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Sample records for pubertal obese subjects

  1. Update on statural growth and pubertal development in obese children

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    Chiara De Leonibus

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is a growing and alarming problem, associated with several short-term and long-term metabolic and cardiovascular complications. In addition, it has also been suggested that excess adiposity during childhood influences growth and pubertal development. Several studies have shown that during pre-pubertal years, obese patients present higher growth velocity and that this pre-pubertal advantage tends to gradually decrease during puberty, leading to similar final heights between obese and non-obese children. Excess body weight might also influence pubertal onset, leading to earlier timing of puberty in girls. In addition, obese girls are at increased risk of hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovary syndrome. In boys, a clear evidence does not exist: some studies suggesting an earlier puberty associated with the obesity status, whereas other have found a delayed pubertal onset. Overall, the existing evidence of an association between obesity and modification of growth and pubertal patterns underlines a further reason for fighting the epidemics of childhood obesity.

  2. Insulin resistance in obese pre-pubertal children: Relation to body composition

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    Heba Elsedfy

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Dysglycaemia and dyslipidaemia are common among pre-pubertal obese children. Insulin sensitivity indices based on OGTT are superior to fasting indices in identifying at risk children. OGTT should be included in assessing obese children with BMI > 2 SDS. DXA scanning has limited value for this purpose in clinical settings.

  3. Subjective Age in Early Adolescence: Relationships with Chronological Age, Pubertal Timing, Desired Age, and Problem Behaviors

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    Hubley, Anita M.; Arim, Rubab G.

    2012-01-01

    Subjective age generally refers to the age that one feels. In a cross-sectional questionnaire study of 245 adolescents ages 10-14 years, we examined (a) whether, and when, a cross-over in subjective age occurs, (b) differences in subjective age among pubertal timing groups, (c) correlations between subjective age and each of desired age and five…

  4. Impact of Pubertal Development and Physical Activity on Heart Rate Variability in Overweight and Obese Children in Taiwan

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    Chen, Su-Ru; Chiu, Hung-Wen; Lee, Yann-Jinn; Sheen, Tzong-Chi; Jeng, Chii

    2012-01-01

    Child obesity is frequently associated with dysfunction of autonomic nervous system. Children in pubertal development were suggested to be vulnerable to autonomic nervous system problems such as decrease of heart rate variability from dysregulation of metabolic control. This study explored the influence of pubertal development on autonomic nervous…

  5. Impact of Pubertal Development and Physical Activity on Heart Rate Variability in Overweight and Obese Children in Taiwan

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    Chen, Su-Ru; Chiu, Hung-Wen; Lee, Yann-Jinn; Sheen, Tzong-Chi; Jeng, Chii

    2012-01-01

    Child obesity is frequently associated with dysfunction of autonomic nervous system. Children in pubertal development were suggested to be vulnerable to autonomic nervous system problems such as decrease of heart rate variability from dysregulation of metabolic control. This study explored the influence of pubertal development on autonomic nervous…

  6. Body trunk fat and insulin resistance in post-pubertal obese adolescents

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    Luana Caroline dos Santos

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Insulin resistance is a metabolic disorder commonly associated with excess body fat accumulation that may increase chronic disease risk. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between body composition and insulin resistance among obese adolescents. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study, at the Adolescence Center, Pediatric Department, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. METHODS: Body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Dietary intake was evaluated using a three-day dietary record. The biochemical evaluation comprised glucose, insulin, serum lipid, leptin and ghrelin measurements. Insulin resistance was calculated by means of the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. RESULTS: Forty-nine post-pubertal obese adolescents participated in the study: 12 boys and 37 girls of mean age 16.6 (1.4 years and mean body mass index (BMI of 35.0 (3.9 kg/m². The mean glucose, insulin and HOMA values were 90.3 (6.4 mg/dl, 16.6 (8.1 µIU/ml and 3.7 (1.9, respectively. Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance were observed in 40.2% and 57.1% of the subjects, respectively. Adolescents with insulin resistance had higher BMI and body trunk fat. There was a trend towards higher leptin concentration in obese individuals with insulin resistance. Insulin resistance was positively correlated with body trunk fat, BMI, body fat mass (kg, leptin and body fat percentage. Furthermore, there was a negative correlation between HOMA-IR and lean body mass. The body composition predicted 30% of the HOMA-IR levels, according to linear regression models. CONCLUSION: Body trunk fat was significantly associated with insulin resistance, demonstrating the clinical importance of abdominal obesity during adolescence.

  7. Pubertal timing and adult obesity and cardiometabolic risk in women and men: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Prentice, P; Viner, R M

    2013-08-01

    Obesity has complex multifactorial aetiology. It has been suggested by many, but not all, reports that earlier pubertal maturation may increase adult obesity risk. We conducted a systemic review and meta-analysis in both women and men, and hypothesised that any association between pubertal timing and adult obesity is likely to be confounded by childhood adiposity. In addition, we investigated whether pubertal timing is related to other cardiometabolic risk and long-term cardiovascular morbidity/mortality. Literature search was undertaken using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Knowledge and TRIP databases, with a hand search of references. Both authors independently reviewed and extracted pre-defined data from all selected papers. Meta-analyses were conducted using Review Manager (RevMan) 5.0.24. A total of 48 papers were identified. Out of 34 studies, 30 reported an inverse relationship between pubertal timing and adult body mass index (BMI), the main adiposity measure used. Meta-analysis of 10 cohorts showed association between early menarche (menarche metabolic syndrome (MetS) and abnormal glycaemia. Earlier pubertal timing is predictive of higher adult BMI and greater risk of obesity. This effect appears to be partially independent of childhood BMI. Earlier pubertal development appears to also be inversely correlated with risk of other cardiometabolic risk factors and cardiovascular mortality. Further work is needed to examine potential mechanisms and the level at which interventions may be targeted.

  8. Evolution of fat oxidation during exercise in obese pubertal boys: clinical implications.

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    Zunquin, Gautier; Theunynck, Denis; Sesboue, Bruno; Arhan, Pierre; Bougle, Dominique

    2009-02-15

    In this study, we examined fat oxidation rates during exercise in obese pubescent boys. Three groups of pubescent boys (16 pre-pubescent, Tanner's stage I; 16 pubescent, Tanner's stage III; and 14 post-pubescent, Tanner's stage V) performed a graded test on a leg cycle ergometer. The first step of the test was fixed at 30 W and power was gradually increased by 20 W every 3.5 min. Oxygen consumption (VO(2)) and carbon dioxide production (VCO(2)) were determined as the means of measurements during the last 30 s of each step, which allowed us to calculate fat oxidation rates versus exercise intensity. Between 20 and 50% of peak oxygen consumption (VO(2peak)), fat oxidation rate in relative values (mg . min(-1) . kg FFM(-1)) decreased continuously with pubertal development. In the same way, the maximum rate of fat oxidation occurred at a lower percentage of VO(2peak) (pre-pubescent: 49.47 +/- 1.62%; pubescent: 47.43 +/- 1.26%; post-pubescent: 45.00 +/- 0.97%). Our results confirm that puberty is responsible for a decrease in fat free mass capacities to use fat during exercise. The results suggest that post-pubescent obese boys need to practise physical activity at a lower intensity than pre-pubescent boys to enhance lipolysis and diminish adipose tissue and the consequences of obesity.

  9. Deleterious effects of obesity on physical fitness in pre-pubertal children.

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    Ceschia, Arianna; Giacomini, Stefano; Santarossa, Simone; Rugo, Miriam; Salvadego, Desy; Da Ponte, Alessandro; Driussi, Caterina; Mihaleje, Martina; Poser, Stefano; Lazzer, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in children has increased dramatically during the past decades in Europe and understanding physical fitness and its components in children is critical to design and implement effective interventions. The objective of the present study was to analyse the association between physical fitness (aerobic, speed, agility, power, flexibility and balance) and body mass index (BMI) in pre-pubertal children. A total of 2411 healthy schoolchildren (7-11 years) participated in this study. Anthropometric characteristics and body composition were assessed by skinfold thickness. Physical fitness was measured by nine physical fitness tests: endurance running, 20 m running speed, agility, handgrip strength, standing long jump and squat jump, sit and reach, medicine ball forward throw and static balance. No relevant differences were observed between boys and girls regarding anthropometric characteristics, body composition and physical fitness. However, overweight and obese children showed significantly lower physical fitness levels in endurance running, speed and agility (mean: +18.8, +5.5 and +14.5% of time to complete tasks, respectively), lower limb power normalised to body mass (-23.3%) and balance tests (number of falls: +165.5%) than their normal weight counterparts. On the other hand, obesity did not affect handgrip, throwing and flexibility. In conclusion, increased BMI was associated with lower performance capabilities limiting proper motor skill development, which directly affects the ability of children to take on sports skills. Actions undertaken to promote children's wellness and fitness should be prioritised and introduced early in life with the aim of enhancing physical fitness as well as preventing overweight and obesity.

  10. Insulin resistance in obese pre-pubertal children: Relation to body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heba Elsedfy

    2014-04-16

    Apr 16, 2014 ... sensitivity indices and investigate its relationship with abdominal fat distribution by Dual energy ... associated with negative metabolic predictors in pubertal ..... metabolic determinants of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in.

  11. Excessive Refined Carbohydrates and Scarce Micronutrients Intakes Increase Inflammatory Mediators and Insulin Resistance in Prepubertal and Pubertal Obese Children Independently of Obesity

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    Mardia López-Alarcón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Low-grade inflammation is the link between obesity and insulin resistance. Because physiologic insulin resistance occurs at puberty, obese pubertal children are at higher risk for insulin resistance. Excessive diets in refined carbohydrates and saturated fats are risk factors for insulin resistance, but calcium, magnesium, vitamin-D, and the omega-3 fatty acids likely protect against inflammation and insulin resistance. Objective. To analyze interactions among dietary saturated fat, refined carbohydrates, calcium, magnesium, vitamin D, and omega-3 fatty acids on the risk of inflammation and insulin resistance in a sample of prepubertal and pubertal children. Methods. A sample of 229 children from Mexico City was analyzed in a cross-sectional design. Anthropometric measurements, 24 h recall questionnaires, and blood samples were obtained. Serum insulin, glucose, calcium, magnesium, 25-OHD3, C-reactive protein, leptin, adiponectin, and erythrocytes fatty acids were measured. Parametric and nonparametric statistics were used for analysis. Results. While mean macronutrients intake was excessive, micronutrients intake was deficient (P<0.01. Inflammation determinants were central obesity and magnesium-deficient diets. Determinants of insulin resistance were carbohydrates intake and circulating magnesium and adiponectin. Conclusions. Magnesium-deficient diets are determinants of inflammation, while high intake of refined carbohydrates is a risk factor for insulin resistance, independently of central adiposity.

  12. Nutrition and pubertal development

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    Ashraf Soliman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition is one of the most important factors affecting pubertal development. Puberty entails a progressive nonlinear process starting from prepubescent to full sexual maturity through the interaction and cooperation of biological, physical, and psychological changes. Consuming an adequate and balanced healthy diet during all phases of growth (infancy, childhood and puberty appears necessary both for proper growth and normal pubertal development. Girls begin puberty at an earlier age compared to past decades. Excessive eating of many processed, high-fat foods, may be the cause of this phenomenon. Overweight or obese children are more likely to enter puberty early. Some evidence suggests that obesity can accelerate the onset of puberty in girls and may delay the onset of puberty in boys. Moreover, the progression of puberty is affected by nutrition. On the other hand, puberty triggers a growth spurt, which increases nutritional needs including macro and micronutrients. Increased caloric, protein, iron, calcium, zinc and folate needs have to be provided during this critical period of rapid growth. Severe primary or secondary malnutrition also can delay the onset and progression of puberty. The higher incidence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia in adolescents imposes a nutritional risk on pubertal development. Moreover, many environmental endocrine disruptors (EDs have been identified that can significantly impair the normal course of puberty. This mini-review sums up some important findings in this important complex that link nutrition and pubertal development.

  13. Dietary management for older subjects with obesity.

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    Chernoff, Ronni

    2005-11-01

    In recent years, obesity has been recognized as a form of malnutrition in older adults and a continuing risk factor for serious health problems. Weight reduction in older adults is not as reliable a recommendation as it is for younger adults; a decreased body mass index (BMI) seems to be associated with a higher incidence of stroke, and a normal or slightly elevated BMI has been linked to greater reserve capacity. Weight loss in older adults requires strategies that consider health status, functional ability, and rational targets. Strategies may include behavior modification, dietary alterations, exercise or physical activity, and reasonable goals that do not put the individual at nutritional risk. Studies that examine different approaches to weight reduction rarely include older subjects, so it is difficult to make judgments about various interventions (surgery, exercise, drugs, or diet) and their efficacy in this population. Fad diets may be lacking in essential nutrients and may prove to be risky for elderly people. Weight loss programs for older adults should focus on maintaining adequate intake of essential nutrients while reducing calories by controlling dietary fat intake.

  14. Reduced adipose tissue lymphatic drainage of macromolecules in obese subjects

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    Arngrim, N; Simonsen, L; Holst, Jens Juul

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate subcutaneous adipose tissue lymphatic drainage (ATLD) of macromolecules in lean and obese subjects and, furthermore, to evaluate whether ATLD may change in parallel with adipose tissue blood flow. Lean and obese male subjects were studied before and after ...... online publication, 3 July 2012; doi:10.1038/ijo.2012.98....

  15. Similar incretin secretion in obese and non-obese Japanese subjects with type 2 diabetes

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    Kozawa, Junji; Okita, Kohei; Imagawa, Akihisa;

    2010-01-01

    Incretin secretion and effect on insulin secretion are not fully understood in patients with type 2 diabetes. We investigated incretin and insulin secretion after meal intake in obese and non-obese Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes compared to non-diabetic subjects. Nine patients with type 2...... diabetes and 5 non-diabetic subjects were recruited for this study. Five diabetic patients were obese (BMI > or = 25) and 4 patients were non-obese (BMI obese patients were...... significantly lower than those in obese patients. Total GLP-1 and active GIP levels showed no significant difference between obese and non-obese patients throughout the meal tolerance test. In addition, there were no significant differences between diabetic patients and non-diabetic subjects. In conclusion...

  16. Factors affecting impairment of blood rheology in obese subjects.

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    Hitsumoto, Takashi

    2012-11-01

    Impairment of blood rheology has been reported to be associated with cardiovascular diseases. Recently, visible micro channel methods [micro channel array flow analyzer (MC-FAN)] have been developed to clinically evaluate blood rheology. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to clarify the factors important for impairment of blood rheology in obese subjects using MC-FAN. One hundred and fifty-nine obese subjects and 100 non-obese subjects with no history of cardiovascular diseases were enrolled. Blood passage time (BPT) was measured using MC-FAN and relationships between BPT and various clinical parameters were examined. BPT was significantly higher in obese subjects than in non-obese subjects (obesity vs. non-obesity: 62.8 ± 17.9s vs. 54.1 ± 14.6s, prheology, which is evaluated by MC-FAN, than the degree of adiposity in obese subjects. Copyright © 2012 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Obesity and growth during childhood and puberty.

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    Marcovecchio, M Loredana; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Growth during childhood and adolescence occurs at different rates and is influenced by the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Nutritional status plays an important role in regulating growth, and excess body weight early in life can influence growth patterns. Childhood obesity is a growing and alarming problem, associated with several short-term and long-term metabolic and cardiovascular complications. In addition, there is evidence suggesting that excess adiposity during childhood influences growth patterns and pubertal development. Several studies have shown that during prepubertal years obese children have higher height velocity and accelerated bone age compared to lean subjects. However, this prepubertal advantage in growth tends to gradually decrease during puberty, when obese children show a reduced growth spurt compared with lean subjects. Growth hormone (GH) secretion in obese children is reduced, therefore suggesting that increased growth is GH independent. Factors which have been implicated in the accelerated growth in obese children include increased leptin and insulin levels, adrenal androgens, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, IGF-binding protein-1 and GH-binding proteins. Excess body weight during childhood can also influence pubertal development, through an effect on timing of pubertal onset and levels of pubertal hormonal levels. There is clear evidence indicating that obesity leads to early appearance of pubertal signs in girls. In addition, obese girls are also at increased risk of hyperandrogenism. In boys, excess adiposity has been associated with advanced puberty in some studies, whereas others have reported a delay in pubertal onset. The existing evidence on the association between childhood and adolescence obesity underlines a further reason for fighting the epidemics of childhood obesity; that is preventing abnormal growth and pubertal patterns.

  18. Adipokines and biochemical changes in Egyptian obese subjects: possible variation with sex and degree of obesity.

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    El-Haggar, Sahar Mohamed; Mostafa, Tarek Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was firstly to evaluate the adipokines and biochemical changes in obese subjects in relation to different grades of obesity and in relation to gender difference (males versus females) and secondly to evaluate the role of TNF-α in obesity. From January 2013 to February 2014, a total number of 120 non-diabetic subjects of both sexes were recruited and randomly selected from Dr. Abd-Elhamid Elsheikh center for physiotherapy and weight control, El-menofia-Egypt. Those subjects were classified according to their sex into two main groups; the female group and the male group. The female group (60 women) was distributed according to BMI into group 1 (15 lean women), group 2 (15 class I obese women), group 3 (15 class II obese women), and group 4 (15 class III obese women). The male group (60 men) was also distributed according to the BMI into group 1 (15 lean men), group 2 (15 class I obese men), group 3 (15 class II obese men), and group 4 (15 class III obese men). All individuals enrolled in the study were submitted to weight and height measurements with subsequent calculation of body mass index. Fasting blood samples were collected from all participants for quantitative determination of blood glucose, serum lipid, TNF-α, leptin, and adiponectin levels. One-way analysis of variance followed by LSD post hoc test was used for comparison of variables. In obese subjects of both sexes, it was found that circulating leptin and TNF-α levels were significantly high (Pgender difference, although serum leptin and adiponectin levels were higher in women than men, men showed higher atherogenic parameters. We conclude that leptin, TNF-α, and adiponectin were related to both BMI and grades of obesity. Furthermore, TNF-α may play a role in obesity.

  19. Relationship between serum resistin concentrations and insulin resistance in nonobese, obese, and obese diabetic subjects.

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    Heilbronn, L K; Rood, J; Janderova, L; Albu, J B; Kelley, D E; Ravussin, E; Smith, S R

    2004-04-01

    Early reports suggested that resistin is associated with obesity and insulin resistance in rodents. However, subsequent studies have not supported these findings. To our knowledge, the present study is the first assessment in human subjects of serum resistin and insulin sensitivity by the insulin clamp technique. Thirty-eight nonobese subjects [age, 23 +/- 4 yr; body mass index (BMI), 25.4 +/- 4.3 kg/m(2)], 12 obese subjects (age, 54 +/- 8 yr; BMI, 33.0 +/- 2.5 kg/m(2)), and 22 obese subjects with type 2 diabetes (age, 59 +/- 7 yr; BMI, 34.0 +/- 2.4 kg/m(2)) were studied. Serum resistin concentrations were not different among nonobese (4.1 +/- 1.7 ng/ml), obese (4.2 +/- 1.6 ng/ml), and obese diabetic subjects (3.7 +/- 1.2 ng/ml), and were not significantly correlated to glucose disposal rate during a hyperinsulinemic glucose clamp across groups. Serum resistin was, however, inversely related to insulin sensitivity in nonobese subjects only (r = -0.35; P = 0.05), although this association was lost after adjusting for percent body fat. Serum resistin was not related to percent fat, BMI, or fat cell size. A strong correlation was observed between serum resistin and resistin mRNA expression from abdominal sc adipose tissue in a separate group of obese subjects (r = 0.62; P < 0.01; n = 56). Although the exact function of resistin is unknown, we demonstrated only a weak relationship between resistin and insulin sensitivity in nonobese subjects, indicating that resistin is unlikely to be a major link between obesity and insulin resistance in humans.

  20. Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Endotoxemia in Young Obese Mexican Subjects

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    Romina Belén Radilla-Vázquez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The gut microbiota plays an important role in human metabolism; previous studies suggest that the imbalance can cause a metabolic endotoxemia that may be linked to weight gain and insulin resistance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the gut microbiota composition, the lipopolysaccharide levels and the metabolic profile in obese and normal-weight young subjects. Methods: We studied 32 obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 and 32 normal-weight subjects (BMI = 18.5-24.9 kg/m2, aged 18-25 years. Quantification of intestinal bacteria was performed by real-time PCR. Endotoxin units were determined with the test QCL-1000, and biochemical profile was performed under a standard protocol of Spinreact. Results: Obese individuals had a BMI of 34.5 (32.9-36.45 kg/m2, increased triglycerides (123 vs. 70 mg/dl, total cholesterol (168 vs. 142 mg/dl, and LDL-cholesterol (114 vs. 96.5 mg/dl. In obese subjects body temperature was higher than in normal-weight subjects. We found a greater number of Clostridum leptum and Lactobacillus (p Prevotella and Escherichia coli (p E. coli was associated with an increased risk of lipopolysaccharide levels ranging from 1 to 1.3 EU/ml. A positive correlation was found between serum lipopolysaccharides and BMI (r = 0.46, p = 0.008, triglyceride levels (r = 0.44, p = 0.011 as well as waist circumference (r = 0.34, p = 0.040, being more evident in young obese females. Conclusion: Subclinical metabolic endotoxemia determined by serum concentration of lipopolysaccharides was related to the smallest amount of E. coli, high triglyceride levels, and central adiposity in obese young persons.

  1. Autonomic Blockade Improves Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Subjects

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    Gamboa, Alfredo; Okamoto, Luis E.; Arnold, Amy C.; Figueroa, Rocio A.; Diedrich, André; Raj, Satish R.; Paranjape, Sachin Y.; Farley, Ginnie; Abumrad, Naji; Biaggioni, Italo

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is an important risk factor for the development of insulin resistance. Initial compensatory mechanisms include an increase in insulin levels, which are thought to induce sympathetic activation in an attempt to restore energy balance. We have previously shown, however, that sympathetic activity has no beneficial effect on resting energy expenditure in obesity. On the contrary, we hypothesize that sympathetic activation contributes to insulin resistance. To test this hypothesis, we determined insulin sensitivity using a standard hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp protocol in obese subjects randomly assigned in a crossover design one month apart to receive saline (intact day) or trimetaphan (4 mg/min IV, autonomic blocked day). Whole body glucose uptake (MBW in mg/kg/min) was used as index of maximal muscle glucose utilization. During autonomic blockade we clamped blood pressure with a concomitant titrated IV infusion of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NMMA. Of the 21 obese subjects (43±2 years of age, 35±2 kg/m2 BMI) studied fourteen were insulin resistant; they were more obese, had higher plasma glucose and insulin, and higher muscle sympathetic nerve activity (23.3±1.5 vs. 17.2±2.1 burst/min, p=0.03) compared to insulin sensitive subjects. Glucose utilization improved during autonomic blockade in insulin resistant subjects (MBW 3.8±0.3 blocked vs. 3.1±0.3 mg/kg/min intact; p=0.025), with no effect in the insulin sensitive group. These findings support the concept that sympathetic activation contributes to insulin resistance in obesity and may result in a feedback loop whereby the compensatory increase in insulin levels contributes to greater sympathetic activation. PMID:25001269

  2. How to Estimate Fat Mass in Overweight and Obese Subjects

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    Lorenzo Maria Donini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing and represents a primary health concern. Body composition evaluation is rarely performed in overweight/obese subjects, and the diagnosis is almost always achieved just considering body mass index (BMI. In fact, whereas BMI can be considered an important tool in epidemiological surveys, different papers stated the limitations of the use of BMI in single individuals. Aim. To assess the determinants of body composition in overweight and obese subjects. Methods. In 103 overweight or obese subjects (74 women, aged 41.5 ± 10 years, and 29 men, aged 43.8 ± 8 years, a multidimensional evaluation was performed including the assessment of body composition using Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA, anthropometry, bioimpedance analysis (BIA, and biochemical parameters (total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, free fatty acids and glycerol, glucose, insulin, C-reactive protein, plasma acylated and unacylated ghrelin, adiponectin, and leptin serum levels. Results. BMI does not represent the main predictor of FM estimated by DXA; FM from BIA and hip circumference showed a better association with FM from DXA. Moreover, models omitting BMI explained a greater part of variance. These data are confirmed by the predictive value analysis where BMI showed a performance similar to a “coin flip.”

  3. Two leptin genes and a leptin receptor gene of female chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus): Molecular cloning, tissue distribution and expression in different obesity indices and pubertal stages.

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    Ohga, Hirofumi; Matsumori, Kojiro; Kodama, Ryoko; Kitano, Hajime; Nagano, Naoki; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Matsuyama, Michiya

    2015-10-01

    Leptin is a hormone produced by fat cells that regulates the amount of fat stored in the body and conveys nutritional status to the reproductive axis in mammals. In the present study we identified two subtypes of leptin genes (lepa and lepb) and a leptin receptor gene (lepr) from chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) and there gene expression under different feeding conditions (control and high-feed) and pubertal development stages was analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR. The protein lengths of LepA, LepB and LepR were 161 amino acids (aa), 163 aa and 1149 aa, respectively and both leptin subtypes shared only 15% similarity in aa sequences. In pubertal females, lepa was expressed in the brain, pituitary gland, liver, adipose tissue and ovary; however, in adult (gonadal maturation after the second in the life) females, lepa was expressed only in the liver. lepb was expressed primarily in the brain of all fish tested and was expressed strongly in the adipose tissue of adults. lepr was characterized by expression in the pituitary. The high-feed group showed a high conditioning factor level; unexpectedly, hepatic lepa and brain lepr were significantly more weakly expressed compared with the control-feed group. Furthermore, the expression levels of lepa, lepb and lepr genes showed no significant differences between pre-pubertal and post-pubertal fish. On the other hand, pituitary fshβ and lhβ showed no significant differences between different feeding groups of pre-pubertal fish. In contrast, fshβ and lhβ expressed abundantly in the post-pubertal fish of control feed group. Based on these results, whether leptin plays an important role in the nutritional status and pubertal onset of chub mackerel remains unknown.

  4. Hepatic effects of dietary weight loss in morbidly obese subjects

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    Andersen, T; Gluud, C; Franzmann, Magnus

    1991-01-01

    This prospective study was carried out in order to evaluate the influence on liver morphology and function of a very-low-calorie formula diet. Fourty-one morbidly obese, non-alcoholic subjects had liver biopsy performed before and after a median weight loss of 34 kg. Fatty change improved (p less...... than 0.001), but 24% of the patients developed slight portal inflammation (p = 0.039) or slight portal fibrosis (p = 0.063). Patients developing portal fibrosis had a higher degree of fatty change at entry (p = 0.029), a more pronounced reduction of fatty change (p = 0.014) and a faster weight loss (p...... = 0.026). Liver biochemistry, which was of no individual diagnostic value, improved. It is concluded that morbidly obese subjects with a high degree of hepatic fatty change are at risk of developing portal inflammation and fibrosis when undergoing very fast dietary weight reductions....

  5. Micronutrient deficiency in obese subjects undergoing low calorie diet

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    Damms-Machado Antje

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies is higher in obese individuals compared to normal-weight people, probably because of inadequate eating habits but also due to increased demands among overweight persons, which are underestimated by dietary reference intakes (DRI intended for the general population. We therefore evaluated the dietary micronutrient intake in obese individuals compared to a reference population and DRI recommendations. Furthermore, we determined the micronutrient status in obese subjects undergoing a standardized DRI-covering low-calorie formula diet to analyze if the DRI meet the micronutrient requirements of obese individuals. Methods In 104 subjects baseline micronutrient intake was determined by dietary record collection. A randomly assigned subgroup of subjects (n = 32 underwent a standardized DRI-covering low-calorie formula diet over a period of three months. Pre- and post-interventional intracellular micronutrient status in buccal mucosa cells (BMC was analyzed, as well as additional micronutrient serum concentrations in 14 of the subjects. Results Prior to dietetic intervention, nutrition was calorie-rich and micronutrient-poor. Baseline deficiencies in serum concentrations were observed for 25-hydroxyvitamin-D, vitamin C, selenium, iron, as well as ß-carotene, vitamin C, and lycopene in BMC. After a three-month period of formula diet even more subjects had reduced micronutrient levels of vitamin C (serum, BMC, zinc, and lycopene. There was a significant negative correlation between lipophilic serum vitamin concentrations and body fat, as well as between iron and C-reactive protein. Conclusions The present pilot study shows that micronutrient deficiency occurring in obese individuals is not corrected by protein-rich formula diet containing vitamins and minerals according to DRI. In contrast, micronutrient levels remain low or become even lower, which might be explained by insufficient

  6. Association of FTO Polymorphisms with Early Age of Obesity in Obese Italian Subjects

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    Federica Sentinelli

    2012-01-01

    Aims of our study are to investigate: (1 the association of FTO gene SNPs rs9939609 and rs9930506 with body mass index (BMI and obesity-related parameters in a large cohort (n=752 of Italian obese subjects; (2 the association between the two FTO SNPs and age of onset of obesity. Our results demonstrate a strong association between FTO SNPs rs9939609 (P<0.043 and rs9930506 (P<0.029 with BMI in the Italian population. FTO rs9930506 was significantly associated with higher BMI in a G allele dose-dependent manner (BMI+1.4 kg/m2 per G allele. We also observed that the association with BMI of the two FTO variants varied with age, with the carriers of the risk alleles developing an increase in body weight earlier in life. In conclusion, our study further demonstrates a role of the genetic variability in FTO on BMI in a large Italian population.

  7. New factors of cardiometabolic risk in severely obese children: influence of pubertal status Nuevos factores de riesgo cardiometabólico en niños con obesidad severa: influencia del estado puberal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Codoñer-Franch

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the utility of new biochemical markers to assess cardiometabolic risk in severely obese children and adolescents. A total of 107 subjects aged 7 to 14 years, were clinically assessed and anthropometric measures and percentage of fat mass by single frequency bioimpedance analysis were recorded. Of these, 44 were non-overweight and 63 severely obese (body mass index Z-score >2.5 which were stratified by Tanner stages. To estimate the metabolic risk the following variables were considered for analysis: Waist circumference/height >0.5, fasting glucose >100 mg/dL, triglycerides >110 mg/dL, HDL-C 95th percentile for age and gender. Fasting insulinemia, apoprotein A1 and B, high-sensitive C-reactive protein, alanine aminotransferase, homocysteine, and folic and uric acids were determined. In severely obese children, metabolic risk was present more frequently in mid puberty. The normalized anthropometric parameters with respect to 50th percentile for age and gender did not differ in the presence of metabolic risk. Insulin resistance was an independent determinant of metabolic risk, adjusted by Tanner stages. Elevated high-sensitive C-reactive protein was noted without any effect of metabolic risk or pubertal stage. Homocysteine, apoprotein B, and alanine aminotransferase values increased with metabolic risk and were not influenced by puberty. Although insulin resistance remains the main factor influencing metabolic risk, biochemical markers as homocysteine, apoprotein B, and alanine aminotransferase, may be useful for identifying severe obese pubertal subjects particularly prone to comorbidities.El objetivo de este estudio prospectivo ha sido evaluar la utilidad de nuevos marcadores bioquímicos para evaluar el riesgo cardiometabólico en niños y adolescentes extremadamente obesos. Un total de 107 sujetos de entre 7 a 14 años, se valoraron clínicamente registrando sus medidas antropométricas y el

  8. Canagliflozin: Effects in overweight and obese subjects without diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bays, Harold E; Weinstein, Richard; Law, Gordon; Canovatchel, William

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, on body weight in overweight and obese subjects (body mass index [BMI] ≥27 and canagliflozin 50, 100, or 300 mg or placebo once daily. The primary endpoint was the percent change in body weight from baseline through Week 12. Results Canagliflozin increased urinary glucose excretion in a dose-dependent manner and produced statistically significant reductions in body weight compared with placebo (least squares mean percent changes from baseline of −2.2%, −2.9%, −2.7%, and −1.3% with canagliflozin 50, 100, and 300 mg and placebo; P Canagliflozin was associated with higher rates of genital mycotic infections in women, which were generally mild and led to few study discontinuations. Osmotic diuresis-related AE rates were low and similar across groups. Conclusions In overweight and obese subjects without diabetes mellitus, canagliflozin significantly reduced body weight compared with placebo and was generally well tolerated. PMID:24227660

  9. Vigorous physical activity rather than sedentary behaviour predicts overweight and obesity in pubertal boys: a 2-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lätt, Evelin; Mäestu, Jarek; Ortega, Francisco B; Rääsk, Triin; Jürimäe, Toivo; Jürimäe, Jaak

    2015-05-01

    Current physical activity (PA) recommendations indicate that children should get involved in 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), and should include vigorous-intensity PA at least three days a week. However, it is not known how many minutes of vigorous PA they should do. Using objective methods and a longitudinal design, this study aimed to examine how different PA intensities and sedentary behaviour relate with the risk of being overweight and obese during puberty over a two-year period. A sample of 136 10-12-year-old (at baseline) boys participated. PA was measured by seven-day accelerometry. From MVPA thresholds, only 90 minutes per day of MVPA had important odds ratios (OR) for being overweight at baseline (OR=8.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-64.04). A significant cut-off point for being overweight was indicated by 59 minutes per day of MVPA with at least 14 minutes per day of vigorous PA, and 55 minutes per day MVPA with at least 10 minutes per day of vigorous PA for those who were obese. Sedentary behaviour did not have any significant ORs for being overweight or obese. Subjects who did not meet the thresholds of 5 and 20 minutes per day of vigorous PA at baseline had an increased risk of being overweight (OR=4.05, 95% CI 1.41-11.59, and OR=4.14, 95% CI 1.35-12.73, respectively) and obese (OR=6.54, 95% CI 1.97-21.69, and OR=8.75, 95% CI 1.12-68.51, respectively) two years later. The results indicate that vigorous PA in particular predicts overweight and obesity in boys. They should aim to do at least 60 minutes per day of MVPA. These results contribute to the recommendations suggesting that a minimum of 15 minutes per day of vigorous PA is desired to reduce the risk of developing overweight/obesity in later puberty. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  10. Cortisol, obesity and the metabolic syndrome: A cross-sectional study of obese subjects and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, SB; Rubino, D; Sinaii, N; Ramsey, S.; Nieman, LK

    2013-01-01

    Circulating cortisol and psychosocial stress may contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity and metabolic syndrome. To evaluate these relationships, we performed a cross-sectional study of 369 overweight and obese subjects and 60 healthy volunteers and reviewed the previous literature. Overweight and obese subjects had at least two other features of Cushing’s syndrome. They underwent measurements representing cortisol dynamics (24h urine cortisol excretion (UFC), bedtime salivary cortisol, 1 m...

  11. Reduced lipid oxidation in myotubes established from obese and type 2 diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, Michael

    2009-01-01

    To date, it is unknown whether reduced lipid oxidation of skeletal muscle of obese and obese type 2 diabetic (T2D) subjects partly is based on reduced oxidation of endogenous lipids. Palmitate (PA) accumulation, total oxidation and lipolysis were not different between myotubes established from le...... lipid and mitochondria in obese and obese diabetic myotubes and secondly, a mismatch between beta-oxidation and citric acid cycle in obese diabetic myotubes....

  12. Evaluation of plasma reactive oxygen metabolites levels in obese subjects with periodontal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snophia Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Result and Conclusion: In this study, obese subjects with chronic periodontitis (Group I had mean plasma ROM levels (442.3 ± 15.65 Carratelli unit [CARR U] showing 100% subjects with high oxidative stress. Obese subjects with chronic gingivitis (Group II had mean plasma ROM levels (358.7 ± 20.61 CARR U indicating 86.7% subjects with oxidative stress. Obese subjects with healthy periodontium (Group III had 46.7% subjects with slight oxidative stress, and the mean ROM level was 320.2 ± 17.57. Nonobese subjects with healthy periodontium (Group IV had 80% of subjects with normal oxidative stress and the mean plasma ROM level was 296.9 ± 20.35 CARR U. The intra- and inter-group comparison showed significant difference (P < 0.001. From our study, we report that obese subjects with periodontitis have more oxidative stress compared to obese subjects with healthy periodontium.

  13. Ceruloplasmin Is a Novel Adipokine Which Is Overexpressed in Adipose Tissue of Obese Subjects and in Obesity-Associated Cancer Cells: e80274

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Erik Arner; Alistair R R Forrest; Anna Ehrlund; Niklas Mejhert; Masayoshi Itoh; Hideya Kawaji; Timo Lassmann; Jurga Laurencikiene; Mikael Rydén; Peter Arner; the FANTOM consortium

    2014-01-01

    ...(s) and the tissues prone to develop cancer among obese. We searched for novel adipokines that were overexpressed in adipose tissue of obese subjects as well as in tumor cells derived from cancers commonly associated with obesity...

  14. Ceruloplasmin is a novel adipokine which is overexpressed in adipose tissue of obese subjects and in obesity-associated cancer cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arner, Erik; Forrest, Alistair R R; Ehrlund, Anna; Mejhert, Niklas; Itoh, Masayoshi; Kawaji, Hideya; Lassmann, Timo; Laurencikiene, Jurga; Rydén, Mikael; Arner, Peter; Clevers, Hans

    2014-01-01

    ...(s) and the tissues prone to develop cancer among obese. We searched for novel adipokines that were overexpressed in adipose tissue of obese subjects as well as in tumor cells derived from cancers commonly associated with obesity...

  15. NMR-based metabolomic profiling of overweight adolescents – an elucidation of the effects of inter-/intra-individual differences, gender, pubertal development and physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Hong; Yde, Christian Clement; Arnberg, Karina;

    2014-01-01

    The plasma and urine metabolome of 192 overweight 12-15-year-old adolescents (BMI of 25.4 ± 2.3 kg/m(2)) were examined in order to elucidate gender, pubertal development measured as Tanner stage, physical activity measured as number of steps taken daily, and intra-/interindividual differences...... in the metabolome are being commenced already in childhood. The relationship between Tanner stage and the metabolome showed that pubertal development stage was positively related to urinary creatinine excretion and negatively related to urinary citrate content. No relations between physical activity...... and the metabolome could be identified. The present study for the first time provides comprehensive information about associations between the metabolome and gender, pubertal development, and physical activity in overweight adolescents, which is an important subject group to approach in the prevention of obesity...

  16. Seaweed Fucoxanthin Supplementation Improves Obesity Parameters in Mild Obese Japanese Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoketsu Hitoe

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fucoxanthin is a seaweed xanthophyll that has demonstrated an anti-obesity effect in rodents. However,clinical investigations of its influence on mildly obese subjects has not been performed. We conducted a clinical trial of fucoxanthin supplementation in Japanese obese subjects.Methods: We examined the effect of fucoxanthin (1 or 3 mg daily in a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Capsules containing fucoxanthin or placebo capsules were administered for 4 weeks to male and female Japanese adults with a body mass index (BMI of more than 25 kg/m2. Before and after treatment, the body weight, body composition, abdominal fat area, and the circumferences of the neck, arm,and thigh were evaluated.Results: There was significant reduction of the relative (ratio versus before treatment body weight,BMI, and visceral fat area in the 3 mg/day fucoxanthin group compared to the placebo group. Relative values of total fat mass, subcutaneous fat area, waist circumference, and right thigh circumference were also significantly lower in the 1 mg/day fucoxanthin group than the placebo group. A significant decrease of the absoluteright thigh circumference was noted in the 1 mg/day fucoxanthin group compared to the placebo group. In the subjects ingesting fucoxanthin, there were no abnormalities of the blood pressure, pulse rate, blood parameters, and urinalysis parameters, which thereby suggests adverse effects.Conclusions: Fucoxanthin reduced body weight, BMI, and abdominal fat by acting on both visceraland subcutaneous fat. Consequently, Fucoxanthin may be able to improve a moderate overweight state in both men and women.

  17. Seasonal differences in melatonin concentrations and heart rates during sleep in obese subjects in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Maki; Kanikowska, Dominika; Iwase, Satoshi; Shimizu, Yuuki; Nishimura, Naoki; Inukai, Yoko; Sato, Motohiko; Sugenoya, Junichi

    2013-09-01

    During the past several decades, obesity has been increasing globally. In Japan, obesity is defined by a BMI of 25 kg/m2 or over; 28.6 % of men and 20.6 % of women are obese. Obese people have an increased incidence of developing cardiovascular, renal, and hormonal diseases and sleep disorders. Obese people also have shortened sleep durations. We investigated seasonal differences in melatonin concentrations, heart rates, and heart rate variability during sleep in obese subjects in Japan. Five obese (BMI, 32.0 ± 4.9 kg/m2) and five non-obese (BMI, 23.2 ± 2.9 kg/m2) men participated in this study in the summer and winter. Electrocardiograms were measured continuously overnight in a climatic chamber at 26 °C with a relative humidity of 50 %. Saliva samples for melatonin were collected at 2300 hours, 0200 hours, and 0600 hours. We found that melatonin concentrations during sleep in obese subjects were significantly lower than those in non-obese subjects in the winter. Heart rate during sleep in winter was significantly higher than that in summer in both obese and non-obese subjects. Heart rate variability was not significantly different in the summer and winter in both obese and non-obese subjects. Our results show that decreased nocturnal melatonin concentrations during winter in obese men may be related to higher heart rates, and this may suggest that obese men are at an increased risk of a cardiovascular incident during sleep, especially in the winter.

  18. Elevated B Cell Activation is Associated with Type 2 Diabetes Development in Obese Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Zhai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Despite strong association between obesity and the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D, only a subset of obese individuals eventually develops T2D. We sought to determine the immunological factors behind this heterogeneity. Methods: Peripheral blood of obese non-diabetic subjects and obese diabetic subjects were collected and the B cell responses in these subjects were analyzed. Results: We found that the B cells from obese diabetic subjects had similar B cell subtype composition and secreted similar levels of low-grade pro-inflammatory cytokines to obese non-diabetic subjects, characteristic to the background chronic immune activation frequently observed in obese subjects. When examining adaptive B cell antibody responses, however, obese diabetic subjects presented much higher levels of polyclonal activation and antibody secretion, with impaired ability to response to new antigens such as seasonal influenza vaccination. Conclusions: These data demonstrated that in obese diabetic subjects, B cell adaptive response is impaired and potentially contribute to overall higher inflammation.

  19. Hormonal determinants of pubertal growth.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delamarre-van Waal, H.A.; Coeverden, S.C. van; Rotteveel, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    Pubertal growth results from increased sex steroid and growth hormone (GH) secretion. Estrogens appear to play an important role in the regulation of pubertal growth in both girls and boys. In girls, however, estrogens cannot be the only sex steroids responsible for pubertal growth, as exogenous est

  20. Pain Experience and Perception in the Obese Subject Systematic Review (Revised Version).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torensma, Bart; Thomassen, Irene; van Velzen, Monique; In 't Veld, Bastiaan Alexander

    2016-03-01

    Pain is an integral part of life and has an important protective function. Pain perception has been shown to differ between subjects and changes with gender, race, and culture. In addition, it has been suggested that obesity influences pain perception and that obesity can be a risk factor for increased pain thresholds. The aim of this systematic review was to examine pain thresholds in obese subjects compared to non-obese subjects. The electronic databases of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, and EMBASE were searched using combinations of terms for obese, pain measurement, visual analog scale, quantitative sensory testing, and pain perception. Studies without comparison as well as cross-sectional studies, case series, and case reports were excluded. The search was conducted without restrictions on language or date of publication. From a total of 1818 identified studies, seven studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria, whereby only one study tested the pain threshold difference between obese and non-obese and also before and after body weight loss surgery. Two studies showed a lower pain threshold and four studies a higher pain threshold in obese subjects compared to non-obese subjects. Two studies showed no difference in pain threshold before and after substantial body weight loss due to surgery. Weight loss after surgery was not identified as a factor for higher pain thresholds in obese subjects. In view of the heterogeneity of the studies, the variability of the subjects and differences in methodological quality, a meta-analysis could not be performed. From the available literature, there is a tendency towards higher pain thresholds in obese subjects. Neither substantial weight loss, nor gender, were factors explaining difference in threshold. Future randomized, controlled trials should explore demographic variables that could influence pain perception or pain thresholds in obese individuals, and multimodal pain testing is

  1. Outcomes of obese versus non-obese subjects undergoing robotic-assisted hysterectomy: a multi-institutional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, W B; Lowe, M P; Chamberlin, D H; Kamelle, S A; Johnson, P R; Tyndall, M; Tillmanns, T D

    2013-03-01

    The goal of our study was to determine whether there was a difference in operative outcomes in obese versus non-obese subjects undergoing robotic-assisted hysterectomies of varying levels of difficulty. Secondarily, we sought to analyze the published outcomes between robotic-assisted hysterectomy and total laparoscopic hysterectomy in obese women at each of these levels of difficulty. This was a multi-institutional retrospective cohort study of all patients undergoing robotic-assisted hysterectomy by five gynecologic oncologists at four geographically separate locations from April 2003 to March 2008. The cohort was stratified into obese vs. non-obese groups, and defined surgical outcomes compared between groups, then further divided into three subgroups based on case difficulty level. Univariate analysis and regression analysis using SAS 9.1 was performed. We then conducted a literature search of total laparoscopic hysterectomy outcomes in obese women, dividing the resulting studies into three comparative subgroups based on surgical difficulty levels for comparison with our robotic-assisted hysterectomy results. Our cohort had 228 obese and 323 non-obese subjects. Overall, the obese group had higher blood loss and longer operative time. When further stratified by level of difficulty, obese subjects also had a higher average blood loss and longer operative time in the hysterectomy-alone subgroup. No clinically significant differences in operative outcomes exist between obese and non-obese women when utilizing the da Vinci robotic system to perform a hysterectomy, independent of case difficulty level. More prospective, controlled studies which compare the two surgical approaches of robotic-assisted and laparoscopic hysterectomy approaches are needed.

  2. Oxidative Damage and Inflammation in Obese Diabetic Emirati Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Salah Gariballa; Melita Kosanovic; Javed Yasin; Awad El Essa

    2014-01-01

    Visceral obesity is more common in the Arab population and more closely related to morbidity, including diabetes and related cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Possible mechanisms that link visceral fat/obesity to diabetes and CVD complications include inflammation and increased oxidative stress; however, few data are available from the Arab population. Our aim was to determine whether increased adiposity in obese diabetic United Arab Emirates citizens is associated with sub-clinical inflammation...

  3. Serum Resistin Levels Are Associated with Adiposity and Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Hispanic Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: Resistin is involved in the development of obesity and insulin resistance (IR) in mice and may play a similar role in humans through mechanisms that remain unresolved. The objective of this study was to characterize the relationship between resistin levels in obese subjects with and without IR among Hispanic subjects.

  4. Relation of epicardial fat thickness to right ventricular cavity size in obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacobellis, Gianluca

    2009-12-01

    Epicardial fat is the visceral fat depot of the heart and is commonly increased in obese subjects. Obesity is also associated with right ventricular (RV) enlargement. Nevertheless, whether epicardial fat might be independently associated with RV morphology is unknown. I evaluated the correlation between echocardiographic epicardial fat and RV cavity size in subjects with a wide range of adiposity. Echocardiographic epicardial fat thickness and RV end-diastolic diameter (RVEDD) were assessed in 50 obese and 50 normal weight subjects. Patients with clinical conditions that could affect the RVEDD were excluded. Obese subjects had a significantly greater epicardial fat thickness and RVEDD than normal weight subjects (10 +/- 4 vs 5 +/- 2 mm and 22 +/- 10 vs 15 +/- 5, respectively; p subjects. Multiple regression analysis showed that epicardial fat thickness was the best independent correlate of RVEDD (r(2) = 0.42, p subjects. In conclusion, increased RV epicardial fat accumulation is associated with enlarged RV cavity size.

  5. Sensory and non-sensory factors and the concept of externality in obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, R M; Brake, S J; Reyes, B; Maestas, D

    1983-08-01

    9 obese and 9 normal subjects performed a psychophysical task in which food- or non-food-related stimuli were briefly flashed tachistoscopically at a speed and intensity near the visual threshold. A signal was presented on one-half the trials and noise only on the other one-half of the trials. Using signal detection theory methodology, separate measures of sensory sensitivity (d') and response bias (beta) were calculated. No differences were noted between obese and normal subjects on measures of sensory sensitivity but significant differences on response bias. Obese subjects had consistently lower response criteria than normal ones. Analysis for subjects categorized by whether they were restrained or unrestrained eaters gave findings identical to those for obese and normal. The importance of using a methodology that separates sensory and non-sensory factors in research on obesity is discussed.

  6. Urinary cortisol and psychopathology in obese binge eating subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavagnino, Luca; Amianto, Federico; Parasiliti Caprino, Mirko; Maccario, Mauro; Arvat, Emanuela; Ghigo, Ezio; Abbate Daga, Giovanni; Fassino, Secondo

    2014-12-01

    Investigations on the relationship between obesity, binge eating and the function of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis have led to inconsistent results. General psychopathology affects HPA axis function. The present study aims to examine correlations between binge eating, general psychopathology and HPA axis function in obese binge eaters. Twenty-four hour urinary free cortisol (UFC/24 h) was measured in 71 obese binge eating women. The patients were administered psychometric tests investigating binge eating, psychopathology and clinical variables. The relationship between binge eating, psychopathology and urinary cortisol was investigated, controlling for age and BMI. We found an inverse correlation between UFC/24 h and binge eating, depression, obsessive-compusive symptoms, somatization and sensitivity. In a regression model a significant inverse correlation between urinary cortisol and psychopathology was confirmed. Urinary cortisol levels in obese patients with binge eating disorder show an inverse correlation with several dimensions of psychopathology which are considered to be typical of a cluster of psychiatric disorders characterized by low HPA axis function, and are very common in obese binge eating patients. If these results are confirmed, UFC/24 h might be considered a biomarker of psychopathology in obese binge eaters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Serum prolidase enzyme activity in obese subjects and its relationship with oxidative stress markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Mehmet; Duzenli, Ufuk; Esen, Ramazan; Soyoral, Yasemin Usul

    2017-10-01

    The relationship between increased serum enzyme activity of prolidase and increased rate of collagen turnover in the arterial wall has been asserted in previous studies. Collagen reflects much of the strength to the connective tissue involved in the arterial wall. Atherosclerosis is very common vessel disease and oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the etiopathogenesis. Our objective was to examine the serum enzyme activity of prolidase and its possible relationships with oxidative stress parameters in obese subjects. Our present study was conducted 27 obese subjects and 26 age-matched healthy control subjects. The serum enzyme activity of prolidase in all study population was evaluated spectrophotometrically. Oxidative stress levels in obese subjects were analyzed with total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidant status (TOS) as well as oxidative stress index (OSI). Obese subjects have higher serum TOS and OSI indicators as well as prolidase activity than those in control subjects (for all; p<0.001). Moreover, obese subjects have lower levels of TAC than in those in healthy subjects (p<0.001). In the Pearson's correlation analysis, enzyme activity of prolidase was positively related with TOS (p<0.001, r=0.529) and OSI (p<0.001, r=0.519) as well as BMI (p<0.001, r=0.692) and inversely related with TAC (p<0.05, r=-0.405) in obese subjects. Increased serum prolidase activity and decreased antioxidant levels are likely to be a results of increased of oxidative stress levels in obese subjects. The significantly correlation between increased oxidative stress and increased prolidase activity may play a pivotal role in etiopathogenesis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases in obese subjects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Relationship between pubertal development and overweight and obesity among male children and adolescents in Suzhou%苏州市中小学男生青春期发育与超重肥胖相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩宗林; 徐勇

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship of pubertal development with body fatness in male children and adolescents of Suzhou. Methods Boys from 15 middle schools and primary schools in Suzhou area were surveyed. According to the BMI screening criteria of overweight and obesity in Chinese children and adolescents, all the participants were classified into overweight, obesity, and normal-weight groups. Height and weight, secondary sexual characteristics were assessed and spermarche was self-reported. Results The prevaience rate of overweight and obesity was 10. 6% (538/5 059) and 5. 1% (257/5 059) respectively, and the boys who had first spermarche accounted for 19.4% (963/ 5059). Spermarche age of overweight and obese boys was later than the normal-weight boys. A significant positive correlation existed between BMI and spermarche age(r = 0.229,P<0.01). A significant negative correlation was found between BMI and genital and pubic hair Tanner stage. Conclusion Pubertal development is associated with obesity in male children and adolescents in Suzhou area.%目的 探讨苏州市男性儿童青少年发育与超重肥胖的关系,为制定儿童青少年青春期预防保健措施提供参考.方法 随机分层整群抽取苏州地区15所中小学的男生5 059名,根据中国学生超重、肥胖BMI筛查标准,将调查学生分为超重、肥胖、正常3组,调查青春期男生的首次遗精年龄,测量身高、体重,调查第二性征发育等级.结果 苏州市中小学男生超重检出率为10.6% (538/5 059),肥胖检出率为5.1% (257/5 059),已发生首次遗精的占19.4%(963/5 059).超重组、肥胖组男生首次遗精年龄晚于正常组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).BMI值与首次遗精年龄呈正相关(r=0.229,P<0.01);11 ~15岁组男生BMI值与外生殖器发育程度、阴毛发育程度呈负相关(P值均<0.01).结论 苏州市男性儿童青少年青春期发育与肥胖密切相关.

  9. Activation of alpha(2)-adrenergic receptors impairs exercise-induced lipolysis in SCAT of obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stich, V; De Glisezinski, I; Crampes, F; Hejnova, J; Cottet-Emard, J M; Galitzky, J; Lafontan, M; Rivière, D; Berlan, M

    2000-08-01

    With the use of the microdialysis method, exercise-induced lipolysis was investigated in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) in obese subjects and compared with lean ones, and the effect of blockade of alpha(2)-adrenergic receptors (ARs) on lipolysis during exercise was explored. Changes in extracellular glycerol concentrations and blood flow were measured in SCAT in a control microdialysis probe at rest and during 60-min exercise bouts (50% of heart rate reserve) and in a probe supplemented with the alpha(2)-AR antagonist phentolamine. At rest and during exercise, plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine concentrations were not different in obese compared with lean men. In the basal state, plasma and extracellular glycerol concentrations were higher, whereas blood flow was lower in SCAT of obese subjects. During exercise, the increase of plasma glycerol was higher in obese subjects (115 +/- 35 vs. 65 +/- 21 micromol/l). Oppositely, the exercise-induced increase in extracellular glycerol concentrations in SCAT was five- to sixfold lower in obese than in lean subjects (50 +/- 14 vs. 318 +/- 53 micromol/l). The exercise-induced increase in extracellular glycerol concentration was not significantly modified by phentolamine infusion in lean subjects but was strongly enhanced in the obese subjects and reached the concentrations found in lean sujects (297 +/- 46 micromol/l). These findings demonstrate that the physiological stimulation of SCAT adipocyte alpha(2)-ARs during exercice-induced sympathetic nervous system activation contributes to the blunted lipolysis noted in obese men.

  10. Impact of pubertal development on endothelial function and arterial elasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlatt, Kara L; Steinberger, Julia; Dengel, Donald R; Sinaiko, Alan; Moran, Antoinette; Chow, Lisa S; Steffen, Lyn M; Zhou, Xia; Kelly, Aaron S

    2013-11-01

    Little is known about the relation of pubertal development on endothelial function and arterial elasticity in children and adolescents; therefore, we compared brachial artery flow-mediated dilation and carotid artery elasticity across Tanner (pubertal) stages in children and adolescents. Blood pressure, fasting lipids, glucose and insulin, body fat, insulin sensitivity adjusted for lean body mass, brachial flow-mediated dilation (percent dilation and area under the curve), endothelium-independent dilation (peak dilation and area under the curve), and carotid artery elasticity were evaluated across pubertal stages (Tanner I vs Tanner II-IV vs Tanner V) in 344 children and adolescents (184 males, 160 females; ages 6 to 21 years). One hundred twenty-four subjects (mean age 8.23 ± 0.15 years; 52 females) were Tanner stage I; 105 subjects (mean age 13.19 ± 0.17 years; 47 females) were Tanner stages II-IV; and 115 subjects (mean age 17.19 ± 0.16 years; 61 females) were Tanner stage V. There were no significant differences for any of the measures of vascular structure and function across pubertal stages. Results of the current study indicate that smooth-muscle and endothelial function, as well as carotid artery elasticity, do not differ throughout pubertal development and that accounting for pubertal stage when reporting vascular data in children and adolescents may be unnecessary. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. 肥胖对儿童青春期性发育的影响及作用机制%Influence and mechanism of obesity on the onset of pubertal development in obese children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅君芬; 周雪莲

    2014-01-01

    Timing of puberty showed a dramatic decrease in the past decades,and it depends on the gene,nutrition,environment,social economics,and so on.Childhood obesity affects both the timing of puberty and sex hormone levels.However,the influence of obesity on the timing of puberty has gender differences.Current studies show that childhood obesity accelerates the onset of puberty in girls,but it still has controversy in boys.Mechanisms of concrete have not clear,may be related to the subjectivity of standard of male sexual development and the correlation of body mass index as a substitute for male obesity is poor.Through literature review at home and abroad,this article will explain the influence of obesity on the timing of puberty,sex hormone levels and its gender differences,further explore the possible mechanisms of body fat participate in starting the gonad axis,and provide new research direction on the "switch" for the gonad axis.%儿童青春期启动时间呈年代提前趋势,受基因、营养、环境及社会经济等因素的影响.肥胖不仅影响儿童青春期启动的时间,对青春期激素水平也有重要影响.但肥胖对儿童性发育的影响具有性别差异,目前普遍研究认为肥胖能促进女性青春期启动,但对男性性发育的作用尚存争议,具体机制尚未研究明确,可能与男性性发育判断标准的主观性及体质量指数作为男性肥胖替代指标的相关性差有关.现通过国内外文献复习,阐述肥胖对儿童性发育时间、青春期性激素水平的影响及其性别差异,并进一步探讨体脂参与性腺轴启动的可能机制,为性腺启动的“开关”作用提供新的研究方向.

  12. Validation of predictive equations for basal metabolic rate in eutrophic and obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Lopes Krüger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2015v17n1p73   Prediction equations for basal metabolic rate (BMR continue to be the most common clinical tool for diet prescription; however, the values estimated may differ from those measured by indirect calorimetry (IC, especially in obese subjects. The objective of this study was to determine the BMR of obese and eutrophic subjects by IC, and to compare the results obtained with those estimated by prediction equations in order to identify whether differences exist between predicted values and those measured by IC. Forty men aged 18 to 30 years were evaluated; of these, 20 were grade 1 obese and 20 were eutrophic. The agreement between the prediction equations and IC was evaluated using Bland-Altman (1986 plots. The results showed a variation between the prediction equations and IC of -19.6% to -91% in obese subjects and of 4.2% to 4.4% in eutrophic subjects. In both groups, the Mifflin-St. Jeor equation (1990 was the most accurate, with a difference of -9.1% compared to IC in obese subjects and of 0.9% in eutrophic subjects. This study indicates the Mifflin-St. Jeor equation to be the most adequate to estimate BMR. However, it is important to measure the BMR of obese subjects more accurately and safely in order to establish the best intervention based on physical exercise and healthy eating.

  13. DIFFERENTIAL EXPRESSION OF GENES IN OMENTAL FAT OF NORMAL WEIGHT AND OBESE SUBJECTS AND OBESE DIABETIC PATIENTS USING cDNA MICROARRAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Tian-hong; ZHENG Pei-zheng; ZHAO Chun-jun; ZHAO Yu; LI Guo; ZHANG Hong-li; LI Wen-yi; LIU You-ping; LUO Min; WANG Kan-kan; ZHANG Ji

    2007-01-01

    Objective To identify genes differentially expressed in omental fat of normal weight subjects,obese subjects and obese diabetic patients. Methods Using a high-density cDNA microarray, gene expression profile of omental fat from normal weigh subjects, obese subjects and obese diabetic patients were compared.Results Totally, 119 and 257 genes were up-regulated in obese subjects and obese diabetic patients respectively,while 46 and 58 genes were down-regulated. A total of 77 genes, including PDK4, which switched from carbohydrate to fatty acids as the primary source of fuel, were up-regulated in both obese and obese diabetic patients, while 8 genes, including key enzymes in lipid synthesis, such as HMG-CoA synthase, fatty acid synthase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase, were down-regulated in both groups. Tyrosine-3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein θ ( YWHAZ) , a negative regulator for insulin signal transduction, was up-regulated only in obese diabetic patient, but not in normal-glycemic obese subjects. Conclusion The study demonstrated that decrease of lipogenesis along with increase of fatty acids oxidation of adipose tissue could be a common cause of insulin resistance in obesity and type 2 diabetes, while block of insulin signal transduction may trigger the transition from obesity to diabetes. Further exploration of these genes will be useful in the understanding of the pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes.

  14. The insulin-mediated modulation of visually evoked magnetic fields is reduced in obese subjects.

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    Martina Guthoff

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insulin is an anorexigenic hormone that contributes to the termination of food intake in the postprandial state. An alteration in insulin action in the brain, named "cerebral insulin resistance", is responsible for overeating and the development of obesity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To analyze the direct effect of insulin on food-related neuronal activity we tested 10 lean and 10 obese subjects. We conducted a magnetencephalography study during a visual working memory task in both the basal state and after applying insulin or placebo spray intranasally to bypass the blood brain barrier. Food and non-food pictures were presented and subjects had to determine whether or not two consecutive pictures belonged to the same category. Intranasal insulin displayed no effect on blood glucose, insulin or C-peptide concentrations in the periphery; however, it led to an increase in the components of evoked fields related to identification and categorization of pictures (at around 170 ms post stimuli in the visual ventral stream in lean subjects when food pictures were presented. In contrast, insulin did not modulate food-related brain activity in obese subjects. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrated that intranasal insulin increases the cerebral processing of food pictures in lean whereas this was absent in obese subjects. This study further substantiates the presence of a "cerebral insulin resistance" in obese subjects and might be relevant in the pathogenesis of obesity.

  15. [Metabolic differences between males and females and between normal and obese subjects during total fast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göschke, H; Girard, J; Stahl, M

    1976-06-01

    In 24 normal and 24 obese subjects of both sexes circulating substrates (blood sugar, free fatty acids, ketone bodies) and hormones (insulin, growth hormone, pancreatic glucagon) were determined during 6 days of total fast. In normals the blood sugar fell to lower levels than in the obese. Plasma free fatty acids and ketone concentrations rose faster in normal than in obese subjects, and faster in females than in males. Plasma insulin concentrations declined to a greater extent in obese than in normal subjects. In all groups studied a significant increase of the pancreatic glucagon level within 1-3 days of fasting was observed, however, its rise occurred faster in normal females than in males. Growth hormone (GH) rose significantly in normal males but not in obese males. Following high overnight fasting values in some normal females showed no significant increase in GH levels but significantly higher GH values than obese females after 1-6 days of fasting. After summarizing starvation-induced metabolic changes common to all study groups the respective differences found between males and females and between normal and obese subjects are discussed.

  16. Ceruloplasmin is a novel adipokine which is overexpressed in adipose tissue of obese subjects and in obesity-associated cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arner, Erik; Forrest, Alistair R R; Ehrlund, Anna; Mejhert, Niklas; Itoh, Masayoshi; Kawaji, Hideya; Lassmann, Timo; Laurencikiene, Jurga; Rydén, Mikael; Arner, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Obesity confers an increased risk of developing specific cancer forms. Although the mechanisms are unclear, increased fat cell secretion of specific proteins (adipokines) may promote/facilitate development of malignant tumors in obesity via cross-talk between adipose tissue(s) and the tissues prone to develop cancer among obese. We searched for novel adipokines that were overexpressed in adipose tissue of obese subjects as well as in tumor cells derived from cancers commonly associated with obesity. For this purpose expression data from human adipose tissue of obese and non-obese as well as from a large panel of human cancer cell lines and corresponding primary cells and tissues were explored. We found expression of ceruloplasmin to be the most enriched in obesity-associated cancer cells. This gene was also significantly up-regulated in adipose tissue of obese subjects. Ceruloplasmin is the body's main copper carrier and is involved in angiogenesis. We demonstrate that ceruloplasmin is a novel adipokine, which is produced and secreted at increased rates in obesity. In the obese state, adipose tissue contributed markedly (up to 22%) to the total circulating protein level. In summary, we have through bioinformatic screening identified ceruloplasmin as a novel adipokine with increased expression in adipose tissue of obese subjects as well as in cells from obesity-associated cancers. Whether there is a causal relationship between adipose overexpression of ceruloplasmin and cancer development in obesity cannot be answered by these cross-sectional comparisons.

  17. Prevalence and Determinants of Metabolic Health in Subjects with Obesity in Chinese Population

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    Ruizhi Zheng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study was to investigate the prevalence of metabolic health in subjects with obesity in the Chinese population and to identify the determinants related to metabolic abnormality in obese individuals. Methods: 5013 subjects were recruited from seven provincial capitals in China. The obesity and metabolic status were classified based on body mass index (BMI and the number of abnormalities in common components of metabolic syndrome. Results: 27.9% of individuals with obesity were metabolically healthy. The prevalence of the metabolically healthy obese (MHO phenotype was significantly decreased with age in women (p trend < 0.001, but not significantly in men (p trend = 0.349. Central obesity (odds ratio [OR] = 4.07, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.93–8.59, longer sedentary time (OR = 1.97, 95%CI = 1.27–3.06, and with a family history of obesity related diseases (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia (OR = 1.85, 95%CI = 1.26–2.71 were significantly associated with having metabolic abnormality in obese individuals. Higher levels of physical activity and more fruit/vegetable intake had decreased ORs of 0.67 (95%CI = 0.45–0.98 and 0.44 (95%CI = 0.28–0.70, respectively. Conclusion: 27.9% of obese participants are in metabolic health. Central obesity, physical activity, sedentary time, fruits/vegetables intake and family history of diseases are the determinants associated with metabolic status in obesity.

  18. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) for sarcopenic obesity (SO) diagnosis in young female subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Correa, C. H.; Caicedo-Eraso, J. C.; S, Villada-Gomez J.

    2013-04-01

    Sarcopenia is defined as a loss of muscle mass depending of ageing and affecting physical function (definition A). A new definition considers excluding mass reduction criterion (definition B). Obesity is pandemic and occurs at all ages. Sarcopenic obesity (SO) implies both processes. The purpose of this study was to compare the results obtained after applying these 2 definitions in 66 aged 22 ± 2.8 years overweight or obese young college women. Percentage body fat (%BF) and skeletal mass index (SMI) were estimated by BIA, muscle function by handgrip strength test (HGS) and physical performance by Harvard step test (HST). There were 9.1% and 90.9% overweight or obese subjects. Twenty nine subjects (43.9%) had decreased HGS and 22 (33.3%) had impaired physical performance. One obese subject (1.5%) met the criteria for sarcopenic obesity by definition A and 9 (13.6%) by definition B. Although a linear regression (α obese, the problematic of SO will be found earlier in life.

  19. Can EGCG reduce abdominal fat in obese subjects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Alison M; Coates, Alison M; Buckley, Jonathan D; Ross, Robert; Thielecke, Frank; Howe, Peter R C

    2007-08-01

    To evaluate metabolic effects of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) supplementation when combined with a program of regular aerobic exercise in overweight/obese post-menopausal women. Thirty-eight overweight or obese postmenopausal women exercised at moderate intensity, viz. walking three times per week for 45 min at 75% of age-predicted maximum heart rate (HR), and took a 150 mg capsule of EGCG (Teavigo) or placebo (lactose) twice daily for 12 weeks. Blood parameters (lipids, glucose and insulin), blood pressure, heart rate, arterial function and anthropometry were assessed at 0, 6 and 12 wk. At wk 0 and 12, body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and abdominal fat was assessed by DXA and computed tomography (CT). Waist circumference (p fat (p fat (by DXA) (p EGCG can improve the health status of overweight individuals undergoing regular exercise by reducing HR and plasma glucose concentrations. Loss of body fat, however, may require a higher intake of EGCG, other catechins or addition of metabolic stimulants.

  20. Krill oil significantly decreases 2-arachidonoylglycerol plasma levels in obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banni, Sebastiano; Carta, Gianfranca; Murru, Elisabetta; Cordeddu, Lina; Giordano, Elena; Sirigu, Anna Rita; Berge, Kjetil; Vik, Hogne; Maki, Kevin C; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Griinari, Mikko

    2011-01-30

    We have previously shown that krill oil (KO), more efficiently than fish oil, was able to downregulate the endocannabinoid system in different tissues of obese zucker rats.We therefore aimed at investigating whether an intake of 2 g/d of either KO or menhaden oil (MO), which provides 309 mg/d of EPA/DHA 2:1 and 390 mg/d of EPA/DHA 1:1 respectively, or olive oil (OO) for four weeks, is able to modify plasma endocannabinoids in overweight and obese subjects.The results confirmed data in the literature describing increased levels of endocannabinoids in overweight and obese with respect to normo-weight subjects. KO, but not MO or OO, was able to significantly decrease 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), although only in obese subjects. In addition, the decrease of 2-AG was correlated to the plasma n-6/n-3 phospholipid long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) ratio. These data show for the first time in humans that relatively low doses of LCPUFA n-3 as KO can significantly decrease plasma 2-AG levels in obese subjects in relation to decrease of plasma phospholipid n-6/n-3 LCPUFA ratio. This effect is not linked to changes of metabolic syndrome parameters but is most likely due to a decrease of 2-AG biosynthesis caused by the replacement of 2-AG ultimate precursor, arachidonic acid, with n-3 PUFAs, as previously described in obese Zucker rats.

  1. Krill oil significantly decreases 2-arachidonoylglycerol plasma levels in obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano Elena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have previously shown that krill oil (KO, more efficiently than fish oil, was able to downregulate the endocannabinoid system in different tissues of obese zucker rats. We therefore aimed at investigating whether an intake of 2 g/d of either KO or menhaden oil (MO, which provides 309 mg/d of EPA/DHA 2:1 and 390 mg/d of EPA/DHA 1:1 respectively, or olive oil (OO for four weeks, is able to modify plasma endocannabinoids in overweight and obese subjects. The results confirmed data in the literature describing increased levels of endocannabinoids in overweight and obese with respect to normo-weight subjects. KO, but not MO or OO, was able to significantly decrease 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, although only in obese subjects. In addition, the decrease of 2-AG was correlated to the plasma n-6/n-3 phospholipid long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA ratio. These data show for the first time in humans that relatively low doses of LCPUFA n-3 as KO can significantly decrease plasma 2-AG levels in obese subjects in relation to decrease of plasma phospholipid n-6/n-3 LCPUFA ratio. This effect is not linked to changes of metabolic syndrome parameters but is most likely due to a decrease of 2-AG biosynthesis caused by the replacement of 2-AG ultimate precursor, arachidonic acid, with n-3 PUFAs, as previously described in obese Zucker rats.

