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Sample records for pubertal height growth

  1. Genome-wide association and longitudinal analyses reveal genetic loci linking pubertal height growth, pubertal timing and childhood adiposity

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    Cousminer, Diana L.; Berry, Diane J.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Ang, Wei; Thiering, Elisabeth; Byrne, Enda M.; Taal, H. Rob; Huikari, Ville; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Groen-Blokhuis, Maria M.; Kreiner-Moller, Eskil; Marinelli, Marcella; Holst, Claus; Leinonen, Jaakko T.; Perry, John R. B.; Surakka, Ida; Pietilainen, Olli; Kettunen, Johannes; Anttila, Verneri; Kaakinen, Marika; Sovio, Ulla; Pouta, Anneli; Das, Shikta; Lagou, Vasiliki; Power, Chris; Prokopenko, Inga; Evans, David M.; Kemp, John P.; St Pourcain, Beate; Ring, Susan; Palotie, Aarno; Kajantie, Eero; Osmond, Clive; Lehtimaki, Terho; Viikari, Jorma S.; Kahonen, Mika; Warrington, Nicole M.; Lye, Stephen J.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Tiesler, Carla M. T.; Flexeder, Claudia; Montgomery, Grant W.; Medland, Sarah E.; Hofman, Albert; Hakonarson, Hakon; Guxens, Monica; Bartels, Meike; Salomaa, Veikko; Koppelman, Gerard H.

    2013-01-01

    The pubertal height growth spurt is a distinctive feature of childhood growth reflecting both the central onset of puberty and local growth factors. Although little is known about the underlying genetics, growth variability during puberty correlates with adult risks for hormone-dependent cancer and

  2. Growth trajectory and pubertal tempo from birth till final height in a girl with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome.

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    Siew, Jia Xuan; Yap, Fabian

    2018-01-01

    Growth anomaly is a prominent feature in Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS), a rare congenital disorder caused by variable deletion of chromosome 4p. While growth charts have been developed for WHS patients 0-4 years of age and growth data available for Japanese WHS patients 0-17 years, information on pubertal growth and final height among WHS children remain lacking. Growth hormone (GH) therapy has been reported in two GH-sufficient children with WHS, allowing for pre-puberty catch up growth; however, pubertal growth and final height information was also unavailable. We describe the complete growth journey of a GH-sufficient girl with WHS from birth until final height (FH), in relation to her mid parental height (MPH) and target range (TR). Her growth trajectory and pubertal changes during childhood, when she was treated with growth hormone (GH) from 3 years 8 months old till 6 months post-menarche at age 11 years was fully detailed. Pubertal growth characteristics and FH information in WHS is lacking.While pre-pubertal growth may be improved by GH, GH therapy may not translate to improvement in FH in WHS patients.Longitudinal growth, puberty and FH data of more WHS patients may improve the understanding of growth in its various phases (infancy/childhood/puberty).

  3. Adult Height after Growth Hormone Treatment at Pubertal Onset in Short Adolescents Born Small for Gestational Age: Results from a Belgian Registry-Based Study

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    M. Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Information on the efficacy of GH treatment in short SGA children starting their treatment in adolescence is limited. Therefore, adult height (AH, total height gain, and pubertal height gain were evaluated in short SGA children who started GH treatment at pubertal onset. Patient and Methods. Growth data of 47 short SGA adolescents (22 boys who started GH treatment at pubertal onset (PUB group were compared with results from 27 short SGA patients (11 boys who started GH therapy at least 1 year before pubertal onset (PrePUB group. Results. The PUB group achieved a mean (±SD total height gain of 0.8 ± 0.7 SDS and an AH of −2.5 ± 0.7 SDS after 4.1 ± 1.1 years of GH treatment with a dosage of 41.8 ± 8.4 μg/kg/day. These results were comparable with those in the PrePUB group, which was treated for a longer duration (5.8 ± 2.1 years, resulting in a total height gain of 1.1 ± 0.7 SDS and an AH of −2.1 ± 1.0 SDS. Multiple regression analysis showed a significantly lower height gain in pubertal patients, females, and patients weighing less at start of GH treatment. An AH above −2 SDS and above the parent-specific lower limit of height was, respectively, reached in 28% and 70% of PUB and 44% and 67% of PrePUB patients (NS. AH SDS was positively correlated with the height SDS at start of GH. Conclusions. Short SGA adolescents starting GH therapy at an early pubertal stage have a modest and variable height gain. A normal AH can be expected in one third of the patients, especially in those with a smaller height deficit at onset of GH treatment.

  4. [Pubertal growth of 1,453 healthy children according to age at pubertal growth spurt onset. The Barcelona longitudinal growth study].

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    Carrascosa, Antonio; Yeste, Diego; Moreno-Galdó, Antonio; Gussinyé, Miquel; Ferrández, Ángel; Clemente, María; Fernández-Cancio, Mónica

    2018-02-20

    Pubertal growth pattern differs according to age at pubertal growth spurt onset which occurs over a five years period (girls: 8-13 years, boys: 10-15 years). The need for more than one pubertal reference pattern has been proposed. We aimed to obtain five 1-year-age-interval pubertal patterns. Longitudinal (6 years of age-adult height) growth study of 1,453 healthy children to evaluate height-for-age, growth velocity-for-age and weight-for-age values. According to age at pubertal growth spurt onset girls were considered: very-early matures (8-9 years, n=119), early matures (9-10 years, n=157), intermediate matures (10-11 years, n=238), late matures (11-12 years, n=127) and very-late matures (12-13 years, n=102), and boys: very-early matures (10-11 years, n=110), early matures (11-12 years, n=139), intermediate matures (12-13 years, n=225), late matures (13-14 years, n=133) and very-late matures (14-15 years, n=103). Age at menarche and growth up to adult height were recorded. In both sexes, statistically-significant (P<.0001) and clinically-pertinent differences in pubertal growth pattern (mean height-for-age, mean growth velocity-for-age and mean pubertal height gain, values) were found among the five pubertal maturity groups and between each group and the whole population, despite similar adult height values. The same occurred for age at menarche and growth from menarche to adult height (P<.05). In both sexes, pubertal growth spurt onset is a critical milestone determining pubertal growth and sexual development. The contribution of our data to better clinical evaluation of growth according to the pubertal maturity tempo of each child will obviate the mistakes made when only one pubertal growth reference is used. Copyright © 2018. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  5. Adult height after spontaneous pubertal growth or GnRH analog treatment in girls with early puberty: a meta-analysis.

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    Bertelloni, Silvano; Massart, Francesco; Miccoli, Mario; Baroncelli, Giampiero I

    2017-06-01

    Early puberty (EP) has been defined as the onset of puberty in the low-normal range; it may be a cause for concern regarding a possible impairment of adult height (AH). This paper meta-analysed data on AH after spontaneous growth or after gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analog treatment in girls with EP. A computerized literature search was conducted from 1980 to June 30, 2016. Only published studies in English were considered. Eight papers were selected (483 cases). In untreated girls (n = 300), predicted adult height (PAH) at start of follow-up (-0.559 SDS (95%CI -1.110 to 0.001); P = 0.050) was close to mid-parental height (MPH) (-0.557 SDS (95%CI -0.736 to -0.419); P adult height. What is New: • Untreated and GnRH analog treated girls with early puberty reached similar adult height. • Adult height was consistent with mid-parental height in both untreated and GnRH analog treated girls with early puberty.

  6. Combined Treatment with Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Analog and Anabolic Steroid Hormone Increased Pubertal Height Gain and Adult Height in Boys with Early Puberty for Height.

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    Tanaka, Toshiaki; Naiki, Yasuhiro; Horikawa, Reiko

    2012-04-01

    Twenty-one boys with a height of 135 cm or less at onset of puberty were treated with a combination of GnRH analog and anabolic steroid hormone, and their pubertal height gain and adult height were compared with those of untreated 29 boys who enter puberty below 135 cm. The mean age at the start of treatment with a GnRH analog, leuprorelin acetate depot (Leuplin(®)) was 12.3 yr, a mean of 1.3 yr after the onset of puberty, and GnRH analog was administered every 3 to 5 wk thereafter for a mean duration of 4.1 yr. The anabolic steroid hormone was started approximately 1 yr after initiation of treatment with the GnRH analog. The mean pubertal height gain from onset of puberty till adult height was significantly greater in the combination treatment group (33.9 cm) than in the untreated group (26.4 cm) (ppenis and pubic hair is promoted by the anabolic steroid hormone, no psychosocial problems arose because of delayed puberty. No clinically significant adverse events appeared. Combined treatment with GnRH analog and anabolic steroid hormone significantly increased height gain during puberty and adult height in boys who entered puberty with a short stature, since the period until epiphyseal closure was extended due to deceleration of the bone age maturation by administration of the GnRH analog and the growth rate at this time was maintained by the anabolic steroid hormone.

  7. The value of shoe size for prediction of the timing of the pubertal growth spurt.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, I.; Kingma, I.; Wapstra, F.H.; Bulstra, S.K.; Verkerke, G.J.; Veldhuizen, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Knowing the timing of the pubertal growth spurt of the spine, represented by sitting height, is essential for the prognosis and therapy of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. There are several indicators that reflect growth or remaining growth of the patient. For example, distal body parts

  8. Final height and intrauterine growth retardation.

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    Tauber, Maïthé

    2017-06-01

    Approximately 10% of small for gestational age (SGA) children maintain a small body size throughout childhood and often into adult life with a decreased pubertal spurt. Growth hormone (GH) therapy increases short-term growth in a dose-dependent manner and adult height had now been well documented. Shorter children might benefit from a higher dose at start (50μg/kg/day). The response to GH treatment was similar for both preterm and term short SGA groups and the effect of GH treatment on adult height showed a wide variation in growth response. As a whole, mean adult height is higher than -2 SDS in 60% of patients and 70% reached an adult height in their target height with better results with higher doses and combined GnRH analog therapy in those who were short at onset of puberty. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  9. The duration of pubertal growth peak among three skeletal classes

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    Waqar Jeelani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Pubertal growth peak is closely associated with a rapid increase in mandibular length and offers a wide range of therapeutic modifiability. Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine and compare the mean ages of onset and duration of pubertal growth peak among three skeletal classes. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted using lateral cephalograms of 230 subjects with growth potential (110 males, 120 females. Subjects were categorized into three classes (Class I = 81, Class II = 82, Class III = 67, according to the sagittal relationship established between the maxilla and the mandible. The cervical vertebral maturation stage was recorded by means of Baccetti's method. The mean ages at CS3 and CS4 and the CS3-CS4 age interval were compared between boys and girls and among three skeletal classes. Results: Pubertal growth peak occurred on average four months earlier in girls than boys (p = 0.050. The average duration of pubertal growth peak was 11 months in Class I, seven months in Class II and 17 months in Class III subjects. Interclass differences were highly significant (Cohen's d > 0.08. However, no significant difference was found in the timing of pubertal growth peak onset among three skeletal classes (p = 0.126 in boys, p = 0.262 in girls. Conclusions: Girls enter pubertal growth peak on average four months earlier than boys. Moreover, the duration of pubertal growth peak is on average four months shorter in Class II and six months longer in Class III subjects as compared to Class I subjects.

  10. Pubertal neurocranium growth in thymectomized rats.

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    Rino, W; Teixeira, D

    1979-01-01

    Differences in neurocranium growth at puberty were studied in rats of both sexes thymectomized and sham-thymectomized at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 days of age and in controls of matched age and sex; skull length, width and height, and skull base length and face length were measured. The neurocranium of the thymectomized rats was significantly smaller than that of the sham-thymectomized and control rats of both sexes and in all age-groups.

  11. Comparison of lumbar force between pubertal and post-pubertal adolescents: interference of physical growth, body fat and lifestyle.

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    Mikael Seabra Moraes

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: To compare performance in the lumbar force test in pubertal and post-pubertal adolescents by controlling the interference of physical growth, body fat, screen time and physical activity. Methods: A cross-sectional study with 933 adolescents (492 girls aged 14-19 from the city of São José, Brazil. Lumbar strength was assessed using the isometric lumbar extension test proposed by the Canadian Society of Exercise Physiology. Sexual maturation was classified according to Tanner’s criteria. Physical growth variables (age, body weight, stature, BMI, body fat (triceps and subscapular skinfolds, sedentary behavior based on screen time and overall physical activity were controlled in the Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA, with a significance level of 5%. Results: Post-pubertal boys presented higher lumbar force compared to pubertal ones only when interference of BMI, body fat, screen time and physical activity was controlled. Pubertal girls presented higher lumbar force compared to post-pubertal ones, both when controlling the analysis for the studied variables and when not controlled by them. Conclusion: BMI, body fat, screen time and physical activity interfere in the difference in lumbar strength of boys, in which post-pubertal boys presented better performance in lumbar force compared to pubertal ones. Regardless of interference or not of these variables, pubertal girls presented better performance in lumbar force when compared to post-pubertal ones.

  12. Pubertal Development and Prepubertal Height and Weight Jointly Predict Young Adult Height and Body Mass Index in a Prospective Study in South Africa.

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    Stein, Aryeh D; Lundeen, Elizabeth A; Martorell, Reynaldo; Suchdev, Parminder S; Mehta, Neil K; Richter, Linda M; Norris, Shane A

    2016-07-01

    Height and adiposity track over childhood, but few studies, to our knowledge, have longitudinally examined the mediating relation of the timing and progression of puberty. We assessed interrelations between prepubertal height and body mass index, the progression through puberty, and young adult height and adiposity. We analyzed data from the Birth to Twenty Plus study (females, n = 823; males, n = 765). Serial measures of anthropometry and pubertal development were obtained between ages 9 and 16 y. We used latent class growth analysis to categorize pubertal development with respect to pubic hair (females and males), breasts (females), and genitalia (males) development. Adult height and weight were obtained at ages 18 to 20 y. Among females, higher latent class (earlier initiation and faster progression through puberty) was associated with an increased risk of obesity [pubic hair class 3 compared with class 1: RR, 3.41 (95% CI: 1.57, 7.44)] and inconsistent associations with height. Among males, higher latent class was associated with increased adult height [pubic hair development class 3 compared with class 1: 2.43 cm (95% CI: 0.88, 4.00)] and increased risk of overweight/obesity [pubic hair development class 3 compared with class 1: OR, 3.44 (95% CI: 1.44, 8.20)]. In females, the association with adult height became inverse after adjusting for prepubertal height [pubic hair development class 3 compared with class 1: females, -1.31 cm (95% CI: -2.32, -0.31)]; in males, the association with height was attenuated with this adjustment [-0.56 cm (95% CI: -1.63, 0.52)]. Associations with adiposity were attenuated after adjusting for prepubertal adiposity. Progression through puberty modifies the relation between prepubertal and adult anthropometry. Screening for early or rapid progression of puberty might identify children at an increased risk of becoming overweight or obese adults.

  13. Distributed pubertal growth in girls after acute leukemia: a relative growth hormone insufficiency with late presentation

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    Moell, C.

    1988-01-01

    Long-term follow-up of growth and development after acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in childhood has previously been limited to the prepubertal period. This study describes pubertal growth, final height and the spontaneous secretion of GH in girls treated for ALL, including CNS irradiation with 24 GY. Ten girls, treated earlier for ALL, experienced the menarche at a mean age of 12.2 years. This is significantly earlier than the mean for Swedish girls. Prepubertal growth was near normal after the end of therapy for leukaemia. Mean final height was -1.7 SD, which is 1.5 SD less than at onset and 1.0 SD less than 1 year after the end of treatment. Thirteen other girls had a blunted spontaneous secretion of GH, several years after treatment for ALL; there was no increase in GH secretion during puberty. These results suggest that girls who have been treated for ALL, including CNS irradiation, have a relative GH insufficiency. This insufficiency becomes obvious only when girls cannot respond to the increased need for GH during the pubertal spurt.

  14. Distributed pubertal growth in girls after acute leukemia: a relative growth hormone insufficiency with late presentation

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    Moell, C.

    1988-01-01

    Long-term follow-up of growth and development after acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in childhood has previously been limited to the prepubertal period. This study describes pubertal growth, final height and the spontaneous secretion of GH in girls treated for ALL, including CNS irradiation with 24 GY. Ten girls, treated earlier for ALL, experienced the menarche at a mean age of 12.2 years. This is significantly earlier than the mean for Swedish girls. Prepubertal growth was near normal after the end of therapy for leukaemia. Mean final height was -1.7 SD, which is 1.5 SD less than at onset and 1.0 SD less than 1 year after the end of treatment. Thirteen other girls had a blunted spontaneous secretion of GH, several years after treatment for ALL; there was no increase in GH secretion during puberty. These results suggest that girls who have been treated for ALL, including CNS irradiation, have a relative GH insufficiency. This insufficiency becomes obvious only when girls cannot respond to the increased need for GH during the pubertal spurt. (author)

  15. Combined Treatment with Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Analog and Anabolic Steroid Hormone Increased Pubertal Height Gain and Adult Height in Boys with Early Puberty for Height

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    Tanaka, Toshiaki; Naiki, Yasuhiro; Horikawa, Reiko

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-one boys with a height of 135 cm or less at onset of puberty were treated with a combination of GnRH analog and anabolic steroid hormone, and their pubertal height gain and adult height were compared with those of untreated 29 boys who enter puberty below 135 cm. The mean age at the start of treatment with a GnRH analog, leuprorelin acetate depot (Leuplin?) was 12.3 yr, a mean of 1.3 yr after the onset of puberty, and GnRH analog was administered every 3 to 5 wk thereafter for a mean d...

  16. Total pubertal growth in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis treated with growth hormone: analysis of a single center.

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    Bechtold, S; Beyerlein, A; Ripperger, P; Roeb, J; Dalla Pozza, R; Häfner, R; Haas, J P; Schmidt, H

    2012-10-01

    Growth failure is a permanent sequelae in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). The aim of the study was to compare pubertal growth in control and growth hormone (GH) treated JIA subjects. 64 children with JIA at a mean age of 10.38 ± 2.80 years were enrolled and followed until final height (measured in standard deviation (SD) scores). 39 children (20 m) received GH therapy and 24 (9 m) served as controls. GH dose was 0.33 mg/kg/week. Linear regression analysis was performed to identify factors influencing total pubertal growth. Mean total pubertal growth was 21.1 ± 1.3 cm (mean ± SD) in GH treated JIA patients and 13.8 ± 1.5 cm in controls. Final height was significantly higher with GH treatment (-1.67 ± 1.20 SD) compared to controls (-3.20 ± 1.84 SD). Linear regression model identified age at onset of puberty (ß=-4.2,CI: -5.9, -2.6 in controls and ß=-2.3,CI: -3.6, -1.1 in GH treated) as the main factor for total pubertal growth. Final height SDS was determined by the difference to target height at onset of puberty (ß=-0.59;CI: -0.80, -0.37 in controls and ß=-0.30,CI: -0.52, -0.08 in GH treated), age at onset of puberty (ß=0.47;CI:0.02,0.93 in controls and 0.23;CI: -0.00,0.46 in GH treated) and height gain during puberty (ß=0.13;CI:0.05,0.21 in controls and ß=0.11;CI:0.07,0.16 in GH treated). Total pubertal growth in JIA patients treated with GH was increased by a factor of 1.5 greater in comparison to controls leading to a significantly better final height. To maximize final height GH treatment should be initiated early to reduce the height deficit at onset of puberty. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Pubertal Stress and Nutrition and their Association with Sexual Orientation and Height in the Add Health Data.

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    Skorska, Malvina N; Bogaert, Anthony F

    2017-01-01

    A number of studies have indicated that gay men tend to be shorter, on average, than heterosexual men. Less evidence exists that lesbian women are taller, on average, than heterosexual women. The most popular explanation of the association between sexual orientation and height involves prenatal factors, such that, for example, gay men may have been exposed to lower than typical androgens during fetal development, which impacts their height and sexual orientation as adults. An alternative explanation involves stress, given that stress has been associated with sexual minority identification and with lower height. Another alternative explanation involves nutrition, although its relationship is less clear with sexual minority identification. Using the Add Health data, which is a large, nationally representative and longitudinal sample of American adolescents (n = 14,786), we tested a mediation model, such that sexual orientation → pubertal stress/nutrition → height. Within men, we found that gay men (n = 126) were shorter, on average, than heterosexual men (n = 6412). None of the 24 pubertal stress-related and 15 pubertal nutrition-related variables assessed in the Add Health data mediated the relationship between sexual orientation and height in men. Within women, lesbians (n = 75) did not differ significantly in stature compared to heterosexual women (n = 6267). Thus, prenatal mechanisms (e.g., hormones, maternal immune response) are likely better candidates for explaining the height difference between gay men and heterosexual men.

  18. Secular trends of growth and pubertal maturation of school children in Southern Thailand.

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    Jaruratanasirikul, Somchit; Sriplung, Hutcha

    2015-01-01

    In Thailand, studies of growth date back to 1975, but there have been no studies examining any trends in increasing/decreasing growth. To determine if there have been any secular trends of increasing/decreasing growth and/or ages at puberty in Thai children. In 2012, a cross-sectional study of growth was conducted in 3460 children. The median heights and weights and the ages of pubertal maturation were compared with previous studies. Correlations between the secular trends and the health statistics indicators were calculated. From 1975-2012, the median final height of boys and girls had increased by 1.32 and 0.86 cm/decade and weight by 2.49 and 1.76 kg/decade, respectively. In girls, the age at thelarche and menarche had declined by 0.39 and 0.12 years/decade, respectively. In boys, the age at testicular enlargement Tanner II had declined by 0.15 years/decade. Increased physical growth was positively correlated to life expectancy, per capita income and prevalence of overweight/obesity was negatively correlated to prevalence of malnutrition and under-five mortality rate. The positive secular trend towards an increase in growth and a decline in the age at onset of puberty of Thai children is correlated with improvements in overall living conditions in Thailand.

  19. Gingival crevicular fluid alkaline phosphatase activity in relation to pubertal growth spurt and dental maturation: A multiple regression study

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    Perinetti, G.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The identification of the onset of the pubertal growth spurt has major clinical implications when dealing with orthodontic treatment in growing subjects. Aim: Through multivariate methods, this study evaluated possible relationships between the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity and pubertal growth spurt and dentition phase. Materials and methods: One hundred healthy growing subjects (62 females, 38 males; mean age, 11.5±2.4 years were enrolled into this doubleblind, prospective, cross-sectional-design study. Phases of skeletal maturation (pre - pubertal, pubertal, post - pubertal was assessed using the cervical vertebral maturation method. Samples of GCF for the ALP activity determination were collected at the mesial and distal sites of the mandibular central incisors. The phases of the dentition were recorded as intermediate mixed, late mixed, or permanent. A multinomial multiple logistic regression model was used to assess relationships of the enzymatic activity to growth phases and dentition phases. Results: The GCF ALP activity was greater in the pubertal growth phase as compared to the pre - pubertal and post - pubertal growth phases. Significant adjusted odds ratios for the GCF ALP activity for the pre - pubertal and post - pubertal subjects, in relation to the pubertal group, were 0.76 and 0.84, respectively. No significant correlations were seen for the dentition phase. Conclusions: The GCF ALP activity is a valid candidate as a non - invasive biomarker for the identification of the pubertal growth spurt irrespective of the dentition phase.

  20. Maternal Height and Child Growth Patterns

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    Addo, O. Yaw; Stein, Aryeh D.; Fall, Caroline H.; Gigante, Denise P.; Guntupalli, Aravinda M.; Horta, Bernardo L.; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; Lee, Nanette; Norris, Shane A.; Prabhakaran, Poornima; Richter, Linda M.; Sachdev, Harshpal S.; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:\\ud To examine associations between maternal height and child growth during 4 developmental periods: intrauterine, birth to age 2 years, age 2 years to mid-childhood (MC), and MC to adulthood.\\ud \\ud STUDY DESIGN:\\ud Pooled analysis of maternal height and offspring growth using 7630 mother-child pairs from 5 birth cohorts (Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa). We used conditional height measures that control for collinearity in height across periods. We estim...

  1. Puberty and Pubertal Growth in GH-treated SGA Children: Effects of 2 Years of GnRHa Versus No GnRHa.

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    van der Steen, Manouk; Lem, Annemieke J; van der Kaay, Danielle C M; Hokken-Koèelega, Anita C S

    2016-05-01

    Most studies on puberty in children born small for gestational age (SGA) report height and age at onset of puberty. GH-treated SGA children with an adult height (AH) expectation below -2.5 SDS at onset of puberty can benefit from an additional 2 years of GnRH analog (GnRHa) treatment. There are no data on puberty and growth after discontinuation of GnRHa treatment in GH-treated SGA children. This study aimed to investigate the effects on puberty and pubertal growth of 2 years GnRHa vs no GnRHa in GH-treated SGA children. This was a GH trial involving 76 prepubertal short SGA children (36 girls) treated with GH. Thirty-two children received additional GnRHa for 2 years. Pubertal stages were 3-monthly assessed according to Tanner. Age, bone age, and median height at pubertal onset were lower in girls and boys in the GH/GnRHa group compared with the GH group. In girls and boys treated with GH/GnRHa, pubertal duration after stop of GnRHa treatment was shorter than pubertal duration in those with GH only (40.9 vs 46.7 mo; P = .044; 50.8 vs 57.5 months; P = .006; respectively). Height gain from onset of puberty until AH, including height gain during 2 years of GnRHa treatment, was 25.4 cm in girls and 33.0 cm in boys, which was 6.6 cm more than girls and boys treated with GH only. AH was similar in children treated with GH/GnRHa compared with those with GH only. GH-treated SGA children who start puberty with an AH expectation below -2.5 SDS and are treated with 2 years of GnRHa have a shorter pubertal duration after discontinuation of GnRHa compared with pubertal duration in children treated with GH only. Height gain from onset of puberty until AH is, however, more due to adequate growth during 2 years of GnRHa treatment resulting in a similar AH as children treated with GH only.

  2. Secular Trends on Birth Parameters, Growth, and Pubertal Timing in Girls with Turner Syndrome

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    Joachim Woelfle

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWhether children with chromosomal disorders of growth and puberty are affected by secular trends (STs as observed in the general population remains unanswered, but this question has relevance for expectations of spontaneous development and treatment responses.ObjectivesThe aim of the study was to evaluate STs in birth parameters, growth, and pubertal development in girls with Turner syndrome (TS.Study designRetrospective analysis of KIGS data (Pfizer International Growth Database. We included all TS patients who entered KIGS between 1987 and 2012 and were born from 1975 to 2004, who were prepubertal and growth treatment naïve at first entry (total number: 7,219. Pretreatment height and ages at the start of treatment were compared across 5-year birth year groups, with subgroup analyses stratified by induced or spontaneous puberty start.ResultsWe observed significant STs across the birth year groups for birth weight [+0.18 SD score (SDS, p < 0.001], pretreatment height at mean age 8 years (+0.73 SDS, p < 0.001, height at the start of growth hormone (GH therapy (+0.38 SDS, p < 0.001 and start of puberty (+0.42 SDS, p < 0.001. Spontaneous puberty onset increased from 15 to 30% (p < 0.001. Mean age at the start of GH treatment decreased from 10.8 to 7.4 years (−3.4 years; p < 0.001, and substantial declines were seen in ages at onset of spontaneous and induced puberty (−2.0 years; p < 0.001 and menarche (−2.1 years; p < 0.001.ConclusionEnvironmental changes leading to increased height and earlier and also more common, spontaneous puberty are applicable in TS as in normal girls. In addition, greater awareness for TS may underlie trends to earlier start of GH therapy and induction of puberty at a more physiological age.

  3. The Effect of Wallow on Growth Performance of Pre-Pubertal Pigs in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to determine the influence of wallow on the growth performance of growing pigs. Sixteen (16) pre-pubertal pigs (8 males and 8 females) of large white breed, aged three months were randomly assigned to two treatments. There were eight animals per group designated as treatment A = with wallow ...

  4. Association of insulin-like growth factor-1 and IGF binding protein-3 with 25-hydroxy vitamin D in pre-pubertal and adolescent Indian girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwaha, Ramank K; Garg, M K; Gupta, Sushil; Ganie, Mohd Ashraf; Gupta, Nandita; Narang, Archna; Shukla, Manoj; Arora, Preeti; Singh, Annie; Chadha, Aditi; Mithal, Ambrish

    2018-03-28

    There is a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in India. Molecular mechanisms suggest a strong relationship between vitamin D and growth factors. However, there is a paucity of literature with regard to a relationship between insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and vitamin D particularly in subjects with VDD. The objective of the study was to assess the relationship between growth factors and serum vitamin D-parathormone (PTH) status in school girls and study the impact of vitamin D supplementation on growth factors in pre-pubertal girls with VDD. Our study subjects were apparently healthy school girls aged 6-18 years. The baseline height, weight, body mass index (BMI), pubertal status, serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD), PTH, IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 were assessed in 847 girls aged 6-18 years and in 190 pre-pubertal girls with VDD following supplementation. The mean age, BMI and serum 25OHD of girls were 11.5±3.2 years, 18.7±4.8 kg/m2 and 9.9±5.6 ng/mL, respectively. VDD was observed in 94.6% of girls. Unadjusted serum IGF-1 levels and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio were significantly higher in girls with severe VDD as compared to girls with mild-to-moderate VDD. However, these differences disappeared when adjusted for age, height or sexual maturation. The serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels increased significantly post supplementation with vitamin D. There were no differences in serum IGF-1 levels and the IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio among VDD categories when adjusted for age, height and sexual maturation in girls. Vitamin D supplementation resulted in a significant increase in serum IGF-1 levels in VDD pre-pubertal girls.

  5. Height Growth of Mahogany Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. B. Briscoe; R. W. Nobles

    1962-01-01

    Since the recognition of natural hybridization of small-leaf (West Indies) mahogany (Swietenia mahagoni Jacq.) with bigleaf (Honduras) mahogany (S. macrophylla King) there has been conjecture about their relative growth rates. One would expect small-leaf to be the fastest growing on dry sites, the hybrids to be fastest on intermediate sites, and bigleaf to excel on wet...

  6. The reliability of dental x-ray film in assessment of MP3 stages of the pubertal growth spurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Kader, H M

    1998-10-01

    The main object of this clinical study is to provide a simple and practical method to assess the pubertal growth spurt stages of a subject by recording MP3 stages with the dental periapical radiograph and the standard dental x-ray machine.

  7. Long-term auxological and pubertal outcome of patients with hereditary insulin-like growth factor-I deficiency (Laron and growth hormone-gene deletion syndrome) treated with recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, M F; Arrigo, T; Valenzise, M; Ghizzoni, L; Caruso-Nicoletti, M; Zucchini, S; Chiabotto, P; Crisafulli, G; Zirilli, G; De Luca, F

    2011-04-01

    GH-IGF-I axis is mainly involved in the complex process of somatic growth but emerging evidence suggests that it also influences hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) function. We report some data regarding long-term auxological and pubertal outcome of five female patients with hereditary forms of GH-IGF-I deficiency (Laron and GH-gene deletion syndrome) and a mean age of 23.4±5.3 yr (range 19-32). All the patients received recombinant human IGF-I (rhIGF-I, Pharmacia and Upjohn, Stockholm, Sweden, and rhIGF-I, Genentech, San Francisco, CA, USA) from a mean age of 8.6 yr (range 3.2-14.2) up to the final height. Final height was very disappointing (≤ -5.0 SD scores) and lower than target height in all the patients. Pubertal onset was delayed in most of them but menarche occurred spontaneously in all the patients. Median age at menarche was 15.1 yr. Menstrual cycles were regular for several years. Median duration of gynecological follow- up was 8.3 yr with the longest span of 17.2 yr. We can assert that GH-IGF-I axis has an essential role in promoting linear growth in humans and its physiological action cannot be replaced by pharmacological treatment in most patients with hereditary forms of IGF-I insufficiency as demonstrated by their subnormal final height. Our clinical observations can also support an essential role of IGF-I in genitalia growth but not in the function of HPG axis as demonstrated by the maintenance of regular menstrual cycles in the presence of subnormal levels of IGF-I after treatment discontinuation.

  8. The effect of tamoxifen on pubertal bone development in adolescents with pubertal gynecomastia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgül, Sinem; Derman, Orhan; Kanbur, Nuray

    2016-01-01

    During puberty, estrogen has a biphasic effect on epiphyses; at low levels, it leads to an increase in height and bone mass, whereas at high levels, it leads to closure of the epiphysis. Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor modulator that has been used in the treatment of pubertal gynecomastia. Although it has not been approved for this indication, studies have shown it to be both successful and safe. In males, the peak of pubertal bone development occurs during Tanner stage 3-4, which is also when pubertal gynecomastia reaches its highest prevalence. Thus tamoxifen treatment could potentially effect pubertal bone development. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of tamoxifen on bone mineral density (BMD) and skeletal maturation when used for pubertal gynecomastia. We evaluated 20 boys with pubertal gynecomastia receiving tamoxifen for at least 4 months. BMD was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Z-score and absolute BMD (g/cm(2)) was determined at baseline and 2 months after completing tamoxifen treatment. Bone age and height was evaluated before treatment and again one year later. Using absolute BMD (g/cm(2)), the mean difference from baseline was significant between the two groups both at spine (p=0.002) and femur (p=0.001), but not with the Z-score. This result was attributed to the expected increase during puberty according to sex and age. No significant effect on skeletal maturation was found (p=1.112). We conclude that when pubertal bone development is concerned, tamoxifen is safe for the treatment of pubertal gynecomastia as neither bone mineralization nor growth potential was affected.

