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Sample records for pubertal obese children

  1. Update on statural growth and pubertal development in obese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara De Leonibus

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is a growing and alarming problem, associated with several short-term and long-term metabolic and cardiovascular complications. In addition, it has also been suggested that excess adiposity during childhood influences growth and pubertal development. Several studies have shown that during pre-pubertal years, obese patients present higher growth velocity and that this pre-pubertal advantage tends to gradually decrease during puberty, leading to similar final heights between obese and non-obese children. Excess body weight might also influence pubertal onset, leading to earlier timing of puberty in girls. In addition, obese girls are at increased risk of hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovary syndrome. In boys, a clear evidence does not exist: some studies suggesting an earlier puberty associated with the obesity status, whereas other have found a delayed pubertal onset. Overall, the existing evidence of an association between obesity and modification of growth and pubertal patterns underlines a further reason for fighting the epidemics of childhood obesity.

  2. Insulin resistance in obese pre-pubertal children: Relation to body composition

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    Heba Elsedfy

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Dysglycaemia and dyslipidaemia are common among pre-pubertal obese children. Insulin sensitivity indices based on OGTT are superior to fasting indices in identifying at risk children. OGTT should be included in assessing obese children with BMI > 2 SDS. DXA scanning has limited value for this purpose in clinical settings.

  3. Impact of Pubertal Development and Physical Activity on Heart Rate Variability in Overweight and Obese Children in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Su-Ru; Chiu, Hung-Wen; Lee, Yann-Jinn; Sheen, Tzong-Chi; Jeng, Chii

    2012-01-01

    Child obesity is frequently associated with dysfunction of autonomic nervous system. Children in pubertal development were suggested to be vulnerable to autonomic nervous system problems such as decrease of heart rate variability from dysregulation of metabolic control. This study explored the influence of pubertal development on autonomic nervous…

  4. Impact of Pubertal Development and Physical Activity on Heart Rate Variability in Overweight and Obese Children in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Su-Ru; Chiu, Hung-Wen; Lee, Yann-Jinn; Sheen, Tzong-Chi; Jeng, Chii

    2012-01-01

    Child obesity is frequently associated with dysfunction of autonomic nervous system. Children in pubertal development were suggested to be vulnerable to autonomic nervous system problems such as decrease of heart rate variability from dysregulation of metabolic control. This study explored the influence of pubertal development on autonomic nervous…

  5. Deleterious effects of obesity on physical fitness in pre-pubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceschia, Arianna; Giacomini, Stefano; Santarossa, Simone; Rugo, Miriam; Salvadego, Desy; Da Ponte, Alessandro; Driussi, Caterina; Mihaleje, Martina; Poser, Stefano; Lazzer, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in children has increased dramatically during the past decades in Europe and understanding physical fitness and its components in children is critical to design and implement effective interventions. The objective of the present study was to analyse the association between physical fitness (aerobic, speed, agility, power, flexibility and balance) and body mass index (BMI) in pre-pubertal children. A total of 2411 healthy schoolchildren (7-11 years) participated in this study. Anthropometric characteristics and body composition were assessed by skinfold thickness. Physical fitness was measured by nine physical fitness tests: endurance running, 20 m running speed, agility, handgrip strength, standing long jump and squat jump, sit and reach, medicine ball forward throw and static balance. No relevant differences were observed between boys and girls regarding anthropometric characteristics, body composition and physical fitness. However, overweight and obese children showed significantly lower physical fitness levels in endurance running, speed and agility (mean: +18.8, +5.5 and +14.5% of time to complete tasks, respectively), lower limb power normalised to body mass (-23.3%) and balance tests (number of falls: +165.5%) than their normal weight counterparts. On the other hand, obesity did not affect handgrip, throwing and flexibility. In conclusion, increased BMI was associated with lower performance capabilities limiting proper motor skill development, which directly affects the ability of children to take on sports skills. Actions undertaken to promote children's wellness and fitness should be prioritised and introduced early in life with the aim of enhancing physical fitness as well as preventing overweight and obesity.

  6. Excessive Refined Carbohydrates and Scarce Micronutrients Intakes Increase Inflammatory Mediators and Insulin Resistance in Prepubertal and Pubertal Obese Children Independently of Obesity

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    Mardia López-Alarcón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Low-grade inflammation is the link between obesity and insulin resistance. Because physiologic insulin resistance occurs at puberty, obese pubertal children are at higher risk for insulin resistance. Excessive diets in refined carbohydrates and saturated fats are risk factors for insulin resistance, but calcium, magnesium, vitamin-D, and the omega-3 fatty acids likely protect against inflammation and insulin resistance. Objective. To analyze interactions among dietary saturated fat, refined carbohydrates, calcium, magnesium, vitamin D, and omega-3 fatty acids on the risk of inflammation and insulin resistance in a sample of prepubertal and pubertal children. Methods. A sample of 229 children from Mexico City was analyzed in a cross-sectional design. Anthropometric measurements, 24 h recall questionnaires, and blood samples were obtained. Serum insulin, glucose, calcium, magnesium, 25-OHD3, C-reactive protein, leptin, adiponectin, and erythrocytes fatty acids were measured. Parametric and nonparametric statistics were used for analysis. Results. While mean macronutrients intake was excessive, micronutrients intake was deficient (P<0.01. Inflammation determinants were central obesity and magnesium-deficient diets. Determinants of insulin resistance were carbohydrates intake and circulating magnesium and adiponectin. Conclusions. Magnesium-deficient diets are determinants of inflammation, while high intake of refined carbohydrates is a risk factor for insulin resistance, independently of central adiposity.

  7. Insulin resistance in obese pre-pubertal children: Relation to body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heba Elsedfy

    2014-04-16

    Apr 16, 2014 ... sensitivity indices and investigate its relationship with abdominal fat distribution by Dual energy ... associated with negative metabolic predictors in pubertal ..... metabolic determinants of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in.

  8. Pubertal development in Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Teilmann, G; Scheike, Thomas Harder

    2006-01-01

    differences between USA and Denmark, as well as to look for possible secular trends in pubertal development. Healthy Caucasian children from public schools in Denmark participated in the study which was carried out in 1991-1993. A total number of 826 boys and 1,100 girls (aged 6.0-19.9 years) were included......Two recent epidemiological studies (PROS and NHANES III) from the USA noted earlier sexual maturation in girls, leading to increased attention internationally to the age at onset of puberty. We studied the timing of puberty in a large cohort of healthy Danish children in order to evaluate......, and pubertal stages were assessed by clinical examination according to methods of Tanner. In boys testicular volume was determined using an orchidometer. We found that age at breast development 2 (B2) was 10.88 years, and mean menarcheal age was 13.42 years. Girls with body mass index (BMI) above the median...

  9. Pubertal development in Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Teilmann, G; Scheike, Thomas Harder

    2006-01-01

    Two recent epidemiological studies (PROS and NHANES III) from the USA noted earlier sexual maturation in girls, leading to increased attention internationally to the age at onset of puberty. We studied the timing of puberty in a large cohort of healthy Danish children in order to evaluate differe...... genetic polymorphisms, nutrition, physical activity or endocrine disrupting chemicals must therefore also be considered. Therefore, we believe it is crucial to monitor the pubertal development closely in Denmark in the coming decades.......Two recent epidemiological studies (PROS and NHANES III) from the USA noted earlier sexual maturation in girls, leading to increased attention internationally to the age at onset of puberty. We studied the timing of puberty in a large cohort of healthy Danish children in order to evaluate...

  10. BMI percentile-for-age overestimates adiposity in early compared with late maturing pubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Juul, Anders

    2015-01-01

    .041) was found with early compared with late maturation, despite similar BIA-estimated body fat percentage (BIA-BF%). Neither BMI nor BIA-BF% differed for a given stage of maturation. BMI percentile-for-age and prevalence of overweight/obesity were higher in the early compared with late matured pubertal children......OBJECTIVE: Early pubertal timing is consistently associated with increased BMI percentile-for-age in pubertal girls, while data in boys are more ambiguous. However, higher BMI percentile-for-age may be a result of the earlier puberty per se rather than vice versa. The aim was to evaluate markers...... of adiposity in relation to pubertal timing and reproductive hormone levels in healthy pubertal boys and girls. STUDY DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional study (The Copenhagen Puberty Study). Eight-hundred and two healthy Caucasian children and adolescents (486 girls) aged 8.5-16.5 years participated. BMI...

  11. Endothelial function in pre-pubertal children at risk of developing cardiomyopathy: a new frontier

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    Aline Cristina Tavares

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although it is known that obesity, diabetes, and Kawasaki's disease play important roles in systemic inflammation and in the development of both endothelial dysfunction and cardiomyopathy, there is a lack of data regarding the endothelial function of pre-pubertal children suffering from cardiomyopathy. In this study, we performed a systematic review of the literature on pre-pubertal children at risk of developing cardiomyopathy to assess the endothelial function of pre-pubertal children at risk of developing cardiomyopathy. We searched the published literature indexed in PubMed, Bireme and SciELO using the keywords 'endothelial', 'children', 'pediatric' and 'infant' and then compiled a systematic review. The end points were age, the pubertal stage, sex differences, the method used for the endothelial evaluation and the endothelial values themselves. No studies on children with cardiomyopathy were found. Only 11 papers were selected for our complete analysis, where these included reports on the flow-mediated percentage dilatation, the values of which were 9.80±1.80, 5.90±1.29, 4.50±0.70, and 7.10±1.27 for healthy, obese, diabetic and pre-pubertal children with Kawasaki's disease, respectively. There was no significant difference in the dilatation, independent of the endothelium, either among the groups or between the genders for both of the measurements in children; similar results have been found in adolescents and adults. The endothelial function in cardiomyopathic children remains unclear because of the lack of data; nevertheless, the known dysfunctions in children with obesity, type 1 diabetes and Kawasaki's disease may influence the severity of the cardiovascular symptoms, the prognosis, and the mortality rate. The results of this study encourage future research into the consequences of endothelial dysfunction in pre-pubertal children.

  12. Relationship between pubertal development and overweight and obesity among male children and adolescents in Suzhou%苏州市中小学男生青春期发育与超重肥胖相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩宗林; 徐勇

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship of pubertal development with body fatness in male children and adolescents of Suzhou. Methods Boys from 15 middle schools and primary schools in Suzhou area were surveyed. According to the BMI screening criteria of overweight and obesity in Chinese children and adolescents, all the participants were classified into overweight, obesity, and normal-weight groups. Height and weight, secondary sexual characteristics were assessed and spermarche was self-reported. Results The prevaience rate of overweight and obesity was 10. 6% (538/5 059) and 5. 1% (257/5 059) respectively, and the boys who had first spermarche accounted for 19.4% (963/ 5059). Spermarche age of overweight and obese boys was later than the normal-weight boys. A significant positive correlation existed between BMI and spermarche age(r = 0.229,P<0.01). A significant negative correlation was found between BMI and genital and pubic hair Tanner stage. Conclusion Pubertal development is associated with obesity in male children and adolescents in Suzhou area.%目的 探讨苏州市男性儿童青少年发育与超重肥胖的关系,为制定儿童青少年青春期预防保健措施提供参考.方法 随机分层整群抽取苏州地区15所中小学的男生5 059名,根据中国学生超重、肥胖BMI筛查标准,将调查学生分为超重、肥胖、正常3组,调查青春期男生的首次遗精年龄,测量身高、体重,调查第二性征发育等级.结果 苏州市中小学男生超重检出率为10.6% (538/5 059),肥胖检出率为5.1% (257/5 059),已发生首次遗精的占19.4%(963/5 059).超重组、肥胖组男生首次遗精年龄晚于正常组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).BMI值与首次遗精年龄呈正相关(r=0.229,P<0.01);11 ~15岁组男生BMI值与外生殖器发育程度、阴毛发育程度呈负相关(P值均<0.01).结论 苏州市男性儿童青少年青春期发育与肥胖密切相关.

  13. Prevalence of acne in primary school children and the relationship of acne with pubertal maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Hilal Kaya Erdoğan; İlknur Kıvanç Altunay; Serap Turan

    2014-01-01

    Background and Design: Although acne vulgaris is generally regarded as a disease of adolescence period, it can occur in infancy, early childhood and prepubertal period. Acne may emerge as the first sign of pubertal maturation. In our study, we aimed to determine the acne prevalence in primary school children, then, evaluate the pubertal signs in those children; examine the correlation of the presence and severity of acne with pubertal signs, and finally, revise the concept of prepubertal a...

  14. New factors of cardiometabolic risk in severely obese children: influence of pubertal status Nuevos factores de riesgo cardiometabólico en niños con obesidad severa: influencia del estado puberal

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    P. Codoñer-Franch

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the utility of new biochemical markers to assess cardiometabolic risk in severely obese children and adolescents. A total of 107 subjects aged 7 to 14 years, were clinically assessed and anthropometric measures and percentage of fat mass by single frequency bioimpedance analysis were recorded. Of these, 44 were non-overweight and 63 severely obese (body mass index Z-score >2.5 which were stratified by Tanner stages. To estimate the metabolic risk the following variables were considered for analysis: Waist circumference/height >0.5, fasting glucose >100 mg/dL, triglycerides >110 mg/dL, HDL-C 95th percentile for age and gender. Fasting insulinemia, apoprotein A1 and B, high-sensitive C-reactive protein, alanine aminotransferase, homocysteine, and folic and uric acids were determined. In severely obese children, metabolic risk was present more frequently in mid puberty. The normalized anthropometric parameters with respect to 50th percentile for age and gender did not differ in the presence of metabolic risk. Insulin resistance was an independent determinant of metabolic risk, adjusted by Tanner stages. Elevated high-sensitive C-reactive protein was noted without any effect of metabolic risk or pubertal stage. Homocysteine, apoprotein B, and alanine aminotransferase values increased with metabolic risk and were not influenced by puberty. Although insulin resistance remains the main factor influencing metabolic risk, biochemical markers as homocysteine, apoprotein B, and alanine aminotransferase, may be useful for identifying severe obese pubertal subjects particularly prone to comorbidities.El objetivo de este estudio prospectivo ha sido evaluar la utilidad de nuevos marcadores bioquímicos para evaluar el riesgo cardiometabólico en niños y adolescentes extremadamente obesos. Un total de 107 sujetos de entre 7 a 14 años, se valoraron clínicamente registrando sus medidas antropométricas y el

  15. Prevalence of acne in primary school children and the relationship of acne with pubertal maturation

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    Hilal Kaya Erdoğan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Although acne vulgaris is generally regarded as a disease of adolescence period, it can occur in infancy, early childhood and prepubertal period. Acne may emerge as the first sign of pubertal maturation. In our study, we aimed to determine the acne prevalence in primary school children, then, evaluate the pubertal signs in those children; examine the correlation of the presence and severity of acne with pubertal signs, and finally, revise the concept of prepubertal acne. Materials and Methods: A thousand students from 2 schools in Istanbul were included in the study. Age, gender, and the presence, localization and severity of acne were recorded. Acne severity was evaluated using the Orfanos-Gollnick Acne Grading System while a validated self evaluation form which had been developed by Morris and Udry was used to evaluate pubertal stage. Data were evaluated statistically. Results: Five hundred and thirty-four male and 466 female primary school children, with an age range of 7 to 11, were included in the study. Acne was determined in 11.5% of the students. 20% of girls and 4% of boys had acne. Comparing acne presence and age, the average age was higher in group with acne than those with no acne. The mean age of children with grade 1 acne was lower than those with grade 2 acne. All the students with acne had mid-facial acne. Comparing acne presence and pubertal symptoms, the rate of the presence of acne was higher in pubertal girls. No acne was observed in prepubertal boys. Evaluating acne severity and pubertal signs, the difference between prepubertal and pubertal girls was not significant. Comparing acne and telarche stages, the group without acne had lower telarche rates. Comparing acne and pubertal stages, children with acne had advanced puberty. Conclusion: Our study denotes that acne prevalence is related to pubertal maturation and age; while it does not support the hypothesis that acne is the first sign of pubertal

  16. Metabolic Setup and Risks in Obese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocova, Mirjana; Sukarova-Angelovska, Elena; Tanaskoska, Milica; Palcevska-Kocevska, Snezana; Krstevska, Marija

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background In the past decades, the obesity epidemic in children of all ages has been an important research field for detecting the metabolic causes and consequences of obesity, the major focus being on insulin and adipocytokine levels. Metabolic work-up in obese children is recommended in the age group as young as 2–6 years. There is evidence that birth weight can be a factor causing obesity later in life accompanied by metabolic complications. Methods Insulin, leptin, and adiponectin levels were analyzed in 269 obese children and 60 controls, as well as 110 newborn children with different birth weight and different length of gestation, using standard methods. Results In 53.6% of the obese children, complications of obesity such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, hyperlipidemia, heart attack or stroke were found in family members. The peak insulinemia on OGTT was significantly higher in the pubertal compared to the prepubertal group (110.5± 75.9 μU/mL versus 72.2±62.7 μU/mL) (p<0.005). Glucose intolerance was confirmed in 24%. The leptin level was significantly higher and the adiponectin level was lower in pubertal obese children compared to the prepubertal children and controls (p<0.05). In newborns the leptin and adiponectin levels were in correlation with anthropometric parameters: body weight (BW), body length (BL), BW/BL, BMI, and the pondered index (p<0.05). Conclusion Obese children have high insulinemia in all ages, reaching its peak towards puberty. The leptin and adiponectin levels might be indicators of the metabolic syndrome. Our findings in newborns might influence the nutritional approach in the future in order to prevent complications of obesity. PMID:28356821

  17. Metabolic Syndrome in Children and Adolescents: a Critical Approach Considering the Interaction between Pubertal Stage and Insulin Resistance.

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    Reinehr, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Pediatricians increasingly diagnose the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in recent years to describe cardiovascular risk and to guide management of the obese child. However, there is an ongoing discussion about how to define the MetS in childhood and adolescence. Since insulin resistance-the major driver of MetS-is influenced by pubertal stage, it is questionable to use definitions for MetS in children and adolescents that do not take into account pubertal status. A metabolic healthy status in prepubertal stage does not predict a metabolic healthy status during puberty. Furthermore, cardiovascular risk factors improve at the end of puberty without treatment. However, having a uniform internationally accepted definition of the MetS for children and adolescents would be very helpful for the description of populations in different studies. Therefore, the concept of MetS has to be revisited under the influence of puberty stage.

  18. Pubertal timing and adult obesity and cardiometabolic risk in women and men: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, P; Viner, R M

    2013-08-01

    Obesity has complex multifactorial aetiology. It has been suggested by many, but not all, reports that earlier pubertal maturation may increase adult obesity risk. We conducted a systemic review and meta-analysis in both women and men, and hypothesised that any association between pubertal timing and adult obesity is likely to be confounded by childhood adiposity. In addition, we investigated whether pubertal timing is related to other cardiometabolic risk and long-term cardiovascular morbidity/mortality. Literature search was undertaken using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Knowledge and TRIP databases, with a hand search of references. Both authors independently reviewed and extracted pre-defined data from all selected papers. Meta-analyses were conducted using Review Manager (RevMan) 5.0.24. A total of 48 papers were identified. Out of 34 studies, 30 reported an inverse relationship between pubertal timing and adult body mass index (BMI), the main adiposity measure used. Meta-analysis of 10 cohorts showed association between early menarche (menarche metabolic syndrome (MetS) and abnormal glycaemia. Earlier pubertal timing is predictive of higher adult BMI and greater risk of obesity. This effect appears to be partially independent of childhood BMI. Earlier pubertal development appears to also be inversely correlated with risk of other cardiometabolic risk factors and cardiovascular mortality. Further work is needed to examine potential mechanisms and the level at which interventions may be targeted.

  19. PRE-PUBERTAL CHILDREN AND EXERCISE IN HOT AND HUMID ENVIRONMENTS: A BRIEF REVIEW

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    Wade H. Sinclair

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability of pre-pubertal children to regulate their body temperature under thermoneutral environments is similar to that of an adult albeit via differing routes. However, this ability is challenged when exposed to extreme environments. Thermoregulatory responses of pre-pubertal children differ from adults via adaptations that occur during growth and maturation and disadvantage children when exercising in hot and humid environments. When ambient temperatures exceed that of the skin, an influx of thermal energy from the environment increases thermal stress. When coupled with exercise, the increased thermal stress results in reduced physical performance and an increased risk of developing heat-related illness. Evidence suggesting the severity of heat-related illness is greater in pre-pubertal children than adults is inconclusive because age-related differences in thermoregulatory responses are attributed to either morphologic or functional changes. Additionally, the majority of research on pre-pubertal children exercising in the heat has been maturational or comparative studies with adults conducted in the near absence of convective cooling, complicating extrapolation to field-based environments. However, current consensus is that pre-pubertal children are disadvantaged when exercising in extreme temperatures and that care should be taken in preparing for and conducting sporting activities in hot and humid environments for pre-pubertal children

  20. The pubertal transition in 179 healthy Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Annette; Aksglæde, Lise; Sørensen, Kaspar

    2013-01-01

    Pubertal onset is usually defined by breast development in girls and testicular growth in boys. Pubarche is defined as the attainment of pubic hair and is considered as a sign of pubertal transition. Pubarche is preceded by a gradual increase in production of adrenal androgens, DHEA and Δ4...

  1. Nutrition and pubertal development

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    Ashraf Soliman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition is one of the most important factors affecting pubertal development. Puberty entails a progressive nonlinear process starting from prepubescent to full sexual maturity through the interaction and cooperation of biological, physical, and psychological changes. Consuming an adequate and balanced healthy diet during all phases of growth (infancy, childhood and puberty appears necessary both for proper growth and normal pubertal development. Girls begin puberty at an earlier age compared to past decades. Excessive eating of many processed, high-fat foods, may be the cause of this phenomenon. Overweight or obese children are more likely to enter puberty early. Some evidence suggests that obesity can accelerate the onset of puberty in girls and may delay the onset of puberty in boys. Moreover, the progression of puberty is affected by nutrition. On the other hand, puberty triggers a growth spurt, which increases nutritional needs including macro and micronutrients. Increased caloric, protein, iron, calcium, zinc and folate needs have to be provided during this critical period of rapid growth. Severe primary or secondary malnutrition also can delay the onset and progression of puberty. The higher incidence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia in adolescents imposes a nutritional risk on pubertal development. Moreover, many environmental endocrine disruptors (EDs have been identified that can significantly impair the normal course of puberty. This mini-review sums up some important findings in this important complex that link nutrition and pubertal development.

  2. 肥胖对儿童青春期性发育的影响及作用机制%Influence and mechanism of obesity on the onset of pubertal development in obese children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅君芬; 周雪莲

    2014-01-01

    Timing of puberty showed a dramatic decrease in the past decades,and it depends on the gene,nutrition,environment,social economics,and so on.Childhood obesity affects both the timing of puberty and sex hormone levels.However,the influence of obesity on the timing of puberty has gender differences.Current studies show that childhood obesity accelerates the onset of puberty in girls,but it still has controversy in boys.Mechanisms of concrete have not clear,may be related to the subjectivity of standard of male sexual development and the correlation of body mass index as a substitute for male obesity is poor.Through literature review at home and abroad,this article will explain the influence of obesity on the timing of puberty,sex hormone levels and its gender differences,further explore the possible mechanisms of body fat participate in starting the gonad axis,and provide new research direction on the "switch" for the gonad axis.%儿童青春期启动时间呈年代提前趋势,受基因、营养、环境及社会经济等因素的影响.肥胖不仅影响儿童青春期启动的时间,对青春期激素水平也有重要影响.但肥胖对儿童性发育的影响具有性别差异,目前普遍研究认为肥胖能促进女性青春期启动,但对男性性发育的作用尚存争议,具体机制尚未研究明确,可能与男性性发育判断标准的主观性及体质量指数作为男性肥胖替代指标的相关性差有关.现通过国内外文献复习,阐述肥胖对儿童性发育时间、青春期性激素水平的影响及其性别差异,并进一步探讨体脂参与性腺轴启动的可能机制,为性腺启动的“开关”作用提供新的研究方向.

  3. Pubertal development in healthy children is mirrored by DNA methylation patterns in peripheral blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almstrup, Kristian; Johansen, Marie Lindhardt; Busch, Alexander S.

    2016-01-01

    Puberty marks numerous physiological processes which are initiated by central activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis, followed by development of secondary sexual characteristics. To a large extent, pubertal timing is heritable, but current knowledge of genetic polymorphismsonly...... explains few months in the large inter-individual variation in the timing of puberty. We have analysed longitudinal genome-wide changes in DNA methylation in peripheral blood samples (n = 102) obtained from 51 healthy children before and after pubertal onset. We show that changes in single methylation...... sites are tightly associated with physiological pubertal transition and altered reproductive hormone levels. These methylation sites cluster in and around genes enriched for biological functions related to pubertal development. Importantly, we identified that methylation of the genomic region containing...

  4. MRI characterization of brown adipose tissue in obese and normal-weight children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Jie; Rigsby, Cynthia K.; Shore, Richard M. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, 225 E. Chicago Ave., Box 9, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Schoeneman, Samantha E. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, 225 E. Chicago Ave., Box 9, Chicago, IL (United States); Zhang, Huiyuan [John H. Stroger, Jr. Hospital of Cook County, Collaborative Research Unit, Chicago, IL (United States); Kwon, Soyang [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Stanley Manne Children' s Research Institute, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Pediatrics, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Josefson, Jami L. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Division of Endocrinology, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Pediatrics, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is identified in mammals as an adaptive thermogenic organ for modulation of energy expenditure and heat generation. Human BAT may be primarily composed of brown-in-white (BRITE) adipocytes and stimulation of BRITE may serve as a potential target for obesity interventions. Current imaging studies of BAT detection and characterization have been mainly limited to PET/CT. MRI is an emerging application for BAT characterization in healthy children. To exploit Dixon and diffusion-weighted MRI methods to characterize cervical-supraclavicular BAT/BRITE properties in normal-weight and obese children while accounting for pubertal status. Twenty-eight healthy children (9-15 years old) with a normal or obese body mass index participated. MRI exams were performed to characterize supraclavicular adipose tissues by measuring tissue fat percentage, T2*, tissue water mobility, and microvasculature properties. We used multivariate linear regression models to compare tissue properties between normal-weight and obese groups while accounting for pubertal status. MRI measurements of BAT/BRITE tissues in obese children showed higher fat percentage (P < 0.0001), higher T2* (P < 0.0001), and lower diffusion coefficient (P = 0.015) compared with normal-weight children. Pubertal status was a significant covariate for the T2* measurement, with higher T2* (P = 0.0087) in pubertal children compared to prepubertal children. Perfusion measurements varied by pubertal status. Compared to normal-weight children, obese prepubertal children had lower perfusion fraction (P = 0.003) and pseudo-perfusion coefficient (P = 0.048); however, obese pubertal children had higher perfusion fraction (P = 0.02) and pseudo-perfusion coefficient (P = 0.028). This study utilized chemical-shift Dixon MRI and diffusion-weighted MRI methods to characterize supraclavicular BAT/BRITE tissue properties. The multi-parametric evaluation revealed evidence of morphological differences in brown

  5. [Dietary Fiber and Pubertal Development among Children and Adolescents--a Cross-sectional Study in Chengdu, Sichuan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Guo; Liu, Yan; Xue, Hong-mei; Luo, Jiao; Chen, Yan-rong; Bao, Yu-xin; Duan, Ruo-nan; Yang, Ming-zhe; Cheng, Guo

    2016-03-01

    To determine the association between intake of dietary fiber and pubertal development among children and adolescents in Chengdu. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in 1 340 children and adolescents aged 9-15 years. Data about dietary intake were collected through 24-h dietary self-recall. Pubertal development was measured by trained investigators using Tanner criteria. Consumptions of total fiber and fiber from different sources were compared among the participants with different stages of pubertal development. Data from 1 328 children and adolescents were analyzed. Boys (n = 667) at a later stage of pubertal development consumed less total fiber and fruit fiber than those at an earlier stage (P fiber than those at an earlier stage (P Dietary fiber intake, especially fruit fiber, is lower in children and adolescents with early commencement of puberty development. Further studies are needed to establish the relationship between dietary fiber and pubertal development.

  6. Evolution of fat oxidation during exercise in obese pubertal boys: clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunquin, Gautier; Theunynck, Denis; Sesboue, Bruno; Arhan, Pierre; Bougle, Dominique

    2009-02-15

    In this study, we examined fat oxidation rates during exercise in obese pubescent boys. Three groups of pubescent boys (16 pre-pubescent, Tanner's stage I; 16 pubescent, Tanner's stage III; and 14 post-pubescent, Tanner's stage V) performed a graded test on a leg cycle ergometer. The first step of the test was fixed at 30 W and power was gradually increased by 20 W every 3.5 min. Oxygen consumption (VO(2)) and carbon dioxide production (VCO(2)) were determined as the means of measurements during the last 30 s of each step, which allowed us to calculate fat oxidation rates versus exercise intensity. Between 20 and 50% of peak oxygen consumption (VO(2peak)), fat oxidation rate in relative values (mg . min(-1) . kg FFM(-1)) decreased continuously with pubertal development. In the same way, the maximum rate of fat oxidation occurred at a lower percentage of VO(2peak) (pre-pubescent: 49.47 +/- 1.62%; pubescent: 47.43 +/- 1.26%; post-pubescent: 45.00 +/- 0.97%). Our results confirm that puberty is responsible for a decrease in fat free mass capacities to use fat during exercise. The results suggest that post-pubescent obese boys need to practise physical activity at a lower intensity than pre-pubescent boys to enhance lipolysis and diminish adipose tissue and the consequences of obesity.

  7. Body trunk fat and insulin resistance in post-pubertal obese adolescents

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    Luana Caroline dos Santos

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Insulin resistance is a metabolic disorder commonly associated with excess body fat accumulation that may increase chronic disease risk. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between body composition and insulin resistance among obese adolescents. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study, at the Adolescence Center, Pediatric Department, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. METHODS: Body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Dietary intake was evaluated using a three-day dietary record. The biochemical evaluation comprised glucose, insulin, serum lipid, leptin and ghrelin measurements. Insulin resistance was calculated by means of the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. RESULTS: Forty-nine post-pubertal obese adolescents participated in the study: 12 boys and 37 girls of mean age 16.6 (1.4 years and mean body mass index (BMI of 35.0 (3.9 kg/m². The mean glucose, insulin and HOMA values were 90.3 (6.4 mg/dl, 16.6 (8.1 µIU/ml and 3.7 (1.9, respectively. Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance were observed in 40.2% and 57.1% of the subjects, respectively. Adolescents with insulin resistance had higher BMI and body trunk fat. There was a trend towards higher leptin concentration in obese individuals with insulin resistance. Insulin resistance was positively correlated with body trunk fat, BMI, body fat mass (kg, leptin and body fat percentage. Furthermore, there was a negative correlation between HOMA-IR and lean body mass. The body composition predicted 30% of the HOMA-IR levels, according to linear regression models. CONCLUSION: Body trunk fat was significantly associated with insulin resistance, demonstrating the clinical importance of abdominal obesity during adolescence.

  8. Obesity, Physical Activity - Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliam, Thomas B.

    Childhood obesity starts at a very early age, and preventive measures taken early enough may retard the development of fat cells. It appears that physical activity plays an important role in reducing obesity. The activity program must start early, in preschool days. It is felt that screening children for obesity when they first enter school and…

  9. Pubertal status, pre-meal drink composition, and later meal timing interact in determining children's appetite and food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Barkha P; Hamilton, Jill K; Vien, Shirley; Thomas, Scott G; Anderson, G Harvey

    2016-09-01

    Puberty is a period of development that alters energy intake patterns. However, few studies have examined appetite and food intake (FI) regulation during development of puberty in children and adolescents. Therefore, the objective was to measure the effect of pubertal status on FI and subjective appetite after pre-meal glucose and whey protein drinks in 9- to 14-year-old boys and girls. In a within-subject, randomized, repeated-measures design, children (21 pre-early pubertal, 15 mid-late pubertal) received equally sweetened drinks containing Sucralose (control), glucose, or whey protein (0.75 g/kg body weight) in 250 mL of water 2 h after a standardized breakfast on 6 separate mornings. Ad libitum FI was measured either 30 or 60 min later and appetite was measured over time. In pre-early and mid-late pubertal boys and girls there was no effect of sex on total FI (kcal). Glucose and whey protein drinks reduced calorie intake similarly at 30 min. But at 60 min, whey protein reduced FI (p children, but not in mid-late pubertal children. However, sex was a factor (p = 0.041) when FI was expressed per kilogram body weight. Pubertal status did not affect FI/kilogram body weight in boys, but it was 32% lower in mid-late pubertal girls than at pre-early puberty (p = 0.010). Appetite was associated with FI in mid-late pubertal children only. In conclusion, pubertal development affects appetite and FI regulation in children.

  10. Associations between socio-demographic characteristics and pubertal status with disordered eating among primary school children in Selangor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Lin Siew; Chin, Yit Siew; Gan, Wan Ying; Nasir, Mohd Taib Mohd

    2017-03-01

    To determine the associations between socio-demographic characteristics and pubertal status with disordered eating among primary school children. Using a stratified multi-stage sampling, a total of 816 children (282 boys and 534 girls) aged 10 to 11 years from 12 selected primary schools in the state of Selangor, participated in this study. Data were collected on socio-demographic characteristics, pubertal status and disordered eating behaviors. The Pubertal Development Scale and the Children's Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT) were used to assess pubertal status and disordered eating, respectively. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the risk factors of disordered eating. The prevalence of disordered eating was 30.8% (32.8% in boys and 29.7% in girls). However, the sex difference in the prevalence was not statistically significant. Age, ethnicity and pubertal status were significantly associated with disordered eating in univariate logistic regression analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that among boys, being either in an advanced or post-pubertal stage (adjusted OR=8.64) and older age group (adjusted OR=2.03) were risk factors of disordered eating. However, among girls, being a Malay (adjusted OR=3.79) or Indian (adjusted OR=5.04) in an advanced or post-pubertal stage (adjusted OR=2.34) and older age group (adjusted OR=1.53) were risk factors of disordered eating. This study found one in three children had disordered eating. Since ethnicity and pubertal status were identified as risk factors, ethnicity-specific intervention programs on the prevention of disordered eating among children should take into consideration their pubertal status.

  11. Ethnic differences in body fat distribution among Asian pre-pubertal children: A cross-sectional multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koon Poh Bee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnic differences in body fat distribution contribute to ethnic differences in cardiovascular morbidities and diabetes. However few data are available on differences in fat distribution in Asian children from various backgrounds. Therefore, the current study aimed to explore ethnic differences in body fat distribution among Asian children from four countries. Methods A total of 758 children aged 8-10 y from China, Lebanon, Malaysia and Thailand were recruited using a non-random purposive sampling approach to enrol children encompassing a wide BMI range. Height, weight, waist circumference (WC, fat mass (FM, derived from total body water [TBW] estimation using the deuterium dilution technique and skinfold thickness (SFT at biceps, triceps, subscapular, supraspinale and medial calf were collected. Results After controlling for height and weight, Chinese and Thai children had a significantly higher WC than their Lebanese and Malay counterparts. Chinese and Thais tended to have higher trunk fat deposits than Lebanese and Malays reflected in trunk SFT, trunk/upper extremity ratio or supraspinale/upper extremity ratio after adjustment for age and total body fat. The subscapular/supraspinale skinfold ratio was lower in Chinese and Thais compared with Lebanese and Malays after correcting for trunk SFT. Conclusions Asian pre-pubertal children from different origins vary in body fat distribution. These results indicate the importance of population-specific WC cut-off points or other fat distribution indices to identify the population at risk of obesity-related health problems.

  12. [Overweight and obesity in preschool children: an underestimated problem?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielecka-Jasiocha, Joanna; Majcher, Anna; Pyrzak, Beata; Janczarska, Danuta; Rumińska, Małgorzata

    2009-01-01

    The spread of overweight and obesity is alarming in the face of metabolic syndrome development and its consequences. As obesity becomes a social norm, a lack of adequate attention seems to be noticed. In the development of obesity special attention is focused on preschool and pubertal periods, as they are considered as critical in the development of obesity and its persistence into adulthood. We have analyzed anthropological parameters of 302 overweight and obese children, patients of the Department of Pediatrics and Endocrinology between 2004-2007. Children were at the age from 1.5 y to 18.25 y. Overweight was diagnosed when BMI > or =1 SDS, obesity when BMI > or =2 SDS. 77% of boys and 86% of girls were obese. The mean value of BMI, expressed as SDS BMI, was +4.3 SDS (girls) and +4.5 SDS (boys) in children under 6 yrs, +3.03 SDS (girls) and +2.95 SDS (boys) in children between 6-14 yrs, +3.95 SDS (girls) and +4.08 (boys) in children above 14 yrs. The youngest group (i.e. under 6 yrs), although comparatively most obese, was sparse: 7% of all girls and 5.6% of all boys. The oldest group (i.e.above 14 yrs) was plentiful (45.6% of all girls and 27.8% of all boys) and comparatively very obese. Data of parents' weight status were completed in 56% of cases: 31.2% of mothers and 41.5% of fathers were overweight, 33.3% of mothers and 50.8% of fathers were obese. These observations can suggest that overweight and obesity can be underestimated and/or ignored/ disregarded in preschool and pubertal children. It seems to be alarming as these two periods of life are critical in the development of obesity. Special attention should be applied in the field of prevention of obesity, especially in younger children, and early identification of overweight small children and/ or children at risk of obesity.

  13. Seasonal variation and atypical presentation of idiopathic intracranial hypertension in pre-pubertal children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Distelmaier, F.; Tibussek, D.; Schneider, D.T.; Mayatepek, E.

    2007-01-01

    Idiopathic intracranial hypertension is an enigmatic disorder of elevated cerebrospinal fluid pressure. In adulthood, patients are typically obese women of childbearing age; however, in young children the clinical picture is strikingly different, indicating age-related differences in the aetiology

  14. Cognition and behavior in pre-pubertal children with Prader-Willi syndrome and associations with sleep-related breathing disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festen, Dederieke A M; Wevers, Maaike; de Weerd, Al W; van den Bossche, Renilde A S; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C S

    2008-12-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is characterized by hypotonia, hypogonadism, obesity, and short stature. Neurobehavioral abnormalities, cognitive impairment, and sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD) are common. In the general population associations between neurobehavioral and cognitive abnormalities and SRBD have been found. We investigated cognition, behavior, and SRBD in children with PWS. Thirty-one pre-pubertal PWS children were evaluated (5 with paternal deletion, 14 with maternal disomy, 4 with imprinting-center mutation, and in 8 the defect was not specified). Cognition was assessed by Wechsler scale subtests, and behavior by parent-questionnaires. Polysomnography was performed. Cognition, behavior, and associations with SRBD were evaluated. All cognitive subtests were significantly below O SDS, with the lowest median (interquartile range) scores for the Block design subtest (-2.7 SDS (-3.0 to -0.3)). In 60%, verbal subtests were less affected than performance subtests. Parents reported problem behavior related to "emotions/behavior not adapted to the social situation" and "insensitivity to social information." All children had SRBD, with an Apnea Hypopnea Index of 4.1/hr (2.6-7.9). One performance subtest score was significantly higher in children with better sleep efficiency, and daytime sleepiness was associated with more autistic-like social impairment. In contrast to our expectations, behavior was worse in children with better sleep-related breathing. In pre-pubertal PWS children, cognition is impaired. Neurobehavioral abnormalities are common, particularly autistic-like social impairment. Sleep efficiency was associated with better performance on one of the performance subtests, and neurobehavioral abnormalities were associated with daytime sleepiness. In contrast, we could not confirm a positive association of neurobehavioral abnormalities with SRBD in PWS. Copyright (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Skin surface lipid composition, acne, pubertal development, and urinary excretion of testosterone and 17-ketosteroids in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochi, P E; Strauss, J S; Downing, D T

    1977-11-01

    Fifty-two children, age 5-10, from acne-prone families, were studied for a period of 1 year to examine the interrelationship between sebum, acne, pubertal development, and urinary steroid excretion. In each of the subjects, 30 boys and 22 girls, the composition of forehead skin lipid was determined 4 times yearly by thin-layer chromatography, with measurement of triglycerides, diglycerides, free fatty acids, wax esters, squalene, cholesterol, and cholesterol esters. Twice yearly, examination was made of the presence or absence of acne, pubertal maturation and the 24-hour urinary excretion of testosterone as determined by radioimmunnoassay, and of total 17-ketosteroids, dehydroepiandrosterone, androsterone, and etiocholanolone, as determined by paper chromatography. The relative amount of sebaceous lipids was positively correlated with age of the subjects (wax esters p less than .001, squalene p less than .05), as was the triglyceride-diglyceride component (p less than .05). No significant correlation was seen with the fatty acids. Acne, primarily comedonal, occurred in 27/52 subjects (15 girls, 12 boys) and was associated with higher sebum values. One-half of the children with acne had no signs of pubertal development. A significantly positive correlation was observed between the relative amount of sebaceous lipid and the urinary excretion of 17-ketosteroids, androsterone, and etiocholanolone in both sexes, and of testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone in boys. The development of acne in children is an early pubertal event, often evident before other signs of pubertal maturation, and it is associated with an increase in sebum and in the urinary excretion of androgenic steroids.

  16. Evaluation of GnRH analogue testing in diagnosis and management of children with pubertal disorders

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    Hemchand K Prasad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH stimulation test is pivotal in the assessment of children with pubertal disorders. However, lack of availability and high cost often result in the test falling into disfavor. We routinely use the GnRH analogue stimulation test as an alternative at our center. Aim: To present the data on children with endocrine disorders who underwent GnRH agonist stimulation test in pediatric endocrine clinic of a tertiary care referral hospital. Setting and Design: Pediatric endocrine clinic of a tertiary care referral hospital. Retrospective analysis of case records. Materials and Methods: The details pertaining to clinical and radiological parameters and hormonal tests were retrieved from case records of 15 children who underwent GnRH agonist stimulation test from May 2010 to April 2011. Results: Indications for testing with GnRH analogue were evaluation of delayed puberty, diagnosis of precocious puberty, assessment of hormonal suppression in treatment of precocious puberty and micropenis in two, nine, three and one cases, respectively. The results of the test and clinical and radiological parameters were in concordance. The test was also crucial in diagnosing the onset of central precocious puberty in two children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Conclusion: GnRH agonist test is a convenient, safe test that can be performed on an out-patient basis and can help the clinicians in the correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment of various puberty-related disorders.

  17. Could mean platelet volume among complete blood count parameters be a surrogate marker of metabolic syndrome in pre-pubertal children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aypak, Cenk; Türedi, Ozlem; Bircan, Mustafa A; Yüce, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    Interest in childhood metabolic syndrome (MetS) has increased substantially due to the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity on a global scale. Early recognition of MetS is critical in order to delay the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this study, we evaluated the relationship between complete blood count (CBC) parameters and MetS among pre-pubertal children which may provide evidence in support of using low cost, readily available clinical haematological parameters for the detection of MetS. A retrospective analysis was carried out on 330 (125 lean vs. 205 overweight) Turkish pre-pubertal children who attend to a paediatric outpatient clinic. Age, gender, puberty, body mass index, CBC parameters, cardiometabolic risk factors including lipid profiles, high sensitive serum reactive protein (hsCRP) and insulin resistance index calculated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) were evaluated and compared among lean, overweight children and children with MetS. The mean age of the study population was 7.4 ± 1.9 years. In both gender, the mean values of mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were significantly lower and red blood cell (RBC), platelet (PLT) counts were significantly higher in overweight children. Overall, 8.4% (n = 28) of patients met the criteria of MetS. Children with MetS had higher levels of PLT and lower levels of mean platelet volume (MPV). Of all the haematological parameters analysed, PLT was positively, whereas MPV was negatively correlated with MetS in girls. In addition, MPV was inversely correlated with fasting blood glucose, HOMA-IR, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol/high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C/HDL-C) ratio in girls after adjusting for confounding factors. The risk analyses of MetS in terms of MPV quartiles showed that the adjusted OR (95% CI) for the lowest vs. the

  18. Danish clinical guidelines for examination and treatment of overweight and obese children and adolescents in a pediatric setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Anders; Holm, Jens-Christian; Pearson, Seija

    2015-01-01

    Overweight children are at an increased risk of becoming obese adults, which may lead to shorter life expectancies in the current generation of children as compared to their parents. Furthermore, being an overweight child has a negative psycho-social impact. We consider obesity in children...... as a "chronic care model" based on "best clinical practice" inspired by an American expert committee and the daily practice of The Children's Obesity Clinic at Copenhagen University Hospital Holbaek. Children and adolescents should be referred for examination and treatment in a pediatric setting when BMI...... circumference, growth, pubertal stage, blood pressure, neurology and skin and provide comprehensive paraclinical investigations for obesity and obesity related conditions. Treatment of obesity in children and adolescents is fully dependent on the combined effort of the entire family. This cannot...

  19. Danish clinical guidelines for examination and treatment of overweight and obese children and adolescents in a pediatric setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Anders; Holm, Jens-Christian; Pearson, Seija

    2015-01-01

    Overweight children are at an increased risk of becoming obese adults, which may lead to shorter life expectancies in the current generation of children as compared to their parents. Furthermore, being an overweight child has a negative psycho-social impact. We consider obesity in children...... as a "chronic care model" based on "best clinical practice" inspired by an American expert committee and the daily practice of The Children's Obesity Clinic at Copenhagen University Hospital Holbaek. Children and adolescents should be referred for examination and treatment in a pediatric setting when BMI...... circumference, growth, pubertal stage, blood pressure, neurology and skin and provide comprehensive paraclinical investigations for obesity and obesity related conditions. Treatment of obesity in children and adolescents is fully dependent on the combined effort of the entire family. This cannot...

  20. Seasonal variation and atypical presentation of idiopathic intracranial hypertension in pre-pubertal children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Distelmaier, F.; Tibussek, D.; Schneider, D.T.; Mayatepek, E.

    2007-01-01

    Idiopathic intracranial hypertension is an enigmatic disorder of elevated cerebrospinal fluid pressure. In adulthood, patients are typically obese women of childbearing age; however, in young children the clinical picture is strikingly different, indicating age-related differences in the aetiology o

  1. [Evaluation of nutrition mode and nutritional status and pro health education of children during the period of pubertal spurt in the city of Szczecin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goluch-Koniuszy, Zuzanna; Friedrich, Mariola; Radziszewska, Magdalena

    2009-01-01

    This research was aimed at evaluation of the method of nutrition and the state of nutrition in the children aged 13 during the period of pubertal spurt who had their body mass, body height and waist measurement defined. These values led to calculation of BMI, WC, and WHtR indicators, which were related to centile distribution of children from Warszawa and Lódź. Only in 63.6% of girls and 68.9% of boys from Szczecin schools the value of BMI was proper. The problem of accumulation of fat tissue (WC > or = 90 c) around the waist refers to nearly 14% of girls and 9.4% of boys. The value of the indicator WHtR > or = 90 c was found in 11% of the children under research. Children with overweight (BMI 90-97 c) and obesity (BMI > or = 97 c) were selected based on the value of BMI indicator. Their menus of three chosen at random weekdays were obtained. Analysis of the nutrition method of children with overweight and obesity showed low energy value of the diet, general protein, complex carbohydrates, cellulose, mineral components (Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn), A, E (girls), C (boys), group B vitamins and also liquids deficiency. The children have undergone a special pro health education in the form of "live" workshops and 3 months after an evaluation inquiry was conducted to assess the effects of the workshops. The analysis of the evaluation inquiry showed that the children have included in their diet breakfasts and afternoon snacks and to their main meal menus whole wheat products, larger quantity of vegetables, fruit and water. It has been also established that sweets, meals of fast food types, chips, pizzy and energizing drinks have been limited.

  2. Risk factors that affect metabolic health status in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmaogullari, Selin; Demirel, Fatma; Hatipoglu, Nihal

    2017-01-01

    While some obese children are metabolically healthy (MHO), some have additional health problems, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and hepatosteatosis, which increase mortality and morbidity related to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) during adulthood. These children are metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO) children. In this study we assessed the factors that affect metabolic health in obesity and the clinical and laboratory findings that distinguish between MHO and MUO children. In total, 1085 patients aged 6-18 years, with age- and sex-matched BMI exceeding the 95th percentile were included in the study (mean 11.1±2.9 years, 57.6% female, 59.7% pubertal). Patients without dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hepatosteatosis, or hypertension were considered as MHO. Dyslipidemia was defined as total cholesterol level over 200 mg/dL, triglyceride over 150 mg/dL, LDL over 130 mg/dL, or HDL under 40 mg/dL. Insulin resistance was calculated using the homeostasis model of assesment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. Hepatosteatosis was evaluated with abdominal ultrasound. Duration of obesity, physical activity and nutritional habits, screen time, and parental obesity were questioned. Thyroid and liver function tests were performed. Six hundred and forty-two cases (59.2%) were MUO. Older age, male sex, increased BMI-SDS, and sedentary lifestyle were associated with MUO. Excessive junk food consumption was associated with MUO particularly among the prepubertal obese patients. Our results revealed that the most important factors that affect metabolic health in obesity are age and BMI. Positive effects of an active lifestyle and healthy eating habits are prominent in the prepubertal period and these habits should be formed earlier in life.

  3. Danish clinical guidelines for examination and treatment of overweight and obese children and adolescents in a pediatric setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Anders; Holm, Jens-Christian; Pearson, Seija

    2015-01-01

    Overweight children are at an increased risk of becoming obese adults, which may lead to shorter life expectancies in the current generation of children as compared to their parents. Furthermore, being an overweight child has a negative psycho-social impact. We consider obesity in children...... corresponds to an isoBMI of minimum 30 or BMI corresponds to an isoBMI of 25 and complex obesity is suspected. Obtaining a thorough medical history is pivotal. We propose a structured interview to ensure collection of all relevant information. We recommend physical examination focused on BMI, waist...... circumference, growth, pubertal stage, blood pressure, neurology and skin and provide comprehensive paraclinical investigations for obesity and obesity related conditions. Treatment of obesity in children and adolescents is fully dependent on the combined effort of the entire family. This cannot...

  4. Pubertal Stage, Body Mass Index, and Cardiometabolic Risk in Children and Adolescents in Bogotá, Colombia: The Cross-Sectional Fuprecol Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the association between pubertal stage and anthropometric and cardiometabolic risk factors in youth. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2877 Colombian children and adolescents (9–17.9 years of age. Weight, height, and waist circumference were measured and body mass index (BMI was calculated. A biochemical study was performed to determine the cardiometabolic risk index (CMRI. Blood pressure was evaluated and pubertal stage was assessed with the Tanner criteria. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed. The most significant variable (p < 0.05 in the prognosis of cardiometabolic risk was found to be the BMI in both boys and girls. In the case of girls, the pubertal stage was also a CMRI predictive factor. In conclusion, BMI was an important indicator of cardiovascular risk in both sexes. Pubertal stage was associated with cardiovascular risk only in the girls.

  5. SOS – OBESITY IN CHILDREN

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    Corina ȚIFREA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The current challenge of prevention and fighting obesity in children looked at by specialists in the social, medical and psychological areas is also treated by specialists in sport and physical education. Having been underestimated for a long time, overweighting and obesity represents a real threat known by the International Health Organization that classifies it as „global epidemic”. This really is a global problem: there were 1.6 billion overweight people in the world in 2005 (out of a total of 6.671 billion people, out of which at least 400 million are obese and the IHO estimates that in 2015 there were 2.3 billion overweight people out of which 700 million are obese. Obesity among children is more and more often seen at much younger ages with twice to four times the expected weight for an average child. Moreover, in Romania the number of obese primary school children have doubled in the late eight years, as written in a report given by the Institute of Public Health- as Rubin Munteanu, specialist in general surgery.

  6. Defining overweight and obesity in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and in adolescence. Child health experts recommend that children be screened for obesity at age 2. If needed, they should be ... your child has. Measuring body fat and diagnosing obesity in children is different than measuring these in adults. In ...

  7. Are Pediatricians Diagnosing Obese Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Katharine; Urrego, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Background: Pediatric obesity is the most prevalent nutritional disorder in American children. The detrimental social, psychological, and physiological effects of obesity call for pediatricians to address this health concern. The literature demonstrates that clinicians are underreporting the diagnosis of obesity in the pediatric setting. The primary purpose of this study was to determine if pediatricians at one pediatrics clinic in the Ochsner Health System are documenting the presence of an overweight or obese body mass index (BMI) as a diagnosis in the medical record. A secondary purpose of this study was to determine the demographics of all pediatric patients in the Ochsner Health System to be used for program development. Methods: A retrospective medical record review was conducted. Records from April 1, 2012 to April 1, 2016, were reviewed for the presence of the diagnosis of BMI classified as obese or overweight. Results: We analyzed a total of 175,066 records in this study. Of these records, 1.32% documented a diagnosis of obesity, and 0.5% documented a BMI score indicating overweight. The percentages of patient visits that met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria to be classified as obese or overweight were 28.66% and 30.41%, respectively. The majority of our pediatric patients were male (51.76%), white (43.31%), and 5-12 years old (43.80%). Conclusion: This study demonstrates that pediatricians at Ochsner Health Center for Children are not diagnosing patients who have unhealthy BMI scores as overweight or obese. Interventions are needed to increase the identification of children who may benefit from receiving resources that encourage a healthy lifestyle and optimal weight maintenance. PMID:28331453

  8. Plasma concentrations of retinol in obese children and adolescents: relationship to metabolic syndrome components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Teske

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate obese children and adolescents' retinol plasma levels and to correlate them with metabolic syndrome components. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 61 obese children and adolescents (body mass index Z score - ZBMI>+2. Pubertal development, arterial blood pressure, body weight and height for nutritional classification and waist circumference were obtained. A 15mL blood sample was collected (after a 12-hour fasting in a low luminosity room for retinol determination (cut-off inadequate if <30µg/dL, lipid profile (HDL-c, LDL-c, and triglycerides, oral glucose tolerance test (fasting and 120 minutes and for high sensitivity C-reactive protein. Spearman correlation and multiple linear regression were used in the statistical analysis. Results: Mean age was 10.7±2.7 years. There was a predominance of male gender 38/61 (62% and pre-pubertal 35/61 (57% subjects. The average plasmatic retinol was 48.5±18.6ug/dL. Retinol deficiency and severe obesity were observed in 6/61 (10% and 36/61 (59%, respectively. Glucose level at 120 minutes was the independent and predictive variable of plasma retinol levels [β=-0.286 (95%CI -0.013 - -0.001]. Conclusions: An independent and inverse association between plasma retinol levels and glucose tolerance was observed, suggesting an important contribution of this vitamin in the morbidities associated to obesity in children and adolescents.

  9. Danish clinical guidelines for examination and treatment of overweight and obese children and adolescents in a pediatric setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Anders; Holm, Jens-Christian; Pearson, Seija

    2015-01-01

    circumference, growth, pubertal stage, blood pressure, neurology and skin and provide comprehensive paraclinical investigations for obesity and obesity related conditions. Treatment of obesity in children and adolescents is fully dependent on the combined effort of the entire family. This cannot...... and adolescents a chronic illness, which is in line with the American Medical Society. We summarize the evidence for the efficacy of a combination of diet, physical activity and behavior-focused interventions in a family-based setting. The present guidelines propose a multidisciplinary service implemented...

  10. Overweight and Obesity in Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Koyuncuoğlu Güngör, Neslihan

    2014-01-01

    Obesity among children, adolescents and adults has emerged as one of the most serious public health concerns in the 21st century. The worldwide prevalence of childhood obesity has increased remarkably over the past 3 decades. The growing prevalence of childhood obesity has also led to appearance of obesity-related comorbid disease entities at an early age. Childhood obesity can adversely affect nearly every organ system and often causes serious consequences, including hypertension, dyslipidem...

  11. Obesity and growth during childhood and puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcovecchio, M Loredana; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Growth during childhood and adolescence occurs at different rates and is influenced by the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Nutritional status plays an important role in regulating growth, and excess body weight early in life can influence growth patterns. Childhood obesity is a growing and alarming problem, associated with several short-term and long-term metabolic and cardiovascular complications. In addition, there is evidence suggesting that excess adiposity during childhood influences growth patterns and pubertal development. Several studies have shown that during prepubertal years obese children have higher height velocity and accelerated bone age compared to lean subjects. However, this prepubertal advantage in growth tends to gradually decrease during puberty, when obese children show a reduced growth spurt compared with lean subjects. Growth hormone (GH) secretion in obese children is reduced, therefore suggesting that increased growth is GH independent. Factors which have been implicated in the accelerated growth in obese children include increased leptin and insulin levels, adrenal androgens, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, IGF-binding protein-1 and GH-binding proteins. Excess body weight during childhood can also influence pubertal development, through an effect on timing of pubertal onset and levels of pubertal hormonal levels. There is clear evidence indicating that obesity leads to early appearance of pubertal signs in girls. In addition, obese girls are also at increased risk of hyperandrogenism. In boys, excess adiposity has been associated with advanced puberty in some studies, whereas others have reported a delay in pubertal onset. The existing evidence on the association between childhood and adolescence obesity underlines a further reason for fighting the epidemics of childhood obesity; that is preventing abnormal growth and pubertal patterns.

  12. There's Something about Obesity: Culture, Contagion, Rationality, and Children's Responses to Drinks "Created" by Obese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaczynski, Paul A.

    2008-01-01

    Theories of the development of obesity stereotypes cannot easily explain the stigma associated with being obese. Evidence that important similarities exist between the symptoms of obesity and contagious illnesses, young children have "theories" of illnesses, and obesity stereotypes are among the earliest that children develop led to the hypothesis…

  13. Musculoskeletal problems in overweight and obese children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Krul (Marjolein); J.C. van der Wouden (Hans); F.G. Schellevis (François); L.W.A. van Suijlekom-Smit (Lisette); B.W. Koes (Bart)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE: The obesity epidemic in children is spreading at alarming rates. Because musculoskeletal problems can influence physical activity, we compared the frequency of musculoskeletal problems in overweight and obese children with that in normal-weight children. METHODS: We performed a

  14. Musculoskeletal problems in overweight and obese children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krul, M.; Wouden, van der J.; Schellevis, F.G.; Suijlekom-Smit, van LW; Koes, B.W.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: The obesity epidemic in children is spreading at alarming rates. Because musculoskeletal problems can influence physical activity, we compared the frequency of musculoskeletal problems in overweight and obese children with that in normal-weight children. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectio

  15. Musculoskeletal consequences in overweight and obese children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krul, M.; Wouden, J.C. van der; Schellevis, F.G.; Suijlekom-Smit, L.W.A.; Koes, B.W.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: The obesity epidemic in children is spreading at alarming rates. Because musculoskeletal problems can influence physical activity, we compared the frequency of musculoskeletal problems in overweight and obese children with that in normal-weight children. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectio

  16. Dyslipidemia in Iranian overweight and obese children

    OpenAIRE

    Robabeh Ghergerehchi

    2009-01-01

    Robabeh GhergerehchiDepartment of Pediatrics, Tabriz University (Medical Sciences), Tabriz, IranObjective: To evaluate the frequency and patterns of dyslipidemia in overweight and obese children and to determine the extent of blood lipid abnormality in overweight and obese children.Methods: A prospective matched case control study on 230 overweight and obese children and adolescents (body mass index [BMI] > 85th percentile) aged 4 to 18 years undertaken at the outpatient endocrine clin...

  17. Multidisciplinary care of obese children and adolescents for one year reduces ectopic fat content in liver and skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Chabanova, Elizaveta; Ohrt, Johanne Dam

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ectopic fat deposition in liver and skeletal muscle tissue is related to cardiovascular disease risk and is a common metabolic complication in obese children. We evaluated the hypotheses of ectopic fat in these organs could be diminished following 1 year of multidisciplinary care...... specialized in childhood obesity, and whether this reduction would associate with changes in other markers of metabolic function. METHODS: This observational longitudinal study evaluated 40 overweight children and adolescents enrolled in a multidisciplinary treatment protocol at the Children's Obesity Clinic...... of care. Univariate linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, treatment duration, baseline degree of obesity, and pubertal developmental stage were used for investigating possible associations. RESULTS: The standard deviation score (SDS) of baseline median body mass index (BMI) was 2.80 (range: 1...