  2. BMI percentile-for-age overestimates adiposity in early compared with late maturing pubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Juul, Anders

    2015-01-01

    .041) was found with early compared with late maturation, despite similar BIA-estimated body fat percentage (BIA-BF%). Neither BMI nor BIA-BF% differed for a given stage of maturation. BMI percentile-for-age and prevalence of overweight/obesity were higher in the early compared with late matured pubertal children......OBJECTIVE: Early pubertal timing is consistently associated with increased BMI percentile-for-age in pubertal girls, while data in boys are more ambiguous. However, higher BMI percentile-for-age may be a result of the earlier puberty per se rather than vice versa. The aim was to evaluate markers...... of adiposity in relation to pubertal timing and reproductive hormone levels in healthy pubertal boys and girls. STUDY DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional study (The Copenhagen Puberty Study). Eight-hundred and two healthy Caucasian children and adolescents (486 girls) aged 8.5-16.5 years participated. BMI...

  3. Subjective Well-Being in Obese Individuals: The Multiple Roles of Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Bonnie G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the tangled web of obesity and exercise as it relates to subjective well-being. Many overweight individuals have low levels of subjective well-being as a reflection of "anti-fat" biases and sociocultural considerations. Since exercise helps balance the energy intake-output equation and is associated with mood benefits,…

  4. Impaired Fat-induced Thermogenesis in Obese Subjects: The NUGENOB Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaak, E.E.; Hul, G.; Verdich, C.; Stich, V.; Martinez, J.A.; Petersen, M.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Patel, K.; Oppert, J.M.; Barbe, P.; Tourbro, S.; Polak, J.; Anderson, I.; Astrup, A.; Macdonald, I.; Langin, D.; Sorensen, T.; Saris, W.H.M.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To study energy expenditure before and 3 hours after a high-fat load in a large cohort of obese subjects (n=701) and a lean reference group (n = 113). Research Methods and Procedures: Subjects from seven European countries underwent a 1-day clinical study with a liquid test meal challeng

  5. Proximal tubular hypertrophy and enlarged glomerular and proximal tubular urinary space in obese subjects with proteinuria.

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    Ana Tobar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with glomerular hyperfiltration, increased proximal tubular sodium reabsorption, glomerular enlargement and renal hypertrophy. A single experimental study reported an increased glomerular urinary space in obese dogs. Whether proximal tubular volume is increased in obese subjects and whether their glomerular and tubular urinary spaces are enlarged is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether proximal tubules and glomerular and tubular urinary space are enlarged in obese subjects with proteinuria and glomerular hyperfiltration. METHODS: Kidney biopsies from 11 non-diabetic obese with proteinuria and 14 non-diabetic lean patients with a creatinine clearance above 50 ml/min and with mild or no interstitial fibrosis were retrospectively analyzed using morphometric methods. The cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular epithelium and lumen, the volume of the glomerular tuft and of Bowman's space and the nuclei number per tubular profile were estimated. RESULTS: Creatinine clearance was higher in the obese than in the lean group (P=0.03. Proteinuria was similarly increased in both groups. Compared to the lean group, the obese group displayed a 104% higher glomerular tuft volume (P=0.001, a 94% higher Bowman's space volume (P=0.003, a 33% higher cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular epithelium (P=0.02 and a 54% higher cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular lumen (P=0.01. The nuclei number per proximal tubular profile was similar in both groups, suggesting that the increase in tubular volume is due to hypertrophy and not to hyperplasia. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity-related glomerular hyperfiltration is associated with proximal tubular epithelial hypertrophy and increased glomerular and tubular urinary space volume in subjects with proteinuria. The expanded glomerular and urinary space is probably a direct consequence of glomerular hyperfiltration. These effects may be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity

  6. Enhanced ROS production and oxidative damage in subcutaneous white adipose tissue mitochondria in obese and type 2 diabetes subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Mrittika; Khemka, Vineet Kumar; Chatterjee, Gargi; Ganguly, Anirban; Mukhopadhyay, Satinath; Chakrabarti, Sasanka

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress in the insulin target tissues has been implicated in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. The study has examined the oxidative stress parameters in the mitochondria of subcutaneous white adipose tissue from obese and non-obese subjects with or without type 2 diabetes. An accumulation of protein carbonyls, fluorescent lipid peroxidation products, and malondialdehyde occurs in the adipose tissue mitochondria of obese type 2 diabetic, non-diabetic obese, and non-obese diabetic subjects with the maximum increase noticed in the obese type 2 diabetes patients and the minimum in non-obese type 2 diabetics. The mitochondria from obese type 2 diabetics, non-diabetic obese, and non-obese type 2 diabetics also produce significantly more reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vitro compared to those of controls, and apparently the mitochondrial ROS production rate in each group is proportional to the respective load of oxidative damage markers. Likewise, the mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase show decreased activities most markedly in obese type 2 diabetes subjects and to a lesser degree in non-obese type 2 diabetes or non-diabetic obese subjects in comparison to control. The results imply that mitochondrial dysfunction with enhanced ROS production may contribute to the metabolic abnormality of adipose tissue in obesity and diabetes.

  7. Influence of dietary fat intake on the endocannabinoid system in lean and obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeli, Stefan; Lehmann, Anne-Christin; Kaminski, Jana; Haas, Verena; Janke, Jürgen; Zoerner, Alexander A; Luft, Friedrich C; Tsikas, Dimitrios; Jordan, Jens

    2014-05-01

    Endocannabinoid system (ECS) activation promotes obesity-associated metabolic disease. Increased dietary fat intake increases blood endocannabinoids and alters adipose and skeletal muscle ECS gene expression in human. Two weeks isocaloric low- (LFD) and high-fat diets (HFD) in obese (n = 12) and normal-weight (n = 17) subjects in a randomized cross-over study were compared. Blood endocannabinoids were measured in the fasting condition and after food intake using mass spectrometry. Adipose and skeletal muscle gene expression was determined using real-time RT-PCR. Baseline fasting plasma endocannabinoids were similar with both diets. Anandamide decreased similarly with high- or low-fat test meals in both groups. Baseline arachidonoylglycerol plasma concentrations were similar between groups and diets, and unresponsive to eating. In subcutaneous adipose tissue, DAGL-α mRNA was upregulated and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) mRNAs were down-regulated in obese subjects, but the diets had no influence. In contrast, the HFD produced pronounced reductions in skeletal muscle CB1-R and MAGL mRNA expression, whereas obesity did not affect muscular gene expression. Weight-neutral changes in dietary fat intake cannot explain excessive endocannabinoid availability in human obesity. Obesity and dietary fat intake affect ECS gene expression in a tissue-specific manner. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  8. Study of hormones correlated with gastric motility and effect of electroacupuncture in uncomplicated obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-ming GAO

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the effects of gastric motility (GM related hormones on the GM of uncomplicated obese binge eater, and to explore the effect of electroacupuncture on weight loss. Methods Thirty-two obese subjects with habit of immoderate eating and 20 healthy subjects with normal weight were enrolled. Venous blood samples were collected at 8:00p.m. after an overnight fast and collected again 30min after meal, then stored at -70℃. Serum ghrelin and GLP-1 were determined with ELISA method and motilin and leptin levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. 30min stimulation of electroacupuncture was performed daily on the obese persons for a week. On the eighth day, blood samples of the obese were collected again. Results Whether before or after meal, serum motilin and leptin levels were higher in obese group than in the control group (P0.05, and serum GLP-1 increased significantly in comparison with those before stimulation (P<0.01 in the obese group. Conclusion Electroacupuncture stimulation gives a certain therapeutic effect on loss of body weight in uncomplicated obese population with immoderate eating by affecting the endocrines related to GM. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.09.10

  9. Role of betahistine in glycemic control of obese subjects: a placebo- controlled clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hayder H. Al-Anbari; Ahmed S. Sahib; Amer O. Al-Mukhtar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Poor glycemic control, insulin resistance and abnormal beta cell function are of the most important complications that associated with obesity, targeting of such complications with pharmacological agents depending on the already existing central mechanism may decrease the incidence of morbidity and mortality among obese subjects. Betahistine is an anti-vertigo drug, commonly prescribed to patients with balance disorders or to improve vertigo symptoms associated with Meniere's dise...

  10. Association of obesity with hypertension and dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anari, Razieh; Amani, Reza; Latifi, Seyed Mahmoud; Veissi, Masoud; Shahbazian, Hajieh

    Obesity and diabetes are contributed to cardiovascular disease risk. The current study was performed to evaluate the association of central and general obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors, including dyslipidemia and hypertension in T2DM patients. This was a cross-sectional study in T2DM adults. Body mass index (BMI) was used to identify general obesity and waist circumference (WC) was measured to define abdominal obesity (based on ATP III). Biochemical analyses, and anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were done for all participants. Participants with central obesity showed significantly higher systolic (132.5mmHg vs. 125.4mmHg, p=0.024) and diastolic blood pressures (84.9mmHg vs. 80mmHg, p=0.007) than participants without obesity. Dyslipidemia was more prevalent in all participants either by BMI (98.3% vs. 97%, 95% CI: 0.18-17.53) or by WC (97.2% vs. 98%, 95% CI: 0.07-7.19). Abdominal adiposity in diabetic subjects showed significant reverse association with high level of physical activity (OR=0.22, 95% CI: 0.06-0.85). Hypertriglyceridemia rate was increased with both central (OR=2.11; p=0.040) and general obesity (OR=2.68; p=0.021). After adjustment for energy intake and age, females had higher risk of general (OR=4.57, 95% CI=1.88-11.11) and central obesity (OR=7.93, 95% CI=3.48-18.08). Females were more susceptible to obesity. Hypertension was associated with both obesity measures. Dyslipidemia, except for hypertriglyceridemia, was correlated to neither abdominal nor general obesity. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A comparative study on the clinical and polysomnographic pattern of obstructive sleep apnea among obese and non-obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Garg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was designed to compare the pattern of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA among obese and nonobese subjects regarding clinical and polysomnographic data obtained for a polysomnographic study. Methods: A cross-sectional retrospective descriptive study was conducted by analyzing polysomnographic data in 112 consecutive patients underwent a sleep study at our sleep laboratory from January 2009 to July 2010. Out of them, 81 were diagnosed to have OSA (apnea-hypopnoea Index ≥5. These patients were classified in two groups with body mass index (BMI 0.001. The minimal oxygen saturation was lower in the obese than the nonobese group (68.5 ± 13.00 vs. 80.3 ± 7.40, P0.001 and was well below 90% in both groups. Overall, the OSA in nonobese patients was mild-to-moderate as compared to that of the obese and no significant differences were observed between them as regard to age, gender, mean neck circumference, excessive daytime sleepiness, adenoid or tonsillar enlargement, smoking, and remaining polysomnographic parameters. Conclusion: Obstructive sleep apnea can occur in nonobese persons though with less severity as compared to obese leading to a concept that OSA is not restricted to obese persons only and there is a high demand of its awareness regarding evaluation, diagnosis, and management in such individuals.

  12. Beneficial Effects of Oolong Tea Consumption on Diet-induced Overweight and Obese Subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Rong-rong; CHEN Ling; LIN Bing-hui; MATSUI Yokichi; YAO Xin-sheng; KURIHARA Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the anti-obesity effects of oolong tea on diet-induced overweight or obesity. Methods: A total of 8 g of oolong tea a day for 6 weeks was ingested by 102 diet-induced overweight or obese subjects. The body fat level of the subjects was determined at the same time by taking body weight, height and waist measurements. The thickness of the subcutaneous fat layer was also determined on the abdomen 3 cm to the right of the navel by the ultrasonic echo method. On the other hand, effects of oolong tea ingestion on plasma triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) were determined. Inhibitions of pancreatic lipase by oolong tea extract and catechins in vitro were also determined. Results: A total of 70% of the severely obese subjects did show a decrease of more than 1 kg in body weight, including 22% who lost more than 3 kg. Similarly, 64% of the obese subjects and 66% of the overweight subjects lost more than 1 kg during the experiment, and the subcutaneous fat content decreased in 12% of the subjects. The correlation between weight loss and subcutaneous fat decrease in men (r=0.055) was obviously lower than that in women (r=0.440, P0.05). Moreover, the plasma levels of TG and TC of the subjects with hyperlipidemia were remarkably decreased after ingesting oolong tea for 6 weeks. In vitro assays for the inhibition of pancreatic lipase by oolong tea extract and catechins suggest that the mechanism for oolong tea to prevent hyperlipidemia may be related to the regulative action of oolong tea catechins in lipoprotein activity. Conclusions: Oolong tea could decrease body fat content and reduce body weight through improving lipid metabolism. Chronic consumption of oolong tea may prevent against obesity.

  13. Maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and pubertal development among sons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, M L; Håkonsen, L B; Vested, A

    2013-01-01

    Maternal overweight and obesity in pregnancy has been associated with earlier age of menarche in daughters as well as reduced semen quality in sons. We aimed at investigating pubertal development in sons born by mothers with a high body mass index (BMI). The study included 2522 sons of mothers...... that during pregnancy in 1984-1987 were enrolled in a mother-child cohort and gave information on their pre-pregnancy height and weight from which we calculated their BMI. Information on sons' pubertal development, assessed by age when starting regular shaving, voice break, acne and first nocturnal emission...... indicators of pubertal development, results also indicated earlier pubertal development among sons of obese mothers. After excluding sons of underweight mothers in a subanalysis, we observed an inverse trend between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and age at regular shaving, acne and first nocturnal emission...

  14. Optimization of measurement distance of 109Cd K XRF system for obese subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The precision of results obtained from the 109Cd K XRF in vivo measurement system of bone lead for obese subjects with high BMI (body mass index) was poor. The main factor affecting the precision was the distance between tibia and detector. Compared with the standard phantom, a large phantom was used to simulate the obese subject in the measurements at different distances to the detector. The counts of Compton scattering increased highly because of the tissue overlying and surrounding tibia of the obese subject. When the distance between leg and detector was too small, the instrument would produce the distorted X-ray spectra, so that the obtained data were inaccurate. In order to ensure good measurement precision and accuracy, the distance between leg and detector should be maintained at 25 mm during the counting period. Meanwhile, the dead time displayed instantly on the instrument should be controlled to around 30%.

  15. Fat balance in obese subjects: role of glycogen stores.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrauwen, P.; van Marken Lichtenbelt, W.D.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1998-01-01

    Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands. In a previous study, we showed that lean subjects are capable of rapidly adjusting fat oxidation to fat intake on a high-fat (HF) diet when glycogen stores are lowered by exhaustive exercise. However, it has bee

  16. Impact of obesity on diastolic function in subjects < or = 16 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Joan Andree; Naylor, Louise Haleh; Jones, Timothy William; Davis, Elizabeth Ann; O'Driscoll, Gerry; Ramsay, James Michael; Green, Daniel John

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of obesity on diastolic function in children and adolescents. Echocardiographic measurements were compared in 28 obese subjects (14 males, 14 females) and 15 age- and gender-matched lean controls (8 males, 7 females). Two-dimensional ultrasound imaging, M-mode imaging, and pulse-wave conventional and tissue Doppler measurements were used to assess cardiac structure and function at rest. No differences were evident between lean and obese subjects in age (13.3 +/- 0.5 vs 12.4 +/- 0.4 years), height (163 +/- 4 vs 159 +/- 2 cm), or systolic blood pressure (119 +/- 3 vs 123 +/- 2 mm Hg). Body mass (54.6 +/- 4.0 vs 85.8 +/- 3.6 kg, p ratio (6.86 +/- 0.20 vs 8.30 +/- 0.32, p ratio (2.49 +/- 0.17 vs 2.05 +/- 0.09, p < 0.05), and the deceleration time of early transmitral blood flow velocity (125.3 +/- 7.7 vs 154.5 +/- 6.8 ms, p < 0.01) were significantly different between the groups, suggesting reduced diastolic function in the obese subjects. In conclusion, these data suggest that indexes of diastolic function, including tissue Doppler measures, are significantly impaired in obese young subjects.

  17. Impaired counterregulatory hormonal and metabolic response to exhaustive exercise in obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vettor, R; Macor, C; Rossi, E; Piemonte, G; Federspil, G

    1997-08-01

    A reduction of postprandial thermogenesis has been described in obesity; insulin resistance and/or decreased sympathetic nervous system activity seem to play the major role in its pathogenesis. On the other hand, a normal energy expenditure during exercise has been reported. At present, the response and the role of catecholamines in energy metabolism during exercise in obesity have not been well clarified yet. The aim of this work was to study the metabolic and hormonal changes caused by intense exercise in obesity. Nine obese subjects and ten normal weight controls were submitted to exhaustive exercise on a cycloergometer. Blood glucose, free fatty acids (FFA), glycerol, lactate, beta-OH-butyrate, insulin, glucagon, plasma growth hormone (HGH), catecholamine plasma levels were assayed before and at the end of exercise, and after a recovery period. The energy cost of exercise was evaluated by indirect calorimetry. In our experiment muscular exercise did not provoke any change in blood glucose and FFA plasma levels in either of our groups. In the obese subjects the insulin plasma levels were higher than in the controls. Glucagon plasma levels did not change. The exercise responses of norepinephrine (NE) (4.28 +/- 0.74 vs 8.81 +/- 1.35 nmol/l; P exercise, the thermic effect of exercise did not differ between obese and control subjects (0.335 +/- 0.038 vs 0.425 +/- 0.040 kJ/min x kg fat-free mass. Our findings indicate that an impaired counterregulatory hormone response to exercise exists in obese subjects. The thermic effect of exercise does not seem to be affected by either the reduced catecholamine response nor insulin resistance.

  18. Subjective evaluation of psychosocial well-being in children and youths with overweight or obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Hamann, Sophie Amalie; Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of a multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment programme on subjective evaluations of psychosocial well-being and quality of life. METHODS: This longitudinal observational study included 1291 children, adolescents and young adults, 6-22 years of age.......0001), independent of BMI SDS at entry. However, improvements in psychosocial well-being were also observed in those increasing their BMI SDS (n = 315). CONCLUSIONS: In a large group of children and youths, psychosocial well-being improved during a multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment programme......, with overweight or obesity. At entry and after 2-82 months of obesity treatment, the patients evaluated the following domains of psychosocial well-being on a visual analogue scale: quality of life, mood, appetite, bullying, motivation for weight loss and body image satisfaction. The degree of overweight...

  19. Metabolic and physiologic effects of an endotoxin challenge in healthy obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Marcel; Berger, Mette M; Pittet, Yann K; Delodder, Frederik; Tappy, Luc; Feihl, François; Chioléro, René L

    2011-09-01

    The obesity epidemic has increased the number of obese patients admitted to the ICU. In vitro studies suggest that adipose tissue response to inflammation is enhanced: in vivo data are not conclusive yet. The aim of this study was to test the physiologic response of healthy obese subjects to a standardized intravenous LPS challenge. Prospective single-blind, randomized, cross-over study in eight subjects (four men, four women), aged 34 ± 7 years, BMI 34·7 ± 4·2, without glucose intolerance and lipid abnormalities, testing the impact of intravenous LPS (2 ng kg(-1) of actual body weight) versus placebo. Temperature, hemodynamic variables, indirect calorimetry and blood samples (TNF-α, IL-6, stress hormones, hs-CRP) were collected. After LPS temperature, heart rate, TNF-α and Il-6 concentrations and stress hormones (cortisol and glucagon) increased significantly, with maximal responses between 120 and 240 min after the injection. The pattern, the timing and the magnitude of change were similar to those observed in lean subjects. This study shows that healthy obese subjects have a similar response pattern to intravenous LPS as described in lean subjects. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging © 2011 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  20. Substrate Metabolism and Insulin Sensitivity During Fasting in Obese Human Subjects: Impact of GH Blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Morten Høgild; Svart, Mads Vandsted; Lebeck, Janne; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans; Pedersen, Steen Bønløkke; Møller, Niels; Jessen, Niels; Jørgensen, Jens O L

    2017-04-01

    Insulin resistance and metabolic inflexibility are features of obesity and are amplified by fasting. Growth hormone (GH) secretion increases during fasting and GH causes insulin resistance. To study the metabolic effects of GH blockade during fasting in obese subjects. Nine obese males were studied thrice in a randomized design: (1) after an overnight fast (control), (2) after 72 hour fasting (fasting), and (3) after 72 hour fasting with GH blockade (pegvisomant) [fasting plus GH antagonist (GHA)]. Each study day consisted of a 4-hour basal period followed by a 2-hour hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp combined with indirect calorimetry, assessment of glucose and palmitate turnover, and muscle and fat biopsies. GH levels increased with fasting (P fasting-induced reduction of serum insulin-like growth factor I was enhanced by GHA (P Fasting increased lipolysis and lipid oxidation independent of GHA, but fasting plus GHA caused a more pronounced suppression of lipid intermediates in response to hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp. Fasting-induced insulin resistance was abrogated by GHA (P Fasting plus GHA also caused elevated glycerol levels and reduced levels of counterregulatory hormones. Fasting significantly reduced the expression of antilipolytic signals in adipose tissue independent of GHA. Suppression of GH activity during fasting in obese subjects reverses insulin resistance and amplifies insulin-stimulated suppression of lipid intermediates, indicating that GH is an important regulator of substrate metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and metabolic flexibility also in obese subjects.

  1. Differential representation of liver proteins in obese human subjects suggests novel biomarkers and promising targets for drug development in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caira, Simonetta; Iannelli, Antonio; Sciarrillo, Rosaria; Picariello, Gianluca; Renzone, Giovanni; Scaloni, Andrea; Addeo, Pietro

    2017-12-01

    The proteome of liver biopsies from human obese (O) subjects has been compared to those of nonobese (NO) subjects using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). Differentially represented proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS)-based peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) and nanoflow-liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-ESI-MS/MS). Overall, 61 gene products common to all of the liver biopsies were identified within 65 spots, among which 25 ones were differently represented between O and NO subjects. In particular, over-representation of short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, Δ(3,5)-Δ(2,4)dienoyl-CoA isomerase, acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase, glyoxylate reductase/hydroxypyruvate reductase, fructose-biphosphate aldolase B, peroxiredoxin I, protein DJ-1, catalase, α- and β-hemoglobin subunits, 3-mercaptopyruvate S-transferase, calreticulin, aminoacylase 1, phenazine biosynthesis-like domain-containing protein and a form of fatty acid-binding protein, together with downrepresentation of glutamate dehydrogenase, glutathione S-transferase A1, S-adenosylmethionine synthase 1A and a form of apolipoprotein A-I, was associated with the obesity condition. Some of these metabolic enzymes and antioxidant proteins have already been identified as putative diagnostic markers of liver dysfunction in animal models of steatosis or obesity, suggesting additional investigations on their role in these syndromes. Their differential representation in human liver was suggestive of their consideration as obesity human biomarkers and for the development of novel antiobesity drugs.

  2. Distinctive modulation of inflammatory and metabolic parameters in relation to zinc nutritional status in adult overweight/obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costarelli, Laura; Muti, Elisa; Malavolta, Marco; Cipriano, Catia; Giacconi, Robertina; Tesei, Silvia; Piacenza, Francesco; Pierpaoli, Sara; Gasparini, Nazzarena; Faloia, Emanuela; Tirabassi, Giacomo; Boscaro, Marco; Polito, Angela; Mauro, Beatrice; Maiani, Francesca; Raguzzini, Anna; Marcellini, Fiorella; Giuli, Cinzia; Papa, Roberta; Emanuelli, Monica; Lattanzio, Fabrizia; Mocchegiani, Eugenio

    2010-05-01

    Overweight and obesity are associated with low grade of inflammation and chronic inflammatory response characterized by abnormal production and activation of some pro-inflammatory signalling pathways. Taking into account that obesity is the direct result of an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure, the nutritional factors in the diet, with particular focus on zinc, may play a pivotal role in the development of obesity-associated comorbidities. Considering the potential interactions among zinc nutritional status, inflammation, overweight/obesity and insulin secretion, the aim of the present work was to clarify the influence of zinc dietary intake on some metabolic, inflammatory and zinc status parameters in adult overweight/obese subjects. We found a close interrelationship between nutritional zinc and obesity. In particular, subjects with a lower zinc dietary intake display a deeper inflammatory status, general impairment of the zinc status, an altered lipid profile and increased insulin production with respect to obese subjects with normal zinc dietary intake. Moreover, in the presence of low dietary zinc intake, the obese subjects are less capable to respond to oxidative stress and to inflammation leading to the development of obesity or to a worsening of already preexisting obesity status. In conclusion, a possible zinc supplementation in obese subjects with a deeper inflammatory status and more altered zinc profile may be suggested in order to limit or reduce the inflammation, taking also into account that zinc supplementation normalizes "inflammaging" as well as zinc profile leading to a correct intra- and extracellular zinc homeostasis.

  3. The relationship between vitamin D status, physical activity and insulin resistance in overweight and obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülis Kavadar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM incidence has been increasing worldwide along with the rise of obesity and sedantery lifestyle. Decreased physical activity (PA and obesity have also been associated with the low vitamin D levels. We aimed to determine the association between PA, vitamin D status and insulin resistance in overweight and obese subjects. A total of 294 (186 female, 108 male overweight or obese subjects were included in this cross-sectional study. 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OHD, insulin, fasting plasma glucose (FPG and HbA1c levels were measured in blood samples. Body mass index (BMI, HOMA-index and total score of International Physical Activity Questionnaire-long form (IPAQ were calculated. Insulin resistant subjects were compared with the non-resistant group. The mean age of the participants was 45±12.25 and 41.39±10.32; 25(OHD levels were 8.91 ± 4.30 and 17.62 ± 10.47 ng/dL; BMIs were 31.29 ± 4.48  and 28.2 ± 3.16 kg/m², IPAQ total scores were 548.71±382.81 and 998±486.21 in the insulin resistant and nonresistant subjects, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference in terms of 25(OHD, FPG, insulin levels, IPAQ  total score and BMI between the two groups (p = 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.001.Significantly low 25(OHD levels, high BMI and low PA in insulin resistant subjects confirm the importance of active lifestyle and the maintenance of normal vitamin D levels in overweight and obese subjects in prevention of T2DM.

  4. Effects of energy restriction on acute adrenoceptor and metabolic responses to exercise in obese subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, K.P.G.; Saris, W.H.M.; Senden, J.M.G.; Menheere, P.P.C.A.; Blaak, E.E.; van Baak, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    Effects of energy restriction on acute adrenoceptor and metabolic responses to exercise in obese subjects. Kempen KP, Saris WH, Senden JM, Menheere PP, Blaak EE, van Baak MA. Department of Human Biology, University of Limburg, Maastricht, The Netherlands. This study was intended to investigate the e

  5. Effects of energy restriction on acute adrenoceptor and metabolic responses to exercise in obese subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, K.P.G.; Saris, W.H.M.; Senden, J.M.G.; Menheere, P.P.C.A.; Blaak, E.E.; van Baak, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    Effects of energy restriction on acute adrenoceptor and metabolic responses to exercise in obese subjects. Kempen KP, Saris WH, Senden JM, Menheere PP, Blaak EE, van Baak MA. Department of Human Biology, University of Limburg, Maastricht, The Netherlands. This study was intended to investigate the e

  6. Diabetes is the main factor accounting for hypomagnesemia in obese subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Lecube

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes (T2DM and obesity are associated with magnesium deficiency. We aimed to determine whether the presence of type 2 diabetes and the degree of metabolic control are related to low serum magnesium levels in obese individuals. METHODS: A Case-control study: 200 obese subjects [50 with T2DM (cases and 150 without diabetes (controls] prospectively recruited. B Interventional study: the effect of bariatric surgery on serum magnesium levels was examined in a subset of 120 obese subjects (40 with type 2 diabetes and 80 without diabetes. RESULTS: Type 2 diabetic patients showed lower serum magnesium levels [0.75±0.07 vs. 0.81±0.06 mmol/L; mean difference -0.06 (95% CI -0.09 to -0.04; p<0.001] than non-diabetic patients. Forty-eight percent of diabetic subjects, but only 15% of non-diabetic subjects showed a serum magnesium concentration lower than 0.75 mmol/L. Significant negative correlations between magnesium and fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, HOMA-IR, and BMI were detected. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c independently predicted serum magnesium. After bariatric surgery serum magnesium increased only in those patients in whom diabetes was resolved, but remain unchanged in those who not, without difference in loss weight between groups. Changes in serum magnesium negatively correlated with changes in fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c. Absolute changes in HbA1c independently predicted magnesium changes in the multiple linear regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide evidence that the presence of diabetes and the degree of metabolic control are essential in accounting for the lower levels of magnesium that exist in obese subjects.

  7. Racial disparities in pubertal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramnitz, Mary Scott; Lodish, Maya B

    2013-09-01

    The question of whether or not children, particularly girls, are entering puberty earlier than they did in the past has been a concern in both the medical community and the general population. A secular trend analysis of the current data on pubertal timing in boys and girls is limited by variations in the study design, the population assessed, and the methods used to determine pubertal development. These differences present a challenge when interpreting the available data, especially when comparing multiple studies. The influence of race on pubertal timing and development had not been assessed before the 1970s. The purpose of this article is to review the reported variations in pubertal timing among different racial/ethnic groups. Data suggest African American girls enter puberty earlier and reach menarche earlier than Caucasian and Hispanic girls. In addition, the trend toward earlier timing of puberty seems to be occurring faster in African American girls compared with Caucasian girls over the past 25 years. While the mechanism and understanding of the cause of racial disparities in pubertal development remain to be discerned, genetic and/or environmental factors may play a role and require further investigation.

  8. Elite athletes and pubertal delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapczuk, Karina

    2017-10-01

    Intensive physical training and participation in competitive sports during childhood and early adolescence may affect athletes' pubertal development. On the other hand, pubertal timing, early or late, may impact on an athlete selection for a particular sport. Genetic predisposition, training load, nutritional status and psychological stress determine athletes' pubertal timing. Athletes that practice esthetic sports, especially gymnasts, are predisposed to a delay in pubertal development. The growing evidence indicates that energy deficiency, not a systemic training per se, plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of functional hypothalamic hypogonadism in female athletes. Metabolic and psychologic stress activate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and suppress hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Female athletes who do not begin secondary sexual development by the age of 14 or menstruation by the age of 16 warrant a comprehensive evaluation and a targeted treatment. Somatic growth and sexual maturation of elite female athletes are largely sport-specific since each sport favors a particular somatotype and requires a specific training. Chronic negative energy balance resulting from a systemic physical training and inadequate energy intake may delay pubertal development in elite athletes. Youth athletes, especially those engaged in competitive sports that emphasize prepubertal or lean appearance, are at risk of developing relative energy deficiency in sport associated with disordered eating or eating disorders. Management strategies should address the complex conditions underlying functional hypothalamic hypogonadism.

  9. Dietary patterns differently associate with inflammation and gut microbiota in overweight and obese subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Chun Kong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Associations between dietary patterns, metabolic and inflammatory markers and gut microbiota are yet to be elucidated. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to characterize dietary patterns in overweight and obese subjects and evaluate the different dietary patterns in relation to metabolic and inflammatory variables as well as gut microbiota. DESIGN: Dietary patterns, plasma and adipose tissue markers, and gut microbiota were evaluated in a group of 45 overweight and obese subjects (6 men and 39 women. A group of 14 lean subjects were also evaluated as a reference group. RESULTS: Three clusters of dietary patterns were identified in overweight/obese subjects. Cluster 1 had the least healthy eating behavior (highest consumption of potatoes, confectionary and sugary drinks, and the lowest consumption of fruits that was associated also with low consumption of yogurt, and water. This dietary pattern was associated with the highest LDL cholesterol, plasma soluble CD14 (p = 0.01 a marker of systemic inflammation but the lowest accumulation of CD163+ macrophages with anti-inflammatory profile in adipose tissue (p = 0.05. Cluster 3 had the healthiest eating behavior (lower consumption of confectionary and sugary drinks, and highest consumption of fruits but also yogurts and soups. Subjects in this Cluster had the lowest inflammatory markers (sCD14 and the highest anti-inflammatory adipose tissue CD163+ macrophages. Dietary intakes, insulin sensitivity and some inflammatory markers (plasma IL6 in Cluster 3 were close to those of lean subjects. Cluster 2 was in-between clusters 1 and 3 in terms of healthfulness. The 7 gut microbiota groups measured by qPCR were similar across the clusters. However, the healthiest dietary cluster had the highest microbial gene richness, as evaluated by quantitative metagenomics. CONCLUSION: A healthier dietary pattern was associated with lower inflammatory markers as well as greater gut microbiota richness in

  10. Resting energy expenditure and gut microbiota in obese and normal weight subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocełak, P; Zak-Gołąb, A; Zahorska-Markiewicz, B; Aptekorz, M; Zientara, M; Martirosian, G; Chudek, J; Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, M

    2013-10-01

    It is suggested that gut microbiota play a role in the pathogenesis of obesity enhancing energy utilization from digested food. The influence of gut microbiota on resting energy expenditure (REE) has not been evaluated yet. The aim of the study is to assess the composition on gut microbiota and its association with REE in obese and normal weight subjects. REE measurement and semi-quantitative analysis of gut microbiota composition in aerobic and anaerobic conditions were performed in 50 obese and 30 normal weight subjects without concomitant diseases. A count of bacterial colony was greater in obese than in normal weight subjects. However, the proportion of Bacteroides spp. and Firmicutes was similar in both study groups. A positive correlation between REE (kcal/d) and total bacterial count (r = 0.26, p Bacteroides spp. and Firmicutes counts on REE. The composition of gut microbiota is not associated with the level of resting energy expenditure. The proportion of Bacteroides and Firmicutes in gut microbiota is not related to body mass.

  11. Serum Resistin Levels Are Associated with Adiposity and Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Hispanic Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieva-Vazquez, Adriana; Torres-Rasgado, Enrique; López-López, José G.; Romero, Jose R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background and Aims: Resistin is involved in the development of obesity and insulin resistance (IR) in mice and may play a similar role in humans through mechanisms that remain unresolved. The objective of this study was to characterize the relationship between resistin levels in obese subjects with and without IR among Hispanic subjects. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on 117 nondiabetic Hispanic subjects of both genders that were allocated into three study groups: A control group (n=47) of otherwise healthy individuals in metabolic balance, a group with obesity (OB) (n=36), and a group with obesity and IR (OB-IR) (n=34). Anthropometric and clinical characterization was carried out, and resistin levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: We found that resistin levels were higher in OB and OB-IR groups when compared to the control group (1331.79±142.15 pg/mL, 1266.28±165.97 pg/mL vs. 959.21±171.43 pg/mL; P<0.05), an effect that was not confounded by age (control, 34.04±10.00 years; OB, 37.30±10.78 years; and OB-IR, 35.67±10.15 years). In addition, we observed a significant correlation (P<0.001) between resistin levels and higher adiposity and insulin sensitivity (IS) in our cohort. Conclusions: Our results suggest that higher resistin levels are associated with higher adiposity and lower IS among obese Hispanic subjects. PMID:24266722

  12. Similar to adiponectin, serum levels of osteoprotegerin are associated with obesity in healthy subjects.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ashley, David T

    2011-07-01

    An increase in serum osteoprotegerin (OPG) is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the severity of vascular calcification, and coronary artery disease. Obesity is a risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease, but little is known about the relationship between OPG and obesity. The purpose of this study was to determine if changes in body mass index (BMI) and insulin sensitivity influence circulating OPG in healthy subjects. A total of 100 subjects (36 lean, 41 overweight, and 23 obese) with normal glucose tolerance, blood pressure, and electrocardiogram stress test result volunteered for this study. Insulin sensitivity was estimated using a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test with oral glucose insulin sensitivity analysis. Osteoprotegerin, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL),soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-κβ ligand (sRANKL), and adiponectin were analyzed using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Osteoprotegerin (P < .01) and adiponectin (P < .001) were significantly decreased in the obese compared with lean subjects. There was no significant difference between BMI categories for TRAIL or sRANKL. Controlling for age and sex, there was a significant correlation between OPG and adiponectin (r = 0.391, P < .001), BMI (r = -0.331, P < .001), waist circumference (r = -0.268, P < .01), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (r = -0.222, P < .05), and oral glucose insulin sensitivity (r = 0.221, P < .05). Both OPG and adiponectin were negatively correlated with body weight, BMI, waist circumference, and fasting plasma insulin while being positively correlated with insulin sensitivity (P < .05). Controlling for age, sex, and BMI, TRAIL was positively related to fat mass (r = 0.373, P < .001) and waist circumference (r = 0.257, P < .05). In contrast to patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, circulating OPG is lower in obese, but otherwise healthy subjects and is positively correlated

  13. STUDY ON OBESITY RELATED FACTORS: FFA, LEPTIN AND ADIPONECTIN IN SUBJECTS WITH VARYING GLUCOSE TOLERANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾卫琼; 洪洁; 张翼飞; 宁光; 陈名道; 唐金凤

    2005-01-01

    Objective To study the fasting serum levels of obesity related factors: FFA, leptin and adiponectin in subjects with varying glucose tolerance and their relationship with BMI, insulin sensitivity index and islet beta-cell function. Methods Serum levels of FFA, leptin and adiponectin in 24 normal, 32 simple obese, 34IGT and 36 T2DM subjects were measured by ACS-ACOD assay or RIA. Results The serum levels of leptin and FFA in three groups: simple obese, IGT and DM were much higher than those in normal control (P<0. 001 ). In contrast, serum level of adiponectin of simple obese, IGT and DM groups were significant lower than that of normal control, among them DM subjects had the lowest level ( P<0. 001 ). Correlation analysis showed that FFA was positively correlated to BMI, WHR, FBG, fasting insulin level and negatively correlated to SI; adiponectin was negatively correlated to BMI, WHR, FBG, PBG, but positively correlated to SI and AIRg; and leptin was positively correlated to BMI, fasting insulin and AIRg when negatively correlated to FBG and SI. None of them was correlated to age.Conclusion Subjects with insulin resistance have high serum FFA and leptin levels but low serum adiponectin level.With the glucose tolerance deterioration, serum FFA level increases much higher while the adiponectin deceases much lower. Unlike insulin, none of these obesity related factors can be used as the simple indicating or determining factor of SI, though each of them, to different extent, takes part in the development of insulin resistance.

  14. Normal sweat secretion despite impaired growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-I axis in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M H; Juul, Anders; Main, Katharina M;

    2011-01-01

    Adults with GH deficiency are known to exhibit reduced sweating. Whether sweating capacity is impacted in obese subjects with impaired GH secretion have not previously been investigated. The main objective was to investigate sweat secretion rate and the GH-IGF-I axis in obese subjects before......, and impaired insulin sensitivity, which all were normalised after diet-induced weight loss of 30 ± 5 kg. Sweat secretion rates were similar comparing obese and nonobese subjects (78 ± 10 versus 82 ± 9 mg/30 minutes) and sweat secretion did not change after a diet-induced weight loss in obese subjects. We...... conclude that although obese subjects have markedly reduced GH release and impaired IGF-I levels, sweat secretion rate is found to be normal....

  15. Effect of gender on lipid-induced insulin resistance in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Bodil; Hellgren, Lars; Vadset, T.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: In obese subjects, chronically elevated plasma concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) exert a marked risk to contract insulin resistance and subsequently type 2 diabetes. When NEFA is acutely increased due to i.v. infusion of lipid, glucose disposal during...... a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp is reduced. This effect has been explained by a NEFA-induced decrease in skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity caused by accumulation of the lipid intermediates Such as ceramide and diacylglycerol in the myocytes. However, neither the lipid-induced reduction of glucose disposal nor...... the clamp was similar in females and males (46+/-10 and 60+/-4%,, respectively, NS). However, whole-body insulin sensitivity as well as non-oxidative glucose disposal was higher in obese females compared with obese males both during lipid and saline infusion (P...

  16. Differences in Ventilatory Threshold for Exercise Prescription in Outpatient Diabetic and Sarcopenic Obese Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Pietro Emerenziani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to examine cardiorespiratory parameters at individual ventilatory threshold (IVT and peak exercise capacity (V˙O2peak in outpatient diabetic and sarcopenic obese subjects. Seventeen obese subjects (BMI: 36.6±4.1 kg·m−1 and sixteen SO subjects (BMI: 37.0±7.3 kg·m−1 were compared with sixteen T2DM subjects (BMI: 37.7±5.6 kg·m−1. All groups performed an incremental exercise test on a treadmill according to their physical ability. V˙O2peak, %HRmax, and maximal metabolic equivalent (METmax were evaluated at maximal effort. Moreover, V˙O2ivt, %V˙O2peak, %HRmax, %HRR, ΔHR, and METivt were assessed at IVT. No significant differences were found in any physiological parameters at maximal effort (V˙O2peak, %HRmax, and METmax in all groups. On the contrary, V˙O2ivt, %V˙O2peak, %HRmax, %HRR, ΔHR, and METivt were significantly lower in T2DM subjects as compared to OB and SO subjects at IVT (p<0.05. Our results show that while at maximal effort there are no differences among groups, at IVT the physiological parameters are lower in T2DM subjects than in OB and SO subjects. Therefore, due to the differences observed in the groups, we suggest usng the IVT as a useful parameter to prescribe aerobic exercise in obese with sarcopenia or diabetes mellitus conditions.

  17. Physical Stress may Result in Growth Suppression and Pubertal Delay in Working Boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Irfan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Child labour is an immense problem in Pakistan. As labour boys are put under persistent/severe physical stress, we hypothesised, that it may result in higher levels of cortisol and exhaust glycogen, fats and protein. Depletion of fats may result in lower body weight, and insufficient leptin concentrations could excite gonadotropic releasing hormone (GnRH at normal time of puberty in working boys. Moreover, lower testosterone levels in working boys, due to delayed puberty, may result in suppression of somatotropic axis. Short/weak stature and failure of onset of puberty may cause poor performance, inferiority complex and psychological disorders. Therefore, the present study is designed to find out the timing of onset of puberty in working boys. The study will include 10–18 years of working boys as case and non-working boys of the same age group as control. Working boys will be labour boys, while the control group will not be involved in physical work. A questionnaire will be used to record socioeconomic status, major diseases, nutritional status, type and duration of work and family history of puberty, growth and obesity of subjects. Boys with familial history of pubertal delay, obesity, malnutrition, mental disorders, haematological diseases and severe/chronic diseases will be excluded. The intensity of physical working stress will be determined by a grading scale. The anthropometric data including height, weight, body mass index (BMI, bone age and tests of adiposity will be collected from subjects. The stages of pubertal onset will be determined by Tanner staging. Serum concentrations of hormones of growth, thyroid, adrenal, brain–gut and gonadal axis will be determined in non-working and working boys. Physical and hormonal tests of the working boys and the comparison with non-working boys are sufficient to test the idea

  18. Physical Stress May Result in Growth Suppression and Pubertal Delay in Working Boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazhar Qayyum

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Child labor is an immense problem of Pakistan. As labor boys stay under persistent/severe physical stress, we hypothesized, that it may result in higher levels of cortisol and exhaust glycogen, fats and proteins. Depletion of fats may result in lower body weight, and insufficient leptin concentrations to excite gonadotropic releasing hormone (GnRH at the normal time of puberty in working boys. Moreover, lower testosterone levels in working boys, due to delayed puberty, may result in suppression of somatotropic axis. The Short/weak stature and failure of the onset of puberty may cause poor performance, the inferiority complex and psychological disorders. Therefore, present study is designed to find out timing of onset of the puberty in working boys. The study will include 10-18 years of working boys as a case and non-working boys of same age groups as control. Working boys will be labor boys while the control group will not be involved in physical work. A questionnaire will be used to record socioeconomic status, major diseases, nutritional status, type, and duration of work and family history of puberty, growth and obesity of subjects. Boys with familial history of pubertal delay, obesity, malnutrition, mental disorders, hematological diseases and severe/chronic diseases will be excluded. The intensity of physical working stress will be determined by a grading scale. The anthropometric data including height, weight, body mass index (BMI, bone age, tests of adiposity will be collected from subjects. The stages of pubertal onset will be determined by Tanner staging. Serum concentrations of hormones of growth, thyroid, adrenal, brain-gut and gonadal axis will be determined in nonworking and working boys. Physical and hormonal tests of the working boys and comparison with non-working boys are sufficient to test the idea.

  19. Normal sweat secretion despite impaired growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-I axis in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael Højby; Juul, Anders; Main, Katharina M

    2011-01-01

    and after weight loss. Sixteen severely obese women (BMI, 40.6 ± 1.1 kg/m(2)) were investigated before and after a diet-induced weight loss. Sixteen age-matched nonobese women served as controls. The obese subjects presented the characteristic decreased GH release, hyperinsulinaemia, increased FFA levels......, and impaired insulin sensitivity, which all were normalised after diet-induced weight loss of 30 ± 5 kg. Sweat secretion rates were similar comparing obese and nonobese subjects (78 ± 10 versus 82 ± 9 mg/30 minutes) and sweat secretion did not change after a diet-induced weight loss in obese subjects. We...... conclude that although obese subjects have markedly reduced GH release and impaired IGF-I levels, sweat secretion rate is found to be normal....

  20. Acute differential effects of dietary protein quality on postprandial lipemia in obese non-diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmer-Jensen, Jens; Mortensen, Lene S; Astrup, Arne

    2013-01-01

    Non-fasting triglyceridemia is much closer associated to cardiovascular risk compared to fasting triglyceridemia. We hypothesized that there would be acute differential effects of four common dietary proteins (cod protein, whey isolate, gluten, and casein) on postprandial lipemia in obese non......-diabetic subjects. To test the hypothesis we conducted a randomized, acute clinical intervention study with crossover design. We supplemented a fat rich mixed meal with one of four dietary proteins i.e. cod protein, whey protein, gluten or casein. Eleven obese non-diabetic subjects (age: 40-68, body mass index: 30.......3-42.0 kg/m(2)) participated and blood samples were drawn in the 8-h postprandial period. Supplementation of a fat rich mixed meal with whey protein caused lower postprandial lipemia (P = .048) compared to supplementation with cod protein and gluten. This was primarily due to lower triglyceride...

  1. Serum IL-12 Is Increased in Mexican Obese Subjects and Associated with Low-Grade Inflammation and Obesity-Related Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Suárez-Álvarez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-(IL- 12 has been recently suggested to participate during development of insulin resistance in obese mice. Nevertheless, serum IL-12 levels have not been accurately determined in overweight and obese humans. We thus studied serum concentrations of IL-12 in Mexican adult individuals, examining their relationship with low-grade inflammation and obesity-related parameters. A total of 147 healthy individuals, 43 normal weight, 61 overweight, and 43 obese subjects participated in the study. Circulating levels of IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, leptin, insulin, glucose, total cholesterol, and triglyceride were measured after overnight fasting in all of the study subjects. Waist circumference and body fat percentage were recorded for all the participants. Serum IL-12 was significantly higher in overweight and obese individuals than in normal weight controls. Besides being strongly related with body mass index (r=0.5154, serum IL-12 exhibited a significant relationship with abdominal obesity (r=0.4481, body fat percentage (r=0.5625, serum glucose (r=0.3158, triglyceride (r=0.3714, and TNF-α (r=0.4717. Thus, serum levels of IL-12 are increased in overweight and obese individuals and show a strong relationship with markers of low-grade inflammation and obesity in the Mexican adult population. Further research is needed to understand the role of IL-12 in developing obesity-associated alterations in humans.

  2. Hormonal and Dietary Characteristics in Obese Human Subjects with and without Food Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardis Pedram

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of food addiction (FA is a potentially important contributing factor to the development of obesity in the general population; however, little is known about the hormonal and dietary differences between obesity with and without FA. Therefore, the aim of our study was to explore potential biomarkers, including various hormones and neuropeptides, which regulate appetite and metabolism, and dietary components that could potentially differentiate obesity with and without FA. Of the 737 adults recruited from the general Newfoundland population, 58 food-addicted and non-food-addicted overweight/obese individuals (FAO, NFO matched for age, sex, BMI and physical activity were selected. A total of 34 neuropeptides, gut hormones, pituitary polypeptide hormones and adipokines were measured in fasting serum. We found that the FAO group had lower levels of TSH, TNF-α and amylin, but higher levels of prolactin, as compared to NFO group. The total calorie intake (per kg body weight, the dietary intake of fat (per g/kg body weight, per BMI and per percentage of trunk fat and the percent calorie intake from fat and carbohydrates (g/kg was higher in the FAO group compared to the NFO group. The FAO subjects consumed more sugar, minerals (including sodium, potassium, calcium and selenium, fat and its components (such as saturated, monounsaturated and trans fat, omega 3 and 6, vitamin D and gamma-tocopherol compared to the NFO group. To our knowledge, this is the first study indicating possible differences in hormonal levels and micro-nutrient intakes between obese individuals classified with and without food addiction. The findings provide insights into the mechanisms by which FA could contribute to obesity.

  3. Hormonal and dietary characteristics in obese human subjects with and without food addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedram, Pardis; Sun, Guang

    2014-12-31

    The concept of food addiction (FA) is a potentially important contributing factor to the development of obesity in the general population; however, little is known about the hormonal and dietary differences between obesity with and without FA. Therefore, the aim of our study was to explore potential biomarkers, including various hormones and neuropeptides, which regulate appetite and metabolism, and dietary components that could potentially differentiate obesity with and without FA. Of the 737 adults recruited from the general Newfoundland population, 58 food-addicted and non-food-addicted overweight/obese individuals (FAO, NFO) matched for age, sex, BMI and physical activity were selected. A total of 34 neuropeptides, gut hormones, pituitary polypeptide hormones and adipokines were measured in fasting serum. We found that the FAO group had lower levels of TSH, TNF-α and amylin, but higher levels of prolactin, as compared to NFO group. The total calorie intake (per kg body weight), the dietary intake of fat (per g/kg body weight, per BMI and per percentage of trunk fat) and the percent calorie intake from fat and carbohydrates (g/kg) was higher in the FAO group compared to the NFO group. The FAO subjects consumed more sugar, minerals (including sodium, potassium, calcium and selenium), fat and its components (such as saturated, monounsaturated and trans fat), omega 3 and 6, vitamin D and gamma-tocopherol compared to the NFO group. To our knowledge, this is the first study indicating possible differences in hormonal levels and micro-nutrient intakes between obese individuals classified with and without food addiction. The findings provide insights into the mechanisms by which FA could contribute to obesity.

  4. Pro- and mature IGF-II during diet-induced weight loss in obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espelund, Ulrick; Bruun, Jens Meldgaard; Richelsen, Bjørn; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Frystyk, Jan

    2005-12-01

    In normal subjects up to 10% of circulating insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) consists of pro-IGF-II. However, its regulation and biological impact remains unknown. In obese subjects, serum free and total IGF-II are increased, and we therefore investigated the impact of obesity and diet on serum pro-IGF-II. Non-diabetic, obese subjects (n = 34) with a body mass index (BMI) of 38.9 +/- 0.5 kg/m2 were subjected to 8 weeks with very low calorie diet (800 kcal/day) followed by 12 weeks with a weight-stabilizing diet. Fasting serum was collected before the study, and after 8 and 20 weeks. Pro-IGF-II was determined after acid-gel chromatography using a novel, highly specific in-house assay, free and total IGFs were measured after ultrafiltration and acid-ethanol extraction, respectively, and IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) were measured with specific immunoassays. Diet reduced BMI and fasting levels of insulin and glucose (P < 0.001). Serum pro-IGF-II was markedly reduced in obese subjects as compared with matched normal-weight controls (means and 95% confidence intervals: 93 microg/l (82-104 microg/l) versus 171 microg/l (152-192 microg/l), respectively; P < 0.001), and levels remained unchanged after the weight loss. In contrast, during the study period total and free IGF-II decreased (P < 0.05), whereas total IGF-I, IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 increased (P < 0.001). Serum free IGF-I remained unaltered. Cross-sectional and longitudinal correlation analyses showed that pro-IGF-II was closer and more consistently associated with IGF-I than IGF-II. This study demonstrates that pro-IGF-II is reduced in obesity, in contrast to mature IGF-II. This indicates a hitherto unrecognized link between nutrition and pro-IGF-II. In addition, our data indicate that pro-IGF-II is regulated independently of mature IGF-II.

  5. Fatty Liver Index Associates with Relative Sarcopenia and GH/ IGF- 1 Status in Obese Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Poggiogalle

    Full Text Available Recently the association between hepatic steatosis and sarcopenia has been described. GH/IGF-1 axis has been postulated to play a role in linking fatty liver and low muscle mass. The aim of our study was to explore the association between fatty liver index, sarcopenic obesity, insulin sensitivity, and GH/IGF-1 status.427 subjects [age: 45.65±13.94 years, BMI: 36.92±6.43 kg/m2] were enrolled. Participants were divided into three groups: fatty liver index (FLI <20, 20≥FLI<60, and FLI≥60. Body composition was assessed by DXA. The truncal fat mass (TrFM to appendicular skeletal muscle (ASM ratio was used as an indicator of sarcopenic obesity. ISI-Matsuda index was used.BMI, fat mass, and the TrFM/ASM ratio were higher in subjects with FLI≥60. GH, IGF-1 and ISI-Matsuda were lower in the high FLI group (all p<0.05. A significantly positive correlation between FLI and TrFM/ ASM ratio (r = 0.221, p<0.001 was found, whereas FLI levels were negatively correlated with ISI- Matsuda (r = -0.335, p<0.001, GH (r = -0.200, p = 0.006, and IGF- 1 levels (r = -0.157, p = 0.028. Stepwise linear regression analysis showed that GH levels were significantly negatively correlated with FLI, while the TrFM/ ASM ratio was positively associated with FLI, after adjustment for age, BMI, total fat mass, truncal fat mass, fat- free mass, and ISI- Matsuda.Impairment of GH/IGF-1 axis seems to be associated to the risk of the development of sarcopenic obesity and ectopic fat deposition in the liver. Metabolic and hormonal derangements as determinants of ectopic fat deposition and body composition deserve to be evaluated in obese subjects.

  6. Beneficial Effects of an 8-Week, Very Low Carbohydrate Diet Intervention on Obese Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yunjuan; Yu, Haoyong; Li, Yuehua; Ma, Xiaojing; Lu, Junxi; Yu, Weihui; Xiao, Yunfeng; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the effects of weight loss during an 8-week very low carbohydrate diet (VLCD) on improvement of metabolic parameters, adipose distribution and body composition, and insulin resistance and sensitivity in Chinese obese subjects. Methods. Fifty-three healthy obese volunteers were given an 8-week VLCD. The outcomes were changes in anthropometry, body composition, metabolic profile, abdominal fat distribution, liver fat percent (LFP), and insulin resistance and sensitivity. Results. A total of 46 (86.8%) obese subjects completed the study. The VLCD caused a weight loss of −8.7 ± 0.6 kg (mean ± standard error (SE), P < 0.0001) combined with a significant improvement of metabolic profile. In both male and female, nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) significantly decreased (−166.2 ± 47.6 μmol/L, P = 0.001) and β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHA) increased (0.15 ± 0.06 mmol/L, P = 0.004) after eight weeks of VLCD intervention. The significant reductions in subcutaneous fat area (SFA), visceral fat area (VFA), and LFP were −66.5 ± 7.9 cm2, −35.3 ± 3.9 cm2, and −16.4 ± 2.4%, respectively (all P values P < 0.0001). HOMA IR and HOMA β significantly decreased while whole body insulin sensitivity index (WBISI) increased (all P values P < 0.001). Conclusion. Eight weeks of VLCD was an effective intervention in obese subjects. These beneficial effects may be associated with enhanced hepatic and whole-body lipolysis and oxidation. PMID:23573151

  7. Beneficial Effects of an 8-Week, Very Low Carbohydrate Diet Intervention on Obese Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjuan Gu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the effects of weight loss during an 8-week very low carbohydrate diet (VLCD on improvement of metabolic parameters, adipose distribution and body composition, and insulin resistance and sensitivity in Chinese obese subjects. Methods. Fifty-three healthy obese volunteers were given an 8-week VLCD. The outcomes were changes in anthropometry, body composition, metabolic profile, abdominal fat distribution, liver fat percent (LFP, and insulin resistance and sensitivity. Results. A total of 46 (86.8% obese subjects completed the study. The VLCD caused a weight loss of −8.7±0.6 kg (mean ± standard error (SE, P<0.0001 combined with a significant improvement of metabolic profile. In both male and female, nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA significantly decreased (−166.2±47.6 μmol/L, P=0.001 and β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHA increased (0.15±0.06 mmol/L, P=0.004 after eight weeks of VLCD intervention. The significant reductions in subcutaneous fat area (SFA, visceral fat area (VFA, and LFP were −66.5±7.9 cm2, −35.3±3.9 cm2, and −16.4±2.4%, respectively (all P values P<0.0001. HOMA IR and HOMA β significantly decreased while whole body insulin sensitivity index (WBISI increased (all P values P<0.001. Conclusion. Eight weeks of VLCD was an effective intervention in obese subjects. These beneficial effects may be associated with enhanced hepatic and whole-body lipolysis and oxidation.

  8. Normal Sweat Secretion Despite Impaired Growth Hormone-Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I Axis in Obese Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Højby Rasmussen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adults with GH deficiency are known to exhibit reduced sweating. Whether sweating capacity is impacted in obese subjects with impaired GH secretion have not previously been investigated. The main objective was to investigate sweat secretion rate and the GH-IGF-I axis in obese subjects before and after weight loss. Sixteen severely obese women (BMI, 40.6 ± 1.1 kg/m2 were investigated before and after a diet-induced weight loss. Sixteen age-matched nonobese women served as controls. The obese subjects presented the characteristic decreased GH release, hyperinsulinaemia, increased FFA levels, and impaired insulin sensitivity, which all were normalised after diet-induced weight loss of 30 ± 5 kg. Sweat secretion rates were similar comparing obese and nonobese subjects (78 ± 10 versus 82 ± 9 mg/30 minutes and sweat secretion did not change after a diet-induced weight loss in obese subjects. We conclude that although obese subjects have markedly reduced GH release and impaired IGF-I levels, sweat secretion rate is found to be normal.

  9. Association of adiponectin level and obstructive sleep apnea prevalence in obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fanfang; Wang, Xiang; Hu, Wei; Wang, Lili

    2017-08-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is prevalent in obese subjects. Plasma adiponectin level in obese subjects is decreased. Whether reduced adiponectin level is associated with OSA is unknown. Participants without a previous diagnosis of OSA or who have not been treated with continuous positive airway pressure were enrolled and parameters of interest were collected. Polysomnography was performed to evaluate the presence of OSA and the severity of OSA as indexed by the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Between-group differences were analyzed. Pearson correlation analysis was used to evaluate the association between body mass index (BMI) with plasma levels of adiponectin and C-reactive protein (CRP) and AHI; and the association between plasma adiponectin level with CRP and AHI was also evaluated. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the association between per 1-SD standardized decrease of plasma adiponectin level and the prevalence of OSA using stepwise adjustment models. A total of 486 participants were enrolled and the mean BMI was 26.9 ± 6.2 kg/m with obesity prevalence of 28%; and the mean AHI was 12.6 ± 8.9 per sleep hour with OSA prevalence of 42%. The mean adiponectin level was 18.4 ± 10.6 μg/mL. Compared with the nonobese group, participants in the obese group had higher BMI, neck girth, waist circumference, and AHI (P adiponectin level (14.6 ± 8.7 μg/mL vs 20.7 ± 10.5 μg/mL) was significantly lower. In the obese group, plasma adiponectin level was decreased gradually with the increasing severity of OSA, which was not observed in the nonobese group. BMI was negatively correlated with adiponectin while positively correlated with CRP and AHI; and adiponectin was negatively correlated with both CRP and AHI. After adjusted for covariates including BMI and waist circumference, adiponectin remained significantly associated with OSA prevalence with odds ratio of 1.20 (95% confidence interval 1.12-1.65). In summary, our

  10. Response of growth hormone (GH), FFA, blood sugar and insulin to exercise in obese patients and normal subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwarz, F.; Haar, D.J. ter; Riet, H.G. van; Thijssen, J.H.H.

    1969-01-01

    Ergometer tests with a constant workload of 600 Kg./min. during 30 minutes were done on eight normal subjects, eight severely obese patients, and two women who had formerly been obese. Arterial blood was sampled three times before, four times during and three times after exercise. The incidence and

  11. Effects of Orlistat-induced Weight Loss on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Obese Chinese Subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐明彤; 吴木潮; 黎锋; 周淑娴; 程桦; 傅祖植

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To observe the influence of weight loss induced by orlistat onseveral cardiovascular diseases risk factors in obeseChinese subjects. Methods Sixty obese Chinesepatients participated in a 24 week clinical trial. Par-ticipants were prescribed a slightly hypocaloric diet andexercise, then they were randomly assigned double-blind treatment with either orlistat 120 mg three times aday or placebo. Their body weight, blood pressure,fasting glucose, insulin, HbA1c, and serum lipid pro-file were performed before and after the weight lossintervention. Results After 24 weeks, orlistat-treated group lost more of their body weight thanplacebo group (6.66 ± 0.52 kg, 8.44 ± 4.08 % and1.98±0.44 kg, 2.44±1.74%, respectively, P <0.05) Moreover, after treatment, orlistat - treatedpatients showed significant decreases in serum levels oftotal cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesteroland high density lipoprotein - cholesterol ( P <0.01), but in placebo group we found no change.Both systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pres-sure fell significantly in orlistat-treated group.Fasting glucose and HOMA- IR in orlistat- treatedgroup was distinctly reduced if compared with placebogroup. Conclusions Weight loss resulting fromorlistat treatment and slightly hypocaloric diet hasproduced favorable effects on several cardiovascularrisk factors in obese Chinese subjects.

  12. Lower physical activity is a risk factor for a clustering of metabolic risk factors in non-obese and obese Japanese subjects: the Takahata study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaino, Wataru; Daimon, Makoto; Sasaki, Satoshi; Karasawa, Shigeru; Takase, Kaoru; Tada, Kyouko; Wada, Kiriko; Kameda, Wataru; Susa, Shinji; Oizumi, Toshihide; Fukao, Akira; Kubota, Isao; Kayama, Takamasa; Kato, Takeo

    2013-01-01

    In several countries including Japan, people without obesity but with a clustering of metabolic risk factors (MetRFs) were not considered to have the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Here, we examined whether lifestyle characteristics differed between non-obese and obese subjects with or without a clustering of MetRFs. From a population-based cross-sectional study of Japanese subjects aged ≥ 40 years, 1,601 subjects (age: 61.9 ± 10.3 years; 710/891 men/women) were recruited. Physical activity status and daily nutritional intake were estimated using questionnaires. A clustering of MetRFs was defined based on the presence of at least two non-essential risk factors for the diagnosis of the MetS in Japan. Energy intake was not higher in subjects with a clustering of MetRFs compared with those without. Among men, energy expenditure at work was significantly lower in non-obese (9.0 ± 8.2 vs. 11.3 ± 9.3 metabolic equivalents (METs), P = 0.025) and obese (9.0 ± 7.9 vs. 11.6 ± 9.4 METs, P = 0.017) subjects with a clustering of MetRFs than in those without. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that energy expenditure at work was significantly associated with a clustering of MetRFs after adjusting for possible confounding factors including total energy intake. The ORs (per 1 METs) were 0.970 (95% CI, 0.944-0.997; P = 0.032) in non-obese men and 0.962 (0.926- 0.999; P = 0.043) in obese men. Similar associations were not observed in women. In Japanese males, lower physical activity, but not excessive energy intake, is a risk factor for a clustering of MetRFs independent of their obesity status.

  13. Differential regulation of lipid and protein metabolism in obese vs. lean subjects before and after a 72-h fast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Ann Mosegaard; Møller, Andreas Buch; Vendelbo, Mikkel Holm

    2016-01-01

    with whole body and forearm tracer techniques. Obese subjects displayed increased whole body lipolysis, decreased urea production rates, and decreased forearm muscle protein breakdown per 100 ml of forearm tissue, differences that persisted after 72 h of fasting. Lipolysis per fat mass unit was reduced....... In summary, obese subjects exhibit increased lipolysis due to a large fat mass with blunted prolipolytic signaling, together with decreased urea and amino acid fluxes both in the basal and 72-h fasted state; this is compatible with preservation of muscle and whole body protein....... release in obese subjects under basal and fasting conditions. We therefore studied nine lean and nine obese subjects twice, after 12 and 72 h of fasting, using measurements of mRNA and protein expression and phosphorylation of lipolytic and protein metabolic signaling molecules in fat and muscle together...

  14. Overt and subtle discrimination, subjective well-being and physical health-related quality of life in an obese sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magallares, Alejandro; Benito de Valle, Pilar; Irles, Jose Antonio; Jauregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2014-10-27

    Obesity represents a serious health issue affecting millions of people in Western industrialized countries. The severity of the medical problems it causes is paralleled by the fact that obesity has become a social stigma that affects the psychological health-related quality of life of individuals with weight problems. Our study, with 111 obese patients of a Spanish hospital, focused specifically on how overt and subtle discrimination is related to subjective well-being (affect balance and life satisfaction) and physical health-related quality of life. It was shown that overt (r = -.28, p subjective well-being, and that there was a negative correlation between overt discrimination and physical health-related quality of life (r = -.26, p subjective well-being using the Baron and Kenny procedure. Finally, it is discussed the relationship between discrimination, subjective well-being and physical health-related quality of life in obese people.

  15. Pubertal development in Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Teilmann, G; Scheike, Thomas Harder

    2006-01-01

    differences between USA and Denmark, as well as to look for possible secular trends in pubertal development. Healthy Caucasian children from public schools in Denmark participated in the study which was carried out in 1991-1993. A total number of 826 boys and 1,100 girls (aged 6.0-19.9 years) were included......Two recent epidemiological studies (PROS and NHANES III) from the USA noted earlier sexual maturation in girls, leading to increased attention internationally to the age at onset of puberty. We studied the timing of puberty in a large cohort of healthy Danish children in order to evaluate......, and pubertal stages were assessed by clinical examination according to methods of Tanner. In boys testicular volume was determined using an orchidometer. We found that age at breast development 2 (B2) was 10.88 years, and mean menarcheal age was 13.42 years. Girls with body mass index (BMI) above the median...

  16. Slower eating speed lowers energy intake in normal-weight but not overweight/obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Meena; Copeland, Jennifer; Dart, Lyn; Adams-Huet, Beverley; James, Ashlei; Rhea, Debbie

    2014-03-01

    The effect of eating speed on energy intake by weight status is unclear. To examine whether the effect of eating speed on energy intake is the same in normal-weight and overweight/obese subjects. The effect of slow and fast eating speed on meal energy intake was assessed in a randomized crossover design. Thirty-five normal-weight (aged 33.3±12.5 years; 14 women and 21 men) subjects and 35 overweight/obese (44.1±13.0 years; 22 women and 13 men) subjects were studied on 2 days during lunch in a metabolic kitchen. The subjects consumed the same meal, ad libitum, but at different speeds during the two eating conditions. The weight and energy content of the food consumed was assessed. Perceived hunger and fullness were assessed at specific times using visual analog scales. Effect of eating speed on ad libitum energy intake, eating rate (energy intake/meal duration), energy density (energy intake per gram of food and water consumed), and satiety were assessed by mixed-model repeated measures analysis. Meal energy intake was significantly lower in the normal-weight (804.5±438.9 vs 892.6±330.2 kcal; P=0.04) but not the overweight/obese (667.3±304.1 vs 724.8±355.5 kcal; P=0.18) subjects during the slow vs the fast eating condition. Both groups had lower meal energy density (P=0.005 and P=0.001, respectively) and eating rate (Pintake in the normal-weight but not in the overweight/obese group. It lowered eating rate and energy density in both groups. Eating slowly led to lower hunger ratings in both groups and increased fullness ratings in the normal-weight group at 60 minutes from when the meal began. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The role of cardiopulmonary exercise test for individualized exercise training recommendation in young obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Hoble

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is affecting a growing segment of the population and should be considered a serious health problem which will lead to medical complications and decreased life span. Lifestyle changes by adopting healthy food and increase energy consumption through physical activity is the most important treatment for obesity. Cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET is considered the gold standard for exercise capacity assessment. Purpose: This study is aiming to demonstrate that individualized exercise training programs, designed using CPET results, leads to increase of physical fitness, aerobic capacity, ventilatory and cardiac exercise performance in young obese subjects.Material and method:We performed a prospective research study of 6 months. 43 sedentary subjects without contraindications to exercise, 21.3±3.1 years old, 93% female were included in the study. Assessments were made at baseline and after six months of intervention and consists of cardiopulmonary exercise test on bicycle ergometer. After we recorded oxygen uptake at aerobic threshold (AT, anaerobic threshold (in the range of respiratory compensation point – RCP and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max we designed the training program according to these parameters and individualized heart rate training zones of each subject. Exercise training (60 minutes/session, 3 sessions/week was performed taking in consideration the training zones and using a circuit on cardio devices. Each subject was supervised by a physiotherapist and using heart rate monitors. The number of subjects evaluated at the end of the study was 27 (dropout rate 37%.Results:After six months of intervention we noticed an improvement of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max (from 22.7±3.69 to 27.44±5.55, aerobic threshold (VO2_AT (from 15.48±2.66 to 20.07±4.64 ml/min/kg, p<0.0001 and anaerobic threshold (VO2_RCP (from 20.3±3.66 to 25.11±5.84 ml/min/kg, p<0.0001, cardiac performance during exercise evaluated trough maximal oxygen

  18. [Psychopathology related to women pubertal precocity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purper-Ouakil, D; Didillon, A

    2016-10-01

    associated with psychosocial stressors and at-risk environments. The early development of secondary sexual characteristics in girls attracts older and more deviant peers, raising probability of sexual contacts but also of drug use and of a disengagement in school activities. Adolescence is the life stage during which prevalence of depressive disorders rises significantly, especially in girls. Hormonal changes and increase of the Body Mass Index leading to dissatisfaction with body image, have been put forward to explain this trend. Psychosocial challenges (emerging sexuality, instability of identity and social role) are other sources of stress at this particular period of life characterized by emotional hyper-reactivity. These stressors may have greater impact in young people showing a discrepancy between physical and affective maturation. Follow-up studies have shown that emotional and behavioral problems tend to lessen with time. Nevertheless, a heightened risk of depressive disorder remains in girls having had an early onset of puberty when other risk factors co-exist. Early puberty, especially in girls, has been associated with a number of emotional and behavioral symptoms and difficulties in adaptive functioning. Even though these adverse outcomes seem to lessen with time, heightened risk for depression and negative impact on socio-professional outcomes persist in subjects with other risk factors. The impact of treatment of precocious puberty on psycho-behavioral outcomes is currently unknown. However, clinicians should be aware that the social and emotional challenges these adolescents with atypical pubertal development have to face put them at risk for psychopathology and are potentially accessible to preventive actions. Copyright © 2016 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Increased rate of Cori cycle in obese subjects with NIDDM and effect of weight reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzki, J K; Wolfe, R R; Mott, D M; Lillioja, S; Howard, B V; Bogardus, C

    1988-02-01

    To determine the contribution of the rate of glucose recycling via the Cori cycle (glucose----3-carbon compounds----glucose) to the higher rate of endogenous glucose production (EGPR) in subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), we studied eight obese, weight-stabilized diabetic Pima Indians before [93.1 +/- 5.4 kg, 38 +/- 2% body fat, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) 254 +/- 11 mg/dl] and after (87.7 +/- 4.7 kg, 36 +/- 2% body fat, FPG 153 +/- 17 mg/dl) a 5-wk weight-loss diet and eight obese Indians (95.0 +/- 4.2 kg, 36 +/- 2% body fat, FPG 97 +/- 1 mg/dl) with normal glucose tolerance. EGPR and glucose recycling rate were measured during a 4-h primed continuous tracer infusion of [1-13C]glucose, and the rate of reincorporation of 1-13C of glucose into C2-6 positions in glucose was quantified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Substrate utilization rates were measured by simultaneous indirect calorimetry. EGPR (corrected for measured rate of recycling) decreased in the diabetic subjects from 3.80 to 2.74 mg.min-1.kg-1 fat-free mass (FFM) (P less than .01) after weight loss, approaching the rate observed in nondiabetic subjects (2.09 mg.min-1.kg-1 FFM).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Insulin modulation of magnetoencephalographic resting state dynamics in lean and obese subjects

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    Krunoslav T Stingl

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Lean and obese subjects can exhibit differences in neuronal activity during resting state and tasks. Changes in hormonal status and their action related to increased body weight may be the determining factor for these differences. One prime candidate is insulin, which until recently, was mainly related to its metabolic function for the transport and regulation of glucose in the periphery. However insulin also acts as an anorexic signal in the central nervous system (CNS contributing to the termination of food-intake in the postprandial state. In our study, we examined with whole head magnetoencephalography (MEG effect of intranasal insulin on the dynamics of the resting state network in a placebo controlled study. Weighted clustering coefficient C, which describes local interconnectedness, and weighted path length L, a measure of global interconnectedness, were computed. These parameters showed high intraindividual reliability. However, no difference for the network dynamics was found between lean and obese subjects in the basal state. The application of insulin led to subject specific changes and we found a statistically significant positive correlation between the insulin induced change in path length in the theta band (4-8 Hz and body mass index. The change in pathway length after insulin administration indicates a strong insulin modulation on global communication efficiency, which is probably related to the signaling between different regions involved in satiation and homeostatic control.