  9. Physical growth of the shuar: Height, Weight, and BMI references for an indigenous amazonian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urlacher, Samuel S; Blackwell, Aaron D; Liebert, Melissa A; Madimenos, Felicia C; Cepon-Robins, Tara J; Gildner, Theresa E; Snodgrass, J Josh; Sugiyama, Lawrence S

    2016-01-01

    Information concerning physical growth among small-scale populations remains limited, yet such data are critical to local health efforts and to foster basic understandings of human life history and variation in childhood development. Using a large dataset and robust modeling methods, this study aims to describe growth from birth to adulthood among the indigenous Shuar of Amazonian Ecuador. Mixed-longitudinal measures of height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) were collected from Shuar participants (n = 2,463; age: 0-29 years). Centile growth curves and tables were created for each anthropometric variable of interest using Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale, and Shape (GAMLSS). Pseudo-velocity and Lambda-Mu-Sigma curves were generated to further investigate Shuar patterns of growth and to facilitate comparison with United States Center for Disease Control and Prevention and multinational World Health Organization growth references. The Shuar are small throughout life and exhibit complex patterns of growth that differ substantially from those of international references. Similar to other Amazonians, Shuar growth in weight compares more favorably to references than growth in height, resulting in BMI curves that approximate international medians. Several additional characteristics of Shuar development are noteworthy, including large observed variation in body size early in life, significant infant growth faltering, extended male growth into adulthood, and a markedly early female pubertal growth spurt in height. Phenotypic plasticity and genetic selection in response to local environmental factors may explain many of these patterns. Providing a detailed reference of growth for the Shuar and other Amazonian populations, this study possesses direct clinical application and affords valuable insight into childhood health and the ecology of human growth. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Genetic determinants of height growth assessed longitudinally from infancy to adulthood in the northern Finland birth cohort 1966.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Sovio

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent genome-wide association (GWA studies have identified dozens of common variants associated with adult height. However, it is unknown how these variants influence height growth during childhood. We derived peak height velocity in infancy (PHV1 and puberty (PHV2 and timing of pubertal height growth spurt from parametric growth curves fitted to longitudinal height growth data to test their association with known height variants. The study consisted of N = 3,538 singletons from the prospective Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 with genotype data and frequent height measurements (on average 20 measurements per person from 0-20 years. Twenty-six of the 48 variants tested associated with adult height (p<0.05, adjusted for sex and principal components in this sample, all in the same direction as in previous GWA scans. Seven SNPs in or near the genes HHIP, DLEU7, UQCC, SF3B4/SV2A, LCORL, and HIST1H1D associated with PHV1 and five SNPs in or near SOCS2, SF3B4/SV2A, C17orf67, CABLES1, and DOT1L with PHV2 (p<0.05. We formally tested variants for interaction with age (infancy versus puberty and found biologically meaningful evidence for an age-dependent effect for the SNP in SOCS2 (p = 0.0030 and for the SNP in HHIP (p = 0.045. We did not have similar prior evidence for the association between height variants and timing of pubertal height growth spurt as we had for PHVs, and none of the associations were statistically significant after correction for multiple testing. The fact that in this sample, less than half of the variants associated with adult height had a measurable effect on PHV1 or PHV2 is likely to reflect limited power to detect these associations in this dataset. Our study is the first genetic association analysis on longitudinal height growth in a prospective cohort from birth to adulthood and gives grounding for future research on the genetic regulation of human height during different periods of growth.

  11. Genetic Determinants of Height Growth Assessed Longitudinally from Infancy to Adulthood in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovio, Ulla; Bennett, Amanda J.; Millwood, Iona Y.; Molitor, John; O'Reilly, Paul F.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Kaakinen, Marika; Laitinen, Jaana; Haukka, Jari; Pillas, Demetris; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Molitor, Jassy; Hoggart, Clive; Coin, Lachlan J. M.; Whittaker, John; Pouta, Anneli; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Freimer, Nelson B.; Widen, Elisabeth; Peltonen, Leena; Elliott, Paul; McCarthy, Mark I.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta

    2009-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified dozens of common variants associated with adult height. However, it is unknown how these variants influence height growth during childhood. We derived peak height velocity in infancy (PHV1) and puberty (PHV2) and timing of pubertal height growth spurt from parametric growth curves fitted to longitudinal height growth data to test their association with known height variants. The study consisted of N = 3,538 singletons from the prospective Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 with genotype data and frequent height measurements (on average 20 measurements per person) from 0–20 years. Twenty-six of the 48 variants tested associated with adult height (p<0.05, adjusted for sex and principal components) in this sample, all in the same direction as in previous GWA scans. Seven SNPs in or near the genes HHIP, DLEU7, UQCC, SF3B4/SV2A, LCORL, and HIST1H1D associated with PHV1 and five SNPs in or near SOCS2, SF3B4/SV2A, C17orf67, CABLES1, and DOT1L with PHV2 (p<0.05). We formally tested variants for interaction with age (infancy versus puberty) and found biologically meaningful evidence for an age-dependent effect for the SNP in SOCS2 (p = 0.0030) and for the SNP in HHIP (p = 0.045). We did not have similar prior evidence for the association between height variants and timing of pubertal height growth spurt as we had for PHVs, and none of the associations were statistically significant after correction for multiple testing. The fact that in this sample, less than half of the variants associated with adult height had a measurable effect on PHV1 or PHV2 is likely to reflect limited power to detect these associations in this dataset. Our study is the first genetic association analysis on longitudinal height growth in a prospective cohort from birth to adulthood and gives grounding for future research on the genetic regulation of human height during different periods of growth. PMID:19266077

  12. Assessment of insulin like growth factor-1 and IGF binding protein-3 in healthy Indian girls from Delhi and their correlation with age, pubertal status, obesity and thyroid hormonal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwaha, Raman K; Garg, M K; Gupta, Sushil; Khurana, A K; Narang, Archna; Shukla, Manoj; Arora, Preeti; Chadha, Aditi; Nayak, Deb Datta; Manchanda, R K

    2017-07-26

    Population specific data and influence of sub-clinical hypothyroidism on insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and its binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) in Indian children is lacking. This study was undertaken to evaluate serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 and their correlation with age, gender, pubertal status and thyroid functions. A total of 840 apparently healthy school girls aged 6-18 years, were recruited for the study and underwent assessment of height, weight, body mass index, pubertal status and serum T3, T4, TSH, IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio. The mean serum levels of IGF-1, IGFBP-3 levels and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio were 381.8±240.5 ng/mL, 4.19±2.08 μg/mL and 40.5±37.2%, respectively. The serum IGF-1 and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio increased significantly (pIGF-1 and molar ratio of IGF-1/IGFBP-3 increased significantly with pubertal maturation from stage 1 to 3 and were higher in overweight girls compared to normal weight and obese girls. The growth factors were no different in girls with or without subclinical hypothyroidism. There was no significant impact of age on IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 in pre-pubertal girls. A sudden marked increase at 11 years followed by a gradual rise in growth factors till 16 years is indicative of pubertal initiation and maturation. Subclinical hypothyroidism did not influence growth factors in girls.

  13. Bone turnover markers during pubertal development: relationships with growth factors and adipocytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürimäe, Jaak; Mäestu, Jarek; Jürimäe, Toivo

    2010-01-01

    The rapid increase in skeletal mass that occurs during puberty is caused by increases in longitudinal growth as well as cortical thickness. The measurement of growth changes during puberty using two-dimensional (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and/or three-dimensional (computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) measurement devices provides only a static representation of bone tissue parameters. The measurement of bone turnover markers provides a more dynamic picture of the nature of bone tissue that can be repeated at much shorter intervals during puberty. The bone turnover markers are products of osteoblasts and osteoclasts which can be measured in urine or blood. The increase in different markers of bone turnover coincides with the pubertal growth spurt and thereafter markers decline until they converge into adult values. The initiation of puberty is accompanied by increases in androgens and estrogens. The effects of sex hormones on bone mineral accrual are mediated mainly by growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1, but they also exert a direct effect on bone metabolism. Important determinants of bone mineral accrual during puberty include optimal nutritional status, body composition parameters and physical activity pattern. All of these determinants are related to the state of energy balance, while peripheral indicators of energy balance, such as different growth factors and adipocytokines, may also have a positive influence of the growing skeleton. Taken together, bone mineral accrual during puberty is a complex interaction between physical activity pattern, various body composition parameters, specific growth factors and adipocytokines, and also sex hormones. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Nutrition and pubertal development

    OpenAIRE

    Soliman, Ashraf; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elalaily, Rania

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition is one of the most important factors affecting pubertal development. Puberty entails a progressive nonlinear process starting from prepubescent to full sexual maturity through the interaction and cooperation of biological, physical, and psychological changes. Consuming an adequate and balanced healthy diet during all phases of growth (infancy, childhood and puberty) appears necessary both for proper growth and normal pubertal development. Girls begin puberty at an earlier age compar...

  15. Effect of growth hormone treatment on the adult height of children with chronic renal failure. German Study Group for Growth Hormone Treatment in Chronic Renal Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffner, D; Schaefer, F; Nissel, R; Wühl, E; Tönshoff, B; Mehls, O

    2000-09-28

    Growth hormone treatment stimulates growth in short children with chronic renal failure. However, the extent to which this therapy increases final adult height is not known. We followed 38 initially prepubertal children with chronic renal failure treated with growth hormone for a mean of 5.3 years until they reached their final adult height. The mean (+/-SD) age at the start of treatment was 10.4+/-2.2 years, the mean bone age was 7.1+/-2.3 years, and the mean height was 3.1+/-1.2 SD below normal. Fifty matched children with chronic renal failure who were not treated with growth hormone served as controls. The children treated with growth hormone had sustained catch-up growth, whereas the control children had progressive growth failure. The mean final height of the growth hormone-treated children was 165 cm for boys and 156 cm for girls. The mean final adult height of the growth hormone-treated children was 1.6+/-1.2 SD below normal, which was 1.4 SD above their standardized height at base line (Pgrowth hormone-treated children, treatment was not associated with a shortening of the pubertal growth spurt. The total height gain was positively associated with the initial target-height deficit and the duration of growth hormone therapy and was negatively associated with the percentage of the observation period spent receiving dialysis treatment. Long-term growth hormone treatment of children with chronic renal failure induces persistent catch-up growth, and the majority of patients achieve normal adult height.

  16. Developmental decline in height growth in Douglas-fir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara J. Bond; Nicole M. Czarnomski; Clifton Cooper; Michael E. Day; Michael S. Greenwood

    2007-01-01

    The characteristic decline in height growth that occurs over a tree's lifespan is often called "age-related decline." But is the reduction in height growth in aging trees a function of age or of size? We grafted shoot tips across different ages and sizes of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) trees to determine whether...

  17. Growth hormone mediates pubertal skeletal development independent of hepatic IGF-1 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtland, Hayden-William; Sun, Hui; Beth-On, Mordechay; Wu, Yingjie; Elis, Sebastien; Rosen, Clifford J; Yakar, Shoshana

    2011-04-01

    Deficiencies in either growth hormone (GH) or insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are associated with reductions in bone size during growth in humans and animal models. Liver-specific IGF-1-deficient (LID) mice, which have 75% reductions in serum IGF-1, were created previously to separate the effects of endocrine (serum) IGF-1 from autocrine/paracrine IGF-1. However, LID mice also have two- to threefold increases in GH, and this may contribute to the observed pubertal skeletal phenotype. To clarify the role of GH in skeletal development under conditions of significantly reduced serum IGF-1 levels (but normal tissue IGF-1 levels), we studied the skeletal response of male LID and control mice to GH inhibition by pegvisomant from 4 to 8 weeks of age. Treatment of LID mice with pegvisomant resulted in significant reductions in body weight, femur length (Le), and femur total area (Tt.Ar), as well as further reductions in serum IGF-1 levels by 8 weeks of age, compared with the mean values of vehicle-treated LID mice. Reductions in both Tt.Ar and Le were proportional after treatment with pegvisomant. On the other hand, the relative amount of cortical tissue formed (RCA) in LID mice treated with pegvisomant was significantly less than that in both vehicle-treated LID and control mice, indicating that antagonizing GH action, either directly (through GH receptor signaling inhibition) or indirectly (through further reductions in serum/tissue IGF-1 levels), results in disproportionate reductions in the amount of cortical bone formed. This resulted in bones with significantly reduced mechanical properties (femoral whole-bone stiffness and work to failure were markedly decreased), suggesting that compensatory increases of GH in states of IGF-1 deficiency (LID mice) act to protect against a severe inhibition of bone modeling during growth, which otherwise would result in bones that are too weak for normal and/or extreme loading conditions. Copyright © 2011 American Society for

  18. Forty years trends in timing of pubertal growth spurt in 157,000 Danish school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglæde, Lise; Olsen, Lina Wøhlk; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.

    2008-01-01

    to 1969 who attended primary school in the Copenhagen Municipality. 135,223 girls and 21,612 boys fulfilled the criteria for determining age at OGS and age at PHV. These physiological events were used as markers of pubertal development in our computerized method in order to evaluate any secular trends...... in pubertal maturation during the study period (year of birth 1930 to 1969). In this period, age at OGS declined statistically significantly by 0.2 and 0.4 years in girls and boys, respectively, whereas age at PHV declined statistically significantly by 0.5 and 0.3 years in girls and boys, respectively...

  19. Height, weight, body mass index and pubertal development reference values for children of Turkish origin in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fredriks, A.M.; Buuren, S. van; Jeurissen, S.E.R.; Dekker, F.W.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.; Wit, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide growth and sexual maturation reference data for Turkish children living in The Netherlands. We also compared these references with the reference data of children of Dutch origin and with Turkish reference data collected in Turkey and elsewhere in Europe.

  20. Weight-for-length/height growth curves for children and adolescents in China in comparison with body mass index in prevalence estimates of malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Xinnan; Li, Hui; Zhang, Yaqin; Wu, Huahong

    2017-05-01

    It is important to update weight-for-length/height growth curves in China and re-examine their performance in screening malnutrition. To develop weight-for-length/height growth curves for Chinese children and adolescents. A total of 94 302 children aged 0-19 years with complete sex, age, weight and length/height data were obtained from two cross-sectional large-scaled national surveys in China. Weight-for-length/height growth curves were constructed using the LMS method before and after average spermarcheal/menarcheal ages, respectively. Screening performance in prevalence estimates of wasting, overweight and obesity was compared between weight-for-height and body mass index (BMI) criteria based on a test population of 21 416 children aged 3-18. The smoothed weight-for-length percentiles and Z-scores growth curves with length 46-110 cm for both sexes and weight-for-height with height 70-180 cm for boys and 70-170 cm for girls were established. The weight-for-height and BMI-for-age had strong correlation in screening wasting, overweight and obesity in each age-sex group. There was no striking difference in prevalence estimates of wasting, overweight and obesity between two indicators except for obesity prevalence at ages 6-11. This set of smoothed weight-for-length/height growth curves may be useful in assessing nutritional status from infants to post-pubertal adolescents.

  1. Growth and Final Height Among Children With Phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Alena G; Gausche, Ruth; Lindenberg, Cornelia; Beger, Christoph; Arelin, Maria; Rohde, Carmen; Mütze, Ulrike; Weigel, Johannes F; Mohnike, Klaus; Baerwald, Christoph; Scholz, Markus; Kiess, Wieland; Pfäffle, Roland; Beblo, Skadi

    2017-11-01

    Growth is an important criterion to evaluate health in childhood and adolescence, especially in patients depending on special dietary treatment. Phenylketonuria (PKU) is the most common inherited disease of amino acid metabolism. Patients with PKU depend on a special phenylalanine-restricted diet, low in natural protein. The study aimed to evaluate growth, growth rate, and target height in 224 patients with PKU. Retrospective, longitudinal analysis of standardized, yearly measurements of height, weight, and calculated growth rate (SD score [SDS]) of patients with PKU aged 0 to 18 years were conducted by using the national computerized CrescNet database. Inclusion was restricted to patients carried to term with a confirmed diagnosis of PKU or mild hyperphenylalaninemia determined by newborn screening and early treatment initiation. From birth to adulthood, patients with PKU were significantly shorter than healthy German children (height SDS at 18 years: -0.882 ± 0.108, P < .001). They missed their target height by 3 cm by adulthood (women: P = .02) and 5 cm (men: P = .01). In patients receiving casein hydrolysate during childhood, this was more pronounced compared with patients receiving amino acid mixtures ( P < .001). Growth rate was significantly reduced during their first 2 years of life and in puberty (growth rate SDS: -1.1 to -0.5 m/year, P < .001 and -0.5; P < .02). Early diagnosed, treated, and continuously monitored patients with PKU showed reduced height from birth onward. During the last 2 decades, this phenomenon attenuated, probably because of advances in PKU therapy related to protein supplements and special low-protein foods. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. Nutrition and pubertal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Soliman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition is one of the most important factors affecting pubertal development. Puberty entails a progressive nonlinear process starting from prepubescent to full sexual maturity through the interaction and cooperation of biological, physical, and psychological changes. Consuming an adequate and balanced healthy diet during all phases of growth (infancy, childhood and puberty appears necessary both for proper growth and normal pubertal development. Girls begin puberty at an earlier age compared to past decades. Excessive eating of many processed, high-fat foods, may be the cause of this phenomenon. Overweight or obese children are more likely to enter puberty early. Some evidence suggests that obesity can accelerate the onset of puberty in girls and may delay the onset of puberty in boys. Moreover, the progression of puberty is affected by nutrition. On the other hand, puberty triggers a growth spurt, which increases nutritional needs including macro and micronutrients. Increased caloric, protein, iron, calcium, zinc and folate needs have to be provided during this critical period of rapid growth. Severe primary or secondary malnutrition also can delay the onset and progression of puberty. The higher incidence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia in adolescents imposes a nutritional risk on pubertal development. Moreover, many environmental endocrine disruptors (EDs have been identified that can significantly impair the normal course of puberty. This mini-review sums up some important findings in this important complex that link nutrition and pubertal development.

  3. Associations of Birth Order with Early Adolescent Growth, Pubertal Onset, Blood Pressure and Size: Evidence from Hong Kong?s ?Children of 1997? Birth Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Kwok, Man Ki; Leung, Gabriel M.; Schooling, C. Mary

    2016-01-01

    Background Birth order has been proposed as a cardiovascular risk factor, because the lower birth weight and greater infant weight gain typical of firstborns could programme metabolism detrimentally. Methods We examined the associations of birth order (firstborn or laterborn) with birth weight-for-gestational age, length/height and body mass index (BMI) z-scores during infancy, childhood, and puberty using generalized estimating equations, with age at pubertal onset using interval-censored re...

  4. Estimations of bone maturation and calculations of prediction of adult height as tools for the evaluation of growth disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachmann, M

    1982-03-01

    The methods of estimation of bone maturation (Greulich and Pyle, Tanner et al.) and the possibilities for the calculation of future adult heigth (Bayley and Pinneau, Roche et al., Tanner et al.) are briefly described and their advantages and disadvantages in normal children and in children with growth disorders are discussed. In normal children, all methods provide valuable results, but there are small differences of precision depending on whether the pubertal development is early, average, or late. In pathological conditions, however, as e.g. in precocious puberty or in girls with Turner syndrome, the methods of Roche et al. and of Tanner et al. may overestimate adult height considerably, while that of Bayley and Pinneau remains reasonably accurate. A computerized system, which facilitates the complicated and time-consuming calculations is briefly presented.

  5. A height-for-age growth reference for children with achondroplasia: Expanded applications and comparison with original reference data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover-Fong, Julie; McGready, John; Schulze, Kerry; Alade, Adekemi Yewande; Scott, Charles I

    2017-05-01

    The height-for-age (HA) reference currently used for children with achondroplasia is not adaptable for electronic records or calculation of HA Z-scores. We report new HA curves and tables of mean and standard deviation (SD) HA, for calculating Z-scores, from birth-16 years in achondroplasia. Mixed longitudinal data were abstracted from medical records of achondroplasia patients from a single clinical practice (CIS, 1967-2004). Gender-specific height percentiles (5, 25, 50, 75, 95th) were estimated across the age continuum, using a 2 month window per time point smoothed by a quadratic smoothing algorithm. HA curves were constructed for 0-36 months and 2-16 years to optimize resolution for younger children. Mean monthly height (SD) was tabulated. These novel HA curves were compared to reference data currently in use for children with achondroplasia. 293 subjects (162 male/131 female) contributed 1,005 and 932 height measures, with greater data paucity with age. Mean HA tracked with original achondroplasia norms, particularly through mid-childhood (2-9 years), but with no evidence of a pubertal growth spurt. Standard deviation of height at each month interval increased from birth through 16 years. Birth length was lower in achondroplasia than average stature and, as expected, height deficits increased with age. A new HA reference is available for longitudinal growth assessment in achondroplasia, taking advantage of statistical modeling techniques and allowing for Z-score calculations. This is an important contribution to clinical care and research endeavors for the achondroplasia population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Bone mineral density, growth, pubertal development and other parameters in Brazilian children and young adults with sickle cell anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeuwes, M; Souza de Carvalho, T F; Cipolotti, R; Gurgel, R Q; Ferrão, T O; Peters, M; Agyemang, C

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the occurrence of low bone mineral density (BMD) and its relationship with clinical and laboratorial characteristics in children and young adults with sickle cell anaemia living in Northeast-Brazil, and to assess the role of radiography in diagnosing low BMD. Bone mineral density of lumbar spine was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 27 patients with Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) aged 7-28 years. Clinical history, calcium and calorie intake, laboratory measurements, anthropometrics and pubertal development were assessed, and X-rays were obtained. Z-scores and T-scores for weight, height, Body Mass Index (BMI) and BMD were calculated using age and gender matched reference data. Mean lumbar spine BMD Z-scores and T-scores were -1.81 SD in boys and -0.80 SD in girls. BMD Z-scores were below -2 SD in 33.3% of girls and in 46.7% of boys. Low BMD (developing low BMD. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Associations of Birth Order with Early Adolescent Growth, Pubertal Onset, Blood Pressure and Size: Evidence from Hong Kong's "Children of 1997" Birth Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Ki Kwok

    Full Text Available Birth order has been proposed as a cardiovascular risk factor, because the lower birth weight and greater infant weight gain typical of firstborns could programme metabolism detrimentally.We examined the associations of birth order (firstborn or laterborn with birth weight-for-gestational age, length/height and body mass index (BMI z-scores during infancy, childhood, and puberty using generalized estimating equations, with age at pubertal onset using interval-censored regression and with age-, sex- and height-standardized blood pressure, height and BMI z-scores at 13 years using linear regression in a population-representative Chinese birth cohort: "Children of 1997" (n = 8,327.Compared with laterborns, firstborns had lower birth weight-for-gestational age (mean difference = -0.18 z-score, 95% confidence interval (CI -0.23, -0.14, lower infant BMI (-0.09 z-score, 95% CI -0.14, -0.04, greater childhood height (0.10 z-score, 95% CI 0.05, 0.14 and BMI (0.08 z-score, 95% CI 0.03, 0.14, but not greater pubertal BMI (0.05 z-score, 95% CI -0.02, 0.11, adjusted for sex, parental age, birthplace, education and income. Firstborns had earlier onset of pubic hair (time ratio = 0.988, 95% CI 0.980, 0.996, but not breast or genitalia, development. Firstborns had greater BMI (0.07 z-score, 95% CI 0.002, 0.15, but not height (0.05 z-score, 95% CI -0.01, 0.11, at 13 years, but similar blood pressure.Differences by birth order continue into early adolescence with firstborns being heavier with earlier pubic hair development, which could indicate long-term cardiovascular risk.

  8. Associations of Birth Order with Early Adolescent Growth, Pubertal Onset, Blood Pressure and Size: Evidence from Hong Kong's "Children of 1997" Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Man Ki; Leung, Gabriel M; Schooling, C Mary

    2016-01-01

    Birth order has been proposed as a cardiovascular risk factor, because the lower birth weight and greater infant weight gain typical of firstborns could programme metabolism detrimentally. We examined the associations of birth order (firstborn or laterborn) with birth weight-for-gestational age, length/height and body mass index (BMI) z-scores during infancy, childhood, and puberty using generalized estimating equations, with age at pubertal onset using interval-censored regression and with age-, sex- and height-standardized blood pressure, height and BMI z-scores at 13 years using linear regression in a population-representative Chinese birth cohort: "Children of 1997" (n = 8,327). Compared with laterborns, firstborns had lower birth weight-for-gestational age (mean difference = -0.18 z-score, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.23, -0.14), lower infant BMI (-0.09 z-score, 95% CI -0.14, -0.04), greater childhood height (0.10 z-score, 95% CI 0.05, 0.14) and BMI (0.08 z-score, 95% CI 0.03, 0.14), but not greater pubertal BMI (0.05 z-score, 95% CI -0.02, 0.11), adjusted for sex, parental age, birthplace, education and income. Firstborns had earlier onset of pubic hair (time ratio = 0.988, 95% CI 0.980, 0.996), but not breast or genitalia, development. Firstborns had greater BMI (0.07 z-score, 95% CI 0.002, 0.15), but not height (0.05 z-score, 95% CI -0.01, 0.11), at 13 years, but similar blood pressure. Differences by birth order continue into early adolescence with firstborns being heavier with earlier pubic hair development, which could indicate long-term cardiovascular risk.

  9. Expression and localization of Indian hedgehog (Ihh) and parathyroid hormone related protein (PTHrP) in the human growth plate during pubertal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindblom, J M; Nilsson, O; Hurme, T; Ohlsson, C; Sävendahl, L

    2002-08-01

    Indian Hedgehog (Ihh) has been reported to control the rate of cartilage differentiation during skeletal morphogenesis in rodents through a negative feedback loop involving parathyroid hormone related protein (PTHrP). The role of Ihh and PTHrP in the regulation of human epiphyseal chondrocytes is unknown. The aim of the current study was to examine the expression and localization of Ihh and PTHrP in the human growth plate at various pubertal stages. Growth plate biopsies were obtained from patients subjected to epiphyseal surgery and the expression of Ihh and PTHrP was detected by immunohistochemistry. We show that Ihh and PTHrP are expressed mainly in early hypertrophic chondrocytes in the human growth plate. The levels of expression of Ihh and PTHrP are higher in early stages of puberty than later. Our results suggest that Ihh and PTHrP are present in the human growth plate and that Ihh and PTHrP may be involved in the regulation of pubertal growth in humans.

  10. Elite athletes and pubertal delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapczuk, Karina

    2017-10-01

    Intensive physical training and participation in competitive sports during childhood and early adolescence may affect athletes' pubertal development. On the other hand, pubertal timing, early or late, may impact on an athlete selection for a particular sport. Genetic predisposition, training load, nutritional status and psychological stress determine athletes' pubertal timing. Athletes that practice esthetic sports, especially gymnasts, are predisposed to a delay in pubertal development. The growing evidence indicates that energy deficiency, not a systemic training per se, plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of functional hypothalamic hypogonadism in female athletes. Metabolic and psychologic stress activate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and suppress hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Female athletes who do not begin secondary sexual development by the age of 14 or menstruation by the age of 16 warrant a comprehensive evaluation and a targeted treatment. Somatic growth and sexual maturation of elite female athletes are largely sport-specific since each sport favors a particular somatotype and requires a specific training. Chronic negative energy balance resulting from a systemic physical training and inadequate energy intake may delay pubertal development in elite athletes. Youth athletes, especially those engaged in competitive sports that emphasize prepubertal or lean appearance, are at risk of developing relative energy deficiency in sport associated with disordered eating or eating disorders. Management strategies should address the complex conditions underlying functional hypothalamic hypogonadism.

  11. Ethnicity and skeletal Class III morphology: a pubertal growth analysis using thin-plate spline analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhamrah, B; Terada, K; Yamaki, M; Ali, I M; Hanada, K

    2001-01-01

    A longitudinal retrospective study using thin-plate spline analysis was used to investigate skeletal Class III etiology in Japanese female adolescents. Headfilms of 40 subjects were chosen from the archives of the Orthodontic department at Niigata University Dental Hospital, and were traced at IIIB and IVA Hellman dental ages. Twenty-eight homologous landmarks, representing hard and soft tissue, were digitized. These were used to reproduce a consensus for the profilogram, craniomaxillary complex, mandible, and soft tissue for each age and skeletal group. Generalized least-square analysis revealed a significant shape difference between age-matched groups (P spline and partial warps (PW)3 and 2 showed a maxillary retrusion at stage IIIB opposite an acute cranial base at stage IVA. Mandibular total spline and PW4, 5 showed changes affecting most landmarks and their spatial interrelationship, especially a stretch along the articulare-pogonion axis. In soft tissue analysis, PW8 showed large and local changes which paralleled the underlying hard tissue components. Allometry of the mandible and anisotropy of the cranial base, the maxilla, and the mandible asserted the complexity of craniofacial growth and the difficulty of predicting its outcome.

  12. Accuracy of dental development for estimating the pubertal growth spurt in comparison to skeletal development: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, MarcosAlan Vieira; Cericato, GrazielaOro; Franco, Ademir; Girão, RafaelaSilva; Lima, Anderson Paulo Barbosa; Paranhos, LuizRenato

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed to search for scientific evidence concerning the accuracy of dental development for estimating the pubertal growth spurt. It was conducted according to the statements of PRISMA. An electronic search was performed in six databases, including the grey literature. The PICOS strategy was used to define the eligibility criteria and only observational studies were selected. Out of 1,416 identified citations, 10 articles fulfilled the criteria and were included in this systematic review. The association between dental development and skeletal maturity was considered strong in seven studies, and moderate in two, although the association with the pubertal growth spurt had been verified in only four articles. According to half of the studies, the tooth that provided the greater association with the ossification centres was the lower canine. The meta-analysis performed also indicated a positive association, being stronger in females [0.725 (0.649-0.808)]. However, when the method used for dental evaluation was considered, it was possible to verify greater correlation coefficients for Nolla [0.736 (0.666-0.814)] than for Demirjian [0.631 (0.450-0.884)], at the boys sample. The heterogeneity test reached high values (Q = 51.00), suggesting a potential bias within the studies. Most of individual studies suggested a strong correlation between dental development and skeletal maturation, although the association with the peakof pubertal growth spurtwas clearly cited only in some of them. However, due to the high heterogeneity found among the studies included in this meta-analysis, a pragmatic recommendation about the use of dental stages is not possible.

  13. Fundal Height: An Accurate Indicator of Fetal Growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... could indicate conditions such as: Slow fetal growth (intrauterine growth restriction) A significantly larger than average baby (fetal macrosomia) ... Butler Tobah, M.D. Figueras F, et al. Intrauterine growth restriction: New concepts in antenatal surveillance, diagnosis, and management. ...

  14. Impact of growth hormone therapy on adult height of children with idiopathic short stature: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deodati, Annalisa; Cianfarani, Stefano

    2011-03-11

    To systematically determine the impact of growth hormone therapy on adult height of children with idiopathic short stature. Systematic review. Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, and the bibliographic references from retrieved articles of randomised and non-randomised controlled trials from 1985 to April 2010. Height in adulthood (standard deviation score) and overall gain in height (SD score) from baseline measurement in childhood. Randomised and non-randomised controlled trials with height measurements for adults. Inclusion criteria were initial short stature (defined as height >2 SD score below the mean), peak growth hormone responses >10 μg/L, prepubertal stage, no previous growth hormone therapy, and no comorbid conditions that would impair growth. Adult height was considered achieved when growth rate was growth hormone treated children exceeded that of the controls by 0.65 SD score (about 4 cm). The mean height gain in treated children was 1.2 SD score compared with 0.34 SD score in untreated children. A slight difference of about 1.2 cm in adult height was observed between the two growth hormone dose regimens. In the seven non-randomised controlled trials the adult height of the growth hormone treated group exceeded that of the controls by 0.45 SD score (about 3 cm). Growth hormone therapy in children with idiopathic short stature seems to be effective in partially reducing the deficit in height as adults, although the magnitude of effectiveness is on average less than that achieved in other conditions for which growth hormone is licensed. The individual response to therapy is highly variable, and additional studies are needed to identify the responders.

