation end products suppress activation of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH pulse generator, resulting in pubertal delay. Glycemic control deteriorates during puberty as the lean body mass doubles mainly over a period of 25 years, which increases insulin requirement. There is also an increase in insulin resistance over the period of puberty. In normal individuals, fasting and postprandial insulin concentrations reach a peak in both sexes in mid to late puberty. Puberty, at all stages, has the worst insulin resistance. It has been observed that an excessive GH secretion in T1DM during puberty has significant effects on ketogenesis. Adolescent T1DM tends to decompensate very rapidly and develop ketoacidosis when the late night insulin dose is omitted. Adolescence is a critical developmental phase that presents unique challenges and opportunities to individuals with diabetes, their families and their healthcare providers.

  1. Relationships between day one piglet serum immunoglobulin immunocrit and subsequent growth, puberty attainment, litter size, and lactation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallet, J L; Miles, J R; Rempel, L A; Nonneman, D J; Lents, C A

    2015-06-01

    Colostrum affects gut and uterine gland development in the neonatal piglet, suggesting that subsequent growth and reproductive performance may be affected. Measuring immunoglobulin in piglet serum using the immunoglobulin immunocrit on Day 1 of age provides a simple, inexpensive indication of the amount of colostrum acquired by the piglet in the first day of life. Relationships between serum immunoglobulin immunocrit measures and subsequent growth rates, age at puberty, incidence of puberty failure, litter size, and lactation performance were examined in pigs born and subsequently farrowing between 2009 and 2013. Immunoglobulin immunocrit measures were collected on 16,762 piglets on Day 1 of age. Of these piglets, BW measurements were available from 15,324 (7,684 males and 7,640 females) piglets at a range of ages from weaning to 200 d of age, allowing an assessment of growth rates. Age at puberty was recorded from a subset of 2,857 of the females after observing them for estrous behavior from approximately 170 to 250 d of age. To examine relationships between d 1 immunocrit and puberty failure, gilts with immunocrit measures that failed to reach puberty (n = 119) were matched with littermate gilts with immunocrit measures that achieved puberty (n = 167). Similarly, number born alive was collected on a subset (n = 799) of females from first to fourth parities for which d 1 immunocrits were measured on them as neonates. Finally, d 1 immunocrit effect on adult lactational competence was assessed by measuring litter average (offspring of 440 females) and litter average piglet preweaning growth rate (offspring of 774 females) in females where d 1 immunocrits were available from them as neonates. Results indicated that low d 1 immunocrits were subsequently associated with reduced growth (P piglets would result in beneficial changes in production efficiency, particularly for gilts destined for the breeding herd. It also suggests that the immunoglobulin immunocrit can be

  2. Epigenetic Control of Female Puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomniczi, Alejandro; Loche, Alberto; Castellano, Juan Manuel; Ronnekleiv, Oline K.; Bosch, Martha; Kaidar, Gabi; Knoll, J. Gabriel; Wright, Hollis; Pfeifer, Gerd. P.; Ojeda, Sergio R.

    2013-01-01

    The timing of puberty is controlled by many genes. The elements coordinating this process have not, however, been identified. Here we show that an epigenetic mechanism of transcriptional repression times the initiation of female puberty in rats. We identify silencers of the Polycomb group (PcG) as major contributors to this mechanism, and show that PcG proteins repress Kiss1, a puberty-activating gene. Hypothalamic expression of two key PcG genes, Eed and Cbx7, decreases and methylation of their promoters increases preceding puberty. Inhibiting DNA methylation blocks both events and results in pubertal failure. The pubertal increase in Kiss1 is accompanied by EED loss from the Kiss1 promoter and enrichment of histone H3 modifications associated with gene activation. Preventing the eviction of EED from the Kiss1 promoter disrupts pulsatile GnRH release, delays puberty, and compromises fecundity. Our results identify epigenetic silencing as a novel mechanism underlying the neuroendocrine control of female puberty. PMID:23354331

  3. Circulating MKRN3 levels decline prior to pubertal onset and through puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Casper P; Sørensen, Kaspar; Mieritz, Mikkel G

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: Puberty is initiated by a complex interaction of suppressing and stimulating factors. Genetic studies of familial central precocious puberty have suggested makorin ring finger protein 3 (MKRN3) as a major inhibitor of GnRH secretion during childhood. Furthermore, genetic variation near...... of hypothalamic GnRH secretion during childhood. Undetectable or low MKRN3 levels were observed in a subgroup of patients with early onset of puberty....

  4. Age at puberty in beef heifers: Criollo cattle versus british crossbred cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Age at puberty is an important factor in estimating the potential productivity of the bovine female. A study was conducted at the ARS-USDA Jornada Experimental Range in 2006 and 2007 to compare onset of puberty, BW, and serum insulin in Criollo and Angus-Hereford crossbred heifers. In 2006, 7 Crioll...

  5. Early metabolic programming of puberty onset: impact of changes in postnatal feeding and rearing conditions on the timing of puberty and development of the hypothalamic kisspeptin system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castellano, Juan M; Bentsen, Agnete H; Sánchez-Garrido, Miguel A

    2011-01-01

    the timing of puberty; however, the potential underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. Here we report how changes in the pattern of postnatal feeding affect the onset of puberty and evaluate key hormonal and neuropeptide [Kiss1/kisspeptin (Kp)] alterations linked to these early nutritional manipulations...... of puberty, together with higher levels of leptin and hypothalamic Kiss1 mRNA. Conversely, postnatal underfeeding caused a persistent reduction in body weight, lower ovarian and uterus weights, and delayed vaginal opening, changes that were paralleled by a decrease in leptin and Kiss1 mRNA levels. Kisspeptin...... at puberty were similar in all groups, except for enhanced responsiveness to low doses of Kp-10 in postnatally underfed rats. In conclusion, our data document that the timing of puberty is sensitive to both overfeeding and subnutrition during early (postnatal) periods and suggest that alterations...

  6. DNA binding by FOXP3 domain-swapped dimer suggests mechanisms of long-range chromosomal interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yongheng; Chen, Chunxia; Zhang, Zhe; Liu, Chun-Chi; Johnson, Matthew E.; Espinoza, Celso A.; Edsall, Lee E.; Ren, Bing; Zhou, Xianghong Jasmine; Grant, Struan F.A.; Wells, Andrew D.; Chen, Lin (LICR); (UPENN); (USC)

    2015-01-07

    FOXP3 is a lineage-specific transcription factor that is required for regulatory T cell development and function. In this study, we determined the crystal structure of the FOXP3 forkhead domain bound to DNA. The structure reveals that FOXP3 can form a stable domain-swapped dimer to bridge DNA in the absence of cofactors, suggesting that FOXP3 may play a role in long-range gene interactions. To test this hypothesis, we used circular chromosome conformation capture coupled with high throughput sequencing (4C-seq) to analyze FOXP3-dependent genomic contacts around a known FOXP3-bound locus, Ptpn22. Our studies reveal that FOXP3 induces significant changes in the chromatin contacts between the Ptpn22 locus and other Foxp3-regulated genes, reflecting a mechanism by which FOXP3 reorganizes the genome architecture to coordinate the expression of its target genes. Our results suggest that FOXP3 mediates long-range chromatin interactions as part of its mechanisms to regulate specific gene expression in regulatory T cells.

  7. Role of environmental factors in the timing of puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Euling, S.Y.; Selevan, S.G.; Pescovitz, O.H.

    2008-01-01

    Puberty-timing measures have historically been used as indicators of adequate nutrition and growth. More recently, these measures have been examined in relation to exposure to estrogenic or antiandrogenic agents, as well as other environmental factors. The scientific community has debated whether...... puberty timing is occurring earlier today than in the mid-1900s in the United States and, if so, whether environmental factors play a role; however, no one has asked a multidisciplinary panel to resolve this question. Thus, a multidisciplinary expert panel jointly sponsored by the US Environmental...... Role of Environmental Factors on the Timing and Progression of Puberty" workshop. The majority of the panelists concluded that the girls' data are sufficient to suggest a secular trend toward earlier breast development onset and menarche from 1940 to 1994 but that the boys' data are insufficient...

  8. Tree demography suggests multiple directions and drivers for species range shifts in mountains of Northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wason, Jay W; Dovciak, Martin

    2016-12-09

    Climate change is expected to lead to upslope shifts in tree species distributions, but the evidence is mixed partly due to land-use effects and individualistic species responses to climate. We examined how individual tree species demography varies along elevational climatic gradients across four states in the northeastern United States to determine whether species elevational distributions and their potential upslope (or downslope) shifts were controlled by climate, land-use legacies (past logging), or soils. We characterized tree demography, microclimate, land-use legacies, and soils at 83 sites stratified by elevation (~500 to ~1200 m above sea level) across 12 mountains containing the transition from northern hardwood to spruce-fir forests. We modeled elevational distributions of tree species saplings and adults using logistic regression to test whether sapling distributions suggest ongoing species range expansion upslope (or contraction downslope) relative to adults, and we used linear mixed models to determine the extent to which climate, land use, and soil variables explain these distributions. Tree demography varied with elevation by species, suggesting a potential upslope shift only for American beech, downslope shifts for red spruce (more so in cool regions) and sugar maple, and no change with elevation for balsam fir. While soils had relatively minor effects, climate was the dominant predictor for most species and more so for saplings than adults of red spruce, sugar maple, yellow birch, cordate birch, and striped maple. On the other hand, logging legacies were positively associated with American beech, sugar maple, and yellow birch, and negatively with red spruce and balsam fir - generally more so for adults than saplings. All species exhibited individualistic rather than synchronous demographic responses to climate and land use, and the return of red spruce to lower elevations where past logging originally benefited northern hardwood species indicates

  9. Hyperandrogenism during puberty in the development of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Shahla

    2013-07-01

    The hormonal events of puberty, from adrenarche to menarche and beyond, include the secretion of androgens as well as estrogen and P. This normal pubertal process is briefly reviewed and a physiologic role for pubertal androgens proposed. It is further suggested that the hyperandrogenic state we call polycystic ovary syndrome is a maladaptation of the advantageous role of normal pubertal androgens.

  10. Risky, early, controversial. Puberty in medical discourses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi, Donatella; Vinel, Virginie

    2015-10-01

    This article comes within the compass of a research program (entitled CorAge. Bodily Experiences and AgePassages among 9-13 year-olds (ANR-09-ENFT-017) conducted between 2009 and 2013 about the emergence of a "new" age in life--"preadolescence"--as instanced in France (Alsace, Lorraine) and Italy (Venetia). The impressive amount of references to "early puberty" and "precocious puberty", in a context of feeling of a premature end of childhood, led us to make an in-depth study of this issue: first, through an analysis of international and French and Italian medical journals; second, through interviews with health professionals. Following the thesis of Foucault, we assume that the discourses on puberty timing participate of classifications of the child body drenched with moral representations of childhood, especially on gender and age issue. Our results: the question of whether a secular trend in puberty timing even exists continues to be debated between American and European scientists. Second, the terms "puberty", "precocious puberty", "early puberty" have been used to indicate a variety of puberty markers, increasing confusion. A controversy has focused on early breast development in girls, because this attribute is questioning the order of ages and gender. Moreover, psychosocial factors presented as accelerating early puberty, do not demonstrate the relation between earliness and risk behavior. The literature, as it is moved by the female precocity, creates a medical category to objectify the complex and flexible process of puberty and invent female child precocity. These differences between American and European scholars and the interviews with French and Italian health professional show a gap between the international literature and practitioners, clinicians and nurses who regularly work with children: they neither find pubertal advancement, nor increase of "true precocious puberty", although they share concerns about premature feminization of girls (France) or

  11. The physiology and timing of male puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinggaard, Jeanette; Mieritz, Mikkel Grunnet; Sørensen, Kaspar

    2012-01-01

    To describe available markers of male puberty, discuss associations between adiposity and pubertal timing and to review recent evidence of a possible secular trend in male pubertal timing.......To describe available markers of male puberty, discuss associations between adiposity and pubertal timing and to review recent evidence of a possible secular trend in male pubertal timing....

  12. NEUROBEHAVIORAL RELATIONSHIPS AND PUBERTY - ANOTHER TRANSFORMATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SOORANILUNSING, RJ

    1993-01-01

    In a follow-up study of the Groningen Perinatal Project (GPP) on minor neurological dysfunction (MND) at 12 and 14 years the onset of puberty appeared to play a role. The children were selected on the presence (n = 185) and absence (n = 185) of MND at 9 years. Puberty was defined by the presence of

  13. Obesity and growth during childhood and puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcovecchio, M Loredana; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Growth during childhood and adolescence occurs at different rates and is influenced by the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Nutritional status plays an important role in regulating growth, and excess body weight early in life can influence growth patterns. Childhood obesity is a growing and alarming problem, associated with several short-term and long-term metabolic and cardiovascular complications. In addition, there is evidence suggesting that excess adiposity during childhood influences growth patterns and pubertal development. Several studies have shown that during prepubertal years obese children have higher height velocity and accelerated bone age compared to lean subjects. However, this prepubertal advantage in growth tends to gradually decrease during puberty, when obese children show a reduced growth spurt compared with lean subjects. Growth hormone (GH) secretion in obese children is reduced, therefore suggesting that increased growth is GH independent. Factors which have been implicated in the accelerated growth in obese children include increased leptin and insulin levels, adrenal androgens, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, IGF-binding protein-1 and GH-binding proteins. Excess body weight during childhood can also influence pubertal development, through an effect on timing of pubertal onset and levels of pubertal hormonal levels. There is clear evidence indicating that obesity leads to early appearance of pubertal signs in girls. In addition, obese girls are also at increased risk of hyperandrogenism. In boys, excess adiposity has been associated with advanced puberty in some studies, whereas others have reported a delay in pubertal onset. The existing evidence on the association between childhood and adolescence obesity underlines a further reason for fighting the epidemics of childhood obesity; that is preventing abnormal growth and pubertal patterns.

  14. Television Watching May Hasten Puberty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gaia; Vince; 王锦云

    2005-01-01

    儿童长时间看电视会使青春期(puberty)提前!一项新的研究认为,如果儿童长时间看电视,就会减少体内的褪黑激素,而这种被称为"睡眠激素"的激素与儿童的青春期到来的具体时间有关,那些不看电视、不玩电脑和游戏机的年轻人体内的褪黑激素比平均值高出30%。

  15. Public health implications of altered puberty timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golub, M.S.; Collman, G.W.; Foster, P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Changes in puberty timing have implications for the treatment of individual children, for the risk of later adult disease, and for chemical testing and risk assessment for the population. Children with early puberty are at a risk for accelerated skeletal maturation and short adult height, early...... for chemicals. Recent US legislation has mandated improved chemical testing approaches for protecting children's health and screening for endocrine-disrupting agents, which has led to changes in the US Environmental Protection Agency's risk assessment and toxicity testing guidelines to include puberty...

  16. Normal female puberty in a developmental perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre; Juul, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Puberty is unique in the sense that its onset shows an extraordinary individual variability of about 5 years, the basis of which being still elusive despite research efforts to understand the reason why. Continuing changes in environmental influences and interaction with genetic determinants...... with less obvious changes in menarcheal age. Conceptually, puberty and subsequent reproduction appear now to be influenced by conditions not only at the time when they occur, but also during fetal and perinatal life. In addition, these influences can be apparently opposing since early maturation follows...... fetal malnourishment and postnatal overfeeding. In this review, the semiology and pathophysiology of puberty are discussed in a lifelong developmental perspective....

  17. Fatness rather than leptin sensitivity determines the timing of puberty in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlen, Tabata M; Silveira, Marina A; Zampieri, Thais T; Frazão, Renata; Donato, Jose

    2016-03-05

    Leptin is a permissive factor for the onset of puberty. However, changes in adiposity frequently influence leptin sensitivity. Thus, the objective of the present study was to investigate how changes in body weight, fatness, leptin levels and leptin sensitivity interact to control the timing of puberty in female mice. Pre-pubertal obesity, induced by raising C57BL/6 mice in small litters, led to an early puberty onset. Inactivation of Socs3 gene in the brain or exclusively in leptin receptor-expressing cells reduced the body weight and leptin levels at pubertal onset, and increased leptin sensitivity. Notably, these female mice exhibited significant delays in vaginal opening, first estrus and onset of estrus cyclicity. In conclusion, our findings suggest that increased leptin sensitivity did not play an important role in favoring pubertal onset in female mice. Rather, changes in pubertal body weight, fatness and/or leptin levels were more important in influencing the timing of puberty.

  18. “When You’re a Baby You Don’t Have Puberty”: Understanding of Puberty and Human Reproduction in Late Childhood and Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Lisa B.; Lauricella, Alexis R.; Hightower, Brianna; Sroka, Iris; Woodruff, Teresa K.; Wartella, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    Basic knowledge of human reproduction can help youth prepare for puberty and make later classes focused on advanced reproductive health topics manageable. With the intention of potentially informing the creation of learning materials, we conducted a needs assessment among children ages 7 to 12 in our suburban Chicago community to ascertain their current understanding of, and beliefs and misconceptions about, human reproduction, and to determine their needs for additional reproductive health education. We held qualitative focus group interviews with local children. Participants primarily reported learning about these topics from their parents prior to receiving school-based education in fifth grade. Their level of understanding was relatively low. They had little knowledge of internal sexual organs, expressed a range of beliefs about conception ranging from inaccurate to accurate but incomplete, and voiced concerns about transitioning into adolescence. This suggests a need for additional resources that provide comprehensible descriptions of reproductive health processes and mitigate puberty-related concerns. PMID:28931963

  19. Impact of fetal and neonatal malnutrition on the onset of puberty and associated noncommunicable disease risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas E Connor

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Nicholas E ConnorChild Health Research Foundation Dhaka Shishu Hospital, Dhaka, BangladeshBackground: Fetal and neonatal malnutrition impacts the timing of the onset of puberty. The timing of puberty onset has been shown to be a rough indicator of noncommunicable disease (NCD risk. Recent advances in understanding the various inter-related neurochemical and genetic controls underpinning puberty onset have shed new light on these interesting and important phenomena. These studies have suggested that developmental trajectory is set very early by epigenetic mechanisms that serve to adjust phenotype to environment.Objective: The aims of this article are to review the most recent research into the proximate mechanisms that initiate puberty; to explore how the activation of those mechanisms could be affected by nutritional cues received during fetal and neonatal life; and, finally, to briefly explore the ramifications for public health.Methods: An extensive literature review was performed using PubMed (1950 to September 2010 and Google Scholar (1980 to September 2010 using the search terms “puberty onset”, “perinatal”, and “neonatal malnutrition”. English language, original research, and review articles were examined; pertinent citations from these articles were also assessed.Results: Literature detailing biochemical pathways and evolutionary explanations of human puberty itself led quickly to a noteworthy connection between neonatal malnutrition, puberty onset, and NCD risk. A strong connection was found between maternal malnutrition during critical windows (followed by catch-up growth in childhood and an accelerated onset of puberty. Children subject to early nutritional insult not only are likely to undergo puberty earlier but also show an increase in their risk of developing NCDs in later life. Several authors have suggested that this relationship may show potential as an early proxy indicator of susceptibility to these types of

  20. Turner syndrome masquerading as normal early puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yong Hee

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 50% of patients with Turner syndrome (TS) have complete loss of one X chromosome, whereas the rest of the patients with TS display mosaicism or structural abnormalities of the X chromosome. Most well-known common features are short stature and gonadal failure. Approximately one third of girls with TS may enter spontaneous puberty, but only half those completed with menarche. However, some atypical features of TS have been described. Many studies have been conducted to verify and delineate proposed loci for genes pertaining to the TS phenotype, and correlations between karyotype and phenotype. A few rare cases of precocious puberty with TS have been described. Here we describe a case of TS with the Xp22.1 deletion presenting with short final stature, early normal onset of spontaneous puberty, and Graves' disease, without short stature during puberty. PMID:25654070

  1. Gonadothropin-releasing hormone agonist as a treatment of choice for central precocious puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose R.L. Batubara

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Precocious puberty is defi ned as pubertal development which occurs too early. The age limit in this term is based on the onset of puberty in normal population. Some points have to be taken into account, such as ethnicity, gender, nutritional conditions, and secular trends. In girls, precocious puberty is defi ned by breast development occured before 8 years old. In boys, precocious puberty is defi ned as gonadarche or pubarche before 9 years of age. The clinical course of precocious puberty varies widely, ranging from alternating, slowly progressive, and rapidly progressive    form. The rapidly progressive forms of idiopathic central precocious puberty need to be treated because it may result in early epiphyseal closure and short fi nal height, and also pyschosocial problems in the affected children and the family. The aims of treatment are to arrest physical maturation, prevent early menarche, and also improve adult height combined with normal body proportions. Gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue is the treatment of choice for central precocious puberty. Gonadotropin releasing horomone analogue has suppressive effect on the pituitarygonadal axis, therefore it suppresses LH secretion. This leads to the return of estradiol and testosterone to prepubertal levels. Treatment using gonadotropin releasing horomone analogue is shown to reduce breast size, pubic hair, ovarian and uterine size in girls, and decrease testicular size in boys. Gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue is effective in halting progression of secondary sexual characteristics development, presenting menstrual cycle, slowing bone-age advancement, and also improving fi nal height. (Med J Indones 2010; 19:287-92Keywords: gonadache, GRH analogue, pubarche , precocious puberty

  2. A study of factors influencing advanced puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Jun Park

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the timing of puberty and the factors inducing advanced puberty in elemental school students of low grades. Methods : The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd grade elemental students from the Goyang province were randomly selected, and their sexual maturation rate was assessed by physical examination. After obtaining an informed consent, a questionnaire was administered to the parents; eating habits, lifestyle, use of growth-inducing medication, and present illness of the students were evaluated to determine the factors that induced advanced puberty. The data were statistically analyzed. Results : We selected 170 children and the girls:boys sex ratio was 1.2:1. Two 9-year-old boys were in genital stage 2. Two (14.3% 6-year-old girls, 6 (19.4% 7-year-old girls, 15 (39.6% 8-year-old girls, and 4 (57.1% 9-year-old girls were in breast stage 2. The average pubertal timing predicted for girls was 9.11¡?#?.86; years. The main factors influencing pubertal timing were obesity scale, frequency of eating fast food, and the use of growth-inducing medication. A high rating on the obesity scale and high frequency of eating fast food indicated advanced stage of puberty. Growth-inducing medication induced puberty through obesity. Conclusion : We proposed that predictive average pubertal timing in girls was 9.11¡?#?.86; years, which was consistent with the previously reported findings from abroad. The significant influencing factors in advanced puberty were obesity scale and frequency of fast food.

  3. Public health implications of altered puberty timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golub, Mari S; Collman, Gwen W; Foster, Paul M D

    2008-01-01

    sexual debut, potential sexual abuse, and psychosocial difficulties. Altered puberty timing is also of concern for the development of reproductive tract cancers later in life. For example, an early age of menarche is a risk factor for breast cancer. A low age at male puberty is associated...... with an increased risk for testicular cancer according to several, but not all, epidemiologic studies. Girls and, possibly, boys who exhibit premature adrenarche are at a higher risk for developing features of metabolic syndrome, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease later in adulthood...

  4. Puberty in male atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almeida, F.F.L.

    2009-01-01

    Puberty is the process by which a juvenile acquires for the first time the capacity to reproduce sexually, a critical basis for the conservation of a species. In general, the biological processes constituting the first gonadal maturation and the mechanisms involved in this process are similar among

  5. Testicular growth and development in puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskenniemi, Jaakko J; Virtanen, Helena E; Toppari, Jorma

    2017-06-01

    To describe pubertal testicular growth in humans, changes in testicular cell populations that result in testicular growth, and the role of testosterone and gonadotrophins follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in testicular growth. When human data were not available, studies in nonhuman primates and/or rodents were used as surrogates. Testicular growth in puberty follows a sigmoidal growth curve, with a large variation in timing of testicular growth and adult testicular volume. Testicular growth early in puberty is due to increase in Sertoli cell number and length of seminiferous tubules, whereas the largest and fastest growth results from the increase in the diameter of the seminiferous tubules first due to spermatogonial proliferation and then due to the expansion of meiotic and haploid germ cells. FSH stimulates Sertoli cell and spermatogonial proliferation, whereas LH/testosterone is mandatory to complete spermatogenesis. However, FSH and LH/testosterone work in synergy and are both needed for normal spermatogenesis. Testicular growth during puberty is rapid, and mostly due to germ cell expansion and growth in seminiferous tubule diameter triggered by androgens. Pre-treatment with FSH before the induction of puberty may improve the treatment of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, but remains to be proven.

  6. Precocious puberty: A blessing in disguise!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumik Goswami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Germ cell tumors may lead to incomplete isosexual male precocity and are commonly located in the pineal gland. Germinomas of the basal ganglia are almost always unilateral and precocious puberty is a rare manifestation in them. We report a 9.5-year-old boy who presented with incomplete isosexual precocity due to bilateral basal ganglia germinoma.

  7. Puberty in the Girl Who is Retarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattullo, Ann

    Designed to help mothers of mentally retarded girls deal with the problems and concerns of puberty, the booklet provides information on physical and emotional changes, menstruation, masturbation, heterosexual behavior, contraception, protection against sexual aggression, the possibilities of marriage, and additional sources of information.…

  8. NEUROBEHAVIORAL RELATIONSHIPS AFTER THE ONSET OF PUBERTY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SOORANILUNSING, RJ; HADDERSALGRA, M; HUISJES, HJ; TOUWEN, BCL

    1994-01-01

    The behavioural and cognitive development were studied of 68 children with and 259 without minor neurological function (MND) at 14 years, when the majority of children showed three or more physical signs of puberty. MND was differentiated into fine manipulative disability, co-ordination problems, ch

  9. Puberty and fertility in congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, B.J.; Stikkelbroeck, M.M.L.; Claahsen-van der Grinten, H.L.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a disorder of adrenal steroid synthesis. The symptoms and signs of CAH depend on the degree of enzyme deficiency; severe salt-wasting (SW) form, less severe simple virilizing (SV) form and mild nonclassic (NC) form. In this paper, puberty and fertility in CAH

  10. Genome-scan analysis for genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci underlying birth weight and onset of puberty in doe kids (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmailizadeh, A K

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to locate quantitative trait loci (QTL) causing variation in birth weight and age of puberty of doe kids in a population of Rayini cashmere goats. Four hundred and thirty kids from five half-sib families were genotyped for 116 microsatellite markers located on the caprine autosomes. The traits recorded were birth weight of the male and female kids, body weight at puberty, average daily gain from birth to age of puberty and age at puberty of the doe kids. QTL analysis was conducted using the least squares interval mapping approach. Linkage analysis indicated significant QTL for birth weight on Capra hircus chromosomes (CHI) 4, 5, 6, 18 and 21. Five QTL located on CHI 5, 14 and 29 were associated with age at puberty. Across-family analysis revealed evidence for overlapping QTL affecting birth weight (78 cM), body weight at puberty (72 cM), average daily gain from birth to age of puberty (72 cM) and age at puberty (76 cM) on CHI 5 and overlapping QTL controlling body weight at puberty and age at puberty on CHI 14 at 18-19 cM. The proportion of the phenotypic variance explained by the detected QTL ranged between 7.9% and 14.4%. Confirming some of the previously reported results for birth weight and growth QTL in goats, this study identified more QTL for these traits and is the first report of QTL for onset of puberty in doe kids.

  11. Geologic Insights and Suggestions on Mineral Potential Based on Analyses of Geophysical Data of the Southern Toquima Range, Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawe, D.R.; Kucks, R.P.; Hildenbrand, T.G.

    2004-01-01

    Aeromagnetic and gravity data provide confirmation of major structural and lithologic units in the southern Toquima Range, Nevada. These units include Cretaceous granite plutons and Tertiary calderas. In addition, the geophysical maps pinpoint numerous faults and lesser intrusions, and they suggest locations of several inferred subsurface intrusions. They also corroborate a system of northwesterly and northeasterly conjugate structures that probably are fundamental to the structural framework of the Toquima Range. A combination of geophysical, geochemical, and geologic data available for the widely mineralized and productive area suggests additional mineral resource potential, especially in and (or) adjacent to the Round Mountain, Jefferson, Manhattan, and Belmont mining districts. Also, evidence for mineral potential exists for areas near the Flower mercury mine south of Mount Jefferson caldera, and in the Bald Mountain Canyon belt of gold-quartz veins in the Manhattan caldera. A few other areas also show potential for mineral resources. The various geologic environments indicated within the map area suggest base- and precious-metal potential in porphyry deposits as well as in quartz-vein and skarn deposits associated with intrusive stocks.

  12. Other-Sex Relationship Stress and Sex Differences in the Contribution of Puberty to Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Nicole; Rudolph, Karen D.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that the pubertal transition, particularly when experienced earlier than age-matched peers, is associated with heightened depression in girls but less depression in boys. This study examined whether stress within other-sex relationships serves as one process through which puberty differentially contributes to depression for girls…

  13. Determinants of puberty health among female adolescents residing in boarding welfare centers in Tehran: An application of health belief model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirzadi, Shayesteh; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Nadrian, Haidar; Mahmoodi, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adolescence is a critical stage of growth and development. That is associated with changes in body shape and appearance. Issues such as irregular menstrual periods, amenorrhea, and menstrual cycle are major issues in women's health. The purpose of this study was to examine the determinants of physical puberty health based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) among female adolescents. Methods: This analytical cross sectional study was conducted in welfare boarding centers in Tehran, Iran. Data were collected in 2011 by a structured and valid questionnaire. Total 61 female adolescents (age range: 12-19 yrs) participated in this study from welfare boarding centers in Iran, Tehran, by using convenience sampling method. The questionnaire consisted of demographic characteristics, health belief model constructs and physical puberty health behaviors gathered by using interview. A series of univariate general linear models were used to assess the relationship between puberty health and health belief model constructs. Results: According to the results of this study there were positive significant relationships between perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, cues to action and increased puberty health in female adolescents (phealth behaviors. Conclusion: Based on the results of the study to improve the physical Puberty health behaviors of female adolescents should make them aware of the benefits of health behaviors, and remove or reform the perceived barriers of health behaviors. Also, the appropriate information resources should be introduced for obtaining information about puberty health.

  14. Early metabolic programming of puberty onset: impact of changes in postnatal feeding and rearing conditions on the timing of puberty and development of the hypothalamic kisspeptin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Juan M; Bentsen, Agnete H; Sánchez-Garrido, Miguel A; Ruiz-Pino, Francisco; Romero, Magdalena; Garcia-Galiano, David; Aguilar, Enrique; Pinilla, Leonor; Diéguez, Carlos; Mikkelsen, Jens D; Tena-Sempere, Manuel

    2011-09-01

    Kiss1 neurons have recently emerged as a putative conduit for the metabolic gating of reproduction, with leptin being a regulator of hypothalamic Kiss1 expression. Early perturbations of the nutritional status are known to predispose to different metabolic disorders later in life and to alter the timing of puberty; however, the potential underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. Here we report how changes in the pattern of postnatal feeding affect the onset of puberty and evaluate key hormonal and neuropeptide [Kiss1/kisspeptin (Kp)] alterations linked to these early nutritional manipulations. Female rats were raised in litters of different sizes: small (four pups per dam: overfeeding), normal (12 pups per dam), and large litters (20 pups per litter: underfeeding). Postnatal overfeeding resulted in persistently increased body weight and earlier age of vaginal opening, as an external sign of puberty, together with higher levels of leptin and hypothalamic Kiss1 mRNA. Conversely, postnatal underfeeding caused a persistent reduction in body weight, lower ovarian and uterus weights, and delayed vaginal opening, changes that were paralleled by a decrease in leptin and Kiss1 mRNA levels. Kisspeptin-52 immunoreactivity (Kp-IR) in the hypothalamus displayed similar patterns, with lower numbers of Kp-IR neurons in the arcuate nucleus of postnatally underfed animals, and a trend for increased Kp-positive fibers in the periventricular area of early overfed rats. Yet, gonadotropin responses to Kp at puberty were similar in all groups, except for enhanced responsiveness to low doses of Kp-10 in postnatally underfed rats. In conclusion, our data document that the timing of puberty is sensitive to both overfeeding and subnutrition during early (postnatal) periods and suggest that alterations in hypothalamic expression of Kiss1/kisspeptin may underlie at least part of such programming phenomenon.

  15. Timing of puberty and its relationship with body growth and season in male raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Hokkaido.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, Minami W; Shimozuru, Michito; Abe, Go; Nakai, Mariko; Sashika, Mariko; Shimada, Ken-Ichiro; Takahashi, Nobuhiro; Fukui, Daisuke; Nakamura, Ryohei; Tsubota, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    The raccoon (Procyon lotor), indigenous to North America, has naturalized in Japan as an invasive alien species, having been introduced into the country in the 1970s. In Hokkaido, the northernmost island of Japan, feral raccoons have been increasing in number and spreading throughout the island. The age at the onset of puberty for raccoons is important for estimating individual lifetime reproductive success and population growth. The present study investigated the timing of and potential factors affecting the onset of puberty in male raccoons in Hokkaido. External characteristics and histology of testes were studied in 151 male feral raccoons and in 1 captive juvenile. For the majority of feral yearling raccoons, prepubertal development began in May, and spermatozoa production began in October prior to their second mating season. However, some larger juveniles attained puberty during the juvenile period. The captive juvenile, which was fed throughout the winter, attained puberty only 11 months after birth. These results suggest that if male raccoons can achieve enough body growth before the first mating season, puberty can be attained early. In both juveniles and yearlings, spermatozoa production was only observed after autumn. This timing coincided with the recrudescence of seasonally active spermatogenesis in adult males. Therefore, attaining puberty in male raccoons appears to require both adequate body nutrient development and several environmental factors that control seasonal testicular changes.

  16. Precocious puberty in a girl with floating-harbor syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagi, Stefano; Galluzzi, Fiorella; Bindi, Giuseppe; Lapi, Elisabetta; Cecchi, Cecilia; Salti, Roberto; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2007-12-01

    Floating-Harbor syndrome (FHS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by short stature, delayed bone age, mild to moderate mental retardation, speech problems, and peculiar craniofacial features. In these patients pubertal development has been reported to be normal. In this paper, we describe a girl with FHS who developed precocious puberty. FHS diagnosis was made at 2 years 5 months on the basis of peculiar clinical features. At 7 years 7 months, the girl began pubertal development; her height was 112.5 cm (-2.42 SDS) and pubertal staging was B2 PH2 AH1. LHRH test underlined LH and FSH peak values of 11.7 mIU/ml and 6.2 mIU/ml, respectively. Plasma levels of 17beta-estradiol were normal (8.5 pg/ml). Ophthalmological and neurological examinations, including nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, were normal. Treatment with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogue was begun. At 10 years 1 month, because of reduced height velocity, her growth hormone secretion was evaluated with diagnosis of neurosecretory dysfunction; hGH therapy was begun. The patient showed a good response to hGH treatment, reaching a normal adult height (156.1 cm; -1.20 SDS). This report suggests that, in patients with FHS, precocious puberty should be taken into consideration; in these patients, a careful endocrinological followup for the possible presence of growth and pubertal disorders is needed.

  17. The new interaction suggested by the anomalous {sup 8}Be transition sets a rigorous constraint on the mass range of dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Lian-Bao [Southwest University of Science and Technology, School of Science, Mianyang (China); Li, Xue-Qian [Nankai University, School of Physics, Tianjin (China)

    2016-12-15

    The WIMPs are considered to belong to the favorable dark matter (DM) candidates, but the upper bounds on the interactions between DM and standard model (SM) particles obtained by the upgraded facilities of DM direct detection get lower and lower. Researchers turn their attention to the search for less massive DM candidates, i.e. light dark matter of the MeV scale. The recently measured anomalous transition in {sup 8}Be suggests that there exists a vectorial boson which may mediate the interaction between DM and SM particles. Based on this scenario, we combine the relevant cosmological data to constrain the mass range of DM, and we have found that there exists a model parameter space where the requirements are satisfied, a range of 10.4

  18. Empirical analysis suggests continuous and homogeneous circulation of Newcastle disease virus in a wide range of wild bird species in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelle, J; Caron, A; Servan De Almeida, R; Gil, P; Pedrono, M; Mundava, J; Fofana, B; Balança, G; Dakouo, M; Ould El Mamy, A B; Abolnik, C; Maminiaina, O F; Cumming, G S; De Visscher, M-N; Albina, E; Chevalier, V; Gaidet, N

    2015-04-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most important poultry diseases worldwide and can lead to annual losses of up to 80% of backyard chickens in Africa. All bird species are considered susceptible to ND virus (NDV) infection but little is known about the role that wild birds play in the epidemiology of the virus. We present a long-term monitoring of 9000 wild birds in four African countries. Overall, 3·06% of the birds were PCR-positive for NDV infection, with prevalence ranging from 0% to 10% depending on the season, the site and the species considered. Our study shows that ND is circulating continuously and homogeneously in a large range of wild bird species. Several genotypes of NDV circulate concurrently in different species and are phylogenetically closely related to strains circulating in local domestic poultry, suggesting that wild birds may play several roles in the epidemiology of different NDV strains in Africa. We recommend that any strategic plan aiming at controlling ND in Africa should take into account the potential role of the local wild bird community in the transmission of the disease.

  19. The new interaction suggested by the anomalous $^8$Be transition sets a rigorous constraint on the mass range of dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Jia, Lian-Bao

    2016-01-01

    The WIMPs are considered one of the most favorable dark matter (DM) candidates, but as the upper bound on the interaction between DM and standard model (SM) particles obtained by the upgraded facilities for direct detection of DM gets lower and lower. Researchers turn their attention to search for less massive DM candidates, i.e. light dark matter of MeV scale. The recently measured anomalous transition in $^8$Be suggests that there exists a vectorial boson which may mediate the interaction between DM and SM particles. Based on this scenario, we combine the relevant cosmological data to constrain the mass range of DM, and have found that there exists a model parameter space where the requirements are satisfied, a range of $10.4 \\lesssim m_{\\phi} \\lesssim 16.7 $ MeV for scalar DM, and $13.6 \\lesssim m_{V} \\lesssim 16.7$ MeV for vectorial DM is demanded. Then a possibility of directly detecting such light DM particles at the earth detector via the DM-electron scattering is briefly studied in this framework.

  20. The impact of puberty on adolescent brain development

    OpenAIRE

    Goddings, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that the human brain undergoes significant change in both structure and function during adolescence, but little is known about the role of puberty in this developmental process. The aim of this thesis is to investigate the relationship between puberty and brain development during adolescence. The first two chapters of this thesis summarise the current understanding of the behavioural and brain changes associated with both adolescence and puberty, and review the metho...

  1. Growth curves of crossbred cows sired by Hereford, Angus, Belgian Blue, Brahman, Boran, and Tuli bulls, and the fraction of mature body weight and height at puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freetly, H C; Kuehn, L A; Cundiff, L V

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth curves of females to determine if mature size and relative rates of maturation among breeds differed. Body weight and hip height data were fitted to the nonlinear function BW = f(age) = A - Be(k×age), where A is an estimate of mature BW and k determines the rate that BW or height moves from B to A. Cows represented progeny from 28 Hereford, 38 Angus, 25 Belgian Blue, 34 Brahman, 8 Boran, and 9 Tuli sires. Bulls from these breeds were mated by AI to Angus, Hereford, and MARC III composite (1/4 Angus, 1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Red Poll, and 1/4 Pinzgauer) cows to produce calves in 1992, 1993, and 1994. These matings resulted in 516 mature cows whose growth curves were subsequently evaluated. Hereford-sired cows tended to have heavier mature BW, as estimated by parameter A, than Angus- (P=0.09) and Brahman-sired cows (P=0.06), and were heavier than the other breeds (P Brahman-sired cows (P=0.94). Brahman-sired cows had a heavier mature BW than Boran- (P Brahman (P Brahman-sired cows took longer to mature than Boran- (P=0.03) or Belgian Blue-sired cows (P=0.003). Belgian Blue-sired cows were faster maturing than Tuli-sired cows (P=0.02). Brahman-sired cows had reached a greater proportion of their mature BW at puberty than had Hereford- (P < 0.001), Tuli- (P=0.003), and Belgian Blue-sired cows (P=0.001). Boran-sired cows tended to have reached a greater proportion of their mature BW at puberty than had Angus-sired cows (P=0.09), and had reached a greater proportion of their mature BW at puberty than had Hereford- (P < 0.001), Tuli- (P < 0.001), and Belgian Blue-sired cows (P < 0.001). Within species of cattle, the relative range in proportion of mature BW at puberty (Bos taurus 0.56 through 0.58, and Bos indicus 0.60) was highly conserved, suggesting that proportion of mature BW is a more robust predictor of age at puberty across breeds than is absolute weight or age. © 2011 American Society of Animal Science. All rights

  2. Selection for superior growth advances the onset of puberty and increases reproductive performance in ewe lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales Nieto, C A; Ferguson, M B; Macleay, C A; Briegel, J R; Martin, G B; Thompson, A N

    2013-06-01

    The reproductive efficiency of the entire sheep flock could be improved if ewe lambs go through puberty early and produce their first lamb at 1 year of age. The onset of puberty is linked to the attainment of critical body mass, and therefore we tested whether it would be influenced by genetic selection for growth rate or for rate of accumulation of muscle or fat. We studied 136 Merino ewe lambs with phenotypic values for depth of eye muscle (EMD) and fat (FAT) and Australian Sheep Breeding Values at post-weaning age (200 days) for live weight (PWT), eye muscle depth (PEMD) and fat depth (PFAT). First oestrus was detected with testosterone-treated wethers and then entire rams as the ewes progressed from 6 to 10 months of age. Blood concentrations of leptin and IGF-I were measured to test whether they were related to production traits and reproductive performance (puberty, fertility and reproductive rate). In total, 97% of the lambs reached first oestrus at average weight 39.4 ± 0.4 kg (mean ± s.e.m.) and age 219 days (range 163 to 301). Age at first oestrus decreased with increases in values for PWT (P growth can accelerate the onset of puberty and increase fertility and reproductive rate of Merino ewe lambs. The metabolic hormones, IGF-I and leptin, might act as a physiological link between the growing tissues and the reproductive axis.

  3. Hypothesis: exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals may interfere with timing of puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, A; Aksglaede, L; Sørensen, K

    2010-01-01

    A recent decline in onset of puberty - especially among girls - has been observed, first in the US in the mid-1990s and now also in Europe. The development of breast tissue in girls occurs at a much younger age and the incidence of precocious puberty (PP) is increasing. Genetic factors and increa......A recent decline in onset of puberty - especially among girls - has been observed, first in the US in the mid-1990s and now also in Europe. The development of breast tissue in girls occurs at a much younger age and the incidence of precocious puberty (PP) is increasing. Genetic factors...... of the exposed individual. There may also be a wide range of genetic susceptibility to EDCs. Human exposure scenarios are complex and our knowledge about effects of mixtures of EDCs is limited. Importantly, the consequences of an exposure may not be apparent at the actual time of exposure, but may manifest later...... declined by 1 year; thus, the time span from initiation of breast development to menarche has increased. This may indicate an oestrogen-like effect without concomitant central activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. The effects may differ between boys and girls, as there are sex differences in age...

  4. THALASSAEMIA AND ABERRATIONS OF GROWTH AND PUBERTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Kyriakou

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine dysfunction in Thalassaemia major (TM is a common and disturbing complication, which requires prompt recognition and treatment. The contribution of the underlying molecular defect in TM to the development of endocrinopathies is significant because the patients with the more severe genetic defects have a greater rate of iron loading through higher red cell consumption. TM patients frequently present delay of growth and puberty with reduction of final height. The pathogenesis of growth failure is multifactorial and is mainly due to chronic anemia and hypoxia, chronic liver disease, zinc and folic acid deficiency, iron overload, intensive use of chelating agents, emotional factors, and endocrinopathies (hypogonadism, delayed puberty, hypothyroidism and GH-IGF-1 axis dysregulation. Although appropriate iron chelation therapy can improve growth and development, TM children and adolescents treated intensively with desferrioxamine remain short as well, showing body disproportion between the upper and lower body segment. Body disproportion is independent of prepubertal or pubertal period of greater height gain. Treatment with recombinant GH (rhGH is recommended when GH deficiency is established, and even so, the therapeutic response is often non satisfactory. Growth acceleration is mostly promoted with sex steroids in children with associated pubertal delay. Sexual complications in TM, which include Delayed Puberty, Arrested Puberty and Hypogonadism, present the commonest endocrine complication. Iron deposition on gonadotroph cells of the pituitary leads to disruption of gonadotrophin production which is proven by the poor response of FSH and LH to GnRH stimulation. In the majority of patients gonadal function is normal as most women with Amenorrhea are capable of achieving pregnancy with hormonal treatment and similarly men with azoospermia become fathers. Secondary Hypogonadism appears later in life,    and is manifested in women as

  5. Suprasellar epidermoid presenting with precocious puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Peter Symss

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidermoids are inclusion tumors of the central nervous system and are rare, benign slow-growing tumors. They are estimated to constitute 0.5-1.8% of the brain tumors and have an affinity for the subarachnoid cisterns at the base of the brain, the suprasellar cistern being one of the most favoured sites. We report a case of suprasellar epidermoid in a 2-year-old male child with an unusual CT and MRI appearance, who presented to us in February 1995 with features of precocious puberty. In October 2004, at the age of 11 years, he presented with symptoms and signs of raised ICP.

  6. The mystery of puberty initiation: genetics and epigenetics of idiopathic central precocious puberty (ICPP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leka-Emiri, Sofia; Chrousos, George P; Kanaka-Gantenbein, Christina

    2017-08-01

    Puberty is a major developmental stage. Damaging mutations, considered as "mistakes of nature", have contributed to the unraveling of the networks implicated in the normal initiation of puberty. Genes involved in the abnormal hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis development, in the normosmic idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (nIHH), in the X-linked or autosomal forms of Kallmann syndrome and in precocious puberty have been identified (GNRH1, GNRHR, KISS1, GPR54, FGFR1, FGF8, PROK2, PROKR2, TAC3, TACR3, KAL1, PROK2, PROKR2, CHD7, LEP, LEPR, PC1, DAX1, SF-1, HESX-1, LHX3, PROP-1). Most of them were found to play critical roles in HPG axis development and regulation, the embryonic GnRH neuronal migration and secretion, the regulation and action of the hypothalamic GnRH. However, the specific neural and molecular mechanisms triggering GnRH secretion remain one of the scientific enigmas. Although GnRH neurons are probably capable of autonomously generating oscillations, many gonadal steroid-dependent and -independent mechanisms have also been proposed. It is now well proven that the secretion of GnRH is regulated by kisspeptin as well as by permissive or opposing signals mediated by neurokinin B and dynorphin. These three supra-GnRH regulators compose the kisspeptin-neurokinin B-dynorphin neuronal (KNDy) system, a key player in pubertal onset and progression. Moreover, an ongoing increasing number of inhibitory, stimulatory and permissive networks acting upstream on GnRH neurons, such as GABA, NPY, LIN28B, MKRN3 and others integrate diverse hormonal and peripheral signals and have been proposed as the "gate-keepers" of puberty, while epigenetic modifications play also an important role in puberty initiation.

  7. Increase in urinary growth hormone excretion in puberty.

    OpenAIRE

    Price, D A; Addison, G. M.; Herbert, E D

    1990-01-01

    During the pubertal years the overnight urinary excretion rate of growth hormone (hGHu) increases to three to four times the prepubertal rate, reaching a peak in girls at 13 years and in boys at 15 years. After puberty the mean rate of overnight hGHu is twice that before puberty.

  8. Is Puberty Education Evident in Australia's First National Curriculum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier-Harris, Christine A.; Goldman, Juliette D. G.

    2017-01-01

    The processes of puberty, including reproductive fertility and social-role transitions, now begin earlier, last longer, and are experienced in very different contexts. Because of this, all children and adolescents need good-quality puberty education in school curricula, and this need is supported by positive cost-benefit analysis and international…

  9. Increase in urinary growth hormone excretion in puberty.

    OpenAIRE

    Price, D A; Addison, G M; Herbert, E D

    1990-01-01

    During the pubertal years the overnight urinary excretion rate of growth hormone (hGHu) increases to three to four times the prepubertal rate, reaching a peak in girls at 13 years and in boys at 15 years. After puberty the mean rate of overnight hGHu is twice that before puberty.

  10. Delayed puberty and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Differential diagnosis and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoep, Marinus Cornelis

    1978-01-01

    This thesis describes a method enabling a prospecrive differential diagnosis to be made berween delayed puberty (DP) and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH). The influence of androgen administration on the gonadal feedback sysrem of patients with delayed puberty was also studied. ... Zie: Summary

  11. Central precocious puberty and gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Oostdijk (Wilma)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIn order to understand the processes occurring during precocious puberty, one needs to specify what is currently known about normal pubertal development. Puberty can be defined as a maturational process of the hypothalamic-pituitarygonadal axis, which results in the development of the go

  12. Evaluation of 451 Danish Boys With Delayed Puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawaetz, Jacob Gerner; Hagen, Casper P; Mieritz, Mikkel Grunnet;

    2015-01-01

    Context: Few data exist on the diagnostic criteria, and on the effects of puberty induction, in boyswith constitutional delay in growth and puberty (CDGP). Objective: To develop puberty nomograms based on Danish boys with normal pubertal development.To evaluate the different diagnostic criteria...... and the effect of oral testosterone undecanoate(TU) in boys with CDGP. Design: A cross-sectional and longitudinal study of Danish boys with normal pubertal development(COPENHAGEN puberty study). A retrospective observational study of 451 boys evaluated fordelayed puberty between 1990 and 2013. Setting: Tertiary...... referral center for pediatric endocrinology. Participants: One hundred and sixty-four (36%) boys evaluated for CDGP were excluded due tomissing data, reclassification, or associated comorbidities, yielding 287 (64%) eligible for analysis. Main Outcome Measures: The number of patients with CDGP classified...

  13. Trends in puberty timing in humans and environmental modifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppari, Jorma; Juul, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Secular trends in timing of puberty appear to continue although under-nutrition has not been any longer a limiting factor for pubertal development. Now obesity and other environmental reasons have been suspected to cause this trend, and endocrine disrupting chemicals have become into focus...... as possible contributors. Epidemiological studies on endocrine disrupters are still scarce and show only weak associations between exposures and timing of puberty. Since genetic background explains 50-80% of variability in the timing of puberty, it is not surprising that the observed environmental effects...... are rather modest when individual exposures are assessed. Despite that, some exposures have been reported to be associated to early (e.g., polybrominated biphenyls) or delayed (e.g., lead) puberty. Here we shortly review the available data on recent trends in timing of puberty and the possible role...

  14. Trends in puberty timing in humans and environmental modifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppari, Jorma; Juul, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Secular trends in timing of puberty appear to continue although under-nutrition has not been any longer a limiting factor for pubertal development. Now obesity and other environmental reasons have been suspected to cause this trend, and endocrine disrupting chemicals have become into focus...... as possible contributors. Epidemiological studies on endocrine disrupters are still scarce and show only weak associations between exposures and timing of puberty. Since genetic background explains 50-80% of variability in the timing of puberty, it is not surprising that the observed environmental effects...... are rather modest when individual exposures are assessed. Despite that, some exposures have been reported to be associated to early (e.g., polybrominated biphenyls) or delayed (e.g., lead) puberty. Here we shortly review the available data on recent trends in timing of puberty and the possible role...

  15. Puberty and the Manifestations of Loss of Control Eating in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucci, Anna; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Ranzenhofer, Lisa M.; Kelly, Nichole R.; Hannallah, Louise M.; Pickworth, C. Katherine; Grygorenko, Mariya V.; Brady, Sheila M.; Condarco, Tania A.; Kozlosky, Merel; Demidowich, Andrew P.; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We investigated the manifestations of pediatric loss of control (LOC) eating at different stages of pubertal development. Methods Participants were a non-clinical sample of 468 youth (8–17y). Physical examination determined pubertal stage. LOC eating and disordered eating attitudes were assessed with the Eating Disorder Examination. In a randomized crossover design, a subset (n=244) ate ad libitum from two test meals designed to capture normal and LOC eating. Results There were no differences in the prevalence rates or frequency of reported LOC eating episodes across pubertal stages (ps≥.50). There were, however, puberty by LOC eating interactions in disordered eating attitudes and palatable food consumption (ps≤.05), even after adjusting for age and body composition. LOC eating was associated with elevated global disordered eating attitudes, weight concern, and shape concern in post-pubertal youth (ps≤.001), but not pre-pubertal youth (ps≥.49). In late-puberty, youth with LOC eating consumed less energy from protein (p<.001) and more from carbohydrate (p=.003) and snack-type foods (p=.02) than those without LOC eating, whereas endorsement of LOC eating in pre- or early-to-mid-puberty was not associated with differences in eating behavior (ps≥.20). Conclusions Findings suggest that puberty may be a critical risk period, when LOC eating behaviors in boys and girls may become accompanied by greater weight and shape concerns and more obesogenic food consumption patterns. Interventions for LOC eating during pre-puberty should be evaluated to determine if they are particularly beneficial for the prevention of exacerbated eating disorder psychopathology and adverse weight outcomes. PMID:24888295

  16. Increased functional connectivity with puberty in the mentalising network involved in social emotion processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapwijk, Eduard T; Goddings, Anne-Lise; Burnett Heyes, Stephanie; Bird, Geoffrey; Viner, Russell M; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". There is increasing evidence that puberty plays an important role in the structural and functional brain development seen in adolescence, but little is known of the pubertal influence on changes in functional connectivity. We explored how pubertal indicators (salivary concentrations of testosterone, oestradiol and DHEA; pubertal stage; menarcheal status) relate to functional connectivity between components of a mentalising network identified to be engaged in social emotion processing by our prior work, using psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis. Female adolescents aged 11 to 13years were scanned whilst silently reading scenarios designed to evoke either social emotions (guilt and embarrassment) or basic emotions (disgust and fear), of which only social compared to basic emotions require the representation of another person's mental states. Pubertal stage and menarcheal status were used to assign participants to pre/early or mid/late puberty groups. We found increased functional connectivity between the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) and the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) and right temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) during social relative to basic emotion processing. Moreover, increasing oestradiol concentrations were associated with increased functional connectivity between the DMPFC and the right TPJ during social relative to basic emotion processing, independent of age. Our analysis of the PPI data by phenotypic pubertal status showed that more advanced puberty stage was associated with enhanced functional connectivity between the DMPFC and the left anterior temporal cortex (ATC) during social relative to basic emotion processing, also independent of age. Our results suggest increased functional maturation of the social brain network with the advancement of puberty in girls.

  17. An FSH and TSH pituitary adenoma, presenting with precocious puberty and central hyperthyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Guadalupe Vargas; Lourdes-Josefina Balcazar-Hernandez; Virgilio Melgar; Roser-Montserrat Magriña-Mercado; Baldomero Gonzalez; Javier Baquera; Moisés Mercado

    2017-01-01

    A 19-year-old woman with a history of isosexual precocious puberty and bilateral oophorectomy at age 10 years because of giant ovarian cysts, presents with headaches and mild symptoms and signs of hyperthyroidism. Hormonal evaluation revealed elevated FSH and LH levels in the postmenopausal range and free hyperthyroxinemia with an inappropriately normal TSH. Pituitary MRI showed a 2-cm macroadenoma with suprasellar extension. She underwent successful surgical resection of the pituitary tumor,...

  18. Plasma androgenic activity in women with acne vulgaris and in healthy girls before, during and after puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odlind, V; Carlström, K; Michaëlsson, G; Vahlqvist, A; Victor, A; Mellbin, T

    1982-03-01

    The possible relationship between plasma androgenic activity and acne vulgaris was investigated. Plasma testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels were determined in healthy girls during different stages of puberty, in healthy adult women and in women with acne vulgaris. Testosterone increase during puberty, whereas SHBG decreased during the early stages before it increased and stabilized plasma concentrations of testosterone and SHBG. Women with severe acne vulgaris had testosterone levels in the same range but the SHBG levels were significantly lower than those of healthy women and women with mild acne. These results show a high androgenic activity in the intermediate stages of puberty, when acne vulgaris is a common complaint and an increased androgenic activity in adult women with severe acne vulgaris.

  19. Premature birth and age at onset of puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Lai Ling; Leung, Gabriel M; Lam, Tai Hing; Schooling, C Mary

    2012-05-01

    Premature birth is associated with poor metabolic health in both sexes, potentially via earlier pubertal timing. We examined the associations of gestational age and premature birth (Premature girls reached puberty about 4 months later than girls with ≥ 41 weeks' gestation (time ratio = 1.04 [95% confidence interval = 1.01-1.06]), adjusted for mother' age of menarche, mother's place of birth, and smoking during pregnancy. Gestational age was not associated with onset of puberty in boys (test for interaction by sex, P Premature birth was not related to earlier onset of puberty; instead, premature girls had later onset of puberty. Thus, the association between premature birth and subsequent cardiovascular risk is probably not mediated through the timing of pubertal onset. It is unclear whether onset, duration, or tempo of puberty is more relevant to the detrimental consequences of early puberty. Further studies investigating intrauterine, infant, and childhood influences on the duration and tempo of puberty may help unravel the early origins of cardiovascular diseases.

  20. Precocious puberty in Turner Syndrome: report of a case and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Improda Nicola

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Turner Syndrome (TS is caused by monosomy or structural abnormalities of the X chromosome, with a prevalence of about 1/2000 females live birth. Most important clinical features of TS are short stature and gonadal failure. Approximately one third of girls with TS may undergo spontaneous puberty. Here we report on the case of a girl with a rare 45X0/47XXX mosaic TS exhibiting a precocious puberty. Case report The patient was diagnosed with TS at the age of 4 years, upon a diagnostic work-up for dysmorphic features. Chromosome analysis revealed a mosaic karyotype (45X0/47XXX. She presented with normal height and normal growth velocity so that Growth Hormone (GH therapy was not started. She was referred to our Department at the age of 7 years and 10 months, because of vaginal bleeding. A physical examination revealed a Tanner stage III for breast and Tanner stage III for pubic hair development. Height and weight were within the normal range for age. Psychological evaluation showed moderate global developmental delay, together with emotional and social immaturity and reading difficulties. The growth rate was accelerated. Her bone age was 10 years. Pelvic ultrasound demonstrated increased size for age of both the uterus and the ovaries, with bilateral ovarian follicles. GnRH stimulation test revealed pubertal response of gonadotropins (peak LH 22.5 mIU/ml. MRI of the brain was normal. These clinical, radiologic and laboratory findings were consistent with a diagnosis of idiopathic central precocious puberty; therefore, GnRH analog therapy was started, in order to slow pubertal progression and to preserve adult stature. Furthermore, GH treatment was added to further improve adult height. Conclusion Our case highlights the possibility of precocious puberty as an atypical clinical feature of TS. Thus, precocious puberty may occur in TS girls when a dosage compensation by the cell line with more than two X chromosomes allows normal

  1. Everything You Wanted to Know about Puberty (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or whether you like hip-hop or country music, you will experience the changes that happen during ... puberty, you might feel confused or have strong emotions that you've never experienced before. You may ...

  2. Environmental factors and puberty timing: expert panel research needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Louis, G.M. Buck; Jr, L.E. Gray; Marcus, M.

    2008-01-01

    , and (3) basic research to identify the primary signal(s) for the onset of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-dependent/central puberty and gonadotropin-releasing hormone-independent/peripheral puberty. Prospective studies of couples who are planning pregnancies or pregnant women are needed to capture......, body size, and puberty. The panel concluded that available experimental animal and human data support a possible role of endocrine-disrupting chemicals and body size in relation to alterations in pubertal onset and progression in boys and girls. Critical data gaps prioritized for future research...... initiatives include (1) etiologic research that focus on environmentally relevant levels of endocrine-disrupting chemicals and body size in relation to normal puberty as well as its variants, (2) exposure assessment of relevant endocrine-disrupting chemicals during critical windows of human development...