  1. The Effect of Zinc Supplementation on Insulin Resistance in Obese Subjects: a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Kyria Jayanne Clímaco; Morais, Jennifer Beatriz Silva; de Oliveira, Ana Raquel Soares; Severo, Juliana Soares; Marreiro, Dilina do Nascimento

    2017-04-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease characterized by excessive accumulation of body fat and the presence of metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance. In this sense, zinc is an important nutrient that stimulates insulin secretion and increases sensitivity to insulin. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of zinc supplementation on insulin resistance in obese subjects through a systematic review of the available clinical trials. The search for articles was conducted using the PubMed, SciVerse Scopus, SciVerse ScienceDirect, and Cochrane databases, on May 25, 2016, by two authors independently. The recommendations of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) were followed in the conduct of this review. The Cochrane Collaboration tool was used to assess the risk of bias of the trials included in this review. After screening of the articles, six clinical trials were included in this systematic review. The scientific evidence presented in this systematic review shows that zinc supplementation improves insulin resistance in obese individuals of both sexes.

  2. Increased calf and plantar muscle fibrotic contents in obese subjects may cause ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junwei; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Yong; Zhao, Jianning

    2016-08-01

    Obesity is strongly associated with musculoskeletal disorders of the lower limb, including ankle instability and resulting gait problems. In the present study, we aimed to examine, using paired comparisons of subjects, whether moderate duration of obesity in patients with mild to moderate elevations of body mass index (BMI), changes the fibrous contents of muscles that support the ankle mortices, namely calf and plantar muscles. We attempted to examine these parameters because this shall provide direct evidence of whether obesity directly impacts myoarchitecture and support of the adjoining joints. MRI image segmentation and pixel correlations by grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and entropy were used to analyse the changes. The differences in the means between groups (both GLCM and entropy) were significant from control lean populations (P<0.0001, ANOVA) for the parameters examined for both the calf and the plantar muscles. Reduction in weight should thus be a first-line approach in preventing these changes that may significantly affect quality of life due to gait disturbances.

  3. Changes in body composition during weight loss in obese subjects in the NUGENOB study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdich, C.; Barbe, P.; Petersen, Martin

    2011-01-01

    AIM: We studied the accuracy of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to assess changes in body composition during moderate weight loss in obese subjects. METHODS: Estimates of changes in fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) by BIA were compared with those by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA......) as the reference method during a 10-week standardized weight-loss intervention. In obese women (age: 20-50years, mean BMI: 33.8kg/m(2)) participating in a European multicentre trial (nutrient-gene interactions in human obesity [NUGENOB]), body composition was assessed by BIA (Bodystat QuadScan 4000) and DXA (Lunar...... DPX-IQ at two centres, Hologic QDR 2000 at another centre) at baseline (n=131) and at week 10 (n=105) after a mean weight loss of -5.7kg. RESULTS: At baseline, BIA significantly overestimated FFM and underestimated FM (by 1-3kg on average) compared with DXA, and the limits of agreement were wide (mean...

  4. Endothelial function in pre-pubertal children at risk of developing cardiomyopathy: a new frontier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Cristina Tavares

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although it is known that obesity, diabetes, and Kawasaki's disease play important roles in systemic inflammation and in the development of both endothelial dysfunction and cardiomyopathy, there is a lack of data regarding the endothelial function of pre-pubertal children suffering from cardiomyopathy. In this study, we performed a systematic review of the literature on pre-pubertal children at risk of developing cardiomyopathy to assess the endothelial function of pre-pubertal children at risk of developing cardiomyopathy. We searched the published literature indexed in PubMed, Bireme and SciELO using the keywords 'endothelial', 'children', 'pediatric' and 'infant' and then compiled a systematic review. The end points were age, the pubertal stage, sex differences, the method used for the endothelial evaluation and the endothelial values themselves. No studies on children with cardiomyopathy were found. Only 11 papers were selected for our complete analysis, where these included reports on the flow-mediated percentage dilatation, the values of which were 9.80±1.80, 5.90±1.29, 4.50±0.70, and 7.10±1.27 for healthy, obese, diabetic and pre-pubertal children with Kawasaki's disease, respectively. There was no significant difference in the dilatation, independent of the endothelium, either among the groups or between the genders for both of the measurements in children; similar results have been found in adolescents and adults. The endothelial function in cardiomyopathic children remains unclear because of the lack of data; nevertheless, the known dysfunctions in children with obesity, type 1 diabetes and Kawasaki's disease may influence the severity of the cardiovascular symptoms, the prognosis, and the mortality rate. The results of this study encourage future research into the consequences of endothelial dysfunction in pre-pubertal children.

  5. EFFECTS OF PUBERTAL ALIMENTARY OBESITY ON REPRODUCTIVE ORGAN DEVELOPMENT AND FERTILITY OF MALE RATS%青春期营养性肥胖对雄性大鼠生殖器官发育及生育能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张璇; 张玉敏; 裴秀丛; 马明月; 段志文

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究青春期营养性肥胖对雄性大鼠生殖器官发育及生殖能力的影响。方法使用高脂高能量饲料喂饲4周龄Wistar雄性大鼠,制作青春期营养性肥胖模型,饲喂8周后检查大鼠生殖器官发育情况并进行病理组织学检测,采用酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA )法检测血清睾酮、雌二醇含量,计数精子总数及活动率;按1︰2比例与雌鼠合笼1周,检测雄鼠交配指数和生育指数,并对胎鼠发育情况进行检查。结果模型组大鼠睾丸脏器系数明显低于对照组(P<0.05),光镜下发现模型组生精小管管壁变薄、细胞数减少、细胞排列紊乱;血清睾酮含量明显低于对照组(P<0.01);生育指数低于对照组(P<0.05);二组精子总数、活动率、血清雌二醇含量、交配指数、胎鼠各项发育指标比较差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论肥胖可影响大鼠睾丸发育,致血清睾酮含量降低、生育指数下降;但未观察到对胎鼠发育的影响。%Objective To observe the effects of pubertal alimentary obesity on reproductive organ develop‐ment and fertility of male rats .Methods The pubertal alimentary obesity model was made by feeding 4 weeks old male Wistar rats with high fat feeds ,then the development of reproductive organ was checked , pathological detection was done ,serum testosterone and estradiol concentration was tested by ELISA es‐say ,the total number of sperm and activity rate was counted .The copulation and fertility index of male rats was detected and the development of fetal rats was measured after mating of the male with female(propor‐tion 1∶2) for 1 week .Results The organ coefficient of testis in obesity group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P<0 .05) ,light microscopy examination founds that seminiferous tubule wall be‐come thinner ,number of cells reduced and disorder in cells arrangement was

  6. The consumption of low glycemic meals reduces abdominal obesity in subjects with excess body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assis Costa, J; de Cássia Gonçalves Alfenas, R

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of the glycemic index (GI) on food intake, anthropometric measurements and body composition in subjects with excess body weight. Crossover study, in which 17 subjects participated in two study sessions (high GI or low GI). Two daily meals were consumed in laboratory for 30 consecutive days in each session. Subjects also consumed under free living conditions 3 daily isocaloric servings of fruits, presenting the same GI as the session in which they were participating. At each 15 days, subjects were submitted to body composition (lean mass and fatty mass) and anthropometric indexes (weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference, hip-waist relation (WHC)) assessment. Habitual food intake was assessed before and at the end of each session. Subjects were instructed to maintain the same level of physical activity during the study. There was a significant reduction on WC and WHC after the low GI session. The other parameters did not differ between the treatments applied in this study. These results suggest that the consumption of low GI foods may favor the prevention and control abdominal obesity and the associated metabolic diseases.

  7. Effect of Plasma Uric Acid on Antioxidant Capacity, Oxidative Stress, and Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbrini, Elisa; Serafini, Mauro; Colic Baric, Irena; Hazen, Stanley L.; Klein, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is purported to be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity-associated insulin resistance. We evaluated whether alterations in levels of circulating uric acid (UA), a systemic antioxidant, affects the following: 1) systemic (plasma and saliva) nonenzymatic antioxidant capacity (NEAC); 2) markers of systemic (urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin-F2α) and muscle (carbonylated protein content) oxidative stress; and 3) whole-body insulin sensitivity (percentage increase in glucose uptake during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp procedure). Thirty-one obese subjects (BMI 37.1 ± 0.7 kg/m2) with either high serum UA (HUA; 7.1 ± 0.4 mg/dL; n = 15) or normal serum UA (NUA; 4.5 ± 0.2 mg/dL; n = 16) levels were studied; 13 subjects with HUA levels were studied again after reduction of serum UA levels to 0 by infusing a recombinant urate oxidase. HUA subjects had 20–90% greater NEAC, but lower insulin sensitivity (40%) and levels of markers of oxidative stress (30%) than subjects in the NUA group (all P < 0.05). Acute UA reduction caused a 45–95% decrease in NEAC and a 25–40% increase in levels of systemic and muscle markers of oxidative stress (all P < 0.05), but did not affect insulin sensitivity (from 168 ± 25% to 156 ± 17%, P = NS). These results demonstrate that circulating UA is a major antioxidant and might help protect against free-radical oxidative damage. However, oxidative stress is not a major determinant of insulin action in vivo. PMID:24353177

  8. Infrared thermography for indirect assessment of activation of brown adipose tissue in lean and obese male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hadi, Hamza; Frascati, Andrea; Granzotto, Marnie; Silvestrin, Valentina; Ferlini, Elisabetta; Vettor, Roberto; Rossato, Marco

    2016-12-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays a key role in adaptive thermogenesis in mammals, and it has recently been considered as an attractive therapeutic target for tackling human obesity by increasing energy expenditure. Thermal imaging using infrared thermography (IRT) has emerged as a potential safe, rapid and inexpensive technique for detecting BAT in humans. However, little attention has been given to the reliability of this method in obese subjects. To this end, we evaluated the capacity of IRT to detect activated supraclavicular (SCV) BAT in 14 lean and 16 mildly obese young adults after acute cold exposure. Using IRT we measured the temperature of the skin overlying the SCV and sternal areas at baseline and after acute cold stimulation. Additionally, energy expenditure was measured by indirect calorimetry and body composition was estimated using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Energy expenditure and SCV skin temperature significantly increased in lean subjects upon cold exposure, while no significant changes were detected in the obese group. Furthermore, cold-induced variations in SCV skin temperature of obese subjects showed a negative correlation with body mass index. This study suggests that in lean individuals BAT is a rapidly activated thermogenic tissue possibly involved in the regulation of energy balance, and can be indirectly assessed using IRT. In obese subjects, BAT seems less prone to be activated by cold exposure, with the degree of adiposity representing a limiting factor for the indirect detection of BAT activation by measuring the skin temperature overlying BAT.

  9. Insulin secretion and incretin hormones after oral glucose in non-obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, E; Olsson, T; Söderberg, S;

    2004-01-01

    Subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are usually overweight and exhibit insulin resistance with a defective compensation of insulin secretion. In this study, we sought to establish the interrelation between insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity after oral glucose in non-obese subjects......). Plasma levels of GLP-1 and GIP increased after oral glucose. Total secretion of these incretin hormones during the 3-hour test did not differ between the 2 groups. However, the 30-minute increase in GLP-1 concentrations was lower in IGT than in NGT (P =.036). We conclude that also in non-obese subjects...

  10. Intraduodenal administration of intact pea protein effectively reduces food intake in both lean and obese male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraedts, Maartje C P; Troost, Freddy J; Munsters, Marjet J M; Stegen, Jos H C H; de Ridder, Rogier J; Conchillo, Jose M; Kruimel, Joanna W; Masclee, Ad A M; Saris, Wim H M

    2011-01-01

    Human duodenal mucosa secretes increased levels of satiety signals upon exposure to intact protein. However, after oral protein ingestion, gastric digestion leaves little intact proteins to enter the duodenum. This study investigated whether bypassing the stomach, through intraduodenal administration, affects hormone release and food-intake to a larger extent than orally administered protein in both lean and obese subjects. Ten lean (BMI:23.0±0.7 kg/m²) and ten obese (BMI:33.4±1.4 kg/m²) healthy male subjects were included. All subjects randomly received either pea protein solutions (250 mg/kg bodyweight in 0.4 ml/kg bodyweight of water) or placebo (0.4 ml/kg bodyweight of water), either orally or intraduodenally via a naso-duodenal tube. Appetite-profile, plasma GLP-1, CCK, and PYY concentrations were determined over a 2 h period. After 2 h, subjects received an ad-libitum meal and food-intake was recorded. CCK levels were increased at 10(pobese subjects, compared to lean subjects, but also compared to oral protein administration (OPA)(pobese subjects after 90(pFood-intake was reduced after IPA both in lean and obese subjects (-168.9±40 kcal (pobese subjects, food-intake was decreased after IPA (-132.6±42 kcal; pfood intake, and seems to affect obese subjects to a greater extent than lean subjects. Enteric coating of intact protein supplements may provide an effective dietary strategy in the prevention/treatment of obesity.

  11. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide has impaired effect on abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue metabolism in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, M; Simonsen, L; Arngrim, N

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) appears to have a role in lipid metabolism. Recently, we showed that GIP in combination with hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia increases triglyceride uptake in abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue in lean humans. It has been suggested...... that increased GIP secretion in obesity will promote lipid deposition in adipose tissue. In light of the current attempts to employ GIP antagonists in the treatment and prevention of human obesity, the present experiments were performed in order to elucidate whether the adipose tissue lipid metabolism would...... be enhanced or blunted during a GIP, hyperinsulinemic and hyperglycemic (HI-HG) clamp in obese subjects with either normal glucose tolerance (NGT) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). DESIGN: Sixteen obese (BMI>30 kg m(-2)) subjects were divided into two groups, based on their plasma glucose response...

  12. Intraduodenal administration of intact pea protein effectively reduces food intake in both lean and obese male subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maartje C P Geraedts

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human duodenal mucosa secretes increased levels of satiety signals upon exposure to intact protein. However, after oral protein ingestion, gastric digestion leaves little intact proteins to enter the duodenum. This study investigated whether bypassing the stomach, through intraduodenal administration, affects hormone release and food-intake to a larger extent than orally administered protein in both lean and obese subjects. METHODS: Ten lean (BMI:23.0±0.7 kg/m² and ten obese (BMI:33.4±1.4 kg/m² healthy male subjects were included. All subjects randomly received either pea protein solutions (250 mg/kg bodyweight in 0.4 ml/kg bodyweight of water or placebo (0.4 ml/kg bodyweight of water, either orally or intraduodenally via a naso-duodenal tube. Appetite-profile, plasma GLP-1, CCK, and PYY concentrations were determined over a 2 h period. After 2 h, subjects received an ad-libitum meal and food-intake was recorded. RESULTS: CCK levels were increased at 10(p<0.02 and 20(p<0.01 minutes after intraduodenal protein administration (IPA, in obese subjects, compared to lean subjects, but also compared to oral protein administration (OPA(p<0.04. GLP-1 levels increased after IPA in obese subjects after 90(p<0.02 to 120(p<0.01 minutes, compared to OPA. Food-intake was reduced after IPA both in lean and obese subjects (-168.9±40 kcal (p<0.01 and -298.2±44 kcal (p<0.01, respectively, compared to placebo. Also, in obese subjects, food-intake was decreased after IPA (-132.6±42 kcal; p<0.01, compared to OPA. CONCLUSIONS: Prevention of gastric proteolysis through bypassing the stomach effectively reduces food intake, and seems to affect obese subjects to a greater extent than lean subjects. Enteric coating of intact protein supplements may provide an effective dietary strategy in the prevention/treatment of obesity.

  13. Sympathetic nervous system activity and anti-lipolytic response to iv-glucose load in subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese and obese type 2 diabetic subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Uwe; Jenkinson, Christopher P.; Alt, Andreas; Zügel, Martina; Steinacker, Jürgen M.; Flechtner-Mors, Marion

    2017-01-01

    The study aim was to investigate the effect of endogenous insulin release on lipolysis in subcutaneous adipose tissue after adrenergic stimulation in obese subjects diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (T2D). In 14 obese female T2D subjects, or 14 obese non-T2D controls, glycerol concentration was measured in response to the α1,2,ß-agonist norepinephrine, the α1-agonist norfenefrine and the ß2-agonist terbutaline (each 10−4 M), using the microdialysis technique. After 60 minutes of stimulation, an intravenous glucose load (0.5 g/kg lean body mass) was given. Local blood flow was monitored by means of the ethanol technique. Norepinephrine and norfenefrine induced a four and three fold rise in glycerol dialysate concentration (pnervous system activity and is assumed to be due to ß1-adrenoceptor mediated stimulation by norepinephrine. PMID:28346464

  14. G-2548A LEPTIN PROMOTER AND Q223R LEPTIN RECEPTOR POLYMORPHISMS IN OBESE MEXICAN SUBJECTS

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    P. Carrillo-Vazquez Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptin interaction with its receptor in the hypothalamus stimulates a specific signaling cascade that results in the synthesis of anorexigenic and orexigenic peptides in order to regulate food intake and energy expenditure. Many polymorphisms in leptin (lep and leptin receptor (lepr genes have been associated with body weight. In particular, G-2548A in the lep promoter and Q223R in lepr variants have been associated with obesity in several populations, although no linkage has been evidenced in others. Here, we examined the genetic associations of these polymorphisms with Body Mass Index (BMI and serum leptin levels in adult Mexican people. A set of 160 subjects was recruited at the Acupuncture Clinic of the National School of Medicine and Homeopathy of the National Polytechnic Institute (Mexico and classified according to BMI, gender and age. Blood samples were obtained to extract genomic DNA and determine genetic variants by PCR-RFLP. Leptin was quantified by ELISA assays. Analysis of association and determination of Odd Ratio (OR were performed using SPSS software. G-2548A in lep gene promoter and Q223R in lepr gene polymorphisms were not found associated with BMI in the whole study population. However, GG genotype in lep gene promoter was related to an increased leptin concentration (p≤0.05 and suggested as a protective factor for obesity in Mexican women. Leptin levels were higher in postmenopausal women, confirming the link between the hormonal system and body weight control. In contrast, no association was found between lepr gene polymorphism and serum leptin level. Our results suggest a possible association between G-2548A polymorphism in lep gene promoter, BMI and leptin levels in Mexican women. Further analysis of a larger population is required to confirm the biological relevance of this polymorphism for obesity in the Mexican population.

  15. Prevalence of biopsy-proven non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in severely obese subjects without metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, K; Abrams, G A

    2016-04-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD encompasses simple fatty liver (FL) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in its spectrum. NASH can progress to liver cirrhosis and is associated with liver cancer. Not all obese subjects have insulin resistance (IR) or develop metabolic syndrome (MS). This study evaluates the prevalence of NAFLD in severely obese subjects without MS. We retrospectively reviewed 445 charts from our database of severely obese subjects with clinical suspicion of NAFLD and who were selected for laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. One hundred five subjects who did not have MS, as defined by the International Diabetes Foundation, based on comprehensive pre-operative metabolic evaluation were included. Liver biopsy specimens were evaluated for NAFLD. 24% of morbidly obese (mean body mass index [BMI] 48 kg m(-2) ) adult subjects (mean age 38 years) who underwent bariatric surgery did not have MS. NAFLD was identified in 77 (73%) on liver biopsy, out of which 59 (56%) were labelled as FL and 18 (17%) had histological diagnosis of NASH. Age, gender, race and BMI were the same among all groups. Among NAFLD subjects, 22% did not have any additional metabolic component of MS, while 36% had low high-density lipoprotein, 27% had hypertension, 8% had high triglycerides and 6% had hyperglycaemia. IR calculated by HOMA-IR (Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance) and diagnosis of hyperglycaemia was statistically higher in NASH group compared to those who did not have NASH. NAFLD is highly prevalent in morbidly obese individuals who undergo bariatric surgery despite the absence of MS. Diagnosis of hyperglycaemia in such subjects suggests the presence of IR and may have underlying NASH, which is a progressive form of NAFLD.

  16. [Effect of a hypocaloric diet in the oxidative stress in obese subjects without prescription of exercise and antioxidants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Liliana; García, José R; Rincón, María de Jesús; Ceballos, Guillermo M; Olivares, Ivonne M

    2015-07-06

    Obesity is characterized by a generalized increase of adipose tissue, high production of adipocytokines and presence of oxidative systemic stress. The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes generated in the oxidative stress and anthropometric parameters in obese subjects by the prescription of a hypocaloric diet in combination with moderate aerobic exercise and supplementation with antioxidants. Oxidative damage was determined in the plasma from 30 normal weight and 30 obese subjects. Three groups of treatment were established: Hypocaloric diet (HD), HD plus moderate aerobic exercise (HDE) and HDE plus antioxidants (DHEA). Biomarkers of oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances [TBARS], carbonyl groups, dityrosine) and anthropometric parameters were determined. Higher values of biomarkers of oxidative damage were observed in obese (TBARS 13.74 ± 1.2 μM; carbonyl groups 0.89 ± 0.04 nmol of osazone/mg of protein; dityrosine 478.9 ± 27.4 RFU/mg of protein) in comparison to normal weight subjects (TBARS 7.08 ± 0.8 μM; carbonyl groups 0.65 ± 0.04 nmol of osazone/mg of protein; dityrosine 126.3 ± 12.6 RFU/mg of protein), thus showing the presence of an oxidative damage. The prescription of HD decreased the oxidative damage and anthropometric parameters in the obese subjects. We did not observe additional benefit effects on these determinations with HDE or HDEA treatments. We demonstrated that an HD decreases the oxidative damage in obese subjects. Oxidative stress is an important factor in the development of comorbidity in obesity. Therefore, the prescription of a HD could be a key issue in the treatment of the disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of Isometric Exercise Training on Quadriceps Muscle Architecture and Strength in Obese Subjects with Knee Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed S Mahmoud

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Obese individuals have reduced quadriceps muscle strength relative to body mass that may increase the rate of progression of knee osteoarthritis (OA. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of isometric exercise training on quadriceps muscle architecture and strength in obese subjects with knee osteoarthritis. Methods: Fortyfour obese male subjects aged 40–65 years diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis were randomly assigned into group A (n=32 and group B (n=12. Group A subjects performed a 12-week isometric exercise program. Group B subjects did not participate in any exercise program and maintained their ordinary activities for the same period. Both groups received the same conventional physical therapy program including hot packs and therapeutic ultrasonic. Muscle thickness, pennation angles and fascicle length of the vastus lateralis (VL muscle of the affected knee were measured at rest by B-mode ultrasonography. Maximal voluntary isometric knee extension torque (MVIC of the affected knee was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. Knee pain and function were evaluated using visual analogue pain scale (VAS and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC. All variables were evaluated before and the end of the intervention period for both groups. Results: at the end of the program, group A subjects showed significant improvements compared with group B subjects regarding MVIC and muscle architecture parameters (p<0.05. Also, there was significant improvement in post-test VAS and WOMAC scores in group A subjects compared to group B subjects (p<0.05. Conclusion: A 12-week quadriceps isometric training program improves knee pain and quadriceps muscle strength and architecture in obese subjects with knee OA. These results indicate that isometric training should be regarded as a proper exercise intervention for obese patients with knee OA.

  18. Contribution of common PCSK1 genetic variants to obesity in 8,359 subjects from multi-ethnic American population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Choquet

    Full Text Available Common PCSK1 variants (notably rs6232 and rs6235 have been shown to be associated with obesity in European, Asian and Mexican populations. To determine whether common PCSK1 variants contribute to obesity in American population, we conducted association analyses in 8,359 subjects using two multi-ethnic American studies: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA study and the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA. By evaluating the contribution of rs6232 and rs6235 in each ethnic group, we found that in European-American subjects from CARDIA, only rs6232 was associated with BMI (P = 0.006 and obesity (P = 0.018 but also increased the obesity incidence during the 20 years of follow-up (HR = 1.53 [1.07-2.19], P = 0.019. Alternatively, in African-American subjects from CARDIA, rs6235 was associated with BMI (P = 0.028 and obesity (P = 0.018. Further, by combining the two case-control ethnic groups from the CARDIA study in a meta-analysis, association between rs6235 and obesity risk remained significant (OR = 1.23 [1.05-1.45], P = 9.5×10(-3. However, neither rs6232 nor rs6235 was associated with BMI or obesity in the MESA study. Interestingly, rs6232 was associated with BMI (P = 4.2×10(-3 and obesity (P = 3.4×10(-3 in the younger European-American group combining samples from the both studies [less than median age (53 years], but not among the older age group (P = 0.756 and P = 0.935 for BMI and obesity, respectively. By combining all the case-control ethnic groups from CARDIA and MESA in a meta-analysis, we found no significant association for the both variants and obesity risk. Finally, by exploring the full PCSK1 locus, we observed that no variant remained significant after correction for multiple testing. These results indicate that common PCSK1 variants (notably rs6232 and rs6235 contribute modestly to obesity in multi-ethnic American population. Further, these results

  19. Comparative effects of several simple carbohydrates on erythrocyte insulin receptors in obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizkalla, S W; Baigts, F; Fumeron, F; Rabillon, B; Bayn, P; Ktorza, A; Spielmann, D; Apfelbaum, M

    1986-09-01

    The effects of simple carbohydrates on erythrocyte insulin receptors, plasma insulin and plasma glucose were studied during four hypocaloric, hyperproteic, diets. One diet contained no carbohydrate; the other three contained 36 g of either glucose, galactose or fructose. These diets were given for a 14-day period to groups of moderately obese subjects. The hypocaloric carbohydrate-free diet produced a decrease in plasma insulin and glucose concentrations concomitant with an increase in the number of insulin receptors. A similar increase in insulin receptor number was found when the diet was supplemented with glucose or galactose, but not with fructose. The presence of fructose in the diet prevented any increase in insulin receptor number.

  20. Association of adipocyte genes with ASP expression: a microarray analysis of subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue in morbidly obese subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Prevalence of obesity is increasing to pandemic proportions. However, obese subjects differ in insulin resistance, adipokine production and co-morbidities. Based on fasting plasma analysis, obese subjects were grouped as Low Acylation Stimulating protein (ASP) and Triglyceride (TG) (LAT) vs High ASP and TG (HAT). Subcutaneous (SC) and omental (OM) adipose tissues (n = 21) were analysed by microarray, and biologic pathways in lipid metabolism and inflammation were specifically examined. Methods LAT and HAT groups were matched in age, obesity, insulin, and glucose, and had similar expression of insulin-related genes (InsR, IRS-1). ASP related genes tended to be increased in the HAT group and were correlated (factor B, adipsin, complement C3, p tissue, with little difference in OM tissue. Increased C5L2 (p tissue demonstrated increased lipid related genes for storage (CD36, DGAT1, DGAT2, SCD1, FASN, and LPL), lipolysis (HSL, CES1, perilipin), fatty acid binding proteins (FABP1, FABP3) and adipocyte differentiation markers (CEBPα, CEBPβ, PPARγ). By contrast, oxidation related genes were decreased (AMPK, UCP1, CPT1, FABP7). HAT subjects had increased anti-inflammatory genes TGFB1, TIMP1, TIMP3, and TIMP4 while proinflammatory PIG7 and MMP2 were also significantly increased; all genes, p tissue from morbidly obese HAT subjects suggests a compensatory response associated with the increased plasma ASP and TG. PMID:20105310

  1. Association of adipocyte genes with ASP expression: a microarray analysis of subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue in morbidly obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu HuiLing

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of obesity is increasing to pandemic proportions. However, obese subjects differ in insulin resistance, adipokine production and co-morbidities. Based on fasting plasma analysis, obese subjects were grouped as Low Acylation Stimulating protein (ASP and Triglyceride (TG (LAT vs High ASP and TG (HAT. Subcutaneous (SC and omental (OM adipose tissues (n = 21 were analysed by microarray, and biologic pathways in lipid metabolism and inflammation were specifically examined. Methods LAT and HAT groups were matched in age, obesity, insulin, and glucose, and had similar expression of insulin-related genes (InsR, IRS-1. ASP related genes tended to be increased in the HAT group and were correlated (factor B, adipsin, complement C3, p Results HAT adipose tissue demonstrated increased lipid related genes for storage (CD36, DGAT1, DGAT2, SCD1, FASN, and LPL, lipolysis (HSL, CES1, perilipin, fatty acid binding proteins (FABP1, FABP3 and adipocyte differentiation markers (CEBPα, CEBPβ, PPARγ. By contrast, oxidation related genes were decreased (AMPK, UCP1, CPT1, FABP7. HAT subjects had increased anti-inflammatory genes TGFB1, TIMP1, TIMP3, and TIMP4 while proinflammatory PIG7 and MMP2 were also significantly increased; all genes, p Conclusion Taken together, the profile of C5L2 receptor, ASP gene expression and metabolic factors in adipose tissue from morbidly obese HAT subjects suggests a compensatory response associated with the increased plasma ASP and TG.

  2. Iron (FeSo4 bioavailability in obese subjects submitted to bariatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Bueno

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iron bioavailability in obese subjects after the ingestion of a nutritional supplement was the aim of this work. Methods: Fourteen persons were studied before and after bariatric surgery after the ingestion of a nutritional formulation containing 25 mg iron, 25 g fiber and 800 mg calcium. Results: The following ferremia values (median and minimum - maximum were obtained before and after bariatric surgery, respectively: Fasting, 105 (70 - 364 μg/dL and 198 (38 - 617 μg/dL; 1 hour, 103 (63 - 305 μg/dL and 160 (11 - 207 μg/dL; 2 hours, 103 (62 - 150 μg/dL and 141 (10 - 412 μg/dL; 3 hours. 97 (63 - 190 μg/dL and 153 (6 - 270 μg/dL; 4 hours, 91 (58 - 163 μg/dL and 156 (40 - 251 μg/dL (p>0.05, with no association of serum iron levels with time. There was a difference in total triglycerides (95 ± 29 mg/dL and 60 ± 10 mg/dL which were correlated with a decrease in serum ferritin levels (r = 0,926, p = 0.008, UIBC (r = 0.910, p = 0.01, total cholesterol (r = 0,918, p = 0.01 and LDL-c fraction (r = 0.830, p = 0.04, with an increase in HDL-c fraction (r = 0,807, p = 0.05. Conclusion: Iron bioavailability in obese subjects was affected by the ingestion of the nutritional formulation containing calcium and fiber, a fact that may cause these patients to develop iron deficiency.

  3. Hormone-sensitive lipase serine phosphorylation and glycerol exchange across skeletal muscle in lean and obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jocken, Johan We; Roepstorff, Carsten; Goossens, Gijs H.;

    2008-01-01

    from the vastus lateralis muscle before and during ISO to investigate hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) protein expression and serine phosphorylation. Results: Baseline total glycerol release across the forearm was significantly blunted in obese compared with lean subjects (P=0.045). This was accompanied...... by lower HSL protein expression (P=0.004), and HSL phosphorylation on PKA sites Ser(563) (P=0.041) and Ser(659) (P=0.09) and on the AMPK site Ser(565) (P=0.007), suggesting a blunted skeletal muscle lipolysis in obesity. Total forearm glycerol uptake during baseline did not differ significantly between...... groups while higher net fatty acid uptake across the forearm was observed in the obese (P=0.064). ISO induced an increase in total glycerol release from SM, which was not significantly different between groups. Interestingly, this was accompanied by an increase in HSL Ser(659) phosphorylation in obese...

  4. Reduction of Macrophage Infiltration and Chemoattractant Gene Expression Changes in White Adipose Tissue of Morbidly Obese Subjects After Surgery-Induced Weight Loss

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raffaella Cancello; Corneliu Henegar; Nathalie Viguerie; Soraya Taleb; Christine Poitou; Christine Rouault; Muriel Coupaye; Veronique Pelloux; Danielle Hugol; Jean-Luc Bouillot; Anne Bouloumié; Giorgio Barbatelli; Saverio Cinti; Per-Arne Svensson; Gregory S. Barsh; Jean-Daniel Zucker; Arnaud Basdevant; Dominique Langin; Karine Clément

    2005-01-01

    Reduction of Macrophage Infiltration and Chemoattractant Gene Expression Changes in White Adipose Tissue of Morbidly Obese Subjects After Surgery-Induced Weight Loss Raffaella Cancello 1 , Corneliu...

  5. Effect of carbohydrate- and protein-rich meals on exercise-induced activation of lipolysis in obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, J; Tholl, S; Schusdziarra, V

    2010-04-01

    Exercise is an important part of obesity treatment concepts to support fat mobilisation from adipose tissue and also fat oxidation nolich is impaired in obese subjects. In normal weight subjects it is well known that stimulation of plasma insulin levels by a carbohydrate meal can inhibit lipolysis and subsequent fat oxidation. Since obese subjects frequently have elevated basal and postprandial insulin levels the effect of carbohydrate- and protein-rich test meals on exercise-induced activation of lipolysis is of special interest. Twenty obese subjects performed bicycle exercise for 30 min in the fasted state, 30 min after a carbohydrate-or a protein-rich meal, and 120 min after the carbohydrate meal (n=12), respectively, at low intensity. Activation of lipolysis was assessed by plasma glycerol levels. In addition, plasma insulin, glucose, and lactate concentrations were determined. In comparison to the fasted state, the carbohydrate meal suppressed activation of lipolysis. Following the protein meal, exercise led to an attenuated but significant increase of glycerol levels. A similar rise was observed when the carbohydrate meal was ingested 2 h prior to the exercise bout. To improve exercise-induced lipolysis and subsequent fat oxidation during low-intensity exercise obese subjects should not ingest carbohydrates immediately before exercise. Hunger sensations should be satisfied with protein-rich food. When carbohydrates are consumed 2 h prior to exercise its lipolytic effect is comparable to the protein meal. These data are useful in every day dietary counselling and might help to improve weight loss during obesity treatment. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York.

  6. Unsaturated Oral Fat Load Test Improves Glycemia, Insulinemia and Oxidative Stress Status in Nondiabetic Subjects with Abdominal Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Hervas, Sergio; Navarro, Inmaculada; Real, Jose T.; Artero, Ana; Peiro, Marta; Gonzalez-Navarro, Herminia; Carmena, Rafael; Ascaso, Juan F.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the changes in glycemia, insulinemia, and oxidative stress markers during an oral fat load test in nondiabetic subjects with abdominal obesity and to analyze the association between postprandial oxidative stress markers and postprandial glucose and insulin responses. Methods We included 20 subjects with abdominal obesity (waist circumference > 102 cm for men and > 88 cm for women) and 20 healthy lean controls (waist circumference < 102 cm for men and < 88 cm for women). After 12 hours of fasting we performed a standardized fat load test (0–8 hours) with supracal® (50 g/m2). We determined metabolic parameters, oxidized and reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde. Results In both groups, insulin, HOMA, oxidized/reduced glutathione ratio, and malondialdehyde significantly decreased in the postprandial state after the OFLT. All these parameters were significantly higher in the abdominal obesity group at baseline and during all the postprandial points, but the reduction from the baseline levels was significantly higher in the abdominal obesity group. Conclusion Unsaturated fat improves insulin resistance and oxidative stress status. It is possible that a consumption of unsaturated fat could be beneficial even in subjects with abdominal obesity in postprandial state. PMID:27537847

  7. Morbidly obese human subjects have increased peripheral blood CD4 + T cells with skewing toward a Treg- and Th2-dominated phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. van der Weerd (Kim); W.A. Dik (Willem); B. Schrijver (Benjamin); D.H. Schweitzer (Dave ); A.W. Langerak (Anton); H.A. Drexhage (Hemmo); R.M. Kiewiet-Kemper (Rosalie); M.O. van Aken (Maarten); A. van Huisstede (Astrid); J.J.M. van Dongen (Jacques); A.J. van der Lelij (Aart Jan); F.J.T. Staal (Frank); P.M. van Hagen (Martin)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObesity is associated with local T-cell abnormalities in adipose tissue. Systemic obesity-related abnormalities in the peripheral blood T-cell compartment are not well defined. In this study, we investigated the peripheral blood T-cell compartment of morbidly obese and lean subjects. We

  8. Pubertal development in Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Teilmann, G; Scheike, Thomas Harder

    2006-01-01

    Two recent epidemiological studies (PROS and NHANES III) from the USA noted earlier sexual maturation in girls, leading to increased attention internationally to the age at onset of puberty. We studied the timing of puberty in a large cohort of healthy Danish children in order to evaluate differe...... genetic polymorphisms, nutrition, physical activity or endocrine disrupting chemicals must therefore also be considered. Therefore, we believe it is crucial to monitor the pubertal development closely in Denmark in the coming decades.......Two recent epidemiological studies (PROS and NHANES III) from the USA noted earlier sexual maturation in girls, leading to increased attention internationally to the age at onset of puberty. We studied the timing of puberty in a large cohort of healthy Danish children in order to evaluate...

  9. [Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia--risk factors of the metabolic syndrome in the pubertal population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto Buczkowska, Ewa

    2005-01-01

    Pubertal insulin resistance has been well documented, the fall in insulin sensitivity (Sl) during puberty is associated with a compensatory increase in insulin secretion. Observation of pubertal insulin resistance showed that insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism was approximately 30% lower in a sample of children at Tanner stages II-IV compared with children at Tanner stage I or adults. Although the phenomenon of pubertal insulin resistance is well documented, the mechanism has not been clearly determined. Pubertal insulin resistance occurs during a time of profound changes in body composition and hormone levels. Resistance of the body to the actions of insulin results in increased production of this hormone by the pancreas and ensuing hyperinsulinemia. Obesity beginning in childhood often precedes the hyperinsulinemic state. Other components of the insulin resistance syndrome are also present in children and adolescents. Conditions of insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension and obesity, especially in constellation, are potent risk factors of coronary atherosclerosis among adolescents and young adults. Early conservative intervention with diet, exercise, and behavioral therapy may prevent the complications of insulin resistance.

  10. Visceral fat and weight loss in obese subjects : relationship to serum lipids, energy expenditure and sex hormones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenen, R.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes the relationships between visceral fat accumulation and serum lipids, energy expenditure, and sex hormone levels in healthy obese men and premenopausal women undergoing weight loss therapy. The subjects, aged 27-51 years, with an initial body mass index of 28-38 kg/m &

  11. Visceral fat and weight loss in obese subjects : relationship to serum lipids, energy expenditure and sex hormones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenen, R.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes the relationships between visceral fat accumulation and serum lipids, energy expenditure, and sex hormone levels in healthy obese men and premenopausal women undergoing weight loss therapy. The subjects, aged 27-51 years, with an initial body mass index of 28-38 kg/m

  12. Pubertal status, pre-meal drink composition, and later meal timing interact in determining children's appetite and food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Barkha P; Hamilton, Jill K; Vien, Shirley; Thomas, Scott G; Anderson, G Harvey

    2016-09-01

    Puberty is a period of development that alters energy intake patterns. However, few studies have examined appetite and food intake (FI) regulation during development of puberty in children and adolescents. Therefore, the objective was to measure the effect of pubertal status on FI and subjective appetite after pre-meal glucose and whey protein drinks in 9- to 14-year-old boys and girls. In a within-subject, randomized, repeated-measures design, children (21 pre-early pubertal, 15 mid-late pubertal) received equally sweetened drinks containing Sucralose (control), glucose, or whey protein (0.75 g/kg body weight) in 250 mL of water 2 h after a standardized breakfast on 6 separate mornings. Ad libitum FI was measured either 30 or 60 min later and appetite was measured over time. In pre-early and mid-late pubertal boys and girls there was no effect of sex on total FI (kcal). Glucose and whey protein drinks reduced calorie intake similarly at 30 min. But at 60 min, whey protein reduced FI (p children, but not in mid-late pubertal children. However, sex was a factor (p = 0.041) when FI was expressed per kilogram body weight. Pubertal status did not affect FI/kilogram body weight in boys, but it was 32% lower in mid-late pubertal girls than at pre-early puberty (p = 0.010). Appetite was associated with FI in mid-late pubertal children only. In conclusion, pubertal development affects appetite and FI regulation in children.

  13. Systemic inflammation in morbidly obese subjects: response to oral supplementation with alpha-linolenic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faintuch, Joel; Horie, Lilian M; Barbeiro, Hermes V; Barbeiro, Denise F; Soriano, Francisco G; Ishida, Robson K; Cecconello, Ivan

    2007-03-01

    Morbidly obese patients frequently display asymptomatic chronic activation of acute phase response, with potentially adverse metabolic and cardiovascular consequences. Nutritional preparations to improve this phenomenon have rarely been administered. Aiming to investigate the supplementation of flaxseed flour, a source of omega-3 fatty acids, a prospective randomized double-blind cross-over study was designed. Outpatient obese subjects (n=41) were clinically and biochemically screened, and results for 24 randomized subjects are shown. Age was 40.8 +/- 11.6 years (83.3% females) and body mass index (BMI) was 47.1 +/- 7.2 kg/m2. Flaxseed flour (Farinha de Linhaca Dourada LinoLive, Cisbra, Brazil) in the amount of 30 g/day (5 g of alpha-linolenic acid - omega-3) and an equal mass of placebo (manioc flour) were administered for 2 weeks each. Variables included general biochemical investigation, white blood cell count (WBC), C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA) and fibronectin. No intolerance was registered. Body weight and general biochemical indices remained stable. Initial CRP and SAA were elevated (13.7 +/- 9.9 and 17.4 +/- 8.0 ). WBC (8100 +/- 2100/mm3) and fibronectin (463.2 +/- 61.3 mg/dL) were acceptable but in the upper normal range. Corresponding findings after supplementation of flaxseed were 10.6 +/- 6.2 mg/L, 14.3 +/- 9.2 mg/L, 7300 +/- 1800/mm3 and 412.8 +/- 38.6 respectively (Pchange during the control period regarding baseline occurred when placebo was randomized to be given first; however, when it followed omega-3 supplementation, CRP and SAA recovered, whereas WBC and fibronection remained depressed during those 2 weeks (7500 +/- 2100/mm3 and 393.2 +/- 75.8 mg/dL, P<0.05). 1) Various inflammatory markers were elevated in the studied population, although not necessarily exceeding the normal range; 2) Significant reduction could be demonstrated; 3) Some persistent effects of flaxseed supplement 2 weeks after discontinuation were observed.

  14. Fate and Complex Pathogenic Effects of Dioxins and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Obese Subjects before and after Drastic Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Ji; Marchand, Philippe; Henegar, Corneliu; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Alili, Rohia; Poitou, Christine; Bouillot, Jean-Luc; Basdevant, Arnaud; Le Bizec, Bruno; Barouki, Robert; Clément, Karine

    2011-01-01

    Background In humans, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are stored primarily in adipose tissue. Their total body burden and their contribution to obesity-associated diseases remain unclear. Objectives We characterized POP total body burden and their redistribution in obese individuals before and after drastic weight loss and compared these values with a variety of molecular, biological, and clinical parameters. Methods Seventy-one obese subjects were enrolled and underwent bariatric surgery. Blood and adipose tissue samples were obtained at different times from these individuals as well as from 18 lean women. Results POP content (17 dioxins/furans and 18 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners) in different adipose tissue territories was similar, allowing us to assess total POP body burden from a single biopsy. Total POP body burden was 2 to 3 times higher in obese than in lean individuals. We also found increased expression of some POP target genes in obese adipose tissue. Drastic weight loss led to increased serum POPs and, within 6–12 months, to a significant 15% decrease in total polychlorinated biphenyl body burden. Importantly, serum POP levels were positively correlated with liver toxicity markers and lipid parameters, independently of age and body mass index. Conclusions POP content in adipose tissue and serum correlate with biological markers of obesity-related dysfunctions. Drastic weight loss leads to a redistribution of POPs and to a moderate decrease of their total body burden. PMID:21156398

  15. Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity means having too much body fat. It is different from being overweight, which means weighing too ... what's considered healthy for his or her height. Obesity occurs over time when you eat more calories ...

  16. Usefulness of an accelerated transoesophageal stress echocardiography in the preoperative evaluation of high risk severely obese subjects awaiting bariatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessier Michel

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe obesity is associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD. Bariatric surgery is an effective procedure for long term weight management as well as reduction of comorbidities. Preoperative evaluation of cardiac operative risk may often be necessary but unfortunately standard imaging techniques are often suboptimal in these subjects. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility, safety and utility of transesophageal dobutamine stress echocardiography (TE-DSE using an adapted accelerated dobutamine infusion protocol in severely obese subjects with comorbidities being evaluated for bariatric surgery for assessing the presence of myocardial ischemia. Methods Subjects with severe obesity [body mass index (BMI >40 kg/m2] with known or suspected CAD and being evaluated for bariatric surgery were recruited. Results Twenty subjects (9M/11F, aged 50 ± 8 years (mean ± SD, weighing 141 ± 21 kg and with a BMI of 50 ± 5 kg/m2 were enrolled in the study and underwent a TE-DSE. The accelerated dobutamine infusion protocol used was well tolerated. Eighteen (90% subjects reached their target heart rate with a mean intubation time of 13 ± 4 minutes. Mean dobutamine dose was 31.5 ± 9.9 ug/kg/min while mean atropine dose was 0.5 ± 0.3 mg. TE-DSE was well tolerated by all subjects without complications including no significant arrhythmia, hypotension or reduction in blood arterial saturation. Two subjects had abnormal TE-DSE suggestive of myocardial ischemia. All patients underwent bariatric surgery with no documented cardiovascular complications. Conclusions TE-DSE using an accelerated infusion protocol is a safe and well tolerated imaging technique for the evaluation of suspected myocardial ischemia and cardiac operative risk in severely obese patients awaiting bariatric surgery. Moreover, the absence of myocardial ischemia on TE-DSE correlates well with a low operative risk of cardiac event.

  17. Hormonal and Dietary Characteristics in Obese Human Subjects with and without Food Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Pardis Pedram; Guang Sun

    2014-01-01

    The concept of food addiction (FA) is a potentially important contributing factor to the development of obesity in the general population; however, little is known about the hormonal and dietary differences between obesity with and without FA. Therefore, the aim of our study was to explore potential biomarkers, including various hormones and neuropeptides, which regulate appetite and metabolism, and dietary components that could potentially differentiate obesity with and without FA. Of the 73...

  18. Transfundal insertion of a Veress needle in laparoscopy of obese subjects: a practical alternative

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Santala, M; Järvelä, I; Kauppila, A

    1999-01-01

    Because induction of artificial pneumoperitoneum through the infra-umbilical route is associated with complications in laparoscopic procedures, especially in obese patients, we performed a prospective...

  19. Obesity and craniofacial variables in subjects with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: comparisons of cephalometric values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cannavale Rosangela

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this paper was to determine the most common craniofacial changes in patients suffering Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS with regards to the degree of obesity. Accordingly, cephalometric data reported in the literature was searched and analyzed. Methods After a careful analysis of the literature from 1990 to 2006, 5 papers with similar procedural criteria were selected. Inclusion criteria were: recruitment of Caucasian patients with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI >10 as grouped in non-obese (Body Mass Index – [BMI] vs. obese (BMI ≥ 30. Results A low position of the hyoid bone was present in both groups. In non-obese patients, an increased value of the ANB angle and a reduced dimension of the cranial base (S-N were found to be the most common finding, whereas major skeletal divergence (ANS-PNS ^Go-Me was evident among obese patients. No strict association was found between OSAS and length of the soft palate. Conclusion In both non-obese and obese OSAS patients, skeletal changes were often evident; with special emphasis of intermaxillary divergence in obese patients. Unexpectedly, in obese OSAS patients, alterations of oropharyngeal soft tissue were not always present and did not prevail.

  20. Urinary chromium is associated with changes in leukocyte miRNA expression in obese subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dioni, L; Sucato, S; Motta, V; Iodice, S; Angelici, L; Favero, C; Cavalleri, T; Vigna, L; Albetti, B; Fustinoni, S; Bertazzi, P; Pesatori, A; Bollati, V

    2017-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Epidemiological studies suggest a link between chromium (Cr) status and cardiovascular disease. Increased urinary excretion of Cr was reported in subjects with diabetes compared with non-diabetic controls and those with non-diabetic insulin resistance. Epigenetic alterations have been linked to the presence of Cr, and microRNA (miRNA) expression has been implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). We investigated the association between Cr excretion and miRNA expression in leukocytes from obese subjects. We also examined the relationship between altered miRNA expression and selected clinical parameters to further investigate mechanisms linking Cr to metabolic diseases and CVDs. Subjects/Methods: We analyzed urinary Cr in 90 Italian subjects using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Peripheral blood miRNA levels were screened with TaqMan Low-Density Array Human MicroRNA A. Cr level-associated expression of miRNAs was detected with multivariate regression analyses, and the top 10 candidate miRNAs were selected for validation. We also used multivariate regression analyses to assess possible associations between validated miRNAs and glycated hemoglobin (A1c) and blood pressure (BP). The validated miRNAs were further investigated by functional analysis with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software. Results: Urinary Cr levels (mean: 0.35 μg/l; s.d.=0.24) ranged from 0.05 to 1.27 μg/l. In the screening phase, 43 miRNAs were negatively associated with Cr. Of the top 10 miRNAs selected for validation, nine (miR-451, miR-301, miR-15b, miR-21, miR-26a, miR-362-3p, miR-182, miR-183 and miR-486-3p) were downregulated in association with Cr (P-false discovery rate (FDR)<0.10). miR-451 expression was associated with A1c (β=–0.06; P=0.0416), whereas miR-486-3p expression was associated both with diastolic (β=2.1; P=0.004) and systolic BP (β=3.3; P=0.003). Conclusions: These results indicate that mi

  1. Consumption of sucrose-sweetened soft drinks increases plasma levels of uric acid in overweight and obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, J M; Maersk, M; Belza, A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Sucrose-sweetened soft drinks (SSSDs) are associated with the development of metabolic disorders. Fructose is a major component of SSSDs and is demonstrated to induce uric acid (UA) production and stimulate fat accumulation independent of excess caloric intake. UA induce...... insulin resistance and low-grade inflammation, suggesting that UA may have a causal role in the development of metabolic complications. The objective of this study is to investigate the long-term effects of consuming SSSDs on circulating levels of UA in overweight and obese subjects. SUBJECTS...... milk, diet cola and water. Thus, a high daily intake of SSSDs in overweight and obese subjects without overt diabetes may increase the risk of developing metabolic complications through the elevation of UA. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT00777647.European Journal of Clinical...

  2. Disparity in neural and subjective responses to food images in women with obesity and normal-weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbine, Kaylie A; Larson, Michael J; Romney, Lora; Bailey, Bruce W; Tucker, Larry A; Christensen, William F; LeCheminant, James D

    2017-02-01

    Self-reports tend to differ from objective measurements of food intake, particularly in adults with obesity; however, no studies have examined how neural responses to food (an objective measure) and subjective ratings of food differ by BMI status. This study tested normal-weight women (NWW) and women with obesity (OBW) for group differences in neural indices of attention towards food pictures, subjective ratings of these pictures, and the disparity between objective and subjective measurements. Twenty-two NWW (21.8 ± 1.7 kg/m(2) ) and 22 OBW (37.0 ± 5.7 kg/m(2) ) viewed food and flower pictures while late positive potential amplitude, an event-related potential, was recorded. Participants rated pictures for arousal and valence. Late positive potential amplitude was larger toward food than flower pictures. OBW self-reported flower pictures as more pleasant than food; NWW showed no difference for pleasantness. There were no significant main effects or interactions for arousal. Standardized scores showed that only on subjective, but not objective, measures did OBW compared with NWW disproportionately indicate food pictures as less pleasant than flowers. Compared with NWW, OBW showed larger discrepancies between neural and subjective reports of attention towards food. Inaccurate self-reports of attention towards food may reduce the efficiency of health interventions. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  3. Breast cancer 1 (BrCa1 may be behind decreased lipogenesis in adipose tissue from obese subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J Ortega

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Expression and activity of the main lipogenic enzymes is paradoxically decreased in obesity, but the mechanisms behind these findings are poorly known. Breast Cancer 1 (BrCa1 interacts with acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC reducing the rate of fatty acid biosynthesis. In this study, we aimed to evaluate BrCa1 in human adipose tissue according to obesity and insulin resistance, and in vitro cultured adipocytes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: BrCa1 gene expression, total and phosphorylated (P- BrCa1, and ACC were analyzed in adipose tissue samples obtained from a total sample of 133 subjects. BrCa1 expression was also evaluated during in vitro differentiation of human adipocytes and 3T3-L1 cells. RESULTS: BrCa1 gene expression was significantly up-regulated in both omental (OM; 1.36-fold, p = 0.002 and subcutaneous (SC; 1.49-fold, p = 0.001 adipose tissue from obese subjects. In parallel with increased BrCa1 mRNA, P-ACC was also up-regulated in SC (p = 0.007 as well as in OM (p = 0.010 fat from obese subjects. Consistent with its role limiting fatty acid biosynthesis, both BrCa1 mRNA (3.5-fold, p<0.0001 and protein (1.2-fold, p = 0.001 were increased in pre-adipocytes, and decreased during in vitro adipogenesis, while P-ACC decreased during differentiation of human adipocytes (p = 0.005 allowing lipid biosynthesis. Interestingly, BrCa1 gene expression in mature adipocytes was restored by inflammatory stimuli (macrophage conditioned medium, whereas lipogenic genes significantly decreased. CONCLUSIONS: The specular findings of BrCa1 and lipogenic enzymes in adipose tissue and adipocytes reported here suggest that BrCa1 might help to control fatty acid biosynthesis in adipocytes and adipose tissue from obese subjects.

  4. Effects of weight loss in metabolically healthy obese subjects after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding and hypocaloric diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Sesti

    Full Text Available Weight loss in metabolically healthy obese (MHO subjects may result in deterioration of cardio-metabolic risk profile. We analyzed the effects of weight loss induced by laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB on cardio-metabolic risk factors in MHO and insulin resistant obese (IRO individuals. This study included 190 morbidly obese non-diabetic subjects. Obese individuals were stratified on the basis of their insulin sensitivity index (ISI, estimated from an OGTT, into MHO (ISI index in the upper quartile and IRO (ISI in the three lower quartiles. Anthropometric and cardio-metabolic variables were measured at baseline and 6-months after LAGB. Six months after LAGB, anthropometric measures were significantly reduced in both MHO and IRO. Percent changes in body weight, BMI, and waist circumference did not differ between the two groups. Fasting glucose and insulin levels, triglycerides, AST, and ALT were significantly reduced, and HDL cholesterol significantly increased, in both MHO and IRO subjects with no differences in percent changes from baseline. Insulin sensitivity increased in both MHO and IRO group. Insulin secretion was significantly reduced in the IRO group only. However, the disposition index significantly increased in both MHO and IRO individuals with no differences in percent changes from baseline between the two groups. The change in insulin sensitivity correlated with the change in BMI (r = -0.43; P<0.0001. In conclusion, our findings reinforce the recommendation that weight loss in response to LAGB intervention should be considered an appropriate treatment option for morbidly obese individuals regardless of their metabolic status, i.e. MHO vs. IRO subjects.

  5. Pubertal Onset in Boys and Girls Is Influenced by Pubertal Timing of Both Parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Mouritsen, Annette; Hagen, Casper P

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Epidemiological evidence on maternal and paternal heritability of the wide normal variation within pubertal timing is sparse. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to estimate the impact of parental pubertal timing on the onset of puberty in boys and girls. DESIGN: Annual pubertal examinations of healthy...... children in a longitudinal cohort study. Information on parental timing of puberty (earlier, comparable to, or later compared to peers) and menarche age was retrieved from questionnaires. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 672 girls and 846 boys. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Age at onset of pubic hair (PH2+), breasts (B2......+), and menarche in girls; and PH2+, genital stage (G2+), and testis >3 mL with orchidometer (Tvol3+) in boys. RESULTS: In boys, pubertal onset was significantly associated with pubertal timing of both parents. PH2+ and Tvol3+ were earlier: -11.8 months (95% confidence interval, -16.8, -6.8)/-8.9 (-12.8, -4...

  6. Intact proinsulin and beta-cell function in lean and obese subjects with and without type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røder, M E; Dinesen, B; Hartling, S G;

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes is a heterogeneous disease in which both beta-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance are pathogenetic factors. Disproportionate hyperproinsulinemia (elevated proinsulin/insulin) is another abnormality in type 2 diabetes whose mechanism is unknown. Increased demand due...... to obesity and/or insulin resistance may result in secretion of immature beta-cell granules with a higher content of intact proinsulin. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We investigated the impact of obesity on beta-cell secretion in normal subjects and in type 2 diabetic patients by measuring intact proinsulin......, total proinsulin immunoreactivity (PIM), intact insulin, and C-peptide (by radioimmunoassay) by specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in the fasting state and during a 120-min glucagon (1 mg i.v.) stimulation test. Lean (BMI 23.5 +/- 0.3 kg/m2) (LD) and obese (30.1 +/- 0.4 kg/m2) (OD) type 2...

  7. Serum Bcl-2 concentrations in overweight-obese subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giovanni Tarantino; Francesco Scopacasa; Annamaria Colao; Domenico Capone; Marianna Tarantino; Ernesto Grimaldi; Silvia Savastano

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To shed some light on the relationship between anti-apoptotic serum Bcl-2 concentrations and metabolic status, anthropometric parameters, inflammation indices, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease severity were investigated in 43 young individuals with fatty liver (FL) and 41 with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). METHODS: Circulating levels of Bcl-2 were detected in 84 patients with ultrasonographic findings of "bright liver" and/or hyper-transaminasemia of unknown origin and/or increase in γ-glutamyl-transpeptidase (γ-GT) strictly in the absence of other acute or chronic liver disease, whose age was not advanced, who gave consent to liver biopsy and were then divided on the basis of the histological results into two groups (43 with FL and 41 with NASH). Twenty lean subjects, apparently healthy and young, were chosen as controls.RESULTS: Serum Bcl-2 concentrations were significantly higher in the FL group than in the NASH group. Insulin resistance and γ-GT activity were significantly higher in NASH subjects. Apoptotic hepatocytes were significantly more numerous in NASH patients. NASH patients presented with larger spleens and augmented C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations than healthy subjects. Steatosis grade at histology was similar in both NASH and FL populations. The number of apoptotic cells was significantly related to anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein values in FL patients. Bcl-2 serum levels positively correlated to body mass index (BMI) values (P ≤ 0.0001) but not to age of the population. Triglycerides/HDL ratio correlated well to waist circumference in males (P = 0.0008). γ-GT activity was associated with homeostatic metabolic assessment (HOMA) (P = 0.0003) and with serum ferritin (P = 0.02). Bcl-2 concentrations were not related to either spleen size or CRP values. NASH patients presented a weak negative correlation between lobular inflammation and Bcl-2 levels. A prediction by low values of serum Bcl-2 towards a greater presence of

  8. Validation of the Italian version of the Laval questionnaire: health-related quality of life in subjects with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donini, Lorenzo Maria; Rosano, Aldo; Di Lazzaro, Luca; Poggiogalle, Eleonora; Lubrano, Carla; Migliaccio, Silvia; Carbonelli, Mariagrazia; Pinto, Alessandro; Lenzi, Andrea

    2017-05-15

    Obesity is associated to increased risk of metabolic comorbidity as well as increased mortality. Notably, obesity is also associated to the impairment of the psychological status and of quality of life. Only three questionnaires are available in the Italian language evaluating the health-related quality of life in subjects with obesity. The aim of the present study was to test the validity and reliability of the Italian version of the Laval Questionnaire. The original French version was translated into Italian and back-translated by a French native speaker. 273 subjects with obesity (Body Mass Index ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) were enrolled; the Italian version of the Laval Questionnaire and the O.R.Well-97 questionnaire were administered in order to assess health- related quality of life. The Laval questionnaire consists of 44 items distributed in 6 domains (symptoms, activity/mobility, personal hygiene/clothing, emotions, social interaction, sexual life). Disability and overall psychopathology levels were assessed through the TSD-OC test (SIO test for obesity correlated disabilities) and the SCL-90 (Symptom Checklist-90) questionnaire, respectively. To verify the validity of the Italian version, the analysis of internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity were performed. The observed proportion of agreement concordance of results was 50.2% with Cohen's K = 0.336 (CI 95%: 0.267-0.404), indicating a fair agreement between the two tests. Test-retest correlation was statistically significant (ρ = 0.82; p  0.70). The analysis of construct validity showed a statistically significant association in terms of both total score (ρ = -0.66) and scores at each single domain (p obesity.

  9. The Gut Microbiota from Lean and Obese Subjects Contribute Differently to the Fermentation of Arabinogalactan and Inulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Marisol; Bussolo de Souza, Carlota; Venema, Koen

    2016-01-01

    Background An aberrant metabolic activity or a compositional alteration of the gut microbiota has been proposed as a factor that makes us more prone to disease. Therefore, we explored the effect of two dietary fibers (arabinogalactan and inulin) on the microbiota from lean and obese subjects during 72 h in vitro fermentation experiments using the validated TNO dynamic in vitro model of the proximal colon: TIM-2. Metabolically, arabinogalactan fermentation showed a higher production of propionate when compared to n-butyrate in the obese microbiota fermentations. In general, lean microbiota produced more n-butyrate from the fermentation of both substrates when compared to the obese microbiota. Furthermore, the obese microbiota extracted more energy from the fermentation of both fibers. Results Compositionally, bacteria belonging to Gemmiger, Dorea, Roseburia, Alistipes, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium genera were found to be highly abundant or stimulated by the prebiotics in the lean microbiota suggesting a potential role in leanness. Furthermore, a significant correlation between known butyrogenic strains including B. adolescentis, an unclassified Bifidobacterium and F. prausnitzii with this metabolite in the fermentation of inulin in both microbiotas was found. Conclusions Although supplementary in vivo studies are needed, the current study provides more evidence for the consumption of specific ingredients with the aim of modulating the gut microbiota in the context of obesity. PMID:27410967

  10. Effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass on fasting and postprandial inflammation-related parameters in obese subjects with normal glucose tolerance and in obese subjects with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bovbjerg, Kirsten Katrine Lindegaard; Jorgensen, Nils Bruun; Just, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obesity is characterized by low grade inflammation and an altered secretion of inflammatory cytokines from the adipose tissue. Weight loss has shown to reduce inflammation; however, changes in cytokine profiles during massive weight loss are not well described. The present study explo...... and NGT obese subjects. This study is the first to examine IL-8 and TGF-beta in obese subject after RYGB. Resolution of inflammation could offer a potential explanation for the health improvement associated with major weight loss after bariatric surgery....... after surgery. Interleukin (IL)-6, leptin, adiponectin, IL-8, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), and the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were measured in the fasting state and during a liquid meal. Insulin resistance was evaluated by HOMA-IR. Results: Weight loss did not differ...... between the two groups. Before surgery, HbA1c was higher and HOMA-IR lower in T2D patients, however, converged to the values of NGT subjects one year after surgery. Circulating cytokine concentrations did not differ between the two groups at any time point. One week after surgery, circulating IL-6 and IL...

  11. Insulin up-regulates natriuretic peptide clearance receptor expression in the subcutaneous fat depot in obese subjects: a missing link between CVD risk and obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivovarova, Olga; Gögebakan, Özlem; Klöting, Nora; Sparwasser, Andrea; Weickert, Martin O; Haddad, Isam; Nikiforova, Victoria J; Bergmann, Andreas; Kruse, Michael; Seltmann, Anne-Cathrin; Blüher, Matthias; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Rudovich, Natalia

    2012-05-01

    Natriuretic peptides (NP) regulate cardiovascular homeostasis and have multiple metabolic properties. Decreased levels of NP or "natriuretic handicap" are signs of insulin resistance such as central obesity. Increased expression of NP clearance receptor (NPRC) in sc adipose tissue (SAT) was observed in insulin-resistant subjects. We hypothesized that insulin acutely regulates NP receptor expression in adipose tissue. NPRA, NPRB, and NPRC mRNA expression was measured in paired samples of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and SAT from 157 subjects (108 with type 2 diabetes). The effect of insulin on NPR gene expression in SAT was studied in euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic and hyperglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp experiments. Additionally, the effect of insulin and glucose on NPR expression in the culture of primary human monocytes and macrophages was tested. NPRA and NPRC gene expression was higher in VAT compared with SAT (P < 0.01), but only NPRC gene expression strongly correlated with fasting insulin levels (r = 0.65, P = 0.04 × 10(-3); and r = 0.54, P = 0.002, for VAT and SAT, respectively). NPRB expression was lower in VAT than in SAT in subjects with type 2 diabetes and was lower compared with nondiabetic subjects. NPRC gene expression was up-regulated in SAT during both euglycemic- and hyperglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps (P = 0.038 and P = 0.048, respectively), and was increased in high glucose and insulin treatment in monocytes (70.2%; P = 0.01), but not in mature macrophages. Insulin increased expression of NPRC in SAT independently of circulating glucose concentrations. Thus, insulin might suppress circulating NP via up-regulation of NPRC expression in obesity, providing a novel link between hyperinsulinemia and obesity.

  12. Twenty-four-hour plasma tryptophan concentrations and ratios are below normal in obese subjects and are not normalized by substantial weight reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Leif; Rasmussen, Michael H; Hilsted, Jannik

    2003-01-01

    subjects. Blood samples were drawn frequently throughout the 24-h period. An insulin tolerance test was also used to determine whether weight loss altered the ability of insulin to modify plasma concentrations of tryptophan and of the other large neutral amino acids. RESULTS: Plasma tryptophan......BACKGROUND: Plasma tryptophan concentrations and the ratio of tryptophan to other large neutral amino acids (plasma tryptophan ratio) are reportedly low in obese subjects. The plasma tryptophan ratio predicts brain tryptophan uptake and serotonin production. If this ratio is low in obese subjects...... concentrations and ratios in obese subjects were low at all times; these effects persisted after weight reduction. Plasma concentrations of all the large neutral amino acids decreased during insulin infusion in all the groups. CONCLUSIONS: The low 24-h plasma tryptophan ratios in obese and formerly obese...

  13. Maths performance as a function of sex, laterality, and age of pubertal onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sappington, John; Topolski, Richard

    2005-07-01

    Sex differences in math/spatial performance demand explanations. Within the biological view, the complexity and number of variables make the explanation difficult at best. Laterality and age of pubertal onset have been investigated prominently in this context but rarely considered as interactions in the same study. Some 468 college subjects with SAT MATH (SAT M) scores were divided into 12 groups defined by sex, laterality, and age (early, middle, and late) of pubertal onset. Significant main effects for sex and age of onset emerged, as did an interaction between lateral preference and pubertal onset. Generally males outperformed females. The combination of maleness, sinistrality, and early maturation was associated with high SAT M scores. Sinistrality and late maturation among females predicted very poor math performance.

  14. Identification of Direct and Indirect Social Network Effects in the Pathophysiology of Insulin Resistance in Obese Human Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Henning, Christian H.C.A.; Nana Zarnekow; Johannes Hedtrich; Sascha Stark; Kathrin Türk; Matthias Laudes

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to examine to what extent different social network mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of obesity and insulin-resistance. DESIGN: We used nonparametric and parametric regression models to analyse whether individual BMI and HOMA-IR are determined by social network characteristics. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 677 probands (EGO) and 3033 social network partners (ALTER) were included in the study. Data gathered from the probands include ant...

  15. Sympathetic neural adaptation to hypocaloric diet with or without exercise training in obese metabolic syndrome subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straznicky, Nora E; Lambert, Elisabeth A; Nestel, Paul J

    2010-01-01

    Sympathetic nervous system (SNS) overactivity contributes to the pathogenesis and target organ complications of obesity. This study was conducted to examine the effects of lifestyle interventions (weight loss alone or together with exercise) on SNS function.......Sympathetic nervous system (SNS) overactivity contributes to the pathogenesis and target organ complications of obesity. This study was conducted to examine the effects of lifestyle interventions (weight loss alone or together with exercise) on SNS function....

  16. The effect of Irvingia gabonensis seeds on body weight and blood lipids of obese subjects in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngondi, Judith L; Oben, Julius E; Minka, Samuel R

    2005-05-25

    Dietary fibres are frequently used for the treatment of obesity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Irvingia gabonensis seeds in the management of obesity. This was carried out as a double blind randomised study involving 40 subjects (mean age 42.4 years). Twenty-eight subjects received Irvingia gabonensis (IG) (1.05 g three time a day for one month) while 12 were on placebo (P) and the same schedule. During the one-month study period all subjects were on a normocaloric diet evaluated every week by a dietetic record book. At the end, the mean body weight of the IG group was decreased by 5.26 +/- 2.37% (p < 0.0001) and that of the placebo group by 1.32 +/- 0.41% (p < 0.02). The difference observed between the IG and the placebo groups was significant (p < 0.01). The obese patients under Irvingia gabonensis treatment also had a significant decrease of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and an increase of HDL-cholesterol. On the other hand, the placebo group did not manifest any changes in blood lipid components. Irvingia gabonensis seed may find application in weight lose.