  15. The influence of recent climate change on tree height growth differs with species and spatial environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messaoud, Yassine; Chen, Han Y H

    2011-02-16

    Tree growth has been reported to increase in response to recent global climate change in controlled and semi-controlled experiments, but few studies have reported response of tree growth to increased temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO₂) concentration in natural environments. This study addresses how recent global climate change has affected height growth of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx) and black spruce (Picea mariana Mill B.S.) in their natural environments. We sampled 145 stands dominated by aspen and 82 dominated by spruce over the entire range of their distributions in British Columbia, Canada. These stands were established naturally after fire between the 19th and 20th centuries. Height growth was quantified as total heights of sampled dominant and co-dominant trees at breast-height age of 50 years. We assessed the relationships between 50-year height growth and environmental factors at both spatial and temporal scales. We also tested whether the tree growth associated with global climate change differed with spatial environment (latitude, longitude and elevation). As expected, height growth of both species was positively related to temperature variables at the regional scale and with soil moisture and nutrient availability at the local scale. While height growth of trembling aspen was not significantly related to any of the temporal variables we examined, that of black spruce increased significantly with stand establishment date, the anomaly of the average maximum summer temperature between May-August, and atmospheric CO₂ concentration, but not with the Palmer Drought Severity Index. Furthermore, the increase of spruce height growth associated with recent climate change was higher in the western than in eastern part of British Columbia. This study demonstrates that the response of height growth to recent climate change, i.e., increasing temperature and atmospheric CO₂ concentration, did not only differ with tree species, but

  16. Leg length, sitting height, and body proportions references for achondroplasia: New tools for monitoring growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pino, Mariana; Ramos Mejía, Rosario; Fano, Virginia

    2018-04-01

    Achondroplasia is the most common form of inherited disproportionate short stature. We report leg length, sitting height, and body proportion curves for achondroplasia. Seven centile format of sitting height, leg length, sitting height/leg length ratio, sitting height/height ratio, and head circumference/height ratio were estimated by the LMS method. The Q-test was applied to assess the goodness of fit. For comparison, centiles of sitting height and leg length were graphed using Argentine national growth references for achondroplasia and non-achondroplasia populations. The sample consisted of 342 children with achondroplasia (171 males, 171 females) aged 0-18 years. The median (interquartile range) number of measurements per child was 6 (3, 12) for sitting height and 8 (3, 13) for head circumference. Median leg length increased from 14 cm at age 1 week to 44 and 40 cm (males and females, respectively) in achondroplasia adolescents which is 3.5 cm shorter than non-achondroplasia children at age 1 week and, 38 cm shorter at adolescence. Median sitting height increased from 34 cm at birth to 86 and 81 in adolescents' boys and girls respectively, only 5 cm shorter than non-achondroplasia children. Sitting height/leg length decreased from 2.61 at birth to approximately 1.90 at adolescent. Median head circumference/height ratio decreased from 0.79 at birth to 0.46 at 18 years in both sexes. Growth of lower limbs is affected early in life and becomes more noticeable throughout childhood. The disharmonic growth between the less affected trunk and the severely affected limbs determine body disproportion in achondroplasia. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Interaction of Pubertal Development and Metabolic Control in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Plamper

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In T1DM, delayed pubertal development and reduced final height are associated with inadequate metabolic control. Objective. To assess whether T1DM affects pubertal growth spurt and whether metabolic control during puberty is gender-related. Methods. Using a large multicentre database, longitudinal data from 1294 patients were analysed. Inclusion criteria: complete records of height and HbA1c from the age of seven to 16 years. Exclusion criteria: other significant chronic diseases and medications, T1DM duration less than three months, and initial BMI 97th percentile. Results. Growth velocity (GV was impaired with a significant reduction of peak GV by 1.2 cm in boys. HbA1c increase during male puberty was lower except for a period of 1.5 years. The highest HbA1c increase in boys coincided with maximum growth spurt. In girls, the highest HbA1c increase was observed during late puberty. Even though there is impaired GV, both sexes reach a height at 16 years of age which corresponds to the background population height. Conclusion. Worsening of metabolic control is sex-discordant and associated with gender-specific alterations of GV. However, the vast majority of boys and girls with T1DM seems to reach normal height at the age of 16 years.

  18. Peak lean tissue mass accrual precedes changes in bone strength indices at the proximal femur during the pubertal growth spurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackowski, Stefan A; Faulkner, Robert A; Farthing, Jonathan P; Kontulainen, Saija A; Beck, Thomas J; Baxter-Jones, Adam D G

    2009-06-01

    We examined the timing of the age and the magnitude of peak lean tissue mass accrual (PLTV) relative to the age and magnitude of two variables of bone strength [peak cross sectional area velocity (PCSAV), and peak section modulus velocity, (PZV)] at the proximal femur in males and females during the adolescent growth spurt. We hypothesized that the age of PLTV would precede the ages of PCSAV and PZV and that there is a positive relationship between the magnitude of PLTV and both PCSAV and PZV in both genders. 41 males and 42 females aged 8-18 years were selected from the Saskatchewan Pediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study (1991-2005). Participants' total body lean tissue mass was assessed annually for 6 consecutive years using DXA. Narrow neck and femoral shaft cross sectional areas (CSA) and section modulus (Z) were determined using the hip structural analysis (HSA) program. Participants were aligned by maturational age (years from peak height velocity). Lean tissue mass, CSA, and Z were converted into whole year velocities and the maturational age of peak tissue velocities was determined using a cubic spline curve fitting procedure. A 2 x 3 (gender x tissue) factorial MANOVA with repeated measures was used to test for differences between age of PLTV and the ages of PCSAV and PZV between genders. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between PLTV and both PCSAV and PZV. There were no sex differences in the ages at which tissue peaks occurred when aligned by maturational age. There were significant differences between the age of PLTV and both PCSAV and PZV at the narrow neck (p=0.001) and femoral shaft (p=0.03), where the age of PLTV preceded both PCSAV and PZV when pooled by gender. PLTV was a significant predictor of the magnitude of both PCSAV and PZV at all sites (ptheory that muscle development is an important factor in affecting bone strength.

  19. Height-related growth declines in ponderosa pine are not due to carbon limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Anna; Hoch, Günter

    2009-01-01

    Decreased gas exchange as trees grow tall has been proposed to explain age-related growth declines in trees. We examined changes of mobile carbon stores (starch, sugars and lipids) with tree height in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) at two sites differing in water availability, and tested the following hypotheses: (1) carbon supply does not become increasingly limited as trees grow tall; rather, the concentration of mobile carbon compounds increases with tree height reflecting greater reductions of carbon sink activities relative to carbon assimilation; and (2) increases of stored mobile carbon compounds with tree height are greater in drier sites. Height-related growth reductions were associated with significant increases of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) and lipid concentrations in all tissues in the upper canopy and of NSC in the bole. Lipid concentrations in the bole decreased with tree height, but such decrease is not necessarily inconsistent with non-limiting carbon supply in tall trees. Furthermore, we found stronger increases of mobile carbon stores with tree height at the dry site relative to the moist site. Our results provide first direct evidence that carbon supply does not limit growth in tall trees and that decreases of water availability might negatively impact growth processes more than net-photosynthesis.

  20. Height and seasonal growth pattern of jack pine full-sib families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don E. Riemenschneider

    1981-01-01

    Total tree height, seasonal shoot elongation, dates of growth initiation and cessation, and mean daily growth rate were measured and analyzed for a population of jack pine full-sib families derived from inter-provenance crosses. Parental provenance had no effect on these variables although this may have been due to small sample size. Progenies differed significantly...

  1. The impact of growth hormone therapy on adult height in noonan syndrome: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomozzi, Claudio; Deodati, Annalisa; Shaikh, Mohamad Guftar; Ahmed, Syed Faisal; Cianfarani, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) is being used to promote linear growth in short children with Noonan syndrome. However, its efficacy is still controversial. To systematically determine the impact of rhGH therapy on adult height in children with Noonan syndrome. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ISI Web of Science, MEDLINE, and the bibliographic references from all retrieved articles published until April 2014. Studies reporting adult/near-adult height in children with Noonan syndrome treated with rhGH or reporting at least a 3-year follow-up were analysed. Quality and strength of recommendation were assessed according to the Endocrine Society criteria. No controlled trials reporting adult height were available. Five studies were identified reporting adult height or near adult height. Data comparison showed inter-individual variability in the response to rhGH, mean height gain standard deviation score ranging between 0.6 and 1.4 according to national standards, and between 0.6 and 2 according to Noonan standards. Significant biases affected all the studies. High-quality controlled trials on the impact of rhGH therapy on adult height are lacking, and the robustness of available data is not sufficient to recommend such therapy in children with Noonan syndrome. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Linear growth and final height characteristics in adolescent females with anorexia nervosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalit Modan-Moses

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Growth retardation is an established complication of anorexia nervosa (AN. However, findings concerning final height of AN patients are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to assess these phenomena in female adolescent inpatients with AN. METHODS: We retrospectively studied all 211 female adolescent AN patients hospitalized in an inpatient eating disorders department from 1/1/1987 to 31/12/99. Height and weight were assessed at admission and thereafter routinely during hospitalization and follow-up. Final height was measured in 69 patients 2-10 years after discharge. Pre-morbid height data was available in 29 patients. RESULTS: Patients' height standard deviation scores (SDS on admission (-0.285±1.0 and discharge (-0.271±1.02 were significantly (p<0.001 lower than expected in normal adolescents. Patients admitted at age ≤13 years, or less than 1 year after menarche, were more severely growth-impaired than patients admitted at an older age, (p = 0.03. Final height SDS, available for 69 patients, was -0.258±1.04, significantly lower than expected in a normal population (p = 0.04, and was more severely compromised in patients who were admitted less than 1 year from their menarche. In a subgroup of 29 patients with complete growth data (pre-morbid, admission, discharge, and final adult height, the pre-morbid height SDS was not significantly different from the expected (-0.11±1.1, whereas heights at the other time points were significantly (p = 0.001 lower (-0.56±1.2, -0.52±1.2, and -0.6±1.2, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that whereas the premorbid height of female adolescent AN patients is normal, linear growth retardation is a prominent feature of their illness. Weight restoration is associated with catch-up growth, but complete catch-up is often not achieved.

  3. Growth in Total Height and Its Components and Cardiometabolic Health in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Line Klingen; Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Perng, Wei

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Short stature or short legs is associated with cardiometabolic disease. Few studies have addressed this issue in children, incorporated repeated measures, or studied modern cohorts. METHODS: We examined if change in total height, leg length and trunk length between two time points from...... was a cardiometabolic risk score based on sex-specific internal z-scores for systolic blood pressure, waist circumference, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. RESULTS: Mean (SD) total height was 97.9 (4.5) cm in boys and 97.1 (4.7) cm in girls...... in early childhood and 129.1 (7.2) cm in boys and 128.3 (7.9) cm in girls in mid-childhood. Trunk length constituted about half of total height. In linear regression models adjusted for parental anthropometry and socio-demographics, faster growth in total height, leg length and particularly trunk length...

  4. Growth pattern and final height of very preterm vs. very low birth weight infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollanders, J.J.; Pal, S.M. van der; Dommelen, P. van; Rotteveel, J.; Finken, M.J.J.

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundBoth very preterm (VP; i.e., gestational age <32 weeks) and very low birth weight (VLBW; i.e., birth weight <1,500 g) are used as inclusion criteria by studies on preterm birth. We aimed to quantify the impact of these entities on postnatal growth until final height.MethodsSubjects born VP

  5. Female strobili incidence in a Minnesota population of black spruce: heritability and correlation with height growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Dana Nelson; C. A. Mohn

    1989-01-01

    Significant family variation in female strobili incidence, ripeness-to-flower and production were found in a Minnesota black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) population tested at four locations. Heritability estimates indicated that gain in early flowering from selection would be possible. Height growth through age 12 years was positively correlated (genetic and...

  6. Estimation of heritability and genetic gain in height growth in Ceiba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, there is relatively inefficient information available on the heritability and genetic gain in height growth in C. pentandra based on which selection and subsequent breeding could be made. This poses a major challenge to the production of new cultivars for the forestry industry of Ghana. The current study looked at ...

  7. Colombian reference growth curves for height, weight, body mass index and head circumference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Paola; Merker, Andrea; Briceño, Germán; Colón, Eugenia; Line, Dionne; Abad, Verónica; Del Toro, Kenny; Chahín, Silvia; Matallana, Audrey Mary; Lema, Adriana; Llano, Mauricio; Céspedes, Jaime; Hagenäs, Lars

    2016-03-01

    Published Growth studies from Latin America are limited to growth references from Argentina and Venezuela. The aim of this study was to construct reference growth curves for height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and head circumference of Colombian children in a format that is useful for following the growth of the individual child and as a tool for public health. Prospective measurements from 27 209 Colombian children from middle and upper socio-economic level families were processed using the generalised additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS). Descriptive statistics for length and height, weight, BMI and head circumference for age are given as raw and smoothed values. Final height was 172.3 cm for boys and 159.4 cm for girls. Weight at 18 years of age was 64.0 kg for boys and 54 kg for girls. Growth curves are presented in a ± 3 SD format using logarithmic axes. The constructed reference growth curves are a start for following secular trends in Colombia and are also in the presented layout an optimal clinical tool for health care. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Response to growth hormone treatment and final height after cranial or craniospinal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulmont, V.; Brauner, R.; Fontoura, M.; Rappaport, R.

    1990-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) induced by cranial irradiation has become a frequent indication of hGH substitutive therapy. This study analyses the growth response to hGH therapy and the factors involved in the decrease in growth velocity observed after cranial irradiation. One hundred children given cranial radiation for pathology distant from the hypothalamo-pituitary area were studied. Fifty-six of them received hGH therapy for GHD resulting in decreased growth velocity. The initial annual height gain in the cranial-irradiated group was comparable to that of patients treated for idiopathic GHD; additional spinal irradiation significantly reduced the growth response. Twenty-eight hGH-treated patients reached final heights which were compared to those of 2 untreated irradiated groups, one with GHD (n=27) and the other with normal GH secretion (n=17). The height SD score changes observed in hGH therapy were +0.3 in the cranial (n=10) and -1.2 SD in the craniospinal (n=18) groups. GH deficiency had contributed to a mean height loss of 1 SD and spinal irradiation to a loss of 1.4SD. The small effect of hGH therapy on final height is probably linked to the small bone age retardation at onset of hGH therapy and to the fact that irradiated children entered puberty at a younger age in terms of chronological age and bone age than the idiopathic GHD patients. These data suggest that the results of gGH therapy in irradiated children might be improved with higher and more fractionated hGH doses and, in some patients, by delaying puberty using luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analogs

  9. Response to growth hormone treatment and final height after cranial or craniospinal irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulmont, V.; Brauner, R.; Fontoura, M.; Rappaport, R. (Hospital des Enfants Malades, Paris (France). Pediatric Endocrinology Unit and INSERM U30)

    1990-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) induced by cranial irradiation has become a frequent indication of hGH substitutive therapy. This study analyses the growth response to hGH therapy and the factors involved in the decrease in growth velocity observed after cranial irradiation. One hundred children given cranial radiation for pathology distant from the hypothalamo-pituitary area were studied. Fifty-six of them received hGH therapy for GHD resulting in decreased growth velocity. The initial annual height gain in the cranial-irradiated group was comparable to that of patients treated for idiopathic GHD; additional spinal irradiation significantly reduced the growth response. Twenty-eight hGH-treated patients reached final heights which were compared to those of 2 untreated irradiated groups, one with GHD (n=27) and the other with normal GH secretion (n=17). The height SD score changes observed in hGH therapy were +0.3 in the cranial (n=10) and -1.2 SD in the craniospinal (n=18) groups. GH deficiency had contributed to a mean height loss of 1 SD and spinal irradiation to a loss of 1.4SD. The small effect of hGH therapy on final height is probably linked to the small bone age retardation at onset of hGH therapy and to the fact that irradiated children entered puberty at a younger age in terms of chronological age and bone age than the idiopathic GHD patients. These data suggest that the results of gGH therapy in irradiated children might be improved with higher and more fractionated hGH doses and, in some patients, by delaying puberty using luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analogs.

  10. Progress Report on the GROWTH (GNSS Reflectometry for Ocean Waves, Tides, and Height) Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazawa, Y.; Ichikawa, K.; Akiyama, H.; Ebinuma, T.; Isoguchi, O.; Kimura, N.; Konda, M.; Kouguchi, N.; Tamura, H.; Tomita, H.; Yoshikawa, Y.; Waseda, T.

    2016-12-01

    Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), such as GPS is a system of satellites that provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning with global coverage. It allows small electronic receivers to determine their location to high precision using radio signals transmitted from satellites, GNSS reflectometry (GNSS-R) involves making measurements from the reflections from the Earth of navigation signals from GNSS satellites. Reflected signals from sea surface are considered that those are useful to observe sea state and sea surface height. We have started a research program for GNSS-R applications on oceanographic observations under the contract with MEXT (Ministry of Education Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, JAPAN) and launched a Japanese research consortium, GROWTH (GNSS Reflectometry for Ocean Waves, Tides, and Height). It is aiming to evaluate the capabilities of GNSS-R observations for oceanographic phenomena with different time scales, such as ocean waves (1/10 to tens of seconds), tides (one or half days), and sea surface dynamic height (a few days to years). In situ observations of ocean wave spectrum, wind speed vertical profile, and sea surface height will be quantitatively compared with equivalent estimates from simultaneous GNSS-R measurements. The GROWTH project will utilize different types of observation platforms; marine observation towers (about 20 m height), multi-copters (about 100 to 150 m height), and much higher-altitude CYGNSS data. Cross-platform data, together with in situ oceanographic observations, will be compared after adequate temporal averaging that accounts differences of the footprint sizes and temporal and spatial scales of oceanographic phenomena. This paper will provide overview of the GROWTH project, preliminary test results, obtained by the multi-sensor platform at observation towers, suggest actual footprint sizes and identification of swell. Preparation status of a ground station which will be supplied to receive CYGNSS data

  11. Modeling determinants of growth: evidence for a community-based target in height?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aßmann, Christian; Hermanussen, Michael

    2013-07-01

    Human growth is traditionally envisaged as a target-seeking process regulated by genes, nutrition, health, and the state of an individual's social and economic environment; it is believed that under optimal physical conditions, an individual will achieve his or her full genetic potential. Using a panel data set on individual height increments, we suggest a statistical modeling approach that characterizes growth as first-order trend stationary and allows for controlling individual growth tempo via observable measures of individual maturity. A Bayesian framework and corresponding Markov-chain Monte Carlo techniques allowing for a conceptually stringent treatment of missing values are adapted for parameter estimation. The model provides evidence for the adjustment of the individual growth rate toward average height of the population. The increase in adult body height during the past 150 y has been explained by the steady improvement of living conditions that are now being considered to have reached an optimum in Western societies. The current investigation questions the notion that the traditional concept in the understanding of this target-seeking process is sufficient. We consider an additional regulator that possibly points at community-based target seeking in growth.

  12. Calculations of shape and stability of menisci in Czochralski growth with tables to determine meniscus heights, maximum heights and capillary constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uelhoff, W.; Mika, K.

    1975-05-01

    The shape and stability of menisci occurring during Czochralski growth have been studied by means of numerical methods for the case of the free surface. The existence of minimal joining angles is shown, beyond which the growing crystal will separate from the melt. The dependence of the interface height on the joining angle for different crystal diameters was calculated. The maximum stable heights and the corresponding joining angles were determined as a function of crystal diameter. A method for measuring the capillary constant of the melt during Czochralski growth is proposed. The results are compared with known analytical approximations. Limitations of the applications caused by a finite crucible radius or low g values are pointed out. For practical use the following functions have been tabulated: 1) meniscus height in dependence on joining angle and crystal radius, 2) the radius-height-ratio in dependence on radius and angle for the calculation of the capillary constant, 3) the maximum stable height and the corresponding growth angle as a function of crystal radius. (orig.) [de

  13. Effect of plyometric training on vertical jump height in high school basketball players: randomised control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhaya Verma, Lakshmi Subramanium, Vijaya Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plyometric involve high intensity eccentric contraction immediately after a powerful concentric contraction. A vertical leap in basketball also involves rapid & repeated muscle contraction & stretching. Various methods have been used to improve the vertical leap in players, but only few studies mention about plyometrics. Aim: To determine the effect of Plyometric training on vertical jump height in high school basketball players & compare them with their untrained counterparts. Methods and Materials: 144 students were randomly selected & distributed in Group I (Pre-pubertal & Group II (Pubertal which was further divided into Group A (trained players & Group B (untrained students. A gender wise distribution followed this. Plyometric training of 6 weeks was conducted & the vertical jump height pre & post training were recorded & compared. Results: Vertical jump height improved significantly post Plyometric in Group Bcompared to Group A. Boys showed improvement in Group B, however girls were better in Group A. Correlation of BMI with vertical jump height was negative & significant in Group B. Conclusion: Plyometric training brought significant change in untrained students. Boys gained more jump height while girls showed significant increase in jump height during pubertal growth spurt. Also, increased BMI reduced jump height.

  14. Constitutional growth delay pattern of growth in velo-cardio-facial syndrome: longitudinal follow up and final height of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Serap; Ozdemir, Nihal; Güran, Tülay; Akalın, Figen; Akçay, Teoman; Ayabakan, Canan; Yılmaz, Yüksel; Bereket, Abdullah

    2008-01-01

    We report two patients with velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) who were admitted to our pediatric endocrinology clinic because of short stature and followed longitudinally until attainment of final height. Both patients followed a growth pattern consistent with constitutional delay of puberty with normal and near normal final height. Case 2 also had partial growth hormone (GH) deficiency and severe short stature (height SDS -3.4 SDS), but showed spontaneous catch-up and ended up with a final height of -2 SDS. These cases suggest that short stature in children with VCFS is due to a pattern of growth similar to that observed in constitutional delay of growth and puberty.

  15. Final adult height in long-term growth hormone-treated achondroplasia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Daisuke; Namba, Noriyuki; Hanioka, Yuki; Ueyama, Kaoru; Sakamoto, Natsuko; Nakano, Yukako; Izui, Masafumi; Nagamatsu, Yuiko; Kashiwagi, Hiroko; Yamamuro, Miho; Ishiura, Yoshihito; Ogitani, Ayako; Seino, Yoshiki

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the gain in final height of achondroplasia (ACH) patients with long-term growth hormone (GH) treatment. We analyzed medical data of 22 adult patients (8 males and 14 females) treated with GH at a dose of 0.05 mg/kg/day. Optionally, tibial lengthening (TL) was performed with the Ilizalov method in 15 patients and TL as well as femoral lengthening (FL) in 6 patients. Concomitant gonadal suppression therapy with buserelin acetate was applied in 13 patients. The mean treatment periods with GH were 10.7 ± 4.0 and 9.3 ± 2.5 years for males and females, respectively. GH treatment augmented the final height +0.60 ± 0.52 SD (+3.5 cm) and +0.51 ± 1.29 SD (+2.8 cm) in males and females compared to non-treated ACH patients, respectively. Final height of ACH patients that underwent GH and TL increased +1.72 ± 0.72 SD (+10.0 cm) and +1.95 ± 1.34 SD (+9.8 cm) in males and females, respectively. GH, TL, and FL increased their final height +2.97 SD (+17.2 cm) and +3.41 ± 1.63 SD (+17.3 cm) in males and females, respectively. Gonadal suppression therapy had no impact on final height. Long-term GH treatment contributes to 2.6 and 2.1% of final adult height in male and female ACH patients, respectively.

  16. Modelling of epitaxial film growth with an Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier dependent on the step height

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal, F F; Ferreira, S C; Ferreira, S O

    2011-01-01

    The formation of mounded surfaces in epitaxial growth is attributed to the presence of barriers against interlayer diffusion in the terrace edges, known as Ehrlich-Schwoebel (ES) barriers. We investigate a model for epitaxial growth using an ES barrier explicitly dependent on the step height. Our model has an intrinsic topological step barrier even in the absence of an explicit ES barrier. We show that mounded morphologies can be obtained even for a small barrier while a self-affine growth, consistent with the Villain-Lai-Das Sarma equation, is observed in the absence of an explicit step barrier. The mounded surfaces are described by a super-roughness dynamical scaling characterized by locally smooth (facetted) surfaces and a global roughness exponent α > 1. The thin film limit is featured by surfaces with self-assembled three-dimensional structures having an aspect ratio (height/width) that may increase or decrease with temperature depending on the strength of the step barrier. (fast track communication)

  17. Height outcome of the recombinant human growth hormone treatment in Turner syndrome: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study sought to determine the effect of the recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH treatment of Turner syndrome (TS on height outcome. Methods: We searched in MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. A literature search identified 640 records. After screening and full-text assessment, 11 records were included in the systematic review. Methodological quality was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. RevMan 5.3 software was used for meta-analysis. We also assessed the quality of evidence with the GRADE system. Results: Compared with controls, rhGH therapy led to increased final height (MD = 7.22 cm, 95% CI 5.27–9.18, P < 0.001, I2 = 4%; P = 0.18, height standard deviation (HtSDS (SMD = 1.22, 95% CI 0.88–1.56, P < 0.001, I2 = 49%; P = 0.14 and height velocity (HV (MD 2.68 cm/year; 95% CI 2.34, 3.02; P < 0.001, I2 = 0%; P = 0.72. There was a small increase in bone age (SMD 0.32 years; 95% CI 0.1, 0.54; P = 0.004, I2 = 73%; P = 0.02 after rhGH therapy for 12 months. What is more, the rhGH/oxandrolone combination therapy suggested greater final height (MD 2.46 cm; 95% CI 0.73, 4.18; P = 0.005, I2 = 32%; P = 0.22, increase and faster HV (SMD 1.67 cm/year; 95% CI 1.03, 2.31; P < 0.03, I2 = 80%; P < 0.001, with no significant increase in HtSDS and bone maturation compared with rhGH therapy alone. Conclusions: For TS patients, rhGH alone or with concomitant use of oxandrolone treatment had advantages on final height.

  18. How should leaf area, sapwood area and stomatal conductance vary with tree height to maximize growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Thomas N; Roberts, David W

    2006-02-01

    Conventional wisdom holds that the ratio of leaf area to sapwood area (L/S) should decline during height (H) growth to maintain hydraulic homeostasis and prevent stomatal conductance (g(s)) from declining. We contend that L/S should increase with H based on a numerical simulation, a mathematical analysis and a conceptual argument: (1) numerical simulation--a tree growth model, DESPOT (Deducing Emergent Structure and Physiology Of Trees), in which carbon (C) allocation is regulated to maximize C gain, predicts L/S should increase during most of H growth; (2) mathematical analysis--the formal criterion for optimal C allocation, applied to a simplified analytical model of whole tree carbon-water balance, predicts L/S should increase with H if leaf-level gas exchange parameters including g(s) are conserved; and (3) conceptual argument--photosynthesis is limited by several substitutable resources (chiefly nitrogen (N), water and light) and H growth increases the C cost of water transport but not necessarily of N and light capture, so if the goal is to maximize C gain or growth, allocation should shift in favor of increasing photosynthetic capacity and irradiance, rather than sustaining g(s). Although many data are consistent with the prediction that L/S should decline with H, many others are not, and we discuss possible reasons for these discrepancies.

  19. Growing into obesity: patterns of height growth in those who become normal weight, overweight, or obese as young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovitz, Steven D; Demerath, Ellen W; Hannan, Peter J; Lytle, Leslie A; Himes, John H

    2011-01-01

    To study whether patterns of height growth differ by adult obesity status, and determine the contribution of subcutaneous fatness as an explanatory variable for any differences. A multicenter, prospective longitudinal cohort assessed in 3rd grade (8.8 years), 5th grade (11.1 years), 8th grade (14.1 years), and 12th grade (18.3 years). Exposures were young adult obesity status classified by CDC adult BMI categories at 12th grade. Skinfolds were measured in third, fifth, and eighth grades. Outcome was mean height (cm) at the four measurements using repeated-measures ANCOVA for young adult obesity status, and height increments between grades by adult obesity status in sequential models including initial height and, secondarily, initial skinfolds. Adjusted for age, and race/ethnicity, young adult obesity status explained a small, but statistically significant amount of height growth among both females and males within each of the three intervals. Compared with normal weight young adults, overweight or obese young adults stood taller in childhood, but had relatively less growth in height throughout the teenage years. There was no association between adult height and weight status. Skinfolds explained only a small amount of the height patterns in the three weight groups. Childhood and adolescent height growth patterns differ between those who become young adults who are normal weight and those who become overweight or obese. Since differences in fatness explain only a small amount of these height growth patterns, research is needed to identify other determinants. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. The effects of oestrogens on linear bone growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A

    2001-01-01

    receptors (ER-alpha and ER-beta) in the human growth plate, and polymorphisms in the ER gene may influence adult height in healthy subjects. Prepubertal oestradiol concentrations are significantly higher in girls than in boys, explaining sex-related differences in pubertal onset. Men with a disruptive......Regulation of linear bone growth in children and adolescents comprises a complex interaction of hormones and growth factors. Growth hormone (GH) is considered to be the key hormone regulator of linear growth in childhood. The pubertal increase in growth velocity associated with GH has traditionally...... been attributed to testicular androgen secretion in boys, and to oestrogens or adrenal androgen secretion in girls. Research data indicating that oestrogen may be the principal hormone stimulating the pubertal growth spurt in boys as well as girls is reviewed. Such an action is mediated by oestrogen...

  1. Pubertal development, personality, and substance use: a 10-year longitudinal study from childhood to adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Parent, Sophie; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E; Séguin, Jean R

    2013-08-01

    Most research linking early pubertal development to substance use has focused on the effects of pubertal timing (age at which a certain stage of pubertal development is reached or pubertal status at a particular age--related to the maturation disparity hypothesis), but little research has focused on pubertal tempo (rate of growth through pubertal stages--related to the maturation compression hypothesis). However, both timing and tempo have not only been identified as important components of pubertal development, with different predictors, but have also been shown to be independently associated with other adolescent psychopathologies. Using latent growth-curve modeling, this study examined how pubertal status at age 12 and pubertal tempo (between 11 and 13 years) related to substance use from 15 to 16 years in boys from low socioeconomic backgrounds (N = 871). Results showed that both pubertal status at age 12 and tempo were significant predictors of increased levels of substance use and problems in mid to late adolescence. In an attempt to identify mechanisms that may explain the association between pubertal development and substance use it was found that sensation seeking partially mediated the association between pubertal status at age 12 and substance use behaviors. Impulse control was found to moderate the association sensation seeking had with marijuana use frequency, with high sensation-seeking scores predicting higher marijuana use frequency only at low levels of impulse control. These findings highlight the importance of considering multiple sources of individual variability in the pubertal development of boys and provide support for both the maturational disparity and compression hypotheses. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Pubertal development in ICSI children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belva, F.; Roelants, M.; Painter, R.; Bonduelle, M.; Devroey, P.; de Schepper, J.

    2012-01-01

    To date, information on the pubertal development of adolescents born after ICSI is scarce, since the very first cohort is only now reaching young adulthood. In this study, pubertal development at the age of 14 was characterized in a longitudinally followed cohort of ICSI-conceived teenagers and

  3. Growth-climate relationships vary with height along the stem in lodgepole pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhin, Sophan; Hogg, E H Ted; Lieffers, Victor J; Huang, Shongming

    2010-03-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that ring growth in the upper stem portion of trees is affected by climatic conditions differently than rings formed at breast height (1.3 m). A total of 389 trees from a network of 65 lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm.) sites in Alberta were examined using detailed stem analysis in order to examine interannual patterns of basal area increment and volume increment at different positions along the stem. Growth at lower sections of the bole was mainly driven by temperature and moisture conditions in the seasons prior to the growing season in the year of ring formation, while upper stem growth was more related to conditions during the year of growth, i.e., temperature in the early summer, or moisture in late winter to early spring. This translates into increased allocation of wood to the lower stem when prior late summer conditions are cool and wet, prior winters are mild (warm with little snow) and early summer conditions in the year of ring formation are hot and dry.

  4. X-chromosome gene dosage as a determinant of impaired pre and postnatal growth and adult height in Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiot, Elodie; Zenaty, Delphine; Boizeau, Priscilla; Haigneré, Jeremy; Dos Santos, Sophie; Léger, Juliane

    2016-03-01

    Short stature is a key aspect of the phenotype of patients with Turner syndrome (TS). SHOX haploinsufficiency is responsible for about two-thirds of the height deficit. The aim was to investigate the effect of X-chromosome gene dosage on anthropometric parameters at birth, spontaneous height, and adult height (AH) after growth hormone (GH) treatment. We conducted a national observational multicenter study. Birth parameter SDS for gestational age, height, and AH before and after GH treatment respectively, and height deficit with respect to target height (SDS) were classified by karyotype subgroup in a cohort of 1501 patients with TS: 45,X (36%), isoXq (19%), 45,X/46,XX (15%), XrX (7%), presence of Y (6%), or other karyotypes (17%). Birth weight, length (P<0.0001), and head circumference (P<0.001), height and height deficit with respect to target height (SDS) before GH treatment, at a median age of 8.8 (5.3-11.8) years and after adjustment for age and correction for multiple testing (P<0.0001), and AH deficit with respect to target height at a median age of 19.3 (18.0-21.8) years and with additional adjustment for dose and duration of GH treatment (P=0.006), were significantly associated with karyotype subgroup. Growth retardation tended to be more severe in patients with XrX, isoXq, and, to a lesser extent, 45,X karyotypes than in patients with 45,X/46,XX karyotypes or a Y chromosome. These data suggest that haploinsufficiency for an unknown Xp gene increases the risk of fetal and postnatal growth deficit and short AH with respect to target height after GH therapy. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  5. Near-adult height in male kidney transplant recipients started on growth hormone treatment in late puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Silvia; Aziz, Mariana; Adragna, Marta; Monteverde, Marta; Belgorosky, Alicia

    2018-01-01

    Growth retardation and its impact on adult height is considered to be one of the most common complications in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Treatment with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) has been effective in improving growth in kidney transplantation (KTx) patients, but little data are available on adult height in patients who began rhGh treatment in late puberty. Near-adult height was evaluated in 13 KTx patients treated with rhGH [growth hormone group (GHGr); dose 9.33 mg/m 2 per week] for a period of at least 18 months. At initiation of rhGH treatment, testicular volume was >8 ml and serum testosterone was >1 ng/ml compared with the control group (CGr) of ten KTx patients who did not receive rHGH. All subjects were of similar chronological age and bone age and had similar creatinine clearance (CrCl) levels, cumulative corticoid dose, height standard deviation score (SDS), target height SDS, and target height:initial height at the beginning of the study. Near-adult height was significantly greater in the GHGr than in the CGr (-1.8 ± 0.8 vs. -2.9 ± 1.1; p = 0.018). The difference between initial height and near-adult height in the GHGr revealed a significant height gain (initial height -3.1 ± 1.1; near-adult height -1.8 ± 0.8 SDS, respectively; delta 1.2 ± 0.3; p = 0.021). The CrCl level was not significantly different between the GHGr and CGr at either at study initiation or when attaining near-adult height (p = 0.74 and p = 0.23, respectively). Treatment with rhGH was effective in improving adult height in KTx patients who began treatment in late puberty, without any effect on renal function.