  3. Final adult height of girls with central precocious puberty or early and fast puberty could be improved by treatment of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秋莉

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the efficacy and impact factors of treatment with Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs(GnRHa) in central precocious puberty(CPP)or early and fast puberty(EFP)girls in a retrospective unicenter study

  4. Mental illness and cognition in relation to age at puberty: a hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saugstad, L F

    1989-09-01

    Onset of puberty is usually considered to coincide with the last major step in brain development: the elimination of some 40% of neuronal synapses. Mean pubertal age has declined by some 4 years during the last 100 years. There is a relation between age at puberty and body build, and between body build and mental illness. The difference in body build between schizophrenia (S) and manic-depressive psychosis (MDP) is similar to that between late and early maturers. It is suggested that S affects late-maturing individuals and MDP very early maturers. The observed marked rise in MDP and decline in the most malignant forms of S (non-paranoid) are in agreement with MDP and S as neurodevelopmental disorders occurring at the extremes of maturation. Maturational irregularities are most likely to occur at the extremes, and it is suggested that abbreviation of the regressive process may have led to persistent redundancy of neuronal synapses in MDP and that prolongation of the process past the optimal has yielded an inadequate synaptic density in S. The lack of cerebral abnormality in the majority of MDP and the presence of only subtle structural deficits in S, are in agreement with this. The two disorders are probably as old as mankind, and early puberty is the necessary factor for the development of MDP and late puberty is the necessary factor for that of S. There is an inverse relation between spatial ability and rate of maturation, whereas verbal ability is unaffected by maturational rate. From a previous predominance in both sexes, spatial ability (Performance IQ scores) has been reduced to below verbal ability (Verbal IQ scores) in the female sex and in early maturing males.

  5. Shared genetic diversity across the global invasive range of the monk parakeet suggests a common restricted geographic origin and the possibility of convergent selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelaar, Pim; Roques, Severine; Hobson, Elizabeth A; Gonçalves da Silva, Anders; Avery, Michael L; Russello, Michael A; Senar, Juan C; Wright, Timothy F; Carrete, Martina; Tella, José L

    2015-05-01

    While genetic diversity is hypothesized to be an important factor explaining invasion success, there is no consensus yet on how variation in source populations or demographic processes affects invasiveness. We used mitochondrial DNA haplotypic and microsatellite genotypic data to investigate levels of genetic variation and reconstruct the history of replicate invasions on three continents in a globally invasive bird, the monk parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus). We evaluated whether genetic diversity at invasive sites could be explained by (i) the native source populations from which they were derived and (ii) demographic bottlenecks during introduction. Genetic data indicated a localized source area for most sampled invasive populations, with limited evidence for admixing of native source populations. This pattern largely coincides with historical data on pet trade exports. However, the invasive populations are genetically more similar than predicted from the export data alone. The extent of bottleneck effects varied among invasive populations. The observed low genetic diversity, evidence of demographic contraction and restricted source area do not support the hypothesis that invasion is favoured by the mixing and recombining of genetic variation from multiple source populations. Instead, they suggest that reduced genetic variation through random processes may not inhibit successful establishment and invasion in this species. However, convergent selection across invasive sites could also explain the observed patterns of reduction and similarity in genetic variation and/or the restricted source area. In general, the alternative explanation of intraspecific variation in invasive potential among genotypes or geographic areas is neglected, but warrants more attention as it could inform comparative studies and management of biological invaders. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. An FSH and TSH pituitary adenoma, presenting with precocious puberty and central hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Guadalupe; Balcazar-Hernandez, Lourdes-Josefina; Melgar, Virgilio; Magriña-Mercado, Roser-Montserrat; Gonzalez, Baldomero; Baquera, Javier; Mercado, Moisés

    2017-01-01

    A 19-year-old woman with a history of isosexual precocious puberty and bilateral oophorectomy at age 10 years because of giant ovarian cysts, presents with headaches and mild symptoms and signs of hyperthyroidism. Hormonal evaluation revealed elevated FSH and LH levels in the postmenopausal range and free hyperthyroxinemia with an inappropriately normal TSH. Pituitary MRI showed a 2-cm macroadenoma with suprasellar extension. She underwent successful surgical resection of the pituitary tumor, which proved to be composed of two distinct populations of cells, each of them strongly immunoreactive for FSH and TSH, respectively. This mixed adenoma resulted in two different hormonal hypersecretion syndromes: the first one during childhood and consisting of central precocious puberty and ovarian hyperstimulation due to the excessive secretion of biologically active FSH and which was not investigated in detail and 10 years later, central hyperthyroidism due to inappropriate secretion of biologically active TSH. Although infrequent, two cases of isosexual central precocious puberty in girls due to biologically active FSH secreted by a pituitary adenoma have been previously reported in the literature. However, this is the first reported case of a mixed adenoma capable of secreting both, biologically active FSH and TSH. Although functioning gonadotrophinomas are infrequent, they should be included in the differential diagnosis of isosexual central precocious puberty.Some functioning gonadotrophinomas are mixed adenomas, secreting other biologically active hormones besides FSH, such as TSH.Early recognition and appropriate treatment of these tumors by transsphenoidal surgery is crucial in order to avoid unnecessary therapeutic interventions that may irreversibly compromise gonadal function.

  7. Cerebral white matter in early puberty is associated with luteinizing hormone concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peper, Jiska S; Brouwer, Rachel M; Schnack, Hugo G; van Baal, G Caroline M; van Leeuwen, Marieke; van den Berg, Stéphanie M; Delemarre-Van de Waal, Henriëtte A; Janke, Andrew L; Collins, D Louis; Evans, Alan C; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kahn, René S; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2008-08-01

    Puberty is a period in which cerebral white matter grows considerably, whereas gray matter decreases. The first endocrinological marker of puberty in both boys and girls is an increased secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH). Here we investigated the phenotypic association between LH, global and focal gray and white matter in 104 healthy nine-year-old monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Volumetric MRI and voxel-based morphometry were applied to measure global gray and white matter and to estimate relative concentrations of regional cerebral gray and white matter, respectively. A possible common genetic origin of this association (genetic correlation) was examined. Results showed that higher LH levels are associated with a larger global white matter proportion and with higher regional white matter density. Areas of increased white matter density included the cingulum, middle temporal gyrus and splenium of the corpus callosum. No association between LH and global gray matter proportion or regional gray matter density was found. Our data indicate that a common genetic factor underlies the association between LH level and regional white matter density. We suggest that the increase of white matter growth during puberty reported earlier might be directly or indirectly mediated by LH production. In addition, genes involved in LH production may be promising candidate genes in neuropsychiatric illnesses with an onset in early adolescence.

  8. Insulin resistance during puberty and future fat accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Sharon H; Jeffers, Barrett W; Eckel, Robert H

    2002-08-01

    Insulin resistance is a known sequela of obesity; however, the relationship of insulin resistance to future weight gain remains unclear. In several studies, insulin resistance has been associated with weight stabilization. For the most part, this relationship has been found in adults who are overweight. To evaluate the relationship of insulin resistance to future fat accumulation in pubertal children, a 3-yr prospective study was carried out. Insulin sensitivity (Si) was determined by Bergman's minimal model in 111 healthy children, aged 9.7-14.5 yr. All children were Tanner stage II or III pubertal development at baseline. Body composition was assessed by body mass index, skinfold thickness, hydrodensitometry, and bioelectric impedance analysis at baseline and annually thereafter for an additional 3 yr. A repeated-measures analysis showed that the change in percentage body fat estimated from skinfold thickness [%BF(SF)] over time changed with increasing Si (P < 0.0001). Si was divided into tertiles for each gender, with the lowest tertile representing the most insulin-resistant children. For girls, those in the lowest tertile maintained their %BF(SF) over 3 yr, whereas those girls in the middle and upper tertile had an increase in their %BF(SF). For boys, those in the lowest tertile showed a decrease in their %BF(SF), whereas those boys in the middle and upper tertile maintained their %BF(SF). These results suggest that during puberty, children who are more insulin resistant have decreased sc fat gain.

  9. [Age of puberty and western young women sexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresch, C; Ohl, J

    2015-02-01

    The onset of menarche and age of first sexual experience have both lowered over the past century. Does the age of puberty influence the sexuality of the girl/young occidental woman? If so, to what degree? Besides, is the acquisition of reproductive function, regardless of age, a sign of sufficient maturity to engage in sexual activity? Studies show that early puberty, early sex, unprotected sexual intercourse in adolescence and number of sexual partners in early adulthood are closely related. These early sexual experiences could be stimulated by early drug use as well as by depressive disorders. The age of puberty has a real influence on sexuality but this link will be modulated by a number of social behavioral factors and it is not sustainable. The age of puberty is not a good indicator of maturity for teenage sexuality; early maturation and early sexual activity are usually associated with risky behaviors. However, other studies on the subject are required, including a consideration of the issues associated with delayed puberty, a subject virtually absent from the literature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. LIN28B polymorphisms are associated with central precocious puberty and early puberty in girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Won Park

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available &lt;B&gt;Purpose:&lt;/B&gt; Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers within &lt;i&gt;LIN28B&lt;/i&gt; have been reported to be related to the timing of pubertal growth. However, no study has investigated the frequency of genetic markers in girls with precocious puberty (PP or early puberty (EP. This study aimed to determine the frequency of putative genetic markers in girls with PP or EP. &lt;B&gt;Methods:&lt;/B&gt; Genomic DNAs were obtained from 77 and 109 girls that fulfilled the criteria for PP and EP, respectively. The controls in this study were 144 healthy volunteers between 20 and 30 years of age. The haplotypes were reconstructed using 11 SNPs of &lt;i&gt;LIN28B&lt;/i&gt;, and haplotype association analysis was performed. The haplotype frequencies were compared. Differences in the clinical and laboratory parameters were analyzed according to the haplotype dosage. &lt;B&gt;Results:&lt;/B&gt; Eleven SNPs in &lt;i&gt;LIN28B&lt;/i&gt; were all located in a block that was in linkage disequilibrium. The haplotype could be reconstructed using 2 representative SNPs, rs4946651 and rs369065. The AC haplotype was less frequently observed in the PP group than in the controls (0.069 vs. 0.144, &lt;I&gt;P&lt;/I&gt;=0.010. The trend that girls with non-AC haplotypes tended to have earlier puberty onset (&lt;I&gt;P&lt;/I&gt;=0.037 was illustrated even in the EP+PP patient group by Kaplan-Meier analysis. &lt;B&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/B&gt; The results of the present study showed that non-AC haplotypes of &lt;i&gt;LIN28B&lt;/i&gt;had a significant association with PP in girls.

  11. Targeted resequencing of the pericentromere of chromosome 2 linked to constitutional delay of growth and puberty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana L Cousminer

    Full Text Available Constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP is the most common cause of pubertal delay. CDGP is defined as the proportion of the normal population who experience pubertal onset at least 2 SD later than the population mean, representing 2.3% of all adolescents. While adolescents with CDGP spontaneously enter puberty, they are at risk for short stature, decreased bone mineral density, and psychosocial problems. Genetic factors contribute heavily to the timing of puberty, but the vast majority of CDGP cases remain biologically unexplained, and there is no definitive test to distinguish CDGP from pathological absence of puberty during adolescence. Recently, we published a study identifying significant linkage between a locus at the pericentromeric region of chromosome 2 (chr 2 and CDGP in Finnish families. To investigate this region for causal variation, we sequenced chr 2 between the genomic coordinates of 79-124 Mb (genome build GRCh37 in the proband and affected parent of the 13 families contributing most to this linkage signal. One gene, DNAH6, harbored 6 protein-altering low-frequency variants (< 6% in the Finnish population in 10 of the CDGP probands. We sequenced an additional 135 unrelated Finnish CDGP subjects and utilized the unique Sequencing Initiative Suomi (SISu population reference exome set to show that while 5 of these variants were present in the CDGP set, they were also present in the Finnish population at similar frequencies. Additional variants in the targeted region could not be prioritized for follow-up, possibly due to gaps in sequencing coverage or lack of functional knowledge of non-genic genomic regions. Thus, despite having a well-characterized sample collection from a genetically homogeneous population with a large population-based reference sequence dataset, we were unable to pinpoint variation in the linked region predisposing delayed puberty. This study highlights the difficulties of detecting genetic variants

  12. Serum levels of growth hormone binding protein in children with normal and precocious puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Fisker, Sidse; Scheike, Thomas Harder

    2000-01-01

    To study the regulation of GHBP serum levels by gonadal steroids in normal and precocious puberty.......To study the regulation of GHBP serum levels by gonadal steroids in normal and precocious puberty....

  13. Serum inhibin B levels during male childhood and puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Skakkebaek, N E

    2001-01-01

    Inhibin B is a testicular peptide hormone that regulates FSH secretion in a negative feedback loop. In males serum levels of inhibin B are detectable throughout life with prominent changes in the first year of life and during puberty. Serum inhibin B is normally detectable throughout childhood...... normal or near-normal levels are seen in cryptorchidism and disorders with preserved Sertoli cell function in spite of absence of germ cells or impaired androgen biosynthesis or action. During puberty a developmental change in the regulation of serum inhibin B occurs. In contrast to childhood inhibin B...

  14. Changes in hypothalamic expression of the Lin28/let-7 system and related microRNAs during postnatal maturation and after experimental manipulations of puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangiao-Alvarellos, S; Manfredi-Lozano, M; Ruiz-Pino, F; Navarro, V M; Sánchez-Garrido, M A; Leon, S; Dieguez, C; Cordido, F; Matagne, V; Dissen, G A; Ojeda, S R; Pinilla, L; Tena-Sempere, M

    2013-02-01

    Lin28 and Lin28b are related RNA-binding proteins that inhibit the maturation of miRNAs of the let-7 family and participate in the control of cellular stemness and early embryonic development. Considerable interest has arisen recently concerning other physiological roles of the Lin28/let-7 axis, including its potential involvement in the control of puberty, as suggested by genome-wide association studies and functional genomics. We report herein the expression profiles of Lin28 and let-7 members in the rat hypothalamus during postnatal maturation and in selected models of altered puberty. The expression patterns of c-Myc (upstream positive regulator of Lin28), mir-145 (negative regulator of c-Myc), and mir-132 and mir-9 (putative miRNA repressors of Lin28, predicted by bioinformatic algorithms) were also explored. In male and female rats, Lin28, Lin28b, and c-Myc mRNAs displayed very high hypothalamic expression during the neonatal period, markedly decreased during the infantile-to-juvenile transition and reached minimal levels before/around puberty. A similar puberty-related decline was observed for Lin28b in monkey hypothalamus but not in the rat cortex, suggesting species conservation and tissue specificity. Conversely, let-7a, let-7b, mir-132, and mir-145, but not mir-9, showed opposite expression profiles. Perturbation of brain sex differentiation and puberty, by neonatal treatment with estrogen or androgen, altered the expression ratios of Lin28/let-7 at the time of puberty. Changes in the c-Myc/Lin28b/let-7 pathway were also detected in models of delayed puberty linked to early photoperiod manipulation and, to a lesser extent, postnatal underfeeding or chronic subnutrition. Altogether, our data are the first to document dramatic changes in the expression of the Lin28/let-7 axis in the rat hypothalamus during the postnatal maturation and after different manipulations that disturb puberty, thus suggesting the potential involvement of developmental changes in

  15. A missense mutation in MKRN3 in a Danish girl with central precocious puberty and her brother with early puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Känsäkoski, Johanna; Raivio, Taneli; Juul, Anders

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Idiopathic central precocious puberty (ICPP) results from the premature reactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis leading to development of secondary sexual characteristics prior to 8 y in girls or 9 y in boys. Since the initial discovery of mutations in the maternally...... hypothalamic complementary DNA (cDNA) was investigated by PCR. RESULTS: One paternally inherited rare variant, c.1034G>A (p.Arg345His), was identified in one girl with ICPP and in her brother with early puberty. The variant is predicted to be deleterious by three different in silico prediction programs....... Expression of MKRN3 was confirmed in adult human hypothalamus. CONCLUSION: Our results are in line with previous studies in which paternally inherited MKRN3 mutations have been found both in males and in females with ICPP or early puberty. Our report further expands the set of MKRN3 mutations identified...

  16. Sex hormone-binding globulin levels predict insulin sensitivity, disposition index, and cardiovascular risk during puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Aksglaede, Lise; Munch-Andersen, Thor

    2009-01-01

    Early puberty is associated with increased risk of subsequent cardiovascular disease. Low sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels are a feature of early puberty and of conditions associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The aim of the present study was to evaluate SHBG as a predictor...... of glucose metabolism and metabolic risk during puberty....

  17. LIN28B, LIN28A, KISS1, and KISS1R in idiopathic central precocious puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koivu Rosanna

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pubertal timing is a strongly heritable trait, but no single puberty gene has been identified. Thus, the genetic background of idiopathic central precocious puberty (ICPP is poorly understood. Overall, the genetic modulation of pubertal onset most likely arises from the additive effect of multiple genes, but also monogenic causes of ICPP probably exist, as cases of familial ICPP have been reported. Mutations in KISS1 and KISSR, coding for kisspeptin and its receptor, involved in GnRH secretion and puberty onset, have been suggested causative for monogenic ICPP. Variation in LIN28B was associated with timing of puberty in genome-wide association (GWA studies. LIN28B is a human ortholog of the gene that controls, through microRNAs, developmental timing in C. elegans. In addition, Lin28a transgenic mice manifest the puberty phenotypes identified in the human GWAS. Thus, both LIN28B and LIN28A may have a role in pubertal development and are good candidate genes for monogenic ICPP. Methods Thirty girls with ICPP were included in the study. ICPP was defined by pubertal onset before 8 yrs of age, and a pubertal LH response to GnRH testing. The coding regions of LIN28B, LIN28A, KISS1, and KISS1R were sequenced. The missense change in LIN28B was also screened in 132 control subjects. Results No rare variants were detected in KISS1 or KISS1R in the 30 subjects with ICPP. In LIN28B, one missense change, His199Arg, was found in one subject with ICPP. However, this variant was also detected in one of the 132 controls. No variation in LIN28A was found. Conclusions We did not find any evidence that mutations in LIN28B or LIN28A would underlie ICPP. In addition, we confirmed that mutations in KISS1 and KISS1R are not a common cause for ICPP.

  18. LIN28B, LIN28A, KISS1, and KISS1R in idiopathic central precocious puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommiska, Johanna; Sørensen, Kaspar; Aksglaede, Lise; Koivu, Rosanna; Puhakka, Lea; Juul, Anders; Raivio, Taneli

    2011-09-22

    Pubertal timing is a strongly heritable trait, but no single puberty gene has been identified. Thus, the genetic background of idiopathic central precocious puberty (ICPP) is poorly understood. Overall, the genetic modulation of pubertal onset most likely arises from the additive effect of multiple genes, but also monogenic causes of ICPP probably exist, as cases of familial ICPP have been reported. Mutations in KISS1 and KISSR, coding for kisspeptin and its receptor, involved in GnRH secretion and puberty onset, have been suggested causative for monogenic ICPP. Variation in LIN28B was associated with timing of puberty in genome-wide association (GWA) studies. LIN28B is a human ortholog of the gene that controls, through microRNAs, developmental timing in C. elegans. In addition, Lin28a transgenic mice manifest the puberty phenotypes identified in the human GWAS. Thus, both LIN28B and LIN28A may have a role in pubertal development and are good candidate genes for monogenic ICPP. Thirty girls with ICPP were included in the study. ICPP was defined by pubertal onset before 8 yrs of age, and a pubertal LH response to GnRH testing. The coding regions of LIN28B, LIN28A, KISS1, and KISS1R were sequenced. The missense change in LIN28B was also screened in 132 control subjects. No rare variants were detected in KISS1 or KISS1R in the 30 subjects with ICPP. In LIN28B, one missense change, His199Arg, was found in one subject with ICPP. However, this variant was also detected in one of the 132 controls. No variation in LIN28A was found. We did not find any evidence that mutations in LIN28B or LIN28A would underlie ICPP. In addition, we confirmed that mutations in KISS1 and KISS1R are not a common cause for ICPP.

  19. The influence of stress at puberty on mood and learning: role of the α4βδ GABAA receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S S

    2013-09-26

    It is well-known that the onset of puberty is associated with changes in mood as well as cognition. Stress can have an impact on these outcomes, which in many cases, can be more influential in females, suggesting that gender differences exist. The adolescent period is a vulnerable time for the onset of certain psychopathologies, including anxiety disorders, depression and eating disorders, which are also more prevalent in females. One factor which may contribute to stress-triggered anxiety at puberty is the GABAA receptor (GABAR), which is known to play a pivotal role in anxiety. Expression of α4βδ GABARs increases on the dendrites of CA1 pyramidal cells at the onset of puberty in the hippocampus, part of the limbic circuitry which governs emotion. This receptor is a sensitive target for the stress steroid 3α-OH-5[α]β-pregnan-20-one or [allo]pregnanolone, which paradoxically reduces inhibition and increases anxiety during the pubertal period (post-natal day ∼35-44) of female mice in contrast to its usual effect to enhance inhibition and reduce anxiety. Spatial learning and synaptic plasticity are also adversely impacted at puberty, likely a result of increased expression of α4βδ GABARs on the dendritic spines of CA1 hippocampal pyramidal cells, which are essential for consolidation of memory. This review will focus on the role of these receptors in mediating behavioral changes at puberty. Stress-mediated changes in mood and cognition in early adolescence may have relevance for the expression of psychopathologies in adulthood.

  20. Early puberty in internationally adopted girls: hormonal and clinical markers of puberty in 276 girls examined biannually over two years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jørgen H; Teilmann, Grete; Petersen, Jørgen Holm

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Retrospective studies have indicated that internationally adopted girls are at high risk of developing precocious puberty. Hypothetically, this could be due to selection bias. The aim of this study was to determine age at reaching pubertal milestones in healthy internationally......-sectionally. RESULTS: Mean age at B2+ was 9.5 years (95% prediction interval 7.1-12.0 years) and mean age at menarche was 12.1 (10.2-14.0) years in adopted girls, which was significantly lower compared to the reference group (p puberty...

  1. Serum leptin concentration during puberty in healthy nonobese adolescents

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    Brandão C.M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Data obtained during the past five years have indicated that there are important age- and gender-based differences in the regulation and action of leptin in humans. To study the physiological changes of leptin during puberty in both sexes, and its relationship with body composition and sexual maturation, we measured leptin concentrations in 175 healthy adolescents (80 girls, 95 boys, 10-18 years of age, representing all pubertal stages. We excluded individuals with a body mass index (BMI below the 5thor above the 95th percentile relative to age. Serum concentrations of leptin were determined by a monoclonal antibody-based immunofluorimetric assay, developed in our laboratory. Body composition was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Pubertal stage was assigned by physical examination, according to Tanner criteria for breast development in females and genital development in males. Leptin concentration in girls (N = 80 presented a positive linear correlation with age (r = 0.35, P = 0.0012, BMI (r = 0.65, P < 0.0001 and %fat mass (r = 0.76, P < 0.0001. In boys (N = 95 there was a positive correlation with BMI (r = 0.49, P < 0.0001 and %fat mass (r = 0.85, P < 0.0001, but a significant negative linear correlation with Tanner stage (r = -0.45, P < 0.0001 and age (r = -0.40, P < 0.0001. The regression equation revealed that %fat mass and BMI are the best parameters to be used to estimate leptin levels in both sexes. Thus, the normal reference ranges for circulating leptin during adolescence should be constructed according to BMI or %fat mass to assure a correct evaluation.

  2. Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium. Factors controlling puberty in beef heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium on “Factors controlling puberty in beef heifers” was held at the joint annual meeting of the American Dairy Science Association and the American Society of Animal Science in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, July 10 to 14, 2011. The objective of the symposium w...

  3. PRECOCIOUS PUBERTY DUE TO OVARIAN CYST – CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa M Guimarães

    2017-01-01

    Discussion/Conclusion: Most autonomous ovarian cysts regress spontaneously with regression of pubertal signs, as in the present case. Therapy with a GnRH agonist may become necessary in the case of transformation from precocious pseudopuberty to central precocious puberty after recurrences of the ovarian cysts or when there is significant loss of height potential.

  4. The importance of puberty for adolescent development: conceptualization and measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenbaum, Sheri A; Beltz, Adriene M; Corley, Robin

    2015-01-01

    How and why are teenagers different from children and adults? A key question concerns the ways in which pubertal development shapes psychological changes in adolescence directly through changes to the brain and indirectly through the social environment. Empirical work linking pubertal development to adolescent psychological function draws from several different perspectives, often with varying approaches and a focus on different outcomes and mechanisms. The main themes concern effects of atypical pubertal timing on behavior problems during adolescence, effects of pubertal status (and associated hormones) on normative changes in behaviors that can facilitate or hinder development (especially risk-taking, social reorientation, and stress responsivity), and the role of puberty in triggering psychopathology in vulnerable individuals. There is also interest in understanding the ways in which changes in the brain reflect pubertal processes and underlie psychological development in adolescence. In this chapter, we consider the ways that puberty might affect adolescent psychological development, and why this is of importance to developmentalists. We describe the processes of pubertal development; summarize what is known about pubertal influences on adolescent development; consider the assumptions that underlie most work and the methodological issues that affect the interpretation of results; and propose research directions to help understand paths from puberty to behavior. Throughout, we emphasize the importance of pubertal change in all aspects of psychological development, and the ways in which puberty represents an opportunity to study the interplay of biological and social influences.

  5. Arrested puberty associated with a Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, A C; Feinman, M A; Husami, N

    1985-06-01

    Androgen-producing ovarian tumors are rarely recognized as a cause of delayed or arrested puberty, despite their frequent association with secondary amenorrhea in the older patient. A case is discussed of a Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor in an 18-year-old girl resulting in arrest of breast development and primary amenorrhea.

  6. Leptin’s effect on puberty in mice is relayed by the ventral premammillary nucleus and does not require signaling in Kiss1 neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, Jose; Cravo, Roberta M.; Frazão, Renata; Gautron, Laurent; Scott, Michael M.; Lachey, Jennifer; Castro, Inar A.; Margatho, Lisandra O.; Lee, Syann; Lee, Charlotte; Richardson, James A.; Friedman, Jeffrey; Chua, Streamson; Coppari, Roberto; Zigman, Jeffrey M.; Elmquist, Joel K.; Elias, Carol F.

    2010-01-01

    Studies in humans and rodents indicate that a minimum amount of stored energy is required for normal pubertal development. The adipocyte-derived hormone leptin is a key metabolic signal to the neuroendocrine reproductive axis. Humans and mice lacking leptin or the leptin receptor (LepR) (ob/ob and db/db mice, respectively) are infertile and fail to enter puberty. Leptin administration to leptin-deficient subjects and ob/ob mice induces puberty and restores fertility, but the exact site or sites of leptin action are unclear. Here, we found that genetic deletion of LepR selectively from hypothalamic Kiss1 neurons in mice had no effect on puberty or fertility, indicating that direct leptin signaling in Kiss1 neurons is not required for these processes. However, bilateral lesions of the ventral premammillary nucleus (PMV) of ob/ob mice blunted the ability of exogenous leptin to induce sexual maturation. Moreover, unilateral reexpression of endogenous LepR in PMV neurons was sufficient to induce puberty and improve fertility in female LepR-null mice. This LepR reexpression also normalized the increased hypothalamic GnRH content characteristic of leptin-signaling deficiency. These data suggest that the PMV is a key site for leptin’s permissive action at the onset of puberty and support the hypothesis that the multiple actions of leptin to control metabolism and reproduction are anatomically dissociated. PMID:21183787

  7. The effects of nutrition, puberty and dancing on bone density in adolescent ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burckhardt, Peter; Wynn, Emma; Krieg, Marc-Antoine; Bagutti, Carlo; Faouzi, Mohamed

    2011-06-01

    Ballet dancers have on average a low bone mineral content (BMC), with elevated fracture-risk, low body mass index (BMI) for age (body mass index, kg/m2), low energy intake, and delayed puberty. This study aims at a better understanding of the interactions of these factors, especially with regard to nutrition. During a competition for pre-professional dancers we examined 127 female participants (60 Asians, 67 Caucasians). They averaged 16.7 years of age, started dancing at 5.8 years, and danced 22 hours/week. Assessments were made for BMI, BMC (DXA), and bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) at the lumbar spine and femoral neck, pubertal stage (Tanner score), and nutritional status (EAT-40 questionnaire and a qualitative three-day dietary record). BMI for age was found to be normal in only 42.5% of the dancers, while 15.7% had a more or less severe degree of thinness (12.6% Grade2 and 3.1% Grade 3 thinness). Menarche was late (13.9 years, range 11 to 16.8 years). Food intake, evaluated by number of consumed food portions, was below the recommendations for a normally active population in all food groups except animal proteins, where the intake was more than twice the recommended amount. In this population, with low BMI and intense exercise, BMC was low and associated with nutritional factors; dairy products had a positive and non-dairy proteins a negative influence. A positive correlation between BMAD and years since menarche confirmed the importance of exposure to estrogens and the negative impact of delayed puberty. Because of this and the probable negative influence of a high intake of non-dairy proteins, such as meat, fish, and eggs, and the positive association with a high dairy intake, ballet schools should promote balanced diets and normal weight and should recognize and help dancers avoid eating disorders and delayed puberty caused by extensive dancing and inadequate nutrition.

  8. Maternal uniparental isodisomy of human chromosome 14 associated with a paternal t(13q14q) and precocious puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkins, D J; Roux, A F; Waye, J; Freeman, V C; Cox, D W; Whelan, D T

    1996-01-01

    Cytogenetic and molecular investigation of a boy with precocious puberty and motor developmental delay revealed a 45,XY,t(14q14q) or i(14q) karyotype with no paternal chromosome 14 contribution. VNTR analysis of loci on four other chromosomes excluded non-paternity with greater than 99% confidence. Results of VNTR and CA repeat analyses of ten loci along the entire length of chromosome 14 were consistent with homozygosity at all loci, suggesting that the chromosomal rearrangement was a maternal isochromosome for 14q. As the proband's father had a balanced Robertsonian translocation, t(13q14q), we suggest that the origin of the maternal uniparental disomy (UPD) was fertilization by a nullisomy 14 sperm with formation of the isochromosome in the early embryo. Also, the proband has several clinical features in common with six previously reported liveborn cases of maternal UPD 14: hypotonia and motor developmental delay, mild dysmorphic facial features, low birth weight and growth abnormalities, and, more specifically, precocious puberty among the four cases old enough to assess. The emergence of a syndrome associated with maternal UPD 14 suggests the possibility of genomic imprinting of regions of chromosome 14, especially a gene involved in the onset of puberty.

  9. Precocious puberty: clinical and endocrine profile and factors indicating neurogenic precocity in Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Anurag; Sharma, Jyoti; Kabra, Madhulika; Kumar Gupta, Arun; Menon, P S N

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical and endocrine profile of patients with precocious puberty followed up in a tertiary care hospital. Records of 140 patients (114 girls, 26 boys) with precocious puberty were reviewed. Clinical features including age of onset, stage of pubertal development, presenting symptoms, features suggestive of CNS involvement and family history were analyzed. Endocrine investigations included basal and GnRH-stimulated levels of LH and FSH as well as 17OHP, DHEA, hCG and thyroid profile. Abdominal and pelvic ultrasonography and CNS imaging were correlated with clinical features. Girls outnumbered boys in this series (4.4:1). Neurogenic central isosexual precocious puberty (CIPP) was more common in boys (10 out of 18, 55.6%) than girls (16 out of 77, 20.8%). The most common cause of neurogenic CIPP was hypothalamic hamartoma present in five girls and four boys. Other causes of neurogenic CIPP included neurotuberculosis, pituitary adenoma, hydrocephalus, post radiotherapy, CNS tumors and malformations. Peripheral precocious puberty (PPP) was secondary to adrenal causes in boys and ovarian cysts in girls. Benign variants of precocious puberty, such as premature thelarche and premature adrenarche, were present in 23 and six girls, respectively. Hypothyroidism was present in four girls and McCune-Albright syndrome in one girl. Girls with neurogenic CIPP had a lower age of onset as compared to idiopathic CIPP (3.6 +/- 2.7 years vs 5.4 +/- 2.5 years, p = 0.014). The lowest age of onset was seen in girls with hypothalamic hamartoma (1.6 +/- 0.9 years). Forty-seven girls with CIPP (seven neurogenic and 40 idiopathic) presented after the age of 6 years. Features of CNS involvement, in the form of seizures, mental retardation, raised intracranial tension or focal neurological deficits, were present in seven girls (43.8%) and four boys (40%), and gelastic seizures were present in three children. Girls with CIPP had greater bone age

  10. White matter development in adolescence: the influence of puberty and implications for affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladouceur, Cecile D; Peper, Jiska S; Crone, Eveline A; Dahl, Ronald E

    2012-01-01

    There have been rapid advances in understanding a broad range of changes in brain structure and function during adolescence, and a growing interest in identifying which of these neurodevelopmental changes are directly linked with pubertal maturation—at least in part because of their potential to provide insights into the numerous emotional and behavioral health problems that emerge during this developmental period. This review focuses on what is known about the influence of puberty on white matter development in adolescence.We focus on white matter because of its role in providing the structural architectural organization of the brain and as a structural correlate of communication within complex neural systems. We begin with a review of studies that report sex differences or sex by age interactions in white matter development as these findings can provide, although indirectly,information relevant to puberty-related changes. Studies are also critically reviewed based on methodological procedures used to assess pubertal maturation and relations with white matter changes. Findings are discussed in light of their implications for the development of neural systems underlying the regulation of emotion and behavior and how alterations in the development of these systems may mediate risk for affective disorders in vulnerable adolescents.

  11. Feminizing adrenocortical adenoma presenting as heterosexual precocious puberty: report of one case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Hui-Pin; Chao, Mei-Chyn; Lin, Chao-Yu; Chen, Hsiu-Lin; Chen, Shiu-Lin; Chiou, Shyh-Shin; Chen, Bai-Hsiun

    2005-01-01

    We report on a case of a 2 2/12-year-old boy with heterosexual precocious puberty secondary to a feminizing adrenocortical adenoma. The boy, with no previous history of disease or treatment, presented with bilateral gynecomastia and pubic hair development (Tanner III breasts and Tanner II pubic hair). Plasma estradiol and testosterone were 410.9 pg/ml and 126.2 ng/dl respectively. Basal plasma LH and FSH levels were within the normal range. Bolus i.v. injection of GnRH showed unresponsiveness of LH and FSH. Abdominal echography and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging revealed a well-defined mass at the left suprarenal region (measuring 4.0 x 2.7 x 3.6 cm in size). After removal of the adrenal tumor, the estradiol and testosterone levels fell to normal in 2 weeks. The gynecomastia and pubic hair regressed with time. The pathology of the tumor showed compact pattern with polygonal cells containing moderate eosinophilic cytoplasm without mitotic figure. These findings were consistent with an adrenocortical adenoma secreting estradiol and testosterone as the cause of the patient's heterosexual precocious puberty.

  12. Virilizing adrenocortical carcinoma advancing to central precocious puberty after surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Sun; Yang, Eu Jeen; Cho, Dong Hyu; Hwang, Pyung Han; Lee, Dae-Yeol

    2015-05-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) in pediatric and adolescent patients is rare, and it is associated with various clinical symptoms. We introduce the case of an 8-year-old boy with ACC who presented with peripheral precocious puberty at his first visit. He displayed penis enlargement with pubic hair and facial acne. His serum adrenal androgen levels were elevated, and abdominal computed tomography revealed a right suprarenal mass. After complete surgical resection, the histological diagnosis was ACC. Two months after surgical removal of the mass, he subsequently developed central precocious puberty. He was treated with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist to delay further pubertal progression. In patients with functioning ACC and surgical removal, clinical follow-up and hormonal marker examination for the secondary effects of excessive hormone secretion may be a useful option at least every 2 or 3 months after surgery.

  13. Virilizing Adrenocortical Carcinoma Advancing to Central Precocious Puberty after Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Min Sun; Yang, Eu Jeen; Cho, Dong Hyu; Hwang, Pyung Han; Lee, Dae-Yeol

    2015-01-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) in pediatric and adolescent patients is rare, and it is associated with various clinical symptoms. We introduce the case of an 8-year-old boy with ACC who presented with peripheral precocious puberty at his first visit. He displayed penis enlargement with pubic hair and facial acne. His serum adrenal androgen levels were elevated, and abdominal computed tomography revealed a right suprarenal mass. After complete surgical resection, the histological diagnosis was...

  14. Interval timer control of puberty in photoinhibited Siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Ho; Kauffman, Alexander S; Paul, Matthew J; Butler, Matthew P; Beery, Annaliese K; Costantini, Ruth M; Zucker, Irving

    2006-10-01

    Puberty, which is markedly delayed in male Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) born into short day lengths, is controlled by an interval timer regulated by the duration of nocturnal melatonin secretion. Properties of the interval timer were assessed by perturbing normal patterns of melatonin secretion in males gestated and maintained thereafter in 1 of 2 short day lengths, 10 h light/day (10 L) or 12L. Melatonin secretion of short-day hamsters was suppressed by constant light treatment or modified by daily injection of propranolol to mimic nocturnal melatonin durations typical of long-day hamsters. Constant light treatment during weeks 3 to 5 induced early incomplete gonadal growth in 12L but not 10 L hamsters but did not affect late onset of gonadal development indicative of puberty in either photoperiod. Propranolol treatment during postnatal weeks 3 to 5 induced transient growth of the testes and ultimately delayed the timing of puberty by 3 weeks. Similar treatments between weeks 5 and 7 or on alternate weeks for 24 weeks did not affect the interval timer. The first 2 weeks after weaning may constitute a critical period during which the interval timer is highly responsive to photoperiod. Alternatively, the hamsters' photoperiodic history rather than age or developmental stage may be the critical variable. The interpolation of long-day melatonin signals at the time of weaning does not appear to reset the interval timer to its zero position but may reduce timer responsiveness to long-day melatonin signals several weeks later.

  15. Tonic control of kisspeptin release in prepubertal monkeys: implications to the mechanism of puberty onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurian, Joseph R; Keen, Kim L; Guerriero, Kathryn A; Terasawa, Ei

    2012-07-01

    Previously we have shown that a reduction in γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) inhibition is critical for the mechanism initiating puberty onset because chronic infusion of the GABA(A) receptor antagonist, bicuculline, significantly increased GnRH release and accelerated the timing of menarche and first ovulation in female rhesus monkeys. Because previous studies in our laboratory indicate that in prepubertal female monkeys, kisspeptin release in the medial basal hypothalamus is low, whereas kisspeptin-10 can stimulate GnRH release, we hypothesized that a low level of kisspeptin release prior to puberty onset is due to tonic GABA inhibition. To test this hypothesis we examined the effects of bicuculline infusion on kisspeptin release using a microdialysis method. We found that bicuculline at 1 μM dramatically stimulates kisspeptin release in the medial basal hypothalamus of prepubertal monkeys but had little effect on kisspeptin release in midpubertal monkeys. We further examined whether bicuculline-induced GnRH release is blocked by the presence of the kisspeptin antagonist, peptide 234. We found that inhibition of kisspeptin signaling blocked the bicuculline-induced stimulation of GnRH release, suggesting that kisspeptin neurons may relay inhibitory GABA signals to GnRH neurons. This implies that a reduction in tonic GABA inhibition of GnRH release is, at least in part, mediated through kisspeptin neurons.

  16. Age at Puberty and Some Biological Parameters of Awassi and its First Crosses with Charollais and Romanov Rams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Qasem Al-Momani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to determine the age at puberty of both ram and ewe lambs of three genotypes: Awassi (A, Charollais x Awassi (CA, and Romanov x Awassi (RA F1crosses. Twenty, six-month old lambs (10 from each sex from each genotype were used. Ram and ewe lambs were kept in separate groups from the beginning until the end of the experiment. Birth weight and weaning weight were recorded for all animals. Body weights and body condition scores were recorded at monthly intervals between 6.5 and 12 months of age. Blood samples were collected weekly from ewe lambs and fortnightly from ram lambs to monitor progesterone and testosterone profiles, respectively. Semen character- istics and scrotal circumferences (SC were evaluated fortnightly. Weight at puberty in ewe and ram lambs were not sig- nificantly different among the three genotypes and ranged around 35 kg and 42 kg, respectively. In ewe lambs, age at puberty was significantly higher (P< 0.01 in A (280±11.5 d than in RA (232±11 d and CA (255±11.5 d. Age at puber- ty of ram lambs was also significantly different (P < 0.01 among the three genotypes being higher in A (243±5 d than in CA (223±5 d and RA (226±5 d ram lambs. Semen parameters improved with age in all genotypes. The RA ram lambs had greater semen concentration and lower abnormal spermatozoa than the other two genotypes (P< 0.05. Results of the present study indicate that crossing Awassi ewes with either Charollais or Romanov sires tends to improve reproduc- tive characteristics of the Fcrossbreds through advancing age at puberty in both ram and ewe lambs.

  17. Role of Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Stimulation Test in Diagnosing Gonadotropin Deficiency in Both Males and Females with Delayed Puberty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-Hong Sun; Yu Zheng; Xiao-Lin Zhang; Yi-Ming Mu

    2015-01-01

    Background:Delayed puberty can result either from constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDP) or idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH).Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulation test has been generally accepted as a current method for diagnosing delayed puberty.The objective of this research was to assess the cut-off values and the efficacy of GnRH stimulation test in the diagnosis of delayed puberty in both males and females.Methods:A study of 91 IHH,27 CDP patients,6 prepubertal children,and 20 pubertal adults was undertaken.Blood samples were obtained at 0,30,60,and 120 min after GnRH administration and the levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were measured.For each parameter,the sensitivities and specificities were estimated,and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed.Results:The ROC curves indicated that a serum basal LH <0.6 IU/L or peak LH <9.74 IU/L resulted in moderate sensitivity (73.8% or 80.0%) and specificity (90.9% or 86.4%) in the diagnosis of HH in males.Serum basal LH <0.85 IU/L or basal FSH <2.43 IU/L resulted in moderate sensitivity (80.0% or 100.0%) and specificity (75.0% or 50.0%) in the diagnosis of HH in females.Conclusions:Our data suggest that isolated use of the gonadorelin stimulation test is almost sufficient to discriminate between HH and CDP in males,but unnecessary in females.The most useful predictor is serum basal or peak LH to differentiate these two disorders in males,but serum basal LH or FSH in females.

  18. Cognitive, emotional and psychosocial functioning of girls treated with pharmacological puberty blockage for idiopathic central precocious puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slawomir Wojniusz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Central precocious puberty (CPP develops due to premature activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis, resulting in early pubertal changes and rapid bone maturation. CPP is associated with lower adult height and increased risk for development of psychological problems. Standard treatment of CPP is based on postponement of pubertal development by blockade of the HPG axis with gonadotropin releasing hormone analogs (GnRHa leading to abolition of gonadal sex hormones synthesis. Whereas the hormonal and auxological effects of GnRHa are well researched, there is a lack of knowledge whether GnRHa treatment influences psychological functioning of treated children, despite the fact that prevention of psychological problems is used as one of the main reasons for treatment initiation. In the present study we seek to address this issue by exploring differences in cognitive function, behavior, emotional reactivity, and psychosocial problems between GnRHa treated CPP girls and age-matched controls.Fifteen girls with idiopathic CPP; median age 10.4 years, treated with slow-release GnRHa (triptorelin acetate – Decapeptyl SR ® 11.25 and 15 age-matched controls, were assessed with a comprehensive test battery consisting of paper and pencil tests, computerized tasks, behavioral paradigms, heart rate variability, and questionnaires filled in by the children’s parents. Both groups showed very similar scores with regard to cognitive performance, behavioral and psychosocial problems. Compared to controls, treated girls displayed significantly higher emotional reactivity (p = 0.016; Cohen’s d = 1.04 on one of the two emotional reactivity task conditions. Unexpectedly, the CPP group showed significantly lower resting heart rates than the controls (p = 0.004; Cohen’s d = 1.03; lower heart rate was associated with longer treatment duration (r = - 0.582, p = 0.037. The results suggest that GnRHa treated CPP girls do not differ in their cognitive or

  19. Timing of puberty and synchronization of seasonal rhythms by simulated natural photoperiods in female Siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Matthew P; Trumbull, Justin J; Turner, Kevin W; Zucker, Irving

    2007-07-01

    The timing of puberty is a critical life history trait of short-lived species; spring-born individuals mature rapidly and breed in the season of birth, whereas young born in mid- to late summer delay puberty until the next spring. The cues that govern the transition from rapid to delayed maturation in natural populations remain unknown. To identify ecologically relevant photoperiod cues that control timing of puberty, we monitored nine cohorts of female Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) born every 2 wk from 4 wk before to 12 wk after the summer solstice in a simulated natural photoperiod (SNP). Hamsters born by the summer solstice underwent rapid somatic growth and achieved puberty that summer; among females born 2-4 wk after the solstice, some delayed puberty by many weeks, whereas others manifested early puberty. Hamsters born 6 or more weeks after the solstice generally delayed puberty until the following spring. The transition from accelerated to delayed pubertal development in the SNP occurred at day lengths that induce early puberty when presented as static photoperiods. Despite differences in timing of birth and timing of puberty, fall and subsequent spring seasonal events occurred at similar calendar dates in all cohorts. We found no evidence that prenatal photoperiod history influenced postnatal development of female hamsters. Considered together with a parallel study on males, the present findings point to sex differences in responsiveness to natural photoperiod variations. In both sexes, incrementally changing photoperiods exert a strong organizing effect on seasonal rhythms.

  20. Is puberty a risk factor for back pain in the young? a systematic critical literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lardon, A.; Leboeuf-Yde, C.; Le Scanff, C.

    2014-01-01

    the increasing stages of puberty and the subsequent prevalence of back pain? 4) Is there a temporal link between puberty and back pain? DESIGN: A systematic critical literature review. METHODS: Systematic searches were made in March 2014 in PubMed, Embase, CINAHL and PsycINFO including longitudinal or cross......BACKGROUND: Back pain is a common condition that starts early in life and seems to increase markedly during puberty. A systematic review was performed in order to investigate the link between puberty and back pain, using some Bradford Hill criteria for causality. OBJECTIVES: We sought to obtain...

  1. Nutritional and Genetic Determinants of Early Puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    congenital adrenal hyperplasia , develop a more central adipose tissue distribution. This suggests that circulating testosterone favors an increase in...for dietary intake, body size and composition, sexual maturation, growth and bone density. Data collection will be extended by conducting a third...two years later in 2002-2003, for dietary intake, body size and composition, sexual maturation (Tanner staging), growth and bone density. Data

  2. A rare case of puberty onset congenital erythropoietic porphyria with ophthalmological manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debjani Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 27-year-old male patient was presented with foreign body sensation in both the eyes for 2 years duration and blisters followed by scarring and pigmentation in the photo-exposed areas of the body over the previous 12 years. His urine was reddish colored for the previous year. On examination, there was scarring, hyper-pigmentation of photo-exposed parts of the body along with resorption of the distal phalanges of fingers in both hands except the smallest digit which had onycholysis. Ocular examination indicated scleral necrosis in the interpalpebral areas in both eyes and bilateral dry eye. Hematological examination indicated a picture suggestive of hemolytic anemia. Abdominal ultrasonography indicated an enlarged spleen. These clinical features are suggestive of puberty onset congenital erythropoietic porphyria with ophthalmological manifestations.

  3. Etiology and therapeutic outcomes of children with gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Eungu; Cho, Ja Hyang; Choi, Jin-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study was performed to investigate the etiology, clinical features, and outcomes of patients with gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty (GIPP). Methods The study included 16 patients (14 female and 2 male patients) who manifested secondary sexual characteristics, elevated sex hormones, or adrenal androgens with prepubertal luteinizing hormone levels after gonadotropin releasing hormone stimulation diagnosed between May 1994 and December 2015. Patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia were excluded. Clinical features, laboratory findings, treatment modalities, and outcomes were retrospectively reviewed. Results The median age at diagnosis was 2.6 years (range, 0.7–7.9 years) and median follow-up duration was 4.6 years (range, 1 month–9.8 years). Patients with McCune-Albright syndrome (n=5) and functional ovarian cysts (n=4) presented with vaginal bleeding and elevated estradiol levels (23.3±17.5 pg/mL); adrenocortical tumors (n=4) with premature pubarche and elevated dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels (87.2–6,530 µg/dL); and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-producing tumor (n=1) with premature pubarche and elevated β-human chorionic gonadotropin levels (47.4 mIU/mL). Two patients were idiopathic. Six patients transited to gonadotropin-dependent precocious puberty median 3.3 years (range, 0.3–5.1 years) after the onset of GIPP. Initial and follow-up height standard deviation scores (0.99±0.84 vs. 1.10±1.10, P=0.44) and bone age advancement (1.49±1.77 years vs. 2.02±1.95 years, P=0.06) were not significantly different. Conclusion The etiologies of GIPP are heterogeneous, and treatment and prognosis is quite different according to the etiology. Efficacy of treatment with aromatase inhibitors needs to be evaluated after long-term follow-up. PMID:27777905

  4. Precocious puberty in two girls with Chiari I malformation: a contribution to a larger use of brain MRI in the diagnosis of central precocious puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucarelli, I; Accardo, F; Tarani, L; Demiraj, V; Segni, M; Pasquino, A M

    2010-06-01

    Up to now Chiari malformation has been reported only in four subjects with precocious puberty, with a prevalence among boys. This article describes the case of two female children affected by progressive precocious puberty detected through brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Brain imaging, even without neurological signs, can identify patients at risk of developing subsequently severe neurological symptoms. Our observation supports the usefulness of brain MRI both in males and females, even when no symptoms are present, to identify and detect high risk cases. However, there is no consensus in Literature in performing MRI in all the patients of both sexes with central precocious puberty, due to its high costs.

  5. Etiology of precocious puberty, 10 years study in Endocrine Reserch Centre (Firouzgar, Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Safari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Precocious puberty, as early physical development and low final height might lead to psychosocial problems.Objective: To evaluate etiology and clinical feature of precocious puberty in a cohort of Iranian children.Materials and Methods: In this case-series study, 44 girls and 8 boys with precocious puberty referred to Endocrine Reserch Centre (Firouzgar, Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism (Hemmat Campus, were examined in a 10 years period of time. Results: Mean age of girls and boys was 7.43±1.4 years and 5.8±2.1 years respectively. Most of the patients fell within the age category of 7-7.9 years old (40.9% for girls and 50% for boys. Patients, concerning etiology of precocious puberty were classified in three categories: 42.6% of patients had central precocious puberty (CPP, including idiopathic CPP (87.5% and neurogenic CPP (12.5%. 23.3% of patients had peripheral precocious puberty (PPP, including congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH (42.8%, ovarian cysts (28.4%, McCune-Albright syndrome (14.2% and adrenal carcinoma (14.2%. 34.1% of girls and 25% of boys had normal variant puberty including premature thelarche (57%, premature adrenarche (38% as well as premature menarche (4.7%l. Conclusion: The most common etiology of precocious puberty in girls was idiopathic central precocious puberty and premature thelarche, while in boys they were neurogenic central precocious puberty and CAH. Therefore precocious puberty in girls is usually benign. In boys, CNS anomalies should first be considered in the differential diagnosis of CPP. Therefore brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI is mandatory in all cases.

  6. [Mutations in the personality nucleus at puberty and adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiopu, U

    1989-01-01

    The author considers that analysing the personality by means of concrete research, the axis "self-perceptual Ego and the prospective, ideal Ego" make up an operational axis included in personality nucleus. The selected interference of the alter image about the Ego permanently readjusts this axis. In this purpose an adjective checklist and the projective test TST in two alternative have been used. The author concludes that during puberty and adolescence several changes take place as far as the number of adjective used, descriptors prevailing characteristics, and affective finality are concerned.

  7. Use of a stair-step compensatory gain nutritional regimen to program the onset of puberty in beef heifers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cardoso, R C; Alves, B R C; Prezotto, L D; Thorson, J F; Tedeschi, L O; Keisler, D H; Park, C S; Amstalden, M; Williams, G L

    2014-01-01

    It was hypothesized that metabolic programming of processes underlying puberty can be shifted temporally through the use of a stair-step compensatory growth model such that puberty is optimally timed...

  8. Puberty as a vulnerable period to the effects of immune challenges: Focus on sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Leanne; Ismail, Nafissa

    2017-03-01

    Puberty is a critical period of development during which sexual maturity is attained. It is also a critical period for brain reorganization and it is vulnerable to exposure to certain environmental factors. Exposure to stress during this period can cause enduring neural and behavioral alterations. More specifically, exposure to an immune challenge during this period can alter reproductive as well as a number of non-reproductive behaviors and can permanently alter the brain's response to gonadal hormones. The present review examines the enduring effect of exposure to LPS and poly(I:C) during the pubertal period. Age and sex differences in acute response to LPS are discussed as possible mechanisms of vulnerability to adverse effects. Moreover, this review suggests new research directions to improve our understanding of the vulnerability of the pubertal period to immunological stressors.

  9. The changes in running economy during puberty in overweight and normal weight boys

    OpenAIRE

    Maciejczyk Marcin; Gradek Joanna; Szymura Jadwiga; Cempla Jerzy; Więcek Magdalena; Tota Łukasz

    2015-01-01

    Study aim: running economy (RE) is important indicator of endurance performance. During puberty dynamic changes in body composition and function are observed, as such RE is also expected to change. The aim of the study was to compare the running economy (RE) in overweight and normoweight boys during a running exercise performed with constant velocity, and the assessment of changes in RE during puberty.

  10. The roles of age at puberty and energy restriction in sow reproductive longevity: a genomic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately 50% of sows are culled annually with more than one third due to poor fertility. Our research demonstrated that age at puberty is an early pre-breeding indicator of reproductive longevity. Age at puberty can be measured early in life, has a moderate heritability and is negatively correl...

  11. What Educational Contexts Should Teachers Consider for Their Puberty Education Programmes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier-Harris, Christine A.; Goldman, Juliette D. G.

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyses some contemporary educational contexts that teachers should consider for their puberty education programmes and/or curricula, for primary and secondary school students. The educational contexts addressed here include significant international puberty education framework documents, socio-biological factors including earlier…

  12. What Educational Contexts Should Teachers Consider for Their Puberty Education Programmes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier-Harris, Christine A.; Goldman, Juliette D. G.

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyses some contemporary educational contexts that teachers should consider for their puberty education programmes and/or curricula, for primary and secondary school students. The educational contexts addressed here include significant international puberty education framework documents, socio-biological factors including earlier…

  13. Serum IGF1 and insulin levels in girls with normal and precocious puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Aksglaede, Lise; Petersen, Jørgen Holm

    2012-01-01

    IGF1 plays an important role in growth and metabolism during puberty. IGF1 levels are increased in girls with central precocious puberty (CPP). However, the relationship with insulin before and during gonadal suppression is unknown. In addition, the influence of the exon 3-deleted GH receptor gene...

  14. A Signaling Role for Leptin in Puberty Onset in Female Rats?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeinoaldini, S.; Swarts, J.J.M.; Heijning, van de B.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    The brain might initiate puberty in response to adequate leptin signaling from the periphery. We studied the link between whole body fat, plasma leptin levels, and puberty onset, in both controls and food-restricted female Wistar rats from age 22 to 42 days. Body fat correlated positively with the p

  15. A Signaling Role for Leptin in Puberty Onset in Female Rats?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeinoaldini, S.; Swarts, J.J.M.; Heijning, van de B.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    The brain might initiate puberty in response to adequate leptin signaling from the periphery. We studied the link between whole body fat, plasma leptin levels, and puberty onset, in both controls and food-restricted female Wistar rats from age 22 to 42 days. Body fat correlated positively with the

  16. Pineal attrition, loss of cognitive plasticity, and onset of puberty during the teen years: is it a modern maladaptation exposed by evolutionary displacement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, A Joon; Bazar, Kimberly A; Lee, Patrick Y

    2004-01-01

    Cognitive plasticity, a developmental trait that promotes acquisition of complex skills such as language or playing musical instruments, diminishes substantially during puberty. The loss of plasticity has been attributed to surge of sex steroids during adolescence, but the phenomenon remains poorly understood. We hypothesize that pineal involution during puberty may contribute to plasticity decay. The pineal gland produces melatonin, the level of which declines dramatically during onset of puberty. Emerging evidence suggest that melatonin may modulate cognitive plasticity, independent of the effects of sex steroids, and low sex steroids and high melatonin may be simultaneously required to maintain cognitive plasticity. Potential mechanisms by which melatonin may modulate plasticity are examined within the sleep and hippocampal long-term potentiation frameworks. Implications for psychiatric conditions that involve sleep disorders and learning dysfunctions such as schizophrenia and autism are discussed, and the potential adaptive roles of postprandial and postcoital sleep are explored. From the Darwinian perspective, development and reproductive maturity may represent distinct phases that require tailored cognitive strategies to maximize fitness. While cognitive flexibility and susceptibility to new skills may be paramount during development, reduced cognitive flexibility and increased cognitive determinism may enable more efficient responses to stimuli during adulthood. Thus, cognitive plasticity and cognitive determinism may represent trade-off adaptations and different dimensions of intelligence. The decline of plasticity and emergence of puberty during the second decade may be relics of prehistoric times when the human lifespan was short and the environment was relatively simple and static. Today, when the environment is more complex and dynamic, and humans are living far longer, the early obsolescence of plasticity during puberty may represent a Darwinian

  17. Hormonal changes during puberty and their relationship to fat distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemmich, James N.; Rogol, Alan D.

    1999-01-01

    In adults, abdominal visceral adiposity is related to an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, and stroke. The antecedents of these conditions likely begin with the alterations in body fat distribution during childhood and adolescence. The sexually dimorphic alterations in fat distribution are influenced by sex differences in hormone concentrations, anatomical differences in the number and density of specific hormone receptors, capillary blood flow, and the activity of enzymes promoting lipid synthesis or degradation. Hormones influencing the amount and regional distribution of adipose tissue during puberty include cortisol, insulin, growth hormone, and the sex steroids. Cortisol and insulin promote fat deposition while the sex steroids and GH stimulate lipolysis. An overly sensitive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis may exist in obesity and disrupt the balance between the lipogenic effects of cortisol and insulin and the lipolytic effects of sex steroids and growth hormone. Leptin is released from the adipocytes and may act as a metabolic signal to the hypothalamic areas controlling satiety, energy expenditure, and the regulation of cortisol, insulin, sex steroid and growth hormone release. The complex issues of the hormonal control of alterations in body fat distribution during puberty are developed and a working model is proposed. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 11:209-224, 1999. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. [Precocious puberty due to HCG secreting pinealoma (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, D

    The present report concerns a six years nine months old boy in whom a HCG secreting pineal tumor (pinealocytoma type I) was responsible for precocious puberty. Features : polydipsia, deepened voice, pubic hair, penile enlargement without corresponding testicular growth. Serum basal concentrations of LH (150 mU/ml), testosterone (85.80 nanomole/l), HCG (115 ng/ml) and its beta subunit (15 ng/ml) were markedly elevated, FSH was low (3.9 mU/ml) ] dissociated hypopituitarism was also present. A surgical removal of the tumor was performed (RIA of the neoplastic tissue revealed high HCG and beta HCG activity) and after the operation the child had radiation therapy. Recovery for the foregoing procedure was rapid, but after some months, in spite chemotherapy his condition deteriorated progressively. The apparent limitation of pinealoma and precocious puberty to the male sex is discussed and supposed to be partly the result of the ectopic gonadotropin secretion. These tumors are compared to other HCG secreting carcinomas located elsewhere in the body and causing sexual precocity in boys only.