  17. Relationships between serum adiponectin and soluble TNF-α receptors and glucose and lipid oxidation in lean and obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamska, A; Nikołajuk, A; Karczewska-Kupczewska, M; Kowalska, I; Otziomek, E; Górska, M; Strączkowski, M

    2012-02-01

    Insulin resistance might be associated with an impaired ability of insulin to stimulate glucose oxidation and inhibit lipid oxidation. Insulin action is also inversely associated with TNF-α system and positively related to adiponectin. The aim of the present study was to analyze the associations between serum adiponectin, soluble TNF-α receptors concentrations and the whole-body insulin sensitivity, lipid and glucose oxidation, non-oxidative glucose metabolism (NOGM) and metabolic flexibility in lean and obese subjects. We examined 53 subjects: 25 lean (BMI 25 kg × m(-2)) with normal glucose tolerance. Hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp and indirect calorimetry were performed. An increase in respiratory exchange ratio in response to insulin was used as a measure of metabolic flexibility. Obese subjects had lower insulin sensitivity, adiponectin and higher sTNFR1 (all P rate of glucose (r = 0.47, P flexibility (r = 0.36, P = 0.007). Serum sTNFR1 and sTNFR2 were associated with the rate of glucose (r = -0.45, P = 0.001; r = -0.51, P flexibility (r = -0.47 and r = -0.51, respectively, both P < 0.001) in an opposite manner than adiponectin. Our data suggest that soluble TNF-α receptors and adiponectin have multiple effects on glucose and lipid metabolism in obesity.

  18. Model and Effectiveness of Endurance Exercise to Increase Physical Fitness in Intellectual Disability Subjects with Obesity: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirza Z Tamin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to design a model and assess the effectiveness of endurance exercise to increase physical fitness in intelectual disability (ID patients with obesity. Methods: a randomized-controlled clinical trial was performed in ID patients with obesity aged 10-30 years old from all Special School in DKI Jakarta, which were randomly allocated into 3 groups and then given 3 different type of exercises: lower extremity muscles endurance exercise for 20 RM followed by cardiorespiratory endurance exercise for 24-25 minutes (type I, lower extremity muscles endurance exercises for 10 RM followed by cardiorespiratory endurance exercises for 26-27 minutes (type II, and threw a tennis ball with 10 m distance for 10 minutes as control (type III. These program was performed 3 times a week for 4 months. Assesment of the exercise effectiveness was done by measuring maximum load that can be lifted and six-minutes walking test on rectangular track which was converted with the VO2 max prediction formula. Analysis was perfomed with Kruskal Wallis test. Results: two hundred and twelve (212 subjects were included in the study, randomly allocated into three types (I, II, and III of exercises groups. The type II of endurance exercise model was proved to be more effective in increasing lower extremity muscles endurance level compared to type I and III for ID patients with obesity (p<0.05. Meanwhile, type I of endurance exercise model was proved to be more effective in increasing cardiorespiratory endurance level compared to type II and III for ID patients with obesity (p<0.05. Conclusion: lower extremity muscles endurance exercise followed by a cardiorespiratory endurance exercise can be used to increase physical fitness in ID patients with obesity. Key words: intelectual disability patient, obesity, lower extremity muscles and cardiorespiratory endurance exercise, lower extremity muscles endurance level, cardiorespiratory endurance level.

  19. Elevation of Fasting Ghrelin in Healthy Human Subjects Consuming a High-Salt Diet: A Novel Mechanism of Obesity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Overweight/obesity is a chronic disease that carries an increased risk of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and premature death. Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated a clear relationship between salt intake and obesity, but the pathophysiologic mechanisms remain unknown. We hypothesized that ghrelin, which regulates appetite, food intake, and fat deposition, becomes elevated when one consumes a high-salt diet, contributing to the progression of obesity. We, therefore, investigated fasting ghrelin concentrations during a high-salt diet. Thirty-eight non-obese and normotensive subjects (aged 25 to 50 years were selected from a rural community in Northern China. They were sequentially maintained on a normal diet for three days at baseline, a low-salt diet for seven days (3 g/day, NaCl, then a high-salt diet for seven days (18 g/day. The concentration of plasma ghrelin was measured using an immunoenzyme method (ELISA. High-salt intake significantly increased fasting ghrelin levels, which were higher during the high-salt diet (320.7 ± 30.6 pg/mL than during the low-salt diet (172.9 ± 8.9 pg/mL. The comparison of ghrelin levels between the different salt diets was statistically-significantly different (p < 0.01. A positive correlation between 24-h urinary sodium excretion and fasting ghrelin levels was demonstrated. Our data indicate that a high-salt diet elevates fasting ghrelin in healthy human subjects, which may be a novel underlying mechanism of obesity.

  20. Impaired incretin effect and fasting hyperglucagonaemia characterizing type 2 diabetic subjects are early signs of dysmetabolism in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, Filip K; Aaboe, K; Vilsbøll, T;

    2012-01-01

    Aims: People with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are characterized by reduced incretin effect and inappropriate glucagon levels. We evaluated a and ß-cell responses to oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and isoglycaemic intravenous glucose infusion (IIGI) in lean and obese persons with T2DM...... subjects with NGT [BMI: 33 (35-38) kg/m(2) ]; (iii) Eight lean patients with T2DM [BMI: 24 (22-25) kg/m(2) ]; and (iv) Eight lean healthy subjects [BMI: 23 (20-25) kg/m(2) ]. Results: The incretin effect was significantly (p error...

  1. Subcutaneous Bioavailability of Taspoglutide at 3 Different Injection Sites in Healthy Overweight/Obese Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm-Pellanda, Carolina; Abt, Markus; Sanwald-Ducray, Patricia; Schmitt, Christophe

    2015-11-01

    Taspoglutide is a long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist that has >90% homology with the endogenous GLP-1 while retaining equivalent potency. Once-weekly subcutaneous injections with taspoglutide demonstrated meaningful antihyperglycemic and weight loss effects in patients with type 2 diabetes. The present study was performed to compare the relative bioavailability of taspoglutide injected subcutaneously in the abdomen, upper arm, and thigh. Healthy overweight/obese subjects were randomized in an open-label, 3-way crossover study. A single 20-mg dose of taspoglutide was injected subcutaneously on 3 occasions in the abdomen, upper arm, or thigh. Each injection was separated by a 12-week washout period. Blood was sampled up to 12 weeks for the pharmacokinetic evaluation of taspoglutide. Sixty subjects were randomized into the study (mean age, 45.5 years; body weight, 97.6 kg; and body mass index, 31.4 kg/m(2)). AUClast values (geometric mean) for subcutaneous injections in the abdomen, upper arm, and thigh were 44.2, 61.2, and 50.0 ng·h/mL, respectively. The geometric mean ratio (relative bioavailability) for the upper arm versus the abdomen was 1.41 (90% CI: 1.22-1.62) and for the thigh versus the abdomen was 1.13 (90% CI: 0.98-1.31). Corresponding Cmax values for subcutaneous injections in the abdomen, upper arm, and thigh were 0.268, 0.382, and 0.341 ng/mL, respectively, and the geometric mean ratio for the upper arm versus the abdomen was 1.43 (90% CI: 1.24-1.64) and for the thigh versus the abdomen was 1.27 (90% CI: 1.10-1.46). Decreases in taspoglutide exposure were observed with each subsequent period. AUClast values (geometric mean across injections sites) for periods 1, 2, and 3 were 97.2, 42.6, and 31.5 ng·h/mL, respectively. The geometric mean ratio for period 2 versus 1 was 0.44 (90% CI: 0.38-0.50) and for period 3 versus 1 was 0.32 (90% CI: 0.27-0.37). Analysis of pharmacokinetic data after first injection only (period 1) showed

  2. Targeted metabolomic analysis reveals the association between the postprandial change in palmitic acid, branched-chain amino acids and insulin resistance in young obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liyan; Feng, Rennan; Guo, Fuchuan; Li, Ying; Jiao, Jundong; Sun, Changhao

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is the result of a positive energy balance and often leads to difficulties in maintaining normal postprandial metabolism. The changes in postprandial metabolites after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in young obese Chinese men are unclear. In this work, the aim is to investigate the complex metabolic alterations in obesity provoked by an OGTT using targeted metabolomics. We used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ultra high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry to analyze serum fatty acids, amino acids and biogenic amines profiles from 15 control and 15 obese subjects at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min during an OGTT. Metabolite profiles from 30 obese subjects as independent samples were detected in order to validate the change of metabolites. There were the decreased levels of fatty acid, amino acids and biogenic amines after OGTT in obesity. At 120 min, percent change of 20 metabolites in obesity has statistical significance when comparing with the controls. The obese parameters was positively associated with changes in arginine and histidine (Pchange in palmitic acid (PA), branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and phenylalanine between 1 and 120 min were positively associated with fasting insulin and HOMA-IR (all Presistance in obesity. Our findings offer new insights in the complex physiological regulation of the metabolism during an OGTT in obesity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Next-generation sequencing methylation profiling of subjects with obesity identifies novel gene changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Samantha E; Coletta, Richard L; Kim, Joon Young; Campbell, Latoya E; Benjamin, Tonya R; Roust, Lori R; De Filippis, Elena A; Dinu, Valentin; Shaibi, Gabriel Q; Mandarino, Lawrence J; Coletta, Dawn K

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a metabolic disease caused by environmental and genetic factors. However, the epigenetic mechanisms of obesity are incompletely understood. The aim of our study was to investigate the role of skeletal muscle DNA methylation in combination with transcriptomic changes in obesity. Muscle biopsies were obtained basally from lean (n = 12; BMI = 23.4 ± 0.7 kg/m(2)) and obese (n = 10; BMI = 32.9 ± 0.7 kg/m(2)) participants in combination with euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps to assess insulin sensitivity. We performed reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) next-generation methylation and microarray analyses on DNA and RNA isolated from vastus lateralis muscle biopsies. There were 13,130 differentially methylated cytosines (DMC; uncorrected P obese versus lean analysis. Microarray analysis revealed 99 probes that were significantly (corrected P genes (encompassing 22 methylation sites) demonstrated a negative relationship between gene expression and DNA methylation. Specifically, sorbin and SH3 domain containing 3 (SORBS3) which codes for the adapter protein vinexin was significantly decreased in gene expression (fold change -1.9) and had nine DMCs that were significantly increased in methylation in obesity (methylation differences ranged from 5.0 to 24.4 %). Moreover, differentially methylated region (DMR) analysis identified a region in the 5'UTR (Chr.8:22,423,530-22,423,569) of SORBS3 that was increased in methylation by 11.2 % in the obese group. The negative relationship observed between DNA methylation and gene expression for SORBS3 was validated by a site-specific sequencing approach, pyrosequencing, and qRT-PCR. Additionally, we performed transcription factor binding analysis and identified a number of transcription factors whose binding to the differentially methylated sites or region may contribute to obesity. These results demonstrate that obesity alters the epigenome through DNA methylation and highlights

  4. Obesity indexes and total mortality among elderly subjects at high cardiovascular risk: the PREDIMED study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A Martínez-González

    Full Text Available Different indexes of regional adiposity have been proposed for identifying persons at higher risk of death. Studies specifically assessing these indexes in large cohorts are scarce. It would also be interesting to know whether a dietary intervention may counterbalance the adverse effects of adiposity on mortality.We assessed the association of four different anthropometric indexes (waist-to-height ratio (WHtR, waist circumference (WC, body mass index (BMI and height with all-cause mortality in 7447 participants at high cardiovascular risk from the PREDIMED trial. Forty three percent of them were men (55 to 80 years and 57% were women (60 to 80 years. All of them were initially free of cardiovascular disease. The recruitment took place in 11 recruiting centers between 2003 and 2009.After adjusting for age, sex, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, intervention group, family history of coronary heart disease, and leisure-time physical activity, WC and WHtR were found to be directly associated with a higher mortality after 4.8 years median follow-up. The multivariable-adjusted HRs for mortality of WHtR (cut-off points: 0.60, 0.65, 0.70 were 1.02 (0.78-1.34, 1.30 (0.97-1.75 and 1.55 (1.06-2.26. When we used WC (cut-off points: 100, 105 and 110 cm, the multivariable adjusted Hazard Ratios (HRs for mortality were 1.18 (0.88-1.59, 1.02 (0.74-1.41 and 1.57 (1.19-2.08. In all analyses, BMI exhibited weaker associations with mortality than WC or WHtR. The direct association between WHtR and overall mortality was consistent within each of the three intervention arms of the trial.Our study adds further support to a stronger association of abdominal obesity than BMI with total mortality among elderly subjects at high risk of cardiovascular disease. We did not find evidence to support that the PREDIMED intervention was able to counterbalance the harmful effects of increased adiposity on total mortality.Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN35739639.

  5. Obesity Indexes and Total Mortality among Elderly Subjects at High Cardiovascular Risk: The PREDIMED Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, Miguel A.; García-Arellano, Ana; Toledo, Estefanía; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Bulló, Mónica; Corella, Dolores; Fito, Montserrat; Ros, Emilio; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa Maria; Rekondo, Javier; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Santos-Lozano, Jose Manuel; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Martínez, J. Alfredo; Eguaras, Sonia; Sáez-Tormo, Guillermo; Pintó, Xavier; Estruch, Ramon

    2014-01-01

    Background Different indexes of regional adiposity have been proposed for identifying persons at higher risk of death. Studies specifically assessing these indexes in large cohorts are scarce. It would also be interesting to know whether a dietary intervention may counterbalance the adverse effects of adiposity on mortality. Methods We assessed the association of four different anthropometric indexes (waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI) and height) with all-cause mortality in 7447 participants at high cardiovascular risk from the PREDIMED trial. Forty three percent of them were men (55 to 80 years) and 57% were women (60 to 80 years). All of them were initially free of cardiovascular disease. The recruitment took place in 11 recruiting centers between 2003 and 2009. Results After adjusting for age, sex, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, intervention group, family history of coronary heart disease, and leisure-time physical activity, WC and WHtR were found to be directly associated with a higher mortality after 4.8 years median follow-up. The multivariable-adjusted HRs for mortality of WHtR (cut-off points: 0.60, 0.65, 0.70) were 1.02 (0.78–1.34), 1.30 (0.97–1.75) and 1.55 (1.06–2.26). When we used WC (cut-off points: 100, 105 and 110 cm), the multivariable adjusted Hazard Ratios (HRs) for mortality were 1.18 (0.88–1.59), 1.02 (0.74–1.41) and 1.57 (1.19–2.08). In all analyses, BMI exhibited weaker associations with mortality than WC or WHtR. The direct association between WHtR and overall mortality was consistent within each of the three intervention arms of the trial. Conclusions Our study adds further support to a stronger association of abdominal obesity than BMI with total mortality among elderly subjects at high risk of cardiovascular disease. We did not find evidence to support that the PREDIMED intervention was able to counterbalance the harmful effects of increased adiposity on total mortality. Trial

  6. The gene expression of the main lipogenic enzymes is downregulated in visceral adipose tissue of obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Francisco J; Mayas, Dolores; Moreno-Navarrete, José M; Catalán, Victoria; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Esteve, Eduardo; Rodriguez-Hermosa, Jose I; Ruiz, Bartomeu; Ricart, Wifredo; Peral, Belen; Fruhbeck, Gema; Tinahones, Francisco J; Fernández-Real, José M

    2010-01-01

    Contradictory findings regarding the gene expression of the main lipogenic enzymes in human adipose tissue depots have been reported. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to evaluate the mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-CoA carboxilase (ACC) in omental and subcutaneous (SC) fat depots from subjects who varied widely in terms of body fat mass. FAS and ACC gene expression were evaluated by real time-PCR in 188 samples of visceral adipose tissue which were obtained during elective surgical procedures in 119 women and 69 men. Decreased sex-adjusted FAS (-59%) and ACC (-49%) mRNA were found in visceral adipose tissue from obese subjects, with and without diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM-2), compared with lean subjects (both P < 0.0001). FAS mRNA was also decreased (-40%) in fat depots from overweight subjects (P < 0.05). Indeed, FAS mRNA was significantly and positively associated with ACC gene expression (r = 0.316, P < 0.0001) and negatively with BMI (r = -0.274), waist circumference (r = -0.437), systolic blood pressure (r = -0.310), serum glucose (r = -0.277), and fasting triglycerides (r = -0.226), among others (all P < 0.0001). Similar associations were observed for ACC gene expression levels. In a representative subgroup of nonobese (n = 4) and obese women (n = 6), relative FAS gene expression levels significantly correlated (r = 0.657, P = 0.034; n = 10) with FAS protein values. FAS protein levels were also inversely correlated with blood glucose (r = -0.640, P = 0.046) and fasting triglycerides (r = -0.832, P = 0.010). In conclusion, the gene expression of the main lipogenic enzymes is downregulated in visceral adipose tissue from obese subjects.

  7. Abnormal epigenetic changes during differentiation of human skeletal muscle stem cells from obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davegårdh, Cajsa; Broholm, Christa; Perfilyev, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    is associated with low relative muscle mass and diminished metabolism. Epigenetic alterations taking place during myogenesis might contribute to these defects. METHODS: We used Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip Kit (Illumina) and HumanHT-12 Expression BeadChip (Illumina) to analyze genome-wide DNA......BACKGROUND: Human skeletal muscle stem cells are important for muscle regeneration. However, the combined genome-wide DNA methylation and expression changes taking place during adult myogenesis have not been described in detail and novel myogenic factors may be discovered. Additionally, obesity...... methylation and transcription before versus after differentiation of primary human myoblasts from 14 non-obese and 14 obese individuals. Functional follow-up experiments were performed using siRNA mediated gene silencing in primary human myoblasts and a transgenic mouse model. RESULTS: We observed genome...

  8. Sex and muscle structural lipids in obese subjects - an impact on insulin action?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, SB; Vaag, A.; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2008-01-01

    resistance, despite the fact that an android fat distribution is detrimental to insulin action. The increased extramyocellular fat mass of obese women may act in a paracrine manner such that its release of free FA and cytokines may hamper in situ desaturation and elongation of FA in skeletal muscle...... distribution, nine non-diabetic obese men with a typical android fat distribution and 12 (seven females) lean age matched healthy controls (body mass index 34.6 +/- 1.0 kg m(-2), 36.5 +/- 1.2 and 22.5 +/- 0.5; age 47 +/- 2 years, 51 +/- 3 and 49 +/- 2). RESULTS: Obese women displayed decreased LCPUFA n-3...... to controls (Ps android...

  9. Thirty days of resveratrol supplementation does not affect postprandial incretin hormone responses, but suppresses postprandial glucagon in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, F K; Konings, E; Timmers, S

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: Resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic compound produced by various plants (e.g. red grapes) and found in red wine, has glucose-lowering effects in humans and rodent models of obesity and/or diabetes. The mechanisms behind these effects have been suggested to include resveratrol......-induced secretion of the gut incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1. We investigated postprandial incretin hormone and glucagon responses in obese human subjects before and after 30 days of resveratrol supplementation. METHODS: Postprandial plasma responses of the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1...... and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon were evaluated in 10 obese men [subjects characteristics (mean ± standard error of the mean): age 52 ± 2 years; BMI 32 ± 1 kg/m(2) , fasting plasma glucose 5.5 ± 0.1 mmol/l] who had been given a dietary supplement of resveratrol (Resvida(®) 150 mg...

  10. GLP-1 and Calcitonin Concentration in Humans: Lack of Evidence of Calcitonin Release from Sequential Screening in over 5000 Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes or Nondiabetic Obese Subjects Treated with the Human GLP-1 Analog, Liraglutide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegedüs, Laszlo; Moses, Alan C; Zdravkovic, Milan

    2011-01-01

    to the GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus or nondiabetic obese subjects. Methods: Unstimulated serum CT concentrations were measured at 3-month intervals for no more than 2 yr in a series of trials in over 5000 subjects receiving liraglutide or control therapy...

  11. Effects of Aerobic Exercise Based upon Heart Rate at Aerobic Threshold in Obese Elderly Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donini, Lorenzo Maria

    2015-01-01

    In obese diabetic subjects, a correct life style, including diet and physical activity, is part of a correct intervention protocol. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic training intervention, based on heart rate at aerobic gas exchange threshold (AerTge), on clinical and physiological parameters in obese elderly subjects with type 2 diabetes (OT2DM). Thirty OT2DM subjects were randomly assigned to an intervention (IG) or control group (CG). The IG performed a supervised aerobic exercise training based on heart rate at AerTge whereas CG maintained their usual lifestyle. Anthropometric measures, blood analysis, peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak), metabolic equivalent (METpeak), work rate (WRpeak), and WRAerTge were assessed at baseline and after intervention. After training, patients enrolled in the IG had significantly higher (P < 0.001) V˙O2peak, METpeak, WRpeak, and WRAerTge and significantly lower (P < 0.005) weight, BMI, %FM, and waist circumference than before intervention. Both IG and CG subjects had lower glycated haemoglobin levels after intervention period. No significant differences were found for all the other parameters between pre- and posttraining and between groups. Aerobic exercise prescription based upon HR at AerTge could be a valuable physical intervention tool to improve the fitness level and metabolic equilibrium in OT2DM patients. PMID:26089890

  12. Effect of Dark Chocolate Extracts on Phorbol 12-Myristate 13-Acetate-Induced Oxidative Burst in Leukocytes Isolated by Normo-Weight and Overweight/Obese Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannone, Francesca; Sacchetti, Giampiero; Serafini, Mauro

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative and inflammatory stress represents a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in overweight and obese subjects. Between the different plant foods, chocolate has been shown to decrease CVD risk due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, as we recently showed in epidemiological studies, meta-analyses, and human trials, dietary antioxidants resulted more effective in subjects characterized by an ongoing oxidative stress, than in healthy people. Aim of this work was to investigate the effect of different concentrations of chocolate phenolic extract (CPE) on in vitro free radical production, stimulated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), in leukocytes extracted from blood of normo-weight and overweight/obese subjects. Neutrophils from overweight/obese group had a significantly higher free radical production compared to the normo-weight group. In neutrophils, the lowest CPE concentration significantly reduced free radical production in overweight/obese group only, and higher CPE concentrations were effective in both groups. In monocytes, the CPE concentration that was significantly effective in reducing free radical production was lower in overweight/obese subjects than in normo-weight subjects. Chocolate polyphenol extracts inhibit oxidative burst in human neutrophils and monocytes with a higher efficiency in subjects characterized by an unphysiological oxidative/inflammatory stress, such as overweight and obese. Results of this study provide further evidence about a differential role of dietary antioxidant strictly related to the “stress” condition of the subjects. PMID:28649567

  13. Effect of Dark Chocolate Extracts on Phorbol 12-Myristate 13-Acetate-Induced Oxidative Burst in Leukocytes Isolated by Normo-Weight and Overweight/Obese Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Ioannone

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative and inflammatory stress represents a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD in overweight and obese subjects. Between the different plant foods, chocolate has been shown to decrease CVD risk due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, as we recently showed in epidemiological studies, meta-analyses, and human trials, dietary antioxidants resulted more effective in subjects characterized by an ongoing oxidative stress, than in healthy people. Aim of this work was to investigate the effect of different concentrations of chocolate phenolic extract (CPE on in vitro free radical production, stimulated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, in leukocytes extracted from blood of normo-weight and overweight/obese subjects. Neutrophils from overweight/obese group had a significantly higher free radical production compared to the normo-weight group. In neutrophils, the lowest CPE concentration significantly reduced free radical production in overweight/obese group only, and higher CPE concentrations were effective in both groups. In monocytes, the CPE concentration that was significantly effective in reducing free radical production was lower in overweight/obese subjects than in normo-weight subjects. Chocolate polyphenol extracts inhibit oxidative burst in human neutrophils and monocytes with a higher efficiency in subjects characterized by an unphysiological oxidative/inflammatory stress, such as overweight and obese. Results of this study provide further evidence about a differential role of dietary antioxidant strictly related to the “stress” condition of the subjects.

  14. Vagal Blocking Improves Glycemic Control and Elevated Blood Pressure in Obese Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shikora

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. An active device that downregulates abdominal vagal signalling has resulted in significant weight loss in feasibility studies. Objective. To prospectively evaluate the effect of intermittent vagal blocking (VBLOC on weight loss, glycemic control, and blood pressure (BP in obese subjects with DM2. Methods. Twenty-eight subjects were implanted with a VBLOC device (Maestro Rechargeable System at 5 centers in an open-label study. Effects on weight loss, HbA1c, fasting blood glucose, and BP were evaluated at 1 week to 12 months. Results. 26 subjects (17 females/9 males, 51±2 years, BMI 37±1 kg/m2, mean ± SEM completed 12 months followup. One serious adverse event (pain at implant site was easily resolved. At 1 week and 12 months, mean excess weight loss percentages (% EWL were 9±1% and 25±4% (P<0.0001, and HbA1c declined by 0.3±0.1% and 1.0±0.2% (P=0.02, baseline 7.8±0.2%. In DM2 subjects with elevated BP (n=15, mean arterial pressure reduced by 7±3 mmHg and 8±3 mmHg (P=0.04, baseline 100 ± 2 mmHg at 1 week and 12 months. All subjects MAP decreased by 3 ± 2 mmHg (baseline 95 ± 2 mmHg at 12 months. Conclusions. VBLOC was safe in obese DM2 subjects and associated with meaningful weight loss, early and sustained improvements in HbA1c, and reductions in BP in hypertensive DM2 subjects. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00555958.

  15. Dissociated incretin hormone response to protein versus fat ingestion in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, O; Carr, RD; Holst, Jens Juul

    2011-01-01

    kcal/kg) fat (olive oil) or protein (whey protein) was ingested by non-diabetic obese male volunteers [body mass index (BMI) >30 kg/m(2) ; n = 12] and plasma GIP and GLP-1 were determined. We found no difference in the early GIP or GLP-1 responses to fat versus protein. However, the total 300-min GIP...

  16. Inflammatory Markers in Middle-Aged Obese Subjects: Does Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome Play a Role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paschalis Steiropoulos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS is associated with inflammation, but obesity may be a confounding factor. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore differences in serum levels of inflammation markers between obese individuals with or without OSAS. Methods. Healthy individuals (n=61 from an outpatient obesity clinic were examined by polysomnography and blood analysis, for measurement of TNF-α, IL-6, CRP, and fibrinogen levels. According to Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI, participants were divided into two BMI-matched groups: controls (AHI < 15/h, n=23 and OSAS patients (AHI ≥ 15/h, n=38. Results. OSAS patients had significantly higher TNF-α levels (P<.001 while no other difference in the examined inflammation markers was recorded between groups. Overall, TNF-α levels were correlated with neck circumference (P<.001, AHI (P=.002, and Oxygen Desaturation Index (P=.002. Conclusions. Obese OSAS patients have elevated TNF-α levels compared to BMI-matched controls, suggesting a role of OSAS in promoting inflammation, possibly mediated by TNF-a.

  17. Baroreflex function: determinants in healthy subjects and disturbances in diabetes, obesity and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrapari, Ioanna; Tentolouris, Nicholas; Katsilambros, Nicholas

    2006-08-01

    Arterial baroreceptors play an important role in the short-term regulation of arterial pressure, by reflex chronotropic effect on the heart and by reflex regulation of sympathetic outflow. Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) represents an index of arterial baroreceptors function. Several methods of measuring BRS are available nowadays. Different factors influence BRS in the healthy population, including sex, age, blood pressure, heart rate, body fatness, arterial stiffness, blood glucose and insulin levels, as well as physical activity. Baroreceptors dysfunction is evident in diseases such as coronary artery disease, heart failure, arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus and obesity. The underlying mechanism of BRS attenuation in diabetes or obesity is not yet well known; however, there is increasing evidence that it is at least partly related to autonomic nervous system dysfunction and particularly to sympathetic overactivity that accompanies these diseases. Blunted BRS provides prognostic information for cardiovascular diseases and possibly for diabetes, while its' prognostic information for obesity is not yet established. This review deals with the mechanisms affecting baroreflex function, the newer techniques of BRS estimation and the most recent insights of baroreflex function in the healthy population and in various diseases with emphasis on diabetes and obesity. In addition, the clinical implication of a reduced BRS in these disorders is discussed.

  18. Investigations of the human endocannabinoid system in two subcutaneous adipose tissue depots in lean subjects and in obese subjects before and after weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennetzen, M F; Wellner, Niels; Ahmed, Shamaila Saghir;

    2011-01-01

    Endocannabinoids (ECs) have a role in obesity by affecting appetite and through peripheral effects. Obesity is associated with a dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system (ECS).......Endocannabinoids (ECs) have a role in obesity by affecting appetite and through peripheral effects. Obesity is associated with a dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system (ECS)....

  19. Circulating cortisol-associated signature of glucocorticoid-related gene expression in subcutaneous fat of obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlatou, Maria G; Vickers, Kasey C; Varma, Sudhir; Malek, Rana; Sampson, Maureen; Remaley, Alan T; Gold, Philip W; Skarulis, Monica C; Kino, Tomoshige

    2013-05-01

    Serum cortisol concentrations fluctuate in a circadian fashion, and glucocorticoids exert strong effects on adipose tissue and induce obesity through the glucocorticoid receptor. To examine the impact of physiologic levels of circulating cortisol on subcutaneous adipose tissue, 25 overweight and obese subjects were employed, and their serum levels of morning (AM) and evening (PM) cortisol, AM/PM cortisol ratios, and 24-h urinary-free cortisol (UFC) were compared with their clinical parameters, serum cytokine levels, and mRNA expression of 93 receptor action-regulating and 93 glucocorticoid-responsive genes in abdominal subcutaneous fat. AM cortisol levels did not correlate with mRNA expression of the all genes examined, whereas PM cortisol levels, AM/PM cortisol ratios, and 24-h UFC were associated with distinct sets of these genes. Body mass index did not significantly correlate with the four cortisol parameters employed. These results suggest that physiologic levels of AM serum cortisol do not solely represent biological effects of circulating cortisol on the expression of glucocorticoid-related genes in subcutaneous adipose tissue, whereas PM levels, amplitude, and net amounts of the diurnally fluctuating serum cortisol have distinct effects. Through the genes identified in this study, glucocorticoids appear to influence intermediary metabolism, energy balance, inflammation, and local circadian rythmicity in subcutaneous fat. Our results may also explain in part the development of metabolic abnormality and obesity in subjects under stress or patients with melancholic/atypical depression who demonstrate elevated levels of PM serum cortisol. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  20. Metabolic consequences of very-low-calorie diet therapy in obese non-insulin-dependent diabetic and nondiabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, R R; Wiest-Kent, T A; Scheaffer, L; Kolterman, O G; Olefsky, J M

    1986-02-01

    To determine the effects of very-low-calorie diets on the metabolic abnormalities of diabetes and obesity, we have studied 10 obese, non-insulin-dependent diabetic (NIDDM) and 5 obese, nondiabetic subjects for 36 days on a metabolic ward during consumption of a liquid diet of 300 kcal/day with 30 g of protein. Rapid improvement occurred in the glycemic indices of the diabetic subjects, with mean (+/- SEM) fasting plasma glucose falling from 291 +/- 21 to 95 +/- 6 mg/dl (P less than 0.001) and total glycosylated hemoglobin from 13.1 +/- 0.7% to 8.8 +/- 0.3% (P less than 0.001) (normal reference range 5.5-8.5%). Lipid elevations were normalized with plasma triglycerides reduced to less than 100 mg/dl and total plasma cholesterol to less than 150 mg/dl in both groups. Hormonal and substrate responses were also comparable between groups with reductions in insulin and triiodothyronine and moderate elevations in blood and urinary ketoacid levels without a corresponding rise in free fatty acids. Electrolyte balance for sodium, potassium, calcium, and phosphorus was initially negative but approached equilibrium by completion of the study. Magnesium, in contrast, remained in positive balance in both groups throughout. Total nitrogen loss varied widely among all subjects, ranging from 70 to 367 g, and showed a strong positive correlation with initial lean body mass (N = 0.83, P less than 0.001) and total weight loss (N = 0.87, P less than 0.001). The nondiabetic group, which had a significantly greater initial body weight and lean body mass than the diabetic group, also had a significantly greater weight loss of 450 +/- 31 g/day compared with 308 +/- 19 g/day (P less than 0.01) in the diabetic subjects. The composition of the weight lost at completion was similar in both groups and ranged from 21.6% to 31.3% water, 3.9% to 7.8% protein, and 60.9% to 74.5% fat. The contribution of both water and protein progressively decreased and fat increased, resulting in unchanged caloric

  1. Effect of the Pro12Ala polymorphism of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2 gene on lipid profile and adipokines levels in obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becer E

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ is a key regulator of metabolism, adipokines production and secretion. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the PPARγ2 gene Pro12Ala polymorphism in obesity in terms of body mass index (BMI, lipid parameters, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, serum lipid, leptin, adiponectin, resistin and chemerin levels. The study included 160 obese and 140 non obese subjects. The Pro12Ala polymorphism was determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP. Serum lipid, leptin, adiponectin, resistin and chemerin levels were measured. No association was found between the Pro12Ala polymorphism and BMI. Strikingly, in the study group, obese subjects with the AA genotype had significantly higher triglycerides (p = 0.046 and resistin (p <0.001 levels than those with the wild-type PP and heterozygous PA genotypes. Serum leptin and chemerin levels were significantly associated with Pro-12Ala poymorphism in the obese and non obese groups (p <0.01. In the obese group, subjects with the homozygous AA genotype had significantly lower adiponectin (p = 0.010 activity than the PP genotype. Our results suggest that the PPARγ2 gene Pro12Ala polymorphism has no direct association with obesity but does have significant influences on lipid profiles and adipokines levels.

  2. Effect of the Pro12Ala Polymorphism of the Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor γ2 Gene on Lipid Profile and Adipokines Levels in Obese Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becer, E; Çırakoğlu, A

    2017-06-30

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a key regulator of metabolism, adipokines production and secretion. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the PPARγ2 gene Pro12Ala polymorphism in obesity in terms of body mass index (BMI), lipid parameters, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), serum lipid, leptin, adiponectin, resistin and chemerin levels. The study included 160 obese and 140 non obese subjects. The Pro12Ala polymorphism was determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Serum lipid, leptin, adiponectin, resistin and chemerin levels were measured. No association was found between the Pro12Ala polymorphism and BMI. Strikingly, in the study group, obese subjects with the AA genotype had significantly higher triglycerides (p = 0.046) and resistin (p Pro12Ala polymorphism has no direct association with obesity but does have significant influences on lipid profiles and adipokines levels.

  3. Effects of Aerobic Exercise Based upon Heart Rate at Aerobic Threshold in Obese Elderly Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Meucci, Marco; Di Luigi, Luigi; Migliaccio, Silvia; Donini, Lorenzo Maria; Strollo, Felice; Guidetti, Laura

    2015-01-01

    In obese diabetic subjects, a correct life style, including diet and physical activity, is part of a correct intervention protocol. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic training intervention, based on heart rate at aerobic gas exchange threshold (AerTge), on clinical and physiological parameters in obese elderly subjects with type 2 diabetes (OT2DM). Thirty OT2DM subjects were randomly assigned to an intervention (IG) or control group (CG). The IG performed a supervised aerobic exercise training based on heart rate at AerTge whereas CG maintained their usual lifestyle. Anthropometric measures, blood analysis, peak oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]), metabolic equivalent (METpeak), work rate (WRpeak), and WRAerTge were assessed at baseline and after intervention. After training, patients enrolled in the IG had significantly higher (P exercise prescription based upon HR at AerTge could be a valuable physical intervention tool to improve the fitness level and metabolic equilibrium in OT2DM patients.

  4. The effect of Irvingia gabonensis seeds on body weight and blood lipids of obese subjects in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minka Samuel R

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dietary fibres are frequently used for the treatment of obesity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Irvingia gabonensis seeds in the management of obesity. This was carried out as a double blind randomised study involving 40 subjects (mean age 42.4 years. Twenty-eight subjects received Irvingia gabonensis (IG (1.05 g three time a day for one month while 12 were on placebo (P and the same schedule. During the one-month study period all subjects were on a normocaloric diet evaluated every week by a dietetic record book. At the end, the mean body weight of the IG group was decreased by 5.26 ± 2.37% (p Irvingia gabonensis treatment also had a significant decrease of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and an increase of HDL-cholesterol. On the other hand, the placebo group did not manifest any changes in blood lipid components. Irvingia gabonensis seed may find application in weight lose.

  5. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study on sibutramine in over-weighted and obese subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objectives To assess weight loss efficacy ,safety and tolerability of sibutramine in simple obese subjects.Methods Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Four hospital outpatient clinics in Shanghai, Chongqing, Shandong and Tianjin, respectively. Participants: 233 men and women, 18-65 years old, with body mass index (BMI) ranging from 27 to 40*!kg/m2 were randomly divided into an intervened group and a placebo control group. Sibutramine 10 mg or placebo once a day. Main outcome measures: Body weight, routine laboratory and clinical safety monitoring.Results Of 233 eligible patients, 120 received sibutramine and 113 received placebo. Weight reduction was significantly greater in the intervened group (6.8±3.1) kg than the placebo control group (0.48±2.6) kg from week 4 onwards to week 24 (P<0.001). Some minor side effects were noticed in the subjects who took sibutramine. But the symptoms were light and short term. Sibutramine was will tolerated.Conclusions Sibutramine 10*!mg once a day is an effective an safe therapy for weight reduction in simple over-weighted and obese subjects.

  6. Identification of gene variants in NOS3, ET-1 and RAS that confer risk and protection against microangiopathy in type 2 diabetic obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manea, Simona-Adriana; Robciuc, Alexandra; Guja, Cristian; Heltianu, Constantina

    2011-04-15

    The study aim was to investigate NOS3 VNTR, NOS3 G894T, EDN1 C8002T, ACE I/D, AGT M235T and AGTR1 A1166C in nonobese and obese T2DM patients, and their interaction with the incidence of microangiopathy. T2DM subjects (n=250; 166 nonobese, and 84 obese) were genotyped for the gene variants by PCR/RFLP. The interaction of these polymorphisms with obesity and their contribution to microangiopathy were analyzed by multivariate regression analysis. A higher frequency of NOS3 4a allele was found in obese (P=0.027) vs. nonobese subjects. ACE D (P=0.009) and AGT 235T (P=0.026) alleles were associated with the reduced risk of diabetic nephropathy in nonobese and obese patients, respectively. In obese subjects, NOS3 4a (P=0.011) had a converse effect to NOS3 894T (P=0.043), and EDN1 8002T (P=0.035) on the prevalence of combined microangiopathy (neuropathy/retinopathy/nephropathy) vs. microangiopathy-negative subjects. The study indicates association of RAS variants with obesity and nephropathy, and an opposite effect of NOS3 VNTR and NOS3 G894T on the occurrence of combined microangiopathy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evidence of secular trend in mandibular pubertal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patcas, Raphael; Wiedemeier, Daniel B; Markic, Goran; Beit, Philipp; Keller, Heidi

    2017-04-20

    During puberty, mandibular growth follows a growth curve comparable to somatic growth. This study aimed to review the relationship between mandibular pubertal peak height velocity (PHV) and skeletal age, and to investigate the possibility of a secular trend. Retrospective analysis was performed of two historical craniofacial growth studies (Denver Growth Study; observational time: 1943-1965, and Zurich Growth Study; observational time: 1982-1984) of healthy untreated subjects. Two mandibular growth measures (Articulare-Pogonion [Ar-Pg], Condylion-Pogonion [Co-Pg]) were retrieved from cephalograms (n: 990) and corresponding skeletal age based on hand-wrist radiographs. Mandibular growth velocity was related to skeletal age, PHV was established by use of cubic smoothing splines and variability was calculated by bootstrap resampling for every growth study and gender separately. Sexual dimorphism in mandibular growth was apparent in both cohorts. In subjects of the Denver Growth Study, mandibular PHV occurred at a more advanced skeletal age than in subjects of the Zurich Growth Study. This trend was more pronounced in males, for whom PHV of Co-Pg shifted from 14.4 to 13.8 years and of Ar-Pg from 14.6 to 13.7 years. This tendency was more subtle in females: PHV of Co-Pg shifted from 12.7 to 12.4 years and of Ar-Pg from 12.6 to 11.8 years. Mandibular growth appears to be subject to a secular trend. When related to skeletal age, this secular trend seems to be more accentuated than the established secular trend for somatic pubertal growth.

  8. Improved glucose tolerance after intensive life style intervention occurs without changes in muscle ceramide or triacylglycerol in morbidly obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, J. W.; Stallknecht, B.; Drachmann, Tue

    2011-01-01

    )). Method: Before and after the life style intervention an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed and a muscle biopsy was obtained in the fasted state. Maximal oxygen uptake was measured by an indirect test. Results: After the intervention body weight was decreased (P......Aim: This study investigated the effect of a 15-week life style intervention (hypocaloric diet and regular exercise) on glucose tolerance, skeletal muscle lipids and muscle metabolic adaptations in 14 female and 9 male morbidly obese subjects (age: 32.5 +/- 2.3 years, BMI: 46.1 +/- 1.9 kg m(-2...

  9. Separate impact of obesity and glucose tolerance on the incretin effect in normal subjects and type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muscelli, Elza; Mari, Andrea; Casolaro, Arturo

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To quantitate the separate impact of obesity and hyperglycemia on the incretin effect (i.e., the gain in beta-cell function after oral glucose versus intravenous glucose). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Isoglycemic oral (75 g) and intravenous glucose administration was performed in 51...... subjects (24 with normal glucose tolerance [NGT], 17 with impaired glucose tolerance [IGT], and 10 with type 2 diabetes) with a wide range of BMI (20-61 kg/m(2)). C-peptide deconvolution was used to reconstruct insulin secretion rates, and beta-cell glucose sensitivity (slope of the insulin secretion...

  10. Systemic Inflammation and Lung Function Impairment in Morbidly Obese Subjects with the Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid van Huisstede

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity and asthma are associated. There is a relationship between lung function impairment and the metabolic syndrome. Whether this relationship also exists in the morbidly obese patients is still unknown. Hypothesis. Low-grade systemic inflammation associated with the metabolic syndrome causes inflammation in the lungs and, hence, lung function impairment. Methods. This is cross-sectional study of morbidly obese patients undergoing preoperative screening for bariatric surgery. Metabolic syndrome was assessed according to the revised NCEP-ATP III criteria. Results. A total of 452 patients were included. Patients with the metabolic syndrome (n=293 had significantly higher blood monocyte (mean 5.3 versus 4.9, P=0.044 and eosinophil percentages (median 1.0 versus 0.8, P=0.002, while the total leukocyte count did not differ between the groups. The FEV1/FVC ratio was significantly lower in patients with the metabolic syndrome (76.7% versus 78.2%, P=0.032. Blood eosinophils were associated with FEV1/FVC ratio (adj. B −0.113, P=0.018. Conclusion. Although the difference in FEV1/FVC ratio between the groups is relatively small, in this cross-sectional study, and its clinical relevance may be limited, these data indicate that the presence of the metabolic syndrome may influence lung function impairment, through the induction of relative eosinophilia.

  11. [The relationship between hyperinsulinemia and hypokalemic periodic paralysis in overweight/obesity subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong-Mei; Yu, Ye-Rong

    2013-07-01

    To study the relationship between hyperinsulinemia and primary periodic paralysis in overweight/obesity people. Overweight/obesity people with primary hypokalemic periodic paralysis were administrated as disease group. Serum potassium, insulin and glucose were analyzed at different time (0 h, 1 h, 2 h, 3 h, 4 h) after taking 100 g carbohydrates and the results were compared with that of control group matched by gender, age and body mass index (BMI). (1) Males were much more than females in disease group (14 males and 2 females), the onset age ranged from 20 to 50 years old. (2) Both the highest insulin level and the lowest potassium level appeared at one hour after taking the carbohydrates. And the highest insulin level of disease group was significant higher than that of control group. (3) The area under the curve of insulin and insulin/potassium of disease group was significant higher than that of control group. The postprandial hyperinsulinemia was an important factor in overweight/obesity people with hypokalemic periodic paralysis.

  12. Branched-chain and aromatic amino acids, insulin resistance and liver specific ectopic fat storage in overweight to obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haufe, S; Witt, H; Engeli, S; Kaminski, J; Utz, W; Fuhrmann, J C; Rein, D; Schulz-Menger, J; Luft, F C; Boschmann, M; Jordan, J

    2016-07-01

    Amino acids may interfere with insulin action, particularly in obese individuals. We hypothesized that increased circulating branched-chain and aromatic amino acids herald insulin resistance and ectopic fat storage, particularly hepatic fat accumulation. We measured fasting branched-chain and aromatic amino acids (tryptophan, tyrosine, and phenylalanine) by mass spectrometry in 111 overweight to obese subjects. We applied abdominal magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy to assess adipose tissue distribution and ectopic fat storage, respectively. Plasma branched-chain amino acids concentrations were related to insulin sensitivity and intrahepatic fat independent from adiposity, age and gender, but not to abdominal adipose tissue or intramyocellular fat. In weight stable overweight and obese individuals, branched-chain amino acid concentrations are specifically associated with hepatic fat storage and insulin resistance. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The relationship between serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentration and obesity in type 2 diabetic patients and healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taheri Ehsaneh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with hypovitaminosis D. The aims of this study were to investigate the association of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH D and parathyroid hormone (PTH concentration with body mass index (BMI in type 2 diabetic patients compared to control subjects and their predicting role in obesity. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 200 subjects (100 type 2 diabetics and 100 healthy controls. Concentration of 25(OH D, calcium, phosphorous, parathyroid hormone (PTH, fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, serum insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR was determined in the fasting samples. Anthropometric measurements including body mass index (BMI were also measured. Results Eighty-five percent of type 2 diabetics and 79% of healthy subjects were suffering from vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency. Serum concentration of 25(OH D (22.08 ± 15.20 ng/ml (r = −0.11, P = 0.04 and calcium (8.94 ± 0.59 mg/dl (r = −2.25, P = 0.04 has significant statistically with BMI in type 2 diabetic patients. Serum concentration of PTH has non-significantly associated with BMI in diabetic patients and healthy subjects. Conclusion Serum levels of vitamin D inversely and PTH positively are associated with BMI after adjusted for age, gender and serum calcium in both type 2 diabetic patients and healthy subjects. These associations were statistically significant for serum concentration of vitamin D and calcium only in diabetic patients. So the status of vitamin D is considered as an important factor in type 2 diabetic patients.

  14. Effects of Acute Ingestion of Native Banana Starch on Glycemic Response Evaluated by Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Obese and Lean Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Jiménez-Domínguez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An abnormal glycemic profile, including postprandial glycemia and acute glucose spikes, precedes the onset of overt diabetes in obese subjects. Previous studies have shown the beneficial effects of chronic native banana starch (NBS supplementation. In this study, we examined the effects of acute ingestion of NBS on glycemic profiles by means of continuous glucose monitoring in obese and lean subjects. In a crossover study, obese and lean subjects consumed beverages containing either 38.3 g of NBS or 38.3 g of digestible corn starch (DCS twice daily during 4 days. On day 5, a 3-h meal tolerance test (MTT was performed to evaluate glucose and insulin responses. After 1 week of washout period, treatments were inverted. NBS supplementation reduced the 48-h glycemia AUC in lean, obese, and in the combined group of lean and obese subjects in comparison with DCS. Postprandial glucose and insulin responses at MTT were reduced after NBS in comparison with DCS in all groups. However, no changes were observed in glycemic variability (GV indexes between groups. In conclusion, acute NBS supplementation improved postprandial glucose and insulin responses in obese and lean subjects during 48 h of everyday life and at MTT. Further research to elucidate the mechanism behind these changes is required.

  15. Effects of Acute Ingestion of Native Banana Starch on Glycemic Response Evaluated by Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Obese and Lean Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Domínguez, Guadalupe; Ble-Castillo, Jorge L.; Aparicio-Trápala, María A.; Juárez-Rojop, Isela E.; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos A.; Ble-Castillo, Deysi J.; García-Vázquez, Carlos; Olvera-Hernández, Viridiana; Pérez-Pimienta, Bedelia; Diaz-Zagoya, Juan C.; Mendez, José D.

    2015-01-01

    An abnormal glycemic profile, including postprandial glycemia and acute glucose spikes, precedes the onset of overt diabetes in obese subjects. Previous studies have shown the beneficial effects of chronic native banana starch (NBS) supplementation. In this study, we examined the effects of acute ingestion of NBS on glycemic profiles by means of continuous glucose monitoring in obese and lean subjects. In a crossover study, obese and lean subjects consumed beverages containing either 38.3 g of NBS or 38.3 g of digestible corn starch (DCS) twice daily during 4 days. On day 5, a 3-h meal tolerance test (MTT) was performed to evaluate glucose and insulin responses. After 1 week of washout period, treatments were inverted. NBS supplementation reduced the 48-h glycemia AUC in lean, obese, and in the combined group of lean and obese subjects in comparison with DCS. Postprandial glucose and insulin responses at MTT were reduced after NBS in comparison with DCS in all groups. However, no changes were observed in glycemic variability (GV) indexes between groups. In conclusion, acute NBS supplementation improved postprandial glucose and insulin responses in obese and lean subjects during 48 h of everyday life and at MTT. Further research to elucidate the mechanism behind these changes is required. PMID:26154657

  16. Reduction of plasma aldosterone and arterial stiffness in obese pre- and stage1 hypertensive subjects after aerobic exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, SR; Sandberg, K; Moody, AM; Frechette, V; Curry, CD; Ji, H; Gowdar, R; Chaudhuri, D; Meucci, M

    2017-01-01

    Obesity-related hypertension is associated with increased activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), increasing arterial stiffness. Aerobic exercise decreases pulse wave velocity (PWV), therefore a treatment option for hypertension and obesity. Assess RAAS activity and PWV before and after 4 weeks of aerobic training in unmedicated, pre-to-stage-1 hypertensives. Ten obese subjects (52±3.2 years, body mass index=33.5±1.4) performed 30 min of aerobic exercise on a treadmill 3 days per week at 65% of peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak). Descriptive characteristics, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), PWV, and a blood draw was performed at baseline, following the 4-week control and training interventions. No differences in descriptive characteristics during the control period were observed, however, a significant decrease in plasma aldosterone (ALDO) (255.4±75 to 215.8±66 pg ml−1, P=0.001), SBP (140±12 to 136±10.4 mm Hg; P=0.02), DBP (89±4.2 to 85±6.3 mm Hg; P =0.03) and central PWV (11.2±0.6 to 9.8±0.8 m s−1; P=0.04) was shown pre-to-post exercise training. Four weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic training in obese, hypertensives decreases plasma ALDO independently of body weight and is significantly correlated to decreases in PWV reductions. PMID:24785976

  17. In vitro characterization of the impact of different substrates on metabolite production, energy extraction and composition of gut microbiota from lean and obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Marisol; Jonkers, Daisy M A E; Troost, Freddy J; Roeselers, Guus; Venema, Koen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of galacto-oligosaccharides, lactulose, apple fiber and sugar beet pectin on the composition and activity of human colonic microbiota of lean and obese healthy subjects using an in vitro model of the proximal colon: TIM-2. Substrate fermentation was assessed by measuring the production of short-chain and branched-chain fatty acids, lactate and ammonia and by studying the composition of the bacterial communities over time. The results suggest that energy harvest (in terms of metabolites) of lean and obese microbiotas is different and may depend on the fermentable substrate. For galacto-oligosaccharides and lactulose, the cumulative amount of short-chain fatty acids plus lactate produced in TIM-2 was lower in the fermentation experiments with the lean microbiota (123 and 155 mmol, respectively) compared to the obese (162 and 173 mmol, respectively). This was reversed for the pectin and the fiber. The absolute amount produced of short-chain fatty acids including lactate was higher after 72 h in the fermentation experiments with apple fiber-L (108 mmol) than with apple fiber-O (92 mmol). Sugar beet-L was also higher (130 mmol) compared to sugar beet-O (103 mmol). Galacto-oligosaccharides and lactulose boosted the balance of health-promoting over toxic metabolites produced by the microbiota from obese subjects. Firmicutes were more predominant in the inoculum prepared from feces of obese subjects compared to lean subjects. The average abundance at time zero was 92% and 74%, respectively. On the other hand, Bacteroidetes were more dominant in the microbiota prepared with homogenates from lean subjects with an average abundance of 22% compared with the microbiota prepared with homogenates from obese subjects (3.6%). This study brings evidence that different fermentable carbohydrates are fermented differently by lean and obese microbiotas, which contributes to the understanding of the role of diet and the microbiota in

  18. In vitro characterization of the impact of different substrates on metabolite production, energy extraction and composition of gut microbiota from lean and obese subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Aguirre

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of galacto-oligosaccharides, lactulose, apple fiber and sugar beet pectin on the composition and activity of human colonic microbiota of lean and obese healthy subjects using an in vitro model of the proximal colon: TIM-2. Substrate fermentation was assessed by measuring the production of short-chain and branched-chain fatty acids, lactate and ammonia and by studying the composition of the bacterial communities over time. The results suggest that energy harvest (in terms of metabolites of lean and obese microbiotas is different and may depend on the fermentable substrate. For galacto-oligosaccharides and lactulose, the cumulative amount of short-chain fatty acids plus lactate produced in TIM-2 was lower in the fermentation experiments with the lean microbiota (123 and 155 mmol, respectively compared to the obese (162 and 173 mmol, respectively. This was reversed for the pectin and the fiber. The absolute amount produced of short-chain fatty acids including lactate was higher after 72 h in the fermentation experiments with apple fiber-L (108 mmol than with apple fiber-O (92 mmol. Sugar beet-L was also higher (130 mmol compared to sugar beet-O (103 mmol. Galacto-oligosaccharides and lactulose boosted the balance of health-promoting over toxic metabolites produced by the microbiota from obese subjects. Firmicutes were more predominant in the inoculum prepared from feces of obese subjects compared to lean subjects. The average abundance at time zero was 92% and 74%, respectively. On the other hand, Bacteroidetes were more dominant in the microbiota prepared with homogenates from lean subjects with an average abundance of 22% compared with the microbiota prepared with homogenates from obese subjects (3.6%. This study brings evidence that different fermentable carbohydrates are fermented differently by lean and obese microbiotas, which contributes to the understanding of the role of diet and the

  19. Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... little free time may have less time to exercise. The term eating disorder means a group of medical conditions that have an unhealthy focus on eating, dieting, losing or gaining weight, and body image. A person may be obese, follow an unhealthy ...

  20. Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2014-01-01

    A new report provides compelling evidence of the high prevalence of overweight and obesity throughout the world. The prevalence has increased since 1980, but at different rates across ages, times and locations. Studies exploring the causes of these differences could aid development of effective...

  1. Advances in pubertal growth and factors influencing it: Can we increase pubertal growth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Soliman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Puberty is a period of development characterized by partially concurrent changes which includes growth acceleration, alteration in body composition and appearance of secondary sex characteristics. Puberty is characterized by an acceleration and then deceleration in skeletal growth. The initiation, duration and amount of growth vary considerably during the growth spurt. Pubertal growth and biological maturation are dynamic processes regulated by a variety of genetic and environmental factors. Changes in skeletal maturation and bone mineral accretion concomitant with the stage of pubertal development constitute essential components in the evaluation of growth during this pubertal period. Genetic, endocrine and nutritional factors and ethnicity contribute variably to the amount of growth gained during this important period of rapid changes. Many studies investigated the possibility of increasing pubertal growth to gain taller final adult height in adolescents with idiopathic short stature (ISS. The pattern of pubertal growth, its relation to sex maturity rating and factors affecting them has been addressed in this review. The results of different trials to increase final adult height of adolescents using different hormones have been summarized. These data enables Endocrinologists to give in-depth explanations to patients and families about the efficacy and clinical significance as well as the safety of using these therapies in the treatment of adolescents with ISS.

  2. A combined form of hypothyroidism in pubertal patients with non-mosaic Klinefelter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahani, Natascia; Ruga, Gilda; Granato, Simona; Spaziani, Matteo; Panimolle, Francesca; Anzuini, Antonella; Lenzi, Andrea; Radicioni, Antonio Francesco

    2017-02-01

    Klinefelter syndrome has been associated with thyroid abnormalities, the genesis of which is not yet fully clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate thyroid function in Klinefelter syndrome subjects during the pubertal period. Chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay was used to analyze Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone, fT3 and fT4 concentration in serum samples from 40 Klinefelter syndrome pubertal boys with classic 47,XXY karyotype and 157 healthy age-matched controls. 13 Klinefelter syndrome patients also underwent Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone testing to evaluate hypothalamic-pituitary function. fT3 levels were significantly lower in Klinefelter syndrome patients than in age-matched controls (p Klinefelter syndrome patients tended to cluster around the lower part of the reference range for the assay. Three of the thirteen Klinefelter syndrome patients undergoing the Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone test had an adequate response, one had a prolonged response at 60 min and nine responded inadequately. This study demonstrated for the first time that pubertal Klinefelter syndrome patients have significantly lower fT3 serum levels than do healthy age-matched boys, whereas Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone and fT4 are normal, albeit at the lower end of the reference range. Most patients showed an inadequate/prolonged response to pituitary stimulation with Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone. These findings suggest a combined form of both central and peripheral hypothyroidism in Klinefelter syndrome boys during pubertal development.

  3. Bariatric surgery decreases carotid intima-media thickness in obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo García

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity has long been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of substantial weight loss induced by bariatric surgery on carotid intima media thickness (C-IMT (surrogate marker of early atherosclerosis and classic factors of cardiovascular risk (CVRFs. Methods: thirty-one obesity patients were evaluated for bariatric surgery. Twenty-seven were undergone surgery, 14 Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (GBS and 13 sleeve gastrectomy. The four obese patients who did not undergo surgery, were performed the same evaluations. Measurements: Body weight, BMI, blood pressure, total cholesterol, TC levels, LDL-C, HDL-C, TG, fasting plasma glucose and insulin, HOMA IR, and US B-mode C-IMT was measured. Results: After 354 ± 92 days follow up, 27 patients that underwent bariatric surgery evidenced a mean body mass index decrease from 38 to 27 k/m² (p < 0.001, simultaneously was observed improvement in CVRFs, 10 years Framingham risk and a significant reduction of therapeutic requirements. C-IMT diminished from a mean of 0.58 ± 0.14 mm to 0.49 ± 0.09 mm (p = 0.0001. Four patients that did not undergo surgery increased C-IMT from 0.52 ± 0.12 to 0.58 ± 0.13 mm (p = 0.03 with no significant changes in CVRFs. Conclusion: Weight loss, one year after bariatric surgery, GBS and sleeve gastrectomy, decreases C-IMT; improve CVRFs and 10 years Framingham risk.

  4. Age at pubertal onset and educational outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Essen, Emma von; Dreber, Anna; Ranehill, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Education has important short and long run implications for individual outcomes. In this paper we explore the association between age at pubertal onset and educational outcomes in a sample of Swedish girls. Previous research suggests that girls that mature earlier perform worse in school compared...... to girls that mature later. To test if this is also true among Swedish girls, we investigate the association between pubertal development and grades, educational aspirations and educational choice. We also investigate whether changes in risk attitudes, time preferences and priorities concerning school...... versus friends mediate this potential correlation. We confirm that earlier maturing girls have lower grades and lower educational aspirations, but find that they make educational choices similar to those of later maturing girls. Furthermore, we do not find that these differences in grades and aspirations...

  5. Chromium supplementation in non-obese non-diabetic subjects is associated with a decline in insulin sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masharani Umesh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of chromium supplements is widespread for the prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus but there are conflicting reports on efficacy, possibly reflecting discrepant effects across different populations. In the present studies, we test the hypothesis that chromium supplementation raises serum chromium levels and correspondingly improves insulin sensitivity. Methods A double blind placebo-controlled randomized trial was conducted on 31 non-obese, normoglycemic subjects. After baseline studies, the subjects were randomized to placebo or chromium picolinate 500 μg twice a day. The primary endpoint was change in insulin sensitivity as measured by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. Pre-specified secondary endpoints included fasting lipids, blood pressure, weight, body composition measured by DXA scan. Results After 16 weeks of chromium picolinate therapy there was no significant change in insulin sensitivity between groups (p=0.83. There was, however, a strong association between serum chromium and change in insulin resistance (β = -0.83, p=0.01, where subjects with the highest serum chromium had a worsening of insulin sensitivity. This effect could not be explained by changes in physiological parameters such as body weight, truncal fat and serum lipids with chromium therapy. Conclusions Chromium therapy did not improve insulin sensitivity in non-obese normoglycemic individuals. Further, subjects who have high serum chromium levels paradoxically had a decline in insulin sensitivity. Caution therefore should be exercised in recommending the use of this supplement. Trial registration The study was registered on the NIH registry (clinicaltrials.gov and the identifier is NCT00846248

  6. What does self-rated health mean? Changes and variations in the association of obesity with objective and subjective components of self-rated health*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Claire E.; Van Hook, Jennifer; Hillemeier, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    There are concerns about the meaning of SRH and the factors individuals consider. To illustrate how SRH is contextualized, we examine how the obesity-SRH association varies across age, periods, and cohorts. We decompose SRH into subjective and objective components and used a mechanism-based APC model approach with four decades (1970s-2000s) and five birth cohorts of NHANES data (N=26,184). Obese adults rate their health more negatively than non-obese when using overall SRH with little variation by age, period, or cohort. However, when we decomposed SRH into objective and subjective components, the obesity gap widened with increasing age in objective SRH, but narrowed in subjective SRH. Additionally, the gap narrowed for more recently-born cohorts for objective SRH, but widened for subjective SRH. The results provide indirect evidence that the relationship between obesity and SRH is socially patterned according to exposure to information about obesity and the availability of resources to manage it. PMID:26811364

  7. CD36 Gene Promoter Polymorphisms Are Associated With Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol in Normal Twins and After a Low-Calorie Diet in Obese Subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goyenechea, Estibaliz; Collins, Laura J.; Parra, Dolores; Liu, Gaifen; Snieder, Harold; Swaminathan, Ramasamyiyer; Spector, Tim D.; Martinez, J. Alfredo; O'Dell, Sandra D.

    2008-01-01

    Common polymorphisms of the CD36 fatty acid transporter gene have been associated with lipid metabolism and cardiovascular disease. Association of a CD36 promoter single nucleotide polymorphism genotype with anthropometry and serum lipids was investigated in normal subjects, and in obese subjects

  8. CD36 Gene Promoter Polymorphisms Are Associated With Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol in Normal Twins and After a Low-Calorie Diet in Obese Subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goyenechea, Estibaliz; Collins, Laura J.; Parra, Dolores; Liu, Gaifen; Snieder, Harold; Swaminathan, Ramasamyiyer; Spector, Tim D.; Martinez, J. Alfredo; O'Dell, Sandra D.

    2008-01-01

    Common polymorphisms of the CD36 fatty acid transporter gene have been associated with lipid metabolism and cardiovascular disease. Association of a CD36 promoter single nucleotide polymorphism genotype with anthropometry and serum lipids was investigated in normal subjects, and in obese subjects du

  9. Effect of eight weeks of endurance exercise training on right and left ventricular volume and mass in untrained obese subjects: a longitudinal MRI study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogelsang, T W; Hanel, B; Kristoffersen, U S

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to examine how 8 weeks of intense endurance training influenced right and left ventricular volumes and mass in obese untrained subjects. Ten overweight subjects (19-47 years; body mass index of 34+/-5 kg/m(2)) underwent intensive endurance training (rowing...

  10. Obesity.

    OpenAIRE

    Callaway, C W

    1987-01-01

    Obesity is not a single disease, but a variety of conditions resulting from different mechanisms and associated with various types and degrees of risks. To determine who should lose weight, how much weight should be lost, and how to undertake weight loss, the following types of information are needed: personal-demographic data, developmental patterns, family history, energy balance, body composition/fat distribution, psychological/behavioral measures, endocrine/metabolic measures, complicatio...

  11. The Stability of Perceived Pubertal Timing across Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cance, Jessica Duncan; Ennett, Susan T.; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A.; Foshee, Vangie A.

    2011-01-01

    It is unknown whether perceived pubertal timing changes as puberty progresses or whether it is an important component of adolescent identity formation that is fixed early in pubertal development. The purpose of this study is to examine the stability of perceived pubertal timing among a school-based sample of rural adolescents aged 11 to 17 (N=6,425; 50% female; 53% White). Two measures of pubertal timing were used, stage-normative, based on the Pubertal Development Scale, a self-report scale of secondary sexual characteristics, and peer-normative, a one-item measure of perceived pubertal timing. Two longitudinal methods were used: one-way random effects ANOVA models and latent class analysis. When calculating intraclass correlation coefficients using the one-way random effects ANOVA models, which is based on the average reliability from one time point to the next, both measures had similar, but poor, stability. In contrast, latent class analysis, which looks at the longitudinal response pattern of each individual and treats deviation from that pattern as measurement error, showed three stable and distinct response patterns for both measures: always early, always on-time, and always late. Study results suggest instability in perceived pubertal timing from one age to the next, but this instability is likely due to measurement error. Thus, it may be necessary to take into account the longitudinal pattern of perceived pubertal timing across adolescence rather than measuring perceived pubertal timing at one point in time. PMID:21983873

  12. Molecular biomarkers for weight control in obese individuals subjected to a multi-phase dietary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolton, Jennifer L; Montastier, Emilie; Carayol, Jérôme

    2017-01-01

    Context: While calorie restriction has proven beneficial for weight loss, long-term weight control is variable between individuals. Objective: To identify biomarkers of successful weight control during a dietary intervention (DI). Design, Setting, and Participants: Adipose tissue (AT) transcripto......-controllers. Interestingly, ASPN is a TGFβ1 inhibitor. Conclusions: We found circulating biomarkers associated with weight control, which could influence weight management strategies, and genes that may be prognostic for successful weight control.......Context: While calorie restriction has proven beneficial for weight loss, long-term weight control is variable between individuals. Objective: To identify biomarkers of successful weight control during a dietary intervention (DI). Design, Setting, and Participants: Adipose tissue (AT......) transcriptomes were compared between 21 obese individuals that either maintained weight loss or regained weight during the DI. Results were validated on 310 individuals from the same study using RT-qPCR, and protein levels of potential circulating biomarkers measured by ELISA. Intervention: Individuals underwent...

  13. Pro-inflammatory wnt5a and anti-inflammatory sFRP5 are differentially regulated by nutritional factors in obese human subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik M Schulte

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with macrophage infiltration of adipose tissue. These inflammatory cells affect adipocytes not only by classical cytokines but also by the secreted glycopeptide wnt5a. Healthy adipocytes are able to release the wnt5a inhibitor sFRP5. This protective effect, however, was found to be diminished in obesity. The aim of the present study was to examine (1 whether obese human subjects exhibit increased serum concentrations of wnt5a and (2 whether wnt5a and/or sFRP5 serum concentrations in obese subjects can be influenced by caloric restriction. METHODOLOGY: 23 obese human subjects (BMI 44.1 ± 1.1 kg/m(2 and 12 age- and sex-matched lean controls (BMI 22.3 ± 0.4 kg/m(2 were included in the study. Obese subjects were treated with a very low-calorie diet (approximately 800 kcal/d for 12 weeks. Body composition was assessed by impedance analysis, insulin sensitivity was estimated by HOMA-IR and the leptin-to-adiponectin ratio and wnt5a and sFRP5 serum concentrations were measured by ELISA. sFRP5 expression in human adipose tissue biopsies was further determined on protein level by immunohistology. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Pro-inflammatory wnt5a was not measurable in any serum sample of lean control subjects. In patients with obesity, however, wnt5a became significantly detectable consistent with low grade inflammation in such subjects. Caloric restriction resulted in a weight loss from 131.9 ± 4.0 to 112.3 ± 3.2 kg in the obese patients group. This was accompanied by a significant decrease of HOMA-IR and leptin-to-adiponectin ratio, indicating improved insulin sensitivity. Interestingly, these metabolic improvements were associated with a significant increase in serum concentrations of the anti-inflammatory factor and wnt5a-inhibitor sFRP5. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Obesity is associated with elevated serum levels of pro-inflammatory wnt5a in humans. Furthermore, caloric restriction beneficially affects serum concentrations

  14. A whey-protein supplement increases fat loss and spares lean muscle in obese subjects: a randomized human clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Loren S

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study evaluated a specialized whey fraction (Prolibra™, high in leucine, bioactive peptides and milk calcium for use as a dietary supplement to enhance weight loss. Methods This was a randomized, double-blind, parallel-arm, 12-week study. Caloric intake was reduced 500 calories per day. Subjects consumed Prolibra or an isocaloric ready-to-mix beverage 20 minutes before breakfast and 20 minutes before dinner. Body fat and lean muscle tissue were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. Body weight and anthropometric measurements were recorded every 4 weeks. Blood samples were taken at the beginning and end of the study. Statistical analyses were performed on all subjects that completed (completer analysis and all subjects that lost at least 2.25 kg of body weight (responder analysis. Within group significance was determined at P Results Both groups lost a significant amount of weight and the Prolibra group tended to lose more weight than the control group; however the amount of weight loss was not significantly different between groups after 12 weeks. Prolibra subjects lost significantly more body fat compared to control subjects for both the completer (2.81 vs. 1.62 kg P = 0.03 and responder (3.63 vs. 2.11 kg, P = 0.01 groups. Prolibra subjects lost significantly less lean muscle mass in the responder group (1.07 vs. 2.41 kg, P = 0.02. The ratio of fat to lean loss (kg fat lost/kg lean lost was much larger for Prolibra subjects for both completer (3.75 vs. 1.05 and responder (3.39 vs. 0.88 groups. Conclusion Subjects in both the control and treatment group lost a significant amount of weight with a 500 calorie reduced diet. Subjects taking Prolibra lost significantly more body fat and showed a greater preservation of lean muscle compared to subjects consuming the control beverage. Because subjects taking Prolibra lost 6.1% of their body fat mass, and because a 5% reduction of body fat mass has been shown to

  15. Plasma concentrations of retinol in obese children and adolescents: relationship to metabolic syndrome components

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    Marcia Teske

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate obese children and adolescents' retinol plasma levels and to correlate them with metabolic syndrome components. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 61 obese children and adolescents (body mass index Z score - ZBMI>+2. Pubertal development, arterial blood pressure, body weight and height for nutritional classification and waist circumference were obtained. A 15mL blood sample was collected (after a 12-hour fasting in a low luminosity room for retinol determination (cut-off inadequate if <30µg/dL, lipid profile (HDL-c, LDL-c, and triglycerides, oral glucose tolerance test (fasting and 120 minutes and for high sensitivity C-reactive protein. Spearman correlation and multiple linear regression were used in the statistical analysis. Results: Mean age was 10.7±2.7 years. There was a predominance of male gender 38/61 (62% and pre-pubertal 35/61 (57% subjects. The average plasmatic retinol was 48.5±18.6ug/dL. Retinol deficiency and severe obesity were observed in 6/61 (10% and 36/61 (59%, respectively. Glucose level at 120 minutes was the independent and predictive variable of plasma retinol levels [β=-0.286 (95%CI -0.013 - -0.001]. Conclusions: An independent and inverse association between plasma retinol levels and glucose tolerance was observed, suggesting an important contribution of this vitamin in the morbidities associated to obesity in children and adolescents.