  6. An approach to constitutional delay of growth and puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf T Soliman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Constitutional delay of growth and puberty is a transient state of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism associated with prolongation of childhood phase of growth, delayed skeletal maturation, delayed and attenuated pubertal growth spurt, and relatively low insulin-like growth factor-1 secretion. In a considerable number of cases, the final adult height (Ht does not reach the mid-parental or the predicted adult Ht for the individual, with some degree of disproportionately short trunk. In the pre-pubertal male, testosterone (T replacement therapy can be used to induce pubertal development, accelerate growth and relieve the psychosocial complaints of the adolescents. However, some issues in the management are still unresolved. These include type, optimal timing, dose and duration of sex steroid treatment and the possible use of adjunctive or alternate therapy including: oxandrolone, aromatase inhibitors and human growth hormone.

  7. Growth and final height of children with Gaucher disease: A 15-year follow-up at an Israeli Gaucher center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelsohn, Espen; Meir, Amos; Abrahamov, Aya; Elstein, Deborah; Zimran, Ari; Levy-Khademi, Floris

    2018-02-01

    It is held that enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) accelerates the growth rate in children with Gaucher disease, but its effect on final height has not been established with certainty. This study presents final heights of Gaucher patients followed up for 15years. The study included 41 adults with non-neuronopathic Gaucher disease. The final height of the patients and age at puberty was compared to their mid-parental target height and to their siblings' heights. Mean final height standard deviation score (HSDS) in the patients was -0.22, but none of the patients was abnormally short (HSDS of less than -2.2). Mean age at menarche of the female patients (14.7years) was significantly delayed compared to that of their mothers (P=0.0005), and mean age at first shaving in the boys was 16years. Our study showed that the mean final height of Gaucher patients fell below the mean of the 2000 CDC growth charts, but the patients were not of short stature (height less than the 3rd percentile). ERT treatment did not significantly impact the mean final HSDS. The onset of puberty, as indicated by the age at menarche, was delayed in girls with Gaucher disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Age-related variation in genetic control of height growth in Douglas-fir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkoong, G; Usanis, R A; Silen, R R

    1972-01-01

    The development of genetic variances in height growth of Douglas-fir over a 53-year period is analyzed and found to fall into three periods. In the juvenile period, variances in environmental error increase logarithmically, genetic variance within populations exists at moderate levels, and variance among populations is low but increasing. In the early reproductive period, the response to environmental sources of error variance is restricted, genetic variance within populations disappears, and populational differences strongly emerge but do not increase as expected. In the later period, environmental error again increases rapidly, but genetic variance within populations does not reappear and population differences are maintained at about the same level as established in the early reproductive period. The change between the juvenile and early reproductive periods is perhaps associated with the onset of ecological dominance and significant allocations of energy to reproduction.

  9. The growth of different body length dimensions is not predictive for the peak growth velocity of sitting height in the individual child.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, I.; Gerver, W.J.M.; Kingma, I.; Wapstra, F.H.; Verkerke, G.J.; Veldhuizen, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the differences in timing of the peak growth velocity (PGV) between sitting height, total body height, subischial leg length, and foot length can be used to predict whether the individual patient with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is before or past

  10. The growth of different body length dimensions is not predictive for the peak growth velocity of sitting height in the individual child

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, Iris; Gerver, W. J. M.; Kingma, Idsart; Wapstra, Frits Hein; Verkerke, Gijsvertus J.; Veldhuizen, Albert G.

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the differences in timing of the peak growth velocity (PGV) between sitting height, total body height, subischial leg length, and foot length can be used to predict whether the individual patient with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is before or past

  11. Diagnostic reliability of the cervical vertebral maturation method and standing height in the identification of the mandibular growth spurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perinetti, Giuseppe; Contardo, Luca; Castaldo, Attilio; McNamara, James A; Franchi, Lorenzo

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the capability of both cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) stages 3 and 4 (CS3-4 interval) and the peak in standing height to identify the mandibular growth spurt throughout diagnostic reliability analysis. A previous longitudinal data set derived from 24 untreated growing subjects (15 females and nine males,) detailed elsewhere were reanalyzed. Mandibular growth was defined as annual increments in Condylion (Co)-Gnathion (Gn) (total mandibular length) and Co-Gonion Intersection (Goi) (ramus height) and their arithmetic mean (mean mandibular growth [mMG]). Subsequently, individual annual increments in standing height, Co-Gn, Co-Goi, and mMG were arranged according to annual age intervals, with the first and last intervals defined as 7-8 years and 15-16 years, respectively. An analysis was performed to establish the diagnostic reliability of the CS3-4 interval or the peak in standing height in the identification of the maximum individual increments of each Co-Gn, Co-Goi, and mMG measurement at each annual age interval. CS3-4 and standing height peak show similar but variable accuracy across annual age intervals, registering values between 0.61 (standing height peak, Co-Gn) and 0.95 (standing height peak and CS3-4, mMG). Generally, satisfactory diagnostic reliability was seen when the mandibular growth spurt was identified on the basis of the Co-Goi and mMG increments. Both CVM interval CS3-4 and peak in standing height may be used in routine clinical practice to enhance efficiency of treatments requiring identification of the mandibular growth spurt.

  12. Study of molecular-beam epitaxy growth on patterned GaAs (311)A substrates with different mesa height

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, Q.; Nötzel, R.; Schönherr, H.-P.; Ploog, K.

    2000-01-01

    We report on the evolution of the growth front during molecular-beam epitaxy on GaAs (3 1 1)A substrates stripe patterned along the [ ] direction as a function of the mesa height. During growth (1 0 0) and (2 1 1)A facets are formed and expand at the corners near the two opposite lying ( )A and (1 1

  13. Constitutional Growth Delay Pattern of Growth in Velo−Cardio−Facial Syndrome: Longitudinal follow up and final height of two cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Nihal; Güran, Tülay; Akalın, Figen; Akçay, Teoman; Ayabakan, Canan; Yılmaz, Yüksel; Bereket, Abdullah

    2008-01-01

    We report two patients with velo−cardio−facial syndrome (VCFS) who were admitted to our pediatric endocrinology clinic because of short stature and followed longitudinally until attainment of final height. Both patients followed a growth pattern consistent with constitutional delay of puberty with normal and near normal final height. Case 2 also had partial growth hormone (GH) deficiency and severe short stature (height SDS −3.4 SDS), but showed spontaneous catch−up and ended up with a final height of −2 SDS. These cases suggest that short stature in children with VCFS is due to a pattern of growth similar to that observed in constitutional delay of growth and puberty. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:21318064

  14. Adult height in girls with central precocious puberty treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist with or without growth hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Kyung Jung

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available PurposeThere is controversy surrounding the growth outcomes of treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa in central precocious puberty (CPP. We analyzed height preservation after treatment with GnRHa with and without growth hormone (GH in girls with CPP.MethodsWe reviewed the medical records of 82 girls with idiopathic CPP who had been treated with GnRHa at Severance Children's Hospital from 2004 to 2014. We assessed the changes in height standard deviation score (SDS for bone age (BA, and compared adult height (AH with midparental height (MPH and predicted adult height (PAH during treatment in groups received GnRHa alone (n=59 or GnRHa plus GH (n=23.ResultsIn the GnRHa alone group, the height SDS for BA was increased during treatment. AH (160.4±4.23 cm was significantly higher than the initial PAH (156.6±3.96 cm (P<0.001, and it was similar to the MPH (159.9±3.52 cm. In the GnRHa plus GH group, the height SDS for BA was also increased during treatment. AH (159.3±5.33 cm was also higher than the initial PAH (154.6±2.55 cm (P<0.001, which was similar to the MPH (158.1±3.31 cm. Height gain was slightly higher than that in the GnRHa alone group, however it statistically showed no significant correlation with GH treatment.ConclusionIn CPP girls treated with GnRHa, the height SDS for BA was increased, and the AH was higher than the initial PAH. Combined GH treatment showed a limited increase in height gain.

  15. Height Outcome of Recombinant Human Growth Hormone Treatment in Achondroplasia Children: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miccoli, Mario; Bertelloni, Silvano; Massart, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Although recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) is not approved to treat short stature of achondroplasia (ACH), some studies suggested growth improvement during short-term rhGH treatment. A meta-analysis of rhGH therapy efficacy in ACH children was performed. From 12 English-language studies, 558 (54.0% males) rhGH-treated ACH children were enrolled. Administration of rhGH (median dosage 0.21 mg/kg/ week; range 0.16-0.42 mg/kg/week) improved height (Ht) from baseline [-5.069 standard deviation score (SDS; 95% CI -5.109 to -5.029); p < 0.0001] to 12 [-4.325 SDS (95% CI -4.363 to -4.287); p < 0.0001] and 24 months [-4.073 SDS (95% CI -4.128 to -4.019); p < 0.0001]. Then, Ht remained approximately constant up to 5 years [-3.941 SDS (95% CI -4.671 to -3.212); p < 0.0001]. In ACH children, rhGH treatment increased Ht from -5.0 to -4.0 SDS during 5 years, but insufficient data are available on both the adult Ht and the changes of body proportions. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Growth characteristics of mangrove seedling in silvofishery pond – the allometric relationship of height, diameter and leaf abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwi Hastuti, Endah; Budi Hastuti, Rini

    2018-03-01

    Dynamic environment condition of the silvofishery pond should provide an effect on the growth of mangrove seedling. This research aimed to observe the morphometric growth rate of mangrove seedling of Avicennia marina and Rhizophora mucronata planted in the silvofishery pond and to analyze the morphometric growth relationship of height, diameter and leaf number development of mangrove seedling. The research was conducted through field experiment involving mangrove species of A. marina and R. mucronata for 18 months during March 2015 to September 2016, both single structured and mixed structure. The observation was conducted every 13 weeks including seedling height, diameter and number of leaves. Data analysis was conducted by regression to provide the statistical relation between the growth of diameter – height, diameter – number of leaves and height – number of leaves. The result showed that the growth rate of A. marina in single structured pond was ranged from 0.38 – 3.00 cm.wk-1, 0.0015 – 0.0969 cm.wk‑1 and 0.1 – 13.7 leaves.wk‑1 respectively for height, diameter and number of leaves, while in mixed structure was 0.23 – 1.69 cm.wk‑1, 0.0169 – 0.0731 cm.wk‑1 and 0.5 – 14.0 leaves.wk-. The growth of R. mucronata respectively in single and mixed structure were 0.08 – 2.00 cm.wk‑1 and 0.15 – 2.62 cm.wk‑1, 0.0031 – 0.1369 cm.wk‑1 and 0.0008 – 0.0831 cm.wk‑1 and 0.0 – 1.9 leaves.wk‑1 and 0.0 – 1.6 leaves.wk-1respectively for height, diameter and number of leaves. Data analysis showed that the growth of seedling height of Avicennia in the mixed structure was significantly affected by its diameter growth and the number of leaves of Avicennia in single structured was significantly affected by its diameter. While the height, diameter and number of leaves of R. mucronata both in mixed and single structured silvofishery ponds were independent to each other. This research concluded that mangrove seedling growth is varied among

  17. Increased height standard deviation scores in response to growth hormone therapy to near-adult height in older children with delayed skeletal maturation: results from the ANSWER Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Judith L; Lee, Peter A; Gut, Robert; Germak, John

    2015-01-01

    A primary goal of recombinant human growth hormone therapy (GHT) in children is attaining normal adult height. In this study, children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) (including isolated idiopathic growth hormone deficiency [IGHD] and multiple pituitary hormone deficiency [MPHD]), idiopathic short stature (ISS), and Turner syndrome (TS) were evaluated for near-adult height (NAH) and percent achieving NAH within the normal range after approximately 4 years of GHT. Data from the American Norditropin® Web-Enabled Research (ANSWER) Program were analyzed for NAH from age at treatment start (ATS) (i.e., referral age as defined by age at enrollment in the study) to last clinic visit using one of the following two criteria: 1) age ≥18 years, or 2) if male: ≥16 years and height velocity (HV) standard deviation score (HSDS) ≤ -2, and either GHD (n = 201), ISS (n = 19), or TS (n = 41). The main outcome measures included HSDS and corrected HSDS (HSDS-target HSDS) in response to GH treatment, and correlation of ATS with NAH HSDS. Mean (± SD) chronological and bone ages at baseline were 14.0 ± 2.1 years and 11.7 ± 2.0 years, respectively, and mean GHT duration was 4.0 ± 1.6 years. Mean HSDS (baseline to NAH; GHD: -2.7 to -1.0; ISS: -2.8 to -1.4; TS: -3.0 to -1.8) and mean corrected HSDS (baseline to NAH; GHD: -2.1 to -0.3; ISS: -2.1 to -0.6; TS: -1.8 to -0.6) increased across diagnostic indications. Percentages of patients reaching near-adult HSDS > -2 were GHD: 87.6%; ISS: 78.9%; TS: 65.8%. Significant negative correlations were found between ATS and NAH HSDS when analyzed by sex. Despite a relatively advanced childhood age, the majority of GH-treated patients attained mean near-adult HSDS within the normal range (HSDS > -2). Negative correlations of ATS with near-adult HSDS indicate that an earlier age at treatment start would likely have resulted in greater adult height achieved in both male and female patients.

  18. HEIGHT GROWTH OF Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Ktze. ON THREE NATURAL SITES, AT REGION OF CANELA - RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Weber Scheeren

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This work has had as its principal objectives the study of dominant height growth considering its age in three natural sites, and the determination of natural sites classification efficacy for the Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Ktze. in a planting stand in Canela, RS. For height and age data adjustment, determined through stem analysis, it was used the RICHARDS (1959 non-linear mathematics model, with two and three coefficients, resulting the three coefficient model as the most efficient to data adjustment of twelve dominant tree sampled on three natural sites in study. Seven groups of dominant trees with different trends growth were obtained, indicating that the natural sites classification did not detect with accuracy the effects of environmental  variables on height growth of Araucaria angustifolia.

  19. Progressive Decline in Height Standard Deviation Scores in the First 5 Years of Life Distinguished Idiopathic Growth Hormone Deficiency from Familial Short Stature and Constitutional Delay of Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothermel, Juliane; Lass, Nina; Toschke, Christina; Reinehr, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Familial short stature (FSS) and constitutional delay of growth (CDG) are the most frequent norm variants in children presenting with short stature. Knowing the growth patterns of these entities in the first years of life might be helpful to distinguish them from growth hormone deficiency (GHD) or other chronic diseases. We studied the height in the first 5 years of life in 26 children with FSS, in 38 children with CDG and in 14 children with idiopathic GHD. Height standard deviation scores (SDS) did not change between birth and 6 months of life, while height SDS decreased significantly afterwards in GHD, FSS, and CDG. The loss of height SDS was higher in the first 2 years of life than between 2 and 5 years of life in children with CDG (-0.92 vs. -0.11; p = 0.003) or FSS (-0.79 vs. -0.01; p = 0.002). In idiopathic GHD, the loss of height SDS did not differ between the first 2 years of life and the next 3 years (-0.78 vs. -0.77; p = 0.821). Children with FSS and CDG showed a decline in height SDS mainly in the first 2 years of life, whereas the height SDS of children with idiopathic GHD decreased almost continuously over the first 5 years of life. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Height outcome of the recombinant human growth hormone treatment in patients with SHOX gene haploinsufficiency: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massart, Francesco; Bizzi, Martina; Baggiani, Angelo; Miccoli, Mario

    2013-04-01

    Patients with mutations or deletions of the SHOX gene present variable growth impairment, with or without mesomelic skeletal dysplasia. If untreated, short patients with SHOX haplodeficiency (SHOXD) remain short into adulthood. Although recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) treatment improves short-term linear growth, there are episodic data on the final height of treated SHOXD subjects. After a thorough search of the published literature for pertinent studies, we undertook a meta-analysis evaluation of the efficacy and safety of rhGH treatment in SHOXD patients. In SHOXD patients, administration of rhGH progressively improved the height deficit from baseline to 24 months, although the major catch-up growth was detected after 12 months. The rhGH-induced growth appeared constant until final height. Our meta-analysis suggested rhGH therapy improves height outcome of SHOXD patients, though future studies using carefully titrated rhGH protocols are needed. Original submitted 29 October 2012; Revision submitted 22 February 2013.

  1. New Finnish growth references for children and adolescents aged 0 to 20 years: Length/height-for-age, weight-for-length/height, and body mass index-for-age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saari, Antti; Sankilampi, Ulla; Hannila, Marja-Leena; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Kesseli, Kari; Dunkel, Leo

    2011-05-01

    Growth curves require regular updates due to secular trends in linear growth. We constructed contemporary growth curves, assessed secular trends in height, and defined body mass index (BMI) cut-off points for thinness, overweight, and obesity in Finnish children. Mixed cross-sectional/longitudinal data of 73,659 healthy subjects aged 0-20 years (born 1983-2008) were collected from providers in the primary health care setting. Growth references for length/height-for-age, weight-for-length/height, and BMI-for-age were fitted using generalized additive models for location, scale, and shape (GAMLSS). BMI percentile curves passing through BMIs 30, 25, 18.5, 17, and 16 kg/m(2) at the age of 18 years were calculated to define limits for obesity, overweight, and various grades of thinness. Increased length/height-for-age was seen in virtually all age-groups when compared to previous Finnish growth data from 1959 to 1971. Adult height was increased by 1.9 cm in girls and 1.8 cm in boys. The largest increases were seen during the peripubertal years: up to 2.8 cm in girls and 5.6 cm in boys. Median weight-for-length/height had not increased. New Finnish references for length/height-for-age, weight-for-length/height, and BMI-for-age were constructed and should be implemented to monitor growth of children in Finland.

  2. Effect of oxandrolone therapy on adult height in Turner syndrome patients treated with growth hormone: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheanon, Nicole M; Backeljauw, Philippe F

    2015-01-01

    Turner syndrome is a chromosomal abnormality in which there is complete or partial absence of the X chromosome. Turner syndrome effects 1 in every 2000 live births. Short stature is a cardinal feature of Turner Syndrome and the standard treatment is recombinant human growth hormone. When growth hormone is started at an early age a normal adult height can be achieved. With delayed diagnosis young women with Turner Syndrome may not reach a normal height. Adjuvant therapy with oxandrolone is used but there is no consensus on the optimal timing of treatment, the duration of treatment and the long term adverse effects of treatment. The objective of this review and meta-analysis is to examine the effect of oxandrolone on adult height in growth hormone treated Turner syndrome patients. Eligible trials were identified by a literature search using the terms: Turner syndrome, oxandrolone. The search was limited to English language randomized-controlled trials after 1980. Twenty-six articles were reviewed and four were included in the meta-analysis. A random effects model was used to calculate an effect size and confidence interval. The pooled effect size of 2.0759 (95 % CI 0.0988 to 4.0529) indicates that oxandrolone has a positive effect on adult height in Turner syndrome when combined with growth hormone therapy. In conclusion, the addition of oxandrolone to growth hormone therapy for treatment of short stature in Turner syndrome improves adult height. Further studies are warranted to investigate if there is a subset of Turner syndrome patients that would benefit most from growth hormone plus oxandrolone therapy, and to determine the optimal timing and duration of such therapy.

  3. Height, weight and BMI percentiles and nutritional status relative to the international growth references among Pakistani school-aged children

    OpenAIRE

    Mushtaq, Muhammad Umair; Gull, Sibgha; Mushtaq, Komal; Abdullah, Hussain Muhammad; Khurshid, Usman; Shahid, Ubeera; Shad, Mushtaq Ahmad; Akram, Javed

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Child growth is internationally recognized as an important indicator of nutritional status and health in populations. This study was aimed to compare age- and gender-specific height, weight and BMI percentiles and nutritional status relative to the international growth references among Pakistani school-aged children. Methods A population-based study was conducted with a multistage cluster sample of 1860 children aged five to twelve years in Lahore, Pakistan. Smoothed heigh...

  4. Height growth and site index curves for western white pine in the Cascade Range of Washington and Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert O. Curtis; Nancy M. Diaz; Gary W. Clendenen

    1990-01-01

    Height growth and site index curves were constructed from stem analyses of mature western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don) growing in high-elevation forests of the Cascade Range in the Mount Hood and Gifford Pinchot National Forests of Oregon and Washington, respectively. Alternate systems using reference ages for site index of 50 and...

  5. Genotype-environment interaction and stability in ten-year height growth of Norway spruce Clones (Picea abies Karst.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.B. St. Clair; J. Kleinschmit

    1986-01-01

    Norway spruce cuttings of 40 clones were tested on seven contrasting sites in northern Germany. Analysis of variance for ten-year height growth indicate a highly significant clone x site interaction. This interaction may be reduced by selection of stable clones. Several measures of stability were calculated and discussed. Characterization of sites by the method of...

  6. Initiation of growth hormone therapy in idiopathic short stature: do gender differences exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Tal; Lebenthal, Yael; Phillip, Moshe; Lazar, Liora

    2015-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) registries indicate that boys receive preferential GH treatment for idiopathic short stature (ISS). The aim was to determine whether age, auxological parameters, pubertal status, and target height differ between genders at GH initiation. Review of the computerized files of the endocrine department of a tertiary pediatric medical center identified 184 patients who started GH therapy for ISS between 2003-2011. Data on auxologic parameters, predicted height, parental height, and pubertal status were collected and compared between boys and girls. Boys accounted for a significantly higher percentage of the study group (65.8%, pdeficit, and pubertal status at onset of GH treatment in boys and girls suggests that gender differences do not exist. Male predominance may stem from family preferences to treat boys. Future studies are warranted to assess the psychosocial aspects in the decision to initiate therapy.

  7. Growth, development, puberty and adult height before and during treatment in children with congenital isolated growth hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smuel, Keren; Kauli, Rivka; Lilos, Pearl; Laron, Zvi

    2015-08-01

    To describe the growth, development and puberty in children with congenital IGHD before and during hGH treatment. Patients with cIGHD treated by hGH between the years 1958-1992. All patients were diagnosed, treated and followed in our clinic. Data were found in 37/41 patients (21 m, 16 f). 34 had hGH-1A deletions, 7 GHRH-R mutations. Patients, referred after age 25, were excluded. The birth length of 10/37 neonates was 48.29±2.26 (44-50) cm. Birth weight of 28/37 neonates was 3380±370 g (m), 3230±409 g (f). Neuromotor milestones were variable. Age at referral was 5.7±4.2 y (m) and 5.6±3.8 y (f). Initiation of hGH treatment (35μg/kg/d) was 7.5±4.8, (0.8-15.08) y (m) and 6.8±4.36 (0.8-16.5) y (f). Height SDS increased from -4.3 to -1.8 (m) and from -4.5 to -2.6 (f). Head circumference increased from -2.6 to -1.3 (m) and from -2.7 to -2.3 (f). BMI increased from 15.8 to 20.6 (m) and from 15.5 to 20.4 (f). There was a negative correlation between age of hGH initiation and change in height SDS (r=-0.66; ρPuberty was delayed in boys, less so in girls. Mean age of 1st ejaculation (14 m) was 17.6±2.2 y and of menarche (14 f. was 13.7±1.2 y. In both genders there was a positive correlation between age at start of hGH and age at onset of puberty (r=0.57; ρpuberty. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pubertal development in Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Teilmann, G; Scheike, Thomas Harder

    2006-01-01

    differences between USA and Denmark, as well as to look for possible secular trends in pubertal development. Healthy Caucasian children from public schools in Denmark participated in the study which was carried out in 1991-1993. A total number of 826 boys and 1,100 girls (aged 6.0-19.9 years) were included......, and pubertal stages were assessed by clinical examination according to methods of Tanner. In boys testicular volume was determined using an orchidometer. We found that age at breast development 2 (B2) was 10.88 years, and mean menarcheal age was 13.42 years. Girls with body mass index (BMI) above the median...... genetic polymorphisms, nutrition, physical activity or endocrine disrupting chemicals must therefore also be considered. Therefore, we believe it is crucial to monitor the pubertal development closely in Denmark in the coming decades....

  9. Height, weight and BMI percentiles and nutritional status relative to the international growth references among Pakistani school-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushtaq Muhammad Umair

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child growth is internationally recognized as an important indicator of nutritional status and health in populations. This study was aimed to compare age- and gender-specific height, weight and BMI percentiles and nutritional status relative to the international growth references among Pakistani school-aged children. Methods A population-based study was conducted with a multistage cluster sample of 1860 children aged five to twelve years in Lahore, Pakistan. Smoothed height, weight and BMI percentile curves were obtained and comparison was made with the World Health Organization 2007 (WHO and United States' Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2000 (USCDC references. Over- and under-nutrition were defined according to the WHO and USCDC references, and the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF cut-offs. Simple descriptive statistics were used and statistical significance was considered at P Results Height, weight and BMI percentiles increased with age among both boys and girls, and both had approximately the same height and a lower weight and BMI as compared to the WHO and USCDC references. Mean differences from zero for height-, weight- and BMI-for-age z score values relative to the WHO and USCDC references were significant (P Conclusion Pakistani school-aged children significantly differed from the WHO and USCDC references. However, z score means relative to the WHO reference were closer to zero and the present study as compared to the USCDC reference. Overweight and obesity were significantly higher while underweight and thinness/wasting were significantly lower relative to the WHO reference as compared to the USCDC reference and the IOTF cut-offs. New growth charts for Pakistani children based on a nationally representative sample should be developed. Nevertheless, shifting to use of the 2007 WHO child growth reference might have important implications for child health programs and primary care pediatric clinics.

  10. Are 20th-century recommendations for growth and height correct? A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    people are living longer is the most obvious explanation for this trend. However ... evaluation of the ramifications of increasing body size (height and .... substantially shorter and leaner than most Western populations (see ... Asian Indian. 258.

  11. Insights into intraspecific wood density variation and its relationship to growth, height and elevation in a treeline species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, A

    2018-05-01

    The wood economics spectrum provides a general framework for interspecific trait-trait coordination across wide environmental gradients. Whether global patterns are mirrored within species constitutes a poorly explored subject. In this study, I first determined whether wood density co-varies together with elevation, tree growth and height at the within-species level. Second, I determined the variation of wood density in different stem parts (trunk, branch and twigs). In situ trunk sapwood, trunk heartwood, branch and twig densities, in addition to stem growth rates and tree height were determined in adult trees of Nothofagus pumilio at four elevations in five locations spanning 18° of latitude. Mixed effects models were fitted to test relationships among variables. The variation in wood density reported in this study was narrow (ca. 0.4-0.6 g cm -3 ) relative to global density variation (ca. 0.3-1.0 g cm -3 ). There was no significant relationship between stem growth rates and wood density. Furthermore, the elevation gradient did not alter the wood density of any stem part. Trunk sapwood density was negatively related to tree height. Twig density was higher than branch and trunk densities. Trunk heartwood density was always significantly higher than sapwood density. Negative across-species trends found in the growth-wood density relationship may not emerge as the aggregate of parallel intraspecific patterns. Actually, trees with contrasting growth rates show similar wood density values. Tree height, which is tightly related to elevation, showed a negative relationship with sapwood density. © 2018 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  12. Pubertal development in Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Teilmann, G; Scheike, Thomas Harder

    2006-01-01

    .0012). In Danish boys we found that age at genital stage 2 (G2) was 11.83 years. Both sexes were significantly taller compared with data from 1964, but timing of pubertal maturation seemed unaltered. Finally, puberty occurred much later in Denmark compared with recent data from USA. We could not detect any...

  13. Treatment Outcomes, Growth Height, and Neuroendocrine Functions in Patients With Intracranial Germ Cell Tumors Treated With Chemoradiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odagiri, Kazumasa, E-mail: t086016a@yokohama-cu.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama (Japan); Department of Radiology, Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan); Omura, Motoko [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama (Japan); Department of Radiology, Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan); Hata, Masaharu [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama (Japan); Aida, Noriko; Niwa, Tetsu [Department of Radiology, Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan); Ogino, Ichiro [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan); Kigasawa, Hisato [Division of Hemato-oncology/Regeneration Medicine, Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan); Ito, Susumu [Department of Neurosurgery, Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan); Adachi, Masataka [Department of Endocrinology, Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan); Inoue, Tomio [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama (Japan)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: We carried out a retrospective review of patients receiving chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for intracranial germ cell tumor (GCT) using a lower dose than those previously reported. To identify an optimal GCT treatment strategy, we evaluated treatment outcomes, growth height, and neuroendocrine functions. Methods and Materials: Twenty-two patients with GCT, including 4 patients with nongerminomatous GCT (NGGCT) were treated with CRT. The median age at initial diagnosis was 11.5 years (range, 6-19 years). Seventeen patients initially received whole brain irradiation (median dose, 19.8 Gy), and 5 patients, including 4 with NGGCT, received craniospinal irradiation (median dose, 30.6 Gy). The median radiation doses delivered to the primary site were 36 Gy for pure germinoma and 45 Gy for NGGCT. Seventeen patients had tumors adjacent to the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA), and 5 had tumors away from the HPA. Results: The median follow-up time was 72 months (range, 18-203 months). The rates of both disease-free survival and overall survival were 100%. The standard deviation scores (SDSs) of final heights recorded at the last assessment tended to be lower than those at initial diagnosis. Even in all 5 patients with tumors located away from the HPA, final height SDSs decreased (p = 0.018). In 16 patients with tumors adjacent to the HPA, 8 showed metabolic changes suggestive of hypothalamic obesity and/or growth hormone deficiency, and 13 had other pituitary hormone deficiencies. In contrast, 4 of 5 patients with tumors away from the HPA did not show any neuroendocrine dysfunctions except for a tendency to short stature. Conclusions: CRT for GCT using limited radiation doses resulted in excellent treatment outcomes. Even after limited radiation doses, insufficient growth height was often observed that was independent of tumor location. Our study suggests that close follow-up of neuroendocrine functions, including growth hormone, is essential for all patients with

  14. Growth & development of Indian children adopted in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proos, Lemm A

    2009-11-01

    More than 6800 children from India have been adopted in Sweden over the last four decades. At arrival many were undernourished and suffered from infectious diseases. Catch-up growth was common. Unexpectedly, cases of early pubertal development were subsequently reported. In order to investigate the growth and development of adopted children more in detail we studied 114 children adopted from India prospectively during two years. The majority were stunted at arrival and caught up in height and weight after two years. Psychomotor retardation and common infections diminished fairly soon. Those that were stunted did not attain the higher catch-up levels of those not stunted at arrival. Low birthweight also limited the degree of catch-up growth. 107 girls were analysed retrospectively in another study. The median menarcheal age was 11.6 yr (range 7.3-14.6 yr) which is significantly earlier than the mean in Swedish and privileged Indian girls (13.0 and 12.4-12.9 yr, respectively). The pubertal linear growth component was normal in duration and magnitude but likewise started 1.5 yr earlier. The final height/age was 154 cm (-1.4 SDS) and the weight/age 46.9 kg (-1.1 SDS) 8 per cent were 145 cm or shorter. Stunting limited catch-up growth and final height. Those that were most stunted at arrival, and had the fastest catch-up growth, had the earliest menarche. Good maternal and child nutrition is necessary for full expression of a child's growth potential. What is lost in growth early in life can only partially be recovered by catch-up growth. Such growth is associated with risk for early pubertal development which abbreviates the childhood growth period and limits final height. The mechanism underlying the early pubertal development, and the optimal management of nutrition rehabilitation after chronic malnutrition, need to be clarified by further studies.

  15. Factors Influencing the One- and Two-Year Growth Response in Children Treated with Growth Hormone: Analysis from an Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gut Robert

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available To assess gender-, pubertal-, age-related differences in change from baseline height standard deviation score (, data from 5,797 growth hormone (GH naïve pediatric patients ( at year 1 was significantly greater for males versus females (, but no other gender differences were observed. For patients with GHD, was greater in prepubertal than in pubertal patients. Younger patients for both genders ( ( for GHD, MPHD, and ISS. Overall, positive were observed in all patients, with greater growth responses in younger prepubertal children, emphasizing the importance of starting GH treatment early.