  18. Physical activity and obesity in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hills, Andrew P; Andersen, Lars Bo; Byrne, Nuala M

    2011-01-01

    Globally, obesity is affecting an increasing proportion of children. Physical activity plays an important role in the prevention of becoming overweight and obese in childhood and adolescence, and reducing the risk of obesity in adulthood. Puberty and the following adolescent period are acknowledged...... that children will live less healthy lives than their parents. Owing to the high risk of overweight adolescents becoming obese adults, the engagement of children and adolescents in physical activity and sport is a fundamental goal of obesity prevention....... as particularly vulnerable times for the development of obesity due to sexual maturation and, in many individuals, a concomitant reduction in physical activity. In many Western settings, a large proportion of children and adolescents do not meet recommended physical activity guidelines and, typically, those who...

  19. Predictors of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorio, A; Del Col, A; Agosti, F; Mazzilli, G; Bellentani, S; Tiribelli, C; Bedogni, G

    2007-07-01

    To evaluate predictors of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in obese children. Cross-sectional study. Two hundred and sixty-eight obese children not consuming alcohol and without hepatitis B or C were consecutively studied at an auxology clinic. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl-transferase (GGT), cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides, uric acid, glucose, glucose during oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT), insulin, insulin during OGTT, insulin resistance as estimated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), C-reactive protein (CRP), and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured. Fatty liver was diagnosed by ultrasonography using standard criteria. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate predictors of NAFLD. All predictors except gender and pubertal status were modeled as continuous variables. NAFLD was detected in 44% of obese children. At univariable analysis, male gender, Z-score of body mass index (BMI) (Z-BMI), ALT, AST, GGT, triglycerides, uric acid, glucose, glucose during OGTT, insulin, insulin during OGTT, HOMA, CRP and systolic blood pressure were predictors of NAFLD, whereas HDL-cholesterol and late-pubertal status were predictors of the normal liver. At multivariable analysis, however, only Z-BMI, ALT, uric acid, glucose during OGTT and insulin during OGTT were independent predictors of NAFLD. Z-BMI, ALT, uric acid, glucose during OGTT and insulin during OGTT are independent predictors of NAFLD in Italian obese children, with most of the prediction explained by ALT and Z-BMI.

  20. Factors associated with obesity in Kuwaiti children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, M A; Shaltout, A A; Nkansa-Dwamena, D; Mourad, M; Alsheikh, N; Agha, N; Galal, D O

    1999-01-01

    The prevalence of adult obesity in Kuwait is among the highest in the Arab peninsula, and cardiovascular disease, for which obesity is a risk factor, is the leading cause of death. This study reports familial and environmental factors associated with childhood obesity; in addition to adverse effects of obesity on children's serum lipids, lipoproteins, apolipoproteins, insulin, and blood pressure profiles. The authors carried out a pair-matched case-control study including 460 obese (body mass index >90th percentile of the age/sex specific reference value of the National Center for Health Statistics), school children 6 to 13 years old matched by age and gender to 460 normal weight controls. We ascertained obese children in a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of 2400 school children selected from 20 schools by multistage stratified random sampling. Biochemical variables and blood pressure were adversely affected in obese children. The conditional logistic regression analysis showed that family history of obesity, and diabetes mellitus, respiratory and bone diseases in child were significant associated factors with obesity after adjusting for social and behavioural factors. Physical activity and parental social class were not significant. We recommend early preventive measures with emphasis on families in which one or both parents are overweight.

  1. [Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia--risk factors of the metabolic syndrome in the pubertal population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto Buczkowska, Ewa

    2005-01-01

    Pubertal insulin resistance has been well documented, the fall in insulin sensitivity (Sl) during puberty is associated with a compensatory increase in insulin secretion. Observation of pubertal insulin resistance showed that insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism was approximately 30% lower in a sample of children at Tanner stages II-IV compared with children at Tanner stage I or adults. Although the phenomenon of pubertal insulin resistance is well documented, the mechanism has not been clearly determined. Pubertal insulin resistance occurs during a time of profound changes in body composition and hormone levels. Resistance of the body to the actions of insulin results in increased production of this hormone by the pancreas and ensuing hyperinsulinemia. Obesity beginning in childhood often precedes the hyperinsulinemic state. Other components of the insulin resistance syndrome are also present in children and adolescents. Conditions of insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension and obesity, especially in constellation, are potent risk factors of coronary atherosclerosis among adolescents and young adults. Early conservative intervention with diet, exercise, and behavioral therapy may prevent the complications of insulin resistance.

  2. Racial disparities in pubertal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramnitz, Mary Scott; Lodish, Maya B

    2013-09-01

    The question of whether or not children, particularly girls, are entering puberty earlier than they did in the past has been a concern in both the medical community and the general population. A secular trend analysis of the current data on pubertal timing in boys and girls is limited by variations in the study design, the population assessed, and the methods used to determine pubertal development. These differences present a challenge when interpreting the available data, especially when comparing multiple studies. The influence of race on pubertal timing and development had not been assessed before the 1970s. The purpose of this article is to review the reported variations in pubertal timing among different racial/ethnic groups. Data suggest African American girls enter puberty earlier and reach menarche earlier than Caucasian and Hispanic girls. In addition, the trend toward earlier timing of puberty seems to be occurring faster in African American girls compared with Caucasian girls over the past 25 years. While the mechanism and understanding of the cause of racial disparities in pubertal development remain to be discerned, genetic and/or environmental factors may play a role and require further investigation.

  3. Factors associated with obesity in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Kumar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is a major public health crisis nationally and internationally. The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased over few years. It is caused by imbalance between calorie intake and calories utilized. One or more factors (genetic, behavioral, and environmental cause obesity in children. Physical, psychological, and social health problems are caused due to childhood obesity. Hence, effective intervention strategies are being used to prevent and control obesity in children. The purpose of this paper is to address various factors influencing childhood obesity, a variety of interventions and governmental actions addressing obesity and the challenges ahead for managing this epidemic. In order to collect materials for this review a detailed search of CINAHL, MEDLINE, ERIC, Academic Search Premier databases was carried out for the time period 1999‑2011. Some of the interventions used were family based, school based, community based, play based, and hospital based. The effective school‑based interventions were seen targeting physical activity along with healthy diet education. The major challenges faced by these intervention programs are financial, along with stigmatization of obese children. Governments along with other health care organizations are taking effective actions like policy changing and environmentally safe interventions for children to improve physical activity. Childhood obesity can be tackled at the population level by education, prevention and sustainable interventions related to healthy nutrition practices and physical activity promotion.

  4. Factors associated with obesity in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Kumar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is a major public health crisis nationally and internationally. The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased over few years. It is caused by imbalance between calorie intake and calories utilized. One or more factors (genetic, behavioral, and environmental cause obesity in children. Physical, psychological, and social health problems are caused due to childhood obesity. Hence, effective intervention strategies are being used to prevent and control obesity in children. The purpose of this paper is to address various factors influencing childhood obesity, a variety of interventions and governmental actions addressing obesity and the challenges ahead for managing this epidemic. In order to collect materials for this review a detailed search of CINAHL, MEDLINE, ERIC, Academic Search Premier databases was carried out for the time period 1999 2011. Some of the interventions used were family based, school based, community based, play based, and hospital based. The effective school based interventions were seen targeting physical activity along with healthy diet education. The major challenges faced by these intervention programs are financial, along with stigmatization of obese children. Governments along with other health care organizations are taking effective actions like policy changing and environmentally safe interventions for children to improve physical activity. Childhood obesity can be tackled at the population level by education, prevention and sustainable interventions related to healthy nutrition practices and physical activity promotion.

  5. Adoption of the children's obesity clinic's treatment (TCOCT) protocol into another Danish pediatric obesity treatment clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Most, Sebastian W; Højgaard, Birgitte; Teilmann, Grete Katrine

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treating severe childhood obesity has proven difficult with inconsistent treatment results. This study reports the results of the implementation of a childhood obesity chronic care treatment protocol. METHODS: Patients aged 5 to 18 years with a body mass index (BMI) above the 99th......, but independent of baseline BMI SDS, age, co-morbidity, SES, pubertal stage, place of referral, hours of treatment per year, and mean visit interval time. CONCLUSIONS: The systematic use of the TCOCT protocol reduced the degree of childhood obesity with acceptable retention rates with a modest time...

  6. Obesity-Related Hypertension in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy M. Brady

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and hypertension have both been on the rise in children. Each is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk and both track into adulthood, increasing the prevalence of heart disease and related morbidity and mortality. All children should be screened for hypertension, but children with comorbid obesity may not only particularly benefit from the screening but may also prove the most challenging to screen. Increased arm circumference and conical arm shape are particularly problematic when attempting to obtain an accurate blood pressure (BP measurement. This review focuses on the unique aspects of hypertension evaluation and management in the child with comorbid obesity. Specific traditional and non-traditional risk factors that may contribute to elevated BP in children with obesity are highlighted. Current proposed pathophysiologic mechanisms by which obesity may contribute to elevated BP and hypertension is reviewed, with focus on the role of the sympathetic nervous system and the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system. This review also presents a targeted treatment approach to children with obesity-related hypertension, providing evidence for the recommended therapeutic lifestyle change that should form the basis of any antihypertensive treatment plan in this population of at-risk children. Advantages of specific pharmacologic agents in the treatment of obesity-related hypertension are also reviewed.

  7. Prevention of obesity in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanigan, Julie; Barber, Sally; Singhal, Atul

    2010-05-01

    Obesity is a serious problem that affects children from diverse ethnic backgrounds in both industrialised and developing countries. Worldwide, an estimated twenty-two million children obese by 2050. Recent evidence suggests that most obesity is established during the preschool years, and because one in five obese 4 year olds will become obese adults this situation has major implications for public health. The causes of obesity in preschool children are complex and multifactorial. Although 30-50% of the predisposition towards obesity in preschool children can be explained by genetic factors, environmental influences also play a crucial role. The preschool period in particular is a pivotal time during which long-term dietary and physical activity habits are established, with potential lifelong effects on health. However, research in this age-group is limited. Previous studies have aimed to improve diet, increase physical activity and achieve behavioural change. However, few of these studies have been successful and there is an urgent need, therefore, for the development of evidence-based interventions aimed at the prevention of preschool obesity.

  8. Changes of ghrelin following oral glucose tolerance test in obese children with insulin resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-Min Wang; You-Jun Jiang; Li Liang; Li-Zhong Du

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To characterize changes in ghrelin levels in response to oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and to correlate changes in ghrelin levels with changes in insulin and glucose following OGTT in Chinese obese children of Tanner I and Ⅱ stage with insulin resistance.METHODS: 22 obese children with insulin resistance state were divided into four groups according to their Tanner stage and gender: boys of Tanner I (BT-Ⅰ), boys of Tanner Ⅱ (BT- Ⅱ), girls of Tanner Ⅰ (GT-Ⅰ), girls of Tanner Ⅱ (GT-Ⅱ). Ghrelin, insulin and glucose were measured at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min following OGTT. The control children with normal BMI were divided into control boys of Tanner I (CBT-Ⅰ, n = 6), control boys of Tanner Ⅱ (CBT- Ⅱ, n = 5), control girls of Tanner I (CGT-1, n = 6), control girls of Tanner II (CGT- Ⅱ, n = 5). Fasting serum ghrelin levels were analyzed.RESULTS: Ghrelin levels were lower in obese groups. Ghrelin levels of control group decreased in Tanner Ⅱ stage (CGT-Ⅰ vs CGT-Ⅱ t = -4.703, P = 0.001; CBT-Ⅰ vs CBT-n t = -4.794, P = 0.001). Basal ghrelin levels in BT- Ⅱ decreased more significantly than that in BT-Ⅰ group (t = 2.547, P = 0.029). Ghrelin levels expressed a downward trend after OGTT among obese children. The decrease in ghrelin levels at 60 min with respect to basal values was 56.9% in BT-Ⅰ. Ghrelin concentrations at 0 min correlated directly with glucose level at 0 min in BT-Ⅰ (r = 0.898, P = 0.015). There wasn't a significant correlation of ghrelin changes with glucose changes and insulin changes during OGTT in obese children with insulin resistance.CONCLUSION: In conclusion, in obese children with insulin resistance, ghrelin levels decreased with advancing pubertal stage. Ghrelin secretion suppression following OGTT was influenced by gender and pubertal stage. Baseline ghrelin levels and ghrelin suppression after OGTT did not significantly correlate with the degree of insulin resistance and insulin sensitivity.

  9. Determinants of obesity in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O I Krasnoperova

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a multifactorial disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the etiological factors contributing to the formation of obesity in children and adolescents. Study included two groups of children. Main group: 101 children with obesity aged 10 to 17 years, body mass index (BMI 31,27±0,51 kg/m 2. Comparison group: of 14 children aged 10 to 17 years, without obesity, BMI 18,54±0,11 kg/m 2. In all children we evaluated perinatal and family history, lifestyle and diet, anthropometric parameters, assessed the progress of sexual development. We found that the manifestation of the disease occurred in the early school years, and in boys significantly earlier than in girls. Mothers of obese children had complications during pregnancy (such as toxaemia, the risk of miscarriage, hypertension, previous medical abortions. The children in the majority of cases were early nursed on milk formula, had violations in feeding regime, and hypokinesia. The disease was shown to run in families.

  10. Musculoskeletal Problems in Overweight and Obese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krul, Marjolein; van der Wouden, Johannes C.; Schellevis, François G.; van Suijlekom-Smit, Lisette W. A.; Koes, Bart W.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE The obesity epidemic in children is spreading at alarming rates. Because musculoskeletal problems can influence physical activity, we compared the frequency of musculoskeletal problems in overweight and obese children with that in normal-weight children. METHODS We performed a cross-sectional database and face-to-face interview study that included 2,459 children aged 2 to 17 years from Dutch family practices. We collected data on self-reported height and weight (body mass index), self-reported musculoskeletal problems in the 2 weeks before the interview, number of family physician consultations for musculoskeletal problems in 1 year, and age (2 age-groups were analyzed: 2 to 11 years and 12 to 17 years, because of the proxy interview in the youngest age-group). We calculated the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for musculoskeletal problems in overweight and obese children, compared with normal-weight children. RESULTS Overweight and obese children in both age-groups (2 to 11 years and 12 to 17 years) reported significantly more musculoskeletal problems (OR = 1.86; 95% CI, 1.18–2.93; and OR = 1.69; 95% CI, 1.08–2.65, respectively) than normal-weight children. The total group of children who were overweight or obese reported more lower extremity problems than did the normal-weight children (OR = 1.62; 95% CI, 1.09–2.41); furthermore, they reported more ankle and foot problems than children who were of normal weight (OR = 1.92; 95% CI, 1.15–3.20). Overweight and obese children aged 12 to 17 years consulted their family physicians more often with lower extremity problems than did the normal-weight children (OR = 1.92; 95% CI, 1.05–3.51). CONCLUSION This study shows that overweight and obese children more frequently experience musculoskeletal problems than do normal-weight children. PMID:19597173

  11. Hypertension in obese children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peco-Antić Amira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, especially upper body fat distribution, has become an increasingly important medical problem in children and adolescents. Outcomes related to childhood obesity include, as in adult population, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, left ventricular hypertrophy, obstructive sleep apnea, orthopedic and socio-psychological problems. Obese children are at approximately 3-fold higher risk for hypertension from non-obese ones. Obesity-hypertension appears to be characterized by a preponderance of isolated systolic hypertension, increased heart rate and blood pressure variability, increased levels of plasma catecholamine and aldosterone, and salt-sensitivity. Lifestyle changes of weight loss, healthier diet and regular physical exercise are effective in obesity-hypertension control, though pharmacological treatment is frequently necessary. Screening for dyslipidemia and impaired glucose tolerance should be performed in paediatric patients with obese hypertension on regular basis, at least once annually or semiannually to discover metabolic syndrome and to prevent its increased cardiovascular risk. Of course, prevention of obesity is the primary goal. .

  12. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obese children and the relationship between metabolic syndrome criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyraz, Mehmet; Hatipoğlu, Nihal; Sarı, Erkan; Akçay, Arzu; Taşkın, Necati; Ulucan, Korkut; Akçay, Teoman

    2014-01-01

    To investigate metabolic syndrome (MetS) and MetS criteria, and to establish whether metabolic syndrome criteria were associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in obese children. A total of 451 pubertal obese children (8-18 years old) were enrolled in the study. Patients were divided into three groups according to the degree of steatosis. Antropometric and laboratory measurements of the participants were recorded. Of 451 obese children, 217 (48.1%) were diagnosed as having NAFLD and 96 (21.3%) as having MetS. The frequency of abdominal obesity, hypertension, impaired fasting glucose, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were 61.8% (279), 25.7% (116), 4.4% (20), 54.3% (245), 41% (185) and 2.2% (10), respectively. The prevalence of NAFLD among patients with MetS [73% (70/96)], was significantly higher than the frequency of hypertension [55% (53/96)] and abnormalities of glucose metabolism [23% (22/96)], but almost equal to the frequency of dyslipidemia [78% (75/96)]. The prevalence of MetS criteria were higher in patients with NAFLD than those without NAFLD. Except impaired fasting glucose, blood pressure and T2DM significant difference was found between groups for all. It was observed that the number of MetS criteria increased in parallel with the severity of steatosis. NAFLD in obese children is strongly associated with multiple MetS criteria. In addition to NAFLD is not only a liver disease, but also early mediator that reflects metabolic disorder, and liver ultrasound can be a useful tool for MetS screening. Copyright © 2013 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Forty years trends in timing of pubertal growth spurt in 157,000 Danish school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglæde, Lise; Olsen, Lina Wøhlk; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Entering puberty is an important milestone in reproductive life and secular changes in the timing of puberty may be an important indicator of the general reproductive health in a population. Too early puberty is associated with several psychosocial and health problems. The aim of our...... a secular trend towards earlier sexual maturation of Danish children born between 1930 and 1969. Only minor changes were observed in duration of puberty assessed by the difference in ages at OGS and PHV Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  14. Glucose alteration and insulin resistance in asymptomatic obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Silvana Neves Ferraz de; Sorte, Ney Christian Amaral Boa; Alves, Crésio de Aragão Dantas; Mendes, Patricia S Almeida; Alves, Carlos Roberto Brites; Silva, Luciana Rodrigues

    2017-08-26

    Obesity is associated with the abnormal glucose metabolism preceding type 2 diabetes mellitus. Thus, further investigation on the prediction of this lethal outcome must be sought. The objective was the profile glycemic assessment of asymptomatic obese children and adolescents from Salvador, Brazil. A fasting venous blood sample was obtained from 90 consecutive obese individuals aged 8-18 years, of both sexes, for laboratory determinations of glycated hemoglobin, basal insulin, and the Homeostasis Model Assessment Insulin Resistance index. The clinical evaluation included weight, height, waist circumference, assessment of pubertal development, and acanthosis nigricans research. The body mass index/age indicator was used for the severity of overweight assessment. Glycemic alterations were evidenced clinically and biochemically, although these individuals had no complaints or symptoms related to blood sugar levels. Quantitative and qualitative variables were respectively expressed measures of central tendency/dispersion and simple/relative frequency, using the SPSS, version 20.0. A p-value <0.05 was considered significant. Notably, this study found a high prevalence of glucose and insulin disorders in asymptomatic obese children and adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Pubertal Onset in Boys and Girls Is Influenced by Pubertal Timing of Both Parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Mouritsen, Annette; Hagen, Casper P

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Epidemiological evidence on maternal and paternal heritability of the wide normal variation within pubertal timing is sparse. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to estimate the impact of parental pubertal timing on the onset of puberty in boys and girls. DESIGN: Annual pubertal examinations of healthy...... children in a longitudinal cohort study. Information on parental timing of puberty (earlier, comparable to, or later compared to peers) and menarche age was retrieved from questionnaires. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 672 girls and 846 boys. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Age at onset of pubic hair (PH2+), breasts (B2......+), and menarche in girls; and PH2+, genital stage (G2+), and testis >3 mL with orchidometer (Tvol3+) in boys. RESULTS: In boys, pubertal onset was significantly associated with pubertal timing of both parents. PH2+ and Tvol3+ were earlier: -11.8 months (95% confidence interval, -16.8, -6.8)/-8.9 (-12.8, -4...

  16. Externality, environment, and obesity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stager, S F

    1981-07-01

    On the assumption that external responsiveness and environmental characteristics jointly determine whether a child will achieve an excessive weight gain, perpetuating and maintaining obesity, probability hierarchy was hypothesized and tested. Ss of the study were 24 obese and 24 average-weight, white boys, mean age 9 years, 5 months. An auditory distraction task and Kagan's Matching Familiar Figures Test were used to measure auditory and visual responsivity to external cues, respectively. Socioeconomic status was used as an indicator of the childhood environment. As predicted, the greatest percentages of obese children were observed in the lower-socioeconomic, external group, followed by the lower-socioeconomic, internal group and middle-socioeconomic, external group. The smallest percentage of obese children was observed in the middle-socioeconomic, internal group.

  17. Owerweight and obesity among children in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilal Ozcebe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Obesity in childhood is increasing and becoming a major public health problem in the last years in Turkey.The aim of the study was to find out the prevalance of childhood overweight and obesity among Turkish second grade of schoolchildren. The data was collected from 53 cities in 12 NUTS Area in May-June 2013. This study is a cross-sectional study, overweight and obesity prevalance were calculated by using WHO criteria. The numbers of the children in the sample were 5600. Out of 216 schools, 43 were from rural settlements and 163 from urban settlements. The target age group of the study was 7-8 years age children at second grade of the schools. Out of all children at the schools, 88.8% of the children had parent consent for antropometric measurements. The antropometric measurements were conducted by by trained health staff using standardized equipment. Out of all the children in the sample, 88.5% of them was analyzed. Out of the children, 49.9% were girls and 52.7% were seven years old. According to WHO Criteria, the prevalance of overweight were 14.5% (95% CI 13.1-15.9 and the prevalance of obesity was 8.6% (95% CI 7.52-9.67 among 7 years age children. These figures were respectively 13.9% (95% CI 12.5-15.3 and 8.0% (95 % CI 6.90-9.09 among 8 years age children. Prevalance for overweight and obesity were different by gender and residence. Boys and children living in urban settlements were more frequently overweight and obese. Overweight and obesity prevalance showed differences by NUTS Regions. Istanbul and East Blacksea NUTS Regions had the highest figures among all regions (15.9% CI 13.4-18.4; 18.3% CI 11.5-25.1, respectively. These findings shows that there is an urgent need to develop obesity prevention program for children in the country. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(2.000: 145-152

  18. Similarities between obesity in pets and children : the addiction model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pretlow, Robert A; Corbee, Ronald J

    2016-01-01

    Obesity in pets is a frustrating, major health problem. Obesity in human children is similar. Prevailing theories accounting for the rising obesity rates - for example, poor nutrition and sedentary activity - are being challenged. Obesity interventions in both pets and children have produced modest

  19. Similarities between obesity in pets and children : the addiction model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pretlow, Robert A; Corbee, Ronald J

    2016-01-01

    Obesity in pets is a frustrating, major health problem. Obesity in human children is similar. Prevailing theories accounting for the rising obesity rates - for example, poor nutrition and sedentary activity - are being challenged. Obesity interventions in both pets and children have produced modest

  20. [Risk factors of children overweight and obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkafi Koubaa, Afifa; Younes, Kawthar; Gabsi, Zvinemira; Bouslah, Amel; Maalel, Issam; Maatouk El May, Wahiba; Dahmen, Hayet; Bel Abed, Najet; Bchir, Nedra; Gabsi, Abdallah; Tekaya, Mohamed Salah; Jebara, Hassen

    2012-05-01

    The increase of the prevalence of children obesity in some countries as Tunisia, necessitate to welling known risk factors for obesity, to prevent and early management. To determine the prevalence of overweight and of obesity in a group of 4-6 year-old school children in Monastir and to investigate the association with possible risk factors. A descriptive transversal study including 121 children aged 4-6 years old (637 males, 698 females), was conducted in 10 Kindergartens in Monastir, in 2011. Personal data such as age, sex, birth weight, breastfeeding history and parental data including parental weights and heights, parental education level and occupation were collected by questionnaires completed by parents. Height and weight were measured with a weighing-scale and body mass index (BMI; kg/m²) was calculated. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was defined based according to the curves of the french reference of Rolland Cachera. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 9.1% and 11.6% respectively. Parental factors associated with overweight were: parental obesity: 44% vs 17% (p=0.005) (OR = 3.65: 1.27-10.57), artificial feeding: 68% vs 33% (p=0.0016) (OR= 4.25: 1.51-12.27), and the early diversification of food before the age of 6 months: 88% vs 65% (p=0.029) (OR= 3.84: 0.98 - 17.66). Exclusive breast feeding duration ≥ 6mois is probably protector factor against obesity: 0% vs 21% (p=0. 01) (OR=0: 0.00 Risk factors for obesity, well known in most industrialized countries, necessitate to be more understood in Tunisia, to place a preventive strategy included supervision of children weight, nutritional education and promote physical activity and reducing the time spent watching television.

  1. Antioxidant enzymes activities in obese Tunisian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sfar Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The oxidant stress, expected to increase in obese adults, has an important role in the pathogenesis of many diseases. It results when free radical formation is greatly increased or protective antioxidant mechanisms are compromised. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the antioxidant response to obesity-related stress in healthy children. Methods A hundred and six healthy children (54 obese and 52 controls, aged 6–12 years old, participated in this study. The collected data included anthropometric measures, blood pressure, fasting glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and enzymatic antioxidants (Superoxide dismutase: SOD, Catalase: CAT and Glutathione peroxidase: GPx. Results The first step antioxidant response, estimated by the SOD activity, was significantly higher in obese children compared with normal-weight controls (p  Conclusions The obesity-related increase of the oxidant stress can be observed even in the childhood period. In addition to the complications of an increased BMI, obesity itself can be considered as an independent risk factor of free radical production resulting in an increased antioxidant response.

  2. Does maternal obesity have an influence on feeding behavior of obese children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebeci, A N; Guven, A

    2015-12-01

    Although the pathogenesis of childhood obesity is multi factorial, maternal obesity and parenting have major roles. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of maternal obesity on feeding practices toward their obese school children. Obese children and adolescents referred to the pediatric endocrinology department were enrolled consecutively. Height and weight of all children and their mothers were measured. Maternal feeding practices were measured using an adapted version of the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ). Answers were compared between obese (Body Mass Index [BMI] ≥ 30 kg/m2) and non-obese mothers. A total of 491 obese subjects (292 girls, mean age 12.0 ± 2.8 years) and their mothers participated in this study. A direct correlation between children's BMI and their mothers' BMI was found (Pobese in the study, only half of them consider themselves as obese. No difference were found in the scores of the subscales "perceived responsibility", "restriction", "concern for child's weight" and "monitoring" between obese and non-obese mothers. Child's BMI-SDS positively correlated with mothers' personal weight perception, concern for child's weight and restriction after adjustment for child's age (P children's BMI-z-scores. The degree of child's obesity increases mothers' concern and food restriction behavior. While mothers of obese children have a high prevalence of obesity, maternal obesity was found to have no significant influence on feeding behavior of obese school children.

  3. Independent Benefits of Meeting the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines to Insulin Resistance in Obese Latino Children

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    Nazrat Mirza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the independent association between moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA and insulin resistance (IR among obese Latino children (N=113; 7–15 years who were enrolled in a community-based obesity intervention. Baseline information on physical activity was gathered by self-report. Clinical assessments of body composition, resting energy expenditure (REE, as well as glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT were performed after an overnight fast. Insulin resistance was defined as a 2 h insulin concentration >57 μU·mL-1. We observed that those obese children who met the 2008 Guidelines for MVPA (≥60 min/day experienced a significantly lower odds of IR compared with those not meeting the Guidelines (OR=0.29; 95% CI: (0.10–0.92 and these findings were independent of age, sex, pubertal stage, acculturation, fasting insulin, and 2 h glucose concentrations. Efforts to promote 60 min or more of daily MVPA among children from ethnic minority and high-risk communities should assume primary public health importance.

  4. Parenting style and obesity risk in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakinami, Lisa; Barnett, Tracie A; Séguin, Louise; Paradis, Gilles

    2015-06-01

    Parents play a critical role in their children's lifestyle habits. The objective was to assess the effect of parenting style on the risk of childhood obesity, and to determine whether poverty was a moderator of the association. Participants were from the 1994-2008 cross-sectional samples of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY), a nationally representative survey of Canadian youth. Factor and cluster analyses identified four parenting styles consistent with Baumrind's parenting style prototypes. Multivariable logistic regression assessed the risk of obesity based on parenting style after adjusting for covariates. Analyses were stratified by age (preschool: 2-5years of age, n=19,026; school-age: 6-11years of age, n=18,551) and the moderating effect of poverty (household incomepoverty moderated this association: authoritarian and negligent parenting was associated with 44% (CI: 1.3-1.7) and 26% (CI: 1.1-1.4) increased likelihood of obesity, respectively, but only among the children not living in poverty. In school-age children, poverty was not a moderator. Parenting style is associated with childhood obesity, but may be moderated by poverty. Successful strategies to combat childhood obesity should reflect the independent and interactive associations of sociodemographic and social-familial influences on health especially in early childhood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Two leptin genes and a leptin receptor gene of female chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus): Molecular cloning, tissue distribution and expression in different obesity indices and pubertal stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohga, Hirofumi; Matsumori, Kojiro; Kodama, Ryoko; Kitano, Hajime; Nagano, Naoki; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Matsuyama, Michiya

    2015-10-01

    Leptin is a hormone produced by fat cells that regulates the amount of fat stored in the body and conveys nutritional status to the reproductive axis in mammals. In the present study we identified two subtypes of leptin genes (lepa and lepb) and a leptin receptor gene (lepr) from chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) and there gene expression under different feeding conditions (control and high-feed) and pubertal development stages was analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR. The protein lengths of LepA, LepB and LepR were 161 amino acids (aa), 163 aa and 1149 aa, respectively and both leptin subtypes shared only 15% similarity in aa sequences. In pubertal females, lepa was expressed in the brain, pituitary gland, liver, adipose tissue and ovary; however, in adult (gonadal maturation after the second in the life) females, lepa was expressed only in the liver. lepb was expressed primarily in the brain of all fish tested and was expressed strongly in the adipose tissue of adults. lepr was characterized by expression in the pituitary. The high-feed group showed a high conditioning factor level; unexpectedly, hepatic lepa and brain lepr were significantly more weakly expressed compared with the control-feed group. Furthermore, the expression levels of lepa, lepb and lepr genes showed no significant differences between pre-pubertal and post-pubertal fish. On the other hand, pituitary fshβ and lhβ showed no significant differences between different feeding groups of pre-pubertal fish. In contrast, fshβ and lhβ expressed abundantly in the post-pubertal fish of control feed group. Based on these results, whether leptin plays an important role in the nutritional status and pubertal onset of chub mackerel remains unknown.

  6. Prevalance of Obesity in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Bansal, Ankita; Diwan, Shraddha; Diwan, Jasmin; Vyas, Neeta

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Obesity are epidemic among children and adolescents. There is worldwide tendency of increasing prevalence of obesity in children. Cerebral palsy (CP) is leading cause of childhood disability.studies have proposed mechanism of children with disability leading towards obesity and related health risks. So this study is aimed at determining whether such trend of obesity exists in children with CP in terms of BMI and WHR.

  7. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Obese Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumińska, Małgorzata; Majcher, Anna; Pyrzak, Beata; Czerwonogrodzka-Senczyna, Aneta; Brzewski, Michał; Demkow, Urszula

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze cardiometabolic risk factors andcarotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in obese children. We studied 122 obese children fulfilling the criteria of the International Obesity Task Force and 58 non-obese children. Anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, lipid profile, C-reactive protein, and adiponectin were assessed in all children. Glucose and insulin during the oral glucose tolerance test were assessed in obese children. The IMT was determined using ultrasound B-mode imaging in 81 obese and 32 non-obese children. We found that obese children had significantly higher levels of lipid andother non-lipid atherogenic indicators, but lower levels of adiponectin compared with non-obese children. The difference in the mean carotid IMT was insignificant in the two groups. Taking the combined groups, the level of adiponectin correlated negatively with body mass index and lipid atherogenic indicators. The IMT strongly correlated with systolic blood pressure in obese children. In the children fulfilling the criteria of metabolic syndrome, 17 out of the 84 obese children older than 10 years of age, IMT was greater than in those who did not fulfil these criteria. We conclude that the coexistence of abdominal obesity with abnormal lipid profile and hypertension leads to the early development of atherosclerosis accompanied by increased carotid intima-media thickness. Obesity initiates the atherosclerotic processes in early childhood.

  8. INFLUENCE OF SLEEP ON OBESITY IN CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton-Paduraru, Dana-teodora; Teslariu, Oana; Mocanu, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a global epidemic with long term implications. The main cause of obesity is an increase in calorie intake and a decrease in physical activity, but also there is clear evidence suggesting a link between the duration and quality of sleep and obesity risk. Good sleep habits are involved in increased ability to concentrate at school, improvement of general state, immune system development, increased quality of life. On the other hand, there are several mechanisms by which chronic sleep deprivation induces weight gain: disturbance of hormones that control hunger center, increased time for meals, reduced physical activity, metabolic changes. Recently, nighttime sleep duration has declined, in contrast with the increasing prevalence of obesity. Childhood sleep habits have a long term effect on weight, with repercussions even into adulthood. This is the reason why there is increasing interest to include sleep quality on the list for childhood obesity prevention. Sleep represents an important and independent risk factor of obesity in children and adolescents and it should be taken into consideration in the management of obesity.

  9. Children, adolescents, obesity, and the media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasburger, Victor C

    2011-07-01

    Obesity has become a worldwide public health problem. Considerable research has shown that the media contribute to the development of child and adolescent obesity, although the exact mechanism remains unclear. Screen time may displace more active pursuits, advertising of junk food and fast food increases children's requests for those particular foods and products, snacking increases while watching TV or movies, and late-night screen time may interfere with getting adequate amounts of sleep, which is a known risk factor for obesity. Sufficient evidence exists to warrant a ban on junk-food or fast-food advertising in children's TV programming. Pediatricians need to ask 2 questions about media use at every well-child or well-adolescent visit: (1) How much screen time is being spent per day? and (2) Is there a TV set or Internet connection in the child's bedroom?

  10. Metabolic Syndrome in Italian Obese Children and Adolescents: Stronger Association with Central Fat Depot than with Insulin Sensitivity and Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Brufani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate whether body fat distribution, birth weight, and family history for diabetes (FHD were associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS in children and adolescents. Methods. A total of 439 Italian obese children and adolescents (5–18 years were enrolled. Subjects were divided into 2 groups: prepubertal and pubertal. MetS was diagnosed according to the adapted National Cholesterol Education Program criteria. Birth weight percentile, central obesity index (measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, insulin sensitivity (ISI, and disposition index were evaluated. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine variables associated with MetS. Results. The prevalence of MetS was 17%, with higher percentage in adolescents than in children (21 versus 12%. In the overall population, central obesity index was a stronger predictor of MetS than insulin sensitivity and low birth weight. When the two groups were considered, central fat depot remained the strongest predictor of MetS, with ISI similarly influencing the probability of MetS in the two groups and birth weight being negatively associated to MetS only in pubertal individuals. Neither FHD nor degree of fatness was a significant predictor of MetS. Conclusion. Simple clinical parameters like increased abdominal adiposity and low birth weight could be useful tools to identify European obese adolescents at risk for metabolic complications.

  11. Oximetry in obese children with sleep-disordered breathing

    OpenAIRE

    Evangelisti, Melania; Shafiek, Hanaa; Rabasco, Jole; Forlani, Martina; Montesano, Marilisa; Barreto, Mario; Verhulst, Stijn; Villa, Maria Pia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Obesity is an important risk factor for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), and obese children with OSAS have frequently shown oxygen desaturations when compared with normal-weight children. The aim of our study was to investigate the oximetry characteristics in children with obesity and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). Methods: Children referred for suspected OSAS were enrolled in the study. All children underwent sleep clinical record (SCR), pulse oximetry, and p...

  12. A review of iron studies in overweight and obese children and adolescents: a double burden in the young?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Carol

    2016-10-01

    The connection between iron and excessive adiposity has received much research interest. Although children and adolescents have unique developmental phases and nutritional demands, to date, reviews of iron in the overweight (OW) and obese (OB) have combined studies of children and adults or have focussed on adults. The aim of this review was to critically evaluate studies of the relationship between iron and OW and obesity in children and adolescents, with emphasis on iron status, oral iron response, dietary intake and systemic inflammatory markers. A PubMed search was conducted to identify relevant articles published up to December 2015. Combinations of the following keywords were used: iron, OW, OB, children, adolescents, diet, hepcidin, inflammation, fortification, supplementation, weight loss, trace elements, obesity, iron deficiency (ID), minerals. A higher prevalence of ID, or risk of ID, among OW and OB children and adolescents has been consistently observed. Chronic inflammation caused by excessive adiposity offers a plausible explanation for this finding, rather than dietary factors. However, future studies must employ screening for the presence of both acute and chronic infections and inflammatory conditions and report other factors such as pubertal status. Intervention studies, although few, indicate that OW and OB children and adolescents have reduced response to oral iron. Further trials are needed to explore the connection between body fat mass, inflammatory proteins and iron absorption, together with the effect of weight loss on iron status in iron-deficient OW and OB children and adolescents.

  13. Danish clinical guidelines for examination and treatment of overweight and obese children and adolescents in a pediatric setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Anders; Holm, Jens-Christian; Pearson, Seija; Kjærsgaard, Mimi; Larsen, Lone Marie; Højgaard, Birgitte; Cortes, Dina

    2015-05-01

    Overweight children are at an increased risk of becoming obese adults, which may lead to shorter life expectancies in the current generation of children as compared to their parents. Furthermore, being an overweight child has a negative psycho-social impact. We consider obesity in children and adolescents a chronic illness, which is in line with the American Medical Society. We summarize the evidence for the efficacy of a combination of diet, physical activity and behavior-focused interventions in a family-based setting. The present guidelines propose a multidisciplinary service implemented as a "chronic care model" based on "best clinical practice" inspired by an American expert committee and the daily practice of The Children's Obesity Clinic at Copenhagen University Hospital Holbaek. Children and adolescents should be referred for examination and treatment in a pediatric setting when BMI corresponds to an isoBMI of minimum 30 or BMI corresponds to an isoBMI of 25 and complex obesity is suspected. Obtaining a thorough medical history is pivotal. We propose a structured interview to ensure collection of all relevant information. We recommend physical examination focused on BMI, waist circumference, growth, pubertal stage, blood pressure, neurology and skin and provide comprehensive paraclinical investigations for obesity and obesity related conditions. Treatment of obesity in children and adolescents is fully dependent on the combined effort of the entire family. This cannot be overemphasized! The main principle of the treatment is developing an individual detailed plan for every patient to reduce caloric intake whilst increasing physical activity, leaving no ambiguity with the recommendations.

  14. Food Types in the Diet and the Nutrient Intake of Obese and Non−Obese Children

    OpenAIRE

    Garipağaoğlu, Muazzez; Sahip, Yusuf; Budak, Nurten; Akdikmen, Öznur; Altan, Tuğçe; Baban, Melis

    2008-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions world−wide. Objective: To compare the types of food in the diet and the nutrient intake of obese children with those of non−obese children. Methods: A total of 95 obese and 592 non−obese children aged between 6 and 10 years participated in the study. A body mass index (BMI) value exceeding the 95th percentile for age and gender was taken as the criterion for obesity. Three−day food consumption was recorded and evaluated according ...

  15. 1H-MRS Measured Ectopic Fat in Liver and Muscle in Danish Lean and Obese Children and Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cilius Esmann Fonvig

    Full Text Available This cross sectional study aims to investigate the associations between ectopic lipid accumulation in liver and skeletal muscle and biochemical measures, estimates of insulin resistance, anthropometry, and blood pressure in lean and overweight/obese children.Fasting plasma glucose, serum lipids, serum insulin, and expressions of insulin resistance, anthropometry, blood pressure, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy of liver and muscle fat were obtained in 327 Danish children and adolescents aged 8-18 years.In 287 overweight/obese children, the prevalences of hepatic and muscular steatosis were 31% and 68%, respectively, whereas the prevalences in 40 lean children were 3% and 10%, respectively. A multiple regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, body mass index z-score (BMI SDS, and pubertal development showed that the OR of exhibiting dyslipidemia was 4.2 (95%CI: [1.8; 10.2], p = 0.0009 when hepatic steatosis was present. Comparing the simultaneous presence of hepatic and muscular steatosis with no presence of steatosis, the OR of exhibiting dyslipidemia was 5.8 (95%CI: [2.0; 18.6], p = 0.002. No significant associations between muscle fat and dyslipidemia, impaired fasting glucose, or blood pressure were observed. Liver and muscle fat, adjusted for age, sex, BMI SDS, and pubertal development, associated to BMI SDS and glycosylated hemoglobin, while only liver fat associated to visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue and intramyocellular lipid associated inversely to high density lipoprotein cholesterol.Hepatic steatosis is associated with dyslipidemia and liver and muscle fat depositions are linked to obesity-related metabolic dysfunctions, especially glycosylated hemoglobin, in children and adolescents, which suggest an increased cardiovascular disease risk.

  16. The prevalence of stunting, overweight and obesity, and metabolic disease risk in rural South African children

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    Dunger David B

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low- to middle-income countries are undergoing a health transition with non-communicable diseases contributing substantially to disease burden, despite persistence of undernutrition and infectious diseases. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and patterns of stunting and overweight/obesity, and hence risk for metabolic disease, in a group of children and adolescents in rural South Africa. Methods A cross-sectional growth survey was conducted involving 3511 children and adolescents 1-20 years, selected through stratified random sampling from a previously enumerated population living in Agincourt sub-district, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Anthropometric measurements including height, weight and waist circumference were taken using standard procedures. Tanner pubertal assessment was conducted among adolescents 9-20 years. Growth z-scores were generated using 2006 WHO standards for children up to five years and 1977 NCHS/WHO reference for older children. Overweight and obesity for those 2 for overweight and obesity respectively were used for those ≥ 18 years. Waist circumference cut-offs of ≥ 94 cm for males and ≥ 80 cm for females and waist-to-height ratio of 0.5 for both sexes were used to determine metabolic disease risk in adolescents. Results About one in five children aged 1-4 years was stunted; one in three of those aged one year. Concurrently, the prevalence of combined overweight and obesity, almost non-existent in boys, was substantial among adolescent girls, increasing with age and reaching approximately 20-25% in late adolescence. Central obesity was prevalent among adolescent girls, increasing with sexual maturation and reaching a peak of 35% at Tanner Stage 5, indicating increased risk for metabolic disease. Conclusions The study highlights that in transitional societies, early stunting and adolescent obesity may co-exist in the same socio-geographic population. It is likely that this profile

  17. Economic Differences in Risk Factors for Obesity among Overweight and Obese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Soon; Ham, Ok Kyung; Jang, Mi Na; Yun, Hyun Jung; Park, Jiyoung

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the economic differences in familial, physiological, psychological, and lifestyle characteristics associated with overweight and obese children in South Korea. A total of 407 overweight and obese children participated in the study. The obesity rate was 69.0% and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) was…

  18. Economic Differences in Risk Factors for Obesity among Overweight and Obese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Soon; Ham, Ok Kyung; Jang, Mi Na; Yun, Hyun Jung; Park, Jiyoung

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the economic differences in familial, physiological, psychological, and lifestyle characteristics associated with overweight and obese children in South Korea. A total of 407 overweight and obese children participated in the study. The obesity rate was 69.0% and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) was…

  19. Sex, age, pubertal development and use of oral contraceptives in relation to serum concentrations of DHEA, DHEAS, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, Δ4-androstenedione, testosterone and their ratios in children, adolescents and young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søeborg, Tue; Frederiksen, Hanne; Mouritsen, Annette

    2014-01-01

    The influence of sex, age, pubertal development and oral contraceptives on dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulfate (DHEAS), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), Δ4-androstenedione (Adione), testosterone (T), calculated free testosterone (fT), free androgen index (FAI) and selected ratios in 1798...... serum samples from healthy children, adolescents and young adults was evaluated. Samples were analyzed by Turboflow-LC-MS/MS. Sex hormone-binding globulin was analyzed by immunoassay. All steroid metabolite concentrations were positively associated with age and pubertal development in both sexes...... to sex, age and pubertal development. Use of oral contraceptives strongly influences adrenal steroidogenesis and should be considered when diagnosing and monitoring treatment of patients with disorders of sex development....

  20. Risk factors and outcomes of childhood obesity in Hong Kong: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, S Y; Lai, Y K; Lam, T H; Chan, V; Mak, K K; Lo, W S

    2013-06-01

    1. Onset of obesity is related to age, gender, pubertal stage, dietary habits, and parental occupation. Targeting the high riskgroups may help curb obesity in children. 2. Obesity may lead to poor self-esteem and potential psychosocial risk. The psychosocial impact of obesity could be more pronounced in girls than boys. 3. The association between obesity and psychosocial health could be bi-directional. Improving psychosocial health could be beneficial in weight management for normal-weight and obese children. 4. Obesity is associated with higher blood pressures.

  1. Beverage intake and obesity in Australian children

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    Clifton Peter M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been increases in the obesity and overweight rates in Australian children over the past 25 years and it has been suggested that sugar sweetened beverages (SSB have played a role in this increase. Objective The objectives of this study were to: (1 examine SSB intakes in the 2007 Australian Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (2 relate SSB intake to rates of overweight and obesity, socio-economic status (SES, TV viewing time, and activity levels and (3 compare 2007 SSB intakes with data from the 1995 National Nutrition Survey. Design A computer assisted 24 h dietary recall in 4,400 children aged 2-16 years was performed. Results In the 2007 survey 47% of all children reported drinking SSBs with 25% consuming sugar sweetened soft drinks on the day of the survey. The mean consumption of soft drink was 436 g/d/consumer. Activity levels were unrelated to SSB consumption. Television viewing was positively related to soft drink consumption with a difference of 55 g/day from bottom to top tertile of time spent TV viewing (p = 0.015 in children aged 9-16 years. 55% of SSB consumption occurred at home and 10% occurred at school. Lower SES status was associated with a greater prevalence of SSB consumption- 30% for the lowest SES quartile vs 19% in the highest quartile. The proportion of overweight who consumed SSBs (which excludes 100% fruit was not different from the non-overweight children although the proportion of SSB consumers in the 6% of children who were obese was significant compared with the non-overweight children (59% vs 47%, p Conclusions This cross-sectional data set provides evidence that SSB consumption for Australian children is still high despite the decrease since 1995 in some age groups. It provides little support to conclude that overweight in children is currently being driven by excessive SSB consumption although it may be factor in some obese children. Conclusions are limited by the cross

  2. Frequency of secondary dyslipidemia in obese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Korsten-Reck

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Ulrike Korsten-Reck1, Katrin Kromeyer-Hauschild2, Katrin Korsten1, Manfred W Baumstark1, Hans-H Dickhuth1, Aloys Berg11Department of Rehabilitative and Preventive Sports Medicine, University Medical Center, University of Freiburg, 79106 Freiburg, Germany; 2Institute of Human Genetics and Anthropology, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, 07740 Jena, GermanyObjective: This paper reports the frequency, type, and degree of dyslipidemia in obese children before therapeutic intervention. The relationships between lipid values and weight status, as well as lipid values and physical fitness, of these children were also investigated.Design and methods: The initial examination of the Freiburg Intervention Trial for Obese Children (FITOC measured the values of triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C in 546 obese children aged 7–12 (body mass index [BMI] > 97th percentile, and compared these values with those of the age- and sex-specific reference group in the Lipid Research Clinics Population Studies Data Book (LRC. Four groups were selected according to the following scheme: A, Normolipidemia; B, Hyper-LDL-cholesterolemia alone; C, Hypo-HDL-C + hypertriglyceridemia; D, Combined hyperlipidemia = Hyper-LDL-C + hypertriglyceridemia. Body mass index, BMI-SDS (corrected BMI, and physical performance in watt/kg body weight were measured.Results: A total of 45.8% of the overweight children showed an abnormal lipid profile. Ten percent of the children had high LDL-C levels (group B, while 15% had increased LDL-C and increased TG (group D (higher prevalence in boys. In 18.9% we found increased TG, combined with decreased HDL-C values (group C.Conclusion: Obese children are at risk of dyslipoproteinemia and related diseases. Children with the highest BMI-SDS and lowest physical fitness have the lowest HDL-C values and increased TG, indicating a higher risk for the

  3. Vigorous physical activity rather than sedentary behaviour predicts overweight and obesity in pubertal boys: a 2-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lätt, Evelin; Mäestu, Jarek; Ortega, Francisco B; Rääsk, Triin; Jürimäe, Toivo; Jürimäe, Jaak

    2015-05-01

    Current physical activity (PA) recommendations indicate that children should get involved in 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), and should include vigorous-intensity PA at least three days a week. However, it is not known how many minutes of vigorous PA they should do. Using objective methods and a longitudinal design, this study aimed to examine how different PA intensities and sedentary behaviour relate with the risk of being overweight and obese during puberty over a two-year period. A sample of 136 10-12-year-old (at baseline) boys participated. PA was measured by seven-day accelerometry. From MVPA thresholds, only 90 minutes per day of MVPA had important odds ratios (OR) for being overweight at baseline (OR=8.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-64.04). A significant cut-off point for being overweight was indicated by 59 minutes per day of MVPA with at least 14 minutes per day of vigorous PA, and 55 minutes per day MVPA with at least 10 minutes per day of vigorous PA for those who were obese. Sedentary behaviour did not have any significant ORs for being overweight or obese. Subjects who did not meet the thresholds of 5 and 20 minutes per day of vigorous PA at baseline had an increased risk of being overweight (OR=4.05, 95% CI 1.41-11.59, and OR=4.14, 95% CI 1.35-12.73, respectively) and obese (OR=6.54, 95% CI 1.97-21.69, and OR=8.75, 95% CI 1.12-68.51, respectively) two years later. The results indicate that vigorous PA in particular predicts overweight and obesity in boys. They should aim to do at least 60 minutes per day of MVPA. These results contribute to the recommendations suggesting that a minimum of 15 minutes per day of vigorous PA is desired to reduce the risk of developing overweight/obesity in later puberty. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  4. Overweight and obese children: mothers' strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Debra; Mannix, Judy; Faga, Pat; McDonald, Glenda

    2005-10-01

    This paper reports a study exploring the strategies a group of mothers of overweight and obese children were using and planned to use in the future to assist their children to achieve a healthy weight. Over the past two decades, the prevalence of childhood obesity has grown exponentially to become a major public health concern. Extant literature suggests that childhood obesity is associated with a range of physical, social and psychological effects, including poor self-esteem, depression, social isolation, and cardio-vascular and other morbidity. Parents are known to be important in determining early eating and exercise habits, and their involvement is crucial to achieving positive child health outcomes. An exploratory-descriptive design informed by feminist research principles shaped the study, which was carried out in 2003-2004. Eleven mothers meeting the inclusion criteria took part in in-depth interviews. These were transcribed, and qualitatively analysed. Participants revealed sound understandings of the concept and ramifications of obesity. They had initiated a range of strategies including role modelling, developing opportunities for increased physical activity, reducing the use of junk food, and heightened awareness of how they used food. Participants viewed the problem as a family rather than an individual problem, and aimed many of the interventions at the entire family to avoid targeting the focus child. Further research into how childhood obesity is managed within the context of family life is needed. Specifically, additional perspectives on how mothers from various socio-cultural groups address childhood obesity within family life, and longitudinal studies to explore the efficacy and sustainability of family-based lifestyle changes that are made in response to concerns about child weight issues. Additional research to explore the type and nature of family support that can best assist families to achieve sustainable lifestyle improvements is needed.

  5. Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Danish Lean and Obese Children and Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Maria; Ohrt, Johanne Dam; Fonvig, Cilius Esman

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Thyroid abnormalities are common in obese children. The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) and to determine how circulating thyroid hormone concentrations correlate with anthropometrics in Danish lean and obese children...... and adolescents. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we included 3006 children and adolescents, aged 6-18 years, from the Registry of the Danish Childhood Obesity Biobank. The overweight/obese group (n=1796) consisted of study participants with a body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) ≥1...... overweight/obese study participants. The positive correlations of circulating TSH and fT4 with WHtR suggest that central obesity, independent of the overall degree of obesity, augments the risk of concurrent thyroid abnormalities in children and adolescents with obesity....

  6. Early Adiposity Rebound and Obesity in Children with Congenital Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-Yen Chen

    2013-04-01

    Conclusion: Children with CHT have a higher risk of obesity due to earlier age of AR. We recommend that supervision and intervention on weight control should be provided to prevent the occurrence of obesity later.

  7. Obesity in Children and Adolescents: Health Effects and Imaging Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faguy, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are pandemic health problems, not just among the adult population, but in children and adolescents as well. This article presents information on the prevalence, causes, prevention, and treatment of overweight and obesity in young people, with particular focus on the medical and psychological complications associated with the diseases. In addition, the challenges of imaging the obese pediatric population are discussed, and public policy changes that could help reverse obesity trends in children and adolescents are introduced.

  8. Association between eating behavior scores and obesity in Chilean children

    OpenAIRE

    Amador Paola; Obregón Ana M; Cataldo Rodrigo; Domínguez-Vásquez Patricia; Smalley Susan V; González Andrea; Ho-Urriola Judith A; Santos José L; Weisstaub Gerardo; Hodgson M Isabel

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Inadequate eating behavior and physical inactivity contribute to the current epidemic of childhood obesity. The aim of this study was to assess the association between eating behavior scores and childhood obesity in Chilean children. Design and methods We recruited 126 obese, 44 overweight and 124 normal-weight Chilean children (6-12 years-old; both genders) according to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria. Eating behavior scores were calculated using the ...

  9. Appetitive behaviours of children attending obesity treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croker, H; Cooke, L; Wardle, J

    2011-10-01

    Associations between appetite and adiposity have not been examined in clinical samples of obese children. The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) was used to compare appetite in community (n=406) and clinical (n=66) samples. Clear graded patterns were seen for food responsiveness and emotional overeating; levels increased with increasing BMI SDS and the clinical sample scored highest. The reverse was seen for satiety responsiveness/slowness in eating. Differences were not solely explained by weight differences, suggesting that the clinical sample had more pronounced 'obesogenic' appetitive traits. This could make adherence to dietary guidance difficult.

  10. Similarities between obesity in pets and children: the addiction model

    OpenAIRE

    Pretlow, Robert A.; Corbee, Ronald J.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity in pets is a frustrating, major health problem. Obesity in human children is similar. Prevailing theories accounting for the rising obesity rates – for example, poor nutrition and sedentary activity – are being challenged. Obesity interventions in both pets and children have produced modest short-term but poor long-term results. New strategies are needed. A novel theory posits that obesity in pets and children is due to ‘treats’ and excessive meal amounts given by the ‘pet–parent’ and...

  11. Obesity in children with brachial plexus birth palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Avreeta K; Mills, Janith; Bauer, Andrea S; Ezaki, Marybeth

    2015-11-01

    Fetal macrosomia is associated with a 14-fold increased risk of brachial plexus birth palsy (BPBP), and is a predictor of childhood obesity. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationships between BPBP, fetal macrosomia, and childhood obesity. We retrospectively reviewed 214 children with BPBP. The average age was 8 years and 53% had a Narakas 1 grade BPBP. Overall, 49% of children were normal weight, 22% overweight, and 29% obese. Of the children with a history of fetal macrosomia, 41% were obese; a statistically significant difference. Overall quality of life scores, however, were not correlated with obesity.

  12. Triglyceride to HDL-C Ratio is Associated with Insulin Resistance in Overweight and Obese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwani, Nur Ahmad Kamil Zati; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid; Zin, Ruziana Mona Wan Mohd; Fuziah, Md Zain; Hong, Janet Yeow Hua; Abqariyah, Yahya; Mokhtar, Abdul Halim; Wan Nazaimoon, Wan Mohamud

    2017-01-06

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of triglyceride to hdl-c ratio (TG:HDL-C) as an insulin resistance (IR) marker for overweight and obese children. A total of 271 blood samples of obese and overweight children aged 9-16 years were analysed for fasting glucose, lipids and insulin. Children were divided into IR and non-insulin resistance, using homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). The children were then stratified by tertiles of TG: HDL-C ratio. The strength between TG:HDL-C ratio and other parameters of IR were quantified using Pearson correlation coefficient (r). Odds ratio was estimated using multiple logistic regression adjusted for age, gender, pubertal stages and IR potential risk factors. Children with IR had significantly higher TG:HDL-C ratio (2.48) (p = 0.01). TG:HDL-C ratio was significantly correlated with HOMA-IR (r = 0.104, p HDL-C ratio showed significant increase in mean insulin level (p = 0.03), HOMA-IR (p = 0.04) and significantly higher number of children with acanthosis nigricans and metabolic syndrome. The odds of having IR was about 2.5 times higher (OR = 2.47; 95% CI 1.23, 4.95; p = 0.01) for those in the highest tertiles of TG:HDL-C ratio. Hence, TG:HDL-C may be a useful tool to identify high risk individuals.

  13. Children's understandings’ of obesity, a thematic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L. Fielden

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is a major concern in today's society. Research suggests the inclusion of the views and understandings of a target group facilitates strategies that have better efficacy. The objective of this study was to explore the concepts and themes that make up children's understandings of the causes and consequences of obesity. Participants were selected from Reception (4–5 years old and Year 6 (10–11 years old, and attended a school in an area of Sunderland, in North East England. Participants were separated according to age and gender, resulting in four focus groups, run across two sessions. A thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2006 identified overarching themes evident across all groups, suggesting the key concepts that contribute to children's understandings of obesity are “Knowledge through Education,” “Role Models,” “Fat is Bad,” and “Mixed Messages.” The implications of these findings and considerations of the methodology are discussed in full.

  14. Circulating branched-chain amino acid concentrations are associated with obesity and future insulin resistance in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, S E; Shaham, O; McCarthy, M A; Deik, A A; Wang, T J; Gerszten, R E; Clish, C B; Mootha, V K; Grinspoon, S K; Fleischman, A

    2013-02-01

    What is already known about this subject Circulating concentrations of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) can affect carbohydrate metabolism in skeletal muscle, and therefore may alter insulin sensitivity. BCAAs are elevated in adults with diet-induced obesity, and are associated with their future risk of type 2 diabetes even after accounting for baseline clinical risk factors. What this study adds Increased concentrations of BCAAs are already present in young obese children and their metabolomic profiles are consistent with increased BCAA catabolism. Elevations in BCAAs in children are positively associated with insulin resistance measured 18 months later, independent of their initial body mass index. Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) concentrations are elevated in response to overnutrition, and can affect both insulin sensitivity and secretion. Alterations in their metabolism may therefore play a role in the early pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes in overweight children. To determine whether paediatric obesity is associated with elevations in fasting circulating concentrations of BCAAs (isoleucine, leucine and valine), and whether these elevations predict future insulin resistance. Sixty-nine healthy subjects, ages 8-18 years, were enrolled as a cross-sectional cohort. A subset of subjects who were pre- or early-pubertal, ages 8-13 years, were enrolled in a prospective longitudinal cohort for 18 months (n = 17 with complete data). Elevations in the concentrations of BCAAs were significantly associated with body mass index (BMI) Z-score (Spearman's Rho 0.27, P = 0.03) in the cross-sectional cohort. In the subset of subjects that followed longitudinally, baseline BCAA concentrations were positively associated with homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance measured 18 months later after controlling for baseline clinical factors including BMI Z-score, sex and pubertal stage (P = 0.046). Elevations in the concentrations of circulating BCAAs are significantly

  15. Laboratory assessment of cardiometabolic risk in overweight and obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sypniewska, Grazyna

    2015-04-01

    Childhood obesity has been identified as one of the most important risk factors of developing cardiovascular diseases. The global prevalence of overweight and obesity among children shows an increasing tendency. Many of overweight or obese children will become obese adults with enhanced risk for cardiovascular diseases. Childhood obesity is often accompanied by serious consequences such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, pro-inflammatory state and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Hypertension, high LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, insulin resistance, inflammation and disturbances in adipocytokines secretion are associated with endothelial dysfunction which precedes the development of atherosclerosis. Obese children and adolescents with a clinically-proven non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which is currently recognized as the hepatic component of metabolic syndrome, are at more severe cardiovascular risk compared with normal-weight. Obesity-related insulin resistance is highly prevalent in children and adolescents, and is associated with the increased lifetime risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Adipokines contribute to obesity-atherosclerosis relationships yet among several recently discovered adipokines only few (adiponectin, resistin, chemerin, fibroblast growth factor 21, apelin) have been partly studied in obese pediatric population. The aim of this review was to describe the spectrum of cardiovascular abnormalities observed in children with overweight and obesity and the role of laboratory in the assessment of cardiometabolic risk in order to differentiate between healthy obese and those at risk to most effectively prevent progression of cardiovascular disease in childhood.