  19. Chronic leptin infusion advances, and immunoneutralization of leptin postpones puberty onset in normally fed and feed restricted female rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeinoaldini, S.; Swarts, J.J.M.; Heijning, van de B.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Does leptin play a vital role in initiating puberty in female rats and can it overrule a nutrionally imposed (i.e. a 30% feed restriction, FR) delay in puberty onset? Prepubertal female rats were chronically infused for 14 days with leptin (icv or sc) or leptin-antiserum (icv) while puberty onset wa

  20. Chronic leptin infusion advances, and immunoneutralization of leptin postpones puberty onset in normally fed and feed restricted female rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeinoaldini, S.; Swarts, J.J.M.; Heijning, van de B.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Does leptin play a vital role in initiating puberty in female rats and can it overrule a nutrionally imposed (i.e. a 30% feed restriction, FR) delay in puberty onset? Prepubertal female rats were chronically infused for 14 days with leptin (icv or sc) or leptin-antiserum (icv) while puberty onset

  1. Pathological and incidental findings on brain MRI in a single-center study of 229 consecutive girls with early or precocious puberty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe Sloth Mogensen

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Central precocious puberty may result from organic brain lesions, but is most frequently of idiopathic origin. Clinical or biochemical factors which could predict a pathological brain MRI in girls with CPP have been searched for. With the recent decline in age at pubertal onset among US and European girls, it has been suggested that only girls with CPP below 6 years of age should have brain MRI performed. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcome of brain MRI in girls referred with early signs of puberty in relation to age at presentation as well as clinical and biochemical parameters. METHOD: A single-center study of 229 consecutive girls with early or precocious puberty who had brain imaging performed. We evaluated medical history, clinical and biochemical factors, and four groups were defined based on the outcome of their MRI. RESULTS: Thirteen out of 208 (6.3% girls with precocious puberty, but no other sign of CNS symptoms, had a pathological brain MRI. Importantly, all 13 girls were above 6 years of age, and 6 girls were even 8-9 years old. Twenty girls (9.6% had incidental findings on brain MRI. Furthermore, 21 girls had known CNS pathology at time of evaluation. Basal LH was significantly higher in girls with newly diagnosed CNS pathology compared to girls with a non-pathological MRI (p = 0.025; no cut of value was found as values overlapped. CONCLUSION: A high frequency of 6-8 year old girls with precocious puberty in our study had a pathological brain MRI, which could not be predicted from any clinical nor biochemical parameters. Thus, we believe that girls with precocious pubertal development of central origin before 8 years of age should continue to be examined by a brain MRI.

  2. Back pain reporting in young girls appears to be puberty-related

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Froberg Karsten

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a large increase in back pain reporting in the early teens. In no previous study has the prevalence of low back pain been investigated in relation to the onset of puberty. The objective of this study was to establish whether the onset of puberty is associated with back pain reporting in young girls. Methods A subsample of 254 girls aged 8–10 years and 165 girls aged 14–16 years from a cross-sectional survey of 481 children aged 8–10 years and 325 adolescents aged 14–16 years of both sexes. Main outcome measures were back pain defined as low back pain, mid back pain, and/or neck pain in the past month. Other variables of interest were Puberty (five different stages, age, body mass index, and smoking. Independent information on onset of puberty was obtained through a physical examination and on back pain through an individual structured interview. The association was studied between onset of puberty and the outcome variable (the one month period prevalence of back pain, controlling for overweight, and smoking. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were used to describe bivariate associations, logistic regression with robust standard errors was used for multivariate analyses. Results There is a highly significant trend for increased back pain reporting with increasing level of puberty until maturity is reached. The biggest leap appears between the second level (beginning of puberty and the third level (mid puberty and the findings remain after controlling for the covariates. These results emanate from the low back, whereas pain in the mid back and neck do not seem to be linked with pubertal stage. Conclusion In girls, the reporting of low back pain increases in frequency during puberty until maturity, regardless of age. Why some girls are susceptible to back pain in the early stage of puberty is unknown.

  3. Associations between neuromuscular function and levels of physical activity differ for boys and girls during puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudroff, Thorsten; Kelsey, Megan M; Melanson, Edward L; McQueen, Matthew B; Enoka, Roger M

    2013-08-01

    To compare the associations between neuromuscular performance and anthropometric characteristics with habitual levels of physical activity in boys and girls during the initial stages of puberty. In a cross-sectional study of 72 healthy children (39 boys and 33 girls) ranging in age from 8 to 14 years, sex differences in anthropometric and motor performance characteristics were compared at 3 Tanner stages (T1-T3). Outcome variables included dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry measurements of body composition, assessments of neuromuscular function, and levels of physical activity (steps/day) measured by accelerometry. Physical activity was lower in girls than boys at T2 and T3, but there was no sex difference at T1. Physical activity increased with Tanner stage for boys but did not differ between Tanner stages in girls. Physical activity at each Tanner stage was strongly associated (R(2) > 0.85) with neuromuscular characteristics for both boys and girls, but percentage of body fat also was associated with physical activity for T3 girls. The attenuated gains in neuromuscular function experienced by girls in early stages of puberty were strongly associated with lower levels of physical activity, whereas the increase in physical activity exhibited by boys was mostly related to increases in the strength and endurance of leg muscles. Because sedentary activity is a known contributor to the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes in youth, this study helps to identify possible contributors to decreases in physical activity in young girls and provides potential targets for early intervention. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Study Of Morphological Changes Of Uterine Horn Of Surri Mouse Depended To Morphine Before Puberty And DuringPuberty

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    Shadkhast M

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available : Morphine is the most important alkaloid of opium family which is found as much as ten percent in opium, and is in two types the sulfate morphine and the hydrochloride morphine."nMaterials and Methods: In this study morphological changes of uterus of surri mice due to oral consumption of sulfate morphine were studied. It was shown that, female surri mice following gradually increasing of morphine to water (0.1 and 0.01 mg/ml were depended to morphine. Female surri mice were classified in two age groups before puberty and depended to morphine during puberty. Each age group took morphine for 21 days. After finishing the period, the mice anesthetizing were weighted, then were anesthetizing and uterus was studied the length, width and apparent features."nResults&ConcIusion: In this study it was distinguished that length and width of uterine horn, between experimental and control groups, were significant (P< 0.01. Morphological changes such as anemia, the thinness and fragitidily walls of uterus and filiformity of uterine horns were observed."n"n"n"n"n"n 

  5. Urinary Sex Steroids and Anthropometric Markers of Puberty - A Novel Approach to Characterising Within-Person Changes of Puberty Hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurmeet K S; Balzer, Ben W R; Kelly, Patrick J; Paxton, Karen; Hawke, Catherine I; Handelsman, David J; Steinbeck, Katharine S

    2015-01-01

    The longitudinal relationships of within-individual hormone and anthropometric changes during puberty have not ever been fully described. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate that 3 monthly urine collection was feasible in young adolescents and to utilise liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay methods for serum and urine testosterone (T), estradiol (E2) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in adolescents by relating temporal changes in urine and serum hormones over 12 months to standard measures of pubertal development. A community sample of 104 adolescents (57 female) was studied over 12 months with annual anthropometric assessment, blood sampling and self-rated Tanner staging and urine collected every 3 months. Serum and urine sex steroids (T, E2) were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and LH by immunoassay. A high proportion (92%) of scheduled samples were obtained with low attrition rate of 6.7% over the 12 months. Urine hormone measurements correlated cross-sectionally and longitudinally with age, anthropometry and Tanner stage. We have developed a feasible and valid sampling methodology and measurements for puberty hormones in urine, which allows a sampling frequency by which individual pubertal progression in adolescents can be described in depth.

  6. Urinary Sex Steroids and Anthropometric Markers of Puberty - A Novel Approach to Characterising Within-Person Changes of Puberty Hormones.

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    Gurmeet K S Singh

    Full Text Available The longitudinal relationships of within-individual hormone and anthropometric changes during puberty have not ever been fully described. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate that 3 monthly urine collection was feasible in young adolescents and to utilise liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay methods for serum and urine testosterone (T, estradiol (E2 and luteinizing hormone (LH in adolescents by relating temporal changes in urine and serum hormones over 12 months to standard measures of pubertal development.A community sample of 104 adolescents (57 female was studied over 12 months with annual anthropometric assessment, blood sampling and self-rated Tanner staging and urine collected every 3 months. Serum and urine sex steroids (T, E2 were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS and LH by immunoassay.A high proportion (92% of scheduled samples were obtained with low attrition rate of 6.7% over the 12 months. Urine hormone measurements correlated cross-sectionally and longitudinally with age, anthropometry and Tanner stage.We have developed a feasible and valid sampling methodology and measurements for puberty hormones in urine, which allows a sampling frequency by which individual pubertal progression in adolescents can be described in depth.

  7. Urinary Sex Steroids and Anthropometric Markers of Puberty - A Novel Approach to Characterising Within-Person Changes of Puberty Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurmeet K. S.; Balzer, Ben W. R.; Kelly, Patrick J.; Paxton, Karen; Hawke, Catherine I.; Handelsman, David J.; Steinbeck, Katharine S.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims The longitudinal relationships of within-individual hormone and anthropometric changes during puberty have not ever been fully described. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate that 3 monthly urine collection was feasible in young adolescents and to utilise liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay methods for serum and urine testosterone (T), estradiol (E2) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in adolescents by relating temporal changes in urine and serum hormones over 12 months to standard measures of pubertal development. Methods A community sample of 104 adolescents (57 female) was studied over 12 months with annual anthropometric assessment, blood sampling and self-rated Tanner staging and urine collected every 3 months. Serum and urine sex steroids (T, E2) were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and LH by immunoassay. Results A high proportion (92%) of scheduled samples were obtained with low attrition rate of 6.7% over the 12 months. Urine hormone measurements correlated cross-sectionally and longitudinally with age, anthropometry and Tanner stage. Conclusion We have developed a feasible and valid sampling methodology and measurements for puberty hormones in urine, which allows a sampling frequency by which individual pubertal progression in adolescents can be described in depth. PMID:26599397

  8. Possible role of the leptin system in controlling puberty in the male chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohga, Hirofumi; Hirata, Daisuke; Matsumori, Kojiro; Kitano, Hajime; Nagano, Naoki; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Matsuyama, Michiya

    2017-01-01

    Leptin directly regulates kisspeptin neurons in the hypothalamus and gonadotropin secretion from the pituitary, making it a central player in the onset of mammalian puberty. Recently, we identified two leptin genes (lepa and lepb) and a single leptin receptor (lepr) in the marine perciform fish chub mackerel; however, the expression of these genes did not correlate with the expression of important reproductive genes or ovarian stage during female puberty. Here, we expand upon these initial observations by evaluating the expression of lepa, lepb, and lepr during pubertal transition and under differential feeding conditions in the male chub mackerel. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed that lepa was primarily expressed in the liver of pubertal and gonadal recrudescence adults, as well as in the brain of adult fish; lepb was primarily expressed in the brain of all fish tested; and lepr was widely expressed in a variety of tissues. qRT-PCR analyses revealed significant increases in the hepatic expression of lepa in accordance with testicular stage, whereas pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone (fshβ) expression increased in unison with hepatic lepa. In contrast, expression of both brain lepa and lepb dramatically decreased during pubertal transition, with brain kisspeptin 1 (kiss1) expression strongly correlating with leptin expression patterns. In pre-pubertal males, lepa, lepb, and lper gene expression in the brain, pituitary gland, and liver decreased in fish given a high feed diet, relative to the controlled feeding group. Taken together, these results indicate high sexual specificity of leptin expression, suggesting a possible role for leptin signaling in endocrine and neuroendocrine functions during spermatogenesis in the pubertal male chub mackerel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. True precocious puberty following treatment of a Leydig cell tumour: two case reports and literature review

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    Alberto eVerrotti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Leydig cell testicular tumours are a rare cause of precocious pseudopuberty in boys. Surgery is the main therapy and shows good overall prognosis. The physical signs of precocious puberty are expected to disappear shortly after surgical removal of the mass. We report two children, 7.5 and 7.7 year-old boys, who underwent testis-sparing surgery for a Leydig cell testicular tumour causing precocious pseudopuberty. During follow-up, after an immediate clinical and laboratory regression, both boys presented signs of precocious puberty and ultimately developed central precocious puberty. They were successfully treated with gonadotropin releasing hormone analogues. Only 6 other cases have been described regarding the development of central precocious puberty after successful treatment of a Leydig cell tumour causing precocious pseudo puberty. Gonadotropin-dependent precocious puberty should be considered in children treated for a Leydig cell tumour presenting persistent or recurrent physical signs of puberty activation. In such cases, therapy with gonadotropin releasing hormone analogues appears to be the most effective medical treatment.

  10. An approach to constitutional delay of growth and puberty

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    Ashraf T Soliman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Constitutional delay of growth and puberty is a transient state of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism associated with prolongation of childhood phase of growth, delayed skeletal maturation, delayed and attenuated pubertal growth spurt, and relatively low insulin-like growth factor-1 secretion. In a considerable number of cases, the final adult height (Ht does not reach the mid-parental or the predicted adult Ht for the individual, with some degree of disproportionately short trunk. In the pre-pubertal male, testosterone (T replacement therapy can be used to induce pubertal development, accelerate growth and relieve the psychosocial complaints of the adolescents. However, some issues in the management are still unresolved. These include type, optimal timing, dose and duration of sex steroid treatment and the possible use of adjunctive or alternate therapy including: oxandrolone, aromatase inhibitors and human growth hormone.

  11. Precocious puberty due to human chorionic gonadotropin secreting germinoma

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    Daiane J Nascimento

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to report a rare case of precocious puberty (PP due to a human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG-producing germinoma located in the suprasellar region. A 10-year-old male patient presented with sexual precocity, headache, drowsiness, loss of appetite, and papilledema. Significant acceleration of bone age in relation to chronological age, high serum total testosterone levels, and hypopituitarism (unresponsiveness to stimulation test were observed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain showed a large suprasellar tumor and triventricular dilatation. High hCG levels were found in both blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Hormone replacement therapy and transcranial surgery associated with radiotherapy were performed, with complete regression of sexual characteristics and normal laboratory tests post-operatively. Clinical and laboratory findings, in addition to MRI scans, led to the diagnosis of an hCG-producing tumor and PP, which represents a rare report in the literature.

  12. Neocortical RELN promoter methylation increases significantly after puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintas, Carla; Persico, Antonio M

    2010-01-27

    Reelin plays a pivotal role in neurodevelopment. Excessive RELN promoter methylation and/or decreased RELN gene expression have been described in schizophrenia and autism. We assessed RELN promoter methylation in post-mortem temporocortical tissue (Brodmann Area 41/42) of three prepuberal and six postpuberal normal individuals. The former display very little or no methylation, whereas most postpuberal individuals are heavily methylated, especially at CpG positions located between -131 and -98 bp (prepuberal vs. postpuberal, P<0.05). Sex hormones thus seemingly boost DNA methylation at the RELN promoter. This physiological change could significantly contribute to the onset of schizophrenia and the worsening of autistic behaviors, both typically occurring at puberty.

  13. [Rapidly progressive puberty in a patient with mosaic Turner syndrome: a case report and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Y; Wei, H; Yu, X; Huang, W; Luo, X P

    2017-02-02

    Objective: To explore the clinical characteristics of diagnosis and treatment in patients with Turner syndrome and rapidly progressive puberty. Method: A rare case of rapidly progressive puberty in Turner syndrome with a mosaic karyotype of 45, X/46, X, del(X)(p21)(80%/20%)was diagnosed at Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology in January. 2015. Clinical characteristics and the related literature were reviewed. Original papers on precocious puberty or rapidly progressive puberty in Turner syndrome, published until Apr. 2016 were retrieved at PubMed and CNKI databases by the use of the key words "Turner syndrome" , "precocious puberty" and "rapidly progressive puberty" . Result: The patient was born at term with birth weight of 2 450 g and was diagnosed with SGA at 3 years of age for the first evaluating of growth and development. Then recombined human growth hormone (rhGH )was given at 4 years of age due to short stature (heightcases have been reported in the literature. Six of them showing mosaic TS, three karyotypes with structural abnormality of short arm of X chromosome, one with the karyotype 45, X. Conclusion: It is the first time that rapidly progressive puberty in a 45, X/46, X, del(X)(p21) mosaic Turner syndrome is reported. Although short stature and ovarian dysgenesis are common in TS, precocious puberty may occur in TS, which is liable to cause delayed diagnosis and misdiagnosis. Careful examination is recommended for patients with unusual growth pattern, even though girls have normal height in accord with standard growth curve or spontaneous puberty. Evaluation for TS and subsequent investigation should be prompted.

  14. HYPERANDROGENISM OF PUBERTY AGE AS A FACTOR REDUCING FERTILITY

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    E. M. Bogatyreva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Hyperandrogenism is a common cause of infertility in women. The onset of symptoms of hyperandrogenism takes place during puberty in the majority of women. Hyperandrogenism reduces reproductive potential,so early detection and development of its prognostic factors, allows us to solve serious problems of puberty and prevent infertility.Materials and methods. 113 adolescent girls with hyperandrogenism from 14 to 19 years were included. The control group consists of 25 healthy girls of a similar age. To confirm the prediction of decreased reproductive capacity were examined 35 women with hyperandrogenism from 19 to 36 years. In addition to routine methods of examination (anamnesis, physical examination, anthropometry, assessment of the hairline using Ferriman – Gallwey scale, ultrasound of the pelvic organs, the definition of the hormonal status (LH, FSH, prolactin, 17-OHP, estradiol, TSH, DHEAS-s, GHPG, testosterone, glucose, insulin, glucose tolerance test and dexamethasone suppression test when necessary.Results. We have proved the reduction of reproductive potential of adolescent girls with high free androgen index (FAI. When the FAI has increased from 36 to 100 conventional units it caused reduction of the reproductive capacity in 9.7 times in comparison with control group (χ2=56,24; p < 0.001; overall prediction accuracy of 92.8%.Conclusion. Free androgen index more than 36 conventional units is a high risk factor of reduced fertility.

  15. Declining age of puberty of school girls in southern Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Somchit Jaruratanasirikul; Atchariya Chanpong; Nuttaporn Tassanakijpanich; Hutcha Sriplung

    2014-01-01

    Background: Declines in the onset age of secondary sexual development have been reported in a number of recent studies in western and Asian countries. A study of Hat-Yai school girls in 1994 in Thailand showed that the ages at thelarche and menarche were 9.9 and 12.4 years, respectively. This study was to determine whether there was a decline in the average age of puberty in Hat-Yai school girls from 1994 to 2012. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2140 healthy Hat-Yai school girls, aged 6-18 years, from June 2011 to March 2012. Breast and pubic hair development was assessed by the Tanner staging method. Probit analysis was used to calculate the median ages of different stages of breast and pubic hair development, and the age of menarche. Results: The median ages of girls having thelarche and menarche were 9.6 (95% CI, 9.4-9.8) and 12.2 (95% CI, 11.9-12.4) years, which declined from 9.9 (95% CI, 9.7-10.1) and 12.4 years (95% CI, 12.2-12.6) in the 1994 study respectively, however, without statistical significance. The youngest ages of girls who had breast stage 2 and menarche were 7.2 and 9.2 years, respectively. The fi nal height at age 14 years in this cohort (157.3 cm) was 2.3 cm greater than that of girls in 1994 (155.0 cm). Conclusions: From 1994 to 2012, the age at onset of thelarche and menarche of girls in Hat-Yai municipality declined by 0.2 and 0.3 years, respectively. The earlier age at onset of puberty had no effect on fi nal adult height.

  16. Neural systems supporting cognitive-affective interactions in adolescence: The role of puberty and implications for affective disorders

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    Cecile D. Ladouceur

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from longitudinal studies suggests that adolescence may represent a period of vulnerability that, in the context of adverse events, could contribute to developmental trajectories toward behavioral and emotional health problems, including affective disorders. Adolescence is also a sensitive period for the development of neural systems supporting cognitive-affective processes, which have been implicated in the pathophysiology of affective disorders such as anxiety and mood disorders. In particular, the onset of puberty brings about a cascade of physical, hormonal, psychological, and social changes that contribute in complex ways to the development of these systems. This article provides a brief overview of neuroimaging research pertaining to the development of cognitive-affective processes in adolescence. It also includes a brief review of evidence from animal and human neuroimaging studies suggesting that sex steroids influence the connectivity between prefrontal cortical and subcortical limbic regions in ways that contribute to increased reactivity to emotionally salient stimuli. We integrate these findings in the context of a developmental affective neuroscience framework suggesting that the impact of rising levels of sex steroids during puberty on fronto-limbic connectivity may be even greater in the context of protracted development of prefrontal cortical regions in adolescence. We conclude by discussing the implications of these findings for future research aimed at identifying neurodevelopmental markers of risk for future onset of affective disorders.

  17. Pilot study on the dietary habits and lifestyles of girls with idiopathic precocious puberty from the city of Rome: potential impact of exposure to flame retardant polybrominated diphenyl ethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassinari, Roberta; Mancini, Francesca R; Mantovani, Alberto; Busani, Luca; Maranghi, Francesca

    2015-11-01

    Puberty is regulated by the endocrine system, which when disrupted can affect reproductive health. Endocrine disrupters (ED) are involved in the pathogenesis of idiopathic central precocious puberty (ICPP). Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) are lipophilic, persistent ED used as flame retardants in several products; thus, human population is exposed through food and domestic dust. PBDE exposure during the peripubertal period is suspected to interfere with reproductive development. The study aimed to investigate PBDE serum concentration in 31 girls with ICPP as well as describe their dietary habits and lifestyles. The PBDE median level was 59 ng/g of lipids, higher than in healthy girls in comparable studies. Interestingly, elder girls and girls with higher body mass index (BMI) showed higher PBDE serum levels. Considering the relevance of altered puberty onset as a risk factor for reproductive health, studies on food contribution to PBDE exposure in Italian children, and efforts to ameliorate risk assessment for emerging chemicals are suggested.

  18. The timing of normal puberty and the age limits of sexual precocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parent, Anne-Simone; Teilmann, Grete; Juul, Anders

    2003-01-01

    During the past decade, possible advancement in timing of puberty has been reported in the United States. In addition, early pubertal development and an increased incidence of sexual precocity have been noticed in children, primarily girls, migrating for foreign adoption in several Western European...... countries. These observations are raising the issues of current differences and secular trends in timing of puberty in relation to ethnic, geographical, and socioeconomic background. None of these factors provide an unequivocal explanation for the earlier onset of puberty seen in the United States...

  19. Testicular Growth During Puberty in Boys With and Without a History of Congenital Cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadov, Sergey; Koskenniemi, Jaakko J; Virtanen, Helena E

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: The pattern of testicular growth during puberty may provide important information about early testicular damage and reproductive potential in adulthood. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate pubertal testicular growth in boys with congenital cryptorchidism and controls. DESIGN: Longitudinal case...... mL by orchidometer and 25 mm by ruler as cut-offs in definition of the onset of puberty. An orchidometer size of 3 mL and ruler length of 25 mm corresponded to 1.6 and 1.7 mL by ultrasound (with Lambert's formula), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Testicular growth in puberty was impaired in congenitally...

  20. Insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles in girls with central precocious puberty before and during gonadal suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Mouritsen, Annette; Mogensen, Signe Sloth

    2010-01-01

    Early menarche is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. It is unknown whether metabolic risk factors are adversely affected in girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) already at time of diagnosis....

  1. Influence of growth hormone on growth and onset of puberty of Rahmani ewe lamb

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    K.H. El-Shahat

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Somatotropin administration enhanced puberty in Rahmani ewe lambs. This is due to increased provision of trophic signals (represented by increased Serum IGF-1 secretions and/or blood-borne metabolites (glucose, cholesterol and lipid.

  2. The changes in running economy during puberty in overweight and normal weight boys

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    Maciejczyk Marcin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: running economy (RE is important indicator of endurance performance. During puberty dynamic changes in body composition and function are observed, as such RE is also expected to change. The aim of the study was to compare the running economy (RE in overweight and normoweight boys during a running exercise performed with constant velocity, and the assessment of changes in RE during puberty.

  3. Diagnosis and constitutional and laboratory features of Korean girls referred for precocious puberty

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    Doosoo Kim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available &lt;B&gt;Purpose:&lt;/B&gt; Precocious puberty is defined as breast development before the age of 8 years in girls. The present study aimed to reveal the diagnosis of Korean girls referred for precocious puberty and to compare the constitutional and endocrinological features among diagnosis groups. &lt;B&gt;Methods:&lt;/B&gt; The present study used a retrospective chart review of 988 Korean girls who had visited a pediatric endocrinology clinic from 2006 to 2010 for the evaluation of precocious puberty. Study groups comprised fast puberty, true precocious puberty (PP, pseudo PP, premature thelarche, and control. We determined the height standard deviation score (HSDS, weight standard deviation score (WSDS, and body mass index standard deviation score (BMISDS of each group using the published 2007 Korean growth charts. Hormone tests were performed at our outpatient clinic. &lt;B&gt;Results:&lt;/B&gt; The PP groups comprised fast puberty (67%, premature thelarche (17%, true PP (15%, and pseudo PP (1%. Advanced bone age and levels of estradiol, basal luteinizing hormone (LH, and peak LH after gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulation testing were significantly high in the fast puberty and true PP groups compared with the control group. HSDS, WSDS, and BMISDS were significantly higher in the true PP group than in the control group (P&lt;0.05. &lt;B&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/B&gt; The frequent causes of PP were found to be fast puberty, true PP, and premature thelarche. Furthermore, BMISDS were significantly elevated in the true PP group. Therefore, we emphasize the need for regular follow-up of girls who are heavier or taller than others in the same age group.

  4. Insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles in girls with central precocious puberty before and during gonadal suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Mouritsen, Annette; Mogensen, Signe Sloth

    2010-01-01

    Early menarche is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. It is unknown whether metabolic risk factors are adversely affected in girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) already at time of diagnosis.......Early menarche is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. It is unknown whether metabolic risk factors are adversely affected in girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) already at time of diagnosis....

  5. Association of Body Mass Index to Onset of Puberty in Male

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    Jeevithaambigai Subramaniam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Puberty is the period where the developmental process takes place, marks the transition from childhood to adulthood with physical and physiological changes. This study was conducted to discover association between body mass index (BMI and onset of puberty in male. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from May to November 2013 using simple random sampling which was part of bigger research study by Nutrition and Metabolism Working Group on Jatinangor Cohort, especially Puberty Survey in Jatinangor, by Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran. Respondents were 286 males, 9–15 years old from Elementary School (Sekolah Dasar/SD and Junior High School (Sekolah Menengah Pertama/SMP. Inclusion criteria were students who are healthy at the time and do did not have obvious disease, attained puberty within 1 year or did not yet attained it, and voluntarily followed the study procedure. The questionnaire was provided after getting informed consent from the respondents. The data analysis was done conducted using Pearson Correlation. Results: The magnitude of association of BMI to the onset of puberty in male among school students in Jatinangor was 0.243 which showed there was positive correlation coefficient between BMI to onset of puberty in male. Test results with the t-test showed t-value of 2.683 with p-value of 0.008. Conclusions: There is association of BMI to the onset of puberty in male among school students in Jatinangor. Positive correlation indicates that the higher the BMI, the faster the onset of puberty in male.

  6. The endocrinologist's office-puberty suppression: saving children from a natural disaster?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadjadi, Sahar

    2013-06-01

    In the past few years, the introduction and rapid acceptance of puberty suppression has transformed the clinical treatment of children diagnosed with Gender Identity Disorder. This essay analyzes the narratives used by some advocates of this treatment, particularly the elements of saving children from the looming disaster of puberty and from future abject lives of violence and suicide as transgender adults. It briefly addresses the potential implications of this account for the well being of the children brought under clinical purview.

  7. The influence of perinatal and current dioxin and PCB exposure on puberty: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Leijs M.M.; van der Linden L.M.; Koppe J.G.; de Voogt P; Olie K; van Aalderen W.M.C.; ten Tusscher G.W.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades much has been written about the consequences of perinatal dioxin and PCB exposure in humans. In this paper we strive to elucidate the data on puberty in relation to these endocrine disruptive compounds in human populations. Effects in PCB/dioxin-exposed human populations on puberty are seen, not only in highly exposed cohorts, but also in average populations with background exposures. Study showed effects like increased weight, a delay in pubic hair growth and male g...

  8. The experience of puberty in Iranian adolescent girls: a qualitative content analysis

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    Golchin Nayereh Azam

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescence is an important stage in human life span. Physiologic changes associated with puberty manifest themselves in often complex and bizarre ways to which girls show different reactions. This study aims to explore to puberty experiences in adolescent girls who live in the city of Sari in Iran. Methods The present study is a qualitative study of content analysis. Sampling took place in the city of Sari, Iran and was objective focused in accordance with qualitative studies. Participants were 38 girls of 12–20 years old who had at least experienced 3 menstrual cycles. Data was collected by means of focus group and in-depth interviews. Results As follows, Seven main themes were extracted from the interviews are follows: Menarche as the most unpleasant event in puberty, getting nervous about and ashamed of bodily changes, psychological changes, discordance with parents, sexual orientation and the need for education on this issue, scholastic dysfunction and religious considerations. Conclusion The results showed that for the majority of the participants puberty was an unpleasant experience. Most of them were in need of education on how to go about the issues surrounding puberty. The society, families and of course the adolescents themselves are responsible to work together in order to create an atmosphere in which correct information on puberty and the associated issues are readily accessible.

  9. The experience of puberty in Iranian adolescent girls: a qualitative content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golchin, Nayereh Azam Hagikhani; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab; Fakhri, Moloud; Hamzehgardeshi, Leila

    2012-08-27

    Adolescence is an important stage in human life span. Physiologic changes associated with puberty manifest themselves in often complex and bizarre ways to which girls show different reactions. This study aims to explore to puberty experiences in adolescent girls who live in the city of Sari in Iran. The present study is a qualitative study of content analysis. Sampling took place in the city of Sari, Iran and was objective focused in accordance with qualitative studies. Participants were 38 girls of 12-20 years old who had at least experienced 3 menstrual cycles. Data was collected by means of focus group and in-depth interviews. As follows, Seven main themes were extracted from the interviews are follows: Menarche as the most unpleasant event in puberty, getting nervous about and ashamed of bodily changes, psychological changes, discordance with parents, sexual orientation and the need for education on this issue, scholastic dysfunction and religious considerations. The results showed that for the majority of the participants puberty was an unpleasant experience. Most of them were in need of education on how to go about the issues surrounding puberty. The society, families and of course the adolescents themselves are responsible to work together in order to create an atmosphere in which correct information on puberty and the associated issues are readily accessible.

  10. Factors to predict positive results of gonadotropin releasing hormone stimulation test in girls with suspected precocious puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Hyo-Kyoung; Rhie, Young Jun; Son, Chang Sung; Park, Sang Hee; Lee, Kee-Hyoung

    2012-02-01

    Sometimes, the clinical findings and the results of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulation test are inconsistent in girls with early breast development and bone age advancement. We aimed to investigate the factors predicting positive results of the GnRH stimulation test in girls with suspected central precocious puberty (CPP). We reviewed the records of 574 girls who developed breast budding before the age of 8 yr and underwent the GnRH stimulation test under the age of 9 yr. Positive results of the GnRH stimulated peak luteinizing hormone (LH) level were defined as 5 IU/L and over. Girls with the initial positive results (n = 375) showed accelerated growth, advanced bone age and higher serum basal LH, follicle-stimulating hormone, and estradiol levels, compared to those with the initial negative results (n = 199). Girls with the follow-up positive results (n = 64) showed accelerated growth and advanced bone age, compared to those with the follow-up negative results. In the binary logistic regression, the growth velocity ratio was the most significant predictive factor of positive results. We suggest that the rapid growth velocity is the most useful predictive factor for positive results in the GnRH stimulation test in girls with suspected precocious puberty.

  11. Habitually Higher Dietary Glycemic Index During Puberty Is Prospectively Related to Increased Risk Markers of Type 2 Diabetes in Younger Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goletzke, Janina; Herder, Christian; Joslowski, Gesa; Bolzenius, Katja; Remer, Thomas; Wudy, Stefan A.; Roden, Michael; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Buyken, Anette E.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Carbohydrate nutrition during periods of physiological insulin resistance such as puberty may affect future risk of type 2 diabetes. This study examined whether the amount or the quality (dietary glycemic index [GI], glycemic load [GL], and added sugar, fiber, and whole-grain intake) of carbohydrates during puberty is associated with risk markers of type 2 diabetes in younger adulthood. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The analysis was based on 226 participants (121 girls and 105 boys) from the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed Study (DONALD) with an average of five 3-day weighed dietary records (range 2–6) during puberty (girls, age 9–14 years; boys, age 10–15 years) and fasting blood samples in younger adulthood (age 18–36 years) (average duration of follow-up 12.6 years). Multivariable linear regression was used to analyze the associations between carbohydrate nutrition and homeostasis model assessment–insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) as well as the liver enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) (n = 214). RESULTS A higher dietary GI was prospectively related to greater values of HOMA-IR (Ptrend = 0.03), ALT (Ptrend = 0.02), and GGT (Ptrend = 0.04). After adjustment for sex, adult age, baseline BMI, and early life and socioeconomic factors as well as protein and fiber intake, predicted mean HOMA-IR values in energy-adjusted tertiles of GI were 2.37 (95% CI 2.16–2.60), 2.47 (2.26–2.71), and 2.59 (2.35–2.85). The amount of carbohydrates, GL, and added sugar, fiber, and whole-grain intake were not related to the analyzed markers. CONCLUSIONS Our data indicate that a habitually higher dietary GI during puberty may adversely affect risk markers of type 2 diabetes in younger adulthood. PMID:23349549

  12. The Patient with Turner Syndrome: Puberty and Medical Management Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Luisa; Witchel, Selma Feldman

    2013-01-01

    Turner Syndrome (TS) affects approximately 1 in 2500 liveborn females and is characterized by loss or structural anomalies of an X chromosome. Clinical features vary among patients; multiple organ systems can be affected. Endocrinologists are involved in the management of short stature, delayed puberty, and infertility. Endocrine therapies can include growth hormone, estrogen, and progestagen to promote linear growth and pubertal development. The duration of estrogen and progestagen treatment (HRT) is generally more than 40 years. There is not one standard HRT protocol that is suitable for all women. Thus, general guidelines are provided for HRT to induce pubertal development. Additional considerations regarding choice of HRT include thrombotic risk and disorders associated with thrombophila. Involvement of cardiologists is important because approximately 50% of patients with TS have congenital structural cardiac anomalies linked to an increased risk for aortic dissection and rupture. Although oocyte donation offers the chance to carry a pregnancy, accumulating information has highlighted the potential dangers associated with pregnancy. Advances in the care of infants, girls, and women with TS have been achieved. Management of infants, girls, and women with TS involves coordinated care from a multi-disciplinary team including endocrinologists, cardiologists, geneticists, otolaryngologists, behavioral health experts, nurse educators, and social workers. PMID:22884020

  13. Compromised Rat Testicular Antioxidant Defence System by Hypothyroidism before Puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak K. Sahoo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Altered thyroid function during early stages of development is known to affect adversely testicular growth, physiology, and antioxidant defence status at adulthood. The objective of the present study is to investigate the modulation of antioxidant defence status in neonatal persistent hypothyroid rats before their sexual maturation and also to identify the specific testicular cell populations vulnerable to degeneration during neonatal hypothyroidism in immature rats. Hypothyroidism was induced in neonates by feeding the lactating mother with 0.05% 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU through the drinking water. From the day of parturition till weaning (25 day postpartum, the pups received PTU through mother's milk (or drinking water and then directly from drinking water containing PTU for the remaining period of experimentation. On the 31st day postpartum, the animals were sacrificed for the study. An altered antioxidant defence system marked by elevated SOD, CAT, and GR activities, with decreased GPx and GST activities were observed along with increased protein carbonylation, disturbed redox status in hypothyroid immature rat testis. This compromised testicular antioxidant status might have contributed to poor growth and development by affecting the spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in rats before puberty as indicated by reduced germ cell number, complete absence of round spermatids, decreased seminiferous tubule diameter, and decreased testosterone level.

  14. Factors influencing final/near-final height in 12 boys with central precocious puberty treated with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonists. Italian Study Group of Physiopathology of Puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, V; De Sanctis, V; Corrias, A; Fortini, M; Galluzzi, F; Bertelloni, S; Guarneri, M P; Pozzan, G; Cisternino, M; Pasquino, A M

    2000-07-01

    Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) have been demonstrated as the therapy of choice for central precocious puberty (CPP). Few studies have provided male patients' adult height data. In our multicenter study we evaluated long-term effects of different GnRHa preparations and final/near-final height (FH) in 12 boys with CPP and analyzed the factors influencing FH. Patients' mean chronological age at the time of diagnosis was 7.6 +/- 0.9 yr. Three patients were treated only with triptorelin at a mean dose of 90 microg/kg i.m. every 28 days. Nine patients initially received buserelin (at a mean initial dose of 53.4 microg/kg/day i.n. divided into 3-6 equal doses) or buserelin (at a mean dose of 36.7 microg/kg/day s.c.) and were subsequently switched to triptorelin. The GnRHa therapy was continued for 4.1 +/- 0.6 yr (range 2.9-5.4). The mean predicted adult height increased from 169.9 +/- 4.2 cm at diagnosis to 180.7 +/- 6.0 cm at the end of treatment. Mean FH was 176.1 +/- 6.1 cm (170.1-190.7), corresponding to mean SDS(CA) 0.4 +/- 0.8 (-0.6/2.5), mean SDSBA 0.2 +/- 0.9 (-0.6/2.4) and mean corrected SDS for target height of 0.4 +/- 0.6 (-0.8/1.2). Multiple regression analysis revealed that FH was mainly influenced by target height and height at discontinuation of GnRHa therapy. The present data indicate that GnRHa therapy significantly improves growth prognosis in boys with CPP and fully restores genetic height potential.

  15. Genomic analyses identify hundreds of variants associated with age at menarche and support a role for puberty timing in cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Felix R; Thompson, Deborah J; Helgason, Hannes; Chasman, Daniel I; Finucane, Hilary; Sulem, Patrick; Ruth, Katherine S; Whalen, Sean; Sarkar, Abhishek K; Albrecht, Eva; Altmaier, Elisabeth; Amini, Marzyeh; Barbieri, Caterina M; Boutin, Thibaud; Campbell, Archie; Demerath, Ellen; Giri, Ayush; He, Chunyan; Hottenga, Jouke J; Karlsson, Robert; Kolcic, Ivana; Loh, Po-Ru; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Mangino, Massimo; Marco, Brumat; McMahon, George; Medland, Sarah E; Nolte, Ilja M; Noordam, Raymond; Nutile, Teresa; Paternoster, Lavinia; Perjakova, Natalia; Porcu, Eleonora; Rose, Lynda M; Schraut, Katharina E; Segrè, Ayellet V; Smith, Albert V; Stolk, Lisette; Teumer, Alexander; Andrulis, Irene L; Bandinelli, Stefania; Beckmann, Matthias W; Benitez, Javier; Bergmann, Sven; Bochud, Murielle; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bojesen, Stig E; Bolla, Manjeet K; Brand, Judith S; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brenner, Hermann; Broer, Linda; Brüning, Thomas; Buring, Julie E; Campbell, Harry; Catamo, Eulalia; Chanock, Stephen; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Corre, Tanguy; Couch, Fergus J; Cousminer, Diana L; Cox, Angela; Crisponi, Laura; Czene, Kamila; Davey Smith, George; de Geus, Eco J C N; de Mutsert, Renée; De Vivo, Immaculata; Dennis, Joe; Devilee, Peter; Dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Dunning, Alison M; Eriksson, Johan G; Fasching, Peter A; Fernández-Rhodes, Lindsay; Ferrucci, Luigi; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Franke, Lude; Gabrielson, Marike; Gandin, Ilaria; Giles, Graham G; Grallert, Harald; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Guénel, Pascal; Hall, Per; Hallberg, Emily; Hamann, Ute; Harris, Tamara B; Hartman, Catharina A; Heiss, Gerardo; Hooning, Maartje J; Hopper, John L; Hu, Frank; Hunter, David J; Ikram, M Arfan; Im, Hae Kyung; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Joshi, Peter K; Karasik, David; Kellis, Manolis; Kutalik, Zoltan; LaChance, Genevieve; Lambrechts, Diether; Langenberg, Claudia; Launer, Lenore J; Laven, Joop S E; Lenarduzzi, Stefania; Li, Jingmei; Lind, Penelope A; Lindstrom, Sara; Liu, YongMei; Luan, Jian'an; Mägi, Reedik; Mannermaa, Arto; Mbarek, Hamdi; McCarthy, Mark I; Meisinger, Christa; Meitinger, Thomas; Menni, Cristina; Metspalu, Andres; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Milani, Lili; Milne, Roger L; Montgomery, Grant W; Mulligan, Anna M; Nalls, Mike A; Navarro, Pau; Nevanlinna, Heli; Nyholt, Dale R; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; O'Mara, Tracy A; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Palotie, Aarno; Pedersen, Nancy; Peters, Annette; Peto, Julian; Pharoah, Paul D P; Pouta, Anneli; Radice, Paolo; Rahman, Iffat; Ring, Susan M; Robino, Antonietta; Rosendaal, Frits R; Rudan, Igor; Rueedi, Rico; Ruggiero, Daniela; Sala, Cinzia F; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Scott, Robert A; Shah, Mitul; Sorice, Rossella; Southey, Melissa C; Sovio, Ulla; Stampfer, Meir; Steri, Maristella; Strauch, Konstantin; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tikkanen, Emmi; Timpson, Nicholas J; Traglia, Michela; Truong, Thérèse; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Uitterlinden, André G; Edwards, Digna R Velez; Vitart, Veronique; Völker, Uwe; Vollenweider, Peter; Wang, Qin; Widen, Elisabeth; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Willemsen, Gonneke; Winqvist, Robert; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zoledziewska, Magdalena; Zygmunt, Marek; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Boomsma, Dorret I; Ciullo, Marina; Cucca, Francesco; Esko, Tõnu; Franceschini, Nora; Gieger, Christian; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hayward, Caroline; Kraft, Peter; Lawlor, Debbie A; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Martin, Nicholas G; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O; Nohr, Ellen A; Polasek, Ozren; Porteous, David; Price, Alkes L; Ridker, Paul M; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D; Stöckl, Doris; Toniolo, Daniela; Ulivi, Sheila; Visser, Jenny A; Völzke, Henry; Wareham, Nicholas J; Wilson, James F; Spurdle, Amanda B; Thorsteindottir, Unnur; Pollard, Katherine S; Easton, Douglas F; Tung, Joyce Y; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hinds, David; Murray, Anna; Murabito, Joanne M; Stefansson, Kari; Ong, Ken K; Perry, John R B

    2017-06-01

    The timing of puberty is a highly polygenic childhood trait that is epidemiologically associated with various adult diseases. Using 1000 Genomes Project-imputed genotype data in up to ∼370,000 women, we identify 389 independent signals (P < 5 × 10(-8)) for age at menarche, a milestone in female pubertal development. In Icelandic data, these signals explain ∼7.4% of the population variance in age at menarche, corresponding to ∼25% of the estimated heritability. We implicate ∼250 genes via coding variation or associated expression, demonstrating significant enrichment in neural tissues. Rare variants near the imprinted genes MKRN3 and DLK1 were identified, exhibiting large effects when paternally inherited. Mendelian randomization analyses suggest causal inverse associations, independent of body mass index (BMI), between puberty timing and risks for breast and endometrial cancers in women and prostate cancer in men. In aggregate, our findings highlight the complexity of the genetic regulation of puberty timing and support causal links with cancer susceptibility.

  16. Hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility: an integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Kirsch, Irving

    2015-01-01

    This article elucidates an integrative model of hypnosis that integrates social, cultural, cognitive, and neurophysiological variables at play both in and out of hypnosis and considers their dynamic interaction as determinants of the multifaceted experience of hypnosis. The roles of these variables are examined in the induction and suggestion stages of hypnosis, including how they are related to the experience of involuntariness, one of the hallmarks of hypnosis. It is suggested that studies of the modification of hypnotic suggestibility; cognitive flexibility; response sets and expectancies; the default-mode network; and the search for the neurophysiological correlates of hypnosis, more broadly, in conjunction with research on social psychological variables, hold much promise to further understanding of hypnosis.

  17. Treatment of early puberty in adopted and non-adopted children: when, why and how : Auxological, psychological and ethical aspects of growth promoting treatment around puberty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Mul (Dick)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractNormal puberty is the result of the maturation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Primary and secondary sexual characteristics develop by the increase in the serum levels of gonadal steroids: oestradiol in girls and testosterone in boys. The main players in the process of n

  18. Treatment of central precocious puberty by GnRH analogs:long-term outcome in men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Silvano Bertelloni; Dick Mul

    2008-01-01

    In boys, central precocious puberty (CPP) is the appearance of secondary sex characteristics driven by pituitary gonadotropin secretion before the age of 9 years. In the last years, relevant improvements in the treatment of CPP have been achieved. Because CPP is rare in boys, the majority of papers on this issue focus on girls and do not address specific features of male patients regarding end results and safety. In the present paper, recent advances of CPP management with GnRH analogs in men are summarized. End results in untreated and treated patients are also reviewed by an analysis of the recently published literature on treatment of CPP in men. The available data indicate that therapy with GnRH analogs can improve final height into the range of target height without significant adverse short-term and long-term effects, but longer follow-up of larger series of patients is still required to draw definitive conclusions. (Asian J Androl 2008 Jul; 10: 525-534)

  19. Efficacy of Subcutaneous Administration of Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Agonist on Idiopathic Central Precocious Puberty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Yan; WEI Hong; ZHANG Jianling; HOU Ling; LUO Xiaoping

    2006-01-01

    In order to assess the feasibility of subcutaneous administration of Triptorelin with 6-week intervals for the suppression of pituitary-gonadal axis and changes of clinical signs in girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty (ICPP), 46 girls with ICPP were treated with GnRHa.Triptorelin (Decapeptyl, 3.75 mg) was administered subcutaneously (SC) at 6-weeks intervals or intramuscularly (IM) at 4-weeks intervals randomly for more than 12 months consecutively. During GnRHa therapy, clinical parameters and laboratory data, including height, weight, pubertal stage,bone age, uterine volume and ovarian size, serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and estradiol (E2), were monitored and analyzed. It was found that both treatment regimes led to regression of precocious puberty and reversal of secondary sexual characteristics.Breast developments regressed. Uterine volume was decreased after treatment, but there was no statistically significant difference. Mean ovarian volume did not change significantly during treatment.The height velocity was decreased significantly from 6.3±1.4 cm/year to 5.8±1.2 cm/year in group SC and 6.7±1.3 cm/year to 5.4±1.0 cm/year in group IM, respectively. The rate of bone maturation was reduced significantly during treatment. The ratio of deltaBA/deltaCA was 1.2±0.2 or 1.3±0.3 at the onset of therapy and decreased significantly after the treatment to 0.7±0.2 or 0.9±0.1, respectively.The predicted adult height was increased significantly and progressively during therapy. The levels of serum LH, FSH and E2 returned to the prepubertal condition. No significant side effects of therapy were noted. The most common side effect during SC treatment was that a non-irritating, 1 cm in diameter mass was palpated at the site of subcutaneous injection in the abdominal wall of patients,which disappeared after 6- 12 weeks. Two girls had minimal withdrawal vaginal bleeding episodes after the first injection. It was

  20. BMI increase through puberty and adolescence is associated with risk of adult stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Claes; Bygdell, Maria; Sondén, Arvid; Jern, Christina; Rosengren, Annika; Kindblom, Jenny M

    2017-07-25

    To evaluate the contribution of prepubertal childhood body mass index (BMI) and BMI change through puberty and adolescence, 2 distinct developmental BMI parameters, for risk of adult stroke in men. In this population-based study in Gothenburg, Sweden, men born in 1945-1961 with information on both childhood BMI at age 8 and BMI change through puberty and adolescence (BMI at age 20-BMI at age 8) were followed until December 2013 (n = 37,669). Information on stroke events was retrieved from high-quality national registers (918 first stroke events, 672 ischemic stroke events [IS], 207 intracerebral hemorrhage events [ICH]). BMI increase through puberty and adolescence (hazard ratio [HR] 1.21 per SD increase; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-1.28), but not childhood BMI, was independently associated with risk of adult stroke. Subanalyses revealed that BMI increase through puberty and adolescence was associated with both IS (HR per SD increase 1.19; 95% CI 1.11-1.28) and ICH (HR per SD increase 1.29; 95% CI 1.15-1.46). High BMI increase during puberty was strongly associated with increased risk of adult hypertension (odds ratio per SD increase 1.35; 95% CI 1.32-1.39). BMI increase through puberty and adolescence is associated with risk of adult IS and ICH in men. We propose that greater BMI increases during puberty contribute to increased risk of adult stroke at least partly via increased blood pressure. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  1. Genetic associations between intelligence and cortical thickness emerge at the start of puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Rachel M; van Soelen, Inge L C; Swagerman, Suzanne C; Schnack, Hugo G; Ehli, Erik A; Kahn, René S; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2014-08-01

    Cognitive abilities are related to (changes in) brain structure during adolescence and adulthood. Previous studies suggest that associations between cortical thickness and intelligence may be different at different ages. As both intelligence and cortical thickness are heritable traits, the question arises whether the association between cortical thickness development and intelligence is due to genes influencing both traits. We study this association in a longitudinal sample of young twins. Intelligence was assessed by standard IQ tests at age 9 in 224 twins, 190 of whom also underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Three years later at age 12, 177/125 twins returned for a follow-up measurement of intelligence/MRI scanning, respectively. We investigated whether cortical thickness was associated with intelligence and if so, whether this association was driven by genes. At age 9, there were no associations between cortical thickness and intelligence. At age 12, a negative relationship emerged. This association was mainly driven by verbal intelligence, and manifested itself most prominently in the left hemisphere. Cortical thickness and intelligence were explained by the same genes. As a post hoc analysis, we tested whether a specific allele (rs6265; Val66Met in the BDNF gene) contributed to this association. Met carriers showed lower intelligence and a thicker cortex, but only the association between the BDNF genotype and cortical thickness in the left superior parietal gyrus reached significance. In conclusion, it seems that brain areas contributing to (verbal) intellectual performance are specializing under the influence of genes around the onset of puberty.

  2. Factors influencing aggression toward females by male rats exposed to anabolic androgenic steroids during puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Rebecca L; McGinnis, Marilyn Y

    2007-01-01

    Previous results showed that male rats pubertally exposed to anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) displayed aggression towards females in response to physical provocation. This experiment examined two factors that may modulate AAS-induced behavior towards females: olfactory cues and frustration. Gonadally intact males began one of three AAS treatments at puberty (D40): testosterone propionate (T), stanozolol (S), T+S, or vehicle control. To test for the relevance of olfactory cues in the elicitation of behavior toward females, a hidden neighbor paradigm was used. The proximal stimulus was an ovariectomized (OVX) female, estrogen plus progesterone (E+P) female, or an E+P female with tape-obstructed vagina (OBS). Distal olfactory cues from a hidden neighbor were delivered from a separate cage connected to the testing arena. The vaginally obstructed, sexually receptive female (OBS) was used to determine the effects of frustration on behavior by AAS males. Both sexual and aggressive behaviors were measured. The presence of distal olfactory cues had no effect on either sexual or aggressive behavior. In the presence of E+P and OBS females, all males displayed sex behaviors, not aggression. However, AAS males displayed significantly more aggression towards proximal OVX females than controls. AAS males mounted OBS females significantly more than controls, indicating a persistence of once rewarded behavior. These results suggest (1) proximal cues of the conspecific female are more salient than distal olfactory cues in determining behavior and (2) AAS males display frustration-induced persistence in response to vaginally obstructed receptive females.

  3. Consultation for Disordered Puberty: What Do Adolescent Medicine Patients Teach Us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Pierre-André; Ambresin, Anne-Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    The period of adolescence is not only marked by important growth and pubertal events, but is also characterized by important psychosocial changes driven by a search for autonomy and the construction of one's identity. It can thus be easily understood that puberty disorders interfere heavily with these process, requiring from the endocrinologist not only medical knowledge, but also a great deal of emotional and psychological skills. They must progressively move from an educational approach that heavily involves the parents to one of shared information and decision making that places the young patient at the center of the therapeutic process. This can be achieved in several ways: respecting the affective and cognitive development of the adolescent; securing his privacy and (if requested by him) confidentiality; exploring his self-image and self-esteem and adapting the therapeutic process to the patient's expectations; reviewing the teenager's lifestyle, including the issue of sexuality and sexual behavior, and involving him in any therapeutic choice that has to be made, even if it does not match with the parents' expectations. The skills required for this respectful and holistic follow-up often exceed the abilities of any physician; it is thus suggested that a team approach involving a clinical nurse and/or a psychologist and/or social worker(s) be set up whenever possible.

  4. A single sample GnRHa stimulation test in the diagnosis of precocious puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazdani Parvin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Context Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH has been the standard test for diagnosing central precocious puberty. Because GnRH is no longer available, GnRH analogues (GnRHa are now used. Random LH concentration, measured by the third-generation immunochemiluminometric assay, is a useful screening tool for central precocious puberty. However, GnRHa stimulation test should be considered, when a basal LH measurement is inconclusive. However optimal sampling times for luteinizing hormone (LH have yet to be established. Purpose To determine the appropriate sampling time for LH post leuprolide challenge. Methods A retrospective analysis of multi-sample GnRHa stimulation tests performed in 155 children (aged 1–9 years referred for precocious puberty to Texas Children’s Hospital. After 20 mcg/kg of SQ leuprolide acetate, samples were obtained at 0, 1, 3, and 6 hours. Results Of 71 children with clinical evidence of central precocious puberty, fifty nine children had a peak LH >5 mIU/mL. 52 (88% of these responders had positive responses at 1 hour (95% CI is 80–96%, whereas all 59 children (100% had a peak LH response >5 mIU/mL at 3 hours (95% CI is 94-100%, P = 0.005. Conclusions A single serum LH sample collected 3 hours post GnRHa challenge is the optimal sample to establish the diagnosis of central precocious puberty.

  5. Increased risk of precocious puberty in internationally adopted children in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, G.; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Skakkebæk, N.E.

    2006-01-01

    for a Korean child was at the same level as observed among adopted children from India and South America. In the study population, 99% of Korean children were adopted before 2 years of age, which may contribute to explaining our finding. In Korea, children appointed for adoption are often living in foster care......BACKGROUND: Studies have indicated that internationally adopted children have an increased risk of developing precocious puberty, but no epidemiologic risk estimates have previously been calculated. We aimed to assess the risk of developing precocious puberty in intercountry adoptees, children...... immigrating with their family, and descendants of immigrants living in Denmark. METHODS: Patients who were registered with the diagnosis of precocious puberty during the period 1993-2001 were identified through the national patient registry. The background population of children born from 1983 to 2001 were...

  6. Hypothesis: exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals may interfere with timing of puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, A; Aksglaede, L; Sørensen, K

    2010-01-01

    of normal puberty are poorly understood. This hampers investigation of the possible role of environmental influences. There are many types of EDCs. One chemical may have more than one mode of action and the effects may depend on dose and duration of the exposure, as well as the developmental stage...... declined by 1 year; thus, the time span from initiation of breast development to menarche has increased. This may indicate an oestrogen-like effect without concomitant central activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. The effects may differ between boys and girls, as there are sex differences in age......A recent decline in onset of puberty - especially among girls - has been observed, first in the US in the mid-1990s and now also in Europe. The development of breast tissue in girls occurs at a much younger age and the incidence of precocious puberty (PP) is increasing. Genetic factors...

  7. Treatment of precocious puberty in a female with Prader-Willi syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusz, Erin Rose; Rotenstein, Deborah

    2008-05-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is characterized by neonatal hypotonia, hyperphagia, childhood obesity at an early age, short stature, varying degrees of mental deficiency, and hypogonadism. In PWS, puberty is usually delayed and fails to complete, with most females never having regular menstrual cycles. We report a female patient with uniparental disomy, who experienced precocious puberty with menarche at age 8 years. The patient was treated with luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) analog, which suppressed pubertal development. From our search of the literature this is the first application of LHRH analog to a female PWS patient for precocious puberty. Use of LHRH analog along with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) permitted stature closer to target height. The clinical course of this patient with PWS underscores the need for individualized treatment.

  8. The Relationship between Puberty and Risk Taking in the Real World and in the Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Rodriguez, A; MacPherson, L; Kurdziel, G; Rosenberg, L A; Lejuez, C W

    2014-10-01

    Adolescence is marked by the emergence and escalation of risk taking. Puberty has been long-implicated as constituting vulnerability for risk behavior during this developmental period. Sole reliance on self-reports of risk taking however poses limitations to understanding this complex relationship. There exist potential advantages of complementing self-reports by using the BART-Y laboratory task, a well-validated measure of adolescent risk taking. Toward this end, we examined the association between self-reported puberty and both self-reported and BART-Y risk taking in 231 adolescents. Results showed that pubertal status predicted risk taking using both methodologies above and beyond relevant demographic characteristics. Advantages of a multimodal assessment toward understanding the effects of puberty in adolescent risk taking are discussed and future research directions offered.

  9. Increase in first morning voided urinary luteinizing hormone levels precedes the physical onset of puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demir, Ahmet; Voutilainen, R; Juul, A

    1996-01-01

    Determinations of serum gonadotropin concentrations by ultra-sensitive methods have improved the diagnosis of pubertal disorders. The onset of puberty can be estimated by measuring serum gonadotropin pulsation, but as this requires serial nocturnal blood sampling, it is not a routine investigation...... before clinical signs of puberty can be detected. The correlation between FMV urine and S-LH values was good (r = 0.64; P ... for S-LH. A significant increase in FMV U-LH concentration occurs before the first clinical signs of puberty in a sex-independent fashion. Our data indicate that FMV U-LH measurement is a clinically relevant, noninvasive method for the evaluation of pubertal development, and it may be helpful...

  10. Maturation of kisspeptinergic neurons coincides with puberty onset in male rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, Agnete H; Ansel, Laura; Simonneaux, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    receptor is the primary component in the initiation of puberty and where in the hypothalamus regulation of the kisspeptin/Kiss1R system occurs is unresolved. Using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, we analyzed the level of Kiss1 mRNA and kisspeptin-immunoreactivity in the anteroventral...... periventricular nucleus (AVPV) and the arcuate nucleus of male rats along pubertal development. Neurons expressing Kiss1 mRNA were first detected at PND15, but increased significantly around puberty, and declined again in the adult rat. While virtually no immunoreactive cell bodies were detectable in the AVPV...... that the regulation of kisspeptin synthesis and release are key events in puberty onset in the male rat....