  16. Patterns and correlates of pubertal development in Canadian youth: effects of family context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arim, Rubab G; Shapka, Jennifer D; Dahinten, V Susan; Willms, J Douglas

    2007-01-01

    Current health literature suggests that there has been a decline in the age of pubertal onset, and that pubertal development is influenced by social context. Unfortunately, contemporary Canadian-specific data have not been available. This study examined the odds of having entered puberty at various ages during adolescence, before and after controlling for the effects of family socio-economic status and family structure. Longitudinal data for this study were drawn from the first four cycles of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. The final sample consisted of 7977 adolescents ranging in age from 10 to 17. Pubertal status of the participants was identified based on pubic hair, facial hair growth, and voice change, for boys; and pubic hair, breast development, and menstruation, for girls. Trajectories of pubertal development were analyzed with HLM growth curve modelling techniques. The results indicated that, compared to boys, the odds of having entered puberty at age 13 were 6.45 times higher for girls and that girls go through puberty more quickly. Low family socio-economic status and living with a stepfather were found to predict early onset of pubertal development. Contextual factors are related to pubertal development. Additional research is needed to develop a more solid understanding of how psychosocial factors interact to predict gendered patterns of pubertal development.

  17. Effects of Enzyme Treated Palm Kernel Expeller on Metabolizable Energy, Growth Performance, Villus Height and Digesta Viscosity in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Saenphoom

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined whether pre-treating palm kernel expeller (PKE with exogenous enzyme would degrade its fiber content; thus improving its metabolizable energy (ME, growth performance, villus height and digesta viscosity in broiler chickens fed diets containing PKE. Our results showed that enzyme treatment decreased (p0.05 among treatment groups in the finisher period, ADG of chickens in the control (PKE-free diet was higher (p0.05 FCR. The intestinal villus height and crypt depth (duodenum, jejunum and ileum were not different (p>0.05 among treatments except for duodenal crypt depth. The villus height and crypt depth of birds in enzyme treated PKE diets were higher (p0.05 among treatments. Results of this study suggest that exogenous enzyme is effective in hydrolyzing the fiber (hemicellulose and cellulose component and improved the ME values of PKE, however, the above positive effects were not reflected in the growth performance in broiler chickens fed the enzyme treated PKE compared to those received raw PKE. The results suggest that PKE can be included up to 5% in the grower diet and 20% in the finisher diet without any significant negative effect on FCR in broiler chickens.

  18. Comparative physiology of allopatric Populus species: geographic clines in photosynthesis, height growth, and carbon isotope discrimination in common gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soolanayakanahally, Raju Y; Guy, Robert D; Street, Nathaniel R; Robinson, Kathryn M; Silim, Salim N; Albrectsen, Benedicte R; Jansson, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Populus species with wide geographic ranges display strong adaptation to local environments. We studied the clinal patterns in phenology and ecophysiology in allopatric Populus species adapted to similar environments on different continents under common garden settings. As a result of climatic adaptation, both Populus tremula L. and Populus balsamifera L. display latitudinal clines in photosynthetic rates (A), whereby high-latitude trees of P. tremula had higher A compared to low-latitude trees and nearly so in P. balsamifera (p = 0.06). Stomatal conductance (g s) and chlorophyll content index (CCI) follow similar latitudinal trends. However, foliar nitrogen was positively correlated with latitude in P. balsamifera and negatively correlated in P. tremula. No significant trends in carbon isotope composition of the leaf tissue (δ(13)C) were observed for both species; but, intrinsic water-use efficiency (WUEi) was negatively correlated with the latitude of origin in P. balsamifera. In spite of intrinsically higher A, high-latitude trees in both common gardens accomplished less height gain as a result of early bud set. Thus, shoot biomass was determined by height elongation duration (HED), which was well approximated by the number of days available for free growth between bud flush and bud set. We highlight the shortcoming of unreplicated outdoor common gardens for tree improvement and the crucial role of photoperiod in limiting height growth, further complicating interpretation of other secondary effects.

  19. Comparative physiology of allopatric Populus species: Geographic clines in photosynthesis, height growth and carbon isotope discrimination in common gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju Yaranna Soolanayakanahally

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Populus species with wide geographic ranges display strong adaptation to local environments. We studied the clinal patterns in phenology and ecophysiology in allopatric Populus species adapted to similar environments on different continents under common garden settings. As a result of climatic adaptation, both P. tremula L. and Populus balsamifera L. display latitudinal clines in photosynthetic rates (A, whereby high-latitude trees of P. tremula had higher A compared to low-latitude trees and nearly so in P. balsamifera (p = 0.06. Stomatal conductance (gs and chlorophyll content index (CCI follow similar latitudinal trends. However, foliar nitrogen was positively correlated with latitude in P. balsamifera and negatively correlated in P. tremula. No significant trends in carbon isotope composition of the leaf tissue (δ13C were observed for both species; but, intrinsic water-use efficiency (WUEi was negatively correlated with the latitude of origin in P. balsamifera. In spite of intrinsically higher A, high-latitude trees in both common gardens accomplished less height gain as a result of early bud set. Thus, shoot biomass was determined by height elongation duration (HED, which was well approximated by the number of days available for free growth between bud flush and bud set. In doing so, we highlight the shortcoming of unreplicated outdoor common gardens for tree improvement and the crucial role of photoperiod in limiting height growth, further complicating interpretation of other secondary effects.

  20. MATERNAL HEIGHT AND PRE-PREGNANCY WEIGHT STATUS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH FETAL GROWTH PATTERNS AND NEWBORN SIZE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pölzlberger, Eva; Hartmann, Beda; Hafner, Erich; Stümpflein, Ingrid; Kirchengast, Sylvia

    2017-05-01

    The impact of maternal height, pre-pregnancy weight status and gestational weight gain on fetal growth patterns and newborn size was analysed using a dataset of 4261 singleton term births taking place at the Viennese Danube Hospital between 2005 and 2013. Fetal growth patterns were reconstructed from three ultrasound examinations carried out at the 11th/12th, 20th/21th and 32th/33th weeks of gestation. Crown-rump length, biparietal diameter, fronto-occipital diameter, head circumference, abdominal transverse diameter, abdominal anterior-posterior diameter, abdominal circumference and femur length were determined. Birth weight, birth length and head circumference were measured immediately after birth. The vast majority of newborns were of normal weight, i.e. between 2500 and 4000 g. Maternal height showed a just-significant but weak positive association (r=0.03: p=0.039) with crown-rump length at the first trimester and with the majority of fetal parameters at the second trimester (r>0.06; p0.09; p0.08; p0.17; p0.13; p0.13; pnewborn size. Some of these associations were quite weak and the statistical significance was mainly due to the large sample size. The association patterns between maternal height and pre-pregnancy weight status with fetal growth patterns (pnewborn size (p<0.001), were independent of maternal age, nicotine consumption and fetal sex. In general, taller and heavier women gave birth to larger infants. This association between maternal size and fetal growth patterns was detectable from the first trimester onwards.

  1. Simultaneous growth of self-patterned carbon nanotube forests with dual height scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam, Ebru Devrim; Kucukayan-Dogu, Gokce; Baykal, Beril; Dalkilic, Zeynep; Rana, Kuldeep; Bengu, Erman

    2012-05-01

    In this study, we report on a unique, one-step fabrication technique enabling the simultaneous synthesis of vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (VA-MWCNTs) with dual height scales through alcohol catalyzed chemical vapor deposition (ACCVD). Regions of VA-MWCNTs with different heights were well separated from each other leading to a self-patterning on the surface. We devised a unique layer-by-layer process for application of catalyst and inhibitor precursors on oxidized Si (100) surfaces before the ACCVD step to achieve a hierarchical arrangement. Patterning could be controlled by adjusting the molarity and application sequence of precursors. Contact angle measurements on these self-patterned surfaces indicated that manipulation of these hierarchical arrays resulted in a wide range of hydrophobic behavior changing from that of a sticky rose petal to a lotus leaf.In this study, we report on a unique, one-step fabrication technique enabling the simultaneous synthesis of vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (VA-MWCNTs) with dual height scales through alcohol catalyzed chemical vapor deposition (ACCVD). Regions of VA-MWCNTs with different heights were well separated from each other leading to a self-patterning on the surface. We devised a unique layer-by-layer process for application of catalyst and inhibitor precursors on oxidized Si (100) surfaces before the ACCVD step to achieve a hierarchical arrangement. Patterning could be controlled by adjusting the molarity and application sequence of precursors. Contact angle measurements on these self-patterned surfaces indicated that manipulation of these hierarchical arrays resulted in a wide range of hydrophobic behavior changing from that of a sticky rose petal to a lotus leaf. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1; AFM image of the Co-O layer which was first dried at 40 °C and then oxidized at 200 °C. Fig. S2; graph relative to the area of CNT islands for different

  2. Parentally-adjusted deficit of height as a prognostic factor of the effectiveness of growth hormone (GH) therapy in children with GH deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilczer, Maciej; Smyczyńska, Joanna; Lewiński, Andrzej

    2006-01-01

    Parental height is the most important identifiable factor influencing final height (FH) of children with growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD), treated with GH. Assessment of FH of patients with GHD--classified into familial short stature (FSS) and non-familial short stature (non-FSS) according to parentally adjusted deficit of height. The analysis comprised 101 patients (76 boys) with childhood-onset GHD. Final height was compared with patients' height before GH therapy, predicted adult height (PAH) and target height (TH). Both GH peak in stimulating tests and height standard deviation score (SDS) before the therapy were significantly lower in non-FSS than in FSS. Target height was significantly lower in FSS than in non-FSS. Parentally-adjusted deficit of height was significantly more profound in non-FSS than in FSS. The prognosis of adult height was very similar in both groups of patients, being significantly worse in non-FSS than in FSS while corrected by TH. The absolute FH was similar in FSS and non-FSS, being, however, significantly lower in non-FSS than in FSS while corrected by TH. Improvement of height was significantly better in non-FSS than in FSS. In both groups, FH SDS was significantly better than height SDS before the therapy (H0SDS). In FSS group, PAH was similar to TH, moreover, FH corresponded to both PAH and TH. In non-FSS group FH was significantly higher than PAH, but both FH and PAH were significantly lower than TH. 1) Growth hormone therapy was more effective in the patients with non-FSS than in those with FSS. 2) Parentally-adjusted deficit of height is an important prognostic factor of GH therapy effectiveness.

  3. Duration of the pubertal peak in skeletal Class I and Class III subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuc-Michalska, Małgorzata; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2010-01-01

    To estimate and compare the duration of the pubertal growth peak in Class I and Class III subjects. The data examined consisted of pretreatment lateral cephalometric records of 218 skeletal Class I or Class III subjects (93 female and 125 male subjects) of white ancestry. The duration of the pubertal peak was calculated from the average chronological age intervals between stages CS3 and CS4 of the cervical vertebral maturation in Class I vs Class III groups (t-test). In skeletal Class I subjects, the pubertal peak had a mean duration of 11 months, whereas in Class III subjects it lasted 16 months. The average difference (5 months) was statistically significant (P < .001). The growth interval corresponding to the pubertal growth spurt (CS3-CS4) was longer in Class III subjects than in subjects with normal skeletal relationships; the larger increases in mandibular length during the pubertal peak reported in the literature for Class III subjects may be related to the longer duration of the pubertal peak.

  4. GH Therapy and first final height data in Noonan-like syndrome with loose anagen hair (Mazzanti syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzanti, Laura; Tamburrino, Federica; Scarano, Emanuela; Perri, Annamaria; Vestrucci, Benedetta; Guidetti, Monica; Rossi, Cesare; Tartaglia, Marco

    2013-11-01

    Noonan-like syndrome with loose anagen hair (NS/LAH or Mazzanti Syndrome) is caused by a single missense mutation in SHOC2 promoting tN-myristoylation of the encoded protein. Cardinal features include facial features resembling NS, short stature often associated with proven growth hormone deficiency (GHD), typical ectodermal anomalies, and distinctive behavior. Overall, the clinical features are more severe than those generally observed in NS, even though the phenotype improves with age. We report on growth and pubertal trend in seven patients heterozygous for a mutated SHOC2 allele, treated with long-term GH-therapy, and final height (FH) in three of them. They were approximately -3 SDS below the Italian general population standards, they had very low IGF1 levels at baseline and GHD at pharmacological tests. All patients were treated with GH (0.035 mg/kg/day) for a mean period of 8.49 ± 5.72 years. After the 1st year of GH-therapy, IGF1 level and height velocity had increased. Three of 7 patients reached the FH (-2.34 ± 0.12 SDS) at 18.25 ± 0.73 years, after GH administration for 12.39 ± 2.12 years. Pubertal development was variable, showing a prolonged and delayed puberty or rapid pubertal progression that could impair the FH. Overall, our data in this small cohort suggest that NS/LAH patients benefit from long-term GH-therapy, although they do not show the characteristic catch-up growth of isolated GHD. While the observed growth and pubertal behavior is consistent with a dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, the functional link between SHOC2 and the GH/IGF signaling pathways remains to be clarified. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Growth of fcc(111) Dy multi-height islands on 6H-SiC(0001) graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershberger, M T; Hupalo, M; Thiel, P A; Tringides, M C

    2013-01-01

    Graphene based spintronic devices require an understanding of the growth of magnetic metals. Rare earth metals have large bulk magnetic moments so they are good candidates for such applications, and it is important to identify their growth mode. Dysprosium was deposited on epitaxial graphene, prepared by thermally annealing 6H-SiC(0001). The majority of the grown islands have triangular instead of hexagonal shapes. This is observed both for single layer islands nucleating at the top of incomplete islands and for fully completed multi-height islands. We analyze the island shape distribution and stacking sequence of successively grown islands to deduce that the Dy islands have fcc(111) structure, and that the triangular shapes result from asymmetric barriers to corner crossing. (paper)

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of fundal height and handheld ultrasound-measured abdominal circumference to screen for fetal growth abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haragan, Adriane F.; Hulsey, Thomas C.; Hawk, Angela F.; Newman, Roger B.; Chang, Eugene Y.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We sought to compare fundal height and handheld ultrasound–measured fetal abdominal circumference (HHAC) for the prediction of fetal growth restriction (FGR) or large for gestational age. STUDY DESIGN This was a diagnostic accuracy study in nonanomalous singleton pregnancies between 24 and 40 weeks’ gestation. Patients underwent HHAC and fundal height measurement prior to formal growth ultrasound. FGR was defined as estimated fetal weight less than 10%, whereas large for gestational age was defined as estimated fetal weight greater than 90%. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated and compared using methods described elsewhere. RESULTS There were 251 patients included in this study. HHAC had superior sensitivity and specificity for the detection of FGR (sensitivity, 100% vs 42.86%) and (specificity, 92.62% vs 85.24%). HHAC had higher specificity but lower sensitivity when screening for LGA (specificity, 85.66% vs 66.39%) and (sensitivity, 57.14% vs 71.43%). CONCLUSION HHAC could prove to be a valuable screening tool in the detection of FGR. Further studies are needed in a larger population. PMID:25818672

  7. Brief communication: a proposed osteological method for the estimation of pubertal stage in human skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapland, Fiona; Lewis, Mary E

    2013-06-01

    Puberty forms an important threshold between childhood and adulthood, but this subject has received little attention in bioarchaeology. The new application of clinical methods to assess pubertal stage in adolescent skeletal remains is explored, concentrating on the development of the mandibular canine, hamate, hand phalanges, iliac crest and distal radius. Initial results from the medieval cemetery of St. Peter's Church, Barton-upon-Humber, England suggest that application of these methods may provide insights into aspects of adolescent development. This analysis indicates that adolescents from this medieval site were entering the pubertal growth spurt at a similar age to their modern counterparts, but that the later stages of pubertal maturation were being significantly delayed, perhaps due to environmental stress. Continued testing and refinement of these methods on living adolescents is still necessary to improve our understanding of their significance and accuracy in predicting pubertal stages. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Water stress, shoot growth and storage of non-structural carbohydrates along a tree height gradient in a tall conifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Woodruff; Frederick C. Meinzer

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed concentrations of starch, sucrose, glucose and fructose in upper branch wood, foliage and trunk sapwood of Douglas-fir trees in height classes ranging from ~2 to ~57 m. Mean concentrations of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) for all tissues were highest in the tallest height class and lowest in the lowest height class, and height-related trends in NSC...

  9. Symphysis-fundal height curve in the diagnosis of fetal growth deviations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djacyr Magna Cabral Freire

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To validate a new symphysis-fundal curve for screening fetal growth deviations and to compare its performance with the standard curve adopted by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. METHODS: Observational study including a total of 753 low-risk pregnant women with gestational age above 27 weeks between March to October 2006 in the city of João Pessoa, Northeastern Brazil. Symphisys-fundal was measured using a standard technique recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Estimated fetal weight assessed through ultrasound using the Brazilian fetal weight chart for gestational age was the gold standard. A subsample of 122 women with neonatal weight measurements was taken up to seven days after estimated fetal weight measurements and symphisys-fundal classification was compared with Lubchenco growth reference curve as gold standard. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated. The McNemar χ2 test was used for comparing sensitivity of both symphisys-fundal curves studied. RESULTS: The sensitivity of the new curve for detecting small for gestational age fetuses was 51.6% while that of the Brazilian Ministry of Health reference curve was significantly lower (12.5%. In the subsample using neonatal weight as gold standard, the sensitivity of the new reference curve was 85.7% while that of the Brazilian Ministry of Health was 42.9% for detecting small for gestational age. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnostic performance of the new curve for detecting small for gestational age fetuses was significantly higher than that of the Brazilian Ministry of Health reference curve.

  10. Growth hormone therapy for children born small for gestational age: height gain is less dose dependent over the long term than over the short term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zegher, Francis; Hokken-Koelega, Anita

    2005-04-01

    Approximately 3% of children are born small for gestational age (SGA), and approximately 10% of SGA children maintain a small body size throughout childhood and often into adult life. Among short SGA children, growth hormone (GH) therapy increases short-term growth in a dose-dependent manner; experience with long-term therapy is limited. To delineate the dose dependency of long-term height gain among short SGA children receiving GH therapy. We performed an epianalysis of the first adult height data for SGA children (n = 28) enrolled in 3 randomized trials comparing the growth-promoting efficacy of 2 continuous GH regimens (33 or 67 microg/kg per day for approximately 10 years, starting at approximately 5 years of age); in addition, we performed a meta-analysis of the adult height results published previously and those presented here. Epianalysis outcomes (n = 28) suggested that adult height increased more with a higher-dose regimen than with a lower-dose regimen. In the meta-analysis (n = 82), the higher-dose regimen was found to elicit a long-term height gain superior to that achieved with the lower-dose regimen by a mean of 0.4 SD (approximately 1 inch). Children who were shorter at the start of therapy experienced more long-term height gain. These findings confirm GH therapy as an effective and safe approach to reduce the adult height deficit that short SGA children otherwise face. In addition, the first meta-analysis indicated that height gain is less dose dependent over the long term than over the short term, at least within the dose range explored to date. For SGA children whose stature is not extremely short, current data support the use of a GH dose of approximately 33 microg/kg per day from start to adult height, particularly if treatment starts at a young age; shorter children (for example, height below -3 SD) might benefit from an approach in which short-term catch-up growth is achieved with a higher dose (> or =50 microg/kg per day) and long-term growth

  11. Monitoring small pioneer trees in the forest-tundra ecotone: using multi-temporal airborne laser scanning data to model height growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauglin, Marius; Bollandsås, Ole Martin; Gobakken, Terje; Næsset, Erik

    2017-12-08

    Monitoring of forest resources through national forest inventory programmes is carried out in many countries. The expected climate changes will affect trees and forests and might cause an expansion of trees into presently treeless areas, such as above the current alpine tree line. It is therefore a need to develop methods that enable the inclusion of also these areas into monitoring programmes. Airborne laser scanning (ALS) is an established tool in operational forest inventories, and could be a viable option for monitoring tasks. In the present study, we used multi-temporal ALS data with point density of 8-15 points per m 2 , together with field measurements from single trees in the forest-tundra ecotone along a 1500-km-long transect in Norway. The material comprised 262 small trees with an average height of 1.78 m. The field-measured height growth was derived from height measurements at two points in time. The elapsed time between the two measurements was 4 years. Regression models were then used to model the relationship between ALS-derived variables and tree heights as well as the height growth. Strong relationships between ALS-derived variables and tree heights were found, with R 2 values of 0.93 and 0.97 for the two points in time. The relationship between the ALS data and the field-derived height growth was weaker, with R 2 values of 0.36-0.42. A cross-validation gave corresponding results, with root mean square errors of 19 and 11% for the ALS height models and 60% for the model relating ALS data to single-tree height growth.

  12. Synthesizing genome-wide association studies and expression microarray reveals novel genes that act in the human growth plate to modulate height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Julian C; Nilsson, Ola; Chan, Yingleong; Palmer, Cameron D; Andrade, Anenisia C; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Baron, Jeffrey

    2012-12-01

    Previous meta-analysis of genome-wide association (GWA) studies has identified 180 loci that influence adult height. However, each GWA locus typically comprises a set of contiguous genes, only one of which presumably modulates height. We reasoned that many of the causative genes within these loci influence height because they are expressed in and function in the growth plate, a cartilaginous structure that causes bone elongation and thus determines stature. Therefore, we used expression microarray studies of mouse and rat growth plate, human disease databases and a mouse knockout phenotype database to identify genes within the GWAS loci that are likely required for normal growth plate function. Each of these approaches identified significantly more genes within the GWA height loci than at random genomic locations (P analysis strongly implicates 78 genes in growth plate function, including multiple genes that participate in PTHrP-IHH, BMP and CNP signaling, and many genes that have not previously been implicated in the growth plate. Thus, this analysis reveals a large number of novel genes that regulate human growth plate chondrogenesis and thereby contribute to the normal variations in human adult height. The analytic approach developed for this study may be applied to GWA studies for other common polygenic traits and diseases, thus providing a new general strategy to identify causative genes within GWA loci and to translate genetic associations into mechanistic biological insights.

  13. Variation of Maximum Tree Height and Annual Shoot Growth of Smith Fir at Various Elevations in the Sygera Mountains, Southeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yafeng; Čufar, Katarina; Eckstein, Dieter; Liang, Eryuan

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about tree height and height growth (as annual shoot elongation of the apical part of vertical stems) of coniferous trees growing at various altitudes on the Tibetan Plateau, which provides a high-elevation natural platform for assessing tree growth performance in relation to future climate change. We here investigated the variation of maximum tree height and annual height increment of Smith fir (Abies georgei var. smithii) in seven forest plots (30 m×40 m) along two altitudinal transects between 3,800 m and 4,200/4,390 m above sea level (a.s.l.) in the Sygera Mountains, southeastern Tibetan Plateau. Four plots were located on north-facing slopes and three plots on southeast-facing slopes. At each site, annual shoot growth was obtained by measuring the distance between successive terminal bud scars along the main stem of 25 trees that were between 2 and 4 m high. Maximum/mean tree height and mean annual height increment of Smith fir decreased with increasing altitude up to the tree line, indicative of a stress gradient (the dominant temperature gradient) along the altitudinal transect. Above-average mean minimum summer (particularly July) temperatures affected height increment positively, whereas precipitation had no significant effect on shoot growth. The time series of annual height increments of Smith fir can be used for the reconstruction of past climate on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau. In addition, it can be expected that the rising summer temperatures observed in the recent past and anticipated for the future will enhance Smith fir's growth throughout its altitudinal distribution range. PMID:22396738

  14. [Height and weight growth delay and protein-energy malnutrition in children with chronic dialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perţea, L; Diaconeasa, Lavinia; Burlea, M; Munteanu, Mihaela; Brumariu, O

    2010-01-01

    Growth retardation is an important problem in children with chronic renal disease, and malnutrition is a determinative factor. The study intends to assess the relationship between protein-energy malnutrition and stature-weight retardation in children enrolled in chronic dialysis program. The study group was composed of 16 children (5 boys and 11 girls--sex ratio of 2.2) hospitalized in the IVth Nephrology Clinic at Clinical Emergency Hospital "St. Maria" Iaşi, 13 rural and 3 urban, aged between 9 and 17 years, with chronic dialysis program. This was a follow-up study during a period of 4 years (2006-2009), resulting in correlations between anthropometric paremeters, biochemical, BIA and DEXA data. The stature-weight deficiency of the 16 patients was as follows: after an average period of 61.7 months of HD and 32.7 months of PD, in children older than 12 years (mean age 15.27 years), 7 of 10 had stature-weight deficits higher than (-3DS) or (-4DS). The group with less than (-2DS) stature-weight deficits showed the same mean age of 15.2 years, the protein energy-malnutrition was present in 2 cases (33%) and was attributed to a dialysis period shorter than 13.8 months. The late diagnosis of the disease (at an average age of 13 years), the long period of chronic dialysis program (over 39.5 months on average) and the early debut of malnutrition are favoring or worsening factors of stature-weight retardation. After correlating ESG with biochemical, BIA and DEXA data, in our group were identified 4 cases of moderate malnutrition and 9 cases of severe malnutrition.

  15. New loci associated with birth weight identify genetic links between intrauterine growth and adult height and metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikoshi, Momoko; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O.; Sovio, Ulla; Taal, H. Rob; Hennig, Branwen J.; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; St. Pourcain, Beate; Evans, David M.; Charoen, Pimphen; Kaakinen, Marika; Cousminer, Diana L.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Warrington, Nicole M.; Bustamante, Mariona; Feenstra, Bjarke; Berry, Diane J.; Thiering, Elisabeth; Pfab, Thiemo; Barton, Sheila J.; Shields, Beverley M.; Kerkhof, Marjan; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M.; Fulford, Anthony J.; Kutalik, Zoltán; Zhao, Jing Hua; den Hoed, Marcel; Mahajan, Anubha; Lindi, Virpi; Goh, Liang-Kee; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Wu, Ying; Raitakari, Olli T.; Harder, Marie N.; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Ntalla, Ioanna; Salem, Rany M.; Jameson, Karen A.; Zhou, Kaixin; Monies, Dorota M.; Lagou, Vasiliki; Kirin, Mirna; Heikkinen, Jani; Adair, Linda S.; Alkuraya, Fowzan S.; Al-Odaib, Ali; Amouyel, Philippe; Andersson, Ehm Astrid; Bennett, Amanda J.; Blakemore, Alexandra I.F.; Buxton, Jessica L.; Dallongeville, Jean; Das, Shikta; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Estivill, Xavier; Flexeder, Claudia; Froguel, Philippe; Geller, Frank; Godfrey, Keith M.; Gottrand, Frédéric; Groves, Christopher J.; Hansen, Torben; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hofman, Albert; Hollegaard, Mads V.; Hougaard, David M.; Hyppönen, Elina; Inskip, Hazel M.; Isaacs, Aaron; Jørgensen, Torben; Kanaka-Gantenbein, Christina; Kemp, John P.; Kiess, Wieland; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.; Klopp, Norman; Knight, Bridget A.; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; McMahon, George; Newnham, John P.; Niinikoski, Harri; Oostra, Ben A.; Pedersen, Louise; Postma, Dirkje S.; Ring, Susan M.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Robertson, Neil R.; Sebert, Sylvain; Simell, Olli; Slowinski, Torsten; Tiesler, Carla M.T.; Tönjes, Anke; Vaag, Allan; Viikari, Jorma S.; Vink, Jacqueline M.; Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Witte, Daniel R.; Zhang, Haitao; Zhao, Jianhua; Wilson, James F.; Stumvoll, Michael; Prentice, Andrew M.; Meyer, Brian F.; Pearson, Ewan R.; Boreham, Colin A.G.; Cooper, Cyrus; Gillman, Matthew W.; Dedoussis, George V.; Moreno, Luis A; Pedersen, Oluf; Saarinen, Maiju; Mohlke, Karen L.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Saw, Seang-Mei; Lakka, Timo A.; Körner, Antje; Loos, Ruth J.F.; Ong, Ken K.; Vollenweider, Peter; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Holloway, John W.; Hocher, Berthold; Heinrich, Joachim; Power, Chris; Melbye, Mads; Guxens, Mònica; Pennell, Craig E.; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Bisgaard, Hans; Eriksson, Johan G.; Widén, Elisabeth; Hakonarson, Hakon; Uitterlinden, André G.; Pouta, Anneli; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Smith, George Davey; Frayling, Timothy M.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Grant, Struan F.A.; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Prokopenko, Inga; Freathy, Rachel M.

    2012-01-01

    Birth weight within the normal range is associated with a variety of adult-onset diseases, but the mechanisms behind these associations are poorly understood1. Previous genome-wide association studies identified a variant in the ADCY5 gene associated both with birth weight and type 2 diabetes, and a second variant, near CCNL1, with no obvious link to adult traits2. In an expanded genome-wide association meta-analysis and follow-up study (up to 69,308 individuals of European descent from 43 studies), we have now extended the number of genome-wide significant loci to seven, accounting for a similar proportion of variance to maternal smoking. Five of the loci are known to be associated with other phenotypes: ADCY5 and CDKAL1 with type 2 diabetes; ADRB1 with adult blood pressure; and HMGA2 and LCORL with adult height. Our findings highlight genetic links between fetal growth and postnatal growth and metabolism. PMID:23202124

  16. Prenatal and pubertal testosterone affect brain lateralization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beking, T; Geuze, R H; van Faassen, M; Kema, I P; Kreukels, B P C; Groothuis, T G G

    After decades of research, the influence of prenatal testosterone on brain lateralization is still elusive, whereas the influence of pubertal testosterone on functional brain lateralization has not been investigated, although there is increasing evidence that testosterone affects the brain in

  17. Pubertal Onset in Apparently Healthy Indian Boys and Impact of Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surana, Vineet; Dabas, Aashima; Khadgawat, Rajesh; Marwaha, Raman Kumar; Sreenivas, V; Ganie, M Ashraf; Gupta, Nandita; Mehan, Neena

    2017-01-01

    Primary - to determine the age of pubertal onset in Indian boys. Secondary - (a) to assess the impact of obesity on pubertal timing, (b) to assess the relationship between gonadotropins and puberty. Cross-sectional. General community-seven schools across New Delhi. Random sample of 1306 school boys, aged 6-17 years. Anthropometric measurement for weight and height and pubertal staging was performed for all subjects. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated to define overweight/obesity. Serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone, and serum testosterone were measured in every sixth subject. Age at pubertal onset-testicular volume ≥4 mL (gonadarche) and pubic hair Stage II. Median age of attaining gonadarche and pubarche was 10.41 years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.2-10.6 years) and 13.60 (95% CI: 13.3-14.0 years), respectively. No significant difference in the age of attainment of gonadarche was observed in boys with normal or raised BMI, though pubarche occurred 8 months earlier in the latter group. Serum gonadotropins and testosterone increased with increasing stages of puberty but were unaffected by BMI. Serum LH level of 1.02 mIU/mL and testosterone level of >0.14 ng/mL showed the best prediction for pubertal onset. The study establishes a secular trend of the age of onset of puberty in Indian boys. Pubarche occurred earlier in overweight/obese boys. The cutoff levels of serum LH and testosterone for prediction of pubertal onset have been established.

  18. Value of Tree Measurements Made at Age 5 Years for Predicting the Height and Diameter Growth at Age 25 Years in Loblolly Pine Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan E. Tiarks; Calvin E. Meier; V. Clark Baldwin; James D. Haywood

    1998-01-01

    Early growth measurements Of pine plantations are often used to predict the productivity of the stand later in the rotation when assessing the effect Of management on productivity. A loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) study established at 35 locations (2 to 3 plots/location) was used to test the relationship between height measurements at age 5 years...

  19. Early survival and height growth of Douglas-fir and lodgepole pine seedlings and variations in site factors following treatment of logging residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Lopushlnsky; D. Zabowskl; T.D. Anderson

    1992-01-01

    Logging residues were broadcast burned, piled and burned, removed, or left in place after clearcutting in a high-elevation subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.) lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) forest in north-central Washington. Survival, height growth and foliar nutrient content of planted Douglas-fir...

  20. A technique to identify annual growth rings in Eucalyptus grandis using annual measurements of diameter at breast height and gamma ray densitometry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, Sasha

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A technique was developed to identify annual growth rings in E. grandis using a combination of annual measurements of diameter at breast height (DBH) from permanent sample plot (PSP) datasets and bark-pith density profiles. By assessing the pattern...