  16. Obesity in children with poorly controlled asthma: Sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Jason E; Holbrook, Janet T; Wise, Robert A; Dixon, Anne E; Teague, W Gerald; Wei, Christine Y; Irvin, Charles G; Shade, David; Lima, John J

    2013-09-01

    Obesity increases asthma risk, and may alter asthma severity. In adults, sex appears to modify the effect of obesity on asthma. Among children, the effect of sex on the relationship between obesity and asthma severity remains less clear, particularly when considering race. To determine how obesity affects disease characteristics in a diverse cohort of children with poorly controlled asthma, and if obesity effects are altered by sex. We analyzed 306 children between 6 and 17 years of age with poorly controlled asthma enrolled in a 6-month trial assessing lansoprazole for asthma control. In this secondary analysis, we determined associations between obesity and symptom severity, spirometry, exacerbation risk, airway biomarkers, bronchial reactivity, and airflow perception. We used both a multivariate linear regression and longitudinal mixed-effect model to determine if obesity interacted with sex to affect asthma severity. Regardless of sex, BMI >95th percentile did not affect asthma control, exacerbation risk or airway biomarkers. Sex changed the effect of obesity on lung function (sex × obesity FEV1%, interaction P-value sex × obesity FEV1/FVC, interaction P-value = 0.03). Obese males had significantly worse airflow obstruction compared to non-obese males, while in females there was no obesity effect on airflow obstruction. In females, obesity was associated with significantly greater FEV1 and FVC, and a trend toward reduced airway reactivity. Obesity did not affect asthma control, airway markers or disease stability; however obesity did affect lung function in a sex-dependent manner. In males, obesity associated with reduced FEV1/FVC, and in females, obesity associated with substantially improved lung function. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Alarming high prevalence of overweight/obesity among Sudanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagwa, M A; Elhussein, Abdelrahim M; Azza, M; Abdulhadi, N H

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of obesity among schoolchildren in Khartoum state, Sudan. Multistage stratified random sampling methodology was used. Sampling included different residential areas within the state. A total of 1138 children between the ages of 10 and 18 years were involved in the study. More than 9% of the children were obese, 10.8% were overweight whereas combined overweight/obesity scored 20.5%. The prevalence of combined overweight/obesity among higher, middle and lower socioeconomic class children was 56.8, 27.3 and 3.1%, respectively. These figures, being higher than those reported among Nigerian and South African children, living in similar conditions, may refer to an emerging problem of overweight and obesity especially among children of the higher and middle class families. Adoption of national programs of promoting healthy food habits and physical activity among children is recommended.

  18. Obesity and overweight in South African primary school children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-04-21

    Apr 21, 2006 ... of overweight and obese children in South Africa, this prevalence has ... basic anthropometry and physical development of children in South Africa. ..... physical activity level differences, or a combination is unknown. Another ...

  19. Treatment of obesity-related hypertension in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbach, Susan M; Flynn, Joseph

    2013-06-01

    The obesity epidemic has become a common concern among pediatricians, with an estimated 32 % of US children and adolescents classified as overweight and 18 % as obese. Along with the increase in obesity, a growing body of evidence demonstrates that chronic diseases, such as Type 2 diabetes, primary hypertension, and hyperlipidemia, once thought to be confined solely to adulthood, are commonly seen among the obese in childhood. Following a brief summary of the diagnosis and evaluation of hypertension in obese children and adolescents, this review will highlight recent research on the treatment of obesity-related hypertension. Pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatment will be discussed. Additionally, current and emerging therapies for the primary treatment of obesity in children and adolescents, which have been gaining in popularity, will be reviewed.

  20. New insights into the field of children and adolescents' obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flodmark, C-E; Lissau, I; Moreno, L A

    2004-01-01

    EDITOR'S NOTE: The problem of childhood obesity is accelerating throughout the world. The following is a position paper from The European Childhood Obesity Group (ECOG) that outlines the nature of the problem of childhood obesity along with treatment and prevention methods available today....... The paucity of literature on prevention and treatment of obesity in children as documented in this paper points out the need for much additional research on obesity in children. OBJECTIVES: The awareness of childhood obesity as a major health problem and an uncontrolled worldwide epidemic has to be increased...... in the society. DESIGN: In order to improve the quality of the health care and to minimize the cost it is important to investigate and standardize pediatric obesity prevention and treatment and to adapt to social and cultural aspects. RESULTS: Obesity is the result of excess body fat. The different norms...

  1. The Neurocognitive Performance of Visuospatial Attention in Children with Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Liang; Chen, Fu-Chen; Pan, Chien-Yu; Tseng, Yu-Ting

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the behavioral performance and event-related potentials (ERPs) in children with obesity and healthy weight children when performing a visuospatial attention task. Twenty-six children with obesity (obese group) and 26 healthy weight children (control group) were recruited. Their behavioral performance during a variant of the Posner paradigm was measured, and brain ERPs were recorded concurrently. The behavioral data revealed that the obese group responded more slowly, especially in the invalid condition, and exhibited a deficit in attentional inhibition capacity as compared to the control group. In terms of cognitive electrophysiological performance, although the obese group did not show significant differences on P3 latency elicited by the target stimuli when compared to the control group, they exhibited smaller P3 amplitudes when performing the visuospatial attention task. These results broaden previous findings, and indicate that childhood obesity is associated with a reduced ability to modulate the executive function network which supports visuospatial attention.

  2. Obesity in children with developmental and/or physical disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandini, Linda; Danielson, Melissa; Esposito, Layla E; Foley, John T; Fox, Michael H; Frey, Georgia C; Fleming, Richard K; Krahn, Gloria; Must, Aviva; Porretta, David L; Rodgers, Anne Brown; Stanish, Heidi; Urv, Tiina; Vogel, Lawrence C; Humphries, Kathleen

    2015-07-01

    Children with developmental or physical disabilities, many of whom face serious health-related conditions, also are affected by the current obesity crisis. Although evidence indicates that children with disabilities have a higher prevalence of obesity than do children without disabilities, little is known of the actual magnitude of the problem in this population. To address this concern, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) held a conference on obesity in children with intellectual, developmental, or physical disabilities, bringing together scientists and practitioners in the fields of obesity and disability to foster collaboration, identify barriers to healthy weight status in populations with disabilities, propose avenues to solutions through research and practice, and develop a research agenda to address the problem. This article describes current knowledge about prevalence of obesity in this population, discusses factors influencing obesity risk, and summarizes recommendations for research presented at the conference.

  3. Hormonal determinants of pubertal growth.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delamarre-van Waal, H.A.; Coeverden, S.C. van; Rotteveel, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    Pubertal growth results from increased sex steroid and growth hormone (GH) secretion. Estrogens appear to play an important role in the regulation of pubertal growth in both girls and boys. In girls, however, estrogens cannot be the only sex steroids responsible for pubertal growth, as exogenous est

  4. Severe obesity in children: prevalence, persistence and relation to hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Joan C. Lo; Chandra, Malini; Sinaiko, Alan; Daniels, Stephen R.; Prineas, Ronald J; Maring, Benjamin; Parker, Emily D; Sherwood, Nancy E.; Daley, Matthew F.; Kharbanda, Elyse O.; Adams, Kenneth F.; David J. Magid; O’Connor, Patrick J; Greenspan, Louise C

    2014-01-01

    Background Newer approaches for classifying gradations of pediatric obesity by level of body mass index (BMI) percentage above the 95th percentile have recently been recommended in the management and tracking of obese children. Examining the prevalence and persistence of severe obesity using such methods along with the associations with other cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension is important for characterizing the clinical significance of severe obesity classification methods. Met...

  5. Obesity in children - a problem of the contemporary civilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kupczak-Wiśniowska Bogusława

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In the recent thirty years obesity has become one of the most serious and still increasing health problems among children and adults in the world. Scientific magazines inform about world obesity epidemic. Lack of physical activity, excessive energy supply compared to needs of organism, as well as bad eating habits, have made obesity a civilization disease. Excess weight and obesity lead to premature atherosclerosis development and consequently, to other cardiovascular diseases such as arterial hypertension, thrombosis, cardiac insufficiency, hyperlipemia.

  6. Objectively measured habitual physical activity and sedentary behaviour in obese and non-obese Malaysian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wafa, Sharifah Wajihah; Hamzaid, Hana; Talib, Ruzita Abd; Reilly, John J

    2014-04-01

    The present study examined objectively measured physical activity in Malaysian children and compared the differences in physical levels between obese and healthy weight children. Eighty-six obese children were matched for age and sex with 86 healthy weight children with median age 9.5 years. Habitual physical activity and sedentary behaviour were measured over 5 days using Actigraph accelerometers. Time spent sedentary was significantly higher in the obese group (90% vs. 86% of daytime; p = 0.001). Moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity was significantly higher in the healthy weight group (1.2 vs. 0.7% of daytime, p low, although moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity was significantly lower in the obese group than the healthy weight group. Efforts to prevent and treat obesity in Malaysian children will need a substantial focus on the promotion of reductions in sedentary behaviour and increases in physical activity.

  7. The Future of Children: Spring 2006. Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxson, Christina, Ed.; Donahue, Elisabeth, Ed.; Orleans, Tracy, Ed.; Grisso, Jeane Ann, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    The third volume of "The Future of Children" examines the causes and consequences of increasing rates of obesity and overweight among children. It also reviews specific policies and programs aimed at reducing obesity and overweight and the related health problems that result. Contents include: (1) Introducing the Issue (Christina Paxson, Elisabeth…

  8. Relationship between physical activity and obesity in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, S.; Teixeira-Pinto, A.; Ribeiro, J. C.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyze the relationship between physical activity (PA) and obesity in Portuguese children and adolescents.......The purpose of the present study was to analyze the relationship between physical activity (PA) and obesity in Portuguese children and adolescents....

  9. Obesity in Children - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Obesity in Children URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Obesity in Children - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  10. The Future of Children: Spring 2006. Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxson, Christina, Ed.; Donahue, Elisabeth, Ed.; Orleans, Tracy, Ed.; Grisso, Jeane Ann, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    The third volume of "The Future of Children" examines the causes and consequences of increasing rates of obesity and overweight among children. It also reviews specific policies and programs aimed at reducing obesity and overweight and the related health problems that result. Contents include: (1) Introducing the Issue (Christina Paxson, Elisabeth…

  11. Pathophysiology of hypertension in obese children: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirix, A J G; Kaspers, P J; Nauta, J; Chinapaw, M J M; Kist-van Holthe, J E

    2015-10-01

    Hypertension is increasingly common in overweight and obese children. The mechanisms behind the development of hypertension in obesity are complex, and evidence is limited. In order to effectively treat obese children for hypertension, it is important to have a deeper understanding of the pathophysiology of hypertension in obese children. The present review summarizes the main factors associated with hypertension in obese children and discusses their potential role in its pathophysiology. Systematic searches were conducted in PubMed and EMBASE for articles published up to October 2014. In total, 60 relevant studies were included. The methodological quality of the included studies ranged from weak to strong. Several factors important in the development of hypertension in obese children have been suggested, including endocrine determinants, such as corticosteroids and adipokines, sympathetic nervous system activity, disturbed sodium homeostasis, as well as oxidative stress, inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Understanding the pathophysiology of hypertension in overweight and obese children is important and could have implications for its screening and treatment. Based on solely cross-sectional observational studies, it is impossible to infer causality. Longitudinal studies of high methodological quality are needed to gain more insight into the complex mechanisms behind the development of hypertension in obese children.

  12. Decreased prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia and stabilisation of obesity trends in 5-year-old children: possible effects of changed public health policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedej, Katarina; Kotnik, Primož; Avbelj Stefanija, Magdalena; Grošelj, Urh; Širca Čampa, Andreja; Lusa, Lara; Battelino, Tadej; Bratina, Nataša

    2014-02-01

    Overweight/obesity in children is a worldwide public health problem. Together with hypercholesterolaemia they are associated with early atherosclerotic complications. In this study, we aimed to investigate the anthropometric characteristics and total cholesterol (TC) levels in a population of 5-year-old children, to determine trends in the prevalence of overweight/obesity and hypercholesterolaemia in 5-year-old children over a period of 8 years (2001-2009) and to assess the impact of modified national nutritional guidelines for kindergartens implemented in 2005. Cross-sectional studies of overweight/obesity prevalence in the years 2001, 2003-2005 and 2009, and hypercholesterolaemia in years 2001 and 2009, in 5-year-old children. Altogether, 12 832 (6308 girls/6524 boys) children were included. Overweight/obesity was defined by IOTF criteria. Hypercholesterolaemia was defined by TC level >5 mmol/l. Multivariable logistic regression models were used. NO CORRELATION BETWEEN BMI VALUES AND TC LEVELS WAS FOUND. OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY PREVALENCE WERE STABILISED FROM 2001 TO 2009 (ODDS RATIO (OR) (95% CI): 1.13 (0.99-1.3) and 1.13 (0.89-1.42) respectively). Girls were more frequently overweight/obese than boys (OR (95% CI): 0.71 (0.65-0.79) and 0.75 (0.64-0.89) respectively). Prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia significantly decreased from 2001 to 2009 (OR (95% CI): 0.47 (0.41-0.55)). It was less frequent in boys than in girls (OR (95% CI): O.7 (0.61-0.8)). This is the first study to describe a negative trend in the prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia in pre-pubertal children. In addition, the prevalence of overweight/obesity in these children has been stabilised. Nationwide changes in public health policies could have influenced these observations.

  13. Obesity among Latino children within a migrant farmworker community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, Javier I; Johnson, Suzanne Bennett; McGinnity, Kelly A; Cuevas, Jordan P

    2013-03-01

    Childhood obesity has increased substantially among Latino children, placing them at risk for its related health consequences. Limited attention has been given to childhood obesity among Latino migrant farm-working communities. To examine, within a migrant farm-working community, (1) the prevalence of obesity among Latino children and parents and (2) parent perceptions of children's weight status and intentions to take corrective action. Structured interviews were completed with the parents of 495 children seen for well-child office visits in the pediatric department of a community health center during a 15-month period between 2010 and 2011. Medical chart reviews were completed for each child participant. Forty-seven percent of the children were overweight (20%) or obese (27%). In comparison to preschool-aged children, those in elementary and middle school were more likely to be obese. In elementary school, girls were more likely than boys to be overweight or obese. Child obesity was associated with parent obesity. Parental concern about their child's weight was associated with child obesity but not with child overweight. Parental concern was associated with parent intention to address the child's weight, particularly in older children. Analysis was completed in 2012. Interventions are needed that address both childhood obesity and parent weight status among Latino migrant farmworkers. Prevention programs that address the weight status of Latino children who are overweight, but not necessarily obese, are also needed, as their parents tend to be no more concerned about a child who is overweight than one who is normal weight. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Interventions for preventing obesity in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Waters

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prevention of childhood obesity is an international public health priority given the significant impact of obesity on acute and chronic diseases, general health, development and well-being. The international evidence base for strategies that governments, communities and families can implement to prevent obesity, and promote health, has been accumulating but remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: This review primarily aims to update the previous Cochrane review of childhood obesity prevention research and determine the effectiveness of evaluated interventions intended to prevent obesity in children, assessed by change in Body Mass Index (BMI. Secondary aims were to examine the characteristics of the programs and strategies to answer the questions "What works for whom, why and for what cost?" METHODS: Search methods: The searches were re-run in CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO and CINAHL in March 2010 and searched relevant websites. Non-English language papers were included and experts were contacted. Selection criteria: The review includes data from childhood obesity prevention studies that used a controlled study design (with or without randomisation. Studies were included if they evaluated interventions, policies or programs in place for twelve weeks or more. If studies were randomized at a cluster level, six clusters were required. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. Data was extracted on intervention implementation, cost, equity and outcomes. Outcome measures were grouped according to whether they measured adiposity, physical activity (PA-related behaviours or diet-related behaviours. Adverse outcomes were recorded. A meta-analysis was conducted using available BMI or standardized BMI (zBMI score data with subgroup analysis by age group (0-5, 6-12, 13-18 years, corresponding to stages of developmental and childhood settings. MAIN RESULTS: This

  15. Asthma and overweight/obese: double trouble for urban children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesenthal, Elise N; Fagnano, Maria; Cook, Stephen; Halterman, Jill S

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of overweight/obese versus normal weight on symptoms, activity limitation and health care utilization among a group of urban children with persistent asthma. Data were obtained from the School Based Asthma Therapy trial. We enrolled 530 children ages 3-10 with persistent asthma from 2006 to 2009 (response rate: 74%). We conducted in-home interviews to assess symptoms and health care utilization. We measured height and weight in school nurse offices to determine BMI percentile, and compared normal weight children to overweight/obese (BMI >85th percentile) children. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used. We collected BMI data from 472 children (89%); 49% were overweight/obese. When controlling for child race, child ethnicity, intervention group, caregiver age and screen time, overweight/obese children had more days with asthma symptoms (4.25 versus 3.42/2 weeks, p = 0.035) and more activity limitation (3.43 versus 2.55/2 weeks, p = 0.013) compared to normal weight children. Overweight/obese children were more likely to have had an ED visit or hospitalization for any reason (47% versus 36%, OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.01, 2.19), and there was a trend for overweight/obese children to have more acute asthma visits in the past year (1.68 versus 1.31, p = 0.090). Overweight/obese children were not more likely to be taking a daily preventive inhaled corticosteroid (OR 1.0, 95% CI 0.68, 1.56). Overweight/obese children with persistent asthma experience more asthma symptoms, activity limitation and health care utilization compared to normal weight children, with no increased use of inhaled corticosteroids. Further efforts are needed to improve the health of these children.

  16. Expression and clinical significance of obesity-associated gene STEAP4 in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H M; Cui, Y Z; Wang, W G; Cheng, H X; Sun, Y J; Zhao, H Y; Yan, Y Q

    2016-10-05

    The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and clinical significance of the obesity-associated gene STEAP4 in obese children. Fifty-three obese children and 33 children with a standard body weight (control) from our hospital were recruited to this study. The expression of STEAP4 mRNA and protein in the adipose tissue were detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, in order to analyze the relationship between STEAP4 mRNA and protein levels and blood pressure, blood lipid profile, blood glucose levels, and inflammation in obese children. Obese children showed significantly lower levels of STEAP4 mRNA and protein in the adipose tissue compared to the control subjects (P obese subjects exhibited significantly higher diastolic blood pressure (DBP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), interleukin (IL)-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels, and a significantly lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level, compared to the control subjects (P obese children and was closely related to the blood pressure, blood lipid, blood glucose, and inflammation in these patients; therefore, these results could provide a theoretical basis for the treatment of childhood obesity.

  17. Comparison of serum aminotranferases in overweight and obese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayu Shintia Shanti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Obesity has become a global issue. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a metabolic complication of obesity, and indicated by elevated serum aminotransferases. Objective To compare serum aminotransferase levels in overweight and obese children. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted from August to October 2015. A total of 82 subjects aged 6-10 years met the study criteria. Blood specimens and data concerning lifestyle and family history using questionnaires were collected. Subjects were divided into three groups based on BMI: overweight, obese, and severely obese. Comparisons of serum aminotransferase levels were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and post hoc tests, with P values < 0.05. Results The median serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels in overweight, obese, and severely obese subjects were 14 (IQR 6-42 U/L, 15 (IQR 11-44 U/L, and 23 (IQR 9-59 U/L, respectively (P=0.031. The median serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST levels in overweight, obese, and severely obese subjects were 22 (IQR 17-36 U/L, 22 (IQR 16-32 U/L, and 24 (IQR 15-41 U/L, respectively (P=0.049. Post hoc analysis revealed that median serum ALT levels were significantly higher in the severely obese group than in the overweight group [-8.982 (95% CI -14.77 to -3.20; P=0.003], as well as in the obese group [-5.297 (95% CI -10.58 to -0.02; P=0.049]. In addition, the median serum AST level was significantly higher in the severely obese group than in the obese group [-2.667(95% CI -5.27 to -0.07; P= 0.044]. Conclusion Median serum ALT and AST levels are significantly higher in severely obese children than in obese and overweight children.

  18. Obesity and physical activity patterns in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguna, María; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Gallardo, Cristian; García-Pastor, Teresa; Lara, María-Teresa; Aznar, Susana

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study is to measure objectively and accurately the physical activity (PA) patterns in Spanish children and adolescents according to their obesity status, gender and age groups. A sample of 487 children and 274 adolescents from the European Youth Heart Study participated in the study. The variables measured were anthropometric characteristics (height, weight and body mass index), and PA was measured during 6 consecutive days using the GT1M accelerometer. Three-way analysis of variance (age × gender × obesity status) showed significant differences in the interaction effect in age, gender and obesity status (normal-weight and overweight/obesity) for mean of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) (P = 0.02) and vigorous PA (VPA) (P = 0.014) within the sample. Nine-year-old normal-weight children achieved significantly (P obesity children. During weekend days, all sample achieved significant more MVPA (P obese) and adolescents (16.4% and 27.3% normal-weight and overweight/obese, respectively) met the current health-related recommendations of 60 min of MVPA daily. It is clear that activity levels are insufficient for all children, in particular overweight/obese children and adolescents, although the precise nature of the relationship appears to differ between boys and girls. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  19. Impact of pubertal development on endothelial function and arterial elasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlatt, Kara L; Steinberger, Julia; Dengel, Donald R; Sinaiko, Alan; Moran, Antoinette; Chow, Lisa S; Steffen, Lyn M; Zhou, Xia; Kelly, Aaron S

    2013-11-01

    Little is known about the relation of pubertal development on endothelial function and arterial elasticity in children and adolescents; therefore, we compared brachial artery flow-mediated dilation and carotid artery elasticity across Tanner (pubertal) stages in children and adolescents. Blood pressure, fasting lipids, glucose and insulin, body fat, insulin sensitivity adjusted for lean body mass, brachial flow-mediated dilation (percent dilation and area under the curve), endothelium-independent dilation (peak dilation and area under the curve), and carotid artery elasticity were evaluated across pubertal stages (Tanner I vs Tanner II-IV vs Tanner V) in 344 children and adolescents (184 males, 160 females; ages 6 to 21 years). One hundred twenty-four subjects (mean age 8.23 ± 0.15 years; 52 females) were Tanner stage I; 105 subjects (mean age 13.19 ± 0.17 years; 47 females) were Tanner stages II-IV; and 115 subjects (mean age 17.19 ± 0.16 years; 61 females) were Tanner stage V. There were no significant differences for any of the measures of vascular structure and function across pubertal stages. Results of the current study indicate that smooth-muscle and endothelial function, as well as carotid artery elasticity, do not differ throughout pubertal development and that accounting for pubertal stage when reporting vascular data in children and adolescents may be unnecessary. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Obesity and Airway Dysanapsis in Children with and without Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forno, Erick; Weiner, Daniel J; Mullen, James; Sawicki, Gregory; Kurland, Geoffrey; Han, Yueh Ying; Cloutier, Michelle M; Canino, Glorisa; Weiss, Scott T; Litonjua, Augusto A; Celedón, Juan C

    2017-02-01

    For unclear reasons, obese children with asthma have higher morbidity and reduced response to inhaled corticosteroids. To assess whether childhood obesity is associated with airway dysanapsis (an incongruence between the growth of the lungs and the airways) and whether dysanapsis is associated with asthma morbidity. We examined the relationship between obesity and dysanapsis in six cohorts of children with and without asthma, as well as the relationship between dysanapsis and clinical outcomes in children with asthma. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for each cohort and in a combined analysis of all cohorts; longitudinal analyses were also performed for cohorts with available data. Hazard ratios (HRs) for clinical outcomes were calculated for children with asthma in the Childhood Asthma Management Program. Being overweight or obese was associated with dysanapsis in both the cross-sectional (OR, 1.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.62-2.35 [for overweight/obese compared with normal weight children]) and the longitudinal (OR, 4.31; 95% CI, 2.99-6.22 [for children who were overweight/obese at all visits compared with normal weight children]) analyses. Dysanapsis was associated with greater lung volumes (FVC, vital capacity, and total lung capacity) and lesser flows (FEV1 and forced expiratory flow, midexpiratory phase), and with indicators of ventilation inhomogeneity and anisotropic lung and airway growth. Among overweight/obese children with asthma, dysanapsis was associated with severe disease exacerbations (HR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.38-2.75) and use of systemic steroids (HR, 3.22; 95% CI, 2.02-5.14). Obesity is associated with airway dysanapsis in children. Dysanapsis is associated with increased morbidity among obese children with asthma and may partly explain their reduced response to inhaled corticosteroids.

  1. Neck Circumference to Assess Obesity in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondolot, Meda; Horoz, Duygu; Poyrazoğlu, Serpil; Borlu, Arda; Öztürk, Ahmet; Kurtoğlu, Selim; Mazıcıoğlu, Mümtaz M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Limited information is available about the use of neck circumference (NC) to assess obesity in preschool children. This study aims to provide NC percentiles and determine the cut-off levels of NC as a measure to assess obesity in preschool children. Methods: The data were obtained from the Anthropometry of Turkish Children aged 0-6 years (ATCA-06) study database. A total of 21 family health centers were chosen and children aged 2-6 years old from all socioeconomic levels were randomly selected from the lists of district midwives; 1766 children (874 male and 892 female; 88.3% of sample size) were included in the study. The smoothed centile curves of NC were constructed by the LMS method. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to calculate cut-off points for NC using body mass index ≥95th percentile. Results: Mean NC was greater in males than females. Cut-off values for obesity were found to be statistically significant in both genders other than 3 years old boys. The NC percentiles of Turkish preschool children were slightly greater than those of other European preschool children in both genders. This difference disappeared around the adiposity rebound period. The 97th percentile values for Turkish preschool children continue to be greater in both genders. Conclusion: NC may be useful to define obesity in preschool children. Since ethnic and various other factors may have a role in incidence of obesity, local reference data are important in assessment of obesity. PMID:27660068

  2. Anxiety and depression levels in prepubertal obese children: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esposito M

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Maria Esposito,1 Beatrice Gallai,2 Michele Roccella,3 Rosa Marotta,4 Francesco Lavano,4 Serena Marianna Lavano,4 Giovanni Mazzotta,5 Domenico Bove,6 Michele Sorrentino,1 Francesco Precenzano,1 Marco Carotenuto1 1Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Department of Mental Health, Physical and Preventive Medicine, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 2Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy; 3Child Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychology, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy; 4Department of Psychiatry, “Magna Graecia” University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, Italy; 5Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, AUSL Umbria 2, Terni, Italy; 6Centro per la Diagnosi e Cura dei Disturbi dell’apprendimento e del Comportamento Associazione per la ricerca scientifica Fusis, Alvignano, Italy Introduction: Childhood obesity has become a worldwide epidemic in Western and in developing countries and has been accompanied by many serious and severe comorbidities, such as diabetes, hypertension, sleep apnea syndrome, depression, dyslipidemia, impaired glucose homeostasis, steatohepatitis, and intracranial hypertension, as well as medical concerns unique to youth, such as accelerated pubertal and skeletal development and orthopedic disorders. To date, no specific studies about the psychological assessment in pediatric obesity are present. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the putative relationship between psychological troubles and obesity in a sample of school-aged children. Materials and methods: The study population consists of 148 obese subjects (body mass index [BMI] >95th percentile (69 males, mean age 8.9±1.23 years consecutively referred from clinical pediatricians to the Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry department at the Second University of Naples. In all subjects, weight, height, and BMI z-score were evaluated. In order to assess the anxiety levels and the presence of

  3. Dose-dependent relationship between severity of pediatric obesity and blunting of the growth hormone response to exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Stacy R.; Rosa, Jaime S.; Minh, Timothy D. C.; Pontello, Andria M.; Flores, Rebecca L.; Barnett, Marcia

    2010-01-01

    In children, exercise modulates systemic anabolism, muscle growth, and overall physiological development through the growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) axis. GH secretion, at rest and during exercise, changes with age and maturational status and can be blunted by hyperlipidemia and obesity, with possible negative effects on physiological growth. However, little is known about the effect of progressively more severe pediatric obesity on the GH response to exercise and its relationship to pubertal status. We therefore studied 48 early- or late-pubertal obese children [body mass index (BMI) >95th percentile, separated in tertiles with progressively greater BMI] and 42 matched controls (BMI <85th percentile), who performed ten 2-min cycling bouts at ∼80% of maximal O2 consumption, separated by 1-min rest intervals. Plasma GH and IGF-I were measured at baseline and end exercise. GH responses were systematically blunted in obese children, with more pronounced blunting paralleling increasing BMI. Although overall the GH response to exercise was greater in late-pubertal than in younger children, this blunting pattern was observed in early- and late-pubertal children. Our results reveal insight into the interaction between pediatric obesity and key modulators of physiological growth and development and underscore the necessity of optimizing physical activity strategies for specific pediatric dysmetabolic conditions. PMID:19875716

  4. Dose-dependent relationship between severity of pediatric obesity and blunting of the growth hormone response to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Stacy R; Rosa, Jaime S; Minh, Timothy D C; Pontello, Andria M; Flores, Rebecca L; Barnett, Marcia; Galassetti, Pietro R

    2010-01-01

    In children, exercise modulates systemic anabolism, muscle growth, and overall physiological development through the growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) axis. GH secretion, at rest and during exercise, changes with age and maturational status and can be blunted by hyperlipidemia and obesity, with possible negative effects on physiological growth. However, little is known about the effect of progressively more severe pediatric obesity on the GH response to exercise and its relationship to pubertal status. We therefore studied 48 early- or late-pubertal obese children [body mass index (BMI) >95th percentile, separated in tertiles with progressively greater BMI] and 42 matched controls (BMI exercise. GH responses were systematically blunted in obese children, with more pronounced blunting paralleling increasing BMI. Although overall the GH response to exercise was greater in late-pubertal than in younger children, this blunting pattern was observed in early- and late-pubertal children. Our results reveal insight into the interaction between pediatric obesity and key modulators of physiological growth and development and underscore the necessity of optimizing physical activity strategies for specific pediatric dysmetabolic conditions.

  5. The nurse´s care of obese children

    OpenAIRE

    Bergström, Maria; Nordin, Anna; Ahlquist, Eleonor

    2006-01-01

    Background: Children in our present society spend more time sedentary, and food has become more accessible. It is important to pay attention to obese children, because of the risk for serious diseases in the future. Obesity can also cause mental suffering for the child. Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the nurse’s care of obese children. Method: The study was carried out as a literature review. The articles were examined by qualitative content analysis. Result: It was shown to be ...

  6. Environmental correlates of children's physical activity and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jia; Settles, Barbara H

    2014-01-01

    To examine the individual, parental, and neighborhood environment correlates of children's physical activity and risk of obesity. Secondary data of 1514 children drawn from the Delaware Survey of Children's Health were used for analysis. A conceptual framework was developed based on the Social Determinants of Health and Environmental Health Promotion model and tested using structural equation modeling. Findings confirmed that parental support on physical activity and a favorable neighborhood environment predicted children's physical activity. However, the risk of overweight and obesity was not associated with parental support of physical activity and children's physical activity. Future preventive practice requires a multifaceted approach incorporating both individual and environmental changes.

  7. Factors Associated with Early Platelet Activation in Obese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Anel Gómez; Núñez, Guillermina García; Sandoval, Martha Eva Viveros; Castellanos, Sergio Gutierrez; Aguilar, Cleto Alvarez

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the factors associated with platelet activation in obese children. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Department of Pediatrics of Regional Hospital N∘ 1 of Mexican Institute of Social Security in Morelia, Michoacán, Mexico. Participants 79 obese and 64 non-obese children between the ages of 5 and 10 years. Main Outcomes Measures Obese children (body mass index [BMI] >85 in growth curves for Centers for Disease Control/National Center for Health Statistics), and the control group of 64 non-obese children (percentile <85), % body fat, platelet activation was assessed by sP-selectin. Other measures were leptin, uric acid (UA), von Willebrand Factor (vWF), plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1), lipid profile, and glucose. Results Obese children displayed higher plasma sP-selectin, leptin, PAI-1, and vWF than non-obese children. In the univariate logistic regression analysis, leptin, vWF, UA, and high density lipoprotein (HDL), but not with PAI-1, were factors associated with platelet activation. By stepwise linear regression analysis adjusted by sex and age, the best predictor variables for platelet activation were leptin (β:0.381; t:4.665; P=0.0001), vWF (β:0.211; t:2.926; P=0.004), UA (β:0.166; t:2.146; P=0.034), and HDL (β:−0.215; t:−2.819; P=0.006). Conclusions Obese children have a higher risk of developing early platelet activation. Factors associated with platelet activation were Leptin, vWF, UA, and HDL. Further studies involving larger numbers of patients over a longer duration are needed to understand the possible molecular mechanism underlying the association between leptin, vWF, and UA and endothelial activation and/or endothelial damage/dysfunction in obese children and its influence in cardiovascular disease in adults. PMID:24415745

  8. Association between socioeconomic status and obesity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilić-Kirin, Vesna; Gmajnić, Rudika; Burazin, Jelena; Milicić, Valerija; Buljan, Vesna; Ivanko, Marija

    2014-06-01

    The perception of obesity among people has not changed significantly regardless numerous public educational programs. Reasons for obesity pandemics are numerous and complex, but can be mostly resumed to life-style changes. The aim of this research was to determine connection between socioeconomic factors and obesity with children of our region. Study included pupils aged 7-8 from 19 first grades in 8 primary schools in Osijek-Baranya County. Body height and weight were measured and socioeconomic data status were collected. Socioeconomic status included data on marital status, educational level, employment, number of children in the family, kindergarten attendance and urban/rural location and also smoking habits of parents. BMI was calculated as a parameter for obesity assessment according to Croatian reference values. Total of 372 children were measured. There were 6.5% of overweight children (BMI between 90th and 97th percentile) and 2.4% of obese children (BMI above 97th percentile). The prevalence of obese children in our research was 8.9%. Obesity is not influenced by rural/urban residence, marital status of parents, number of children in the family, mother's education, or by parents' smoking habits. Positive correlation between obesity and father's education and parents' unemployment was found. Available literature data, same as our study, did not show consistent association between socioeconomic factors and obesity with children. Contradictory results of different studies can be a result of a small sample, difference in study design and different criteria for defining categories within investigated socioeconomic factor.

  9. Hepcidin in obese children as a potential mediator of the association between obesity and iron deficiency.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giudice, E. Del; Santoro, N.; Amato, A.; Brienza, C.; Calabro, P.; Wiegerinck, E.T.G.; Cirillo, G.; Tartaglione, N.; Grandone, A.; Swinkels, D.W.; Perrone, L.

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT: Obesity and iron deficiency are two of the most common nutritional disorders worldwide. Several studies found higher rates of iron deficiency in obese than in normal-weight children. Hepcidin represents the main inhibitor of intestinal iron absorption, and its expression is increased in adi

  10. Hepcidin in obese children as a potential mediator of the association between obesity and iron deficiency.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giudice, E. Del; Santoro, N.; Amato, A.; Brienza, C.; Calabro, P.; Wiegerinck, E.T.G.; Cirillo, G.; Tartaglione, N.; Grandone, A.; Swinkels, D.W.; Perrone, L.

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT: Obesity and iron deficiency are two of the most common nutritional disorders worldwide. Several studies found higher rates of iron deficiency in obese than in normal-weight children. Hepcidin represents the main inhibitor of intestinal iron absorption, and its expression is increased in

  11. Does obesity prolong anesthesia in children undergoing common ENT surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jennifer J; Sun, Lena S; Gu, Brian; Kim, Minjae; Wang, Shuang; Han, Sena

    2014-10-01

    To report the epidemiology of obesity in a pediatric surgical population and determine whether obesity is a risk factor for longer anesthesia duration. Childhood obesity is a significant public health problem in the United States. Epidemiologic studies on pediatric surgical populations have been limited to states with very high prevalence of adult obesity (Michigan, Texas). Data from other states and more recent data since 2006 are unavailable. We examined anesthesia records for surgical patients age 2-18 years at Columbia University Medical Center from January 2009 to December 2010. Patients undergoing bariatric surgery or those with records missing preoperative height or weight data were excluded. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as weight (kg)/height (m(2) ). BMI ≥95th percentile according to national growth charts were considered obese. We reviewed 9522 patients of which 1639 were obese (17.2%). The sex-age category interaction on obesity was not significant using logistic regression (P = 0.11). Among surgical groups, the otolaryngology (ENT) cohort had the highest obesity rate (21.7%, 360/1656). Obese children who had tonsillectomy, adenoidectomy, or both did not have a prolonged anesthetic (P = 0.33) or surgical duration (P = 0.61) compared with nonobese children, adjusting for surgeon, season, surgical procedure code, and ASA status. Children presenting for surgery, particularly the ENT cohort, have a high prevalence of obesity. Obese and nonobese children who had tonsillectomy, adenoidectomy, or both had comparable durations of anesthesia. Therefore, obesity did not lead to longer anesthetic duration. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Atherogenic dyslipidemia and cardiovascular risk factors in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Adamo, Ebe; Guardamagna, Ornella; Chiarelli, Francesco; Bartuli, Andrea; Liccardo, Daniela; Ferrari, Federica; Nobili, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity when associated with serum lipoprotein changes triggers atherosclerosis. Evidences suggest that the atherosclerotic process begins in childhood and that the extent of early atherosclerosis of the aorta and coronary arteries can be associated with lipoprotein levels and obesity. Furthermore, many studies in childhood demonstrate an important relationship between parameters of insulin sensitivity, body fat distribution, and the development of lipid abnormalities. This review focuses on the most recent findings on the relationship between obesity, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular risk in children.

  13. Potential Use of Singing in Educational Settings with Pre-Pubertal Children Possessing Speech and Voice Disorders: A Psychological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinta, Tiija

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate whether children who possess speech and voice disorders could benefit from engaging in singing activities in educational settings, based on the psychological benefits of such activities. The impact of singing on children's psychological state and well-being was investigated with a participant population…

  14. Activity Participation Intensity Is Associated with Skeletal Development in Pre-Pubertal Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, William W. N.; Guo, X.; Fong, Shirley S. M.; Mak, Kwok-Kei; Pang, Marco Y. C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed (1) to compare the skeletal maturity and activity participation pattern between children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD); and (2) to determine whether activity participation pattern was associated with the skeletal development among children with DCD. Materials and methods: Thirty-three children…

  15. The Association between Maltreatment and Obesity among Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Robert C.; Phillips, Shannon M.; Orzol, Sean M.; Burdette, Hillary L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether child maltreatment is associated with obesity in preschool children. Methods: Data were obtained from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a birth cohort study of 4898 children born between 1998 and 2000 in 20 large US cities. At 3 years of age, 2412 of these children had their height and weight measured,…

  16. The Association between Maltreatment and Obesity among Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Robert C.; Phillips, Shannon M.; Orzol, Sean M.; Burdette, Hillary L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether child maltreatment is associated with obesity in preschool children. Methods: Data were obtained from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a birth cohort study of 4898 children born between 1998 and 2000 in 20 large US cities. At 3 years of age, 2412 of these children had their height and weight measured,…

  17. High cardiovascular risk in severely obese young children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmerik, N.M.A. van; Renders, C.M.; Veer, M. van de; Buuren, S. van; Baan-Slootweg, O.H. van der; Kist-van Holthe, J.E.; HiraSing, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in severely obese children and adolescents. Methods: A nationwide prospective surveillance study was carried out from July 2005 to July 2007 where paediatricians were asked to report all new cases of severe obesity in 2-18-year-old

  18. Obesity in School Children with Intellectual Disabilities in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaun, Laureline; Berthouze-Aranda, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of obesity in school children with intellectual disabilities and to determine the most appropriate indicators of obesity measurement. Materials and Methods: The weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio and body fat percentage as measured by…

  19. Obesity and Other Predictors of Absenteeism in Philadelphia School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, Elizabeth B.; Daskalakis, Constantine; Andrel, Jocelyn

    2011-01-01

    Background: Limited data indicate that obese children are absent from school more than their normal-weight peers. We analyzed administrative data from a large urban school district to investigate the association of obesity and student sociodemographic characteristics with absenteeism. Methods: We analyzed 291,040 records, representing 165,056…

  20. High cardiovascular risk in severely obese young children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmerik, N.M.A. van; Renders, C.M.; Veer, M. van de; Buuren, S. van; Baan-Slootweg, O.H. van der; Kist-van Holthe, J.E.; HiraSing, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in severely obese children and adolescents. Methods: A nationwide prospective surveillance study was carried out from July 2005 to July 2007 where paediatricians were asked to report all new cases of severe obesity in 2-18-year-old c

  1. A genetic contribution to circulating cytokines and obesity in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cytokines are considered to be involved in obesity-related metabolic diseases. Study objectives are to determine the heritability of circulating cytokine levels, to investigate pleiotropy between cytokines and obesity traits, and to present genome scan results for cytokines in 1030 Hispanic children...

  2. Obesity Increases Operative Time in Children Undergoing Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandian, T K; Ubl, Daniel S; Habermann, Elizabeth B; Moir, Christopher R; Ishitani, Michael B

    2017-03-01

    Few studies have assessed the impact of obesity on laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) in pediatric patients. Children who underwent LC were identified from the 2012 to 2013 American College of Surgeons' National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Pediatrics data. Patient characteristics, operative details, and outcomes were compared. Multivariable logistic regression was utilized to identify predictors of increased operative time (OT) and duration of anesthesia (DOAn). In total, 1757 patients were identified. Due to low rates of obesity in children obese). Among obese children, 80.6% were girls. A higher proportion of obese patients had diabetes (3.0% versus 1.0%, P obesity was an independent predictor of OT >90 (odds ratio [OR] 2.02; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.55-2.63), and DOAn >140 minutes (OR 1.86; 95% CI 1.42-2.43). Obesity is an independent risk factor for increased OT in children undergoing LC. Pediatric surgeons and anesthesiologists should be prepared for the technical and physiological challenges that obesity may pose in this patient population.

  3. Obesity in School Children with Intellectual Disabilities in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaun, Laureline; Berthouze-Aranda, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of obesity in school children with intellectual disabilities and to determine the most appropriate indicators of obesity measurement. Materials and Methods: The weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio and body fat percentage as measured by…

  4. Parental Anthropometric Indices and Obesity in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koomanaee, Shahin; Tabrizi, Manijeh; Naderi, Novin; Hassanzadeh Rad, Afagh; Boloky Moghaddam, Kobra; Dalili, Setila

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between each parent's Body Mass Index (BMI) and maternal age with weight status of children. This was an analytic cross-sectional study which was conducted on 12-year-old students from different areas in Rasht, north part of Iran. The checklist included demographic characteristics such as age, maternal age during childbirth, student and maternal height and weight, child rank. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation analysis, paired t-test and ANOVA test and chi-square in SPSS software 19.0. A P-value less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. A total of 200 adolescents participated in this study consisted of 106 (53%) boys. Results showed a significant correlation between students' BMI and parental BMI and father's weight. Also, there was a significant correlation between students' weight with parental BMI and father's weight, and birth rankIn conclusion, the role of the family in changing nutritional habits of children must be considered because through parental education and changing their perceptions we can prevent obesity.

  5. Is subclinical hypothyroidism increasing exogen obesity in children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyda Tuna Kirsaclioglu

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion:.Thyrotropin releasing hormone stimulation test may be helpful to determine subclinical hypothyroidism in exogen obese children, if basal TSH levels were elevated. [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(1.000: 1-7

  6. Anxiety, Family Functioning and Neuroendocrine Biomarkers in Obese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Pinto

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: These results highlight the importance of taking into account family functioning, parental mental state and gender, when investigating neuroendocrine biomarkers in obese children associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression.

  7. Obesity and overweight in South African primary school children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obesity and overweight in South African primary school children - the Health of the ... sampling of schools within each provincial and socio-economic category. ... height (m)2) was calculated for each grouping (age x gender x ethnic group).

  8. Association of wider neck circumference and asthma in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akın, Onur; Sarı, Erkan; Arslan, Mutluay; Yeşilkaya, Ediz; Hacihamdioglu, Bulent; Yavuz, Suleyman Tolga

    2016-06-01

    Obesity is a well-established risk factor for asthma. Previous studies have reported that central obesity is associated with asthma. To investigate the association between fat distribution, which is determined by anthropometric measures, including neck circumference (NC), and asthma in school-aged children. Children diagnosed as having asthma were enrolled along with controls who were admitted to our outpatient department with allergic symptoms, such as rhinitis, urticaria and atopic dermatitis. Anthropometric measures, including height, weight, NC, waist circumference, and hip circumference, were obtained. Skin prick tests, blood eosinophil counts, and serum total IgE level measurements were performed. A total of 196 children (92 male [46.9%]) were included. Asthma was present in 102 patients (52.1%). Ninety-one of the patients (46.4%) were overweight, and 45 patients (22.9%) were obese. The NC of children with asthma was significantly higher than that of children in the control group. Grades defined according to NC percentiles were also significantly different between groups. In children with asthma, the prevalence of children with an NC higher than the 90th percentile (grade 6) was more frequent when compared with controls. The median NC of obese-overweight children with asthma was significantly higher compared with obese-overweight controls without asthma. Results of multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that the presence of an NC in the greater than 90th percentile was associated with asthma in obese-overweight children. This study found that NC, which is a simple anthropometric measure, is associated with asthma in obese children. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Fat and muscle mass in different groups of pre-pubertal and pubertal rural children. Cross-cultural comparisons between Sahelian (rural Senegal) and Amazonian (Beni River, Bolivia) children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benefice, Eric; Luna Monrroy, Selma J; Lopez Rodriguez, Ronald W; Ndiaye, Gnagna

    2011-07-01

    An increase in fat accretion is essential for triggering the puberty spurt. Hence, nutritional constraints may influence puberty timing. To measure changes in fat and muscle mass in children living in natural environments but with different nutritional exposures. Cross-comparisons of children from rural Senegal and lowland (Amazonian) Bolivia were carried out. Anthropometric measurements of stature, weight, four subcutaneous skin-folds (triceps, biceps, subscapular, supra-iliac) and arm circumference were made. Children were divided into two age groups (5-9.9-year-olds or 'pre pubescents' (n = 381) and 10-15-year-olds or 'pubescents' (n = 692)). Senegalese girls menstruated later than Bolivian girls and Senegalese boys also matured later than Bolivian boys. Bolivian children displayed more fat and muscle before puberty and during puberty than the Senegalese. They also had more fat deposited on the trunk. There were substantial differences in living conditions and nutritional patterns between both locations. In Senegal, nutritional stress is likely to appear early during in utero life and to persist throughout the growth period, including puberty. This leads to a deficit in fat accretion before and during puberty that is associated with a considerable delay in puberty occurrence. In Bolivia, such stress is far less severe. Variability in puberty should be analysed taking into account these differences.

  10. Childhood Obesity Among Children of Mexican Descent: A Binational Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Rosas, Lisa G.

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased dramatically in the United States over the past 30 years, especially among children of Mexican origin. Children of Mexican origin are an especially high-risk group because of their increased risk for morbidities associated with obesity in adulthood, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and uncontrolled hypertension compared to other racial and ethnic groups. This study takes a binational approach to understanding the health disparity in ...

  11. Television viewing is associated to obesity in Portuguese children

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Childhood obesity has become a serious public health problem. At the same time, children face environmental and lifestyle challenges that have made high energy-dense micronutrient-poor foods increasingly available and the development of physical inactivity because of television viewing. The objective of our study was to assess the links between childhood obesity and television viewing in a nationally representative sample of Portuguese school children.

  12. Physical Activity, Obesity Status, and Blood Pressure in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Susana; Trost, Stewart G; Rêgo, Carla; Abreu, Sandra; Mota, Jorge

    2015-07-01

    To examine the combined effects of physical activity and weight status on blood pressure (BP) in preschool-aged children. The sample included 733 preschool-aged children (49% female). Physical activity was objectively assessed on 7 consecutive days by accelerometry. Children were categorized as sufficiently active if they met the recommendation of at least 60 minutes daily of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Body mass index was used to categorize children as nonoverweight or overweight/obese, according to the International Obesity Task Force benchmarks. BP was measured using an automated BP monitor and categorized as elevated or normal using BP percentile-based cut-points for age, sex, and height. The prevalence of elevated systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP was 7.7% and 3.0%, respectively. The prevalence of overweight/obese was 32%, and about 15% of children did not accomplish the recommended 60 minutes of daily MVPA. After controlling for age and sex, overweight/obese children who did not meet the daily MVPA recommendation were 3 times more likely (OR 3.8; CI 1.6-8.6) to have elevated SBP than nonoverweight children who met the daily MVPA recommendation. Overweight or obese preschool-aged children with insufficient levels of MVPA are at significantly greater risk for elevated SBP than their nonoverweight and sufficiently active counterparts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Screening for obesity-related complications among obese children and adolescents: 1999-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Lacey J; Baer, Heather J; Kaelber, David C

    2011-05-01

    Obesity is becoming an increasingly prevalent problem among American children. Screening for obesity associated comorbid conditions has been shown to be inconsistent. The current study was undertaken to explore patterns of ordering screening tests among obese pediatric patients. We analyzed electronic medical records (EMR) from 69,901 patients ages 2-18 years between June 1999 and December 2008. Obese children who had documented diagnoses of obesity were identified based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes. Screening rates for glucose, liver, and lipid abnormalities were assessed. Regression analysis was used to examine impact of patient characteristics and temporal trends were analyzed. Of the 9,251 obese diagnosed patients identified, 22% were screened for all three included obesity-related conditions: diabetes, liver, and lipid abnormalities; 52% were screened for glucose abnormalities; 30% for liver abnormalities; and 41% for lipid abnormalities. Increasing BMI and age were associated with increased rates of screening. Females and Hispanic patients were more likely to be screened. The majority of screening was ordered under "basic metabolic panel," "hepatic function panel," and "full lipid profile" for each respective condition. The percentages of patients screened generally increased over time, although the percentages screened for diabetes and lipid abnormalities seemed to plateau or decrease after 2004. Even after diagnosis, many obese patients are not receiving recommended laboratory screening tests. Screening increased during the study period, but remains less than ideal. Providers could improve care by more complete laboratory screening in patients diagnosed with obesity.

  14. Children's Hospital Association Consensus Statements for Comorbidities of Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eneli, Ihuoma; Hampl, Sarah; Mietus-Snyder, Michele; Mirza, Nazrat; Rhodes, Erinn; Sweeney, Brooke; Tinajero-Deck, Lydia; Woolford, Susan J.; Pont, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Childhood obesity and overweight affect approximately 30% of US children. Many of these children have obesity-related comorbidities, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, fatty liver disease, diabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), sleep apnea, psychosocial problems, and others. These children need routine screening and, in many cases, treatment for these conditions. However, because primary care pediatric providers (PCPs) often are underequipped to deal with these comorbidities, they frequently refer these patients to subspecialists. However, as a result of the US pediatric subspecialist shortage and considering that 12.5 million children are obese, access to care by subspecialists is limited. The aim of this article is to provide accessible, user-friendly clinical consensus statements to facilitate the screening, interpretation of results, and early treatment for some of the most common childhood obesity comorbidities. Methods: Members of the Children's Hospital Association (formerly NACHRI) FOCUS on a Fitter Future II (FFFII), a collaboration of 25 US pediatric obesity centers, used a combination of the best available evidence and collective clinical experience to develop consensus statements for pediatric obesity-related comorbidities. FFFII also surveyed the participating pediatric obesity centers regarding their current practices. Results: The work group developed consensus statements for use in the evaluation and treatment of lipids, liver enzymes, and blood pressure abnormalities and PCOS in the child with overweight and obesity. The results of the FFFII survey illustrated the variability in the approach for initial evaluation and treatment as well as pattern of referrals to subspecialists among programs. Conclusions: The consensus statements presented in this article can be a useful tool for PCPs in the management and overall care of children with overweight and obesity. PMID:25019404

  15. Weight reduction and aortic stiffness in obese children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, K. N.; Olsen, M. H.; Ibsen, H.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the effect of weight reduction on aortic stiffness and especially so in the young. The present study investigates whether weight reduction influences aortic stiffness in obese children and adolescents. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) and augmentation index at heart...... rate 75 (AIx@HR75) were measured in 72 obese patients aged 10-18 years at baseline and after 1-year of lifestyle intervention (follow-up). We found that although the degree of obesity decreased (Delta body mass index z-score: -0.24 +/- 0.45, P ....27 +/- 0.47 ms(-1), P obesity measures. No significant change...

  16. Association between obesity and asthma in Japanese preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Yoshie; Adachi, Yuichi; Itazawa, Toshiko; Yoshida, Koichi; Ohya, Yukihiro; Odajima, Hiroshi; Akasawa, Akira; Miyawaki, Toshio

    2012-09-01

    Obesity may increase the risk of subsequent asthma. We have previously reported that there is a clear association between obesity and asthma in Japanese school-aged children. To evaluate whether a similar association exists in younger children, a nationwide cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was performed focusing on children aged 4-5 yr. A child who had experienced wheezing during the past 12 months and had ever been diagnosed with asthma by a physician was defined as having current asthma. Overweight and underweight were defined as BMI ≥90th percentile and ≤10th percentile, respectively, according to the reference values for Japanese children from 1978 to 1981. After excluding 2547 children because of incomplete data, 34,699 children were analyzed. Current asthma was significantly more prevalent in overweight children compared with underweight and normal weight children (13.2% for overweight vs. 10.5% for underweight and 11.1% for normal weight; both p preschool children, obesity is already associated with asthma, and there was no gender effect on this association. Physicians should consider the impact of obesity when managing asthma in younger children.

  17. Neonatal anthropometrics and correlation to childhood obesity--data from the Danish Children's Obesity Clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Bille, Dorthe Sadowa; Nässlund, Ida

    2013-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Recent evidence has demonstrated the prenatal initiation of childhood obesity as epidemiological studies and animal studies have illustrated the effect of the intrauterine milieu for subsequent development of childhood obesity. This study investigates the relationship between severe...... childhood obesity and the preceding in utero conditions expressed by birth weight and birth length, birth-weight-for-gestational-age and neonatal ponderal index in a Danish cohort of 1,171 severely obese children (median age 11.48 years, range 3.13 to 17.98 years) with a mean body mass index...... that the prenatal period can be considered as a potential window of opportunity for prevention of childhood overweight and obesity and anthropological measurements may in theory be used to help identify neonates at high risk for developing childhood obesity....

  18. Hypertension outcomes in metabolically unhealthy normal-weight and metabolically healthy obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, W Q; Yan, Y K; Zhang, M X; Cheng, H; Zhao, X Y; Hou, D Q; Mi, J

    2015-09-01

    Metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) begins in childhood and continues into adulthood. However, the association between MHO and the risk of developing hypertension remains controversial. A prospective cohort study was conducted to investigate the risk of hypertension in MHO and metabolically unhealthy normal-weight (MUNW) Chinese children and adolescents. A total of 1183 participants, 6-18 years old at baseline with normal blood pressure values, were studied using follow-up data from the cohort of the Beijing Child and Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome (BCAMS) study. The participants were classified according to the body mass index and the presence/absence of metabolic abnormality, which was defined by metabolic syndrome (MetS) or insulin resistance (IR). During the 6-year follow-up period, 239 (20.2%) participants developed incident hypertension. After adjusting for age, sex, physical activity, pubertal stage, dietary habits and family history of hypertension, an increased risk for hypertension was observed in the MHO individuals (risk ratio, RRMetS 5.42; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.19-9.22 and RRIR 7.59; 95% CI 1.64-35.20) compared with their metabolically healthy normal-weight counterparts. Independent of the definition of metabolic abnormality, the MUNW subjects did not have an elevated incidence of hypertension. These results suggest that the risk of developing hypertension is increased in the MHO but not in the MUNW individuals.

  19. Obesity and asthma in children: current and future therapeutic options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Jason E

    2014-06-01

    With the childhood prevalence of obesity and asthma increasing, it is important for pediatric professionals to appreciate that obesity modifies the diagnosis and management of asthma. These disease modifications present challenges to clinical management, including decreased responsiveness to controller therapy and decreased quality of life compared with normal-weight asthmatic children. While consensus guidelines do not currently suggest specific changes in asthma management for obese patients, management of some patients may be improved with consideration of the latest evidence. This article briefly summarizes what is known regarding the complex relationship between obesity and asthma in children, and discusses practical issues associated with the diagnosis and effective clinical management of asthma in obese children. On average, obese patients with asthma do not respond as well to inhaled corticosteroid therapy. Management approaches including weight loss and routine exercise are safe, and may improve important asthma outcomes. Asthma providers should learn to facilitate weight loss for their obese patients. In addition, pharmacologic interventions for weight loss in obese asthma, though not currently recommended, may soon be considered.

  20. Are Dietary Intakes Related to Obesity in Children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Papandreou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The purpose of this study was to report obesity status and identify any dietary substances that may be related to obesity in healthy school children from Northern Greece. METHODS: Four hundred and twenty-five (n = 425 children were randomly selected to participate in the study. A 24-h recall of three days (two weekdays and one weekend day was used to analyze the dietary data of the subjects. RESULTS: Out of 425 subjects, 146 (34.3% of them were found to be overweight and obese. Energy, protein, carbohydrate and thiamin intake was statistically positively correlated with obesity while dietary iron intake was statistically negatively correlated with obesity. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the children with dietary iron deficiency were 1.128 (95% CI: 0.002, 0.161 P < 0.031 times more likely of being obese compared to the normal group after adjustment for energy intake. CONCLUSIONS: Although most of the dietary intakes of our subjects were adequate, special consideration should be given to energy, carbohydrate, protein, and sugar and iron intake especially and its relation to obesity. Furthermore, additional studies are required to investigate any possible relation of low dietary iron consumption and obesity.

  1. Association of Obesity with Proteasomal Gene Polymorphisms in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupca, Sarmite; Paramonova, Natalija; Sugoka, Olga; Rinkuza, Irena; Trapina, Ilva; Daugule, Ilva; Sipols, Alfred J.; Rumba-Rozenfelde, Ingrida

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain possible associations between childhood obesity, its anthropometric and clinical parameters, and three loci of proteasomal genes rs2277460 (PSMA6 c.-110C>A), rs1048990 (PSMA6 c.-8C>G), and rs2348071 (PSMA3 c. 543+138G>A) implicated in obesity-related diseases. Obese subjects included 94 otherwise healthy children in Latvia. Loci were genotyped and then analyzed using polymerase chain reactions, with results compared to those of 191 nonobese controls. PSMA3 SNP frequency differences between obese children and controls, while not reaching significance, suggested a trend. These differences, however, proved highly significant (P G SNP differences, while being nonsignificant, likewise suggested a trend in comparison to the nonobese controls. No PSMA6 c.-110C>A SNP differences were detected in the obese group or its subsets. Finally, PSMA3 SNP differences were significantly associated (P < 0.05) with circulating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) levels. Our results clearly implicate the PSMA3 gene locus as an obesity risk factor in those Latvian children with a family history of obesity. While being speculative, the clinical results are suggestive of altered circulatory LDL levels playing a possible role in the etiology of obesity in the young. PMID:24455213

  2. Association of Obesity with Proteasomal Gene Polymorphisms in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarmite Kupca

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to ascertain possible associations between childhood obesity, its anthropometric and clinical parameters, and three loci of proteasomal genes rs2277460 (PSMA6 c.-110C>A, rs1048990 (PSMA6 c.-8C>G, and rs2348071 (PSMA3 c. 543+138G>A implicated in obesity-related diseases. Obese subjects included 94 otherwise healthy children in Latvia. Loci were genotyped and then analyzed using polymerase chain reactions, with results compared to those of 191 nonobese controls. PSMA3 SNP frequency differences between obese children and controls, while not reaching significance, suggested a trend. These differences, however, proved highly significant (PG SNP differences, while being nonsignificant, likewise suggested a trend in comparison to the nonobese controls. No PSMA6 c.-110C>A SNP differences were detected in the obese group or its subsets. Finally, PSMA3 SNP differences were significantly associated (P<0.05 with circulating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL levels. Our results clearly implicate the PSMA3 gene locus as an obesity risk factor in those Latvian children with a family history of obesity. While being speculative, the clinical results are suggestive of altered circulatory LDL levels playing a possible role in the etiology of obesity in the young.