  11. Age, gender, and puberty influence the development of facial emotion recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Kate; Campbell, Ruth; Skuse, David

    2015-01-01

    Our ability to differentiate between simple facial expressions of emotion develops between infancy and early adulthood, yet few studies have explored the developmental trajectory of emotion recognition using a single methodology across a wide age-range. We investigated the development of emotion recognition abilities through childhood and adolescence, testing the hypothesis that children's ability to recognize simple emotions is modulated by chronological age, pubertal stage and gender. In order to establish norms, we assessed 478 children aged 6-16 years, using the Ekman-Friesen Pictures of Facial Affect. We then modeled these cross-sectional data in terms of competence in accurate recognition of the six emotions studied, when the positive correlation between emotion recognition and IQ was controlled. Significant linear trends were seen in children's ability to recognize facial expressions of happiness, surprise, fear, and disgust; there was improvement with increasing age. In contrast, for sad and angry expressions there is little or no change in accuracy over the age range 6-16 years; near-adult levels of competence are established by middle-childhood. In a sampled subset, pubertal status influenced the ability to recognize facial expressions of disgust and anger; there was an increase in competence from mid to late puberty, which occurred independently of age. A small female advantage was found in the recognition of some facial expressions. The normative data provided in this study will aid clinicians and researchers in assessing the emotion recognition abilities of children and will facilitate the identification of abnormalities in a skill that is often impaired in neurodevelopmental disorders. If emotion recognition abilities are a good model with which to understand adolescent development, then these results could have implications for the education, mental health provision and legal treatment of teenagers.

  12. Age, gender and puberty influence the development of facial emotion recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate eLawrence

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to differentiate between simple facial expressions of emotion develops between infancy and early adulthood, yet few studies have explored the developmental trajectory of emotion recognition using a single methodology across a wide age-range. We investigated the development of emotion recognition abilities through childhood and adolescence, testing the hypothesis that children’s ability to recognise simple emotions is modulated by chronological age, pubertal stage and gender. In order to establish norms, we assessed 478 children aged 6-16 years, using the Ekman-Friesen Pictures of Facial Affect. We then modelled these cross-sectional data in terms of competence in accurate recognition of the six emotions studied, when the positive correlation between emotion recognition and IQ was controlled. Significant linear trends were seen in children’s ability to recognise facial expressions of happiness, surprise, fear and disgust; there was improvement with increasing age. In contrast, for sad and angry expressions there is little or no change in accuracy over the age range 6-16 years; near-adult levels of competence are established by middle-childhood. In a sampled subset, pubertal status influenced the ability to recognize facial expressions of disgust and anger; there was an increase in competence from mid to late puberty, which occurred independently of age. A small female advantage was found in the recognition of some facial expressions. The normative data provided in this study will aid clinicians and researchers in assessing the emotion recognition abilities of children and will facilitate the identification of abnormalities in a skill that is often impaired in neurodevelopmental disorders. If emotion recognition abilities are a good model with which to understand adolescent development, then these results could have implications for the education, mental health provision and legal treatment of teenagers.

  13. Age, gender, and puberty influence the development of facial emotion recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Kate; Campbell, Ruth; Skuse, David

    2015-01-01

    Our ability to differentiate between simple facial expressions of emotion develops between infancy and early adulthood, yet few studies have explored the developmental trajectory of emotion recognition using a single methodology across a wide age-range. We investigated the development of emotion recognition abilities through childhood and adolescence, testing the hypothesis that children’s ability to recognize simple emotions is modulated by chronological age, pubertal stage and gender. In order to establish norms, we assessed 478 children aged 6–16 years, using the Ekman-Friesen Pictures of Facial Affect. We then modeled these cross-sectional data in terms of competence in accurate recognition of the six emotions studied, when the positive correlation between emotion recognition and IQ was controlled. Significant linear trends were seen in children’s ability to recognize facial expressions of happiness, surprise, fear, and disgust; there was improvement with increasing age. In contrast, for sad and angry expressions there is little or no change in accuracy over the age range 6–16 years; near-adult levels of competence are established by middle-childhood. In a sampled subset, pubertal status influenced the ability to recognize facial expressions of disgust and anger; there was an increase in competence from mid to late puberty, which occurred independently of age. A small female advantage was found in the recognition of some facial expressions. The normative data provided in this study will aid clinicians and researchers in assessing the emotion recognition abilities of children and will facilitate the identification of abnormalities in a skill that is often impaired in neurodevelopmental disorders. If emotion recognition abilities are a good model with which to understand adolescent development, then these results could have implications for the education, mental health provision and legal treatment of teenagers. PMID:26136697

  14. Triple X syndrome and puberty: focus on the hypothalamus-hypophysis-gonad axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagi, Stefano; di Tommaso, Mariarosaria; Scalini, Perla; Lapi, Elisabetta; Losi, Stefania; Bencini, Erica; Masoni, Fabrizio; Dosa, Laura; Becciani, Sabrina; de Martino, Maurizio

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the hypothalamus-hypophysis-gonad axis in a cohort of children and adolescents with nonmosaic triple X syndrome. Cross-sectional study with retrospective analysis. University pediatric hospital. Fifteen prepubertal subjects (median age 9.0 years, range 6.9-11.9 years) with nonmosaic triple X syndrome and age- and pubertal-matched control group (30 girls, median age 9.1 y, range 6.9-11.6 years). None. We evaluated FSH, LH, and E2 levels and performed an autoimmunity screening as well as a pelvic ultrasonography and an LH-releasing hormone stimulation test. All triple X patients (with and without pubertal signs) showed a pubertal LH peak level that was significantly different from controls. Triple X patients showed increased basal and peak FSH and LH values compared with control subjects. However, the mean E2 level was significantly lower than control subjects. However, triple X patients showed reduced DHEAS levels and reduced inhibin levels compared with control subjects. Finally, triple X patients had a significantly reduced ovarian volume compared with control subjects, in both prepubertal and pubertal patients. Triple X patients showed premature activation of the GnRH pulse generator, even without puberty signs. Both basal and peak LH and FSH levels were higher than in control subjects, and E2 and inhibin levels and ovarian volume were reduced, which led to a reduced gonadal function. Other studies and a longitudinal evaluation is necessary to better understand the endocrinologic features of these subjects. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Kallmann综合征1例%Ultrasonography in differential diagnosis of precocious puberty in girls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓大同; 朱晖; 孙莉; 章秋; 杨明功

    2011-01-01

    @@ Kallmann综合征是先天性遗传性疾病,又称为"男性特发性低促性腺激素性腺功能减退症(idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism,IHH)",发病率男性为1/l万,女性为1/5万,笔者于2010年7月27日发现1例,报道如下. 1 临床资料 患者男性,20岁.因"睾丸、阴茎小,男性第二性征不发育"入住我院.患者自幼出现嗅觉障碍,无法辨识出水与酒精的气味,无法辨识香、臭味,但可辨别水与食醋气味差别.父母非近亲结婚,两个妹妹生长发育正常.%Aim To investigate the differential diagnostic value of ulrasound with precocious puberty. Methods The uterine,ovarian follicles were measured by ultrasound. Then these indexes were compared with the normal control groups in the same age. Results The uterine indexes of girls with true-precocious puberty and pseudo-precocious puberty were significantly larger than the normal girls (P < 0.05). The volume of ovary and the largest follicle diameter, a section of the largest number of follictes in true-precocious puberty are larger than the normal girls (P < 0.05). The volume of ovary and the largest follicle diameter, a section of the largest number of follicles in pseudo-precocious puberty are similar to the normal girls(P <0.05). Conclusion Ultrasonography has great value on differential diagnosis of precocious puberty in girls.

  16. Primary School Puberty/Sexuality Education: Student-Teachers' Past Learning, Present Professional Education, and Intention to Teach These Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Coleman, Stephanie J.

    2013-01-01

    Primary school teachers are often tasked with puberty/sexuality education for students who are undergoing sexual maturation at ever-earlier ages. This study explores the changing trajectories of the pre-service learning and teaching of primary school puberty/sexuality education at an urban university, including student-teachers' childhood…

  17. Serum inhibin A and inhibin B in central precocious puberty before and during treatment with GnRH agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, A; Andersson, A M; Müller, J

    2000-01-01

    Serum levels of the gonadal hormones inhibin A and inhibin B are undetectable or low in prepubertal girls, and rise during puberty. In girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is prematurely activated, if the girl is thereafter treated with GnRH agonists...

  18. Final height in central precocious puberty after long term treatment with a slow release GnRH agonist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostdijk, W; Rikken, B; Schreuder, S; Otten, B; Odink, R; Rouwe, C; Jansen, M; Gerver, WJ; Waelkens, J; Drop, S

    1996-01-01

    Objective-To study the resumption of puberty and the final height achieved in children with central precocious puberty (CPP) treated with the GnRH agonist triptorelin. Patients-31 girls and five boys with CPP who were treated with triptorelin 3.75 mg intramuscularly every four weeks. Girls were trea

  19. Spermaturia and serum hormone concentrations at the age of puberty in boys prenatally exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mol, Nanette M; Sørensen, Nicolina; Weihe, Pal

    2002-01-01

    To determine whether prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with possible hormone-disrupting effects is capable of affecting sexual differentiation in boys at the age of puberty.......To determine whether prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with possible hormone-disrupting effects is capable of affecting sexual differentiation in boys at the age of puberty....

  20. Girls’ Diets Affect Puberty,Later Disease Risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢钦虢

    2000-01-01

    本刊上期刊登了吴春拂选注的一篇文章,题目是:Dieting May HarmGirl’s IQs。该文标题中的Dieting的意思是“节食”,节食,会降低女孩的智商;而本文标题中的Diets却是“饮食”的意思。本文的主题句就亮出一个或多或少与前文相左的意见: Young girls who consume diets rich in animal protein and fat may be eatingtheir way to an early puberty(青春期)and possibly increasing their risk for chronicdisease later in life. 女孩如果多吃富含动物蛋白质和动物脂肪的食物将过早进入青春期,并可能日后患上慢性疾病的风险。 根据专家的意见,女孩的“健康饮食”应该是:to reduce intakes of saturated(饱和的)fat and red meat and excess calories and to increase fruit/vegetable intakesin children. 如此饮食,其收效是:result in lower breast cancer rates,along with otherhealth benefits. 也许读者不会料到,如此饮食同样存在着“负面作用”:but the risk ofosteoporosis,and perhaps of other diseases,might increase. 两文并读,或者就单读此文,读者朋友就会深感左右为难,无所适从。 其实,深入一步想,这些意见并不矛盾,世界上许多事情都应该一分为二地去看,去思考。

  1. Estação de nascimento e puberdade em cordeiros Santa Inês Season of birth and puberty in Santa Inês lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Meneses Alves

    2006-06-01

    .97 days. The season affected the puberty age, mainly due to the nutritional factor, since the puberty weights were not significantly different between groups. Average age at puberty for the youngest group (born in August was 162.56 ± 35.55 days. Significant correlations were found between weight and the scrotal circumference (EC, length and width of testis, suggesting the use of EC as a complementary criterion for selection based on productive parameters.

  2. Theories of Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W

    1928-02-01

    The word "suggestion" has been used in educational, scientific and medical literature in slightly different senses. In psychological medicine the use of suggestion has developed out of the earlier use of hypnotic influence.Charcot defined hypnosis as an artificial hysteria, Bernheim as an artificially increased suggestibility. The two definitions need to be combined to give an adequate account of hypnosis. Moreover, due allowance should be made for the factors of dissociation and of rapport in hypnotic phenomena.The relationships between dissociation, suggestibility, and hypnotizability.Theories of suggestion propounded by Pierre Janet, Freud, McDougall, Pawlow and others. Ernest Jones's theory of the nature of auto-suggestion. Janet explains suggestion in terms of ideo-motor action in which the suggested idea, because of the inactivity of competing ideas, produces its maximum effect. Freud explains rapport in terms of the sex instinct "inhibited in its aim" (transference) and brings in his distinction of "ego" and "ego-ideal" (or "super-ego") to supplement the theory. Jones explains auto-suggestion in terms of narcissism. McDougall explains hypnotic suggestion in terms of the instinct of self-abasement. But different instincts may supply the driving power to produce suggestion-effects in different circumstances. Such instincts as those of self-preservation (fear) and gregariousness may play their part. Auto-suggestion as a therapeutic factor is badly named. It supplements, but does not supplant the will, and makes complete volition possible.

  3. Changes in dendritic architecture: Not your "usual suspect" in control of the onset of puberty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eHemond

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Until the recent past, the search for the underlying drive for the pubertal increase in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH hormone from the GnRH-containing neurons in the hypothalamus was largely focused on extrinsic factors. The most recent evidence however indicates changes in the structure of GnRH neurons themselves may contribute to this fundamental event in development. Based on our studies in males, dendritic architecture is not static from birth until adulthood. Instead, dendrites undergo a dramatic remodeling during the postnatal period which is independent of testosterone and occurs before the pubertal increase in GnRH release. First, the number of dendrites emanating from somata is reduced between infancy and adulthood. Moreover, a dendrite of adult GnRH neurons invariability arises at angle of 180° from the axon as opposed to the extraordinary variability in location during infancy. In fact, in some neurons from infants, no dendrite even resides in the adult location. Thus, there is a spatially selective remodeling of primary dendrites. Secondly, dendrites of GnRH neurons from infants were highly branched prior to assuming the compact morphology of adults. Finally, other morphological aspects of GnRH neurons such as total dendritic length, the numbers of dendrite branches and the lengths of higher order branches were significantly greater in infants than adults, indicating a consolidation of dendritic arbors. Activity in multi-compartment models of GnRH neurons, suggest the impact of structure on neuronal activity is exerted with both active and passive dendrites. Thus, passive properties make a defining contribution to function. Accordingly, changes in morphology alone are likely to have functional consequences for the pattern of activity in GnRH neurons. Our findings suggest structural remodeling of dendrites during the postnatal period likely facilitates repetitive action potentials and thus, GnRH release at the time of puberty.

  4. Postweaning Exposure to Dietary Zearalenone, a Mycotoxin, Promotes Premature Onset of Puberty and Disrupts Early Pregnancy Events in Female Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaoqin

    2013-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZEA) is a mycotoxin commonly found in contaminated livestock feed and human food with levels in the range of ppb and low ppm. It was hypothesized that ZEA, an endocrine disruptor, could affect puberty and early pregnancy. To test this hypothesis, newly weaned (3 weeks old) C57BL/6J female mice were exposed to 0, 0.002, 4, 10, and 40 ppm ZEA and 0.05 ppm diethylstilbestrol (positive control) in phytoestrogen-free AIN-93G diet. Females exposed to 10 and 40 ppm ZEA diets showed earlier onset of vaginal opening. Those treated with 40 ppm ZEA diet also had earlier first copulation plug and irregular estrous cyclicity. At 8 weeks old, all females were mated with untreated stud males on AIN-93G diet during mating. Treatment resumed upon identification of a vaginal plug on gestation day 0.5 (D0.5). Embryo implantation was assessed on D4.5. Exposure to 40 ppm ZEA diet resulted in reduced percentage of plugged mice with implantation sites, distended uterine appearance, and retained expression of progesterone receptor in D4.5 uterine epithelium. To determine the exposure timing and mechanisms of disrupted embryo implantation, four groups of females were fed with 0 or 40 ppm ZEA diets during premating (weaning to mating) and postmating (D0.5–D4.5), respectively. Premating exposure to 40 ppm ZEA diet reduced fertilization rate, whereas postmating exposure to 40 ppm ZEA diet delayed embryo transport and preimplantation embryo development, which subsequently affected embryo implantation. These data demonstrate that postweaning exposure to dietary ZEA can promote premature onset of puberty and disrupt early pregnancy events. PMID:23291560

  5. Suggested safeguards an

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJM Venter

    ... COORDINATION. (FACILITATION OR CASE MANAGEMENT) IN SOUTH AFRICA ... SUGGESTED SAFEGUARDS AND LIMITATIONS FOR EFFECTIVE AND .... professional practice.27 They have to assess the situation; educate the parents.

  6. Manufacturer's Suggested Retail Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenkranz, S.

    2003-01-01

    Based on arguments of the `reference- dependent' theory of consumer choice we assume that a retailer's discount of a manufacturer's suggested retail price changes consumers' demand. We can show that the producer benefits from suggesting a retail price. If consumers are additionally sufficiently `los

  7. Puberty and Sexuality Education Using a Learning and Teaching Theoretical Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier-Harris, Christine A.; Goldman, Juliette D. G.

    2017-01-01

    All children need timely puberty and sexuality education. The task falls to schools because they have the learning and teaching processes, competency programmes, opportunities, and resources for age-appropriate cognitive, knowledge, and skills development in children and adolescents. Quality sexuality education guidance documents have been…

  8. Neuroendocrine pathways mediating nutritional acceleration of puberty: insights from ruminant models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel eAmstalden

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The pubertal process is characterized by an activation of physiological events within the hypothalamic-adenohypophyseal-gonadal axis which culminate in reproductive competence. Excessive weight gain and adiposity during the juvenile period is associated with accelerated onset of puberty in females. The mechanisms and pathways by which excess energy balance advances puberty are unclear, but appear to involve an early escape from estradiol negative feedback and early initiation of high frequency episodic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH secretion. Hypothalamic neurons, particularly neuropeptide Y and proopiomelanocortin neurons are likely important components of the pathway sensing and transmitting metabolic information to the control of GnRH secretion. Kisspeptin neurons may also have a role as effector neurons integrating metabolic and gonadal steroid feedback effects on GnRH secretion at the time of puberty. Recent studies indicate that leptin-responsive neurons within the ventral premammillary nucleus play a critical role in pubertal progression and challenge the relevance of kisspeptin neurons in this process. Nevertheless, the nutritional control of puberty is likely to involve an integration of major sensor and effector pathways that interact with modulatory circuitries for a fine control of GnRH neuron function. In this review, observations made in ruminant species are emphasized for a comparative perspective.

  9. Examination of US puberty-timing data from 1940 to 1994 for secular trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Euling, Susan Y; Herman-Giddens, Marcia E; Lee, Peter A

    2008-01-01

    Whether children, especially girls, are entering and progressing through puberty earlier today than in the mid-1900s has been debated. Secular trend analysis, based on available data, is limited by data comparability among studies in different populations, in different periods of time, and using...

  10. Significant decline in anticancer immune capacity during puberty in the Tasmanian devil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuanyuan; Heasman, Kim; Peck, Sarah; Peel, Emma; Gooley, Rebecca M.; Papenfuss, Anthony T.; Hogg, Carolyn J.; Belov, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) are at risk of extinction in the wild due to Devil Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD), a rare contagious cancer. The prevalence of DFTD differs by age class: higher disease prevalence is seen in adults (2–3 years) versus younger devils (<2 years). Here we propose that immunological changes during puberty may play a role in susceptibility to DFTD. We show that the second year of life is a key developmental period for Tasmanian devils, during which they undergo puberty and pronounced changes in the immune system. Puberty coincides with a significant decrease in lymphocyte abundance resulting in a much higher neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio in adults than subadults. Quantitative PCR analysis of gene expression of transcription factors T-bet and GATA-3 and cytokines interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin 4 (IL-4) revealed a drastic increase in GATA-3 and IL-4 expression during puberty. These changes led to a significantly lower IFN-γ:IL-4 ratio in 2-year-olds than <1 year olds (on average 1.3-fold difference in males and 4.0-fold in females), which reflects a major shift of the immune system towards Th2 responses. These results all indicate that adult devils are expected to have a lower anticancer immune capacity than subadults, which may explain the observed pattern of disease prevalence of DFTD in the wild. PMID:28300197

  11. Examination of US puberty-timing data from 1940 to 1994 for secular trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Euling, Susan Y; Herman-Giddens, Marcia E; Lee, Peter A

    2008-01-01

    Whether children, especially girls, are entering and progressing through puberty earlier today than in the mid-1900s has been debated. Secular trend analysis, based on available data, is limited by data comparability among studies in different populations, in different periods of time, and using ...

  12. HPG-axis hormones during puberty : A study on the association with hypothalamic and pituitary volumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peper, Jiska S.; Brouwer, Rachel M.; van Leeuwen, Marieke; Schnack, Hugo G.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Kahn, Rene S.; Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff

    2010-01-01

    Objective: During puberty, the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis is activated, leading to increases in luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and sex steroids (testosterone and estradiol) levels. We aimed to study the association between hypothalamic and pituitary volum

  13. Endocrine profiles during attainment of puberty may predict reproductive longevity in heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    We hypothesized that attainment of puberty through initiation and continuation of cyclic activity may be a predictor of reproductive longevity in heifers. Blood plasma was collected from 379 spring born heifers over four years from weaning to prior to breeding (October-June) in 2012-2015. Four pube...

  14. Minor neurological dysfunction from birth to 12 years. II : Puberty is related to decreased dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lunsing, R J; Hadders-Algra, M; Huisjes, H J; Touwen, B C

    1992-01-01

    To determine whether puberty is related to decreased minor neurological dysfunction (MND), 174 children from the Groningen Perinatal Project who had had MND at nine years were re-examined at 12 years. No signs of MND could be demonstrated in 39 of the children, 33 of whom showed at least three signs

  15. MINOR NEUROLOGICAL DYSFUNCTION AFTER THE ONSET OF PUBERTY - ASSOCIATION WITH PERINATAL EVENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SOORANILUNSING, RJ; HADDERSALGRA, M; HUISJES, HJ; TOUWEN, BCL

    1993-01-01

    In order to study the hypotheses that puberty is related to a decrease of minor neurological dysfunction (MND) and that persisting MND is associated with perinatal factors, two groups (174 normal, 172 MND) of the Groningen Perinatal Project were followed from 12 to 14 years. At 14 years almost all t

  16. Hormonal regulation of puberty onset in female rats: is leptin a missing link?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeinoaldini, S.

    2005-01-01

    Numerous factors in the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG) are involved in the timing of puberty onset.Leptin signals the nutritional status and the presence of an adequate amount of loaded adipose tissue, as a long-term resour

  17. MINOR NEUROLOGICAL DYSFUNCTION FROM BIRTH TO 12 YEARS .2. PUBERTY IS RELATED TO DECREASED DYSFUNCTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LUNSING, RJ; HADDERSALGRA, M; HUISJES, HJ; TOUWEN, BCL

    1992-01-01

    To determine whether puberty is related to decreased minor neurological dysfunction (MND), 174 children from the Groningen Perinatal Project who had had MND at nine years were re-examined at 12 years. No signs of MND could be demonstrated in 39 of the children, 33 of whom showed at least three signs

  18. Hormonal regulation of puberty onset in female rats: is leptin a missing link?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeinoaldini, S.

    2005-01-01

    Numerous factors in the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG) are involved in the timing of puberty onset.Leptin signals the nutritional status and the presence of an adequate amount of loaded adipose tissue, as a long-term resour

  19. Increase in first morning voided urinary luteinizing hormone levels precedes the physical onset of puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demir, Ahmet; Voutilainen, R; Juul, A

    1996-01-01

    for S-LH. A significant increase in FMV U-LH concentration occurs before the first clinical signs of puberty in a sex-independent fashion. Our data indicate that FMV U-LH measurement is a clinically relevant, noninvasive method for the evaluation of pubertal development, and it may be helpful...

  20. The clinical course of juvenile idiopathic arthritis-associated uveitis in childhood and puberty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, Maretta; Ayuso, Viera Kalinina; Schalij-Delfos, Nicoline E.; Los, Leonoor I.; Rothova, Aniki; de Boer, Joke H.

    2012-01-01

    Aim The long-term course of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)-associated uveitis is not known yet. This study investigates the course and activity of JIA-associated uveitis in childhood and puberty. Design Retrospective study of the clinical data of 62 JIA patients with uveitis. The main outcome m

  1. The clinical course of juvenile idiopathic arthritis-associated uveitis in childhood and puberty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, Maretta; Ayuso, Viera Kalinina; Schalij-Delfos, Nicoline E.; Los, Leonoor I.; Rothova, Aniki; de Boer, Joke H.

    2012-01-01

    Aim The long-term course of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)-associated uveitis is not known yet. This study investigates the course and activity of JIA-associated uveitis in childhood and puberty. Design Retrospective study of the clinical data of 62 JIA patients with uveitis. The main outcome m

  2. Multi-tissue omics analyses reveal molecular regulatory networks for puberty in composite beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cánovas, Angela; Reverter, Antonio; DeAtley, Kasey L; Ashley, Ryan L; Colgrave, Michelle L; Fortes, Marina R S; Islas-Trejo, Alma; Lehnert, Sigrid; Porto-Neto, Laercio; Rincón, Gonzalo; Silver, Gail A; Snelling, Warren M; Medrano, Juan F; Thomas, Milton G

    2014-01-01

    Puberty is a complex physiological event by which animals mature into an adult capable of sexual reproduction. In order to enhance our understanding of the genes and regulatory pathways and networks involved in puberty, we characterized the transcriptome of five reproductive tissues (i.e. hypothalamus, pituitary gland, ovary, uterus, and endometrium) as well as tissues known to be relevant to growth and metabolism needed to achieve puberty (i.e., longissimus dorsi muscle, adipose, and liver). These tissues were collected from pre- and post-pubertal Brangus heifers (3/8 Brahman; Bos indicus x 5/8 Angus; Bos taurus) derived from a population of cattle used to identify quantitative trait loci associated with fertility traits (i.e., age of first observed corpus luteum (ACL), first service conception (FSC), and heifer pregnancy (HPG)). In order to exploit the power of complementary omics analyses, pre- and post-puberty co-expression gene networks were constructed by combining the results from genome-wide association studies (GWAS), RNA-Seq, and bovine transcription factors. Eight tissues among pre-pubertal and post-pubertal Brangus heifers revealed 1,515 differentially expressed and 943 tissue-specific genes within the 17,832 genes confirmed by RNA-Seq analysis. The hypothalamus experienced the most notable up-regulation of genes via puberty (i.e., 204 out of 275 genes). Combining the results of GWAS and RNA-Seq, we identified 25 loci containing a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associated with ACL, FSC, and (or) HPG. Seventeen of these SNP were within a gene and 13 of the genes were expressed in uterus or endometrium. Multi-tissue omics analyses revealed 2,450 co-expressed genes relative to puberty. The pre-pubertal network had 372,861 connections whereas the post-pubertal network had 328,357 connections. A sub-network from this process revealed key transcriptional regulators (i.e., PITX2, FOXA1, DACH2, PROP1, SIX6, etc.). Results from these multi-tissue omics

  3. Multi-tissue omics analyses reveal molecular regulatory networks for puberty in composite beef cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Cánovas

    Full Text Available Puberty is a complex physiological event by which animals mature into an adult capable of sexual reproduction. In order to enhance our understanding of the genes and regulatory pathways and networks involved in puberty, we characterized the transcriptome of five reproductive tissues (i.e. hypothalamus, pituitary gland, ovary, uterus, and endometrium as well as tissues known to be relevant to growth and metabolism needed to achieve puberty (i.e., longissimus dorsi muscle, adipose, and liver. These tissues were collected from pre- and post-pubertal Brangus heifers (3/8 Brahman; Bos indicus x 5/8 Angus; Bos taurus derived from a population of cattle used to identify quantitative trait loci associated with fertility traits (i.e., age of first observed corpus luteum (ACL, first service conception (FSC, and heifer pregnancy (HPG. In order to exploit the power of complementary omics analyses, pre- and post-puberty co-expression gene networks were constructed by combining the results from genome-wide association studies (GWAS, RNA-Seq, and bovine transcription factors. Eight tissues among pre-pubertal and post-pubertal Brangus heifers revealed 1,515 differentially expressed and 943 tissue-specific genes within the 17,832 genes confirmed by RNA-Seq analysis. The hypothalamus experienced the most notable up-regulation of genes via puberty (i.e., 204 out of 275 genes. Combining the results of GWAS and RNA-Seq, we identified 25 loci containing a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP associated with ACL, FSC, and (or HPG. Seventeen of these SNP were within a gene and 13 of the genes were expressed in uterus or endometrium. Multi-tissue omics analyses revealed 2,450 co-expressed genes relative to puberty. The pre-pubertal network had 372,861 connections whereas the post-pubertal network had 328,357 connections. A sub-network from this process revealed key transcriptional regulators (i.e., PITX2, FOXA1, DACH2, PROP1, SIX6, etc.. Results from these multi

  4. The Role of Mother in Informing Girls About Puberty: A Meta-Analysis Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sooki

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Context Family, especially the mother, has the most important role in the education, transformation of information, and health behaviors of girls in order for them to have a healthy transition from the critical stage of puberty, but there are different views in this regard. Objectives Considering the various findings about the source of information about puberty, a meta-analysis study was conducted to investigate the extent of the mother’s role in informing girls about puberty. Data Sources This meta-analysis study was based on English articles published from 2000 to February 2015 in the Scopus, PubMed, and Science direct databases and on Persian articles in the SID, Magiran, and Iran Medex databases with determined key words and their MeSH equivalent. Study Selection Quantitative cross-sectional articles were extracted by two independent researchers and finally 46 articles were selected based on inclusion criteria. STROBE list were used for evaluation of studies. Data Extraction The percent of mothers as the current and preferred source of gaining information about the process of puberty, menarche, and menstruation from the perspective of adolescent girls was extracted from the articles. The results of studies were analyzed using meta-analysis (random effects model and the studies’ heterogeneity was analyzed using the I2 calculation index. Variance between studies was analyzed using tau squared (Tau2 and review manager 5 software. Results The results showed that, from the perspective of teenage girls in Iran and other countries, in 56% of cases, the mother was the current source of information about the process of puberty, menarche, and menstruation. The preferred source of information about the process of puberty, menarche, and menstruation was the mother in all studies at 60% (Iran 57%, and other countries 66%. Conclusions According to the findings of this study, it is essential that health professionals and officials of the ministry of

  5. Research Suggestions for Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, John L.

    1974-01-01

    Describes how to perform accurate research. Also includes suggestions for specific research projects under such headings as: (1) types; (2) environments; (3) interactions; (4) classification; (5) hexagonal model; and (6) differentiation. (HMV)

  6. Open to Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Reading, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Contributors offer suggestions concerning parents as reading stimulators, book discussions, a test bank for the secondary school/college reading lab, standardized reading tests, television reading, plagiarism, vocabulary development, and book reports. (FL)

  7. Open To Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Reading, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Suggests class activities in three short articles including: (1) "Students Evaluate Reading," by Lenore Sandel; (2) "Solving Verbal Analogies," by Edward J. Dwyer; and (3) "Becoming Testwise," by Dean Schoen. (RS)

  8. Sex-specific regulation of weight and puberty by the Lin28/let-7 axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corre, Christina; Shinoda, Gen; Zhu, Hao; Cousminer, Diana L; Crossman, Christine; Bellissimo, Christian; Goldenberg, Anna; Daley, George Q; Palmert, Mark R

    2016-03-01

    Growth and pubertal timing differ in boys and girls. Variants in/near LIN28B associate with age at menarche (AAM) in genome-wide association studies and some AAM-related variants associate with growth in a sex-specific manner. Sex-specific growth patterns in response to Lin28b perturbation have been detected in mice, and overexpression of Lin28a has been shown to alter pubertal timing in female mice. To investigate further how Lin28a and Lin28b affect growth and puberty in both males and females, we evaluated Lin28b loss-of-function (LOF) mice and Lin28a gain-of-function (GOF) mice. Because both Lin28a and Lin28b can act via the conserved microRNA let-7, we also examined let-7 GOF mice. As reported previously, Lin28b LOF led to lighter body weights only in male mice while Lin28a GOF yielded heavier mice of both sexes. Let-7 GOF mice weighed less than controls, and males were more affected than females. Timing of puberty was assessed by vaginal opening (VO) and preputial separation (PS). Male Lin28b LOF and male let-7 GOF, but not female, mice displayed alteration of pubertal timing, with later PS than controls. In contrast, both male and female Lin28a GOF mice displayed late onset of puberty. Together, these data point toward a complex system of regulation by Lin28a, Lin28b, and let-7, in which Lin28b and let-7 can impact both puberty and growth in a sex-specific manner, raising the possibility that this pathway may contribute to differential regulation of male and female growth and puberty in humans. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  9. Combined therapy with GnRH analog plus growth hormone in central precocious puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucarelli, I; Segni, M; Ortore, M; Moretti, A; Iannaccone, R; Pasquino, A M

    2000-07-01

    GnRH analogues (GnRHa) arrest pubertal development, and slow growth velocity (GV) and bone maturation, thus improving adult height in central precocious puberty (CPP). In some patients, however, GV decreases to such an extent that it compromises the improvement in predicted adult height (PAH) and therefore the addition of GH is suggested. Of 20 patients with idiopathic CPP (treated with GnRHa [depot-triptorelin] at a dose of 100 microg/kg every 21 days i.m. for at least 2-3 yr) whose GV fell below the 25th percentile for chronological age (CA), ten received, in addition to the GnRHa, GH at a dose of 0.3 mg/kg/wk, s.c. 6 days weekly, for 2-4 yr. Ten patients matched for BA, CA, and duration of GnRHa treatment who showed the same growth pattern but refused GH treatment, served to evaluate the efficacy of the addition of GH. No patient showed classical GH deficiency. Both groups discontinued treatment at a comparable BA (mean +/- SEM): 13.2 +/- 0.2 yr in GnRHa + GH vs 13.0 +/- 0.1 yr in the control group. At the conclusion of the study all the patients had achieved adult height. Adult height was considered to be attained when the growth during the preceding year was less than 1 cm, with a BA of over 15 yr. Patients of the group treated with GH + GnRHa showed an adult height significantly higher (p<0.001) than pretreatment PAH (160.6 +/- 1.3 vs 152.7 +/- 1.7 cm). Height SDS for BA significantly increased from -1.5 +/- 0.2 at start of GnRHa to -0.21 +/- 0.2 at adult height (p<0.001). Target height was significantly exceeded. The GnRH alone treated group reached an adult height not significantly higher than pretreatment PAH (157.1 +/- 2.5 vs 155.5 +/- 1.9 cm). Height SDS for BA did not change (from -1.0 +/- 0.3 at start of GnRHa to -0.7 +/- 0.4 at adult height). Target height was just reached but not significantly exceeded. The gain in centimeters obtained calculated between pretreatment PAH and final height was 7.9 +/- 1.1 cm in patients treated with GH combined with Gn

  10. Puberty and sexual maturity in Anglo-Nubian male goats raised in semi-intensive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eduardo Barreto de Souza

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the sexual development in Anglo-Nubian male goats raised in semi-intensive system. Eight animals were monitored every fifteen days, from the 12th to the 44th week for age at penis detachment, live weight, scrotal circumference, seminal parameters (volume, aspect, concentration, wave motion, progressive individual motility, vigor and spermatic abnormalities and serum testosterone levels. Serum testosterone levels were determined in blood samples collected at the 20th, 28th and 38th weeks of age. Penis detachment occurred at 102.9 ± 15.4 days of age. Live weight and scrotal circumference at 20th and 44th weeks of age ranged from 25.9 ± 3.5 to 44.7 ± 4.7 kg and from 21.2 ± 1.6 cm to 26.0 ± 1.5 cm, respectively. The ejaculate volume ranged from 0.38 ± 0.05 to 0.96 ± 0.04 mL, concentration ranged from 1.33 ± 0.64 to 3.54 ± 0.14.10(9 mL-1 and the progressive individual motility varied from 48.0 ± 10.52% to 82.0 ± 3.74%, at the same age. The number of defective spermatozoa (major and minor was 32.2 ± 5.8% vs. 8.80 ± 2.9% at the 20th and the 44th week of age, respectively. Serum testosterone level was 2.70 ± 1.40 ng.mL-1 at the 20th week, 8.50 ± 4.66 ng.mL-1 at the 28th week and 2.21 ± 2.28 ng.mL-1 at the 38th week of age. Age showed a correlation with live weight, scrotal circumference, and all the qualitative parameters of semen except for volume, with all other qualitative parameters of semen, and the correlation among sperm abnormalities and the other traits was negative. Serum testosterone levels and andrological parameters of Anglo-Nubian goats raised in semi-intensive system are closely related to age. In those animals, puberty is reached at the 20th week and sexual maturity is reached at the 38th week of age.

  11. Male Central Precocious Puberty: Serum Profile of Anti-Müllerian Hormone and Inhibin B before, during, and after Treatment with GnRH Analogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina P. Grinspon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to describe the functional changes of Sertoli cells, based on the measurement of serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH and inhibin B during treatment with GnRHa and after its withdrawal in boys with central precocious puberty. Six boys aged 0.8 to 5.5 yr were included. AMH was low at diagnosis in patients >1 yr but within the normal range in younger patients. AMH increased to normal prepubertal levels during treatment. After GnRHa withdrawal, AMH declined concomitantly with the rise in serum testosterone. At diagnosis, inhibin B was elevated and decreased throughout therapy, remaining in the upper normal prepubertal range. In patients with testicular volume above 4 mL AMH remained higher in spite of suppressed FSH. After treatment withdrawal, inhibin B rose towards normal pubertal levels. In conclusion, AMH did not decrease in patients <1 yr reflecting the lack of androgen receptor expression in Sertoli cells in early infancy. Serum inhibin B might result from the contribution of two sources: the mass of Sertoli cells and the stimulation exerted by FSH. Sertoli cell markers might provide additional tools for the diagnosis and treatment followup of boys with central precocious puberty.

  12. Cognitive sex differences are not magnified as a function of age, sex hormones, or puberty development during early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlitz, Agneta; Reuterskiöld, Lena; Lovén, Johanna; Thilers, Petra P; Rehnman, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    Are cognitive sex differences magnified by individual differences in age, sex hormones, or puberty development? Cross-sectional samples of 12- to 14-year-old boys (n = 85) and girls (n = 102) completed tasks assessing episodic memory, face recognition, verbal fluency, and mental rotations. Blood estradiol, free testosterone, and self-rated puberty scores were obtained. Sex differences were found on all cognitive measures. However, the magnitude was not larger for older children, hormones and cognitive performance were not associated, and early maturers did not perform better than late maturers. Thus, cognitive sex differences were not associated with age, levels of sex hormones, or puberty development.

  13. Attitudes to Suggestions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PETER; JOHNSON

    2007-01-01

    As an Australian expat teaching English in China for over four years, I often encourage my students to not only learn the English language but also try to understand Western culture. This includes the fact that Westerners frequently initiate proactive suggestions on any aspects of soci-

  14. Developmental Programming: Prenatal and Postnatal Androgen Antagonist and Insulin Sensitizer Interventions Prevent Advancement of Puberty and Improve LH Surge Dynamics in Prenatal Testosterone-Treated Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Herkimer, Carol; Abi Salloum, Bachir; Moeller, Jacob; Beckett, Evan; Sreedharan, Rohit

    2015-07-01

    Prenatal T excess induces maternal hyperinsulinemia, early puberty, and reproductive/metabolic defects in the female similar to those seen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. This study addressed the organizational/activational role of androgens and insulin in programming pubertal advancement and periovulatory LH surge defects. Treatment groups included the following: 1) control; 2) prenatal T; 3) prenatal T plus prenatal androgen antagonist, flutamide; 4) prenatal T plus prenatal insulin sensitizer, rosiglitazone; 5) prenatal T and postnatal flutamide; 6) prenatal T and postnatal rosiglitazone; and 7) prenatal T and postnatal metformin. Prenatal treatments spanned 30-90 days of gestation and postnatal treatments began at approximately 8 weeks of age and continued throughout. Blood samples were taken twice weekly, beginning at approximately 12 weeks of age to time puberty. Two-hour samples after the synchronization with prostaglandin F2α were taken for 120 hours to characterize LH surge dynamics at 7 and 19 months of age. Prenatal T females entered puberty earlier than controls, and all interventions prevented this advancement. Prenatal T reduced the percentage of animals having LH surge, and females that presented LH surge exhibited delayed timing and dampened amplitude of the LH surge. Prenatal androgen antagonist, but not other interventions, restored LH surges without normalizing the timing of the surge. Normalization of pubertal timing with prenatal/postnatal androgen antagonist and insulin sensitizer interventions suggests that pubertal advancement is programmed by androgenic actions of T involving insulin as a mediary. Restoration of LH surges by cotreatment with androgen antagonist supports androgenic programming at the organizational level.

  15. Age at puberty, ovulation rate, and uterine length of developing gilts fed two lysine and three metabolizable energy concentrations from 100 to 260 d of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón Díaz, J A; Vallet, J L; Lents, C A; Nonneman, D J; Miles, J R; Wright, E C; Rempel, L A; Cushman, R A; Freking, B A; Rohrer, G A; Phillips, C; DeDecker, A; Foxcroft, G; Stalder, K

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of ad libitum feeding diets differing in standard ileal digestible (SID) lysine and ME concentrations that bracket those fed to developing gilts in U.S. commercial settings. Average SID lysine and ME concentrations in diets currently fed to developing gilts were obtained from a poll of the U.S. commercial swine industry. Crossbred Large White × Landrace gilts (n = 1,221), housed in groups, were randomly allotted to 6 corn-soybean diets in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement formulated to provided 2 SID lysine and 3 ME concentrations. Gilts received grower diets formulated to provide 1.02% (control = survey average) or 0.86% (control minus 15%) SID lysine and 2.94, 3.25, or 3.57 (survey average ME ± 10%) Mcal of ME/kg from 100 d of age until approximately 90 kg BW. Then, gilts were fed finisher diet containing 0.85% (control = survey average) or 0.73% (control minus 15%) SID lysine and 2.94, 3.26, or 3.59 (control ± 10%) Mcal of ME/kg until 260 d of age. Gilts were weighed, and backfat thickness and loin muscle area were recorded at the beginning of the trial and then every 28 d. Starting at 160 d of age, gilts were exposed daily to vasectomized boars and observed for behavioral estrus. At approximately 260 d of age, gilts were slaughtered and their reproductive tract was collected. Each reproductive tract was examined to determine whether the gilt was cyclic, the stage of estrus cycle, ovulation rate, and uterine length. Data were evaluated for normality and analyzed using mixed model methods. Average age at puberty was 193 d of age with a range from 160 to 265 d. When all gilts on trial at 160 d of age were included in the analysis, 91.0% reached puberty as determine by observation of standing estrus. Differences between dietary treatments on age at puberty or measurements of the reproductive tract were not detected. Growth rates to 160 d were not limiting for attainment of puberty in response to daily boar

  16. Suggestions for Teaching Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Na-na

    2013-01-01

    Teacher development and teaching practice(TP) have caught the eyes of researchers at home and abroad for many years. Many western scholars hold that reflective teaching is an efficient way to promote teacher development, but traditional TP is prevailing in China. Based on the merits and demerits of traditional TP and reflective TP, the author hopes to provide some suggestions for the people involved to promote the development of teacher education.

  17. Energy expenditure and intake during puberty in healthy nonobese adolescents: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hoi Lun; Amatoury, Mazen; Steinbeck, Katharine

    2016-10-01

    Puberty is a time of rapid growth and changing energy requirements and is a risk period for obesity. There is little high-quality evidence on the pubertal alterations of energy expenditure and intake, and this has limited our understanding of energy balance during this important life stage. The purpose of this study was to summarize existing evidence on pubertal energy expenditure and intake in healthy nonobese adolescents. Studies were identified through CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, Embase, MEDLINE, and Web of Science databases up to August 2015. Articles presenting objectively measured data for basal or resting metabolic rate (BMR/RMR), total daily energy expenditure (TDEE), and/or energy intake (EI) for ≥2 categories of puberty were included. Relevant data adjusted for fat-free mass (FFM) also were extracted. Data were dichotomized into prepubertal and pubertal groups and compared through the use of standardized mean differences (SMDs). Heterogeneous study methodologies precluded meta-analysis. The search netted 6770 articles, with 12 included for review. From these, 6 of 9 studies supported significantly higher absolute BMR/RMR during puberty (SMD: 1.10-5.93), and all of the studies favored significantly higher absolute TDEE during puberty (SMD: 0.46-9.55). These corresponded to a 12% difference and an 18% difference in absolute BMR/RMR and TDEE, respectively. Results adjusted for FFM were equivocal, with 3 studies favoring higher (1 significantly) and 3 favoring significantly lower adjusted BMR/RMR during puberty. Only 1 study reported EI, showing 41% and 25% greater absolute intakes in pubertal males and females, respectively. These differences were not significant after adjustment for FFM. Reasonably consistent evidence exists to support higher absolute BMR/RMR and TDEE in pubertal than in prepubertal adolescents. Differences are largely accounted for by FFM, among other potential factors such as growth- and puberty-related hormones. This review argues

  18. The role of puberty in the making and breaking of young ballet dancers: Perspectives of dance teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Siobhan B; Haase, Anne M; Malina, Robert M; Cumming, Sean P

    2016-02-01

    Physical changes associated with puberty may conflict with functional and aesthetic ideals for a career in ballet. The dance teacher is in a position to guide young dancers through the pubertal transition, although dancers rather than teachers are often the focus of research. This study explores the social stimulus value of the female body in ballet as perceived by the dance teacher and how value may change during puberty. Ten UK dance teachers were interviewed; interpretative phenomenological analysis was used. Four main themes perceived by dance teachers emerged as central to the social stimulus value of the body among adolescent dancers: the ideal body; teacher approaches to managing puberty in the dance environment; puberty as a 'make or break' stage in ballet; and teacher awareness of pubertal onset and the implications of timing. Dance teachers can play an important role in moderating external and individual expectations during the pubertal transition.

  19. Diagnostic work-up of 449 consecutive girls who were referred to be evaluated for precocious puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Signe Sloth; Aksglaede, Lise; Mouritsen, Annette

    2011-01-01

    A decrease in age at pubertal onset has been observed internationally. The aim of this study was to describe a large cohort of Caucasian girls referred with signs of early puberty according to etiology and compare biochemical characteristics.......A decrease in age at pubertal onset has been observed internationally. The aim of this study was to describe a large cohort of Caucasian girls referred with signs of early puberty according to etiology and compare biochemical characteristics....

  20. Nutrition, metabolic profiles and puberty in Brahman (Bos indicus) beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi, F; Blache, D; Martin, G B; D'Occhio, M J

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to gain an improved understanding of the relationships between body weight (BW), body condition (BCS), and metabolic homeostasis, and the attainment of puberty in Brahman heifers in a subtropical environment. Brahman heifers (200±3kg BW; 2.00±0.0 BCS) were assigned to a moderate nutrition (MN, n=11) or improved nutrition (IN, n=11) treatment from 11 to 23 months-of-age. The heifers were monitored at regular intervals for circulating concentrations of GH, IGF-1, insulin, glucose and leptin, and ovarian follicular activity was recorded until the first ovulation. From approximately 16 months of age, heifers on IN had a greater (PBrahman heifers on IN had a metabolic homeostasis that was supportive of reproductive maturation and puberty. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Changes in breast sensitivity at puberty, during the menstrual cycle, and at parturition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J E; Short, R V

    1977-05-07

    Sensitivity to pain and touch was measured in the nipple, areola, and cutaneous breast tissue of prepubertal boys and girls, postpubertal men and nuliparous women before and after delivery. Before puberty there were no differences between the sexes, but after puberty the tactile sensitivity of all areas of the women's breast was significantly greater than the men's. Tactil sensitivity of all areas also varied during the menstrual cycle, with maximal sensitivity at midcycle and at menstruation; the mid-cycle peak was absent when the women were taking oral contraceptives. But the most dramatic changes occured within 24 hours of parturition, when there was a great increase in breast sensitivity. This may be the key event for activating the suckling-induced discharge of oxytocin and prolactin and inhibiting ovulation during lactation.

  2. Relationship among Repeated Sprint Ability, Chronological Age and Puberty in young soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perroni, Fabrizio; Pintus, Antonio; Frandino, Mattia; Guidetti, Laura; Baldari, Carlo

    2016-01-20

    The aim of this study was to analyzed the relationship of Repeated Sprinting Ability (RSA) with chronological age and puberty in 100 young soccer players (Age: 13 ± 3 yr - 160 ± 33 month-; High: 159 ± 16 cm, Weight: 49.7 ± 14.1 kg; BMI 19.2 ± 2.5 kg/m) grouped on "Pulcini" (9 - 10 yrs), "Esordienti" (11 - 12 yrs), "Giovanissimi" (13 - 14 yrs), "Allievi" (15 - 16 yrs) and "Juniores" (> 17 yrs) categories. Anthropometric (Weight, Height, BMI), RSA (7x30 m sprint with 25s active rest: Total Time -TT, the lowest sprinting time (LST) and the fatigue index percentage -%IF), and Development (Self-Administered Rating Scale for pubertal development - PDS; Puberty) parameters were measured. ANOVA among categories was applied to asses differences (pinjury and overtraining during the different phases of growth and maturation.

  3. Increased risk of precocious puberty in internationally adopted children in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, G.; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Skakkebæk, N.E.

    2006-01-01

    shown long-term effects of certain prenatal and postnatal growth patterns, including advancement in pubertal maturation after poor intrauterine growth and catch-up growth during childhood. Different growth patterns and dietary habits between adoptees and children immigrating with their families might...... immigrating with their family, and descendants of immigrants living in Denmark. METHODS: Patients who were registered with the diagnosis of precocious puberty during the period 1993-2001 were identified through the national patient registry. The background population of children born from 1983 to 2001 were...... identified through the unique Danish Civil Registration System and subsequently categorized as being Danish (N = 1,062,333), adopted (N = 10,997), immigrating with their family (N = 72,181), or being descendants of immigrants (N = 128,152). The incidence rate ratio of precocious puberty was estimated by log...

  4. Early puberty is associated with mental health problems in middle adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Marttunen, Mauri; Rantanen, Päivi; Rimpelä, Matti

    2003-09-01

    This study set out to assess the relationship between pubertal timing and emotional and behavioural problems in middle adolescence. The study involved a school based survey of health, health behaviour and behaviour in school as well as questions about emotional and behavioural problems (the School Health Promotion Study). Secondary schools in four regions and 13 towns in Finland participated in the study in 1998. The respondents were 36,549 adolescents aged 14-16. The study included questions on depression, bulimia nervosa, psychosomatic symptoms, anxiety, drinking, substance use, smoking, bullying and truancy. Among girls, both internalising and externalising symptoms were more common the earlier puberty occurred. Among boys, externalising symptoms only were associated with early puberty. It is concluded that early pubertal timing is associated with increased mental health problems. Professionals working with adolescents should consider the mental health needs of early maturing adolescents.

  5. Ghrelin and obestatin concentrations during puberty: relationships with adiposity, nutrition and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, N A; Gibbons, C H; Martins, C

    2010-01-01

    Ghrelin and obestatin are two peptides associated with appetite control and the regulation of energy balance in adults. It is intuitive that they have an important role in growth and development during puberty. Therefore, it is acknowledged that these peptides, in addition to others, form part of the substrate underlying energy homeostasis which in turn will contribute to body weight regulation and could explain changes in energy balance during puberty. Both peptides originate from the stomach; hence, it is intuitive that they are involved in generating signals from tissue stores which influence food intake. This could be manifested via alterations in the drive to eat (i.e. hunger), eating behaviors and appetite regulation. Furthermore, there is some evidence that these peptides might also be associated with physical activity behaviors and metabolism. Anecdotally, children and adolescents experience behavioral and metabolic changes during growth and development which will be associated with physiological changes. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Pathogenetic Regulation of Female Precocious Puberty and the Mechanism of Therapy with Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    cai; de-pei

    2001-01-01

    In recent ten-odd years the pathogenetic regulation of female idiopathic precocious puberty was studied in our hospital, in terms of the function of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG axis) and the status of skeletal development as indicators. The therapy with Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in predominance was formulated, according to our understanding of the regulation and Syndrome Differentiation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). It has been clinically verified that the therapy could successfully modulate the course of pubertal development and optimize skeletal development in children with precocious puberty. The mechanism of effectiveness of the drugs has been further studied focusing on the neuroendocrine regulation and gene expression with modern medical techniques.……

  7. Pathogenetic Regulation of Female Precocious Puberty and the Mechanism of Therapy with Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡德培; 季志英; 陈伯英; 张炜

    2001-01-01

    @@In recent ten-odd years the pathogenetic regulation of female idiopathic precocious puberty was studied in our hospital, in terms of the function of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG axis) and the status of skeletal development as indicators. The therapy with Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in predominance was formulated, according to our understanding of the regulation and Syndrome Differentiation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). It has been clinically verified that the therapy could successfully modulate the course of pubertal development and optimize skeletal development in children with precocious puberty. The mechanism of effectiveness of the drugs has been further studied focusing on the neuroendocrine regulation and gene expression with modern medical techniques.

  8. Progress in the treatment of precocious puberty%性早熟治疗进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑郁; 母义明

    2011-01-01

    近年来,性早熟的发病率越来越高,然而其治疗中尚存在许多问题.本文根据国内外最新的文献报道,就如何界定性早熟的年龄、不同病因性早熟的治疗方案、治疗目标、治疗指征、停药指征及药物相关不良反应等进行综述.%Since recent years, the incidence of precocious puberty has been rising. However, questions regarding its treatment and other conditions remain. This article reviews recent published papers with long-term outcome data and guidelines, and systemical introduction to identification of precocious puberty, different treatment options, therapeutic goals, and indications for different types of diseases, as well as adverse effects of drugs.

  9. The Effect of Puberty Education on Knowledge, Attitude and Function of Girl's Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrban Mehrabi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The study was examined effect of puberty education on knowledge, attitude and function in girl's student in Jiroft. Materials & Methods: this was a quasi experimental study and the target population was girl's student at grade 1 high school in jiroft city and 40 girls were selected and were educated in a 12 sessions. The content of the educational course including physical signs of puberty, physiologic change in menstrual period, nutrition, sleep and psychological changes. The subjects completed in pretest and posttest a researcher made questionnaire that measure knowledge, attitude and function. The data was analyzed using descriptive indexes, t- and F-tests. The significant level was considered in less than 0.05. Results: The results showed that the average difference between pre-test and post-test knowledge, attitude and function in both experimental and control groups was significant (p

  10. Ghrelin Levels in Children with Constitutional Delay of Growth and Puberty

    OpenAIRE

    Şen, Tolta Altuğ; Gökşen Şimşek, Damla; Darcan, Şükran; Çoker, Mahmut

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we aimed to show the role of ghrelin in growth delay in children with constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP). Methods: Thirty male children with CDGP constituted the study group and fifteen healthy children with normal growth of similar ages−the control group. In both groups, fasting and postprandial plasma ghrelin levels, serum insulin−like growth factor−1 (IGF−1) and IGF−binding protein−3 (IGFBP−3) levels were determined. Results: There were no differenc...

  11. Cognitive efficiency on a match to sample task decreases at the onset of puberty in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGivern, Robert F; Andersen, Julie; Byrd, Desiree; Mutter, Kandis L; Reilly, Judy

    2002-10-01

    Electrocortical evidence indicates that a wave of synaptic proliferation occurs in the frontal lobes around the age of puberty onset. To study its potential influence on cognition, we examined 246 children (10-17 years) and 49 young adults (18-22 years) using a match-to-sample type of task to measure reaction times to assess emotionally related information. Based upon the instruction set, subjects made a yes/no decision about the emotion expressed in a face, a word, or a face/word combination presented tachistoscopically for 100 ms. The faces were images of a single individual with a happy, angry, sad or neutral expression. The words were 'happy,' 'angry,' 'sad,' or 'neutral,' In the combined stimulus condition, subjects were asked to decide if the face and word matched for the same emotion. Results showed that compared to the previous year, reaction times were significantly slower for making a correct decision at 11 and 12 years of age in girls and boys, the approximate ages of puberty onset. The peripubertal rise in reaction time declined slowly over the following 2-3 years and stabilized by 15 years of age. Analyses of the performance of 15-17 year olds revealed significantly longer reaction times in females to process both faces and words compared to males. However, this sex difference in late puberty appeared to be transient since it was not present in 18-22 year olds. Given the match-to-sample nature of the task employed, the puberty related increases in reaction time may reflect a relative inefficiency in frontal circuitry prior to the pruning of excess synaptic contacts.

  12. Delay of the Onset of Puberty in Female Rats by Prepubertal Exposure to T-2 Toxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Yang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence has revealed the deleterious influence of environmental and food contaminants on puberty onset and development in both animals and children, provoking an increasing health concern. T-2 toxin, a naturally-produced Type A trichothecene mycotoxin which is frequently found in cereal grains and products intended for human and animal consumption, has been shown to impair the reproduction and development in animals. Nevertheless, whether this trichothecene mycotoxin can disturb the onset of puberty in females remains unclear. To clarify this point, infantile female rats were given a daily intragastric administration of vehicle or 187.5 μg/kg body weight of T-2 toxin for five consecutive days from postnatal day 15 to 19, and the effects on puberty onset were evaluated in the present study. The results revealed that the days of vaginal opening, first dioestrus, and first estrus in regular estrous cycle were delayed following prepubertal exposure to T-2 toxin. The relative weights of reproductive organs uterus, ovaries, and vagina, and the incidence of corpora lutea were all diminished in T-2 toxin-treated rats. Serum levels of gonadotropins luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and estradiol were also reduced by T-2 toxin treatment. The mRNA expressions of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH and pituitary GnRH receptor displayed significant reductions following exposure to T-2 toxin, which were consistent with the changes of serum gonadotropins, delayed reproductive organ development, and delayed vaginal opening. In conclusion, the present study reveals that prepubertal exposure to T-2 toxin delays the onset of puberty in immature female rats, probably by the mechanism of disturbance of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis function. Considering the vulnerability of developmental children to food contaminants and the relative high level of dietary intake of T-2 toxin in children, we think the findings of

  13. Increased functional connectivity with puberty in the mentalising network involved in social emotion processing

    OpenAIRE

    Klapwijk, Eduard T.; Goddings, Anne-Lise; Heyes, Stephanie Burnett; Bird, Geoffrey; Viner, Russell M; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that puberty plays an important role in the structural and functional brain development seen in adolescence, but little is known of the pubertal influence on changes in functional connectivity. We explored how pubertal indicators (salivary concentrations of testosterone, oestradiol and DHEA; pubertal stage; menarcheal status) relate to functional connectivity between components of a mentalising network identified to be engaged in social emotion processing by our p...

  14. 46,XX/69,XXX diploid-triploid mixoploidy with hypothyroidism and precocious puberty.

    OpenAIRE

    Järvelä, I E; Salo, M.K.; Santavuori, P.; Salonen, R K

    1993-01-01

    We report a 20 month old female patient with diploid-triploid mixoploidy (46,XX/69,XXX) syndrome with hypothyroidism and precocious puberty. The triploid cell line was only expressed in the fibroblast culture and comprised the majority (95%) of the cells. Chromosome analysis of the fetal blood sample and peripheral blood sample were normal. The patient shows typical features of full triploidy (growth and severe mental retardation, cranial and facial dysmorphism, complete syndactyly of fingers...

  15. Effect of exogenous prolactin on ultrastructure of pinealocyte in female pigs during puberty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Przybylska, B.; Dusza, L.; Lewczuk, B.; Ciesielska-Myszka, L. [Akademia Rolniczo-Technicza, Olsztyn (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    Influence of the administration of prolactin to female swine during puberty on the ultrastructure of pinealocytes has been examined by means of morphometric analysis. Prolactin administration for 15 consecutive days resulted in a decrease in the cytoplasmic dense bodies type MBB-2, lysosomes and multivesicular bodies. Some differences in structure of pinealocytes were also observed. Prolactin appeared to stimulate the process of transformation of cytoplasmic dense bodies. (author). 28 refs, 5 figs.