  1. The Effect of Backward-Facing Step Height on Instability Growth and Breakdown in Swept Wing Boundary-Layer Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppink, Jenna L.; Wlezien, Richard W.; King, Rudolph A.; Choudhari, Meelan

    2015-01-01

    A low-speed experiment was performed on a swept at plate model with an imposed pressure gradient to determine the effect of a backward-facing step on transition in a stationary-cross flow dominated flow. Detailed hot-wire boundary-layer measurements were performed for three backward-facing step heights of approximately 36, 45, and 49% of the boundary-layer thickness at the step. These step heights correspond to a subcritical, nearly-critical, and critical case. Three leading-edge roughness configurations were tested to determine the effect of stationary-cross flow amplitude on transition. The step caused a local increase in amplitude of the stationary cross flow for the two larger step height cases, but farther downstream the amplitude decreased and remained below the baseline amplitude. The smallest step caused a slight local decrease in amplitude of the primary stationary cross flow mode, but the amplitude collapsed back to the baseline case far downstream of the step. The effect of the step on the amplitude of the primary cross flow mode increased with step height, however, the stationary cross flow amplitudes remained low and thus, stationary cross flow was not solely responsible for transition. Unsteady disturbances were present downstream of the step for all three step heights, and the amplitudes increased with increasing step height. The only exception is that the lower frequency (traveling crossflow-like) disturbance was not present in the lowest step height case. Positive and negative spikes in instantaneous velocity began to occur for the two larger step height cases and then grew in number and amplitude downstream of reattachment, eventually leading to transition. The number and amplitude of spikes varied depending on the step height and cross flow amplitude. Despite the low amplitude of the disturbances in the intermediate step height case, breakdown began to occur intermittently and the flow underwent a long transition region.

  2. Growth hormone therapy alone or in combination with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog therapy to improve the height deficit in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintos, J B; Vogiatzi, M G; Harbison, M D; New, M I

    2001-04-01

    Short stature in the adult patient with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is commonly seen, even among patients in excellent adrenal control during childhood and puberty. In this study we examine the effect of GH therapy on height prediction in children with both CAH and compromised height prediction. Leuprolide acetate, a GnRH analog (GnRHa), was given to patients with evidence of early puberty. GH (n = 12) or the combination of GH and GnRHa (n = 8) was administered to 20 patients with CAH while they continued therapy with glucocorticoids. Each patient in the treatment group was matched according to age, sex, bone age, puberty, and type of CAH with another CAH patient treated only with glucocorticoid replacement. The match was made at the start of GH treatment. Of the 20 patients, 12 have completed 2 yr of therapy. After 1 yr of GH or combination GH and GnRHa therapy, the mean growth rate increased from 5 +/- 1.9 to 7.8 +/- 1.6 cm/yr vs. 5.4 +/- 1.7 to 5 +/- 2 cm/yr in the group not receiving GH (P growth rate was 6 +/- 1.6 vs. 4.2 +/- 2.1 cm/yr in the group not receiving GH (P growth rate and height prediction and a reduction in height deficit for bone age.

  3. Pubertal breast development in primary school girls in Sokoto, North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. There is wide variation in normal pubertal timing among various populations. Objectives. To determine the mean age of pubertal stages of breast development and menarche, and the influence of nutrition and ethnicity on pubertal onset in primary school girls in Sokoto, North-Western Nigeria. Methods.

  4. Hormonal, anthropometric and lipid factors associated with idiopathic pubertal gynecomastia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Alwan, Ibrahim; Al Azkawi, Hanan; Badri, Motasim; Tamim, Hani; Al Dubayee, Mohammed; Tamimi, Waleed

    2013-01-01

    To determine factors associated with pubertal gynecomastia. A cross-sectional study among healthy male school children and adolescents in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Subjects were selected from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds. Tanner stage, height, weight, blood hormonal levels (leutilizing hormone [LH], follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH], total testosterone, and estradiol), and anthropometric and lipid parameters (body mass index [BMI], triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein [HDL], and low-density lipoprotein [LDL]), were collected and compared in children with and without gynecomastia. The study included 542 children and adolescents. Median (interquartile range) age in the whole group was 11(8-13) years. The prevalence of gynecomastia was 185/542 (34%), with a peak at age 14. The 2 groups compared had nonsignificant difference in cholesterol (P=.331), LH (P=.215) and FSH (P=.571) levels. Those with gynecomastia were significantly older, had lower gonad stage, had higher anthropometric (height, weight, and BMI), and lipid (triglycerides, HDL, and LDL) values. In multivariate regression analysis, factors significantly associated with gynecomastia were BMI (odds ratio [OR]=1.05; 95%CI 1.00-1.10; P=.013), HDL (OR=0.42; 95%CI 0.19-0.92; P=.03), and gonad (Stage II OR=2.23; 95%CI 1.27-3.92; P=.005, Stage III OR=6.40; 95%CI 2.70-15.0; P gynecomastia tends to increase in mid-puberty. In our setting, BMI, HDL, and gonad stage were the major factors associated with the development of pubertal gynecomastia.

  5. Individual differences in boys' and girls' timing and tempo of puberty: modeling development with nonlinear growth models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Kristine; Ram, Nilam; Houts, Renate M; Grimm, Kevin J; Susman, Elizabeth J

    2011-09-01

    Pubertal development is a nonlinear process progressing from prepubescent beginnings through biological, physical, and psychological changes to full sexual maturity. To tether theoretical concepts of puberty with sophisticated longitudinal, analytical models capable of articulating pubertal development more accurately, we used nonlinear mixed-effects models to describe both the timing and tempo of pubertal development in the sample of 364 White boys and 373 White girls measured across 6 years as part of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Individual differences in timing and tempo were extracted with models of logistic growth. Differential relations emerged for how boys' and girls' timing and tempo of development were related to physical characteristics (body mass index, height, and weight) and psychological outcomes (internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and risky sexual behavior). Timing and tempo are associated in boys but not girls. Pubertal timing and tempo are particularly important for predicting psychological outcomes in girls but only sparsely related to boys' psychological outcomes. Results highlight the importance of considering the nonlinear nature of puberty and expand the repertoire of possibilities for examining important aspects of how and when pubertal processes contribute to development.

  6. Growth and adult height in GH-treated children with nonacquired GH deficiency and idiopathic short stature: the influence of pituitary magnetic resonance imaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutant, R; Rouleau, S; Despert, F; Magontier, N; Loisel, D; Limal, J M

    2001-10-01

    We analyzed the final height of 146 short children with either nonacquired GH deficiency or idiopathic short stature. Our purpose was 1) to assess growth according to the pituitary magnetic resonance imaging findings in the 63 GH-treated children with GH deficiency and 2) to compare the growth of the GH-deficient patients with normal magnetic resonance imaging (n = 48) to that of 32 treated and 51 untreated children with idiopathic short stature (GH peak to provocative tests >10 microg/liter). The mean GH dose was 0.44 IU/kg.wk (0.15 mg/kg.wk), given for a mean duration of 4.6 yr. Among the GH-deficient children, 15 had hypothalamic-pituitary abnormalities (stalk agenesis), all with total GH deficiency (GH peak imaging, had better catch-up growth (+2.7 +/- 0.9 vs. +1.3 +/- 0.8 SD score; P imaging, there was no difference in catch-up growth and final height between partial and total GH deficiencies. GH-deficient subjects with normal magnetic resonance imaging and treated and untreated patients with idiopathic short stature had comparable auxological characteristics, age at evaluation, and target height. Although they had different catch-up growth (+1.3 +/- 0.8, +0.9 +/- 0.6, and +0.7 +/- 0.9 SD score, respectively; P imaging findings show the heterogeneity within the group of nonacquired GH deficiency and help to predict the response to GH treatment in these patients. The similarities in growth between the GH-deficient children with normal magnetic resonance imaging and those with idiopathic short stature suggest that the short stature in the former subjects is at least partly due to factors other than GH deficiency.

  7. The influence of silvicultural practices on genetic improvement: height growth and weevil resistance in eastern white pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Thomas Ledig; D.M. Smith

    1981-01-01

    When grown in a common environment, the progeny of white pine (Pinus strobus L.) from weeviled stands improved by selection thinning outperformed the progeny of wolfy dominants from untreated stands in both height and weevil resistance. Within families, weevils tended to attack the tallest trees. Among families the relationship was not as strong and...

  8. [Final height in symptomatic boys with late-onset adrenal hyperplasia (LOCAH), treated with glucocorticoids. Clinical cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Titania; Alonso, Guillermo; Fernández, Cecilia; Buzzalino, Noemí; Dain, Liliana

    2013-04-01

    Although corticoid replacement is recommended for those late-onset adrenal hyperplasia with clinical manifestations, asymptomatic patients do not need treatment. We describe clinical features at diagnosis, treatment, and growth till adult- height, in 4 boys. At diagnosis, age ranged from 9.2-11.6 years. The initial symptoms/signs were: precocious pubarche (n = 2), accelerated bone age (n = 1) and precocious puberty (n = 1). All of them presented elevated 17 hydroxyprogesterone levels and were compound heterozygotes carrying p.V281L mutation. Since, at diagnosis, bone age was significantly advanced for chronological age (13.1 ± 0.5 vs. 10.2 ± 1.1 p = 0.008), hydrocortisone therapy was initiated. During follow-up, mean height Z score decreased 1.4 ± 0.4 SDS (p = 0.007), though adult mean height was not different from target height (-0.39 ± 0.7 vs. -0.04 ± 0.5 SDS, p = 0.054). In conclusion, in 4 symptomatic patients, accurate treatment of late-onset adrenal hyperplasia led to an adult mean height not different from target height. Advanced bone age at diagnosis and the loss of height during pubertal development suggest the need of therapy.

  9. The effects of oxcarbazepine and valproate therapies on growth in children with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansu, Ali; Yesilkaya, Ediz; Serdaroglu, Ayse; Camurdan, Orhun; Hirfanoglu, Tugba Luleci; Karaoglu, Abdulbaki; Bideci, Aysun; Cinaz, Peyami

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of monotherapy with valproate or oxcarbazepine on the linear growth of children with idiopathic epilepsy. Antiepileptic treatment with valproate or oxcarbazepine was initiated in 76 patients. These were evaluated at baseline and at 6 and 18 months after commencement of therapy to determine height standard deviations (height z-scores). Serum ghrelin, insulin-like growth factor-1, and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 levels were measured. In prepubertal patients receiving oxcarbazepine, height z-scores were elevated after 6 and 18 months of therapy (p = 0.008 and p = 0.001, respectively); in pubertal patients, a significant increase was noted at the 18th month of therapy (p = 0.004). In prepubertal patients receiving oxcarbazepine, serum standardized insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 levels were significantly higher at the 18th month of therapy compared with baseline (p = 0.005 and p = 0.004, respectively). In puber-tal patients receiving valproate, serum ghrelin levels were significantly decreased at the 18th month of therapy compared with baseline (p = 0.006). Exposure to oxcarbazepine stimulated linear growth in epileptic patients through mechanisms involving the release of insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3. In contrast, expo-sure to valproate did not affect linear growth, but did lead to a decrease in serum ghrelin levels.

  10. Low-mineral direct drinking water in school may retard height growth and increase dental caries in schoolchildren in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yujing; Wang, Jia; Tan, Yao; Wang, Lingqiao; Lin, Hui; Lan, Lan; Xiong, Yu; Huang, Wei; Shu, Weiqun

    2018-03-16

    Although direct drinking water (DDW) systems that utilize a reverse-osmosis technique are thought to be harmful to children's development by reducing their daily mineral intake, few population data are available regarding this topic. We conducted an eco-epidemiological study to investigate the influence of low-mineral DDW on the development of schoolchildren. We collected developmental parameters of 13,723 girls and 16,161 boys before and after the introduction of DDW systems in 25 schools and measured the mineral levels in the DDW of each school. The DDW in 22 schools had lower-than-recommended levels of magnesium and calcium (magnesium, 10 mg/L and calcium, 20 mg/L, WHO). We found that children exposed to low-mineral DDW exhibited reduced height and diminished height increases as well as higher prevalences and incidences of hypoevolutism and dental caries (p water. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. No influence of parental origin of intact X chromosome and/or Y chromosome sequences on three-year height response to growth hormone therapy in Turner syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Jin Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available PurposeWhether parental origin of the intact X chromosome and/or the presence of Y chromosome sequences (Yseq play a role in three-year height response to growth hormone (GH were investigated.MethodsPaternal (Xp or maternal (Xm origin of X chromosome was assessed by microsatellite marker analysis and the presence of hidden Yseq was analyzed. The first-, second-, and third-year GH response was measured as a change in height z-score (Z_Ht in Turner syndrome (TS patients with 45,Xp (n=10, 45,Xm (n=15, and 45,X/46,X,+mar(Y (Xm_Yseq (n=8.ResultsThe mean baseline Z_Ht did not differ according to Xp or Xm origin, however the mean baseline Z_Ht was higher in the Xm_Yseq group than in Xm group, after adjusting for bone age delay and midparental Z_Ht (P=0.04. There was no difference in the height response to GH between the 3 groups. The height response to GH decreased progressively each year (P<0.001, such that the third-year increase in Z_Ht was not significant. This third-year decrease in treatment response was unaffected by Xp, Xm, and Xm_Yseq groups. Increasing GH dosage from the second to third-year of treatment positively correlated with the increase in Z_Ht (P=0.017.ConclusionThere was no evidence of X-linked imprinted genes and/or Yseq affecting height response to 3 years of GH therapy. Increasing GH dosages may help attenuate the decrease in third-year GH response in TS patients with 45,X and/or 46,X/+mar(Y.

  12. Height growth in children with asthma treated with guideline-recommended dosages of fluticasone and electronically assessed adherence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardenier, Nele R. A.; Klok, Ted; de Groot, Eric P.; Brand, Paulus

    Background and aims Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) reduce growth during the first year of treatment, but this growth suppressing effect does not continue during further treatment. Decreasing adherence may play a role in explaining this. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between

  13. Pubertal development timing in urban Chinese boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, H-M; Chen, S-K; Chen, R-M; Zhu, C; Xiong, F; Li, T; Wang, W; Liu, G-L; Luo, X-P; Liu, L; Du, M-L

    2011-10-01

    We describe current pubertal development in healthy urban Chinese boys. A cross-sectional study of the pubertal development of 18,807 urban Chinese boys aged from 3.50 to 18.49years was conducted between 2003 and 2005. Testicular volume was evaluated with a Prader orchidometer. Pubic hair development was assessed according to the Tanner method. Data on spermarche were collected using the status quo method. Probit analysis was used to calculate the median age and 95% CI at different stages of testicular development, pubic hair development and spermarche. By age 9, 12.99% of the boys had a testicular volume of 4mL or greater. The median age of onset of puberty defined as the age at attainment of testicular volume of 4mL or greater was 10.55 (95% CI 10.27-10.79) years. The median age for onset of pubic hair development (PH(2) ) and spermarche was 12.78 (95%CI 12.67-12.89) years and 14.05 (95%CI 13.80-14.32) years, respectively. Pubertal onset in urban Chinese boys is earlier than currently used clinical norms but their pubic hair development occurs relatively late in comparison with the reported data from numerous other countries. There is also evidence of a secular trend towards an earlier age of spermarche since 1979 in Chinese urban boys. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Andrology © 2011 European Academy of Andrology.

  14. Wuthering Heights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronte, Emily

    2005-01-01

    Wuthering Heights tells the story of a romance between two youngsters: Catherine Earnshaw and an orphan boy, Heathcliff. After she rejects him for a boy from a better background he develops a lust for revenge that takes over his life. In attempting to win her back and destroy those he blames for his

  15. Validity of self-assessment of pubertal maturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anna; Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Tefre de Renzy-Martin, Katrine

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Studies of adolescents often use self-assessment of pubertal maturation, the reliability of which has shown conflicting results. We aimed to examine the reliability of child and parent assessments of healthy boys and girls. METHODS: A total of 898 children (418 girls, 480...... overestimated older than their peers who made correct assessments. Girls and their parents tended to underestimate, whereas boys overestimated their pubertal stage. CONCLUSIONS: Pubertal assessment by the child or the parents is not a reliable measure of exact pubertal staging and should be augmented...

  16. New loci associated with birth weight identify genetic links between intrauterine growth and adult height and metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horikoshi, Momoko; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O

    2013-01-01

    -wide significance to 7, accounting for a similar proportion of variance as maternal smoking. Five of the loci are known to be associated with other phenotypes: ADCY5 and CDKAL1 with type 2 diabetes, ADRB1 with adult blood pressure and HMGA2 and LCORL with adult height. Our findings highlight genetic links between...... diabetes and a second variant, near CCNL1, with no obvious link to adult traits. In an expanded genome-wide association meta-analysis and follow-up study of birth weight (of up to 69,308 individuals of European descent from 43 studies), we have now extended the number of loci associated at genome......Birth weight within the normal range is associated with a variety of adult-onset diseases, but the mechanisms behind these associations are poorly understood. Previous genome-wide association studies of birth weight identified a variant in the ADCY5 gene associated both with birth weight and type 2...

  17. Crescimento do capim-tifton 85 sob doses de nitrogênio e alturas de corte Growth analysis of Tifton 85 bermudagrass under nitrogen fertilization and plant height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odilon Gomes Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar os índices de crescimento do capim-tifton 85 adubado com quatro doses de nitrogênio (0, 33, 66, 100, e 133 kg/ha de N e colhido em três alturas da planta (30, 40 e 50 cm. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado em esquema de parcelas subdivididas com três repetições. As doses de nitrogênio corresponderam às parcelas e as alturas na data de corte, às subparcelas. Para todas as variáveis analisadas, a interação dose de N × altura da planta não foi significativa. A taxa assimilatória líquida e a taxa de crescimento relativo do capim-tifton 85 aumentaram com as doses de nitrogênio. A razão de área foliar (RAF decresceu linearmente com a altura de corte das plantas, mas aumentou, também de forma linear, com a dose de nitrogênio. De modo linear, a razão de peso foliar decresceu com a altura de corte da planta forrageira e aumentou com a dose de nitrogênio. A área foliar específica do capim-tifton 85 foi influenciada de forma linear e positiva apenas pela adubação nitrogenada. O índice de área foliar (IAF do capim-tifton 85 aumentou cerca de 0,05 unidade a cada centímetro de incremento na altura de corte das plantas. Houve resposta quadrática da dose de nitrogênio no IAF do capim-tifton 85. O acréscimo na altura do capim-tifton 85 na época do corte reduz a participação de lâmina foliar na forragem. A adubação nitrogenada aumenta a taxa de crescimento do capim-tifton 85, portanto, para assegurar colheita eficiente da forragem, ao aumentar a dose de nitrogênio, é necessário reduzir o intervalo de colheita.The objective this study was to evaluate the growth rates of Tifton 85 bermudagrass under four nitrogen levels (0, 33, 66, 100, and 133 kg/ha N and harvested at three plant heights (30, 40 and 50 cm. The experimental design was completely randomized in a split plot scheme with three replications. Nitrogen rates were set in the plots and plants heights in the

  18. Coming of age in Roman Britain: Osteological evidence for pubertal timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Nichola A; Gowland, Rebecca L; Redfern, Rebecca C

    2016-04-01

    Puberty is a key transitional phase of the human life course, with important biological and social connotations. Novel methods for the identification of the pubertal growth spurt and menarche in skeletal remains have recently been proposed (Shapland and Lewis, 2013, 2014). In this study we applied the methods to two Romano-British cemetery samples (1st-early 5th centuries AD) in order to investigate the timing of puberty during this period and further assess the veracity of the methods. Shapland and Lewis' methods (2013, 2014) were applied to 38 adolescents (aged 8-20 years) from the British cemetery sites of Roman London (1st-early 5th centuries AD) and Queenford Farm, Oxfordshire (4th-early 5th centuries AD). Overall, the Romano-British males and females experienced the onset of puberty at similar ages to modern European adolescents, but subsequently experienced a longer period of pubertal development. Menarche occurred between the ages of 15 and 17 years for these Romano-British females, around 2 to 4 years later than for present-day European females. The observed Romano-British pattern of pubertal timing has various possible explanations, including exposure to environmental stressors in early urban environments. The pattern of pubertal timing is largely congruent with social age transitions alluded to in ancient texts and funerary evidence for this period. While there are limitations to the application of these techniques to archaeological samples, they were successfully applied in this study, and may have important implications for understandings of past life courses, as well as providing a long-term perspective on pubertal timing and biocultural interactions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Peer Exclusion During the Pubertal Transition: The Role of Social Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Rona; Halawah, Amira; Trinh, Sarah L

    2018-01-01

    For some youth, early puberty is accompanied by peer exclusion. Yet early developers may experience less peer exclusion if they have social competence, which would bolster their ability to develop and maintain positive relationships with their peers. Accordingly, the present study tests whether pubertal timing and tempo predicts decrements in children's social competence and whether decrements in social competence account for associations between puberty (timing and tempo) and peer exclusion over time. Longitudinal data were drawn from 1364 families (48% female; 76% White; M = 9.32 years, SD = .48, at Wave 3) who participated in Waves 3-5 (i.e., grades 4-6) of Phase III of the NICHD-SECCYD. The results from latent growth curve models indicated that earlier pubertal timing and more rapid pubertal tempo among girls were associated with high initial levels of peer exclusion. Moreover, mediation analyses revealed that early developers' susceptibility to peer exclusion was associated with their initial level of social competence. In boys, pubertal timing and tempo were not directly associated with peer exclusion; instead, indirect effects of pubertal timing on peer exclusion (intercept, slope) occurred through initial levels of social competence. On average, early developers' who had low levels of social competence also had high initial levels of peer exclusion but experienced decrements in peer exclusion over time. The association between the intercepts for puberty and peer exclusion and the slopes for social competence and peer exclusion were stronger for boys than girls. Overall, our findings suggest that early developers' susceptibility to and experiences of peer exclusion are associated with their development of social competence.

  20. Height-growth response to climatic changes differs among populations of Douglas-fir: A novel analysis of historic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura P. Leites; Andrew P. Robinson; Gerald E. Rehfeldt; John D. Marshall; Nicholas L. Crookston

    2012-01-01

    Projected climate change will affect existing forests, as substantial changes are predicted to occur during their life spans. Species that have ample intraspecific genetic differentiation, such as Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), are expected to display population-specific growth responses to climate change. Using a mixed-effects modeling approach,...

  1. Evidence of seasonal variation in longitudinal growth of height in a sample of boys from Stuttgart Carlsschule, 1771-1793, using combined principal component analysis and maximum likelihood principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, A; Scheffler, Ch; Hermanussen, M

    2010-02-01

    Recent progress in modelling individual growth has been achieved by combining the principal component analysis and the maximum likelihood principle. This combination models growth even in incomplete sets of data and in data obtained at irregular intervals. We re-analysed late 18th century longitudinal growth of German boys from the boarding school Carlsschule in Stuttgart. The boys, aged 6-23 years, were measured at irregular 3-12 monthly intervals during the period 1771-1793. At the age of 18 years, mean height was 1652 mm, but height variation was large. The shortest boy reached 1474 mm, the tallest 1826 mm. Measured height closely paralleled modelled height, with mean difference of 4 mm, SD 7 mm. Seasonal height variation was found. Low growth rates occurred in spring and high growth rates in summer and autumn. The present study demonstrates that combining the principal component analysis and the maximum likelihood principle enables growth modelling in historic height data also. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Crescimento em altura do pau-ferro (Astronium balansae em reflorestamento Height growth of pau-ferro (Astroniumn balansae in a plantation forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto Guimarães Finger

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado, através da técnica de análise de tronco, o crescimento em altura do pau-ferro (Astronium balansae, em reflorestamento com doze anos de idade, no município de São Sepé - RS, permitindo quantificar e descrever o crescimento cumulativo e em forma de taxas anuais médias e correntes em função da idade. Os dados de uma árvore do estrato dominante e uma do estrato dominado foram modelados através do procedimento "Stepwise" de regressão, sendo obtidas equações de alta precisão e ajuste para descrever o crescimento, o incremento médio e corrente anual da espécie. No período de tempo coberto pelos dados, o culmínio do incremento corrente em altura ocorreu aos seis anos e do incremento médio entre o oitavo e nono ano. na árvore dominante, não devendo entretanto, esta constatação ser tomada como definitiva antes da medição do crescimento em árvores mais velhas, o que permitirá verificar ou não a continuidade da queda das taxas de incremento. Não foi possível determinar as idades de culmínio do incrementos na árvore dominada.The growth in height of Astronium balansae, in a twelve years old plantation stand, in the county of São Sepé-RS, was evaluated by a trunk analyses, allowing to quantify and describe lhe cumulative growth and the average annual and the current rates as a function of the tree age. The data from one dominant tree and from one dominated were modeled by a stepwise regression procedure. High precision equations were fitted to describe the height growth of the specie. During the time period observed, culminating of the current increment in height happened at six years and the respective average increment between the eighty and ninety years age, in the dominant tree. However. this observation should not be taken as final; only after determinatios in older trees are made, which will verify or not the decline in the growth rates. It was no possible to determine the ages at which the incremements

  3. Pubertal development in The Netherlands 1965-1997

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Mul (Dick); A.M. Fredriks; S. van Buuren (Stef); W. Oostdijk (Wilma); S.P. Verloove-Vanhorick; J.M. Wit (Jan)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractWe investigated pubertal development of 4019 boys and 3562 girls >8 y of age participating in a cross-sectional survey in The Netherlands and compared the results with those of two previous surveys. Reference curves for all pubertal stages were constructed. The 50th

  4. Reproductive ability of pubertal male and female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Zemunik

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Ten Fisher rats 50 to 55 days of age made up the pubertal group, and ten rats 90 to 95 days of age served as the controls. The testicular and epididymal weights and volumes of the pubertal males were lower than those of the controls (P0.05. At the beginning of gestation, the pubertal dams weighed less than the controls (P<0.001 but following uterectomy the body weights were equal. Pubertal dams delivered fewer pups than the controls (8.1 ± 2.5 vs 10.4 ± 1.3, P<0.05. There was no difference in the body weights of their offspring or in the weights of their placentas. The results suggest that, in contrast to their female counterparts, pubertal male rats are not fully mature and have not reached complete reproductive capacity at 50-55 days of age.

  5. Candidate gene expression in Bos indicus ovarian tissues: pre-pubertal and post-pubertal heifers in diestrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Morena Del Cambre Amaral Weller

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Growth factors such as bone morphogenetic proteins 6, 7, 15 and two isoforms of transforming growth factor-beta (BMP6, BMP7, BMP15, TGFB1 and TGFB2 and insulin-like growth factor system act as local regulators of ovarian follicular development. To elucidate if these factors as well as others candidate genes such as estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1, growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9, follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR, luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR, bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type 2 (BMPR2, type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR1, and key steroidogenic enzymes cytochrome P450 aromatase and 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (CYP19A1 and HSD3B1 could modulate or influence diestrus on the onset of puberty in Brahman heifers, their ovarian mRNA expression was measured before and after puberty (luteal phase. Six post-pubertal (POST heifers were euthanized on the luteal phase of their second cycle, confirmed by corpus luteum observation, and six pre-pubertal (PRE heifers were euthanized in the same day. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression of FSHR, BMP7, CYP19A1, IGF1 and IGFR1 mRNA was greater in PRE heifers, when contrasted to POST heifers. The expression of LHR and HSD3B1 was lower in PRE heifers. Differential expression of ovarian genes could be associated with changes in follicular dynamics and different cell populations that have emerged as consequence of puberty and the luteal phase. The emerging hypothesis is that BMP7 and IGF1 are co-expressed and may modulate the expression of FSHR, LHR and IGFR1 and CYP19A1. BMP7 could influence the down-regulation of LHR and up-regulation of FSHR and CYP19A1, which mediates the follicular dynamics in heifer ovaries. Up-regulation of IGF1 expression pre-puberty, compared to post-puberty diestrus, correlates with increased levels FSHR and CYP19A1. Thus, BMP7 and IGF1 may play synergic roles and were predicted to interact, from the expression data (P = 0

  6. Growth curves for Laron syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laron, Z; Lilos, P; Klinger, B

    1993-01-01

    Growth curves for children with Laron syndrome were constructed on the basis of repeated measurements made throughout infancy, childhood, and puberty in 24 (10 boys, 14 girls) of the 41 patients with this syndrome investigated in our clinic. Growth retardation was already noted at birth, the birth length ranging from 42 to 46 cm in the 12/20 available measurements. The postnatal growth curves deviated sharply from the normal from infancy on. Both sexes showed no clear pubertal spurt. Girls completed their growth between the age of 16-19 years to a final mean (SD) height of 119 (8.5) cm whereas the boys continued growing beyond the age of 20 years, achieving a final height of 124 (8.5) cm. At all ages the upper to lower body segment ratio was more than 2 SD above the normal mean. These growth curves constitute a model not only for primary, hereditary insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) deficiency (Laron syndrome) but also for untreated secondary IGF-I deficiencies such as growth hormone gene deletion and idiopathic congenital isolated growth hormone deficiency. They should also be useful in the follow up of children with Laron syndrome treated with biosynthetic recombinant IGF-I. PMID:8333769

  7. Kidney transplantation fails to provide adequate growth in children with chronic kidney disease born small for gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Doris; Steffens, Rena; Thomas, Lena; Pavičić, Leo; Ahlenstiel, Thurid; Pape, Lars; Gellermann, Jutta; Müller, Dominik; Querfeld, Uwe; Haffner, Dieter; Živičnjak, Miroslav

    2017-03-01

    Children with chronic kidney disease are frequently born small for gestational age (SGA) and prone to disproportionately short stature. It is unclear how SGA affects growth after kidney transplantation (KTx). Linear growth (height, sitting height, and leg length) was prospectively investigated in a cohort of 322 pediatric KTx recipients, with a mean follow-up of 4.9 years. Sitting height index (ratio of sitting height to total body height) was used to assess body proportions. Predictors of growth outcome in KTx patients with (n = 94) and without (n = 228) an SGA history were evaluated by the use of linear mixed-effects models. Mean z-scores for all linear body dimensions were lower in SGA compared with non-SGA patients (p deficit and degree of body disproportion (p growth during childhood. Pubertal trunk growth was diminished in SGA patients, and the pubertal growth spurt of legs was delayed in both groups, resulting in further impairment of adult height, which was more frequently reduced in SGA than in non-SGA patients (50 % vs 18 %, p growth hormone treatment in the pre-transplant period, preemptive KTx, transplant function, and control of metabolic acidosis were the only potentially modifiable correlates of post-transplant growth in SGA groups. By contrast, living related KTx, steroid exposure, and degree of anemia proved to be correlates in non-SGA only. In children born SGA, growth outcome after KTx is significantly more impaired and affected by different clinical parameters compared with non-SGA patients.

  8. Agreement between measured height, and height predicted from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lower limb measurements, such as knee height, as well as upper limb measures ... had with bone injuries/fractures affecting height or ulna length; and n = 1 had a ... and heels, buttocks and upper back in contact with the vertical surface of the .... found striking similarity in linear growth of infants to five-year- olds among all ...