  3. Characterization of the immune inflammatory profile in obese asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrone, Thea; Simone, Maria; Altamura, Maria; Munno, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Asthma and obesity are two common disorders often associated in children and characterized by an inflammatory status. Growing evidences support a connection between obesity and asthma since weight reduction can improve asthmatic symptoms. In this study, we have enrolled eighty children: 17 non asthmatics and non obese, 19 obese, 28 asthmatics-obese and, 16 asthmatics non-obese, respectively. In all participants, respiratory functional tests and body mass index (BMI) were calculated. Moreover, systemic inflammation of biomarkers such as T helper (h)1-type, Th2-type and T regulatory-type serum cytokines along with major adipokines was determined. Data will show that the association between asthma and obesity leads to a predominant Th1-type response with an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines. This inflammatory profile in asthmatics-obese children is sustained by elevated serum levels of leptin and visfatin, while adiponectin concentration is rather diminished. Finally, levels of systemic inflammatory biomarkers positively correlate with the increase in BMI values in all population subgroups.

  4. Parents' food choices: obesity among minority parents and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealy, Yvette M

    2010-01-01

    This article examines obesity among minority parents and children in the context of culture, socioeconomic status, and the parent-child dyad. Knowing parental attitudes about eating habits, food preparation, and dietary guidelines is crucial to addressing childhood obesity. Parents of African American, Caribbean, and Hispanic descent participated in focus groups to explore their attitudes and practices regarding the food choices they make for themselves and their 6- to 12-year-old children. Cultural identification and time constraints were identified as key themes that influence food choice decisions. Several recommendations are made for health care practitioners working with families to reduce the incidence of obesity.

  5. Association between obesity and asthma in preschool Mexican children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vàzquez-Nava, Francisco; Morales Romero, Jaime; Crodova Fernandez, José A; Saldívar-González, Atenogenes H; Vázquez-Rodriguez, Carlos F; Barrientos Gomez, Maria del C; Lin-Ochoa, Dolorez; Vázquez Rodríguez, Eliza M

    2010-07-07

    The elevated prevalence of obesity as well as of asthma in preschool children has prompted investigators to speculate that obesity in childhood might be a causal factor in the development of asthma. The results obtained to date are debatable. We investigated the association between obesity and asthma in 1,160 preschool Mexican children. Diagnosis of asthma was performed using the International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. The body mass index (BMI) in units of kg/m2 was determined, and children were categorized according to age- and gender-specific criteria, such as normal weight (5th-85th percentile), overweight (> or =85th and obesity (> or =95th percentile). Power test for logistic regression model was calculated. We found no association between overweight (adjusted OR = 1.02; 95% CI = 0.66-1.58), obesity (adjusted OR = 0.94; 95% CI = 0.68-1.30), and wheezing during the last year as determined by logistic regression model adjusted. We did not find an association between overweight, obesity, and asthma-associated hospitalizations. Further longitudinal studies are required to provide a better understanding of the relationship between obesity and asthma in preschool children.

  6. Association between Obesity and Asthma in Preschool Mexican Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Vázquez-Nava

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The elevated prevalence of obesity as well as of asthma in preschool children has prompted investigators to speculate that obesity in childhood might be a causal factor in the development of asthma. The results obtained to date are debatable. We investigated the association between obesity and asthma in 1,160 preschool Mexican children. Diagnosis of asthma was performed using the International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood (ISAAC questionnaire. The body mass index (BMI in units of kg/m2 was determined, and children were categorized according to age- and gender-specific criteria, such as normal weight (5th-85th percentile, overweight (ࣙ85th and <95th percentile, and obesity (ࣙ95th percentile. Power test for logistic regression model was calculated. We found no association between overweight (adjusted OR = 1.02; 95% CI = 0.66–1.58, obesity (adjusted OR = 0.94; 95% CI = 0.68–1.30, and wheezing during the last year as determined by logistic regression model adjusted. We did not find an association between overweight, obesity, and asthma-associated hospitalizations. Further longitudinal studies are required to provide a better understanding of the relationship between obesity and asthma in preschool children.

  7. Prevention of overweight and obesity in preschool children: an updated review

    OpenAIRE

    Satyanarayana G. Konda; Giri, Purushottam A.; Anjali S. Otiv

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of children are becoming overweight and obese. Overweight and obesity are arbitrarily defined as excess adipose tissue in the body. Although many risk factors for overweight and obesity have been identified for school-age children, less is known for preschool children. Prevention of overweight and obesity in preschool children is an international public health priority given the significant impact of obesity on acute and chronic diseases, general health, development and w...

  8. Psychosocial stress and obesity among children residing in Kaunas City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazuleviciene, Regina; Petraviciene, Inga; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Balseviciene, Birute

    2017-08-01

    An unfavorable psychosocial environment has been associated with an increased prevalence of obesity among children. However, the available evidence on the association of low socioeconomic status and parent-child relationships with childhood obesity is scarce. The aim of our study was to conduct a simultaneous evaluation of the risks associated with pathological mother-child relationships, education level, and overweight/obesity among 4-6 year-old children. This cross-sectional study included 1489 mother-child pairs living in Kaunas city, Lithuania. The Parenting Stress Index was measured using the Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction subscale. Children's overweight/obesity was defined as the body mass index ≥18kg/m(2). Logistic regression models as well as crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to indicate the strength of the associations between childhood overweight/obesity, maternal education level, and psychosocial stress. The percentage of children with overweight/obesity rose with an increasing Parenting Stress Index score. The percentage of children with overweight/obesity in the group of parents with better education and normal mother-child relations was 6.0%, while in the group of less educated parents and pathological mother-child relations, this percentage reached 13.9%. The stratified multivariable model showed that, with reference to the group of better educated parents and normal mother-child relations, lower education level and pathological mother-child relations were statistically significant risk factors for overweight/obesity in 4-6 year-old children, increasing the OR of overweight/obesity (aOR: 2.43; 95% CI: 1.31-4.51). Pathological mother-child relations and maternal smoking mediated the effect of low maternal education level on children's BMI z-scores. Pathological mother-child relations, lower parental education levels, and smoking may be predictors of children's overweight/obesity. Measures

  9. Similarities between obesity in pets and children: the addiction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretlow, Robert A; Corbee, Ronald J

    2016-09-01

    Obesity in pets is a frustrating, major health problem. Obesity in human children is similar. Prevailing theories accounting for the rising obesity rates - for example, poor nutrition and sedentary activity - are being challenged. Obesity interventions in both pets and children have produced modest short-term but poor long-term results. New strategies are needed. A novel theory posits that obesity in pets and children is due to 'treats' and excessive meal amounts given by the 'pet-parent' and child-parent to obtain affection from the pet/child, which enables 'eating addiction' in the pet/child and results in parental 'co-dependence'. Pet-parents and child-parents may even become hostage to the treats/food to avoid the ire of the pet/child. Eating addiction in the pet/child also may be brought about by emotional factors such as stress, independent of parental co-dependence. An applicable treatment for child obesity has been trialled using classic addiction withdrawal/abstinence techniques, as well as behavioural addiction methods, with significant results. Both the child and the parent progress through withdrawal from specific 'problem foods', next from snacking (non-specific foods) and finally from excessive portions at meals (gradual reductions). This approach should adapt well for pets and pet-parents. Pet obesity is more 'pure' than child obesity, in that contributing factors and treatment points are essentially under the control of the pet-parent. Pet obesity might thus serve as an ideal test bed for the treatment and prevention of child obesity, with focus primarily on parental behaviours. Sharing information between the fields of pet and child obesity would be mutually beneficial.

  10. Trends of overweight and obesity among children in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacardi-Gascón, M; Jiménez-Cruz, A; Jones, E; Velasquez Perez, I; Loaiza Martinez, J A

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the trends of obesity from 2001-02 to 2006-07 in school children of Tijuana, Mexico and to investigate the relationship with the child's gender and type of school attended. Bietapic random sample was selected by cluster of schools and groups. Results of the 1684 children from 6-14 years of age assessed showed an overall prevalence of obesity (> 95(th)) of 28%. An overall increase of overweight and obesity of 7-percentage points (p=0.0003), from 41 to 48%, being higher among boys and younger girls. Prevalence of obesity was higher among boys and children from private schools. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  11. Factors Influencing Obesity on School-Aged Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soepardi Soedibyo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available School-aged children of 6-12 year old in big cities have less physical activities and relax life style. Fast food and soft drink consumed contain high calorie and protein of protein and carbohydrate sources. Obesity has impact on children’s growth and development especially on psychosocial aspect. The factors that play a role in supporting the obesity occurrence in children include socio-economic condition, behavior and life style and diet. A cross sectional descriptive –analytic study was conducted on elementary school students in Jakarta, to identify factors that play roles on obesity of school-aged children. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:43-54Keywords: childhood obesity, weight shape index, body mass index

  12. Prevalence of obesity in school-going children of Karachi.

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    Haider Javed Warraich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is an emerging problem in Pakistan. The authors sought to determine prevalence of obesity and malnutrition in school-going children, from grades 6(th to 8(th of different schools of Karachi and assess associations that affect the weight of the children. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross sectional study design with children studying in grades 6(th to 8(th grade, in different schools of Karachi. We visited 10 schools of which 4 consented; two subsidized government schools and two private schools. A questionnaire was developed in consultation with a qualified nutritionist. Height and weight were measured on calibrated scales. A modified BMI criterion for Asian populations was used. Data was collected from 284 students. Of our sample, 52% were found to be underweight whereas 34% of all the children were normal. Of the population, 6% was obese and 8% overweight. Of all obese children, 70% belonged to the higher socio-economic status (SES group, while of the underweight children, 63.3% were in the lower SES. Amongst obese children in our study, 65% ate meat every day, compared to 33% of normal kids. CONCLUSION: Obesity and undernutrition co-exist in Pakistani school-children. Our study shows that socio-economic factors are important since obesity and overweight increase with SES. Higher SES groups should be targeted for overweight while underweight is a problem of lower SES. Meat intake and lack of physical activity are some of the other factors that have been highlighted in our study.

  13. Overweight and Obesity among Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Sukanya; Small, Jacqueline; Baur, Louise A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children with developmental disabilities attending a metropolitan Diagnosis and Assessment Service. Method: A retrospective chart review was carried out for 98 children (67 male) aged 2-18 years. Data on age, sex, weight, height, and severity of…

  14. Obesity Rates in Special Populations of Children and Potential Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, Matthew J.; Pufpaff, Lisa A.; McIntosh, David E.

    2009-01-01

    Childhood obesity has become a problem of epidemic proportions in the United States, but much of the research has focused on prevention and intervention programs, which target the general population of school children. Overlooked in the literature are children with special needs (including autism, genetic disorders, Down syndrome, and Prader-Willi…

  15. Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Obesity among Children and Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Amélie; Bucher Della Torre, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents has increased worldwide and has reached alarming proportions. Currently, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are the primary source of added sugar in the diet of children and adolescents. Contradictive findings from...

  16. Overweight and Obesity among Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Sukanya; Small, Jacqueline; Baur, Louise A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children with developmental disabilities attending a metropolitan Diagnosis and Assessment Service. Method: A retrospective chart review was carried out for 98 children (67 male) aged 2-18 years. Data on age, sex, weight, height, and severity of…

  17. OBESITY AMONG SCHOOL CHILDREN: AN EMERGING THREAT IN CENTRAL INDIA

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    Garima

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity in children and adolescents is rapidly reaching epidemic proportions globally as well as in India. It is a well-recognized risk factor for adult obesity, which in turn may be the basis of various chronic diseases. So, by preventing the development of obesity in childhood can reduce the likelihood of obesity in adulthood and its health consequences. AIMS & OBJECTIVES: To find out the prevalence of overweight and obesity among school children in Bhopal city. MATERIAL & METHODS: STUDY DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive study. STUDY POPULATION: Students studying in IX, X, XI, XII class in government and private schools of Bhopal STUDY PERIOD: July 2012-June 2014 (24 Months SAMPLING PROCEDURE: Multistage simple random sampling method was used to select schools from a list obtained by Ministry of education. Total 38 schools were chosen to fulfill the sample size, in which 120 students from each school were included under study. METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION: Data was collected by taking anthropometric measurements like body weight, height, BMI (Body mass index, WC (waist circumference. RESULTS: In present study, 256 (5.6% students were overweight and 46 (1.0% were obese. Total 2505 (55.0% of students have waist circumferences between 70 to 85 cm, whereas only 187(4.0% students have waist circumference more than 85 cm. CONCLUSION: The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was 5.6% and 1.0% respectively among school children. It was more common in girls and among students of private schools.

  18. Association between eating behavior scores and obesity in Chilean children

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    Amador Paola

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate eating behavior and physical inactivity contribute to the current epidemic of childhood obesity. The aim of this study was to assess the association between eating behavior scores and childhood obesity in Chilean children. Design and methods We recruited 126 obese, 44 overweight and 124 normal-weight Chilean children (6-12 years-old; both genders according to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF criteria. Eating behavior scores were calculated using the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ. Factorial analysis in the culturally-adapted questionnaire for Chilean population was used to confirm the original eight-factor structure of CEBQ. The Cronbach's alpha statistic (>0.7 in most subscales was used to assess internal consistency. Non-parametric methods were used to assess case-control associations. Results Eating behavior scores were strongly associated with childhood obesity in Chilean children. Childhood obesity was directly associated with high scores in the subscales "enjoyment of food" (P Conclusion Our study shows a strong and graded association between specific eating behavior scores and childhood obesity in Chile.

  19. [Prevalence of obesity amount elementary school children in Grenoble].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viguié, M; Fayard, M; Micheletti, P; Boussuges, S

    2002-12-01

    Facing the growing increase of childhood obesity in France, the Grenoble Municipal School Health Service wanted to evaluate the importance of this phenomenon present among elementary school children in the area. A descriptive, cross-sectional and retrospective survey was conducted during the 2000/2001 academic year among a group of 1361 children born in 1990. The Quetelet Index was utilized to measure the level of being overweight, and the breaking point levels for being overweight and obese were defined according to new international standards. The prevalence of obesity is approximately 3% (2.7% in girls and 2.9% in boys) and remains constant from nursery school to elementary school. Nearly 35% of obese children in nursery school remain obese at the end of elementary school. Overweight prevalence is at its highest and increases significantly from nursery school (8.3%) through elementary school (14%). The study further revealed that girls aged 10-12 who did not pass and were held back from the next grade are five times more at risk of obesity than those who pass. The Municipal School Health Service has a critical role to play in the prevention of childhood obesity and its early screening and detection.

  20. Obesity and type 2 diabetes in children: epidemiology and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulgaron, Elizabeth R; Delamater, Alan M

    2014-08-01

    The incidence of overweight and obesity among children has increased dramatically in recent decades, with about one-third of children in the U.S. currently being either overweight or obese. Being overweight in early childhood increases risk for later obesity. There is evidence for the efficacy of family-based behavioral treatment to control weight and improve health outcomes. Obesity-related health risks have been documented, including metabolic syndrome. There is also increasing incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) among youth in recent years, with obesity and family history of T2D generally present. Lower income and ethnic minority status are associated with both obesity and T2D in youth. Most youth with T2D do not achieve optimal glycemic control, and are at high risk for later health complications. Obesity and T2D represent significant public health issues with potentially great personal and societal cost. Research addressing the prevention of obesity and T2D among youth is urgently needed.

  1. Obesity and other predictors of absenteeism in Philadelphia school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, Elizabeth B; Daskalakis, Constantine; Andrel, Jocelyn

    2011-06-01

    Limited data indicate that obese children are absent from school more than their normal-weight peers. We analyzed administrative data from a large urban school district to investigate the association of obesity and student sociodemographic characteristics with absenteeism. We analyzed 291,040 records, representing 165,056 unique students (grades 1-12). Obesity status was classified according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention age- and sex-specific percentiles for body mass index (BMI) and analyses were based on negative binomial regression. Overall rates of overweight and obesity were 17% and 20%, respectively, and the estimated absence rate was 17 absences per 180 student-days. Obesity was weakly associated with increased school absences. The association was present mainly among the most obese students (BMI >99th percentile), who had an 11% greater absence rate compared to normal-weight students. Compared to white students, Hispanics and African Americans had higher absence rates (14% and 10%, respectively), and Asians had lower absence rates (43%). Students eligible for free or reduced-cost meals had 24% higher absence rates than those who were not eligible. Overweight and obesity do not seem strongly associated with school absence, except among extremely obese children. Race and poverty appear to affect absences to a greater extent than overweight and obesity. Additional research is needed to investigate the contribution of contextual factors in schools and neighborhoods. This study suggests that data routinely collected in schools could be used to track childhood obesity and to efficiently evaluate public health interventions designed to decrease childhood obesity. © 2011, American School Health Association.

  2. [Obesity, eating habits and nutritional knowledge among school children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triches, Rozane Márcia; Giugliani, Elsa Regina Justo

    2005-08-01

    To evaluate the association between obesity and eating habits and nutritional knowledge among schoolchildren. Weight and height were measured in 573 schoolchildren of public schools in two cities of State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. Obesity was defined as Body Mass Index above the 95th percentile based on the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) criteria. Eating habits and nutrition knowledge were evaluated using a self-administered questionnaire. Simple and adjusted logistic regression models were used to assess associations. Obesity among children was found to be associated with limited nutrition knowledge and unhealthy eating and habits. These children were five times more likely to be obese (OR=5.3;1.1-24.9). The level of knowledge affects the association between obesity and eating habits, and there's reason to suspect that children who have more nutrition knowledge report habits known to be healthier but not necessarily the ones they actually practice. Taking into account children's level of knowledge, unhealthy habits were strongly associated to obesity.

  3. Organization of school health education in obesity in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Woźniak-Holecka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal body weight poses a risk of the development of various health disorders, having a negative impact on the quality and length of life. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among European children is estimated to be 10–20%. In Poland this figure reaches 18%. A war on the epidemic obesity waged from the youngest age of the child is a strategy that brings long-term health benefits for the entire population. Apart from the family, the school is the second important educational environment responsible for conducting health education activities among children and teenagers. School health education programs should be implementing by teachers in collaboration with other school staff, parents and the broadly understood local community. Comprehensive health education aiming at combating obesity should cover the entire population of school children and teenagers, with special attention given to high risk groups. The school, undertaking health education activities aimed at preventing abnormal body weight, should implement nationwide programs for the prevention of obesity, and should also pursue its own health education program based on its curriculum. In most cases, development of obesity at children results from improper eating habits and insufficient physical activity, and therefore school health education programs aimed at the prevention of overweight and obesity should focus on these two most important modifiable risk factors of abnormal body weight.

  4. Obesity and cardiovascular risk in children and adolescents

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    Manu Raj

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The global prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents has increased substantially over the past several decades. These trends are also visible in developing economies like India. Childhood obesity impacts all the major organ systems of the body and is well known to result in significant morbidity and mortality. Obesity in childhood and adolescence is associated with established risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and accelerated atherosclerotic processes, including elevated blood pressure (BP, atherogenic dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, type II diabetes mellitus, cardiac structural and functional changes and obstructive sleep apnea. Probable mechanisms of obesity-related hypertension include insulin resistance, sodium retention, increased sympathetic nervous system activity, activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and altered vascular function. Adiposity promotes cardiovascular risk clustering during childhood and adolescence. Insulin resistance has a strong association with childhood obesity. A variety of proinflammatory mediators that are associated with cardiometabolic dysfunction are also known to be influenced by obesity levels. Obesity in early life promotes atherosclerotic disease in vascular structures such as the aorta and the coronary arteries. Childhood and adolescent adiposity has strong influences on the structure and function of the heart, predominantly of the left ventricle. Obesity compromises pulmonary function and increases the risk of sleep-disordered breathing and obstructive sleep apnea. Neglecting childhood and adolescent obesity will compromise the cardiovascular health of the pediatric population and is likely to result in a serious public health crisis in future.

  5. Interventions for treating obesity in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Luttikhuis, Hiltje; Baur, Louise; Jansen, Hanneke; Shrewsbury, Vanessa A.; O'Malley, Claire; Stolk, Ronald P.; Summerbell, Carolyn D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Child and adolescent obesity is increasingly prevalent, and can be associated with significant short- and long-term health consequences. Objectives To assess the efficacy of lifestyle, drug and surgical interventions for treating obesity in childhood. Search strategy We searched CENTRAL

  6. Interventions for treating obesity in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Luttikhuis, Hiltje; Baur, Louise; Jansen, Hanneke; Shrewsbury, Vanessa A.; O'Malley, Claire; Stolk, Ronald P.; Summerbell, Carolyn D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Child and adolescent obesity is increasingly prevalent, and can be associated with significant short- and long-term health consequences. Objectives To assess the efficacy of lifestyle, drug and surgical interventions for treating obesity in childhood. Search strategy We searched CENTRAL o

  7. Elevated energy expenditure and reduced energy intake in obese prepubertal children: paradox of poor dietary reliability in obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffeis, C; Schutz, Y; Zaffanello, M; Piccoli, R; Pinelli, L

    1994-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of two common methods used to assess energy intake. A 3-day weighed dietary record and a dietary history were collected and compared with the total daily energy expenditure (TEE) assessed by the heart rate method in a group of 12 obese and 12 nonobese prepubertal children (mean age 9.3 +/- 1.1 years vs 9.3 +/- 0.4 years). The TEE value was higher in obese than in nonobese children (9.89 +/- 1.08 vs 8.13 +/- 1.39 MJ/day; p obese children (7.06 +/- 0.98 MJ/day; p obese children (8.37 +/- 1.35 MJ/day, p obese children underreport food intake and that the dietary record and the diet history are not valid means of assessing energy intake in obese prepubertal children.

  8. Overweight and Obesity in Portuguese Children: Prevalence and Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; dos Santos, Fernanda K.; Souza, Michele; Pereira, Sara; Maia, José A. R.

    2014-01-01

    There are widespread differences in overweight/obesity prevalence in children, and understanding the reasons for this is very important. The present study aims: (I) to conduct a meta-analysis on overweight/obesity prevalence in Portuguese children; (II) to identify differences in biological and behavioural characteristics between normal-weight and overweight/obese children; and (III) to investigate the importance of individual- and school-level correlates of variation in children’s BMI using multilevel modelling. A search was done for all published papers including Portuguese children during the last decade; further, 686 Portuguese children (9–11 years old) were sampled and their BMI, family income, maturity offset, nutritional habits, physical activity, sedentariness, sleep time, and school environment information were collected. Results showed a stabilization of overweight/obesity during the last decade, 30.6% (95%CI: 0.287–0.34) for boys, 28.4% (95%CI: 0.23–0.35) for girls, and 30.3% (95%CI: 0.27–0.34) for boys and girls together. Differences between weight groups were only found in individual-level biological traits. The multilevel analysis did not identify significant contributions of school-level variables to children’s BMI variation. In conclusion, no increase was found in the prevalence of overweight/obesity among Portuguese children since 2000. Normal-weight and overweight/obese children only differ in individual-level characteristics, and school context variables were not related to variation in BMI. PMID:25372884

  9. Overweight and Obesity in Portuguese Children: Prevalence and Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayse Natacha Gomes

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available There are widespread differences in overweight/obesity prevalence in children, and understanding the reasons for this is very important. The present study aims: (I to conduct a meta-analysis on overweight/obesity prevalence in Portuguese children; (II to identify differences in biological and behavioural characteristics between normal-weight and overweight/obese children; and (III to investigate the importance of individual- and school-level correlates of variation in children’s BMI using multilevel modelling. A search was done for all published papers including Portuguese children during the last decade; further, 686 Portuguese children (9–11 years old were sampled and their BMI, family income, maturity offset, nutritional habits, physical activity, sedentariness, sleep time, and school environment information were collected. Results showed a stabilization of overweight/obesity during the last decade, 30.6% (95%CI: 0.287–0.34 for boys, 28.4% (95%CI: 0.23–0.35 for girls, and 30.3% (95%CI: 0.27–0.34 for boys and girls together. Differences between weight groups were only found in individual-level biological traits. The multilevel analysis did not identify significant contributions of school-level variables to children’s BMI variation. In conclusion, no increase was found in the prevalence of overweight/obesity among Portuguese children since 2000. Normal-weight and overweight/obese children only differ in individual-level characteristics, and school context variables were not related to variation in BMI.

  10. Obesity and physical activity in children of immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela; Zaccagni, Luciana; Manzon, Vanessa S; Masotti, Sabrina; Rinaldo, Natascia; Khyatti, Meriem

    2014-08-01

    Childhood overweight and obesity have increased in recent decades, reaching alarming proportions. Children with a migrant background seem to be particularly at risk of developing overweight and obesity. This article provides an overview of the prevalence of overweight or obesity among North African (NA) children living in their own countries or as immigrants in Europe. The aim is to show the effect of the migration process on this trend and to discuss its possible contributing factors. Publications were identified by a systematic search of PubMed and the existing literature. Original longitudinal or cross-sectional studies on the prevalence of childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity and of physical activity among ethnic groups from North Africa compared with the native population were reviewed. The results confirmed that children of NA origin in Europe have higher levels of overweight and obesity than the native ones, especially girls. However, this trend can also be detected in urban areas of NA countries. Important factors contributing to the increase of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents are discussed, in particular the westernization of eating habits, the level of physical activity and body image perception. The review shows that factors linked to acculturation in the host society and others maintained from the country of origin come into play in determining childhood overweight and obesity among NA immigrants in Europe. The importance of health promotion targeting the groups most at risk of childhood overweight and obesity, i.e. aspects of a healthy diet and the benefits of physical activity, is underlined.

  11. Using obese-specific charts of height and height velocity for assessment of growth in obese children and adolescents during weight excess reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falorni, A; Galmacci, G; Bini, V; Faraoni, F; Molinari, D; Cabiati, G; Sanasi, M; Celi, F; Di Stefano, G; Berioli, M G; Contessa, G; Bacosi, M L

    1999-03-01

    The influence of weight excess reduction on height and height velocity of obese subjects should be evaluated on the basis of appropriate standards, since the pattern of growth of obese subjects is different from that of normal weight subjects. Height, weight and triceps skinfold thickness were recorded from 17987 school subjects (9256 males and 8731 females), 3-18 y of age, from three provinces of central Italy, and a growth reference curve of height was constructed. Using BMI (as computed using the tables of Rolland-Cachera et al) and triceps skinfold thickness, normal-weight subjects (NWS) and obese subjects (OS) were identified and specific reference curves (mean+/-s.d. every sixth month of age) were developed for both groups. Centiles of height were also calculated for OS. Various (2-4) measurements of height in school subjects were performed and a graph of height velocity (HV) was constructed in NWS and in OS using the JPPS method. The yearly mean +/-s.d. of HV was also calculated, based on square root transformed data (in order to realise a Gaussian distribution), deriving from successive measurements in total subjects, in NWS and in OS. The z-scores of height and of the square root of HV were calculated in 217 obese subjects (125 males and 92 females) before and during a weight excess reduction programme (WERP). Obese subjects in WERP who showed a reduction of z-score of BMI were considered as 'responsive'; those who either maintained or showed an increase of z-score of BMI were considered as 'non-responsive'. Obese subjects in WERP were followed for 1-4 y, giving the following results: 0-1 y, 142 responsives and 75 non-responsives; 0-2 y, 76 responsives and 33 non-responsives; 0-3 y, 35 responsives and 30 non-responsives; 0-4 y, 24 responsives and 18 non-responsives. Compared to NWS, OS showed a significantly greater HV in 4-9y males and in 4-8y females, but in older children the pubertal spurt was reduced and more precocious. As a result, the height of OS

  12. Atherogenic Dyslipidemia and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Obese Children

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    Ebe D’Adamo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity when associated with serum lipoprotein changes triggers atherosclerosis. Evidences suggest that the atherosclerotic process begins in childhood and that the extent of early atherosclerosis of the aorta and coronary arteries can be associated with lipoprotein levels and obesity. Furthermore, many studies in childhood demonstrate an important relationship between parameters of insulin sensitivity, body fat distribution, and the development of lipid abnormalities. This review focuses on the most recent findings on the relationship between obesity, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular risk in children.

  13. Atherogenic Dyslipidemia and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Obese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Adamo, Ebe; Guardamagna, Ornella; Chiarelli, Francesco; Liccardo, Daniela; Ferrari, Federica; Nobili, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity when associated with serum lipoprotein changes triggers atherosclerosis. Evidences suggest that the atherosclerotic process begins in childhood and that the extent of early atherosclerosis of the aorta and coronary arteries can be associated with lipoprotein levels and obesity. Furthermore, many studies in childhood demonstrate an important relationship between parameters of insulin sensitivity, body fat distribution, and the development of lipid abnormalities. This review focuses on the most recent findings on the relationship between obesity, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular risk in children. PMID:25663838

  14. Frailty of Obese Children: Evaluation of Plasma Antioxidant Capacity in Pediatric Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, F; Rossodivita, A N; Segni, C D; Raimondo, S; Canichella, S; Silvestrini, A; Miggiano, G A D; Meucci, E; Mancini, A

    2016-09-01

    Background: Obese children are subject to the same chronic oxidative and inflammatory stress, responsible for the onset of all the complications typical of adult age, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease. Objectives: Since few studies are reported in prepubertal obese children, we investigated the relationship between oxidative stress, body composition and metabolic pattern in childhood obesity in comparison with adult obese patients. Methods: We enrolled 25 prepubertal children (12 males and 13 females) aged 5-12 years with a mean value of standard deviation of BMI (SDS-BMI)±SEM of 1.96±0.09. We performed oral glucose tolerance test, hormonal and metabolic evaluation, bioimpedentiometry, evaluation of total antioxidant capacity using spectroscopical method using a radical cation, 2,2(I)- azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6 sulphonate) (ABTS), as indicator of radical formation, with a latency time (LAG) proportional to antioxidant in the sample. Results: LAG values significantly correlate with % fat mass, waist circumference and waist/hip ratio. However mean LAG values were significantly lower than in obese adults. Conclusions: We suggest that children are more susceptible to oxidative stress than adults, possibly to incomplete development of antioxidant system. Prognostic and therapeutical implications need to be further investigated.

  15. [Obesity in children: new controversies and present prevention measures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraru, Evelina; Luchian, Ana-Maria; Bozomitu, Laura; Rusu, Tania; Sacaci, Paula; Antonesei, Luiza; Stana, B A; Tugurlan, Demetra Simona; Grudnicki, Alice; Popoiu, Anne-Marie; Ozkan, Mirçan; Moraru, D

    2006-01-01

    The authors realise a synthesis on classical data and recent pathogenic explanations in childhood obesity. The obesity is a nutritional disorder of great interest nowadays and surpasses the incidence of the major problem of pediatrics until now--the malnutrition. There is documented data concerning the global incidence of obesity which is continuously growing when it comes to children. That is why the prophylaxis must become a priority by using measures in the first period of life (natural feeding, the need of late diversification, the avoidance of hyperproteic diets). The recent pathogenic data and the long term populational studies change the old conceptions regarding the risk of some categories of children. Thus mother's malnutrition, the low birth weight, children that followed hyperproteic diets paradoxically represent categories of risk for obesity. A recent recorded phenomenon, which amplifies the risk for obesity is the early adiposity rebound which is recorded nowadays even for ages lower than five years. There are described the hormonal mechanisms involved in appetite and satiety up to the receptor level: leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, endocannabinoid receptors. There are pointed out all the long term risk elements (high birth weight, low birth weight, the pregnant woman's nutrition) and the modern medical treatments for obesity.

  16. Childhood obesity: bringing children's rights discourse to public health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenway, Julie

    2008-05-01

    Childhood obesity is widely understood as a public health issue, but is not commonly understood from a legal perspective. Children's rights discourse can add significant empowerment to public health-based policy, which alone lacks effectiveness in the face of commercial and other counteracting influences. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child has the potential to be used by advocates for children's health to facilitate child health policies pertaining to the issue of childhood obesity. This is because children's rights, as defined in the articles of the convention, establish the essential conditions required by children to achieve optimal health and wellbeing. A rights-based approach may improve children's welfare by encouraging a less fragmented approach to the issue of childhood obesity. The articles of the convention can be used as a template for interdisciplinary collaboration, with a more coherent outcome possible. By articulating childhood obesity as a children's rights issue--not just a public health issue--a more effective strategy for addressing the problem can be developed and implemented.

  17. Blood pressure and arterial stiffness in obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvidt, Kristian Nebelin

    2015-03-01

    Obesity, elevated blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. A strong relationship exists between obesity and elevated BP in both children and adults. Obesity and elevated BP in childhood track into adult life increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Ambulatory BP is the most precise measure to evaluate the BP burden, whereas carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) is regarded as the gold standard for evaluating arterial (i.e. aortic) stiffness. These measures might contribute to a better understanding of obesity's adverse impact on the cardiovascular system, and ultimately a better prevention and treatment of childhood obesity. The overall aim of the present PhD thesis is to investigate arterial stiffness and 24-hour BP in obese children and adolescents, and evaluate whether these measures are influenced by weight reduction. The present PhD thesis is based on four scientific papers.  In a cross-sectional design, 104 severe obese children and adolescents with an age of 10-18 years were recruited when newly referred to the Children's Obesity Clinic, Holbæk University Hospital, and compared to 50 normal weighted age and gender matched control individuals. Ambulatory BP was measured, and cfPWV was investigated in two ways in respect to the distance measure of aorta; the previously recommended length - the so called subtracted distance, and the currently recommended length - the direct distance. In a longitudinal design, the obese patients were re-investigated after one-year of lifestyle intervention at the Children's Obesity Clinic in purpose of reducing the degree of obesity. In the cross-sectional design, the obese group had higher measures of obesity, while matched for age, gender and height, when compared to the control group. In the longitudinal design, 74% of the 72 followed up obese patients experienced a significant weight reduction. CfPWV was dependent on the method used to measure the

  18. Evaluation of Obesity in School-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobashi, Kazushige

    2016-01-01

    To prevent obesity in middle age, early precautions and interventions are required during childhood. Therefore, it is very important to accurately evaluate the degree of overweight in children. Body mass index (BMI) is widely used worldwide in adults, but not in children. Because standard BMI, which is calculated using the average height and weight for age, changes widely during growth, a constant cut-off point cannot be set for children. An international unified method defining childhood obesity has not been established. In many countries, BMI-for-age percentile (BMI%) value or Z (standard deviation) score is used, whereas in Japan, the percentage of overweight (POW), which is the modified weight-for-height method, is used. We compared BMI% values with POW values obtained using the anthropometric data of elementary and junior high school students based on the Japanese school survey conducted in 2000 and found that the values for the degree of overweight were significantly different between the two methods. It became clear that tall students were easily defined as being overweight, whereas short students tended to be evaluated as being underweight when using BMI%. POW method seemed to be more appropriate than BMI% for school-age children. Abdominal obesity, excess visceral adipose tissue (VAT), is highly associated with obesity-related complications. Waist circumference (WC) is now accepted as an appropriate guide to VAT accumulation. The cut-off value of WC defining excess VAT is 80 cm at the umbilical level in Japanese school-age children. It is not easy to decide the obesity criteria and optimum WC in school-age children. Childhood obesity should be discussed more internationally.

  19. Association of FTO polymorphisms with obesity and obesity-related outcomes in Portuguese children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Albuquerque

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported an association between single nucleotide polymorphisms in the first intron of the FTO gene and body mass index (BMI or obesity. However, this association has not yet been studied among the Portuguese population. This study aims to assess the association of three FTO polymorphisms (rs1861868, rs1421085 and rs9939609 with obesity-related outcomes in a sample of Portuguese children. METHODS: We examined a total of 730 children, 256 normal-weight (55.9% girls, 320 overweight (45.3% girls and 154 obese (53.2% girls, aging from 6 to 12-years-old, recruited randomly from public schools in the central region of Portugal. DNA samples were genotyped for the three polymorphisms by allelic discrimination TaqMan assay. Association of the FTO polymorphisms with several anthropometric traits was investigated. Additionally, we tested association with the risk of obesity using overweight and obese vs. normal-weight children. RESULTS: We found significant associations of rs9939609 and rs1421085 polymorphisms with weight, BMI, BMI Z-score, waist circumference and hip circumference, even after age and gender adjustment (p0.05. Haplotype analyses identified two combinations (ACA and GCA associated with a higher risk of obesity (OR 1.53; 95% CI, 1.06-2.22; p = 0.023; OR 1.73; 95% CI, 1.06-2.87; p = 0.030, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the first evidence for the association of FTO polymorphisms with anthropometric traits and risk of obesity in Portuguese children.

  20. [Presence of genu valgum in obese children: cause or effect?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonet Serra, B; Quintanar Rioja, A; Alavés Buforn, M; Martínez Orgado, J; Espino Hernández, M; Pérez-Lescure Picarzo, F J

    2003-03-01

    Changes in body configuration that may affect the physical activity may play a role in the caloric consumption and led to the development of obesity. To determine the presence of genu valgum, an alteration that may decrease physical activity and caloric expenditure, in overweight children. Thirty-five overweight children without any endocrinological alterations that could lead to obesity were studied. Twenty-nine non-overweight children of a similar age were studied as a control group. In all children weight, height, and body mass index (BMI) were studied, and intermalleolar distance was used to measure the degree of genu valgum. The differences between groups were studied using ANOVA and the correlation between variables was determined using Pearson's correlation. BMI was higher in overweight children than in the control group. Intermalleolar distance was greater in overweight children than in the non-overweight group (11.0 0.6 vs 2.90 0.43; p genu valgum is much higher in overweight children than in non-overweight children of the same age. This alteration may lead to decreased physical activity and lead to obesity.

  1. Study of 11 BMI-associated loci identified in GWAS for associations with central obesity in the Chinese children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Xi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Recent genome-wide association studies have identified many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with body mass index (BMI/generalized obesity. In this study, we aimed to examine the associations of identified SNPs with risk of central obesity in a child population from China. METHODS: We genotyped 11 SNPs (FTO rs9939609, MC4R rs17782313, GNPDA2 rs10938397, BDNF rs6265, FAIM2 rs7138803, NPC1 rs1805081, SEC16B rs10913469, SH2B1 rs4788102, PCSK1rs6235, KCTD15 rs29941, BAT2 rs2844479 in the Chinese children (N = 3502, age range 6-18 years from the Beijing Child and Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome (BCAMS. Based on the age- and sex- specific waist circumference (WC standards generated in the BCAMS study, 1196 central obese cases and 2306 controls were identified. RESULTS: Of 11 studied SNPs, four SNPs and genetic risk score (GRS based on them were statistically significantly associated with central obesity by WC criteria (FTO rs9939609: OR = 1.29, 95%CI = 1.10-1.50, p = 0.001; MC4R rs17782313: OR = 1.27, 95%CI = 1.12-1.44, p = 1.32×10⁻⁴; GNPDA2 rs10938397: OR = 1.22, 95%CI = 1.09-1.37, p = 4.09×10⁻⁴; BDNF rs6265: OR = 1.20, 95%CI = 1.08-1.34, p = 8.86×10⁻⁴; GRS: OR = 1.25, 95%CI 1.16-1.34, p = 2.58×10⁻⁹ after adjustment for sex, age, pubertal stage, physical activity and family history of obesity. Similar observations were made using weight-to-height ratio (WHtR criterion. However, other SNPs were not associated with central obesity by WC as well as WHtR criterion. CONCLUSIONS: Our study replicates the statistically significant association of four SNPs (FTO rs9939609, MC4R rs17782313, GNPDA2 rs10938397, BDNF rs6265 with risk of central obesity in the Chinese children.

  2. The association of peripubertal serum concentrations of organochlorine chemicals and blood lead with growth and pubertal development in a longitudinal cohort of boys: a review of published results from the Russian Children's Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeyev, Oleg; Burns, Jane S; Williams, Paige L; Korrick, Susan A; Lee, Mary M; Revich, Boris; Hauser, Russ

    2017-02-23

    Organochlorine chemicals and lead are environmental exposures that have endocrine disrupting properties (EDCs) which interfere with many aspects of hormone action. Childhood and adolescence are windows of susceptibility for adverse health effects of EDCs. Our ongoing study, the Russian Children's Study (RCS), is one of the few longitudinal studies investigating the impact of EDCs on growth and puberty in boys. It is conducted in the historically contaminated city of Chapaevsk, in the Samara region. The study focuses on evaluating the associations of persistent organochlorine chemicals and lead with growth and pubertal timing. At enrollment in 2003-2005, we collected blood from 516 boys at ages 8-9 years to measure dioxins, furans, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated pesticides and lead. At enrollment and at annual visits through the ages of 18-19 years, a physician performed physical examinations that included pubertal staging and testicular volume measurements. We review the history of Chapaevsk as a research site and summarize published RCS data on the association of peripubertal serum concentrations of organochlorines and blood lead levels with growth, pubertal onset and sexual maturity. Overall, we found that persistent organochlorines and lead negatively affected growth during puberty. Our results also suggest that total toxic equivalents (TEQs), dioxin-like compounds, organochlorine pesticides and lead may delay, while nondioxin-like-PCBs may advance, the timing of male puberty. These findings promoted remediation programs in Chapaevsk, with improvement in health indicators, resulting in Chapaevsk being designated a member of the World Health Organization (WHO) network "Healthy Cities" in 2015.

  3. Maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and pubertal development among sons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, M L; Håkonsen, L B; Vested, A

    2013-01-01

    Maternal overweight and obesity in pregnancy has been associated with earlier age of menarche in daughters as well as reduced semen quality in sons. We aimed at investigating pubertal development in sons born by mothers with a high body mass index (BMI). The study included 2522 sons of mothers...... that during pregnancy in 1984-1987 were enrolled in a mother-child cohort and gave information on their pre-pregnancy height and weight from which we calculated their BMI. Information on sons' pubertal development, assessed by age when starting regular shaving, voice break, acne and first nocturnal emission...... indicators of pubertal development, results also indicated earlier pubertal development among sons of obese mothers. After excluding sons of underweight mothers in a subanalysis, we observed an inverse trend between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and age at regular shaving, acne and first nocturnal emission...

  4. Physician Perspectives on Obesity Screening in Hospitalized Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Diana S; Gross, Elissa; Rinke, Michael L

    2016-09-01

    Nearly one-third of the children in the United States are obese or overweight and face associated physical and mental health issues.(1,2) Parents often misperceive and underreport their child's weight status.(3-5) This misperception is a major barrier to increasing healthy lifestyle choices, such as limiting screen time, increasing physical activity, improving diet, and participating in prevention programs.(6-8) Increasing parental awareness of children's weight status is an important initial step in addressing the obesity epidemic.

  5. Management of obesity in children differs from that of adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoey, Hilary

    2014-11-01

    Obesity in childhood is a very common disorder with an increasing prevalence. It is one of the most serious public health challenges. The objectives of the present paper are to increase the awareness of the problem of obesity in childhood, its serious complications and the need for prevention. Overweight and obese children are likely to remain obese into adulthood and more likely to develop serious complications including health problems such as diabetes and CVD, as well as psychological and social challenges. Overweight and obesity are largely preventable. In adults it is difficult to reduce excessive weight gain once it has become established, thus children should be considered the priority population for intervention strategies and prevention. Nutrition, exercise, weight gain in infancy, genetic and environmental factors, all contribute to the aetiology. Prevention and treatment of obesity in childhood requires education and empowerment of families relating to diet and exercise, along with the regulation and control of food marketing and clear nutritional labelling. The eating and physical activity behaviour of a child is strongly influenced by environmental and social factors. Therefore treatment will have only limited success in an environment where adequate physical activity is inhibited and the consumption of high-energy food is stimulated. Government investment in a health promotion programme addressing the issue of obesity in the population as a whole, with particular emphasis on the prevention and management of obesity in childhood is vital. The family doctor and multidisciplinary team play an important role. Regular visits to the family doctor, including growth assessment, will help motivate the family to restrict energy intake and to increase exercise. Therefore the prevention of childhood obesity needs high priority.

  6. Childhood obesity treatment: targeting parents exclusively v. parents and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golan, Moria; Kaufman, Vered; Shahar, Danit R

    2006-05-01

    There is a consensus that interventions to prevent and treat childhood obesity should involve the family; however, the extent of the child's involvement has received little attention. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the relative efficacy of treating childhood obesity via a family-based health-centred intervention, targeting parents alone v. parents and obese children together. Thirty-two families with obese children of 6-11 years of age were randomised into groups, in which participants were provided for 6 months a comprehensive educational and behavioural programme for a healthy lifestyle. These groups differed in their main agent of change: parents-only v. the parents and the obese child. In both groups, parents were encouraged to foster authoritative parenting styles (parents are both firm and supportive; assume a leadership role in the environmental change with appropriate granting of child's autonomy). Only the intervention aimed at parents-only resulted in a significant reduction in the percentage overweight at the end of the programme (P=0.02) as well as at the 1-year follow-up meeting. The differences between groups at both times were significant (Pparents-only group. In both groups, the parents' weight status did not change. Regression analysis shows that the level of attendance in sessions explained 28 % of the variability in the children's weight status change, the treatment group explained another 10 %, and the improvement in the obesogenic load explained 11 % of the variability. These results suggest that omitting the obese child from active participation in the health-centred programme may be beneficial for weight loss and for the promotion of a healthy lifestyle among obese children.

  7. Metabolic Cost, Mechanical Work, and Efficiency during Normal Walking in Obese and Normal-Weight Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liang; Chen, Peijie; Zhuang, Jie; Zhang, Yanxin; Walt, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the influence of childhood obesity on energetic cost during normal walking and to determine if obese children choose a walking strategy optimizing their gait pattern. Method: Sixteen obese children with no functional abnormalities were matched by age and gender with 16 normal-weight children. All…

  8. Effects of Dietary Induced Weight Loss on Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction in Overweight and Obese Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Janneke C.; Hoogstrate, Mira; Duiverman, Eric J.; Thio, Boony J.

    2014-01-01

    RationalePrevious studies showed that obesity in asthmatic children is associated with more severe exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB), compared with non-obese asthmatic children. This study investigates the effect of weight loss on EIB in overweight and obese asthmatic children. MethodsIn th

  9. The mode of school transportation in pre-pubertal children does not influence the accrual of bone mineral or the gain in bone size - two year prospective data from the paediatric osteoporosis preventive (POP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlsson Magnus K

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Walking and cycling to school are one source of regular physical activity. The aim of this two years observational study in pre-pubertal children was to evaluate if walking and cycling to school was associated with higher total amount of physical activity and larger gain in bone mineral content (BMC and bone width than when going by car or bus. Methods 133 boys and 99 girls aged 7-9 years were recruited to the Malmö Prospective Paediatric Osteoporosis Prevention (POP study. BMC (g was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA in total body, lumbar spine (L2-L4 and femoral neck (FN at baseline and after 24 months. Bone width was measured in L2-L4 and FN. Skeletal changes in the 57 boys and 48 girls who consistently walked or cycled to school were compared with the 24 boys and 17 girls who consistently went by bus or car. All children remained in Tanner stage I. Level of everyday physical activity was estimated by accelerometers worn for four consecutive days and questionnaires. Comparisons were made by independent student's t-tests between means and Fisher's exact tests. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was used to adjust for group differences in age at baseline, duration of organized physical activity, annual changes in length and BMC or bone width if there were differences in these traits at baseline. Results After the adjustments, there were no differences in the annual changes in BMC or bone width when comparing girls or boys who walked or cycled to school with those who went by car or bus. Furthermore, there were no differences in the levels of everyday physical activity objectively measured by accelerometers and all children reached above the by the United Kingdom Expert Consensus Group recommended level of 60 minutes moderate to vigorous physical activity per day. Conclusion A physical active transportation to school for two years is in pre-pubertal children not associated with a higher accrual of BMC or bone width than

  10. The role of overweight and obesity in urinary tract infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahyar, Abolfazl; Ayazi, Parviz; Gholmohammadi, Parisa; Moshiri, Seyed Alireza; Oveisi, Sonia; Esmaeily, Shiva

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the relationship between overweight/obesity and UTI in children. A comparison was made, in terms of overweight and obesity, between 135 children with UTI (case group) and 135 healthy children (control group). UTI was diagnosed through urine culture. Dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scanning (DMSA) was also used to distinguish between lower UTI and acute pyelonephritis. Overweight and obesity were determined based on standard body mass index (BMI) curves. There were 12 (8.8%) overweight and 26 (19.2%) obese children in the case group. Four (3.0%) overweight and five (3.7%) obese children were found in the control group. There was a significant difference between the two groups regarding overweight and obesity frequencies. However, no such difference existed between children with cystitis and acute pyelonephritis. This study showed a significant relationship between overweight/obesity and UTI. Therefore, overweight and obesity may play a role in the pathogenesis of UTI in children.

  11. Salivary inflammatory markers and microbiome in normoglycemic lean and obese children compared to obese children with type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabharwal, Amarpeet; Tsompana, Maria; Berman, Harvey A.; Haase, Elaine M.; Miecznikowski, Jeffrey C.

    2017-01-01

    Background There is emerging evidence linking diabetes with periodontal disease. Diabetes is a well-recognized risk factor for periodontal disease. Conversely, pro-inflammatory molecules released by periodontally-diseased tissues may enter the circulation to induce insulin resistance. While this association has been demonstrated in adults, there is little information regarding periodontal status in obese children with and without type 2 diabetes (T2D). We hypothesized that children with T2D have higher rates of gingivitis, elevated salivary inflammatory markers, and an altered salivary microbiome compared to children without T2D. Methods Three pediatric cohorts ages 10–19 years were studied: lean (normal weight—C), obese (Ob), and obese with T2D (T2D). Each subject completed an oral health survey, received a clinical oral examination, and provided unstimulated saliva for measurement of inflammatory markers and microbiome analysis. Results The diabetes group was less likely to have had a dental visit within the last six months. Body mass index (BMI) Z-scores and waist circumference/height ratios were similar between Ob and T2D cohorts. The number of carious lesions and fillings were similar for all three groups. The gingival index was greater in the T2D group compared to the Ob and C groups. Although salivary microbial diversity was minimal between groups, a few differences in bacterial genus composition were noted. Conclusions Obese children with T2D show a trend toward poorer oral health compared to normal weight and obese children without T2D. This study characterizes the salivary microbiome of children with and without obesity and T2D. This study supports a modest link between T2D and periodontal inflammation in the pediatric population. PMID:28253297

  12. Pubertal assessment: targeted educational intervention for pediatric trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhar, Aditi; Nagarajan, Sairaman; Ravichandran, Yagnaram; Perez-Colon, Sheila

    2017-08-18

    Background Timely and periodic pubertal assessment in children is vital to identify puberty related disorders. Pediatricians need to have working knowledge of puberty time and tempo. Pediatric residency is an important platform to acquire physical examination skills including pubertal assessment. Objective An educational intervention for teaching pubertal assessment was piloted on pediatric residents at our institution. Methods The intervention comprised of interactive lecture series, ID badge size Tanner stage cards and Tanner posters placed in residents' continuity clinics. Pre-intervention, post-intervention and 3 months post-intervention surveys for participating trainees were administered to determine the effectiveness of the intervention. Attitudes, practices, knowledge scores, and barriers to Tanner staging conduct were analyzed. Results Forty-three residents participated in the intervention. Knowledge scores of PGY1 (5.95 ± 1.6 vs. 7.47 ± 1.4, p < 0.01) improved right after the intervention, as did self-reported clinical practices of all trainees 3 months post- intervention with regards to conducting external genital examination and performing pubertal assessment. Confidence levels of pediatric trainees in conducting pubertal assessment and comfort levels in assessing the need for endocrine referral based on abnormal Tanner staging improved after the intervention, although the effect was not statistically significant. Conclusion Our intervention is a worthwhile technique for teaching pubertal assessment to residents as it is simple to conduct, easily reproducible, provides baseline knowledge needed for recognition of normal pubertal development and puberty related conditions, and instills confidence in residents.

  13. Neurocognitive correlates of obesity and obesity-related behaviors in children and adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, J.; Matheson, BE.; Kaye, WH.; Boutelle, KN.

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity rates have risen dramatically over the past few decades. Although obesity has been linked to poorer neurocognitive functioning in adults, much less is known about this relationship in children and adolescents. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review to examine the relationship between obesity and obesity-related behaviors with neurocognitive functioning in youth. We reviewed articles from 1976 to 2013 using PsycInfo, PubMed, Medline and Google Scholar. Search terms included cognitive function, neurocognitive function/performance, executive function, impulsivity, self-regulation, effortful control, cognitive control, inhibition, delayed gratification, memory, attention, language, motor, visuo-spatial, academic achievement, obesity, overweight, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, adiposity and body fat. Articles were excluded if participants had health problems known to affect cognitive functioning, the study used imaging as the only outcome measure, they were non-peer-reviewed dissertations, theses, review papers, commentaries, or they were non-English articles. Sixty-seven studies met inclusion criteria for this review. Overall, we found data that support a negative relationship between obesity and various aspects of neurocognitive functioning, such as executive functioning, attention, visuo-spatial performance, and motor skill. The existing literature is mixed on the effects among obesity, general cognitive functioning, language, learning, memory, and academic achievement. Executive dysfunction is associated with obesity-related behaviors, such as increased intake, disinhibited eating, and less physical activity. Physical activity is positively linked with motor skill. More longitudinal research is needed to determine the directionality of such relationships, to point towards crucial intervention time periods in the development of children, and to inform effective treatment programs. PMID:23913029

  14. [Bariatric surgery in extremely obese children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blüher, S; Till, H; Kiess, W

    2011-05-01

    The management of childhood obesity is a clinical dilemma. Validated and evidence-based intervention programs are still missing for this age group, and pediatricians increasingly see children with morbid obesity and with obesity-related comorbidities. For those extremely obese patients who failed to respond to the classical therapeutic approaches, bariatric surgery is a therapeutic option. Although available data for bariatric surgery in childhood and adolescence is limited to date, significant postoperative reduction in BMI and an evident improvement of preoperatively existing metabolic and cardiovascular comorbidities and psychosocial well-being have been reported. The indication for bariatric surgery in adolescents follows strict criteria and should be proposed within an interdisciplinary team in specialized centers, including a clinical ethics committee. This review discusses the present guidelines for bariatric surgery in childhood and adolescence as well as available follow-up data for both adults and pediatric patients.

  15. Obesity, overweight, and eating problems in children with incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Catharina; Equit, Monika; Niemczyk, Justine; von Gontard, Alexander

    2015-08-01

    The aim was to analyze the prevalence of eating problems and specific associations between overweight, obesity, and eating behavior in children with incontinence. Forty-three consecutively presented children with incontinence, diagnosed to International Children's Continence Society standards, and 44 matched continent controls were examined prospectively. All children received a physical examination, sonography, and a one-dimensional intelligence test. Child psychopathology was measured with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/4-18). Eating problems were assessed with the German version of the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire for Children (DEBQ-C) and a 40-item-parental questionnaire referring to atypical eating problems. Of the 43 children with incontinence, 23.3% had nocturnal enuresis (NE) only, 37.2% had any form of daytime urinary incontinence (DUI) (isolated or combined with NE) and 39.5% had fecal incontinence (FI) (isolated or combined with NE and/or DUI). Incontinent children showed significantly more CBCL externalizing symptoms (35.7% vs. 6.8%) and total problems (46.3% vs. 6.8%) in the clinical range (>90th percentile), as well as significantly lower mean IQ (105.5 vs. 120.6) than continent controls. Of the children with incontinence, 16.9% were affected by obesity (≥95th body mass index [BMI] percentile) compared with none of the continent controls. Especially in children with FI, the rate of obesity was significantly increased (23.5%). In addition, 46.5% of incontinent children, but none of the controls, had constipation. Again, children with FI (82.4%) had the highest rate of constipation (>DUI: 25% > NE only: 20%). "Food refusal" (FR) and "intense fear of gaining weight" (GW), but not other eating problems, were significantly more common among incontinent children (FR mean score 7.3; GW mean score 1.4) than in controls (FR mean score 5.6; GW mean score 0.7). After controlling for BMI percentiles, FR still was significantly higher in

  16. Sleep and the epidemic of obesity in children and adults

    OpenAIRE

    Van Cauter, Eve; Knutson, Kristen L.

    2008-01-01

    Sleep is an important modulator of neuroendocrine function and glucose metabolism in children as well as in adults. In recent years, sleep curtailment has become a hallmark of modern society with both children and adults having shorter bedtimes than a few decades ago. This trend for shorter sleep duration has developed over the same time period as the dramatic increase in the prevalence of obesity. There is rapidly accumulating evidence from both laboratory and epidemiological studies to indi...

  17. Obesity status trajectory groups among elementary school children

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Tzu-An; Baranowski, Tom; Jennette P. Moreno; O’Connor, Teresia M; Hughes, Sheryl O; Baranowski, Janice; Woehler, Deborah; Kimbro, Rachel T.; Johnston, Craig A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about patterns in the transition from healthy weight to overweight or obesity during the elementary school years. This study examined whether there were distinct body mass index (BMI) trajectory groups among elementary school children, and predictors of trajectory group membership. Methods This is a secondary analysis of 1651 elementary school children with complete biannual longitudinal data from kindergarten to the beginning of 5th grade. Heights and weights were ...

  18. Cutaneous manifestations in children with diabetes mellitus and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baselga Torres, E; Torres-Pradilla, M

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and diabetes are chronic diseases that affect people all over the world, and their incidence is increasing in both children and adults. Clinically, they affect a number of organs, including the skin. The cutaneous manifestations caused or aggravated by obesity and diabetes are varied and usually bear some relation to the time that has elapsed since the onset of the disease. They include soft fibromas, acanthosis nigricans, striae, xerosis, keratosis pilaris, plantar hyperkeratosis, fungal and bacterial skin infections, granuloma annulare, necrobiosis lipoidica, psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis. In this review article we present the skin changes found in children with diabetes mellitus and obesity and related syndromes and highlight the importance of the skin as a tool for establishing clinical suspicion and early diagnosis of systemic disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  19. Externality and locus of control in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbitsky, J R; White, D R

    1981-03-01

    Fifty-nine obese and normal-weight children, aged 8-12 years were compared on two dimensions of "externality," previously examined in obese adults. Significant sex difference indicated that boys generally ate more than girls and held more internal locus of control expectancies. However, obese and normal-weight children were not differentiated by their performance on either a food-related or three nonfood-related measures of external-cue responsiveness, nor by their locus of control expectancies. Furthermore, the various measures were neither strongly nor consistently intercorrelated, providing little support for the notion of a single underlying dimension of "externality." The contribution of physiological, sensory, cognitive-motivational, and sociocultural parameters to the regulation of eating behavior was discussed.