  16. Delay of the Onset of Puberty in Female Rats by Prepubertal Exposure to T-2 Toxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rong; Wang, Yi-Mei; Zhang, Li-Shi; Zhang, Li; Zhao, Zeng-Ming; Zhao, Jun; Peng, Shuang-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidence has revealed the deleterious influence of environmental and food contaminants on puberty onset and development in both animals and children, provoking an increasing health concern. T-2 toxin, a naturally-produced Type A trichothecene mycotoxin which is frequently found in cereal grains and products intended for human and animal consumption, has been shown to impair the reproduction and development in animals. Nevertheless, whether this trichothecene mycotoxin can disturb the onset of puberty in females remains unclear. To clarify this point, infantile female rats were given a daily intragastric administration of vehicle or 187.5 μg/kg body weight of T-2 toxin for five consecutive days from postnatal day 15 to 19, and the effects on puberty onset were evaluated in the present study. The results revealed that the days of vaginal opening, first dioestrus, and first estrus in regular estrous cycle were delayed following prepubertal exposure to T-2 toxin. The relative weights of reproductive organs uterus, ovaries, and vagina, and the incidence of corpora lutea were all diminished in T-2 toxin-treated rats. Serum levels of gonadotropins luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and estradiol were also reduced by T-2 toxin treatment. The mRNA expressions of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and pituitary GnRH receptor displayed significant reductions following exposure to T-2 toxin, which were consistent with the changes of serum gonadotropins, delayed reproductive organ development, and delayed vaginal opening. In conclusion, the present study reveals that prepubertal exposure to T-2 toxin delays the onset of puberty in immature female rats, probably by the mechanism of disturbance of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis function. Considering the vulnerability of developmental children to food contaminants and the relative high level of dietary intake of T-2 toxin in children, we think the findings of the present study

  17. Challenges and controversies in diagnosis and management of gonadotropin dependent precocious puberty: An Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Managing precocious puberty (PP has been a challenge due to lack of standardized definition, gonadotrophins assay, gonadotrophin stimulation, timings for blood sampling, and parameters for assessing outcomes. This review evaluated available literature to simplify the algorithm for managing gonadotrophin dependent/central PP (CPP, with an Indian perspective. CPP is one of the commonest forms of PP and mimics the normal course of puberty, at an age 3.5 cm and uterine volume of >1.8 ml are two most specific indicators for true CPP. Therapy is indicated in children with CPP with accelerated bone age, height advancement, or psychosocial stress. Treatment goal is to halt puberty progression to a socially acceptable age, allowing the child to attain optimal height potential. GnRHa is the treatment of choice, with best height outcomes when initiated <6 years age. Treatment is recommended till 11 years age. LH suppression to <3 U/L may be a reasonable target in patients on GnRHa therapy. Medroxyprogesterone acetate holds an important place in managing PP in India, cause of high costs associated with GnRHa therapy. There is an urgent need for clinical trials from India, for establishing Indian cut-off for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of children with PP.

  18. Induction of puberty in the hypogonadal girl--practices and attitudes of pediatric endocrinologists in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiess, W; Conway, G; Ritzen, M

    2002-01-01

    The management of children and adolescents with hypogonadism and in particular the induction of puberty in the hypogonadal girl is subject to controversy. Therefore, under the auspices and through organization of the Drugs and Therapeutics Committee of the European Society of Paediatric Endocrino......The management of children and adolescents with hypogonadism and in particular the induction of puberty in the hypogonadal girl is subject to controversy. Therefore, under the auspices and through organization of the Drugs and Therapeutics Committee of the European Society of Paediatric...... of the results of the questionnaires and discussions of that session to further the discussion on and knowledge of current concepts of induction of puberty in the hypogonadal girl in Europe. It became clear from the data accumulated here that the start of treatment, the aims of therapy and the modalities of how...... to treat the hypogonadal girl vary amongst pediatric endocrinologists in Europe. For example, a chronological age > or =11 years was considered appropriate for the start of estrogen therapy by 40.4% (out of 188 answers), while 47.8 and 7.5% felt that a chronological age > or =13 and > or =15 years...

  19. Effect of intensive or extensive systems on buffalo heifers performances: onset of puberty and ovarian size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Borghese

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the effect of intensive feeding (IF group or pasture system (PS group on the onset of puberty and on the ovarian size in buffaloes. The trial was carried out on 26 prepubertal 8-months old buffalo heifers weighing a mean of 134 kg (n =13 per group. The heifers were weighed monthly and, starting from the 13th month of age, blood samples were collected every 10 days to determine the concentration of plasma progesterone by RIA. Heifers were considered to have achieved puberty and cyclic ovarian activity when plasma progesterone levels exceeded 1 ng/ml for two samples with a lower intermediate value. After two cycles, the heifers were naturally mated. Transrectal ultrasonography was performed every twenty days to follow changes in size of ovaries and in follicles number. Significantly higher (P<0.001 gains were obtained by IF system (870 g/d than PS one (620 g/d but the mean age at puberty was the same in both groups ( 599d vs 610d, respectively. Within 21 months 8 (IF group and 10 heifers (PS group showed cyclic ovarian activity. Ovarian size increased with age in both groups; however, the length of the right ovary and the number of follicles tended to be higher in IF vs PS group.

  20. 论被成人误读的青春期%Puberty Misunderstood by Adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林蓉

    2011-01-01

    由于成人的视角,教育和社会等因素的影响,成人在不同程度上误读了青春期,这对青春期个体的发展有消极的影响,甚至会阻碍个体的发展.要改变这种状况,成人必须通过对青春期的普遍性和必然性的认识,消除对青春期的误读,正确对待青春期,确保青春期个体获得良好的发展。%As the adults' perspective, education and social factors, they misunderstand puberty on varying degrees. It has negative effects for the individual's adolescent development and even hinder the development of individual. To change this situation, the adults must be on the adolescent's understanding of the universality and necessity, to eliminate the misunderstanding of puberty, the correct treatment of adolescence, to ensure that individuals get a good development of puberty.

  1. The roles of puberty and age in explaining the diminished effectiveness of parental buffering of HPA reactivity and recovery in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doom, Jenalee R; Hostinar, Camelia E; VanZomeren-Dohm, Adrienne A; Gunnar, Megan R

    2015-09-01

    Parental support is a powerful regulator of stress and fear responses for infants and children, but recent evidence suggests it may be an ineffective stress buffer for adolescents. The mechanisms underlying this developmental shift are not well-understood. The goal of the present study was to examine the independent and joint contributions of pubertal status and chronological age in explaining this shift. A sample of 75 typically developing youth (M age=12.95 years, SD=0.70, range=11.7-14.6 years; 37 females) was recruited to complete a modified Trier Social Stress Test (TSST-M) in the laboratory. Participants were recruited in such a way as to disentangle pubertal stage and chronological age by phone screening for markers of pubertal stage and then recruiting roughly equal numbers of younger and older, pre/early and mid/late pubertal youth who were then randomly assigned within groups to condition. The TSST-M was used as the stressor and youth prepared either with their parent or stranger (parent condition: N=39). Pubertal stage was confirmed by the Petersen Pubertal Development Scale at the time of testing and treated, along with chronological age, as a continuous variable in the analyses. The results revealed an interaction of pubertal stage and support condition for cortisol reactivity to the TSST-M such that preparing for the speech with the parent became a less potent buffer of the HPA axis as pubertal stage increased. Age did not interact with condition in predicting cortisol reactivity. In contrast, the parent's presence during speech preparation decreased in its effectiveness to hasten recovery of the HPA axis as children got older, but pubertal stage was not predictive of recovery rate. These patterns were specific to cortisol and were not observed with salivary alpha-amylase levels or subjective stress ratings for the task. These analyses suggest that the switch away from using parents as social buffers may be the result of neurobiological mechanisms

  2. Expression and significance of netrin-1 and its receptor UNC5C in precocious puberty female rat hypothalamus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Chao Shang; Jie Zhang; Yan-Qiu Shang

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study expressions of netrin-1 and its receptor UNC5C in female precocious puberty rat hypothalamus, and explore its effect on precocious puberty process.Methods:Forty female one-week-old SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: experimental group A (precocious puberty early youth), experimental group B (precocious puberty medium youth), group A (normal pre-puberty), group B (normal early youth) with 10 rats in each group. Precocious puberty experimental rats were induced with Danazol and rats in control group were injected with saline. Uterus and ovaries were removed, specimens were weighed, uterus index and ovarian index were calculated, and amount of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were detected from the blood by ELISA. Real-time PCR was used to detect netrin-1 and its receptor UNC5C, as well as hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) mRNA expression in hypothalamus tissues; and then, a co-immunoprecipitation study of interactions between netrin-1 and its receptor UNC5C was carried out.Results: Relative target gene expression levels of control group A, control group B, experimental group A, and experimental group B (withβ-actin as an internal control for normalization) were as follows: Netrin-1: 3.5±0.9, 5.4±0.7, 4.9±1.0, 5.3±0.3; UNC5C: 0.8±0.04, 1.7±0.2, 1.82±0.23, 1.58±0.4; GnRH: 1.2±0.3, 2.7±0.3, 2.4±0.7, 3.2±0.4.Conclusions:LH and FSH concentrations, netrin-1 and its receptor expression are increased in precocious puberty animal models.

  3. An augmented dopamine system function is present prior to puberty in the methylazoxymethanol acetate rodent model of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Perez, Stephanie M; Lodge, Daniel J

    2014-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a disease typically associated with an adolescent onset. Although there have been a considerable number of imaging studies investigating the transition to psychosis in prodromal patients, there are relatively few preclinical studies examining potential mechanisms that may contribute to adolescent onset. We have previously demonstrated, in the methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) rodent model of schizophrenia, that an enhanced activity within the ventral hippocampus may underlie the dopamine system hyperfunction, suggested to contribute to positive symptoms in patients. Here we demonstrate that the aberrant regulation of dopamine system function, in MAM-treated rats, is present prior to puberty. Furthermore, we now report that while the afferent regulation of ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons (from the hippocampus and pedunculopontine tegmental area) appears intact in preadolescent rats, the behavioral response to alterations in dopamine system function appears to be attenuated in preadolescent rats. Thus, we posit that the pathological alterations underlying psychosis may be present prior to symptom onset and that the "normal" development of the postsynaptic side of the dopamine system may underlie the transition to psychosis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The role of estrogen in bone growth and formation: changes at puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Singh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Divya Singh1, Sabyasachi Sanyal2, Naibedya Chattopadhyay11Division of Endocrinology, 2Division of Drug Target Discovery and Development, Central Drug Research Institute (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, IndiaAbstract: A high peak bone mass (PBM at skeletal maturity is a good predictor for lower rate of fracture risks in later life. Growth during puberty contributes significantly to PBM achievement in women and men. The growth hormone (GH/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 axis has a critical role in pubertal bone growth. There is an increase in GH and IGF-1 levels during puberty; thus, it is assumed that sex steroids contribute to higher GH/IGF-1 action during growth. Recent studies indicate that estrogen increases GH secretion in boys and girls, and the major effect of testosterone on GH secretion is via aromatization to estrogen. Estrogen is pivotal for epiphyseal fusion in young men and women. From studies of individuals with a mutated aromatase gene and a case study of male patient with defective estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-α, it is clear that estrogen is indispensable for normal pubertal growth and growth plate fusion. ER-α and estrogen receptor-beta (ER-β have been localized in growth plate and bone. ER knockout studies have shown that ER-α-/- female mice have reduced linear appendicular growth, while ER-β-/- mice have increased appendicular growth. No such effect is seen in ER-β-/- males; however, repressed growth is seen in ER-α-/- males, resulting in shorter long bones. Thus, ER-β represses longitudinal bone growth in female mice, while it has no function in the regulation of longitudinal bone growth in male mice. These findings indicate that estrogen plays a critical role in skeletal physiology of males as well as females.Keywords: peak bone mass, puberty, estrogen, growth plate

  5. Association of ghrelin and leptin with reproductive hormones in constitutional delay of growth and puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El hawary Amany K

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP is a variation of the onset and timing of pubertal development without a defined endocrine abnormality. Recently published studies indicate that leptin and ghrelin play a role in puberty initiation and progress. They have been implicated in regulation of GnRH secretion, with ghrelin having inhibitory and leptin, facilitatory effects. We hypothesized that elevated ghrelin and reduced leptin concentrations could be implicated in altering the tempo of puberty in adolescents with CDGP. So in the current study we evaluate variations in leptin and ghrelin levels in adolescent boys with CDGP, the relationships between both hormones and reproductive hormones including LH, FSH and testosterone were also evaluated. Methods The study enrolled 23 adolescent boys with CDGP and 20 healthy controls matched for age and sex. Weight, height, BMI, testicular volume, bone age, bone age delay, serum FSH, LH, testosterone, leptin and ghrelin were assessed. Results Adolescent boys with CDGP had significantly lower leptin and higher ghrelin than normal controls. Leptin was positively correlated with BMI, bone age, testicular volume, FSH, LH and testosterone and negatively correlated with delayed bone age and ghrelin. Ghrelin was negatively correlated with BMI, bone age, testicular volume, FSH, LH and testosterone. With multiple regression analysis BMI, FSH, LH, testosterone and ghrelin remained independently correlated with leptin while BMI, LH and testosterone remained independently correlated with ghrelin. Conclusion Elevated serum ghrelin and decreased leptin concentrations and their associations with reproductive hormones may explain the sexual immaturity in adolescent boys with CDGP.

  6. Influence of growth hormone on growth and onset of puberty ofRahmani ewe lamb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K H El-Shahat; N F Khaled; F I El-Far

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of somatotropin administration on growth and puberty attainment of Rahmani ewes -lamb.Methods:TwelveRahmani ewes–lamb of6-7 months of age and average body weight(24.75±0.16) kg were randomly allotted into two equal groups.The first group served as control and the second group was somatotropin-treated.The ewe-lambs were weighed at the start and at the end of the experiment.In addition, the body condition score, withers height and heart girth were determined at the end of the study.Blood samples were collected weekly till the end of experiment(Twelve weeks).Sera samples were assayed for progesterone, insulin-like growth factor-1(IGF-1) glucose, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein and urea.Results:It indicated that the somatotropin-treated group attained puberty2.5 weeks(18 days) earlier than control one.Somatotropin-treatedRahmani ewe lambs had higher body weight, and body condition score than those of the control one.A similar tendency was observed in average daily gain, withers height and heart girth.Somatotropin administration had a beneficial effect on blood born metabolites as indicated by increased serum glucose, total lipids, cholesterol,IGF-1 and decreased urea ofRahmani ewes- lamb as compared to control one.Conclusion:Somatotropin administration enhanced puberty inRahmani ewe lambs.This is due to increased provision of trophic signals(represented by increasedSerumIGF-1 secretions) and/or blood-borne metabolites(glucose, cholesterol and lipid).

  7. 成年礼与考试%Puberty Rite and Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李维喆

    2011-01-01

    The nature, purpose, content and form of puberty rite decides that it is the rudiment of the test, and it has a positive effect on the personal and social development and has inspiration to people's exam concept and educational philosophy.%成年礼的性质、目的、内容、形式等决定了它是考试的雏形,它对当时个人与社会的发展有积极作用,对当今人们的考试观、教育观不乏启迪意义.

  8. Helping a boy with chronic medical problems get on friendly terms with his body and puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    "My mom wants me to shave off my facial hair, but I like it. I think it makes me look mature," said sixteen-year-old Alex as he proudly stroked the crop of hairs sprouting from his chin. I was speechless. Why? Because for years I had heard about all the medical things that were wrong with Alex's body. Then, when puberty arrived, his distress about his changing body was intense. So how did psychoanalysis help him get on friendly terms with body changes, even enjoying signs of growing up? We shall see.

  9. Precocious puberty in a patient with Oculo-Auriculo-Verebral spectrum (OAVS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Berio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors report on the first case of OAVS (Oculo-Auriculo- Vertebral-Spectrum, with hemifacial microsomy, hydrocephalus, pubertas precox, thelarche at 4 years of age, vaginal bleeding at 5 years, and left ovary of adult type on echography (right ovary initially not visualized. FISH and CGH-ARRAYS methods were negative. By GnRH therapy the delay of onset puberty was obtained. The authors ascribe facial and ovary asymmetry to a derangement of blastogenesis, during which axial right-left structures begin the develop with consequent migration or interation with surrounding tissues of neural crest cells and alteration of diencephalic pituitary systems.

  10. Is There a Progressive Withdrawal of Physiological Protections against High-Intensity Exercise-Induced Fatigue during Puberty?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Ratel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Puberty is characterized by a large number of physiological modifications that translate into increased neuromuscular fatigue during high-intensity exercise in adolescents compared to prepubertal children. This greater neuromuscular fatigue in adolescents could be attributed to peripheral (i.e., muscular and central (i.e., nervous factors that change through puberty. Among the peripheral changes are muscle mass, fiber type composition, energy metabolism and musculo-tendinous stiffness. Among the central modifications are the voluntary activation level, the antagonist co-activation and a differential interplay between central and peripheral fatigue. The objective of this review article will be to underline the importance of these factors on the development of neuromuscular fatigue during high-intensity exercise throughout puberty and to highlight that the adolescents could be physiologically less protected against fatiguing high-intensity exercise than their prepubertal counterparts.

  11. Prostate specific antigen in boys with precocious puberty before and during gonadal suppression by GnRH agonist treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Müller, J; Skakkebaek, N E

    1997-01-01

    In healthy boys, the pituitary-gonadal axis exhibits diurnal variation in early puberty. Serum testosterone levels are higher during the night and low or immeasurable during the day. These fluctuating levels of circulating androgens in early pubertal boys are difficult to monitor. Prostate specific...... antigen (PSA) is a marker of the androgen-dependent prostatic epithelial cell activity and it is used in the diagnosis and surveillance of adult patients with prostatic cancer. We have measured PSA concentrations in serum from boys with precocious puberty before and during gonadal suppression with Gn......RH agonists to evaluate the effect of normal and precocious puberty on PSA levels and to study the correlation between testosterone and PSA in boys....

  12. Primary School Puberty/Sexuality Education: Student-Teachers' Past Learning, Present Professional Education, and Intention to Teach These Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Coleman, Stephanie J.

    2013-01-01

    Primary school teachers are often tasked with puberty/sexuality education for students who are undergoing sexual maturation at ever-earlier ages. This study explores the changing trajectories of the pre-service learning and teaching of primary school puberty/sexuality education at an urban university, including student-teachers' childhood…

  13. UNESCO's Guidance on Puberty and Sexual Health Education for Students Aged 9-12 Years Compared to an Upper Primary School Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children and young adolescents are reaching puberty earlier. Providing information about such changes before puberty can help them develop in a more competent and informed manner. Context and Objective: UNESCO's "International Technical Guidance on Sexuality Education" forms a comprehensive, evidence-based, authoritative…

  14. A seasonal variation of calcitropic hormones, bone turnover and bone mineral density in early and mid-puberty girls - a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viljakainen, H.T.; Palssa, A.; Karkkainen, M.

    2006-01-01

    -six girls, mean age 11 center dot 4 (sd 0 center dot 4) years, in Tanner stage 2 (early puberty) and 3 (mid-puberty) were studied during September to March. The BMD was measured from the lumbar vertebrae and the left femur by dual-energy X-ray absoptiometry. Their serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25-OHD), serum...

  15. Prostate specific antigen in boys with precocious puberty before and during gonadal suppression by GnRH agonist treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Müller, J; Skakkebaek, N E

    1997-01-01

    In healthy boys, the pituitary-gonadal axis exhibits diurnal variation in early puberty. Serum testosterone levels are higher during the night and low or immeasurable during the day. These fluctuating levels of circulating androgens in early pubertal boys are difficult to monitor. Prostate specific...... antigen (PSA) is a marker of the androgen-dependent prostatic epithelial cell activity and it is used in the diagnosis and surveillance of adult patients with prostatic cancer. We have measured PSA concentrations in serum from boys with precocious puberty before and during gonadal suppression with Gn...

  16. Central precocious puberty and granulosa cell ovarian tumor in an 8-year old female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Calcaterra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian tumors associated with hormonal changes of the peripheral iso-sexual precocious puberty are of common presentation. We describe here a rare case of juvenile granulosa cell tumor in a female with central precocious puberty (CPP. An 8-year old girl with CPP presented with vaginal bleeding four months after the diagnosis and before starting treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH-analogs. Suppression of basal follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH level, elevation of serum estradiol, progesterone and Cancer Antigen-125 were documented. Abdominal ultrasound examination (US and magnetic resonance imaging showed a pelvic mass affecting the left ovary. A left salpingo-oophorectomy was performed and the mass was totally resected. Juvenile granulosa cell ovarian tumor was diagnosed. One month post surgery, estradiol and progesterone decreased to values of the first evaluation and FSH increased; Cancer Antigen-125 resulted normal while ultrasound pelvic examination showed absence of pelvic masses. In our patient, the tumor had grown very quickly since hormonal data demonstrated a CPP without any evidence of ovarian mass on US only four months before diagnosis. The overstimulation of the FSH or aberrant activation of FSH receptors may have contributed to the development of the mass.

  17. Maternal Preeclampsia and Androgens in the Offspring around Puberty: A Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janszky, Imre; Åsvold, Bjørn O.; Økland, Inger; Forman, Michele R.; Vatten, Lars J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Children born after preeclampsia may have a dominant androgen profile in puberty compared with other children. Circulating androgen concentrations at 11–12 years of age were compared between offspring born after preeclampsia, and children whose mothers did not have preeclampsia. Methods A total of 611 mother-offspring pairs were followed up 11 (daughters) or 12 (sons) years after birth: 218 pairs in the preeclampsia group, and 383 pairs without preeclampsia. Circulating total testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) were measured in the children. In boys, testicular volume was also measured. Results Among girls born after preeclampsia, DHEAS concentrations were higher than in unexposed girls (ppreeclampsia with severe features had the lowest DHEAS levels. In contrast, testosterone concentrations were highest in girls born after preeclampsia with severe features, both compared to other girls in the preeclampsia group, and compared to unexposed girls (ppreeclampsia group compared with unexposed boys (ppreeclampsia with severe features had the lowest concentrations of DHEAS. Compared with unexposed boys, testicular volume (p = 0.015) and IGF-I (p = 0.004) were higher for boys in the preeclampsia group, except for boys in the clinically severe preeclampsia group. Conclusions In utero exposure to preeclampsia is associated with androgen hormonal patterns in early puberty that depend on clinical severity of preeclampsia and sex of the offspring. The hormonal differences may reflect different timing of pubertal development, and may have consequences for future health of the offspring. PMID:27992610

  18. Hormonal changes during GnRH analogue therapy in children with central precocious puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, J; Juul, A; Andersson, A M

    2000-01-01

    Gonadotropin releasing hormone analogues (GnRHa) have been used for treatment of central precocious puberty (CPP) for more than 15 years. They are generally considered safe although data on potential long-term side effects are scarce. However, GnRHa therapy has profound effects on both the hypoth......Gonadotropin releasing hormone analogues (GnRHa) have been used for treatment of central precocious puberty (CPP) for more than 15 years. They are generally considered safe although data on potential long-term side effects are scarce. However, GnRHa therapy has profound effects on both...... the hypothalamopituitary-gonadal axis as well as on growth hormone (GH) secretion. Gonadal activity is increased in children with CPP; during GnRHa therapy secretion of gonadal hormones is suppressed as reflected by measurements of LH, FSH, and estradiol/testosterone. More recently, studies of levels of inhibin A and B...... as well as markers of androgen action such as SHBG and prostate specific antigen have demonstrated marked suppression of gonadal function possibly to infra-physiological levels. The possible long-term consequences of these observations have yet to be determined. Detailed analyses of the GH-IGF-I axis have...

  19. Adrenal and gonadal steroids and pituitary response to LHRH in girls. II. Precocious puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintor, C; Genazzani, A R; Ibba, P; Pecciarini-Snickars, L; Corda, R

    1978-04-01

    Three baby girls between 22 and 30 months of age, presenting with isosexual idiopathic precocious puberty apparently not due to any organic cause, were studied. Basal levels of plasma steroids of adrenal and gonadal origin, circadian rhythm of plasma cortisol, and pituitary response to 25 microgram of LHRH were evaluated. All cases were characterized by high levels of plasma gonadotropins and by a marked response to exogenous LHRH. Normal cortisol circadia rhythm was found in all cases, one of which characterized by slightly raised plasma values. The other adrenal steroids were all higher than those expected for the chronological age, corresponding to those of 5-6 years old girls. On the other hand, steroids of both adrenal and ovarian (A, T) or mainly ovarian origin (E2) and DHT were all found to be higher than those normally reported in girls at stage 2 of sexual development. These data indicate a hypersecretion of gonadotropins in idiopathic isosexual precocious puberty, with a marked gonadal steroidogenetic response. The secretion of adrenal androgens does not appear to have an important role in the etiology of this condition.

  20. [Effects of puberty on glucose-lipid balance during exercise in the obese child].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunquin, Gautier; Theunynck, Denis; Sesboüé, Bruno; Arhan, Pierre; Bouglé, Dominique

    2006-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate effect of puberty on substrate oxidation rates using a graded exercise test to exhaustion. Two groups of obese adolescent males (34 prepubertal: body mass index (BMI) = 25,94 +/- 2,63; Z-score = 4,43 +/- 1,83; and 26 postpubertal: BMI = 31,14 +/- 4,88; Z-score = 5,264 +/- 1,76) performed an exercise test on a cycle ergometer. The test consisted in a series of graded exercises on a cycle ergometer. Stage duration was 3 min 30 s. Fat and carbohydrate rates were calculated during the last 30 s of each stage using stoichiometric equations, and this permitted us to calculate substrate oxidation according to exercise intensity. Lipid oxidation rates are significantly higher in the postpubertal group. When the fat oxidation rates are reported relative to fat free mass, fat oxidation rates are higher in the prepubertal group. Puberty decreases significantly the capacity of fat free mass to oxidize fat for a same level of exercise.

  1. Delayed Puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problems such as Turner syndrome in girls or Klinefelter syndrome in boys • Some cancer treatments that affect sex ... Menopause/upload/polycystic- ovary-syndrome-bilingual-071509.pdf ——Klinefelter Syndrome: www.hormone.org/Resources/ upload/FS_MH_Klinefelter_ ...

  2. Time course and role of LH and FSH in the expansion of the Leydig cell population at the time of puberty in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, I.; Ramaswamy, S.; Teerds, K.J.; Keijer, J.; Plant, T. M.

    2014-01-01

    In higher primates development of the adult population of Leydig cells has received little attention. Here, the emergence of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD3B) positive cells in the testis of the rhesus monkey was examined during spontaneous puberty, and correlated with S-phase labeling in the interstitium at this critical stage of development. In addition, the relative role of LH and FSH in initiating the pubertal expansion of Leydig cells was studied by precociously stimulating the juvenile testis in vivo with pulsatile 11-day infusions of recombinant LH and FSH, either alone or in combination. At the time of castration, testes were immersion fixed in Bouin’s, embedded in paraffin and sectioned at 5 μm. Leydig cells/testis were enumerated using HSD3B as a Leydig cell marker. Leydig cell number per testis increased progressively during puberty to reach values in the adult approximately 10 fold greater than in early pubertal animals. The rise in cell number was associated with an increase in nuclear diameter. That the pubertal expansion of Leydig cell number was driven primarily by the increase in LH secretion at this stage of development was suggested by the finding that precocious stimulation of mid juvenile monkeys with LH, either alone or in combination with that of FSH, resulted in a 20 to 30 fold increase in the number of HSD3B positive cells. Interestingly, precocious FSH stimulation, alone, also resulted in appearance of Leydig cells as indicated by the occasional HSD3B positive cell in the interstitium. The nuclear diameter of these Leydig cells, however was less than that of those generated in response to LH. PMID:25269763

  3. Geochemistry, geochronology, mineralogy, and geology suggest sources of and controls on mineral systems in the southern Toquima Range, Nye County, Nevada; with geochemistry maps of gold, silver, mercury, arsenic, antimony, zinc, copper, lead, molybdenum, bismuth, iron, titanium, vanadium, cobalt, beryllium, boron, fluorine, and sulfur; and with a section on lead associations, mineralogy and paragenesis, and isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawe, Daniel R.; Hoffman, James D.; Doe, Bruce R.; Foord, Eugene E.; Stein, Holly J.; Ayuso, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    Geochemistry maps showing the distribution and abundance of 18 elements in about 1,400 rock samples, both mineralized and unmineralized, from the southern Toquima Range, Nev., indicate major structural and lithologic controls on mineralization, and suggest sources of the elements. Radiometric age data, lead mineralogy and paragenesis data, and lead-isotope data supplement the geochemical and geologic data, providing further insight into timing, sources, and controls on mineralization. Major zones of mineralization are centered on structural margins of calderas and principal northwest-striking fault zones, as at Round Mountain, Manhattan, and Jefferson mining districts, and on intersections of low-angle and steep structures, as at Belmont mining district. Paleozoic sedimentary rocks, mostly limestones (at Manhattan, Jefferson, and Belmont districts), and porous Oligocene ash-flow tuffs (at Round Mountain district) host the major deposits, although all rock types have been mineralized as evidenced by numerous prospects throughout the area. Principal mineral systems are gold-silver at Round Mountain where about 7 million ounces of gold and more than 4 million ounces of silver has been produced; gold at Gold Hill in the west part of the Manhattan district where about a half million ounces of gold has been produced; gold-mercury-arsenic-antimony in the east (White Caps) part of the Manhattan district where a few hundred thousand ounces of gold has been produced; and silver-lead-antimony at Belmont where more than 150,000 ounces of silver has been produced. Lesser amounts of gold and silver have been produced from the Jefferson district and from scattered mines elsewhere in the southern Toquima Range. A small amount of tungsten was produced from mines in the granite of the Round Mountain pluton exposed east of Round Mountain, and small amounts of arsenic, antimony, and mercury have been produced elsewhere in the southern Toquima Range. All elements show unique

  4. Prospective assessment of pituitary size and shape on MR imaging after suppressive hormonal therapy in central precocious puberty

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    Beek, J.T. van; Sharafuddin, M.J.A.; Kao, S.C.S. [Department of Radiology-JPP 3889, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, IA 52246 (United States); Luisiri, A. [Cardinal Glennon Children' s Hospital, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Garibaldi, L.R. [Children' s Hospital of New Jersey, Newark Beth Israel Medical Center, Newark, New Jersey (United States); St. Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston, New Jersey (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Objective. The diagnostic significance of an enlarged pituitary gland regarding both shape and size parameters on MR imaging has previously been demonstrated in children with central precocious puberty. This study was designed to assess changes in these parameters following successful suppressive therapy of central precocious puberty with the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue. Materials and methods. Twelve girls (mean age 7.3 years) with central precocious puberty were prospectively enrolled in our study protocol. Sagittal and coronal MR images of the pituitary region were obtained in all patients before treatment and after at least 6 months of GnRH analogue therapy (mean 18.0 months). Parameters measured included pituitary gland height, length, width, sagittal cross-sectional area, and volume. Results. All patients had excellent clinical response to treatment with arrest of secondary sexual development, normalization of serum estradiol levels, and complete obliteration of the LH response to diagnostic GnRH stimulation. No significant change occurred in any pituitary size or shape parameter following GnRH analogue therapy. Conclusion. Favorable clinical response to GnRH analogue therapy in central precocious puberty is not accompanied by significant a change in pituitary gland size and shape. (orig.)

  5. Influence of GnRH analogue on body mass index in girls with precocious puberty: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshmat Moaieri

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog (GnRHa therapy in central precocious puberty (CPP is safe for BMI and increasing of BMI is not significant, long- term follow-up study is required to elucidate whether GnRHa treatment affects adult obesity. Using growth hormone concomitantly, the effect on increasing height is significant.

  6. The Impact of Puberty and Sexual Activity upon the Health and Education of Adolescent Girls and Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Gunn, J.

    1987-01-01

    Sex equity issues which are emphasized in this article include: (a) how boys and girls negotiate reproductive transitions; (b) how male and female sexual maturity is treated differently by parents, educators, and society; and (c) how the consequences of puberty and sexual behavior may differ for boys and girls. (IAH)

  7. The Development of Self-Representations during the Transition to Early Adolescence: The Role of Gender, Puberty, and School Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffhuser, Kathrin; Allemand, Mathias; Schwarz, Beate

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the development of global and domain-specific self-representations in the transition from late childhood to early adolescence and tested whether gender, puberty, and school transition help explain individual differences in change. The study was based on three measurement occasions over 2 years and included 248…

  8. Stress before Puberty Exerts a Sex- and Age-Related Impact on Auditory and Contextual Fear Conditioning in the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Toledo-Rodriguez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a period of major physical, hormonal, and psychological changes. It is also characterized by a significant increase in the incidence of psychopathologies and this increase is gender-specific. Stress during adolescence is associated with the development of psychiatric disorders later in life. In this study, we evaluated the impact of psychogenic stress (exposure to predator odor followed by placement on an elevated platform experienced before puberty (days 28–30 on fear memories and hormonal response of male and female rats during adolescence and early adulthood. Stress before puberty impacted in a sex- and age-specific way on the responses to auditory and contextual fear conditioning in adolescence and adulthood: (a increased conditioned fear to the tone in males during adolescence but not during adulthood; (b impaired extinction to the tone in adult males; and (c reduced freezing responses to the context in adolescent females. Stress before puberty did not influence the corticosterone levels 30 minutes after an additional stressor given in adulthood. These results indicate that stress experienced prior to puberty can exert a sex-related differential impact on fear-related behaviors displayed by individuals during late adolescence and early adulthood.

  9. Incidence, puberty, and fertility in 45,X/47,XXX mosaicism: Report of a patient and a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Han Hyuk; Kil, Hong Ryang; Koo, Sun Hoe

    2017-05-09

    Turner syndrome (TS), characterized by short stature and premature ovarian failure, is caused by chromosomal aberrations with total or partial loss of one of the two X chromosomes. Spontaneous puberty, menarche, and pregnancy occur in some patients depending on the abnormality of the X. Moreover, spontaneous pregnancy is uncommon (XXX karyotype is extremely rare. Previous reports have demonstrated that TS with 45,X/47,XXX is less severe than common TS due to higher occurrence of puberty (83%), menarche (57-67%), and fertility (14%) and lower occurrence of congenital anomalies (XXX mosaicism who presented with short stature. She showed mild TS phenotype including short stature but had spontaneous puberty. Based on our case and previous reports, we expect that girls with 45,X/47,XXX mosaicism may progress through puberty normally, without estrogen therapy. Therefore, it is necessary to consider specific guidelines for clinical decisions surrounding pubertal development and fertility in TS with 45,X/47,XXX karyotype. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The Role of Sex Hormone Replacement Therapy on Self-Perceived Competence in Adolescents with Delayed Puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Jacqueline; Kulin, Howard E.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Finkelstein, Jordan W.; Chinchilli, Vernon M.; Kunselman, Susan J.; Liben, Lyye S.; D'Arcangelo, M. Rose; Demers, Lawrence M.

    2001-01-01

    Examined role of sex steroids in development of self-perceived competence among adolescents receiving hormone therapy for delayed puberty. Found that hormone treatments had a significant positive effect for both males and females in perceived job competence. Significant positive effects were also obtained for perceptions of romantic appeal and…

  11. A Critical Analysis of UNESCO's International Technical Guidance on School-Based Education for Puberty and Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.

    2012-01-01

    Preparing children and adolescents for sexual safety and reproductive responsibility lies at the heart and purpose of puberty/sexuality education. The document of International Technical Guidance released by UNESCO in December 2009 aims to provide an evidence-based and rights-based platform offering children and adolescents vital knowledge about…

  12. Integration of genomic approaches to uncover sources of variation in age at puberty and reproductive longevity in sows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic variants associated with traits such as age at puberty and litter size could provide insight into the underlying genetic sources of variation impacting sow reproductive longevity and productivity. Genome wide characterization and gene expression profiling were employed using gilts from the U...

  13. AVPR1A alleles are pleiotropic sources of variation in age at puberty and reproductive longevity in sows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Age at puberty is a moderately heritable trait and an early indicator of sow reproductive longevity. Gilts that express first estrus early in life are characterized by improved reproductive longevity and lifetime productivity. These traits are dependent on the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-...

  14. Precocious puberty with hypothalamic hamartoma and non classical form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquino, A M; Pucarelli, I; Cambiaso, P; Cappa, M

    2009-10-01

    Two girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) associated with hypothalamic hamartoma (HH) and non classical form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH), are reported. Case 1. The first patient, who showed at age around 4 years the onset of CPP, was submitted in view of some organic lesion to magnetic resonance (MRI) of the brain which documented the presence of HH. The remarkable acceleration of bone age (BA) advanced of 3 SD and some clinical signs of hyperandrogenism suggested the coexistence of NCAH, proved by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test and molecular analysis. She resulted carrier of partial 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Case 2. In the second girl with CPP, aged 6.5 years, the remarkable advancement (4 SD) of bone age (BA) alerted to adrenal involvement. ACTH stimulation test and molecular analysis showed NACH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Brain MRI, performed mainly for severe headache, showed the presence of HH. Yearly brain MRI to monitor HH dimensions and neurological examination with EEG, in order to exclude anomalies referable to gelastic epilepsy are advisable, in both cases. The authors' observation emphasizes the need to be careful in young patients with CPP, with fast progression of pubertal development and remarkable BA advancement. The association of CPP with HH and NCAH should be considered, performing not only MRI of the brain, but also ACTH test, beside LHRH test for the diagnosis of CPP. At the authors' knowledge this association has not been reported so far. Further observations are needed to understand if this rare combination is occasional or genetically determined.

  15. Gitelman syndrome manifesting in early childhood and leading to delayed puberty: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raza Farhan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Gitelman syndrome is an inherited autosomal recessive renal salt-wasting disorder. It presents with variable clinical symptoms including muscle weakness and fatigue, and the diagnosis is based on metabolic alkalosis, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia and hypocalciuria. It is usually diagnosed incidentally in early adulthood. There are rare cases of Gitelman syndrome presenting in early childhood; however, to the best of our knowledge it has not previously been associated with delayed puberty. Case presentation A 17-year-old South Asian man with recurrent episodes of generalized muscle weakness, fatigue and cramps from the age of two years was admitted for further workup. Before the age of 12 years, the episodes had been mild, but they then got progressively worse. Other symptoms include polyuria, polydipsia, nocturia, paresthesia and occasional watery diarrhea. He also had a history of short stature, poor weight gain and delayed developmental landmarks. His family history was unremarkable except for the consanguineous marriage of his parents. An examination revealed a thin and lean man with blood pressure of 95/60mmHg. His height and weight were below the third percentile and his sexual development was at Tanner Stage II. Laboratory work revealed serum sodium of 124mmol/L, potassium 2.4mmol/L, calcium 6.5mmol/L and magnesium of 1.2mg/dL. His testosterone level was low (0.85ng/mL, normal for his age 2.67 to 10.12ng/mL with normal levels of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone. The sex hormone findings were attributed to delayed puberty. A 24-hour urinary analysis revealed decreased excretion of calcium (25.9mg/24 hours. Based on the findings of hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis without hypertension, severe hypomagnesemia and hypocalciuria, a diagnosis of Gitelman syndrome was made. Treatment was started with oral supplementation of potassium, magnesium and calcium along with spironolactone and liberal salt intake

  16. Luteinizing Hormone Secretion during Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Stimulation Tests in Obese Girls with Central Precocious Puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae Sang; Yoon, Jong Seo; Hwang, Jin Soon

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Girls with precocious puberty have high luteinizing hormone (LH) levels and advanced bone age. Obese children enter puberty at earlier ages than do non-obese children. We analyzed the effects of obesity on LH secretion during gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) tests in girls with precocious puberty. Methods: A total of 981 subjects with idiopathic precocious puberty who had undergone a GnRH stimulation testing between 2008 and 2014 were included in the study. Subjects were divided into three groups based on body mass index (BMI). Auxological data and gonadotropin levels after the GnRH stimulation test were compared. Results: In Tanner stage 2 girls, peak stimulated LH levels on GnRH test were 11.9±7.5, 10.4±6.4, and 9.1±6.1 IU/L among normal-weight, overweight, and obese subjects, respectively (p=0.035 for all comparisons). In Tanner stage 3 girls, peak stimulated LH levels were 14.9±10.9, 12.8±7.9, and 9.6±6.0 IU/L, respectively (p=0.022 for all comparisons). However, in Tanner stage 4 girls, peak stimulated LH levels were not significantly different among normal, overweight, and obese children. On multivariate analysis, BMI standard deviation score was significantly and negatively associated with peak LH (β=-1.178, p=0.001). Conclusion: In girls with central precocious puberty, increased BMI was associated with slightly lower peak stimulated LH levels at early pubertal stages (Tanner stages 2 and 3). This association was not valid in Tanner stage 4 girls. PMID:27215137

  17. Hepatitis B in Bangladesh: Further Suggestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shafiul Jamal

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Iread with great interest Rashid and Rafiq's article published in the spring issue of this journal(1. The authors not only highlighted the shortcomings of the current hepatitis B vaccination strategy in Bangladesh but also prescribed awonderful policy, which is felt to be both costeffective and befitting with the country's existing programme on immunization. To complement thisI would like to add few more points: ||l|| Most neonates mount an immune response, which is believed to be adequate to reduce their risk of perinatal Hepatitis B Virus (HBV acquisition after vaccination(2. Though the pre-term babies (<37 weeks show a slower response than the term (||“||37 weeks babies, immunogenicity, which is inversely proportional to the gestational age, can be improved by increasing the vaccine dosage (2,3. l| Timing first dose of hepatitis B vaccine with BCG probably has a positive interaction: administration of BCG at the time of HBV vaccine priming at birth markedly increases the cytokines as well as ntibody responses to HBV vaccine(4. This astonishing finding might suggest that BCG has a synergistic effect on hepatitis B vaccination. Bangladesh is reported to have a very high (94% coverage of BCG vaccine(5; the uptake of HBV vaccine can be equally improved by timing it with BCG.l| The present infant vaccination policy will leave adolescents unguarded and hence nationwide prevention of the disease will be delayed. A recent survey unveils that available infrastructure in Bangladesh has sufficient spare capacity to sustain storage of an increased quantity of vaccines(5. To make good use of this unused legroom adolescent vaccination should be started along with infant vaccination. Countries such as Spain and Portugal have both neonatal and adolescent vaccination programmes in place, since 1993 and 2000 respectively, and these countries will be able to end the adolescent programme once the first immunised newborn cohort has reached the target age of the

  18. Psoriasis: Female Skin Changes in Various Hormonal Stages throughout Life—Puberty, Pregnancy, and Menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana Ceovic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is one of the most prevalent immune mediated skin diseases worldwide. Despite the large prevalence in both men and women, the pathogenesis of this disease has not yet been fully clarified. Nowadays, it is believed that psoriasis is most likely a T helper Th1/Th17 induced inflammatory disease. Stressful life situations are known to cause flare-ups and psoriasis activity may be linked to stress from major life events. We know that stress greatly affects both the hormone and immune systems and that there are many different hormonal phases throughout a woman’s lifetime. The severity of psoriasis may fluctuate or be influenced by each phase and this relationship can be seen as disease frequency seems to peak during puberty, postpartum, and menopause when hormone levels fall, while symptoms improve during pregnancy, a state when hormone levels are increased.

  19. Maturation of kisspeptinergic neurons coincides with puberty onset in male rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, Agnete H; Ansel, Laura; Simonneaux, Valerie;

    2010-01-01

    at any age, numerous kisspeptin-positive neurons in the arcuate nucleus were detected in the adult rat. Increasing doses of kisspeptin-54 given peripherally to male rats at PND15, 30, 45, and 60 evoked roughly similar effects, as revealed by the induction of c-Fos in the pituitary and secretion of LH...... periventricular nucleus (AVPV) and the arcuate nucleus of male rats along pubertal development. Neurons expressing Kiss1 mRNA were first detected at PND15, but increased significantly around puberty, and declined again in the adult rat. While virtually no immunoreactive cell bodies were detectable in the AVPV...... and testosterone. These results show that both Kiss1 mRNA and the peptide increase in arcuate nucleus along pubertal maturation. Since kisspeptin signaling is potentially functional, even for peripheral activation, and well before the kisspeptin neuronal system is fully matured, our data support...

  20. Rathke′s cyst with ectopic neurohypophysis presenting as severe short stature with delayed puberty

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    Deep Dutta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic neurohypophysis (EN is found in nearly half of children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD. Rathke′s cyst (RC is uncommon in children and when present, hypopituitarism is found in nearly half of them. We present a fourteen and half-year-old girl with severe short stature and delayed puberty who on evaluation was found to have GHD, secondary hypocortisolism, and hypogonadism. Imaging revealed hypoplastic anterior pituitary, stalk agenesis, EN at tuber cinereum and intrapituitary RC. This is perhaps the first report of simultaneous occurrence of EN and RC, which was seen in a girl with multiple pituitary hormone deficiency. A primary defect in pituitary development may explain this simultaneous occurrence of EN and RC and hence this severe anterior pituitary function deficit.

  1. Leuprolide Acetate 1-Month Depot for Central Precocious Puberty: Hormonal Suppression and Recovery

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    Neely EKirk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods. This prospective US multicenter trial of leuprolide acetate 1-month depot (7.5–15 mg for central precocious puberty utilized an open-label treatment period, long-term follow-up, and adult callback. Forty-nine females Results. Subjects were treated for years. Mean peak GnRH-stimulated LH and FSH were prepubertal after the first dose and remained suppressed throughout treatment. During treatment, mean estradiol decreased to the limit of detection and mean testosterone decreased but remained above prepubertal norms. During posttreatment follow-up ( years, all patients achieved a pubertal hormonal response within 1 year and menses were reported in all females ≥12 years old. No impairment of reproductive function was observed at adulthood (mean age: 24.8 years.

  2. Female rats are less susceptible during puberty to the lethal effects of percutaneous exposure to VX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linnzi K.M. Wright

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nerve agents with low volatility such as VX are primarily absorbed through the skin when released during combat or a terrorist attack. The barrier function of the stratum corneum may be compromised during certain stages of development, allowing VX to more easily penetrate through the skin. However, age-related differences in the lethal potency of VX have yet to be evaluated using the percutaneous (pc route of exposure. Thus, we estimated the 24 and 48 h median lethal dose for pc exposure to VX in male and female rats during puberty and early adulthood. Pubescent, female rats were less susceptible than both their male and adult counterparts to the lethal effects associated with pc exposure to VX possibly because of hormonal changes during that stage of development. This study emphasizes the need to control for both age and sex when evaluating the toxicological effects associated with nerve agent exposure in the rat model.

  3. Frequency of different types of precocious puberty, determining the predisposing factor and need to treatment in children - Emam Hospital (1993-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moayeri H

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was performed in order to detect the frequency of different types of precocious puberty, predisposing factors and to show which group of patients need to treatment. Materials and Methods: In this study, 74 patients who referred to pediatric endocrine clinic of Imam Khomeini Hospital and private office from 1993-2000 were assessed. A complete history was taken and physical examination was done in all patients by pediatrics endocrinologist. Bone age was done in all patients and specific hormonal tests were measured in some of them. Results: Among 74 patients, 50 cases (67.6 percent were female and 24 cases (32.4 percent were male. The age of the patients was between 0.8-10 years old with mean 5.37 year. 75 percent of male patients had central (complete precocious puberty and 25 percent had peripheral (incomplete precocious puberty. 40 percent of female patients had central precocious puberty, 46 percent had premature telarche, 8 percent had premature pubarche, 2 percent had premature menarche and 4 percent had other kinds of precocious puberty (one case with hypothyroidism and one case with Mccune-Albright syndrome. 10 percent of female patients with central precocious puberty had predisposing factor and 90 percent of them were idiopathic. 38.8 percent of male patients with central precocious puberty had predisposing factor and 61.2 percent of them were idiopathic. 100 percent of male patients with peripheral precocious puberty had congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia. 38 percent of female patients and 100 percent of male patients needed to treatment. Conclusion: According to this study and references, precocious puberty in female usually benign but in male patients it should be evaluated thoroughly because they usually have a serious disorder which needs treatment.

  4. Bone mineral density and body composition in girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty before and after treatment with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist

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    Sandra B. Alessandri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Idiopathic central precocious puberty and its postponement with a (gonadotropin-releasing hormone GnRH agonist are complex conditions, the final effects of which on bone mass are difficult to define. We evaluated bone mass, body composition, and bone remodeling in two groups of girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty, namely one group that was assessed at diagnosis and a second group that was assessed three years after GnRH agonist treatment. METHODS: The precocious puberty diagnosis and precocious puberty treatment groups consisted of 12 girls matched for age and weight to corresponding control groups of 12 (CD and 14 (CT girls, respectively. Bone mineral density and body composition were assessed by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Lumbar spine bone mineral density was estimated after correction for bone age and the mathematical calculation of volumetric bone mineral density. CONEP: CAAE-0311.0.004.000-06. RESULTS: Lumbar spine bone mineral density was slightly increased in individuals diagnosed with precocious puberty compared with controls; however, after correction for bone age, this tendency disappeared (CD = -0.74 + 0.9 vs. precocious puberty diagnosis = -1.73 + 1.2. The bone mineral density values of girls in the precocious puberty treatment group did not differ from those observed in the CT group. CONCLUSION: There is an increase in bone mineral density in girls diagnosed with idiopathic central precocious puberty. Our data indicate that the increase in bone mineral density in girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty is insufficient to compensate for the marked advancement in bone age observed at diagnosis. GnRH agonist treatment seems to have no detrimental effect on bone mineral density.

  5. Urinary bisphenol a levels in girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmaz, Erdem; Aşçı, Ali; Erkekoğlu, Pınar; Akçurin, Sema; Gümüşel, Belma Koçer; Bircan, Iffet

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial chemical, particularly used to harden plastics. BPA is thought to have negative health effects on both laboratory animals and humans. Consider ing the decline in age of onset of puberty noted in recent years, particularly among girls, the importance of BPA as an estrogenic endocrine disruptor has increased. In this study, we aimed to determine urinary BPA levels in girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty (ICPP). Non-obese girls newly diagnosed with ICPP (n=28, age 4-8 years) constituted the study group. The control group consisted of 25 healthy age-matched girls with no history of ICPP or any other endocrine disorder. Urinary BPA levels were measured by using high-performance liquid chromatography. In the ICPP group, urinary BPA levels were significantly higher compared to the control group [median 8.34 (0.84-67.35) μg/g creatinine and 1.62 (0.3-25.79) μg/g creatinine, respectively (OR=8.68, 95% CI:2.03-32.72, p=0.001)]. There was no marked correlation between urinary BPA levels and body mass index in either group. In the ICPP group, no significant correlations were found between urinary BPA levels and serum luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and estradiol levels. To our knowledge, this is the first study evaluating the urinary BPA levels in Turkish girls with ICPP. Our results indicate that the estrogenic effects of BPA may be an etiologic factor in ICPP.

  6. Timing of puberty in Iranian girls according to their living area: A national study

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    Mohammad-Esmaeil Motlagh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to compare the timing of puberty between various geographic locations and different ethnicities. Methods: This national survey was conducted in 20 provinces in Iran. Healthy Iranian girls were selected from public schools using cluster random sampling. A total number of 30 clusters including 7493 girls, aged 6.0-20 years, were selected. In order to compare different areas, the national classification of the provinces based on climate, ethnicity, geographic locations, and socioeconomic variables were used. Accordingly, there are 11 regions in Iran. Analysis of variance was used to compare the mean ages of menarche, pubarche, and thelarche in different regions. Results: Tehranian girls, with 11.99 ± 1.35 years (mean ± SD, had the lowest age of menarche which was statistically significantly. The second region with lowest age at menarche was Fars (12.40 ± 1.27 years. The mean age at breast bud stage (B2 was significantly lower in Ghazvin-Zanjan region (8.97 ± 1.45 years. In Fars region, the mean age at B2 stage of breast development (11.01 ± 1.88 years was higher than other regions except for Mazendran-Guilan and Tehran-related cities. The mean age at public hair development at Tanner stage 2 (PH2 in Kordestan-Lorestan-Ilam region (10.70 ± 1.23 years was significantly higher than other regions. Conclusions: We found significant differences in the age of pubertal stages of girls living in various regions with different ethnicity and geographic characteristics. Considering the impact of pubertal age on general health, more studies should be done about the lifestyle and environmental factors affecting the onset of puberty.

  7. Heritability of volumetric brain changes and height in children entering puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Soelen, Inge L C; Brouwer, Rachel M; van Baal, G Caroline M; Schnack, Hugo G; Peper, Jiska S; Chen, Lei; Kahn, René S; Boomsma, Dorret I; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2013-03-01

    The human brain undergoes structural changes in children entering puberty, while simultaneously children increase in height. It is not known if brain changes are under genetic control, and whether they are related to genetic factors influencing the amount of overall increase in height. Twins underwent magnetic resonance imaging brain scans at age 9 (N = 190) and 12 (N = 125). High heritability estimates were found at both ages for height and brain volumes (49-96%), and high genetic correlation between ages were observed (r(g) > 0.89). With increasing age, whole brain (+1.1%), cerebellum (+4.2%), cerebral white matter (+5.1%), and lateral ventricle (+9.4%) volumes increased, and third ventricle (-4.0%) and cerebral gray matter (-1.6%) volumes decreased. Children increased on average 13.8 cm in height (9.9%). Genetic influences on individual difference in volumetric brain and height changes were estimated, both within and across traits. The same genetic factors influenced both cerebral (20% heritable) and cerebellar volumetric changes (45%). Thus, the extent to which changes in cerebral and cerebellar volumes are heritable in children entering puberty are due to the same genes that influence change in both structures. The increase in height was heritable (73%), and not associated with cerebral volumetric change, but positively associated with cerebellar volume change (r(p) = 0.24). This association was explained by a genetic correlation (r(g) = 0.48) between height and cerebellar change. Brain and body each expand at their own pace and through separate genetic pathways. There are distinct genetic processes acting on structural brain development, which cannot be explained by genetic increase in height.

  8. Gonadotropin and Estradiol Levels after Leuprolide Stimulation Tests in Brazilian Girls with Precocious Puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Flavia R R; Lara, Lucia A S; Martins, Wellington P; Ferriani, Rui A; Rosa-E-Silva, Ana Carolina J S; de Sá, Marcos Felipe S; Reis, Rosana M

    2015-10-01

    To determine the best cutoff value on the leuprolide stimulation test for the diagnosis of central precocious puberty (CPP) in a Brazilian population. This observational study included 60 girls with CPP, as shown on the basis of serum concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) before and 3 hours after subcutaneous administration of 500 μg leuprolide acetate and by measuring serum estradiol concentrations 24 hours later. Six months later, each subject was clinically evaluated to determine whether she had experienced progressive or nonprogressive puberty. Analyzing the best cutoff for LH after subcutaneous administration of 500 μg leuprolide acetate. The best cutoff was a 3-hour LH level of greater than 4.0 mIU/mL, providing the highest sensitivity (73%) and specificity (83.1%), whereas a 3-hour LH level greater than 8.4 mIU/mL had a specificity of 100%. A 24-hour E2 concentration greater than 52.9 pg/mL had a sensitivity of 68% and a specificity of 74%. There was no association between pubertal development and disease progression. Signs such as thelarche and pubarche did not determine the evolution of the disease (P = .17). Clinical condition was associated with bone age/chronological age (P = .01), basal LH (P < .01), 3-hour LH (P = .02), baseline LH/FSH indices (P < .01) and after 3 hours (P < .01), and E2 at 24 hours (P = .02). The optimal parameter indicating hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis activation in our sample was a 3-hour LH level greater than 4.0 mIU/mL. A diagnosis of CPP, however, should be based on a set of criteria and not on an isolated measurement, because typical laboratory findings associated with CPP may not be present in all patients. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Range Tracing

    OpenAIRE

    Jenke, Philipp; Huhle, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    In this report, we tackle the problem of merging an arbitrary number of range scans (depth images) into a single surface mesh. The mesh-based representation is superior to point-based approaches since it contains important connectivity information. Most previous mesh-based merge methods, however, lose surface details by using simplifying intermediate surface representations (e.g.\\ implicit functions). Such details are essential for further processing steps, especially for feature-preserving r...

  10. Deepening Sleep by Hypnotic Suggestion

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    Cordi, Maren J.; Schlarb, Angelika A.; Rasch, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Slow wave sleep (SWS) plays a critical role in body restoration and promotes brain plasticity; however, it markedly declines across the lifespan. Despite its importance, effective tools to increase SWS are rare. Here we tested whether a hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” extends the amount of SWS. Design: Within-subject, placebo-controlled crossover design. Setting: Sleep laboratory at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. Participants: Seventy healthy females 23.27 ± 3.17 y. Intervention: Participants listened to an auditory text with hypnotic suggestions or a control tape before napping for 90 min while high-density electroencephalography was recorded. Measurements and Results: After participants listened to the hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” subsequent SWS was increased by 81% and time spent awake was reduced by 67% (with the amount of SWS or wake in the control condition set to 100%). Other sleep stages remained unaffected. Additionally, slow wave activity was significantly enhanced after hypnotic suggestions. During the hypnotic tape, parietal theta power increases predicted the hypnosis-induced extension of SWS. Additional experiments confirmed that the beneficial effect of hypnotic suggestions on SWS was specific to the hypnotic suggestion and did not occur in low suggestible participants. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of hypnotic suggestions to specifically increase the amount and duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) in a midday nap using objective measures of sleep in young, healthy, suggestible females. Hypnotic suggestions might be a successful tool with a lower risk of adverse side effects than pharmacological treatments to extend SWS also in clinical and elderly populations. Citation: Cordi MJ, Schlarb AA, Rasch B. Deepening sleep by hypnotic suggestion. SLEEP 2014;37(6):1143-1152. PMID:24882909

  11. [Attempts at biotechnical induction of puberty in young female pigs. 2. Effects of various time intervals between one puberty induction with PMS and HCG to the following estrus synchronization on estrus and ovulation in animals about 190 days old].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergfeld, J

    1977-01-01

    A biological engineering approach to induce puberty in 125 young female fattening pigs aged 190 days was undertaken on the basis of a mixture of 500 IU PMS (Prolosanserum, Dessau) with 250 IU HCG (Gonabion, Dresden). The injections were made subcutaneously. Pronounced oestrus symptoms were recorded from the external genital organs of 80% of the probands up to ten days after injection, associated with toleration in 52.8% of them. Toleration usually started on the fourth to sixth days after injection. Cycles began to develop in 57.1% up to the next oestrus period. Animals with -/x weight increase per die of 400 g exhibited lower responses. Results in terms of heat and ovulation were lower along with shorter intervals, when oestric synchronisation was undertaken 53, 32, and 17 days after the induction of puberty (20 days Suisynchron, Bernburg; 750 IU PMS).

  12. [Assessment of the effects of age at start of puberty on mental health in pre-adolescence: results of a longitudinal study (1989-1991)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognini, M; Plancherel, B; Nuñez, R; Bettschart, W

    1993-01-01

    The transition from childhood to adolescence is widely believed to be a stressful period in which the child faces multiple changes: physical changes, school choices, development of new social roles, and changes in the relation with his or her parents and friends. We investigated the effects of the timing of puberty on mental health, studied in a population of 219 young adolescents who were followed during three years (mean age at the beginning of the study was 12.5 years). The changes in the perception of the individual's body associated with puberty depended on the child's gender. Significant events during puberty had a negative effect on mental health. Although puberty remains a critical period of temporary unstable and fragile transition, most of the young adolescents coped relatively well with the physiological, psychological and social changes they faced.

  13. The value of comparative approaches to our understanding of puberty as illustrated by investigations in birds and reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Gregory F; Wade, Juli

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". Studies of birds and reptiles have provided many basic insights into the neuroendocrine control of reproductive processes. This research has elucidated mechanisms regulating both early development, including sexual differentiation, and adult neuroendocrine function and behavior. However, phenomena associated with the transition into sexual maturation (puberty) have not been a focus of investigators working on species in these taxonomic classes. Research is complicated in birds and reptiles by a variety of factors, including what can be extended times to maturation, the need to reach particular body size regardless of age, and environmental conditions that can support or inhibit endocrine responses. However, careful selection of model systems, particularly those with available genetic tools, will lead to important comparative studies that can elucidate both generalizability and diversity of mechanisms regulating the onset of reproductive maturity.