  9. Role of intensive training in the growth and maturation of artistic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malina, Robert M; Baxter-Jones, Adam D G; Armstrong, Neil; Beunen, Gaston P; Caine, Dennis; Daly, Robin M; Lewis, Richard D; Rogol, Alan D; Russell, Keith

    2013-09-01

    Short stature and later maturation of youth artistic gymnasts are often attributed to the effects of intensive training from a young age. Given limitations of available data, inadequate specification of training, failure to consider other factors affecting growth and maturation, and failure to address epidemiological criteria for causality, it has not been possible thus far to establish cause-effect relationships between training and the growth and maturation of young artistic gymnasts. In response to this ongoing debate, the Scientific Commission of the International Gymnastics Federation (FIG) convened a committee to review the current literature and address four questions: (1) Is there a negative effect of training on attained adult stature? (2) Is there a negative effect of training on growth of body segments? (3) Does training attenuate pubertal growth and maturation, specifically, the rate of growth and/or the timing and tempo of maturation? (4) Does training negatively influence the endocrine system, specifically hormones related to growth and pubertal maturation? The basic information for the review was derived from the active involvement of committee members in research on normal variation and clinical aspects of growth and maturation, and on the growth and maturation of artistic gymnasts and other youth athletes. The committee was thus thoroughly familiar with the literature on growth and maturation in general and of gymnasts and young athletes. Relevant data were more available for females than males. Youth who persisted in the sport were a highly select sample, who tended to be shorter for chronological age but who had appropriate weight-for-height. Data for secondary sex characteristics, skeletal age and age at peak height velocity indicated later maturation, but the maturity status of gymnasts overlapped the normal range of variability observed in the general population. Gymnasts as a group demonstrated a pattern of growth and maturation similar to

  10. Avaliação da correlação entre os estágios de mineralização dos dentes inferiores e a idade esquelética observados sob o gráfico de crescimento puberal Correlationship between the stages of tooth mineralization on the lower arch and the skeletal age expressed through the chart of pubertal growth spurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Eto

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A radiografia de mão e punho é utilizada em Ortodontia para avaliação dos estágios de maturação dos pacientes e, conseqüentemente, dos estágios do crescimento facial e da estatura. Esta radiografia permite a identificação da idade esquelética do paciente podendo ser correlacionada ao gráfico do surto de crescimento puberal. Já a radiografia panorâmica permite uma avaliação geral da condição de desenvolvimento dos dentes. Intencionou-se com esse trabalho avaliar a possibilidade de correlação entre os estágios de mineralização dos dentes inferiores com a idade esquelética vista pelo gráfico do surto de crescimento puberal, em ambos os gêneros. Um total de 190 radiografias de mão e punho, acompanhadas de radiografias panorâmicas, obtidas em uma mesma época, de 104 jovens do gênero masculino e 86 do feminino foram analisadas. Após a comparação dos resultados, concluiu-se que não existe a possibilidade de correlação consistente entre os estágios de mineralização dentária na arcada inferior e a idade esquelética vista através do gráfico do SCP.X-rays of the hand and the wrist are largely used in orthodontics to provide orientation regarding both body and face growth during one's growing years. Through these x-rays it is possible to obtain the skeletal age of the patients, which can thereafter be expressed through the chart of pubertal growth spurt. Panoramic x-rays are a routine procedure in orthodontics, and its main purpose is the panoramic evaluation of the teeth that have already broken out, and those which have not. The aim of this paper was to correlate the dental mineralization stages of lower teeth and skeletal age as seen through the pubertal growth spurt, by comparing both types of x-rays. Data consisted of 190 panoramic x-rays and 190 x-rays of the hand and wrist, taken of 104 male patients and 86 female ones. The results show that there is no possibility of a consistent correlation between the

  11. Effects of soil type and light on height growth, biomass partitioning, and nitrogen dynamics on 22 species of tropical dry forest tree seedlings: Comparisons between legumes and nonlegumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Martin, Christina M; Gei, Maria G; Bergstrom, Ellie; Becklund, Kristen K; Becknell, Justin M; Waring, Bonnie G; Werden, Leland K; Powers, Jennifer S

    2017-03-01

    The seedling stage is particularly vulnerable to resource limitation, with potential consequences for community composition. We investigated how light and soil variation affected early growth, biomass partitioning, morphology, and physiology of 22 tree species common in tropical dry forest, including eight legumes. Our hypothesis was that legume seedlings are better at taking advantage of increased resource availability, which contributes to their successful regeneration in tropical dry forests. We grew seedlings in a full-factorial design under two light levels in two soil types that differed in nutrient concentrations and soil moisture. We measured height biweekly and, at final harvest, biomass partitioning, internode segments, leaf carbon, nitrogen, δ 13 C, and δ 15 N. Legumes initially grew taller and maintained that height advantage over time under all experimental conditions. Legumes also had the highest final total biomass and water-use efficiency in the high-light and high-resource soil. For nitrogen-fixing legumes, the amount of nitrogen derived from fixation was highest in the richer soil. Although seed mass tended to be larger in legumes, seed size alone did not account for all the differences between legumes and nonlegumes. Both belowground and aboveground resources were limiting to early seedling growth and function. Legumes may have a different regeneration niche, in that they germinate rapidly and grow taller than other species immediately after germination, maximizing their performance when light and belowground resources are readily available, and potentially permitting them to take advantage of high light, nutrient, and water availability at the beginning of the wet season. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  12. Pubertal timing and adolescent sexual behavior in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sarah R; Harden, K Paige; Mendle, Jane

    2014-06-01

    Girls who experience earlier pubertal timing relative to peers also exhibit earlier timing of sexual intercourse and more unstable sexual relationships. Although pubertal development initiates feelings of physical desire, the transition into romantic and sexual relationships involves complex biological and social processes contributing both to physical maturation and to individual interpretations of pubertal experiences. Using a sample of female sibling pairs (n = 923 pairs) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the present study investigated associations among menarche and perceived pubertal timing, age of first sexual intercourse (AFI), and adolescent dating and sexual behavior using a behavioral genetic approach. Genetic factors influencing age at menarche and perceived pubertal timing predicted AFI through shared genetic pathways, whereas genetic factors related only to perceived pubertal timing predicted engagement in dating, romantic sex, and nonromantic sex in the previous 18 months. These results suggest that a girl's interpretation of her pubertal timing beyond objective timing is important to consider for the timing and the contexts of romantic and reproductive behavior. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Influence of The -202 A/C insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 promoter polymorphism on individual variation in height in Korean girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Ju Yi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available PurposeThe most common single nucleotide polymorphism in the IGFBP3 promoter region occurs at position -202. This polymorphic variation occurs frequently and may influence growth hormone responsiveness and somatic growth. However, the effects of IGFBP3 promoter polymorphism on growth in children are unknown.MethodsRestriction fragment length polymorphism-based genotyping of the -202 single nucleotide polymorphism was performed in 146 Korean girls aged between 15 and 16 years, who were selected randomly from the Seoul School Health Promotion Center. The participants were divided into 3 groups (tall, medium, and short according to the height percentile established from normal reference values for Korean children. The serum levels of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3 were then compared according to genotype.ResultsThe genotype distribution in the participants was 79 AA (54.1%, 60 AC (41.1%, and 7 CC (4.8%. The C allele frequency at the -202 IGFBP3 position was 25.4% in this group. The mean serum IGFBP-3 concentration in girls with the AA genotype was higher than that in girls with the AC genotype in the medium (P=0.047 and short (P=0.035 groups, respectively. There was no difference in the IGF-I to IGFBP-3 molar ratio between the AA and AC genotype groups (P=0.161.ConclusionIn conclusion, the -202 polymorphism in the IGFBP3 promoter region is assumed to affect the serum concentration of IGFBP-3 in children as well as in adults. However, it is unclear whether this affects physical development according to the concentration of IGFBP-3.

  14. Growth profiles of 34 patients with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimojima, Keiko; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki

    2012-03-01

    Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) encompasses multiple congenital anomalies and mental retardation and is caused by partial deletions in the short arm of chromosome 4. Prenatal-onset growth deficiency is one of the WHS characteristics. Assessing and recording growth profiles of patients with WHS were the aims of this study. Anonymous questionnaire surveys were conducted with cooperation of a WHS peer-support group in Japan, and data from 34 WHS patients (12 males and 22 females; age, 1-23 years) were retrospectively collected. Height, weight, and head circumference (occipitofrontal head circumference) were measured and plotted on the standard growth charts of healthy Japanese children. Results indicated that most WHS patients showed growth retardation under the 3rd percentile since the first year of life and extremely poor body-weight gain after pubertal age. These findings are characteristic of WHS patients. The assessed growth patterns in this study could help monitoring and documentation of growth of WHS patients.

  15. Pubertal development and prostate cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonilla, Carolina; Lewis, Sarah J; Martin, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    , 0.91-1.00) and prostate cancer-specific mortality (hazard ratio amongst cases, per tertile: 0.94; 95 % CI, 0.90-0.98), but not with disease grade. CONCLUSIONS: Older age at sexual maturation is causally linked to a reduced risk of later prostate cancer, especially aggressive disease.......BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have observed a positive association between an earlier age at sexual development and prostate cancer, but markers of sexual maturation in boys are imprecise and observational estimates are likely to suffer from a degree of uncontrolled confounding. To obtain...... to a difference of one Tanner stage between pubertal boys of the same age) was associated with a 77 % (95 % CI, 43-91 %) reduced odds of high Gleason prostate cancer. In PRACTICAL, the puberty genetic score was associated with prostate cancer stage (OR of advanced vs. localized cancer, per tertile: 0.95; 95 % CI...

  16. Mutational Analysis of TAC3 and TACR3 Genes in Patients with Idiopathic Central Pubertal Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tusset, Cintia; Noel, Sekoni D.; Trarbach, Ericka B.; Silveira, Letícia F. G.; Jorge, Alexander A. L.; Brito, Vinicius N.; Cukier, Priscila; Seminara, Stephanie B.; de Mendonça, Berenice B.; Kaiser, Ursula B.; Latronico, Ana Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Aim To investigate the presence of variants in the TAC3 and TACR3 genes, which encode NKB and its receptor (NK3R), respectively, in a large cohort of patients with idiopathic central pubertal disorders. Patients and Methods Two hundred and thirty seven patients were studied: 114 with central precocious puberty (CPP), 73 with normosmic isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) and 50 with constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP). The control group consisted of 150 Brazilian individuals with normal pubertal development. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood and the entire coding region of both TAC3 and TACR3 genes were amplified and automatically sequenced. Results We identified one variant (p.A63P) in NKB and four variants, p.G18D, p.L58L (c.172C>T), p.W275* and p.A449S in NK3R, which were absent in the control group. The p.A63P variant was identified in a girl with CPP, and p.A449S in a girl with CDGP. The known p.G18D, p.L58L and p.W275* variants were identified in three unrelated males with normosmic IHH. Conclusion Rare variants in the TAC3 and TACR3 genes were identified in patients with central pubertal disorders. Loss-of-function variants of TACR3 were associated with the normosmic IHH phenotype. PMID:23329188

  17. Exciting fear in adolescence: Does pubertal development alter threat processing?

    OpenAIRE

    Spielberg, JM; Olino, TM; Forbes, EE; Dahl, RE

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent development encompasses an ostensible paradox in threat processing. Risk taking increases dramatically after the onset of puberty, contributing to a 200% increase in mortality. Yet, pubertal maturation is associated with increased reactivity in threat-avoidance systems. In the first part of this paper we propose a heuristic model of adolescent affective development that may help to reconcile aspects of this paradox, which focuses on hypothesized pubertal increases in the capacity t...

  18. Recent changes in pubertal timing in healthy Danish boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K; Aksglæde, Lise; Petersen, Jørgen Holm

    2010-01-01

    In the 1990s, the American population-based study NHANES III renewed the focus on possible secular trends in male puberty. However, no conclusions could be made on pubertal onset due to the lack of compatible data.......In the 1990s, the American population-based study NHANES III renewed the focus on possible secular trends in male puberty. However, no conclusions could be made on pubertal onset due to the lack of compatible data....

  19. Growth curves of crossbred cows sired by Hereford, Angus, Belgian Blue, Brahman, Boran, and Tuli bulls, and the fraction of mature body weight and height at puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freetly, H C; Kuehn, L A; Cundiff, L V

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth curves of females to determine if mature size and relative rates of maturation among breeds differed. Body weight and hip height data were fitted to the nonlinear function BW = f(age) = A - Be(k×age), where A is an estimate of mature BW and k determines the rate that BW or height moves from B to A. Cows represented progeny from 28 Hereford, 38 Angus, 25 Belgian Blue, 34 Brahman, 8 Boran, and 9 Tuli sires. Bulls from these breeds were mated by AI to Angus, Hereford, and MARC III composite (1/4 Angus, 1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Red Poll, and 1/4 Pinzgauer) cows to produce calves in 1992, 1993, and 1994. These matings resulted in 516 mature cows whose growth curves were subsequently evaluated. Hereford-sired cows tended to have heavier mature BW, as estimated by parameter A, than Angus- (P=0.09) and Brahman-sired cows (P=0.06), and were heavier than the other breeds (P Angus-sired cows were heavier than Boran- (P Angus-sired cows did not differ from Brahman-sired cows (P=0.94). Brahman-sired cows had a heavier mature BW than Boran- (P Angus-sired cows matured faster (k) than cows sired by Hereford (P=0.03), Brahman (P Angus-sired cows (P=0.09), and had reached a greater proportion of their mature BW at puberty than had Hereford- (P < 0.001), Tuli- (P < 0.001), and Belgian Blue-sired cows (P < 0.001). Within species of cattle, the relative range in proportion of mature BW at puberty (Bos taurus 0.56 through 0.58, and Bos indicus 0.60) was highly conserved, suggesting that proportion of mature BW is a more robust predictor of age at puberty across breeds than is absolute weight or age. © 2011 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.

  20. Cardiovascular risk factors in pre-pubertal schoolchildren in Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Amílcar B; Capingana, Daniel P; Magalhães, Pedro; Gonçalves, Mauer A; Molina, Maria Del Carmen B; Rodrigues, Sërgio L; Baldo, Marcelo P; Mateus, Miguel S; Mill, Josë Geraldo

    The incidence of obesity is increasing worldwide, especially in countries with accelerated economic growth. We determined the prevalence of and associations between overweight/obesity and cardiovascular risk factors in pre-pubertal (seven- to 11-year-old) schoolchildren (both genders, n = 198) in Luanda, Angola. Biochemical (fasting blood) and clinical examinations were obtained in a single visit. Data are reported as prevalence (95% confidence intervals) and association (r, Pearson). Prevalence of overweight/obesity was 17.7% (12.4- 23.0%), high blood pressure (BP > 90% percentile) was 14.6% (9.7-19.5%), elevated glucose level was 16.7% (11.5-21.9%) and total cholesterol level > 170 mg/dl (4.4 mmol/l) was 69.2% (62.8-75.6%). Significant associations between body mass index (BMI) and systolic and diastolic BP (r = 0.46 and 0.40, respectively; p Angola and fat accumulation was directly associated with blood pressure increase but not with other cardiovascular risk factors.

  1. Rural-urban variations in age at menarche, adult height, leg-length and abdominal adiposity in black South African women in transitioning South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said-Mohamed, Rihlat; Prioreschi, Alessandra; Nyati, Lukhanyo H; van Heerden, Alastair; Munthali, Richard J; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M; Gómez-Olivé, Francesc Xavier; Houle, Brian; Dunger, David B; Norris, Shane A

    2018-03-01

    The pre-pubertal socioeconomic environment may be an important determinant of age at menarche, adult height, body proportions and adiposity: traits closely linked to adolescent and adult health. This study explored differences in age at menarche, adult height, relative leg-length and waist circumference between rural and urban black South African young adult women, who are at different stages of the nutrition and epidemiologic transitions. We compared 18-23 year-old black South African women, 482 urban-dwelling from Soweto and 509 from the rural Mpumalanga province. Age at menarche, obstetric history and household socio-demographic and economic information were recorded using interview-administered questionnaires. Height, sitting-height, hip and waist circumference were measured using standardised techniques. Urban and rural black South African women differed in their age at menarche (at ages 12.7 and 14.5 years, respectively). In urban women, a one-year increase in age at menarche was associated with a 0.65 cm and 0.16% increase in height and relative leg-length ratio, respectively. In both settings, earlier age at menarche and shorter relative leg-length were independently associated with an increase in waist circumference. In black South African women, the earlier onset of puberty, and consequently an earlier growth cessation process, may lead to central fat mass accumulation in adulthood.

  2. Bone age estimation and prediction of final height in patients with β-thalassaemia major: a comparison between the two most common methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christoforidis, Athanasios; Katzos, George; Athanassiou-Metaxa, Miranda; Badouraki, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Thalassaemic patients are in need of frequent assessment of bone age because of growth failure and pubertal disorders. To compare the ''rapid'' Greulich and Pyle (G and P) method with the third edition of the Tanner and Whitehouse (TW3) method for determining skeletal maturity and predicting final height in thalassaemic patients. A total of 191 radiographs from 58 patients (28 male, 30 female) were retrospectively evaluated by two investigators, one for each method. In 47 radiographs from 15 patients having attained their adult height, predicted final height was calculated according to each method. The mean bone ages determined by both the G and P and TW3 methods were lower than mean chronological age, although the differences were not statistically significant (10.04 ± 3.69 years and 9.98 ± 3.39 years vs. 10.78 ± 3.96 years, respectively). Both methods had a tendency to over-estimate final height. Overall, the TW3 method seemed to be more accurate than the G and P method (mean absolute error 3.21 ± 2.51 years vs. 3.99 ± 2.99 years, respectively, P=0.048). The same method should be used when serial assessments are performed, as both methods provide similarly reliable, although not equivalent, results. The TW3 height prediction method seemed to be more accurate in patients with β-thalassaemia major than the G and P method, albeit with a large confidence interval. (orig.)

  3. Rural–urban variations in age at menarche, adult height, leg-length and abdominal adiposity in black South African women in transitioning South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background: The pre-pubertal socioeconomic environment may be an important determinant of age at menarche, adult height, body proportions and adiposity: traits closely linked to adolescent and adult health. Aims: This study explored differences in age at menarche, adult height, relative leg-length and waist circumference between rural and urban black South African young adult women, who are at different stages of the nutrition and epidemiologic transitions. Subjects and methods: We compared 18–23 year-old black South African women, 482 urban-dwelling from Soweto and 509 from the rural Mpumalanga province. Age at menarche, obstetric history and household socio-demographic and economic information were recorded using interview-administered questionnaires. Height, sitting-height, hip and waist circumference were measured using standardised techniques. Results: Urban and rural black South African women differed in their age at menarche (at ages 12.7 and 14.5 years, respectively). In urban women, a one-year increase in age at menarche was associated with a 0.65 cm and 0.16% increase in height and relative leg-length ratio, respectively. In both settings, earlier age at menarche and shorter relative leg-length were independently associated with an increase in waist circumference. Conclusions: In black South African women, the earlier onset of puberty, and consequently an earlier growth cessation process, may lead to central fat mass accumulation in adulthood. PMID:29557678

  4. Bone age estimation and prediction of final height in patients with {beta}-thalassaemia major: a comparison between the two most common methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christoforidis, Athanasios; Katzos, George; Athanassiou-Metaxa, Miranda [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 1st Paediatric Department, Thessaloniki (Greece); Badouraki, Maria [Ippokratio Hospital, Paediatric Radiology Department, Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2007-12-15

    Thalassaemic patients are in need of frequent assessment of bone age because of growth failure and pubertal disorders. To compare the ''rapid'' Greulich and Pyle (G and P) method with the third edition of the Tanner and Whitehouse (TW3) method for determining skeletal maturity and predicting final height in thalassaemic patients. A total of 191 radiographs from 58 patients (28 male, 30 female) were retrospectively evaluated by two investigators, one for each method. In 47 radiographs from 15 patients having attained their adult height, predicted final height was calculated according to each method. The mean bone ages determined by both the G and P and TW3 methods were lower than mean chronological age, although the differences were not statistically significant (10.04 {+-} 3.69 years and 9.98 {+-} 3.39 years vs. 10.78 {+-} 3.96 years, respectively). Both methods had a tendency to over-estimate final height. Overall, the TW3 method seemed to be more accurate than the G and P method (mean absolute error 3.21 {+-} 2.51 years vs. 3.99 {+-} 2.99 years, respectively, P=0.048). The same method should be used when serial assessments are performed, as both methods provide similarly reliable, although not equivalent, results. The TW3 height prediction method seemed to be more accurate in patients with {beta}-thalassaemia major than the G and P method, albeit with a large confidence interval. (orig.)

  5. Genetic variation of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) provenances and families from Oregon and Washington in juvenile height growth and needle color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim Hamlin; Angelia Kegley; Richard Sniezko

    2011-01-01

    A three year common garden study was conducted on whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) which included 215 families from the eight provenances or seed zones in Oregon and Washington. Total height and needle color were assessed. Height differed significantly among provenances and families, and was primarily associated with source elevation, longitude, and precipitation. A...

  6. The influence of chronic conditions and the environment on pubertal development. An example from medieval England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, M E; Shapland, F; Watts, R

    2016-03-01

    Adolescence is a unique period in human development encompassing sexual maturation (puberty) and the physical and psychological transition into adulthood. It is a crucial time for healthy development and any adverse environmental conditions, poor nutrition, or chronic infection can alter the timing of these physical changes; delaying menarche in girls or the age of peak height velocity in boys. This study explores the impact of chronic illness on the tempo of puberty in 607 adolescent skeletons from medieval England (AD 900-1550). A total of 135 (22.2%) adolescents showed some delay in their pubertal development, and this lag increased with age. Of those with a chronic condition, 40.0% (n=24/60) showed delay compared to only 20.3% (n=111/547) of the non-pathology group. This difference was statistically significant. A binary logistic regression model demonstrated a significant association between increasing delay in pubertal stage attainment with age in the pathology group. This is the first time that chronic conditions have been directly associated with a delay in maturation in the osteological record, using a new method to assess stages of puberty in skeletal remains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of low-dose cranial radiation on growth hormone secretory dynamics and hypothalamic-pituitary function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costin, G.

    1988-01-01

    Spontaneous growth hormone (GH) secretory dynamics and hypothalamic-pituitary function were studied in 16 long-term survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia who were aged 9 to 15 1/2 years and had been treated with prophylactic central nervous system radiation and combined chemotherapy. At the time of study, the mean height was -1.5 SD score below the mean, less than genetic potential, and significantly less than the mean pretreatment height of -0.25 SD score. Height velocity was subnormal for age and sexual stage in all patients. Two patients had compensated hypothyroidism, and four had evidence of gonadal failure. In 11 patients, the peak GH level after two provocative tests was below 10 micrograms/L, which was consistent with GH deficiency. In ten of 13 patients tested, spontaneous GH secretion determined by a 24-hour GH concentration (GHC), GH pulse amplitude, frequency of GH pulses greater than or equal to 5 micrograms/L, and GH peak during wake and sleep hours was significantly less than in normal height controls. Although in three pubertal patients the 24-hour GHC was within normal limits, the GHC during sleep hours, GH pulse amplitude during 24 hours and sleep hours, and peak GH during wake hours were significantly less than in normal height controls. In all pubertal and in two of the prepubertal patients, the somatomedin C (SmC) level was significantly less than in controls. The 24-hour GHC correlated well with the GHC during sleep, peak-stimulated GH level, gonadal steroid level, and the SmC level, but not with height velocity, dose of radiation, or age at radiation. A significant increase in height velocity and the SmC level was noted in all patients treated with GH. These results indicate that GH deficiency occurs after 18 to 24 Gy of cranial radiation and that the puberty-associated growth spurt may mask the decline in height velocity owing to GH deficiency

  8. Growth and development in children with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfig, Walter

    2017-02-01

    Final height outcome in classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) has been of interest for many years. With analysis of growth patterns and used glucocorticoid regimens, enhanced treatment strategies have been developed and are still under development. Most of the current reports on final height outcome are confirmative of previous results. Final height data is still reported in cohorts that were diagnosed clinically and not by newborn screening. Clinical diagnosis of CAH leads to delayed diagnosis especially of simple virilizing CAH with significantly advanced bone age resulting in early pubertal development and reduced final height. In contrast salt-wasting CAH is diagnosed at an earlier stage in most cases resulting in better final height outcome in some cohorts. Nevertheless, final height outcome in patients with CAH treated with glucocorticoids is lower than the population norm and also at the lower end of genetic potential. Achievement of regular adult height is still a challenge with conventional glucocorticoid treatment in patients with CAH, which is why new hydrocortisone formulations and new treatment options for CAH are underway.

  9. School performance in pubertal adolescents with dysmenorrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsir Alam

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Dysmenorrhea is a common gynecological symptom reported in adolescent girls. Prevalence of the condition has been reported to be 45 - 75%. Absenteeism from work and school as a result of dysmenorrhea is common (13 - 51% of women have been absent at least once, and 5 - 14% are often absent due to the severity of symptoms. Objective To compare school performance in pubertal adolescent girls with and without dysmenorrhea. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in June 2010 in adolescent females aged 12 - 18 years from the Musthafawiyah School, Mandailing Natal district, North Sumatera. Adolescent females with and without dysmenorrhea were recruited for this study. All participants completed questionnaires including age of menarche, length of menstrual cycle, length of bleeding, number of sanitary napkins used daily and school absences. School reports from two consecutive semesters in one year were used to evaluate subjects’ academic performance. An academic score of higher than 7.5 was considered good performance while scores of less than 7.5 were considered poor. We used the chi-square test to analyze differences in school performance between girls with and without dysmenorrhea. Results One hundred and sixteen participants were divided into 2 groups, those with and without dysmenorrhea, of 58 subjects each. We found no significant difference in school performance between the two groups, P=0.176 (95% CI -0.009 to -0.048 and P=0.08 (95%CI -0.052 to 0.024. Conclusion There was no significant difference in school performance of girls with and without dysmenorrhea.

  10. Growth response and nutrient digestibility of pre- pubertal rabbit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR 'JIDE AMAO

    2012-09-20

    Sep 20, 2012 ... Vitamin E, a chain breaking antioxidant, has .... vitamin B12, 0.25 mg; folic acid, 1.00 mg; chlorine chloride, 300 mg; manganese, 100 mg; iron, 50 mg; zinc, 45 mg; copper, ..... short duration (eight weeks) of exposure of the pre-.

  11. A Longitudinal Study of Growth, Sex Steroids, and IGF-1 in Boys With Physiological Gynecomastia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieritz, Mikkel G; Rakêt, Lars L; Hagen, Casper P; Nielsen, John E; Talman, Maj-Lis M; Petersen, Jørgen H; Sommer, Stefan H; Main, Katharina M; Jørgensen, Niels; Juul, Anders

    2015-10-01

    Physiological gynecomastia is common and affects a large proportion of otherwise healthy adolescent boys. It is thought to be caused by an imbalance between estrogen and testosterone, although this is rarely evident in analyses of serum. This study aimed to describe the frequency of physiological gynecomastia and to determine possible etiological factors (eg, auxology and serum hormone levels) in a longitudinal setup. A prospective cohort study of 106 healthy Danish boys (5.8-16.4 years) participated in the longitudinal part of the COPENHAGEN Puberty Study. The boys were examined every 6 months during an 8-year follow-up. Median number of examinations was 10 (2-15). Blood samples were analyzed for FSH, LH, testosterone, estradiol, SHBG, inhibin B, anti-Müllerian hormone, IGF-1, and IGF binding protein-3 by immunoassays. Auxological parameters, pubertal development, and the presence of gynecomastia were evaluated at each visit. Fifty-two of 106 boys (49%) developed gynecomastia, of which 10 (19%) presented with intermittent gynecomastia. Boys with physiological gynecomastia reached peak height velocity at a significantly younger age than boys who did not develop gynecomastia (13.5 versus 13.9 years, P = .027), and they had significantly higher serum levels of IGF-1 (P = .000), estradiol (P = .013), free testosterone (P Gynecomastia is frequent in pubertal boys. Increased IGF-1 levels and pubertal growth appear to be associated, whereas changes in estrogen to testosterone ratio seem negligible.

  12. Fear of heights and visual height intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Thomas; Huppert, Doreen

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this review is, first, to cover the different aspects of visual height intolerance such as historical descriptions, definition of terms, phenomenology of the condition, neurophysiological control of gaze, stance and locomotion, and therapy, and, second, to identify warranted epidemiological and experimental studies. Vivid descriptions of fear of heights can be found in ancient texts from the Greek, Roman, and Chinese classics. The life-time prevalence of visual height intolerance is as high as 28% in the general population, and about 50% of those who are susceptible report an impact on quality of life. When exposed to heights, visual exploration by eye and head movements is restricted, and the velocity of locomotion is reduced. Therapy for fear of heights is dominated by the behavioral techniques applied during real or virtual reality exposure. Their efficacy might be facilitated by the administration of D-cycloserine or glucocorticoids. Visual height intolerance has a considerable impact on daily life and interpersonal interactions. It is much more frequent than fear of heights, which is defined as an environmental subtype of a specific phobia. There is certainly a continuum stretching from acrophobia to a less-pronounced visual height intolerance, to which the categorical distinction of a specific phobia does not apply.

  13. Serum inhibin B in healthy pubertal and adolescent boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Juul, A; Petersen, J H

    1997-01-01

    Inhibin B levels were measured in serum from 400 healthy Danish prepubertal, pubertal, and adolescent males, aged 6-20 yr, in a cross-sectional study using a recently developed immunoassay that is specific for inhibin B, the physiologically important inhibin form in men. In addition, serum levels...

  14. Exciting fear in adolescence: Does pubertal development alter threat processing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M. Spielberg

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent development encompasses an ostensible paradox in threat processing. Risk taking increases dramatically after the onset of puberty, contributing to a 200% increase in mortality. Yet, pubertal maturation is associated with increased reactivity in threat-avoidance systems. In the first part of this paper we propose a heuristic model of adolescent affective development that may help to reconcile aspects of this paradox, which focuses on hypothesized pubertal increases in the capacity to experience (some fear-evoking experiences as an exciting thrill. In the second part of this paper, we test key features of this model by examining brain activation to threat cues in a longitudinal study that disentangled pubertal and age effects. Pubertal increases in testosterone predicted increased activation to threat cues, not only in regions associated with threat avoidance (i.e., amygdala, but also regions associated with reward pursuit (i.e., nucleus accumbens. These findings are consistent with our hypothesis that puberty is associated with a maturational shift toward more complex processing of threat cues—which may contribute to adolescent tendencies to explore and enjoy some types of risky experiences.

  15. Exciting fear in adolescence: does pubertal development alter threat processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Olino, Thomas M; Forbes, Erika E; Dahl, Ronald E

    2014-04-01

    Adolescent development encompasses an ostensible paradox in threat processing. Risk taking increases dramatically after the onset of puberty, contributing to a 200% increase in mortality. Yet, pubertal maturation is associated with increased reactivity in threat-avoidance systems. In the first part of this paper we propose a heuristic model of adolescent affective development that may help to reconcile aspects of this paradox, which focuses on hypothesized pubertal increases in the capacity to experience (some) fear-evoking experiences as an exciting thrill. In the second part of this paper, we test key features of this model by examining brain activation to threat cues in a longitudinal study that disentangled pubertal and age effects. Pubertal increases in testosterone predicted increased activation to threat cues, not only in regions associated with threat avoidance (i.e., amygdala), but also regions associated with reward pursuit (i.e., nucleus accumbens). These findings are consistent with our hypothesis that puberty is associated with a maturational shift toward more complex processing of threat cues--which may contribute to adolescent tendencies to explore and enjoy some types of risky experiences. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Melatonin and LH secretion patterns in pubertal boys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fevre, M.; Boyar, R.M.; Rollag, M.D.

    1979-01-01

    Plasma melatonin and LH were measured at 20 minute intervals for 24 hours in four normal pubertal boys. All four subjects showed a significant augmentation of LH and melatonin during nocturnal sleep. There was also a significant correlation between the LH and melatonin levels (p [fr

  17. Final height in survivors of childhood cancer compared with Height Standard Deviation Scores at diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knijnenburg, S L; Raemaekers, S; van den Berg, H; van Dijk, I W E M; Lieverst, J A; van der Pal, H J; Jaspers, M W M; Caron, H N; Kremer, L C; van Santen, H M

    2013-04-01

    Our study aimed to evaluate final height in a cohort of Dutch childhood cancer survivors (CCS) and assess possible determinants of final height, including height at diagnosis. We calculated standard deviation scores (SDS) for height at initial cancer diagnosis and height in adulthood in a cohort of 573 CCS. Multivariable regression analyses were carried out to estimate the influence of different determinants on height SDS at follow-up. Overall, survivors had a normal height SDS at cancer diagnosis. However, at follow-up in adulthood, 8.9% had a height ≤-2 SDS. Height SDS at diagnosis was an important determinant for adult height SDS. Children treated with (higher doses of) radiotherapy showed significantly reduced final height SDS. Survivors treated with total body irradiation (TBI) and craniospinal radiation had the greatest loss in height (-1.56 and -1.37 SDS, respectively). Younger age at diagnosis contributed negatively to final height. Height at diagnosis was an important determinant for height SDS at follow-up. Survivors treated with TBI, cranial and craniospinal irradiation should be monitored periodically for adequate linear growth, to enable treatment on time if necessary. For correct interpretation of treatment-related late effects studies in CCS, pre-treatment data should always be included.

  18. A unique case of combined pituitary hormone deficiency caused by a PROP1 gene mutation (R120C) associated with normal height and absent puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Armando; Pernasetti, Flavia; Vasilyev, Vyacheslav V.; Amato, Paula; Yen, Samuel S. C.; Mellon, Pamela L.

    2010-01-01

    Summary We report a 28-year-old-female who presented with primary amenorrhoea, absence of puberty, obesity and normal stature. The subject was clearly short as a child, with a height more than 2 SD below normal until the age of 15 years. The pubertal growth spurt failed to develop. She continued growing at a prepubertal rate until growth ceased at the age of 20 years, reaching her final adult height of 157 cm (SDS −0.86) without hormonal treatment. A combined pituitary hormone stimulation test of anterior pituitary function showed deficiencies of GH, LH and FSH, and low normal serum levels of TSH and PRL. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a hypoplastic pituitary with markedly reduced pituitary height. In addition, a whole body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan showed high levels of body fat (54%). Combined pituitary hormone deficiencies with a hypoplastic pituitary suggested the diagnosis of a Prophet of Pit-1 (PROP1) gene mutation. Normal stature in this case, however, confounded this diagnosis. Sequencing of PROP1 revealed homozygosity for a single base-pair substitution (C to T), resulting in the replacement of an Arg by a Cys at codon 120 (R120C) in the third helix of the homeodomain of the Prop-1 protein. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a patient with a mutation in the PROP1 gene that attained normal height without hormonal treatment, indicating a new variability in the PROP1 phenotype, with important implications for the diagnosis of these patients. We suggest that this can be explained by (i) the presence of low levels of GH in the circulation during childhood and adolescence; (ii) the lack of circulating oestrogen delaying epiphyseal fusion, resulting in growth beyond the period of normal growth; and (iii) fusion of the epiphyseal plates, possibly as a result of circulating oestrogens originating from peripheral conversion of androgens by adipose tissue. PMID:12153609

  19. Whole body BMC in pediatric Crohn disease: independent effects of altered growth, maturation, and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Jon M; Shults, Justine; Semeao, Edisio; Foster, Bethany; Zemel, Babette S; Stallings, Virginia A; Leonard, Mary B

    2004-12-01

    Whole body BMC was assessed in 104 children and young adults with CD and 233 healthy controls. CD was associated with significant deficits in BMC and lean mass, relative to height. Adjustment for lean mass eliminated the bone deficit in CD. Steroid exposure was associated with short stature but not bone deficits relative to height. Children with Crohn disease (CD) have multiple risk factors for impaired bone accrual. The confounding effects of poor growth and delayed maturation limit the interpretation of prior studies of bone health in CD. The objective of this study was to assess BMC relative to growth, body composition, and maturation in CD compared with controls. Whole body BMC and lean mass were assessed by DXA in 104 CD subjects and 233 healthy controls, 4-26 years of age. Multivariable linear regression models were developed to sequentially adjust for differences in skeletal size, pubertal maturation, and muscle mass. BMC-for-height z scores were derived to determine CD-specific covariates associated with bone deficits. Subjects with CD had significantly lower height z score, body mass index z score, and lean mass relative to height compared with controls (all p BMC in CD relative to controls was significantly reduced in males (0.86; 95% CI, 0.83, 0.94) and females (0.91; 95% CI, 0.85, 0.98) with CD. Adjustment for pubertal maturation did not alter the estimate; however, addition of lean mass to the model eliminated the bone deficit. Steroid exposure was associated with short stature but not bone deficits. This study shows the importance of considering differences in body size and composition when interpreting DXA data in children with chronic inflammatory conditions and shows an association between deficits in muscle mass and bone in pediatric CD.