  20. [Narcolepsy in sleepy obese children. Two case reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rives-Lange, C; Karsenty, A; Chantereau, H; Oderda, L; Dubern, B; Lecendreux, M; Tounian, P

    2016-06-01

    Narcolepsy is a disabling disorder, characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, irresistible sleep attacks, and partial or complete cataplexy. Many cases of obesity and precocious puberty have been reported in narcoleptic children, suggesting that the deficiency of hypocretin in narcolepsy could also be implicated in appetite stimulation. We report the observations of two young girls, who were referred for obesity and who developed narcolepsy accompanied by an abrupt weight gain. In both cases, specific drugs promoted wakefulness and overweight stabilization. Narcolepsy has to be suspected in sleepy obese children and not misdiagnosed as obstructive apnea. A nocturnal polysomnography with multiple sleep latency tests should be performed to confirm the diagnosis and begin specific treatment that is effective for sleep disorders and weight gain. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  1. Development of a Dutch intervention for obese young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, van E.; Bouwman, L.I.; Koelen, M.A.; Lutt, M.A.J.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article is to provide insight in the five-step development process of the best evidence, best practice intervention for obese young children ‘AanTafel!’. A set of requirements for intervention development was developed to guide the data inquiry: the use of theory, influencing f

  2. Applying Motivational Interviewing to Counselling Overweight and Obese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhe Soderlund, Lena; Nordqvist, Cecilia; Angbratt, Marianne; Nilsen, Per

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify barriers and facilitators to nurses' application of motivational interviewing (MI) to counselling overweight and obese children aged 5 and 7 years, accompanied by their parents. Ten welfare centre and school health service nurses trained and practiced MI for 6 months, then participated in focus group…

  3. Behavioral Assessment of Physical Activity in Obese Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustyi, Kristin M.; Normand, Matthew P.; Larson, Tracy A.

    2011-01-01

    We measured changes in physical activity in 2 obese preschool children when a package intervention was evaluated in a reversal design. Physical activity was measured via direct observation and pedometers. Although the intervention produced only modest increases in activity, the results provide preliminary concurrent validation for the dependent…

  4. Obesity status trajectory groups among elementary school children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about patterns in the transition from healthy weight to overweight or obesity during the elementary school years. This study examined whether there were distinct body mass index (BMI) trajectory groups among elementary school children, and predictors of trajectory group membership. T...

  5. Applying Motivational Interviewing to Counselling Overweight and Obese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhe Soderlund, Lena; Nordqvist, Cecilia; Angbratt, Marianne; Nilsen, Per

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify barriers and facilitators to nurses' application of motivational interviewing (MI) to counselling overweight and obese children aged 5 and 7 years, accompanied by their parents. Ten welfare centre and school health service nurses trained and practiced MI for 6 months, then participated in focus group…

  6. Validity of self-assessment of pubertal maturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anna; Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Tefre de Renzy-Martin, Katrine;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Studies of adolescents often use self-assessment of pubertal maturation, the reliability of which has shown conflicting results. We aimed to examine the reliability of child and parent assessments of healthy boys and girls. METHODS: A total of 898 children (418 girls, 480...

  7. Prevention of Malnutrition in Children, Slimming Yesterday, Obesity Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sharafi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The future of any nation depends on how its children's care, According to their likely future health needs of the adult population model for healthy living and wealth has increased. One of the most pressing health diet. This study is done to aimed investigate the factors influencing malnutrition in children in the past for weight loss and weight gain can be seen today.   Methods and Methods: Related articles referring to achieve in the field of databases to Google scholar, Pub Med, proquest, SID, Magiran, Springer Link,… and studies until 2013 with the key words malnutrition, child, obesity and examine their English.   Results: In the past, malnutrition was associated with weight loss, but for now he has to weight gain and obesity. Childhood obesity is emerging as a phenomenon caused health problems in childhood and adolescence, including hyperlipidemia, obstructive sleep apnea, early puberty, diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular. In addition to the health problems of obese children will benefit from the social and psychological problems such as anxiety, fewer friends, loss of confidence, lower education, and fewer chances for marriage.... Overweight in children can be caused by poor eating habits and low activity, which is affected by the parents and the family environment.   Conclusions: Since the patterns learned in childhood affect all life on lifestyle, understand the causes of obesity and to eliminate or reduce them and reinforce the correct patterns of feeding Through education and the incidence is somewhat reduced, especially for parents to deal with this phenomenon.   Keywords: Child,Malnutrition, Obesity    

  8. Cardiac autonomic dysfunction in obese normotensive children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Magalhães G. Freitas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:To test the hypothesis that obese normotensive children and adolescents present impaired cardiac autonomic control compared to non-obese normotensive ones.METHODS:For this cross-sectional study, 66 children and adolescents were divided into the following groups: Obese (n=31, 12±3 years old and Non-Obese (n=35, 13±3 years old. Obesity was defined as body mass index greater than the 95thpercentile for age and gender. Blood pressure was measured by oscillometric method after 15 minutes of rest in supine position. The heart rate was continuously registered during ten minutes in the supine position with spontaneous breathing. The cardiac autonomic control was assessed by heart rate variability, which was calculated from the five-minute minor variance of the signal. The derivations were the index that indicates the proportion of the number of times in which normal adjacent R-R intervals present differences >50 miliseconds (pNN50, for the time domain, and, for the spectral analysis, low (LF and high frequency (HF bands, besides the low and high frequencies ratio (LF/HF. The results were expressed as mean±standard deviation and compared by Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney's U-test.RESULTS: Systolic blood pressure (116±14 versus 114±13mmHg, p=0.693 and diastolic blood pressure (59±8 versus 60±11mmHg, p=0.458 were similar between the Obese and Non-Obese groups. The pNN50 index (29±21 versus 43±23, p=0.015 and HF band (54±20 versus 64±14 normalized units - n.u., p=0.023 were lower in the Obese Group. The LF band (46±20 versus 36±14 n.u., p=0.023 and LF/HF ratio (1.3±1.6 versus 0.7±0.4, p=0.044 were higher in Obese Group.CONCLUSIONS: Obese normotensive children and adolescents present impairment of cardiac autonomic control.

  9. Asthma, allergy, and obesity: Examining the relationship among Nevada children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Jennifer A; Moonie, Sheniz; Olsen-Wilson, Kimberly; Hogan, Mary Beth

    2017-08-01

    The majority of pediatric asthma is atopic, but whether pediatric obese asthma is atopic is indeterminate in the literature. In Nevada, children become sensitized to aeroallergens, a risk factor for asthma, at young ages. Additionally, Nevada children have high rates of obesity. Our objective is to determine whether elevated body mass index (BMI) is associated with asthma severity, allergen sensitization, and polysensitization. Medical records from a pediatric allergy clinic provided BMI percentile, physician-diagnosed asthma severity, skin prick test data, and sociodemographics such as age, race, sex, and insurance status from asthmatic patients. Descriptive statistics and binary and multinomial logistic regression were conducted. In this population (N = 125) aged 1-16, 61% were male, 65% were white, and 74% had private health insurance. Sixty-five percent of children were under/healthy weight and 29% were overweight/obese. Asthma symptoms were moderate in 66% of the population, and severe in 18%. Nearly 85% of this population was atopic, and 82% were polysensitized. Sensitization and polysensitization occurred in all weight categories. Asthma severity and elevated BMI were not associated significantly. Overweight/obese children (≥85(th) percentile) had lower odds of allergen sensitization (adjusted odds ratio 0.26, 95% CI = 0.85-0.78, p = 0.016) and polysensitization (adjusted odds ratio 0.30, 95% CI = 0.11-0.85, p = 0.023) than healthy weight children (children did show allergen sensitization, those who were overweight had lower odds of allergen sensitization and lower odds of polysensitization, as compared to normal weight asthmatic children. Elevated BMI was not a significant predictor of asthma severity.

  10. Analysis of fatty liver by CT values in obese children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naganuma, Yoshihiro; Tomizawa, Shuichi; Ikarashi, Kozo; Tohyama, Jun; Ozawa, Kanzi [Niigata Hospital National Sanatorium, Kashiwazaki (Japan); Uchiyama, Makoto

    1996-06-01

    Liver attenuation values were measured by CT in 97 (183 times) obese children with ages 3 to 18 years and a diagnosis of fatty liver was made in 42 subjects. Liver/spleen ration from CT measurements showed a significant negative correlation with the percentage of standard body weight, and with the systolic pressure. In children with fatty liver, systolic pressure and serum GOT, GPT, ChE, TC, TG, ApoB and insulin were significantly higher than those in children without fatty liver. After a low-calorie dietary regimen and exercise therapy, the liver/spleen ratio and GPT improved in all children. The diagnosis of fatty infiltration (fatty liver) was made with a liver/spleen ratio of less than 1.0 as determined by the number of measurements taken, a reasonable criterion for the diagnosis of fatty liver by CT in children. There were some children with elevated GPT who showed normal CT findings. This may be caused by overnutrition which was associated with fatty infiltration, since GPT decreased in all these children after treatment. The present study suggests that CT is a useful procedure in diagnosing fatty liver, and in monitoring and determining efficacy of treatment in obese children. (author)

  11. The lipid profile in obese asthmatic children compared to non-obese asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, L-J; Huang, C-S; Liu, Y-C; Su, Y-M; Wan, K-S

    2016-01-01

    A relationship between asthma and obesity has been documented in children and adolescents. An alternate day calorie restriction diet has been reported to improve asthma symptoms by decreasing levels of serum cholesterol and triglycerides, reducing markers of oxidative stress and increasing levels of the antioxidant uric acid. Therefore, to investigate the lipid profile in asthmatic children may be important in asthma control treatment. One hundred and sixty newly diagnosed persistent asthmatic children were selected to participate in the study. They were divided into four groups based on their body mass index (BMI): Group I normal weight (BMI=20-24.9kg/m(2), n=30); Group II under-weight (BMI30kg/m(2), n=25). Fasting blood sugar, fasting insulin, and HbA1c were measured to exclude the possibility of pre-diabetes. Lipid profile measurements included total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), apo-A1, apo-B and triglycerides. There were no significant differences in the levels of apo-A1, apo-B, triglycerides, cholesterol and LDL in all four groups. Only the level of HDL was higher in GIV>GIII>GII>GI (75.84±13.95, 68.56±15.28, 64.17±13.93, 63.17±14.34mg/dl, respectively). There were no cases of pre-diabetes in any of the four groups. Hypercholesterolaemia and hypertriglyceridaemia were not found in any of the persistent asthmatic children, and thus they are not high risk factors for asthma. Similarly, there were no differences in apo-A1 and apo-B between any of the BMI groups. No differences were found in LDL levels, however HDL levels were increased in all four groups, indicating that allergic sensitisation may have occurred. Controlling body weight and restricting calorie intake may be as important as appropriate pharmacological management in controlling asthma. Copyright © 2016 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. [Life style of children and obesity in a population of 5-year-old children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locard, E; Mamelle, N; Munoz, F; Miginiac, M; Billette, A; Rey, S

    1992-01-01

    The increasing level of childhood obesity has prompted some research into the early risk factors likely to lead to preventive measures. A case-control study was conducted of a five year-old population in the Rhône and Isère administrative "départements" of France during the children's first visit to primary school, with the participation of 327 obese children and 704 controls. Anthropometric data on the children since birth, together with data on their lifestyles, were collected in interviews with parents. "Family obesity" and "obesity at birth" were found to be closely related to the child's obesity at five years old (adjusted OR = 2.7 and 2.1 respectively). Of the environmental factors, the hypothesis tested paid specific attention to television viewing, snacks between meals and lack of sleep. These three variables were all found to be risk factors of obesity at five years old. However after allowing for parental obesity, the only remaining significant risk factor for obesity at five was lack of sleep (adjusted OR = 1.4). The pathogenic assumptions raised by these results are discussed.

  13. Elite athletes and pubertal delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapczuk, Karina

    2017-10-01

    Intensive physical training and participation in competitive sports during childhood and early adolescence may affect athletes' pubertal development. On the other hand, pubertal timing, early or late, may impact on an athlete selection for a particular sport. Genetic predisposition, training load, nutritional status and psychological stress determine athletes' pubertal timing. Athletes that practice esthetic sports, especially gymnasts, are predisposed to a delay in pubertal development. The growing evidence indicates that energy deficiency, not a systemic training per se, plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of functional hypothalamic hypogonadism in female athletes. Metabolic and psychologic stress activate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and suppress hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Female athletes who do not begin secondary sexual development by the age of 14 or menstruation by the age of 16 warrant a comprehensive evaluation and a targeted treatment. Somatic growth and sexual maturation of elite female athletes are largely sport-specific since each sport favors a particular somatotype and requires a specific training. Chronic negative energy balance resulting from a systemic physical training and inadequate energy intake may delay pubertal development in elite athletes. Youth athletes, especially those engaged in competitive sports that emphasize prepubertal or lean appearance, are at risk of developing relative energy deficiency in sport associated with disordered eating or eating disorders. Management strategies should address the complex conditions underlying functional hypothalamic hypogonadism.

  14. CD4(+), CD25(+), FOXP3 (+) T Regulatory Cell Levels in Obese, Asthmatic, Asthmatic Obese, and Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donma, Metin; Karasu, Erkut; Ozdilek, Burcu; Turgut, Burhan; Topcu, Birol; Nalbantoglu, Burcin; Donma, Orkide

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this prospective case control study is to determine CD4(+), CD25(+), and FoxP3(+) T regulatory cells (Tregs) and T helper cells (Ths) in obese, asthmatic, asthmatic obese, and healthy children. Obese (n = 40), asthmatic (n = 40), asthmatic obese (n = 40), and healthy children (n = 40) were included in this study. Blood samples collected from children were marked with CD4, CD25, ve Foxp3 in order to detect Tregs and Ths by flow cytometric method. Statistical analyses were performed. p ≤ 0.05 was chosen as meaningful threshold. Tregs exhibiting anti-inflammatory nature were significantly lower in obese (0.16 %; p ≤ 0.001), asthmatic (0.25 %; p ≤ 0.01), and asthmatic obese (0.29 %; p ≤ 0.05) groups than control group (0.38 %). Ths were counted higher in asthma group than control (p ≤ 0.01) and obese (p ≤ 0.001) groups. T cell immunity plays important roles in chronic inflammatory diseases such as obesity and asthma pathogeneses. Decreased numbers of Tregs found in obese, asthmatic, and asthmatic obese children might represent a challenge of these cells.

  15. Antibiotic administration and the development of obesity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principi, Nicola; Esposito, Susanna

    2016-03-01

    Antibiotics are the most common prescription drugs administered at the paediatric age, however their administration can cause unwanted problems. Among these issues, antibiotic-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis has appeared as an emerging issue and has been associated with obesity. This problem is particularly relevant in children because they are frequently treated with antibiotics. Early development of obesity increases the risk of adult obesity, which is associated with the emergence of very severe clinical problems. Dysbiosis induced in the first periods of life can have the most relevant practical consequences because a decrease in the number of microbes and their substitution with other microbes dramatically modifies the development of the immune system as well as glucose and lipid metabolism. Unfortunately, not all of the mechanisms that could explain the relationship between gut microbiota modification and the development of obesity have been defined. Consequently, no definitive therapeutic approach has been elucidated. Probiotics and prebiotics could play a role in treating microbial dysbiosis because the addition of specific bacterial strains has been associated with normal weight and has been demonstrated to be useful in clinical conditions other than obesity that are caused by microbiota disruption. Considering that antibiotics are commonly prescribed and that obesity is increasing in paediatric patients, further studies specifically designed to evaluate how to disrupt the relationship between antibiotics and dysbiosis are urgently needed. Presently, paediatricians have to consider dysbiosis to be a new and serious reason for the judicious use of antibiotics in clinical practice.

  16. Dietary Habits and Cardiometabolic Health in Obese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Gilardini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevalence rates of cardiometabolic risk factors vary largely among overweight children. This study investigated the relationships between dietary habits and cardiometabolic health among obese children living in a city of Northern Italy. Methods: Dietary habits were collected in 448 obese subjects aged 6-18 years, attending an obesity outpatient center in Milan. Anthropometry, blood pressure (BP, lipids, fasting and post-load glucose, and insulin were measured. Physical activity was assessed in adolescents using a questionnaire. Results: Frequency of glucose intolerance, hypertension and dyslipidemia was 0.7%, 13% and 27.2%, respectively. Plausible reporters consumed more animal protein and sodium and less legumes than recommended in nutritional recommendations and adequate amounts of fiber mainly derived from whole grains. Subjects skipping breakfast had unhealthy diets and greater body fatness. After adjustment for confounders, waist/height and fasting glucose were associated with sodium intake (r =0.149 and r = 0.142, respectively; p Conclusions: The cardiometabolic health of obese children improves with vegetable protein and whole grain intake, whereas dysglycemia and adiposity increase with sodium intake.

  17. Sleep and the epidemic of obesity in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cauter, Eve; Knutson, Kristen L

    2008-12-01

    Sleep is an important modulator of neuroendocrine function and glucose metabolism in children as well as in adults. In recent years, sleep curtailment has become a hallmark of modern society with both children and adults having shorter bedtimes than a few decades ago. This trend for shorter sleep duration has developed over the same time period as the dramatic increase in the prevalence of obesity. There is rapidly accumulating evidence from both laboratory and epidemiological studies to indicate that chronic partial sleep loss may increase the risk of obesity and weight gain. The present article reviews laboratory evidence indicating that sleep curtailment in young adults results in a constellation of metabolic and endocrine alterations, including decreased glucose tolerance, decreased insulin sensitivity, elevated sympathovagal balance, increased evening concentrations of cortisol, increased levels of ghrelin, decreased levels of leptin, and increased hunger and appetite. We also review cross-sectional epidemiological studies associating short sleep with increased body mass index and prospective epidemiological studies that have shown an increased risk of weight gain and obesity in children and young adults who are short sleepers. Altogether, the evidence points to a possible role of decreased sleep duration in the current epidemic of obesity.

  18. Obesity in British children with and without intellectual disability:cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Emerson, Eric Broughton; Robertson, Janet Margaret; Baines, Susannah May Johnston; Hatton, Christopher Rowan

    2016-01-01

    Background Reducing the prevalence of and inequities in the distribution of child obesity will require developing interventions that are sensitive to the situation of ‘high risk’ groups of children. Children with intellectual disability appear to be one such group. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of obesity in children with and without intellectual disability in a longitudinal representative sample of British children and identify risk factors associated with obesity at age 11. Methods In...

  19. Obesity in British children with and without intellectual disability:cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Emerson, Eric Broughton; Robertson, Janet Margaret; Baines, Susannah May Johnston; Hatton, Christopher Rowan

    2016-01-01

    Background Reducing the prevalence of and inequities in the distribution of child obesity will require developing interventions that are sensitive to the situation of ‘high risk’ groups of children. Children with intellectual disability appear to be one such group. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of obesity in children with and without intellectual disability in a longitudinal representative sample of British children and identify risk factors associated with obesity at age 11. Methods In...

  20. Relationship between Obesity Indices and Pulmonary Function Parameters in Obese Thai Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongkiattikul, Lalida; Sritippayawan, Suchada; Chomtho, Sirinuch; Deerojanawong, Jitladda; Prapphal, Nuanchan

    2015-12-01

    To determine the correlation between various obesity indices and pulmonary function parameters in obese Thai children and adolescents. Obese children and adolescents aged from 8 to 18 y and diagnosed under the criteria of International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) were enrolled. Anthropometric and body composition measurements (bioelectrical impedance analysis) of all eligible participants were recorded. Pulmonary function studies (spirometry and body plethysmography) were also performed on the same day. Forty-five children and adolescents [84 % boys; mean age 11.9 ± 2.4 y; mean BMI 31.8 ± 5.1 kg/m(2); and, mean body mass index (BMI) z-score 3.2 ± 0.5] were studied. Mean body fat percentage, mean fat mass index (FMI), mean fat free mass index, and mean truncal fat percentage were 47.4 ± 10.2 %, 15.2 ± 5.2 kg/m(2), 16.3 ± 3.1 kg/m(2), and 47.7 ± 11.5 %, respectively. Abnormal lung functions were found in 73.2 % of subjects; the most common was decreased functional residual capacity (FRC) (29 cases; 64.4 %). There was a negative correlation between FRC and BMI z-score (r = -0.32; p 0.03), waist-height ratio (r = -0.32; p 0.02), body fat percentage (r = -0.32; p 0.03), FMI (r = -0.36; p 0.02), and truncal fat percentage (r = -0.32; p 0.04). Obese individuals who had FMI > 17 kg/m(2) were 5.7 times more likely to have decreased FRC than those who had lower FMI (95 % CI 1.1-29.7; p 0.016). Decreased FRC was the most common pulmonary function abnormality in obese children and adolescents. BMI z-score, waist-height ratio, body fat percentage, FMI, and truncal fat percentage were all negatively correlated with FRC. FMI had the highest negative correlation. Obese individuals with FMI > 17 kg/m(2) had a 5.7 times increased risk of low FRC. Appropriate planning for respiratory care and follow-up may be required in this population.

  1. Associations of Six Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Obesity-Related Genes With BMI and Risk of Obesity in Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lijun; Xi, Bo; Zhang, Meixian; Shen, Yue; Zhao, Xiaoyuan; Cheng, Hong; Hou, Dongqing; Sun, Dandan; Ott, Jurg; Wang, Xingyu; Mi, Jie

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Childhood obesity strongly predisposes to some adult diseases. Recently, genome-wide association (GWA) studies in Caucasians identified multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with BMI and obesity. The associations of those SNPs with BMI and obesity among other ethnicities are not fully described, especially in children. Among those previously identified SNPs, we selected six (rs7138803, rs1805081, rs6499640, rs17782313, rs6265, and rs10938397, in or near obesity-related genes FAIM2, NPC1, FTO, MC4R, BDNF, and GNPDA2, respectively) because of the relatively high minor allele frequencies in Chinese individuals and tested the associations of the SNPs with BMI and obesity in Chinese children. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We investigated the associations of these SNPs with BMI and obesity in school-aged children. A total of 3,503 children participated in the study, including 1,229 obese, 655 overweight, and 1,619 normal-weight children (diagnosed by the Chinese age- and sex-specific BMI cutoffs). RESULTS After age and sex adjustment and correction for multiple testing, the SNPs rs17782313, rs6265, and rs10938397 were associated with BMI (P = 1.0 × 10−5, 0.038, and 0.00093, respectively) and also obesity (P = 5.0 × 10−6, 0.043, and 0.00085, respectively) in the Chinese children. The SNPs rs17782313 and rs10938397 were also significantly associated with waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, and fat mass percentage. CONCLUSIONS Results of this study support obesity-related genes in adults as important genes for BMI variation in children and suggest that some SNPs identified by GWA studies in Caucasians also confer risk for obesity in Chinese children. PMID:20843981

  2. [Effects of a comprehensive intervention program on simple obesity of children in kindergarten].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yi-feng; Wang, Wen-yuan; Fu, Ping; Sun, Yun; Yu, Shuang-yu; Chen, Ru; Wang, Yu-xia

    2004-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore a comprehensive management program for the obese children in kindergarten. The program should be scientific, rational, suitable for kindergarten, and easy to apply. Child care workers, parents, and child health care doctors participated in the program to help obese children establish a scientific life style through their daily life, to control their weight and to maintain their physical and mental health. The theories of behavior science, nutriology and kinematics were applied to make the weight control of obese children in kindergarten quantified and relatively standardized. Children were divided into three groups, intervened obese children, non-intervened obese children and normal children. Data such as weight, height, and body mass index (BMI) were observed to assess the effect of weight control and define whether it affects the linear gain of children's height. The recovery rate of intervened obese group, non-intervened group was 62.5% and 5.3%, respectively. The general effective rate was 91.7% and 15.8%, respectively. The weight gain of intervened group was 4.15 kg lower than that of non-intervened group. The BMI of intervened group significantly decreased by 2.9 as compared to the non-intervened group. The height gain of intervened group was similar to that of normal group. Parents and health care workers' realization of children obesity and their corresponding actions, the behaviors of obese children at home and in kindergarten were changed toward the direction beneficial to weight control. The implementation of the comprehensive intervention program for obesity in children, which involved obese children, child care worker, parents, and child care doctors alleviated the obesity level of those obese children without affecting their normal height gain. The program was safe and effective. Through the comprehensive intervention, the obese children could establish good habits during the sensitive period.

  3. School-Based Obesity Prevention Intervention in Chilean Children: Effective in Controlling, but not Reducing Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Kain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of a 12-month multicomponent obesity prevention intervention. Setting. 9 elementary schools in Santiago, Chile. Subjects. 6–8 y old low-income children (N=1474. Design. Randomized controlled study; 5 intervention/4 control schools. We trained teachers to deliver nutrition contents and improve the quality of PE classes. We determined % healthy snacks brought from home, children’s nutrition knowledge, nutritional status, duration of PE classes, and % time in moderate/vigorous activity (MVA. Effectiveness was determined by comparing Δ BMI Z between intervention and control children using PROCMIXED. Results. % obesity increased in boys from both types of schools and in girls from control schools, while decreasing in girls from intervention schools (all nonsignificant. % class time in MVA declined (24.5–16.2 while remaining unchanged (24.8–23.7% in classes conducted by untrained and trained teachers, respectively. In boys, BMI Z declined (1.33–1.24 and increased (1.22–1.35 in intervention and control schools, respectively. In girls, BMI Z remained unchanged in intervention schools, while increasing significantly in control schools (0.91–1.06, P=0.024. Interaction group * time was significant for boys (P<0.0001 and girls (P=0.004. Conclusions. This intervention was effective in controlling obesity, but not preventing it. Even though impact was small, results showed that when no intervention is implemented, obesity increases.

  4. Dioxin Exposure and Age of Pubertal Onset among Russian Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mary M.; Williams, Paige L.; Sergeyev, Oleg; Burns, Jane S.; Patterson, Donald G.; Turner, Wayman E.; Needham, Larry L.; Altshul, Larisa; Revich, Boris; Hauser, Russ

    2011-01-01

    Background: Animal data demonstrate associations of dioxin, furan, and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposures with altered male gonadal maturation. It is unclear whether these associations apply to human populations. Objectives: We investigated the association of dioxins, furans, PCBs, and corresponding toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentrations with pubertal onset among boys in a dioxin-contaminated region. Methods: Between 2003 and 2005, 499 boys 8–9 years of age were enrolled in a longitudinal study in Chapaevsk, Russia. Pubertal onset [stage 2 or higher for genitalia (G2+) or testicular volume (TV) > 3 mL] was assessed annually between ages 8 and 12 years. Serum levels at enrollment were analyzed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. We used Cox proportional hazards models to assess age at pubertal onset as a function of exposure adjusted for potential confounders. We conducted sensitivity analyses excluding boys with pubertal onset at enrollment. Results: The median (range) total serum TEQ concentration was 21 (4–175) pg/g lipid, approximately three times higher than values in European children. At enrollment, boys were generally healthy and normal weight (mean body mass index, 15.9 kg/m2), with 30% having entered puberty by G2+ and 14% by TV criteria. Higher dioxin TEQs were associated with later pubertal onset by TV (hazard ratio = 0.68, 95% confidence interval, 0.49–0.95 for the highest compared with the lowest quartile). Similar associations were observed for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and dioxin concentrations for TV but not G2+. Results were robust to sensitivity analyses. Conclusions: Findings support an association of higher peripubertal serum dioxin TEQs and concentrations with later male pubertal onset reflected in delayed testicular maturation. PMID:21527364

  5. Children's perception on obesity and quality of life: a Mexican survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rendón-Macías, Mario-Enrique; Rosas-Vargas, Haydeé; Villasís-Keever, Miguel-Ángel; Pérez-García, Celia

    2014-01-01

    .... With the aim to evaluate scholar children perception of obesity as a significant factor on the quality of life, we developed and validated the "Obesity impact on the quality of life perception-questionnaire" (ObI-Q...

  6. An attempt to reduce negative stereotyping of obesity in children by changing controllability beliefs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anesbury, T; Tiggemann, M

    2000-01-01

    .... The study found that the intervention was successful in reducing the amount of controllability that children assigned to obesity, but was not successful in reducing negative stereotyping of the obese...

  7. [Prevalence of obesity in school children in Ivory Coast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramoh, K E; N'goran, Y N K; Aké-Traboulsi, E; Boka, B C; Harding, D E; Koffi, D B J; Koffi, F; Guikahue, M K

    2012-06-01

    According to the World Health Organization, an increased prevalence of hypertension in children is observed since several years due to an epidemic of childhood obesity. What is the extent of this epidemic in our African context? We conducted a prospective descriptive study of pupils encountered in primary and secondary schools of the district of Abidjan from May 3 to June 1st 2010. A sample of 2038 pupils aged 6 to 18 years was randomly selected. Overweight in pupils was assessed by body mass index (BMI). There were 1182 girls (58%) and 856 boys (42%) whose average age was 12.7±3.6 years. The average weight was 42.6kg±16 (range 14.6 to 106.2kg), the average size was 1.48m±0.19 (range 1 to 1.95m). BMI was 17.2kg/m(2)±3.7 (range 14.6-35.7). The prevalence of obesity was of 5%. In addition, 4% of the students were overweight, 39% extremely thin, 25% thin and 27% normal. Obesity was more common in girls (6.8%) than boys (1.8%). The prevalence of obesity in hypertensives was 16%. BMI influenced the systolic and diastolic blood pressure in both sexes (PIvory Coast where wealthness is far from generalized. A well-organized management of childhood obesity is necessary to avoid complications such as hypertension. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Hispanic parents of overweight and obese children and their outcome expectations for children's television viewing: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to explore parental outcome expectations (OE) regarding children's television (TV) viewing among parents of overweight or obese children. We conducted a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews with 20 parents of 5- to 8-year-old overweight or obese children. We found tha...

  9. Living with childhood obesity: the experience of children enrolled in a multidisciplinary monitoring program

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Veridiana Zamparoni Victorino; Larissa Gramazio Soares; Sonia Silva Marcon; Ieda Harumi Higarashi

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to understand the perceptions of obesity from the perspective of obese children enrolled in a multidisciplinary monitoring program. Descriptive exploratory study of qualitative nature. Data collection occurred in December 2013, along with eight children accompanied by a child and adolescent obesity group in a municipality in northwestern Paraná, Brazil, through semi-structured interviews. Data were submitted to content analysis, from which four categories emerged: “Obesity in...

  10. Obesity in children with Down syndrome: background and recommendations for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Julie; Ryan-Krause, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Children with Down syndrome have a higher risk for developing obesity. The primary care provider can assist the family in preventing or managing obesity by recognizing the physiological and behavioral factors that place children and adolescents with Down syndrome at increased risk to become obese, and establishing a screening and management plan early to prevent or treat excess weight gain. By using adapted strategies, the negative physiological and psychological outcomes associated with obesity may be lessened or avoided in this specific population.

  11. Prevalence of Obesity, Overweight and Underweight among Elementary School Children in Southern Iran, 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Elham Ahmadi; Ali R. Tehrani; Akbar Ahmadi

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: In recent years obesity has become epidemic in children and adolescents and was one of the main problems in developed and developing countries. Considering the importance of obesity complications for the health state of society and its increasing rate, careful evaluation, monitoring and follow up of obesity in children and adolescents was of a great importance. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of obesity, overweight and underweight in elementary ...

  12. Suboptimal Clinical Documentation in Young Children with Severe Obesity at Tertiary Care Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Cassandra C.; Lingren, Todd; Woo, Jessica G.; Kennebeck, Stephanie S.; Namjou-Khales, Bahram; Roach, Ashton; Bickel, Jonathan P.; Patibandla, Nandan; Savova, Guergana K.; Solti, Imre; Holm, Ingrid A.; Harley, John B.; Kohane, Isaac S.; Crimmins, Nancy A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives. The prevalence of severe obesity in children has doubled in the past decade. The objective of this study is to identify the clinical documentation of obesity in young children with a BMI ≥ 99th percentile at two large tertiary care pediatric hospitals. Methods. We used a standardized algorithm utilizing data from electronic health records to identify children with severe early onset obesity (BMI ≥ 99th percentile at age <6 years). We extracted descriptive terms and ICD-9 codes to evaluate documentation of obesity at Boston Children's Hospital and Cincinnati Children's Hospital and Medical Center between 2007 and 2014. Results. A total of 9887 visit records of 2588 children with severe early onset obesity were identified. Based on predefined criteria for documentation of obesity, 21.5% of children (13.5% of visits) had positive documentation, which varied by institution. Documentation in children first seen under 2 years of age was lower than in older children (15% versus 26%). Documentation was significantly higher in girls (29% versus 17%, p < 0.001), African American children (27% versus 19% in whites, p < 0.001), and the obesity focused specialty clinics (70% versus 15% in primary care and 9% in other subspecialty clinics, p < 0.001). Conclusions. There is significant opportunity for improvement in documentation of obesity in young children, even years after the 2007 AAP guidelines for management of obesity. PMID:27698673

  13. Risk Factors of Obesity in Children 5-15 Years Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratu Ayu Dewi Sartika

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is the result of positive energy balance for long periods of time. The problem of obesity can occur at the age of children, teens to adults. The purpose of this study is to identify the most dominant factor of obesity in children (5-15 years using Basic Health Research in 2007. The proportion of obesity (percentile >95 in children (5-15 years old was 8.3%. The risk factor which mostly associated with obesity was the level of education after being controlled by sex, father's obesity, exercise and smoking habits and intake of protein. To overcome obesity problem in children (5-15 years old, it is needed to provide health education for children from an early age through enhanced IEC (Information, Education and Communication such as anti smoking program, love of fiber (vegetables and fruits and develop a culture of sport activities.

  14. Prevalence of obesity and its influencing factor among affluent school children of Davangere city

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar S; Mahabalaraju D; Anuroopa M

    2007-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity is a fast emerging problem for which national representative data is scarce. Effective preventive of adult obesity will require prevention and management of childhood obesity. Objectives: To know the prevalence of obesity in two affluent school children of Davangere city studying between 5th and 10th standard and to identify the factors influencing childhood obesity. Methods: A cross sectional study followed by a case control study was conducted in two afflu...

  15. Asthma control and obesity in urban African American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loman, Deborah G; Kwong, Christina G; Henry, Lisa D; Mahl, Christina; Meadows, Lisa; Ellis, Alysa G

    2017-08-01

    To examine the relationship between body mass index (BMI), gender, age, controller medication use, household smoke exposure, season, and allergic rhinitis status with asthma control in a group of lower income, African American children. We hypothesized that non-obese children would have better asthma control. Baseline data from a longitudinal study of children in a school-based asthma program in a Midwest urban area were analyzed. 360 children, ages 4-15 years, who were enrolled in either the 2012-2013 or 2013-2014 program were included. Asthma control was classified using criteria from the 2007 National Asthma Education and Prevention Program. Multiple ordinal regression was performed. The median age was 9 years, 61% had well-controlled asthma, and 29% were obese. The model included all main effects plus two interaction terms and was significant (χ(2)(7) = 22.17, p =.002). Females who were normal weight (OR, 2.78; 95% CI, 1.38-5.60, p =.004) or overweight (OR, 3.12; 95% CI, 1.26-7.72, p =.014) had better asthma control than obese females. For males, there were no differences by BMI category but males without allergic rhinitis had significantly better asthma control (OR, 2.23; 95% CI, 1.25-3.97, p =.006) than those with allergic rhinitis. Non-obese girls and non-allergic males had better asthma control. Promotion of healthy activity and nutrition as well as management of allergic rhinitis should be part of the asthma plan in school-based programs in low income urban areas. Innovative approaches to address asthma care in low income populations are essential.

  16. Overweight and Obesity-Induced Oxidative Stress in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOU-GEN ZHU; SHU-MEI ZHANG; JI-YUE WANG; WEI-QIANG XIAO; XIN-YU WANG; JUN-FU ZHOU

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether overweight and obesity might cause oxidative stress and potential oxidative damage in overweight and obese children, and to explore its possible mechanism. Methods Eighty-five overweight and obese children(OOC), and eighty-five age-matched healthy children (HC) were recruited in this case-control study. The present study analyzed spectrophotometrically vitamin C (VC), vitamin E (VE), and β-carotene (β-CAR) in plasma, as well as the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in erythrocytes. Results Compared with those of VC, VE, β-CAR, SOD, CAT and MDA in the HC group, the average values of VC, VE, β-CAR, SOD, and CAT in the OOC group were significantly decreased (P<0.001), while the average value of MDA in the OOC group was significantly increased (P<0.001). The regression analysis demonstrated that VC, VE, β-CAR, SOD, and CAT were negatively correlated (P<0.05-0.01), and MDA was positively correlated with BMI (P<0.05). Fitting to the model of multiple stepwise regression of BMI on VC, VE, β-CAR, SOD, CAT, and MDA in 85 OOC was Y = 27.0041 + 0.2541MDA - 2.1448β-CAR - 0.0090CAT, where F =43.8088, P<0.001, r= 0.7866, r2= 0.6187, adjusted r2= 0.6046. The findings from the reliability analysis for VC, VE, β-CAR, SOD, CAT, and MDA used to reflect increased oxidative stress and potential oxidative damage in the OOC showed that the reliability coefficients (alpha, 6 items) = 0.7231, P<0.0001, and that the standardized item alpha = 0.9207, P<0.0001. Conclusion The present study suggests that there exists an increased oxidative stress in overweight and obese children.

  17. A two-year history of high bone loading physical activity attenuates ethnic differences in bone strength and geometry in pre-/early pubertal children from a low-middle income country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiring, Rebecca M; Avidon, Ingrid; Norris, Shane A; McVeigh, Joanne A

    2013-12-01

    We examined the interplay between ethnicity and weight-bearing physical activity on the content and volumetric properties of bone in a pre- to early pubertal South African Black and White population. Sixty six children [Black boys, 10.4 (1.4)yrs, n=15; Black girls, 10.1 (1.2)yrs, n=27; White boys, 10.1 (1.1)yrs, n=7; White girls, 9.6 (1.3)yrs, n=17] reported on all their physical activities over the past two years in an interviewer administered physical activity questionnaire (PAQ). All participants underwent a whole body and site-specific DXA scan and we also assessed bone structure and estimated bone strength with pQCT. Children were classified as being either high or low bone loaders based on the cohort's median peak bone strain score estimated from the PAQ. In the low bone loading group, Black children had greater femoral neck bone mineral content (BMC) (2.9 (0.08)g) than White children (2.4 (0.11)g; p=0.05). There were no ethnic differences in the high bone loaders for femoral neck BMC. At the cortical site, the Black low bone loaders had a greater radius area (97.3 (1.3) vs 88.8 (2.6)mm(2); p=0.05) and a greater tibia total area (475.5 (8.7) vs. 397.3 (14.0)mm(2); p=0.001) and strength (1633.7 (60.1) vs. 1271.8 (98.6)mm(3); p=0.04) compared to the White low bone loaders. These measures were not different between the Black low and high bone loaders or between the Black and White high bone loaders. In conclusion, the present study shows that there may be ethnic and physical activity associations in the bone health of Black and White pre-pubertal children and further prospective studies are required to determine the possible ethnic specific response to mechanical loading.

  18. Peer Effects on Obesity in a Sample of European Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia A.

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes peer effects on childhood obesity using data from the first two waves of the IDEFICS study, which applies several anthropometric and other measures of fatness to approximately 14,000 children aged two to nine participating in both waves in 16 regions of eight European countries....... Peers are defined as same-sex children in the same school and age group. The results show that peer effects do exist in this European sample but that they differ among both regions and different fatness measures. Peer effects are larger in Spain, Italy, and Cyprus – the more collectivist regions in our...... sample – while waist circumference generally gives rise to larger peer effects than BMI. We also provide evidence that parental misperceptions of their own children's weight goes hand in hand with fatter peer groups, supporting the notion that in making such assessments, parents compare their children...

  19. The relationship between adenovirus-36 seropositivity, obesity and metabolic profile in Turkish children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamese, M; Altoparlak, U; Turgut, A; Aydogdu, S; Karamese, S Aksak

    2015-12-01

    Obesity potentially arising from viral infection is known as 'infectobesity'. The latest reports suggest that adenovirus-36 (Adv36) is related to obesity in adults and children. Our aim was not only to determine the Adv36 seropositivity in both obese and non-obese children and adults, but also to investigate correlations between antibody positivity and serum lipid profiles. Both Adv36 positivity and tumour-necrosis-factor-alpha, leptin and interleukin-6 levels were detected in blood samples collected from 146 children and 130 adults by ELISA. Fasting plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein levels were also measured. Adv36 positivity was determined to be 27·1% and 6% in obese and non-obese children and 17·5% and 4% in obese and non-obese adults, respectively. There was no difference with regard to total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, tumour-necrosis-factor-alpha and interleukin-6 levels (P > 0·05). However, there was a significant difference between groups in terms of leptin levels (P obese children and adults. Our results showed that Adv36 may be an obesity agent for both adults and children, parallel with current literature data. However, the available data on a possible relationship between Adv36 infection and obesity both in children and adults do not completely solve the problem.

  20. Screening, diagnosis and treatment of hypertension in obese children: an international policy comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.G. Wirix; J. Verheul (Jelle); J. Groothoff (Jaap); J. Nauta (Jeroen); M.J.M. Chinapaw (Mai); J.E. Kist-Van Holthe (Joana)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractHypertension in obese children may require a different diagnostic and treatment approach from that for children with secondary hypertension, yet there is neither consensus nor a clear guideline. The aim of this study was to assess how obese children with hypertension are currently

  1. Screening, diagnosis and treatment of hypertension in obese children: an international policy comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.G. Wirix; J. Verheul (Jelle); J. Groothoff (Jaap); J. Nauta (Jeroen); M.J.M. Chinapaw (Mai); J.E. Kist-Van Holthe (Joana)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractHypertension in obese children may require a different diagnostic and treatment approach from that for children with secondary hypertension, yet there is neither consensus nor a clear guideline. The aim of this study was to assess how obese children with hypertension are currently diagno

  2. Autonomic dysfunction: a possible pathophysiological pathway underlying the association between sleep and obesity in children at-risk for obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrin, Denise C; McGrath, Jennifer J; Poirier, Paul; Quality Cohort Collaborative Group

    2015-02-01

    While mounting evidence suggests that sleep plays an important role in the etiology of obesity, the underlying pathogenic pathways are complex and unresolved. Experimental sleep deprivation studies demonstrate sympathovagal imbalance, indicative of diminished parasympathetic activity and/or heightened sympathetic activity, is consequent to poor sleep. Further, obese children exhibit sympathovagal imbalance, particularly during the night, compared to non-obese children. The question remains whether sympathovagal imbalance is one potential pathophysiological pathway underlying the association between sleep and obesity. The aim of the present study was to examine whether sympathovagal imbalance contributed to the association between sleep and obesity in children. Participants included 564 children aged 10 to 12 years (M = 11.67, SD = 0.95; 43.5% girls) from the QUALITY Cohort, a longitudinal study of children at-risk for the development of obesity. While children were at-risk due to confirmed parental obesity status, 57.7% of children were of normal body mass index (5-85th percentile). Sleep duration, sleep timing, and sleep disturbances were based on child- and parent-report. Anthropometrics were measured for central adiposity (waist circumference) and body composition (body mass index, fat mass index). Sympathovagal imbalance was derived from heart rate variability spectral analyses. Estimated path coefficients revealed that sympathovagal imbalance partially contributed to the association between poor sleep (later bedtimes, sleep-disordered breathing) and obesity. These findings highlight the importance of better understanding sympathovagal imbalance and its role in the etiology and maintenance of obesity. Future research should consider investigating nocturnal sympathovagal balance in youth.

  3. Suboptimal Clinical Documentation in Young Children with Severe Obesity at Tertiary Care Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Cassandra C. Brady; Thaker, Vidhu V.; Todd Lingren; Woo, Jessica G; Kennebeck, Stephanie S.; Bahram Namjou-Khales; Ashton Roach; Bickel, Jonathan P.; Nandan Patibandla; Savova, Guergana K; Imre Solti; Holm, Ingrid A.; Harley, John B.; Kohane, Isaac S; Nancy A. Crimmins

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives. The prevalence of severe obesity in children has doubled in the past decade. The objective of this study is to identify the clinical documentation of obesity in young children with a BMI ≥ 99th percentile at two large tertiary care pediatric hospitals. Methods. We used a standardized algorithm utilizing data from electronic health records to identify children with severe early onset obesity (BMI ≥ 99th percentile at age

  4. Hyperuricemia in obese children and adolescents: the relationship with metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Li Tang; Masaru Kubota; Ayako Nagai; Kimiyo Mamemoto; Masakuni Tokuda

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of hyperuricemia in obese children and adolescents and its association with metabolic syndrome are largely unknown. The objective of our study was to characterize hyperuricemia in relation to metabolic syndrome in Japanese children and adolescents with obesity. Between 2005 and 2008, we performed a cross-sectional study of 1,027 obese children and adolescents aged 6-14 years. Based on the reference value of serum uric acid we had established previously, hyperuricemia was define...

  5. Temporal relationships between adipocytokines and diabetes risk in Hispanic adolescents with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Brandon D; Toledo-Corral, Claudia M; Alderete, Tanya L; Weigensberg, Marc J; Goran, Michael I

    2015-07-01

    Circulating cytokines are frequently cited as contributors to insulin resistance in children with obesity. This study examined whether circulating adipocytokines, independent of adiposity, predicted pubertal changes in insulin sensitivity (SI), insulin secretion (AIR), and β-cell function in high-risk adolescents. 158 Hispanic adolescents with overweight or obesity were followed for a median of 4 years. Adipocytokines were measured using Luminex technology. SI, AIR, and the disposition index were derived from an intravenous glucose tolerance test and minimal modeling. Total fat mass was measured by DXA and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) by MRI. Surprisingly, mean IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α decreased between 5% and 6.5% per year from baseline (P adipocytokines decreased during adolescence and were weakly associated with VAT and lower SI during puberty. Circulating adipocytokines have relatively limited associations with pubertal changes in diabetes risk; however, the consistent findings with MCP-1 warrant further investigation. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  6. Prevalence of obesity and its influencing factor among affluent school children of Davangere city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood obesity is a fast emerging problem for which national representative data is scarce. Effective preventive of adult obesity will require prevention and management of childhood obesity. Objectives: To know the prevalence of obesity in two affluent school children of Davangere city studying between 5th and 10th standard and to identify the factors influencing childhood obesity. Methods: A cross sectional study followed by a case control study was conducted in two affluent schools of Davangere city - Sri. Siddaganga and Sri. Taralabalu residential school. A total of 1496, school children studying between 5th & 10th standard aged between 10 and 15 years were enrolled and data on family history of obesity, diet, snacking habits and physical activity was collected. Results: Out of 1496 children 86 were obese. Prevalence of obesity was 5.74 %. Prevalence of obesity was more in girls (8.82% than boys ( 4.42%. Prevalence of obesity increased, with increase in age in both boys and Girls. Family history of obesity, snacking of high energy foods and lack of physical activity were the important influencing factors of obesity. Conclusion : Consumption of high fat and high energy (Junk foods and snacking in between the meals should be avoided by children. Health education should be given to parents, teachers and children regarding dietary habit and sedentary life style.

  7. Abdominal obesity status among Arora preschool children (2-5 years of Amritsar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kaur

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Abdominal obesity is a state of excessive accumulation of central subcutaneous and visceral fat, has emerged as an important predictor for cardiovascular and metabolic risks in children and adolescents. Waist circumference is a highly sensitive and specific measure of abdominal obesity. Very few studies are available to the prevalence of abdominal obesity. Therefore in the present study an attempt has been made to report the prevalence of abdominal obesity among preschool children of Amritsar (Punjab. This study was undertaken among 1879 (949 boys and 930 girls Arora preschool children aged 2-5 years of Amritsar. Waist circumference was taken on each subjects using standard technique. Abdominal obesity was assessed by using waist circumference criterion of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Present study revealed that abdominal obese were10.4% and 6.3% among boys and girls, respectively. The percentage prevalence of abdominal obesity was lower in the Amritsar children than other populations.

  8. Overweight and Obesity among secondary school children in Central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vito, E; La Torre, G; Langiano, E; Berardi, D; Ricciardi, G

    1999-08-01

    conditions of parents, mother's educational level and amount of weekly physical activity were observed. Number of children in the family, parents' age and job do not appear to be correlated to obesity or risk of overweight. Our results show that, although the prevalence of obesity in the students population in the Province of Frosinone is comparable to other Italian Provinces and lower than other industrialised countries such as USA, the percentage of students at risk of overweight is particularly high. Main risk factors for developing obesity seem to be linked to parents' nutritional conditions, mother's educational level and children's physical inactivity and this should lead to intensify efforts for preventive interventions both at family level (focused on parents) and at school.

  9. Overweight and Obesity Prevalence among Public School Children in Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulino, Yvette C.; Guerrero, Rachael T. Leon; Uncangco, Alyssa A.; Rosadino, Mary Grace; Quinene, Julietta C.; Natividad, Zenaida N.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Government of Guam passed Public Law 28-87, which established the collection of child Body Mass Index (BMI) measurements in the Guam Department of Education (GDOE). This paper aimed to analyze the BMI data and report the childhood obesity prevalence on Guam. Methods Secondary analysis was performed on a repeated cross-section of 106,827 children in the GDOE from 2010 to 2014. Age- and sex-specific prevalence estimates and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) by weight status were calculated for each year. Test for trends in the high weight status were performed. Results The childhood obesity prevalence was 23.1% (95% CI, 22.9%–23.4%). It declined from 23.6% (95% CI, 23.1%–24.1%) in 2010–2011 to 22.6% (95% CI, 22.1%–23.0%) in 2013–2014 (p=.007). Conclusion Childhood obesity on Guam has declined, though it remains higher than the U.S. Mainland. Continued BMI data collection is needed to monitor childhood obesity and measure the impact of Public Law 28-87. PMID:25981088

  10. [Obesity in children and its relationship with chronic kidney disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurita-Cruz, Jessie Nallely; Villasís-Keever, Miguel Ángel

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, obesity and chronic kidney disease (CKD) have increased worldwide, in parallel. This article focuses on the current issues of obesity on renal damage, with special emphasis on what happens at pediatric ages. While obesity has been linked closely with type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension, reduced insulin sensitivity is a direct mechanism for renal damage. The pathophysiologic mechanisms on renal damage include glomerular hyperfiltration and hypertrophy, hypercellularity and broadening of the mesangial regions, while the lack of sensitivity to insulin increases the effects of angiotensin II, exacerbates proteinuria and induces the production of inflammatory cytokines. Many epidemiological studies have documented the relationship of increased BMI with the development of ERC, but most of these studies have been conducted in adults. In children, the information is scarce, but is consistent with findings in adults. In contrast, there are studies which show that interventions aimed to improve weight loss and limit renal damage and proteinuria is reduced, the blood pressure and glomerular filtration rate. Allthe above make us think on the need to improve efforts to reduce the prevalence of obesity from the early stages of life, which could reduce the number of patients with CKD in the future.

  11. Motivational Interviewing in an Obesity Prevention Program for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ige, Teminijesu John; DeLeon, Patrice; Nabors, Laura

    2017-03-01

    After-school programs are an ideal setting for childhood obesity prevention interventions. This qualitative study examined the implementation of a training technique in the Children's Healthy Eating and Exercise Program: motivational interviewing. Participants included 19 children in Grades 3 through 5, nine coaches enrolled in university health education classes, and four parents. Nine lessons were presented during the fall session (N = 5) and eight during the spring (N = 14), with five individual coaching sessions per child. From September, 2014 through April 2015, child and coach perceptions were assessed using goal sheets, surveys, a focus group, and the analysis of the video recording of a health habit commercial created by teams of children grouped by gender. Children developed weekly eating and exercise goals with coaches and reported on their progress the following week. Following the intervention, children reported improved eating and exercise habits and coaches reported they learned more about healthy food options for themselves. Overall, children responded positively to the motivational interviewing. Involving teachers may allow for dissemination of lessons and reinforcement for healthy choices during the school day. Involving parents in training may remove roadblocks to healthy lifestyle changes for children for nonschool hours and when packing lunches.

  12. Prevalence of obesity and abdominal obesity from four to 16 years old children living in the Mexico-USA border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Bacardí-Gascón

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity among Mexicans is alarming in both the child and adult populations. The objective of this study was to determine the levels of overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity in pre-school (PS, elementary (ES, and middle high (MHS public school children from Tijuana. From February to April of 2011, a bietapic random sample was selected by cluster method of 30 PS, 30 ES, and 30 MHS children. And a sample of 30 groups for each level was chosen. Twenty elementary teachers and eight graduate students were trained at one central location on how to take anthropometric measurements using a portable scale, a stadiometer, and a measuring tape to determine weight, height, and waist circumference. Body Mass Index values were computed and compared to age/gender BMI percentiles according to WHO criteria. Waist circumference for-age at the 90th percentile from NHANES III (Mexican-American was used to define abdominal obesity. The sample was composed of 646 PS children, 961 ES children, and 1,095 MHS children. Their ages ranged from 4-16 years. Results showed an overall prevalence of overweight and obesity in younger than 5y preschool children (> 2 SD of 23.1%, in ≥ 5 y PS (>, 1 SD of 33.8%, in ES children of 46.3%, and in MHS children of 41.9%. Abdominal obesity in PS children was 18%, in ES children was 16.7%, and in MHS children was 15.2%. These results warrant immediate and comprehensive actions to prevent a critical public health problem in Mexico.

  13. Prevalence of obesity and abdominal obesity from four to 16 years old children living in the Mexico-USA border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat; Jones, Elizabeth G; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity among Mexicans is alarming in both the child and adult populations. The objective of this study was to determine the levels of overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity in pre-school (PS), elementary (ES), and middle high (MHS) public school children from Tijuana. From February to April of 2011, a bietapic random sample was selected by cluster method of 30 PS, 30 ES, and 30 MHS children. And a sample of 30 groups for each level was chosen. Twenty elementary teachers and eight graduate students were trained at one central location on how to take anthropometric measurements using a portable scale, a stadiometer, and a measuring tape to determine weight, height, and waist circumference. Body Mass Index values were computed and compared to age/gender BMI percentiles according to WHO criteria. Waist circumference for-age at the 90th percentile from NHANES III (Mexican-American) was used to define abdominal obesity. The sample was composed of 646 PS children, 961 ES children, and 1,095 MHS children. Their ages ranged from 4- 16 years. Results showed an overall prevalence of overweight and obesity in younger than 5y preschool children (> 2 SD) of 23.1%, in ≥ 5 y PS (> 1 SD) of 33.8%, in ES children of 46.3%, and in MHS children of 41.9%. Abdominal obesity in PS children was 18%, in ES children was 16.7%, and in MHS children was 15.2%. These results warrant immediate and comprehensive actions to prevent a critical public health problem in Mexico.

  14. PREVALENCE OF OBESITY AND ABDOMINAL OBESITY FROM FOUR TO 16 YEARS OLD CHILDREN LIVING IN THE MEXICO-USA BORDER

    OpenAIRE

    Montserrat Bacardí-Gascón; Elizabeth G. Jones; Arturo Jiménez-Cruz

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity among Mexicans is alarming in both the child and adult populations. The objective of this study was to determine the levels of overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity in pre-school (PS), elementary (ES), and middle high (MHS) public school children from Tijuana. From February to April of 2011, a bietapic random sample was selected by cluster method of 30 PS, 30 ES, and 30 MHS children. And a sample of 30 groups for each level was chosen. Twenty elementary teachers ...

  15. Explaining overweight and obesity in children and adolescents of Asian Indian origin: the Calcutta childhood obesity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arnab

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed to find out the prevalence of overweight and obesity and its associated factors among Bengalee children and adolescents in the Kolkata, India. A total of 1061 Bengalee school children and adolescents (610 boys and 451 girls) participated and were divided into three age groups: Group I = 8-11 years; Group II = 12-15 years and Group III = 16-18 years. Overweight and obesity were defined as: Overweight (between ≥85 th and junk foodstuffs, breakfast skip, extra consumption of salt, and computer hours. Sedentary lifestyles, including increasing fast food preferences may be responsible for increasing occurrence of pediatric and adolescent obesity in this population.

  16. Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents: The South African problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaretha Viljoen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents are on the increase worldwide.Overweight and obesity increase the risk for the development of non-communicable diseases during childhood and adolescence, and predispose the individual to the development of overweight, obesity,ardiovascular disease, and metabolic and other disorders in adulthood.In Africa the number of overweight or obese children has doubled since 1990. In South Africa,overweight and obesity in children and adolescents are on the increase, but the prevalencevaries with age, gender and population group. These differences are important when intervention programmes and policies are considered. South Africa faces a double burden of disease where undernutrition and overweight or obesity are found in the same populations, in the same households and even in the same children. Malnutrition is a major contributor to the double burden of disease in South African children and adolescents.

  17. Prevalence of Sonographic Fatty Liver in Overweight and Obese Children A Cross Sectional Study in Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Kelishadi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children’s obesity is strong predictor of obesity in adulthood, which increases the incidence of related diseases such as metabolic syndrome. Fatty liver is an abnormality related to metabolic syndrome with higher prevalence in obese children according to some previous studies. This study investigates the presence of Sonographic Fatty Liver (SFL in Iranian obese children in comparison with normal and overweight children. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study on 962 randomly selected children between the ages of 6 to 18 years. The subjects were divided into three groups of normal, overweight and obese based on body mass index (BMI. A questionnaire including demographic and anthropometrical characteristics was filled for each case. To detect the presence of SFL, all the subjects underwent assessment with ultrasonography by a radiologist who was not aware of their BMI. The incidence of SFL was determined on the basis of ultrasonographic diagnosis criteria. Results: The prevalence of SFL in obese children was 54.4% that was significantly higher than overweight (10.5% and normal children (1%. There was no significant difference in prevalence of SFL between sexes. Conclusion: The high rate of detected SFL in obese children in this study suggests that Iranian obese children are at risk of metabolic syndrome. It is therefore necessary to develop some plan to control obesity and its late complications.

  18. Feeding frequency and appetite in lean and obese prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Rinku; Tsalikian, Eva; Chenard, Catherine A; Zimmerman, M Bridget; Sivitz, William I

    2011-03-01

    To determine the effect of feeding frequency on appetite in normal weight (NW) and obese (OB) prepubertal children, we carried out a prospective, randomized interventional study of 18 NW and 17 OB children ages 6-10. Children received three or five feedings in random order on separate days. Total calories, carbohydrate, protein, and fat composition on each day were equal. Two hours following the last feeding, children were offered ice cream ad lib. The major outcome variable was kilocalories ice cream consumed. A visual analog scale to assess fullness was also administered before consumption of ice cream. We observed that OB children consumed 73.0 ± 37.4 kcal more after five feedings than after three feedings whereas the NW children consumed 47.1 ± 27.8 kcal less. There was significant interaction between meal pattern and weight group indicating that this change in ice cream consumption differed significantly between groups (P = 0.014 by two-factor analysis). Ice cream intake/kg was less in OB compared to NW subjects (P = 0.012). Fullness ratings before ice cream did not differ by meal pattern or weight group. However, pre-ice cream fullness predicted ice cream intake in NW but not OB children. In summary, OB and NW children differed in appetite response to meal frequency. Our data suggest that: (i) satiety in OB children is related more to proximity of calories (larger supper) than to antecedent distribution of calories and; (ii) NW children may be more prone to restrict intake based on subjective fullness.

  19. The influence of leptin on Th1/Th2 balance in obese children with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doaa Mohammed Youssef

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In individuals with asthma, obesity induces the production of leptin and is associated with disease severity. Our objective was to evaluate the levels of serum leptin and their effect on Th1/Th2 balance in obese and non-obese children with asthma, as well as to investigate the association between serum leptin levels and clinical outcomes. METHODS: We evaluated 50 atopic children with physician-diagnosed moderate-to-severe persistent asthma and 20 controls. The children with asthma were divided into two groups, by body mass index percentile: obese (n = 25 and non-obese (n = 25. From all subjects, we collected peripheral blood samples in order to determine the levels of leptin, IFN-γ, and IL-4. Asthma severity was assessed by an asthma symptom score, and the results were correlated with the parameters studied. RESULTS: Serum leptin levels were significantly higher in the obese asthma group than in the non-obese asthma group, as well as being significantly higher in the children with asthma than in the controls, whereas IFN-γ levels were significantly higher and IL-4 levels were significantly lower in the obese asthma group than in the non-obese asthma group. In addition, the obese asthma group showed higher asthma symptom scores and significantly lower FEV1 (% of predicted than did the non-obese asthma group. There was a significant positive correlation between leptin and IFN-γ levels only in the obese asthma group. CONCLUSIONS: Although leptin is involved in the pathogenesis of asthma in obese and non-obese children, its effect is more pronounced in the former. In the presence of high leptin levels, only obese children with asthma exhibited Th1 polarization, with higher IFN-γ levels and greater asthma severity.