  16. Fatty acid uptake and blood flow in adipose tissue compartments of morbidly obese subjects with or without type 2 diabetes: effects of bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadson, Prince; Ferrannini, Ele; Landini, Linda; Hannukainen, Jarna C; Kalliokoski, Kari K; Vaittinen, Maija; Honka, Henri; Karlsson, Henry K; Tuulari, Jetro J; Soinio, Minna; Salminen, Paulina; Parkkola, Riitta; Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Iozzo, Patricia; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2017-08-01

    Body fat accumulation, distribution, and metabolic activity are factors in the pathophysiology of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). We investigated adipose blood flow, fatty acid uptake (FAU), and subcutaneous and visceral fat cellularity in obese patients with or without T2D. A total of 23 morbidly obese (mean body mass index = 42 kg/m(2)) patients were studied before and 6 mo after bariatric surgery; 15 nonobese subjects served as controls. Positron emission tomography was used to measure tissue FAU (with (18)F-FTHA) and blood flow (with H2(15)O); MRI was used for fat distribution and fat biopsy for adipocyte size. Obese subjects had subcutaneous hyperplasia and hypertrophy and lower blood flow; when expressed per cell, flow was similar to controls. FAU into subcutaneous and visceral depots was increased in the obese; per unit tissue mass, however, FAU was similar to controls but reduced in skeletal muscle. Fatty acid fractional extraction in subcutaneous fat and muscle was only increased in obese patients with T2D. We conclude that surgery reduces subcutaneous fat hyperplasia and hypertrophy; subcutaneous blood flow and FAU decrease in absolute terms and per cell while fractional FAU remains unchanged in T2D. In the obese, subcutaneous blood flow is a determinant of FAU and is coupled with cellularity; efficiency of FAU is enhanced in subcutaneous fat and muscle in T2D. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Associations of Peripubertal Serum Dioxin and Polychlorinated Biphenyl Concentrations with Pubertal Timing among Russian Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jane S; Lee, Mary M; Williams, Paige L; Korrick, Susan A; Sergeyev, Oleg; Lam, Thuy; Revich, Boris; Hauser, Russ

    2016-11-01

    Dioxins, furans, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxin-like and non-dioxin-like, have been linked to alterations in puberty. We examined the association of peripubertal serum levels of these compounds [and their toxic equivalents (TEQs)] with pubertal onset and maturity among Russian boys enrolled at ages 8-9 years and followed prospectively through ages 17-18 years. At enrollment, 473 boys had serum dioxin-like compounds and PCBs measured. At the baseline visit and annually until age 17-18 years, a physician performed pubertal staging [genitalia (G), pubarche (P), and testicular volume (TV)]. Three hundred fifteen subjects completed the follow-up visit at 17-18 years of age. Pubertal onset was defined as TV > 3 mL, G2, or P2. Sexual maturity was defined as TV ≥ 20 mL, G5, or P5. Multivariable interval-censored models were used to evaluate associations of lipid-standardized concentrations with pubertal timing. Medians (interquartile ranges) of the sum of dioxin-like compounds, TEQs, and non-dioxin-like PCBs were 362 pg/g lipid (279-495), 21.1 pg TEQ/g lipid (14.4-33.2), and 250 ng/g lipid (164-395), respectively. In adjusted models, the highest compared to lowest TEQ quartile was associated with later pubertal onset [TV = 11.6 months (95% CI: 3.8, 19.4); G2 = 10.1 months (95% CI: 1.4, 18.8)] and sexual maturity [TV = 11.6 months (95% CI: 5.7, 17.6); G5 = 9.7 months (95% CI: 3.1, 16.2)]. However, the highest compared to the lowest quartile of non-dioxin-like PCBs, when co-adjusted by TEQs, was associated with earlier pubertal onset [TV = -8.3 months (95% CI:-16.2, -0.3)] and sexual maturity [TV = -6.3 months (95% CI:-12.2, -0.3); G5 = -7.2 months (95% CI:-13.8, -0.6)]; the non-dioxin-like PCB associations were only significant when adjusted for TEQs. TEQs and PCBs were not significantly associated with pubic hair development. Our results suggest that TEQs may delay, while non-dioxin-like PCBs advance, the timing of male puberty. Citation: Burns JS, Lee MM

  18. Effect of pubertal development and physical activity on plasma ghrelin concentration in boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürimäe, J; Cicchella, A; Tillmann, V; Lätt, E; Haljaste, K; Purge, P; Pomerants, T; Jürimäe, T

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of regular physical activity on plasma ghrelin concentration in pre-pubertal and pubertal boys. In addition, the impact of ghrelin concentration on bone mineral density (BMD) was examined. In total, 56 healthy schoolboys aged between 10 and 16 yr were divided into the swimming (no.=28) and the control (no.=28) groups. The subjects were matched by age and body mass index (BMI), generating 9 matched pairs in pubertal group I (Tanner stage 1), 11 pairs in group II (Tanner stages 2 and 3), and 8 pairs in group III (Tanner stages 4 and 5). Swimmers in pubertal groups II and III had significantly (both pghrelin levels than the controls (group II: 1126.8+/-406.0 vs 868.3+/-411.2 pg/ml; group III: 1105.5+/-337.5 vs 850.8+/-306.0 pg/ml, respectively), whereas no difference was seen in the pubertal group I (1230.8+/-386.0 vs 1272.7+/-424.4 pg/ml). Ghrelin was the most important hormonal determinant for total BMD and lumbar apparent volumetric BMD (BMAD) (R2=27.2% and R2=19.8%, respectively) in swimmers, whereas in control boys, plasma IGF-I was the most important hormonal predictor accounting for 41.8% of the variability of total BMD and 20.4% of the variability of lumbar BMAD. In conclusion, ghrelin concentration decreased during puberty in physically inactive boys, while in regularly physically active boys it remained relatively unchanged. Ghrelin appears to be an important hormonal predictor for BMD in physically active boys, while BMD is mostly determined by IGF-I in physically inactive boys.

  19. Association of overweight and obesity with interest in healthy eating, subjective health and perceived risk of chronic diseases in three European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieniak, Zuzanna; Pérez-Cueto, Federico; Verbeke, Wim

    2009-12-01

    This paper analyses cultural differences in consumers' interest in healthy eating, subjective health and perceived risk of (chronic) diseases, and identifies the association between nutritional status (obesity and overweight) and the above mentioned variables as well as people's socio-demographic characteristics and health conditions that may influence food choice. Cross-sectional data were collected through a consumer survey (n=2400) in 2008 with samples representative for age and region in France, Poland and Spain. Body-mass-index (BMI) was inversely associated with education and positively associated with age. Women were less likely to be overweight than men. Subjective health was negatively associated with the likelihood of being obese. The likelihood of being obese decreased with higher perceived risk of suffering from stress and from cancer, whilst the likelihood of being overweight decreased with higher perceived risk of suffering from stress. Despite a tendency of lower interest in healthy eating among obese consumers, interest in healthy eating was not significantly associated with the likelihood of being obese or overweight after Holm-Bonferroni correction. The findings of this study suggest that health consequences and disease risks of excessive weight should be better communicated to European populations. Furthermore, factors associated with obesity such as subjective health and perceived risk of chronic diseases should be considered both at individual counselling and at public health policy levels.

  20. Fasting, post-OGTT challenge, and nocturnal free fatty acids in prediabetic vs. normal glucose tolerant overweight and obese Latino adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Corral, Claudia M.; Alderete, Tanya L.; Richey, Joyce; Sequeira, Paola; Goran, Michael I.; Weigensberg, Marc J.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective Type 2 diabetes risk and its relationship to free fatty acid (FFA) exposure and visceral fat by prediabetes status in minority adolescents has yet to be explored. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the association of circulating FFA under varying conditions with prediabetes in Latino adolescents and to determine the relative relationships of FFA and visceral adiposity to insulin sensitivity, secretion, and β-cell function. Subjects and Outcome Measures Overweight or obese, but otherwise healthy Latino adolescent males and females (n=164, 14.2±2.5 years) were recruited for assessment of prediabetes, abdominal fat, and FFA levels taken at a fasting state (FFAF), during an OGTT (FFAOGTT), and overnight (FFANOCTURNAL). Results Prediabetic adolescents had a higher FFAF than those with normal glucose tolerance when controlling for age, sex, pubertal status, total percent body fat, and visceral fat. FFAOGTT and FFANOCTURNAL did not differ between participants with prediabetes and those with normal glucose tolerance after adjusting for covariates. Visceral fat was independently related to insulin sensitivity and secretion in pubertal adolescents, however in post-pubertal adolescents, FFAF and visceral fat were both independent and negatively related to β-cell function. Conclusion These results support a plausible progression of the lipotoxicity theory of diabetes development during the pubertal transition. PMID:25109287

  1. Effect of Weight Reduction Following Bariatric Surgery on Serum Visfatin and Adiponectin Levels in Morbidly Obese Subjects

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    Mohammad Javad Hosseinzadeh-Attar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Adipokines are signaling and mediator proteins secreted from adipose tissue. A novel adipokine, visfatin, was reported as a protein which was mainly expressed in visceral adipose tissue. Controversial results have been shown regarding the changes of adipokines following weight reduction. So we investigated the effects of weight reduction on serum concentrations of adiponectin and visfatin in morbidly obese subjects. Methods: 35 severely obese patients (26 females and 9 males, aged 15-58 years, were studied. Anthropometric parameters and biochemical parameters as well as adiponectin and visfatin were analyzed before and 6 weeks after weight reduction. Results: Anthropometric indices decreased significantly. Blood levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride were reduced significantly. The reduction of visfatin and the elevation of adiponectin were significant as well. However, other parameters like fasting glucose and insulin did not change. Moreover, we could not find any significant correlation between the change of serum visfatin and that of adiponectin. Conclusions: 6-week weight reduction after bariatric surgery resulted in decreased serum visfatin and increased adiponectin levels. However, we cannot find any significant correlation between changes of adiponectin, visfatin, BMI, waist circumference, and insulin resistance. Further studies with different design are suggested to clarify these associations.

  2. EVALUATION OF THE THORACOABDOMINAL MOBILITY OF OBESE SUBJECTS IN PRE-BARIATRIC SURGERY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloso, Ana Paula Limongi Richardelli; Cusmanich, Karla Garcez

    Obesity can affect the thorax, diaphragm, and alterations in respiratory function even if the lungs are within normality. The respiratory compliance is very reduced by the increase in fat mass. To evaluate the effect of the physical therapeutic respiratory exercises on the thoracoabdominal mobility of obese individuals in pre-bariatric surgery. Cross-sectional and descriptive study, which used the cirtometry (axillary, xiphoid and abdominal) to evaluate the mobility of 74 individuals, 27 men and 47 women, in pre-bariatric surgery, assisted by the team EMAD, after eight weeks of physiotherapy, following a protocol of exercises, reevaluating and compared the measures pre and post intervention. Had positive correlation abdominal mobility in the total volume of all participants (p=0.010) and also for all the measures in the measurement of residual volume in three levels (p=0.000). Comparing genders, in total volume, cirtometry abdominal greater for women (p=0.015) when compared to men and residual volume, significance for either men or women in all measurements (p=0.000). Obese patients that underwent the physiotherapeutic treatment during the preoperative period, had pré respiratory dynamics improved by the increase in the mobility of the chest cavity and by the improvement of respiratory conscience. A obesidade pode afetar o tórax e o diafragma, determinando alterações na função respiratória, mesmo quando os pulmões se apresentam dentro da normalidade. A complacência respiratória é muito reduzida pelo aumento de massa gordurosa. Avaliar o efeito de exercícios fisioterapêuticos respiratórios sobre a mobilidade torácica de indivíduos obesos no pré-operatório de cirurgia bariátrica. Estudo transversal e descritivo, que utilizou a cirtometria (axilar, xifoide e abdominal) para avaliar a mobilidade de 74 indivíduos, 27 homens e 47 mulheres, em pré-operatório de cirurgia bariátrica, assistidos pela equipe EMAD, após oito semanas de fisioterapia

  3. Effects of a fish-based diet on the serum adiponectin concentration in young, non-obese, healthy Japanese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Keiko; Morino, Katsutaro; Nishio, Yoshihiko; Kondo, Motoyuki; Fuke, Tomoya; Ugi, Satoshi; Iwakawa, Hiromi; Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Maegawa, Hiroshi

    2010-06-30

    Adiponectin has insulin-sensitizing, anti-atherogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties, and researchers have recently reported that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) can increase the serum adiponectin concentration, suggesting that dietary factors, such as fish intake, may have an influence on the serum adiponectin concentration. In general, Japanese subjects consume twice as much fish as people in other countries. We hypothesized that incremental change in serum omega-3 PUFA levels by fish intake is an important regulator of serum adiponectin even in Japanese subjects. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship among fish consumption, serum omega-3 PUFA, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), levels, and serum adiponectin levels. We recruited 17 healthy Japanese volunteers (seven men and 10 women) for an 8-week fish-diet intervention (omega-3 PUFA 3.0 g/day) without affecting total energy intake, and measured serum adiponectin concentration and fatty acid profiles. Fish-diet intervention significantly increased the serum adiponectin concentration in women (from 13.5+/-4.6 to 15.8+/-5.2 microg/mL, p diet intervention (57.3+/-86.6 vs 150.9+/-46.7 microg/mL, p=0.011), suggesting that changes in omega-3 PUFA concentration may explain the different response between sexes. A fish-based diet intervention increased the serum adiponectin concentration in young, non-obese, healthy Japanese female subjects. The increment in serum omega-3 PUFA may regulate the serum adiponectin concentration.

  4. Randomized, multi-center trial of two hypo-energetic diets in obese subjects: high- versus low-fat content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, M; Taylor, M A; Saris, W H M

    2006-01-01

    -fat group than in the high-fat group. Fasting plasma insulin and glucose were lowered equally by both diets. CONCLUSIONS: The low-fat diet produced similar mean weight loss as the high-fat diet, but resulted in more subjects losing >10% of initial body weight and fewer dropouts. Both diets produced......:Obese (BMI >or=30 kg/m(2)) adult subjects (n = 771), from eight European centers. MEASUREMENTS: Body weight loss, dropout rates, proportion of subjects who lost more than 10% of initial body weight, blood lipid profile, insulin and glucose. RESULTS: The dietary fat energy percent was 25% in the low-fat group...... and 40% in the high-fat group (mean difference: 16 (95% confidence interval (CI) 15-17)%). Average weight loss was 6.9 kg in the low-fat group and 6.6 kg in the high-fat group (mean difference: 0.3 (95% CI -0.2 to 0.8) kg). Dropout was 13.6% (n = 53) in the low-fat group and 18.3% (n = 70) in the high...

  5. Subcutaneous Injection Depth Does Not Affect the Pharmacokinetics or Glucodynamics of Insulin Lispro in Normal Weight or Healthy Obese Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Peña, Amparo; Yeo, Kwee P; Linnebjerg, Helle; Catton, Edward; Reddy, Shobha; Brown-Augsburger, Patricia; Morrow, Linda; Ignaut, Debra A

    2015-07-01

    An 8-mm needle length is commonly used for insulin injections; however, recent recommendations suggest shorter needles may help patients avoid intramuscular injections and reduce pain, while maintaining adequate glucose control. The goal of these analyses was to compare the pharmacokinetics (PK) and glucodynamics (GD) of insulin lispro after a 5-mm or an 8-mm injection depth administration in 2 populations: normal weight (study 1) or obese (study 2). In both open-label, randomized, 2-period crossover euglycemic clamp studies, subjects received single 0.25 U/kg insulin lispro doses on 2 occasions (at 5-mm and 8-mm injection depths); samples for PK and GD analyses were collected up to 6 hours postdose. Noncompartmental PK parameters AUC0-tlast, AUC0-∞, Cmax and GD parameters Gtot, Rmax, tRmax were log-transformed prior to analysis using a mixed effects model. There were no apparent differences between PK profiles at the 5-mm or 8-mm injection depth in either study, demonstrated by the ratios of geometric means of AUC0-tlast, AUC0-∞, and Cmax being close to 1, with 90% confidence intervals (CI) within (0.80, 1.25). There were no apparent differences between GD profiles at either injection depth with the ratios of Gtot and Rmax near unity and 90% CIs that included 1. In both studies, the tRmax values were similar between injection depths, with a small median of pairwise differences and a 90% CI that included zero. Injection depths in the 5-8 mm range did not affect the PK or GD of insulin lispro in normal weight or obese subjects. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  6. Plasma Nesfatin-1 and Leptin in pubertal and non-pubertal Murrah buffalo heifers (Bubalus bubalis

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    Gorakh Nath Prajapati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Buffaloes mostly suffer from delayed puberty, anestrus, sub–estrus, summer infertility, prolonged inter-calving interval and postpartum uterine disorders. Nesfatin-1 and Leptin are directly or indirectly related with body weight (BW, feed parameters and regulation of puberty. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of Nesfatin-1 and Leptin in pubertal and non-pubertal Murrah buffalo heifers. The Murrah buffalo heifers (n=13 were randomly selected and divided into two groups; pubertal group (PG and non-pubertal group (NG. Heifers with plasma progesterone (P4 level of ≥1 ng/mL were classified as PG. Blood samples were collected at fortnight intervals for analysis of plasma Nesfatin-1, Leptin, P4, glucose and non-esterified fatty acids. Body weight, dry matter intake and feed conversion efficiency were recorded at fortnight intervals. The mean (±SEM plasma Nesfatin-1, Leptin, P4, BW and feed conversion efficiency (% were significantly (P<0.01 higher in PG as compared to NG. Dry matter intake by the heifers was also significantly (P<0.001 higher in PG than NG. Plasma metabolites (glucose and NEFA did not differ significantly between the groups. The findings of this study suggest that Nesfatin-1 and Leptin have indispensable role in the onset of puberty in buffalo heifers by affecting BW and feed parameters.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging determined visceral fat reduction associates with enhanced IL-10 plasma levels in calorie restricted obese subjects.

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    Gloria Formoso

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is characterized by a low grade chronic inflammation state. Indeed circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-6, are elevated in obese subjects, while anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-10, appear to be reduced. Cytokines profile improves after weight loss, but how visceral or subcutaneous fat loss respectively affect pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokines plasma levels has not been precisely assessed. Therefore in the present study we correlated changes in circulating cytokine profile with quantitative changes in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue depots measured by an ad hoc Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI protocol before and after weight loss. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 14 obese subjects, MRI determination of visceral and subcutaneous fat and plasma glucose, insulin, TNF-α IL-6, and IL-10 measurements were performed before and after a caloric restriction induced weight loss of at least 5% of the original body weight. RESULTS: Weight loss improved insulin sensitivity (QUICKI Index: 0.35±0.03 vs 0.37±0.04; P<0.05, increased IL-10 (3.4±1.9 vs 4.6±1.0 pg/mL; P<0.03, and reduced TNF-α and IL-6 plasma levels (2.5±1.3 vs 1.6±1.5 pg/mL, P<0.0015, 2.3±0.4 vs 1.6±0.6 pg/mL, P<0.02 respectively. A significant correlation was observed between the amount of visceral fat loss and the percentage reduction in both TNF-α (r = 0.56, p<0.05 and IL-6 (r = 0.19 p<0.05 plasma levels. In a multiple regression analysis, the amount of visceral fat loss independently correlated with the increase in IL-10 plasma levels. CONCLUSION: The reduction in visceral adipose tissue is the main driver of the improved inflammatory profile induced by weight loss.

  8. Interaction of dietary fat intake with APOA2, APOA5 and LEPR polymorphisms and its relationship with obesity and dyslipidemia in young subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Reyes, Teresa; Astudillo-López, Constanza C; Salgado-Goytia, Lorenzo; Muñoz-Valle, José F; Salgado-Bernabé, Aralia B; Guzmán-Guzmán, Iris P; Castro-Alarcón, Natividad; Moreno-Godínez, Ma E; Parra-Rojas, Isela

    2015-09-13

    Diet is an important environmental factor that interacts with genes to modulate the likelihood of developing disorders in lipid metabolism and the relationship between diet and genes in the presence of other chronic diseases such as obesity. The objective of this study was to analyze the interaction of a high fat diet with the APOA2 (rs3813627 and rs5082), APOA5 (rs662799 and rs3135506) and LEPR (rs8179183 and rs1137101) polymorphisms and its relationship with obesity and dyslipidemia in young subjects. The study included 200 young subjects aged 18 to 25 years (100 normal-weight and 100 obese subjects). Dietary fat intake was measured using the frequency food consumption questionnaire. Genotyping of polymorphisms was performed by PCR-RFLP. Individuals carrying the APOA5 56 G/G genotype with a high saturated fatty acid consumption (OR = 2.7, p = 0.006) and/or total fat (OR = 2.4, p = 0.018), associated with an increased risk of obesity. We also found that A/G + G/G genotypes of the 668 A/G polymorphism in the LEPR gene with an intake ≥ 12 g/d of saturated fatty acids, have 2.9 times higher risk of obesity (p = 0.002), 3.8 times higher risk of hypercholesterolemia (p = 0.002) and 2.4 times higher risk of hypertriglyceridemia (p = 0.02), than those with an intake intake had 3.0 times higher risk of obesity (p = 0.002) and 4.1 times higher risk of hypercholesterolemia (p = 0.001). Our results suggest that dietary fat intake modifies the effect of APOA5 and LEPR polymorphisms on serum triglycerides, cholesterol levels and obesity in young subjects.

  9. Pubertal Timing and Adolescent Sexual Behavior in Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sarah R.; Harden, K. Paige; Mendle, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Girls who experience earlier pubertal timing relative to peers also exhibit earlier timing of sexual intercourse and more unstable sexual relationships. Although pubertal development initiates feelings of physical desire, the transition into romantic and sexual relationships involves complex biological and social processes contributing both to…

  10. The pubertal transition in 179 healthy Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Annette; Aksglæde, Lise; Sørensen, Kaspar

    2013-01-01

    Pubertal onset is usually defined by breast development in girls and testicular growth in boys. Pubarche is defined as the attainment of pubic hair and is considered as a sign of pubertal transition. Pubarche is preceded by a gradual increase in production of adrenal androgens, DHEA and Δ4...

  11. Pubertal development in The Netherlands 1965-1997

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Mul (Dick); A.M. Fredriks; S. van Buuren (Stef); W. Oostdijk (Wilma); S.P. Verloove-Vanhorick; J.M. Wit (Jan)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractWe investigated pubertal development of 4019 boys and 3562 girls >8 y of age participating in a cross-sectional survey in The Netherlands and compared the results with those of two previous surveys. Reference curves for all pubertal stages were constructed. The 50th per

  12. Pubertal development in The Netherlands 1965-1997

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Mul (Dick); A.M. Fredriks; S. van Buuren (Stef); W. Oostdijk (Wilma); S.P. Verloove-Vanhorick; J.M. Wit (Jan)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractWe investigated pubertal development of 4019 boys and 3562 girls >8 y of age participating in a cross-sectional survey in The Netherlands and compared the results with those of two previous surveys. Reference curves for all pubertal stages were constructed. The 50th per

  13. Prevalence and incidence of precocious pubertal development in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Grete; Pedersen, Carsten; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2005-01-01

    To our knowledge, no population-based epidemiologic studies on the incidence and prevalence of precocious pubertal development have been published. Danish national registries provide sufficient data for estimating the prevalence and incidence of this condition. The aim of this study was to estimate...... the prevalence and incidence of precocious pubertal development in Denmark in a 9-year period....

  14. Quantitative Atlas of Cytochrome P450, UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase, and Transporter Proteins in Jejunum of Morbidly Obese Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyauchi, Eisuke; Tachikawa, Masanori; Declèves, Xavier; Uchida, Yasuo; Bouillot, Jean-Luc; Poitou, Christine; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Mouly, Stéphane; Bergmann, Jean-François; Terasaki, Tetsuya; Scherrmann, Jean-Michel; Lloret-Linares, Célia

    2016-08-01

    Protein expression levels of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters in human jejunal tissues excised from morbidly obese subjects during gastric bypass surgery were evaluated using quantitative targeted absolute proteomics. Protein expression levels of 15 cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, 10 UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes, and NADPH-P450 reductase (P450R) in microsomal fractions from 28 subjects and 49 transporters in plasma membrane fractions from 24 of the same subjects were determined using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Based on average values, UGT1A1, UGT2B15, UGT2B17, SGLT1, and GLUT2 exhibited high expression levels (over 10 fmol/μg protein), though UGT2B15 expression was detected at a high level in only one subject. CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP3A5, UGT1A6, P450R, ABCG2, GLUT5, PEPT1, MCT1, 4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain (4F2hc), LAT2, OSTα, and OSTβ showed intermediate levels (1-10 fmol/μg protein), and CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP2C18, CYP2C19, CYP2J2, CYP3A7, CYP4A11, CYP51A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A4, UGT1A8, UGT2B4, ABCC1, ABCC4, ABCC5, ABCC6, ABCG8, TAUT, OATP2A1, OATP2B1, OATP3A1, OATP4A1, OCTN1, CNT2, PCFT, MCT4, GLUT4, and SLC22A18 showed low levels (less than 1 fmol/μg protein). The greatest interindividual difference (364-fold) was detected for UGT2B17. However, differences in expression levels of other quantified UGTs (except UGT2B15 and UGT2B17), CYPs (except CYP1A1 and CYP3A5), and P450R, and all quantified transporters, were within 10-fold. Expression levels of CYP1A2 and GLUT4 were significantly correlated with body-mass index. The levels of 4F2hc showed significant gender differences. Smokers showed increased levels of UGT1A1 and UGT1A3. These findings provide a basis for understanding the changes in molecular mechanisms of jejunal metabolism and transport, as well as their interindividual variability, in morbidly obese patients.

  15. The efficacy of brotzman physiotherapy protocol on pain and knee range of motion in post surgical total knee arthroplasty subjects with obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Narasimha sridhar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background:To evaluate the efficacy of Brotzman physiotherapy protocol on pain and knee range of motion in post surgical T.K.A subjects with obesity and normal BMI . Materials and Methods:30 subjects were divided into two groups based on BMI. The group I having normal BMI (18.5 – 24.9 and group II having BMI more than 30. Both groups received Brotzman physiotherapy protocols for duration of 30 - 45 minutes, 1 se ssion per day, 6 days per week for a total of 6 weeks. Results:After 6 weeks treatment period, the subjects in thegroup I were compared with the subjects in the group II. Group I had shown a significant difference with outcome measures at 0.05 level.Conclusion:The study shows that there is a marginal significance ofBROTZMAN physiotherapy protocol in TKA subjects with obesity regarding relief of pain, improvement of knee ROM and WOMAC indx.

  16. Reproductive ability of pubertal male and female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Zemunik

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Ten Fisher rats 50 to 55 days of age made up the pubertal group, and ten rats 90 to 95 days of age served as the controls. The testicular and epididymal weights and volumes of the pubertal males were lower than those of the controls (P0.05. At the beginning of gestation, the pubertal dams weighed less than the controls (P<0.001 but following uterectomy the body weights were equal. Pubertal dams delivered fewer pups than the controls (8.1 ± 2.5 vs 10.4 ± 1.3, P<0.05. There was no difference in the body weights of their offspring or in the weights of their placentas. The results suggest that, in contrast to their female counterparts, pubertal male rats are not fully mature and have not reached complete reproductive capacity at 50-55 days of age.

  17. Massive weight loss restores 24-hour growth hormone release profiles and serum insulin-like growth factor-I levels in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M H; Hvidberg, A; Juul, A

    1995-01-01

    In the present study, we 1) determined whether the impaired spontaneous 24-h GH secretion as well as the blunted GH response to provocative testing in obese subjects are persistent disorders or transient defects reversed with weight loss and 2) investigated 24-h urinary GH excretion and basal...... profiles, the decreased GH responses to insulin-induced hypoglycemia and L-arginine, the decreased basal IGF-I levels and IGF-I/IGFBP-3 molar ratio, as well as the elevated insulin levels were returned to normal after a massive weight loss in the obese subjects. In conclusion, the present study has shown...... levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), as well as insulin in obese subjects before and after a massive weight loss. We studied 18 obese subjects (age, 26 +/- 1 yr; body mass index, 40.9 +/- 1.1 kg/m2); 18 normal age-, and sex-matched control subjects; and 9...

  18. Genome-wide Association and Longitudinal Analyses Reveal Genetic Loci Linking Pubertal Height Growth, Pubertal Timing, and Childhood Adiposity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cousminer, Diana L; Berry, Diane J; Timpson, Nicholas J

    2013-01-01

    and adverse cardiometabolic health. The only gene so far associated with pubertal height growth, LIN28B, pleiotropically influences childhood growth, puberty, and cancer progression, pointing to shared underlying mechanisms.To discover genetic loci influencing pubertal height and growth and place them...

  19. Ceruloplasmin is a novel adipokine which is overexpressed in adipose tissue of obese subjects and in obesity-associated cancer cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arner, Erik; Forrest, Alistair R R; Ehrlund, Anna; Mejhert, Niklas; Itoh, Masayoshi; Kawaji, Hideya; Lassmann, Timo; Laurencikiene, Jurga; Rydén, Mikael; Arner, Peter; Clevers, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Obesity confers an increased risk of developing specific cancer forms. Although the mechanisms are unclear, increased fat cell secretion of specific proteins (adipokines) may promote/facilitate development of malignant tumors in obesity via cross-talk between adipose tissue(s) and the tissues prone

  20. Ceruloplasmin is a novel adipokine which is overexpressed in adipose tissue of obese subjects and in obesity-associated cancer cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arner, Erik; Forrest, Alistair R R; Ehrlund, Anna; Mejhert, Niklas; Itoh, Masayoshi; Kawaji, Hideya; Lassmann, Timo; Laurencikiene, Jurga; Rydén, Mikael; Arner, Peter; Clevers, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Obesity confers an increased risk of developing specific cancer forms. Although the mechanisms are unclear, increased fat cell secretion of specific proteins (adipokines) may promote/facilitate development of malignant tumors in obesity via cross-talk between adipose tissue(s) and the tissues prone

  1. The blunted effect of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue in obese subjects is partly reversed by weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, M; Arngrim, N; Simonsen, L.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) appears to have impaired effect on subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue metabolism in obese subjects. The aim of the present study was to examine whether weight loss may reverse the impaired effect of GIP on subcutaneous abdominal...... adipose tissue in obese subjects. METHODS: Five obese males participated in a 12-week weight loss program, which consisted of caloric restriction (800 Cal day(-)(1)) followed by 4 weeks of weight-maintenance diet. Before and after weight loss, subcutaneous adipose tissue lipid metabolism was studied...... by conducting regional measurements of arterio-venous plasma concentrations of metabolites and blood flow (adipose tissue blood flow, ATBF) across a segment of the abdominal adipose tissue in the fasting state and during GIP infusion (1.5 pmol kg(-)(1 )min(-)(1)) in combination with a hyperinsulinemic...

  2. Adverse effects of fructose on cardiometabolic risk factors and hepatic lipid metabolism in subjects with abdominal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskinen, M-R; Söderlund, S; Bogl, L H; Hakkarainen, A; Matikainen, N; Pietiläinen, K H; Räsänen, S; Lundbom, N; Björnson, E; Eliasson, B; Mancina, R M; Romeo, S; Alméras, N; Pepa, G D; Vetrani, C; Prinster, A; Annuzzi, G; Rivellese, A; Després, J-P; Borén, J

    2017-08-01

    Overconsumption of dietary sugars, fructose in particular, is linked to cardiovascular risk factors such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. However, clinical studies have to date not clarified whether these adverse cardiometabolic effects are induced directly by dietary sugars, or whether they are secondary to weight gain. To assess the effects of fructose (75 g day(-1) ), served with their habitual diet over 12 weeks, on liver fat content and other cardiometabolic risk factors in a large cohort (n = 71) of abdominally obese men. We analysed changes in body composition, dietary intake, an extensive panel of cardiometabolic risk markers, hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL), liver fat content and postprandial lipid responses after a standardized oral fat tolerance test (OFTT). Fructose consumption had modest adverse effects on cardiometabolic risk factors. However, fructose consumption significantly increased liver fat content and hepatic DNL and decreased β-hydroxybutyrate (a measure of β-oxidation). The individual changes in liver fat were highly variable in subjects matched for the same level of weight change. The increase in liver fat content was significantly more pronounced than the weight gain. The increase in DNL correlated positively with triglyceride area under the curve responses after an OFTT. Our data demonstrated adverse effects of moderate fructose consumption for 12 weeks on multiple cardiometabolic risk factors in particular on liver fat content despite only relative low increases in weight and waist circumference. Our study also indicates that there are remarkable individual differences in susceptibility to visceral adiposity/liver fat after real-world daily consumption of fructose-sweetened beverages over 12 weeks. © 2017 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  3. Identification of direct and indirect social network effects in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance in obese human subjects.

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    Christian H C A Henning

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to examine to what extent different social network mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of obesity and insulin-resistance. DESIGN: We used nonparametric and parametric regression models to analyse whether individual BMI and HOMA-IR are determined by social network characteristics. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 677 probands (EGO and 3033 social network partners (ALTER were included in the study. Data gathered from the probands include anthropometric measures, HOMA-IR index, health attitudes, behavioural and socio-economic variables and social network data. RESULTS: We found significant treatment effects for ALTERs frequent dieting (p<0.001 and ALTERs health oriented nutritional attitudes (p<0.001 on EGO's BMI, establishing a significant indirect network effect also on EGO's insulin resistance. Most importantly, we also found significant direct social network effects on EGO's insulin resistance, evidenced by an effect of ALTERs frequent dieting (p = 0.033 and ALTERs sport activities (p = 0.041 to decrease EGO's HOMA-IR index independently of EGO's BMI. CONCLUSIONS: Social network phenomena appear not only to be relevant for the spread of obesity, but also for the spread of insulin resistance as the basis for type 2 diabetes. Attitudes and behaviour of peer groups influence EGO's health status not only via social mechanisms, but also via socio-biological mechanisms, i.e. higher brain areas might be influenced not only by biological signals from the own organism, but also by behaviour and knowledge from different human individuals. Our approach allows the identification of peer group influence controlling for potential homophily even when using cross-sectional observational data.

  4. G(–2548A leptin gene polymorphism in obese subjects is associated with serum leptin concentration and bone mass

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    Edward Franek

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Clinical studies have shown either positive or in some other cases negative correlations between leptinemia and bone mineral density (BMD or bone mineral content (BMC. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to assess whether these discrepancies might be associated with the effect of G(–2548A leptin or A326G and A668G leptin receptor gene polymorphisms on serum leptin concentrations or BMD and BMC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included 72 obese patients (39 women and 33 men, aged 46 ±8.8 years; body mass index [BMI] >30 kg/m2. In all subjects, serum creatinine, glucose, lipids, leptin, and insulin were determined. Total fat mass (TFM, BMC, and BMD were assessed using dual energy X‑ray absorptiometry (Lunar DPX-L. RESULTS: No significant correlations were observed between body mass composition parameters (TFM, lean mass, BMC or BMD in relation to genotypes. A positive correlation was found between serum leptin concentration and BMI. An inverse association was observed between leptin concentrations and BMC. Multiple regression analysis showed independent correlations of leptinemia with sex (P <0.001, TFM (P <0.000 001, BMC (P = 0.0001, and the presence of (–2548A allele of the leptin gene (P <0.05. These parameters together accounted for 83% of variability in serum leptin concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: In obese patients, serum leptin concentration shows an independent inverse correlation with BMD and male sex, but positively with TFM and the presence of –2548A allele of leptin gene. These parameters are responsible for 83% of leptin concentration variability. No correlations between the examined polymorphisms and BMC or BMD were found.

  5. A 14-item Mediterranean diet assessment tool and obesity indexes among high-risk subjects: the PREDIMED trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Martínez-González

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Independently of total caloric intake, a better quality of the diet (for example, conformity to the Mediterranean diet is associated with lower obesity risk. It is unclear whether a brief dietary assessment tool, instead of full-length comprehensive methods, can also capture this association. In addition to reduced costs, a brief tool has the interesting advantage of allowing immediate feedback to participants in interventional studies. Another relevant question is which individual items of such a brief tool are responsible for this association. We examined these associations using a 14-item tool of adherence to the Mediterranean diet as exposure and body mass index, waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR as outcomes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional assessment of all participants in the "PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea" (PREDIMED trial. SUBJECTS: 7,447 participants (55-80 years, 57% women free of cardiovascular disease, but with either type 2 diabetes or ≥ 3 cardiovascular risk factors. Trained dietitians used both a validated 14-item questionnaire and a full-length validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary habits. Trained nurses measured weight, height and waist circumference. RESULTS: Strong inverse linear associations between the 14-item tool and all adiposity indexes were found. For a two-point increment in the 14-item score, the multivariable-adjusted differences in WHtR were -0.0066 (95% confidence interval, -0.0088 to -0.0049 for women and -0.0059 (-0.0079 to -0.0038 for men. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for a WHtR>0.6 in participants scoring ≥ 10 points versus ≤ 7 points was 0.68 (0.57 to 0.80 for women and 0.66 (0.54 to 0.80 for men. High consumption of nuts and low consumption of sweetened/carbonated beverages presented the strongest inverse associations with abdominal obesity. CONCLUSIONS: A brief 14-item tool was able to capture a strong monotonic inverse association between

  6. A 14-Item Mediterranean Diet Assessment Tool and Obesity Indexes among High-Risk Subjects: The PREDIMED Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, Miguel Angel; García-Arellano, Ana; Toledo, Estefanía; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Corella, Dolores; Covas, Maria Isabel; Schröder, Helmut; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Lapetra, José; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa Maria; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Pintó, Xavier; Muñoz, Miguel Angel; Wärnberg, Julia; Ros, Emilio; Estruch, Ramón

    2012-01-01

    Objective Independently of total caloric intake, a better quality of the diet (for example, conformity to the Mediterranean diet) is associated with lower obesity risk. It is unclear whether a brief dietary assessment tool, instead of full-length comprehensive methods, can also capture this association. In addition to reduced costs, a brief tool has the interesting advantage of allowing immediate feedback to participants in interventional studies. Another relevant question is which individual items of such a brief tool are responsible for this association. We examined these associations using a 14-item tool of adherence to the Mediterranean diet as exposure and body mass index, waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) as outcomes. Design Cross-sectional assessment of all participants in the “PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea” (PREDIMED) trial. Subjects 7,447 participants (55–80 years, 57% women) free of cardiovascular disease, but with either type 2 diabetes or ≥3 cardiovascular risk factors. Trained dietitians used both a validated 14-item questionnaire and a full-length validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary habits. Trained nurses measured weight, height and waist circumference. Results Strong inverse linear associations between the 14-item tool and all adiposity indexes were found. For a two-point increment in the 14-item score, the multivariable-adjusted differences in WHtR were −0.0066 (95% confidence interval, –0.0088 to −0.0049) for women and –0.0059 (–0.0079 to –0.0038) for men. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for a WHtR>0.6 in participants scoring ≥10 points versus ≤7 points was 0.68 (0.57 to 0.80) for women and 0.66 (0.54 to 0.80) for men. High consumption of nuts and low consumption of sweetened/carbonated beverages presented the strongest inverse associations with abdominal obesity. Conclusions A brief 14-item tool was able to capture a strong monotonic inverse association between

  7. Dietary Interventions and Changes in Cardio-Metabolic Parameters in Metabolically Healthy Obese Subjects: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Stelmach-Mardas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effect of diet on changes in parameters describing the body size phenotype of metabolically healthy obese subjects. The databases Medline, Scopus, Web of Knowledge and Embase were searched for clinical studies carried out between 1958 and June 2016 that reported the effect of dietary intervention on BMI, blood pressure, concentration of fasting triglyceride (TG, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, fasting glucose level, the homoeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and high sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hsCRP in metabolically healthy, obese subjects. Twelve clinical studies met inclusion criteria. The combined analyzed population consists of 1827 subjects aged 34.4 to 61.1 with a BMI > 30 kg/m2. Time of intervention ranged from eight to 104 weeks. The baseline characteristics related to lipid profile were more favorable for metabolically healthy obese than for metabolically unhealthy obese. The meta-analyses revealed a significant associations between restricted energy diet and BMI (95% confidence interval (CI: −0.88, −0.19, blood pressure (systolic blood pressure (SBP: −4.73 mmHg; 95% CI: −7.12, −2.33; and diastolic blood pressure (DBP: −2.75 mmHg; 95% CI: −4.30, −1.21 and TG (−0.11 mmol/l; 95% CI: −0.16, −0.06. Changes in fasting glucose, HOMA-IR and hsCRP did not show significant changes. Sufficient evidence was not found to support the use of specific diets in metabolically healthy obese subjects. This analysis suggests that the effect of caloric restriction exerts its effects through a reduction in BMI, blood pressure and triglycerides in metabolically healthy obese (MHO patients.

  8. Fasting gall bladder volume and lithogenicity in relation to glucose tolerance, total and intra-abdominal fat masses in obese non-diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, H W; Højgaard, L; Andersen, T

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether total body fat mass or fat distribution and associated metabolic disturbances in glucose and lipid metabolism influence the well known gallstone pathogenetic factors in obese subjects in order to explain why some obese subjects develop gallstones and some do not....... DESIGN: Cross sectional study of gallstone pathogenetic factors, body composition, fat distribution, glucose and lipid metabolism. SUBJECTS: 57 healthy overweight subjects (aged 26-64y, body mass index (BMI) 30-45 kg/m2). MEASUREMENTS: Total and intra-abdominal fat masses were measured by dual X......-ray absorptiometry and abdominal CT scanning, respectively. The lithogenic index was measured in aspirated bile. The gallbladder volume was determined by ultrasound and the gallbladder ejection fraction% by dynamic cholescintigraphy. Plasma cholecystokinin (CCK) concentrations during a meal were measured...

  9. Fasting gall bladder volume and lithogenicity in relation to glucose tolerance, total and intra-abdominal fat masses in obese non-diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, H W; Højgaard, L; Andersen, T

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether total body fat mass or fat distribution and associated metabolic disturbances in glucose and lipid metabolism influence the well known gallstone pathogenetic factors in obese subjects in order to explain why some obese subjects develop gallstones and some do not....... DESIGN: Cross sectional study of gallstone pathogenetic factors, body composition, fat distribution, glucose and lipid metabolism. SUBJECTS: 57 healthy overweight subjects (aged 26-64y, body mass index (BMI) 30-45 kg/m2). MEASUREMENTS: Total and intra-abdominal fat masses were measured by dual X...... with a specific radioimmunoassay. Insulin sensitivity was measured by the Minimal Model and glucose tolerance by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Serum lipid concentrations were measured by standard methods. RESULTS: The gallbladder volume in the fasting state increased with increasing intra-abdominal fat...

  10. Dietary intervention increases n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in skeletal muscle membrane phospholipids of obese subjects. Implications for insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, S.B.; Madsbad, S.; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2006-01-01

    . Design Muscle membrane FA profiles were determined in muscle (vastus lateralis) biopsies from 21 obese subjects before and after 6 months of dietary restriction. Diet instructions emphasized low intake of FA of marine origin by recommending lean fish and prohibiting fatty fish and fish oil supplements...

  11. Central obesity and survival in subjects with coronary artery disease: a systematic review of the literature and collaborative analysis with individual subject data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, Thais; Goel, Kashish; Corrêa de Sá, Daniel;

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association of central (waist circumference [WC] and waist-hip ratio [WHR]) and total obesity (body mass index [BMI]) measures with mortality in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients....

  12. Central obesity and survival in subjects with coronary artery disease: a systematic review of the literature and collaborative analysis with individual subject data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, Thais; Goel, Kashish; Corrêa de Sá, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association of central (waist circumference [WC] and waist-hip ratio [WHR]) and total obesity (body mass index [BMI]) measures with mortality in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients.......The aim of this study was to examine the association of central (waist circumference [WC] and waist-hip ratio [WHR]) and total obesity (body mass index [BMI]) measures with mortality in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients....

  13. The Effect of Dried Glycyrrhiza Glabra L. Extract on Obesity Management with Regard to PPAR-γ2 (Pro12Ala) Gene Polymorphism in Obese Subjects Following an Energy Restricted Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazi, Nazli; Alizadeh, Mohammad; Mirtaheri, Elham; Farajnia, Safar

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: Obesity is a multi-factorial health problem which results from the interaction of environmental and genetic factors. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of dried licorice extract with a calorie restricted diet on anthropometric indices and insulin resistance with nutrigenetic approach. Methods: For this pilot, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial, 72 eligible subjects were randomly allocated to Licorice or placebo group. They received a low-calorie diet either with a 1.5 g/day of Licorice extract or placebo for 8 weeks. Results: There were no significant differences in anthropometric indices and dietary intake in genotype subgroups at the baseline. Findings indicated that supplementation with Licorice extract did not change anthropometric indices and biochemical parameters significantly compared to a hypocaloric diet alone. However, from the nutrigenetic point of view, significant changes in anthropometric indices and QUICKI were observed in the Pro12Pro genotypes compared to the Pro12Ala at the end of the study (pPro12Ala genotype was found. Conclusion: In obese subjects, the Pro/Pro polymorphism of the PPAR-γ2 gene seems to induce favourable effects on obesity management. Further studies are needed to clarify whether PPAR-γ2 gene polymorphisms or other obesity genes can affect responses to obesity treatment.

  14. Hyperglycemic clamp-derived disposition index is negatively associated with metabolic syndrome severity in obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sapna S; Ramirez, Claudia E; Powers, Alvin C; Yu, Chang; Shibao, Cyndya A; Luther, James M

    2016-06-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with insulin resistance and increased future risk of type 2 diabetes. This study investigates the relationship between insulin secretion, insulin resistance and individual metabolic syndrome components in subjects without a prior diagnosis of diabetes. We assessed insulin secretion during hyperglycemic clamps by infusing dextrose to maintain hyperglycemia (200mg/dL), followed by L-arginine administration. Studies in 98 individuals (mean age 45.3±1.2years, 56% female, 22% African-American, 49% with metabolic syndrome) were analyzed. We tested the association between the number of metabolic syndrome components and individual outcome variables using linear mixed-effects models to adjust for potential confounding effects of age, sex, and race. Insulin sensitivity index was reduced in the presence of 1 or more metabolic syndrome components. Insulin sensitivity was independently associated with age, waist circumference, male gender and decreased HDL cholesterol. The acute insulin response was greater with two or more metabolic syndrome components, and late glucose-stimulated and L-arginine-stimulated insulin responses exhibited a similar trend. In contrast, the disposition index, a measure of beta cell compensation for insulin resistance, was linearly lower with the number of metabolic syndrome components, and was negatively associated with age, Caucasian race, waist circumference, fasting glucose, and decreased HDL cholesterol. The insulin secretory response in metabolic syndrome is inadequate for the worsening insulin sensitivity, as demonstrated by a decline in disposition index. A dysfunctional insulin secretory response is evident in non-diabetic individuals and worsens with accumulation of metabolic syndrome components. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Pubertal timing and adolescent sexual behavior in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sarah R; Harden, K Paige; Mendle, Jane

    2014-06-01

    Girls who experience earlier pubertal timing relative to peers also exhibit earlier timing of sexual intercourse and more unstable sexual relationships. Although pubertal development initiates feelings of physical desire, the transition into romantic and sexual relationships involves complex biological and social processes contributing both to physical maturation and to individual interpretations of pubertal experiences. Using a sample of female sibling pairs (n = 923 pairs) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the present study investigated associations among menarche and perceived pubertal timing, age of first sexual intercourse (AFI), and adolescent dating and sexual behavior using a behavioral genetic approach. Genetic factors influencing age at menarche and perceived pubertal timing predicted AFI through shared genetic pathways, whereas genetic factors related only to perceived pubertal timing predicted engagement in dating, romantic sex, and nonromantic sex in the previous 18 months. These results suggest that a girl's interpretation of her pubertal timing beyond objective timing is important to consider for the timing and the contexts of romantic and reproductive behavior. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Genes and lifestyle factors in obesity: results from 12 462 subjects from MONICA/KORA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzapfel, Christina; Grallert, Harald; Huth, Cornelia; Wahl, Simone; Fischer, Beate; Döring, Angela; Rückert, Ina M; Hinney, Anke; Hebebrand, Johannes; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Hauner, Hans; Illig, Thomas; Heid, Iris M

    2011-01-01

    Background Data from meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies provided evidence for an association of polymorphisms with body mass index (BMI), and gene expression results indicated a role of these variants in the hypothalamus. It was consecutively hypothesized that these associations might be evoked by a modulation of nutritional intake or energy expenditure. Objective It was our aim to investigate the association of these genetic factors with BMI in a large homogenous population-based sample to explore the association of these polymorphisms with lifestyle factors related to nutritional intake or energy expenditure, and whether such lifestyle factors could be mediators of the detected single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-association with BMI. It was a further aim to compare the proportion of BMI explained by genetic factors with the one explained by lifestyle factors. Design The association of seven polymorphisms in or near the genes NEGR1, TMEM18, MTCH2, FTO, MC4R, SH2B1and KCTD15 was analyzed in 12 462 subjects from the population-based MONICA/KORA Augsburg study. Information on lifestyle factors was based on standardized questionnaires. For statistical analysis, regression-based models were used. Results The minor allele of polymorphism rs6548238 C>T (TMEM18) was associated with lower BMI (−0.418 kg/m2, p=1.22×10−8), and of polymorphisms rs9935401 G>A (FTO) and rs7498665 A>G (SH2B1) with increased BMI (0.290 kg/m2, p=2.85×10−7 and 0.145 kg/m2, p=9.83×10−3). The other polymorphisms were not significantly associated. Lifestyle factors were correlated with BMI and explained 0.037 % of the BMI variance as compared to 0.006 % of explained variance by the associated genetic factors. The genetic variants associated with BMI were not significantly associated with lifestyle factors and there was no evidence of lifestyle factors mediating the SNP-BMI association. Conclusions Our data first confirm the findings for TMEM18 with BMI in a single study on

  17. Are there healthy obese?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griera Borrás, José Luis; Contreras Gilbert, José

    2014-01-01

    It is currently postulated that not all obese individuals have to be considered as pathological subjects. From 10% to 20% of obese people studied do not show the metabolic changes common in obese patients. The term "healthy obese" has been coined to refer to these patients and differentiate them from the larger and more common group of pathological obese subjects. However, the definition of "healthy obese" is not clear. Use of "healthy obese" as a synonym for obese without metabolic complications is risky. Clinical markers such as insulin resistance are used to identify this pathology. It is not clear that healthy obese subjects have lower morbidity and mortality than pathologically obese patients. According to some authors, healthy obese would represent an early stage in evolution towards pathological obesity. There is no agreement as to the need to treat healthy obese subjects. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Metabolic Syndrome in Children and Adolescents: a Critical Approach Considering the Interaction between Pubertal Stage and Insulin Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinehr, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Pediatricians increasingly diagnose the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in recent years to describe cardiovascular risk and to guide management of the obese child. However, there is an ongoing discussion about how to define the MetS in childhood and adolescence. Since insulin resistance-the major driver of MetS-is influenced by pubertal stage, it is questionable to use definitions for MetS in children and adolescents that do not take into account pubertal status. A metabolic healthy status in prepubertal stage does not predict a metabolic healthy status during puberty. Furthermore, cardiovascular risk factors improve at the end of puberty without treatment. However, having a uniform internationally accepted definition of the MetS for children and adolescents would be very helpful for the description of populations in different studies. Therefore, the concept of MetS has to be revisited under the influence of puberty stage.

  19. Diet and exercise reduce low-grade inflammation and macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue but not in skeletal muscle in severely obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Jens M; Helge, Jørn W; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2006-01-01

    Obesity is associated with low-grade inflammation, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. This study investigated the effect of a 15-wk lifestyle intervention (hypocaloric diet and daily exercise) on inflammatory markers in plasma, adipose tissue (AT), and skeletal muscle...... (SM) in 27 severely obese subjects (mean body mass index: 45.8 kg/m2). Plasma samples, subcutaneous abdominal AT biopsies, and vastus lateralis SM biopsies were obtained before and after the intervention and analyzed by ELISA and RT-PCR. The intervention reduced body weight (P

  20. Higher baseline irisin concentrations are associated with greater reductions in glycemia and insulinemia after weight loss in obese subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Legarrea, P; de la Iglesia, R; Crujeiras, A B; Pardo, M; Casanueva, F F; Zulet, M A; Martinez, J A

    2014-01-01

    Irisin is assumed to be a relevant link between muscle and weight maintenance as well as to mediate exercise benefits on health. The aim of this study was to assess the possible associations between irisin levels and glucose homeostasis in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS) following an energy-restricted treatment. Ninety-six adults with excessive body weight and MetS features underwent a hypocaloric dietary pattern for 8 weeks, within the RESMENA randomized controlled trial (www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT01087086). After the intervention, dietary restriction significantly reduced body weight and evidenced a dietary-induced decrease in circulating levels of irisin in parallel with improvements on glucose homeostasis markers. Interestingly, participants with higher irisin values at baseline (above the median) showed a greater reduction on glucose (P=0.022) and insulin (P=0.021) concentrations as well as on the homeostasis model assessment index (P=0.008) and triglycerides (P=0.006) after the dietary intervention, compared with those presenting low-irisin baseline values (below the median). Interestingly, a positive correlation between irisin and carbohydrate intake was found at the end of the experimental period. In conclusion, irisin appears to be involved in glucose metabolism regulation after a dietary-induced weight loss. PMID:24567125

  1. Skin surface lipid composition, acne, pubertal development, and urinary excretion of testosterone and 17-ketosteroids in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochi, P E; Strauss, J S; Downing, D T

    1977-11-01

    Fifty-two children, age 5-10, from acne-prone families, were studied for a period of 1 year to examine the interrelationship between sebum, acne, pubertal development, and urinary steroid excretion. In each of the subjects, 30 boys and 22 girls, the composition of forehead skin lipid was determined 4 times yearly by thin-layer chromatography, with measurement of triglycerides, diglycerides, free fatty acids, wax esters, squalene, cholesterol, and cholesterol esters. Twice yearly, examination was made of the presence or absence of acne, pubertal maturation and the 24-hour urinary excretion of testosterone as determined by radioimmunnoassay, and of total 17-ketosteroids, dehydroepiandrosterone, androsterone, and etiocholanolone, as determined by paper chromatography. The relative amount of sebaceous lipids was positively correlated with age of the subjects (wax esters p less than .001, squalene p less than .05), as was the triglyceride-diglyceride component (p less than .05). No significant correlation was seen with the fatty acids. Acne, primarily comedonal, occurred in 27/52 subjects (15 girls, 12 boys) and was associated with higher sebum values. One-half of the children with acne had no signs of pubertal development. A significantly positive correlation was observed between the relative amount of sebaceous lipid and the urinary excretion of 17-ketosteroids, androsterone, and etiocholanolone in both sexes, and of testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone in boys. The development of acne in children is an early pubertal event, often evident before other signs of pubertal maturation, and it is associated with an increase in sebum and in the urinary excretion of androgenic steroids.

  2. [Contribution of anthropometric characteristics to pubertal stage prediction in young male individuals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Radamés Maciel Vitor; Arrais, Ricardo Fernando; de Azevedo, Jenner Chrystian Veríssimo; do Rêgo, Jeferson Tafarel Pereira; de Medeiros, Jason Azevedo; de Andrade, Ricardo Dias; Dantas, Paulo Moreira Silva

    2014-09-01

    To identify the contribution of anthropometric variables to predict the maturational stage in young males. Cross-sectional study that enrolled 190 male subjects aged between eight and 18 years, randomly selected from public and private schools in Natal, Northeast Brazil. Thirty-two anthropometric variables were measured following the recommendations of the International Society for the Advancement of Kineanthropometry (ISAK). The assessment of sexual maturation was based on the observation of two experienced experts, who identified the pubertal development according to Tanner guidelines (1962). The anthropometric variables showed a significant increase of their values during the advancement of pubertal development (p<0.05). The following variables showed the best value for prediction of maturational groups: sitting height, femoral biepicondylar diameter, forearm girth, triceps skinfold, tibiale laterale and acromiale-radiale bone lenghts. These variables were able to estimate the pubertal stages in 76.3% of the sujects. The anthropometric characteristics showed significant differences between the moments of maturational stages, being found, representatively, seven variables that best predict the stages of sexual maturation. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Environmental Phenols And Pubertal Development In Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Mary S.; Teitelbaum, Susan L.; McGovern, Kathleen; Pinney, Susan M.; Windham, Gayle C.; Galvez, Maida; Pajak, Ashley; Rybak, Michael; Calafat, Antonia M.; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Biro, Frank M.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental exposures to many phenols are documented worldwide and exposures can be quite high (>1 micromolar of urine metabolites). Phenols have a range of hormonal activity, but knowledge of effects on child reproductive development is limited, coming mostly from cross-sectional studies. We undertook a prospective study of pubertal development among 1239 girls recruited at three U.S. sites when they were 6–8 years old and were followed annually for 7 years to determine age at first breast or pubic hair development. Ten phenols were measured in urine collected at enrollment (benzophenone-3, enterolactone, bisphenol A, three parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-), 2,5-dichlorophenol, triclosan, genistein, daidzein). We used multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazards ratios (HR (95% confidence intervals)) and Kaplan-Meier survival analyses to estimate relative risk of earlier or later age at puberty associated with phenol exposures. For enterolactone and benzophenone-3, girls experienced breast development 5–6 months later, adjusted HR 0.79 (0.64–0.98) and HR 0.80 (0.65–0.98) respectively for the 5th vs 1st quintiles of urinary biomarkers (μg/g-creatinine). Earlier breast development was seen for triclosan and 2,5- dichlorophenol: 4–9 months sooner for 5th vs 1st quintiles of urinary concentrations (HR 1.17 (0.96–1.43) and HR 1.37 (1.09–1.72), respectively). Association of breast development with enterolactone, but not the other three phenols, was mediated by body size. These phenols may be antiadipogens (benzophenone-3 and enterolactone) or thyroid agonists (triclosan and 2,5- dichlorophenol), and their ubiquity and relatively high levels in children would benefit from further investigation to confirm these findings and to establish whether there are certain windows of susceptibility during which exposure can affect pubertal development. PMID:26335517

  4. Pubertal development among girls with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia initiated on treatment at different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Kulshreshtha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH provide us an opportunity to study the clinical effects of androgen excess in humans. We studied the sequence of pubertal development in girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia initiated on treatment at different ages, to assess the effects of androgen exposure on the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Ovarian (HPO axis. Materials and Methods: Girls more than 18 years of age, with CAH, on follow-up at this hospital were the subjects for this study. Details of history, physical findings, laboratory evaluation, and medication were noted from their case records and verified from the patients and their / parents, in addition to assessment of their present health status. Result: We studied 24 patients of classical CAH (SW-2, SV-22, average age - 24.5 ± 6.6 years. All had varying degrees of genital ambiguity (Prader stage 3 (n = 13, Prader stage 2 (n = 10, Prader stage 1 (n = 1. Among them were13 girls, who were started on steroids after eight years of age. Girls who received treatment from infancy and early childhood had normal pubertal development (mean age at menarche 11.4 ± 1.7 years. Hirsutism was not a problem among them. Untreated children had progressive clitoral enlargement throughout childhood, developed pubic hair at around three to six years of age, and facial hair between nine and eleven years. Plasma testosterone ranged from 3 to 6 ng / ml prior to treatment. Six of the 13 untreated CAH girls had subtle breast development starting at ages 11 - 16 years and three had spontaneous infrequent vaginal bleeding starting at ages 11 - 17. Steroid supplementation initiated pubertal changes in older girls in two-to-six months′ time. Conclusion: There was a delay in HPO axis maturation (as evidenced by delayed pubertal development in the absence of treatment in girls with CAH. This could be corrected with steroid supplementation.

  5. Evaluation of Mangosteen juice blend on biomarkers of inflammation in obese subjects: a pilot, dose finding study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Betsy B

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to reduce inflammation in overweight and obese individuals may be valuable in preventing the progression to metabolic syndrome with associated risks for heart disease and diabetes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of multiple dosages of a proprietary Mangosteen Juice blend on indicators of inflammation and antioxidant levels in obese patients with elevated C-reactive protein (CRP levels. Methods The study was an 8 week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with a pre-study 2 week washout period. The study included four groups including placebo and three difference doses of the test product, XanGo Juice™: 3, 6 or 9 oz twice daily. The primary outcome measure of this study was high-sensitivity (HS-CRP. Secondary outcome measures included other biochemical indicators of inflammation, anthropomorphic measures and a safety evaluation. Results One hundred twenty two (122 persons were screened for the study, 44 were randomized and 40 completed the study. HS-CRP measurements dropped after 8 weeks treatment compared to baseline in all 3 dose groups and increased in the placebo group. The changes from baseline were not significant but the comparison of change from baseline was significant for the 18 oz group when compared to placebo (p = 0.02. Other markers of inflammation (inflammatory cytokines and a marker for lipid peroxidation (F2 isoprostane did not show any significant differences when compared with placebo. There was a trend towards a decrease in BMI in the juice groups. There were no side effects reported in any of the groups and none of the laboratory or EKG safety assessments indicated clinically significant changes for any subject. Conclusion In this pilot, dose-finding study, a proprietary mangosteen juice blend (XanGo Juice™ reduced CRP levels (increased change from baseline compared to placebo for those taking the highest dose of 18 oz per day. Further studies with a

  6. Accumulation of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein in subjects with abdominal obesity: the biguanides and the prevention of the risk of obesity (BIGPRO) 1 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bard, J M; Charles, M A; Juhan-Vague, I; Vague, P; André, P; Safar, M; Fruchart, J C; Eschwege, E

    2001-03-01

    The present study represents a new insight into the Biguanides and the Prevention of the Risk of Obesity (BIGPRO) 1 study population at inclusion. This population, selected basically on the basis of a high waist-to-hip ratio (>/=0.95 for men and >/=0.80 for women), is supposed to represent a group of patients with insulin resistance. The present study was undergone to establish whether apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III) and apolipoprotein E (apoE) associated with apo B (apoC-III LpB and apoE LpB, respectively), considered to be markers of remnant accumulation, play a role in the hypertriglyceridemia associated with insulin resistance and whether they are related to other biological abnormalities frequently observed in this syndrome. In this population, the concentration of the markers of remnant accumulation increases with triglyceride levels. Therefore, correlation studies were realized to assess the relative effect of insulin and the markers of remnant accumulation on triglyceride plasma level. As a first attempt, a simple correlation analysis revealed that insulin is positively related to the markers of remnant accumulation only in hypertriglyceridemic patients (triglycerides >/=1.7 mmol/L). To assess the independent contribution of these markers, insulin, and other parameters related to the plasma triglyceride concentration, a stepwise multiple regression analysis was run. Results revealed that insulin and the markers of remnant accumulation (specifically, apoE LpB) are independent contributors to the plasma triglyceride concentration. Markers of the endothelial damage, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, tissue plasminogen activator, and von Willebrand factor, which are often increased in the case of insulin resistance, were tested for their correlation with the markers of remnant accumulation. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 is positively correlated with these markers only in hypertriglyceridemic male subjects. It is concluded that increased insulin levels

  7. Oral glutamine increases circulating glucagon-like peptide 1, glucagon, and insulin concentrations in lean, obese, and type 2 diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greenfield, Jerry R; Farooqi, I Sadaf; Keogh, Julia M

    2008-01-01

    plasma insulin concentrations. Glutamine stimulated glucagon secretion in all 3 study groups. CONCLUSION: Glutamine effectively increases circulating GLP-1, GIP, and insulin concentrations in vivo and may represent a novel therapeutic approach to stimulating insulin secretion in obesity and type 2...... objective was to determine whether glutamine increases circulating GLP-1 and GIP concentrations in vivo and, if so, whether this is associated with an increase in plasma insulin. DESIGN: We recruited 8 healthy normal-weight volunteers (LEAN), 8 obese individuals with type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose...... tolerance (OB-DIAB) and 8 obese nondiabetic control subjects (OB-CON). Oral glucose (75 g), glutamine (30 g), and water were administered on 3 separate days in random order, and plasma concentrations of GLP-1, GIP, insulin, glucagon, and glucose were measured over 120 min. RESULTS: Oral glucose led...

  8. Plasma phospholipid transfer protein activity is independently determined by obesity and insulin resistance in non-diabetic subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Rindert; Kappelle, Paul J.W.H.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) is an emerging cardio-metabolic risk factor which is intricately involved in lipoprotein metabolism. Elevated plasma PLTP activity levels are reported in obesity and diabetes mellitus, but the relative contributions of obesity and insulin resistance t

  9. Combining Body Mass Index With Measures of Central Obesity in the Assessment of Mortality in Subjects With Coronary Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, Thais; Goel, Kashish; Corrêa de Sá, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to assess the mortality risk of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) based ona combination of body mass index (BMI) with measures of central obesity.......This study sought to assess the mortality risk of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) based ona combination of body mass index (BMI) with measures of central obesity....

  10. Plasma phospholipid transfer protein activity is independently determined by obesity and insulin resistance in non-diabetic subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Rindert; Kappelle, Paul J.W.H.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) is an emerging cardio-metabolic risk factor which is intricately involved in lipoprotein metabolism. Elevated plasma PLTP activity levels are reported in obesity and diabetes mellitus, but the relative contributions of obesity and insulin resistance t

  11. Plasma phospholipid transfer protein activity is independently determined by obesity and insulin resistance in non-diabetic subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Rindert; Kappelle, Paul J.W.H.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    Background: Phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) is an emerging cardio-metabolic risk factor which is intricately involved in lipoprotein metabolism. Elevated plasma PLTP activity levels are reported in obesity and diabetes mellitus, but the relative contributions of obesity and insulin resistance

  12. Recent changes in pubertal timing in healthy Danish boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K; Aksglæde, Lise; Petersen, Jørgen Holm;

    2010-01-01

    In the 1990s, the American population-based study NHANES III renewed the focus on possible secular trends in male puberty. However, no conclusions could be made on pubertal onset due to the lack of compatible data....

  13. Challenges in the Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Obese Subjects: What Is the Evidence and What Are the Myths?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovely Chhabra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing worldwide prevalence of diabetes mellitus and obesity has projected concerns for increasing burden of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The dangers of obesity in adults and children have received more attention than ever in the recent years as more research data becomes available regarding the long-term health outcomes. Weight loss in obese and overweight subjects can be induced via intensive lifestyle modifications, medications, and/or bariatric surgery. These methods have been shown to confer overall health benefits; however, their effect on remission of preexisting diabetes mellitus and reduction in cardiovascular risk has been variable. Recent research data has offered a much better understanding of the pathophysiology and outcomes of these management strategies in obese patients. In this paper, the authors have summarized the results of major studies on remission of type 2 diabetes mellitus and reduction of cardiovascular events by weight loss induced by different methods. Furthermore, the paper aims to clarify various prevailing myths and practice patterns about obesity management among clinicians.

  14. Different Intestinal Microbial Profile in Over-Weight and Obese Subjects Consuming a Diet with Low Content of Fiber and Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Fernández-Navarro

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has been related to an increased risk of multiple diseases in which oxidative stress and inflammation play a role. Gut microbiota has emerged as a mediator in this interaction, providing new mechanistic insights at the interface between fat metabolism dysregulation and obesity development. Our aim was to analyze the interrelationship among obesity, diet, oxidative stress, inflammation and the intestinal microbiota in 68 healthy adults (29.4% normal-weight. Diet was assessed through a food frequency questionnaire and converted into nutrients and dietary compounds using food composition tables. The intestinal microbiota was assessed by quantitative PCR, fecal short chain fatty acids by gas chromatography and serum biomarkers by standard protocols. Higher levels of malondialdehyde (MDA, C reactive protein (CRP, serum leptin, glucose, fat percentage and the intestinal Lactobacillus group were found in the obese people. Cluster analysis of body mass index, fat mass, glucose, LDL/HDL ratio, leptin, MDA and CRP classified the subjects into two groups. The levels of the intestinal Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas group were lower in the cluster and linked to a higher pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory status, whose individuals also had lower intake of fruits, dried fruits, and fish. These results could be useful for designing strategies targeted to obesity prevention.

  15. Effects of bariatric surgery on gout incidence in the Swedish Obese Subjects study: a non-randomised, prospective, controlled intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglio, Cristina; Peltonen, Markku; Neovius, Martin; Jacobson, Peter; Jacobsson, Lennart; Rudin, Anna; Carlsson, Lena M S

    2017-04-01

    To assess the long-term effect of bariatric surgery on the incidence of gout and hyperuricaemia in participants of the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study. This report includes 1982 subjects who underwent bariatric surgery and 1999 obese controls from the SOS study, a prospective intervention trial designed to assess the effect of bariatric surgery compared with conventional treatment. None of the subjects had gout at baseline. An endpoint on gout incidence was created based on information on gout diagnosis and use of gout medications through national registers and questionnaires. Median follow-up for the incidence of gout was about 19 years for both groups. Moreover, the incidence of hyperuricaemia over up to 20 years was examined in a subgroup of participants having baseline uric acid levels gout compared with usual care (adjusted HR 0.60, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.75, pgout event was 32 (95% CI 22 to 59). The effect of bariatric surgery on gout incidence was not influenced by baseline risk factors, including body mass index. During follow-up, the surgery group had a lower incidence of hyperuricaemia (adjusted HR 0.47, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.58, pgout and hyperuricaemia in obese subjects. NCT01479452; Results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Differential effects of dietary protein sources on postprandial low-grade inflammation after a single high fat meal in obese non-diabetic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herzig Karl-Heinz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a state of chronic low-grade inflammation. Chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with the pathophysiology of both type-2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. Prevention or reduction of chronic low-grade inflammation may be advantageous in relation to obesity related co-morbidity. In this study we investigated the acute effect of dietary protein sources on postprandial low-grade inflammatory markers after a high-fat meal in obese non-diabetic subjects. Methods We conducted a randomized, acute clinical intervention study in a crossover design. We supplemented a fat rich mixed meal with one of four dietary proteins - cod protein, whey isolate, gluten or casein. 11 obese non-diabetic subjects (age: 40-68, BMI: 30.3-42.0 kg/m2 participated and blood samples were drawn in the 4 h postprandial period. Adiponectin was estimated by ELISA methods and cytokines were analyzed by multiplex assay. Results MCP-1 and CCL5/RANTES displayed significant postprandial dynamics. CCL5/RANTES initially increased after all meals, but overall CCL5/RANTES incremental area under the curve (iAUC was significantly lower after the whey meal compared with the cod and casein meals (P = 0.0053. MCP-1 was initially suppressed after all protein meals. However, the iAUC was significantly higher after whey meal compared to the cod and gluten meals (P = 0.04. Conclusion We have demonstrated acute differential effects on postprandial low grade inflammation of four dietary proteins in obese non-diabetic subjects. CCL5/RANTES initially increased after all meals but the smallest overall postprandial increase was observed after the whey meal. MCP-1 was initially suppressed after all 4 protein meals and the whey meal caused the smallest overall postprandial suppression. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00863564

  17. Morbidly obese human subjects have increased peripheral blood CD4+ T cells with skewing toward a Treg- and Th2-dominated phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Weerd, Kim; Dik, Willem A; Schrijver, Benjamin; Schweitzer, Dave H; Langerak, Anton W; Drexhage, Hemmo A; Kiewiet, Rosalie M; van Aken, Maarten O; van Huisstede, Astrid; van Dongen, Jacques J M; van der Lelij, Aart-Jan; Staal, Frank J T; van Hagen, P Martin

    2012-02-01

    Obesity is associated with local T-cell abnormalities in adipose tissue. Systemic obesity-related abnormalities in the peripheral blood T-cell compartment are not well defined. In this study, we investigated the peripheral blood T-cell compartment of morbidly obese and lean subjects. We determined all major T-cell subpopulations via six-color flow cytometry, including CD8+ and CD4+ T cells, CD4+ T-helper (Th) subpopulations, and natural CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ T-regulatory (Treg) cells. Moreover, molecular analyses to assess thymic output, T-cell proliferation (T-cell receptor excision circle analysis), and T-cell receptor-β (TCRB) repertoire (GeneScan analysis) were performed. In addition, we determined plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines and cytokines associated with Th subpopulations and T-cell proliferation. Morbidly obese subjects had a selective increase in peripheral blood CD4+ naive, memory, natural CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Treg, and Th2 T cells, whereas CD8+ T cells were normal. CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell proliferation was increased, whereas the TCRB repertoire was not significantly altered. Plasma levels of cytokines CCL5 and IL-7 were elevated. CD4+ T-cell numbers correlated positively with fasting insulin levels. The peripheral blood T-cell compartment of morbidly obese subjects is characterized by increased homeostatic T-cell proliferation to which cytokines IL-7 and CCL5, among others, might contribute. This is associated with increased CD4+ T cells, with skewing toward a Treg- and Th2-dominated phenotype, suggesting a more anti-inflammatory set point.