  14. Self-reported onset of puberty and subsequent semen quality and reproductive hormones in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Finne, Katrine Folmann; Skakkebæk, Niels E

    2016-01-01

    Study Question Is there an association between pubertal onset and subsequent reproductive health in young men? Summary Answer Self-reported later onset of puberty was associated with reduced semen quality and altered serum levels of reproductive hormones among 1068 healthy, young Danish men. What......, at the same time as or later than their peers. Their semen quality (semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count and percentages of motile and morphologically normal spermatozoa) and serum concentrations of sex hormones (LH, FSH, total testosterone, SHBG, inhibin B) and testicular size were determined...... with a 9% (3%; 15%) reduction in free testosterone and a 16% (2%; 31%) increase in FSH, after adjustment for confounders. Limitations, Reason for Caution Our study was cross-sectional and reverse causality cannot be ruled out. In addition, we cannot rule out the possibility that the men with late puberty...

  15. 性早熟病因的研究进展%Study Progress in Etiologies of Precocious Puberty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙艳艳; 俞建

    2011-01-01

    性早熟是发于儿童的一种生长发育异常性疾病.多科研究表明,其发病因素是多方面的,是以遗传为基础,遗传因素和环境因素相互作用的结果,现对性早熟的病因在遗传、环境、营养方面的进展作如下综述.%Precocious puberty is an abnormality in children's growth and development. Multiple studies indicate that its pathogenic factors are various. Based on the genetics, it attributes to the interactions between genetics and environments. Coupled with the increasing incidence of precocious puberty, more studies about its etiology have being discovered. Now the article is to summarize them simply.

  16. A case of pediatric virilizing adrenocortical tumor resulting in hypothalamic-pituitary activation and central precocious puberty following surgical removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Yoko; Oue, Takaharu; Oowari, Mitsugu; Soh, Hideki; Tachibana, Makiko; Kimura, Sadami; Kiyohara, Yuki; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Bessyo, Kazuhiko; Mushiake, Sotaro; Homma, Keiko; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Sasano, Hironobu; Ozono, Keiichi

    2009-01-01

    We present a 6-year-old boy with a virilizing adrenocortical tumor who initially presented with peripheral precocious puberty. Development of facial acne, pubic hair and a growth spurt were noted at the age of five. A low-pitched voice as well as maturation of external genitalia was noted at the age of six. Both serum and urinary levels of adrenal androgens were elevated. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a large right suprarenal mass and he underwent surgical resection without any complications. The histological diagnosis was adrenocortical carcinoma according to the criteria of Weiss. Following surgical removal of the androgen-producing tumor, the patient subsequently developed hypothalamic-pituitary activation and demonstrated central precocious puberty. He was treated with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist in order to delay further pubertal progression. Clinical follow-up of potential secondary effects of excess hormone secretion after removal is important in some pediatric patients with virilizing adrenocortical tumor.

  17. The effects of educating mothers and girls on the girls' attitudes toward puberty health: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsari, Atousa; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Valizadeh, Sousan; Abbasnezhadeh, Massomeh; Galshi, Mina; Fatahi, Samira

    2017-04-01

    The attitude of a girl toward her menstruation and puberty has a considerable impact on her role during motherhood, social adjustment, and future marital life. This study was conducted in 2014 with the aim of comparing the effects of educating mothers and girls on the attitudes of adolescent girls of Tabriz City, Iran, towards puberty health. This randomized control clinical trial was conducted on 364 adolescent girls who experienced menstruation. Twelve schools were selected randomly among 107 secondary schools for girls. One-third of the students of each school were selected randomly using a table of random numbers and socio-demographic and each participant was asked to answer the attitude questionnaires. The schools were randomly allocated to the groups of mother's education, girl's education, and no-intervention. The attitude questionnaire was filled out by the participants again 2 months after intervention. The general linear model, in which the baseline values were controlled, was employed to compare the scores of the three groups after the intervention. No significant differences were observed among the three groups in terms of the attitude score before intervention (p>0.05). Attitude score improvement after intervention in the girl's education group was significantly higher than the one of both mother's education (adjusted mean difference [AMD]: 1.8; [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.4-1.3]) and no-intervention groups (AMD: 1.3; [95% CI: 0.0-2.6]) by controlling the attitude score before intervention. Based on the findings, it is more effective to educate girls directly about puberty health to improve adolescent girls' attitudes than educating mothers and asking them to transfer information to the girls. Nevertheless, studies with longer training period and follow-up are proposed to determine the effects of educating girls (through their mothers) on their attitudes about puberty health.

  18. [Relationship between endocrinology and craniofacial growth. I: Puberty and craniofacial growth. II: Growth of the craniofacial skeleton].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonck, A; De Ridder, L; De Zegher, F; Carine, C; Carels, C

    1994-12-01

    In this literature, a review is given of the endocrinology and morphology of the craniofacial complex. This article reviews in a first part the endocrinology of puberty and general growth aspects. Afterwards the adolescence growth spurt of the face and the hormonal regulation will be focused. In a second part the morphogenetic aspects together with growth area's and growth theories of the craniofacial complex will be discussed. At last a detailed description of the maxillary and mandibular growth is given.

  19. Association of Obesity with Onset of Puberty and Sex Hormones in Chinese Girls: A 4-Year Longitudinal Study.

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    Lingling Zhai

    Full Text Available To examine the influence of childhood obesity on the early onset of puberty and sex hormones in girls.Healthy girls with different percentages of body fat at baseline (40 obese, 40 normal, and 40 lean were recruited from three elementary schools in Shenyang, China. These girls (mean age 8.5 years were also matched by height, school grade, Tanner stage, and family economic status at baseline. Anthropometry, puberty characteristics, and sex hormone concentrations were measured at baseline and at each follow-up visit. The generalized estimating equation model and analysis of variance for repeated measures using a generalized linear model were used to determine the differences in puberty characteristics and sex hormones among three groups.Over 4 years, mean age of breast II onset was earlier among obese girls (8.8 years than normal girls (9.2 years and lean girls (9.3 years. The prevalence (% of early-maturation in the obese, normal, and lean groups was 25.9%, 11.1%, and 7.4%, respectively. Obesity was associated with an increased risk for breast stage II (year 2: RR, 6.3; 95% CI, 1.9-21.1 and year 3: RR, 6.9; 95% CI, 0.8-60.1. None of the girls experienced menarche in the first year; however, by the fourth year 50.0% of obese girls had menarche onset, which was higher than normal weight (27.5% and lean girls (8.1%. The mean estradiol level increased with age in the obese, normal, and lean groups. The mean estradiol concentration was higher in obese girls than in normal and lean girls throughout the 4-year period (P<0.05.Childhood obesity contributes to early onset of puberty and elevated levels of estradiol in girls.

  20. The effect of puberty on fat oxidation rates during exercise in overweight and normal-weight girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, L; Riddell, M C; Schneiderman, J E; McCrindle, B W; Hamilton, J K

    2014-01-01

    Excess weight is often associated with insulin resistance (IR) and may disrupt fat oxidation during exercise. This effect is further modified by puberty. While studies have shown that maximal fat oxidation rates (FOR) during exercise decrease with puberty in normal-weight (NW) and overweight (OW) boys, the effect of puberty in NW and OW girls is unclear. Thirty-three NW and OW girls ages 8-18 yr old completed a peak aerobic capacity test on a cycle ergometer. FOR were calculated during progressive submaximal exercise. Body composition and Tanner stage were determined. For each participant, a best-fit polynomial curve was constructed using fat oxidation vs. exercise intensity to estimate max FOR. In a subset of the girls, IR derived from an oral glucose tolerance test (n = 20), and leptin and adiponectin levels (n = 11) were assessed in relation to FOR. NW pre-early pubertal girls had higher max FOR [6.9 ± 1.4 mg·kg fat free mass (FFM)(-1)·min(-1)] than NW mid-late pubertal girls (2.2 ± 0.9 mg·kg FFM(-1)·min(-1)) (P = 0.002), OW pre-early pubertal girls (3.8 ± 2.1 mg·kg FFM(-1)·min(-1)), and OW mid-late pubertal girls (3.3 ± 0.9 mg·kg FFM(-1)·min(-1)) (P obesity potentially masks the effect of puberty on FOR during exercise in girls.

  1. [Primary glucocorticoid resistance syndrome presenting as pseudo-precocious puberty and galactorrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Shu-lin; He, Li-ping; Ran, Xing-wu; Tian, Hao-ming; Li, Xiu-jun; Liang, Jin-zhong

    2008-09-01

    Primary glucocorticoid resistance syndrome (PGRS) is a rare condition characterized by hypercortisolism without Cushing's syndrome. This report describes a 7-year-old boy of PGRS with pseudo-precocious puberty and galactorrhea as the main manifestation. His height was 135 cm and body weight was 31 kg. Pigmentation could be seen in the skin, mammary areola and penis. He had hirsutism, low hair line, coarse voice, Tanner stage 3 pubic hair, penis in adult form, accelerated linear growth, and advanced bone age (13 yr.), but normal (for age) testes. Furthermore, he had mammoplasia and galactorrhea. There were no features of glucocorticoid (GC) excess. Hepatic function was impaired (ALT 1426 IU/L, AST 611 IU/L) with no definite causes. Serum cortisol concentration was 1294 nmol/L, 777 nmol/L, 199.3 nmol/L at 8:00, 16:00 and 24:00 respectively. Plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) was normal or a little higher (43.9-80 ng/L). Urinary-free cortisol (UFC) was normal (55.5-62.4 microg/24 h). Serum estradiol (E2), progesterone (P), testosterone (T), luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were normal. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, 60 microg/dL) and serum prolactin (PRL, 58.7-183.9 ng/mL) level were high, urinary dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) level was also elevated (0.96-3.2 mg/mL). Gonadotrophin hormone-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulation test was negative. Serum cortisol responded normally to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. However, serum cortisol and plasma ACTH concentration was suppressed to more than 50% by 0.5 mg dexamethasone (DEX). The diagnosis of PGRS was made. TREATMENT AND FOLLOW-UP: The patient received a treatment of 0.75-1.0 mg/d DEX. Because of galactorrhea, bromocriptine was given by 1.25-3.75 mg/d. After 24 months follow-up, the pigmentation was relieved and galactorrhea disappeared. No advanced development of the external genitalia and breast was found. The acceleration of the bone age was also slowed down. But

  2. Bone Mineralization in Rhythmic Gymnasts Entering Puberty: Associations with Jumping Performance and Body Composition Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Võsoberg, Kristel; Tillmann, Vallo; Tamm, Anna-Liisa; Maasalu, Katre; Jürimäe, Jaak

    2017-01-01

    This study examined bone mineral density (BMD) accrual in prepubertal rhythmic gymnasts entering puberty and their age-matched untrained control girls, and associations with baseline jumping performance and body composition over the 3-year period. Whole body (WB) and femoral neck (FN) BMD, WB fat mass (FM) and fat free mass (FFM), countermovement jump (CMJ) and rebound jumps for 15 s (RJ15s) were assessed in 25 rhythmic gymnasts and 25 untrained controls at baseline and after 3-year period. The changes over this period were calculated (Δ scores). Pubertal maturation over the 3-year period was slower in rhythmic gymnasts compared to untrained controls, while no difference in bone age development was seen. WB BMD increased similarly in both groups, while the increase in FN BMD was higher in rhythmic gymnasts compared with untrained controls. In rhythmic gymnasts, baseline FFM was the most significant predictor of ΔWB BMD explaining 19.2% of the variability, while baseline RJ15s was the most significant predictor of ΔFN BMD explaining 18.5% of the variability. In untrained controls, baseline FM explained 51.8 and 18.9% of the variability in ΔWB BMD and ΔFN BMD, respectively. In conclusion, mechanical loading of high-intensity athletic activity had beneficial effect on BMD accrual in rhythmic gymnasts and may have counterbalanced such negative factors on bone development as slower pubertal maturation and lower body FM. Baseline FFM and repeated jumps test performance were related to BMD accrual in rhythmic gymnasts, while baseline FM was related to BMD accrual in untrained controls. Key points Sudy examined bone mineralization in prepubertal rhythmic gymnasts entering puberty and their age-matched untrained control girls, and associations with baseline jumping performance and body composition. Jumping performance and fat free mass values predicted bone mineral accrual in rhythmic gymnasts. Fat mass predicted bone mineral accrual in untrained control girls

  3. Age and sex-specific relationships between phthalate exposures and obesity in Chinese children at puberty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhui Zhang

    Full Text Available To examine the age and sex-specific associations of urine levels of six mono-phthalates with body size and fat distribution in Chinese children at puberty.Four hundred and ninety-three school-aged children (247 boys, 246 girls were recruited. Obesity related anthropometric indices were measured and body fat proportion (BF% was calculated. Spot urine samples were collected and phthalate monoesters were detected by an API 2000 electrospray triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (ESI-MS/MS. Associations between phthalate exposure and overweight/obesity measures and their trends were examined by multiple linear regression and Logistic regression analyses, respectively.Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP metabolites and monobutyl phthalate (MBP were found to be the most detectable chemicals. In 8-10 years (yrs group, concentrations of MEHP and MBP were significantly higher in girls than those in boys. However, concentrations of all phthalate monoesters, except for MEP and MEHP, in 11-13 yrs boys were significantly higher than those in girls. After adjusting for confounders including puberty onset, urinary concentrations of MBP and sum of low molecular-weight phthalate metabolites (∑LMP were positively associated with boys' obesity in a concentration-effect manner, while concentrations of MEHP, MEHHP and sum of DEHP metabolites (∑MEHP were negatively associated with girls' obesity. Associations between phthalate exposure levels and BMI z-score changes were age- and sex-specific in school-age children.There are age and sex-specific concentration-effect associations between phthalate exposure and fat distribution in Chinese children. Urinary phthalate levels in 11-13 yrs boys were about 30 percent higher than those in girls, and ∑MEHP levels in younger boys (10 yrs. Associations were positive for MBP and ∑LMP with both BMI z-score and fat distribution in boys >10 years of age, and negative for ∑MEHP with fat distribution in girls <10 years of age.

  4. Fulvestrant treatment of precocious puberty in girls with McCune-Albright syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sims Emily K

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background McCune-Albright Syndrome (MAS is usually characterized by the triad of precocious puberty (PP, fibrous dysplasia, and café au lait spots. Previous treatments investigated for PP have included aromatase inhibitors and the estrogen receptor modulator, tamoxifen. Although some agents have been partially effective, the optimal pharmacologic treatment of PP in girls with MAS has not been identified. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of fulvestrant (FaslodexTM, a pure estrogen receptor antagonist, in girls with progressive precocious puberty (PP associated with McCune-Albright Syndrome (MAS. Methods In this prospective international multicenter trial, thirty girls ≤ 10 years old with MAS and progressive PP received fulvestrant 4 mg/kg via monthly intramuscular injections for 12 months. Changes in vaginal bleeding, rates of bone age advancement, growth velocity, Tanner staging, predicted adult heights, and uterine and ovarian volumes were measured. Results Median vaginal bleeding days decreased from 12.0 days per year to 1.0 day per year, with a median change in frequency of -3.6 days, (95% confidence interval (CI -10.10, 0.00; p = 0.0146. Of patients with baseline bleeding, 74% experienced a ≥50% reduction in bleeding, and 35% experienced complete cessation during the study period (95% CI 51.6%, 89.8%; 16.4%, 57.3%, respectively. Average rates of bone age advancement (ΔBA/ΔCA decreased from 1.99 pre-treatment to 1.06 on treatment (mean change -0.93, 95% CI -1.43, -0.43; p = 0.0007. No significant changes in uterine volumes or other endpoints or serious adverse events occurred. Conclusions Fulvestrant was well tolerated and moderately effective in decreasing vaginal bleeding and rates of skeletal maturation in girls with MAS. Longer-term studies aimed at further defining potential benefits and risks of this novel therapeutic approach in girls with MAS are needed. Trial

  5. Experience with the once-yearly histrelin (GnRHa subcutaneous implant in the treatment of central precocious puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A Lewis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Katherine A Lewis, Erica A EugsterDepartment of Pediatrics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Riley Hospital for Children, Indianapolis, USAAbstract: In 2007, a hydrogel histrelin implant was approved for the treatment of children with central precocious puberty (CPP. Children with CPP commonly have reduced height potential due to premature closure of the epiphyseal growth plates from exposure to sex steroids. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog (GnRHa treatment halts puberty and allows for improvement of adult height. A hydrogel implant delivery system utilizing the potent GnRHa, histrelin, was first developed for use in men with prostate cancer. A once yearly histrelin subcutaneous implant was subsequently developed for the treatment of children with CPP. Studies to date have demonstrated safety, tolerability, and effectiveness of this treatment option in patients treated up to 2 years. The most common adverse effects of the implant relate to implant site pain or bruising. Cost of this treatment seems comparable to somewhat higher than the commonly used GnRHa treatment option, depot leuprolide. While long term studies are needed to establish continued efficacy and safety beyond 2 years of treatment, the histrelin implant appears to be an attractive option for GnRHa treatment in patients with CPP.Keywords: central precocious puberty, histrelin, implant, gonadotropin-releasing-hormone analogs

  6. [Suggestion and hypnosis in hysteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, P

    1995-12-15

    Suggestive influences allow to resolve ambiguities. Normally they are only accepted if they correspond with the knowledge and believes of the subject. Under hypnosis or under the impact of serious psychic perturbations one may take up reality constructions which are not in conformity with these criteria. The restriction of consciousness and the ignoring of certain functions permitting this are the common basis of hypnosis and hysteria. But suggestions do not cause the later; they may only shape the symptomatology. Hypnosis can create a terrain facilitating the resolution of the problems underlying hysteria but it does not represent the treatment of hysteria.

  7. Female genital mutilation of a karyotypic male presenting as a female with delayed puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisselsson D

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Female genital mutilation (FGM is commonly practiced mainly in a belt reaching from East to West Africa north of the equator. The practice is known across socio-economic classes and among different ethnic, religious, and cultural groups. Few studies have been appropriately designed to measure the health effects of FGM. However, the outcome of FGM on intersex individuals has never been discussed before. Case presentation The patient first presented as a female with delayed puberty. Hormonal analysis revealed a normal serum prolactin level of 215 Mu/L, a low FSH of 0.5 Mu/L, and a low LH of 1.1 Mu/L. Type IV FGM (Pharaonic circumcision had been performed during childhood. Chromosomal analysis showed a 46, XY karyotype and ultrasonography verified a soft tissue structure in the position of the prostate. Conclusion FGM pose a threat to the diagnosis and management of children with abnormal genital development in the Sudan and similar societies.

  8. Lin28a transgenic mice manifest size and puberty phenotypes identified in human genetic association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hao; Shah, Samar; Shyh-Chang, Ng; Shinoda, Gen; Einhorn, William S; Viswanathan, Srinivas R; Takeuchi, Ayumu; Grasemann, Corinna; Rinn, John L; Lopez, Mary F; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Palmert, Mark R; Daley, George Q

    2010-07-01

    Recently, genome-wide association studies have implicated the human LIN28B locus in regulating height and the timing of menarche. LIN28B and its homolog LIN28A are functionally redundant RNA-binding proteins that block biogenesis of let-7 microRNAs. lin-28 and let-7 were discovered in Caenorhabditis elegans as heterochronic regulators of larval and vulval development but have recently been implicated in cancer, stem cell aging and pluripotency. The let-7 targets Myc, Kras, Igf2bp1 and Hmga2 are known regulators of mammalian body size and metabolism. To explore the function of the Lin28-Let-7 pathway in vivo, we engineered transgenic mice to express Lin28a and observed in them increased body size, crown-rump length and delayed onset of puberty. Investigation of metabolic and endocrine mechanisms of overgrowth in these transgenic mice revealed increased glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Here we report a mouse that models the human phenotypes associated with genetic variation in the Lin28-Let-7 pathway.

  9. Genetic variation in LIN28B is associated with the timing of puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Ken K; Elks, Cathy E; Li, Shengxu; Zhao, Jing Hua; Luan, Jian'an; Andersen, Lars B; Bingham, Sheila A; Brage, Soren; Smith, George Davey; Ekelund, Ulf; Gillson, Christopher J; Glaser, Beate; Golding, Jean; Hardy, Rebecca; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kuh, Diana; Luben, Robert; Marcus, Michele; McGeehin, Michael A; Ness, Andrew R; Northstone, Kate; Ring, Susan M; Rubin, Carol; Sims, Matthew A; Song, Kijoung; Strachan, David P; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Waterworth, Dawn M; Wong, Andrew; Deloukas, Panagiotis; Barroso, Inês; Mooser, Vincent; Loos, Ruth J; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2009-06-01

    The timing of puberty is highly variable. We carried out a genome-wide association study for age at menarche in 4,714 women and report an association in LIN28B on chromosome 6 (rs314276, minor allele frequency (MAF) = 0.33, P = 1.5 × 10(-8)). In independent replication studies in 16,373 women, each major allele was associated with 0.12 years earlier menarche (95% CI = 0.08-0.16; P = 2.8 × 10(-10); combined P = 3.6 × 10(-16)). This allele was also associated with earlier breast development in girls (P = 0.001; N = 4,271); earlier voice breaking (P = 0.006, N = 1,026) and more advanced pubic hair development in boys (P = 0.01; N = 4,588); a faster tempo of height growth in girls (P = 0.00008; N = 4,271) and boys (P = 0.03; N = 4,588); and shorter adult height in women (P = 3.6 × 10(-7); N = 17,274) and men (P = 0.006; N = 9,840) in keeping with earlier growth cessation. These studies identify variation in LIN28B, a potent and specific regulator of microRNA processing, as the first genetic determinant regulating the timing of human pubertal growth and development.

  10. Experience of office hysteroscopy for diagnostics of abnormal uterine bleeding causes in puberty girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bezhanishvili Е.М.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to prove the role of office hysteroscopy as an important additional method in diagnostics of puberty abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB. Material and methods. The study involved 68 patients with AUB. The average age was 13.4 years (10-17 years. The main complaint of patients concerned bleeding from genital tract during 10-45 days (on an average 28.4 days. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the type of AUB determined based on the level of serum estradiol, physical and sexual development, internal genitalia ultrasound data: 35 hypo estrogenic girls, 24 girls with normal estrogenic and 9 girls with hyper estrogenic type of AUB. All of the girls took the office hysteroscopy. Results. When performing hysteroscopy it was revealed that there were a clear relationship between the degree of estrogenic saturation and visual picture obtained in the course of the study. Conclusion. Hysteroscopy enables maximum visualization of uterine cavity, which allows to verify the diagnosis, to reduce the "over diagnosis" rate of organic pathology, perform a differentiated approach to treatment of diseases, based on determination of estradiol level in serum and data obtained in the study.

  11. Ovarian dysgerminoma with normal serum tumour markers presenting in a child with precocious puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naglaa M Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 7-year-old female child was presented to the emergency room with acute abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding. Her assessment revealed a firm large lower abdominal mass with evidence of precocious puberty with bilaterally symmetrically enlarged breast (Tanner stage B4-P1-A1. Abdominal imaging showed a well-defined soft midline pelvi-abdominal single mass measuring 7.0 × 12.6 × 11.7 cms with no ascites. Serum tumour markers including lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, beta-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (B-hCG and luteinizing hormone/follicular stimulating hormone (LH/FSH were all normal. At operation, there was a huge abdominal tumour weighing 558 grams, localized to the right ovary sparing the left ovary, uterus, lymph nodes and other abdominal organs. Unilateral right salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. Histopathologic examination revealed ovarian dysgerminoma with intact capsule; FIGO Ia. Immunohistochemical stainings were positive for placental alkaline phosphatase (PALP, CD 117(c-kit and calretinin focally but was negative for cancer antigen-125 (CA-125, B-hCG, S-100, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, and leukocyte common antigen (LCA. Being fitting in the low risk classification, the wait and see protocol was selected with strict follow-up with pediatric oncologist and pediatric surgeon. Along the duration of 2 years follow up, there was no more vaginal bleeding with dramatic reduction of the breast size and no recurrence.

  12. Toxicological assessment of drugs that affect the endocrine system in puberty-related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranghi, Francesca; Tassinari, Roberta; Mantovani, Alberto

    2013-10-01

    Toxicologists must ensure that clinical risk-to-benefit analysis should be made both for genders and age groups, with any treatment. Puberty concerns physiological changes leading to organism's maturation. Pubertal growth disorders are increasing in last decades: besides causing physical and psychological distress, they may signal underlying endocrine-metabolic abnormalities with serious health consequences later on. Therapeutic approaches for some health conditions in childhood and adolescence are considered. The authors discuss how some diseases and treatments can impact pubertal growth. The authors look at particular immunological disorders such as asthma and how both the disease and treatment affects pubertal growth. They also discuss how the provision of available data can help to assess the dose-response of the drug, in these cases, and minimize the chance of side effects. The authors also discuss pediatric inflammatory bowel disease and how both the disease and treatment can mitigate the growth delay. Last, but not least, the authors discuss how the effects of the drugs used in the treatment of psychiatric disorders may accentuate endocrine issues in juvenile patients. Hyperprolactinemia induction by some antipsychotics is highlighted as an example. Appropriate risk-benefit analysis of drugs prescribed during childhood and adolescence and intended to be used in the long term is required. Furthermore, future treatment strategies and safer compounds development should be supported by the knowledge of mechanisms underlying adverse side effects in pubertal growth and development.

  13. Temporal relationships between adipocytokines and diabetes risk during puberty in Hispanic adolescents with obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Brandon D.; Toledo-Corral, Claudia M.; Alderete, Tanya L.; Weigensberg, Marc J.; Goran, Michael I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Circulating cytokines are frequently cited as contributors to insulin resistance in children with obesity. This study examined whether circulating adipocytokines, independent of adiposity, predicted pubertal changes in insulin sensitivity (SI), insulin secretion (AIR), and β-cell function (BCF) in high-risk adolescents. Design and Methods 158 overweight/obese Hispanic adolescents were followed for a median of 4 years. Adipocytokines were measured using Luminex technology. SI, AIR, and the disposition index (DI) were derived from an intravenous glucose tolerance test and Minimal Modeling. Total fat mass (TFM) was measured by DEXA and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) by MRI. Results Surprisingly, mean IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α decreased between 5% and 6.5% per year from baseline (Padipocytokines decreased during adolescence and were weakly associated with VAT and lower insulin sensitivity during puberty. Circulating adipocytokines have relatively limited associations with pubertal changes in diabetes risk, however the consistent findings with MCP-1 warrant further investigation. PMID:26046253

  14. Adaptive reaction of boys’ sympathetic-adrenal system to physical activity in puberty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alekcei Anatolevich Zverev

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the study of adaptive reactions of the sympathetic-adrenal system of 11-16-year-old boys to graduated exercise at different pubertal stages. To evaluate the functional state of the cardiovascular system, the heart rate, systolic and cardiac output were determined. The state of the sympathetic-adrenal system was analyzed by the excretion level of catecholamines and DOPA. Cardiac output in response to graduated exercise in boys at pubertal stages 1-2 is substantially ensured by the increased heart rate, and at the other stages of puberty - mainly due to increase in stroke volume, which is estimated as a favorable response to exercise. In mechanisms of urgent adaptation to graduated exercise, the boys of third and fourth pubertal stages show an intensive functioning of the cardiovascular system and a reducing reserve capacity of the sympathetic-adrenal system. The adolescents of fifth pubertal stage show economical response to functional tests, a reduced reactivity of the components of the sympathetic-adrenal system on the background of a significant increase in the excretion of precursors.

  15. Catch up in bone acquisition in young adult men with late normal puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darelid, Anna; Ohlsson, Claes; Nilsson, Martin; Kindblom, Jenny M; Mellström, Dan; Lorentzon, Mattias

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the development of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in relation to peak height velocity (PHV), and to investigate whether late normal puberty was associated with remaining low BMD and BMC in early adulthood in men. In total, 501 men (mean ± SD, 18.9 ± 0.5 years of age at baseline) were included in this 5-year longitudinal study. Areal BMD (aBMD) and BMC, volumetric BMD (vBMD) and cortical bone size were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and pQCT. Detailed growth and weight charts were used to calculate age at PHV, an objective assessment of pubertal timing. Age at PHV was a strong positive predictor of the increase in aBMD and BMC of the total body (R(2) aBMD 11.7%; BMC 4.3%), radius (R(2) aBMD 23.5%; BMC 22.3%), and lumbar spine (R(2) aBMD 11.9%; BMC 10.5%) between 19 and 24 years (p bone size, whereas cortical and trabecular vBMD were 0.7% (p males was associated with a substantial catch up in aBMD and BMC in young adulthood, leaving no deficits of the lumbar spine, femoral neck, or total body at age 24 years.

  16. Morphological changes of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons in the rat preoptic area across puberty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haogang Xue; Xiaodong Gai; Weiqi Sun; Chun Li; Quan Liu

    2014-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons in the preoptic area may undergo mor-phological changes during the pubertal period when their activities are upregulated. To clarify the regulatory mechanism of puberty onset, this study aimed to investigate the morphological changes of GnRH neurons in the preoptic area of GnRH-enhanced green lfuorescent protein transgenic rats. Under confocal laser microscopy, pubertal GnRH neurons exhibited an inverted Y distribution pattern. Prepubertal GnRH neurons were generally unipolar and bipolar, and were distinguished as smooth type cells with few small processes or irregular type cells with many spine-like processes in the proximal dendrites. The number of GnRH neurons in the preoptic area and spine-like processes were increased during the course of reproductive matu-ration. There was no signiifcant difference between male and female rats. Immunolfuorescence staining revealed synaptophysin punctae close to the distal end of GnRH neurons, indicating that some presynaptic terminals may form a synaptic linkage with these neurons.

  17. Hypothalamic glial-to-neuronal signaling during puberty: influence of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Vinod K; Hiney, Jill K; Dees, W Les

    2011-07-01

    Mammalian puberty requires complex interactions between glial and neuronal regulatory systems within the hypothalamus that results in the timely increase in the secretion of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH). Assessing the molecules required for the development of coordinated communication networks between glia and LHRH neuron terminals in the basal hypothalamus, as well as identifying substances capable of affecting cell-cell communication are important. One such pathway involves growth factors of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family that bind to specific erbB receptors. Activation of this receptor results in the release of prostaglandin-E(2) (PGE(2)) from adjacent glial cells, which then acts on the nearby LHRH nerve terminals to elicit release of the peptide. Another pathway involves novel genes which synthesize adhesion/signaling proteins responsible for the structural integrity of bi-directional glial-neuronal communication. In this review, we will discuss the influence of these glial-neuronal communication pathways on the prepubertal LHRH secretory system, and furthermore, discuss the actions and interactions of alcohol on these two signaling processes.

  18. Central Precocious Puberty: Treatment with Triptorelin 11.25 mg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Chiocca

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Few data are available on quarterly 11.25 mg GnRH analog treatment in central precocious puberty (CPP. Aim. To assess the efficacy of triptorelin 11.25 mg in children with CPP. Patients. 17 patients (16 females with CPP (7.9±0.9 years were treated with triptorelin 11.25 mg/90 days. Methods. Gonadotropins, basal-, and GnRH-stimulated peak, gonadal steroids, and pubertal signs were assessed at preinclusion and at inclusion visit, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months of treatment. Results. At 3, 6, and 12 months, all patients had suppressed LH peak (<3 IU/L after GnRH stimulation, as well as prepubertal oestradiol levels. Mean LH peak values after GnRH test significantly decreased from 25.7±16.5 IU/L at baseline to 0.9±0.5 IU/L at M3 (<0.0001; they did not significantly changed at M6 and M12. Conclusions. Triptorelin 11.25 mg/90 days efficiently suppressed the pituitary-gonadal axis in children with CPP from first administration.

  19. Suggestions on photons and fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Alvargonzalez, R

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we suggest a configuration of photons consistent with a spin $\\hbar$, and a configuration of the fermions coherent with a spin $\\hbar/2$. These suggested configurations open the way to further analyses which lead to the following conclusions: - There cannot exist elementary particles of spin $\\hbar/2$ with a mass inferior to $1m_e$ or with a radius greater than $1l_e$. - The electrostatic force derives from the centrifugal forces inherent to the spin and are propagated by photons. - The derivation of the electrostatic force explains the existence of positive and negative charges and Coulomb's law. - The enormous differences between the centrifugal forces and the centripetal forces at the surface of the protons give rise to quantic fluctuations of space which generate the energy flows necessary for equilibrium. These energy flows can explain gravitation and the strong force. - The mass of the proton, $m_p$, and the mass of the neutron, $m_n$, must each have a concrete value required for the cohes...

  20. The influence of puberty onset, body mass index, and pressure to be thin on disordered eating behaviors in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Line; Lariviere, Michel

    2009-04-01

    The main objective of this study is to verify the hypothesis that pubertal development, obesity, body satisfaction, as well as family and peer influences predict unhealthy eating habits in children and adolescents. A randomized stratified sample of young Quebecers aged 9, 13, and 16 years on March 31, 1999 [608 children aged of 9 years (325 girls and 283 boys) and 662 adolescents aged of 13 and 16 years (349 girls and 313 boys)] were used. Children's weight, height, and Body Mass Index (BMI) were recorded. Questionnaires were administered to children and a parent (usually the mother). Among 9-year-old children, this study found that weight loss or weight control behaviors were predicted mainly by the onset of puberty, lower maternal abusive control, and the level of peer pressure. Among adolescents, mother's BMI, income, peer pressure, and negative comments about the child's weight most strongly predicted behaviors to control weight, strategies to lose weight and the frequency of such behaviors. The findings suggest that both parents and children need to understand the impact of comments on a child's behavior.

  1. Growth, puberty, and carcass characteristics of Brahman-, Senepol-, and Tuli-sired F1 Angus bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, C C; Chenoweth, P J; Larsen, R E; Hammond, A C; Olson, T A; West, R L; Johnson, D D

    2001-08-01

    Postweaning growth, sexual development, libido, and carcass data were collected from two consecutive calf crops using 31 Brahman x Angus (B x A), 41 Senepol x Angus (S x A), and 38 Tuli x Angus (T x A) F1 bulls. Following weaning (by mid-September) and preconditioning, at the start of the study (late September) bulls were fed concentrate (three times each week at a rate equivalent to 4.5 kg/d) on bahiagrass pasture for approximately 250 d. At the start of the study and at 28-d intervals, BW, hip height, and scrotal circumference (SC) were measured. Concurrently at 28-d intervals, when the SC of a bull was > or = 23 cm, semen collection was attempted using electroejaculation. Ejaculates were evaluated for presence of first spermatozoa (FS), 50 x 10(6) sperm with at least 10% motility (PU), and 500 x 10(6) sperm with at least 50% motility (PP). After all bulls reached PP they were subjected to two libido tests. Carcass data were collected on all bulls (n = 110) and Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) force values were assessed on a subset (n = 80). For both years, B x A bulls were heavier (P 0.10) gain in BW or hip height during the study. Scrotal circumference of T x A bulls was larger (P 0.10) of breed type by the end of the study. At PU and PP, B x A bulls were older (P carcass traits; B x A bulls had the heaviest (P carcass weight, greatest (P 0.10) USDA quality grade. In conclusion, tropically adapted F1 bulls produced from Senepol (Bos taurus) and Tuli (Sanga) sires bred to Angus cows in Florida had lighter BW, shorter hip heights, and smaller carcasses than those from Brahman sires but reached puberty earlier and had higher libido scores and lower WBS force values.

  2. [Puberty-delaying hormone therapy in adolescents with gender identity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuka, Mikiya

    2013-01-01

    The guideline for the treatment of people with gender identity disorder (GID) of the Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology was revised in January 2012. The guideline eased restrictions for the endocrine treatment of transsexual adolescents. A medical specialist can start treating transsexual adolescents at the age of 15 after the diagnosis of GID. It recommends that transsexual adolescents (Tanner stage 2 [mainly 12-13 years of age]) are treated by endocrinologists to suppress puberty with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists until the age of 15 years old, after which cross-sex hormones may be given. Female-to-male transsexuals do not necessarily want to start androgen therapy before presenting female secondary sexual characteristics because androgen can easily stop menstruation, cause beard growth, and lower the voice. On the contrary, male-to-female transsexuals want to start estrogen therapy before presenting male secondary sexual characteristics because estrogen cannot alter the beard and low voice. It is important to identify children with gender dysphoria in school and help them receive medical advice. However, approximately half of school teachers think that children with gender dysphoria are very rare and they do not know of the notification from Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, JAPAN, which aims to help children with gender dysphoria. The revision of the guideline for the treatment of transsexual people and endocrine treatment of transsexual adolescents by medical specialists may prevent them from attempting suicide, being depressive, and refusing to attend school. Furthermore, the treatment may help avoid mental disorders, aid being employed with the desired sexuality, and, subsequently, getting married and having children.

  3. Testicular expression of the Lin28/let-7 system: Hormonal regulation and changes during postnatal maturation and after manipulations of puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangiao-Alvarellos, S; Manfredi-Lozano, M; Ruiz-Pino, F; León, S; Morales, C; Cordido, F; Gaytán, F; Pinilla, L; Tena-Sempere, M

    2015-10-23

    The Lin28/let-7 system, which includes the RNA-binding proteins, Lin28a/Lin28b, and let-7 miRNAs, has emerged as putative regulator of puberty and male gametogenesis; yet, its expression pattern and regulation in postnatal testis remain ill defined. We report herein expression profiles of Lin28 and let-7 members, and related mir-145 and mir-132, in rat testis during postnatal maturation and in models of altered puberty and hormonal deregulation. Neonatal expression of Lin28a and Lin28b was low and rose markedly during the infantile period; yet, expression patterns diverged thereafter, with persistently elevated levels only for Lin28b, which peaked at puberty. Let-7a, let-7b, mir-132 and mir-145 showed profiles opposite to Lin28b. In fact, let-7b and mir-145 were abundant in pachytene spermatocytes, but absent in elongating spermatids, where high expression of Lin28b was previously reported. Perturbation of puberty by neonatal estrogenization reverted the Lin28/let-7 expression ratio; expression changes were also detected in other models of delayed puberty, due to early photoperiod or nutritional manipulations. In addition, hypophysectomy or growth hormone (GH) deficiency revealed regulation of this system by gonadotropins and GH. Our data document the expression profiles of the Lin28/let-7 system in rat testis along postnatal/pubertal maturation, and their perturbation in models of pubertal and hormonal manipulation.

  4. Gender differences of oligomers and total adiponectin during puberty: a cross-sectional study of 859 Danish school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristian Kjaer; Frystyk, Jan; Wolthers, Ole D

    2007-01-01

    levels and the distribution of ADPN isomers. DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional study. PATIENTS: The study included 859 children and adolescents (396 males) aged 6-20 yr. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Total ADPN and ADPN isomers were measured using a validated in-house immunofluorometric assay. Fractioning...... of the ADPN into the three major molecular fractions was performed in representative subgroups of pre- and postpubertal males and females (n = 40, 10 in each group) using a validated fast protein liquid chromatography method. RESULTS: Total ADPN levels before puberty were 13.4 (11.1-15.9) mg/liter (median...

  5. Ovarian and uterine characteristics and onset of puberty in adolescent offspring: effects of maternal diet and selenium supplementation in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazul-Bilska, Anna T; Neville, Tammi L; Borowczyk, Ewa; Sharma, Akanksha; Reynolds, Lawrence P; Caton, Joel S; Redmer, Dale A; Vonnahme, Kimberly A

    2014-04-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of maternal diet with adequate (A) or high (H) selenium (Se) supplementation on ovarian and uterine characteristics, and onset of puberty in adolescent offspring. Sheep were fed a maintenance (M) diet with ASe or HSe levels from breeding to parturition. From Day 50 to parturition, a portion of the ewes from ASe and HSe groups was fed restricted (R, 60% of M) or excess (E, 140% of M) diet. Immediately after birth, lambs were separated from their dams and given artificial colostrum for 20 hours, followed by milk replacer. From Day 57.3 ± 0.6, ewe lambs were fed a pelleted grower diet until Day 116.3 ± 0.6 when they were transitioned to a finisher diet. From Day 99 to 180, serum samples were collected weekly from jugular vein for progesterone analysis to determine onset of puberty. Reproductive tissues were collected on Day 180.1 ± 0.4 of age. Maternal diet or Se supplementation did not affect uterine or ovarian weight and onset of puberty. However, area under the curve for progesterone was greater (P = 0.05) in ASe compared with HSe groups, and was greater in ASeM than HSeM group. In CLs, labeling index (LI; a proportion of proliferating cells) was less (P < 0.04) in HSeM than ASeM group, and in stroma was less (P < 0.05) in R and E groups than M group. Maternal diet did not affect the LI of any follicle types. For all groups combined, LI was the greatest (P < 0.001) in antral, less in early antral and secondary, and the least in atretic follicles. Our results demonstrate that maternal diet influenced ovarian but not uterine characteristics or onset of puberty. These results indicate that maternal plane of nutrition and/or Se supplementation may have specific effects on reproductive function in offspring.

  6. 动物性成熟启动的调控机理%Regulation Mechanism of Puberty Onset in Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩威; 李慧芳; 朱云芬; 宋迟; 陶志云

    2012-01-01

    Precocious puberty was pathologic for humans, but was an important trait for animals. Onset of puberty was a complex biological process, and was under the control of HPG axis. Permissive signals and development clock provided the information on somatic growth, energy balance and environment changes, time the awakening of GnRH neurons that were quiescent during the prepubertal stage. The decrease in inhibition input and increase in excitation input led to high frequency GnRH pulse release, promoted the gametogenesis and gonadal steroid secretion. In turn, steroid hormones affected the GnRH release by negative feedback, and also promoted sexual behavior. In addition to GnRH neurons, the glial cells were also involved in puberty onset, mainly included growth factor families, the neural cell adhesion molecule and contactin. The epigenetic modulation of GnRH gene may play an important role in puberty onset.%人类的性早熟表现为病理状态,而在动物上,性早熟则是一个在生产上具有重要价值的经济性状.动物性成熟启动是一个复杂的生物学过程,受下丘脑—垂体—性腺轴调控.“允许信号”和“发育时钟”传达了机体生长发育、能量平衡和环境变化信息,决定了性成熟启动前期处于休眠状态的GnRH神经元激活;GnRH神经元抑制性输入减少和兴奋性输入增加引发了高频GnRH脉冲分泌,促进配子形成和性类固醇激素分泌;类固醇激素又通过负反馈通路影响GnRH分泌并促进性行为.神经胶质细胞也参与了性成熟的启动,主要涉及生长因子家族、神经细胞粘合分子和神经接触蛋白.GnRH基因的表观遗传修饰变化可能在动物性成熟启动过程中发挥了重要作用.

  7. Clinical Analysis of Ovarian Tumor in Puberty%青春期卵巢肿瘤临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王刚

    2015-01-01

    目的 探析青春期卵巢肿瘤的临床特点. 方法 随机选择2013年3月—2014年3月期间该院收治的青春期卵巢肿瘤患者50例为研究对象,对其临床治疗资料进行回顾性分析. 结果 50例青春期卵巢肿瘤患者中,45例为良性肿瘤,占90%,其中行卵巢囊肿剥除术患者40例,行患侧附件切除术者5例;5例为恶性肿瘤,占10%,均行生育功能保留手术. 结论 青春期卵巢肿瘤大部分均为良性,主要为生殖细胞肿瘤,应该进一步强化青春期女性的自我保健意识,定期到医院进行妇科B超检查,从而更好地预防肿瘤.%Objective To study the clinical characteristics of ovarian tumor in puberty. Methods 50 patients with ovarian tumor in puberty in our hospital from March 2013 to March 2014 were selected as the research object, and the clinical data were retrospec-tively analyzed. Results In the 50 patients, 45 were found with benign tumors, accounting for 90%, and 40 of them underwent oophorocystectomy and 5 received unilateral adnexectomy; 5 were found with malignant tumors, accounting for 10%, and under-went fertility-sparing surgery. Conclusion Ovarian tumor in puberty mostly is benign germ cell tumor. Females in Puberty should further strengthen the consciousness of self health care and receive gynecological B ultrasound examination regularly so as to better prevent tumor.

  8. Effect of a postnatal high-fat diet exposure on puberty onset, estrous cycle regularity, and kisspeptin expression in female rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lie, Maria Elena Klibo; Overgaard, Agnete; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2013-01-01

    Kisspeptin, encoded by Kiss1, plays a key role in pubertal maturation and reproduction as a positive upstream regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. To examine the role of high-fat diet (HFD) on puberty onset, estrous cycle regularity, and kisspeptin expression, female rats...... were exposed to HFD in distinct postnatal periods. Three groups of rats were exposed to HFD containing 60% energy from fat during the pre-weaning period (postnatal day (PND) 1-16, HFD PND 1-16), post-weaning period (HFD PND 21-34), or during both periods (HFD PND 1-34). Puberty onset, evaluated...... that postnatal HFD exposure induced irregular estrous cycles, but had no effect on puberty onset or kisspeptin....

  9. Self-reported onset of puberty and subsequent semen quality and reproductive hormones among 1,068 healthy young Danish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Finne, Katrine Folmann; Skakkebæk, Niels Erik

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is there an association between pubertal onset and subsequent reproductive health in young men? SUMMARY ANSWER: Self-reported later onset of puberty was associated with reduced semen quality and altered serum levels of reproductive hormones among 1068 healthy, young Danish men. WHAT...... IS KNOWN ALREADY: The long-term effects of variations in the onset of male puberty on subsequent reproduction remain largely unstudied. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: In a cross-sectional study, young healthy Danish men were approached when they attended a compulsory medical examination to determine....... MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: The response rate was 29%. Of the 1068 men who then participated, 652 answered the questions about penile growth and pubic hair development and were therefore included in the analysis. Self-reported later onset of puberty was associated with a 25% reduction in sperm...

  10. 儿童肥胖与性早熟的研究进展%Research progress of childhood obesity and precocious puberty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤箫萌; 单川; 沈秀华

    2012-01-01

    自20世纪60年代起,儿童性早熟的发病率与儿童肥胖率呈连年上升趋势.专家指出儿童肥胖与性早熟确实存在关联.研究发现肥胖女童的性早熟发病率显著高于正常体质量女童;但在男童方面,情况较为复杂.瘦素被认为是儿童肥胖与性早熟的纽带因素,其与肥胖儿童性早熟关系的相关研究也有较多报道.该文就儿童肥胖与性早熟的研究进展作一综述.%Since 1960s, the prevalences of precocious puberty and childhood obesity have been rising, and it has been pointed out by many experts that childhood obesity may be relevant with precocious puberty. Some studies have revealed that the prevalence of precocious puberty in obese girls is significantly higher than that in girls with normal body weight. However, the results are complicated when it comes to boys. Leptin may be one of the links between childhood obesity and precocious puberty, and there have been many reports about its relationship with precocious puberty in children with obesity. The research progress of childhood obesity and precocious puberty is reviewed in this paper.

  11. Early pituitary-gonadal activation before clinical signs of puberty in 5- to 8-year-old adopted girls: a study of 99 foreign adopted girls and 93 controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Grete Katrine; Boas, Malene; Petersen, Jørgen H

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that internationally adopted girls are at high risk of developing precocious puberty. Clinical studies including a contemporary control group are lacking.......Recent studies have indicated that internationally adopted girls are at high risk of developing precocious puberty. Clinical studies including a contemporary control group are lacking....

  12. Serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding protein 3 levels are increased in central precocious puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Scheike, Thomas Harder; Nielsen, C T

    1995-01-01

    Central precocious puberty (CPP) is characterized by early activation of the pituitary-gonadal axis, which leads to increased growth velocity and development of secondary sexual characteristics. It is generally believed that gonadal sex steroids stimulate pulsatile GH secretion, which, in turn......, stimulates insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) production. However, little is known about GH, IGF-I, and IGFBP-3 serum levels in children with precocious puberty. Treatment of CPP by GnRH agonists has become the treatment of choice. However, the effect of long term...

  13. Impact of the growth hormone receptor exon 3 deletion gene polymorphism on glucose metabolism, lipids, and insulin-like growth factor-I levels during puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Aksglaede, Lise; Munch-Andersen, Thor

    2009-01-01

    the impact of the GHRd3 gene polymorphism on insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, lipids, and IGF-I levels in healthy children and adolescents. DESIGN: This was cross-sectional and was part of the COPENHAGEN puberty study. SETTING: The study was conducted at a tertiary center for pediatric endocrinology...... was associated with higher triglyceride (P = 0.028), but not IGF-I levels. CONCLUSION: The presence of at least one GHRd3 allele was associated with higher insulin secretion for a given degree of insulin sensitivity in healthy children and adolescents during puberty. In addition, the presence of the GHRd3 allele...

  14. Pathological and incidental findings on brain MRI in a single-center study of 229 consecutive girls with early or precocious puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Signe Sloth; Aksglaede, Lise; Mouritsen, Annette

    2012-01-01

    Central precocious puberty may result from organic brain lesions, but is most frequently of idiopathic origin. Clinical or biochemical factors which could predict a pathological brain MRI in girls with CPP have been searched for. With the recent decline in age at pubertal onset among US and Europ......Central precocious puberty may result from organic brain lesions, but is most frequently of idiopathic origin. Clinical or biochemical factors which could predict a pathological brain MRI in girls with CPP have been searched for. With the recent decline in age at pubertal onset among US...

  15. Adult height in girls with central precocious puberty treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues and growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquino, A M; Pucarelli, I; Segni, M; Matrunola, M; Cerroni, F; Cerrone, F

    1999-02-01

    GnRH analogues (GnRHa) represent the treatment of choice in central precocious puberty (CPP), because arresting pubertal development and reducing either growth velocity (GV) or bone maturation (BA) should improve adult height. However, in some patients, GV decrease is so remarkable that it impairs predicted adult height (PAH); and therefore, the addition of GH is suggested. Out of twenty subjects with idiopathic CPP (treated with GnRHa depot-triptorelin, at a dose of 100 microg/kg im every 21 days, for at least 2-3 yr), whose GV fall below the 25th percentile for chronological age, 10 received, in addition to GnRHa, GH at a dose of 0.3 mg/kg x week s.c., 6 days weekly, for 2-4 yr; and 10 matched for BA, chronological age, and duration of GnRHa treatment, who showed the same growth pattern but refused GH treatment, served to evaluate the efficacy of GH addition. No patient showed classical GH deficiency. Both groups discontinued treatment at a comparable BA (mean +/- SEM): 13.2 +/- 0.2 in GnRHa plus GH vs. 13.0 +/- 0.1 yr in the control group. At the conclusion of the study, all the patients had achieved adult height. Adult height was considered to be attained when the growth during the preceding year was less than 1 cm, with a BA of over 15 yr. Patients of the group treated with GH plus GnRHa showed an adult height significantly higher (P < 0.001) than pretreatment PAH (160.6 +/- 1.3 vs. 152.7 +/- 1.7 cm). Target height (TH) was significantly exceeded. The group treated with GnRH alone reached an adult height not significantly higher than pretreatment PAH (157.1 +/- 2.5 vs. 155.5 +/- 1.9 cm). TH was just reached but not significantly exceeded. The gain in centimeters obtained, calculated between pretreatment PAH and final height, was 7.9 +/- 1.1 cm in patients treated with GH combined with GnRHa; whereas in patients treated with GnRHa alone, the gain was just 1.6 +/- 1.2 cm (P = 0.001). Furthermore, no side effects have been observed either on bone age progression

  16. Paradoxical gain-of-function mutant of the G-protein-coupled receptor PROKR2 promotes early puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukami, Maki; Suzuki, Erina; Izumi, Yoko; Torii, Tomohiro; Narumi, Satoshi; Igarashi, Maki; Miyado, Mami; Katsumi, Momori; Fujisawa, Yasuko; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Hata, Kenichiro; Umezawa, Akihiro; Matsubara, Yoichi; Yamauchi, Junji; Ogata, Tsutomu

    2017-10-01

    The human genome encodes ~750 G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), including prokineticin receptor 2 (PROKR2) involved in the regulation of sexual maturation. Previously reported pathogenic gain-of-function mutations of GPCR genes invariably encoded aberrant receptors with excessive signal transduction activity. Although in vitro assays demonstrated that an artificially created inactive mutant of PROKR2 exerted paradoxical gain-of-function effects when co-transfected with wild-type proteins, such a phenomenon has not been observed in vivo. Here, we report a heterozygous frameshift mutation of PROKR2 identified in a 3.5-year-old girl with central precocious puberty. The mutant mRNA escaped nonsense-mediated decay and generated a GPCR lacking two transmembrane domains and the carboxyl-terminal tail. The mutant protein had no in vitro signal transduction activity; however, cells co-expressing the mutant and wild-type PROKR2 exhibited markedly exaggerated ligand-induced Ca(2+) responses. The results indicate that certain inactive PROKR2 mutants can cause early puberty by enhancing the functional property of coexisting wild-type proteins. Considering the structural similarity among GPCRs, this paradoxical gain-of-function mechanism may underlie various human disorders. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  17. The Effect of Puberty on Interaction between Vitamin D Status and Insulin Resistance in Obese Asian-Indian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Khadgawat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of puberty on the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD and parameters of insulin kinetics in obese Asian-Indian children. Material and Methods. The study population included 62 obese Asian-Indian children and adolescents in the age group of 6–17 years. Blood glucose, serum insulin, and serum 25(OHD were measured. Total body fat was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Indices of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, AUC for insulin and sensitivity (WBISI were calculated after oral glucose tolerance test. Result. A total of 62 subjects (35 boys; mean age = 13.0 ± 3 years; BMI = 29.3 ± 4.8 kg/sq M; 19 subjects in Tanner stage 1, 11 in stage 2, 6 in stage 3, 3 in stage 4, and 23 subjects in Tanner stage 5 were studied. All study subjects were vitamin D deficient with a mean serum 25(OHD of 8.5 ± 4.2 ng/mL. No significant relationship was observed between serum 25(OHD and parameters of insulin kinetics in prepubertal children. However, a significant inverse correlation was seen between serum 25(OHD and HOMAIR (=−0.41, =0.03 in postpubertal subjects. Conclusion. The relationship between vitamin D status and parameters of insulin kinetics are affected by puberty.

  18. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SERUM LEPTIN LEVELS AND WEIGHT GAIN IN GIRLS WITH CENTRAL PRECOCIOUS PUBERTY AT 1-YEAR FOLLOW-UP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurita-Cruz, Jessie N; Villasís-Keever, Miguel A; Damasio-Santana, Leticia; Manuel-Apolinar, Leticia; Nishimura-Meguro, Elisa; Rivera-Hernández, Aleida de J; Garrido-Magaña, Eulalia; Gutierrez-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Poblano-Alcalá, Adriana

    2017-05-01

    Patients with central precocious puberty (CPP) may have increased serum leptin levels; however, it is not well known whether this increase differs between patients with and without obesity. Our objectives were to describe the changes in serum leptin in girls with CPP in the first 12 months after diagnosis based on body mass index (BMI) and to explore whether serum leptin level at CPP diagnosis is related to BMI z-score (BMIz) after a 1-year follow-up. A prospective cohort study was performed. We included 42 girls with idiopathic CPP in Tanner stages II and III. Anthropometric measurements were performed, and serum leptin was measured at study initiation and after 12 months. Patients were stratified according to BMI category (30 with a BMI in the 95th percentile). Study variables were compared. Correlations among leptin, BMIz, and body fat were assessed. Leptin increased gradually during the first year of treatment. In girls with a BMI in the Leptin level >10.5 ng/dL at diagnosis is a risk factor for weight gain after 1 year. BMI = body mass index BMIz = BMI z-score CPP = central precocious puberty GnRHa = gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue.

  19. Expression of the IGF and the aromatase/estrogen receptor systems in human adrenal tissues from early infancy to late puberty: implications for the development of adrenarche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgorosky, Alicia; Baquedano, María Sonia; Guercio, Gabriela; Rivarola, Marco A

    2009-03-01

    Adrenarche is a process of postnatal sexual maturation occurring in higher primates, in which there is an increase in the secretion of adrenal androgens. It is the consequence of a process of postnatal organogenesis characterized by the development of a new zone in the adrenal cortex, the zona reticularis (ZR). The mechanism of this phenomenon remains poorly understood, suggesting that it might be a multifactorial event. A relationship between circulating IGF-I, insulin sensitivity, and adrenal androgens has been postulated. Boys and girls have different patterns of changes in insulin sensitivity at puberty, perhaps secondary to differences in the estrogen milieu. Estrogen effects may also play a role in premature adrenarche. Peripheral or local IGF-1 actions could regulate adrenal progenitor cell proliferation and migration. Since adrenal progenitor cells as well as IGF-I and the IGF-R1 are located in the outer zone of the adrenal cortex during childhood and adolescence, this peripheral cell layer, below the capsule, may contain undifferentiated progenitor cells. Therefore, the IGF-R1 signaling pathway might positively modulate the proliferation and migration of adrenal progenitor cell to stimulate the development of adrenal zones, including ZR. However, no evidence of a direct action of IGF-I on ZR was found. In addition, a role for estrogens in the ontogenesis of ZR is suggested by the presence of aromatase (CYP19) in the subcapsular zona glomerulosa and in the adrenal medulla. Estrogens produced locally could act on ZR by interacting with estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta), but not alpha, and membrane estrogen receptor GPR-30. An estradiol-induced increase in DHEA/cortisol ratio was indeed seen in cultures of adrenocortical cells from post-adrenarche adrenals. In summary, several lines of evidence point to the action of multiple factors, such as local adrenal maturational changes and peripheral metabolic signals, on postnatal human adrenal gland ZR formation.

  20. Kisspeptin-GPR54-GnRH神经元轴在雌性大鼠中枢性性早熟中的作用%Effect of Kisspeptin-GPR54-GnRH neuron axis in central precocious puberty of female rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海莲; 葛伟; 薛江

    2012-01-01

    estrous cycle of all rats were observed. The parameters of puberty were analyzed, which including index of ovary, index of uterus, incidence of corpora lutea, thickness of uterus and level of serum luleinizing hormone. The expressions of hypothalamic KISS-1 mRNA, GPR54 mRNA and GnRH mRNA were detected by Real-Time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (Real-Time RT-PCR). Ultrastructure of hypothalamic endocrinic neurons was observed by electron microscope. Results The day of puberty onset in experimental groups was earlier than that of the control groups. The parameters in experimental groups were higher than those of the first control group. The parameters in the first experimental group were not obviously different from the second control group, as well as the second experimental group versus the third control group. With puberty process, the expressions of hypothalamic KISS-1 mRNA, GPR54 mRNA and GnRH mRNA in experimental or control groups all gradually increased. The hypothalamic endocrinic neurons were active in metabolism with prosperous secretion. Conclusion The central precocious puberty model of female rats could be perfectly established by way of NMA subcutaneous injection. It is suggested that Kisspeptin-GPR54-GnRH neuron axis may play an important part in onset and development of CPP in view of the increase of KISS-1 mRNA, GPR54 mRNA and GnRH mRNA expressions in hypothalamus with puberty process.

  1. Serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding protein 3 levels are increased in central precocious puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Scheike, Thomas Harder; Nielsen, C T;

    1995-01-01

    Central precocious puberty (CPP) is characterized by early activation of the pituitary-gonadal axis, which leads to increased growth velocity and development of secondary sexual characteristics. It is generally believed that gonadal sex steroids stimulate pulsatile GH secretion, which, in turn, s...