  20. Young children and obesity : development and evaluation of familiy-oriented treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, van E.

    2015-01-01

    Thesis: Young Children and Obesity – Development and Evaluation of Family-oriented Treatment, Esther van Hoek Introduction The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased rapidly during the last decades. Childhood obesity is a multisystem disease with serious consequences such as hypertensio

  1. Mexican-American children have different elevation of metabolic biomarkers that is proportional to obesity status

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a health disparity for obesity among Mexican Americans compared with other racial/ethnic groups. In particular, Mexican American children who are obese are likely to become obese adults. The purpose of this study was to examine traditional and nontraditional risk factors in a subset of Mexi...

  2. Young children and obesity : development and evaluation of familiy-oriented treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, van E.

    2015-01-01

    Thesis: Young Children and Obesity – Development and Evaluation of Family-oriented Treatment, Esther van Hoek Introduction The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased rapidly during the last decades. Childhood obesity is a multisystem disease with serious consequences such as hypertensio

  3. Obesity-Related Hormones in Low-Income Preschool-Age Children: Implications for School Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alison L.; Lumeng, Carey N.; Delproposto, Jennifer; Florek, Brian; Wendorf, Kristin; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2013-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying socioeconomic disparities in school readiness and health outcomes, particularly obesity, among preschool-aged children are complex and poorly understood. Obesity can induce changes in proteins in the circulation that contribute to the negative impact of obesity on health; such changes may relate to cognitive and emotion…

  4. Obesity-Related Hormones in Low-Income Preschool-Age Children: Implications for School Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alison L.; Lumeng, Carey N.; Delproposto, Jennifer; Florek, Brian; Wendorf, Kristin; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2013-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying socioeconomic disparities in school readiness and health outcomes, particularly obesity, among preschool-aged children are complex and poorly understood. Obesity can induce changes in proteins in the circulation that contribute to the negative impact of obesity on health; such changes may relate to cognitive and emotion…

  5. High Prevalence of Obesity in Ambulatory Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, L.; Van de Ven, L.; Katsarou, V.; Rentziou, E.; Doran, M.; Jackson, P.; Reilly, J. J.; Wilson, D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Obesity prevalence is unusually high among adults with intellectual disability (ID). There is limited and conflicting evidence on obesity prevalence among ambulatory children and adolescents with ID. The present study aimed to estimate obesity prevalence in this group and to compare with population prevalence. Methods: Survey of nine…

  6. High Prevalence of Obesity in Ambulatory Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, L.; Van de Ven, L.; Katsarou, V.; Rentziou, E.; Doran, M.; Jackson, P.; Reilly, J. J.; Wilson, D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Obesity prevalence is unusually high among adults with intellectual disability (ID). There is limited and conflicting evidence on obesity prevalence among ambulatory children and adolescents with ID. The present study aimed to estimate obesity prevalence in this group and to compare with population prevalence. Methods: Survey of nine…

  7. Obesity and single-incision laparoscopic appendectomy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litz, Cristen N; Farach, Sandra M; Danielson, Paul D; Chandler, Nicole M

    2016-06-15

    Single-incision laparoscopic appendectomy (SILA) has emerged as a less-invasive alternative to conventional laparoscopy. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of body habitus on outcomes after SILA in the pediatric population. A retrospective review of 413 patients who underwent SILA from 2012 to 2015 was performed. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated, and the BMI percentile was obtained per Center for Disease Control guidelines. Standard definitions for overweight (BMI 85th-94th percentile) and obese (BMI > 95th percentile) were used. General demographic and outcome data were analyzed. SILA was performed in 413 patients during the study period, of which 66.3% were normal weight, 16% were overweight, and 17.7% were obese. There were no significant differences in age at presentation, time to diagnosis, or intraoperative classification of appendicitis. There were no significant differences in operative time (27.0 ± 9.1 versus 27 ± 9.8 versus 28.4 ± 9.4 min, P = 0.514), postoperative length of stay (0.97 ± 1.65 versus 1.53 ± 4.15 versus 1.14 ± 2.27 d, P = 0.214), 30-d surgical site infections (6.9% versus 12.1% versus 8.2%, P = 0.377), emergency department visits (8.4% versus 10.6% versus 11%, P = 0.726), or readmissions (4.7% versus 4.1% versus 4.5%, P = 0.967) among normal, overweight, and obese groups. Our results indicate that obesity does not significantly impact outcomes after SILA. SILA can be performed in overweight and obese children with no significant difference in operative time, length of stay, or incidence of surgical site infection. SILA should continue to be offered to overweight and obese children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Obesity in British children with and without intellectual disability: cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Eric; Robertson, Janet; Baines, Susannah; Hatton, Chris

    2016-07-27

    Reducing the prevalence of and inequities in the distribution of child obesity will require developing interventions that are sensitive to the situation of 'high risk' groups of children. Children with intellectual disability appear to be one such group. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of obesity in children with and without intellectual disability in a longitudinal representative sample of British children and identify risk factors associated with obesity at age 11. Information was collected on a nationally representative sample of over 18,000 at ages 9 months, 3, 5, 7 and 11 years. We used UK 1990 gender-specific growth reference charts and the LMS Growth programme to identify age and gender-specific overweight and obesity BMI thresholds for each child at ages 5, 7 and 11 years. Children with intellectual disabilities were significantly more likely than other children to be obese at ages five (OR = 1.32[1.03-1.68]), seven (OR = 1.39[1.05-1.83]) and eleven (OR = 1.68[1.39-2.03]). At ages five and seven increased risk of obesity among children with intellectual disabilities was only apparent among boys. Among children with intellectual disability risk of obesity at age eleven was associated with persistent maternal obesity, maternal education, child ethnicity and being bullied at age five. Children with intellectual disability are a high-risk group for the development of obesity, accounting for 5-6 % of all obese children. Interventions to reduce the prevalence and inequities in the distribution of child obesity will need to take account of the specific situation of this group of children.

  9. The built environment and obesity among low-income preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salois, Matthew J

    2012-05-01

    In spite of the evidence that adult obesity is influenced by environmental factors, the influence of the environment on childhood obesity remains under-investigated. This paper examines the association of the built environment with the prevalence of obesity in low-income preschool children. Built environment indicators include measures relating to food choice and physical activity. The relationship of the environment with childhood obesity is further stratified by urban-rural location. Overall, the built environment is associated with the prevalence of obesity in low-income preschool children, although the impact of the environment is affected by urban-rural status. Results imply broad-scope for community-level interventions.

  10. Externality as a function of obesity in children: pervasive style or eating-specific attribute?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, P R; Woody, E Z

    1979-12-01

    The developmental sources of the link between stylistic externality and food-related externality found in the obese by Schacter and others were explored by testing whether the externality phenomena that have been found to differentiate obese and normal adults are also discriminators of obese and normal children. The results suggest that obese children as young as 7-12 years of age show an external responsiveness to salient food cues but not yet a generally external perceptual style. The implications of these findings for the development of obese externality are examined.

  11. Factors Affecting Underweight and Obesity Among Elementary School Children in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, GyuYoung; Ham, Ok Kyung

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine factors associated with underweight and obesity in elementary school children in Korea. Study participants included 4,895 children attending 59 elementary schools across Korea. Children were grouped into underweight [obese (≥ 85% BMI-for age). The questionnaire included demographic characteristics, health status, and diet and exercise behavior of children, and environmental characteristics of schools. Twelve percent of the children were overweight or obese. The results showed that demographic (age and gender), health status (atopic dermatitis and poor subjective health), and the characteristics of diet and exercise (unbalanced diet and diet experiences) were associated with underweight (p obesity (p obesity in Korean elementary schools must consider behavioral and environmental characteristics of children. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Overweight and obesity in six-year-old children in 4th and 5th ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-09-13

    Sep 13, 2014 ... Parents' perceptions of their children's weight play an important role in the ... The current study aimed to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity in ... their children's dietary and physical activity patterns.1 However, to.

  13. Children and obesity: a pan-European project examining the role of food marketing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matthews, Anne E

    2008-01-01

    .... The 'Children, Obesity and associated avoidable Chronic Diseases' project sought to examine the effects of promotion within food marketing, given the influential role it plays in children's diets. Method...

  14. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among children aged 6-12 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of overweight and obesity among children aged 6-12 years in Dodoma ... It is recommended that, children should be educated on good nutrition practices ... Physical education and organized sports at schools should be revived.

  15. Effects of parent and child behaviours on overweight and obesity in infants and young children from disadvantaged backgrounds: systematic review with narrative synthesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Russell, Catherine Georgina; Taki, Sarah; Laws, Rachel; Azadi, Leva; Campbell, Karen J; Elliott, Rosalind; Lynch, John; Ball, Kylie; Taylor, Rachael; Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Despite the crucial need to develop targeted and effective approaches for obesity prevention in children most at risk, the pathways explaining socioeconomic disparity in children's obesity prevalence...

  16. Food Insecurity Increases the Odds of Obesity Among Young Hispanic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papas, Mia A; Trabulsi, Jillian C; Dahl, Alicia; Dominick, Gregory

    2016-10-01

    Obesity is a growing public health concern and is more prevalent among low-income and minority populations. Food insecurity may increase the odds of obesity in children. We investigated the association between food insecurity and obesity among low-income, Hispanic, mother-child dyads (n = 74). The United States Department of Agriculture 18-item Household Food Security Survey was used to determine food security status. The majority of households were food insecure (74 %) and one-third (30 %) of children were obese. Food insecurity increased the odds of childhood obesity (OR 10.2; 95 % CI 1.2, 85.5) with stronger associations found within households where mothers were also overweight/obese compared to normal weight (p-for interaction food insecurity and childhood obesity were high among this low-income Hispanic sample. Future studies should elucidate the mechanisms through which food insecurity impacts childhood obesity.

  17. Whole-body and hepatic insulin resistance in obese children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena del Rocío Ibarra-Reynoso

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance may be assessed as whole body or hepatic.To study factors associated with both types of insulin resistance.Cross-sectional study of 182 obese children. Somatometric measurements were registered, and the following three adiposity indexes were compared: BMI, waist-to-height ratio and visceral adiposity. Whole-body insulin resistance was evaluated using HOMA-IR, with 2.5 as the cut-off point. Hepatic insulin resistance was considered for IGFBP-1 level quartiles 1 to 3 (<6.67 ng/ml. We determined metabolite and hormone levels and performed a liver ultrasound.The majority, 73.1%, of obese children had whole-body insulin resistance and hepatic insulin resistance, while 7% did not have either type. HOMA-IR was negatively associated with IGFBP-1 and positively associated with BMI, triglycerides, leptin and mother's BMI. Girls had increased HOMA-IR. IGFBP-1 was negatively associated with waist-to-height ratio, age, leptin, HOMA-IR and IGF-I. We did not find HOMA-IR or IGFBP-1 associated with fatty liver.In school-aged children, BMI is the best metric to predict whole-body insulin resistance, and waist-to-height ratio is the best predictor of hepatic insulin resistance, indicating that central obesity is important for hepatic insulin resistance. The reciprocal negative association of IGFBP-1 and HOMA-IR may represent a strong interaction of the physiological processes of both whole-body and hepatic insulin resistance.

  18. Television viewing and overweight and obesity amongst children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Kapil

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The process of modernization has brought about changes in lifestyle of people leading to improvement in standard of living but it is associated with certain unwanted life styles like decreased physical activity and increased sedentary work. Thus, improvement in motorized transport availability of house hold gadgets like washing machine, vaccum cleaners, dish washers all tend to reduce activity level. Obese and overweight individuals are less active than their lean counterparts. Cross sectional data often reveals that there is an inverse relationship between BMI and physical activity both among adults and children.

  19. Mediterranean-style diet reduces metabolic syndrome components in obese children and adolescents with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-López, Lubia; Santiago-Díaz, Gerardo; Nava-Hernández, Julia; Muñoz-Torres, Abril V; Medina-Bravo, Patricia; Torres-Tamayo, Margarita

    2014-07-05

    The beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet have been amply proven in adults with cardiovascular risk factors. The effects of this diet have not been extensively assessed in pediatric populations with obesity, insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of the Mediterranean style diet (MSD) to decrease cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents with obesity. Participants were randomly assigned to a MSD rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, fiber, flavonoids and antioxidants (60% of energy from carbohydrate, 25% from fat, and 15% from protein, (n = 24); or a standard diet (55% of carbohydrate, 30% from fat and 15% from protein, (n = 25), the caloric ingest was individualized. At baseline and 16-week of intervention, the glucose, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, LDL-C were measured as well as the body composition and anthropometric data. The diet compliance was determined by the 24-hour recalls.Paired Student's t and Macnemar's test were used to compare effects in biochemical, body composition, anthropometric, and dietary variables. The MSD group had a significantly decrease in BMI, lean mass, fat mass, glucose, TC, TG, HDL-C and LDL-C. (p diet compliance increased consumption of omega 9 fatty acids, zinc, vitamin E, selenium, and decreased consumption of saturated fatty acids (p diet group decrease in glucose levels and frequency of glucose >100 mg/dL (p obesity and any MetS component.

  20. Health related quality of life and psychological problems in Egyptian children with simple obesity in relation to body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman A. Abdel-Aziz

    2014-04-01

    Conclusions: Obese children and adolescents have lower health-related QOL that correlated negatively with BMI, also they are more susceptible to anxiety and depression symptoms than non obese children.

  1. PREVALENCE OF OBESITY AND ITS INFLUENCING FACTORS AMONG SCHOOL CHILDREN OF BAGALKOT CITY, KARNATAKA

    OpenAIRE

    Mannapur; Nyamagouda; Dorle; Jayaraj R; Kulkarni; Siera

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity are the fifth leading risk of global deaths. Once considered a high income country problem, overweight and obesity are now raising in low income and middle income countries especially in urban settings . OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of obesity in school children and to identify the factors influencing childhood obesity. MATERIALS AND METHOD S: The present study has been undertaken at one of the school of Vidyagir...

  2. Diagnosis of a trend towards obesity in preschool children: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel, Oya; Kinik, Sibel Tulgar; Aka, Sibel

    2011-06-01

    The study was planned to determine identifiable starting points of a trend towards obesity and the influence of variables in preschool children aged 0 to 6 years. In this longitudinal follow-up study, 102 children were enrolled. Anthropometric measurements such as weight-height centiles (specific for gender and age group), weight-height growth velocities, and body mass indices were taken annually and compared within each group from birth to 6 years. Family history and lifestyle variables were also recorded and compared. Our study has shown that gender does not affect the trend towards obesity. In obese children, the earliest sign of a trend was the rapid increase of weight and weight gain velocity after 6 months. There were upward trends in the BMI values indicating obesity at 1 year of age in boys and at 6 months of age in girls. The height was higher in obese children than in non-obese ones after 4 years of age. Paternal obesity and having an obese sibling were significant risk factors for obesity. In conclusion, 6 months are considered to be the most critical periods for evaluating the development of obesity in childhood. The efforts for preventing obesity should be initiated at 6 months of age.

  3. Factors Associated with Mothers' Obesity Stigma and Young Children's Weight Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holub, Shayla C.; Tan, Cin Cin; Patel, Sanobar L.

    2011-01-01

    Parents and children hold negative attitudes about obesity, but little is known about individual differences in obesity stigma. The current study examined authoritarian parenting style, beliefs about the controllability of weight and fear of fat in relation to mothers' dislike of overweight individuals. Factors related to children's weight…

  4. Brain gray and white matter differences in healthy normal weight and obese children

    Science.gov (United States)

    To compare brain gray and white matter development in healthy normal weight and obese children. Twenty-four healthy 8- to 10-year-old children whose body mass index was either 95th percentile (obese) completed an MRI examination which included T1-weighted three-d...

  5. Factors Influencing Health-Related Quality of Life of Overweight and Obese Children in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Soon; Park, Jiyoung; Ma, Yumi; Ham, Ok Kyung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors influencing health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of overweight and obese children in Korea. This study employed a cross-sectional descriptive study design. A total of 132 overweight and obese children participated in the study. Anthropometric measurements included body mass index, percent body…

  6. The Perceptions of Obese School Children in Hong Kong toward Their Weight-Loss Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, E. M. Y.; Sit, J. W. H.; Tarrant, M. A.; Cheng, M. M. H.

    2012-01-01

    Most studies related to addressing weight management of obese children have focused on understanding the perceptions of parents and health professionals. This study identifies the factors that obese children who have tried to lose weight perceive as affecting their efforts. This descriptive qualitative study has sought to identify factors…

  7. A Characterization of Movement Skills in Obese Children with and without Prader-Willi Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Melanie Y.; Rubin, Daniela A.; Duran, Andrea T.; Chavoya, Frank A.; White, Elizabeth; Rose, Debra J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was twofold: (a) to measure and compare motor proficiency in obese children with Prader-Willi syndrome (OB-PWS) to that in obese children without PWS (OB), and (b) to compare motor proficiency in OB-PWS and OB to normative data. Method: Motor proficiency was measured using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor…

  8. Teasing and Bullying of Obese and Overweight Children: How Parents Can Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 18-21yrs. Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & ... Tobacco Treatments Injuries & Emergencies Vaccine Preventable Diseases ... Children > Health Issues > Conditions > Obesity > Teasing and Bullying of Obese and Overweight Children: ...

  9. The Perceptions of Obese School Children in Hong Kong toward Their Weight-Loss Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, E. M. Y.; Sit, J. W. H.; Tarrant, M. A.; Cheng, M. M. H.

    2012-01-01

    Most studies related to addressing weight management of obese children have focused on understanding the perceptions of parents and health professionals. This study identifies the factors that obese children who have tried to lose weight perceive as affecting their efforts. This descriptive qualitative study has sought to identify factors…

  10. Childhood obesity: the extent of the problem among 6-year-old Irish national school children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Evans, D S

    2011-05-01

    Childhood obesity is rapidly increasing worldwide. In Ireland, the number of overweight children has trebled over the last decade. The study aimed to provide an assessment of the prevalence of obesity of 6-year-old children in one region of Ireland.

  11. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eunsook; Park, HyunJu; Ha, Yeongmi; Hwang, Won Ju

    2012-01-01

    Background: Overweight and obesity in children with intellectual disabilities may be a major health threat. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Korean children with intellectual disabilities aged 7-18 years who did not have specific genetic syndromes or physical disabilities. Materials and methods:…

  12. Factors Associated with Mothers' Obesity Stigma and Young Children's Weight Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holub, Shayla C.; Tan, Cin Cin; Patel, Sanobar L.

    2011-01-01

    Parents and children hold negative attitudes about obesity, but little is known about individual differences in obesity stigma. The current study examined authoritarian parenting style, beliefs about the controllability of weight and fear of fat in relation to mothers' dislike of overweight individuals. Factors related to children's weight…

  13. Impact of Obesity on Clinical Outcomes in Urban Children Hospitalized for Status Asthmaticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragona, Elena; El-Magbri, Eussra; Wang, Justin; Scheckelhoff, Tessa; Scheckelhoff, Trevor; Hyacinthe, Assata; Nair, Suja; Khan, Amina; Nino, Gustavo; Pillai, Dinesh K

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of both childhood asthma and obesity remain at historically high levels and disproportionately affect urban children. Asthma is a common and costly cause for pediatric hospitalization. Our objective was to determine the effect of obesity on outcomes among urban children hospitalized with status asthmaticus. A retrospective cohort study was performed by using billing system data and chart review to evaluate urban children admitted for asthma. Demographics, asthma severity, reported comorbidities, and outcomes were assessed. Obesity was defined by BMI percentile (leanobese≥95%). Outcomes were length of stay, hospitalization charges, ICU stay, repeat admissions, and subsequent emergency department (ED) visits. Bivariate analysis assessed for differences between overweight/obese and lean children. Multivariable regression assessed the relationship between overweight status and primary outcomes while controlling for other variables. Post hoc age-stratified analysis was also performed. The study included 333 subjects; 38% were overweight/obese. Overweight/obese children admitted with asthma were more likely than lean children to have subsequent ED visits (odds ratio 1.6, 95% confidence interval 1.0-2.6). When stratified by age, overweight/obese preschool-age children (2 times as likely to have repeat ED visits than lean preschool-age children (odds ratio 2.3, 95% confidence interval 1.0-5.6). There were no differences in the other outcomes between overweight/obese and lean individuals within the entire cohort or within other age groups. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. A pilot study to profile the lower limb musculoskeletal health in children with obesity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Malley, Grace

    2012-01-01

    : Evidence suggests a negative effect of obesity on musculoskeletal health in children. A pilot study was undertaken to investigate the presence of musculoskeletal impairments in children with obesity and to explore the relationships among body mass index, physical activity, and musculoskeletal measures.

  15. Differences in Home Food and Activity Environments between Obese and Healthy Weight Families of Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, Richard E.; Scharf, Cynthia; Filigno, Stephanie S.; Saelens, Brian E.; Stark, Lori J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To develop and test a home food and activity instrument to discriminate between the home environments of obese and healthy weight preschool children. Design: A modified questionnaire about home environments was tested as an observation tool. Setting: Family homes. Participants: A total of 35 obese children with at least 1 obese…

  16. The Relationship between Television Viewing and Obesity in Young Children: A Review of Existing Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenvey, Vickii B.

    2007-01-01

    It has often been proposed that young (three to six years old) children's television viewing habits contribute to early-onset obesity. Three explanations that link television viewing patterns of young children with the development of obesity are considered. First, television viewing displaces time available for physical activity, reduces energy…

  17. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eunsook; Park, HyunJu; Ha, Yeongmi; Hwang, Won Ju

    2012-01-01

    Background: Overweight and obesity in children with intellectual disabilities may be a major health threat. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Korean children with intellectual disabilities aged 7-18 years who did not have specific genetic syndromes or physical disabilities. Materials and methods:…

  18. Dietary practices among overweight and obese Chinese children in Kota Bharu, Kelantan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, K L; Wan, Abdul Manan W M; Abdul, Manaf H; Lee, Y Y

    2011-04-01

    INTRDUCTION: Obesity and chronic diseases have been increasing since the last few decades alongside rapid economic development in developed and developing countries. The alarming increase in the prevalence of childhood obesity had been shown by many epidemiological studies worldwide. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Chinese school children in Kota Bharu, Kelantan, and to map the association between dietary practices and their nutritional status. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 278 school children aged 10 to 12 years old (144 boys and 134 girls) studying in a Chinese primary school in Kota Bharu. The survey revealed that while only 1.4% (n=4) were overweight, 23.4% (n=65) of the children were obese. A total of 67.7% (n=44) of the obese children were boys. The overweight and obese children (n=70) were compared with a randomly selected group of normal weight children (n=70). Dietary assessment showed that protein, fat and total calorie intake were significantly higher among the overweight group (p<0.05). A significantly higher proportion of the normal weight children (85.7%) took breakfast daily or at least 4 days per week compared to the overweight groups (59.4%) (p<0.05). The prevalence of obesity among school children in the study is a matter of concern. These findings may be useful in targeting programmes and strategies for prevention and intervention of childhood obesity.

  19. Is sleep deprivation a contributor to obesity in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2016-03-01

    Chronic lack of sleep (called "sleep deprivation") is common in modern societies with 24/7 availability of commodities. Accumulating evidence supports the role of reduced sleep as contributing to the current obesity epidemic in children and youth. Longitudinal studies have consistently shown that short sleep duration is associated with weight gain and the development of obesity. Recent experimental studies have reported that sleep restriction leads to weight gain in humans. Increased food intake appears to be the main mechanism by which insufficient sleep results in weight gain. Voluntary sleep restriction has been shown to increase snacking, the number of meals eaten per day, and the preference for energy-dense foods. Although the causes of sleep loss in the pediatric population are numerous, more research looking at screen exposure before bedtime and its effects on sleep is needed given the pervasiveness of electronic media devices in today's environment. Health professionals should routinely ask questions about sleep and promote a good night's sleep because insufficient sleep impacts activity and eating behaviors. Future research should examine the clinical benefits of increasing sleep duration on eating behaviors and body weight control and determine the importance of adequate sleep to improve the treatment of obesity.

  20. Overweight and obesity among Hispanic children entering foster care: a preliminary examination of polyvictimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Janet U; Smith, Caitlin; Arnold-Clark, Janet S; Fuentes, Jorge; Duan, Lei; Palinkas, Lawrence A

    2013-11-01

    This retrospective medical chart review examined the prevalence of overweight/obesity (≥85th percentile) and obesity (≥95th percentile) in Hispanic foster children aged 2-18 years in Los Angeles, California. Logistic regression was used for boys and girls separately to analyze polyvictimization (i.e., one vs. two or more types of maltreatment), type of maltreatment (abuse vs. neglect), and age-group as risk factors for overweight and obesity. Almost 40% of participants were overweight/obese, with the highest prevalence (47.7%) observed among children aged 12-18. Children aged 6-18 were at an increased risk of overweight/obesity and obesity compared with children aged 2-5. Although polyvictimization has been shown to have adverse health effects, in this study, it was related to slightly lower odds of obesity for boys but was unrelated to high weight for girls. Addressing the obesity epidemic among Hispanic foster children is vital to preventing continued obesity and the development of obesity-related health problems, especially by focusing on important community and family influences.

  1. School Based Multicomponent Intervention for Obese Children in Udupi District, South India - A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Baby S; Bhat, Vinod H

    2016-12-01

    Childhood obesity and overweight is a global epidemics and has been increasing in the developing countries. Childhood obesity is linked with increased mortality and morbidity independent of adult obesity. Declining physical activity, access to junk food and parenting style are the major determinants of overweight in children. Thus, there is a need for increasing the physical activity of children, educating the parents as well as the children on lifestyle modification. This can be achieved through implementation of multicomponent intervention. To evaluate the effectiveness of multicomponent intervention on improving the lifestyle practices, reducing the body fat and improving the self esteem of obese children from selected schools of Udupi District, South India. A sample of 120 obese children were enrolled for multicomponent intervention. The components of multicomponent intervention were: education provided to the obese children on lifestyle modification, education of the parents and increasing the physical education activity of these children in the form of aerobics under the supervision of physical education teacher. There was an attrition of 25% in the intervention group. Thus the final sample in the intervention group was 90. Total sample of 131 overweight/ obese children enrolled as controls. There was an attrition of 20.61% in the control group. Thus, the final sample in the control group was 104. Intervention group received the multicomponent intervention for six month. Mixed Method Repeated measures Ananlysis of Variance (ANOVA) was applied for analysis of data. Results indicated that the intervention was effective in reducing the Body Mass Index (BMI), triceps, biceps, subscapular skin fold thickness of obese children. The intervention was also effective in improving the lifestyle practices and self-esteem of obese children. Overweight/obese children need to control diet and perform vigorous exercise at least for 20 minutes a day to reduce the excess fat

  2. Association of obesity with the prevalence of hypertension in school children from central Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rerksuppaphol, Sanguansak; Rerksuppaphol, Lakkana

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and underweight are both a public health concern worldwide. Being overweight, and obesity are primary risk factors for the development of chronic conditions including hypertension. Data on obesity and the underweight as well as their association with hypertension in Thai children, specifically, are scant. This study was aimed to assess the relationship between obesity or underweight status and hypertension in Thai school children. Anthropometric data were collected from 3991 students (mean age of 9.5 yr) in Ongkharak district, central Thailand. The sex as well as the age-specific BMI criteria of the WHO were used to define what is overweight, obesity, underweight and severe underweight status of children. In order to calculate the odds ratio and the association between one's nutritional status and hypertension logistic regression was used. Obese and overweight children have a higher prevalence of hypertension compared with children with an average weight (49.5% and 26.5% versus 16.2%, respectively). The risks of developing hypertension is also high in obese children (OR 5.15; 95%CI: 4.27, 6.22), overweight children (1.87; 95% CI: 1.50, 2.32) and overweight/obese children (OR 3.30; 95% CI: 2.82, 3.86. Additionally, underweight children were not associated with an increased risk of hypertension (OR 1.04; 95% CI: 0.72, 1.42). Rates of hypertension in overweight and obese children are high in central Thailand and, as a result, this increased body weight is a risk factor for hypertension. Larger, multi-centric studies are required to evaluate the correlation between hypertension and obesity amongst children at the national level.

  3. Appropriate care for children with eating disorders and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Radhi, A Sahib

    Eating disorders are essentially psychological diseases that are characterised by abnormal eating habits. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia are the most common forms of eating disorders. There is an increased recognition of eating disorders among both men and women, and growing numbers of children and teenagers seeking help for eating disorders. Fear of body-weight gain is central to both anorexia nervosa and bulimia. Before the diagnosis of an eating disorder is made, it is essential to exclude organic diseases that may present with similar symptoms to eating disorders. Management initially should focus on correcting the nutritional deficiencies and dehydration at a paediatric or paediatric gastroenterology department, followed by a multidisciplinary approach. At the other extreme, the prevalence of obesity in children is increasing at an alarming rate, and presents a serious public health challenge.

  4. Implications of gastrointestinal hormones in the pathogenesis of obesity in prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bascietto, Cinzia; Giannini, Cosimo; D'Adamo, Ebe; de Giorgis, Tommaso; Chiarelli, Francesco; Mohn, Angelika

    2012-01-01

    There is a worsening high prevalence of global obesity. Special attention has been paid to the gut-endocrine system, represented by the regulators of appetite. In particular, it has been suggested that ghrelin ("hunger" peptide), and obestatin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) ("satiety" peptides) could play important roles in the pathogenesis of obesity. The aims of this study were to compare fasting plasma ghrelin, obestatin, and GLP-1 levels between obese and nonobese prepubertal children, and to assess their relations with fatness indexes and insulin resistance (IR). Fifty-two prepubertal obese children and 22 controls were enrolled. Fasting levels of gastrointestinal hormones (ghrelin, obestatin, and GLP-1), glucose, and insulin were evaluated. IR was assessed using the homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) index. Analysis was performed by Mann-Whitney U-test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Spearman's correlation. Obese prepubertal children and normal-weight controls had similar age distribution. Obese children were more insulin resistant when compared to controls (HOMA-IR: p obese children than in controls (p obese than normal-weight children (p obesity.

  5. What is the nutritional status of children of obese mothers in South Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyn, Nelia Patricia; Labadarios, Demetre; Nel, Johanna; Kruger, H Salome; Maunder, Eleni M W

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the anthropometric status of children of obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥30 kg/m2) mothers who participated during the 2005 National Food Consumption Study. The survey population consisted of children 1-9 y of age and their mothers 16 to 35 y of age living in the same households (n = 1532). A national sample of households was drawn, representative of all nine provinces and urban and rural areas. Trained fieldworkers measured the heights and weights of participants at their homes. The prevalence of obesity was high in the mothers (27.9%), particularly in the 26- to 35-y-old (older) group (32.3%) and in urban areas (29.1%). Children of older mothers had a significantly (P obese women compared with those of non-obese women (BMI obese mothers had significantly more overweight children than non-obese mothers (P obese mothers had significantly higher mean Z-scores than those of mothers who were non-obese. Overweight and obese women were significantly less likely to have stunted or underweight children, whereas underweight women and stunted women were significantly more likely to have underweight and stunted children, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [The family dysfunction as a risk factor of obesity in Mexican school children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rico, José Luis; Vásquez-Garibay, Edgar M; Cabrera-Pivaral, Carlos E; González-Pérez, Guillermo J; Troyo-Sanromán, Rogelio

    2012-01-01

    it has been demonstrated that children obesity is a multifactorial disease and probably, the alteration of the family dynamic is another potential risk factor. The objective was to identify the association between obesity and family dysfunction in school children who attend to a family medicine unit. case and control study at Mexican Social Security Institute in Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. Sociodemographic factors and family dynamic of obese and non-obese subjects (n = 452) of six to nine years old from nuclear families were achieved. the association between family dysfunction and obesity was [OR = 1.63 (1.08-2.46), p = 0.01]. Area II, Identity formation, and area VI, Discipline and methods, showed a lower score in cases of children with obesity (p family dysfunction [RM 1.79 (1.19, 2.71), p = 0.005] and low literacy of mothers [RM 1.61 (1.06, 2.45), p = 0.02)] were risk factors for obesity in school children. the results showed an association between family dysfunction and obesity in school children. We suggest to consider it in the prevention of obesity in Mexican school children.

  7. PREVALENCE OF OBESITY AND ITS INFLUENCING FACTORS AMONG SCHOOL CHILDREN OF BAGALKOT CITY, KARNATAKA

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    Mannapur

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity are the fifth leading risk of global deaths. Once considered a high income country problem, overweight and obesity are now raising in low income and middle income countries especially in urban settings . OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of obesity in school children and to identify the factors influencing childhood obesity. MATERIALS AND METHOD S: The present study has been undertaken at one of the school of Vidyagiri, Bagalkot. The duration of study was during March to August 2014 for a period of two months. A total of 750 students from standard V to X, aged between 10 - 15 year s had been enrolled in the study. It is a Cross - sectional descriptive study Obesity was assessed by BMI for age. Body mass index (BMI was calculated as body weight in kilograms/height in meter square. The children were categorized into obese and non - obese by using K.N. Agarwal percentiles, children with 95th Percentile of BMI is taken as cut - off point. Children with BMI more than this cut - off point with respect to age and sex is considered as obese. The association of each of the variables with obesity was assessed with the Chi - square test. RESULTS: 22.53% of the children had family history of obesity. The total prevalence of obesity was 2.80%. The Prevalence of obesity among male was 2.01% and in female it was 0.79%. The association between obesity in chil dren and family H/O obesity, Diabetes, frequency of outdoor games, number of high energy food intake and education of mother is found to be statistically significant

  8. EFFECTS OF PUBERTAL ALIMENTARY OBESITY ON REPRODUCTIVE ORGAN DEVELOPMENT AND FERTILITY OF MALE RATS%青春期营养性肥胖对雄性大鼠生殖器官发育及生育能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张璇; 张玉敏; 裴秀丛; 马明月; 段志文

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究青春期营养性肥胖对雄性大鼠生殖器官发育及生殖能力的影响。方法使用高脂高能量饲料喂饲4周龄Wistar雄性大鼠,制作青春期营养性肥胖模型,饲喂8周后检查大鼠生殖器官发育情况并进行病理组织学检测,采用酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA )法检测血清睾酮、雌二醇含量,计数精子总数及活动率;按1︰2比例与雌鼠合笼1周,检测雄鼠交配指数和生育指数,并对胎鼠发育情况进行检查。结果模型组大鼠睾丸脏器系数明显低于对照组(P<0.05),光镜下发现模型组生精小管管壁变薄、细胞数减少、细胞排列紊乱;血清睾酮含量明显低于对照组(P<0.01);生育指数低于对照组(P<0.05);二组精子总数、活动率、血清雌二醇含量、交配指数、胎鼠各项发育指标比较差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论肥胖可影响大鼠睾丸发育,致血清睾酮含量降低、生育指数下降;但未观察到对胎鼠发育的影响。%Objective To observe the effects of pubertal alimentary obesity on reproductive organ develop‐ment and fertility of male rats .Methods The pubertal alimentary obesity model was made by feeding 4 weeks old male Wistar rats with high fat feeds ,then the development of reproductive organ was checked , pathological detection was done ,serum testosterone and estradiol concentration was tested by ELISA es‐say ,the total number of sperm and activity rate was counted .The copulation and fertility index of male rats was detected and the development of fetal rats was measured after mating of the male with female(propor‐tion 1∶2) for 1 week .Results The organ coefficient of testis in obesity group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P<0 .05) ,light microscopy examination founds that seminiferous tubule wall be‐come thinner ,number of cells reduced and disorder in cells arrangement was

  9. Environmental Phenols And Pubertal Development In Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Mary S.; Teitelbaum, Susan L.; McGovern, Kathleen; Pinney, Susan M.; Windham, Gayle C.; Galvez, Maida; Pajak, Ashley; Rybak, Michael; Calafat, Antonia M.; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Biro, Frank M.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental exposures to many phenols are documented worldwide and exposures can be quite high (>1 micromolar of urine metabolites). Phenols have a range of hormonal activity, but knowledge of effects on child reproductive development is limited, coming mostly from cross-sectional studies. We undertook a prospective study of pubertal development among 1239 girls recruited at three U.S. sites when they were 6–8 years old and were followed annually for 7 years to determine age at first breast or pubic hair development. Ten phenols were measured in urine collected at enrollment (benzophenone-3, enterolactone, bisphenol A, three parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-), 2,5-dichlorophenol, triclosan, genistein, daidzein). We used multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazards ratios (HR (95% confidence intervals)) and Kaplan-Meier survival analyses to estimate relative risk of earlier or later age at puberty associated with phenol exposures. For enterolactone and benzophenone-3, girls experienced breast development 5–6 months later, adjusted HR 0.79 (0.64–0.98) and HR 0.80 (0.65–0.98) respectively for the 5th vs 1st quintiles of urinary biomarkers (μg/g-creatinine). Earlier breast development was seen for triclosan and 2,5- dichlorophenol: 4–9 months sooner for 5th vs 1st quintiles of urinary concentrations (HR 1.17 (0.96–1.43) and HR 1.37 (1.09–1.72), respectively). Association of breast development with enterolactone, but not the other three phenols, was mediated by body size. These phenols may be antiadipogens (benzophenone-3 and enterolactone) or thyroid agonists (triclosan and 2,5- dichlorophenol), and their ubiquity and relatively high levels in children would benefit from further investigation to confirm these findings and to establish whether there are certain windows of susceptibility during which exposure can affect pubertal development. PMID:26335517

  10. Overweight and obesity at school entry among migrant and German children: a cross-sectional study

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    Zeeb Hajo

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity have become a global epidemic and are increasing rapidly in both childhood and adolescence. Obesity is linked both to socioeconomic status and to ethnicity among adults. It is unclear whether similar associations exist in childhood. The aim of the present study was to assess differences in overweight and obesity in migrant and German children at school entry. Methods The body mass index (BMI was calculated for 525 children attending the 2002 compulsory pre-school medical examinations in 12 schools in Bielefeld, Germany. We applied international BMI cut off points for overweight and obesity by sex and age. The migration status of children was based on sociodemographic data obtained from parents who were interviewed separately. Results The overall prevalence of overweight in children aged 6–7 was 11.9% (overweight incl. obesity, the obesity prevalence was 2.5%. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher for migrant children (14.7% and 3.1% than for German children (9.1% and 1.9%. When stratified by parental social status, migrant children had a significantly higher prevalence of overweight than German children in the highest social class. (27.6% vs. 10.0%, p = 0.032 Regression models including country/region and socioeconomic status as independent variables indicated similar results. The patterns of overweight among migrant children differed only slightly depending on duration of stay of their family in Germany. Conclusion Our data indicate that children from ethnic minorities in Germany are more frequently overweight or obese than German children. Social class as well as family duration of stay after immigration influence the pattern of overweight and obesity in children at school entry.

  11. Nutrition and Immune System in Children with Simple Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwonogrodzka-Senczyna, Aneta; Janusz, Malgorzata; Jeznach-Steinhagen, Anna; Demkow, Urszula; Pyrzak, Beata

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate dietary factors in nutrition influencing the immune system of children and teenagers suffering from simple obesity. The study involved 100 children and teenagers aged 7-18 with simple obesity. Nutritional data were obtained from 3-day food records. The consumed nutrients, including immunomodulators and immunostimulants, were estimated based on the nutrition interview. The results were compared with the nutritional norms. On average, the proportion of n-6:n-3 fatty acids equalled 10:1. Among the amino acids, the highest intake values in the diet were observed for glutamine (13,694.6 mg/day). The study demonstrates inadequate intake levels of iron (73% of recommended dietary allowance, RDA), vitamin C (65% of RDA), and vitamin D (11% of RDA) taking into account the median values for the entire study group. The median daily intake of other nutrients exceeded the RDA values. The diets of the participants in this study were not properly balanced with respect to immunomodulators, which may contribute to the occurrence of immunological disorders and immunodeficiency in this group of patients.

  12. Obesity in young children with autism spectrum disorders: prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Anna M; Dreyer, Meredith L; Odar, Cathleen C; Beckwith, Malia; Garrison, Carol B

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify rates of overweight and obesity in young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and factors related to overweight. Retrospective chart reviews were conducted for 273 children with ASD [i.e., autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS)] after receiving outpatient services with a developmental pediatrician or the developmental team at a children's hospital. Information on child demographics, height and weight, medications prescribed, and adaptive functioning was collected from charts. Rates of overweight and obesity in children with ASD were found to be above nationally representative prevalence estimates for children. Among children with autistic disorder, 17.16% had a body mass index (BMI) percentile in the overweight range and 21.89% had a BMI percentile in the obese range. For children with Asperger's disorder/PDD-NOS, 12.50% were considered overweight and 10.58% were considered obese. Neither psychotropic medications prescribed nor adaptive functioning was found to be related to whether the child was overweight or obese. Children with ASD are at risk for overweight and obesity, and children with autistic disorder are at greater risk for weight problems than children with Asperger's disorder/PDD-NOS. Further research is needed to identify factors related to overweight in children with ASD.

  13. Electro convulsive therapy in a pre-pubertal child with severe depression.

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    Russell P

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Electro Convulsive Therapy (ECT in pre-pubertal children is a controversial and underreported treatment. Even though the effectiveness and side effects of ECT in adolescents are comparable with those in adults, there is a pervasive reluctance to use ECT in children and adolescents. We report the case of a pre-pubertal child in an episode of severe depression with catatonic features, where a protracted course of ECT proved life-saving in spite of prolonged duration of seizures and delayed response to treatment. The case illustrates the safety and efficacy of ECT in children. Relevant literature is also reviewed along with the case report.

  14. Body dissatisfaction, self-esteem, and depression in obese Korean children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Na Young; Shin, Min Sup

    2008-04-01

    To investigate the relationship between obesity and psychological well being in children and to examine the mediation effect of body dissatisfaction on mental health of obese Korean children. A total of 413 Korean children in grades 5 and 6 from 3 elementary schools completed self-reporting questionnaires on body dissatisfaction, self-esteem, and level of depressive symptoms. A sex-specific body mass index for age at or the above the 95th percentile was defined as obese, and that between the 85th and 94th percentiles was defined as overweight. Obese children demonstrated higher body dissatisfaction and lower self-esteem than normal weight and overweight peers (P = 0 and .008, respectively), but not more depression. Body dissatisfaction mediated the association between obesity and self-esteem. The obese children with body dissatisfaction had significantly lower self-esteem and higher levels of depressive symptoms than the obese children without body dissatisfaction and normal weight children (P = 0). Our findings suggest that childhood obesity may be linked to body dissatisfaction, leading to low self-esteem and high levels of depressive symptoms.

  15. The Association of Overweight and Obesity with Blood Pressure among Chinese Children and Adolescents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Bin; MA Jun; WANG Hai Jun; WANG Zhi Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between obesity and high blood pressure (BP) in Chinese children and adolescents. Methods Body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure measurements of 197 191 children aged 7-17 years were obtained from a Chinese national survey in 2010. Obesity and high BP were defined according to the reference values for Chinese children. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95%confidence intervals (CIs) of different BMI categories for high BP, as well as the population attributable risk percent (PAR%), were also calculated. Results The prevalence of high BP was 16.1% for boys and 12.9%for girls in 2010. Overweight and obese children had a significantly higher prevalence of high BP than non-overweight children in both boys and girls in each age group. ORs (95%CI) for high BP were 4.1 (3.9, 4.4) in obese boys and 4.0 (3.7, 4.3) in obese girls. The overall PAR%for high BP due to overweight and obesity was 14.4%. Conclusion Overweight and obese children have a significantly higher risk of high BP than non-overweight children. Eliminating overweight and obesity could reduce 14.4%of high BP cases.

  16. Decreasing Prevalence of Obesity Among Young Children in Massachusetts From 2004 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, Matthew W.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Sherry, Bettylou; Kleinman, Ken; Taveras, Elsie M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the obesity prevalence is increasing, level, or decreasing among young US children (aged children) at a multisite pediatric practice in eastern Massachusetts during 1999–2008. By using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2000 gender-specific growth charts, we defined obesity as weight-for-length ≥95th percentile for children aged children aged 24 to obesity trends in 2 separate periods, 1999–2003 and 2004–2008, adjusting for age group, race/ethnicity, health insurance, and practice site. RESULTS: From 1999 to 2003, the obesity prevalence was fairly stable among both boys and girls. From 2004 to 2008, the obesity prevalence substantially decreased among both boys and girls. The decline in obesity prevalence during 2004–2008 was more pronounced among children insured by non-Medicaid health plans than among those insured by Medicaid. CONCLUSIONS: Among children aged obesity prevalence decreased during 2004–2008, which is in line with national data showing no increase in prevalence during this time period. The smaller decrease among Medicaid-insured children may portend widening of socioeconomic disparities in childhood obesity. PMID:22529276

  17. How low-income mothers with overweight preschool children make sense of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Cayce C; Sherman, Susan N; Whitaker, Robert C

    2010-04-01

    Epidemiologic and qualitative studies have found that most mothers with overweight preschool children do not think their children are overweight. This might present a challenge for clinicians who wish to address obesity in young children. To understand mothers' perceptions of their overweight children's weight, we conducted semistructured interviews with 21 mothers of overweight preschool children enrolled in Kentucky's Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children. Although these mothers did not label their children as overweight, they were worried about children's weight, particularly as it related to their emotional well-being. These worries about obesity were reflected in three central tensions that shaped the way mothers perceived their children's weight and informed maternal feeding strategies: (a) nature vs. nurture, (b) medical authority vs. lived experience, and (c) relieving immediate stress vs. preventing long-term consequences. Acknowledging mothers' concerns and tensions might help clinicians communicate more effectively with them about obesity.

  18. Prevalence of obesity in elementary school children and its association with dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsi, Deema J; Elkhodary, Heba M; Merdad, Leena A; Farsi, Najat M A; Alaki, Sumer M; Alamoudi, Najlaa M; Bakhaidar, Haneen A; Alolayyan, Mohammed A

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the prevalence of obesity among elementary school children and to examine the association between obesity and caries activity in the mixed dentition stage. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between September 2014 and June 2015 using a multi-stage stratified sample of 915 elementary school children (482 boys, 433 girls) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Anthropometric measurements, consisting of height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC), were obtained. Children were classified as underweight/healthy, overweight, or obese and as non-obese or obese according to their BMI and WC, respectively. Each child's caries experience was assessed using the decay score in the primary and permanent teeth. Results: Based on BMI, 18% of children were obese, 18% were overweight, and 64% were underweight/normal. Based on WC, 16% of children were obese, and 84% were non-obese. Girls had a significantly higher prevalence of obesity based on WC measurements (p less than 0.001), but not BMI. Children enrolled in private schools had a significantly higher prevalence of obesity (p less than 0.05) than those in public schools. For primary and permanent teeth combined, children with higher BMI and WC had a lower prevalence of caries (p less than 0.05). Conclusion: The prevalence of obesity was high among male and female elementary school children. Overall caries activity was inversely proportional to BMI and WC.

  19. Hispanic parents of overweight and obese children and their outcome expectations for children's television viewing: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Rio Rodriguez, Betty; Hilmers, Angela; O'Connor, Teresia M

    2013-01-01

    Explore parental outcome expectations (OE) regarding children's television (TV) viewing among parents of overweight or obese children. Qualitative study using semi-structured interviews with 20 parents of 5- to 8-year-old overweight or obese children. Parent's positive OE for allowing TV viewing were the convenience of using TV for entertainment or as a babysitter. Hispanic parents would limit children's TV viewing to improve their children's health, restrict content, and promote other activities. Negative OE such as children misbehavior and the loss of positive OE for allowing TV emerged as reasons parents may not limit TV. Although Hispanic parents expected to improve their child's health by limiting TV, the negative OE may prevent them from doing so. Interventions targeting children's TV viewing, as a strategy to fight childhood obesity, may be more effective if they promote parent's positive OE and address parent's negative OE for children's TV viewing. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Prevalence and geographic variation of abdominal obesity in 7- and 9-year-old children in Greece; World Health Organization Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassapidou, Maria; Tzotzas, Themistoklis; Makri, Evangelia; Pagkalos, Ioannis; Kaklamanos, Ioannis; Kapantais, Efthymios; Abrahamian, Annet; Polymeris, Antonis; Tziomalos, Konstantinos

    2017-01-28

    In children, abdominal obesity is a better predictor of the presence of cardiovascular risk factors than body mass index (BMI)-defined obesity. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of abdominal obesity in the Greek pediatric population and to assess the impact of residence on the prevalence of both BMI-defined and abdominal obesity. In the context of the Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative of the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe, a national representative sample of 7.0-7.9 and 9.0-9.9-year-old children was evaluated (n = 2,531 and 2,700, respectively). Overweight and obesity according to BMI were estimated using both the WHO and International Obesity Task Force cut-off points. Abdominal obesity was defined as waist circumference/height ratio >0.5. The prevalence of abdominal obesity did not differ between 7-year-old boys and girls (25.2 and 25.3%, respectively; p = NS). Among 9-year-old children, abdominal obesity was more prevalent in boys than in girls (33.2 and 28.2%, respectively; p = 0.005). Among normal weight and overweight children, the prevalence of abdominal obesity was 1.6-6.8 and 21.8-49.1%, respectively. The prevalence of abdominal and BMI-defined obesity did not differ between children living in the mainland, in Crete and in other islands except in 7-year-old girls, where the prevalence of BMI-defined obesity was highest in those living in Crete, intermediate in those living in other islands and lowest in those living in the mainland. In 9-year-old boys and in 7- and 9-year-old girls, the prevalence of abdominal obesity was highest in children living in Athens and lowest in children living in Thessaloniki, whereas children living in other cities and in villages showed intermediate rates. The prevalence of abdominal obesity in 7-year-old boys and the prevalence of BMI-defined obesity did not differ between children living in cities and villages. The prevalence of pediatric abdominal obesity in Greece is among

  1. [Morphofunctional condition of the pancreas in children and teenagers with obesity and metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokova, T A; Ursova, N I; Rimarchuk, G V; Lebedeva, A V

    2008-01-01

    30 childs and teenagers (6- 15-years-old) were examined (16 boys and 14 girls). The signs of metabolic syndrome were revealed in 13 persons (43%) (VOZ, 1999). Echogenicity of pancreatic acinar tissue was reinforced in all persons with obesity, (80%) hyperechogenic inclusions were observed in 67% of the patients. Trustworthy correlation of the pancreatic head size, pancreatic tail size and the obesity degree as well as the disease duration was demonstrated. Postprandial pancreatic reaction was reduced in the most part of the patients with obesity (77%). Postprandial pancreatic reaction was more significantly reduced in the children with obesity and metabolic syndrome than in the children with obesity, who hasn't the signs of metabolic syndrome (15,3% and 7,5%). So, it is necessary the special examination of the children with obesity to reveal chronic pancreatitis.

  2. Prevalence of obesity among the school-going children of Lahore and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Adeel; Anwar, Faisal; Joiya, Habib Ullah; Ijaz, Azhar; Rashid, Haroon; Javaid, Atif; Mehmood, Moazam

    2010-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of obesity among the school- going children (6th and 7th grade) of Lahore and ascertain the associated factors. A descriptive study with sample size of 293 children conducted over a period of four months in two private sector schools of Lahore. Information was gathered by the help of a pre designed questionnaire after getting formal consent from parents. Children included in the study were healthy with no reported chronic illness. Body weight was measured in minimal clothing using a weight scale; body height was measured in erect posture without shoes using a stadiometer. Obesity, underweight and overweight were defined by plotting BMI against age (in months and years) on WHO BMI-for-age (5-19 years [percentiles]) charts. Out of 293 children 11.9% were obese (more than 97th percentile) while 21.8% were overweight (85th-97th percentile). Among obese children 74.3% were found to watch TV for 1-2 hours daily while 25.7% watch TV for 3-4 hours. 48.6% of obese children did not participate in any field sports while 34.3% have less than 3 hours participation in field sports. Among parents of obese children, 60% were found to have little or no influence on their children's food intake at school whereas 22.9% parents of obese children never advise them against eating junk food. Parents think that ban on advertisements promoting unhealthy foods (75.1%) and use of popular media characters in promoting healthy foods (83.6%) and exercise can help in preventing obesity in children. This study shows that high prevalence of obesity and overweight among children in private schools has direct relationship with decreased physical activity and other factors like watching TV, role of media and lack of diet control by parents.

  3. Contribution of Common Genetic Variants to Obesity and Obesity-Related Traits in Mexican Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos-Comparán, Marisela; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; López-Contreras, Blanca; Gutiérrez-Vidal, Roxana; Vega-Badillo, Joel; Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Posadas-Romeros, Carlos; Canizalez-Román, Adrián; Río-Navarro, Blanca Del; Campos-Pérez, Francisco; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Background Several studies have identified multiple obesity-associated loci mainly in European populations. However, their contribution to obesity in other ethnicities such as Mexicans is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to examine 26 obesity-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in a sample of Mexican mestizos. Methods 9 SNPs in biological candidate genes showing replications (PPARG, ADRB3, ADRB2, LEPR, GNB3, UCP3, ADIPOQ, UCP2, and NR3C1), and 17 SNPs in or near genes associated with obesity in first, second and third wave GWAS (INSIG2, FTO, MC4R, TMEM18, FAIM2/BCDIN3, BDNF, SH2B1, GNPDA2, NEGR1, KCTD15, SEC16B/RASAL2, NPC1, SFRF10/ETV5, MAF, PRL, MTCH2, and PTER) were genotyped in 1,156 unrelated Mexican-Mestizos including 683 cases (441 obese class I/II and 242 obese class III) and 473 normal-weight controls. In a second stage we selected 12 of the SNPs showing nominal associations with obesity, to seek associations with quantitative obesity-related traits in 3 cohorts including 1,218 Mexican Mestizo children, 945 Mexican Mestizo adults, and 543 Indigenous Mexican adults. Results After adjusting for age, sex and admixture, significant associations with obesity were found for 6 genes in the case-control study (ADIPOQ, FTO, TMEM18, INSIG2, FAIM2/BCDIN3 and BDNF). In addition, SH2B1 was associated only with class I/II obesity and MC4R only with class III obesity. SNPs located at or near FAIM2/BCDIN3, TMEM18, INSIG2, GNPDA2 and SEC16B/RASAL2 were significantly associated with BMI and/or WC in the combined analysis of Mexican-mestizo children and adults, and FTO locus was significantly associated with increased BMI in Indigenous Mexican populations. Conclusions Our findings replicate the association of 8 obesity-related SNPs with obesity risk in Mexican adults, and confirm the role of some of these SNPs in BMI in Mexican adults and children. PMID:23950976

  4. Obesity prevalence among low-income, preschool-aged children - United States, 1998-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-24

    Childhood obesity continues to be a leading public health concern that disproportionately affects low-income and minority children. Children who are obese in their preschool years are more likely to be obese in adolescence and adulthood and to develop diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, asthma, and sleep apnea. One of the Healthy People 2010 objectives (19-3) is to reduce to 5% the proportion of children and adolescents who are obese. CDC's Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System (PedNSS) is the only source of nationally compiled obesity surveillance data obtained at the state and local level for low-income, preschool-aged children participating in federally funded health and nutrition programs. To describe progress in reducing childhood obesity, CDC examined trends and current prevalence in obesity using PedNSS data submitted by participating states, territories, and Indian tribal organizations during 1998-2008. The findings indicated that obesity prevalence among low-income, preschool-aged children increased steadily from 12.4% in 1998 to 14.5% in 2003, but subsequently remained essentially the same, with a 14.6% prevalence in 2008. Reducing childhood obesity will require effective prevention strategies that focus on environments and policies promoting physical activity and a healthy diet for families, child care centers, and communities.

  5. Prevalence of obesity in elementary school children and its association with dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsi, Deema J.; Elkhodary, Heba M.; Merdad, Leena A.; Farsi, Najat M.A.; Alaki, Sumer M.; Alamoudi, Najlaa M.; Bakhaidar, Haneen A.; Alolayyan, Mohammed A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the prevalence of obesity among elementary school children and to examine the association between obesity and caries activity in the mixed dentition stage. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between September 2014 and June 2015 using a multi-stage stratified sample of 915 elementary school children (482 boys, 433 girls) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Anthropometric measurements, consisting of height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC), were obtained. Children were classified as underweight/healthy, overweight, or obese and as non-obese or obese according to their BMI and WC, respectively. Each child’s caries experience was assessed using the decay score in the primary and permanent teeth. Results Based on BMI, 18% of children were obese, 18% were overweight, and 64% were underweight/normal. Based on WC, 16% of children were obese, and 84% were non-obese. Girls had a significantly higher prevalence of obesity based on WC measurements (pcaries (pcaries activity was inversely proportional to BMI and WC. PMID:27874156

  6. Reliability of Common Lower Extremity Biomechanical Measures of Children With and Without Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jennifer; Moore, Megan; Rooy, Julie; Wright, Amy; Rothschild, Carey; Werk, Lloyd N

    2015-01-01

    To determine intrarater and interrater reliability of common measures of lower extremity alignment among children with obesity. The Craig test for femoral anteversion, tibiofemoral angle, Foot Posture Index-6, and sit-and-reach test were performed on 25 children without obesity and 25 children with obesity. Intrarater reliability of all measures in both groups was high. The Craig test demonstrated greatest variability with slight interrater reliability in children who were nonobese [intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] (95% confidence interval [CI]), 0.372 (-0.051 to 0.6420)] and moderate reliability in children who were obese [ICC (95% CI), 0.527 (0.242 to 0.717)]. Interrater reliability for the tibiofemoral angle and Foot Posture Index-6 was moderate to substantial and for the sit-and-reach test was substantial (ICC >0.99) and highly correlated. Measurement of lower extremity alignment among children with obesity was more reproducible than among children who were not obese. Measures of lower extremity alignment and general flexibility in children with obesity are both reproducible and reliable.

  7. Knowledge and attitudes towards obesity among primary school children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina A Njelekela

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood obesity has increased over the past two decades. Child obesity is likely to persist through adulthood and increases the risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs later in life. This study assessed knowledge and attitudes towards obesity among primary school children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in randomly selected primary schools in Dar es Salaam. A structured questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge and attitudes. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were taken using standard procedures. Results: A total of 446 children were included in the analysis. The mean age of the participants was 11.1 ± 2.0 years. The mean body mass index (BMI, systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP were 16.6 ± 4.0 kg/m 2 , 103.9 ± 10.3 mmHg and 65.6 ± 8.2 mmHg, respectively. Prevalence of obesity (defined as BMI >95 th percentile for age and sex was 5.2%. Half of the children (51.1% had heard about obesity from teachers at school (20%, radio (19.4% and books/newspaper (17.3%. Less than half (45.4% had knowledge about the risk factors for childhood obesity and correctly defined obesity (44.6%. However, a good number of the children (72.1% were aware that they can be affected by obesity. Majority of them had negative attitude towards obesity and various factors leading to or resulting from childhood obesity. Conclusions: Knowledge about childhood obesity among primary school children is moderate and have negative attitude towards obesity. Integrating educational programs early in primary schools may be an effective strategy to impact knowledge about obesity and other non-communicable diseases early in childhood.

  8. [Analysis on awareness of obesity risk factors among children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lian-guo; Wang, Hai-jun; Yang, Yi-de; Li, Xiao-hui; Wang, Shuo; Meng, Xiang-kun; Wang, Zheng-he; Ma, Jun

    2015-06-18

    To analyze the awareness rate of obesity risk factors among children and adolescents, and to provide the basis for preventing their obesity. The students selected by using stratified cluster sampling method, were measured for the body height, weight, and waist circumference, and were surveyed for the awareness rate of obesity risk factors by using the questionnaire. The distribution characteristics of awareness on obesity risk factors were analyzed. The awareness rate of obesity risk factors was 74.1%, and there was no significant difference on the awareness rate of obesity risk factors between the males [71.2% (247/347)] and females [77.2% (257/333)], the abdominal obesity students [73.5% (202/275)] and non-abdominal obesity students [74.6% (302/405)], the overall obesity students [74.3% (185/249)] and non-overall obesity students [74.0% (319/431)], respectively. However, the awareness rate of obesity risk factors among the primary school students was 81.9% (272/332) that was higher than that of the middle school students [66.7% (232/348)] (Prisk of obesity risk factors would increase among the middle school students (OR=2.23, Pobesity risk factors is not high among children and adolescents, especially among middle school students.