  18. Polymorphism rs3123554 in the cannabinoid receptor gene type 2 (CNR2) reveals effects on body weight and insulin resistance in obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, Daniel Antonio; Izaola, Olatz; Primo, David; de la Fuente, Beatriz; Aller, Rocio

    2017-10-01

    Few studies assessing the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms in CNR2 and obesity or its related metabolic parameters are available. To investigate the influence of polymorphism rs3123554 in the CNR2 receptor gene on obesity anthropometric parameters, insulin resistance, and adipokines in subjects with obesity. The study population consisted of 1027 obese subjects, who were performed bioelectrical impedance analyses, blood pressure measurements, serial assessments of dietary intake during three days, and biochemical tests. Genotypes GG, GA, and AA were found in 339 (33.0%), 467 (45.5%), and 221 (21.5%) respectively. Body mass index, weight, fat mass, waist circumference, insulin, HOMA-IR, and triglyceride and leptin levels were higher in A-allele carriers as compared to non A-allele carriers. No differences were seen in these parameters between the GA and AA genotypes. There were no statistical differences in dietary intake. The main study finding was the association of the minor allele of the SNP rs3123554 in the CNR2 gene with body weight and triglyceride, HOMA-IR, insulin, and leptin levels. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Reduction of macrophage infiltration and chemoattractant gene expression changes in white adipose tissue of morbidly obese subjects after surgery-induced weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancello, Raffaella; Henegar, Corneliu; Viguerie, Nathalie; Taleb, Soraya; Poitou, Christine; Rouault, Christine; Coupaye, Muriel; Pelloux, Veronique; Hugol, Danielle; Bouillot, Jean-Luc; Bouloumié, Anne; Barbatelli, Giorgio; Cinti, Saverio; Svensson, Per-Arne; Barsh, Gregory S; Zucker, Jean-Daniel; Basdevant, Arnaud; Langin, Dominique; Clément, Karine

    2005-08-01

    In human obesity, the stroma vascular fraction (SVF) of white adipose tissue (WAT) is enriched in macrophages. These cells may contribute to low-grade inflammation and to its metabolic complications. Little is known about the effect of weight loss on macrophages and genes involved in macrophage attraction. We examined subcutaneous WAT (scWAT) of 7 lean and 17 morbidly obese subjects before and 3 months after bypass surgery. Immunomorphological changes of the number of scWAT-infiltrating macrophages were evaluated, along with concomitant changes in expression of SVF-overexpressed genes. The number of scWAT-infiltrating macrophages before surgery was higher in obese than in lean subjects (HAM56+/CD68+; 22.6 +/- 4.3 vs. 1.4 +/- 0.6%, P attraction (monocyte chemotactic protein [MCP]-1, plasminogen activator urokinase receptor [PLAUR], and colony-stimulating factor [CSF]-3) and hypoxia (hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha [HIF-1alpha]), expression of which increases in obesity and decreases after surgery, were predominantly expressed in the SVF. We show that improvement of the inflammatory profile after weight loss is related to a reduced number of macrophages in scWAT. MCP-1, PLAUR, CSF-3, and HIF-1alpha may play roles in the attraction of macrophages in scWAT.

  20. Metabolic Syndrome in Italian Obese Children and Adolescents: Stronger Association with Central Fat Depot than with Insulin Sensitivity and Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Brufani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate whether body fat distribution, birth weight, and family history for diabetes (FHD were associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS in children and adolescents. Methods. A total of 439 Italian obese children and adolescents (5–18 years were enrolled. Subjects were divided into 2 groups: prepubertal and pubertal. MetS was diagnosed according to the adapted National Cholesterol Education Program criteria. Birth weight percentile, central obesity index (measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, insulin sensitivity (ISI, and disposition index were evaluated. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine variables associated with MetS. Results. The prevalence of MetS was 17%, with higher percentage in adolescents than in children (21 versus 12%. In the overall population, central obesity index was a stronger predictor of MetS than insulin sensitivity and low birth weight. When the two groups were considered, central fat depot remained the strongest predictor of MetS, with ISI similarly influencing the probability of MetS in the two groups and birth weight being negatively associated to MetS only in pubertal individuals. Neither FHD nor degree of fatness was a significant predictor of MetS. Conclusion. Simple clinical parameters like increased abdominal adiposity and low birth weight could be useful tools to identify European obese adolescents at risk for metabolic complications.

  1. Physical activity and sedentary behavior measured objectively and subjectively in overweight and obese adults with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janney, Carol A; Ganguli, Rohan; Tang, Gong; Cauley, Jane A; Holleman, Robert G; Richardson, Caroline R; Kriska, Andrea M

    2015-10-01

    Describe objective and subjective physical activity levels and time spent being sedentary in adults with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders (SZO/SA). Baseline physical activity and sedentary behaviors were assessed among 46 overweight and obese community-dwelling adults (aged 18-70 years; BMI > 27 kg/m(2)) diagnosed with SZO/SA by DSM-IV-TR, with mild symptom severity (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale score physical activity levels, measured using actigraphs, in WAIST were compared to a nationally representative sample of users (n = 46) and nonusers (n = 46) of mental health service (MHS) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2003-2004) matched by sex, BMI, and age. On average, adults with SZO/SA wore actigraphs more than 15 h/d for 7 days averaging 151,000 counts/d. The majority of monitoring time (81%) was classified as sedentary (approximately 13 h/d). Moderate/vigorous and light physical activity accounted for only 2% (19 min/d) and 17% (157 min/d) of monitoring time/d, respectively. Primary source of activity was household activities (409 ± 438 min/wk). Fifty-three percent reported walking for transportation or leisure. Adults with SZO/SA were significantly less active (176 min/d) and more sedentary (756 min/d) than NHANES users of MHS (293 and 640 min/d, respectively) and nonusers of MHS (338 and 552 min/d, respectively) (P physical activity; and significantly less active than NHANES users and nonusers of MHS. This sedentary lifestyle is significantly lower than those of other inactive US populations, is costly for the individual and community, and highlights the need for physical activity promotion and interventions in this high risk population. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  2. Gut hormone secretion, gastric emptying, and glycemic responses to erythritol and xylitol in lean and obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wölnerhanssen, Bettina K; Cajacob, Lucian; Keller, Nino

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing prevalence of obesity and a possible association with increasing sucrose consumption, nonnutritive sweeteners are gaining popularity. Given that some studies indicate that artificial sweeteners might have adverse effects, alternative solutions are sought. Xylitol and erythritol...

  3. Obesity increases the prevalence and severity of focal knee abnormalities diagnosed using 3T MRI in middle-aged subjects - data from the osteoarthritis initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laberge, Marc A.; Baum, Thomas; Virayavanich, Warapat; Nardo, Lorenzo; Link, Thomas M. [University of California San Francisco, Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Research, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Nevitt, M.C.; Lynch, J.; McCulloch, C.E. [University of California San Francisco, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2012-06-15

    To study the effect of BMI on the prevalence, severity, and 36-month progression of early degenerative changes in the knee by using 3T MRI in middle-aged subjects without radiographic osteoarthritis (OA). We examined baseline and 36-month follow-up MR studies from 137 middle-aged individuals (45-55 years old) with risk factors for knee OA but no radiographic OA from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Subjects were grouped into three categories: normal BMI (BMI < 25 kg/m{sup 2}, n = 38), overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m{sup 2}, n = 37), and obese (BMI {>=} 30 kg/m{sup 2}, n = 62). Using 3T MRI, cartilage, meniscus, and bone marrow abnormalities were graded using the OA Whole-organ MR Imaging Score (WORMS). The statistical analysis was corrected as necessary for differences in age, sex, and OA risk factors other than BMI. The overall prevalence of lesions was 64% for meniscus and 79% for cartilage (including low grade lesions). At baseline, the prevalence and severity of knee lesions was positively associated with BMI, with a nearly fourfold increase in meniscal tears and more than twofold increase in high-grade cartilage defects in obese individuals relative to normal-weight subjects. Over the 36-month follow-up period, the number of new or worsening cartilage lesions of any grade was significantly higher in obese subjects (p = 0.039), while there was no significant difference in meniscal lesion progression. Obesity was associated with both higher prevalence and severity of early degenerative changes in the knee in middle-aged individuals without radiographic OA and with significantly increased cartilage lesion progression (of any grade) over 36 months. (orig.)

  4. Insulin resistance and inflammation predict kinetic body weight changes in response to dietary weight loss and maintenance in overweight and obese subjects by using a Bayesian network approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ling Chun; Wuillemin, Pierre-Henri; Bastard, Jean-Philippe; Sokolovska, Nataliya; Gougis, Sophie; Fellahi, Soraya; Darakhshan, Froogh; Bonnefont-Rousselot, Dominique; Bittar, Randa; Doré, Joël; Zucker, Jean-Daniel; Clément, Karine; Rizkalla, Salwa

    2013-12-01

    The ability to identify obese subjects who will lose weight in response to energy restriction is an important strategy in obesity treatment. We aimed to identify obese subjects who would lose weight and maintain weight loss through 6 wk of energy restriction and 6 wk of weight maintenance. Fifty obese or overweight subjects underwent a 6-wk energy-restricted, high-protein diet followed by another 6 wk of weight maintenance. Network modeling by using combined biological, gut microbiota, and environmental factors was performed to identify predictors of weight trajectories. On the basis of body weight trajectories, 3 subject clusters were identified. Clusters A and B lost more weight during energy restriction. During the stabilization phase, cluster A continued to lose weight, whereas cluster B remained stable. Cluster C lost less and rapidly regained weight during the stabilization period. At baseline, cluster C had the highest plasma insulin, interleukin (IL)-6, adipose tissue inflammation (HAM56+ cells), and Lactobacillus/Leuconostoc/Pediococcus numbers in fecal samples. Weight regain after energy restriction correlated positively with insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance: r = 0.5, P = 0.0002) and inflammatory markers (IL-6; r = 0.43, P = 0.002) at baseline. The Bayesian network identified plasma insulin, IL-6, leukocyte number, and adipose tissue (HAM56) at baseline as predictors that were sufficient to characterize the 3 clusters. The prediction accuracy reached 75.5%. The resistance to weight loss and proneness to weight regain could be predicted by the combination of high plasma insulin and inflammatory markers before dietary intervention.

  5. Regulatory B Cell Function Is Suppressed by Smoking and Obesity in H. pylori-Infected Subjects and Is Correlated with Elevated Risk of Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guanggang; Wulan, Hasi; Song, Zongchang; Paik, Paul A; Tsao, Ming L; Goodman, Gary M; MacEachern, Paul T; Downey, Robert S; Jankowska, Anna J; Rabinowitz, Yaron M; Learch, Thomas B; Song, David Z; Yuan, Ji J; Zheng, Shihang; Zheng, Zhendong

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection occurs in more than half of the world's population and is the main cause for gastric cancer. A series of lifestyle and nutritional factors, such as tobacco smoking and obesity, have been found to elevate the risk for cancer development. In this study, we sought to determine the immunological aspects during H. pylori infection and gastric cancer development. We found that B cells from H. pylori-infected patients presented altered composition and function compared to uninfected patients. IL-10-expressing CD24+CD38+ B cells were upregulated in H. pylori-infected patients, contained potent regulatory activity in inhibiting T cell pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion, and responded directly to H. pylori antigen stimulation. Interestingly, in H. pylori-infected smoking subjects and obese subjects, the number of IL-10+ B cells and CD24+CD38+ B cells were reduced compared to H. pylori-infected asymptomatic subjects. Regulatory functions mediated by CD24+CD38+ B cells were also impaired. In addition, gastric cancer positive patients had reduced IL-10-producing B cell frequencies after H. pylori-stimulation. Altogether, these data suggest that in H. pylori-infection, CD24+CD38+ B cell is upregulated and plays a role in suppressing pro-inflammatory responses, possibly through IL-10 production, a feature that was not observed in smoking and obese patients.

  6. Regulatory B Cell Function Is Suppressed by Smoking and Obesity in H. pylori-Infected Subjects and Is Correlated with Elevated Risk of Gastric Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanggang Li

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori infection occurs in more than half of the world's population and is the main cause for gastric cancer. A series of lifestyle and nutritional factors, such as tobacco smoking and obesity, have been found to elevate the risk for cancer development. In this study, we sought to determine the immunological aspects during H. pylori infection and gastric cancer development. We found that B cells from H. pylori-infected patients presented altered composition and function compared to uninfected patients. IL-10-expressing CD24+CD38+ B cells were upregulated in H. pylori-infected patients, contained potent regulatory activity in inhibiting T cell pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion, and responded directly to H. pylori antigen stimulation. Interestingly, in H. pylori-infected smoking subjects and obese subjects, the number of IL-10+ B cells and CD24+CD38+ B cells were reduced compared to H. pylori-infected asymptomatic subjects. Regulatory functions mediated by CD24+CD38+ B cells were also impaired. In addition, gastric cancer positive patients had reduced IL-10-producing B cell frequencies after H. pylori-stimulation. Altogether, these data suggest that in H. pylori-infection, CD24+CD38+ B cell is upregulated and plays a role in suppressing pro-inflammatory responses, possibly through IL-10 production, a feature that was not observed in smoking and obese patients.

  7. Liver markers, prevalence of the metabolic syndrome abnormalities and effect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in morbidly obese subjects

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    Ary Serpa Neto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the relations between liver markers (GGT, ALT and AST and the metabolic syndrome (and its components in morbidly obese subjects, and to determine the response of these metabolic factors and hepatic enzymes after weight loss induced by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Methods: This study was carried out at a university hospital, in Santo André (SP, Brazil. We evaluated 140 morbidly obese subjects aged from 18 to 60 years submitted to a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, who were followed for a mean period of 8 months. Patients with a history of heavy drinking, type 1 diabetes, and/or liver disease were excluded. Results: Liver markers, most notably GGT, were strongly associated with metabolic abnormalities, mainly hyperglycemia. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes significantly increased with increasing levels of GGT (highest versus lowest quartile GGT: odds ratio 3.89 [95%CI: 1.07-14.17]. Liver markers significantly decreased 8 months after the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and the reduction of GGT levels were associated with the reduction of glucose levels (Pearson r = 0.286; p = 0.001. Conclusions: Elevated levels of liver markers, principally GGT, in morbidly obese subjects are associated with metabolic abnormalities. In addition to the well-known benefits of bariatric surgery, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, reduced the levels of liver markers to the normal range.

  8. Insulin-like growth factor I, growth hormone, and insulin sensitivity: the effects of a one-year cholecalciferol supplementation in middle-aged overweight and obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamycheva, Elena; Berg, Vivian; Jorde, Rolf

    2013-04-01

    Both altered GH-IGF-I axis and low serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) are linked to measures of metabolic syndrome. Our hypothesis was that there is a relation between GH, IGF-I, and 25(OH)D; and that vitamin D supplementation may have an effect on the levels of GH, IGF-I, and IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio. 318 overweight and obese subjects completed a one-year randomized intervention with either 40,000 or 20,000 IU cholecalciferol per week or placebo. GH, IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and measures of insulin resistance were evaluated at baseline and at the end of study. There was a significant relation between entities of GH-IGF-I axis and insulin resistance. Subjects with severe obesity had significantly lower serum 25(OH)D and had a significant linear decline in IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio with increasing serum 25(OH)D quartiles. Vitamin D status was an independent predictor of GH-IGF-I axis and supplementation with vitamin D decreased IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio in subjects without severe obesity. No corresponding effect of vitamin D supplementation on BMI or insulin resistance was observed. Adverse effects of GH-IGF-I axis on glucose metabolism and the development of metabolic syndrome may be in part associated with the changes in vitamin D status.

  9. Insulin resistance in non-obese subjects is associated with activation of the JNK pathway and impaired insulin signaling in skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh B Masharani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of insulin resistance in the absence of obesity is unknown. In obesity, multiple stress kinases have been identified that impair the insulin signaling pathway via serine phosphorylation of key second messenger proteins. These stress kinases are activated through various mechanisms related to lipid oversupply locally in insulin target tissues and in various adipose depots. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To explore whether specific stress kinases that have been implicated in the insulin resistance of obesity are potentially contributing to insulin resistance in non-obese individuals, twenty healthy, non-obese, normoglycemic subjects identified as insulin sensitive or resistant were studied. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies obtained during euglycemic, hyperinsulinemic clamp were evaluated for insulin signaling and for activation of stress kinase pathways. Total and regional adipose stores and intramyocellular lipids (IMCL were assessed by DXA, MRI and (1H-MRS. In muscle of resistant subjects, phosphorylation of JNK was increased (1.36±0.23 vs. 0.78±0.10 OD units, P<0.05, while there was no evidence for activation of p38 MAPK or IKKβ. IRS-1 serine phosphorylation was increased (1.30±0.09 vs. 0.22±0.03 OD units, P<0.005 while insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation decreased (10.97±0.95 vs. 0.89±0.50 OD units, P<0.005. IMCL levels were twice as high in insulin resistant subjects (3.26±0.48 vs. 1.58±0.35% H(2O peak, P<0.05, who also displayed increased total fat and abdominal fat when compared to insulin sensitive controls. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report demonstrating that insulin resistance in non-obese, normoglycemic subjects is associated with activation of the JNK pathway related to increased IMCL and higher total body and abdominal adipose stores. While JNK activation is consistent with a primary impact of muscle lipid accumulation on metabolic stress, further work is necessary to determine the

  10. Effects of sleeve gastrectomy and medical treatment for obesity on glucagon-like peptide 1 levels and glucose homeostasis in non-diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderas, Juan Patricio; Irribarra, Veronica; Rubio, Lorena; Boza, Camilo; Escalona, Manuel; Liberona, Yessica; Matamala, Andrea; Maiz, Alberto

    2011-07-01

    The effects of medical and surgical treatments for obesity on glucose metabolism and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) levels independent of weight loss remain unclear. This study aims to assess plasma glucose levels, insulin sensitivity and secretion, and GLP-1 levels before and after sleeve gastrectomy (SG) or medical treatment (MED) for obesity. This study is a prospective, controlled, non-randomised study. Two groups of non-diabetic obese patients with similar BMIs, including a SG group (BMI, 35.5 ± 0.9 kg/m(2); n = 6) and a MED group (BMI, 37.7 ± 1.9 kg/m(2); n = 6) and a group of lean subjects (BMI, 21.7 ± 0.7 kg/m(2); n = 8). Plasma glucose, insulin, and total GLP-1 levels at fasting and after the intake of a standard liquid meal at baseline and at 2 months post-intervention. At baseline, total GLP-1 levels were similar, but obese patients had lower insulin sensitivity and higher insulin secretion than lean subjects. At 2 months post-intervention, SG and MED patients achieved similar weight loss (14.4 ± 0.8%, 15.3 ± 0.9%, respectively). Insulin sensitivity increased in SG and MED patients; however, postprandial insulin secretion decreased after MED, but not after SG. The incremental area under the curve of GLP-1 increased after SG (P = 0.04), but not after MED. Weight loss by medical or surgical treatment improved insulin sensitivity. However, only MED corrected the hyperinsulinemic postprandial state associated to obesity. Postprandial GLP-1 levels increased significantly after SG without duodenal exclusion, which may explain why insulin secretion did not decrease following this surgery.

  11. Dairy intake in relation to breast and pubertal development in Chilean girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskins, Audrey J; Pereira, Ana; Quintiliano, Daiana; Shepherd, John A; Uauy, Ricardo; Corvalán, Camila; Michels, Karin B

    2017-05-01

    Background: Frequent dairy consumption in childhood has been related to higher growth-hormone concentrations that may affect mammary gland and pubertal development.Objective: We evaluated the relation of dairy intake to breast composition at Tanner stage 4 and age at menarche.Design: A total of 515 Chilean girls are included in the Growth and Obesity Cohort Study. The subjects have been followed longitudinally since they were 3-4 y old (from 2006 to the present). Starting in 2013, diet was assessed every 6 mo via a 24-h recall. The breast fibroglandular volume (FGV) was measured with the use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at Tanner stage 4. The date of menarche was reported every 6 mo. Our analysis included 290 girls with data on prospective diet and breast composition and 324 girls with data on prospective diet and age at menarche.Results: The mean ± SD breast FGV and percentage of fibroglandular volume (%FGV) (i.e., FGV divided by total breast volume times 100) at Tanner stage 4 was 81.7 ± 32.2 cm(3) and 42.0% ± 16.7%, respectively. Only sweetened, artificially flavored milk-based drinks were associated with the %FGV with girls who consumed >125 g/d having a %FGV that was 4.5% (95% CI: 0.9%, 8.1%) higher than that of girls who consumed none (P-trend = 0.007). Yogurt intake was associated with a lower FGV. Specifically, girls who consumed >125 g yogurt/d had -10.2 cm(3) (95% CI: -20.2, -0.3 cm(3)) less FGV than did girls who consumed no yogurt (P-trend = 0.03). The majority (90.7%) of girls in our cohort attained menarche before the data analyses with a mean ± SD age at menarche of 11.9 ± 0.7 y. In multivariable models, low-fat dairy, low-fat milk, and yogurt intakes were associated with a later age at menarche. In particular, girls who consumed >125 g yogurt/d had menarche, on average, 4.6 mo (95% CI: 1.9, 7.4 mo) later than girls who consumed no yogurt (P-trend = 0.01).Conclusion: More-frequent consumption of sweetened, artificially-flavored milk

  12. Clinical implications of gait analysis in the rehabilitation of adult patients with "Prader-Willi" Syndrome: a cross-sectional comparative study ("Prader-Willi" Syndrome vs matched obese patients and healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baccalaro Gabriele

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Being severely overweight is a distinctive clinical feature of Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS. PWS is a complex multisystem disorder, representing the most common form of genetic obesity. The aim of this study was the analysis of the gait pattern of adult subjects with PWS by using three-Dimensional Gait Analysis. The results were compared with those obtained in a group of obese patients and in a group of healthy subjects. Methods Cross-sectional, comparative study: 19 patients with PWS (11 males and 8 females, age: 18–40 years, BMI: 29.3–50.3 kg/m2; 14 obese matched patients (5 males and 9 females, age: 18–40 years, BMI: 34.3–45.2 kg/m2; 20 healthy subjects (10 males and 10 females, age: 21–41 years, BMI: 19.3–25.4 kg/m2. Kinematic and kinetic parameters during walking were assessed by an optoelectronic system and two force platforms. Results PWS adult patients walked slower, had a shorter stride length, a lower cadence and a longer stance phase compared with both matched obese, and healthy subjects. Obese matched patients showed spatio-temporal parameters significantly different from healthy subjects. Furthermore, Range Of Motion (ROM at knee and ankle, and plantaflexor activity of PWS patients were significantly different between obese and healthy subjects. Obese subjects revealed kinematic and kinetic data similar to healthy subjects. Conclusion PWS subjects had a gait pattern significantly different from obese patients. Despite that, both groups had a similar BMI. We suggest that PWS gait abnormalities may be related to abnormalities in the development of motor skills in childhood, due to precocious obesity. A tailored rehabilitation program in early childhood of PWS patients could prevent gait pattern changes.

  13. Pubertal and adult windows of susceptibility to a high animal fat diet in Trp53-null mammary tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yirong; Aupperlee, Mark D; Zhao, Yong; Tan, Ying Siow; Kirk, Erin L; Sun, Xuezheng; Troester, Melissa A; Schwartz, Richard C; Haslam, Sandra Z

    2016-12-13

    Premenopausal breast cancer is associated with increased animal fat consumption among normal weight, but not overweight women (Farvid et al., 2014). Our previous findings in obesity-resistant BALB/c mice similarly showed promotion of carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis by a diet high in saturated animal fat (HFD). This effect was specific to pubertal versus adult HFD. This study identifies the effects of HFD during puberty versus adulthood in Trp53-null transplant BALB/c mice and investigates its mechanism of enhancing tumorigenesis. Either pubertal or adult HFD is sufficient to increase incidence of Trp53-null mammary tumors. Puberty-restricted HFD exposure promoted tumor cell proliferation, increased angiogenesis, and increased recruitment of total and M2 macrophages in epithelial tumors. Adult-restricted exposure to HFD similarly increased proliferation, angiogenesis, recruitment of total and M2 macrophages, and additionally reduced apoptosis. Adult HFD also increased incidence of spindle cell carcinomas resembling claudin-low breast cancer, and thus adult HFD in the Trp53-null transplantation system may be a useful model for human claudin low breast cancer. Importantly, these results on Trp53-null and our prior studies on DMBA-induced mammary tumorigenesis demonstrate a pubertal window of susceptibility to the promotional effects of HFD, indicating the potential of early life dietary intervention to reduce breast cancer risk.

  14. Pubertal development in adolescents with menstrual disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Roteta Dorado

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Abnormal uterine bleeding is the presence of an excessive and prolonged menstrual bleeding over several consecutive cycles. It is one of the first complaints in pediatric gynecology and is the most common cause dysfunctional uterine bleeding. Objective: To characterize adolescents with menstrual disorders attending gynecology clinic in child and adolescent onset of puberty. Method: A descriptive, longitudinal and prospective. Universe: 88 adolescents seen at the gynecology children and youth in the province of Cienfuegos with menstrual disorders in 2008. Sample: 64 patients with rhythm disturbances of the menstrual cycle and excessive bleeding. Procedure: During the first consultation was found in the following medical records: age, onset of puberty, age at menarche, breast development and pubic hair development. The data were processed by SPSS program and expressed as numbers and percentages. Results: 43.8% of the adolescents studied were between 14 and 16 years, 29.7% began puberty at age 9, 31.3% had their menarche at age 11, 46, 87% were in Tanner stage IV of breast development and 56.25% in Tanner stage IV for pubic hair. Conclusion: There were no alterations in pubertal development in adolescents with menstrual disorders studied.

  15. Pubertal assessment: targeted educational intervention for pediatric trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhar, Aditi; Nagarajan, Sairaman; Ravichandran, Yagnaram; Perez-Colon, Sheila

    2017-08-18

    Background Timely and periodic pubertal assessment in children is vital to identify puberty related disorders. Pediatricians need to have working knowledge of puberty time and tempo. Pediatric residency is an important platform to acquire physical examination skills including pubertal assessment. Objective An educational intervention for teaching pubertal assessment was piloted on pediatric residents at our institution. Methods The intervention comprised of interactive lecture series, ID badge size Tanner stage cards and Tanner posters placed in residents' continuity clinics. Pre-intervention, post-intervention and 3 months post-intervention surveys for participating trainees were administered to determine the effectiveness of the intervention. Attitudes, practices, knowledge scores, and barriers to Tanner staging conduct were analyzed. Results Forty-three residents participated in the intervention. Knowledge scores of PGY1 (5.95 ± 1.6 vs. 7.47 ± 1.4, p < 0.01) improved right after the intervention, as did self-reported clinical practices of all trainees 3 months post- intervention with regards to conducting external genital examination and performing pubertal assessment. Confidence levels of pediatric trainees in conducting pubertal assessment and comfort levels in assessing the need for endocrine referral based on abnormal Tanner staging improved after the intervention, although the effect was not statistically significant. Conclusion Our intervention is a worthwhile technique for teaching pubertal assessment to residents as it is simple to conduct, easily reproducible, provides baseline knowledge needed for recognition of normal pubertal development and puberty related conditions, and instills confidence in residents.

  16. Disability, Physical Inactivity, and Impaired Health-Related Quality of Life Are Not Different in Metabolically Healthy vs. Unhealthy Obese Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo M. Donini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity represents a major health hazard, affecting morbidity, psychological status, physical functionality, quality of life, and mortality. The aim of the present study was to explore the differences between metabolically healthy (MHO and metabolically unhealthy (MUO obese subjects with regard to physical activity, disability, and health-related quality of life (HR-QoL. Methods: All subjects underwent a multidimensional evaluation, encompassing the assessment of body composition, metabolic biomarkers and inflammation, physical activity level (IPAQ questionnaire, disability (TSD-OC test, and HR-QoL (SF-36 questionnaire. MHO and MUO were defined based on the absence or the presence of the metabolic syndrome, respectively. Results: 253 subjects were included (54 men and 199 women; age: 51.7 ± 12.8 vs. 50.3 ± 11.7 years, p = 0.46; BMI: 38.1 ± 5.7 vs. 38.9 ± 6.7 kg/m2, p = 0.37. No significant difference was observed in body composition. There was no difference between MHO and MUO considering inflammation (hs-CRP: 6517.1 ± 11,409.9 vs. 5294.1 ± 5612.2 g/L; p = 0.37, physical inactivity (IPAQ score below 3000 METs-min/week in 77.6% of MHO vs. 80% of MUO subjects; p = 0.36, obesity-related disability (TSD-OC score > 33%, indicating a high level of obesity-related disability, in 20.2% of MHO vs. 26.5% of MUO subjects; p = 0.28, and the HR-QoL (SF-36 total score: 60 ± 20.8 vs. 62.8 ± 18.2, p = 0.27. Discussion and Conclusion: The metabolic comorbidity and the impairment of functional ability and psycho-social functioning may have a different timing in the natural history of obesity. Alterations in the physical activity level and mobility disabilities may precede the onset of metabolic abnormalities. (Trial registration 2369 prot 166/12—registered 23 February 2012; Amendment 223/14—registered 13 February 2014.

  17. Effects of a leucine and pyridoxine-containing nutraceutical on body weight and composition in obese subjects

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    Zemel MB

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Michael B Zemel,1,2 Antje Bruckbauer11NuSirt Sciences Inc, 2Nutrition Department, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USABackground: We recently demonstrated leucine to modulate energy partitioning between adipose tissue and muscle. Further, leucine exhibits a synergy with B6, resulting in reduced adipocyte lipid storage coupled with increased muscle fat oxidation. Accordingly, a nutraceutical (NuShape™ containing 2.25 g leucine and 30 mg B6 increased fat oxidation by > 30 g/day in a 28-day randomized controlled trial. The present study evaluated the long-term efficacy of this combination in modulating body weight and composition.Methods: Two 24-week, placebo-controlled, randomized trials, one with weight maintenance (n = 20 and one hypocaloric (-500 kcal/day; n = 24, were conducted using the nutraceutical Nushape in obese subjects.Results: The supplement resulted in fat loss in the maintenance study (-1.12 ± 0.36 and -1.82 ± 0.70 kg at 12 and 24 weeks, P < 0.01 versus placebo while no change was found in the placebo group. In the hypocaloric study, the supplement group lost up to twice as much weight (6.18 ± 1.02 versus 3.40 ± 0.81 kg at 12 weeks and 8.15 ± 1.33 versus 5.25 ± 1.13 kg at 24 weeks, P < 0.01 and fat (4.96 ± 0.61 versus 2.31 ± 0.53 kg at 12 weeks and 7.00 ± 0.95 versus 4.22 ± 0.74 kg at 24 weeks, P < 0.01 than the placebo group.Conclusion: This nutraceutical combination results in significant fat loss in the absence of caloric restriction and markedly enhances weight and fat loss by 50%–80% over a 24-week period.Keywords: leucine, vitamin B6, pyridoxine, fat loss, weight loss, caloric restriction, adiposity, body composition

  18. Growth hormone signaling in muscle and adipose tissue of obese human subjects: associations with measures of body composition and interaction with resveratrol treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, Berthil F; Poulsen, Morten M; Escande, Carlos; Pedersen, Steen B; Møller, Niels; Chini, Eduardo N; Jessen, Niels; Jørgensen, Jens O L

    2014-12-01

    Growth hormone (GH) secretion is reduced in obesity, despite normal serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) levels, but the association between obesity and the GH signaling is unknown. Furthermore, SIRT1, an nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent protein deacetylase, reduces hepatic IGF-1 production in mice via blunting of GH-induced STAT5 signaling. To study GH signaling in muscle and fat in obese subjects and the interaction with concomitant administration of the putative SIRT1 activator resveratrol, and to assess the effects of inhibiting or knocking down SIRT1 on GH regulated genes in vitro. Twenty-four obese males were examined in a randomized, double blinded, parallel-group study with resveratrol or placebo treatment for 5 weeks followed by a GH bolus. Muscle and fat biopsies were collected before and after GH. Body composition was assessed by DEXA and MRI. (1) Effect of body composition and age on GH-stimulated STAT5b phosphorylation and IGF-1, SOCS2, and CISH mRNA in muscle and fat. (2) The impact of resveratrol treatment on GH activity. (3) Impact of inhibiting or knocking down SIRT1 on effects of GH in vitro. Significant GH-induced STAT5b phosphorylation in muscle and fat in obese subjects was recorded together with increased CISH and SOCS2 mRNA. GH-induced STAT5b phosphorylation in muscle correlated positively with age [r = 0.53, p < 0.01], but not with body composition. Resveratrol administration had no impact on body composition, serum IGF-1, or GH signaling in vivo, and SIRT1 knock down or inhibition did not affect GH signaling in vitro. (1) GH induced STAT5b phosphorylation is detectable in muscle and fat in adult males with simple obesity, but is not determined by body composition. (2) Resveratrol supplementation does not impact circulating IGF-1 levels or GH signaling in human muscle and fat. (3) Our data speak against a major impact of SIRT1on GH action in human subjects.

  19. Effects of short-term caloric restriction on circulating free IGF-I, acid-labile subunit, IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs)-1-4, and IGFBPs-1-3 protease activity in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael Højby; Juul, Anders; Kjems, Lise Lund

    2006-01-01

    Decreased levels of GH and total IGF-I have been reported in obesity. It has been hypothesized that increased free (biologically active) IGF-I levels generated from IGF-binding protein (IGFBP) protease activity could be the mechanism for the low GH release in dieting obese subjects. However, no p...... a short-term very low-calorie diet (VLCD)....

  20. Serum calcium level is related to both intima-media thickness and carotid atherosclerosis: a neglect risk factor in obese/overweight subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montalcini Tiziana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental studies suggested that high serum calcium may be important in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. Since calcium seems to affect specifically the cerebrovascular district, aim of this study was to determine the relation between serum calcium levels, within normal range, and subclinical atherosclerosis in the carotid arteries, in a population of obese/overweight subjects. Methods In our retrospective study we included 472 subjects (59% female with body mass index equal to or more than 25 kg/m2. They underwent a physical examination, a biochemical assessment (including calcium evaluation and a B-mode ultrasonography of the extracranial carotid arteries to detect carotid atherosclerosis presence and to measure intima-media thickness. Results Mean age of the population was 50 ±12 years. Prevalence of the Carotid atherosclerosis was 40%. Mean carotid intima-media thickness was 0,66 ± 0,18 mm. The univariate and multivariate analysis showed an association between calcium and carotid intima-media thickness (p = 0,035. We divided the population in serum calcium tertiles. We found an higher carotid atherosclerosis prevalence in the III tertile in comparison to that of the I tertile (p = 0,039. Conclusions In this study we found a positive relation between serum calcium levels, within normal range, and subclinical atherosclerosis in the carotid arteries, in a population of obese/overweight subjects. It is important to consider the impact of the serum calcium levels in the overall risk assessment of patients, at least in obese subjects.

  1. Dioxin Exposure and Age of Pubertal Onset among Russian Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mary M.; Williams, Paige L.; Sergeyev, Oleg; Burns, Jane S.; Patterson, Donald G.; Turner, Wayman E.; Needham, Larry L.; Altshul, Larisa; Revich, Boris; Hauser, Russ

    2011-01-01

    Background: Animal data demonstrate associations of dioxin, furan, and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposures with altered male gonadal maturation. It is unclear whether these associations apply to human populations. Objectives: We investigated the association of dioxins, furans, PCBs, and corresponding toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentrations with pubertal onset among boys in a dioxin-contaminated region. Methods: Between 2003 and 2005, 499 boys 8–9 years of age were enrolled in a longitudinal study in Chapaevsk, Russia. Pubertal onset [stage 2 or higher for genitalia (G2+) or testicular volume (TV) > 3 mL] was assessed annually between ages 8 and 12 years. Serum levels at enrollment were analyzed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. We used Cox proportional hazards models to assess age at pubertal onset as a function of exposure adjusted for potential confounders. We conducted sensitivity analyses excluding boys with pubertal onset at enrollment. Results: The median (range) total serum TEQ concentration was 21 (4–175) pg/g lipid, approximately three times higher than values in European children. At enrollment, boys were generally healthy and normal weight (mean body mass index, 15.9 kg/m2), with 30% having entered puberty by G2+ and 14% by TV criteria. Higher dioxin TEQs were associated with later pubertal onset by TV (hazard ratio = 0.68, 95% confidence interval, 0.49–0.95 for the highest compared with the lowest quartile). Similar associations were observed for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and dioxin concentrations for TV but not G2+. Results were robust to sensitivity analyses. Conclusions: Findings support an association of higher peripubertal serum dioxin TEQs and concentrations with later male pubertal onset reflected in delayed testicular maturation. PMID:21527364

  2. Perception regarding pubertal changes among rural adolescent boys of Haryana: A school based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Chayal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescence is a transition phase through which a child matures into an adult. The physical changes in the human body are from infant to child to adolescence to adult to old age.  All phases of life behave like a coin with both good and bad facets attached to each phase of life. Aims & Objectives:  1. To study perception and awareness regarding pubertal changes among school going adolescent boys. 2. To study the association between education and perceived pubertal problems among study subjects. Material & Methods: The study was conducted among male students of senior secondary schools of community development block Beri in one year. The study universe comprised of students in middle and late adolescence (aged 14-18 years studying in 9th to 12th classes of the senior secondary schools in the area. A total of 1000 male students were selected from these schools which were more than the required sample size of 891. Results: The study found that 42.66% students and a half (50% of students of class 9th & 10th and class 11th & 12th respectively considered that pubertal changes as a normal phenomenon. The majority of students admitted practicing masturbation and felt shy and guilty for practicing masturbation, also students felt fatigued after night emission. Conclusions: The study concludes that adolescent’s sexuality which often causes controversy and concern among adults is least discussed with them during adolescence. The reasons for this may be many, including moral grounds or because of concomitant health risks and threats to wellbeing.

  3. Genome-wide DNA methylation pattern in visceral adipose tissue differentiates insulin-resistant from insulin-sensitive obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crujeiras, A B; Diaz-Lagares, A; Moreno-Navarrete, J M; Sandoval, J; Hervas, D; Gomez, A; Ricart, W; Casanueva, F F; Esteller, M; Fernandez-Real, J M

    2016-12-01

    Elucidating the potential mechanisms involved in the detrimental effect of excess body weight on insulin action is an important priority in counteracting obesity-associated diseases. The present study aimed to disentangle the epigenetic basis of insulin resistance by performing a genome-wide epigenetic analysis in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) from morbidly obese patients depending on the insulin sensitivity evaluated by the clamp technique. The global human methylome screening performed in VAT from 7 insulin-resistant (IR) and 5 insulin-sensitive (IS) morbidly obese patients (discovery cohort) analyzed using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array identified 982 CpG sites able to perfectly separate the IR and IS samples. The identified sites represented 538 unique genes, 10% of which were diabetes-associated genes. The current work identified novel IR-related genes epigenetically regulated in VAT, such as COL9A1, COL11A2, CD44, MUC4, ADAM2, IGF2BP1, GATA4, TET1, ZNF714, ADCY9, TBX5, and HDACM. The gene with the largest methylation fold-change and mapped by 5 differentially methylated CpG sites located in island/shore and promoter region was ZNF714. This gene presented lower methylation levels in IR than in IS patients in association with increased transcription levels, as further reflected in a validation cohort (n = 24; 11 IR and 13 IS). This study reveals, for the first time, a potential epigenetic regulation involved in the dysregulation of VAT that could predispose patients to insulin resistance and future type 2 diabetes in morbid obesity, providing a potential therapeutic target and biomarkers for counteracting this process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The “Lipid Accumulation Product” Is Associated with 2-Hour Postload Glucose Outcomes in Overweight/Obese Subjects with Nondiabetic Fasting Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavazos, Alexis Elias; Cereda, Emanuele; Ermetici, Federica; Caccialanza, Riccardo; Briganti, Silvia; Rondanelli, Mariangela; Morricone, Lelio

    2015-01-01

    “Lipid accumulation product” (LAP) is a continuous variable based on waist circumference and triglyceride concentration previously associated with insulin resistance. We investigated the accuracy of LAP in identifying oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) abnormalities and compared it to the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in a population of overweight/obese outpatients presenting with nondiabetic fasting glucose. We studied 381 (male: 23%) adult (age: 18–70 years) overweight/obese Caucasians (body mass index: 36.9 ± 5.4 Kg/m2) having fasting plasma glucose < 7.0 mmol/L. OGTT was used to diagnose unknown glucose tolerance abnormalities: impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2-DM). According to OGTT 92, subjects had an IGT and 33 were diagnosed T2-DM. Logistic regression analysis detected a significant association for both LAP and HOMA-IR with single (IGT and T2-DM) and composite (IGT + T2-DM) abnormal glucose tolerance conditions. However, while the association with diabetes was similar between LAP and HOMA-IR, the relationship with IGT and composite outcomes by models including LAP was significantly superior to those including HOMA-IR (P = 0.006 and P = 0.007, resp.). LAP seems to be an accurate index, performing better than HOMA-IR, for identifying 2-hour postload OGTT outcomes in overweight/obese patients with nondiabetic fasting glucose. PMID:25792981

  5. The “Lipid Accumulation Product” Is Associated with 2-Hour Postload Glucose Outcomes in Overweight/Obese Subjects with Nondiabetic Fasting Glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Elias Malavazos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available “Lipid accumulation product” (LAP is a continuous variable based on waist circumference and triglyceride concentration previously associated with insulin resistance. We investigated the accuracy of LAP in identifying oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT abnormalities and compared it to the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR in a population of overweight/obese outpatients presenting with nondiabetic fasting glucose. We studied 381 (male: 23% adult (age: 18–70 years overweight/obese Caucasians (body mass index: 36.9 ± 5.4 Kg/m2 having fasting plasma glucose < 7.0 mmol/L. OGTT was used to diagnose unknown glucose tolerance abnormalities: impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2-DM. According to OGTT 92, subjects had an IGT and 33 were diagnosed T2-DM. Logistic regression analysis detected a significant association for both LAP and HOMA-IR with single (IGT and T2-DM and composite (IGT + T2-DM abnormal glucose tolerance conditions. However, while the association with diabetes was similar between LAP and HOMA-IR, the relationship with IGT and composite outcomes by models including LAP was significantly superior to those including HOMA-IR (P=0.006 and P=0.007, resp.. LAP seems to be an accurate index, performing better than HOMA-IR, for identifying 2-hour postload OGTT outcomes in overweight/obese patients with nondiabetic fasting glucose.

  6. Adherence to Mediterranean diet and close dietetic supervision increase total dietary antioxidant intake and plasma antioxidant capacity in subjects with abdominal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolomvotsou, Anastasia I; Rallidis, Loukianos S; Mountzouris, Konstantinos C; Lekakis, John; Koutelidakis, Antonis; Efstathiou, Stamatis; Nana-Anastasiou, Maria; Zampelas, Antonis

    2013-02-01

    To determine the effect of Mediterranean-type diet and close dietetic supervision on dietary antioxidant intake and plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in patients with abdominal obesity. Ninety subjects with abdominal obesity, 46 in intervention group, 44 in control group, participated in a 2-month, randomized, parallel dietary intervention. All participants were counseled on Greek Mediterranean diet. The intervention group was under close dietetic supervision, followed a specific relevant daily and weekly food plan consuming antioxidant-rich foods and food products. Total dietary antioxidant intake was calculated from the volunteers' food diaries, and plasma TAC using plasma ORAC assay and plasma ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, both at baseline and at 2 months. Following the 2-month period, total dietary antioxidant intake was increased in the intervention group compared to the control group (P = 0.000). In addition, increased intake of total fat, due to higher consumption of monounsaturated fatty acids, as well as increased intakes of dietary fiber, vitamin C and alcohol was also observed in the intervention group compared to the control group (P dietetic supervision, can increase total dietary antioxidant intake and plasma TAC in patients with abdominal obesity.

  7. Bromocriptine improves glycaemic control and serum lipid profile in obese Type 2 diabetic subjects: a new approach in the treatment of diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cincotta; Meier; Cincotta Jr

    1999-10-01

    Bromocriptine, a potent dopamine D(2) receptor agonist, has been shown to reduce insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and hyperlipidaemia in both numerous animal studies and in Phase II studies. Bromocriptine has been used worldwide for over 20 years to treat Parkinson's disease, macroprolactinoma and other disorders; it has been found to be generally safe. We therefore investigated the possible beneficial effects of Ergoset(R) (Ergo Science Corp.), a new quick release formulation of bromocriptine, on glycaemic control and serum lipid profile in obese Type 2 diabetic subjects in two large Phase III studies. A large, randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled study was conducted in which Ergoset was given once daily at 8 am. (4.8 mg maximum dose) for 24 weeks as adjunctive therapy to sulphonylurea (485 subjects) to obese Type 2 diabetics held on a weight- maintaining diet. Treatment efficacy parameters included change from baseline in glycated haemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)), fasting and post-prandial serum glucose, insulin, triglyceride and free fatty acid levels. Baseline glycated haemoglobin, fasting glucose, insulin, triglyceride and free fatty acid levels did not differ between treatment groups. and on average were 9.4 +/- 0.05%, 222 +/- 2 mg/dl, 24 +/- 1 µU/ml, 248 +/- 11 mg/dl, and 850 +/- 32 µEq/l, respectively. A similarly designed study of Ergoset as monotherapy in Type 2 diabetics (154 subjects) with similar baseline clinical characteristics was conducted. Addition of Ergoset treatment to sulphonylurea reduced percent glycated HbA(1c) by 0.55 (P fasting and post-prandial glucose by 23 and 26 mg/dl (P fasting and post-prandial triglycerides by 72 and 63 mg/dl (P fasting and post-prandial free fatty acids by 150 and 165 µEq/l (P < 0.05), relative to placebo. Twelve percent of all Ergoset subjects, compared to 3% of placebo subjects, withdrew from the study due to adverse events. The most common events causing withdrawal were nausea, dizziness, asthenia

  8. Effects of sleeve gastrectomy and rs9930506 FTO variants on angiopoietin/Tie-2 system in fat expansion and M1 macrophages recruitment in morbidly obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Vega, Nicté; Jordán, Benjamín; Pérez-Luque, Elva Leticia; Parra-Laporte, Luis; Garnelo, Serafín; Malacara, Juan Manuel

    2016-12-01

    Angiogenesis in inflammation are hallmarks for adipose tissue expansion in obesity. The role of angiopoietin/Tie-2 system in adipose tissue expansion and immune cell recruitment is unclear. We studied the effect of sleeve gastrectomy and the influence of FTO rs9930506 polymorphism on Tie-2, angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2 expression in morbid obesity. Fifteen morbidly obese subjects (4 men and 11 women) aged 24-55 years were followed-up 3 and 6 months after sleeve gastrectomy. Serum sTie-2, angiopoietin-1, angiopoietin-2, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α concentrations were determined by ELISA. Tie-2 and its ligands in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue were localized by immunohistochemistry. Tie-2 expression was measured by flow cytometry in circulating monocytes and infiltrated macrophages. Comparisons before and after sleeve gastrectomy were carried out using ANOVA for repeated measures. rs9930506FTO genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP. Circulating sTie-2 and angiopoietin-2 were higher before sleeve gastrectomy. Tie-2 and angiopoietin-2 mRNA levels were higher in subcutaneous adipose tissue than visceral and both decreased after surgery. Monocytes and infiltrated macrophages showed a pro-inflammatory phenotype, with increased Tie-2 expression that decreased 3 and 6 months after sleeve gastrectomy. Baseline sTie-2 correlated inversely with adiponectin levels. At baseline the rs9930506FTO AG ó GG genotypes carriers had more 34 kg than genotype carriers of rs9930506 AA. Weight and body mass index decreased at 6 months. We found that angiopoietin/Tie-2 system is mainly expressed in subcutaneous adipose tissue, contributing to expandability, fat accumulation, and monocytes attachment in obesity. Bariatric surgery favorably modifies the pro-angiogenic profile, allowed a reduced angiogenic expression in the circulation and adipose tissue.

  9. Early Pubertal Timing and Girls' Problem Behavior: Integrating Two Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stattin, Hakan; Kerr, Margaret; Skoog, Therese

    2011-01-01

    Girls' early pubertal timing has been linked in many studies to behavioral problems such as delinquency and substance use. The theoretical explanations for these links have often involved the girls' peer relationships, but contexts have also been considered important in some explanations. By integrating two theoretical models, the…

  10. Serum inhibin B in healthy pubertal and adolescent boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Juul, A; Petersen, J H;

    1997-01-01

    Inhibin B levels were measured in serum from 400 healthy Danish prepubertal, pubertal, and adolescent males, aged 6-20 yr, in a cross-sectional study using a recently developed immunoassay that is specific for inhibin B, the physiologically important inhibin form in men. In addition, serum levels...

  11. Validity of self-assessment of pubertal maturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anna; Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Tefre de Renzy-Martin, Katrine;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Studies of adolescents often use self-assessment of pubertal maturation, the reliability of which has shown conflicting results. We aimed to examine the reliability of child and parent assessments of healthy boys and girls. METHODS: A total of 898 children (418 girls, 480...

  12. Increased abundance of insulin/insulin-like growth factor-I hybrid receptors in skeletal muscle of obese subjects is correlated with in vivo insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federici, M; Porzio, O; Lauro, D; Borboni, P; Giovannone, B; Zucaro, L; Hribal, M L; Sesti, G

    1998-08-01

    We reported that in noninsulin-dependent diabetes melitus (NIDDM) patients expression of insulin/insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) hybrid receptors is increased in insulin target tissues. Whether this is a defect associated with NIDDM or represents a generalized abnormality associated with insulin resistant states is still unsettled. To address this, we applied a microwell-based immunoassay to measure abundance of insulin receptors, type 1 IGF receptors, and hybrid receptors in muscle of eight normal and eight obese subjects. Maximal insulin binding to insulin receptors was lower in obese than in control subjects (B/T = 1.8 +/- 0.20 and 2.6 +/- 0.30; P < 0.03, respectively) and was negatively correlated with insulinemia (r = -0.60; P < 0.01). Maximal IGF-I binding to type 1 IGF receptors was higher in obese than in controls (B/T = 1.9 +/- 0.20 and 0.86 +/- 0.10; P < 0.0001, respectively) and was negatively correlated with plasma IGF-I levels (r = -0.69; P < 0.003). Hybrid receptor abundance was higher in obese than in normal subjects (B/T = 1.21 +/- 0.14 and 0.44 +/- 0.06; P < 0.0003, respectively) and was negatively correlated with insulin binding (r = -0.60; P < 0.01) and positively correlated with IGF-I binding (r = 0.92; P < 0.0001). Increased abundance of hybrids was correlated with insulinemia (r = 0.70; P < 0.002) and body mass index (r = 0.71; P < 0.0019), whereas it was negatively correlated with in vivo insulin sensitivity measured by ITT (r = -0.67; P < 0.016). These results indicate that downregulation of insulin receptors or upregulation of type 1 IGF receptors because of changes in plasma insulin and IGF-I levels may result in modifications in hybrid receptor abundance.

  13. MRI characterization of brown adipose tissue in obese and normal-weight children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Jie; Rigsby, Cynthia K.; Shore, Richard M. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, 225 E. Chicago Ave., Box 9, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Schoeneman, Samantha E. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, 225 E. Chicago Ave., Box 9, Chicago, IL (United States); Zhang, Huiyuan [John H. Stroger, Jr. Hospital of Cook County, Collaborative Research Unit, Chicago, IL (United States); Kwon, Soyang [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Stanley Manne Children' s Research Institute, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Pediatrics, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Josefson, Jami L. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Division of Endocrinology, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Pediatrics, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is identified in mammals as an adaptive thermogenic organ for modulation of energy expenditure and heat generation. Human BAT may be primarily composed of brown-in-white (BRITE) adipocytes and stimulation of BRITE may serve as a potential target for obesity interventions. Current imaging studies of BAT detection and characterization have been mainly limited to PET/CT. MRI is an emerging application for BAT characterization in healthy children. To exploit Dixon and diffusion-weighted MRI methods to characterize cervical-supraclavicular BAT/BRITE properties in normal-weight and obese children while accounting for pubertal status. Twenty-eight healthy children (9-15 years old) with a normal or obese body mass index participated. MRI exams were performed to characterize supraclavicular adipose tissues by measuring tissue fat percentage, T2*, tissue water mobility, and microvasculature properties. We used multivariate linear regression models to compare tissue properties between normal-weight and obese groups while accounting for pubertal status. MRI measurements of BAT/BRITE tissues in obese children showed higher fat percentage (P < 0.0001), higher T2* (P < 0.0001), and lower diffusion coefficient (P = 0.015) compared with normal-weight children. Pubertal status was a significant covariate for the T2* measurement, with higher T2* (P = 0.0087) in pubertal children compared to prepubertal children. Perfusion measurements varied by pubertal status. Compared to normal-weight children, obese prepubertal children had lower perfusion fraction (P = 0.003) and pseudo-perfusion coefficient (P = 0.048); however, obese pubertal children had higher perfusion fraction (P = 0.02) and pseudo-perfusion coefficient (P = 0.028). This study utilized chemical-shift Dixon MRI and diffusion-weighted MRI methods to characterize supraclavicular BAT/BRITE tissue properties. The multi-parametric evaluation revealed evidence of morphological differences in brown

  14. The blunted effect of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue in obese subjects is partly reversed by weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmar, M; Arngrim, N; Simonsen, L; Asmar, A; Nordby, P; Holst, J J; Bülow, J

    2016-05-02

    Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) appears to have impaired effect on subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue metabolism in obese subjects. The aim of the present study was to examine whether weight loss may reverse the impaired effect of GIP on subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue in obese subjects. Five obese males participated in a 12-week weight loss program, which consisted of caloric restriction (800 Cal day(-)(1)) followed by 4 weeks of weight-maintenance diet. Before and after weight loss, subcutaneous adipose tissue lipid metabolism was studied by conducting regional measurements of arterio-venous plasma concentrations of metabolites and blood flow (adipose tissue blood flow, ATBF) across a segment of the abdominal adipose tissue in the fasting state and during GIP infusion (1.5 pmol kg(-)(1 )min(-)(1)) in combination with a hyperinsulinemic-hyperglycemic clamp. After weight loss (7.5±0.8 kg), glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity increased significantly as expected. No significant differences were seen in basal ATBF before (1.3±0.4 ml min(-1) 100 g tissue(-1)) and after weight loss (2.1±0.4 ml min(-1) 100 g tissue)(-1); however, a tendency to increase was seen. After weight loss, GIP infusion increased ATBF significantly (3.2±0.1 ml min(-1) 100 g tissue(-1)) whereas there was no increase before weight loss. Triacylglycerol (TAG) uptake did not change after weight loss. Baseline free fatty acid (FFA) and glycerol output increased significantly after weight loss, Pafter weight loss. Weight loss increased glucose uptake and decreased FFA/glycerol ratio during the clamp period, Pweight loss, induced by calorie restriction, improves the blunted effect of GIP on subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue metabolism.

  15. Effect of Ezetimibe on Hepatic Fat, Inflammatory Markers, and Apolipoprotein B-100 Kinetics in Insulin-Resistant Obese Subjects on a Weight Loss Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Dick C.; Watts, Gerald F.; Gan, Seng Khee; Ooi, Esther M.M.; Barrett, P. Hugh R.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is highly prevalent in obese and type 2 diabetic individuals and is strongly associated with dyslipidemia and inflammation. Weight loss and/or pharmacotherapy are commonly used to correct these abnormalities. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We performed a 16-week intervention trial of a hypocaloric, low-fat diet plus 10 mg/day ezetimibe (n = 15) versus a hypocaloric, low-fat diet alone (n = 10) on intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) content, plasma high sensitivity–C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), adipocytokines, and fetuin-A concentrations and apolipoprotein (apo)B-100 kinetics in obese subjects. ApoB-100 metabolism was assessed using stable isotope tracer kinetics and compartmental modeling; liver and abdominal fat contents were determined by magnetic resonance techniques. RESULTS Both weight loss and ezetimibe plus weight loss significantly (all P triglycerides, VLDL–apoB-100, apoC-III, fetuin-A, and retinol-binding protein-4 and increased plasma adiponectin concentrations. Compared with weight loss alone, ezetimibe plus weight loss significantly (all P < 0.05) decreased IHTG content (−18%), plasma hs-CRP (−53%), interleukin-6 (−24%), LDL cholesterol (−18%), campesterol (−59%), and apoB-100 (−14%) levels, with a significant increase in plasma lathosterol concentrations (+43%). The LDL–apoB-100 concentration also significantly fell with ezetimibe plus weight loss (−12%), chiefly owing to an increase in the corresponding fractional catabolic rate (+29%). The VLDL–apoB-100 secretion rate fell with both interventions, with no significant independent effect of ezetimibe. CONCLUSIONS Addition of ezetimibe to a moderate weight loss diet in obese subjects can significantly improve hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and LDL–apoB-100 metabolism. PMID:20185740

  16. Post-exercise heart rate recovery in healthy, obeses, and COPD subjects: relationships with blood lactic acid and PaO2 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Abdoulaye; Delliaux, Stephane; Bregeon, Fabienne; Levy, Samuel; Jammes, Yves

    2009-01-01

    Because blood acidosis and arterial oxygenation (PaO(2)) play key roles in the chemoreflex control of cardiac activity, we hypothesized that heart rate (HR) decay rate after maximal exercise may be linked to post-exercise increase in blood lactate (LA) level and/or the resting PaO(2). Twenty healthy subjects and thirty five patients at risks of cardiovascular diseases (20 obeses; 15 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, COPD) performed a maximal cycling exercise. During the recovery period, HR was continuously measured for consecutive 10-s epochs allowing to compute linear or second order polynomial equations and to calculate every minute HR variations compared to peak HR value (DeltaHR). PaO(2) was measured at rest and post-exercise maximal LA level was determined. A second order polynomial equation (y = a(2) x (2) + b(2) x + c) best fitted the post-exercise HR decay rate. The a(2) and b(2) coefficients and DeltaHR did not depend on age, sex, and body mass index. Despite a large scattering of HR decay rate, even present in healthy subjects, a(2) and DeltaHR were significantly lower in obeses and COPDs. In the whole population, both a(2) coefficient and DeltaHR were negatively correlated with maximal post-exercise LA level. DeltaHR was lowered in hypoxemic patients. Thus, the slowest post-exercise HR decay rate was measured in subjects having the highest peak LA increase or hypoxemia. Thus, even in healthy subjects, the post-exercise HR decay rate is lowered in individuals having an accentuated exercise-induced LA increase and/or hypoxemia. The mechanisms of delayed post-exercise HR recovery are only suspected because significant correlations cannot assess cause-to-effect relationships.

  17. Genome-wide association and longitudinal analyses reveal genetic loci linking pubertal height growth, pubertal timing and childhood adiposity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cousminer, Diana L.; Berry, Diane J.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Ang, Wei; Thiering, Elisabeth; Byrne, Enda M.; Taal, H. Rob; Huikari, Ville; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Groen-Blokhuis, Maria M.; Kreiner-Moller, Eskil; Marinelli, Marcella; Holst, Claus; Leinonen, Jaakko T.; Perry, John R. B.; Surakka, Ida; Pietilainen, Olli; Kettunen, Johannes; Anttila, Verneri; Kaakinen, Marika; Sovio, Ulla; Pouta, Anneli; Das, Shikta; Lagou, Vasiliki; Power, Chris; Prokopenko, Inga; Evans, David M.; Kemp, John P.; St Pourcain, Beate; Ring, Susan; Palotie, Aarno; Kajantie, Eero; Osmond, Clive; Lehtimaki, Terho; Viikari, Jorma S.; Kahonen, Mika; Warrington, Nicole M.; Lye, Stephen J.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Tiesler, Carla M. T.; Flexeder, Claudia; Montgomery, Grant W.; Medland, Sarah E.; Hofman, Albert; Hakonarson, Hakon; Guxens, Monica; Bartels, Meike; Salomaa, Veikko; Murabito, Joanne M.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Ballester, Ferran; Bisgaard, Hans; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Grant, Struan F. A.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Heinrich, Joachim; Pennell, Craig E.; Raitakari, Olli T.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Smith, George Davey; Hypponen, Elina; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; McCarthy, Mark I.; Ripatti, Samuli; Widen, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    The pubertal height growth spurt is a distinctive feature of childhood growth reflecting both the central onset of puberty and local growth factors. Although little is known about the underlying genetics, growth variability during puberty correlates with adult risks for hormone-dependent cancer and

  18. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Promoter Polymorphisms (−794 CATT5–8 and −173 G>C): Relationship with mRNA Expression and Soluble MIF Levels in Young Obese Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matia-García, Inés; Salgado-Goytia, Lorenzo; Muñoz-Valle, José F.; García-Arellano, Samuel; Hernández-Bello, Jorge; Salgado-Bernabé, Aralia B.; Parra-Rojas, Isela

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed the relationship of −794 CATT5–8 and −173 G>C MIF polymorphisms with mRNA and soluble MIF in young obese subjects. A total of 250 young subjects, 150 normal-weight and 100 obese subjects, were recruited in the study. Genotyping of −794 CATT5–8 and −173 G>C MIF polymorphisms was performed by PCR and PCR-RFLP, respectively. MIF mRNA expression was determined by real-time PCR and serum MIF levels were measured using an ELISA kit. For both MIF promoter polymorphisms, no significant differences in the genotype and allele frequencies between groups were observed. MIF mRNA expression was slightly higher in obese subjects than in normal-weight subjects (1.38-fold), while soluble MIF levels did not show differences between groups. In addition, we found an increase in MIF mRNA expression in carriers of the 6,6 and C/C genotypes and the 6G haplotype of the −794 CATT5–8 and −173 G>C MIF polymorphisms, although it was not significant. In conclusion, this study found no relationship between obesity and MIF gene promoter polymorphisms with MIF mRNA expression in young obese subjects. PMID:25972622

  19. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Promoter Polymorphisms (−794 CATT5–8 and −173 G>C: Relationship with mRNA Expression and Soluble MIF Levels in Young Obese Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Matia-García

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the relationship of −794 CATT5–8 and −173 G>C MIF polymorphisms with mRNA and soluble MIF in young obese subjects. A total of 250 young subjects, 150 normal-weight and 100 obese subjects, were recruited in the study. Genotyping of −794 CATT5–8 and −173 G>C MIF polymorphisms was performed by PCR and PCR-RFLP, respectively. MIF mRNA expression was determined by real-time PCR and serum MIF levels were measured using an ELISA kit. For both MIF promoter polymorphisms, no significant differences in the genotype and allele frequencies between groups were observed. MIF mRNA expression was slightly higher in obese subjects than in normal-weight subjects (1.38-fold, while soluble MIF levels did not show differences between groups. In addition, we found an increase in MIF mRNA expression in carriers of the 6,6 and C/C genotypes and the 6G haplotype of the −794 CATT5–8 and −173 G>C MIF polymorphisms, although it was not significant. In conclusion, this study found no relationship between obesity and MIF gene promoter polymorphisms with MIF mRNA expression in young obese subjects.

  20. Impact of Orlistat-Induced Weight Loss on Diastolic Function and Heart Rate Variability in Severely Obese Subjects with Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Martin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Determine the impact of Orlistat-induced weight loss on metabolic profile and cardiovascular function in severely obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods. Twenty-nine patients were randomized either to a nonplacebo control group or to a treatment group with Orlistat thrice a day. Metabolic profile, anthropometric parameters, heart rate variability indices, and echocardiographic variables were measured before and after a 12-week treatment period. Results. Treatment with Orlistat induced a modest but significant weight loss compared to controls (3.7 ± 3.0 versus 0.5 ± 2.2 kg, resp.; P=.003. There was significant decrease in fasting glycemia (7.9 ± 3.0 versus 6.7 ± 2.2 mmol/L; P=.03 and significant improvements in left ventricular diastolic function (P=.03 and in the sympathovagal balance (LF/HF ratio (P=.04 in the Orlistat group. Conclusion. These results suggest that a modest weight loss improves fasting glycemia, left ventricular diastolic function, and sympathovagal balance in severely obese patients with type 2 diabetes.

  1. LINE-1 methylation levels, a biomarker of weight loss in obese subjects, are influenced by dietary antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Lacarte, Marcos; Milagro, Fermin I; Zulet, Maria A; Martinez, J Alfredo; Mansego, Maria L

    2016-03-01

    Epigenetic markers, and in particular DNA methylation, have come to the fore as new tools in the personalization of the treatment of obesity and its comorbidities. The objectives of the current investigation were to identify epigenetic biomarkers that might be predictive of response to a weight-loss intervention, and to better understand the influence of certain nutrients (particularly antioxidants) on the epigenome. Global DNA (LINE-1) methylation levels were assessed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 96 obese volunteers of the Metabolic Syndrome Reduction in Navarra study, using a methylation-sensitive high resolution melting approach after bisulfite modification. Baseline LINE-1 DNA methylation levels were significantly higher (5.41%) in high responders (>8% of weight loss) as compared to low responders (response to the hypocaloric diet. Statistically significant correlations were found between LINE-1 baseline DNA methylation levels and the response to the treatment involving total fat mass and body weight. Furthermore, LINE-1 baseline methylation levels positively correlated with baseline dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC). LINE-1 methylation levels in PBMCs might be used to predict response to a dietary weight-loss intervention, and seem to be related to the dietary TAC. www.clinicaltrials.gov : NCT01087086.

  2. Matched weight loss induced by sleeve gastrectomy or gastric bypass similarly improves metabolic function in obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, David; Magkos, Faidon; Eagon, J Christopher; Varela, J Esteban; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Okunade, Adewole L; Patterson, Bruce W; Klein, Samuel

    2014-09-01

    The effects of marked weight loss, induced by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or sleeve gastrectomy (SG) surgeries, on insulin sensitivity, β-cell function and the metabolic response to a mixed meal were evaluated. Fourteen nondiabetic insulin-resistant patients who were scheduled to undergo SG (n = 7) or RYGB (n = 7) procedures completed a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp procedure and a mixed-meal tolerance test before surgery and after losing ∼20% of their initial body weight. Insulin sensitivity (insulin-stimulated glucose disposal during a clamp procedure), oral glucose tolerance (postprandial plasma glucose area under the curve), and β-cell function (insulin secretion in relationship to insulin sensitivity) improved after weight loss, and were not different between surgical groups. The metabolic response to meal ingestion was similar after RYGB or SG, manifested by rapid delivery of ingested glucose into the systemic circulation and a large early postprandial increase in plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide concentrations in both groups. When matched on weight loss, RYGB and SG surgeries result in similar improvements in the two major factors involved in regulating plasma glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity and β-cell function in obese people without diabetes. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  3. More pronounced effect of acute exercise-induced increase in circulating inflammatory markers in obese compared to lean subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Tore; Paulsen, Søren Kildeberg; Bruun, Jens Meldgaard

    2010-01-01

    (55-60% of maximal heart rate). Blood samples were obtained at baseline (T0), after 60 minutes of bicycling (T=60), after 120 minutes of bicycling (T=120), whereas biopsies from AT and SM were obtained at T0 and T120. Results: Divided into weight-status, plasma levels of IL-8 and TNFα were at T=120......Objective: Exercise modulates the immune system and in young males acute exercise has been found associated with increased systemic level of infam-matory markers such as IL-6 and IL-8. In this study we investigated the impact of obesity on the exercise induced release of infammatory markers...... in circulation, and on gene expression on these infammatory marker in skeletal muscle (SM) and adipose tissue (AT) biopsies. Material and Methods: 15 lean males and females (BMI 22.4±2 kg/m2) and 16 obese males and females (BMI 31.6±3 kg/m2) exercised for 120 minutes by ergometer bicycling at moderate intensity...

  4. Risk factors and outcomes of childhood obesity in Hong Kong: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, S Y; Lai, Y K; Lam, T H; Chan, V; Mak, K K; Lo, W S

    2013-06-01

    1. Onset of obesity is related to age, gender, pubertal stage, dietary habits, and parental occupation. Targeting the high riskgroups may help curb obesity in children. 2. Obesity may lead to poor self-esteem and potential psychosocial risk. The psychosocial impact of obesity could be more pronounced in girls than boys. 3. The association between obesity and psychosocial health could be bi-directional. Improving psychosocial health could be beneficial in weight management for normal-weight and obese children. 4. Obesity is associated with higher blood pressures.

  5. A distinct adipose tissue gene expression response to caloric restriction predicts 6-mo weight maintenance in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutch, D. M.; Pers, Tune Hannes; Temanni, M. R.

    2011-01-01

    AT) gene expression during a low-calorie diet (LCD) could be used to differentiate and predict subjects who experience successful short-term weight maintenance from subjects who experience weight regain. Design: Forty white women followed a dietary protocol consisting of an 8-wk LCD phase followed by a 6...