  2. The timing of the onset of puberty, extension of the breeding season, and length of postpartum anestrus in the female mouflon (Ovis gmelini musimon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Moreno, J; Lopez-Sebastian, A; Gonzalez-Bulnes, A; Gomez-Brunet, A; Tortonese, D

    2001-06-01

    The timing of the onset of puberty, duration of seasonal ovulatory activity, and length of postpartum anestrus were studied by means of blood plasma progesterone concentrations in a flock of European female mouflons (Ovis gmelini musimon) maintained in captivity under natural photoperiod (40 degrees 25'N). Concentrations of progesterone in the peripheral blood were determined by radioimmunoassay in samples collected from the jugular vein twice a week. First ovulations in the breeding season were highly synchronized and occurred in mid-October. In contrast, the cessation of ovulatory cycles showed significant variation among females and extended from February to May, depending on age, with 2-yr-old animals exhibiting the longest anovulatory period (P mouflon lambs that reached a minimum threshold body weight (23.8 +/- 0.6 kg) in their first breeding season reached puberty at 8 mo of age. In those with slower growth rates, however, the prepubertal period was extended throughout the first breeding and nonbreeding seasons, reaching puberty during the breeding season of the following year at 19 mo of age and 27 +/- 0.3 kg body weight. Further, attainment of puberty in ewe lambs born in June/July was also delayed until the breeding season of the following year, when animals had reached a threshold body weight at 17 mo of age.

  3. Age at puberty, ovulation rate, and reproductive tract traits of developing gilts fed two lysine levels and three metabolizable energy levels from 100 to 260 d of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding different lysine and metabolizable energy (ME) levels to developing gilts on age at puberty and reproductive tract measurements. Crossbred Large White × Landrace gilts (n = 1221) housed in groups from 100 d of age until slaughter (ap...

  4. Genomic analyses identify hundreds of variants associated with age at menarche and support a role for puberty timing in cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Day, Felix R; Thompson, Deborah J; Helgason, Hannes

    2017-01-01

    The timing of puberty is a highly polygenic childhood trait that is epidemiologically associated with various adult diseases. Using 1000 Genomes Project-imputed genotype data in up to ∼370,000 women, we identify 389 independent signals (P < 5 × 10(-8)) for age at menarche, a milestone in female p...

  5. Preparing for Adulthood: Thousands Upon Thousands of New Cells are Born in the Hippocampus During Puberty and Most Survive with Effortful Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Martin Curlik, II

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation generates new granule neurons throughout life. The number of neurons produced each day is inversely related to age, with thousands more produced during puberty than during adulthood, and many fewer produced during senescence. In adulthood, approximately half of these cells undergo apoptosis shortly after they are generated. Most of these cells can be rescued from death by effortful and successful learning experiences (Gould et al., 1999; Waddell and Shors, 2008; Curlik and Shors, 2010. Once rescued, the newly-generated cells differentiate into neurons, and remain in the hippocampus for at least several months (Leuner et al., 2004. Here, we report that many new hippocampal cells also undergo cell death during puberty. Because the juvenile brain is more plastic than during adulthood, and because many experiences are new, we hypothesized that a great number of cells would be rescued by learning during puberty. Indeed, adolescent rats that successfully acquired the trace eyeblink response retained thousands more cells than animals that were not trained, and those that failed to learn. Because the hippocampus generates thousands more cells during puberty than during adulthood, these results support the idea that the adolescent brain is especially responsive to learning. This enhanced response can have significant consequences for the functional integrity of the hippocampus. Such a massive increase in cell proliferation is likely an adaptive response as the young animal must emerge from the care of its mother to face the dangers, challenges, and opportunities of adulthood.

  6. Direct mixed antiglobulin reaction (MAR) test in semen at follow-up after testicular biopsy of maldescended testes operated in puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Dina; Brandt, B; Thorup, Jørgen Mogens

    1990-01-01

    In thirty patients bilateral orchiopexy was performed in puberty. At the operation twenty-five patients underwent bilateral testicular biopsies, and five patients underwent unilateral biopsies only. In adulthood the semen was analysed for antisperm antibodies by the direct mixed antiglobulin...

  7. Puberty induction in Turner syndrome: Results of oestrogen treatment on development of secondary sexual characteristics, uterine dimensions and serum hormone levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bannink, E.M.N.; Sassen, C. van; Buuren, S. van; Jong, F.H. de; Lequin, M.; Mulder, P.G.H.; Muinck Keizer-Schrama, S.M.P.F. de

    2009-01-01

    Background: Besides short stature, gonadal dysgenesis leading to a lack of oestrogen is one of the main characteristics of Turner syndrome (TS). In most TS girls, puberty is induced with exogenous oestrogens. Objective: To describe the pubertal development and uterine dimensions achieved by low-dose

  8. Genomic analyses identify hundreds of variants associated with age at menarche and support a role for puberty timing in cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Day, Felix R.; Thompson, Deborah J.; Helgason, Hannes; Chasman, Daniel I.; Finucane, Hilary; Sulem, Patrick; Ruth, Katherine S.; Whalen, Sean; Sarkar, Abhishek K.; Albrecht, Eva; Altmaier, Elisabeth; Amini, Marzyeh; Barbieri, Caterina M.; Boutin, Thibaud; Campbell, Archie; Demerath, Ellen; Giri, Ayush; He, Chunyan; Hottenga, Jouke J.; Karlsson, Robert; Kolcic, Ivana; Loh, Po-Ru; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Mangino, Massimo; Marco, Brumat; McMahon, George; Medland, Sarah E.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Noordam, Raymond; Nutile, Teresa; Paternoster, Lavinia; Perjakova, Natalia; Porcu, Eleonora; Rose, Lynda M.; Schraut, Katharina E.; Segre, Ayellet V.; Smith, Albert V.; Stolk, Lisette; Teumer, Alexander; Andrulis, Irene L.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Benitez, Javier; Bergmann, Sven; Bochud, Murielle; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bojesen, Stig E.; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Brand, Judith S.; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brenner, Hermann; Broer, Linda; Bruning, Thomas; Buring, Julie E.; Campbell, Harry; Catamo, Eulalia; Chanock, Stephen; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Corre, Tanguy; Couch, Fergus J.; Cousminer, Diana L.; Cox, Angela; Crisponi, Laura; Czene, Kamila; Smith, George Davey; de Geus, Eco J. C. N.; de Mutsert, Renee; De Vivo, Immaculata; Dennis, Joe; Devilee, Peter; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Dunning, Alison M.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Fasching, Peter A.; Fernandez-Rhodes, Lindsay; Ferrucci, Luigi; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Franke, Lude; Gabrielson, Marike; Gandin, Ilaria; Giles, Graham G.; Grallert, Harald; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; Guenel, Pascal; Hall, Per; Hallberg, Emily; Hamann, Ute; Harris, Tamara B.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Heiss, Gerardo; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hopper, John L.; Hu, Frank; Hunter, David J.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Im, Hae Kyung; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Joshi, Peter K.; Karasik, David; Kellis, Manolis; Kutalik, Zoltan; LaChance, Genevieve; Lambrechts, Diether; Langenberg, Claudia; Launer, Lenore J.; Laven, Joop S. E.; Lenarduzzi, Stefania; Li, Jingmei; Lind, Penelope A.; Lindstrom, Sara; Liu, YongMei; Luan, Jian'an; Magi, Reedik; Mannermaa, Arto; Mbarek, Hamdi; McCarthy, Mark I.; Meisinger, Christa; Meitinger, Thomas; Menni, Cristina; Metspalu, Andres; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Milani, Lili; Milne, Roger L.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mulligan, Anna M.; Nalls, Mike A.; Navarro, Pau; Nevanlinna, Heli; Nyholt, Dale R.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; O'Mara, Tracy A.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Palotie, Aarno; Pedersen, Nancy; Peters, Annette; Peto, Julian; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Pouta, Anneli; Radice, Paolo; Rahman, Iffat; Ring, Susan M.; Robino, Antonietta; Rosendaal, Frits R.; Rudan, Igor; Rueedi, Rico; Ruggiero, Daniela; Sala, Cinzia F.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Scott, Robert A.; Shah, Mitul; Sorice, Rossella; Southey, Melissa C.; Sovio, Ulla; Stampfer, Meir; Steri, Maristella; Strauch, Konstantin; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tikkanen, Emmi; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Traglia, Michela; Truong, Therese; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Edwards, Digna R. Velez; Vitart, Veronique; Voelker, Uwe; Vollenweider, Peter; Wang, Qin; Widen, Elisabeth; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Willemsen, Gonneke; Winqvist, Robert; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zoledziewska, Magdalena; Zygmunt, Marek; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Ciullo, Marina; Cucca, Francesco; Esko, Tonu; Franceschini, Nora; Gieger, Christian; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hayward, Caroline; Kraft, Peter; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O.; Nohr, Ellen A.; Polasek, Ozren; Porteous, David; Price, Alkes L.; Ridker, Paul M.; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D.; Stoeckl, Doris; Toniolo, Daniela; Ulivi, Sheila; Visser, Jenny A.; Voelzke, Henry; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Wilson, James F.; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Thorsteindottir, Unnur; Pollard, Katherine S.; Easton, Douglas F.; Tung, Joyce Y.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hinds, David; Murray, Anna; Murabito, Joanne M.; Stefansson, Kari; Ong, Ken K.; Perry, John R. B.; Study, LifeLines Cohort

    The timing of puberty is a highly polygenic childhood trait that is epidemiologically associated with various adult diseases. Using 1000 Genomes Project-imputed genotype data in up to similar to 370,000 women, we identify 389 independent signals (P <5 x 10(-8)) for age at menarche, a milestone in

  9. 儿童期性早熟42例临床分析%Clinical analysis on 42 childish cases of precocious puberty.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯玉贞

    2011-01-01

    Objective To summarize the clinical features of precocious puberty in order to improve clinical understanding of pediatric physician s. Methods The clinical data of 42 cases of precocious puberty in pediatric department of this hospital from January 2006 to February 2010 were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. Results Among these 42 childish patients, 19 cases suffered from precocious puberty, 17 cases of pseudo precocious puberty and 6 cases of partial precocious puberty and the ratio of girls to boys was 10 : 1. Precocious puberty in majority of children was manifested as acceleration in height growth, in advance of bone age, enlargement of gon ads and positive stimulation of luteinizing hormone release test ( LHRH ). In cases of pseudo - precocious puberty, suspicious inducing factors could be found in most of them, some of them with accerated height growth and advanced bone age, and enlargement of gon ads is not obvious. LHRH stimulation test was negative. Conclusion In precocious children, girls are more prevalent than boys, precocious puberty is mostly idiopathic in girls. The majority of children with precocious puberty have related inducing factors. The determination of bone age, gonadal BUS and LHRH stimulation test are important in dfferential diagnosis of precocious puberty in children.%目的 总结儿童性早熟的临床特点,提高临床儿保科医师对儿童性早熟的认识.方法 回顾性分析我院儿保科2006年1月月至2010年2月诊断明确的性早熟儿童42例的病例临床资料.结果 女孩:男孩=10:1;真性性早熟19例,假性性早熟17例,部分性性早熟6例.真性性早熟儿童多数表现为身高增速,骨龄提前,性腺增大,促性腺激素释放激素(LHRH)兴奋试验阳性.假性性早熟:多数可以问及可疑诱因,部分患儿有身高增速,但骨龄提前、性腺增大不明显.LHRH兴奋试验阴性.结论 性早熟儿童女孩明显多于男孩,女孩真性性早熟多数为特发性,多数性

  10. FSHbeta gene mutation in a female with delayed puberty and hypogonadism: response to recombinant human FSH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Alain

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a woman with primary amenorrhoea and infertility associated with an isolated deficiency of pituitary FSH that does not respond to GnRH administration. Serum inhibin B was undetectable and antimullerian hormone (AMH was within the normal range. Ultra sound examination revealed a small uterus and small ovaries with few small follicles. We identified an homozygous 1-bp (G deletion at codon 79 in FSHbeta gene suggesting a complete loss of function. The patient underwent studies of ovarian responsiveness to recombinant human FSH according to the following protocol: 150UI/d for five days following by 75 UI/d for 10 days. Estradiol plasma level started to increase from day 5 associated to a sharp increase of inhibine B and a decrease of LH. During the same time, we observed an excessive development of multiple follicles resulting in an arrest of the treatment to avoid hyperstimulation. The present study confirm that follicles up to 5 mm in diameter had developed in the absence of FSH and that FSH is required for the growth of follicles beyond the two-layer granulose stage.

  11. Growth hormone deficiency and central precocious puberty in Klinefelter syndrome: report of a case and review of KIGS database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales-Ellis, Bryn A; Pingul, Mia M; Reddy, Sujana; Boney, Charlotte M; Wajnrajch, Michael P; Quintos, Jose Bernarto

    2013-01-01

    Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and central precocious puberty (CPP) have each, individually, been described in patients with Klinefelter syndrome. However, the combination of GHD, CPP, and Klinefelter syndrome has never been reported. We described a Klinefelter syndrome patient who developed GHD at age 2 10/12 years and CPP at 8 6/12 years. Despite CPP, GnRH agonist therapy was not initiated because of his excellent predicted adult height. At 11 8/12 years, his height was 164.6 cm, close to his mid-parental target height of 165 cm. We report an additional nine patients with Klinefelter syndrome and GHD from the Pfizer International Growth Study (KIGS) database, none of whom had CPP. We conclude that the combination of GHD and CPP is very rare in Klinefelter syndrome and that CPP is unlikely to compromise final adult height.

  12. Teaching adolescents about changing bodies: Randomized controlled trial of an Internet puberty education and body dissatisfaction prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousineau, Tara M; Franko, Debra L; Trant, Meredith; Rancourt, Diana; Ainscough, Jessica; Chaudhuri, Anamika; Brevard, Julie

    2010-09-01

    This study tested the efficacy of an Internet-based prevention program, Trouble on the Tightrope: In Search of Skateboard Sam, on pubertal knowledge, body esteem, and self-esteem. One hundred and ninety participants (mean age 11.6 years) were randomized to either an intervention or attention placebo control condition and were assessed at baseline, after three Internet-based sessions, and at 3-month follow-up. Although the primary hypotheses were not supported, exploratory moderator analyses indicated that the intervention was beneficial for select students. Specifically, pubertal status moderated the effects on weight-related body esteem and several domains of self-esteem, resulting in positive effects for participants in the intervention group who had begun puberty. Gender differences were found on self-esteem subscales, indicating more robust effects for girls than boys. Tailored Internet programs based on personal characteristics such as gender and pubertal status may be a fruitful area for future research with adolescents.

  13. Predictive Value of Dental Maturity for a Positive Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Stimulation Test Result in Girls with Precocious Puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Dental maturity is associated with skeletal maturity, which is advanced in girls with central precocious puberty (CPP). We investigated the performance of dental maturity as a screening method for CPP using mandibular second premolar and molar calcification stages, assessed the associated anthropometric and laboratory factors, and evaluated pubertal response predictors using the gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulation test (GnRHST) in prepubertal and pubertal girls. A prospective case-control study was conducted in girls, aged 7.0–8.9 years, classified into pubertal (peak luteinizing hormone [LH] after GnRHST ≥ 5 IU/L), prepubertal (peak LH < 5 IU/L), and control groups. Auxological and biochemical tests, panoramic radiographs, and GnRHSTs in participants with breast development were conducted. Dental maturity was assessed using the Demirjian index (DI). We included 103 girls (pubertal, 40; prepubertal, 19; control, 44). Chronological age (CA) was not significantly different between groups. Bone age (BA) and BA advancement was higher in the pubertal and prepubertal groups. Increased DI values at the mandibular second premolar and molar were significantly associated with CA, BA, BA advancement, height standard deviation score (SDS), peak LH after GnRHST, and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) (all P < 0.05). Moreover, odds ratio (OR) of the mandibular second premolar and molar (a DI value of ≥ E) for predicting a positive response to GnRHST was 8.7 (95% confidence intervals [CI], 2.9–26.1) and 5.2 (95% CI, 2.2–12.7), respectively. Dental maturity was a strong predictor for diagnosing CPP. Determining dental maturity in girls with suspected precocious puberty might help determine the performance of GnRHSTs. PMID:28049241

  14. 从小儿体质特点探讨性早熟防治的重要性%Importance investigation of prevention and treatment of precocious puberty based on the physical characteristics of children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚君; 琚玮; 郑宏

    2013-01-01

    With the development of society, the incidence of precocious puberty in children was significantly higher than before. This paper analyzes the correlation of precocious puberty and physical characteristics that explore the importance of prevention and treatment of precocious puberty.%随着社会的发展,小儿性早熟的发病率明显增高,本文通过分析性早熟与体质特征的相关性,探讨防治性早熟的重要性。

  15. An 8.9 Mb 19p13 duplication associated with precocious puberty and a sporadic 3.9 Mb 2q23.3q24.1 deletion containing NR4A2 in mentally retarded members of a family with an intrachromosomal 19p-into-19q between-arm insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lybaek, Helle; Ørstavik, Karen Helene; Prescott, Trine; Hovland, Randi; Breilid, Harald; Stansberg, Christine; Steen, Vidar Martin; Houge, Gunnar

    2009-07-01

    In a 2 and a half-year-old girl with onset of puberty before the age of 5 months, short stature, hand anomalies and severe mental retardation, an 8.9 Mb interstitial 19p13 duplication containing 215 predicted genes was detected. It was initially assumed that the duplication involved the kisspeptin receptor gene, GPR54, known to stimulate induction of puberty, but more refined duplication mapping excluded this possibility. In an attempt to further understand the genotype-phenotype correlation, global gene expression was measured in skin fibroblasts. The overall expression pattern was quite similar to controls, and only about 25% of the duplicated genes had an expression level that was increased by more than 1.3-fold, with no obvious changes that could explain the precocious puberty. The proband's mother carried a balanced between-arm insertion of the duplicated segment that resembled a pericentric inversion. The same insertion was found in several other family members, including one who had lost a daughter with severe mental retardation and menarche at the age of 10 years. Another close relative was severely mentally retarded, but neither dysmorphic nor microcephalic. His phenotype was initially ascribed to a presumed cryptic chromosome 19 imbalance caused by the 19p-into19q insertion, but subsequent array-CGH detected a 3.9-Mb deletion of 2q23.3q24.1. This novel microdeletion involves seven genes, of which FMNL2, a suggested regulator of Rho-GTPases, and NR4A2, an essential gene for differentiation of dopaminergic neurons, may be critical genes for the proposed 2q23q24 microdeletion syndrome.

  16. Feeding prepubescent gilts a high-fat diet induces molecular changes in the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis and predicts early timing of puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Yong; Zhou, Dongsheng; Che, Lianqiang; Fang, Zhengfeng; Lin, Yan; Wu, De

    2014-01-01

    The onset of puberty in females has been occurring earlier over the past decades, presumably as a result of improved nutrition in developed countries. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for the early attainment of puberty as a result of nutrition fortification remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hormone and gene expression changes in prepubescent gilts fed a high-fat diet to investigate whether these changes could predict the early timing of puberty. Forty gilts were fed a daily basal diet (LE) or a basal diet with an additional 270 g/d or 340 g/d of fat (HE) during the prepubescent phase. Blood samples were collected during the prepubescent phase to detect hormone secretion changes in insulin-like growth factor-1, kisspeptin, estradiol, progesterone, and leptin. The gene expressions at the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis were examined on day 73 of the experiment (average age on day 177) during the prepubescent phase. An HE diet resulted in accelerated body weight gain and back-fat thickness at the P2 point compared with LE gilts during the prepubescent phase. Gilts that were fed HE diets attained puberty 12 d earlier than LE gilts, and a larger proportion of HE gilts reached puberty at day 180 or 190 of age. A postmortem analysis revealed a promoted development of the uterus and ovary tissue that was characterized by a 53.7% and 29.5% increase in the uterine and ovary weight, respectively, and an increased length of the uterine horn and oviduct tissue in HE gilts. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that HE gilts had higher Kiss-1, G protein-coupled receptor 54, gonadotropin-releasing hormone and estrogen receptor α mRNA expression levels in the hypothalamic anteroventral periventricular nucleus; the leptin receptor mRNA expression level was higher in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and ovary tissue; the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor expression was higher in the pituitary and

  17. MRI study in children with central precocious puberty%头颅MRI在儿童中枢性性早熟的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀民; 陆文丽; 董治亚; 王伟

    2012-01-01

    目的:探索头颅鞍区MRI在小儿中枢性性早熟(central precocious puberty,CPP)病因诊断中的应用价值.方法:分析44例CPP患儿的垂体MRI资料,于SE序列T1WI头颅正中、矢状及冠状面上观测垂体的大小、形态及信号特征,并比较其与临床特征间的联系.结果:6~10岁CPP患儿的头颅MRI检查显示,其垂体冠状高径与正常均值间的差异明显(P<0.0.5),且比其他各径线更有意义.患儿性发育的程度、年龄对应身高标准差积分与颅内MRI阳性发现率间存在一定联系.结论:应重视CPP患儿的头颅MRI检查,其垂体形态、结构的阳性发现有助于临床疾病的诊断及鉴别,必要时应随访MRI,综合临床表现进行诊治及预后判断.%Objective To study the value of brain MRI in the pathogenetic diagnosis of central precious puberty. Methods The brain MRI of 44 children with central precious puberty were analyzed. Size, shape and signal characteristics of pituitary gland were measured on SE series T1WI medial sagittal and coronary view, and their correlation with clinical characteristic was analyzed. Result Brain MRI of central precious puberty children aged <10 showed that the maximum diameter of coronary view of pituitary gland was significantly higher than the average normal value (P<0.05), and was of more significance than other measures. There was a correlation between degree of sexual development, age related height standard score and brain MRI positive findings. Conclusions Children with central precious puberty should have a brain MRI performed, size, shape and structure findings are helpful for the clinical and differential diagnosis of central precious puberty, and MRI should be followed if necessary.

  18. Clinical Analysis of 30 Cases of Peripheral Precocious Puberty%外周性性早熟30例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓景; 李春枝; 卫海燕

    2016-01-01

    目的:总结外周性性早熟临床特点。方法回顾性分析我院2013年1月~2015年7月收治的30例外周性性早熟临床资料。结果30例外周性性早熟男孩17例,女孩13例,先天性肾上腺皮质增生症8例,肾上腺肿瘤2例,误服避孕药12例,卵巢囊肿3例,McCune-Albright综合征3例,原发性甲状腺功能减退症1例,分泌HCG生殖细胞瘤1例。结论外周性性早熟多为继发性,多数病历进展快,可转为中枢性性早熟,由肿瘤引起的外周性性早熟尚可危及生命,应积极寻找原发病,以免延误疾病。%Objective To summarize the clinical characteristics of peripheral precocious puberty. Methods A retrospective analysis of our hospital from January 2013 to July 2015, 30 cases of clinical data of peripheral precocious puberty. Results 30 cases with peripheral precocious puberty, 17 cases with peripheral precocious boy, 13 cases of girls, 8 cases of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, 2 cases of adrenal tumor, swallowed the pill in 12 cases, 3 cases of ovarian cyst , McCune-Albright syndrome in 3 cases, 1 patients of primary hypothyroidism, secretion hCG germ cell tumor in 1 case. Conclusion It is secondary of peripheral precocious puberty, most medical progress quickly, can turn for central precocious puberty, caused by tumor peripheral precocious puberty passable life-threatening, should be actively looking for primary disease, so as not to delay the disease.

  19. Ultrasonography in differential diagnosis of precocious puberty in girls%超声在女童性早熟鉴别诊断中的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    锁仁静; 穆仲平; 余春燕

    2011-01-01

    Aim To investigate the differential diagnostic value of ulrasound with precocious puberty. Methods The uterine , ovarian follicles were measured by ultrasound. Then these indexes were compared with the normal control groups in the same age. Results The uterine indexes of girls with true-precocious puberty and pseudo-precocious puberty were significantly larger than the normal girls( P <0. 05 ) . The volume of ovary and the largest follicle diameter, a section of the largest number of follictes in true-precocious puberty are larger than the normal girls( P< 0. 05 ) . The volume of ovary and the largest follicle diameter,a section of the largest number of follicles in pseudo-precocious puberty are similar to the normal girls ( P< 0. 05 ) . Conclusion Ultrasonography has great value on differential diagnosis of precocious puberty in girls.%目的 探讨超声在女童性早熟不同类型的鉴别诊断中的价值.方法 对临床及实验室检查确诊的真性性早熟,假性性早熟及正常女童三组患者进行超声检查,观察其子宫大小,卵巢大小,一个切面最大卵泡数和最大卵泡直径,比较检查结果.结果 真性性早熟患儿子宫测量各径线均大于正常同龄女童,卵巢容积、最大卵泡直径及一个切面卵泡数量均大于正常同龄女童(P<0.05).假性性早熟患儿子宫测量各径线均大于正常同龄女童(P0.05).结论 超声对于不同类型女童性早熟的鉴别诊断有重要价值.

  20. 儿童性早熟192例临床分析%Clinical analysis on 192 children with precocious puberty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡华燕; 谢薇; 杨培; 郭相锐

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the age, causes, and clinical characteristics of precocious puberty, elevate cognition of children with precocious puherty. Methods: The age, clinical characteristics, causes, laboratory data of 192 children (including 5 boys and 187 girls) with precocious puberty who were diagnosed and treated in the hospital from April 2007 to May 2010 were analyzed retrospectively. Results; The proportion of girls among the children with precocious puberty was 97.4% ; the percentages of children aged 8 months-one year, -3 years, -9 years accounted for 2. 08% , 28. 12% , and 69.79% , respectively. The most common clinical manifestation was breast hyperplasia, accounting for 92.9% , followed by breast pigmentation (65. 5% ) , increase of vulval secretion (12. 3% ) , premature pubarche ( for 4. 3 % ), augmentation of clitoris (cauda salax) and didymus (4.6% ), and vaginal bleeding (0.01 %) . Causes; the children with gonadotropic hormone dependent precocious puberty accounted for 26.4%. Among the girls with isosexual precocious puberty, except two girls with pituitary neoplasms, one girl with congenital hypothyroidism (CH) , and one girl with Williams syndrome, other girls were diagnosed as idiopalhic precocious puberty. Two boys were diagnosed as congenital adrenal cortical hyperplasia (CAH) . The children with non - gonadotropic hormone dependent precocious puberty accounted for 73. 6%. All the girls manifested as isosexual precacious puberty; 3 boys manifested as heterosexual precocious puberty because of intake of exogenous estrogen (contraceptives) . The preva-lence of precocious puberty among the infants less than three years was 28. 12%. Except one child with CAH and one child with pituitary neoplasms , other children were diagnosed as non - gonadotropic hormone dependent precocious puberty; among the children with precocious puberty, rural children accounted for 87% , stay - at - home children accounted for most of the children, the main causes

  1. Serum concentrations of free and total insulin-like growth factor-I, IGF binding proteins -1 and -3 and IGFBP-3 protease activity in boys with normal or precocious puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Frystyk, Jan

    1996-01-01

    Circulating IGF-I and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels both increase in puberty where growth velocity is high. The amount of free IGF-I is dependent on the IGF-I level and on the concentrations of the specific IGFBPs. Furthermore, IGFBP-3 proteolysis regulates the bioavailability of IGF......-I. However, the concentration of free IGF-I and possible IGFBP-3 proteolytic activity in puberty has not previously been studied....

  2. Study on Realationship of Child Obesity and Precocious Puberty%儿童肥胖与性早熟关系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫海燕; 王会贞; 李春枝; 陈永兴; 王凌飞; 罗淑颖

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between obesity and precocious puberty. Methods Totally 8750 children from 3 to 12 years old were selected from Zhengzhou by stratified and cluster sampling. All the individuals selected were medical examined, and the data was analyzed by descriptive statistics, Chi - square tests, tendency tests. Results The detection rates of precocious puberty in overweight and obesity children (1.4 % ) was higher than that of the normal children (0. 6% ) , and the detection rates of precocious puberty in overweight and obesity girls (3. 1% ) was much higheT than that of the normal girls (1.1%), while there were no significance in boys. With the increase of the degree of obesity, the detection rates of precocious puberty also increased ( t = 10. 629, P =0. 001). Conclusions There was close relationship between obesity and precocious puberty , and the detection rate of precocious puberty among the overweight and obese children was higher than normal weight children. The girls' incidence of precocious puberty was colser with BMI than boys' , and with the increasing of the degree of obesity, the detection rates of precocious puberty also increased among girls.%目的 了解儿童肥胖与性早熟发生之间的关系。方法 以郑州地区3~12岁儿童为对象,采用分层随机整群抽样方法,共获取研究对象8750名,全部进行体格检查,进行描述性统计分析、卡方检验、趋势检验,检验水准α=0.05。结果 超重和肥胖儿童中性早熟的检出率(1.4%)高于正常体重儿童(0.6%),差异有统计学意义(P=0.002);其中超重和肥胖女童性早熟的检出率(3.1%)高于正常体重女童(1.1%),差异有统计学意义(P=0.001);男童差异无统计学意义,随着肥胖度的增加女童性早熟的检出率呈上升趋势。结论 郑州地区儿童肥胖与性早熟的发生密切相关,超重和肥胖儿童中性早熟的检出率高于正常体重儿童,且女童

  3. 童年期不良经历与青春发动时相提前的关联及其性别差异的研究%Associations between adverse childhood experiences with early puberty timing and possible gender difference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘阳; 孙莹; 陶芳标; 童世庐

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the association of adverse childhood events with early puberty timing and possible gender differences.Methods Data was gathered through questionnaires,physical and secondary sexual characteristics,examination with breast stage in girls and testicular volume in boys measured under informed consent among children in grade 3 to grade 5 from a largescale primary school.Information regarding adverse childhood experiences (ACEs),time of screening and physical activity was included in the questionnaire.Age limits on secondary sexual characteristics for defining early puberty established under the "China Puberty Research Collaboration Project" were used to classify early puberty timing.Body mass index was calculated and used to classify both overweight and obesity,in each gender.Results Among the 1 744 children aged 8.2-12.2 years old (957 boys),the prevalence rates of early puberty timing among boys and girls were 7.5% and 14.6%,respectively,with gender differences (x2= 11.671,P< 0.001).Boys who reported having experienced serious adverse family events and girls with physical abuse were more likely to develop early puberty.Results from multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that family life events were associated with a higher risk of early puberty timing in boys (odds ratio:2.531,95% CI:1.276-5.020) while experience related to physical abuse appeared a risk factor of early puberty timing in girls (odds ratio:2.453,95%CI:1.588-3.788).Conclusion Physical abuse and adverse family life events seemed to be associated with early puberty timing,suggesting further longitudinal study should be carried out to understand the nature of these findings and gender differences.%目的 探讨童年期不良经历与青春发动时相提前的关联及其可能的性别差异.方法 以安徽省某九年一贯制小学3~5年级自愿参加的男女生为研究对象,进行问卷调查、体格和第二性征发育(男生睾丸容积和女生

  4. Menstruation and the Cycle of Poverty: A Cluster Quasi-Randomised Control Trial of Sanitary Pad and Puberty Education Provision in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Paul; Hennegan, Julie; Dolan, Catherine; Wu, Maryalice; Steinfield, Laurel; Scott, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Poor menstrual knowledge and access to sanitary products have been proposed as barriers to menstrual health and school attendance. In response, interventions targeting these needs have seen increasing implementation in public and private sectors. However, there has been limited assessment of their effectiveness. Assess the impact of providing reusable sanitary pads and puberty education on girls' school attendance and psychosocial wellbeing outcomes. A cluster quasi-randomised controlled trial was conducted across 8 schools, including 1124 girls, in rural Uganda. Schools were allocated to one of four conditions: the provision of puberty education alone; reusable sanitary pads alone; puberty education and reusable sanitary pads; and a control (no intervention). The primary outcome was school attendance. Secondary outcomes reflected psychosocial wellbeing. At follow-up, school attendance had worsened for girls across all conditions. Per-protocol analysis revealed that this decline was significantly greater for those in the control condition d = 0.52 (95%CI 0.26-0.77), with those in control schools having a 17.1% (95%CI: 8.7-25.5) greater drop in attendance than those in any intervention school. There were no differences between the intervention conditions. High rates of school drop-out and transfer meant the trial suffered from substantial participant drop-out. Intention-to-treat analyses using two different imputation strategies were consistent with the main results, with mean differences of 5.2% attendance in best-case and 24.5% in worst-case imputations. Results were robust to adjustments for clustering. There was no impact of the interventions on girls' self-reported shame or insecurity during menstruation. Results of the trial support the hypothesised positive impact of providing sanitary pads or puberty education for girls' school attendance in a developing country context. Findings must be interpreted with caution in light of poor participant retention

  5. Integrity of the plasma membrane, the acrosomal membrane, and the mitochondrial membrane potential of sperm in Nelore bulls from puberty to sexual maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S.L.S. Reis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study evaluated the plasma membrane integrity, acrosomal membrane integrity, and mitochondrial membrane potential of Nelore bull sperm from early puberty to early sexual maturity and their associations with sperm motility and vigor, the mass motility of the spermatozoa (wave motion, scrotal circumference, and testosterone. Sixty Nelore bulls aged 18 to 19 months were divided into four lots (n=15 bulls/lot and evaluated over 280 days. Semen samples, collected every 56 days by electroejaculation, were evaluated soon after collection for motility, vigor and wave motion under an optical microscope. Sperm membrane integrity, acrosomal integrity, and mitochondrial activity were evaluated under a fluorescent microscope using probe association (FITC-PSA, PI, JC-1, H342. The sperm were classified into eight integrity categories depending on whether they exhibited intact or damaged membranes, an intact or damaged acrosomal membrane, and high or low mitochondrial potential. The results show that bulls have a low amount of sperm with intact membranes at puberty, and the sperm show low motility, vigor, and wave motion; however, in bulls at early sexual maturity, the integrity of the sperm membrane increased significantly. The rate of sperm membrane damage was negatively correlated with motility, vigor, wave motion, and testosterone in the bulls, and a positive correlation existed between sperm plasma membrane integrity and scrotal circumference. The integrity of the acrosomal membrane was not influenced by puberty. During puberty and into early sexual maturity, bulls show low sperm mitochondrial potential, but when bulls reached sexual maturity, high membrane integrity with high mitochondrial potential was evident.

  6. Developmental Programming: Prenatal and Postnatal Androgen Antagonist and Insulin Sensitizer Interventions Prevent Advancement of Puberty and Improve LH Surge Dynamics in Prenatal Testosterone-Treated Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Herkimer, Carol; Abi Salloum, Bachir; Moeller, Jacob; Beckett, Evan; Sreedharan, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal T excess induces maternal hyperinsulinemia, early puberty, and reproductive/metabolic defects in the female similar to those seen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. This study addressed the organizational/activational role of androgens and insulin in programming pubertal advancement and periovulatory LH surge defects. Treatment groups included the following: 1) control; 2) prenatal T; 3) prenatal T plus prenatal androgen antagonist, flutamide; 4) prenatal T plus prenatal insuli...

  7. 青春发育提前的相关基因研究进展%The progress on genes associated with early puberty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡春艳

    2014-01-01

    人类青春期的启动是由再度出现的下丘脑-垂体-性腺轴促性腺激素释放激素的释放幅度和频率明显增加所触发.一系列研究发现许多基因调控青春期启动,包括KISS1和GPR54基因、雌激素受体基因、能量平衡相关基因、LIN28B基因以及MKRN3基因等,这些基因的突变和单核苷酸多态性与青春发育提前相关.该文就这些基因的遗传改变与青春发育提前的关系作一综述.%Puberty onset is triggered by re-emergence of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPGA),which is characterized by the significantly increasing amplitude and frequency of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion in human being.A series of studies found that many genes control puberty onset,including KISS1 and GPR54 gene,estrogen receptor (ESR) gene,energy balance-related genes,LIN28B gene,MKRN3 gene and so on.Studies have been confirmed that the mutation and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of the genes above are associated with early puberty.In this paper,the relationship between genetic alterations of these genes and early puberty are summarized as follows.-

  8. 听障学生青春期教育刍议%Humble Opinions on the Puberty Education of Hearing-impaired Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏; 鹿崇涛

    2011-01-01

    青春期作为人一生中朝气蓬勃、充满活力的时期,也是人身体、心理发育成长的一个关键期。当前,青春期教育虽已然引起关注,但在聋教育领域仍有许多问题值得探索,有些尚属空白。结合我们的实践研究体会,现就"听障学生青春期教育"话题中的几个关键性问题,即"青春期听障学生生存现状透视与教育重点""听障学生青春期教育的有效实施策略""值得进一步探讨的几个问题"等,谈些粗浅的看法。%Puberty is a period in which human beings are vibrant and full of vigor as well as a critical period for the growth of the human body and human's psychological development. Currently, puberty education has aroused much attention but there are still many problems in hearing-impaired students' education field, which deserve exploration, and some of which are still almost in blank. Based on our practice research experience, we intend to put forward some simple views on a couple of critical issues in the subject, the puberty education of hearing-impaired students, that is, the analysis of the current survival status and the education status of hearing-impaired students, effective implementation strategies on hearing-impaired students' puberty education, several issues deserving further discussion and so on.

  9. The progression of small-follicle reserves in the ovaries of wild African elephants (Loxodonta africana) from puberty to reproductive senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, F J; Nöthling, J O; Allen, W R

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether the follicle reserve in the ovary of the African elephant declines progressively after puberty and whether its depletion constrains the fertility of older females. Elephant ovaries were fixed in 4% neutral buffered formalin and small-follicle counts made using stereological protocols. Excepting a slight rise in small-follicle numbers between 16 and 25 years of age, there was a trend for follicle numbers to fall from puberty to 70 years. Reproductive status did not impact significantly on small-follicle numbers (P=0.31). The number of early primary follicles, initially higher in number than true primary follicles, fell from post-puberty to nil at 45 years of age. Six of the seven oldest animals in the study showed signs of recent ovarian activity in the form of antral follicles, corpora lutea or large corpora nigra. The four oldest elephants (mean age 69 years) had a median small-follicle count of 11,113. In summary, it appears that the elephant ovary is capable of supplying oocytes for ovulation right up to the time of death at the age of maximum life expectancy, although the follicle reserve becomes depleted in some older elephants.

  10. YE Jin’s Experience on Treating Precocious Puberty%叶进辨治儿童性早熟经验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓芳; 叶进

    2016-01-01

    叶进认为嗜食甘肥、痰热内生是儿童性早熟发生的主要致病因素,提出痰、火是其主要病理因素,强调健脾化痰、滋阴降火是治疗性早熟的关键,临证运用化痰泻火法,拟抗早颗粒以二陈汤合知柏地黄汤加减组方治疗。%YE Jin has holds that addiction to sweat and greasy food ,endogenous generation of phlegm and heat are the major factors to cause precocious puberty ,while phlegm and fire are the major pathogenic fac-tors. He emphasizes that strengthening the spleen and resolving phlegm ,nourishing yin and extinguishing fire are the key for treating precocious puberty. In clinic ,he uses Kangzao granules (Erchen decoction combining with Zhibai Dihuang decoction) to treat precocious puberty based on resolving phlegm and purging fire.

  11. Relationships among body composition, circulating concentrations of leptin and follistatin, and the onset of puberty and fertility in young female sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales Nieto, C A; Thompson, A N; Macleay, C A; Briegel, J R; Hedger, M P; Ferguson, M B; Martin, G B

    2014-12-30

    The onset of puberty depends on the attainment of critical body mass, so should also be affected by increases in the rate of accumulation of muscle and adipose tissue. Adipose tissue and reproduction are linked by leptin. For muscle, a link has not yet been identified, although one possibility is follistatin. We assessed the relationships among circulating concentrations of follistatin and leptin and the rates of growth and accumulation of muscle and fat during pubertal development in female sheep. We used 326 animals with known phenotypic values for live weight (LW), depths of eye muscle (EMD) and fat (FAT), and known breeding values at post-weaning age for body mass (PWT) and depths of eye muscle (PEMD) and fat (PFAT). Leptin concentration was positively correlated with values for EMD, PEMD, FAT, PFAT, LW and PWT (PLeptin concentration was negatively related to age and positively related to live weight at first oestrus and the proportion of females that attained puberty (P≤0.05), and to fertility and reproductive rate (Pleptin concentration, and between muscle accumulation and reproductive performance. We conclude that leptin and follistatin are probably both involved in effects of accelerated accumulation of muscle and adipose tissues on the onset of puberty. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Combined treatment with bicalutamide and anastrozole in a young boy with peripheral precocious puberty due to McCune-Albright Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessaris, Daniele; Matarazzo, Patrizia; Mussa, Alessandro; Tuli, Gerdi; Verna, Francesca; Fiore, Ludovica; Lala, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    McCune-Albright Syndrome (MAS) is a congenital endocrine disorder due to mosaic tissutal hyper-function. We describe a boy with a molecularly confirmed MAS, clinically evident with congenital café-au-lait spots, bone fibrous dysplasia, hyperthyroidism, and renal phosphate wasting syndrome. At 4.6 years of age he disclosed a rapid progression of peripheral puberty, so we decided to treat him with bicalutamide 25 mg/day and anastrozole 1 mg/day. Combined third generation aromatase inhibitors - competitive androgen receptor blockers were employed in familial male precocious puberty (FMPP). Combined treatment was performed for 49 months from the age of 4.6 to 6.7 years. The patient underwent clinical, laboratory, and instrumental evaluation twice a year from the first admission to the current age. This treatment caused a rapid normalization of growth velocity, subsequent reduction of penile androgenization, and stabilization of testicular volume. The therapy was well tolerated for all its duration and neither side effects, nor secondary hypothalamic activation were noted. This report provides further evidence of effectiveness and safety of combined third generation aromatase inhibitors - competitive androgen receptor blockers in male precocious peripheral puberty, firstly employed in male MAS, and contributes to expand the spectrum of disorders in which their employment may reveal promising.

  13. Suggestibility and negative priming: two replication studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Daniel; Brown, Richard J

    2002-07-01

    Research suggests that inhibiting the effect of irrelevant stimuli on subsequent thought and action (cognitive inhibition) may be an important component of suggestibility. Two small correlation studies were conducted to address the relationship between different aspects of suggestibility and individual differences in cognitive inhibition, operationalized as the degree of negative priming generated by to-be-ignored stimuli in a semantic categorization task. The first study found significant positive correlations between negative priming, hypnotic suggestibility, and creative imagination; a significant negative correlation was obtained between negative priming and interrogative suggestibility, demonstrating the discriminant validity of the study results. The second study replicated the correlation between negative priming and hypnotic suggestibility, using a different suggestibility measurement procedure that assessed subjective experience and hypnotic involuntariness as well as objective responses to suggestions. These studies support the notion that the ability to engage in cognitive inhibition may be an important component of hypnotic responsivity and maybe of other forms of suggestibility.

  14. Growth and development of the ovary and small follicle pool from mid fetal life to pre-puberty in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stansfield Fiona J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Follicle numbers and developing ovarian morphology, particularly with reference to the presence of interstitial tissue, are intimately linked within the ovary of the African elephant during the period spanning mid-gestation to puberty. These have not been previously quantified in any studies. The collection of 7 sets of elephant fetal ovaries between 11.2 and 20.2 months of gestation, and 29 pairs of prepubertal calf ovaries between 2 months and 9 years of age during routine management off-takes of complete family groups in private conservancies in Zimbabwe provided an opportunity for a detailed study of this period. Results The changing morphology of the ovary is described as the presumptive cortex and medulla components of the fetal ovary settled into their adult form. Interstitial tissue dominated the ovary in late fetal life and these cells stained strongly for 3β–hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. This staining continued postnatally through to 4.5 years of age suggesting continued secretion of progestagens by the ovary during this period. The considerable growth of antral follicles peaked at 28% of ovarian volume at around 16.7 months of fetal age. The numbers of small follicles (primordial, early primary and true primary, counted in the cortex using stereological protocols, revealed fewer small follicles in the ovaries of animals aged 0 to 4.5 years of age than during either late fetal life or prepubertal life. Conclusions The small follicle populations of the late-fetal and prepubertal ovaries of the African elephant were described along with the changing morphology of these organs. The changes noted represent a series of events that have been recorded only in the elephant and the giraffe species to date. The expansion of the interstitial tissue of the fetal ovary and its continued presence in early post natal life may well contribute to the control of follicle development in these early years. Further

  15. Sending Hidden Data via Google Suggest

    CERN Document Server

    Bialczak, Piotr; Szczypiorski, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    Google Suggest is a service incorporated within Google Web Search which was created to help user find the right search phrase by proposing the autocompleting popular phrases while typing. The paper presents a new network steganography method called StegSuggest which utilizes suggestions generated by Google Suggest as a hidden data carrier. The detailed description of the method's idea is backed up with the analysis of the network traffic generated by the Google Suggest to prove its feasibility. The traffic analysis was also performed to discover the occurrence of two TCP options: Window Scale and Timestamp which StegSuggest uses to operate. Estimation of method steganographic bandwidth proves that it is possible to insert 100 bits of steganogram into every suggestions list sent by Google Suggest service.

  16. Maleficent Reborn: Disney's Fairytale View of Gender Reaches Puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Fairy tales--indeed all tales--are told for a purpose. They are a form of social education, a form that some scholars argue is older than civilization itself. They imagine dilemmas and offer a range of permissible solutions, labeling socially acceptable and unacceptable behavior, demarcating good and evil, exploring existential questions, binding…

  17. Reinventing suggestion systems for continuous improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuring, R.W.; Luijten, Harald

    2001-01-01

    This article reports an experiment to increase the effectiveness of a suggestion system by deliberately applying principles of the kaizen and performance management. Design rules for suggestion systems are derived from these theories. The suggestion system that resulted differs from traditional

  18. Reinventing suggestion systems for continuous improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuring, Roel W.; Luijten, Harald

    2001-01-01

    This article reports an experiment to increase the effectiveness of a suggestion system by deliberately applying principles of the kaizen and performance management. Design rules for suggestion systems are derived from these theories. The suggestion system that resulted differs from traditional sugg

  19. Efficacy and Safety of Domestic Leuprorelin in Girls with Idiopathic Central Precocious Puberty: A Multicenter, Randomized, Parallel, Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jing Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In central precocious puberty (CPP, the pulse secretion and release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH are increased due to early activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, resulting in developmental abnormalities with gonadal development and appearance of secondary sexual characteristics. The CPP without organic disease is known as idiopathic CPP (ICPP. The objective of the study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of domestic leuprorelin (GnRH analog in girls with ICPP. Methods: A total of 236 girls with ICPP diagnosed from April 2012 to January 2014 were selected and were randomized into two groups. One hundred fifty-seven girls in the test group were treated with domestic leuprorelin acetate, 79 girls in the control group were treated with imported leuprorelin acetate. They all were treated and observed for 6 months. After 6-month treatment, the percentage of children with peak luteinizing hormone (LH ≤3.3 U/L, the percentage of children with peak LH/peak follicle stimulating hormone (FSH ratio 0.05. Conclusions: Domestic leuprorelin is effective and safe in the treatment of Chinese girls with ICPP. Its effectiveness and safety are comparable with imported leuprorelin.

  20. Stress during puberty boosts metabolic activation associated with fear-extinction learning in hippocampus, basal amygdala and cingulate cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Rodriguez, Maria; Pitiot, Alain; Paus, Tomáš; Sandi, Carmen

    2012-07-01

    Adolescence is characterized by major developmental changes that may render the individual vulnerable to stress and the development of psychopathologies in a sex-specific manner. Earlier we reported lower anxiety-like behavior and higher risk-taking and novelty seeking in rats previously exposed to peri-pubertal stress. Here we studied whether peri-pubertal stress affected the acquisition and extinction of fear memories and/or the associated functional engagement of various brain regions, as assessed with 2-deoxyglucose. We showed that while peri-pubertal stress reduced freezing during the acquisition of fear memories (training) in both sexes, it had a sex-specific effect on extinction of these memories. Moreover hippocampus, basal amygdala and cingulate and motor cortices showed higher metabolic rates during extinction in rats exposed to peri-pubertal stress. Interestingly, activation of the infralimbic cortex was negatively correlated with freezing during extinction only in control males, while only males stressed during puberty showed a significant correlation between behavior during extinction and metabolic activation of hippocampus, amygdala and paraventricular nucleus. No correlations between brain activation and behavior during extinction were observed in females (control or stress). These results indicate that exposure to peri-pubertal stress affects behavior and brain metabolism when the individual is exposed to an additional stressful challenge. Some of these effects are sex-specific.

  1. Delusional development in child autism at the onset of puberty: vicissitudes of psychic dimensionality between disintegration and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisagni, Francesco

    2012-06-01

    Although the psychogenetic hypotheses on child autism have been superseded, psychoanalysis can still reflect on the relational exchange and its sensory aspects in concomitance with the mental development of these patients. Without making generalizations as regards the pathogenesis, but considering the specific features of each autistic child, it may be possible to achieve an integration of those islands of competence that make up these patients' limited personal heritage. Such integration may be reached through the analysis of representational, emotional and relational transformations. The first part of this article describes the case of an autistic child in treatment from the age of four on a four-times-weekly basis who, during puberty, developed severe formal thought disorders together with delusional and hallucinatory formations. The second part develops some post-Jungian theoretical contributions, such as the concept of self as nothingness and the idea of the unsaturated archetype, so as to evaluate the function of some a-priori concepts in support of the analyst's position. These concepts are considered in relation to Bion's model of transformation, and to the formulations on dimensional awareness, especially on the shift from a two-dimensionality to three-dimensionality view, as well as to the rhythm of the object's presence and absence.

  2. Therapeutic and Ethical Dilemma of Puberty and Menstruation Problems in an Intellectually Disabled (Autistic) Female: a Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memarian, Azadeh; Mehrpisheh, Shahrokh

    2015-10-01

    Intellectual disability is a term used when a person has certain limitations in mental functioning and skills. Autism is a group of developmental brain disorders, collectively called autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Teenagers with learning and physical disabilities are more likely to have menstrual problems compared to the general populations. The parents of a 12-year-old girl with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability referred to the coroner due to her numerous problems of puberty (menstruation) including: poor hygiene and polluting herself and the environment, not allowing to put or change the pads and changes in mood and physical health prior period, requested for the surgery (hysterectomy). In legal medicine organization after reviewing the medical records, physical exams and medical consultations with a gynecologist and psychiatric, surgery was not accepted. Hysterectomy (surgery) due to the age of the child, either physically or morally is not recommended. The use of hormone replacement therapy has side effects such as osteoporosis. In these cases, it seems noninvasive methods (behavioral therapy and learning care skills) under the welfare experts is also more effective and morally.

  3. Physical activity and bone mineral accrual in boys with different body mass parameters during puberty: a longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donvina Vaitkeviciute

    Full Text Available The aim of our longitudinal study was to investigate the relationships between physical activity and bone mass in boys with different body mass status during the years surrounding pubertal growth spurt. Two hundred and six boys entering puberty took part in this study. The subjects were divided into underweight (BMI 26.02 groups at baseline according to age related categories. Whole-body DXA scans were performed at baseline, after 12 and 24 months to assess body composition (lean body mass, fat mass, and total body (TB, lumbar spine (LS and femoral neck (FN bone mineral density (BMD parameters. Physical activity was measured by 7-day accelerometry. For longitudinal analysis, multilevel fixed effects regression models were constructed. Biological age, height and lean body mass had an effect for explanation of TB BMD, FN BMD and LS BMD. Moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA, vigorous physical activity (VPA and sedentary time (SED had the significant effect only on FN BMD. Being an underweight boy at the baseline indicated greater chance (p<0.01 to have lower TB BMD in the future (2 years at follow up development, compared to normal weight (estimates = -0.038, overweight (estimates = -0.061 and obese boys (estimates = -0.106.

  4. Comparison of Changes in Body Composition during Puberty Development of Obese and Normal-weight Children in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JUN MA; NING FENG; SHI-WEI ZHANG; YONG-PING PAN; YONG-BO HUANG

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare the changes in body composition, including fat mass index (FMI) and fat free mass index (FFMI) during puberty development of obese and normal-weight children in China, and to explore the effect of age and gender on body composition. Methods A total of 356 children at the age of 7-15 years were enrolled in this study. Body composition of 10 normal-weight and obese children in each age group was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). FFMI and FMI were calculated according to the following formula: FFMI (kg·mT~(-2))= FFM(kg) / height~2 (m~2) and FMI (kg· m~2)= FM (kg) / height~2 (m~2). Results The fat mass and fat free mass of obese children were significantly higher than those of normal-weight children (P<0.05). The FMI and FFMI of obese children increased significantly with age and were higher than those of the same sex, gender, and age normal-weight children (P<0.05). Conclusion The levels of fat mass, fat free mass, FMI, and FFMI are different in obese and normal-weight children, and gender effects are significant in boys having higher levels of these indicators than in girls. FFMI and FMI can be used as monitoring indexes in weight control of obese children.

  5. Partial benefit of anastrozole in the long-term treatment of precocious puberty in McCune-Albright syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Cresio; Silva, Sheila Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    We report a long-term follow-up on the use of anastrozole in the treatment of peripheral precocious puberty (PP) in McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS). A girl, age 3 years and 9 months, was diagnosed with MAS due to PP, café-au-lait spots, and polyostotic fibrous dysplasia. Serum estradiol was elevated, and gonadotropins were suppressed. Pelvic ultrasound showed an enlarged uterus and a follicle cyst (13 mm) in the left ovary. Bone scintigraphy showed osteogenic lesions on the skull, humerus, tibia, and acetabulum. Bone age was 3 years and 5 months at the chronological age of 3 years. After 36 months of treatment with anastrozole (1 mg/day), there was suppression of breast growth, normalization of growth velocity and serum estradiol, and disappearance of ovarian cysts. However, there was increase in uterine volume, advancement of bone age, and two episodes of vaginal bleeding (18th and 24th months). This report shows the partial benefit of anastrozole in the treatment of peripheral PP of girls with MAS.

  6. Results of a Second Year of Therapy with the 12-Month Histrelin Implant for the Treatment of Central Precocious Puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shulman Dorothy

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Gonadotropin releasing hormone analogs (GnRHas are standard of care for central precocious puberty (CPP. The histrelin subcutaneous implant is safe and effective in the treatment of CPP for one year. Objective. The study evaluates a second year of therapy in children with CPP who received a new implant after one year of treatment. Methods. A prospective one-year study following an initial 12-month treatment period was conducted. Results. Thirty-one patients (29 girls aged years received a second implant. Eighteen were naïve to GnRHa therapy at first implantation. Peak LH declined from  mIU/mL at 12 months to  mIU/mL at 24 months ( mIU/mL at 12 months to  mIU/mL at 24 months ( in previously treated subjects. Predicted adult height increased by 5.1 cm at 24 months (. Minor implant site reactions occurred in 61%, while minor difficulties with explantation occurred in 32.2% of subjects. Conclusion. The histrelin implant demonstrates profound hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis suppression when a new implant is placed for a second year of treatment. Prospective follow-up of this therapeutic modality for the treatment of CPP is needed.

  7. Body image and depression in girls with idiopathic precocious puberty treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Min-Seon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Precocious puberty (PP) is associated with psychological and behavioral problems. This study aimed to evaluate the perception of body image and depression in girls with PP receiving gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue therapy. Methods From March to August 2013, 82 girls with PP receiving GnRH analogue therapy were enrolled. Height, weight, body mass index, and stages of pubertal development were assessed. Participants completed a series of questionnaires on their body image perception and pubertal self-assessment. The depression score was calculated using the Korean Kovacs' Children's Depression Inventory. Results The patients perceived their body to be more obese than the controls did. The mean depression score did not differ between the patients and controls. The mean depression scores according to Tanner stages (1: prepubertal, 2: early pubertal, and 3–5: mid to late pubertal stage) by self-assessment were 5.2±3.6, 6.8±4.9, and 11.4±10.1 (Pperception of overall body build and figure (%) and the mean depression scores in patients were: dissatisfied (25.6%, 9.7±7.8) and satisfied (74.4%, 5.5±3.4) (Pperception of pubertal status and satisfaction about height or weight are unrelated to objective physical findings. Patients with PP are prone to distorted perception about their body image and breast development. Such incorrect body image seems to contribute to depression score. PMID:27777908

  8. Age, gender and puberty influence the development of facial emotion recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, Kate; Campbell, Ruth; Skuse, David

    2015-01-01

    Our ability to differentiate between simple facial expressions of emotion develops between infancy and early adulthood, yet few studies have explored the developmental trajectory of emotion recognition using a single methodology across a wide age-range. We investigated the development of emotion recognition abilities through childhood and adolescence, testing the hypothesis that children’s ability to recognize simple emotions is modulated by chronological age, pubertal stage and gender. In or...

  9. The impact of gender and puberty on reference values for urinary growth hormone excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Jarden, M; Angelo, L

    1994-01-01

    , which allows direct measurement of U-GH in untreated urine specimens. We established a reference range for the geometric mean of 3 morning urine samples in 446 healthy children and 71 adults. U-GH could be determined in all but 9 of 1526 samples (99.4%). U-GH excretion was significantly dependent...... purposes. Our reference values may be useful for further studies of patients with GH disorders....

  10. 超声辅助检查在女童特发性真、假性性早熟鉴别诊断中的作用分析%Effect of ultrasonic auxiliary examination on the differential diagnosis of central precocious puberty and pseudo precocious puberty of girls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾理; 胡晶; 马继斌

    2014-01-01

    Objectives:To investigate the effect of ultrasonic auxiliary examination on the differential diagnosis of central precocious puberty and pseudo precocious puberty of girls.Methods:77 girls with sexual precocity were divided into two groups,44 cases in the central precocious puberty group,while 31 cases in the pseudo precocious puberty group. Another 30 healthy girls were selected as the control group.The uterine and ovarian ultrasound testing results of the three groups were recorded and compared.Results:The transverse diameters,vertical diameters and volumes of the uterine and the largest follicle diameter in the central precocious puberty group were significantly higher than those in the pseudo precocious puberty group and the control group (P 0.05).The transverse diameters,vertical diameters,antero-posterior diameters and volumes of the uterus in the central precocious puberty group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P <0.05).Conclusion:Ultrasonic auxiliary examination plays an important role in the differential diagnosis of central precocious puberty and pseudo precocious puberty of girls.%目的:探讨超声辅助检查在女童特发性真、假性性早熟鉴别诊断中的作用。方法:将75例性早熟女童按照真、假性性早熟分为真性组(n =44例)和假性组(n =31例),并选取健康女童30例作为对照组,比较三组女童的子宫和卵巢超声检查结果。结果:真性组卵巢横径、卵巢纵径、卵巢容积、最大卵泡直径均高于假性组和对照组,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05),假性组卵巢横径、卵巢纵径、卵巢容积、最大卵泡直径与对照组比较差异无统计学意义(P >0.05);真性组子宫纵径、子宫横径、子宫前后径、子宫容积均高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论:超声辅助检查在女童特发性真性、假性性早熟鉴别诊断中具有重要价值。

  11. Hypnotizability, not suggestion, influences false memory development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasse, Michelle N; Elkins, Gary R; Weaver, Charles A

    2015-01-01

    Hypnotizability influences the development of false memories. In Experiment 1, participants heard a positive or negative suggestion regarding hypnosis and then listened to 8 Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm lists in a hypnotic state. Neither hypnosis nor prehypnotic suggestion affected memory. Highly hypnotizable participants were more accurate in recall and recognition. In Experiment 2, suggestions were delivered in the form of feedback. Participants heard a positive or negative suggestion about their performance prior to either the encoding or retrieval of 8 DRM lists. Neither accurate nor false memories were affected by the suggestion. Highly hypnotizable individuals recognized fewer critical lures if they received a negative suggestion about their performance. These results highlight the unusual role of hypnotizability in the creation of false memories.