  9. Cardiometabolic Risks and Severity of Obesity in Children and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Asheley C; Perrin, Eliana M; Moss, Leslie A; Skelton, Joseph A

    2015-10-01

    The prevalence of severe obesity among children and young adults has increased over the past decade. Although the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors is relatively low among children and young adults who are overweight or obese, those with more severe forms of obesity may be at greater risk. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from overweight or obese children and young adults 3 to 19 years of age who were included in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1999 through 2012 to assess the prevalence of multiple cardiometabolic risk factors according to the severity of obesity. Weight status was classified on the basis of measured height and weight. We used standard definitions of abnormal values for total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure, glycated hemoglobin, and fasting glucose and report the prevalence of abnormal values in children and young adults according to weight status. Among 8579 children and young adults with a body-mass index at the 85th percentile or higher (according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts), 46.9% were overweight, 36.4% had class I obesity, 11.9% had class II obesity, and 4.8% had class III obesity. Mean values for some, but not all, cardiometabolic variables were higher with greater severity of obesity in both male and female participants, and the values were higher in male participants than in female participants; for HDL cholesterol, the mean values were lower with greater severity of obesity. Multivariable models that controlled for age, race or ethnic group, and sex showed that the greater the severity of obesity, the higher the risks of a low HDL cholesterol level, high systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and high triglyceride and glycated hemoglobin levels. Severe obesity in children and young adults was associated with an increased prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors

  10. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with low bone mineral density in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardee, P E; Dunn, W; Schwimmer, J B

    2012-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children. Liver disease can be a cause of low bone mineral density. Whether or not NAFLD influences bone health is not known. To evaluate bone mineral density in obese children with and without NAFLD. Thirty-eight children with biopsy-proven NAFLD were matched for age, gender, race, ethnicity, height and weight to children without evidence of liver disease from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Bone mineral density was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Age and gender-specific bone mineral density Z-scores were calculated and compared between children with and without NAFLD. After controlling for age, gender, race, ethnicity and total per cent body fat, the relationship between bone mineral density and the severity of histology was analysed in children with NAFLD. Obese children with NAFLD had significantly (P obese children without NAFLD (0.48). Forty-five per cent of children with NAFLD had low-bone mineral density for age, compared to none of the children without NAFLD (P children with NAFLD, children with NASH had a significantly (P children with NAFLD who did not have NASH (-1.58). The NAFLD was associated with poor bone health in obese children. More severe disease was associated with lower bone mineralisation. Further studies are needed to evaluate the underlying mechanisms and consequences of poor bone mineralisation in children with NAFLD. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Association Between Urinary Phthalates and Pubertal Timing in Chinese Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijing Shi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phthalates are synthetic chemicals and ubiquitous environmental contaminants, with hormonal activity that may alter the course of pubertal development in children. Objectives: To determine whether exposure to phthalate metabolites is associated with timing of pubertal development in a cross-sectional study of a school-based clustered sample of 503 children from a suburban district in Shanghai, China, who were 7–14 years of age at enrollment (2010 October to November. Methods: We analyzed six phthalate metabolites in urine samples by isotope-dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The associations of exposures to phthalates with pubertal timing of testes, breast, and pubic hair development (represented as Tanner stages were evaluated using an ordered logistic regression model adjusted for chronological age, body fat proportion (BF%, and parental education. Results: In boys, urinary mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP levels were negatively associated with testicular volume, and mono (2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate (MEHHP and mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate (MEOHP levels were negatively associated with pubic hair stages. The odds of being in an advanced stage were decreased by 43%–51%. In girls, mono (2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP, MEHHP, and MEOHP levels, as well as the sum of these levels, were positively associated with breast stages, and the association was much stronger in girls with high BF%; the odds of being in an advanced stage were increase by 29% to 50%. Conclusions: Phthalate metabolites investigated in this study show significant associations with pubertal timing both in boys and in girls, especially among girls with high BF%.

  12. Relationship between obesity and asthma symptoms among children in Ahvaz, Iran: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alipoor Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity has been identified as a risk factor for higher prevalence of asthma and asthma-related symptoms in children. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the prevalence of asthma symptoms and obesity among school-age children in the city of Ahvaz, Iran. Methods A total of 903 children, 7 to 11 years of age, were enrolled in this study through cluster sampling. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC questionnaire was used to identify the children who were currently suffering from asthma. Height and weight were measured and body mass index (BMI was calculated in kg/m2. Overweight was defined as BMI greater than the age- and sex-specific 85th percentile, and obesity as BMI greater than the 95th percentile. We determined the relationship between obesity and asthma symptoms by chi-square tests. Results The prevalence of wheeze ever, current wheezing, obesity, and overweight was 21.56%, 8.7%, 6.87%, and 9.5%, respectively. The current prevalence of wheezing among obese and overweight children was 68.75% and 37%, respectively, and there was a statistical association between obesity and the prevalence of current wheezing (p Conclusion There is a strong association between asthma symptoms and both overweight and obesity in both sexes among school-age children.

  13. Prevalence and characteristics of overweight and obesity in indigenous Australian children: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Suzanne Marie; Gomersall, Judith Streak; Smithers, Lisa Gaye; Davy, Carol; Coleman, Dylan T; Street, Jackie Mary

    2017-05-03

    Evidence-based profiling of obesity and overweight in Indigenous Australian children has been poor. This study systematically reviewed evidence of the prevalence and patterns of obesity/overweight, with respect to gender, age, remoteness, and birth weight, in Indigenous Australian children, 0-18 years (PROSPERO CRD42014007626). Study quality and risk of bias were assessed. Twenty-five publications (21 studies) met inclusion criteria, with large variations in prevalence for obesity or overweight (11 to 54%) reported. A high degree of heterogeneity in study design was observed, few studies (6/21) were representative of the target population, and few appropriately recruited Indigenous children (8/21). Variability in study design, conduct, and small sample sizes mean that it is not possible to derive a single estimate for prevalence although two high-quality studies indicate at least one in four Indigenous Australian children are overweight or obese. Four of six studies reporting on gender, found overweight/obesity higher in girls and eight studies reporting on overweight/obesity by age suggest prevalence increases with age with one high quality large national study reporting total overweight/obesity as 22.4% of children aged 2-4 years, 27.5% of those aged 5-9, 38.5% aged 10-14, and 36.3% aged 15-17. Three of four studies, reporting obesity/overweight by region, found lower rates for children living in more remote areas than urban areas.

  14. Severe obesity and high blood pressure among children, Philadelphia health centers, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, John V; Robbins, Jessica M; Houck, Kevin L; Nobis, Elizabeth A; Inman, Katelyn A; Khan, Khudsiya S; Robbins, Susan W

    2014-04-01

    Child obesity is a major health problem particularly affecting disadvantaged population groups. Severe obesity carries additional health risks for children. In the context of the childhood obesity epidemic, high blood pressure among children is of increasing concern. Chart reviews were carried out to examine the prevalence of severe obesity and its association with high blood pressure measurements among randomly selected patients aged 3 to 17 years who had well-child care visits at 8 public community health centers during 2010. A majority of the 691 patients reviewed were African American (58%); an additional 16% were Hispanic. The prevalence of severe obesity was 7.7% (95% confidence interval = 5.8% to 9.9%) and the prevalence of high blood pressure measurements was 17.5% (95% confidence interval = 14.8% to 20.6%). Patients who were severely obese were more than twice as likely as other children to have high blood pressure values. Severe obesity is associated with substantially increased frequency of high blood pressure measurements in children, and should be investigated further as a potential marker for hypertension in children. Primary care providers should be prepared to diagnose and treat hypertension in severely obese children.

  15. Obese children and their families – barriers and opportunities for change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    the last two decades, childhood obesity in Europe has increased threefold. The evidence shows that obesity is a complex issue which has serious health and social consequences for many of the children affected. Physiological as well as psychological and social factors play a role, and a great number...... opportunities and barriers with regard to changing the lifestyle of obese children and achieving permanent weight loss. We present a range of projects dealing with obese children and their families, based on unique collaboration involving educational institutions, hospitals, municipalities, sports clubs...... behaviour and resisting temptation. 4th presentation: Student participation in projects and spin-off. 5th presentation: Significant factors in achieving sustained weight loss in the treatment of children with obesity....

  16. Movement skill mastery in a clinical sample of overweight and obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff, Dylan P; Okely, Anthony D; Magarey, Anthea M

    2011-10-01

    This study describes the prevalence of fundamental movement skill (FMS) mastery and advanced skill proficiency among treatment-seeking 6-10-year old children with overweight/obesity. A total of 132 participants (8.4 ± 1.0 years, BMI 24.2 ± 3.1 kg/m(2), 55% female, 76.5% obese) were assessed on 12 FMS and compared with a normative sample. The prevalence of FMS mastery was significantly lower among children categorized as overweight/obese for all skills across all age groups (all p children categorized as overweight/obese. Physical activity programs designed for children with overweight/obesity need to address deficiencies in FMS proficiency as part of an overall strategy to promote physical activity participation.

  17. Impact of obesity on kidney function and blood pressure in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wei; Cheung, Wai W; Mak, Robert H

    2015-05-06

    In recent years, obesity has become an increasingly important epidemic health problem in children and adolescents. The prevalence of the overweight status in children grew from 5% to 11% from 1960s to 1990s. The epidemic of obesity has been paralleled by an increase in the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hypertension. Results of several studies have demonstrated that obesity and metabolic syndrome were independent predictors of renal injury. The pathophysiology of obesity related hypertension is complex, including activation of sympathetic nervous system, renin angiotensin aldosterone system, hyperinsulinemia and inflammation. These same mechanisms likely contribute to the development of increased blood pressure in children. This review summarizes the recent epidemiologic data linking obesity with CKD and hypertension in children, as well as the potential mechanisms.

  18. Determining factors of overweight and obesity in children at school age in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Mispireta, Monica L; Division of Health Sciences, Idaho State University. Idaho, EE.UU. Médico maestra en Ciencias de la Salud.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity in children at school age is an increasing problem in Peru. It concentrates in urban areas, mainly in Lima where one out of three children is overweight. An initial study in 80 schools in Lima showed that the lack of physical activity would have a greater impact on overweight and obesity in school children than the amount of food intake. More detailed studies are required. In spite of the limited information available regarding its determining factors, it is necessary to implement...

  19. Physical activity correlates of overweight and obesity in school-going children of Dehradun, Uttarakhand

    OpenAIRE

    Madhavi Bhargava; S D Kandpal; Pradeep Aggarwal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical activity is important for prevention of overweight and obesity in growing children. Objective: The present study aims to explore the association of overweight and obesity in school children of the district of Dehradun with physical activity, sports, and recreation at home and school. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 1266 schoolchildren of select private and government schools in urban and rural areas was done. Results: Overall 15.6% of children were over...

  20. [Consumptions of Meat and Dairy Products, Zinc Intake and Pubertal Development in Adolescents in Chengdu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiao; Yang, Ming-zhe; Duan, Ruo-nan; Tian, Guo; Bao, Yu-xin; Chen, Yan-rong; Xue, Hong-mei; Liu, Yan; Cheng, Guo

    2015-09-01

    To determine the associations between meat, dairy and zinc intake and pubertal development in adolescents in Chengdu. A total of 1320 children and adolescents aged 9-15 years in Chengdu were recruited using a stratified cluster sampling strategy. Dietary intake was assessed by the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and 3-day 24-hour dietary recall. Pubertal development was evaluated through physical examinations. Consumptions of meat and dairy, and zinc intake were compared between groups with different levels of pubertal development according to the Tanner criteria. The median age of spermarche was 13. 00 years. The boys who had had spermarche consumed more meat (including red meat) and dairy products than those who had not yet (Pmeat was positively correlated with the level of pubertal development (Pmeat and less diiry products than those who had not yet (Pproducts was negatively associated with breast development and the level of pubertal development (P meat, red meat and dairy products are associated with pubertal development in adolescents in Chengdu. However, the differences between boys and girls warrant further studies.

  1. Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Obesity Risk in Children and Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucher Della Torre, Sophie; Keller, Amélie; Laure Depeyre, Jocelyne

    2016-01-01

    : The aim of this review was to systematically analyze the methodology of studies investigating the influence of SSB consumption on risk of obesity and obesity among children and adolescents, and the studies' ability to answer this research question. METHODS: A systematic review of cohort and experimental...... included SSB definition and inadequate measurement of exposure. Studies with positive quality ratings found an association between SSB consumption and risk of obesity or obesity (n=5) (ie, when SSB consumption increased so did obesity) or mixed results (n=4). Studies with a neutral quality rating found...

  2. Effects of Childhood Asthma on the Development of Obesity among School-aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhanghua; Salam, Muhammad T; Alderete, Tanya L; Habre, Rima; Bastain, Theresa M; Berhane, Kiros; Gilliland, Frank D

    2017-05-01

    Asthma and obesity often occur together in children. It is unknown whether asthma contributes to the childhood obesity epidemic. We aimed to investigate the effects of asthma and asthma medication use on the development of childhood obesity. The primary analysis was conducted among 2,171 nonobese children who were 5-8 years of age at study enrollment in the Southern California Children's Health Study (CHS) and were followed for up to 10 years. A replication analysis was performed in an independent sample of 2,684 CHS children followed from a mean age of 9.7 to 17.8 years. Height and weight were measured annually to classify children into normal, overweight, and obese categories. Asthma status was ascertained by parent- or self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma. Cox proportional hazards models were fitted to assess associations of asthma history with obesity incidence during follow-up. We found that children with a diagnosis of asthma at cohort entry were at 51% increased risk of developing obesity during childhood and adolescence compared with children without asthma at baseline (hazard ratio, 1.51; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-2.10) after adjusting for confounders. Use of asthma rescue medications at cohort entry reduced the risk of developing obesity (hazard ratio, 0.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.33-0.96). In addition, the significant association between a history of asthma and an increased risk of developing obesity was replicated in an independent CHS sample. Children with asthma may be at higher risk of obesity. Asthma rescue medication use appeared to reduce obesity risk independent of physical activity.

  3. Obesity and Overweight in American Indian and Alaska Native Children, 2006-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Ann; Sheff, Karen; Moore, Kelly; Manson, Spero

    2017-09-01

    To estimate obesity and overweight prevalence in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) children across genders, ages, and geographic regions in the Indian Health Service active clinical population. We obtained data from the Indian Health Service National Data Warehouse. At least 184 000 AI/AN children aged 2 to 19 years had body mass index data for each year studied, 2006 to 2015. We calculated body mass index percentiles with the 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts. In 2015, the prevalence of overweight and obesity in AI/AN children aged 2 to 19 years was 18.5% and 29.7%, respectively. Boys had higher obesity prevalence than girls (31.5% vs 27.9%). Children aged 12 to 19 years had a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity than younger children. The AI/AN children in our study had a higher prevalence of obesity than US children overall in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results for 2006 through 2014 were similar. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among AI/AN children in this population may have stabilized, while remaining higher than prevalence for US children overall.

  4. MMP-9 Levels and IMT of Carotid Arteries are Elevated in Obese Children and Adolescents Compared to Non-Obese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Andrade

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Childhood obesity is associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Increased intima-media thickness (IMT of the carotid artery is linked to the initiation and progression of the chronic inflammatory processes implicated in cardiovascular disease. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 plays an important role in the degradation of the extracellular matrix and, consequently, in the development, morphogenesis, repair and remodeling of connective tissues. Objectives: (i to determine and compare the concentrations of MMP-9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase -1 (TIMP-1, and MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio in obese and non-obese children and adolescents; (ii to investigate the association of these markers with common and internal IMT of carotid arteries. Methods: Cross-sectional study involving 32 obese and 32 non-obese (control individuals between 8 - 18 years of age. Results: Significantly (p < 0.05 higher values of MMP-9 concentration, as well as a higher MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio were detected in the obese group compared to control counterparts. Common and internal carotid IMT values were significantly higher (p < 0.001 in the obese group compared to the control group. Positive correlations were observed between the common carotid IMT values and MMP-9 concentrations as well as MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio. Conclusions: Our data demonstrate that obese children and adolescents present higher mean IMT values, plasma MMP-9 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio compared to the non-obese. Thus, these findings indicate that this group presents a risk profile for early atherosclerosis.

  5. Lp(a-cholesterol is associated with HDL-cholesterol in overweight and obese African American children and is not an independent risk factor for CVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Sushma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of Lipoprotein (a cholesterol {Lp(a-C}as an additional and/or independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD is not clear. We evaluated the associations between Lp(a-C and other CVD risk factors including plasma lipoprotein concentrations and body fatness in overweight and obese African American children. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was carried out using data from a sample of 121 African American children aged 9-11 years with Body Mass Index (BMI's greater than the 85th percentile. Body height, weight and waist circumference (WC were measured. Fasting plasma concentrations of Lp(a-C, Total cholesterol (TC, High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, Very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C, Intermediate density lipoprotein cholesterol (IDL-C, Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and Triacylglycerides (TAG were analyzed using the vertical auto profile (VAP cholesterol method. Results After adjusting for child age, gender, and pubertal status, Lp(a-C was positively associated with both HDL-C and TC, and negatively associated with VLDL-C and TAG. Including BMIz and WC as additional covariates did not alter the direction of the relationships between Lp(a-C and the other lipoproteins. Finally, after adjusting for the other plasma lipoproteins, Lp(a-C remained strongly associated with HDL-C, whereas the associations of Lp(a-C with the other lipoproteins were not significant when HDL-C was simultaneously included in the regression models. Conclusions Lp(a-C was positively associated with HDL-C and this association is not influenced by other lipoprotein subclasses or by the degree of obesity. We conclude that Lp(a cholesterol is not an independent risk factor for CVD in African American children.

  6. Relationship of vitamin D deficiency with glucolipid metabolism and insulin resistance in obese children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Sun

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the relationship of vitamin D deficiency with glucolipid metabolism and insulin resistance in obese children.Methods:A total of 40 cases of obese children, 40 cases of overweight children and 40 cases of healthy children were studied and enrolled in obese group, overweight group and control group respectively, and serum was collected to detect 1, 25-(OH)2D3 content, glucolipid metabolism indicator and adipocytokine content.Results:Serum 1, 25-(OH)2D3 content of three groups were different and showed the trend of control group>overweight group>obese group; the trend of FINS, TC, TG and LDL content as well as HOMA-IR was control groupoverweight group>obese group; 1, 25-(OH)2D3 content was negatively correlated with FINS, TC, TG, LDL, HOMA-IR, APN, Nesfatin-1, Apelin, Omentin-1 and Vaspin, and positively correlated with HDL; APN, Nesfatin-1, Apelin, Omentin-1 and Vaspin content in obese and overweight children with 1, 25-(OH)2D3 deficiency were lower than those in children with normal 1, 25-(OH)2D3. Conclusions:Serum 1, 25-(OH)2D3 content significantly decreases in obese children, and 1, 25-(OH)2D3 deficiency will reduce the synthesis and secretion of adipocytokines so as to cause insulin resistance and then lead to glucolipid metabolism disorder.

  7. Prevalence and risk factors of obesity among school-aged children in Xi'an, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xiaoqing; Yin, Chunyan; Chang, Ming; Xiao, Yanfeng

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and the risk factors associated with obesity among school-aged children in Xi'an city. The body mass index of 6,740 children aged 7-18 years was compared with the Working Group on Obesity in China cut-off value to estimate the prevalence of obesity. A case-control study of obese and non-obese children was carried out to study risk factors for obesity. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect information on possible risk factors causing obesity. Univariate analysis was performed first to compare the distribution of risk factors between cases and controls. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to assess independent risk factors of obesity. The results showed that the overall prevalence of obesity among school-aged children was 4.11% (4.63% for males and 3.57% for females). A total of 516 subjects (258 pairs of cases and controls) were included in the final analysis. High maternal education and a longer sleeping time were shown to be protective factors against obesity (odds ratio [OR] 0.148, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.074-0.296 and OR 0.472, 95% CI 0.342-0.652, respectively). Whereas family history of diabetes (OR 5.498, 95% CI 2.606-11.600), parental overweight (OR 3.720, 95% CI 2.068-6.689), and watching television, playing video games, and using computers (OR 1.564, 95% CI 1.133-2.159) were associated with a higher obesity risk. The prevalence of childhood obesity in Xi'an has become a concern, and sleeping time, sedentary behavior, and family factors have pronounced effects on the prevalence of obesity.

  8. Long-term effects of an inpatient weight-loss program in obese children and the role of genetic predisposition-rationale and design of the LOGIC-trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rank Melanie

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased worldwide, which is a serious concern as obesity is associated with many negative immediate and long-term health consequences. Therefore, the treatment of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents is strongly recommended. Inpatient weight-loss programs have shown to be effective particularly regarding short-term weight-loss, whilst little is known both on the long-term effects of this treatment and the determinants of successful weight-loss and subsequent weight maintenance. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the short, middle and long-term effects of an inpatient weight-loss program for children and adolescents and to investigate the likely determinants of weight changes, whereby the primary focus lies on the potential role of differences in polymorphisms of adiposity-relevant genes. Methods/Design The study involves overweight and obese children and adolescents aged 6 to 19 years, who participate in an inpatient weight-loss program for 4 to 6 weeks. It started in 2006 and it is planned to include 1,500 participants by 2013. The intervention focuses on diet, physical activity and behavior therapy. Measurements are taken at the start and the end of the intervention and comprise blood analyses (DNA, lipid and glucose metabolism, adipokines and inflammatory markers, anthropometry (body weight, height and waist circumference, blood pressure, pubertal stage, and exercise capacity. Physical activity, dietary habits, quality of life, and family background are assessed by questionnaires. Follow-up assessments are performed 6 months, 1, 2, 5 and 10 years after the intervention: Children will complete the same questionnaires at all time points and visit their general practitioner for examination of anthropometric parameters, blood pressure and assessment of pubertal stage. At the 5 and 10 year follow-ups, blood parameters and exercise capacity will be additionally

  9. High risk for obesity in children with a subtype of developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yi-Ching; Cairney, John; Li, Yao-Chuen; Chen, Wei-Ying; Chen, Fu-Chen; Wu, Sheng K

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of overweight and obesity in typically developing (TD) children, children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and balance problems (DCD-BP), and children with DCD without balance problems (DCD-NBP). Two thousand and fifty-seven children (1095 boys, 962 girls) ages 9-12 years were recruited from 18 elementary schools in Taiwan. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children was used to assess motor coordination ability. International cut-off points for body mass index were used to classify participants into the following groups: normal-weight, overweight or obese. Compared with TD children, children in the DCD-BP group were more than twice as likely to be obese (OR=2.28; 95% CI=1.41-3.68). DCD-BP children were also more likely to be obese compared to DCD-NBP children (OR=1.79; 95% CI=1.02-3.16). Boys in the DCD-BP group were more likely to be obese when compared to DCD-BP girls (OR=3.12; 95% CI=1.28-7.57). Similarly, DCD-NBP boys were more likely to be obese when compared to DCD-NBP girls (OR=2.67; 95% CI=1.21-5.89). Children with both DCD and BP were significantly more likely to be obese when compared to TD and DCD-NBP children. From an intervention perspective, the inclusion of regular physical activity, including activities that encourage development of both balance and energy expenditure, may be required to prevent obesity in this population.

  10. 3. Management and prevention of obesity and its complications in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batch, Jennifer A; Baur, Louise A

    2005-02-07

    Obesity in children and adolescents has reached alarming levels--20%-25% of children and adolescents are overweight or obese, and 4.9% of boys and 5.4% of girls are obese. Rates of obesity have increased significantly in Australia from 1985 to 1995, with the prevalence of overweight doubling and obesity trebling. Body mass index (related to reference standards for age and sex) is recommended as a practical measure of overweight and obesity in children, and is used in monitoring individual progress in clinical practice. Obesity in childhood and adolescence may be associated with a range of medical and psychological complications, and can predispose individuals to serious health problems in adult life, including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Obesity interventions for which there is some evidence include family support, a developmentally appropriate approach, long-term behaviour modification, dietary change, and increased physical activity and decreased sedentary behaviour. Prevention of obesity in children and adolescents requires a range of strategies involving changes in both the microenvironment (eg, housing, neighbourhoods, recreational opportunities) and the macroenvironment (eg, food marketing, transport systems, urban planning).

  11. Emergence and Persistence of Overweight and Obesity in 7- to 11-Year-Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi C. Bartle

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: After dramatic rises in paediatric obesity, the critical period for obesity onset may now be pre-adolescence. Methods: We monitored adiposity over 4 years in 400 children aged 7-9 years recruited from schools in London. Weight, height, waist circumference (WC and fat mass were measured annually. Weight status was defined using International Obesity Task Force (IOTF criteria, and standardised scores and percentiles used British 1990 reference data. Results: BMI, WC and fat mass index all tracked strongly over time (average correlation for BMI = 0.95. Emergence of obesity was relatively uncommon: only 2% of the total sample increased from overweight to obese over the 4-year period, and this was nearly matched by the 1.3% that reduced from obese to overweight. However, more children (6% moved from healthy weight to overweight than the reverse direction (2%. There were greater absolute gains in adiposity in children with higher baseline weight status, but this was disguised in analyses using standardised scores. Obesity was not an emergent trait in middle childhood, but rates were already high and, in absolute terms, adiposity increased more in overweight and obese than healthy weight children. Conclusion: These results highlight the need for active management of obesity in middle childhood.

  12. Impact of obesity on cognitive outcome in children with sleep-disordered breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitelli, Ottavio; Tabarrini, Alessandra; Miano, Silvia; Rabasco, Jole; Pietropaoli, Nicoletta; Forlani, Martina; Parisi, Pasquale; Villa, Maria Pia

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of obesity on cognitive impairment, in children with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), children with OSA and obesity, and in normal controls. Thirty-six children with OSA (group 1), 38 children with OSA and obesity (group 2) and 58 normal controls (group 3) were studied. The Total intelligence quotient (T-IQ), Verbal IQ (V-IQ) and the Performance IQ (P-IQ) scores were obtained using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Third Edition Revised. All participants' parents filled out the questionnaire containing the attention deficit and hyperactive disorder rating scale to investigate symptoms of hyperactivity and attention deficit. Obese and non-obese children with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) underwent polysomnography. T-QI and P-QI scores were significantly lower in group 2 with higher performance impairment at the subtest compared to other groups. In obese children, V-IQ was significantly correlated with age of onset (r = 0.335, p = 0.05) and duration of SDB (r = -0.362, p = 0.02), while P-IQ and T-IQ were correlated with body mass index (BMI) percentile (r = -0.341, p = 0.03) and respiratory disturbance index (RDI) (r = -0.321, p = 0.05), respectively. RDI and BMI negatively influenced T-IQ in obese children with OSA. No correlation was found between sleep parameters and IQ scores or subtest scores in all groups. Obese children with OSA showed higher cognitive impairment. Obesity has an additive and synergic action with that exerted by OSA, speeding up the onset of complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Determining rates of overweight and obese status in children using electronic medical records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birken, Catherine S.; Tu, Karen; Oud, William; Carsley, Sarah; Hanna, Miranda; Lebovic, Gerald; Guttmann, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the prevalence of overweight and obese status in children by age, sex, and visit type, using data from EMRALD® (Electronic Medical Record Administrative data Linked Database). Design Heights and weights were abstracted for children 0 to 19 years of age who had at least one well-child visit from January 2010 to December 2011. Using the most recent visit, the proportions and 95% CIs of patients defined as overweight and obese were compared by age group, sex, and visit type using the World Health Organization growth reference standards. Setting Ontario. Participants Children 0 to 19 years of age who were rostered to a primary care physician participating in EMRALD and had at least one well-child visit from January 2010 to December 2011. Main outcome measures Proportion and 95% CI of children with overweight and obese status by age group; proportion of children with overweight and obese status by sex (with male sex as the referent) within each age group; and proportion of children with overweight and obese status at the most recent well-child visit type compared with other visit types by age group. Results There were 28 083 well-child visits during this period. For children who attended well-child visits, 84.7% of visits had both a height and weight documented. Obesity rates were significantly higher in 1- to 4-year-olds compared with children younger than 1 (6.1% vs 2.3%; P obesity rates compared with girls. Rates of overweight and obese status were lower using data from well-child visits compared with other visits. Conclusion Electronic medical records might be useful to conduct population-based surveillance of overweight or obese status in children. Methodologic standards, however, should be developed. PMID:28209703

  14. [Obesity and metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosende, Andrés; Pellegrini, Carlos; Iglesias, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and the metabolic syndrome are closely related to the cases of cardiovascular disease; they are usually regarded as belonging to the adult population but are seen with increasing frequency in children and adolescents. There is evidence that atherosclerotic lesions occur most often in young people with obesity. The factors involved in this pandemic are manifold and range from genetic-biological to cultural changes. The family and the environment in which the child develops play a key role in the adoption of habits related to diet and physical activity. This problem does not respect borders and cultures but all countries are being affected, even more those of middle-income. State and Society as a whole can play a role oriented to modify this environment. The restriction on sales of unhealthy food and the fight against the sedentary lifestyle are urgently needed to be applied. The impact that these disorders will have in terms of cardiovascular disease, has not yet reached its true dimension.

  15. Chronic care treatment of obese children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jens-Christian; Gamborg, Michael; Bille, Dorthe S

    2011-01-01

    Clinically-relevant protocols for the treatment of childhood obesity are lacking. This study report results for a clinic-based structured treatment program for chronic childhood obesity.......Clinically-relevant protocols for the treatment of childhood obesity are lacking. This study report results for a clinic-based structured treatment program for chronic childhood obesity....

  16. Comparison of energy expenditure, body composition, metabolic disorders, and energy intake between obese children with a history of craniopharyngioma and children with multifactorial obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomer, Ilanit; Saure, Carola; Caminiti, Carolina; Ramos, Javier Gonzales; Zuccaro, Graciela; Brea, Mercedes; Bravo, Mónica; Maza, Carmen

    2015-11-01

    Craniopharyngioma is a histologically benign brain malformation with a fundamental role in satiety modulation, causing obesity in up to 52% of patients. To evaluate cardiovascular risk factors, body composition, resting energy expenditure (REE), and energy intake in craniopharyngioma patients and to compare the data with those from children with multifactorial obesity. All obese children and adolescents who underwent craniopharyngioma resection and a control group of children with multifactorial obesity in follow-up between May 2012 and April 2013. Anthropometric measurements, bioelectrical impedance, indirect calorimetry, energy intake, homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and dyslipidemia were evaluated. Twenty-three patients with craniopharyngioma and 43 controls were included. Children with craniopharyngioma-related obesity had a lower fat-free mass percentage (62.4 vs. 67.5; p=0.01) and a higher fat mass percentage (37.5 vs. 32.5; p=0.01) compared to those with multifactorial obesity. A positive association was found between %REE and %fat-free mass in subjects with multifactorial obesity (68±1% in normal REE vs. 62.6±1% in low REE; p=0.04), but not in craniopharyngioma patients (62±2.7 in normal REE vs. 61.2±1.8% in low REE; p=0.8). No differences were found in metabolic involvement or energy intake. REE was lower in craniopharyngioma patients compared to children with multifactorial obesity regardless of the amount of fat-free mass, suggesting that other factors may be responsible for the lower REE.

  17. The role of obesity, salt and exercise on blood pressure in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabouli, Stella; Papakatsika, Sofia; Kotsis, Vasilios

    2011-06-01

    The increasing trends of blood pressure (BP) in children and adolescents pose great concern for the burden of hypertension-related cardiovascular disease. Although primary hypertension in childhood is commonly associated with obesity, it seems that other factors, such as dietary sodium and exercise, also influence BP levels in children and adolescents. Several studies support that sympathetic nervous system imbalance, impairment of the physiological mechanism of pressure natriuresis, hyperinsulinemia and early vascular changes are involved in the mechanisms causing elevated BP in obese children and adolescents. Under the current evidence on the association of salt intake and BP, dietary sodium restriction appears to be a rational step in the prevention of hypertension in genetically predisposed children and adolescents. Finally, interventional studies show that regular aerobic exercise can significantly reduce BP and restore vascular changes in obese with hypertensive pediatric patients. This article aims to summarize previous studies on the role of obesity, salt intake and exercise on BP in children and adolescents.

  18. The effects of healthy lifestyle behaviors of mothers on obesity in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inal, Sevil; Canbulat, Nejla; Bozkurt, Gulcin

    2015-10-01

    To determine the relationship between healthy lifestyle behaviours of mothers and obesity in their pre-school children. The cross-sectional study was performed in a district of Istanbul, Turkey, between April and June 2011, and comprised children aged 4-6 years attending public pre-schools and their mothers.. Data was obtained using a questionnaire and Healthy Lifestyle Behaviours Scale-II. Number Cruncher Statistical System 2007 was used for statistical analysis. Of the 531 children in the study, 246(46.3%) were girls. Overall prevalence of overweight was 136(25.6%), obesity 77(14.5%)Overweight mothers were 126(23.7%), and obese mothers were 31(5.8%). The mothers of obese children obtained lower scores in the physical activity (pobesity among preschool children. Strategies should be developed to improve the physical activity and eating habits of mothers.

  19. To quell obesity, who should regulate food marketing to children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Ben

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The global hegemony of the United States in the production and marketing of food, while a marvel of economic success, has contributed to the epidemic of obesity that is particularly afflicting children. So far the U.S. government has declined to regulate the aggressive ways in which food producers market high-energy, low-nutrition foods to young people. That public-health responsibility has been left to an industry-created scheme of self-regulation that is deeply flawed; there is a compelling need for government involvement. The issue is certain to be raised by health advocates at a U.S. Federal Trade Commission meeting in mid-July to discuss the self-regulatory approach, but the outlook for remedies to emerge from the meeting is not encouraging.

  20. Increases of Obesity and Overweight in Children: an Alarm for Parents and Policymakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Hasan Khadaee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century. The problem is global and is steadily affecting many low- and middle-income countries, particularly in urban settings. The prevalence has increased at an alarming rate. Globally, in 2013 the number of overweight children under the age of five years old, is estimated to be over 42 million. Close to 31 million of these are living in developing countries. In the WHO African Region alone the number of overweight or obese children increased from 4 to 9 million over the same period. The vast majority of overweight or obese children live in developing countries, where the rate of increase has been more than 30% higher than that of developed countries. If current trends continue the number of overweight or obese infants and young children globally will increase to 70 million by 2025.  Without intervention, obese infants and young children will likely continue to be obese during childhood, adolescence and adulthood. Overweight and obesity are largely preventable. Supportive policies, environments, schools and communities are fundamental in shaping parents’ and children’s choices, making the healthier choice of foods and regular physical activity the easiest choice (accessible, available and affordable, and therefore preventing obesity.

  1. Genome-Wide Expression in Visceral Adipose Tissue from Obese Prepubertal Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción M. Aguilera

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of the genes expressed in adipose tissue (AT is key to understanding the pathogenesis of obesity and to developing treatments for this condition. Our objective was to compare the gene expression in visceral AT (VAT between obese and normal-weight prepubertal children. A total of fifteen obese and sixteen normal-weight children undergoing abdominal elective surgery were selected. RNA was extracted from VAT biopsies. Microarray experiments were independently performed for each sample (six obese and five normal-weight samples. Validation by quantitative PCR (qPCR was performed on an additional 10 obese and 10 normal-weight VAT samples. Of 1276 differentially expressed genes (p < 0.05, 245 were more than two-fold higher in obese children than in normal-weight children. As validated by qPCR, expression was upregulated in genes involved in lipid and amino acid metabolism (CES1, NPRR3 and BHMT2, oxidative stress and extracellular matrix regulation (TNMD and NQO1, adipogenesis (CRYAB and AFF1 and inflammation (ANXA1; by contrast, only CALCRL gene expression was confirmed to be downregulated. In conclusion, this study in prepubertal children demonstrates the up- and down-regulation of genes that encode molecules that were previously proposed to influence the pathogenesis of adulthood obesity, as well as previously unreported dysregulated genes that may be candidate genes in the aetiology of obesity.

  2. Gastro-oesophageal reflux and worse asthma control in obese children: a case of symptom misattribution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Jason E; Hossain, Jobayer; Holbrook, Janet T; Teague, W Gerald; Gold, Benjamin D; Wise, Robert A; Lima, John J

    2016-03-01

    Obese children for unknown reasons report greater asthma symptoms. Asthma and obesity both independently associate with gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms (GORS). Determining if obesity affects the link between GORS and asthma will help elucidate the obese-asthma phenotype. Extend our previous work to determine the degree of associations between the GORS and asthma phenotype. We conducted a cross-sectional study of lean (20%-65% body mass index, BMI) and obese (≥95% BMI) children aged 10-17 years old with persistent, early-onset asthma. Participants contributed demographics, GORS and asthma questionnaires and lung function data. We determined associations between weight status, GORS and asthma outcomes using multivariable linear and logistic regression. Findings were replicated in a second well-characterised cohort of asthmatic children. Obese children had seven times higher odds of reporting multiple GORS (OR=7.7, 95% CI 1.9 to 31.0, interaction p value=.004). Asthma symptoms were closely associated with GORS scores in obese patients (r=0.815, pasthma control (Asthma Control Questionnaire, p=0.007). A significant but weaker association between GORS and asthma symptoms was seen in leans compared with obese in the replicate cohort. GORS are more likely to associate with asthma symptoms in obese children. Better lung function among children reporting gastro-oesophageal reflux and asthma symptoms suggests that misattribution of GORS to asthma may be a contributing mechanism to excess asthma symptoms in obese children. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Differences in Physical Activity between Non-overweight, Overweight and Obese Children

    OpenAIRE

    Planinšec, Jurij; Matejek, Črtomir

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to find out differences in moderate to vigorous physical activity among non-overweight, overweight and obese children, and between boys and girls. The sample included 364 children (179 boys and 185 girls), aged 6.4 years (±0.3 SD). Physical activity was assessed by 7-day questionnaire. Age adapted BMI was used as overweight and obesity indicator. The children were divided into non-overweight, overweight and obese groups. It was found out, that there are significan...

  4. Obese children are thin in parents' eyes: A psychologically, socially, or culturally driven bias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochdorn, Alexander; Faleiros, Vicente P; Camargo, Brigido V; Bousfield, Andréa Bs; Wachelke, João Fr; Quintão, Ingrid P; Azzolina, Danila; Gregori, Dario

    2016-11-06

    Although obesity presents a serious health problem in children, parents often underestimate their children's overweight and obesity status. Therefore, scientific literature was systematically screened through PubMed and PsycINFO to demonstrate the psychological, social, and cultural processes that underlie this evaluation bias. A total of 37 papers that focused on research conducted in different geopolitical contexts were taken into account. Furthermore, a lexicometric analysis of the papers' conclusions was performed. The findings showed that education plays a key role in promoting parents' awareness and their realistic recognition of their children's weight. Accordingly, adequate educational support for parents should be implemented in all healthcare policies addressing childhood obesity.

  5. [Children and Adolescents with Asthma Differ in Lung Function Parameters and Exhaled NO from Children and Adolescents with Obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmauck-Gómez, J S; Menrath, I; Kaiser, M M; Herz, A; Kopp, M V

    2016-07-01

    The prevalence of asthma and overweight/obesity in children and adolescents is continuously increasing over the last decades. It remains unclear if overweight/obesity raises the risk of developing asthma or if an uncontrolled asthma increases the risk of developing overweight/obesity by restricting physical activity. We aimed to elucidate, if children and adolescents with overweight/obesity differ from normal-weight asthmatics in lung functions parameters (FEV1, FEV1/VC, MEF50 and SRtot) and in exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO). Totally, n=142 children and adolescents aged 6-18 years were included in this study: group 1 comprised n=44 with overweight/obesity defined as a Body-Mass-Index (BMI)>90th percentile; group 2 n=44 with a doctors diagnosed bronchial asthma according to the GINA-guidelines, and group 3 with n=36 pulmonary healthy controls. N=18 children with both asthma and overweight/obesity were excluded from further analysis. We collected data about socio-demographic variables from a standardized questionnaire, bodyplethysmography (FEV1, FEV1/VC, MEF50 and SRtot) and FeNO. Normal-weight children and adolescents with asthma had significantly lower FEV1/VC (Tiffenau-Index 90,9±12,8) and MEF50 (84.0% predicted±27.6) than children with overweight/obesity (97,6±12,4 p=0.001 respectively 99.1±20.9 p=0.001) and healthy controls (98±13,5 p=0,003; 96.7±19.3 p=0.011). Normal weight asthmatics had a significantly higher FeNO (38.3 ppb) than children and adolescents with overweight/obesity (14.0 ppb p=0.014). Normal-weight children and adolescents with asthma differ significantly both in their lung function parameters as well as in their exhaled nitric oxide concentration from children and adolescents with overweight/obesity. For clinical practice it is important to note that children and adolescents with overweight/obesity have no signs of an obstructive airway diseases and are as resilient as healthy children and adolescents with regard to their lung function. The

  6. Parental factors associated with obesity in children with disability: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillivray, J; McVilly, K; Skouteris, H; Boganin, C

    2013-07-01

    The current literature on obesity in typically developing children shows that the family context, and specifically the way parents parent their children are major determinants of childhood obesity. The influence of these factors on obesity in children with disability, however, remains unclear. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to identify the parental and parenting risk factors associated with obesity in children and adolescents with disability. Articles were identified through Medline, Academic Search Complete, PsycINFO, ProQuest, ISI, CINAHL, Cochrane and Scopus databases. There was no restriction on publication dates. The inclusion criteria were empirical papers that tested associations between parental and parenting risk factors and obesity in children and adolescents with intellectual and other developmental disabilities. Only 11 studies met the selection criteria and subsequently included in this review. Results suggest that obesity in children and adolescents with disability may be associated with socioeconomic status; parents' body mass index, perception and attitude towards their children's weight and physical activity; and levels of activity in both parents and children. Firm conclusions about these associations cannot be reached, however, due to mixed findings and methodological limitations of the studies. Recommendations for future research are provided.

  7. Pubertal development and fertility in survivors of childhood acute myeloid leukemia treated with chemotherapy only

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molgaard-Hansen, Lene; Skou, Anne-Sofie; Juul, Anders

    2013-01-01

    More than 60% of children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) become long-term survivors. Most are cured using chemotherapy without hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We report on pubertal development and compare self-reported parenthood among AML survivors and their siblings.......More than 60% of children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) become long-term survivors. Most are cured using chemotherapy without hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We report on pubertal development and compare self-reported parenthood among AML survivors and their siblings....

  8. Ability to control persistent asthma in obese versus non-obese children enrolled in an asthma-specific disease management program (breathmobile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, K Y; Rhandhawa, I; Saxena, J; Morphew, T; Jones, C A

    2006-11-01

    To determine if asthma control was more difficult to achieve in obese versus non-obese asthmatic children, retrospective analysis was performed on obese and non-obese Los Angeles inner-city children (2 to 18 years of age) with persistent asthma. No difference in time required to achieve control of asthma, ability to maintain control of asthma, baseline pulmonary functions, and number of controllers prescribed was found between the two groups. We conclude that in a Los Angeles inner-city pediatric population, obesity is not a factor in the ability to control asthma.

  9. [Morbidity rate of obesity in children in ukraine. Overweight as noncontagious disease risk factor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Заболотна, Ірина Е

    The upsurge of prevalence rate of obesity and overweight that in the majority of cases traces back to childhood is a risk factor of the most common noncontagious diseases in adults. The aim was to analyze prevalence of obesity in children in Ukraine and to conduct the pilot study of medical condition of overweight children. Official state statistics of prevalence rate of obesity in kids and screening data of anthropometric characteristics, arterial tension levels, physical performance decrement and medical condition of children (boys - 50, girls - 90, average age - 15,1±0,1 years) was used in research. Data calculation performed by Statistica v. 6.0 software. Over the past few decades, the morbidity rate of obesity in children in Ukraine has greatly increased, especially in year class 15-17. Insufficient diagnosis of obesity in children is the consequence of the inadequacy of the existing system of preventive care and monitoring survey of decease risk factors. Children with body mass index (BMI) above normal have a risk of work decrement in 5,2 times (odds ratio, OR=5,2, CI95%: 1,7-10,6). Such children have higher risk of development of the diseases of the respiratory system (OR=8,1; CI95%: 3,9-13,6) and allergic dermatitis (OR=7,7; CI95%: 3,7-12,9). The odds ratio of arterial hypertension in such children is equal to 3,46±0,3 (95%CI: 2,0-5,9). According to prediction calculations, the situation with the increase of prevalence rate of obesity in children in Ukraine is unfavorable. The introduction of measures aimed at finding children with obesity, their registration and monitoring of patients' health with due regard to decease risk factors at the primary care level would conduce to improving prevention of obesity and prevention of alimentary diseases progression.

  10. Prevalence of Obesity among Children and Adolescents in the United States and Canada. NCHS Data Brief. Number 211

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Margaret D.; Navaneelan, Tanya; Bryan, Shirley; Ogden, Cynthia L.

    2015-01-01

    About one-quarter of Canadian adults and more than one-third of adults in the United States are obese. Obese children are at risk of becoming obese adults and can experience immediate health consequences such as psychosocial stress, elevated blood pressure and cholesterol, and abnormal glucose tolerance. Monitoring trends in childhood obesity is…

  11. PREVALENCE OF MALNUTRITION AMONG SCHOOL CHILDREN WITH REFERENCE TO OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY AND ITS ASSOCIATED FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranu Rawat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What influence does diet and physical activity have on the occurence of overweight and obesity in school aged children? Objectives: To study the diet and physical activity factors influencing overweight and obesity in school aged children. Study Design: Cross sectional Study. Settings: Field Practice area of Department of Community Medicine, LLRM Medical College, Meerut. Participants: 400 children between 5-14 years age group Statistical Analysis: Chi Square Test Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children was 9.8% and 3.7% respectively. Among dietary factors, a significant association was seen in the prevalence of overweight and obesity with consumption of >3 meals per day(P<0.001, habit of eating in between meals(P<0.05 and in having dinner as the heaviest meal of the day (P<0.02. Among physical activity factors, a significant association was seen in the prevalence of overweight and obesity with the habit of not playing outdoor games (P<0.001, not participating in household activities(P<0.001, using some vehicular transport to go to school (P<0.001 and watching T.V. for more than 3hrs/day(P<0.001.Conclusion:Diet and Physical activity have an influence on occurrence of overweight and obesity in school aged children. Dietary and lifestyle modification must be advised to children to prevent occurrence of overweight and obesity in them.

  12. Association between abdominal fat distribution, adipocytokines and metabolic alterations in obese low-birth-weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez Hernández, C; Klünder Klünder, M; Huang, F; Flores Armas, E M; Velázquez-López, L; Medina-Bravo, P

    2016-08-01

    In addition to obesity, low birth weight (LBW) has been proposed as another independent risk factor associated with cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of birth weight on abdominal fat distribution, adipocytokine levels and associated metabolic alterations in obese children. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 92 children. Children were divided into three groups according to their body mass index and birth weight. Glucose and insulin (0 and 120 min), lipid profile and adipocytokines were measured. Abdominal fat distribution was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. Obese LBW children had higher fasting glucose (P = 0.054) and insulin (P < 0.001), and 120 min glucose (P < 0.001) and insulin levels (P < 0.001), such as increased HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index) (P < 0.001). Obesity and LBW were associated with lower concentrations of high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin (-2.38 [IC 95% -4.27; -0.42, P = 0.018]) and higher subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) (28.05 [IC 95% 0.40; 55.7, P = 0.047]) compared with NBW obese children, independent of age or sex. LBW in obese children is associated with lower HMW adiponectin, increased insulin resistance and greater SAT. © 2015 World Obesity.

  13. Should children with overweight or obesity be excluded from height references?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Júlíusson, Pétur B; Brannsether, Bente; Kristiansen, Hege; Hoppenbrouwers, Karel; Bjerknes, Robert; Roelants, Mathieu

    2015-11-01

    Growth reference charts are usually based on measurements of children free from a medical condition that affects growth. However, samples collected during the past decades often contain a large proportion of overweight or obese children. Because obesity increases linear growth, the question arises to what extent the percentiles curves for length/height are affected by the presence of children with overweight or obesity. Data from two cross-sectional samples of 2-year-old to 18-year-old children were analysed: 12,252 Belgian children, measured in 2002-2004, and 6159 Norwegian children, measured in 2003-2006. The LMS method was used to estimate height-for-age curves with and without children considered overweight or obese according to the International Obesity Task Force thresholds. The prevalence of overweight (including obesity) and obesity was 13.0% and 2.8% in the Belgian and 13.8% and 2.3% in the Norwegian sample. Children were taller when overweight (+0.49 and 0.43 SD, in the Belgian and Norwegian sample, respectively) or obese (+0.73 and 0.72 SD in the Belgian and Norwegian sample, respectively). Effect sizes were smaller in younger and older children, which points to an advanced age of maturation as a possible cause. Excluding overweight and obese children had only a minor impact on the growth curves with largest difference in mean height SD scores -0.09 in the Belgian and -0.12 in the Norwegian sample with a corresponding increase of up to 0.5% and 1.2% in number of children >+2 SD. Current Belgian and Norwegian growth references for length/height were found to be largely unaffected by the current proportion of overweight and obese children. There is, therefore, no need for revised height charts that exclude overweight or obese children. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Obese children and adolescents have elevated nighttime blood pressure independent of insulin resistance and arterial stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Kristian N; Olsen, Michael H; Holm, Jens-Christian

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance has been related to elevated blood pressure (BP) in obese children and may adversely affect the vasculature by arterial stiffening. The objective was to investigate whether daytime and nighttime BP were elevated and related to insulin resistance and arterial stiffness...... in obese children and adolescents. METHODS: Ninety-two obese patients aged 10-18 years were compared with 49 healthy control individuals. Insulin resistance was measured as the homeostatic assessment model (HOMA), and arterial stiffness was measured as carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV). RESULTS...... analyses, the higher nighttime BP in the obese group was independent of logHOMA and cfPWV. CONCLUSIONS: Obese children had a higher nighttime BP when compared with the control group independently of insulin resistance and arterial stiffness. No relationship was found between insulin resistance and arterial...

  15. The Role of Obesity in the Development of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy Among Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Tammy M

    2016-01-01

    Both obesity and hypertension have increased substantially among children over the last several decades. At the same time, mounting evidence has pointed to the role of these and other cardiovascular disease risk factors on the development of end organ damage such as left ventricular hypertrophy in children. While traditionally thought to occur in response to an increased afterload as in systemic hypertension, evidence demonstrates that obesity is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy independent of blood pressure. Both hemodynamic and non-hemodynamic factors contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity-related left ventricular remodeling. However, more contemporary research suggests that adiposity and blood pressure have a greater effect on left ventricular geometry when present together than when present alone. Normalization of left ventricular mass in obese hypertensive individuals requires achievement of both normotension and weight loss. Additional strategies are needed to promote the cardiovascular health of children, with greater emphasis placed on obesity prevention.

  16. Relationship between chronic otitis media with effusion and overweight or obesity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, S; Selimoğlu, E; Cureoğlu, S; Selimoğlu, M A

    2017-10-01

    Otitis media with effusion and obesity are both common in childhood and might share some immunological alterations. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between chronic otitis media with effusion and childhood overweight or obesity, including the potential effects of adenoid or tonsillar hypertrophy on that relationship. This study included 60 children with chronic otitis media with effusion and 86 healthy children aged from 2 to 10 years. Measures of height and weight were used to calculate the body mass index, weight for height and weight z score. The prevalence of overweight or obesity was higher in children with chronic otitis media with effusion, according to the weight for height percentiles (p = 0.012). However, neither the presence of adenoid or tonsillar hypertrophy nor the degree of adenoid hypertrophy was associated with overweight or obesity. Overweight and obesity might be risk factors for developing chronic otitis media with effusion, or vice versa.

  17. Fatores associados à obesidade em escolares Factors associated with obesity in school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Giugliano

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a relação entre obesidade em escolares e atividade física e horas de sono da criança, escolaridade e obesidade dos pais. MÉTODOS: Avaliação de peso, estatura, índice de massa corporal e adiposidade (estimada pelas dobras cutâneas tricipital e subescapular de escolares seguida da classificação das crianças em normais, baixo peso, sobrepeso ou obesidade pelo índice de massa corporal por idade. Foram avaliados 452 escolares e selecionadas 68 crianças com sobrepeso e obesidade e 97 normais para preenchimento de questionários quanto a atividade física e horas de sono diárias da criança, escolaridade, atividade física, peso e estatura dos pais. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade foi de 21,1% nos meninos e 22,9% nas meninas. A adiposidade diferiu na comparação das crianças normais com as demais (p OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationship between obesity, physical activity and hours of sleep in schoolchildren and parental schooling and obesity. METHODS: We measured the weight, height, body mass index and adiposity (subscapular to triceps skinfold ratio of children. The children were classified as normal, underweight, overweight or obese, according to body mass index per age. Four hundred and fifty-two schoolchildren were evaluated; 68 children with excess weight and obesity and 97 normal children were selected to answer a questionnaire regarding daily physical activity and sleeping hours, as well as parental schooling, physical activity, weight and height. RESULTS: The prevalence of excess weight and obesity was of 21.1% in boys and 22.9% in girls. Adiposity was different between normal children and the other groups (p < 0.01. In children with excess weight and obesity, adiposity was directly correlated with daily sitting hours and inversely correlated with daily sleeping hours (p < 0.05. Schooling was lower in mothers of overweight and obese children was lower than in mothers of normal children (p

  18. Knowledge and attitudes towards obesity among primary school children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Njelekela, Marina A.; Alfa Muhihi; Mpembeni, Rose N. M.; Amani Anaeli; Omary Chillo; Sulende Kubhoja; Benjamin Lujani; Davis Ngarashi; Mwanamkuu Maghembe

    2015-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity has increased over the past two decades. Child obesity is likely to persist through adulthood and increases the risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) later in life. This study assessed knowledge and attitudes towards obesity among primary school children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in randomly selected primary schools in Dar es Salaam. A structured questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge and a...

  19. Why are poorer children at higher risk of obesity and overweight? A UK cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Goisis, A.; Sacker, A; Kelly, Y.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence on which risk factors attenuate income inequalities in child overweight and obesity; whether and why these inequalities widen as children age. METHOD: Eleven thousand nine hundred and sixty five singletons had complete data at age 5 and 9384 at age 11 from the Millennium Cohort Study (UK). Overweight (age 5 : 15%; age 11 : 20%) and obesity (age 5 : 5%; age 11 : 6%) were defined using the International Obesity Taskforce body mass index cut-points. To measu...

  20. Interventions to increase physical activity and healthy eating among overweight and obese children in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Luz María Sánchez-Romero; Holub, Christina K.; Simón Barquera; Arredondo, Elva M.; Eisenberg, Christina M.; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan A.; Elder, John P

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of the present study was to conduct a systematic literature review of obesity interventions that focused on increasing physical activity and healthy eating among overweight and obese children in Mexico. Materi- als and methods. Data was taken from a larger literature review focused on obesity interventions for Latinos in Latin America and the United States. Study design suitability, quality of execution, and effect size were assessed for a subset of these articl...

  1. Obesity and rhinitis in a nationwide study of children and adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yueh-Ying; Forno, Erick; Gogna, Mudita; Celedón, Juan C

    2016-05-01

    Obesity has been associated with higher risk of asthma and asthma severity both in children and adults. However, studies evaluating the relation between obesity and rhinitis have yielded conflicting results. We performed a cross-sectional study of obesity indicators and rhinitis using data from 8165 participants in the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Allergic rhinitis was defined as physician-diagnosed hay fever or allergy, the presence of symptoms in the past 12 months, and at least 1 positive allergen-specific IgE level. Nonallergic rhinitis was defined as a physician's diagnosis and symptoms but no positive allergen-specific IgE levels. Multivariate regression was used to assess the relationship between obesity and rhinitis in children and adults. In adults, overweight or obesity was associated with increased odds of nonallergic rhinitis (adjusted odds ratio, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.06-1.93; P = .02). Similarly, central obesity was associated with increased odds of nonallergic rhinitis in adults (adjusted odds ratio, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.20-2.16; P obesity, or central obesity were not associated with allergic rhinitis in adults. In children, central obesity was associated with reduced odds of allergic rhinitis (adjusted odds ratio, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.19-0.64; P children. In adults, obesity is associated with increased odds of nonallergic rhinitis, particularly in male subjects. In children, central obesity is associated with reduced odds of allergic rhinitis, regardless of sex. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Co-morbidity obese children in family practice in The Netherlands : the results of a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langens, F.; Dapper, T.; Nuboer, R.; Weel, C. van; Binsbergen, J.J. van

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this pilot study was to assess the prevalence of co-morbidity in obese children. Particular emphasis was on cardiovascular risk. METHOD: In this retrospective, cross-sectional, observational study the data of 155 obese children, who visited a paediatric obesity outdoor clinic,

  3. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Chinese American children in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Loretta; Kwong, Kenny; Chou, Jolene C; Tso, Alan; Wong, Mei

    2009-10-01

    Childhood obesity has been a growing concern in recent years. The extent of obesity in various ethnic pediatric populations including Chinese Americans has not been fully explored. In this study, the prevalence of overweight and obesity in a Chinese American pediatric population (6-19 years) was determined through a chart review of 4,695 patients from a large community health center in New York City. Demographic characteristics including sex, age and immigrant status were used in a logistic regression to determine risk factors for obesity in this community. Overall, 24.6% of the children studied were overweight or obese (defined as BMI > or = 85th percentile for age and sex). Among US born boys aged 6-12 years, the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity was found to be as high as 40%. Further studies are needed to understand the complex interplay of factors that contribute to obesity in pediatric immigrant groups.

  4. Competence assessment in minors, illustrated by the case of bariatric surgery for morbidly obese children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolt, L.L.E.; Summeren van, M

    2014-01-01

    Clinicians have to assess children's competence frequently. In order to do justice to children who are competent to make decisions and to protect incompetent children, valid assessment is essential. We address this issue by using bariatric surgery for morbidly obese minors as a case study. Our previ

  5. Metabolic Rate: A Factor in Developing Obesity in Children with Down Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chad, Karen; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Resting metabolic rate and its relation to selected anthropomorphic measures were determined in 11 male and 7 female noninstitutionalized children with Down Syndrome. Dietary analysis was performed to determine the children's nutritional status. Results have implications for the prevention and treatment of obesity in children with Down Syndrome.…

  6. Metabolic Rate: A Factor in Developing Obesity in Children with Down Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chad, Karen; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Resting metabolic rate and its relation to selected anthropomorphic measures were determined in 11 male and 7 female noninstitutionalized children with Down Syndrome. Dietary analysis was performed to determine the children's nutritional status. Results have implications for the prevention and treatment of obesity in children with Down Syndrome.…

  7. Obesity in 7 - 10-year-old children in urban primary schools in Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    n=43, N=174) was found in children aged 10, and the highest prevalence of obesity (12.5%, n=21, N=167) was found in children .... the American College of Sports Medicine.[13] ..... when compared with earlier studies, as young children in this.