  6. FA1 Induces Pro-Inflammatory and Anti-Adipogenic Pathways/Markers in Human Myotubes Established from Lean, Obese, and Type 2 Diabetic Subjects but Not Insulin Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem M; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Gaster, Michael

    2013-01-01

    /FA1 in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in human subjects, we studied the effects of chronic FA1 on the intermediary metabolism in myotubes established from lean, obese, and type 2 diabetic (T2D) subjects. Methods: Myotube cultures were established from lean and obese control subjects......Aims: Delta like 1/fetal antigen 1 (Dlk1/FA1) is a protein secreted by hormone producing cells in adult human and mice that is known to inhibit adipogenesis. Recent studies demonstrated the role of Dlk1/FA1 in inducing insulin resistance in mice. To investigate the involvement of circulating Dlk1......, and obese T2D subjects and treated with soluble FA1 for 4 days supplemented with/without palmitate (PA). Lipid- and glucose metabolism were studied with labeled precursors while quantitative expression of genes was analyzed using real-time PCR. Results: Diabetic myotubes express significantly reduced...

  7. The effects of diet- and diet plus exercise-induced weight loss on basal metabolic rate and acylated ghrelin in grade 1 obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes AL

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available André L Lopes,1 Ana Paula T Fayh,2,3 Luisa G de Souza Campos,4 Bruno C Teixeira,1 Randhall B Kreismann Carteri,1 Jerri L Ribeiro,4 Rogério Friedman,2 Álvaro Reischak-Oliveira1 1Exercise Research Laboratory, School of Physical Education, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; 2Endocrine Unit, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; 3Health Sciences College of Trairi, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Santa Cruz, RN, Brazil; 4Centro Universitário Metodista – IPA, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil Background: Diet and exercise are often prescribed as primary intervention regarding obesity-related disorders. Additionally, recent studies have shown beneficial effects of weight loss through diet and exercise in ghrelin concentrations in obese subjects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 5% weight loss on lipid profile, resting metabolic rate (RMR, and acylated ghrelin (AG using two different methods of intervention (diet or diet plus exercise. Materials and methods: Eighteen subjects (twelve women and six men aged 20–40 years with a body mass index of 30–34.9 kg/m2 (grade 1 obesity were randomized into two intervention groups: diet (n=9 or diet plus exercise (n=9. Both groups underwent treatment until 5% of the initial body weight was lost. At baseline and upon completion, RMR and AG were analyzed. Results: Both groups showed a significant decrease in body fat percentage and fat mass. The diet-plus-exercise group showed a decrease in AG (pre: 54.4±25.3 pg/mL and post: 33.2±19.1 pg/mL and an increase in RMR (pre: 1,363±379 kcal/day, post: 1,633±223 kcal/day. Conclusion: These data suggest that diet plus exercise induced weight loss and had beneficial effects on AG concentration and RMR, essential factors to ensure the benefits of a weight-loss program. Keywords: exercise therapy, diet, energy regulation, obesity

  8. A 14-item Mediterranean diet assessment tool and obesity indexes among high-risk subjects: the PREDIMED trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, Miguel Angel; García-Arellano, Ana; Toledo, Estefanía; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Corella, Dolores; Covas, Maria Isabel; Schröder, Helmut; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Lapetra, José; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa Maria; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Pintó, Xavier; Muñoz, Miguel Angel; Wärnberg, Julia; Ros, Emilio; Estruch, Ramón

    2012-01-01

    Independently of total caloric intake, a better quality of the diet (for example, conformity to the Mediterranean diet) is associated with lower obesity risk. It is unclear whether a brief dietary assessment tool, instead of full-length comprehensive methods, can also capture this association. In addition to reduced costs, a brief tool has the interesting advantage of allowing immediate feedback to participants in interventional studies. Another relevant question is which individual items of such a brief tool are responsible for this association. We examined these associations using a 14-item tool of adherence to the Mediterranean diet as exposure and body mass index, waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) as outcomes. Cross-sectional assessment of all participants in the "PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea" (PREDIMED) trial. 7,447 participants (55-80 years, 57% women) free of cardiovascular disease, but with either type 2 diabetes or ≥ 3 cardiovascular risk factors. Trained dietitians used both a validated 14-item questionnaire and a full-length validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary habits. Trained nurses measured weight, height and waist circumference. Strong inverse linear associations between the 14-item tool and all adiposity indexes were found. For a two-point increment in the 14-item score, the multivariable-adjusted differences in WHtR were -0.0066 (95% confidence interval, -0.0088 to -0.0049) for women and -0.0059 (-0.0079 to -0.0038) for men. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for a WHtR>0.6 in participants scoring ≥ 10 points versus ≤ 7 points was 0.68 (0.57 to 0.80) for women and 0.66 (0.54 to 0.80) for men. High consumption of nuts and low consumption of sweetened/carbonated beverages presented the strongest inverse associations with abdominal obesity. A brief 14-item tool was able to capture a strong monotonic inverse association between adherence to a good quality dietary pattern (Mediterranean diet

  9. Expectancy, self-efficacy, and placebo effect of a sham supplement for weight loss in obese subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippens, Kimberly M; Purnell, Jonathan Q; Gregory, William L; Connelly, Erin; Hanes, Douglas; Oken, Barry; Calabrese, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the role of expectancy in the placebo effect of a sham dietary supplement for weight loss in 114 obese adults. All participants received lifestyle education and were randomized to one of three conditions: 1) a daily placebo capsule and told that they were taking an active weight loss supplement; 2) daily placebo and told they had a 50% random chance of receiving either the active or placebo; or 3) no capsules. At 12 weeks, weight loss and metabolic outcomes were similar among the three groups. Participants in both groups that took capsules showed decreased weight loss self-efficacy and increased expectations of benefit from dietary supplements. Participants not taking capsules showed the opposite. Adverse events were more frequently reported in groups taking capsules than those who were not. These findings suggest that supplements without weight loss effects may have nocebo effects through diminished self-efficacy. PMID:24695007

  10. Adipose tissue gene expression analysis reveals changes in inflammatory, mitochondrial respiratory and lipid metabolic pathways in obese insulin-resistant subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background To get insight into molecular mechanisms underlying insulin resistance, we compared acute in vivo effects of insulin on adipose tissue transcriptional profiles between obese insulin-resistant and lean insulin-sensitive women. Methods Subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were obtained before and after 3 and 6 hours of intravenously maintained euglycemic hyperinsulinemia from 9 insulin-resistant and 11 insulin-sensitive females. Gene expression was measured using Affymetrix HG U133 Plus 2 microarrays and qRT-PCR. Microarray data and pathway analyses were performed with Chipster v1.4.2 and by using in-house developed nonparametric pathway analysis software. Results The most prominent difference in gene expression of the insulin-resistant group during hyperinsulinemia was reduced transcription of nuclear genes involved in mitochondrial respiration (mitochondrial respiratory chain, GO:0001934). Inflammatory pathways with complement components (inflammatory response, GO:0006954) and cytokines (chemotaxis, GO:0042330) were strongly up-regulated in insulin-resistant as compared to insulin-sensitive subjects both before and during hyperinsulinemia. Furthermore, differences were observed in genes contributing to fatty acid, cholesterol and triglyceride metabolism (FATP2, ELOVL6, PNPLA3, SREBF1) and in genes involved in regulating lipolysis (ANGPTL4) between the insulin-resistant and -sensitive subjects especially during hyperinsulinemia. Conclusions The major finding of this study was lower expression of mitochondrial respiratory pathway and defective induction of lipid metabolism pathways by insulin in insulin-resistant subjects. Moreover, the study reveals several novel genes whose aberrant regulation is associated with the obese insulin-resistant phenotype. PMID:22471940

  11. Adipose tissue gene expression analysis reveals changes in inflammatory, mitochondrial respiratory and lipid metabolic pathways in obese insulin-resistant subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soronen Jarkko

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To get insight into molecular mechanisms underlying insulin resistance, we compared acute in vivo effects of insulin on adipose tissue transcriptional profiles between obese insulin-resistant and lean insulin-sensitive women. Methods Subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were obtained before and after 3 and 6 hours of intravenously maintained euglycemic hyperinsulinemia from 9 insulin-resistant and 11 insulin-sensitive females. Gene expression was measured using Affymetrix HG U133 Plus 2 microarrays and qRT-PCR. Microarray data and pathway analyses were performed with Chipster v1.4.2 and by using in-house developed nonparametric pathway analysis software. Results The most prominent difference in gene expression of the insulin-resistant group during hyperinsulinemia was reduced transcription of nuclear genes involved in mitochondrial respiration (mitochondrial respiratory chain, GO:0001934. Inflammatory pathways with complement components (inflammatory response, GO:0006954 and cytokines (chemotaxis, GO:0042330 were strongly up-regulated in insulin-resistant as compared to insulin-sensitive subjects both before and during hyperinsulinemia. Furthermore, differences were observed in genes contributing to fatty acid, cholesterol and triglyceride metabolism (FATP2, ELOVL6, PNPLA3, SREBF1 and in genes involved in regulating lipolysis (ANGPTL4 between the insulin-resistant and -sensitive subjects especially during hyperinsulinemia. Conclusions The major finding of this study was lower expression of mitochondrial respiratory pathway and defective induction of lipid metabolism pathways by insulin in insulin-resistant subjects. Moreover, the study reveals several novel genes whose aberrant regulation is associated with the obese insulin-resistant phenotype.

  12. Pubertal Development, Personality, and Substance Use: A 10-Year Longitudinal Study From Childhood to Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Parent, Sophie; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.; Séguin, Jean R.

    2013-01-01

    Most research linking early pubertal development to substance use has focused on the effects of pubertal timing (age at which a certain stage of pubertal development is reached or pubertal status at a particular age—related to the maturation disparity hypothesis), but little research has focused on pubertal tempo (rate of growth through pubertal stages—related to the maturation compression hypothesis). However, both timing and tempo have not only been identified as important components of pubertal development, with different predictors, but have also been shown to be independently associated with other adolescent psychopathologies. Using latent growth-curve modeling, this study examined how pubertal status at age 12 and pubertal tempo (between 11 and 13 years) related to substance use from 15 to 16 years in boys from low socioeconomic backgrounds (N = 871). Results showed that both pubertal status at age 12 and tempo were significant predictors of increased levels of substance use and problems in mid to late adolescence. In an attempt to identify mechanisms that may explain the association between pubertal development and substance use it was found that sensation seeking partially mediated the association between pubertal status at age 12 and substance use behaviors. Impulse control was found to moderate the association sensation seeking had with marijuana use frequency, with high sensation-seeking scores predicting higher marijuana use frequency only at low levels of impulse control. These findings highlight the importance of considering multiple sources of individual variability in the pubertal development of boys and provide support for both the maturational disparity and compression hypotheses. PMID:24016016

  13. Pubertal development, personality, and substance use: a 10-year longitudinal study from childhood to adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Parent, Sophie; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E; Séguin, Jean R

    2013-08-01

    Most research linking early pubertal development to substance use has focused on the effects of pubertal timing (age at which a certain stage of pubertal development is reached or pubertal status at a particular age--related to the maturation disparity hypothesis), but little research has focused on pubertal tempo (rate of growth through pubertal stages--related to the maturation compression hypothesis). However, both timing and tempo have not only been identified as important components of pubertal development, with different predictors, but have also been shown to be independently associated with other adolescent psychopathologies. Using latent growth-curve modeling, this study examined how pubertal status at age 12 and pubertal tempo (between 11 and 13 years) related to substance use from 15 to 16 years in boys from low socioeconomic backgrounds (N = 871). Results showed that both pubertal status at age 12 and tempo were significant predictors of increased levels of substance use and problems in mid to late adolescence. In an attempt to identify mechanisms that may explain the association between pubertal development and substance use it was found that sensation seeking partially mediated the association between pubertal status at age 12 and substance use behaviors. Impulse control was found to moderate the association sensation seeking had with marijuana use frequency, with high sensation-seeking scores predicting higher marijuana use frequency only at low levels of impulse control. These findings highlight the importance of considering multiple sources of individual variability in the pubertal development of boys and provide support for both the maturational disparity and compression hypotheses.

  14. β-Cell Function Improvements in Grade I/II Obese Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes 1 Month After Biliopancreatic Diversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira Vasques, Ana Carolina; Pareja, José Carlos; de Oliveira, Maria da Saude; Satake Novaes, Fernanda; Miranda de Oliveira Lima, Marcelo; Chaim, Élinton A.; Piccinini, Francesca; Dalla Man, Chiara; Cobelli, Claudio; Geloneze, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) surgery on β-cell function in grade I and II obese patients with type 2 diabetes using oral and intravenous glucose loads. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Sixty-eight women were divided into the following three groups: 19 lean-control (23.0 ± 2.2 kg/m2) and 18 obese-control (35.0 ± 4.8 kg/m2) subjects with normal glucose tolerance, and 31 obese patients with type 2 diabetes (36.3 ± 3.7 kg/m2). Of the 31 diabetic women, 64% underwent BPD (n = 20, BMI: 36.5 ± 3.7 kg/m2) and were reassessed 1 month after surgery. Oral glucose tolerance tests and hyperglycemic clamps were performed. Mathematical modeling was used to analyze basal and stimulated β-cell function, insulin sensitivity (IS), hepatic extraction (HE) of insulin, and delay time of β-cell response to a specific plasma glucose concentration. RESULTS After BPD, restoration of the basal disposition index (P < 0.001) and improvement of the stimulated disposition indices in oral and intravenous glucose stimulation of the β-cell were observed (P < 0.05). In both dynamic tests, there were no changes in the delay time of β-cell response. IS for oral glucose stimulation (ISoral) and intravenous clamp glucose stimulation (ISclamp) was completely normalized (P < 0.001). ISoral and ISclamp increased approximately 5.0-fold and 3.5-fold, respectively (P < 0.01). The HE of insulin increased in the basal (P < 0.05) and stimulated states (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS β-Cell function, IS, and HE of insulin improved after BPD, which improved glycemic control. PMID:24135388

  15. Effects of a 1-year supplementation with cholecalciferol on interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and insulin resistance in overweight and obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilfuss, Julia; Berg, Vivian; Sneve, Monica; Jorde, Rolf; Kamycheva, Elena

    2012-12-01

    Insufficient vitamin D status has been linked to autoimmune diseases, cancer and metabolic disorders, like obesity and insulin resistance. In vitro and animal studies suggest that vitamin D may play a crucial role in immune activation and inflammation. The relation between vitamin D and pro-inflammatory cytokines is not completely established. Furthermore, it is not known if the effect of vitamin D on entities of metabolic syndrome is mediated through its effect on cytokines or other biomarkers. The objectives of this study were to investigate if there is a relationship between vitamin D status and such pro-inflammatory cytokines as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in patients with overweigh and obesity. We also proposed that the intervention with high dose of cholecalciferol may have effect on the cytokine levels and result in corresponding changes in the measures of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and QUICKI). Serum levels of IL-6, TNF-α and hs-CRP were measured in 332 overweight and obese subjects who completed a 1-year randomised intervention with either 40,000 IU vitamin D (cholecalciferol) per week or 20,000 IU vitamin D per week, or placebo. We found significant associations between IL-6, TNF-α, vitamin D and insulin resistance indices at baseline. One year intervention with vitamin D decreased serum IL-6 levels; however hs-CRP levels were significantly increased. Neither measures of insulin resistance, nor TNF-α were influenced by a 1-year vitamin D supplementation.

  16. A comparative genotoxicity study of a supraphysiological dose of triiodothyronine (T₃ in obese rats subjected to either calorie-restricted diet or hyperthyroidism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa De Sibio

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the genotoxicity of a supraphysiological dose of triiodothyronine (T3 in both obese and calorie-restricted obese animals. Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of the two following groups: control (C; n = 10 and obese (OB; n = 40. The C group received standard food, whereas the OB group was fed a hypercaloric diet for 20 weeks. After this period, half of the OB animals (n = 20 were subjected to a 25%-calorie restriction of standard diet for 8 weeks forming thus a new group (OR, whereas the remaining OB animals were kept on the initial hypercaloric diet. During the following two weeks, 10 OR animals continued on the calorie restriction diet, whereas the remaining 10 rats of this group formed a new group (ORS given a supraphysiological dose of T3 (25 µg/100 g body weight along with the calorie restriction diet. Similarly, the remaining OB animals were divided into two groups, one that continued on the hypercaloric diet (OB, n = 10, and one that received the supraphysiological dose of T3 (25 µg/100 g body weight along with the hypercaloric diet (OS, n = 10 for two weeks. The OB group showed weight gain, increased adiposity, insulin resistance, increased leptin levels and genotoxicity; T3 administration in OS animals led to an increase in genotoxicity and oxidative stress when compared with the OB group. The OR group showed weight loss and normalized levels of adiposity, insulin resistance, serum leptin and genotoxicity, thus having features similar to those of the C group. On the other hand, the ORS group, compared to OR animals, showed higher genotoxicity. Our results indicate that regardless of diet, a supraphysiological dose of T3 causes genotoxicity and potentiates oxidative stress.

  17. α-Lipoic acid treatment increases mitochondrial biogenesis and promotes beige adipose features in subcutaneous adipocytes from overweight/obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Galilea, Marta; Pérez-Matute, Patricia; Prieto-Hontoria, Pedro L; Houssier, Marianne; Burrell, María A; Langin, Dominique; Martínez, J Alfredo; Moreno-Aliaga, María J

    2015-03-01

    α-Lipoic acid (α-Lip) is a natural occurring antioxidant with beneficial anti-obesity properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the putative effects of α-Lip on mitochondrial biogenesis and the acquirement of brown-like characteristics by subcutaneous adipocytes from overweight/obese subjects. Thus, fully differentiated human subcutaneous adipocytes were treated with α-Lip (100 and 250μM) for 24h for studies on mitochondrial content and morphology, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number, fatty acid oxidation enzymes and brown/beige characteristic genes. The involvement of the Sirtuin1/Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1 alpha (SIRT1/PGC-1α) pathway was also evaluated. Our results showed that α-Lip increased mitochondrial content in cultured human adipocytes as revealed by electron microscopy and by mitotracker green labeling. Moreover, an enhancement in mtDNA content was observed. This increase was accompanied by an up-regulation of SIRT1 protein levels, a decrease in PGC-1α acetylation and up-regulation of Nuclear respiratory factor 1 (Nrf1) and Mitochondrial transcription factor (Tfam) transcription factors. Enhanced oxygen consumption and fatty acid oxidation enzymes, Carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 and Acyl-coenzyme A oxidase (CPT-1 and ACOX) were also observed. Mitochondria from α-Lip-treated adipocytes exhibited some morphological characteristics of brown mitochondria, and α-Lip also induced up-regulation of some brown/beige adipocytes markers such as cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector a (Cidea) and T-box 1 (Tbx1). Moreover, α-Lip up-regulated PR domain containing 16 (Prdm16) mRNA levels in treated adipocytes. Therefore, our study suggests the ability of α-Lip to promote mitochondrial biogenesis and brown-like remodeling in cultured white subcutaneous adipocytes from overweight/obese donors.

  18. Similar elimination rates of glucagon-like peptide-1 in obese type 2 diabetic patients and healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilsbøll, T; Agersø, H; Krarup, T

    2003-01-01

    We have previously shown that type 2 diabetic patients have decreased plasma concentrations of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) compared with healthy subjects after ingestion of a standard mixed meal. This decrease could be caused by differences in the metabolism of GLP-1. The objective of this st......We have previously shown that type 2 diabetic patients have decreased plasma concentrations of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) compared with healthy subjects after ingestion of a standard mixed meal. This decrease could be caused by differences in the metabolism of GLP-1. The objective...... of this study was to examine the pharmacokinetics of GLP-1 in healthy subjects and type 2 diabetic patients after iv bolus doses ranging from 2.5-25 nmol/subject. Bolus injections iv of 2.5, 5, 15, and 25 nmol of GLP-1 and a meal test were performed in six type 2 diabetic patients [age, mean (range): 56 (48......-67) yr; body mass index: 31.2 (27.0-37.7) kg/m(2); fasting plasma glucose: 11.9 (8.3-14.3) mmol/liter; hemoglobin A(1C): 9.6 (7.0-12.5)%]. For comparison, six matched healthy subjects were examined. Peak plasma GLP-1 concentrations increased linearly with increasing doses of GLP-1 and were similar...

  19. The effect of polyphenol-rich dark chocolate on fasting capillary whole blood glucose, total cholesterol, blood pressure and glucocorticoids in healthy overweight and obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almoosawi, Suzana; Fyfe, Lorna; Ho, Clement; Al-Dujaili, Emad

    2010-03-01

    Numerous studies indicate that polyphenol-rich chocolate reduces fasting blood glucose, blood pressure (BP) and total cholesterol in healthy individuals and hypertensives with or without glucose intolerance. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of two doses of polyphenol-rich dark chocolate (DC) on fasting capillary whole blood glucose, total cholesterol and BP and to examine whether improvements in these parameters are associated with changes in adrenocorticoid excretion in overweight and obese individuals. The study used a randomised, single-blind, cross-over design where fourteen overweight and obese subjects were randomised to either take 20 g DC with 500 mg polyphenols then 20 g DC with 1000 mg polyphenols or vice-versa. Participants followed each diet for 2 weeks separated by a 1-week washout period. It was observed that the 500 mg polyphenol dose was equally effective in reducing fasting blood glucose levels, systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) as the 1000 mg polyphenol dose suggesting that a saturation effect might occur with increasing dose of polyphenols. There was also a trend towards a reduction in urinary free cortisone levels with both groups although it did not reach statistical significance. No changes in anthropometrical measurements were seen. We suggest that more research is required to investigate the mechanism(s) by which polyphenol-rich foods influence health.

  20. Similar elimination rates of glucagon-like peptide-1 in obese type 2 diabetic patients and healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilsbøll, Tina; Agersø, H; Krarup, T;

    2003-01-01

    of this study was to examine the pharmacokinetics of GLP-1 in healthy subjects and type 2 diabetic patients after iv bolus doses ranging from 2.5-25 nmol/subject. Bolus injections iv of 2.5, 5, 15, and 25 nmol of GLP-1 and a meal test were performed in six type 2 diabetic patients [age, mean (range): 56 (48...... response seen after ingestion of a standard breakfast meal must therefore be caused by a decreased secretion of GLP-1 in type 2 diabetic patients....

  1. Increased glucose-stimulated FGF21 response to oral glucose in obese non-diabetic subjects after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vienberg, Sara Gry; Jacobsen, Siv Hesse; Worm, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The positive metabolic outcome of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) surgery may involve Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 (FGF21), both in the fasting state and postprandially. We measured the fasting levels of FGF21 before and after bariatric surgery as well as the postprandial FGF21 responses...... after a glucose load and after a mixed meal. DESIGN: Observational intervention trial. PATIENTS AND MEASUREMENTS: Eight obese, non-diabetics patients underwent RYGB. Plasma FGF21 was measured both before and after surgery on three different days during oral glucose loads (25 g or 50 g glucose......) or a mixed meal. Blood samples were taken right before the meal and at 15 min intervals until 90 min and at 150 min and 210 min relative to the start of the meal. RESULTS: Overall, fasting plasma FGF21 did not change significantly before and after surgery (262±71 vs 411±119 pg/ml), but for three subjects...

  2. Dietary intervention increases n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in sceletal muscle membrane phospholipids of obese subjects. Inplications for insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B; Madsbad, Sten; Høy, C-E

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cross-sectional studies suggest that the fatty acid (FA) composition of phospholipids in skeletal muscle cell membrane may modulate insulin sensitivity in humans. We examined the impact of a hypocaloric low-fat dietary intervention on membrane FA composition and insulin sensitivity...... that included changes in weight, fat mass, waist circumference, plasma lipids, PUFA, SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 indicated that SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 were independent predictors of HOMA-IR (R(2)=0.33, Pfat dietary intervention programme increased incorporation of long....... DESIGN Muscle membrane FA profiles were determined in muscle (vastus lateralis) biopsies from 21 obese subjects before and after 6 months of dietary restriction. Diet instructions emphasized low intake of FA of marine origin by recommending lean fish and prohibiting fatty fish and fish oil supplements...

  3. Dietary intervention increases n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in skeletal muscle membrane phospholipids of obese subjects. Implications for insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, S.B.; Madsbad, S.; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2006-01-01

    Objective Cross-sectional studies suggest that the fatty acid (FA) composition of phospholipids in skeletal muscle cell membrane may modulate insulin sensitivity in humans. We examined the impact of a hypocaloric low-fat dietary intervention on membrane FA composition and insulin sensitivity...... analysis that included changes in weight, fat mass, waist circumference, plasma lipids, PUFA, SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 indicated that SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 were independent predictors of HOMA-IR (R-2 = 0.33, P fat dietary intervention programme increased....... Design Muscle membrane FA profiles were determined in muscle (vastus lateralis) biopsies from 21 obese subjects before and after 6 months of dietary restriction. Diet instructions emphasized low intake of FA of marine origin by recommending lean fish and prohibiting fatty fish and fish oil supplements...

  4. Dietary intervention increases n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in sceletal muscle membrane phospholipids of obese subjects. Inplications for insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B; Madsbad, Sten; Høy, C-E;

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cross-sectional studies suggest that the fatty acid (FA) composition of phospholipids in skeletal muscle cell membrane may modulate insulin sensitivity in humans. We examined the impact of a hypocaloric low-fat dietary intervention on membrane FA composition and insulin sensitivity...... that included changes in weight, fat mass, waist circumference, plasma lipids, PUFA, SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 indicated that SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 were independent predictors of HOMA-IR (R(2)=0.33, Pdietary intervention programme increased incorporation of long....... DESIGN Muscle membrane FA profiles were determined in muscle (vastus lateralis) biopsies from 21 obese subjects before and after 6 months of dietary restriction. Diet instructions emphasized low intake of FA of marine origin by recommending lean fish and prohibiting fatty fish and fish oil supplements...

  5. Breastfeeding versus formula-feeding and girls' pubertal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Aarti; Deardorff, Julianna; Lahiff, Maureen; Laurent, Cecile; Greenspan, Louise C; Hiatt, Robert A; Windham, Gayle; Galvez, Maida P; Biro, Frank M; Pinney, Susan M; Teitelbaum, Susan L; Wolff, Mary S; Barlow, Janice; Mirabedi, Anousheh; Lasater, Molly; Kushi, Lawrence H

    2015-03-01

    To examine the association of breastfeeding or its duration with timing of girls' pubertal onset, and the role of BMI as a mediator in these associations. A population of 1,237 socio-economically and ethnically diverse girls, ages 6-8 years, was recruited across three geographic locations (New York City, Cincinnati, and the San Francisco Bay Area) in a prospective study of predictors of pubertal maturation. Breastfeeding practices were assessed using self-administered questionnaire/interview with the primary caregiver. Girls were seen on at least annual basis to assess breast and pubic hair development. The association of breastfeeding with pubertal timing was estimated using parametric survival analysis while adjusting for body mass index, ethnicity, birth-weight, mother's education, mother's menarcheal age, and family income. Compared to formula fed girls, those who were mixed-fed or predominantly breastfed showed later onset of breast development [hazard ratios 0.90 (95 % CI 0.75, 1.09) and 0.74 (95 % CI 0.59, 0.94), respectively]. Duration of breastfeeding was also directly associated with age at onset of breast development (p trend = 0.008). Associations between breastfeeding and pubic hair onset were not significant. In stratified analysis, the association of breastfeeding and later breast onset was seen in Cincinnati girls only. The association between breast feeding and pubertal onset varied by study site. More research is needed about the environments within which breastfeeding takes place in order to better understand whether infant feeding practices are a potentially modifiable risk factor that may influence age at onset of breast development and subsequent risk for disease in adulthood.

  6. Breastfeeding versus Formula-Feeding & Girls’ Pubertal Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Aarti; Deardorff, Julianna; Lahiff, Maureen; Laurent, Cecile; Greenspan, Louise C.; Hiatt, Robert A.; Windham, Gayle; Galvez, Maida P.; Biro, Frank M.; Pinney, Susan M.; Teitelbaum, Susan L.; Wolff, Mary S.; Barlow, Janice; Mirabedi, Anousheh; Lasater, Molly; Kushi, Lawrence H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the association of breastfeeding or its duration with timing of girls’ pubertal onset, and the role of BMI as a mediator in these associations. Methods A population of 1,237 socio-economically and ethnically diverse girls, ages 6–8 years, was recruited across three geographic locations (New York City, Cincinnati, and the San Francisco Bay Area) in a prospective study of predictors of pubertal maturation. Breastfeeding practices were assessed using self-administered questionnaire/interview with the primary caregiver. Girls were seen on at least annual basis to assess breast and pubic hair development. The association of breastfeeding with pubertal timing was estimated using parametric survival analysis while adjusting for body mass index, ethnicity, birth-weight, mother’s education, mother’s menarcheal age, and family income. Results Compared to formula fed girls, those who were mixed-fed or predominantly breastfed showed later onset of breast development (Hazard Ratios 0.90 [95% CI, 0.75–1.09] and 0.74 [95% CI, 0.59–0.94], respectively). Duration of breastfeeding was also directly associated with age at onset of breast development (p trend = 0.008). Associations between breastfeeding and pubic hair onset were not significant. In stratified analysis, the association of breastfeeding and later breast onset was seen in Cincinnati girls only. Conclusion The association between breast feeding and pubertal onset varied by study site. More research is needed about the environments within which breastfeeding takes place in order to better understand whether infant feeding practices are a potentially modifiable risk factor that may influence age at onset of breast development and subsequent risk for disease in adulthood. PMID:24916206

  7. Sex steroids and brain structure in pubertal boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peper, Jiska S; Brouwer, Rachel M; Schnack, Hugo G; van Baal, G Caroline; van Leeuwen, Marieke; van den Berg, Stéphanie M; Delemarre-Van de Waal, Henriëtte A; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kahn, René S; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2009-04-01

    Sex steroids exert important organizational effects on brain structure. Early in life, they are involved in brain sexual differentiation. During puberty, sex steroid levels increase considerably. However, to which extent sex steroid production is involved in structural brain development during human puberty remains unknown. The relationship between pubertal rises in testosterone and estradiol levels and brain structure was assessed in 37 boys and 41 girls (10-15 years). Global brain volumes were measured using volumetric-MRI. Regional gray and white matter were quantified with voxel-based morphometry (VBM), a technique which measures relative concentrations ('density') of gray and white matter after individual global differences in size and shape of brains have been removed. Results showed that, corrected for age, global gray matter volume was negatively associated with estradiol levels in girls, and positively with testosterone levels in boys. Regionally, a higher estradiol level in girls was associated with decreases within prefrontal, parietal and middle temporal areas (corrected for age), and with increases in middle frontal-, inferior temporal- and middle occipital gyri. In boys, estradiol and testosterone levels were not related to regional brain structures, nor were testosterone levels in girls. Pubertal sex steroid levels could not explain regional sex differences in regional gray matter density. Boys were significantly younger than girls, which may explain part of the results. In conclusion, in girls, with the progression of puberty, gray matter development is at least in part directly associated with increased levels of estradiol, whereas in boys, who are in a less advanced pubertal stage, such steroid-related development could not (yet) be found. We suggest that in pubertal girls, estradiol may be implicated in neuronal changes in the cerebral cortex during this important period of brain development.

  8. Association Between Urinary Phthalates and Pubertal Timing in Chinese Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijing Shi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phthalates are synthetic chemicals and ubiquitous environmental contaminants, with hormonal activity that may alter the course of pubertal development in children. Objectives: To determine whether exposure to phthalate metabolites is associated with timing of pubertal development in a cross-sectional study of a school-based clustered sample of 503 children from a suburban district in Shanghai, China, who were 7–14 years of age at enrollment (2010 October to November. Methods: We analyzed six phthalate metabolites in urine samples by isotope-dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The associations of exposures to phthalates with pubertal timing of testes, breast, and pubic hair development (represented as Tanner stages were evaluated using an ordered logistic regression model adjusted for chronological age, body fat proportion (BF%, and parental education. Results: In boys, urinary mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP levels were negatively associated with testicular volume, and mono (2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate (MEHHP and mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate (MEOHP levels were negatively associated with pubic hair stages. The odds of being in an advanced stage were decreased by 43%–51%. In girls, mono (2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP, MEHHP, and MEOHP levels, as well as the sum of these levels, were positively associated with breast stages, and the association was much stronger in girls with high BF%; the odds of being in an advanced stage were increase by 29% to 50%. Conclusions: Phthalate metabolites investigated in this study show significant associations with pubertal timing both in boys and in girls, especially among girls with high BF%.

  9. Sitagliptin/Metformin Versus Insulin Glargine Combined With Metformin in Obese Subjects With Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ming; Xia, Libin; Cao, Jingzhu; Zou, Dajin

    2016-03-01

    To compare the therapeutic effects of different regimens in Chinese obese type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM) patients. From October 2013 to July 2014, a total of 166 T2DM outpatients who attended the Shanghai Changhai Hospital and the Yijishan Hospital of Wannan Medical College were randomly assigned into an experimental sitagliptin/metformin combined with low caloric diet group (n = 115) and an insulin glargine combined with metformin control group (n = 51). Inclusion criteria were body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m and diagnosed with T2DM with glycosylated hemoglobin (glycated hemoglobin A1C [HbA1c]) >9%. Main outcome parameters were fasting plasma glucose, postprandial plasma glucose, BMI, HbA1c, fasting C-peptide, 2-h postprandial C-peptide, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density cholesterol (LDL-C), which were determined by the 75 g steamed-bun meal tolerance test before and 4, 8, 12, and 24 weeks after the treatment started. Treatment costs and life quality were also assessed. BMI, HbA1C, TG, TC, and LDL were significantly more reduced (P 9%, oral sitagliptin/metformin combined with a low caloric diet effectively and economically maintained glycemic control and significantly improved life quality.

  10. A distinct adipose tissue gene expression response to caloric restriction predicts 6-mo weight maintenance in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutch, D. M.; Pers, Tune Hannes; Temanni, M. R.

    2011-01-01

    fatty acid metabolism, citric acid cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, and apoptosis were regulated differently by the LCD in WM and WR subjects. Conclusion: This study suggests that LCD-induced changes in insulin secretion and scAT gene expression may have the potential to predict successful short...

  11. The use of individual cut points from treadmill walking to assess free-living moderate to vigorous physical activity in obese subjects by accelerometry: is it useful?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aadland Eivind

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variation in counts between subjects at a given speed or work rate are the most important source of error in physical activity (PA measurements with accelerometers. The aim of this study was to explore how the use of individual accelerometer cut points (ICPs affected the analysis of PA field data. Methods We performed a treadmill calibration protocol to determine cut points for moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA (≥3 metabolic equivalents and assessed free-living PA in 44 severely obese subjects using the Actigraph GT1M accelerometer. We obtained cut points in 42 subjects (11 men, mean (standard deviation of body mass index (BMI 39.8 (5.7, age 43.2 (9.2 years, of whom 35 had valid measurement of free-living PA (minutes of MVPA/day. Linear regression was used to analyze associations with the ICPs and time in MVPA/day. MVPA/day was also compared with values derived using a group cut point (GCP. Results Resting oxygen consumption (partial r = 0.74, p 2 = 14%, p = .023, coefficient of variation = 45.1%. Conclusions The results indicate that the use of ICPs had a strong influence on the PA level. Two thirds of the variation in the ICPs could be explained, however, a certain degree of measurement error will be present. Thus, we are not able to conclude with respect to the most appropriate procedure for analyzing time in MVPA.

  12. Circulating branched-chain amino acid concentrations are associated with obesity and future insulin resistance in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, S E; Shaham, O; McCarthy, M A; Deik, A A; Wang, T J; Gerszten, R E; Clish, C B; Mootha, V K; Grinspoon, S K; Fleischman, A

    2013-02-01

    What is already known about this subject Circulating concentrations of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) can affect carbohydrate metabolism in skeletal muscle, and therefore may alter insulin sensitivity. BCAAs are elevated in adults with diet-induced obesity, and are associated with their future risk of type 2 diabetes even after accounting for baseline clinical risk factors. What this study adds Increased concentrations of BCAAs are already present in young obese children and their metabolomic profiles are consistent with increased BCAA catabolism. Elevations in BCAAs in children are positively associated with insulin resistance measured 18 months later, independent of their initial body mass index. Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) concentrations are elevated in response to overnutrition, and can affect both insulin sensitivity and secretion. Alterations in their metabolism may therefore play a role in the early pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes in overweight children. To determine whether paediatric obesity is associated with elevations in fasting circulating concentrations of BCAAs (isoleucine, leucine and valine), and whether these elevations predict future insulin resistance. Sixty-nine healthy subjects, ages 8-18 years, were enrolled as a cross-sectional cohort. A subset of subjects who were pre- or early-pubertal, ages 8-13 years, were enrolled in a prospective longitudinal cohort for 18 months (n = 17 with complete data). Elevations in the concentrations of BCAAs were significantly associated with body mass index (BMI) Z-score (Spearman's Rho 0.27, P = 0.03) in the cross-sectional cohort. In the subset of subjects that followed longitudinally, baseline BCAA concentrations were positively associated with homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance measured 18 months later after controlling for baseline clinical factors including BMI Z-score, sex and pubertal stage (P = 0.046). Elevations in the concentrations of circulating BCAAs are significantly

  13. DNA Methylation Patterns in the Hypothalamus of Female Pubertal Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chen; Ye, Jing; Li, Xiumei; Gao, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Kaifa; Luo, Lei; Ding, Jianping; Zhang, Yunhai; Li, Yunsheng; Cao, Hongguo; Ling, Yinghui; Zhang, Xiaorong; Liu, Ya; Fang, Fugui

    2016-01-01

    Female pubertal development is tightly controlled by complex mechanisms, including neuroendocrine and epigenetic regulatory pathways. Specific gene expression patterns can be influenced by DNA methylation changes in the hypothalamus, which can in turn regulate timing of puberty onset. In order to understand the relationship between DNA methylation changes and gene expression patterns in the hypothalamus of pubertal goats, whole-genome bisulfite sequencing and RNA-sequencing analyses were carried out. There was a decline in DNA methylation levels in the hypothalamus during puberty and 268 differentially methylated regions (DMR) in the genome, with differential patterns in different gene regions. There were 1049 genes identified with distinct expression patterns. High levels of DNA methylation were detected in promoters, introns and 3'-untranslated regions (UTRs). Levels of methylation decreased gradually from promoters to 5'-UTRs and increased from 5'-UTRs to introns. Methylation density analysis demonstrated that methylation level variation was consistent with the density in the promoter, exon, intron, 5'-UTRs and 3'-UTRs. Analyses of CpG island (CGI) sites showed that the enriched gene contents were gene bodies, intergenic regions and introns, and these CGI sites were hypermethylated. Our study demonstrated that DNA methylation changes may influence gene expression profiles in the hypothalamus of goats during the onset of puberty, which may provide new insights into the mechanisms involved in pubertal onset.

  14. Modeling pubertal timing and tempo and examining links to behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltz, Adriene M; Corley, Robin P; Bricker, Josh B; Wadsworth, Sally J; Berenbaum, Sheri A

    2014-12-01

    Research on the role of puberty in adolescent psychological development requires attention to the meaning and measurement of pubertal development. Particular questions concern the utility of self-report, the need for complex models to describe pubertal development, the psychological significance of pubertal timing vs. tempo, and sex differences in the nature and psychological significance of pubertal development. We used longitudinal self-report data to model linear and logistic trajectories of pubertal development, and used timing and tempo estimates from these models, and from traditional approaches (age at menarche and time from onset of breast development to menarche), to predict psychological outcomes of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, and early sexual activity. Participants (738 girls, 781 boys) reported annually from ages 9 through 15 on their pubertal development, and they and their parents reported on their behavior in mid-to-late adolescence and early adulthood. Self-reports of pubertal development provided meaningful data for both boys and girls, producing good trajectories, and estimates of individuals' pubertal timing and tempo. A logistic model best fit the group data. Pubertal timing was estimated to be earlier in the logistic compared to linear model, but linear, logistic, and traditional estimates of pubertal timing correlated highly with each other and similarly with psychological outcomes. Pubertal tempo was not consistently estimated, and associations of tempo with timing and with behavior were model dependent. Advances in modeling facilitate the study of some questions about pubertal development, but assumptions of the models affect their utility in psychological studies. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence of acne in primary school children and the relationship of acne with pubertal maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Hilal Kaya Erdoğan; İlknur Kıvanç Altunay; Serap Turan

    2014-01-01

    Background and Design: Although acne vulgaris is generally regarded as a disease of adolescence period, it can occur in infancy, early childhood and prepubertal period. Acne may emerge as the first sign of pubertal maturation. In our study, we aimed to determine the acne prevalence in primary school children, then, evaluate the pubertal signs in those children; examine the correlation of the presence and severity of acne with pubertal signs, and finally, revise the concept of prepubertal a...

  16. Resveratrol does not influence metabolic risk markers related to cardiovascular health in overweight and slightly obese subjects: a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne M van der Made

    Full Text Available In vitro and animal studies have shown positive effects of resveratrol on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism, but human studies specifically designed to examine these effects are lacking.The primary outcome parameter of this study in overweight and slightly obese subjects was the effect of resveratrol on apoA-I concentrations. Secondary outcome parameters were effects on other markers of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism, glucose metabolism, and markers for inflammation and endothelial function.This randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study was conducted in 45 overweight and slightly obese men (n = 25 and women (n = 20 with a mean age of 61 ± 7 years. Subjects received in random order resveratrol (150 mg per day or placebo capsules for 4 weeks, separated by a 4-week wash-out period. Fasting blood samples were collected at baseline and at the end of each intervention period.Compliance was excellent as indicated by capsule count and changes in resveratrol and dihydroresveratrol concentrations. No difference between resveratrol and placebo was found in any of the fasting serum or plasma metabolic risk markers (mean ± SD for differences between day 28 values of resveratrol vs. placebo: apoA-I; 0.00 ± 0.12 g/L (P = 0.791, apoB100; -0.01 ± 0.11 g/L (P = 0.545, HDL cholesterol; 0.00 ± 0.09 mmol/L (P = 0.721, LDL cholesterol -0.03 ± 0.57 mmol/L (P = 0.718, triacylglycerol; 0.10 ± 0.54 mmol/L (P = 0.687, glucose; -0.08 ± 0.28 mmol/L (P = 0.064, insulin; -0.3 ± 2.5 mU/L (P = 0.516. Also, no effects on plasma markers for inflammation and endothelial function were observed. No adverse events related to resveratrol intake were observed.150 mg of daily resveratrol intake for 4 weeks does not change metabolic risk markers related to cardiovascular health in overweight and slightly obese men and women. Effects on glucose metabolism warrant further study.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01364961.

  17. Adoption of the children's obesity clinic's treatment (TCOCT) protocol into another Danish pediatric obesity treatment clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Most, Sebastian W; Højgaard, Birgitte; Teilmann, Grete Katrine

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treating severe childhood obesity has proven difficult with inconsistent treatment results. This study reports the results of the implementation of a childhood obesity chronic care treatment protocol. METHODS: Patients aged 5 to 18 years with a body mass index (BMI) above the 99th......, but independent of baseline BMI SDS, age, co-morbidity, SES, pubertal stage, place of referral, hours of treatment per year, and mean visit interval time. CONCLUSIONS: The systematic use of the TCOCT protocol reduced the degree of childhood obesity with acceptable retention rates with a modest time...

  18. Current Changes in Pubertal Timing: Revised Vision in Relation with Environmental Factors Including Endocrine Disruptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Anne-Simone; Franssen, Delphine; Fudvoye, Julie; Pinson, Anneline; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to revise some common views on changes in pubertal timing. This revision is based on recent epidemiological findings on the clinical indicators of pubertal timing and data on environmental factor effects and underlying mechanisms. A current advancement in timing of female puberty is usually emphasized. It appears, however, that timing is also changing in males. Moreover, the changes are towards earliness for initial pubertal stages and towards lateness for final stages in both sexes. Such observations indicate the complexity of environmental influences on pubertal timing. The mechanisms of changes in pubertal timing may involve both the central neuroendocrine control and peripheral effects at tissues targeted by gonadal steroids. While sufficient energy availability is a clue to the mechanism of pubertal development, changes in the control of both energy balance and reproduction may vary under the influence of common determinants such as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). These effects can take place right before puberty as well as much earlier, during fetal and neonatal life. Finally, environmental factors can interact with genetic factors in determining changes in pubertal timing. Therefore, the variance in pubertal timing is no longer to be considered under absolutely separate control by environmental and genetic determinants. Some recommendations are provided for evaluation of EDC impact in the management of pubertal disorders and for possible reduction of EDC exposure along the precautionary principle.

  19. Metabolic Setup and Risks in Obese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocova, Mirjana; Sukarova-Angelovska, Elena; Tanaskoska, Milica; Palcevska-Kocevska, Snezana; Krstevska, Marija

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background In the past decades, the obesity epidemic in children of all ages has been an important research field for detecting the metabolic causes and consequences of obesity, the major focus being on insulin and adipocytokine levels. Metabolic work-up in obese children is recommended in the age group as young as 2–6 years. There is evidence that birth weight can be a factor causing obesity later in life accompanied by metabolic complications. Methods Insulin, leptin, and adiponectin levels were analyzed in 269 obese children and 60 controls, as well as 110 newborn children with different birth weight and different length of gestation, using standard methods. Results In 53.6% of the obese children, complications of obesity such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, hyperlipidemia, heart attack or stroke were found in family members. The peak insulinemia on OGTT was significantly higher in the pubertal compared to the prepubertal group (110.5± 75.9 μU/mL versus 72.2±62.7 μU/mL) (p<0.005). Glucose intolerance was confirmed in 24%. The leptin level was significantly higher and the adiponectin level was lower in pubertal obese children compared to the prepubertal children and controls (p<0.05). In newborns the leptin and adiponectin levels were in correlation with anthropometric parameters: body weight (BW), body length (BL), BW/BL, BMI, and the pondered index (p<0.05). Conclusion Obese children have high insulinemia in all ages, reaching its peak towards puberty. The leptin and adiponectin levels might be indicators of the metabolic syndrome. Our findings in newborns might influence the nutritional approach in the future in order to prevent complications of obesity. PMID:28356821

  20. Comparative Evaluation of Whole Body and Hepatic Insulin Resistance Using Indices from Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Morbidly Obese Subjects with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Qureshi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD is the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome and is a marker of Insulin Resistance (IR. Euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp is the gold standard for measuring whole body IR (hepatic + peripheral IR. However, it is an invasive and expensive procedure. Homeostasis Model Assessment Index for Insulin Sensitivity (HOMA-IS, Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI for hepatic IR and Insulin Sensitivity Index (ISI0,120, and Whole Body Insulin Sensitivity Index (WBISI for whole body IR are the indices calculated after Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT. We used these indices as noninvasive methods of IR (inverse of insulin sensitivity estimation and compared hepatic/peripheral components of whole body IR in NAFLD. Methods. 113 morbidly obese, nondiabetic subjects who underwent gastric bypass surgery and intraoperative liver biopsy were included in the study. OGTT was performed preoperatively and the indices were calculated. Subjects were divided into closely matched groups as normal, fatty liver (FL and Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH based on histology. Results. Whole body IR was significantly higher in both FL and NASH groups (NAFLD as compared to Normal, while hepatic IR was higher only in NASH from Normal. Conclusions. FL is a manifestation of peripheral IR but not hepatic IR.

  1. Beneficial Effects of Ethanol Consumption on Insulin Resistance Are Only Applicable to Subjects Without Obesity or Insulin Resistance; Drinking is not Necessarily a Remedy for Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Yokoyama

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Although moderate drinking has been shown to lower insulin resistance levels, it is still unclear whether alcoholic beverages could be remedies for insulin resistance. To elucidate this, the correlation between levels of ethanol consumption and insulin resistance were cross-sectionally examined in 371 non-diabetic male Japanese workers. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the ethanol consumption level was inversely correlated with the insulin resistance level assessed by homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR, p = 0.0014, the serum insulin level (p = 0.0007, and pancreatic β-cell function, also assessed by HOMA (HOMA-β, p = 0.0002, independently from age, body mass index (BMI, and blood pressure, liver function tests, and lipid profiles status, as well as serum adiponectin. The correlations were true in subjects with normal BMIs (up to 25.0 kg/m2, n = 301 or normal HOMA-IR (up to 2.0 µIU·mg/µL·dL n = 337, whereas all of them were non-significant in those with excessive BMIs (n = 70 or in those with HOMA-IR of more than 2.0 (n = 34. Although it is still unclear whether the reductions of these parameters by ethanol consumption are truly due to the improvement of insulin resistance, at least, these effects are not applicable to subjects with obesity and/or insulin resistance. Thus, alcoholic beverages could not be remedies for insulin resistance or metabolic syndrome.

  2. Effect of eight weeks of endurance exercise training on right and left ventricular volume and mass in untrained obese subjects: a longitudinal MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelsang, T W; Hanel, B; Kristoffersen, U S; Petersen, C L; Mehlsen, J; Holmquist, N; Larsson, B; Kjaer, A

    2008-06-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to examine how 8 weeks of intense endurance training influenced right and left ventricular volumes and mass in obese untrained subjects. Ten overweight subjects (19-47 years; body mass index of 34+/-5 kg/m(2)) underwent intensive endurance training (rowing) three times 30 min/week for 8 weeks at a relative intensity of 72+/-8% of their maximal heart rate response (mean+/-SD). Before and after 8 weeks of endurance training, the left and the right end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), ejection fraction (EF), stroke volume (SV) and ventricular mass (VM) were measured by Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Submaximal heart rate decreased from 126+/-5 to 113+/-3 b.p.m. (10%; Pright side of the heart showed significant changes in SV, EDV and VM with increase of 4%, 4% and 12%, respectively (Pright ventricular SV, due to an increase in left ventricular EDV and right ventricular EDV. Furthermore, left VM and right VM increased. We conclude that using MRI and a longitudinal design it was possible to demonstrate similar and balanced changes in the right and left ventricle in response to training.

  3. Using obese-specific charts of height and height velocity for assessment of growth in obese children and adolescents during weight excess reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falorni, A; Galmacci, G; Bini, V; Faraoni, F; Molinari, D; Cabiati, G; Sanasi, M; Celi, F; Di Stefano, G; Berioli, M G; Contessa, G; Bacosi, M L

    1999-03-01

    The influence of weight excess reduction on height and height velocity of obese subjects should be evaluated on the basis of appropriate standards, since the pattern of growth of obese subjects is different from that of normal weight subjects. Height, weight and triceps skinfold thickness were recorded from 17987 school subjects (9256 males and 8731 females), 3-18 y of age, from three provinces of central Italy, and a growth reference curve of height was constructed. Using BMI (as computed using the tables of Rolland-Cachera et al) and triceps skinfold thickness, normal-weight subjects (NWS) and obese subjects (OS) were identified and specific reference curves (mean+/-s.d. every sixth month of age) were developed for both groups. Centiles of height were also calculated for OS. Various (2-4) measurements of height in school subjects were performed and a graph of height velocity (HV) was constructed in NWS and in OS using the JPPS method. The yearly mean +/-s.d. of HV was also calculated, based on square root transformed data (in order to realise a Gaussian distribution), deriving from successive measurements in total subjects, in NWS and in OS. The z-scores of height and of the square root of HV were calculated in 217 obese subjects (125 males and 92 females) before and during a weight excess reduction programme (WERP). Obese subjects in WERP who showed a reduction of z-score of BMI were considered as 'responsive'; those who either maintained or showed an increase of z-score of BMI were considered as 'non-responsive'. Obese subjects in WERP were followed for 1-4 y, giving the following results: 0-1 y, 142 responsives and 75 non-responsives; 0-2 y, 76 responsives and 33 non-responsives; 0-3 y, 35 responsives and 30 non-responsives; 0-4 y, 24 responsives and 18 non-responsives. Compared to NWS, OS showed a significantly greater HV in 4-9y males and in 4-8y females, but in older children the pubertal spurt was reduced and more precocious. As a result, the height of OS

  4. Gonadal function is associated with cardiometabolic health in pre-pubertal boys with Klinefelter syndrome.

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    Davis, S; Lahlou, N; Bardsley, M; Temple, M-C; Kowal, K; Pyle, L; Zeitler, P; Ross, J

    2016-11-01

    The most common sex chromosome aneuploidy, Klinefelter syndrome (KS), is associated with primary gonadal failure and increased morbidity and mortality from cardiometabolic disorders in adulthood. Children with KS also have a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) features. To assess the relationship of gonadal and cardiometabolic function in children with KS, we evaluated serum hormones [gonadotropins, inhibin B (INHB), anti-mullerian hormone (AMH), total testosterone (TT)], and features of MetS (waist circumference, fasting lipid panel, fasting blood glucose (FBG), and blood pressure) in 93 pre-pubertal boys with KS age 4-12 years (mean 7.7 ± 2.5 years). The cohort was grouped by age and tanner stage, and biomarkers were compared to normal ranges. A total of 80% of this pre-pubertal cohort had ≥1 feature of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and 11% had ≥3 features of MetS. Risk of MetS was independent of age and body mass index. Sertoli cell dysfunction was common with 18% having an INHB below the normal range. A low INHB was associated with higher FBG, triglycerides, LDL, and lower HDL (p < 0.05). An INHB <50 ng/dL yielded a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 79% for having ≥3 features of MetS. INHB and AMH positively correlated with each other (p < 0.001), and high AMH was protective of MetS. TT was below the lower limit of normal in 49% of subjects, with mean values significantly lower than expected (3.3 ng/dL vs. 4.9 ng/dL, p < 0.0001), however, no convincing relationship between TT and MetS was seen. In conclusion, gonadal and cardiometabolic dysfunction are prevalent in pre-pubertal boys with KS. Although the relationship of testosterone deficiency and MetS is well-known, this study is the first to report an association between impaired Sertoli cell function and cardiometabolic risk.

  5. Obesity-Related Metabolomic Analysis of Human Subjects in Black Soybean Peptide Intervention Study by Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography and Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

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    Min Jung Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to identify key metabolites related to weight reduction in humans by studying the metabolic profiles of sera obtained from 34 participants who underwent dietary intervention with black soybean peptides (BSP for 12 weeks. This research is a sequel to our previous work in which the effects of BSP on BMI and blood composition of lipid were investigated. Sera of the study were subjected to ultra performance liquid chromatography and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS, and the data were analyzed using partial least-squares discriminate analysis (PLS-DA score plots. Body mass index and percent body fat of the test group were reduced. Levels of betaine, benzoic acid, pyroglutamic acid, pipecolic acid, N-phenylacetamide, uric acid, l-aspartyl-l-phenylalanine, and lysophosphatidyl cholines (lysoPCs (C18:1, C18:2, C20:1, and C20:4 showed significant increases. Levels of l-proline, valine, l-leucine/isoleucine, hypoxanthine, glutamine, l-methionine, phenylpyruvic acid, several carnitine derivatives, and lysoPCs (C14:0, PC16:0, C15:0, C16:0, C17:1, C18:0, and C22:0 were significantly decreased. In particular, lysoPC 16:0 with a VIP value of 12.02 is esteemed to be the most important metabolite for evaluating the differences between the 2 serum samples. Our result confirmed weight-lowering effects of BSP, accompanied by favorable changes in metabolites in the subjects’ blood. Therefore, this research enables us to better understand obesity and increases the predictability of the obesity-related risk by studying metabolites present in the blood.

  6. Effects of a Leucine and Pyridoxine-Containing Nutraceutical on Fat Oxidation, and Oxidative and Inflammatory Stress in Overweight and Obese Subjects

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    Antje Bruckbauer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Leucine stimulates tissue protein synthesis and may also attenuate adiposity by increasing fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis in muscle and adipocytes. Accordingly, the effects of a nutraceutical containing 2.25 g leucine and 30 mg pyridoxine (Vitamin B6 (NuFit active blend were tested in cell culture and in a clinical trial. 3T3L1 adipocytes were treated with leucine (0.25 mM or 0.5 mM and/or Pyridoxal Phosphate (PLP (50 nM or 100 nM for 48 h. For the clinical trial, twenty overweight or obese subjects received the NuFit active blend or placebo three times/day for 4 weeks without energy restriction. Leucine decreased fatty acid synthase (FAS expression and triglyceride content in adipocytes, and PLP addition significantly augmented this effect. Administration of NuFit active blend in the clinical trial increased fat oxidation by 33.6 g/day (p < 0.04, decreased respiratory quotient, improved HOMAIR, reduced oxidative and inflammatory biomarkers (plasma MDA, 8-isoprostane-F, TNF-α, C-reactive protein, and increased the anti-inflammatory marker adiponectin. These data indicate that the NuFit active blend significantly increased fat oxidation and insulin sensitivity, and reduced oxidative and inflammatory stress. Therefore, the NuFit active blend appears to be a useful nutraceutical in the management of obesity and associated co-morbidities.

  7. Cocoa extract intake for 4 weeks reduces postprandial systolic blood pressure response of obese subjects, even after following an energy-restricted diet

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    Idoia Ibero-Baraibar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiometabolic profile is usually altered in obesity. Interestingly, the consumption of flavanol-rich foods might be protective against those metabolic alterations. Objective: To evaluate the postprandial cardiometabolic effects after the acute consumption of cocoa extract before and after 4 weeks of its daily intake. Furthermore, the bioavailability of cocoa extract was investigated. Design: Twenty-four overweight/obese middle-aged subjects participated in a 4-week intervention study. Half of the volunteers consumed a test meal enriched with 1.4 g of cocoa extract (415 mg flavanols, while the rest of the volunteers consumed the same meal without the cocoa extract (control group. Glucose and lipid profile, as well as blood pressure and cocoa metabolites in plasma, were assessed before and at 60, 120, and 180 min post-consumption, at the beginning of the study (Postprandial 1 and after following a 4-week 15% energy-restricted diet including meals containing or not containing the cocoa extract (Postprandial 2. Results: In the Postprandial 1 test, the area under the curve (AUC of systolic blood pressure (SBP was significantly higher in the cocoa group compared with the control group (p=0.007, showing significant differences after 120 min of intake. However, no differences between groups were observed at Postprandial 2. Interestingly, the reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP (AUC_Postprandial 2-AUC_Postprandial 1 was higher in the cocoa group (p=0.016. Furthermore, cocoa-derived metabolites were detected in plasma of the cocoa group, while the absence or significantly lower amounts of metabolites were found in the control group. Conclusions: The daily consumption of cocoa extract within an energy-restricted diet for 4 weeks resulted in a greater reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP compared with the effect of energy-restricted diet alone and independently of body weight loss. These results suggest the role of cocoa flavanols on

  8. Effects of once-weekly semaglutide on appetite, energy intake, control of eating, food preference and body weight in subjects with obesity.

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    Blundell, John; Finlayson, Graham; Axelsen, Mads; Flint, Anne; Gibbons, Catherine; Kvist, Trine; Hjerpsted, Julie B

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this trial was to investigate the mechanism of action for body weight loss with semaglutide. This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover trial investigated the effects of 12 weeks of treatment with once-weekly subcutaneous semaglutide, dose-escalated to 1.0 mg, in 30 subjects with obesity. Ad libitum energy intake, ratings of appetite, thirst, nausea and well-being, control of eating, food preference, resting metabolic rate, body weight and body composition were assessed. After a standardised breakfast, semaglutide, compared with placebo, led to a lower ad libitum energy intake during lunch (-1255 kJ; P  intake across all ad libitum meals throughout the day (-3036 kJ; P  food cravings, better control of eating and a lower preference for high-fat foods. Resting metabolic rate, adjusted for lean body mass, did not differ between treatments. Semaglutide led to a reduction from baseline in mean body weight of 5.0 kg, predominantly from body fat mass. After 12 weeks of treatment, ad libitum energy intake was substantially lower with semaglutide vs placebo with a corresponding loss of body weight observed with semaglutide. In addition to reduced energy intake, likely mechanisms for semaglutide-induced weight loss included less appetite and food cravings, better control of eating and lower relative preference for fatty, energy-dense foods. © 2017 The Authors. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Changes in Uric Acid Levels following Bariatric Surgery Are Not Associated with SLC2A9 Variants in the Swedish Obese Subjects Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarzynski, Mark A.; Jacobson, Peter; Rankinen, Tuomo; Carlsson, Björn; Sjöström, Lars; Bouchard, Claude; Carlsson, Lena M. S.

    2012-01-01

    Context and Objective Obesity and SLC2A9 genotype are strong determinants of uric acid levels. However, data on SLC2A9 variants and weight loss induced changes in uric acid levels are missing. We examined whether the changes in uric acid levels two- and ten-years after weight loss induced by bariatric surgery were associated with SLC2A9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Swedish Obese Subjects study. Methods SNPs (N = 14) identified by genome-wide association studies and exonic SNPs in the SLC2A9 gene locus were genotyped. Cross-sectional associations were tested before (N = 1806), two (N = 1664) and ten years (N = 1201) after bariatric surgery. Changes in uric acid were compared between baseline and Year 2 (N = 1660) and years 2 and 10 (N = 1172). A multiple testing corrected threshold of P = 0.007 was used for statistical significance. Results Overall, 11 of the 14 tested SLC2A9 SNPs were significantly associated with cross-sectional uric acid levels at all three time points, with rs13113918 showing the strongest association at each time point (R2 = 3.7−5.2%, 3.9×10−22≤p≤7.7×10−11). One SNP (rs737267) showed a significant association (R2 = 0.60%, P = 0.002) with change in uric acid levels from baseline to Year 2, as common allele homozygotes (C/C, N = 957) showed a larger decrease in uric acid (−61.4 µmol/L) compared to minor allele carriers (A/X: −51.7 µmol/L, N = 702). No SNPs were associated with changes in uric acid from years 2 to 10. Conclusions SNPs in the SLC2A9 locus contribute significantly to uric acid levels in obese individuals, and the associations persist even after considerable weight loss due to bariatric surgery. However, we found little evidence for an interaction between genotype and weight change on the response of uric acid to bariatric surgery over ten years. Thus, the fluctuations in uric acid levels among the surgery group appear to be driven by the weight losses

  10. Change in weight and body composition in obese subjects following a hypocaloric diet plus different training programs or physical activity recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, Pedro J; Bermejo, Laura M; Peinado, Ana B; López-Plaza, Bricia; Cupeiro, Rocío; Szendrei, Barbara; Calderón, Francisco J; Castro, Eliane A; Gómez-Candela, Carmen

    2015-04-15

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of different physical activity programs, in combination with a hypocaloric diet, on anthropometric variables and body composition in obese subjects. Ninety-six obese (men: n = 48; women: n = 48; age range: 18-50 yr) participated in a supervised 22-wk program. They were randomized into four groups: strength training (S; n = 24), endurance training (E; n = 26), combined strength + endurance training (SE; n = 24), and physical activity recommendations (C; n = 22). In addition, all groups followed the same hypocaloric diet. At baseline and at the end of the intervention, dietetic and physical activity variables were assessed using validated questionnaires. Anthropometric variables were recorded along with body composition variables measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry techniques. At the end of the intervention, significant improvements were seen within groups in terms of body weight (S: -9.21 ± 0.83 kg; E: -10.55 ± 0.80 kg; SE: -9.88 ± 0.85 kg; C: -8.69 ± 0.89 kg), and total fat mass (S: -5.24 ± 0.55%; E: -5.35 ± 0.55%; SE: -4.85 ± 0.56%; C: -4.89 ± 0.59%). No differences were seen between groups at this time in terms of any other anthropometric or body composition variables examined. All groups increased their total physical activity in metabolic equivalents (MET) per week during the intervention, but with no difference between groups (S: 976 ± 367 MET-min/wk; E: 954 ± 355 MET-min/wk; SE: 1 329 ± 345 MET-min/wk; C: 763 ± 410 MET-min/wk). This study shows that, when combined with a hypocaloric diet, exercise training and adherence to physical activity recommendations are equally effective at reducing body weight and modifying body composition in the treatment of obesity (Clinical Trials Gov. number: NCT01116856). Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Prevalence of acne in primary school children and the relationship of acne with pubertal maturation

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    Hilal Kaya Erdoğan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Although acne vulgaris is generally regarded as a disease of adolescence period, it can occur in infancy, early childhood and prepubertal period. Acne may emerge as the first sign of pubertal maturation. In our study, we aimed to determine the acne prevalence in primary school children, then, evaluate the pubertal signs in those children; examine the correlation of the presence and severity of acne with pubertal signs, and finally, revise the concept of prepubertal acne. Materials and Methods: A thousand students from 2 schools in Istanbul were included in the study. Age, gender, and the presence, localization and severity of acne were recorded. Acne severity was evaluated using the Orfanos-Gollnick Acne Grading System while a validated self evaluation form which had been developed by Morris and Udry was used to evaluate pubertal stage. Data were evaluated statistically. Results: Five hundred and thirty-four male and 466 female primary school children, with an age range of 7 to 11, were included in the study. Acne was determined in 11.5% of the students. 20% of girls and 4% of boys had acne. Comparing acne presence and age, the average age was higher in group with acne than those with no acne. The mean age of children with grade 1 acne was lower than those with grade 2 acne. All the students with acne had mid-facial acne. Comparing acne presence and pubertal symptoms, the rate of the presence of acne was higher in pubertal girls. No acne was observed in prepubertal boys. Evaluating acne severity and pubertal signs, the difference between prepubertal and pubertal girls was not significant. Comparing acne and telarche stages, the group without acne had lower telarche rates. Comparing acne and pubertal stages, children with acne had advanced puberty. Conclusion: Our study denotes that acne prevalence is related to pubertal maturation and age; while it does not support the hypothesis that acne is the first sign of pubertal

  12. FA1 induces pro-inflammatory and anti-adipogenic pathways/markers in human myotubes established from lean, obese and Type 2 diabetic subjects but not insulin resistance

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    Basem M Abdallah

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Delta like 1/FA1 (Dlk1/FA1 is a protein secreted by hormone producing cells in adult human and mice that is known to inhibit adipogenesis. Recent studies demonstrated the role of Dlk1/FA1 in inducing insulin resistance in mice. To investigate the involvement of circulating Dlk1/FA1 in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in human subjects, we studied the effects of chronic FA1 on the intermediary metabolism in myotubes established from lean, obese and type 2 diabetic (T2D subjects.Methods: Myotube cultures were established from lean and obese control subjects, and obese T2D subjects and treated with soluble FA1 for 4 days supplemented with/without palmitate (PA. Lipid- and glucose metabolism were studied with labelled precursors while quantitative expression of genes was analyzed using Real-Time PCR.Results: Diabetic myotubes express significantly reduced insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism compared to lean myotubes and a significantly decreased basal PA oxidation. Chronic FA1 exposure did not affect the intermediary metabolism in myotubes. Insulin sensitivity of glucose and lipid metabolism was not affected by chronic FA1 exposure in myotubes established from lean, obese and T2D subjects. Instead, chronic FA1 exposure induced pro-inflammatory cytokines expression (IL6 and CCL2 in association with reducing adipogenic markers (ADD1, AP2, CD36 and PPARg2 in myotubes. Consistent with this observation, addition of FA1 to cultured myotubes was show to significantly inhibit their differentiation into adipocyte. Conclusions: Our results exclude direct effects of FA1 on glucose and lipid metabolism in cultured myotubes established from lean, obese and type 2 diabetic subjects. Therefore, the pathogenesis of FA1-indued IR might mainly be mediated via the FA1-induced stimulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which on turn inhibit adipogenesis in human myotubes.

  13. Mental health problems of Iranian female adolescents and its association with pubertal development: a nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbani, Ali; Mahmoudi-Gharaei, Javad; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Mohammad, Kazem; Ardalan, Gelayol; Maftoon, Farzaneh; Shahryari, Safiyeh; Khodaei, Shahnaz; Sotoudeh, Aria; Ziaaldini, Hassan; Kamali, Kobra; Motaghian, Molouk

    2012-01-01

    Mental health problems including emotional and behavioral problems during puberty may be under influence of different risk factors including cultures, living in urban or rural areas and ethnic factors which may vary between different countries. The main aim of this study is to investigate the profile of emotional and behavioral problems and the role of factors such as age, stage of puberty, ethnicity, rurality and living in urban area, as risk factors in Iranian girls. As a part of a large national study we evaluated the emotional and behavioral problems in different stages of puberty in a community sample of Iranian adolescent girls from public schools that were selected by clustered random sampling method. In all subjects, demographic characteristics, and pubertal stages were measured. Emotional and behavioral problems were evaluated using Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The associations of age, pubertal development indices, socioeconomic and demographic factors with the behavioral problems were assessed. A total number of 4576 students enrolled the study and responded to the questions. The mean age of participants was 13.83 ± 2.19 years. The mean total score of difficulties in participants was 14.34 ± 5.81. According to these results 813 (17.8%) adolescents had total problem scores higher than Goodman's cutoff points and the most frequent problem domain was conduct problems (20.5%). According to the results the most related variable with the total difficulty score of SDQ were ethnicity, residency in urban areas and development of menstrual cycle respectively. The results of this study showed that the most correlated factors with mental health problems in Iranian girls during puberty are ethnicity, urbanity and development of menstrual cycle.

  14. Mental Health Problems of Iranian Female Adolescents and Its Association with Pubertal Development: A Nationwide Study

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    Aria Sotoudeh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mental health problems including emotional and behavioral problems during puberty may be under influence of different risk factors including cultures, living in urban or rural areas and ethnic factors which may vary between different countries. The main aim of this study is to investigate the profile of emotional and behavioral problems and the role of factors such as age, stage of puberty, ethnicity, rurality and living in urban area, as risk factors in Iranian girls. As a part of a large national study we evaluated the emotional and behavioral problems in different stages of puberty in a community sample of Iranian adolescent girls from public schools that were selected by clustered random sampling method. In all subjects, demographic characteristics, and pubertal stages were measured. Emotional and behavioral problems were evaluated using Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. The associations of age, pubertal development indices, socioeconomic and demographic factors with the behavioral problems were assessed. A total number of 4576 students enrolled the study and responded to the questions. The mean age of participants was 13.83 2.19 years. The mean total score of difficulties in participants was 14.34 5.81. According to these results 813 (17.8% adolescents had total problem scores higher than Goodmans cutoff points and the most frequent problem domain was conduct problems (20.5%. According to the results the most related variable with the total difficulty score of SDQ were ethnicity, residency in urban areas and development of menstrual cycle respectively. The results of this study showed that the most correlated factors with mental health problems in Iranian girls during puberty are ethnicity, urbanity and development of menstrual cycle.

  15. Prenatal androgen excess programs metabolic derangements in pubertal female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaonan; Dai, Xiaonan; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Nannan; Cui, Yugui; Liu, Jiayin

    2013-04-01

    Owing to the heterogeneity in the clinical symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the early pathophysiological mechanisms of PCOS remain unclear. Clinical, experimental, and genetic evidence supports an interaction between genetic susceptibility and the influence of maternal environment in the pathogenesis of PCOS. To determine whether prenatal androgen exposure induced PCOS-related metabolic derangements during pubertal development, we administrated 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in pregnant rats and observed their female offspring from postnatal 4 to 8 weeks. The prenatally androgenized (PNA) rats exhibited more numerous total follicles, cystic follicles, and atretic follicles than the controls. Fasting glucose, insulin, leptin levels, and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance were elevated in the PNA rats at the age of 5-8 weeks. Following intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests, glucose and insulin levels did not differ between two groups; however, the PNA rats showed significantly higher 30- and 60-min glucose levels than the controls after insulin stimulation during 5-8 weeks. In addition, prenatal DHT treatment significantly decreased insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of AKT in the skeletal muscles of 6-week-old PNA rats. The abundance of IR substrate 1 (IRS1) and IRS2 was decreased in the skeletal muscles and liver after stimulation with insulin in the PNA group, whereas phosphorylation of insulin-signaling proteins was unaltered in the adipose tissue. These findings validate the contribution of prenatal androgen excess to metabolic derangements in pubertal female rats, and the impaired insulin signaling through IRS and AKT may result in the peripheral insulin resistance during pubertal development.