  12. Interrogative suggestibility and perceptual motor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, G H

    1984-04-01

    This study investigates the relationship between interrogative suggestibility, as measured by the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, and Arrow-Dot scores. The tendency of subjects (25 men and 25 women, mean age 30.2 yr.) to alter their answers once interpersonal pressure had been applied correlated significantly with poor Arrow-Dot Ego functioning.

  13. Query term suggestion in academic search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberne, S.; Sappelli, M.; Kraaij, W.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate query term suggestion in the context of academic professional search. Our overall goal is to support scientists in their information seeking tasks. We set up an interactive search system in which terms are extracted from clicked documents and suggested to the user before e

  14. Query term suggestion in academic search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberne, S.; Sappelli, M.; Kraaij, W.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate query term suggestion in the context of academic professional search. Our overall goal is to support scientists in their information seeking tasks. We set up an interactive search system in which terms are extracted from clicked documents and suggested to the user before

  15. Maltreated Children's Memory: Accuracy, Suggestibility, and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Mitchell L.; Goodman, Gail S.; Qin, Jianjian; Davis, Suzanne; Crayton, John

    2007-01-01

    Memory, suggestibility, stress arousal, and trauma-related psychopathology were examined in 328 3- to 16-year-olds involved in forensic investigations of abuse and neglect. Children's memory and suggestibility were assessed for a medical examination and venipuncture. Being older and scoring higher in cognitive functioning were related to fewer…

  16. Minnesota Pheasant Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This dataset delineates the spatial range of wild pheasant populations in Minnesota as of 2002 by dividing the MN state boundary into 2 units: pheasant range and...

  17. Towards optimal range medians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Gfeller, Beat; Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund

    2011-01-01

    that in the cell-probe model, any data structure which supports updates in O(logO(1)n) time must have Ω(log n/loglog n) query time. Our approach naturally generalizes to higher-dimensional range median problems, where element positions and query ranges are multidimensional - it reduces a range median query...... to a logarithmic number of range counting queries....

  18. Tau ranging revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tausworthe, R. C.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that a ranging receiver with a sufficient and reasonable number of correlators is competitive with the current sequential component ranging system by some 1.5 to 2.5 dB. The optimum transmitter code, the optimum receiver, and a near-maximum-lilelihood range-estimation algorithm are presented.

  19. Results of a Second Year of Therapy with the 12-Month Histrelin Implant for the Treatment of Central Precocious Puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar Rahhal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Gonadotropin releasing hormone analogs (GnRHas are standard of care for central precocious puberty (CPP. The histrelin subcutaneous implant is safe and effective in the treatment of CPP for one year. Objective. The study evaluates a second year of therapy in children with CPP who received a new implant after one year of treatment. Methods. A prospective one-year study following an initial 12-month treatment period was conducted. Results. Thirty-one patients (29 girls aged 7.7±1.5 years received a second implant. Eighteen were naïve to GnRHa therapy at first implantation. Peak LH declined from 0.92±0.58 mIU/mL at 12 months to 0.51±0.33 mIU/mL at 24 months (P < .0001 in naïve subjects, and from 0.74±0.50 mIU/mL at 12 months to 0.45±0.35 mIU/mL at 24 months (P=.0081 in previously treated subjects. Predicted adult height increased by 5.1 cm at 24 months (P=.0001. Minor implant site reactions occurred in 61%, while minor difficulties with explantation occurred in 32.2% of subjects. Conclusion. The histrelin implant demonstrates profound hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis suppression when a new implant is placed for a second year of treatment. Prospective follow-up of this therapeutic modality for the treatment of CPP is needed.

  20. Impact of puberty status and melengestrol acetate supplementation before the breeding period on reproductive efficiency of Bos indicus beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, J H; Santos, C S; Silva, M A V; Aguiar, H M V S B; França, I G; Pereira, H G; Ribeiro, D L; Chaves, R M; Souza, J A T; Monteiro, B M; Sá Filho, M F; Torres-Júnior, J R S

    2015-06-01

    Two experiments were designed to evaluate the impact of puberty status and the administration of melengestrol acetate (MGA) before onset of the breeding period on ovulatory responses (Exp. 1) and conception rate after AI performed on estrus detection during 10 d and the pregnancy rate through 80 d of breeding period (Exp. 2) of pasture-grazed beef heifers. In Exp. 1, heifers (15 pubertal and 15 prepubertal) received 0.5 mg per heifer/d -1 of MGA over 14 d. No differences in the ovulatory responses were found 10 d after the MGA administration (pubertal = 46.7% vs. prepubertal P = 53.3%; P = 0.72). In Exp. 2, 368 heifers were randomly assigned to groups according to pubertal status and the MGA treatment. All heifers were inseminated on estrus detection for up 10 d after MGA administration and following exposure to bulls between 20 and 80 d. The MGA-treated heifers exhibited a greater AI service rate than control heifers (72.1 vs. 41.6%;P breeding period (95.3 vs. 87.5%;P breeding period. At onset of the breeding period, pubertal heifers presented a greater pregnancy rate following AI (pubertal P = 42.2% vs. prepubertal P = 24.9%; P = 0.01). Therefore, pubertal heifers seem to have greater overall reproductive efficiency than prepubertal heifers, particularly at the beginning of the breeding period. Interestingly, administration of MGA before the onset of the breeding period increased AI service rate but did not alter the rate of pregnancy throughout the breeding period of pasture-grazed beef heifers.

  1. Maturation, proliferation and apoptosis of seminal tubule cells at puberty after administration of estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone or both

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renata Walczak-Jedrzejowska; Jolanta Slowikowska-Hilczer; Katarzyna Marchlewska; Krzysztof Kula

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To assess proliferative and apoptotic potential of the seminiferous epithelium cells in relation to Sertoli cell maturation in newborn rats under the influence of estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) or both agents given together. Methods: From postnatal day (PND) 5 to 15 male rats were daily injected with 12.5 μg of 17β-estradiol benzoate (EB) or 7.5 IU of human purified FSH (hFSH) or EB + hFSH or solvents (control). On postnatal day 16, autopsy was performed. Sertoli cell maturation/function was assessed by morphometry. Proliferation of the semini- ferous epithelium cells was quantitatively evaluated using immunohistochemical labeling against proliferating cell nuclear antigen and apoptosis using the TUNEL method. Results: Although EB inhibited Sertoli cell maturation and hFSH was not effective, a pronounced acceleration of Sertoli cell maturation occurred after EB + hFSH. Whereas hFSH stimulated Sertoli cell proliferation, EB or EB + hFSH inhibited Sertoli cell proliferation. All treatments signifi- cantly stimulated germ cell proliferation. Apoptosis of Sertoli cells increased 9-fold and germ cells 2-fold after EB, and was not affected by hFSH but was inhibited after EB + hFSH. Conclusion: At puberty, estradiol inhibits Sertoli cell maturation, increases Sertoli and germ cell apoptosis but stimulates germ cell proliferation. Estradiol in synergism with FSH, but neither of the hormones alone, accelerates Sertoli cell maturation associated with an increase in germ cell survival. Estradiol and FSH cooperate to induce seminal tubule maturation and trigger first spermatogenesis. (Asian J Androl 2008 Jul; 10: 585-592)

  2. Suggestions for Preview in Learning English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Na

    2015-01-01

    Among the factors which affect the efficiency of learning English, preview stands out as an increasingly significant one in English studying.Some constructive suggestions about the preview are given to apply in the preview of English.

  3. FDA Suggests Limits on Lead in Cosmetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162726.html FDA Suggests Limits on Lead in Cosmetics Agency notes ... the authority to enforce such a limit, the FDA recommended in a draft guidance issued Thursday that ...

  4. LSD enhances suggestibility in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, R L; Kaelen, M; Whalley, M G; Bolstridge, M; Feilding, A; Nutt, D J

    2015-02-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) has a history of use as a psychotherapeutic aid in the treatment of mood disorders and addiction, and it was also explored as an enhancer of mind control. The present study sought to test the effect of LSD on suggestibility in a modern research study. Ten healthy volunteers were administered with intravenous (i.v.) LSD (40-80 μg) in a within-subject placebo-controlled design. Suggestibility and cued mental imagery were assessed using the Creative Imagination Scale (CIS) and a mental imagery test (MIT). CIS and MIT items were split into two versions (A and B), balanced for 'efficacy' (i.e. A ≈ B) and counterbalanced across conditions (i.e. 50 % completed version 'A' under LSD). The MIT and CIS were issued 110 and 140 min, respectively, post-infusion, corresponding with the peak drug effects. Volunteers gave significantly higher ratings for the CIS (p = 0.018), but not the MIT (p = 0.11), after LSD than placebo. The magnitude of suggestibility enhancement under LSD was positively correlated with trait conscientiousness measured at baseline (p = 0.0005). These results imply that the influence of suggestion is enhanced by LSD. Enhanced suggestibility under LSD may have implications for its use as an adjunct to psychotherapy, where suggestibility plays a major role. That cued imagery was unaffected by LSD implies that suggestions must be of a sufficient duration and level of detail to be enhanced by the drug. The results also imply that individuals with high trait conscientiousness are especially sensitive to the suggestibility-enhancing effects of LSD.

  5. The functional anatomy of suggested limb paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeley, Quinton; Oakley, David A; Toone, Brian; Bell, Vaughan; Walsh, Eamonn; Marquand, Andre F; Giampietro, Vincent; Brammer, Michael J; Williams, Steven C R; Mehta, Mitul A; Halligan, Peter W

    2013-02-01

    Suggestions of limb paralysis in highly hypnotically suggestible subjects have been employed to successfully model conversion disorders, revealing similar patterns of brain activation associated with attempted movement of the affected limb. However, previous studies differ with regard to the executive regions involved during involuntary inhibition of the affected limb. This difference may have arisen as previous studies did not control for differences in hypnosis depth between conditions and/or include subjective measures to explore the experience of suggested paralysis. In the current study we employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the functional anatomy of left and right upper limb movements in eight healthy subjects selected for high hypnotic suggestibility during (i) hypnosis (NORMAL) and (ii) attempted movement following additional left upper limb paralysis suggestions (PARALYSIS). Contrast of left upper limb motor function during NORMAL relative to PARALYSIS conditions revealed greater activation of contralateral M1/S1 and ipsilateral cerebellum, consistent with the engagement of these regions in the completion of movements. By contrast, two significant observations were noted in PARALYSIS relative to NORMAL conditions. In conjunction with reports of attempts to move the paralysed limb, greater supplementary motor area (SMA) activation was observed, a finding consistent with the role of SMA in motor intention and planning. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, BA 24) was also significantly more active in PARALYSIS relative to NORMAL conditions - suggesting that ACC (BA 24) may be implicated in involuntary, as well as voluntary inhibition of prepotent motor responses.

  6. [Study of symptoms and structure of depressive mood in puberty using Kovacs' Child Depression Inventory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobert, W

    1990-01-01

    This study is based on the German Language version "GCDI" of the "CDI" according to Maria KOVACS used in investigations on random selection of normal school population between the 7th and 9th grades (n = 130). The pupils ages ranged between 13 and 15 years. A second group was also used, made up of children of approximately the same age (n = 145) from a clinic. Among this second group, 58 suffered from clinical depression. The comparison provided a clear separation between the depressive patients and the normal random participants--and the GCDI/CDI total value = 20 was decided to the optimal separation value. Comparisons with the Canadian group of school pupils (n = 850) agreed well with the above. Follow-up examinations on the randomly selection of normal school population resulted in the detection of a lasting condition of depressive mood for 7 per cent of the participants. It is apparent, that for the clarification for the structure of depressive mood not only are the simple total scores necessary--but also a factor analysis of the 27 items. Four factors were detected: 1) primarily affective disturbance, 2) motivation and cognition disturbances, 3) contact disturbances, 4) disturbances in school performances and behavior. Under consideration of the Fürntratt criterium, 25 of the 27 items in the GCDI could classified into the four factors and achieve a significant correlation. GCDI is useful for international comparative investigations. Clinical use is possible too.

  7. Relationships among Puberty, Muscle and Fat, and Liveweight Gain during Mating in Young Female Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales Nieto, C A; Ferguson, M B; Thompson, H; Briegel, J R; Macleay, C A; Martin, G B; Thompson, A N

    2015-08-01

    Greater depths of muscle are associated with better reproductive performance in ewe lambs, but, in adult ewes, reproductive performance also seems to vary with liveweight gain during the mating period. Therefore, in a large field study with Merino ewe lambs, we tested whether the relationships among eye muscle depth (EMD), fat depth (FAT) and reproductive performance depend on liveweight gain during the mating period. We selected lambs with a wide range in phenotypic values for depths of eye muscle (EMD) and fat (FAT) and assigned them to dietary treatments designed to achieve low (LOW, n = 244) or high (HIGH, n = 237) rates of liveweight gain during a 28-day mating period. The LOW treatment maintained live weight, whereas the HIGH treatment gained 179 ± 3.8 g/day (p increased with EMD (p FAT and EMD (p fat and muscle, will increase reproductive performance in ewe lambs mated at 8 months of age. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Impulsivity, self-control, and hypnotic suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, V U; Stelzel, C; Krutiak, H; Prunkl, C E; Steimke, R; Paschke, L M; Kathmann, N; Walter, H

    2013-06-01

    Hypnotic responding might be due to attenuated frontal lobe functioning after the hypnotic induction. Little is known about whether personality traits linked with frontal functioning are associated with responsiveness to hypnotic suggestions. We assessed whether hypnotic suggestibility is related to the traits of self-control and impulsivity in 154 participants who completed the Brief Self-Control Scale, the Self-Regulation Scale, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), and the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility (HGSHS:A). BIS-11 non-planning impulsivity correlated positively with HGSHS:A (Bonferroni-corrected). Furthermore, in the best model emerging from a stepwise multiple regression, both non-planning impulsivity and self-control positively predicted hypnotic suggestibility, and there was an interaction of BIS-11 motor impulsivity with gender. For men only, motor impulsivity tended to predict hypnotic suggestibility. Hypnotic suggestibility is associated with personality traits linked with frontal functioning, and hypnotic responding in men and women might differ. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chielo, Leonard Ikenna; Pike, Tom; Cooper, Jonathan

    2016-04-26

    under-utilized in commercial free-range flocks and suggest positive relationships between range use, feather condition and increased behavioural opportunities and decline in the use of range in cold and/or damp conditions.

  10. Age, puberty, body dissatisfaction, and physical activity decline in adolescents. Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (KiGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finne Emily

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity (PA shows a marked decline during adolescence. Some studies have pointed to pubertal status or timing as possible PA determinants in this age group. Furthermore, it was supposed that the impact of pubertal changes on PA might be mediated by psychological variables like body dissatisfaction (BDS. Methods The 11- to 17-year-old subsample of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (KiGGS was used (n = 6 813; 51.3% male, response rate = 66.6%. Through sex-specific sequential multinomial logistic regressions we analysed the univariate and independent associations of chronological age, absolute pubertal status, relative pubertal timing, and BDS with the frequency of PA. Results Chronological age showed a significantly negative association with PA in both sexes, independent of puberty. The odds of inactivity in contrast to nearly daily PA increased about 70% in boys and 35% in girls for each year of age, respectively. Adjusted for age and other possible confounders, inactivity was significantly less likely for boys in late pubertal stages (OR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.09-0.78. The risk of inactivity was more than doubled in boys maturing earlier than peers in terms of relative pubertal timing (OR = 2.20, 95% CI = 1.36-3.56. No clear significant puberty effects were found in girls, but the inactivity was more likely for those with irregular menstruation (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.06-2.75. BDS also contributed to the prediction of PA in both sexes. It partially mediated puberty effects in boys but not in girls. Conclusions Overall, chronological age was a far more important predictor of PA in German adolescents than absolute pubertal status or relative pubertal timing. Further possible explanatory variables like sociocultural influences, social support or increasing time requirements for education should be analysed in conjunction with chronological age in future studies.

  11. Heritability of regional and global brain structure at the onset of puberty: a magnetic resonance imaging study in 9-year-old twin pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peper, Jiska S; Schnack, Hugo G; Brouwer, Rachel M; Van Baal, G Caroline M; Pjetri, Eneda; Székely, Eszter; van Leeuwen, Marieke; van den Berg, Stéphanie M; Collins, D Louis; Evans, Alan C; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kahn, René S; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2009-07-01

    Puberty represents the phase of sexual maturity, signaling the change from childhood into adulthood. During childhood and adolescence, prominent changes take place in the brain. Recently, variation in frontal, temporal, and parietal areas was found to be under varying genetic control between 5 and 19 years of age. However, at the onset of puberty, the extent to which variation in brain structures is influenced by genetic factors (heritability) is not known. Moreover, whether a direct link between human pubertal development and brain structure exists has not been studied. Here, we studied the heritability of brain structures at 9 years of age in 107 monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs (N = 210 individuals) using volumetric MRI and voxel-based morphometry. Children showing the first signs of secondary sexual characteristics (N = 47 individuals) were compared with children without these signs, based on Tanner-stages. High heritabilities of intracranial, total brain, cerebellum, and gray and white matter volumes (up to 91%) were found. Regionally, the posterior fronto-occipital, corpus callosum, and superior longitudinal fascicles (up to 93%), and the amygdala, superior frontal and middle temporal cortices (up to 83%) were significantly heritable. The onset of secondary sexual characteristics of puberty was associated with decreased frontal and parietal gray matter densities. Thus, in 9-year-old children, global brain volumes, white matter density in fronto-occipital and superior longitudinal fascicles, and gray matter density of (pre-)frontal and temporal areas are highly heritable. Pubertal development may be directly involved in the decreases in gray matter areas that accompany the transition of our brains from childhood into adulthood.

  12. Expression of kisspeptin in hypothalamus and the relationship between kisspeptin and puberty%下丘脑Kisspeptin表达与青春期发育的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁海珍

    2010-01-01

    The priming of puberty is date from the increase of the secretion of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Recently,Kisspeptins/ GPR54 signaling were found critical to promote the secretion of GnRH and the onset of puberty. KISSI expresses in special area of hypothalamus and is regulated by sex steroids in the estrous cycle.Kisspeptins transitive steroid feedback signals to GnRH cells, especially the positive feedback signal which causes preovulatory GnRH / LH secretion. Kisspeptins bind KISS1R in the hypothalamic GnRH neurons and evoke the release of GnRH and the onset of puberty.%青春期启动始于下丘脑促性腺激素释放激素(GnRH)分泌的提高.Kisspeptin/G蛋白耦联受体(GPR 54或KISSIR)信号通路是最近发现能促进GnRH分泌和正常青春期启动的关键因素.KISS1表达定位于下丘脑的特定区域,在动情周期中受性激素调节,Kisspeptin传递性激素的反馈信号至GnRH细胞,特别是正反馈信号可以引起排卵前的GnRH/黄体生成素分泌.Kisspetin与位于下丘脑GnRH神经元上的受体KISS1R相互作用,导致GnRH脉冲性释放和青春期启动.

  13. Glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity and β-cell function in type A insulin resistance syndrome around puberty: a 9-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Z; Liu, J; Ma, L; Wan, X; He, X; Fang, D; Liao, Z; Li, Y

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is thought to be progressive. Insufficient insulin secretion in compensation for insulin resistance leads to glucose intolerance. A previously reported proband with type A insulin resistance syndrome and her younger twin brothers with and without the R1174W missense mutation in the insulin receptor gene were followed for 9 years to study the progression of glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and β-cell function around puberty. Five-hour OGTT was performed in them at each visit. Areas under the curves of glucose, insulin and C-peptides, insulinogenic index, AIR, and Homa indices were assessed. Intramyocellular lipids (IMCLs) were quantified in the proband and compared to those of 12 nondiabetic subjects, 118 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients. The proband maintained normal HbA1c (27-37 mmol/mol) and fasting plasma glucose (3.7-4.5 mmol/l), and her glucose tolerance ameliorated over years. The proband's Homa-IR decreased into adulthood, while her Homa-B, insulinogenic index, AIR, AUCs of insulin, and C-peptide decreased accordingly. Homa-B to Homa-IR ratios stayed significantly higher than normal. Homa-B, AUCs of insulin, and C-peptide of the twin brothers increased in response to the increment of Homa-IR as they entered middle and late puberty. The changes were more dramatic in the twin brothers carrying the mutation. IMCLs of the proband were lower than those of the nondiabetic counterparts and were disproportional for the degree of insulin resistance. Our longitudinal data of type A insulin resistance syndrome around puberty provide significant information for the study of insulin secretion in compensation for insulin resistance.

  14. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2011-01-01

    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. – We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...... to a new problem, which we call substring range reporting. Hence, we unify the previous work by showing that we may restrict our attention to a single problem rather than studying each of the above problems individually. – We show how to solve substring range reporting with optimal query time and little...... range reporting are based on a novel combination of suffix trees and range reporting data structures. The reductions are simple and general and may apply to other combinations of string indexing with range reporting....

  15. Central Makran Range, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    A spectacular view of the Makran Range of Pakistan (27.0N, 65.5E) looking north with the Arabian Sea and the city of Karachi in the foreground. In the center, the Indian sub-continent moving slowly north into the Asian continent has caused the folded sedimentary Makran Range to bend from east-west to north-south as well as the uplift forming The Great Himalaya Range and the high Tibetan Plateau to the north.

  16. Suggestions for Structuring a Research Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, James D.; Reiser, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers often experience difficulty as they attempt to prepare journal articles that describe their work. The purpose of this article is to provide researchers in the field of education with a series of suggestions as to how to clearly structure each section of a research manuscript that they intend to submit for publication in a scholarly…

  17. Three Suggestions to Improve Medical English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄佳丽

    2012-01-01

    As a kind of ESP,medical English teaching has an important impact on both English teachers and medical students.A good medical English teaching can help the medical students to improve themselves smoothly and easily in the medical area.In this article,three suggestions were provided for the medical English teachers to improve their English teaching in medical field.

  18. Integrating Composition and Literature: Some Practical Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daiker, Donald A.

    This paper suggests that it is possible to construct a course that integrates the teaching of composition with the teaching of literature without allowing the secondary goal of heightened literary understanding to overwhelm the primary goal of improved expository writing. It presents a syllabus for a four-week unit on Ernest Hemingway's "The Sun…

  19. Suggestions on Training MTI Translators and Interpreters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐岩

    2013-01-01

    This article gives a brief review of the current state of training MTI translators and interpreters.After analyzing the problems that exist in course of the training,the author,as a student of MTI,puts forth some suggestions to improve the MTI training in colleges and universities to train practical translators and interpreters from the point of view of learning.

  20. Cable Television Report and Suggested Ordinance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    League of California Cities, Sacramento.

    Guidelines and suggested ordinances for cable television regulation by local governments are comprehensively discussed in this report. The emphasis is placed on franchising the cable operator. Seventeen legal aspects of franchising are reviewed, and an exemplary ordinance is presented. In addition, current statistics about cable franchising in…

  1. BJUT at TREC 2015 Contextual Suggestion Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-20

    of Technology, Beijing 100124, China 2. Beijing Key Laboratory of Trusted Computing, Beijing 100124, China 3. National Engineering Laboratory for...CTISCP, Beijing 100124, China ⇤yangzhen@bjut.edu.cn Abstract In this paper we described our efforts for TREC contextual suggestion task. Our goal of this

  2. Leadership Theories--Managing Practices, Challenges, Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    A shortage of community college executives due to the number of retirements occurring among current leaders is predicted. An examination of three leadership theories--servant-leadership, business leadership and transformational leadership--suggests techniques for potential community college leaders. Servant-leaders focus on the needs of their…

  3. Physics Courses--Some Suggested Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swetman, T. P.

    1972-01-01

    To communicate the relevance and excitement of science activity to students, the use of more imaginative, and even openly speculative, case studies in physics courses is suggested. Some useful examples are Magnetic Monopoles, Constants, Black Holes, Antimatter, Zero Mass Particles, Tachyons, and the Bootstrap Hypothesis. (DF)

  4. Overview of the SBS 2016 Suggestion Track

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koolen, Marijn; Bogers, Toine; Jaap, Kamps

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the SBS 2016 Suggestion Track is to evaluate approaches for supporting users in searching collections of books who express their information needs both in a query and through example books. The track investigates the complex nature of relevance in book search and the role of traditional...

  5. Studies and Suggestions on Prewriting Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shigao; Dai, Weiping

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies and suggests the need for writing instruction by which students can experience writing as a creative process in exploring and communicating meaning. The prewriting activities generate ideas which can encourage a free flow of thoughts and help students discover both what they want to say and how to say it on paper. Through the…

  6. Qualitative Research Articles: Guidelines, Suggestions and Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescentini, Alberto; Mainardi, Giuditta

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to give ideas and suggestions to avoid some typical problems of qualitative articles. The aim is not to debate quality in qualitative research but to indicate some practical solutions. Design/methodology/approach: The paper discusses the design of qualitative research and the structure of a qualitative article…

  7. Teaching Software Engineering: Problems and Suggestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Shata

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Teaching Software Engineering is a challenging task. This paper presents some problems encountered during teaching the course of software engineering to computer science and computer engineering students for few offerings. We present problems encountered and which are related to its title and contents and present suggested solutions.

  8. Baculovirus Host-Range

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suzanne M. Thiem; Xiao-Wen Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Baculoviruses are used as microbial insecticides, protein expression vectors, epitope display platforms, and most recently as vectors for gene therapy. Understanding the mechanisms that control baculovirus host-range and tissue tropisms are important for assessing their safety and for improving their properties for these biotechnology applications. In the past two decades some progress has been made and several baculovirus genes that influence host-range have been identified. Despite this progress, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms that restrict baculovirus host-range is still limited. Here we review what is currently known about baculovirus genes that influence virus host-range.

  9. Compact Antenna Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facility consists of a folded compact antenna range including a computer controlled three axis position table, parabolic reflector and RF sources for the measurement...

  10. Laser Range Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.C. Bahuguna

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design aspects of laser range finders and proximity sensors being developed at IRDE for different applications. The principle used in most of the laser range finders is pulse echo or time-of-flight measurement. Optical triangulation is used in proximity sensors while techniques like phase detection and interferometry are employed in instruments for surveying and motion controllers where high accuracy is desired. Most of the laser range finders are designed for ranging non-cooperative targets.

  11. Dryden Aeronautical Test Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Recently redesignated to honor Dr. Hugh L. Dryden, NASA's Dryden Aeronautical Test Range (DATR) supports aerospace flight research and technology integration, space...

  12. Compact Antenna Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facility consists of a folded compact antenna range including a computer controlled three axis position table, parabolic reflector and RF sources for the measurement...

  13. Home range analysis using a mechanistic home range model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moorcroft, P.R. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology); Lewis, M.A. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Mathematics) Crabtree, R.L. (Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Fish and Wildlife Resources)

    1999-07-01

    The traditional models used to characterize animal home ranges have no mechanistic basis underlying their descriptions of space use, and as a result, the analysis of animal home ranges has primarily been a descriptive endeavor. In this paper, the authors characterize coyote (Canis latrans) home range patterns using partial differential equations for expected space use that are formally derived from underlying descriptions of individual movement behavior. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first time that mechanistic models have been used to characterize animal home ranges. The results provide empirical support for a model formulation of movement response to scent marks, and suggest that having relocation data for individuals in adjacent groups is necessary to capture the spatial arrangement of home range boundaries. The authors then show how the model fits can be used to obtain predictions for individual movement and scent marking behavior and to predict changes in home range patterns. More generally, the findings illustrate how mechanistic models permit the development of a predictive theory for the relationship between movement behavior and animal spatial distribution.

  14. Simple nonlinear models suggest variable star universality

    CERN Document Server

    Lindner, John F; Kia, Behnam; Hippke, Michael; Learned, John G; Ditto, William L

    2015-01-01

    Dramatically improved data from observatories like the CoRoT and Kepler spacecraft have recently facilitated nonlinear time series analysis and phenomenological modeling of variable stars, including the search for strange (aka fractal) or chaotic dynamics. We recently argued [Lindner et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114 (2015) 054101] that the Kepler data includes "golden" stars, whose luminosities vary quasiperiodically with two frequencies nearly in the golden ratio, and whose secondary frequencies exhibit power-law scaling with exponent near -1.5, suggesting strange nonchaotic dynamics and singular spectra. Here we use a series of phenomenological models to make plausible the connection between golden stars and fractal spectra. We thereby suggest that at least some features of variable star dynamics reflect universal nonlinear phenomena common to even simple systems.

  15. Cajal's brief experimentation with hypnotic suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanidou, Maria; Solà, Carme; Kouvelas, Elias; del Cerro, Manuel; Triarhou, Lazaros C

    2007-01-01

    Spanish histologist Santiago Ramón y Cajal, one of the most notable figures in Neuroscience, and winner, along with Camillo Golgi, of the 1906 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discoveries on the structure of the nervous system, did not escape experimenting with some of the psychiatric techniques available at the time, mainly hypnotic suggestion, albeit briefly. While a physician in his thirties, Cajal published a short article under the title, "Pains of labour considerably attenuated by hypnotic suggestion" in Gaceta Médica Catalana. That study may be Cajal's only documented case in the field of experimental psychology. We here provide an English translation of the original Spanish text, placing it historically within Cajal's involvement with some of the key scientific and philosophical issues at the time.

  16. On Range of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre

    2008-01-01

    size (and doubly exponential in its depth). We also provide techniques that yield concrete bounds for unbalanced game trees and apply these to estimate the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe and Heads-Up Limit Texas Hold'em Poker. In particular, we show that the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe is more than...

  17. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2011-01-01

    to a new problem, which we call substring range reporting. Hence, we unify the previous work by showing that we may restrict our attention to a single problem rather than studying each of the above problems individually. – We show how to solve substring range reporting with optimal query time and little...

  18. Range Selection and Median

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2011-01-01

    Range selection is the problem of preprocessing an input array A of n unique integers, such that given a query (i; j; k), one can report the k'th smallest integer in the subarray A[i];A[i+1]; : : : ;A[j]. In this paper we consider static data structures in the word-RAM for range selection and sev...

  19. [Suggestions to improve dentist-endodontist collaboration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabalegui, B; Zabalegui, I; Flores, L

    1989-01-01

    Referrals from the general dentist to the endodontist are in some occasions complicated with lack of proper communication among dentist-patient-specialist, resulting in the loss of confidence or even the patient. Suggestions to improve this communication are discussed, which will provide the patient a higher confidence in the indicated endodontic treatment and a better dental service. It will also enhance the prestige of the general dentists' and specialists' practice.

  20. Pyridoxine dependent epilepsy: a suggestive electroclinical pattern

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    AIMS—To determine if there is an electroencephalographic pattern suggestive of pyridoxine dependent epilepsy that could be used to improve the chances of early diagnosis.
METHODS—A retrospective study was made of all the clinical records and electroencephalograms of neonates identified with pyridoxine dependent seizures between 1983 and 1994, at this hospital. Neonates whose seizures began after more than 28 days of life were excluded; in all, five patients from four fami...

  1. Suggestions for Improving Translation Teaching Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋蕾

    2016-01-01

    In the traditional translation teaching mode, the teacher is the main body of classroom, the teachers often explain too much and give few opportunities to students to practice. Even in terms of observation and evaluation of translation, it is also basically teacher-centered, so there is rare opportunity and time for students to debate and to express their own views. So the author gives some suggestions on solving this problem.

  2. Home range and travels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.

    1968-01-01

    The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels

  3. Increased intake of carbohydrates from sources with a higher glycemic index and lower consumption of whole grains during puberty are prospectively associated with higher IL-6 concentrations in younger adulthood among healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goletzke, Janina; Buyken, Anette E; Joslowski, Gesa; Bolzenius, Katja; Remer, Thomas; Carstensen, Maren; Egert, Sarah; Nöthlings, Ute; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Roden, Michael; Herder, Christian

    2014-10-01

    Chronic low-grade inflammation represents a likely intermediary in the relation between carbohydrate nutrition and both type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This study assessed the prospective association between carbohydrate quantity and quality [dietary glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), and added sugar, fiber, and whole-grain intake] during puberty, a potentially critical period for later disease, and low-grade inflammation in younger adulthood. The analysis was based on 205 participants (113 girls and 92 boys) from the DONALD (Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed) study with at least 2 3-d weighed dietary records during puberty (girls: 9-14 y, boys: 10-15 y) and blood samples in younger adulthood (18-36 y). Multivariable linear regression models were used to analyze the associations between carbohydrate nutrition and circulating concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory immune mediators [high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin (IL) 6, IL-18, and adiponectin]. A higher intake of carbohydrates during puberty (P-trend = 0.005), particularly from higher-GI food sources (P-trend = 0.01), was prospectively related to higher concentrations of IL-6 in younger adulthood, independently of baseline BMI and early life, socioeconomic, and other nutritional factors. Furthermore, a higher dietary GL (P-trend = 0.002) and a lower intake of whole grains (P-trend = 0.01) were independently associated with higher IL-6 concentrations in adults. Dietary GI and added sugar and fiber intakes were not independently associated with IL-6 (P-trend ≥ 0.09). Carbohydrate nutrition during puberty was not independently related to hs-CRP, IL-18, and adiponectin concentrations (all P-trend > 0.1). During puberty, a higher intake of carbohydrates from higher-GI food sources and lower whole-grain consumption prospectively predict greater IL-6 concentrations in young adulthood. These data support the hypothesis that diet during

  4. Efficacy and Safety of Domestic Leuprorelin in Girls with Idiopathic Central Precocious Puberty: A Multicenter,Randomized, Parallel, Controlled Trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Jing Li; Chun-Xiu Gong; Mei-Jie Guo; Jie Xing; Tang Li; Wen-Hui Song; Xiao-Ping Luo

    2015-01-01

    Background:In central precocious puberty (CPP),the pulse secretion and release ofgonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) are increased due to early activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis,resulting in developmental abnormalities with gonadal development and appearance of secondary sexual characteristics.The CPP without organic disease is known as idiopathic CPP (ICPP).The objective of the study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of domestic leuprorelin (GnRH analog) in girls with ICPP.Methods:A total of 236 girls with ICPP diagnosed from April 2012 to January 2014 were selected and were randomized into two groups.One hundred fifty-seven girls in the test group were treated with domestic leuprorelin acetate,79 girls in the control group were treated with imported leuprorelin acetate.They all were treated and observed for 6 months.After 6-month treatment,the percentage of children with peak luteinizing hormone (LH) ≤3.3 U/L,the percentage of children with peak LH/peak follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) ratio <0.6,the improvements of secondary sexual characteristics,gonadal development and sex hormone levels,the change of growth rate of bone age (BA) and growth velocity,and drug adverse effects between two groups were compared.Results:After the treatment,the percentage of children with a suppressed LH response to GnRH,defined as a peak LH ≤3.3 U/L,at 6 months in test and control groups were 96.80% and 96.20%,respectively,and the percentage of children with peak LH/FSH ratio ≤0.6 at 6 months in test and control groups were 93.60% and 93.70%,respectively.The sizes of breast,uterus and ovary of children and the levels of estradiol (E2) were significantly reduced,and the growth rate of BA was also reduced.All the differences between pre-and post-treatment in each group were statistically significant (P < 0.05),but the differences of the parameters between two groups were not significant (P > 0.05).Conclusions

  5. Factor structure of suggestibility revisited: new evidence for direct and indirect suggestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald Polczyk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Yielding to suggestions can be viewed as a relatively stable individual trait, called suggestibility. It has been long proposed that there are two kinds of suggestible influence, and two kinds of suggestibility corresponding to them: direct and indirect. Direct suggestion involves overt unhidden influence, while indirect suggestion concerns influence that is hidden, and the participant does not know that the suggestibility is being measured. So far however, empirical evidence for the existence of the two factors has been scarce. In the present study, more sophisticated and reliable tools for measuring suggestibility were applied than in the previous research, in the hope that better measurement would reveal the factor structure of suggestibility. Two tests of direct suggestibility were used: the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A, measuring hypnotic susceptibility, and the Barber Suggestibility Scale, measuring non-hypnotic direct imaginative suggestibility. Three tests served to measure indirect suggestibility: the Sensory Suggestibility Scale, measuring indirect suggestibility relating to perception; the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, measuring the tendency to yield to suggestive questions and changing answers after negative feedback; and the Emotional Dialogs Tests, measuring the tendency to perceive nonexistent aggression. Participants and procedure In sum, 115 participants were tested, 69 women, 49 men, mean age 22.20 years, SD = 2.20. Participants were tested in two sessions, lasting for a total of four hours. Results Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the existence of two uncorrelated factors of suggestibility: direct and indirect. Conclusions Suggestibility may indeed involve two factors, direct and indirect, and failure to discover them in previous research may be due to methodological problems.

  6. Didactic Experiments Suggest Enhanced Learning Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pals Svendsen, Lisbet

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses a didactic experiment carried out at an MA programme at The Copenhagen Business School. The experiment aimed at encouraging students to take charge of their learning processes via a course programme design that would motivate students to take an active part in choosing...... and presenting material in the language studied, just as they were encouraged to systematically use evaluation processes to enhance learning outcomes. Eventually, increased grade point averages suggested that the experiment was successful. The article also mentions subsequent revisions to the original format...

  7. Suggestions about Taxi Service in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖

    2006-01-01

    @@ No matter what kinds1 of work we are engaged in, we usually play the role of the customers2 in life. Maybe we offer service to our clients, but at the same time, we get service from other people. So, to the society3, it is very important of the level of the service occupations4. In this essay, I want to talk about the service of the taxi in Beijing5. Because there are some problems in this service occupation, I will give three suggestions to these problems6.

  8. Suggestions for Implementing Flipped Classroom in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周婷

    2016-01-01

    Educators in the twenty-first century are constantly adopting new technologies and pedagogies. Flipped Classroom Model is one of the most promising approaches to transforming learning experiences, which has been applied to both K-12 edu-cation and higher education at home and abroad. Influenced by culture and learning styles, the effectiveness and concrete imple-mentation strategies of this teaching model is different in different countries. How to localize the model in China is an important question for educators to think about. The paper makes suggestions for implementing Flipped Classroom in China, aiming at helping teachers to flip their classrooms successfully.

  9. Responding to hypnotic and nonhypnotic suggestions: performance standards, imaginative suggestibility, and response expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Eric C; Lynn, Steven Jay

    2011-07-01

    This study examined the relative impact of hypnotic inductions and several other variables on hypnotic and nonhypnotic responsiveness to imaginative suggestions. The authors examined how imaginative suggestibility, response expectancies, motivation to respond to suggestions, and hypnotist-induced performance standards affected participants' responses to both hypnotic and nonhypnotic suggestions and their suggestion-related experiences. Suggestions were administered to 5 groups of participants using a test-retest design: (a) stringent performance standards; (b) lenient performance standards; (c) hypnosis test-retest; (d) no-hypnosis test-retest; and (e) no-hypnosis/hypnosis control. The authors found no support for the influence of a hypnotic induction or performance standards on responding to suggestions but found considerable support for the role of imaginative suggestibility and response expectancies in predicting responses to both hypnotic and nonhypnotic suggestions.

  10. Are Galaxy Clusters Suggesting an Accelerating Universe?

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, J A S; Cunha, J V; 10.1063/1.3462638

    2010-01-01

    The present cosmic accelerating stage is discussed through a new kinematic method based on the Sunyaev- Zel'dovich effect (SZE) and X-ray surface brightness data from galaxy clusters. By using the SZE/X-ray data from 38 galaxy clusters in the redshift range $0.14 \\leq z \\leq 0.89 $ [Bonamente et al., Astrop. J. {\\bf 647}, 25 (2006)] it is found that the present Universe is accelerating and that the transition from an earlier decelerating to a late time accelerating regime is relatively recent. The ability of the ongoing Planck satellite mission to obtain tighter constraints on the expansion history through SZE/X-ray angular diameters is also discussed. Our results are fully independent on the validity of any metric gravity theory, the possible matter- energy contents filling the Universe, as well as on the SNe Ia Hubble diagram from which the presenting accelerating stage was inferred.

  11. Enhancing business intelligence by means of suggestive reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Atika; Raj, Ram Gopal; Tahir, Muhammad; Cambria, Erik; Syed, Karim Bux Shah

    2014-01-01

    Appropriate identification and classification of online reviews to satisfy the needs of current and potential users pose a critical challenge for the business environment. This paper focuses on a specific kind of reviews: the suggestive type. Suggestions have a significant influence on both consumers' choices and designers' understanding and, hence, they are key for tasks such as brand positioning and social media marketing. The proposed approach consists of three main steps: (1) classify comparative and suggestive sentences; (2) categorize suggestive sentences into different types, either explicit or implicit locutions; (3) perform sentiment analysis on the classified reviews. A range of supervised machine learning approaches and feature sets are evaluated to tackle the problem of suggestive opinion mining. Experimental results for all three tasks are obtained on a dataset of mobile phone reviews and demonstrate that extending a bag-of-words representation with suggestive and comparative patterns is ideal for distinguishing suggestive sentences. In particular, it is observed that classifying suggestive sentences into implicit and explicit locutions works best when using a mixed sequential rule feature representation. Sentiment analysis achieves maximum performance when employing additional preprocessing in the form of negation handling and target masking, combined with sentiment lexicons.

  12. Enhancing Business Intelligence by Means of Suggestive Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Atika

    2014-01-01

    Appropriate identification and classification of online reviews to satisfy the needs of current and potential users pose a critical challenge for the business environment. This paper focuses on a specific kind of reviews: the suggestive type. Suggestions have a significant influence on both consumers' choices and designers' understanding and, hence, they are key for tasks such as brand positioning and social media marketing. The proposed approach consists of three main steps: (1) classify comparative and suggestive sentences; (2) categorize suggestive sentences into different types, either explicit or implicit locutions; (3) perform sentiment analysis on the classified reviews. A range of supervised machine learning approaches and feature sets are evaluated to tackle the problem of suggestive opinion mining. Experimental results for all three tasks are obtained on a dataset of mobile phone reviews and demonstrate that extending a bag-of-words representation with suggestive and comparative patterns is ideal for distinguishing suggestive sentences. In particular, it is observed that classifying suggestive sentences into implicit and explicit locutions works best when using a mixed sequential rule feature representation. Sentiment analysis achieves maximum performance when employing additional preprocessing in the form of negation handling and target masking, combined with sentiment lexicons. PMID:25054188

  13. Enhancing Business Intelligence by Means of Suggestive Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atika Qazi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate identification and classification of online reviews to satisfy the needs of current and potential users pose a critical challenge for the business environment. This paper focuses on a specific kind of reviews: the suggestive type. Suggestions have a significant influence on both consumers’ choices and designers’ understanding and, hence, they are key for tasks such as brand positioning and social media marketing. The proposed approach consists of three main steps: (1 classify comparative and suggestive sentences; (2 categorize suggestive sentences into different types, either explicit or implicit locutions; (3 perform sentiment analysis on the classified reviews. A range of supervised machine learning approaches and feature sets are evaluated to tackle the problem of suggestive opinion mining. Experimental results for all three tasks are obtained on a dataset of mobile phone reviews and demonstrate that extending a bag-of-words representation with suggestive and comparative patterns is ideal for distinguishing suggestive sentences. In particular, it is observed that classifying suggestive sentences into implicit and explicit locutions works best when using a mixed sequential rule feature representation. Sentiment analysis achieves maximum performance when employing additional preprocessing in the form of negation handling and target masking, combined with sentiment lexicons.

  14. Dinosaur Peptides Suggest Mechanisms of Protein Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Antonio, James D.; Schweitzer, Mary H.; Jensen, Shane T.; Kalluri, Raghu; Buckley, Michael; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O. (Harvard-Med); (IIT); (NCSU); (UPENN); (Manchester); (Orthovita)

    2011-09-16

    Eleven collagen peptide sequences recovered from chemical extracts of dinosaur bones were mapped onto molecular models of the vertebrate collagen fibril derived from extant taxa. The dinosaur peptides localized to fibril regions protected by the close packing of collagen molecules, and contained few acidic amino acids. Four peptides mapped to collagen regions crucial for cell-collagen interactions and tissue development. Dinosaur peptides were not represented in more exposed parts of the collagen fibril or regions mediating intermolecular cross-linking. Thus functionally significant regions of collagen fibrils that are physically shielded within the fibril may be preferentially preserved in fossils. These results show empirically that structure-function relationships at the molecular level could contribute to selective preservation in fossilized vertebrate remains across geological time, suggest a 'preservation motif', and bolster current concepts linking collagen structure to biological function. This non-random distribution supports the hypothesis that the peptides are produced by the extinct organisms and suggests a chemical mechanism for survival.

  15. Atlantic Test Range (ATR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — ATR controls fully-instrumented and integrated test ranges that provide full-service support for cradle-to-grave testing. Airspace and surface target areas are used...

  16. Light Detection And Ranging

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) discrete-return point cloud data are available in the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS) LAS format....

  17. Range_Extent_15

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The GIS layer "Range_extent_15" is a simple polyline representing the geographic distribution of the southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) in mainland...

  18. On Range of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre

    2008-01-01

    is a small number, but only gave heuristic arguments for this. In this paper, we provide the first methods for rigorously estimating the Range of Skill of a given game. We provide some general, asymptotic bounds that imply that the Range of Skill of a perfectly balanced game tree is almost exponential in its...... size (and doubly exponential in its depth). We also provide techniques that yield concrete bounds for unbalanced game trees and apply these to estimate the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe and Heads-Up Limit Texas Hold'em Poker. In particular, we show that the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe is more than...

  19. Correlation radio range finder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sorochan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In work widely known methods of range measuring are short characterized. The basic attention is given features of signal processing in a correlation method of range measuring. The signal with angular modulation with one-voice-frequency fluctuation is used as a probing signal. The absence of Doppler effect on the formation of the correlation integral, the frequency instability of the transmitter, the phase change on reflection from the target is presented. It is noticed that the result of signal processing in the range measuring instrument is reduced to formation on an exit one-voice-frequency harmonious fluctuation equal to modulating frequency that provides high characteristics of a radio range finder.

  20. Antenna Pattern Range (APR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — TheAntenna Pattern Range (APR)features a non-metallic arch with a trolley to move the transmit antenna from the horizon to zenith. At the center of the ground plane,...

  1. Light Detection And Ranging

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) discrete-return point cloud data are available in the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS) LAS format....

  2. Substring Range Reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2011-01-01

    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. {itemize} We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems to a new problem, which we call \\emph{substring range reporting}. Hence, we unify the previous work by showing that we may restrict our attention to a single problem rather than studying each of...

  3. Substring Range Reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2011-01-01

    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. {itemize} We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems to a new problem, which we call \\emph{substring range reporting}. Hence, we unify the previous work by showing that we may restrict our attention to a single problem rather than studying each of...

  4. Chest magnetic resonance imaging: a protocol suggestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Hochhegger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the recent years, with the development of ultrafast sequences, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has been established as a valuable diagnostic modality in body imaging. Because of improvements in speed and image quality, MRI is now ready for routine clinical use also in the study of pulmonary diseases. The main advantage of MRI of the lungs is its unique combination of morphological and functional assessment in a single imaging session. In this article, the authors review most technical aspects and suggest a protocol for performing chest MRI. The authors also describe the three major clinical indications for MRI of the lungs: staging of lung tumors; evaluation of pulmonary vascular diseases; and investigation of pulmonary abnormalities in patients who should not be exposed to radiation.

  5. Chest magnetic resonance imaging: a protocol suggestion*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochhegger, Bruno; de Souza, Vinícius Valério Silveira; Marchiori, Edson; Irion, Klaus Loureiro; Souza Jr., Arthur Soares; Elias Junior, Jorge; Rodrigues, Rosana Souza; Barreto, Miriam Menna; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Mançano, Alexandre Dias; Araujo Neto, César Augusto; Guimarães, Marcos Duarte; Nin, Carlos Schuler; Santos, Marcel Koenigkam; Silva, Jorge Luiz Pereira e

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, with the development of ultrafast sequences, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been established as a valuable diagnostic modality in body imaging. Because of improvements in speed and image quality, MRI is now ready for routine clinical use also in the study of pulmonary diseases. The main advantage of MRI of the lungs is its unique combination of morphological and functional assessment in a single imaging session. In this article, the authors review most technical aspects and suggest a protocol for performing chest MRI. The authors also describe the three major clinical indications for MRI of the lungs: staging of lung tumors; evaluation of pulmonary vascular diseases; and investigation of pulmonary abnormalities in patients who should not be exposed to radiation. PMID:26811555

  6. TEACHING READING:PROBLEMS AND SUGGESTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    IntroductionAmong the four skills,reading has been viewed as the most basic and useful skill for Chinese learners ofEnglish.Many college students will.after leaving their English class,come into contact largely(andsometimes solely)with the written form of the language.Therefore the instruction of reading has becomevery important in English teaching Although great developments have been made both in the linguisticand pragmatic fields of reading analysis.teaching Chinese students the specific skills of reading inEnglish is still a tough problem.Many English teachers have become more and more aware of theChinese students difficulties and more and more aware of how inefficient the traditional approach is inthe design of teaching materials and leaching methods.As a result,this paper is an attempt to analysesome current theoretical achievements and suggest a revised method for teaching Chinese students.

  7. Extant mammal body masses suggest punctuated equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Tiina M; Bokma, Folmer

    2008-01-01

    Is gradual microevolutionary change within species simultaneously the source of macroevolutionary differentiation between species? Since its first publication, Darwin's original idea that phenotypic differences between species develop gradually over time, as the accumulation of small selection-induced changes in successive generations has been challenged by palaeontologists claiming that, instead, new species quickly acquire their phenotypes to remain virtually unchanged until going extinct again. This controversy, widely known as the ‘punctuated equilibrium’ debate, remained unresolved, largely owing to the difficulty of distinguishing biological species from fossil remains. We analysed body masses of 2143 existing mammal species on a phylogeny comprising 4510 (i.e. nearly all) extant species to estimate rates of gradual (anagenetic) and speciational (cladogenetic) evolution. Our Bayesian estimates from mammals as well as separate sub-clades such as primates and carnivores suggest that gradual evolution is responsible for only a small part of body size variation between mammal species. PMID:18595835

  8. Boys and Puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nav nav, .header-9#header-section #main-nav, #overlay-menu nav, #mobile-menu, #one-page-nav li . ... How to Care for Your Child’s TeethRead Article >>Dental Hygiene: How to Care for Your Child’s TeethSeptember ...

  9. Girls and Puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nav nav, .header-9#header-section #main-nav, #overlay-menu nav, #mobile-menu, #one-page-nav li . ... How to Care for Your Child’s TeethRead Article >>Dental Hygiene: How to Care for Your Child’s TeethSeptember ...

  10. Understanding Puberty (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... his arms and in the beard area. His penis and testes will get larger, and erections, which a boy begins experiencing as an infant, ... become infertile, go blind, or develop new emotional problems. A small number of kids and teens with ...

  11. Understanding Puberty (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... voice is a sign that his voice is changing and will become deeper. Dark, coarse, curly hair ...

  12. Range Information Propagation Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈向荣; 朱志刚; 等

    1998-01-01

    A novel method of model-based object recognition is presented in this paper.Its novelty stems from the fact that the gray level image captured by a camera is merged with sparse range information in an active manner.By using a projective transform, which is determined by the sparse range data,festures(e.g.edge points)related to a single planar surface patch of figure in the scene can be assignew with their corresponding range values respectively.As a result,the shape of the very planar patch or figure can be recovered and various kinds of description in the Euclidean space can be calculated.Based on these descriptions values,the hypothesis about the identification of the object and its pose in space can be obtained with a high probability of success,and a high efficiency of hypothesis-verification process can be expected.Another advantage of this method is that the edge detection process can be navigated to the proper location hinted by the sparse range image.In consequence edge features can be extracted even in the regions with low contrast.In this paper the principle of range information propagation transform(RIPT)is explained,and some implementation issues,such as the algorithms using calibrated or uncalibrated gray level image for object recognition,are discussed.The preliminary experimental results are presented to indicate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.

  13. Range Selection and Median

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2011-01-01

    and several natural special cases thereof. The rst special case is known as range median, which arises when k is xed to b(j 􀀀 i + 1)=2c. The second case, denoted prex selection, arises when i is xed to 0. Finally, we also consider the bounded rank prex selection problem and the xed rank range......Range selection is the problem of preprocessing an input array A of n unique integers, such that given a query (i; j; k), one can report the k'th smallest integer in the subarray A[i];A[i+1]; : : : ;A[j]. In this paper we consider static data structures in the word-RAM for range selection...... selection problem. In the former, data structures must support prex selection queries under the assumption that k for some value n given at construction time, while in the latter, data structures must support range selection queries where k is xed beforehand for all queries. We prove cell probe lower bounds...

  14. Leishmania major: Parasite Interactions Suggesting Sexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa Maria Auxiliadora de

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In five experiments, Leishmania (Leishmania major (MRHO/SU/59/P-strain grew poorly when seeded in FYTS medium supplemented with 15% fetal calf serum, but presented several peculiar pairs of promastigotes diametrically opposed and attached at their posterior ends (5.8-13.5%. As seen in Giemsa-stained smears, a ring-like line and/or an enlargement, generally occurred at the parasite junction. A close proximity of nuclei, which sometimes were difficult to distinguish from each other, was also observed at this junction. Several of these pairs appeared to be composed of fused cells in which the nuclei could be apparently fused, as shown by fluorescence microscopy to detect ß-tubulin and DNA, and by scanning electron microscopy. Under other culture conditions these pairs were absent or occurred at very low rates (0.2-2.2%. Such pairs differ markedly from longitudinally dividing cells and resemble those described in two other Leishmania species, as well as in Herpetomonas megaseliae and Phytomonas davidi, suggesting steps of a putative sexual process

  15. PROBLEMS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR OFFICE FURNITURE MANUFACTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevdet Söğütlü

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the problems encountered in production lines for office furniture manufacturers and gives suggestions to the problems. For this response, a questionnaire was designed and conducted with directors or owners of 50 office furniture manufacturers of small, medium and large scale size enterprises which were randomly selected from different cities. The questionnaire aims to focus on identifying the fundamental obstacles for production, marketing, sales and law. The data from questionnaire was calculated with frequency numbers and percentages for statistical values. In respect to the scope of dependent variables for the study, relationships between the independent variables such as the size of the company scale and Chi Square Single Analysis of Variance (ANOVA were determined. According to the results, 52% of customers constitute owners. The biggest obstacle is the lack of qualified personnel in office furniture production while 46% of customers complain about pour designs. As a result, the study concludes with specific obstacles for logistics (30%, distributions (18%, unpaid bills after delivery (28%, and unconscious of the consumer (24% in the office furniture sector.

  16. Pattern Genes Suggest Functional Connectivity of Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yangmei; Pan, Jianbo; Cai, Meichun; Yao, Lixia; Ji, Zhiliang

    2016-05-01

    Human organ, as the basic structural and functional unit in human body, is made of a large community of different cell types that organically bound together. Each organ usually exerts highly specified physiological function; while several related organs work smartly together to perform complicated body functions. In this study, we present a computational effort to understand the roles of genes in building functional connection between organs. More specifically, we mined multiple transcriptome datasets sampled from 36 human organs and tissues, and quantitatively identified 3,149 genes whose expressions showed consensus modularly patterns: specific to one organ/tissue, selectively expressed in several functionally related tissues and ubiquitously expressed. These pattern genes imply intrinsic connections between organs. According to the expression abundance of the 766 selective genes, we consistently cluster the 36 human organs/tissues into seven functional groups: adipose & gland, brain, muscle, immune, metabolism, mucoid and nerve conduction. The organs and tissues in each group either work together to form organ systems or coordinate to perform particular body functions. The particular roles of specific genes and selective genes suggest that they could not only be used to mechanistically explore organ functions, but also be designed for selective biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

  17. Tag Correspondence Model for User Tag Suggestion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂存超; 刘知远; 孙茂松

    2015-01-01

    Some microblog services encourage users to annotate themselves with multiple tags, indicating their attributes and interests. User tags play an important role for personalized recommendation and information retrieval. In order to better understand the semantics of user tags, we propose Tag Correspondence Model (TCM) to identify complex correspondences of tags from the rich context of microblog users. The correspondence of a tag is referred to as a unique element in the context which is semantically correlated with this tag. In TCM, we divide the context of a microblog user into various sources (such as short messages, user profile, and neighbors). With a collection of users with annotated tags, TCM can automatically learn the correspondences of user tags from multiple sources. With the learned correspondences, we are able to interpret implicit semantics of tags. Moreover, for the users who have not annotated any tags, TCM can suggest tags according to users’ context information. Extensive experiments on a real-world dataset demonstrate that our method can effciently identify correspondences of tags, which may eventually represent semantic meanings of tags.

  18. [Evidence that suggest the reality of reincarnation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Ernesto

    2015-06-01

    Worldwide, children can be found who reported that they have memories of a previous life. More than 2,500 cases have been studied and their specifications have been published and preserved in the archives of the Division of Perceptual Studies at the University of Virginia (United States). Many of those children come from countries where the majority of the inhabitants believe in reincarnation, but others come from countries with different cultures and religions that reject it. In many cases, the revelations of the children have been verified and have corresponded to a particular individual, already dead. A good number of these children have marks and birth defects corresponding to wounds on the body of his previous personality. Many have behaviors related to their claims to their former life: phobias, philias, and attachments. Others seem to recognize people and places of his supposed previous life, and some of their assertions have been made under controlled conditions. The hypothesis of reincarnation is controversial. We can never say that it does not occur, or will obtain conclusive evidence that it happens. The cases that have been described so far, isolated or combined, do not provide irrefutable proof of reincarnation, but they supply evidence that suggest its reality.

  19. Suggested use of vaccines in diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jothydev Kesavadev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes has emerged as a disease of major public health importance in India affecting the rich and the poor alike. Conventionally, comprehensive diabetes management is aimed at preventing micro and macro vascular complications. However, morbidity and mortality due to infections are also significant. In developing countries like India, the concept of adult immunization is far from reality. Recently the H1N1 pandemic has triggered the necessity for considering immunization in all age groups for the prevention of vaccine-preventable fatal infectious diseases. Considering the economics of immunization in a developing country, providing free vaccines to all adults may not be a practical solution, although the free universal immunization program for children is in existence for several decades. There is no consensus on the use of vaccines in diabetes subjects in India. However, there are some clinics offering routine pneumococcal, influenza and other vaccinations. Patients with diabetes have a deranged immune system making them more prone for infections. Hospitalization and death due to pneumococcal disease and influenza are higher in diabetes patients. They, like other healthy individuals, have a normal humoral response to vaccination with clinically significant benefits. The American Diabetes Association, Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, World Health Organization, United Kingdom Guidelines and a number of other scientific organizations have well defined guidelines for vaccination in diabetes. In this article we make some suggestions for clinicians in India, regarding use of vaccines in subjects with diabetes.

  20. Reconfigurable laser ranging instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiter, John

    1994-03-01

    This paper describes the design and operation of a fast, flexible, non-contact, eye-safe laser ranging instrument useful in a variety of industrial metrology situations, such as in-process machining control and part inspection. The system has variable computer-controlled standoff and depth of field, and can obtain 3-D images of surfaces within a range of from 1.5 ft to almost 10 ft from the final optical element. The minimum depth of field is about 3.5 in. at 1.5 ft and about 26 in. at the far range. The largest depth of field for which useful data are available is about 41 in. Resolution, with appropriate averaging, is about one part in 4000 of the depth of field, which implies a best case resolution for this prototype of 0.00075 in. System flexibility is achieved by computer controlled relative positioning of optical components.