  8. Screening for Obesity in Children and Adolescents: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, David C; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Curry, Susan J; Barry, Michael J; Davidson, Karina W; Doubeni, Chyke A; Epling, John W; Kemper, Alex R; Krist, Alex H; Kurth, Ann E; Landefeld, C Seth; Mangione, Carol M; Phipps, Maureen G; Silverstein, Michael; Simon, Melissa A; Tseng, Chien-Wen

    2017-06-20

    Based on year 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts, approximately 17% of children and adolescents aged 2 to 19 years in the United States have obesity, and almost 32% of children and adolescents are overweight or have obesity. Obesity in children and adolescents is associated with morbidity such as mental health and psychological issues, asthma, obstructive sleep apnea, orthopedic problems, and adverse cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes (eg, high blood pressure, abnormal lipid levels, and insulin resistance). Children and adolescents may also experience teasing and bullying behaviors based on their weight. Obesity in childhood and adolescence may continue into adulthood and lead to adverse cardiovascular outcomes or other obesity-related morbidity, such as type 2 diabetes. Although the overall rate of child and adolescent obesity has stabilized over the last decade after increasing steadily for 3 decades, obesity rates continue to increase in certain populations, such as African American girls and Hispanic boys. These racial/ethnic differences in obesity prevalence are likely a result of both genetic and nongenetic factors (eg, socioeconomic status, intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and fast food, and having a television in the bedroom). To update the 2010 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on screening for obesity in children 6 years and older. The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on screening for obesity in children and adolescents and the benefits and harms of weight management interventions. Comprehensive, intensive behavioral interventions (≥26 contact hours) in children and adolescents 6 years and older who have obesity can result in improvements in weight status for up to 12 months; there is inadequate evidence regarding the effectiveness of less intensive interventions. The harms of behavioral interventions can be bounded as small to none, and the harms of screening are minimal. Therefore, the USPSTF

  9. Fast food intake and prevalence of obesity in school children in Riyadh City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almuhanna, Monira Abdulrahman; Alsaif, Mohammed; Alsaadi, Muslim; Almajwal, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity has become a new challenge for healthcare providers. The issue is not limited to certain parts of the world; its prevalence is increasing worldwide. The causes of obesity are poorly understood and continue to be debated and studied. It is a multifactorial disorder which involves dietary, behavioral, environmental as well as genetic factors. The increased consumption of more energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods with high levels of sugar and saturated fats, combined with reduced physical activity, have led to high obesity rates among children. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dietary intake on the occurrence of childhood obesity, and study other associated factors including the education, occupation and income of parents and the living status. Normal healthy school girls (n =196) and school boys (n = 85) between the age of 6- 15 were recruited for the study. We found that obesity among children in Riyadh City was significantly associated with fast food intake (p = 0.0280). It was also observed that 72.5% of the overweight or obese students consumed fast food at least 4 times/week, and the other 15.9% were taking fast food 1- 3 times/week, while only 11.6% of the same overweight or obese group did not consume any fast food/ week. Father's and mother's occupations were not significantly correlated to their children's body weight. The prevalence of childhood obesity is changing and increasing yearly and is attributed to the nutritional risk factors for the Saudi school-age children. It is interesting to know that most of overweight or obese school students belonged to the families of highincome. Parents must take necessary precautions for the diet of their children and should adopt healthy life style in order to prevent or manage obesity of their children.

  10. Socio-economic and ethnic differences in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achat, Helen M; Stubbs, Joanne M

    2014-10-01

    To trial the collection of measurements to provide population-based prevalence of overweight and obesity in school children in western Sydney and examine the association between healthy weight and ethnicity and socio-economic status (SES) in a socio-economically and culturally diverse population. A cross-sectional population-based survey of 2341 children in Years 4 and 7 (mean ages 9 and 12 years, respectively) in 2007.   Nineteen percent of children were overweight and a further 6% were obese. The prevalence of combined overweight and obesity was similar for boys and girls (26% vs. 24%, P= 0.35). SES was significantly associated with the prevalence of unhealthy weight: the odds of being overweight or obese were 1.79 times (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.35 to 2.36) higher for children from the lowest quartile than for children from the highest quartile. Compared to children from an English speaking background, children from a non-English speaking background were significantly more likely to be overweight or obese (21% vs. 31%, P obesity was significantly higher for children from a Pacific Island (odds ratio (OR) 2.66, 95% CI 1.63 to 4.33), Middle Eastern (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.22 to 2.17) or European (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.12 to 2.49) background than for English speaking background children. Large jumps in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children observed from the 1980s appear to be diminishing, with comparable prevalence reports in 2004 and 2007. Ethnicity and SES are each independently associated with the prevalence of unhealthy weight in children. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2012 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  11. Associations between family income and children's physical fitness and obesity in California, 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yichen; Jones-Smith, Jessica C

    2015-02-12

    Socioeconomic status may influence childhood obesity prevalence and children's fitness level. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between family income and children's physical fitness level and obesity prevalence for 8 racial/ethnic groups. Data for 1,617,400 fifth-, seventh-, and ninth-grade children who took a physical fitness test from 2010 through 2012 in California were used in this cross-sectional study. Multiple linear and log-binomial regressions were used to test whether low family income (as indicated by eligibility for National School Lunch Program) was associated with physical fitness level or obesity prevalence. Differences were tested by race/ethnicity while adjusting for age and sex. Fitness score was measured on a scale from 0 (least healthy) to 6 (most healthy). Average fitness score was 4.45 (standard deviation, 1.47). Prevalence of obesity was 20.3%, and 56% of children were classified as having lower family income. Lower family income (vs higher) was associated with lower fitness score (coefficient = -0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.62 to -0.53). Lower-income children had higher prevalence of obesity (relative risk = 1.81; 95% CI, 1.72-1.89) compared with higher-income children. These inverse associations were seen among American Indian, Asian, Pacific Islander, Filipino, Hispanic/Latino, African American, and white children and among children who were identified as being of 2 or more races/ethnicities. Children with lower family incomes tend to have less healthy physical fitness status and have higher risk of obesity than children with higher family incomes. This information can be used to help set policies and provide programs aimed at improving fitness and decreasing obesity risk among low-income children.

  12. Prevalence of pathogenetic MC4R mutations in Italian children with early Onset obesity, tall stature and familial history of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crinò Antonino

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melanocortin-4-receptor (MC4R mutations represent the most frequent genetic cause of non-syndromic early onset obesity. Children carrying MC4R mutations seem to show a particular phenotype characterized by early onset, severe obesity and high stature. To verify whether MC4R mutations are associated with this particular phenotype in the Italian pediatric population, we decided to screen the MC4R gene in a group of obese children selected on the basis of their phenotype. Methods To perform this study, a multicentric approach was designed. Particularly, to be enrolled in the study subjects needed to meet the following criteria: Body mass index ≥ 3 deviation scores according to age and sex, familiar history of obesity (at least one parent obese, obesity onset before the 10 years old, height ≥ 2 deviation scores. The coding region of MC4R gene was screened in 240 obese children (mean age 8.3 ± 3.1, mean BMI 30.8 ± 5.4 and in 200 controls (mean age 8.1 ± 2.8; mean BMI 14.2 ± 2.5. Results Three mutations have been found in five obese children. The S127L (C380T, found in three unrelated children, had been described and functionally characterized previously. The Q307X (C919T and the Y332H (T994C mutations were found in two patients. Functional studies showed that only Q307X impaired protein function. Conclusion The low prevalence of MC4R mutations (1.6% in this group of obese children selected according to the obesity degree, the tall stature and the family history of obesity was similar to the prevalence observed in previous screenings performed in obese adults and in not phenotypically selected obese children.

  13. A LINK BETWEEN ATOPIC DERMATITIS AND OBESITY IN CHILDREN UNDER SIXTEEN YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilijana Besednjak Kocijančič

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Atopic dermatitis (AD is the most frequent inflammatory disease of the skin in the childhood. The prevalence of AD, overweight and obesity in Slovenia continue to rise. An association between asthma and overweight/ obesity was observed in girls, but a similar association between AD and overweight/obesity hasn’t been confirmed yet. The aim of the study was to confirm the association betweenoverweight/ obesity and AD in two to sixteen years old children.Methods. 2240 children were included in this prospective study. A pediatrician visited them in pediatric dispensary of Health Centre Šempeter between 1st Jan. 2001 and 31st Dec. 2001. 751 children breast fed for 4 or more months and with normal parental body mass index (BMI were selected for this study. Children were divided in three groups related to their BMI: group A-normal weight children, group B-overweight and group C-obese children. Physician’s diagnosis of AD was ascertained with the ISAAC core, positive skin prick tests and elevated specific IgE. Chi-square testing was used to asses significant differences in the prevalence of AD in overweight and obese compared to normal weight children.Results. 5.2% of children from group A had AD, 23.3% from group B and 32.7% from group C. A significant effect of overweight and obesity on AD was found (P < 0.001, MantelHaenszel chi-square test; Epi. Info, version 6.05.Conclusions. This study confirmed a strong association between an atopic dermatitis and overweight/obesity in two to sixteen years old children. The causes of this association are unclear and the association maybe related to factors other than atopy.

  14. Evaluation of segmental body composition by gender in obese children using bioelectric impedance analysis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İhsan Çetin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, it was aimed to evaluate segmental body composition of children diagnosed with obesity using bioelectrical impedance analysis method in terms of different gender. Methods: 48 children, aged between 6-15 years, 21 of whom were boys while 27 were girls, diagnosed with obesity in Erciyes University Medical Faculty Department of Pediatric Endocrinology Outpatient Clinic were included in our study from April to June in 2011. Those over 95 percentile were defined as obese group. Tanita BC-418 device was used to analyze the body composition. Results: As a result of bioelectrical impedance analysis, lean body mass and body muscle mass were found to be statistically significantly higher in obese girls compared with obese boys. However, lean mass of the left arm, left leg muscle mass and basal metabolic rate were found to be statistically significantly lower in obese girls compared with obese boys. Conclusion: Consequently, it may be suggest that segmental analysis, where gender differences are taken into account, can provide proper exercise pattern and healthy way of weight loss in children for prevention of obesity and associated diseases including obesity and type 2 diabetics and cardiovascular diseases.

  15. Comparing risk factors in a group of obese children and group of athlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Pastucha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is an increasing problem that more and more often affects children, thus not only the adult population. The aim of this thesis is to compare various elements and life habits of obese children with elements and habits of children practising athletics. These processes are physical activity, healthstate, eating habits, physical condition, breast-feeding period duration and the BMI of the children's parents. We have come upon an agreement with other authors that while comparing the BMI results of the parents, the two sets differed significantly. It was clearly indicated that obese children also have overweight or obese parents. Therefore it can be said that obesity is usually a problem of the whole actual family and its life-style. Regarding birth-weight, breast-feeding period duration, participation in P.E. class or a time spent watching TV or playing a computer, no major differences were noted. However, slight differences in favour to the athletes were seen in their good eating habits, their body-posture and their interest in sports in general. Here, the intensity with which active children practise sports and the time they devote to it are much higher and bigger than the energy and time spent on sports by obese children.

  16. Adenovirus-36 Seropositivity and Its Relation with Obesity and Metabolic Profile in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isela Parra-Rojas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The human adenovirus 36 (Ad-36 is causally and correlatively associated in animals and humans, respectively, with increased adiposity and altered metabolic profile. In previous studies, the relationship between Ad-36 seropositivity with obesity was established in adults and children. We evaluated the association of positive antibodies to Ad-36 with obesity and metabolic profile in Mexican children. Seventy-five children with normal-weight and 82 with obesity were studied in this research. All children had a clinic assessment which included weight, height, body circumferences, and skinfold thickness. Laboratory analyzes included triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and glucose and insulin levels. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to determine the antibodies to Ad-36 in the serum samples. The overall Ad-36 seroprevalence was 73.9%. Ad-36 seropositivity had a higher prevalence in obese children than in normal weight group (58.6 versus 41.4%, P=0.007. Ad-36 seropositivity was associated with obesity (OR=2.66, P=0.01 and high-density lipoprotein <40 mg/dL (OR=2.85, P=0.03. The Ad-36 seropositive group had greater risk of 4 metabolic abnormalities compared with those children without none alteration. In summary, Ad-36 seropositivity was associated with obesity and low HDL-c levels in the sample of children studied.

  17. Adenovirus-36 Seropositivity and Its Relation with Obesity and Metabolic Profile in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Moral-Hernández, Oscar; Salgado-Bernabé, Aralia B.; Guzmán-Guzmán, Iris P.; Salgado-Goytia, Lorenzo; Muñoz-Valle, José F.

    2013-01-01

    The human adenovirus 36 (Ad-36) is causally and correlatively associated in animals and humans, respectively, with increased adiposity and altered metabolic profile. In previous studies, the relationship between Ad-36 seropositivity with obesity was established in adults and children. We evaluated the association of positive antibodies to Ad-36 with obesity and metabolic profile in Mexican children. Seventy-five children with normal-weight and 82 with obesity were studied in this research. All children had a clinic assessment which included weight, height, body circumferences, and skinfold thickness. Laboratory analyzes included triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and glucose and insulin levels. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine the antibodies to Ad-36 in the serum samples. The overall Ad-36 seroprevalence was 73.9%. Ad-36 seropositivity had a higher prevalence in obese children than in normal weight group (58.6 versus 41.4%, P = 0.007). Ad-36 seropositivity was associated with obesity (OR = 2.66, P = 0.01) and high-density lipoprotein <40 mg/dL (OR = 2.85, P = 0.03). The Ad-36 seropositive group had greater risk of 4 metabolic abnormalities compared with those children without none alteration. In summary, Ad-36 seropositivity was associated with obesity and low HDL-c levels in the sample of children studied. PMID:24324491

  18. Overweight, obesity and features of metabolic syndrome in children with diabetes treated with insulin pump therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łuczyński, Włodzimierz; Szypowska, Agnieszka; Głowińska-Olszewska, Barbara; Bossowski, Artur

    2011-07-01

    There has been no specific evaluation of atherogenic risk factors in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). We, therefore, studied the prevalence of overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome among these patients. Five hundred children with T1DM treated with CSII and multiple daily insulin (MDI) regimen were included in the study. Anthropometric data/physical examination, data concerning diabetes, and a lipid profile were assessed in this group, and compared with respect to treatment method (CSII vs. MDI). Almost one-third (30.2%) of the children were overweight/obese. The body mass index (BMI) values at the time of the present evaluation were significantly higher in comparison with the BMI values 3-6 months after the diagnosis. Dyslipidemia was recognized in 51.6%, hypertension in 4.8%, and the metabolic syndrome in 3.2%. of the subjects. The overweight/obese children differed from their normal-weight counterparts with respect to metabolic control, the incidence of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome. The girls showed higher prevalence of overweight/obesity and higher BMI values compared to the boys. The children treated with CSII had the same prevalence of overweight/obesity, but a lower incidence of dyslipidemia, and a better metabolic control compared to the children treated with MDI regimen. Our study shows a high prevalence of overweight/obesity and dyslipidemia in children with T1DM including those treated with an insulin pump.

  19. Differences in overweight and obesity between primary school children from migrant and native origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.W. Labree (Wim)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Globally, the increase of overweight and obesity has reached epidemic proportions in both adults, and children. Overweight and obesity have become a major public health concern as a consequence of the serious impact on morbidity, quality of life, and mortality.

  20. Differences in overweight and obesity between primary school children from migrant and native origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.W. Labree (Wim)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Globally, the increase of overweight and obesity has reached epidemic proportions in both adults, and children. Overweight and obesity have become a major public health concern as a consequence of the serious impact on morbidity, quality of life, and mortality. Prevalence

  1. Drug interventions for the treatment of obesity in children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mead, Emma; Atkinson, Greg; Richter, Bernd; Metzendorf, Maria-Inti; Baur, Louise; Finer, Nicholas; Corpeleijn, Eva; O'Malley, Claire; Ells, Louisa J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Child and adolescent obesity has increased globally, and can be associated with significant short- and long-term health consequences. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of drug interventions for the treatment of obesity in children and adolescents. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL,

  2. Differences in overweight and obesity between primary school children from migrant and native origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.W. Labree (Wim)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Globally, the increase of overweight and obesity has reached epidemic proportions in both adults, and children. Overweight and obesity have become a major public health concern as a consequence of the serious impact on morbidity, quality of life, and mortality. Prevalence

  3. Does consumption of high-fructose corn syrup beverages cause obesity in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, R E

    2013-08-01

    The consumption of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) beverages has increased since the 1970s. At the same time, childhood obesity is on the rise, causing children to be at risk of heart disease, diabetes and other diseases. Healthcare providers have attributed childhood obesity to the consumption of HFCS in the form of beverages. This article will look at the available research and determine if there is scientific evidence underlying the idea that sweetened soft drinks, especially those containing HFCS, could cause or contribute to childhood obesity. A thorough literature search was performed using the ISI Web of Sciences, PubMed and Scopus databases within the years 2006-2012. The search generated 19 results. The articles were screened, and six were deemed eligible: four systematic reviews and two meta-analyses. Two systematic reviews found that there is no relationship between consumption of HFCS beverages and obesity in children. The other two systematic reviews found possible links between HFCS and childhood obesity. The meta-analysis articles found that consumption of HFCS beverages can contribute to childhood obesity, and limitation of sweetened beverages may help decrease obesity in children. Available research studies demonstrate inconclusive scientific evidence definitively linking HFCS to obesity in children.

  4. Is it time for bed? Short sleep duration increases risk of obesity in Mexican American children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross-sectional studies show that sleep is related to childhood obesity. We aimed to examine the longitudinal impact of sleep on the risk of obesity in Mexican American children. We evaluated 229 Mexican American 8–10-year-olds and their mothers at base- line and at 12- and 24-month follow-ups. Slee...

  5. An innovative summer camp program improves weight and self-esteem in obese children

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine the potential benefits of a residential summer camp to treat childhood obesity, 21 obese, multiethnic children (aged 11.4 +/- 1.4 years; body mass index [BMI] percentile 98.5 +/- 1.4; BMI z score 2.30 +/- 0.33) from a diverse socioeconomic background were enrolled in a 2-week summer cam...

  6. Children, Teachers, and Families Working Together to Prevent Childhood Obesity: Intervention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegelin, Dolores A.

    2008-01-01

    Obesity rates for children, adolescents, and adults continue to escalate in the United States and globally. Educators, health specialists, psychologists, and sociologists are studying the complex problems related to early obesity. Like other health problems, prevention and early detection are the most effective strategies. The causes and…

  7. Keeping Children Active: What You Can Do to Fight Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pica, Rae

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about childhood obesity and explores ways to fight this condition. The author shares some activities to get children moving to positively impact childhood obesity. These include: "Stand Up/Sit Down;" "Quick Clean-Up;" and "Get Ready Spaghetti."

  8. Children, Teachers, and Families Working Together to Prevent Childhood Obesity: Intervention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegelin, Dolores A.

    2008-01-01

    Obesity rates for children, adolescents, and adults continue to escalate in the United States and globally. Educators, health specialists, psychologists, and sociologists are studying the complex problems related to early obesity. Like other health problems, prevention and early detection are the most effective strategies. The causes and…

  9. Influence of variants in the NPY gene on obesity and metabolic syndrome features in Spanish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olza, Josune; Gil-Campos, Mercedes; Leis, Rosaura; Rupérez, Azahara I; Tojo, Rafael; Cañete, Ramón; Gil, Angel; Aguilera, Concepción M

    2013-07-01

    Variants in the neuropeptide Y (NPY) gene have been associated with obesity and its traits. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the NPY gene with obesity, metabolic syndrome features, and inflammatory and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk biomarkers in Spanish children. We recruited 292 obese children and 242 normal-body mass index (BMI) children. Height, weight, BMI, waist circumference, clinical and metabolic markers, adipokines, and inflammatory (PCR, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α) and CVD risk biomarkers (MPO, MMP-9, sE-selectin, sVCAM, sICAM, and PAI-1) were analyzed. Seven SNPs in the NPY gene were genotyped. The results of our study indicate that anthropometric measurements, clinical and metabolic markers, adipokines (leptin and resistin), and inflammatory and CVD risk biomarkers were generally elevated in the obese group. The exceptions to this finding included cholesterol, HDL-c, and adiponectin, which were lower in the obese group, and glucose, LDL-c, and MMP-9, which did not differ between the groups. Both rs16147 and rs16131 were associated with the risk of obesity, and the latter was also associated with insulin resistance, triacylglycerols, leptin, and HDL-c. Thus, we confirm the association of rs16147 with obesity, and we demonstrate for the first time the association of rs16131 with obesity and its possible impact on the early onset of metabolic syndrome features, mainly triacylglycerols, in children.

  10. The Association between Family and Parental Factors and Obesity among Children in Nanchang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: With rapid economic development in China, traditional patterns of health behaviors are changing, concurrent with a rise in childhood obesity. While the home environment and parenting behaviors are modifiable factors that could be targeted for intervention, little is known about their relationship with children’s health behaviors. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between obesity and home and parenting factors in Chinese children. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Nanchang, China in 2013 with caregivers (N = 470 of a child between the ages of 2-10 years. Regression analyses were conducted to determine risk factors for childhood obesity. Results: Obesity prevalence (21.7% did not differ by demographic variables. Eight physical activity, nutrition, and sedentary variables had significant relationships to obesity status. Logistic regression analysis revealed three significant predictors of obesity: the number of days the family eats meals together (odds ratio = 0.84, 95% CI 0.73-0.96 and parental home computer use time (odds ratio = 0.83, 95% CI 0.72-0.96 were related to lower levels of obesity, while parental television time (odds ratio = 1.25 95% CI 1.07-1.47 was related to higher levels of obesity. Conclusions: The prevalence of obesity among children is high in Nanchang. Family and environmental risk factors are significantly related to obesity.

  11. An attempt to reduce negative stereotyping of obesity in children by changing controllability beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anesbury, T; Tiggemann, M

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether changing children's beliefs about the controllability of obesity would reduce their negative attitudes toward fat people. The participants were 74 children from Grades 4-6, 42 in the experimental group and 32 in the control group. The experimental group were presented with a brief intervention which focussed on the uncontrollability of weight. The study found that the intervention was successful in reducing the amount of controllability that children assigned to obesity, but was not successful in reducing negative stereotyping of the obese among the experimental group compared to the control group. These results indicate that while children's beliefs about the controllability of obesity can be changed, reducing their negative stereotyping is more difficult.

  12. Family-based intervention for controlling childhood obesity: An experience among Iranian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Esfarjani

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The family-based lifestyle program had limited but desirable effects on anthropometric and metabolic outcomes of the obese children. We suggest that a longer period of intervention may have more favorable results.

  13. Serum Asymmetric Dimethylarginine, and Adiponectin as Predictors of Atherosclerotic Risk among Obese Egyptian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas R. Abdel Hameed

    2014-06-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Our results revealed that ADMA, Adiponectin and lipid profile can be considered as predictive biomarkers in prediction and prevention of atherosclerotic risk in the future among overweight and obese Egyptian children.

  14. Evidential Value That Exercise Improves BMI z-Score in Overweight and Obese Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, George A; Kelley, Kristi S

    2015-01-01

    Background. Given the cardiovascular disease (CVD) related importance of understanding the true effects of exercise on adiposity in overweight and obese children and adolescents, this study examined whether there is evidential value to rule out excessive and inappropriate reporting of statistically significant results, a major problem in the published literature, with respect to exercise-induced improvements in BMI z-score among overweight and obese children and adolescents. Methods. Using data from a previous meta-analysis of 10 published studies that included 835 overweight and obese children and adolescents, a novel, recently developed approach (p-curve) was used to test for evidential value and rule out selective reporting of findings. Chi-squared tests (χ (2)) were used to test for statistical significance with alpha (p) values z-score in overweight and obese children and adolescents, an important therapeutic strategy for treating and preventing CVD.

  15. [Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in children: a new complication of obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocca, G; Stolk, R P; Scheenstra, R; Sauer, P J J

    2008-11-08

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) comprises a range of chronic liver diseases from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis with liver failure. In children, NAFLD is mainly associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome, the results of an unhealthy lifestyle. Insulin resistance and free fatty acids play a key role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. NAFLD can therefore be seen as a metabolic complication of obesity. Since the prevalence of obesity in Dutch children is increasing, the prevalence of NAFLD in children is expected to increase as well. Prevention of obesity and identification of children with an increased risk of NAFLD are important steps in preventing irreversible liver damage. Lifestyle changes aimed at improving insulin sensitivity through healthy food and sufficient physical activity are essential in the treatment of NAFLD. Pharmacological treatment may have additional value.

  16. Overweight and Obesity among Children: An Evaluation of a Walking Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuraikat, Nashat; Dugan, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of overweight and obesity among 5,158 school-age children and to evaluate the effectiveness of a walking program to encourage physical activity among children in Western Pennsylvania. According to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), obesity in school-age children affects approximately 19% of children 6-11 years old in the United States (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2010c ). Data were collected over six years. The results of the study revealed the prevalence of obesity and overweight was higher than the national averages: 36% versus 20%. The results also revealed the walking program to be beneficial in reducing students' prevalence of obesity and overweight and keeping them moving.

  17. Walkable home neighbourhood food environment and children's overweight and obesity: Proximity, density or price?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Le, Ha; Engler-Stringer, Rachel; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2016-01-01

    .... We examined whether the proximity to or density of grocery and convenience stores or fast food restaurants, or the prices of healthy food options were more strongly associated with overweight/obesity risk in children...

  18. Physical activity levels and obesity status of Oregon Rural Elementary School children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine B. Gunter

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Children are not meeting minimum MVPA recommendations (60 min/d during school hours. Efforts to promote PA for obesity prevention in rural elementary schools should focus on increasing opportunities for MVPA.

  19. Interrelation between Obesity, Oral Health, and Life-Style Factors among Turkish School Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cinar, Ayse Basak; Murtomaa, Heikki

    2011-01-01

    Obesity, dental caries, and periodontal diseases are among major public health concerns which may affect children's growth and development. This study seeks any clustering between obesity, oral health, and life-style factors among school children in Istanbul, Turkey. A cross-sectional study...... children. A need exists for addressing obesity, oral health, and nutrition jointly in health promotion strategies to improve children's well-being and empower good life-style factors....... of children, 10- to 12-year-olds, from a public and a private school was undertaken withquestionnaires for children and their mothers and childoral health data, in Istanbul (n = 611). DMFS (number of decayed, missing, and filled surfaces of permanent teeth), CPI (Community Periodontal Index), body mass index...

  20. [Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and its association with clinical and biochemical variables in obese children and adolescents: effect of a one-year intervention on lifestyle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santomauro, Mercedes; Paoli-Valeri, Mariela; Fernández, Maricelia; Camacho, Nolis; Molina, Zarela; Cicchetti, Rosanna; Valeri, Lenin; Dávila de Campagnaro, Evila; Arata-Bellabarba, Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    To study the frequency of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), its relationship to clinical and biochemical variables, and the effect 12-month's lifestyle intervention in obese children and adolescents. Thirty-six obese patients aged 7 to 18 years, 42% female and 58% male, 72.2% prepubertal and 27.8% pubertal, were selected. Anthropometric measurements and glucose, insulin (baseline and after a glucose load), lipid profile, C-reactive protein, and aminotransferase tests were performed before and 12 months after dietary and physical activity intervention. Liver ultrasound was performed to determine the presence of NAFLD. NAFLD was found in 66.7% (n=24), and was mild in 30.6%, moderate in 27.8%, and severe in 8.3%. Subjects with NAFLD had higher body mass index (BMI, p=0.007), waist (p=0.005), fat area (p=0.002), basal insulin (p=0.01), and HOMA-IR (p=0.008) values and lower QUICKI (p=0.02) values than those with no NAFLD. After intervention, physical activity increased (p=0.0001) and calorie intake remained unchanged. NAFLD disappeared in 9 patients (37.5%, p=0.02) and disease severity decreased in 3 patients (12.5%). In addition, BMI Z-score (p=0.005), fat area (p=0.0001), basal insulin (pobese children and adolescents showed a high frequency of NAFLD. The lifestyle intervention with weight reduction is effective for the treatment of NAFLD. Copyright © 2011 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among school children and adolescents in Chennai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadesan, Sonya; Harish, Ranjani; Miranda, Priya; Unnikrishnan, Ranjit; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2014-07-01

    To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in Chennai, India, using national and international age- and sex- specific body mass index (BMI) cut-off points. The Obesity Reduction and Awareness and Screening of Non communicable diseases through Group Education in Children and Adolescents (ORANGE) project is a cross-sectional study carried out on 18,955 children (age 6-11 years) and adolescents (age 12-17 years) across 51 schools (31 private and 20 government) of Chennai. Overweight and obesity was classified by the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF 2000) and Khadilkars criteria (2012), and Hypertension by the IDF criteria (in children ≥10 years and adolescents). The prevalence of overweight/obesity was significantly higher in private compared to government schools both by the IOTF criteria [private schools: 21.4%, government schools: 3.6%, (OR: 7.4, 95% CI:6.3-8.6; Pobesity was higher among girls (IOTF: 18%, Khadilkar: 21.3%) compared to boys (IOTF: 16.2%, Khadilkar: 20.7%) and higher among adolescents (IOTF: 18.1%, Khadilkar: 21.2%) compared to children (IOTF: 15.5%, Khadilkar: 20.7%). Prevalence of hypertension was 20.4% among obese/overweight and 5.2% among non-obese (OR 4.7, 95%CI: 4.2-5.3, Pobesity is high among private schools in Chennai, and hypertension is also common.

  2. Steps to Growing Up Healthy: a pediatric primary care based obesity prevention program for young children

    OpenAIRE

    Gorin, Amy A.; Wiley, James; Ohannessian, Christine McCauley; Hernandez, Dominica; Grant, Autherene; Cloutier, Michelle M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Leading medical organizations have called on primary care pediatricians to take a central role in the prevention of childhood obesity. Weight counseling typically has not been incorporated into routine pediatric practice due to time and training constraints. Brief interventions with simple behavior change messages are needed to reach high-risk children, particularly Latino and Black children who are disproportionately affected by obesity and related comorbidities. Steps to Growing ...

  3. Interventions to control overweight and obesity in children and adolescents in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Aquino-Vivanco, Óscar; Centro Nacional de Alimentación y Nutrición, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Nutricionista.; Aramburu, Adolfo; Centro Nacional de Alimentación y Nutrición, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Nutricionista.; Munares-García, Óscar; Centro Nacional de Alimentación y Nutrición, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. obstetra, magíster en Salud Pública.; Gómez-Guizado, Guillermo; Centro Nacional de Alimentación y Nutrición, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. médico cirujano especialista en Epidemiologia de Campo.; García-Torres, Elizabeth; Unidad de Análisis y Generación de Evidencias en Salud Pública, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. médico cirujano. especialista en Gestión de Salud.; Donaires-Toscano, Fernando; Unidad de Análisis y Generación de Evidencias en Salud Pública, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. médico infectólogo.; Fiestas, Fabián; Unidad de Análisis y Generación de Evidencias en Salud Pública, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Red para la Acción y Avance de la Salud Mental y Psiquiatría (Red AVANSE-PSI). Lima, Perú. Médico epidemiólogo.

    2014-01-01

    Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents represent a serious public health problem in Peru, with high costs for society that require the implementation of a set of public policies directed toward its control. Thus, interventions have been proposed as the regulation of advertising of unhealthy foods, self-regulation, the implementation of kiosks healthy and nutritional labeling. From the analysis of the problem of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents in Peru, this a...

  4. The relationship between dental caries and obesity among primary school children aged 5 to 14 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Yingshui

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous study revealed that the link between dental caries and obesity has been controversial. The purpose of this research is to investigate the association between dental caries and obesity among primary school children in Wannan area, China. Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed to collect the routine health screening data for primary school children aged 5-14 years inWannan area,China, Overweight and obesity status were determined using the International Obesity Task Force standard (IOTF BMI cut-off points. Caries status was recorded based on WHO recommendations. Results: Our results revealed that the overall caries prevalence of the subjects was 44.9%, Maximum number of caries affected children belonged to underweight and normal group, followed by overweight, and the least number was obesity. These differences were statistically significant (chi-square test, P < 0.001. Children with obesity were 1.908 times (OR =1.908; CI95%=1.750, 2.079 more likely have caries than children with underweight or health weight. Overweight children were 1.547 times (OR = 1.547; CI95% = 1.479, 1.618 more likely to have caries than children with underweight or health weight. After adjusted the gender and age, a statistically significant association was also observed between body mass index categories and caries. Conclusions: Obesity may have a significant effect on caries prevalence of primary school children in Wannan area, China. The importance of obesity should not only be emphasized with respect to general diseases but also with regard to carious lesions.

  5. [Interventions to control overweight and obesity in children and adolescents in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino-Vivanco, Óscar; Aramburu, Adolfo; Munares-García, Óscar; Gómez-Guizado, Guillermo; García-Torres, Elizabeth; Donaires-Toscano, Fernando; Fiestas, Fabián

    2013-04-01

    Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents represent a serious public health problem in Peru, with high costs for society that require the implementation of a set of public policies directed toward its control. Thus, interventions have been proposed as the regulation of advertising of unhealthy foods, self-regulation, the implementation of kiosks healthy and nutritional labeling. From the analysis of the problem of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents in Peru, this article is a narrative review of such interventions.

  6. The relationship between serum lipid levels, high blood pressure and obesity in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Kurtuncu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Oxidative stress in obese children may lead in adulthood serious conditions such as coronary heart diseases or type 2 diabetes mellitus. In childhood oxidative stress is associated with insulin resistance or extreme obesity. In this study, we aimed to evaluate oxidative stress status in moderately obese children without insulin resistance. Methods: A total of 38 obese children (21 male, 17 female without insulin resistance, mean aged 9.4±3.8 years and 51 normal weight children (25 male, 26 female as the control group, mean aged 9.3±3.9 years were enrolled to the study. Total oxidative status (TOS, total antioxidant capacity (TAC were measured and oxidative stress index (OSI was calculated. Results: The results reveal that obese children had lower TAC than normal weight children (2,27±0,28 vs. 2.76±0.35 mmol Trolox Eq./L; p<0,001. There was no statistical difference between obese and control groups regarding TOS (6,08±3,63 vs 5.25±4.16 μmol H2O2 Eq./L; p=0.333. OSI was higher in obese group (2.65±1.52 vs 1.92±1.56; p=0.029 Conclusion: Balance between oxidant and antioxidant system is disrupted due to the reduced TAC even in moderately obese children without insulin resistance. Further studies should also be performed to evaluate the beneficial effects of dietary intake of antioxidants in these children.

  7. The relationship between dental caries and obesity among primary school children aged 5 to 14 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yingshui; Ren, Xiaohua; Song, Xiuli; He, Lianping; Jin, Yuelong; Chen, Yan; Lu, Wei; Guo, Daoxia; Ding, Lingling; Tang, Hui; Wei, Ningkai; Qiu, Shenwei; Li, Chaopin

    2014-07-01

    Previous study revealed that the link between dental caries and obesity has been controversial. The purpose of this research is to investigate the association between dental caries and obesity among primary school children in Wannan area, China. A cross-sectional study was designed to collect the routine health screening data for primary school children aged 5-14 years in Wannan area,China, Overweight and obesity status were determined using the International Obesity Task Force standard (IOTF) BMI cut-off points. Caries status was recorded based on WHO recommendations. Our results revealed that the overall caries prevalence of the subjects was 44.9%, Maximum number of caries affected children belonged to underweight and normal group, followed by overweight, and the least number was obesity. These differences were statistically significant (chi-square test, P Children with obesity were 1.908 times (OR =1.908; CI95%=1.750, 2.079) more likely have caries than children with underweight or health weight. Overweight children were 1.547 times (OR = 1.547; CI95% = 1.479, 1.618) more likely to have caries than children with underweight or health weight. After adjusted the gender and age, a statistically significant association was also observed between body mass index categories and caries. Obesity may have a significant effect on caries prevalence of primary school children in Wannan area, China. The importance of obesity should not only be emphasized with respect to general diseases but also with regard to carious lesions. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  8. Explaining overweight and obesity in children and adolescents of Asian Indian origin: the Calcutta childhood obesity study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnab Ghosh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to find out the prevalence of overweight and obesity and its associated factors among Bengalee children and adolescents in the Kolkata, India. A total of 1061 Bengalee school children and adolescents (610 boys and 451 girls participated and were divided into three age groups: Group I = 8-11 years; Group II = 12-15 years and Group III = 16-18 years. Overweight and obesity were defined as: Overweight (between ≥85 th and <95 th percentile and obesity (≥95 th percentile. Multivariate regression analyses (adjusted for age and sex of body mass index (BMI revealed that about 18% (R2 = 0.185 of total variance of BMI could be explained by monthly family income, participants think obese, consumption of too much junk foodstuffs, breakfast skip, extra consumption of salt, and computer hours. Sedentary lifestyles, including increasing fast food preferences may be responsible for increasing occurrence of pediatric and adolescent obesity in this population.

  9. Obesity in Children: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Academy of Pediatrics) Also in Spanish Related Issues Childhood Obesity: Common Misconceptions (American Academy of Pediatrics) Is My Child's Appetite Normal? (Food and Nutrition Service) - PDF Pediatric Obesity and Ear, Nose, and ...

  10. [Nutritional status of preschool children attending the Chilean National Nursery Schools Council Programs (JUNJI): assessment of the agreement among anthropometric indicators of obesity and central obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérez-Gómez, Yareni; Kain, Juliana; Uauy, Ricardo; Galván, Marcos; Corvalán, Camila

    2009-03-01

    Historically, the anthropometric assessment of nutritional welfare programs has been targeted to assess nutritional deficiencies based on weight-to-age and height-to-age indicators. Recently, given the increase on childhood obesity, it has been also recommended the measurement of indicators of obesity (i.e., weight-to-height) and central obesity (i.e., waist circumference). However, the agreement of these indicators in preschool children is unclear. The aims of this study were: (1) assess the nutritional status of children attending the Chilean National Nursery Schools Council Program (JUNJI); (2) assess the agreement between general and central obesity anthropometric measurements in these children. In 574 girls and 580 boys, 3.0 to 5.9 years old, we measured: weight, height, waist and hip circumference, and five skinfolds. We used the WHO 2006 growth standards to estimate Z-scores. We defined general obesity as WHZ or BAZ= 2, and central obesity as waist circumference > or =90 percentile of NHANES III. The participants were on average slightly shorter but considerably heavier and obese than the reference populations. Prevalence of general obesity was close to 16% with both indicators while prevalence of central obesity reached 15%. There was good agreement among general obesity indicators and central obesity indicators (Kappa = 0.6-0.7). In summary, we found a high prevalence of obesity and central obesity among Chilean preschool children beneficiaries of a welfare program. At this age, there was a good agreement among general obesity indicators and central obesity indicators. These results suggest that waist circumferences measurements should not be incorporated to the program.

  11. Bullying and Victimization in Overweight and Obese Outpatient Children and Adolescents: An Italian Multicentric Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Bacchini

    Full Text Available Being overweight or obese is one of the most common reasons that children and adolescents are teased at school. We carried out a study in order to investigate: i the relation between weight status and school bullying and ii the relation between weight status categories and types of victimization and bullying in an outpatient sample of Italian children and adolescents with different degrees of overweight from minimal overweight up to severe obesity.Nine-hundred-forty-seven outpatient children and adolescents (age range 6.0-14.0 years were recruited in 14 hospitals distributed over the country of Italy. The participants were classified as normal-weight (N = 129, overweight (N = 126, moderately obese (N = 568, and severely obese (N = 124. The nature and extent of verbal, physical and relational bullying and victimization were assessed with an adapted version of the revised Olweus bully-victim questionnaire. Each participant was coded as bully, victim, bully-victim, or not involved.Normal-weight and overweight participants were less involved in bullying than obese participants; severely obese males were more involved in the double role of bully and victim. Severely obese children and adolescents suffered not only from verbal victimization but also from physical victimization and exclusion from group activities. Weight status categories were not directly related to bullying behaviour; however severely obese males perpetrated more bullying behaviour compared to severely obese females.Obesity and bullying among children and adolescents are of ongoing concern worldwide and may be closely related. Common strategies of intervention are needed to cope with these two social health challenges.

  12. Fast food intake and prevalence of obesity in school children in Riyadh City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaif, Mohammed; Alsaadi, Muslim; Almajwal, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity has become a new challenge for healthcare providers. The issue is not limited to certain parts of the world; its prevalence is increasing worldwide. The causes of obesity are poorly understood and continue to be debated and studied. It is a multifactorial disorder which involves dietary, behavioral, environmental as well as genetic factors. The increased consumption of more energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods with high levels of sugar and saturated fats, combined with reduced physical activity, have led to high obesity rates among children. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dietary intake on the occurrence of childhood obesity, and study other associated factors including the education, occupation and income of parents and the living status. Normal healthy school girls (n =196) and school boys (n = 85) between the age of 6- 15 were recruited for the study. We found that obesity among children in Riyadh City was significantly associated with fast food intake (p = 0.0280). It was also observed that 72.5% of the overweight or obese students consumed fast food at least 4 times/week, and the other 15.9% were taking fast food 1- 3 times/week, while only 11.6% of the same overweight or obese group did not consume any fast food/ week. Father’s and mother’s occupations were not significantly correlated to their children’s body weight. The prevalence of childhood obesity is changing and increasing yearly and is attributed to the nutritional risk factors for the Saudi school-age children. It is interesting to know that most of overweight or obese school students belonged to the families of highincome. Parents must take necessary precautions for the diet of their children and should adopt healthy life style in order to prevent or manage obesity of their children. PMID:27493393

  13. Bullying and Victimization in Overweight and Obese Outpatient Children and Adolescents: An Italian Multicentric Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrasi, Alessandra; Corciulo, Nicola; Driul, Daniela; Tanas, Rita; Fiumani, Perla Maria; Di Pietro, Elena; Pesce, Sabino; Crinò, Antonino; Maltoni, Giulio; Iughetti, Lorenzo; Sartorio, Alessandro; Deiana, Manuela; Lombardi, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Objective Being overweight or obese is one of the most common reasons that children and adolescents are teased at school. We carried out a study in order to investigate: i) the relation between weight status and school bullying and ii) the relation between weight status categories and types of victimization and bullying in an outpatient sample of Italian children and adolescents with different degrees of overweight from minimal overweight up to severe obesity. Participants/Methods Nine-hundred-forty-seven outpatient children and adolescents (age range 6.0–14.0 years) were recruited in 14 hospitals distributed over the country of Italy. The participants were classified as normal-weight (N = 129), overweight (N = 126), moderately obese (N = 568), and severely obese (N = 124). The nature and extent of verbal, physical and relational bullying and victimization were assessed with an adapted version of the revised Olweus bully-victim questionnaire. Each participant was coded as bully, victim, bully-victim, or not involved. Results Normal-weight and overweight participants were less involved in bullying than obese participants; severely obese males were more involved in the double role of bully and victim. Severely obese children and adolescents suffered not only from verbal victimization but also from physical victimization and exclusion from group activities. Weight status categories were not directly related to bullying behaviour; however severely obese males perpetrated more bullying behaviour compared to severely obese females. Conclusions Obesity and bullying among children and adolescents are of ongoing concern worldwide and may be closely related. Common strategies of intervention are needed to cope with these two social health challenges. PMID:26606393

  14. Physicians and Physician Trainees Rarely Identify or Address Overweight/Obesity in Hospitalized Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Marta A; Nkoy, Flory L; Maloney, Christopher G; Mihalopoulos, Nicole L

    2015-10-01

    To determine how frequently physicians identify and address overweight/obesity in hospitalized children and to compare physician documentation across training level (medical student, intern, resident, attending). We conducted a retrospective chart review. Using an administrative database, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention body mass index calculator, and random sampling technique, we identified a study population of 300 children aged 2-18 years with overweight/obesity hospitalized on the general medical service of a tertiary care pediatric hospital. We reviewed admission, progress, and discharge notes to determine how frequently physicians and physician trainees identified (documented in history, physical exam, or assessment) and addressed (documented in hospital or discharge plan) overweight/obesity. Physicians and physician trainees identified overweight/obesity in 8.3% (n = 25) and addressed it in 4% (n = 12) of 300 hospitalized children with overweight/obesity. Interns were most likely to document overweight/obesity in history (8.3% of the 266 patients they followed). Attendings were most likely to document overweight/obesity in physical examination (8.3%), assessment (4%), and plan (4%) of the 300 patients they followed. Medical students were least likely to document overweight/obesity including it in the assessment (0.4%) and plan (0.4%) of the 244 hospitalized children with overweight/obesity they followed. Physicians and physician trainees rarely identify or address overweight/obesity in hospitalized children. This represents a missed opportunity for both patient care and physician trainee education. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Pubertal development in adolescents with menstrual disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Roteta Dorado

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Abnormal uterine bleeding is the presence of an excessive and prolonged menstrual bleeding over several consecutive cycles. It is one of the first complaints in pediatric gynecology and is the most common cause dysfunctional uterine bleeding. Objective: To characterize adolescents with menstrual disorders attending gynecology clinic in child and adolescent onset of puberty. Method: A descriptive, longitudinal and prospective. Universe: 88 adolescents seen at the gynecology children and youth in the province of Cienfuegos with menstrual disorders in 2008. Sample: 64 patients with rhythm disturbances of the menstrual cycle and excessive bleeding. Procedure: During the first consultation was found in the following medical records: age, onset of puberty, age at menarche, breast development and pubic hair development. The data were processed by SPSS program and expressed as numbers and percentages. Results: 43.8% of the adolescents studied were between 14 and 16 years, 29.7% began puberty at age 9, 31.3% had their menarche at age 11, 46, 87% were in Tanner stage IV of breast development and 56.25% in Tanner stage IV for pubic hair. Conclusion: There were no alterations in pubertal development in adolescents with menstrual disorders studied.

  16. Obese fathers lead to an altered metabolism and obesity in their children in adulthood: review of experimental and human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornellas, Fernanda; Carapeto, Priscila V; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos A; Aguila, Marcia B

    2017-08-17

    To discuss the recent literature on paternal obesity, focusing on the possible mechanisms of transmission of the phenotypes from the father to the children. A non-systematic review in the PubMed database found few publications in which paternal obesity was implicated in the adverse transmission of characteristics to offspring. Specific articles on epigenetics were also evaluated. As the subject is recent and still controversial, all articles were considered regardless of year of publication. Studies in humans and animals have established that paternal obesity impairs their hormones, metabolism, and sperm function, which can be transmitted to their offspring. In humans, paternal obesity results in insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes and increased levels of cortisol in umbilical cord blood, which increases the risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Notably, there is an association between body fat in parents and the prevalence of obesity in their daughters. In animals, paternal obesity led to offspring alterations on glucose-insulin homeostasis, hepatic lipogenesis, hypothalamus/feeding behavior, kidney of the offspring; it also impairs the reproductive potential of male offspring with sperm oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. An explanation for these observations (human and animal) is epigenetics, considered the primary tool for the transmission of phenotypes from the father to offspring, such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, and non-coding RNA. Paternal obesity can induce programmed phenotypes in offspring through epigenetics. Therefore, it can be considered a public health problem, affecting the children's future life. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Overweight and obese status in children with autism spectrum disorder and disruptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criado, Kristen K; Sharp, William G; McCracken, Courtney E; De Vinck-Baroody, Oana; Dong, Liansai; Aman, Michael G; McDougle, Christopher J; McCracken, James T; Eugene Arnold, L; Weitzman, Carol; Leventhal, John M; Vitiello, Benedetto; Scahill, Lawrence

    2017-03-01

    Overweight and obesity are common in pediatric populations. Children with autism spectrum disorder and disruptive behavior may be at higher risk. This study examined whether children with autism spectrum disorder and disruptive behavior are more likely to be overweight or obese than matched controls. Baseline data from medication-free children with autism spectrum disorder who participated in trials conducted by the Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology Autism Network (N = 276) were compared to 544 control children from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey database matched on age, sex, race, parent education, and era of data collection. The mean age of the children with autism spectrum disorder was 7.9 ± 2.6 years; 84.4% were males. In the autism spectrum disorder group, the prevalence was 42.4% for overweight and 21.4% for obesity compared to 26.1% for overweight and 12.0% for obesity among controls (p autism spectrum disorder sample, obesity was associated with minority status and lower daily living skills. These findings suggest that children with autism spectrum disorder and disruptive behavior are at increased risk for obesity and underscore the need for weight management interventions in this population.

  18. Association between metabolic disturbances and G-174C polymorphism of interleukin-6 gene in obese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyrzak B

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The aim of the study was to investigate whether the G-174C polymorphism of the IL-6 gene is related to obesity and the incidence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS according to IDF definition in children. Materials and methods The examined group included 124 obese children with BMI ≥ 2 SDS, and the control group consisted of 56 non-obese children with BMI Results In the obese children, carriers of C allele in homozygotic and heterozygotic genotypes were more frequent than in the control group. The carriers of C alleles presented with lower thickness of subcutaneous tissue and higher concentrations of HDL-C than the wild type. The incidence of MetS was 33% of the group of obese children. Analysis of the presence of MetS factors showed that there is more frequent MetS in the group with the wild homozygous genotype type. Conclusion Polymorphism 174G > C in the IL-6 gene does not seem to be associated with obesity and with the incidence of MetS in children.

  19. [Consequences of obesity in children and teenagers: a problem that requires attention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liria, Reyna

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a worldwide pandemic and children are a vulnerable group. In America, it was estimated that in 2010, 15.2% of 18 year-old children could suffer from this. Obesity in children and teenagers has a negative impact on health and on the load of diseases at this stage of life, and later on in adulthood, having a negative impact on the economy of a country due to the rise of risks of chronic diseases, health expenses and indirect costs as a result of the disease. Peru is going through an epidemiological transition, with unsolved malnutrition problems and high child obesity rates (10% of children under five), thus being one of the countries with a higher increase of child obesity in recent years in Latin America. Childhood and adolescence are considered critical periods because eating habits and physical activity start at this point; and because most obese children and teenagers will maintain those habits until they reach adulthood. For this reason, it is essential to seek strategies and interventions that prevent overweight and obesity among children and teenagers in order to improve the health conditions of a country.

  20. Cardiometabolic risk is associated with the severity of sleep-disordered breathing in children with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isacco, Laurie; Roche, Johanna; Quinart, Sylvain; Thivel, David; Gillet, Valérie; Nègre, Véronique; Mougin, Fabienne

    2017-03-01

    The alarming progression of pediatric obesity is associated with the development of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), and both exhibit similar adverse cardiometabolic health outcomes. Physical activity level (PAL) may counteract sleep and metabolic disturbances. The present study investigates i) the association between the metabolic syndrome in childhood obesity and SDB, ii) the impact of SDB severity on cardiometabolic risk scores and PAL in children with obesity. Maturation status (Tanner stages), anthropometric (height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, body adiposity index) and cardiometabolic characteristics (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, lipid and glycemic profiles) were assessed in 83 obese children (mean±SD, age: 10.7±2.7years). PAL and SDB were investigated with a step test and interviews, and an overnight sleep monitor, respectively. The presence or absence of metabolic syndrome (MS) was established and continuous cardiometabolic risk scores were calculated (MetScoreBMI and MetScoreWC). Obese children with (61.4%) and without (38.6%) MS present similar SDB. SDB severity is associated with increased insulin concentrations, MetScoreBMI and MetScoreWC (pobese children. There is no association between SDB and PAL. In a context where no consensus exists for SDB diagnosis in children, our results suggest the influence of SDB severity on cardiometabolic risk factors. Further studies are needed to explore the association between PAL and both metabolic and sleep alterations in obese children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The 10x5 metre shuttle run test may be a good predictor of aerobic performance in pre-pubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christina; Petersen, Mette; Froberg, Karsten

    Sports. 2009. 2. Bar-Or O & Inbar O. Relationships among anaerobic capacity, sprint and middle distance running of school children. In Shephard, RJ. and Lavallée, H. eds., Physical fitness assessment. Springfield, 1978. 3. Inbar O & Bar-Or O. Relationships of anaerobic and aerobic arm and leg capacities...... to swimming performance of 8-12 year old children. In Shephard, R.J. and Lavallée, H. eds., Frontiers of activity and child health. Quebec: Pélican, 1977. 4. Andersen LB., et Al. An Intermittent running test to estimate maximal oxygen uptake: the Andersen test. J Sports Med Physical Fitness 2008....... in two field tests, the short shuttle run test (SSRT), 10x5 m measuring agility and speed , and the long modified 20 metre shuttle run, the Andersen test (AT) measuring cardio-respiratory fitness (4), representing anaerob and aerob performance respectively. Methods: The population and data was collected...

  2. Increased scalp hair cortisol concentrations in obese children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Veldhorst (M.); G. Noppe (Gerard); M.H.T.M. Jongejan (Mieke); C.B.M. Kok (Chantine); S. Mekic (Selma); J.W. Koper (Jan); E.F.C. van Rossum (Liesbeth); E.L.T. van den Akker (Erica)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractContext: Pathologically increased cortisol exposure induces obesity, but it is not known whether relatively high cortisol within the physiological range is related to childhood obesity. Objective: The aim of the study was to compare hair cortisol concentrations between obese and normal-w

  3. The effect of teacher education on the prevalence of obesity in kindergarten children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanachu-ek, Suntaree; Moungnoi, Pranee

    2008-10-01

    Childhood obesity is increasing worldwide and becoming an important health problem in both the children's current life and their later years. Providing kindergarten teachers with the knowledge should reduce the severity of obesity and prevent childhood obesity. To monitor the prevalence of over-nutrition and obesity in kindergarten children for 3 years, and to evaluate the effects of teacher education on the prevalence of over-nutrition and obesity. Kindergarten children from 7 schools in Bangkok were enrolled in this cohort study for 3 years (2005-2007). Three school groups were classified according to the number of informed teachers in the school. The children's weight and height were measured yearly using standard instruments. Nutritional status was assessed by% weight for height (%W/H), using the Thai Growth Reference, 1999. After the second measurement, all teachers were informed directly at the schools. The prevalence of over-nutrition and obesity was assessed and compared among the 3 years, and the 3 groups, using Chi-square (chi 2) test. In the year 2005, 1,232 kindergarten children from 7 schools were enrolled. The prevalence of over-nutrition and obesity was 33% and 17.4% in 2005; 32.8% and 17.2% in 2006; 28.8% and 15.3% in 2007. In the 3rd year the prevalence of over-nutrition decreased statistically significantly from the first 2 years. The prevalence of over-nutrition and obesity in 3 years decreased insignificantly in each group. This showed the positive effects of the teacher education. Teacher education has effects in reducing the prevalence of over-nutrition and obesity in the kindergarten children.

  4. Risk factors for obesity in 6 to 12-year-old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Japutra

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The causes of obesity in children are multifactorial, including genetics, physiology, metabolism, psychology, socioeconomic status, lifestyle, and culture. Objective To assess for relationships between obesity in 6 to 12-year-old children and maternal nutritional status, maternal education, eating breakfast, eating fast food, physical activity, TV watching, and playing video games. Methods This case-control study included students of Sejahtera Public School aged 6 to 12 years. Questionnaires were distributed to their parents for data on maternal education, eating breakfast, eating fast food, physical activity, TV watching and playing video games. Maternal nutritional status was assessed by one of the researchers. Univariate analysis with Chi–square test was used to assess every risk factor. Those with a P value of <0.25 were subjected to multivariate analysis, performed using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results From June to July 2013, 60 obese children and 60 wellnourished children, as a control group, were enrolled in the study. Obese mothers tended to have obese children [odds ratio/OR 252.48; 95%CI 33.4 to 1908.4]. Children who ate fast food 6–8 times/week, had low physical activity, and watched TV more than 8 hours/week had significantly higher risk for obesity [OR 12.94, 95%CI 1.7 to 100.7; and OR 266.94, 95% CI 7.8 to 9137.7; OR 21.44, 95%CI 2.68 to 171.61; respectively]. Maternal education, eating breakfast, and playing video games were not significant risk factors for childhood obesity. Conclusion Maternal obesity, eating fast food 6-8 times per week, low physical activity and watching TV more than 8 hours/ week are risk factors for childhood obesity.

  5. Risk factors for obesity in 6 to 12-year-old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Japutra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The causes of obesity in children are multifactorial, including genetics, physiology, metabolism, psychology, socioeconomic status, lifestyle, and culture. Objective To assess for relationships between obesity in 6 to 12-year-old children and maternal nutritional status, maternal education, eating breakfast, eating fast food, physical activity, TV watching, and playing video games. Methods This case-control study included students of Sejahtera Public School aged 6 to 12 years. Questionnaires were distributed to their parents for data on maternal education, eating breakfast, eating fast food, physical activity, TV watching and playing video games. Maternal nutritional status was assessed by one of the researchers. Univariate analysis with Chi–square test was used to assess every risk factor. Those with a P value of <0.25 were subjected to multivariate analysis, performed using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results From June to July 2013, 60 obese children and 60 well-nourished children, as a control group, were enrolled in the study. Obese mothers tended to have obese children [odds ratio/OR 252.48; 95%CI 33.4 to 1908.4]. Children who ate fast food 6–8 times/week, had low physical activity, and watched TV more than 8 hours/week had significantly higher risk for obesity [OR 12.94, 95%CI 1.7 to 100.7; and OR 266.94, 95% CI 7.8 to 9137.7; OR 21.44, 95%CI 2.68 to 171.61; respectively]. Maternal education, eating breakfast, and playing video games were not significant risk factors for childhood obesity. Conclusion Maternal obesity, eating fast food 6-8 times per week, low physical activity and watching TV more than 8 hours/week are risk factors for childhood obesity. [Paediatr Indones. 2015;55:35-9.].

  6. Risk factors for obesity in 6 to 12-year-old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Japutra

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The causes of obesity in children are multifactorial, including genetics, physiology, metabolism, psychology, socioeconomic status, lifestyle, and culture. Objective To assess for relationships between obesity in 6 to 12-year-old children and maternal nutritional status, maternal education, eating breakfast, eating fast food, physical activity, TV watching, and playing video games. Methods This case-control study included students of Sejahtera Public School aged 6 to 12 years. Questionnaires were distributed to their parents for data on maternal education, eating breakfast, eating fast food, physical activity, TV watching and playing video games. Maternal nutritional status was assessed by one of the researchers. Univariate analysis with Chi–square test was used to assess every risk factor. Those with a P value of <0.25 were subjected to multivariate analysis, performed using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results From June to July 2013, 60 obese children and 60 wellnourished children, as a control group, were enrolled in the study. Obese mothers tended to have obese children [odds ratio/OR 252.48; 95%CI 33.4 to 1908.4]. Children who ate fast food 6–8 times/week, had low physical activity, and watched TV more than 8 hours/week had significantly higher risk for obesity [OR 12.94, 95%CI 1.7 to 100.7; and OR 266.94, 95% CI 7.8 to 9137.7; OR 21.44, 95%CI 2.68 to 171.61; respectively]. Maternal education, eating breakfast, and playing video games were not significant risk factors for childhood obesity. Conclusion Maternal obesity, eating fast food 6-8 times per week, low physical activity and watching TV more than 8 hours/ week are risk factors for childhood obesity.

  7. EFFECT OF OBESITY ON CARDIAC FUNCTION IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W. Rowland

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Increases in cardiac mass, ventricular dimensions, and stroke volume are typically observed in obese adults, accompanied by evidence of diminished ventricular systolic and diastolic function. Given sufficient severity and duration of excessive body fat, signs of overt congestive heart failure may ensue (cardiomyopathy of obesity. This review of cardiac findings in obese children and adolescents indicates similar anatomic features as well as early subclinical findings of ventricular dysfunction. However, cardiac functional reserve (cardiovascular fitness appears to be preserved even in those with morbid levels of obesity

  8. Dietary Modulation of Gut Microbiota Contributes to Alleviation of Both Genetic and Simple Obesity in Children

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    Chenhong Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Research in context: Poorly managed diet and genetic mutations are the two primary driving forces behind the devastating epidemic of obesity-related diseases. Lack of understanding of the molecular chain of causation between the driving forces and the disease endpoints retards progress in prevention and treatment of the diseases. We found that children genetically obese with Prader–Willi syndrome shared a similar dysbiosis in their gut microbiota with those having diet-related obesity. A diet rich in non-digestible but fermentable carbohydrates significantly promoted beneficial groups of bacteria and reduced toxin-producers, which contributes to the alleviation of metabolic deteriorations in obesity regardless of the primary driving forces.

  9. Children with Obesity Prioritize Social Support against Stigma: A Qualitative Study for Development of an Obesity Prevention Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Amini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood obesity is a world-wide health problem and development of interventions to prevent or control it is a priority. Obesity is prevalent and on the increase among school-students in Iran, too. As the first step for development of an intervention, the current study was designed to complete our understanding of ideas, attitudes, beliefs, and preferences of prima