  16. Pubertal Timing and Depressive Symptoms in Early Adolescents: The Roles of Romantic Competence and Romantic Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Catherine B.; Davila, Joanne

    2008-01-01

    In spite of the large literature supporting the link between early pubertal timing and depression in adolescent girls, there are some exceptions. This suggests that there may be factors that interact with pubertal timing, increasing risk for depression in some girls, but not others. This study examined two such factors, romantic competence and…

  17. Ethnicity, Perceived Pubertal Timing, Externalizing Behaviors, and Depressive Symptoms among Black Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Rona; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Matusko, Niki; Antonucci, Toni; Jackson, James S.

    2011-01-01

    An accumulation of research evidence suggests that early pubertal timing plays a significant role in girls' behavioral and emotional problems. If early pubertal timing is a problematic event, then early developing Black girls should manifest evidence of this crisis because they tend to be the earliest to develop compared to other girls from…

  18. Association between Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Risk in Chinese Youth Independent of Age and Pubertal Stage

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    Lau Joseph TF

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood and adolescence are critical periods of habit formation with substantial tracking of lifestyle and cardiovascular risk into adulthood. There are various guidelines on recommended levels of physical activity in youth of school-age. Despite the epidemic of obesity and diabetes in China, there is a paucity of data in this regard in Chinese youth. We examined the association of self-reported level of physical activity and cardiovascular risk in Hong Kong Chinese youth of school-age. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 2007-8 in a school setting with 2119 Hong Kong Chinese youth aged 6-20 years. Physical activity level was assessed using a validated questionnaire, CUHK-PARCY (The Chinese University of Hong Kong: Physical Activity Rating for Children and Youth. A summary risk score comprising of waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose and lipids was constructed to quantify cardiovascular risk. Results In this cohort, 21.5% reported high level of physical activity with boys being more active than girls (32.1% versus 14.1%, p Conclusion Self-reported level of physical activity is associated with cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese youth after adjusting for sex and pubertal stage.

  19. Granular Vulvovaginitis Syndrome in Nelore pubertal and post pubertal replacement heifers under tropical conditions: role of Mycoplasma spp., Ureaplasma diversum and BHV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambarini, M L; Kunz, T L; Oliveira Filho, B D; Porto, R N G; Oliveira, C M G; Brito, W M E D; Viu, M A O

    2009-10-01

    In order to determine the role of Mycoplasma spp, Ureaplasma diversum and BHV-1 as causal agents of Granular Vulvovaginitis Syndrome in Nelore heifers raised under tropical conditions and based on the hypothesis that stressful conditions during puberty or breeding season would be a determinant factor for the infection, 340 heifers not vaccinated against BHV-1 were divided in Post-pubertal, in the beginning of the first breeding season, and Pubertal heifers. The vaginal lesion score (VLS) Grade 1 to 4 was giving according to lesion area and severity. Vaginal mucus was used to isolate Mycoplasma spp., Ureaplasma diversum and BHV-1. The predominant VLS was 2. No sample was positive for BHV-1; 48% were positive for Mycoplasma spp., Ureaplasma diversum, or both, with predominance of Ureaplasma diversum. Serum neutralization for BHV-1 showed more positive animals in pubertal group (23%); 3 of the paired sera demonstrated seroconversion. These data indicated that post-pubertal and pubertal Nelore heifers raised under extensive conditions are more susceptible to Mycoplasma spp. and Ureaplasma diversum. The hypothesis that the stress of pubertal period could lead to an acute vaginal infection by HBV-1 was not proofed.

  20. Nitrogen and sodium balance and sympathetic-nervous-system activity in obese subjects treated with a low-calorie protein or mixed diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHaven, J; Sherwin, R; Hendler, R; Felig, P

    1980-02-28

    Seven obese subjects were placed on a 400-kcal protein diet and on an isocaloric mixed diet (50 per cent protein and 50 per cent carbohydrate), three to 5 1/2 weeks for each diet. Despite twofold to fivefold increases in ketone levels in the blood and urine with the protein diet, net nitrogen balance was no different from that with the mixed diet (-2.1 +/- 0.9 vs. -2.6 +/- 0.4 g per day; mean +/- S.E.M.). However, net sodium loss with the protein diet (-382 +/- 117 mmol) was significantly greater than with the mixed diet (-25 +/- 105 mmol; P less than 0.02). Furthermore, maximal orthostatic decreases in systolic blood pressure with the protein diet (-28 +/- 3 mm Hg) were greater than with the mixed diet (-18 +/- 3 mm Hg; P less than 0.02) and were accompanied by symptoms of orthostatic hypotension in all patients. The protein diet (but not the mixed diet) also resulted in a 40 per cent decline in basal plasma levels of norepinephrine (P less than 0.01) and a failure of plasma norepinephrine to rise after two minutes of standing. We conclude that as compared with mixed diets, hypocaloric protein diets offer no advantage with respect to nitrogen metabolism but result in greater sodium depletion, a decrease in sympathetic-nervous-system activity, and the development of orthostatic hypotension.

  1. Pubertal development in elite juvenile gymnasts. Effects of physical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, C; Hagenfeldt, K; Ringertz, B M

    1994-03-01

    Twenty-two female teenagers engaged in elite gymnast training were prospectively studied during a five-year period and their pubertal development was recorded. Height and weight, as well as stage of development according to Tanner, were registered every six months. FSH, LH, TSH and prolactin were measured in girls who had not yet had their first menstrual period. Twenty-two healthy school girls in the same age group who were not actively engaged in physical exercise served as a control group. Pubertal development was completed during the observation period in all the gymnasts but one, who had primary amenorrhea at the age of eighteen. As a group, the gymnasts had a significantly delayed age of menarche compared to the control group and to normal Swedish girls. They also had significantly less body fat and were shorter and lighter than the control group. They grew much more slowly and did not have the distinct growth spurt seen in the controls. The final height of six of the gymnasts was less than the expected height. The frequency of injuries was high in the gymnasts, which might be a result of hard training combined with late menarche and low body fat.

  2. Randomised comparison of diets for maintaining obese subjects' weight after major weight loss: ad lib, low fat, high carbohydrate diet v fixed energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toubro, S; Astrup, A

    1997-01-04

    To compare importance of rate of initial weight loss for long term outcome in obese patients and to compare efficacy of two different weight maintenance programmes. Subjects were randomised to either rapid or slow initial weight loss. Completing patients were re-randomised to one year weight maintenance programme of ad lib diet or fixed energy intake diet. Patients were followed up one year later. University research department in Copenhagen, Denmark. 43 (41 women) obese adults (body mass index 27-40) who were otherwise healthy living in or around Copenhagen. 8 weeks of low energy diet (2 MJ/day) or 17 weeks of conventional diet (5 MJ/day), both supported by an anorectic compound (ephedrine 20 mg and caffeine 200 mg thrice daily); one year weight maintenance programme of ad lib, low fat, high carbohydrate diet or fixed energy intake diet ( 5 kg at follow up. Mean initial weight loss was 12.6 kg (95% confidence interval 10.9 to 14.3 kg) in rapid weight loss group and 12.6 (9.9 to 15.3) kg in conventional diet group. Rate of initial weight loss had no effect on weight maintenance after 6 or 12 months of weight maintenance or at follow up. After weight maintenance programme, the ad lib group had maintained 13.2 (8.1 to 18.3) kg of the initial weight loss of 13.5 (11.4 to 15.5) kg, and the fixed energy intake group had maintained 9.7 (6.1 to 13.3) kg of the initial 13.8 (11.8 to 15.7) kg weight loss (group difference 3.5 (-2.4 to 9.3) kg). Regained weight at follow up was greater in fixed energy intake group than in ad lib group (11.3 (7.1 to 15.5) kg v 5.4 (2.3 to 8.6) kg, group difference 5.9 (0.7 to 11.1) kg, P lib group and 40% of fixed energy intake group had maintained a weight loss of > 5 kg (P lib, low fat, high carbohydrate diet was superior to fixed energy intake for maintaining weight after a major weight loss. The rate of the initial weight loss did not influence long term outcome.

  3. Metabolic effects of weight loss on a very-low-carbohydrate diet compared with an isocaloric high-carbohydrate diet in abdominally obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Jeannie; Brinkworth, Grant D; Noakes, Manny; Keogh, Jennifer; Clifton, Peter M

    2008-01-01

    low carbohydrate, weight loss diets in obese subjects with the metabolic syndrome; http://www.anzctr.org.au; ACTR No. 12606000203550).

  4. Comparative effect of a 1 h session of electrical muscle stimulation and walking activity on energy expenditure and substrate oxidation in obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosset, Jean-François; Crowe, Louis; De Vito, Giuseppe; O'Shea, Donal; Caulfield, Brian

    2013-01-01

    It has previously been shown that low-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) techniques can induce increases in energy expenditure similar to those associated with exercise. This study investigated the metabolic and cardiovascular effects of a 1 h session of lower limb NMES and compared cardiovascular response with that observed during walking in nine obese subjects (three males) (age = 43.8 ± 3.0 years; body mass index (BMI) = 41.5 ± 1.8 kg/m(2)). The NMES protocol consisted of delivering a complex pulse pattern to the thigh muscles for 1 h. The walking test consisted of five 4-min bouts starting at 2 km/h with 1 km/h increments up to 6 km/h. In both tests, an open-circuit gas analyser was used to assess O(2) consumption ([Formula: see text]O(2)), CO(2) production ([Formula: see text]CO(2)), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and heart rate (HR). Rates of fat oxidation (RFO) and carbohydrate oxidation (CHO) were estimated by indirect calorimetry. One hour of NMES significantly increased [Formula: see text]O(2), HR, RER, and mean energy expenditure compared with resting values, reaching 8.7 ± 1.3 mL·min(-2)·kg(-1) (47% of [Formula: see text]O(2peak)), 114.8 ± 7.5 bpm, 0.95, and 318.5 ± 64.3 kcal/h, respectively. CHO, but not RFO, increased during 1 h of NMES. With NMES, CHO was greater and RFO was less than at all walking speeds except 6 km/h. Lactate also increased more with NMES, to 3.5 ± 0.7 mmol versus a maximum of 1.5 ± 0.3 mmol with the walking protocol. These results suggest that NMES can be used in an obese population to induce an effective cardiovascular exercise response. In fact, the observed increase in energy expenditure induced by 1 h of NMES is clinically important and comparable with that recommended in weight management programs.

  5. Studies of the relationship between the ENPP1 K121Q polymorphism and type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and obesity in 7,333 Danish white subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grarup, N.; Urhammer, S.A.; Ek, J.

    2006-01-01

    ENPP1; genetic epidemiology; K121Q polymorphism; insulin resistance; meta-analysis; obesity; plasma cell membrane glycoprotein 1; type 2 diabetes......ENPP1; genetic epidemiology; K121Q polymorphism; insulin resistance; meta-analysis; obesity; plasma cell membrane glycoprotein 1; type 2 diabetes...

  6. Levels of 4-1BB transcripts and soluble 4-1BB protein are elevated in the adipose tissue of human obese subjects and are associated with inflammatory and metabolic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, T H; Kim, C-S; Kang, J-H; Nam-Goong, I S; Nam, C W; Kim, E S; Kim, Y I; Choi, J I; Kawada, T; Goto, T; Park, T; Yoon Park, J H; Choi, M-S; Yu, R

    2014-08-01

    4-1BB, a member of the TNF receptor superfamily, has a role in various inflammatory pathologies through its interaction with 4-1BB ligand. We previously demonstrated that it participates in initiating and promoting obesity-induced adipose inflammation in a rodent model. In this study, we examined whether 4-1BB is related to obesity-induced adipose inflammation and metabolic parameters in humans. A total of 50 subjects, 25 obese (body mass index (BMI)≥25 kg m(-2)) and 25 lean (BMIadipose tissue were measured by quantitative real-time PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Inflammatory and metabolic parameters were measured by enzymatic analysis and immunoassay. Obese subjects had higher levels of both 4-1BB transcripts and s4-1BB protein in subcutaneous adipose tissue than lean controls, and the levels were correlated with BMI and the expression of inflammatory markers, as well as with serum metabolic parameters. Moreover, s4-1BB was released from human adipocytes, and elicited chemotactic responses from human monocytes/T cells as well as enhancing their inflammatory activity, indicating that it may promote human adipose inflammation. Our data demonstrate that elevated levels of 4-1BB transcripts and s4-1BB in adipose tissue are closely associated with obesity-induced inflammation and metabolic dysregulation. They suggest that both 4-1BB transcripts and s4-1BB could serve as novel biomarkers and/or therapeutic targets for obesity-induced inflammation and metabolic syndrome in humans.

  7. Luteinizing Hormone Secretion during Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Stimulation Tests in Obese Girls with Central Precocious Puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae Sang; Yoon, Jong Seo; Hwang, Jin Soon

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Girls with precocious puberty have high luteinizing hormone (LH) levels and advanced bone age. Obese children enter puberty at earlier ages than do non-obese children. We analyzed the effects of obesity on LH secretion during gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) tests in girls with precocious puberty. Methods: A total of 981 subjects with idiopathic precocious puberty who had undergone a GnRH stimulation testing between 2008 and 2014 were included in the study. Subjects were divided into three groups based on body mass index (BMI). Auxological data and gonadotropin levels after the GnRH stimulation test were compared. Results: In Tanner stage 2 girls, peak stimulated LH levels on GnRH test were 11.9±7.5, 10.4±6.4, and 9.1±6.1 IU/L among normal-weight, overweight, and obese subjects, respectively (p=0.035 for all comparisons). In Tanner stage 3 girls, peak stimulated LH levels were 14.9±10.9, 12.8±7.9, and 9.6±6.0 IU/L, respectively (p=0.022 for all comparisons). However, in Tanner stage 4 girls, peak stimulated LH levels were not significantly different among normal, overweight, and obese children. On multivariate analysis, BMI standard deviation score was significantly and negatively associated with peak LH (β=-1.178, p=0.001). Conclusion: In girls with central precocious puberty, increased BMI was associated with slightly lower peak stimulated LH levels at early pubertal stages (Tanner stages 2 and 3). This association was not valid in Tanner stage 4 girls. PMID:27215137

  8. Coping and coping effectiveness in relation to a competitive sport event: pubertal status, chronological age, and gender among adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Adam; Polman, Remco; Morley, David; Taylor, Natalie J

    2009-06-01

    An aim of this paper was to discover whether athletes of different pubertal status, chronological age, and gender reported distinct coping strategies in response to stress during a competitive event in their sport. A secondary aim was to examine pubertal status group, chronological age, and gender differences in coping effectiveness. Participants were adolescent athletes (n = 527), classified as beginning-pubertal (n = 59), midpubertal (n = 189), advanced-pubertal (n = 237), and postpubertal (n = 22). Findings revealed that there were small, but significant differences in how athletes of different pubertal status and chronological age coped. There were also significant differences between how athletes of different pubertal status perceived the effectiveness of their coping strategies. Interestingly, our results suggested that the relationship between pubertal status and coping and coping effectiveness is different from the relationship between chronological age and coping and coping effectiveness.

  9. Pubertal maturation and sex steroids are related to alcohol use in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Water, Erik; Braams, Barbara R; Crone, Eveline A; Peper, Jiska S

    2013-02-01

    Adolescents often show risk-taking behavior, including experimentation with alcohol. Previous studies have shown that advanced pubertal maturation is related to increased alcohol use in adolescents, even when controlling for age. Little is known about the underlying mechanisms of this relation between pubertal maturation and alcohol use. The goal of the present study was twofold. In Experiment 1, we investigated whether advanced pubertal maturation is associated with higher levels of alcohol use, when controlling for age. To this end, questionnaires on pubertal development and alcohol use were administered to a large sample of 797 Dutch adolescents (405 boys) aged 11-16 years. In Experiment 2, we explored whether sex steroids contribute to this relation between pubertal maturation and alcohol use by examining the association between salivary sex steroid levels and alcohol use in 168 adolescents (86 boys). It was found that, when controlling for age, advanced pubertal maturation is related to increased alcohol use in adolescent boys and girls. Controlling for age, higher testosterone and estradiol levels correlated with the onset of alcohol use in boys. In addition, higher estradiol levels were associated with a larger quantity of alcohol use in boys. Correlations between sex steroids and alcohol use were not significant in girls. These findings show that advanced pubertal maturation is related to advanced alcohol use, and that higher sex steroid levels could be one of the underlying mechanisms of this relation in boys. Sex steroids might promote alcohol use by stimulating brain regions implicated in reward processing.

  10. Association between ferritin, high sensitivity c-reactive protein (hsCRP and relative abundance of Hepcidin mRNA with the risk of type 2 diabetes in obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Andrews Guzmán

    Full Text Available Obesity and Type 2 diabetes mellitus share a strong pro-inflammatory profile. It has been observed that iron is a risk factor in the development of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between iron nutritional status and inflammation with the risk of type 2 diabetes development in obese subjects. We studied 30 obese men with type 2 diabetes (OBDM; 30 obese subjects without diabetes (OB and 30 healthy subjects (Cn. We isolated peripheral mononuclear cells (PMCs and challenged them with high Fe concentrations. Total mRNA was isolated and relative abundance of TNF-αIL-6 and hepcidin were determined by qPCR. Iron status, biochemical, inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters were also characterized. OBDM and OB patients showed increased hsCRP levels compared to the Cn group. OBDM subjects showed higher levels of ferritin than the Cn group. TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA relative abundances were increased in OBDM PMCs treated with high/Fe. Hepcidin mRNA was increased with basal and high iron concentration. We found that the highest quartile of ferritin was associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes when it was adjusted to BMI and HOMA-IR; this association was independent of the inflammatory status. The highest level of hepcidin gene expression also showed a trend of increased risk of diabetes, however it was not significant. Levels of hsCRP over 2 mg/L showed a significant trend of increasing the risk of diabetes. In conclusion, iron may stimulate the expression of pro-inflammatory genes (TNF-α and IL-6, and both hepcidin and ferritin gene expression levels could be a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes. Subjects that have an increased cardiovascular risk also have a major risk to develop type 2 diabetes, which is independent of the BMI and insulin resistance state.

  11. Efficacy of a 3-month lifestyle intervention program using a Japanese-style healthy plate on body weight in overweight and obese diabetic Japanese subjects: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Keiko; Katayama, Tomomi; Yamauchi, Takahiro; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Tsuzaki, Kokoro; Takahashi, Kaoru; Sakane, Naoki

    2014-11-24

    The portion size of food is a determinant of energy intake, linking with obese traits. A healthy plate for portion control has recently been made in a Japanese style. The aim of the current study was to assess the efficacy of a lifestyle intervention program using the Japanese-style healthy plate on weight reduction in overweight and obese diabetic Japanese subjects. We randomized overweight and obese diabetic subjects (n = 19, 10 women) into an intervention group including educational classes on lifestyle modification incorporating the healthy plate (n = 10) or a waiting-list control group (n = 9). The intervention period was three months, and the educational classes using the healthy plate were conducted monthly in a group session for the intervention group. The body weight, blood glycemic and metabolic measures, and psychosocial variables were measured at the baseline and after the 3-month intervention in both groups. The impression of the intervention was interviewed using a structured questionnaire. There was one drop-out in the control group. No adverse events were reported in the groups. Subjects in the intervention group had a greater weight change from baseline to the end of the 3-month intervention period (-3.7 +/- 2.5 [SD] kg in the intervention group vs. -0.1 +/- 1.4 kg in the control group, P = 0.002). Most subjects recorded that the use of a healthy plate could be recommended to other people. The lifestyle intervention program using the Japanese-style healthy plate, which was developed for portion control, may effectively reduce body weight in overweight and obese diabetic subjects in Japan. Further studies are needed to establish the efficacy of this methodology on weight management.

  12. Association between ferritin, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and relative abundance of Hepcidin mRNA with the risk of type 2 diabetes in obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews Guzmán, Mónica; Arredondo Olguín, Miguel

    2014-09-01

    Obesity and Type 2 diabetes mellitus share a strong pro-inflammatory profile. It has been observed that iron is a risk factor in the development of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between iron nutritional status and inflammation with the risk of type 2 diabetes development in obese subjects. We studied 30 obese men with type 2 diabetes (OBDM); 30 obese subjects without diabetes (OB) and 30 healthy subjects (Cn). We isolated peripheral mononuclear cells (PMCs) and challenged them with high Fe concentrations. Total mRNA was isolated and relative abundance of TNF-, IL-6 and hepcidin were determined by qPCR. Iron status, biochemical, inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters were also characterized. OBDM and OB patients showed increased hsCRP levels compared to the Cn group. OBDM subjects showed higher levels of ferritin than the Cn group. TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA relative abundances were increased in OBDM PMCs treated with high/Fe. Hepcidin mRNA was increased with basal and high iron concentration. We found that the highest quartile of ferritin was associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes when it was adjusted to BMI and HOMA-IR; this association was independent of the inflammatory status. The highest level of hepcidin gene expression also showed a trend of increased risk of diabetes, however it was not significant. Levels of hsCRP over 2 mg/L showed a significant trend of increasing the risk of diabetes. In conclusion, iron may stimulate the expression of pro-inflammatory genes (TNF-α and IL- 6), and both hepcidin and ferritin gene expression levels could be a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes. Subjects that have an increased cardiovascular risk also have a major risk to develop type 2 diabetes, which is independent of the BMI and insulin resistance state.

  13. Haplotypes in the CRP Gene Associated with Increased BMI and Levels of CRP in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes or Obesity from Southwestern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    América Martínez-Calleja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We evaluated the association between four polymorphisms in the CRP gene with circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP, type 2 diabetes (T2D, obesity, and risk score of coronary heart disease. Methods. We studied 402 individuals and classified them into four groups: healthy, obese, T2D obese, and T2D without obesity, from Guerrero, Southwestern Mexico. Blood levels of CRP, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and leukocytes were measured. Genotyping was performed by PCR/RFLP, and the risk score for coronary heart disease was determined by the Framingham's methodology. Results. The TT genotype of SNP rs1130864 was associated with increased body mass index and T2D patients with obesity. We found that the haplotype 2 (TGAG was associated with increased levels of CRP (β=0.3; 95%CI: 0.1, 0.5; P=0.005 and haplotype 7 (TGGG with higher body mass index (BMI (β=0.2; 95%CI: 0.1, 0.3; P<0.001. The risk score for coronary heart disease was associated with increased levels of CRP, but not with any polymorphism or haplotype. Conclusions. The association between the TT genotype of SNP rs1130864 with obesity and the haplotype 7 with BMI may explain how obesity and genetic predisposition increase the risk of diseases such as T2D in the population of Southwestern Mexico.

  14. Acceleration of pubertal development following pituitary radiotherapy for Cushing's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholl, R.M.; Kirk, J.M.W.; Grossman, A.B.; Plowman, P.N.; Besser, G.M.; Savage, M.O. (Saint Bartholomew' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom))

    1993-01-01

    A 7-year-old boy with pituitary dependent Cushing's disease was treated with pituitary irradiation following unsuccessful microadenomectomy. This led to normalization of the hypercortisolaemia, but was followed by GH deficiency. Two years after radiotherapy he had the onset of pubertal development with testicular enlargement to 8 ml bilaterally. Pubertal regression was induced using the long-acting GnRH analogue goserelin. Acceleration of skeletal maturation was also arrested, resulting in improvement of final height prediction. Irradiation directly to the hypothalamo-pituitary region, as well as whole brain irradiation, may thus be associated with accelerated pubertal development. (author).

  15. Urinary phthalate excretion in 555 healthy Danish boys with and without pubertal gynaecomastia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mieritz, Mikkel G; Frederiksen, Hanne; Sørensen, Kaspar;

    2012-01-01

    Pubertal gynaecomastia is a clinical sign of an oestrogen-androgen imbalance, which occurs in 40-60% of adolescent Caucasian boys. In most cases no underlying endocrinopathy can be identified. A recent study reports higher plasma phthalate levels in Turkish boys with pubertal gynaecomastia....... Therefore, we asked whether there was an association between concurrent measures of urinary phthalate metabolites and pubertal timing as well as the presence of gynaecomastia in otherwise healthy boys. We studied a total of 555 healthy boys (age 6.07-19.83 years) as part of the COPENHAGEN Puberty Study...

  16. The ultrasound appearance of the patellar tendon attachment to the tibia in young athletes is conditional on gender and pubertal stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducher, Gaele; Cook, Jill; Lammers, Greg; Coombs, Peter; Ptazsnik, Ron; Black, Jeni; Bass, Shona L

    2010-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the imaging appearance of the patellar tendon attachment to the tibia in young male and female tennis players of different ages and pubertal status. Forty-four competitive young players, who had been playing tennis at least for 2 years, were recruited from a tennis school and local tennis clubs. All subjects had bilateral ultrasound imaging of the patellar tendon attachment to the tibia. Standard anthropometric measurements, pubertal status and injury history were recorded. Ultrasound appearance of the patellar tendon attachment was categorised into three stages: cartilage attachment, insertional cartilage and mature attachment. Cartilage attachment was more prevalent in boys (32%) and extended further into puberty (until Tanner stage 4) compared to girls (6% and Tanner stage 1). Tendons with Osgood-Schlatter Disease symptoms (n=3) did not have a cartilage attachment. Imaging appearance commonly seen in young active athletes, consistent with a clinical diagnosis of OSD, was more common in boys and in the pre- and peri-pubertal stages.

  17. Weight loss is effective for symptomatic relief in obese subjects with knee osteoarthritis independently of joint damage severity assessed by high-field MRI and radiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudbergsen, H; Boesen, M; Lohmander, L S

    2012-01-01

    With an increasing prevalence of older and obese citizens, the problems of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) will escalate. Weight loss is recommended for obese KOA patients and in a majority of cases this leads to symptomatic relief. We hypothesized that pre-treatment structural status of the knee joint......, assessed by radiographs, 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and knee-joint alignment, may influence the symptomatic changes following a significant weight reduction....

  18. Studies of the associations between functional beta2-adrenergic receptor variants and obesity, hypertension and type 2 diabetes in 7,808 white subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjesing, A P; Andersen, G; Burgdorf, K S

    2007-01-01

    Functional and common Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu polymorphisms have been identified in ADRB2, the gene encoding the beta2-adrenergic receptor. These variants have previously been examined for association with obesity, hypertension and diabetes with inconclusive results.......Functional and common Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu polymorphisms have been identified in ADRB2, the gene encoding the beta2-adrenergic receptor. These variants have previously been examined for association with obesity, hypertension and diabetes with inconclusive results....

  19. Dose-dependent relationship between severity of pediatric obesity and blunting of the growth hormone response to exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Stacy R.; Rosa, Jaime S.; Minh, Timothy D. C.; Pontello, Andria M.; Flores, Rebecca L.; Barnett, Marcia

    2010-01-01

    In children, exercise modulates systemic anabolism, muscle growth, and overall physiological development through the growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) axis. GH secretion, at rest and during exercise, changes with age and maturational status and can be blunted by hyperlipidemia and obesity, with possible negative effects on physiological growth. However, little is known about the effect of progressively more severe pediatric obesity on the GH response to exercise and its relationship to pubertal status. We therefore studied 48 early- or late-pubertal obese children [body mass index (BMI) >95th percentile, separated in tertiles with progressively greater BMI] and 42 matched controls (BMI <85th percentile), who performed ten 2-min cycling bouts at ∼80% of maximal O2 consumption, separated by 1-min rest intervals. Plasma GH and IGF-I were measured at baseline and end exercise. GH responses were systematically blunted in obese children, with more pronounced blunting paralleling increasing BMI. Although overall the GH response to exercise was greater in late-pubertal than in younger children, this blunting pattern was observed in early- and late-pubertal children. Our results reveal insight into the interaction between pediatric obesity and key modulators of physiological growth and development and underscore the necessity of optimizing physical activity strategies for specific pediatric dysmetabolic conditions. PMID:19875716

  20. Dose-dependent relationship between severity of pediatric obesity and blunting of the growth hormone response to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Stacy R; Rosa, Jaime S; Minh, Timothy D C; Pontello, Andria M; Flores, Rebecca L; Barnett, Marcia; Galassetti, Pietro R

    2010-01-01

    In children, exercise modulates systemic anabolism, muscle growth, and overall physiological development through the growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) axis. GH secretion, at rest and during exercise, changes with age and maturational status and can be blunted by hyperlipidemia and obesity, with possible negative effects on physiological growth. However, little is known about the effect of progressively more severe pediatric obesity on the GH response to exercise and its relationship to pubertal status. We therefore studied 48 early- or late-pubertal obese children [body mass index (BMI) >95th percentile, separated in tertiles with progressively greater BMI] and 42 matched controls (BMI exercise. GH responses were systematically blunted in obese children, with more pronounced blunting paralleling increasing BMI. Although overall the GH response to exercise was greater in late-pubertal than in younger children, this blunting pattern was observed in early- and late-pubertal children. Our results reveal insight into the interaction between pediatric obesity and key modulators of physiological growth and development and underscore the necessity of optimizing physical activity strategies for specific pediatric dysmetabolic conditions.

  1. Recent changes in pubertal timing in healthy Danish boys: associations with body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Aksglaede, Lise; Petersen, Jørgen Holm;

    2010-01-01

    In the 1990s, the American population-based study NHANES III renewed the focus on possible secular trends in male puberty. However, no conclusions could be made on pubertal onset due to the lack of compatible data....

  2. A pre-pubertal girl with giant juvenile fibroadenoma: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Gaurav

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Through this case we want to emphasize that these giant benign neoplasms should be suspected in any pre-pubertal girl with breast lump and should always be treated with breast conserving surgery.

  3. Pubertal development in healthy children is mirrored by DNA methylation patterns in peripheral blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almstrup, Kristian; Johansen, Marie Lindhardt; Busch, Alexander S.

    2016-01-01

    Puberty marks numerous physiological processes which are initiated by central activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis, followed by development of secondary sexual characteristics. To a large extent, pubertal timing is heritable, but current knowledge of genetic polymorphismsonly...... explains few months in the large inter-individual variation in the timing of puberty. We have analysed longitudinal genome-wide changes in DNA methylation in peripheral blood samples (n = 102) obtained from 51 healthy children before and after pubertal onset. We show that changes in single methylation...... sites are tightly associated with physiological pubertal transition and altered reproductive hormone levels. These methylation sites cluster in and around genes enriched for biological functions related to pubertal development. Importantly, we identified that methylation of the genomic region containing...

  4. Dioxin and Polychlorinated Biphenyl Concentrations in Mother's Serum and the Timing of Pubertal Onset in Sons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humblet, Olivier; Williams, Paige L.; Korrick, Susan A.; Sergeyev, Oleg; Emond, Claude; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Burns, Jane S.; Altshul, Larisa; Patterson, Donald G.; Turner, Wayman E.; Lee, Mary M.; Revich, Boris; Hauser, Russ

    2013-01-01

    Background Animal studies have demonstrated that timing of pubertal onset can be altered by prenatal exposure to dioxins or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), but studies of human populations have been quite limited. Methods We assessed the association between maternal serum concentrations of dioxins and PCBs and the sons’ age of pubertal onset in a prospective cohort of 489 mother–son pairs from Chapaevsk, Russia, a town contaminated with these chemicals during past industrial activity. The boys were recruited at ages 8 to 9 years, and 4 years of annual follow-up data were included in the analysis. Serum samples were collected at enrollment from both mothers and sons for measurement of dioxin and PCB concentrations using high-resolution mass spectrometry. The sons’ pubertal onset—defined as pubertal stage 2 or higher for genitalia (G) or pubic hair (P), or testicular volume >3 mL—was assessed annually by the same physician. Results In multivariate Cox models, elevated maternal serum PCBs were associated with earlier pubertal onset defined by stage G2 or higher (4th quartile hazard ratio = 1.7 [95% confidence interval = 1.1– 2.5]), but not for stage P2 or higher or for testicular volume >3 mL. Maternal serum concentrations of dioxin toxic equivalents were not consistently associated with the sons’ pubertal onset, although a dose-related delay in pubertal onset (only for G2 or higher) was seen among boys who breast-fed for 6 months or more. Conclusions Maternal PCB serum concentrations measured 8 or 9 years after sons’ births—which may reflect sons’ prenatal and early-life exposures—were associated with acceleration in some, but not all, measures of pubertal onset. PMID:21968773

  5. Effectiveness of vitamin E as treatment of primary dysmenorrhea in pubertal adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagito

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Primary dysmenorrhea is a common complaint among adolescents. Absenteeism from work and school are associated with the severity of symptoms. Vitamin E is an alternative treatment for primary dysmenorrhea. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of vitamin E as a treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial from August to October 2009. We included female adolescents with primary dysmenorrhea in this study. Subjects were divided into 2 groups by simple randomization. Each group received either 200 units of vitamin E or a placebo twice daily, beginning two days before menstruation and continuing until the third day of menstruation. Treatment was repeated for three menstrual cycles. Subjects recorded the severity and duration of pain in a daily diary. Data was analyzed using Chi-square, Mann-Whitney U-test, and independent t-test. Results One hundred-sixteen primary dysmenorrhea subjects enrolled in our study. By simple randomization, they were divided into two groups of 58 subjects each. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in the severity and duration of pain before the start of treatment and after 1 month of treatment. After treatment for 2 months and 3 months, there were statistically significant differences in pain severity (P=0.013, 95%CI -0.54 to -0.11; and P=0.0001, 95%CI -0.67 to -0.26, respectively and pain duration (P=0.025, 95%CI -0.65 to -0.07 and P=0.007, 95%CI -0.75 to -0.12, respectively between the 2 groups. Conclusion Vitamin E was effective in treatment of primary dysmenorrhea in pubertal adolescents after 2 and 3 months of treatment. [Paediatr Indones. 2011;51:41-6].

  6. The Gly482Ser Missense Mutation of the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Coactivator-1α (PGC-1α Gene Associates with Reduced Insulin Sensitivity in Normal and Glucose-Intolerant Obese Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzia Fanelli

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the putative candidate genes for insulin resistance, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α is a transcriptional coactivator of PPARγ and α, regulating a wide range of processes involved in energy production and utilization, such as thermogenesis, liver gluconeogenesis, glucose uptake in muscle. In population studies a Gly482Ser substitution in PGC-1α has been reported to be associated with increased risk of type diabetes 2 and insulin resistance. In the present study we have analysed the association between the Gly482Ser missense mutation of the PGC-1α gene and insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in a population of obese non-diabetic subjects. The Gly482Ser SNPs was detected by PCR-RFLP in a cohort of 358 Caucasian obese subjects (223 with normal glucose tolerance (NGT and 125 with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT. We observed a significant association (p < 0.007 between carriers of the Gly482Ser variant of the PGC-1α gene and insulin resistance measured by HOMAIR. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the Gly482Ser SNP was a significant (p < 0.02 determinant of decreased insulin sensitivity, independently from other well-known modulators of insulin action. In conclusion, we have found significant association between the Gly482Ser variant of the PGC-1α gene and reduced insulin sensitivity in obese subjects. This association resulted independent from all other known modulators of insulin resistance, and suggests a primary role for the PGC-1α gene on the genetic susceptibility to insulin resistance in obesity.

  7. [Consumptions of Meat and Dairy Products, Zinc Intake and Pubertal Development in Adolescents in Chengdu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiao; Yang, Ming-zhe; Duan, Ruo-nan; Tian, Guo; Bao, Yu-xin; Chen, Yan-rong; Xue, Hong-mei; Liu, Yan; Cheng, Guo

    2015-09-01

    To determine the associations between meat, dairy and zinc intake and pubertal development in adolescents in Chengdu. A total of 1320 children and adolescents aged 9-15 years in Chengdu were recruited using a stratified cluster sampling strategy. Dietary intake was assessed by the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and 3-day 24-hour dietary recall. Pubertal development was evaluated through physical examinations. Consumptions of meat and dairy, and zinc intake were compared between groups with different levels of pubertal development according to the Tanner criteria. The median age of spermarche was 13. 00 years. The boys who had had spermarche consumed more meat (including red meat) and dairy products than those who had not yet (Pmeat was positively correlated with the level of pubertal development (Pmeat and less diiry products than those who had not yet (Pproducts was negatively associated with breast development and the level of pubertal development (P meat, red meat and dairy products are associated with pubertal development in adolescents in Chengdu. However, the differences between boys and girls warrant further studies.

  8. Childhood body size and pubertal timing in relation to adult mammographic density phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoemaker, Minouk J; Jones, Michael E; Allen, Steven; Hoare, Jean; Ashworth, Alan; Dowsett, Mitch; Swerdlow, Anthony J

    2017-02-07

    An earlier age at onset of breast development and longer time between pubertal stages has been implicated in breast cancer risk. It is not clear whether associations of breast cancer risk with puberty or predictors of onset of puberty, such as weight and height, are mediated via mammographic density, an important risk factor for breast cancer. We investigated whether childhood body size and pubertal timing and tempo, collected by questionnaire, are associated with percentage and absolute area mammographic density at ages 47-73 years in 1105 women recruited to a prospective study. After controlling for adult adiposity, weight at ages 7 and 11 years was strongly significantly inversely associated with percentage and absolute dense area (p trend density (p trend = 0.016). Later age at menarche and age at when regular periods were established was associated with increased density, but additional adjustment for childhood weight attenuated the association. A longer interval between thelarche and menarche, and between thelarche and regular periods, was associated with increased dense area, even after adjusting for childhood weight (p trend = 0.013 and 0.028, respectively), and was independent of age at pubertal onset. Greater prepubertal weight and earlier pubertal onset are associated with lower adult breast density, but age at pubertal onset does not appear to have an independent effect on adult density after controlling for childhood adiposity. A possible effect of pubertal tempo on density needs further investigation.

  9. PRE-PUBERTAL CHILDREN AND EXERCISE IN HOT AND HUMID ENVIRONMENTS: A BRIEF REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wade H. Sinclair

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability of pre-pubertal children to regulate their body temperature under thermoneutral environments is similar to that of an adult albeit via differing routes. However, this ability is challenged when exposed to extreme environments. Thermoregulatory responses of pre-pubertal children differ from adults via adaptations that occur during growth and maturation and disadvantage children when exercising in hot and humid environments. When ambient temperatures exceed that of the skin, an influx of thermal energy from the environment increases thermal stress. When coupled with exercise, the increased thermal stress results in reduced physical performance and an increased risk of developing heat-related illness. Evidence suggesting the severity of heat-related illness is greater in pre-pubertal children than adults is inconclusive because age-related differences in thermoregulatory responses are attributed to either morphologic or functional changes. Additionally, the majority of research on pre-pubertal children exercising in the heat has been maturational or comparative studies with adults conducted in the near absence of convective cooling, complicating extrapolation to field-based environments. However, current consensus is that pre-pubertal children are disadvantaged when exercising in extreme temperatures and that care should be taken in preparing for and conducting sporting activities in hot and humid environments for pre-pubertal children

  10. Effects of exchanging carbohydrate or monounsaturated fat with saturated fat on inflammatory and thrombogenic responses in subjects with abdominal obesity: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Kim-Tiu; Chang, Lin Faun; Vethakkan, Shireene Ratna; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi; Sanders, Tom A B

    2017-10-01

    Modification of the amount and type of dietary fat has diverse effects on cardiovascular risk. We recruited 54 abdominally obese subjects to participate in a prospective cross-over design, single-blind trial comparing isocaloric 2000 kcal MUFA or carbohydrate-enriched diet with SFA-enriched diet (control). The control diet consisted of 15E% protein, 53E% carbohydrate and 32E% fat (12E% SFA, 13E% MUFA). A total of ∼7E% of MUFA or refined carbohydrate was exchanged with SFA in the MUFA-rich and carbohydrate-rich diets respectively for 6-weeks. Blood samples were collected at fasting upon trial commencement and at week-5 and 6 of each dietary-intervention phase to measure levels of cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β), C-reactive protein (CRP), thrombogenic markers (E-selectin, PAI-1, D-dimer) and lipid subfractions. Radial pulse wave analysis and a 6-h postprandial mixed meal challenge were carried out at week-6 of each dietary intervention. Blood samples were collected at fasting, 15 and 30 min and hourly intervals thereafter till 6 h after a mixed meal challenge (muffin and milkshake) with SFA or MUFA (872.5 kcal, 50 g fat, 88 g carbohydrates) or CARB (881.3 kcal, 20 g fat, 158 g carbohydrates)- enrichment corresponding to the background diets. No significant differences in fasting inflammatory and thrombogenic factors were noted between diets (P > 0.05). CARB meal was found to increase plasma IL-6 whereas MUFA meal elevated plasma D-dimer postprandially compared with SAFA meal (P < 0.05). Comparing the 3 meals, there were similar postprandial elevations in IL-6 and D-dimer and postprandial reductions in PAI-1, augmentation index and pressure (time effect: P < 0.05). CARB diet was found to reduce HDL3 by 7.8% and increase small dense HDL (sdHDL) by 8.6% compared with SFA diet (P < 0.05). SFA diet increased large HDL subfractions compared with both CARB and MUFA diets by 4.9% and 6.6% (P < 0.05), respectively. Overall, the evidence presented in this study

  11. Studies of associations between the Arg389Gly polymorphism of the beta1-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB1) and hypertension and obesity in 7677 Danish white subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjesing, A P; Andersen, G; Albrechtsen, A

    2007-01-01

    Activation of the beta(1)-adrenergic receptor (ADRB1) causes increased lipolysis in adipose tissue and enhances cardiac output. Analysis of the association of the functional ADRB1 Arg389Gly variant with obesity and hypertension has given ambiguous results. To clarify the potential impact of this ......Activation of the beta(1)-adrenergic receptor (ADRB1) causes increased lipolysis in adipose tissue and enhances cardiac output. Analysis of the association of the functional ADRB1 Arg389Gly variant with obesity and hypertension has given ambiguous results. To clarify the potential impact...... of this variant on obesity and hypertension in the general population, we examined the Arg389Gly variant in a relatively large-scale population-based study....

  12. Obesity and Gastrointestinal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Fujimoto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity in the Japanese population has been increasing dramatically in step with the Westernization of lifestyles and food ways. Our study demonstrated significant associations between obesity and a number of gastrointestinal disorders in a large sample population in Japan. We demonstrated that reflux esophagitis and hiatal hernia were strongly related to obesity (BMI > 25 in the Japanese. In particular, obesity with young male was a high risk for these diseases. On the other hand, it has been reported that obesity is also associated with Barrett’s esophagus and colorectal adenoma; however, obesity was not a risk factor for these diseases in our study. The difference of ethnicity of our subjects may partly explain why we found no data to implicate obesity as a risk factor for Barrett’s esophagus. Arterial sclerosis associated with advanced age and hyperglycemia was accompanied by an increased risk of colorectal adenoma.

  13. Transitions in Body and Behavior : A Meta-Analytic Study on the Relationship Between Pubertal Development and Adolescent Sexual Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Baams, Laura; Dubas, Judith Semon; Overbeek, Geertjan; Aken, Marcel A. G.

    2015-01-01

    The present meta-analysis studies the relations of pubertal timing and status with sexual behavior and sexual risk behavior among youth aged 10.5-22.4 years. We included biological sex, age, and ethnicity as potential moderators. Four databases were searched for studies (published between 1980 and 2012) on the relation between pubertal timing or status and sexual behavior. The outcomes were (1) sexual intercourse; (2) combined sexual behavior; and (3) risky sexual behavior. Earlier pubertal t...

  14. Microdialysis assessment of local adipose tissue lipolysis during beta-adrenergic stimulation in upper-body-obese subjects with type II diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaak, E E; Kemerink, G J; Pakbiers, M T; Wolffenbuttel, B H; Heidendal, G A; Saris, W H

    1999-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate indicators of abdominal adipose tissue lipolysis (microdialysis), and subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow and whole-body lipolysis, in obesity-associated type II diabetes during overnight-fasted conditions (baseline) and during intravenous infusion of

  15. Variants in the 5' region of the neuropeptide Y receptor Y2 gene (NPY2R) are associated with obesity in 5,971 white subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torekov, Signe Sørensen; Larsen, L H; Andersen, G;

    2006-01-01

    The gene encoding neuropeptide Y receptor Y2 (NPY2R) is widely expressed in the central nervous system, with particularly high abundance in the hypothalamus, which is known to be important for appetite regulation. We tested whether variations in NPY2R are associated with obesity....

  16. Pubertal timing and sexual risk behaviors among rural African American male youth: testing a model based on life history theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Steven M; Cho, Junhan; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Allen, Kimberly A; Beach, Steven R H; Simons, Ronald L; Gibbons, Frederick X

    2015-04-01

    Life History Theory (LHT), a branch of evolutionary biology, describes how organisms maximize their reproductive success in response to environmental conditions. This theory suggests that challenging environmental conditions will lead to early pubertal maturation, which in turn predicts heightened risky sexual behavior. Although largely confirmed among female adolescents, results with male youth are inconsistent. We tested a set of predictions based on LHT with a sample of 375 African American male youth assessed three times from age 11 to age 16. Harsh, unpredictable community environments and harsh, inconsistent, or unregulated parenting at age 11 were hypothesized to predict pubertal maturation at age 13; pubertal maturation was hypothesized to forecast risky sexual behavior, including early onset of intercourse, substance use during sexual activity, and lifetime numbers of sexual partners. Results were consistent with our hypotheses. Among African American male youth, community environments were a modest but significant predictor of pubertal timing. Among those youth with high negative emotionality, both parenting and community factors predicted pubertal timing. Pubertal timing at age 13 forecast risky sexual behavior at age 16. Results of analyses conducted to determine whether environmental effects on sexual risk behavior were mediated by pubertal timing were not significant. This suggests that, although evolutionary mechanisms may affect pubertal development via contextual influences for sensitive youth, the factors that predict sexual risk behavior depend less on pubertal maturation than LHT suggests.

  17. The dynamics of bone structure development during pubertal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, F

    2012-03-01

    The pubertal growth spurt is a time of rapid changes in bone length, mass and structure, followed by the cessation of longitudinal growth. The two best studied anatomical areas in this respect are the metaphyses and the diaphyses of peripheral long bones. A model is presented here in which the speed of longitudinal growth and the resulting age gradient in metaphyseal bone are key factors in explaining the high incidence of distal radius fractures during puberty. As growth in length accelerates, the age of the bone structural elements at a given distance to the growth plate decreases, leaving less time for cortical thickening through trabecular coalescence. This leads to a discrepancy between stagnant metaphyseal bone strength and increasing mechanical requirements in the case of accidents. In comparison to the metaphysis, diaphyseal bone develops more in line with the increasing mechanical requirements, presumably because the bone formation rates needed for diaphyseal growth in width are only a fraction of the apposition rates in the metaphysis. It remains largely unexplored how local and systemic signals are integrated to achieve site-specific changes in bone structure.

  18. Attachment, parenting styles and bullying during pubertal years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Watt, Ronél

    2014-01-01

    Research that focuses on combining attachment, parenting styles, bullying and the reciprocal nature thereof in the parent-adolescent and peer relationships is limited. The bio-psychosocial changes that adolescents experience open up broader social realities and are perceived differently by parents and adolescents. Attachment processes and parenting styles may elicit dissimilar perceptions. These processes are also associated with the multifaceted dynamics of bullying. The aim of the article is to advocate for research on the possible link between the implications of attachment, parenting styles and bullying. Exploring the association between attachment, parenting styles and bullying can deepen the understanding of the developmental challenges within the parent-adolescent relationship, add insight to the different perceptions of adolescents and parents, and complement intervention programmes accordingly. Firstly, this article outlines bio-psychosocial changes in the pubertal years as related to the social realities of the adolescent. Secondly, a discussion on the concepts 'attachment', 'parenting styles', 'bullying', and the potential link between these concepts will follow. Thirdly, an outline of the clinical implications of the apparent association between these concepts is given. The article concludes with recommendations that researchers can consider while exploring the relationship between attachment, parenting styles, and bullying and the delineation thereof in the parent-adolescent relationship.

  19. Pituitary volume mediates the relationship between pubertal timing and depressive symptoms during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Sarah; Yücel, Murat; Lorenzetti, Valentina; Byrne, Michelle L; Simmons, Julian G; Wood, Stephen J; Pantelis, Christos; Allen, Nicholas B

    2012-07-01

    Early timing of puberty (i.e., advanced pubertal maturation relative to peers) has been linked to the onset of depressive symptoms during the early adolescent phase. However, the precise neurobiological mechanisms linking early pubertal timing to adolescent depressive symptoms are not clear. We investigated whether the volume of the pituitary gland, a key component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes, mediated the relationship between pubertal timing and depressive symptoms in 155 adolescents (72 females) both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. At baseline (M age 12.7, SD 0.5 years), early pubertal timing predicted larger pituitary gland volume and higher depressive symptoms (especially for girls), but there was no mediation effect. Longitudinally, however, larger pituitary gland volume at baseline was found to mediate the relationship between early pubertal timing and increased depressive symptoms over time (M follow-up period=2.57 years, SD=0.26) for both boys and girls. Our findings suggest that neurobiological mechanisms are partly responsible for the link between early pubertal timing and depressive symptoms in adolescents. We speculate that an enlarged pituitary gland in adolescents with early pubertal timing might be associated with hyperactivation of the hormonal stress response, leading to increased susceptibility to environmental stressors, and subsequent development of depressive symptoms. Given the well-established relationship between increasing depressive symptoms in adolescence and later disorder, these findings have implications for targeted prevention and early intervention strategies for depressive disorders in adolescence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Candidate gene expression in Bos indicus ovarian tissues: pre-pubertal and post-pubertal heifers in diestrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Morena Del Cambre Amaral Weller

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Growth factors such as bone morphogenetic proteins 6, 7, 15 and two isoforms of transforming growth factor-beta (BMP6, BMP7, BMP15, TGFB1 and TGFB2 and insulin-like growth factor system act as local regulators of ovarian follicular development. To elucidate if these factors as well as others candidate genes such as estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1, growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9, follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR, luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR, bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type 2 (BMPR2, type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR1, and key steroidogenic enzymes cytochrome P450 aromatase and 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (CYP19A1 and HSD3B1 could modulate or influence diestrus on the onset of puberty in Brahman heifers, their ovarian mRNA expression was measured before and after puberty (luteal phase. Six post-pubertal (POST heifers were euthanized on the luteal phase of their second cycle, confirmed by corpus luteum observation, and six pre-pubertal (PRE heifers were euthanized in the same day. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression of FSHR, BMP7, CYP19A1, IGF1 and IGFR1 mRNA was greater in PRE heifers, when contrasted to POST heifers. The expression of LHR and HSD3B1 was lower in PRE heifers. Differential expression of ovarian genes could be associated with changes in follicular dynamics and different cell populations that have emerged as consequence of puberty and the luteal phase. The emerging hypothesis is that BMP7 and IGF1 are co-expressed and may modulate the expression of FSHR, LHR and IGFR1 and CYP19A1. BMP7 could influence the down-regulation of LHR and up-regulation of FSHR and CYP19A1, which mediates the follicular dynamics in heifer ovaries. Up-regulation of IGF1 expression pre-puberty, compared to post-puberty diestrus, correlates with increased levels FSHR and CYP19A1. Thus, BMP7 and IGF1 may play synergic roles and were predicted to interact, from the expression data (P = 0

  1. Childhood Obesity. Special Reference Briefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winick, Myron

    This reference brief deals with the problem of childhood obesity and how it can lead to obesity in the adult. Eighty-four abstracts are presented of studies on the identification, prevention, and treatment of obesity in children, focusing on diet and psychological attitudes. Subjects of the studies were children ranging in age from infancy through…

  2. Temporal relationships between adipocytokines and diabetes risk in Hispanic adolescents with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Brandon D; Toledo-Corral, Claudia M; Alderete, Tanya L; Weigensberg, Marc J; Goran, Michael I

    2015-07-01

    Circulating cytokines are frequently cited as contributors to insulin resistance in children with obesity. This study examined whether circulating adipocytokines, independent of adiposity, predicted pubertal changes in insulin sensitivity (SI), insulin secretion (AIR), and β-cell function in high-risk adolescents. 158 Hispanic adolescents with overweight or obesity were followed for a median of 4 years. Adipocytokines were measured using Luminex technology. SI, AIR, and the disposition index were derived from an intravenous glucose tolerance test and minimal modeling. Total fat mass was measured by DXA and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) by MRI. Surprisingly, mean IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α decreased between 5% and 6.5% per year from baseline (P adipocytokines decreased during adolescence and were weakly associated with VAT and lower SI during puberty. Circulating adipocytokines have relatively limited associations with pubertal changes in diabetes risk; however, the consistent findings with MCP-1 warrant further investigation. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  3. Short term non-invasive ventilation post-surgery improves arterial blood-gases in obese subjects compared to supplemental oxygen delivery - a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoremba Norbert

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the immediate postoperative period, obese patients are more likely to exhibit hypoxaemia due to atelectasis and impaired respiratory mechanics, changes which can be attenuated by non-invasive ventilation (NIV. The aim of the study was to evaluate the duration of any effects of early initiation of short term pressure support NIV vs. traditional oxygen delivery via venturi mask in obese patients during their stay in the PACU. Methods After ethics committee approval and informed consent, we prospectively studied 60 obese patients (BMI 30-45 undergoing minor peripheral surgery. Half were randomly assigned to receive short term NIV during their PACU stay, while the others received routine treatment (supplemental oxygen via venturi mask. Premedication, general anaesthesia and respiratory settings were standardized. We measured arterial oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry and blood gas analysis on air breathing. Inspiratory and expiratory lung function was measured preoperatively (baseline and at 10 min, 1 h, 2 h, 6 h and 24 h after extubation, with the patient supine, in a 30 degrees head-up position. The two groups were compared using repeated-measure analysis of variance (ANOVA and t-test analysis. Statistical significance was considered to be P Results There were no differences at the first assessment. During the PACU stay, pulmonary function in the NIV group was significantly better than in the controls (p Conclusion Early initiation of short term NIV during in the PACU promotes more rapid recovery of postoperative lung function and oxygenation in the obese. The effect lasted 24 hours after discontinuation of NIV. Patient selection is necessary in order to establish clinically relevant improvements. Trial Registration# DRKS00000751; http://www.germanctr.de

  4. Using Super-Imposition by Translation And Rotation (SITAR) to relate pubertal growth to bone health in later life:the Medical Research Council (MRC) National Survey of Health and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, T J; Kuh, Diana J L; Johnson, W.; Ward, K A; Howe, L.D.; Adams, J E; Hardy, R; Ong, K. K.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To explore associations between pubertal growth and later bone health in a cohort with infrequent measurements, using another cohort with more frequent measurements to support the modelling, data from the Medical Research Council (MRC) National Survey of Health and Development (2-26 years, 4901/30 004 subjects/measurements) and the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents And Children (ALSPAC) (5-20 years) (10 896/74 120) were related to National Survey of Health and Development (NSHD) ...

  5. Xenoestrogens diethylstilbestrol and zearalenone negatively influence pubertal rat's testis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Marchlewska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the impact of xenoestrogens: diethylstilbestrol (DES and zearalenone (ZEA on rat's pubertal testis and to compare it with the effect of natural estrogen - 17beta-estradiol (E. Male Wistar rats were daily, subcutaneously injected at 5th-15th postnatal days (p.d. with E (1.25 or 12.5 mug or DES (1.25 or 12.5 mug or ZEA (4 or 40 mug or vehicle. At 16th p.d. testes were dissected, weighted, and paraffin embedded. Following parameters were assessed: diameter and length of seminiferous tubule, numbers of spermatogonia A+intermediate+B (A/In/B, preleptotene spermatocytes (PL, leptotene+zygotene+pachytene spermatocytes (L/Z/PA and Sertoli cells per testis. Testes weight, seminiferous tubule diameter and length were decreased by both doses of E, DES and ZEA. DES effect was the strongest, but its influence on testis weight and seminiferous tubule length, on the contrary to E and ZEA, was not dose-dependent. Similarly, DES in both doses had the most severe negative impact on the number of germ and Sertoli cells. The negative influence of E on germ cells was less pronounced. The negative effect of ZEA was seen only after administration of the higher dose on spermatogonia number, while DES and E decreased A/In/B number more evidently. Sertoli cell number were decreased after both doses of E. ZEA40 decreased Sertoli cell number while ZEA4 had no effect. Conclusion: exposure of prepubertal male rat to DES has the strongest detrimental effect on the developing testis in comparison to E and ZEA. Both, E and DES, decreased number of germ and Sertoli cells, diminished seminiferous tubule diameter, length and testis weight. ZEA had much more weaker effect than the potent estrogens.

  6. Asthma and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet, L-P

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence and incidence of asthma have increased among obese children and adults, particularly among women. Obesity seems to be a predisposing factor for the development of asthma, but the underlying mechanisms of its influence are still uncertain. Various hypotheses have been proposed to explain the link between obesity and asthma such as a common genetic predisposition, developmental changes, altered lung mechanics, the presence of a systemic inflammatory process, and an increased prevalence of associated comorbid conditions. Over-diagnosis of asthma does not seem to be more frequent in obese compared to non-obese subjects, but the added effects of obesity on respiratory symptoms can affect asthma control assessment. Obesity can make asthma more difficult to control and is associated with a reduced beneficial effect of asthma medications. This could be due to a change in asthma phenotype, particularly evidenced as a less eosinophilic type of airway inflammation combined to the added effects of changes in lung mechanics. Weight loss is associated with a universal improvement of asthma and should be part of asthma management in the obese patient. Additional research should be conducted to better determine how obesity influences the development and clinical expression of asthma, establish the optimal management of asthma in this population and determine how obesity affects long-term asthma outcomes in these patients.

  7. Adolescents' Increasing Stress Response to Social Evaluation: Pubertal Effects on Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase during Public Speaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bos, Esther; de Rooij, Mark; Miers, Anne C.; Bokhorst, Caroline L.; Westenberg, P. Michiel

    2014-01-01

    Stress responses to social evaluation are thought to increase during adolescence, which may be due to pubertal maturation. However, empirical evidence is scarce. This study is the first to investigate the relation between pubertal development and biological responses to a social-evaluative stressor longitudinally. Participants performed the Leiden…

  8. Adolescents' Increasing Stress Response to Social Evaluation: Pubertal Effects on Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase during Public Speaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bos, Esther; de Rooij, Mark; Miers, Anne C.; Bokhorst, Caroline L.; Westenberg, P. Michiel

    2014-01-01

    Stress responses to social evaluation are thought to increase during adolescence, which may be due to pubertal maturation. However, empirical evidence is scarce. This study is the first to investigate the relation between pubertal development and biological responses to a social-evaluative stressor longitudinally. Participants performed the Leiden…

  9. Transitions in body and behavior: a meta-analytic study on the relationship between pubertal development and adolescent sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baams, Laura; Dubas, Judith Semon; Overbeek, Geertjan; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2015-06-01

    The present meta-analysis studies the relations of pubertal timing and status with sexual behavior and sexual risk behavior among youth aged 10.5-22.4 years. We included biological sex, age, and ethnicity as potential moderators. Four databases were searched for studies (published between 1980 and 2012) on the relation between pubertal timing or status and sexual behavior. The outcomes were (1) sexual intercourse; (2) combined sexual behavior; and (3) risky sexual behavior. Earlier pubertal timing or more advanced pubertal status was related to earlier and more sexual behavior, and earlier pubertal timing was related to more risky sexual behavior. Further, the links between (1) pubertal status and combined sexual behavior and (2) pubertal timing and sexual intercourse status, combined sexual behavior, and risky sexual behavior were stronger for girls than boys. Most links between pubertal status, timing, and sexual behavior and sexual risk behavior were stronger for younger adolescents. Moderation by ethnicity did not yield consistent results. There was significant variation in results among studies that was not fully explained by differences in biological sex, age, and ethnicity. Future research is needed to identify moderators that explain the variation in effects and to design sexual health interventions for young adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Ethnic differences in body fat distribution among Asian pre-pubertal children: A cross-sectional multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koon Poh Bee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnic differences in body fat distribution contribute to ethnic differences in cardiovascular morbidities and diabetes. However few data are available on differences in fat distribution in Asian children from various backgrounds. Therefore, the current study aimed to explore ethnic differences in body fat distribution among Asian children from four countries. Methods A total of 758 children aged 8-10 y from China, Lebanon, Malaysia and Thailand were recruited using a non-random purposive sampling approach to enrol children encompassing a wide BMI range. Height, weight, waist circumference (WC, fat mass (FM, derived from total body water [TBW] estimation using the deuterium dilution technique and skinfold thickness (SFT at biceps, triceps, subscapular, supraspinale and medial calf were collected. Results After controlling for height and weight, Chinese and Thai children had a significantly higher WC than their Lebanese and Malay counterparts. Chinese and Thais tended to have higher trunk fat deposits than Lebanese and Malays reflected in trunk SFT, trunk/upper extremity ratio or supraspinale/upper extremity ratio after adjustment for age and total body fat. The subscapular/supraspinale skinfold ratio was lower in Chinese and Thais compared with Lebanese and Malays after correcting for trunk SFT. Conclusions Asian pre-pubertal children from different origins vary in body fat distribution. These results indicate the importance of population-specific WC cut-off points or other fat distribution indices to identify the population at risk of obesity-related health problems.

  11. Efficacy and safety comparison between liraglutide as add-on therapy to insulin and insulin dose-increase in Chinese subjects with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes and abdominal obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chun-jun

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To assess the efficacy and safety of adding liraglutide to established insulin therapy in poorly controlled Chinese subjects with type 2 diabetes and abdominal obesity compared with increasing insulin dose. Methods A 12-week, randomized, parallel-group study was carried out. A total of 84 patients completed the trial who had been randomly assigned to either the liraglutide-added group or the insulin-increasing group while continuing current insulin based treatment. Insulin dose was reduced by 0-30% upon the initiation of liraglutide. Insulin doses were subsequently adjusted to optimized glycemic control. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c values, blood glucose, total daily insulin dose, body weight, waist circumference, and the number of hypoglycemic events and adverse events were evaluated. Results At the end of study, the mean reduction in HbA1c between the liraglutide-added group and the insulin-increasing group was not significantly different (1.9% vs. 1.77%, p>0.05. However, the percentage of subjects reaching the composite endpoint of HbA1c ≤ 7.0% with no weight gain and no hypoglycemia, was significantly higher in the liraglutide-added group than in the insulin-increasing group (67% vs. 19%, p2, p Conclusions Addition of liraglutide to abdominally obese, insulin-treated patients led to improvement in glycemic control similar to that achieved by increasing insulin dosage, but with a lower daily dose of insulin and fewer hypoglycemic events. Adding liraglutide to insulin also induced a significant reduction in body weight and waist circumference. Liraglutide combined with insulin may be the best treatment option for poorly controlled type 2 diabetes and abdominal obesity.

  12. Serial measurements of body composition in obese subjects during a very-low-energy diet (VLED) comparing bioelectrical impedance with hydrodensitometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carella, M J; Rodgers, C D; Anderson, D; Gossain, V V

    1997-05-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a convenient, inexpensive, and noninvasive technique for measuring body composition. BIA has been strongly correlated with total body water (TBW) and also has been validated against hydrodensitometry (HD). The accuracy and clinical utility of BIA and HD during periods of substantial weight loss remain controversial. We measured body composition in moderately and severely obese patients serially using both methods during a very-low-energy diet (VLED). Mean initial weight in these patients was 116 (+/-30) kg (range, 74-196 kg). Mean weight loss was 24 (+/-13) kg with a decrease in fat mass (FM) by HD of kg (p < 0.001) and a decrease in fat-free mass (FFM) of 3.6 kg (p < 0.05). Loss of FFM is best predicted by the rate (kg/wk) of weight loss (r2 = 0.86, p < 0.0001). FFM, as predicted from BIA equations, was highly correlated with FFM as estimated by HD during all testing sessions (r = 0.92-0.98). Although highly correlated, BIA overestimated FFM relative to HD and this difference appeared to be more pronounced for taller patients with greater truncal obesity. Although the discrepancy was no greater during weight-loss treatment, the level of disagreement was considerable. Therefore, the two methods cannot be used interchangeably to monitor relative changes in body composition in patients with obesity during treatment with VLED. The discrepancy between BIA and HD may be caused by body mass distribution considerations and by perturbations in TBW which affect the hydration quotient for FFM (BIA) and/or which affect the density constants for FFM and FM (HD).

  13. Effects of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate on the Hypothalamus-Uterus in Pubertal Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Te; Jia, Yiyang; Zhou, Liting; Wang, Qi; Sun, Di; Xu, Jin; Wu, Juan; Chen, Huaiji; Xu, Feng; Ye, Lin

    2016-11-12

    The pollution of endocrine disruptors and its impact on human reproductive system have attracted much attention. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), an environmental endocrine disruptor, is widely used in food packages, containers, medical supplies and children's toys. It can cause diseases such as infertility, sexual precocity and uterine bleeding and thus arouse concerns from the society and scholars. The effect of DEHP on pubertal female reproductive system is still not well-studied. This study was to investigate the effects of DEHP on the hypothalamus-uterus in pubertal female rats, reveal the reproductive toxicity of DEHP on pubertal female rats and its mechanism, and provide scientific evidence for the evaluation of toxicity and toxic mechanism of DEHP on reproductive system. Forty-eight pubertal female rats were randomly divided into four groups and respectively administered via oral gavage 0, 250, 500, or 1000 mg/kg/d DEHP in 0.1 mL corn oil/20 g body weight for up to four weeks. Compared with control rats, the DEHP-treated rats showed: (1) higher gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) level in the hypothalamus; (2) higher protein levels of GnRH in the hypothalamus; and (3) higher mRNA and protein levels of GnRH receptor (GnRHR) in the uterus. Our data reveal that DEHP exposure may lead to a disruption in pubertal female rats and an imbalance of hypothalamus-uterus. Meanwhile, DEHP may, through the GnRH in the hypothalamus and its receptor on the uterus, lead to diseases of the uterus. DEHP may impose a negative influence on the development and functioning of the reproductive system in pubertal female rats.

  14. A randomised cross-over comparison of the transverse and longitudinal techniques for ultrasound-guided identification of the cricothyroid membrane in morbidly obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, M S; Teoh, W H; Rudolph, S S;

    2016-01-01

    We compared the transverse and longitudinal approaches to ultrasound-guided identification of the cricothyroid membrane, to determine which was faster and more successful. Forty-two anaesthetists received a one-hour structured training programme consisting of e-learning, a lecture and hands......-on training, and then applied both techniques in a randomised, cross-over sequence to obese females with body mass index 39.0 - 43.9 kg.m(-2) . The mean (SD) time to identify the cricothyroid membrane was 24.0 (12.4) s using the transverse technique compared with 37.6 (17.9) s for the longitudinal technique...

  15. Minor long-term changes in weight have beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity and β-cell function in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    James, W P; Hilsted, Jannik

    2001-01-01

    that with an individualized weight-management program, most obese patients can achieve metabolically significant weight loss, and this loss can be sustained in most patients who continue therapy for 2 years. New analyses reveal that those patients who maintain a higher level of physical activity do better, and the prediction...... that blood pressure responses might be hazardous is counteracted by predictive analyses of multiple sibutramine trials, which suggest a likely absolute reduction in cardiovascular risk in sibutramine-treated patients. Additional evidence suggests a reduced cardiovascular load as a result of this new...

  16. The HOT (Healthy Outcome for Teens) project. Using a web-based medium to influence attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control and intention for obesity and type 2 diabetes prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffar, Henna; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen; Castelli, Darla M; Scherer, Jane A

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) constructs (behavioral belief, attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, knowledge and behavioral intention) regarding preventive behaviors for obesity and type 2 diabetes will change favorably after completing the web-based intervention, HOT (Healthy Outcome for Teens) project, grounded in the TPB; and that passive online learning (POL) group will improve more than the active online learning (AOL) group. The secondary hypothesis was to determine to what extent constructs of the TPB predict intentions. 216 adolescents were recruited, 127 randomly allocated to the treatment group (AOL) and 89 to the control group (POL). The subjects completed a TPB questionnaire pre and post intervention. Both POL and AOL groups showed significant improvements from pretest to posttest survey. However, the results indicated no significant difference between POL and AOL for all constructs except behavioral belief. Correlational analysis indicated that all TPB constructs were significantly correlated with intentions for pretest and posttest for both groups. Attitude and behavioral control showed strongest correlations. Regression analysis indicated that TPB constructs were predictive of intentions and the predictive power improved post intervention. Behavioral control consistently predicted intentions for all categories and was the strongest predictor for pretest scores. For posttest scores, knowledge and attitude were the strongest predictors for POL and AOL groups respectively. Thus, HOT project improved knowledge and the TPB constructs scores for targeted behaviors, healthy eating and physical activity, for prevention of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Double-blind randomised controlled trial of the independent and synergistic effect of Spirulina maxima with exercise (ISESE) on general fitness, lipid profile and redox status in overweight and obese subjects: study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Lepe, Marco Antonio; López-Díaz, José Alberto; de la Rosa, Laura Alejandra; Hernández-Torres, Rosa Patricia; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Juarez-Oropeza, Marco Antonio; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Urquidez-Romero, Rene; Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo

    2017-01-01

    Introduction In order to reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors, a healthy diet must include dietary antioxidants from different sources (eg, Spirulina maxima) and regular practice of exercise should be promoted. There is some evidence from animal studies that S. maxima and exercise decrease cardiovascular disease risks factors. However, very few studies have proved the independent or synergistic effect of S. maxima plus exercise in humans. This study attempts to address the independent and synergistic effects in overweight and obese subjects participating in a systematic physical exercise programme at moderate intensity on general fitness, plasma lipid profile and antioxidant capacity. Methods and analysis Using a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, counterbalanced crossover study design, 80 healthy overweight and obese subjects will be evaluated during a 12-week isoenergetic diet accompanied by 4.5 g/day S. maxima intake and/or a physical systematic exercise programme at moderate intensity. Body composition, oxygen uptake, heart rate, capillary blood lactate, plasma concentrations of triacylglycerols, total, low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, antioxidant status, lipid oxidation, protein carbonyls, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and paraoxonase will be assessed. Ethics and dissemination This study and all the procedures have been approved by the Universidad Autonoma de Ciudad Juarez Bioethics Committee. Findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, national and international conferences. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02837666. PMID:28645949

  18. [Dietary Fiber and Pubertal Development among Children and Adolescents--a Cross-sectional Study in Chengdu, Sichuan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Guo; Liu, Yan; Xue, Hong-mei; Luo, Jiao; Chen, Yan-rong; Bao, Yu-xin; Duan, Ruo-nan; Yang, Ming-zhe; Chen