  20. Fall from heights: does height really matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizo, G; Sciarretta, J D; Gibson, S; Muertos, K; Romano, A; Davis, J; Pepe, A

    2018-06-01

    Fall from heights is high energy injuries and constitutes a fraction of all fall-related trauma evaluations while bearing an increase in morbidity and mortality. We hypothesize that despite advancements in trauma care, the overall survivability has not improved in this subset of trauma patients. All adult trauma patients treated after sustaining a fall from heights during a 40-month period were retrospectively reviewed. Admission demographics, clinical data, fall height (ft), injury patterns, ISS, GCS, length of stay, and mortality were reviewed. 116 patients sustained a fall from heights, 90.4% accidental. A mean age of 37± 14.7 years, 86% male, and a fall height of 19 ± 10 ft were encountered. Admission GCS was 13 ± 2 with ISS 10 ± 11. Overall LOS was 6.6 ± 14.9 days and an ICU LOS of 2.8 ± 8.9 days. Falls ≥ 25 ft.(16%) had lower GCS 10.4 ± 5.8, increased ISS 22.6 ± 13.8, a fall height 37.9 ± 13.1 ft and associated increased mortality (p < 0.001). Mortality was 5.2%, a mean distance fallen of 39 ± 22 ft. and an ISS of 31.5 ±16.5. Brain injury was the leading cause of death, 50% with open skull fractures. Level of height fallen is a good predictor of overall outcome and survival. Despite advances in trauma care, death rates remain unchanged. Safety awareness and injury prevention programs are needed to reduce the risk of high-level falls.

  1. Global effects of income and income inequality on adult height and sexual dimorphism in height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogin, Barry; Scheffler, Christiane; Hermanussen, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Average adult height of a population is considered a biomarker of the quality of the health environment and economic conditions. The causal relationships between height and income inequality are not well understood. We analyze data from 169 countries for national average heights of men and women and national-level economic factors to test two hypotheses: (1) income inequality has a greater association with average adult height than does absolute income; and (2) neither income nor income inequality has an effect on sexual dimorphism in height. Average height data come from the NCD-RisC health risk factor collaboration. Economic indicators are derived from the World Bank data archive and include gross domestic product (GDP), Gross National Income per capita adjusted for personal purchasing power (GNI_PPP), and income equality assessed by the Gini coefficient calculated by the Wagstaff method. Hypothesis 1 is supported. Greater income equality is most predictive of average height for both sexes. GNI_PPP explains a significant, but smaller, amount of the variation. National GDP has no association with height. Hypothesis 2 is rejected. With greater average adult height there is greater sexual dimorphism. Findings support a growing literature on the pernicious effects of inequality on growth in height and, by extension, on health. Gradients in height reflect gradients in social disadvantage. Inequality should be considered a pollutant that disempowers people from the resources needed for their own healthy growth and development and for the health and good growth of their children. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Association Between Urinary Phthalates and Pubertal Timing in Chinese Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijing Shi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phthalates are synthetic chemicals and ubiquitous environmental contaminants, with hormonal activity that may alter the course of pubertal development in children. Objectives: To determine whether exposure to phthalate metabolites is associated with timing of pubertal development in a cross-sectional study of a school-based clustered sample of 503 children from a suburban district in Shanghai, China, who were 7–14 years of age at enrollment (2010 October to November. Methods: We analyzed six phthalate metabolites in urine samples by isotope-dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The associations of exposures to phthalates with pubertal timing of testes, breast, and pubic hair development (represented as Tanner stages were evaluated using an ordered logistic regression model adjusted for chronological age, body fat proportion (BF%, and parental education. Results: In boys, urinary mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP levels were negatively associated with testicular volume, and mono (2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate (MEHHP and mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate (MEOHP levels were negatively associated with pubic hair stages. The odds of being in an advanced stage were decreased by 43%–51%. In girls, mono (2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP, MEHHP, and MEOHP levels, as well as the sum of these levels, were positively associated with breast stages, and the association was much stronger in girls with high BF%; the odds of being in an advanced stage were increase by 29% to 50%. Conclusions: Phthalate metabolites investigated in this study show significant associations with pubertal timing both in boys and in girls, especially among girls with high BF%.

  3. Revised Indian Academy of Pediatrics 2015 growth charts for height, weight and body mass index for 5-18-year-old Indian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaman V Khadilkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth chart committee of Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP has revised growth charts for 5-18-year-old Indian children in Jan 2015. The last IAP growth charts (2007 were based on data collected in 1989-92 which is now >2 decades old. India is in an economic and nutrition transition and hence growth pattern of Indian children has changed over last few years. Thus, it was necessary to produce contemporary, updated growth references for Indian children. The new IAP charts were prepared by collating data from nine groups who had published studies in indexed journals on growth from India in the last decade. Growth charts were constructed from a total of 87022 middle and upper socioeconomic class children (m 54086, f 32936 from all five zones of India. Data from middle and upper socioeconomic class children are likely to have higher prevalence of overweight and obesity and hence growth charts produced on such populations are likely to "normalize" obesity. To remove such unhealthy weights form the data, method suggested by World Health Organization was used to produce weight charts. Thus, the new IAP weight charts are much lower than the recently published studies on affluent Indian children. Since Indian′s are at a higher risk of obesity-related cardiometabolic complications at lower body mass index (BMI, BMI charts adjusted for 23, and 27 adult equivalent cut-offs as per International obesity task force guidelines were constructed. IAP now recommends use of these new charts to replace the 2007 IAP charts.

  4. Pubertal changes in emotional information processing: pupillary, behavioral, and subjective evidence during emotional word identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Jennifer S; Siegle, Greg J; Whalen, Diana J; Ostapenko, Laura J; Ladouceur, Cecile D; Dahl, Ronald E

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated pupillary and behavioral responses to an emotional word valence identification paradigm among 32 pre-/early pubertal and 34 mid-/late pubertal typically developing children and adolescents. Participants were asked to identify the valence of positive, negative, and neutral words while pupil dilation was assessed using an eyetracker. Mid-/late pubertal children showed greater peak pupillary reactivity to words presented during the emotional word identification task than pre-/early pubertal children, regardless of word valence. Mid-/late pubertal children also showed smaller sustained pupil dilation than pre-/early pubertal children after the word was no longer on screen. These findings were replicated controlling for participants' age. In addition, mid-/late pubertal children had faster reaction times to all words, and rated themselves as more emotional during their laboratory visit compared to pre-/early pubertal children. Greater recall of emotional words following the task was associated with mid-/late pubertal status, and greater recall of emotional words was also associated with higher peak pupil dilation. These results provide physiological, behavioral, and subjective evidence consistent with a model of puberty-specific changes in neurobehavioral systems underpinning emotional reactivity.

  5. Induction of a hypothyroid state during juvenile development delays pubertal reactivation of the neuroendocrine system governing luteinising hormone secretion in the male rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, D R; Bhat, G K; Stah, C D; Pohl, C R; Plant, T M

    2006-09-01

    The present study aimed to determine the influence of thyroid status on the timing of the pubertal resurgence in gonadotrophin-releasing hormone pulse generator activity [tracked by circulating luteinising hormone (LH) levels] in male rhesus monkeys. Six juvenile monkeys were orchidectomised and then treated with the antithyroid drug, methimazole, from 15-19 months until 36 months of age, at which time thyroxine (T(4)) replacement was initiated. Four additional agonadal monkeys served as controls. Blood samples were drawn weekly for hormonal assessments. Body weight, crown-rump length and bone age were monitored at regular intervals. By 8 weeks of methimazole treatment, plasma T(4) had fallen sharply, and the decline was associated with a plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone increase. In controls, plasma LH levels remained undetectable until the pubertal rise occurred at 29.3 +/- 0.2 months of age. This developmental event occurred in only half of the methimazole-treated animals before 36 months of age when T(4) replacement was initiated. The hypothyroid state was associated with a profound arrest of growth and bone maturation, but increased body mass indices and plasma leptin levels. T(4) replacement in methimazole-treated monkeys was associated with the pubertal rise in LH in the remaining three animals and accelerated somatic development in all six animals. Although pubertal resurgence in LH secretion occurred at a later chronological age in methimazole-treated animals compared to controls, bone age, crown-rump length and body weight at that time did not differ between groups. There were no long-term differences in plasma prolactin between groups. We conclude that juvenile hypothyroidism in male primates causes a marked delay in the pubertal resurgence of LH secretion, probably occasioned at the hypothalamic level. Whether this effect is meditated by an action of thyroid hormone directly on the hypothalamus or indirectly as a result of the concomitant deficit in

  6. Effect of defoliation frequency and height of cutting on growth, dry matter yield and nutritive value of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum (L.) Schumach)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tessema, Z.K.; Mihret, J.; Solomon, M.

    2010-01-01

    Growth characteristics, dry-matter (DM) yield, chemical components and in vitro dry-matter digestibility (IVDMD) of Napier grass were studied in a randomized complete block design with three replications at Haramaya University, Ethiopia. The treatments were three defoliation frequencies (60, 90 and

  7. The intake of total protein, natural protein and protein substitute and growth of height and head circumference in Dutch infants with phenylketonuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksma, M.; van Rijn, M. [=Margreet; Verkerk, P. H.; Bosch, A. M.; Mulder, M. F.; de Klerk, J. B. C.; de Koning, T. J.; Rubio-Gozalbo, E.; de Vries, M.; Sauer, P. J. J.; van Spronsen, F. J.

    2005-01-01

    In a previous study, Dutch children with phenylketonuria (PKU) were found to be slightly shorter than their healthy counterparts. In the literature, it has been hypothesized that a higher protein intake is necessary to optimize growth in PKU patients. The study aimed to investigate whether protein

  8. Role of amygdala kisspeptin in pubertal timing in female rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Adekunbi

    Full Text Available To investigate the mechanism by which maternal obesity disrupts reproductive function in offspring, we examined Kiss1 expression in the hypothalamic arcuate (ARC and anteroventral periventricular (AVPV nuclei, and posterodorsal medial amygdala (MePD of pre-pubertal and young adult offspring. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a standard or energy-dense diet for six weeks prior to mating and throughout pregnancy and lactation. Male and female offspring were weaned onto normal diet on postnatal day (pnd 21. Brains were collected on pnd 30 or 100 for qRT-PCR to determine Kiss1 mRNA levels. Maternal obesity increased Kiss1 mRNA expression in the MePD of pre-pubertal male and female offspring, whereas Kiss1 expression was not affected in the ARC or AVPV at this age. Maternal obesity reduced Kiss1 expression in all three brain regions of 3 month old female offspring, but only in MePD of males. The role of MePD kisspeptin on puberty, estrous cyclicity and preovulatory LH surges was assessed directly in a separate group of post-weanling and young adult female rats exposed to a normal diet throughout their life course. Bilateral intra-MePD cannulae connected to osmotic mini-pumps for delivery of kisspeptin receptor antagonist (Peptide 234 for 14 days were chronically implanted on pnd 21 or 100. Antagonism of MePD kisspeptin delayed puberty onset, disrupted estrous cyclicity and reduced the incidence of LH surges. These data show that the MePD plays a key role in pubertal timing and ovulation and that maternal obesity may act via amygdala kisspeptin signaling to influence reproductive function in the offspring.

  9. Prenatal androgen excess programs metabolic derangements in pubertal female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaonan; Dai, Xiaonan; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Nannan; Cui, Yugui; Liu, Jiayin

    2013-04-01

    Owing to the heterogeneity in the clinical symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the early pathophysiological mechanisms of PCOS remain unclear. Clinical, experimental, and genetic evidence supports an interaction between genetic susceptibility and the influence of maternal environment in the pathogenesis of PCOS. To determine whether prenatal androgen exposure induced PCOS-related metabolic derangements during pubertal development, we administrated 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in pregnant rats and observed their female offspring from postnatal 4 to 8 weeks. The prenatally androgenized (PNA) rats exhibited more numerous total follicles, cystic follicles, and atretic follicles than the controls. Fasting glucose, insulin, leptin levels, and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance were elevated in the PNA rats at the age of 5-8 weeks. Following intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests, glucose and insulin levels did not differ between two groups; however, the PNA rats showed significantly higher 30- and 60-min glucose levels than the controls after insulin stimulation during 5-8 weeks. In addition, prenatal DHT treatment significantly decreased insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of AKT in the skeletal muscles of 6-week-old PNA rats. The abundance of IR substrate 1 (IRS1) and IRS2 was decreased in the skeletal muscles and liver after stimulation with insulin in the PNA group, whereas phosphorylation of insulin-signaling proteins was unaltered in the adipose tissue. These findings validate the contribution of prenatal androgen excess to metabolic derangements in pubertal female rats, and the impaired insulin signaling through IRS and AKT may result in the peripheral insulin resistance during pubertal development.

  10. Adult height, nutrition, and population health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Jessica M.; Subramanian, S.V.; Davey Smith, George

    2016-01-01

    In this review, the potential causes and consequences of adult height, a measure of cumulative net nutrition, in modern populations are summarized. The mechanisms linking adult height and health are examined, with a focus on the role of potential confounders. Evidence across studies indicates that short adult height (reflecting growth retardation) in low- and middle-income countries is driven by environmental conditions, especially net nutrition during early years. Some of the associations of height with health and social outcomes potentially reflect the association between these environmental factors and such outcomes. These conditions are manifested in the substantial differences in adult height that exist between and within countries and over time. This review suggests that adult height is a useful marker of variation in cumulative net nutrition, biological deprivation, and standard of living between and within populations and should be routinely measured. Linkages between adult height and health, within and across generations, suggest that adult height may be a potential tool for monitoring health conditions and that programs focused on offspring outcomes may consider maternal height as a potentially important influence. PMID:26928678

  11. Ethnicity, Perceived Pubertal Timing, Externalizing Behaviors, and Depressive Symptoms among Black Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Rona; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Matusko, Niki; Antonucci, Toni; Jackson, James S.

    2011-01-01

    An accumulation of research evidence suggests that early pubertal timing plays a significant role in girls' behavioral and emotional problems. If early pubertal timing is a problematic event, then early developing Black girls should manifest evidence of this crisis because they tend to be the earliest to develop compared to other girls from…

  12. Pubertal Timing and Mexican-Origin Girls’ Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms: The Influence of Harsh Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deardorff, J.; Cham, H.; Gonzales, NA.; White, R.M.B.; Tein, J.-Y.; Wong, J.; Roosa, M.W.

    2012-01-01

    Early-maturing girls are at risk for internalizing and externalizing problems. Scarce research has examined pubertal timing and mental health among Mexican Americans, or examined the influence of parenting behaviors on these relations. This study addressed these gaps. This was a prospective examination of 362 Mexican-origin girls and their mothers using three waves of data. Measures included girls’ self-report of pubertal development and girls’ and mothers’ report of maternal harsh parenting and daughters’ mental health. Using structural equation modeling, we examined whether pubertal timing in 5th grade predicted girls’ internalizing and externalizing outcomes in 10th grade. We also examined the mediating and moderating effects of harsh parenting on the relations between pubertal timing and internalizing and externalizing behaviors, as well as the influence of mothers’ and daughters’ nativity on these relations. Results differed depending on reporter and maternal nativity. Using daughters’ report, Mexican American mothers’ harsh parenting acted as a moderator. At high levels of harsh parenting, early pubertal timing predicted higher externalizing scores, while at low levels of harsh parenting, early timing predicted lower externalizing scores. For Mexican immigrant mothers, harsh parenting mediated the effects of pubertal timing on girls’ internalizing and externalizing problems. There were no significant pubertal effects for mothers’ report. Findings suggest that maternal harsh parenting plays a key role in the relations between early pubertal timing and behavioral and emotional outcomes among Mexican-origin girls. PMID:23231686

  13. The Role of Peer Stress and Pubertal Timing on Symptoms of Psychopathology during Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontag, Lisa M.; Graber, Julia A.; Clemans, Katherine H.

    2011-01-01

    Stress is known to amplify the link between pubertal timing and psychopathology. However, few studies have examined the role of peer stress as a context for this link. The present study examined the interaction between perceived pubertal timing and peer stress on symptoms of psychopathology in early adolescence. The sample consisted of 264…

  14. Blood spotting on underpants: Case report of urethral prolapse in a pre-pubertal Chinese girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hei Yi Wong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Urethral prolapse is a rare urological condition with non-specific clinical manifestations which is mostly seen in pre-pubertal black girls and postmenopausal woman. The exact etiology still remains unknown. We herein present a case report of urethral mucosa prolapse in a 5 year-old Chinese pre-pubertal girl.

  15. Maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and pubertal development among sons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, M L; Håkonsen, L B; Vested, A

    2014-01-01

    Maternal overweight and obesity in pregnancy has been associated with earlier age of menarche in daughters as well as reduced semen quality in sons. We aimed at investigating pubertal development in sons born by mothers with a high body mass index (BMI). The study included 2522 sons of mothers...... indicators of pubertal development, results also indicated earlier pubertal development among sons of obese mothers. After excluding sons of underweight mothers in a subanalysis, we observed an inverse trend between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and age at regular shaving, acne and first nocturnal emission....... In conclusion, maternal pre-pregnant obesity may be related to earlier timing of pubertal milestones among sons. More research, preferably based on prospectively collected information about pubertal development, is needed to draw firm conclusions....

  16. Altura da garupa e sua associação com características reprodutivas e de crescimento na raça Nelore Hip height and its relationships with reproductive and growth traits in Nelore cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Cinachi Pereira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar os fatores que afetam a altura da garupa em diferentes idades, em bovinos Nelore, e estimar a herdabilidade e as correlações genéticas entre esse caractere e as características reprodutivas e de crescimento. Os caracteres avaliados foram: altura da garupa à desmama, altura da garupa ao sobreano, peso à desmama, peso ao sobreano, perímetro escrotal e idade ao primeiro parto. Os fatores considerados foram: ano e mês de nascimento, rebanho, sexo, idade da vaca ao parto e idade do bezerro. Os componentes de variância e covariância foram estimados pela metodologia de máxima verossimilhança restrita, tendo-se utilizado um modelo animal. Todos os efeitos foram significativos para altura de garupa nas diferentes idades. As estimativas de herdabilidade quanto ao efeito genético direto indicaram que as características de crescimento e reprodutivas respondem à seleção, exceto a idade ao primeiro parto. As correlações genéticas entre as características de crescimento foram todas positivas e elevadas, de 0,42 a 0,90, o que indica que são determinadas em grande parte pelos mesmos conjuntos de genes de ação aditiva. Em razão das baixas magnitudes das estimativas de correlação genética (entre -0,14 e 0,16, a eficiência reprodutiva é pouco influenciada pela seleção quanto à altura de garupa.The objective of this work was to determine factors that affect hip height at different ages, in Nelore cattle, and to estimate the heritability and the genetic correlation between this character and reproductive and growth traits. The analyzed traits were: hip height at weaning, hip height at post weaning, weight at weaning, weight at post weaning, scrotal circumference, and age at first calving. The analyzed factors were: year and month of birth, herd, sex, age of dam at calving, and calf age. The variance covariance components were estimate by the restrict maximum likelihood methodology using animal

  17. Granular Vulvovaginitis Syndrome in Nelore pubertal and post pubertal replacement heifers under tropical conditions: role of Mycoplasma spp., Ureaplasma diversum and BHV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambarini, M L; Kunz, T L; Oliveira Filho, B D; Porto, R N G; Oliveira, C M G; Brito, W M E D; Viu, M A O

    2009-10-01

    In order to determine the role of Mycoplasma spp, Ureaplasma diversum and BHV-1 as causal agents of Granular Vulvovaginitis Syndrome in Nelore heifers raised under tropical conditions and based on the hypothesis that stressful conditions during puberty or breeding season would be a determinant factor for the infection, 340 heifers not vaccinated against BHV-1 were divided in Post-pubertal, in the beginning of the first breeding season, and Pubertal heifers. The vaginal lesion score (VLS) Grade 1 to 4 was giving according to lesion area and severity. Vaginal mucus was used to isolate Mycoplasma spp., Ureaplasma diversum and BHV-1. The predominant VLS was 2. No sample was positive for BHV-1; 48% were positive for Mycoplasma spp., Ureaplasma diversum, or both, with predominance of Ureaplasma diversum. Serum neutralization for BHV-1 showed more positive animals in pubertal group (23%); 3 of the paired sera demonstrated seroconversion. These data indicated that post-pubertal and pubertal Nelore heifers raised under extensive conditions are more susceptible to Mycoplasma spp. and Ureaplasma diversum. The hypothesis that the stress of pubertal period could lead to an acute vaginal infection by HBV-1 was not proofed.

  18. Serum insulin-like growth factor-I in 1030 healthy children, adolescents, and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Bang, P; Hertel, Niels

    1994-01-01

    Serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) increase with age and pubertal development. The large variation in circulating IGF-I levels in adolescence makes it difficult to use the IGF-I value of a single child in the assessment of his growth status. In addition, the interference of IGF......-binding proteins in many IGF-I assays contributes to this problem. We measured IGF-I in acid-ethanol-extracted serum from 1030 healthy children, adolescents, and adults, employing a RIA that reduces interference of IGF-binding proteins by using monoiodinated Tyr31-[125I]des-(1-3)IGF-I as radioligand. Mean serum...... volume. Multiple regression analysis revealed that serum IGF-I levels predicted height velocity in the following year (r = 0.33; P

  19. Evaluación del potencial de mejoramiento genético en el crecimiento en altura de Acacia mangium Willd. Evaluation of the breeding potential in height growth for Acacia mangium Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Javier Pastrana-Vargas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available En el periodo 2009-2010, en Ayapel, Planeta Rica y Tierralta, departamento de Córdoba (Colombia se evaluó el desempeño en crecimiento en altura total de 90 familias de polinización abierta de Acacia mangium. En estos municipios el clima se clasifica, de acuerdo con Holdridge, como bosque seco tropical (Bs-T, excepto Tierralta que es bosque húmedo tropical (Bh-T. Durante el primer año de crecimiento, las plantas en cada familia fueron evaluadas en ensayos de progenie mediante un diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar, con seis bloques en cada una de las tres localidades. La parcela o unidad experimental consistió en seis plantas de polinización abierta por familia, distribuidas aleatoriamente en tres parejas espacialmente separadas dentro de cada bloque. La predicción de parámetros genéticos individuales y de familias se efectuó por medio del procedimiento BLUP y los componentes de varianza por medio del procedimiento REML utilizando el software SELEGEN. Las estimaciones de heredabilidad variaron entre In 2009-10, in Ayapel, Planeta Rica and Tierralta, Córdoba department (Colombia the growth performance in overall height of 90 open-pollinated families of Acacia mangium was evaluated. In these municipalities the climate is classified, according to Holdridge, like tropical dry forest (TDF, except Tierralta that it is tropical moist forest (TMF. During the first year of growth, plants in each family were evaluated in progeny tests using a randomized experimental complete block design, with six blocks in each of the three locations. The experimental unit consisted of six open-pollinated plants per family, randomly distributed in three spatially separated pairs within each block. The prediction of genetic parameters individual and of families was conducted by the method BLUP (best linear unbiased prediction and the variance components by REML (restricted maximum likelihood procedure using the software SELEGEN. Heritability

  20. Normal growth spurt and final height despite low levels of all forms of circulating insulin-like growth factor-I in a patient with acid-labile subunit deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domené, Horacio M; Martínez, Alicia S; Frystyk, Jan

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In a recently described patient with acid-labile subunit (ALS) deficiency, the inability to form ternary complexes resulted in a marked reduction in circulating total insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, whereas skeletal growth was only marginally affected. To further study the role of...

  1. Social inequalities in height: persisting differences today depend upon height of the parents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Galobardes

    Full Text Available Substantial increases in height have occurred concurrently with economic development in most populations during the last century. In high-income countries, environmental exposures that can limit genetic growth potential appear to have lessened, and variation in height by socioeconomic position may have diminished. The objective of this study is to investigate inequalities in height in a cohort of children born in the early 1990s in England, and to evaluate which factors might explain any identified inequalities.12,830 children from The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, a population based cohort from birth to about 11.5 years of age, were used in this analysis. Gender- and age-specific z-scores of height at different ages were used as outcome variables. Multilevel models were used to take into account the repeated measures of height and to analyze gender- and age-specific relative changes in height from birth to 11.5 years. Maternal education was the main exposure variable used to examine socioeconomic inequalities. The roles of parental and family characteristics in explaining any observed differences between maternal education and child height were investigated. Children whose mothers had the highest education compared to those with none or a basic level of education, were 0.39 cm longer at birth (95% CI: 0.30 to 0.48. These differences persisted and at 11.5 years the height difference was 1.4 cm (95% CI: 1.07 to 1.74. Several other factors were related to offspring height, but few changed the relationship with maternal education. The one exception was mid-parental height, which fully accounted for the maternal educational differences in offspring height.In a cohort of children born in the 1990s, mothers with higher education gave birth to taller boys and girls. Although height differences were small they persisted throughout childhood. Maternal and paternal height fully explained these differences.

  2. Lucas Heights technology park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The proposed Lucas Heights Technology Park will pound together the applied research programs of Government, tertiary and industry sectors, aiming to foster technology transfer particularly to the high-technology manufacturing industry. A description of the site is given along with an outline of the envisaged development, existing facilities and expertise. ills

  3. Serum inhibin B in healthy pubertal and adolescent boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Juul, A; Petersen, J H

    1997-01-01

    correlated strongly with age, and when the effect of age was taken into account, only the partial correlation between inhibin B and LH/testosterone remained statistically significant. At stage II of puberty, the positive partial correlation between inhibin B and LH/testosterone was still present. At stage......Inhibin B levels were measured in serum from 400 healthy Danish prepubertal, pubertal, and adolescent males, aged 6-20 yr, in a cross-sectional study using a recently developed immunoassay that is specific for inhibin B, the physiologically important inhibin form in men. In addition, serum levels...... of FSH, LH, testosterone, and estradiol levels were measured. Serum levels of inhibin B, FSH, LH, testosterone, and estradiol all increased significantly between stages I and II of puberty. From stage II of puberty the inhibin B level was relatively constant, whereas the FSH level continued to increase...

  4. Course and forecast of the hypothalamic pubertal syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayusheva, I.V.

    1987-01-01

    A total of 223 patients with the hypothalamic pubertal syndrome (HPS) were followed up for 1 to 22 years. The course of HPS was regressive, stable , recurrent or progressive and dependent on the initial depth and spread of hypothalamic lesion, repeated unfavourable hypothalamic exposures, and timely and regular treatment. HPS outcomes were followed up in 190 cases. The recovery was complete in 21.05%, obesity alone persisted in 10.53%, vegetovascular dystonia was persistent in 7.36%, and polycystic ovaries in 5.79%. Neuroendocrine hypothalamic syndrome was the most common (50.53%) HPS outcome. Hormone levels in blood were investigated using radioimmunoassay in patients with neuroendocrine form of HPS

  5. Physical growth, puberty and hormones in adolescents with Nodding Syndrome; a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piloya-Were, Theresa; Odongkara-Mpora, Beatrice; Namusoke, Hanifa; Idro, Richard

    2014-11-28

    Nodding syndrome is an epidemic symptomatic generalized epilepsy syndrome of unknown cause in Eastern Africa. Some patients have extreme short stature. We hypothesized that growth failure in nodding syndrome is associated with specific endocrine dysfunctions. In this pilot study, we examined the relationship between serum hormone levels and stature, bone age and sexual development. We recruited ten consecutive children, 13 years or older, with World Health Organization defined nodding syndrome and assessed physical growth, bone age, development of secondary sexual characteristics and serum hormone levels. Two children with incomplete results were excluded. Of the eight remaining, two had severe stunting (height for age Z [HAZ] scorebone age was delayed by a median 3(range 0-4) years. Serum growth hormone levels were normal in all eight but the two patients with severe stunting and one with moderate stunting had low levels of Somatomedin C (Insulin like Growth Factor [IGF1]) and/or IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP3), mediators of growth hormone function. A linear relationship was observed between serum IGF1 level and HAZ score. With the exception of one child, all were either pre-pubertal or in early puberty (Tanner stages 1 and 2) and in the seven, levels of the gonadotrophins (luteinising and follicle stimulating hormone) and the sex hormones (testosterone/oestrogen) were all within pre-pubertal ranges or ranges of early puberty. Thyroid function, prolactin, adrenal, and parathyroid hormone levels were all normal. Patients with nodding syndrome may have dysfunctions in the pituitary growth hormone and pituitary gonadal axes that manifest as stunted growth, delayed bone age and puberty. Studies are required to determine if such endocrine dysfunction is a primary manifestation of the disease or a secondary consequence of chronic ill health and malnutrition and if so, whether targeted interventions can improve outcome.

  6. Adult height in Turner syndrome girls after long-term growth hormone treatment Talla adulta en pacientes con síndrome de Turner tratadas con hormona de crecimiento a largo plazo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analía Morín

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We studied the adult height (AH outcome, and factors likely to influence it, in Turner Syndrome (TS girls treated with growth hormone (GH. A total of 25 TS girls treated with GH were compared with 10 TS girls not treated with GH. The percentage of girls who achieved normal third percentile was determined. Projected AH (PAH was calculated according to height standard deviation score (HSDS at the beginning of the treatment. Gain in height was determined as: AH - pretreatment PAH. The percentage of girls who achieved target range (midparental height±2 SD was determined. Multiple linear regression models were fitted on baseline variables- chronological age (CA, midparental height (MPH and HSDS; and treatment variablesduration of oestrogen-free GH therapy and duration of GH therapy+oestrogens. As for baseline data: median CA was 13.0 years (5.6-15.8. Mean HSDS was 0.25±1.1 SDS. PAH was 139.2±5.6 cm. MPH was 160.0±5.0 cm. As for follow up data: Median CA at onset oestrogens was 15.1 years (13.2-16.6. Median duration of GH therapy was 3.8 years (2.1-10.3. Median oestrogen-free GH period was 2.0 years (0.7-7.8, and median GH+oestrogens period, 1.8 years (1.0-3.2. Adult height: Mean AH was 150.4±7.0 cm in treated patients and 140.8±7.2 cm in the group not treated with GH (p=0.001. Fourteen (56% girls achieved normal third percentile compared with an initially predicted 1 (4%. Gain in height was 11.2±3.7 cm. Thirteen (59% girls reached an AH within target range. HSDS at the beginning of the treatment was the variable most strongly related to AH and duration of oestrogen-free GH period was the variable most strongly related to gain in height.Se estudió la talla adulta (TA y los factores que pudieran influenciarla en niñas con síndrome de Turner (ST tratadas con hormona de crecimiento (HC. Se compararon 25 pacientes con ST tratadas con HC y 10 niñas no tratadas. Se determinó: el porcentaje de niñas que alcanzó el tercer percentilo de la curva

  7. Regulation of gonadal sex ratios and pubertal development by the thyroid endocrine system in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Prakash; Patiño, Reynaldo

    2013-04-01

    We examined associations between thyroid condition, gonadal sex and pubertal development in zebrafish. Seventy-two-hour postfertilization larvae were reared in untreated medium or in the presence of goitrogens (sodium perchlorate, 0.82 mM; methimazole, 0.15 and 0.3 mM) or thyroxine (1 and 10 nM) for 30 days. Thyrocyte height, gonadal sex and gonadal development were histologically determined at 45 and 60 days postfertilization (dpf). Thyrocyte hypertrophy, an index of hypothyroidism, was observed at 45 and 60 dpf in perchlorate-treated but only at 45 dpf in methimazole-treated fish. Similarly, gonadal sex ratios were biased toward ovaries relative to control animals at 45 and 60 dpf in perchlorate-treated fish but only at 45 dpf in methimazole-treated fish. Gonadal sex ratios were biased toward testes at 45 and 60 dpf in thyroxine-treated fish. Spermatogenesis was delayed in testes from goitrogen-treated fish at 60 dpf relative to control values, but was unaffected in testes from thyroxine-treated individuals. Oogenesis seemed to be nonspecifically delayed in all treatments relative to control at 60 dpf. This study confirmed the previously reported association between hypothyroid condition and ovarian-skewed ratios, and hyperthyroid condition and testicular-skewed ratios, and also showed that male pubertal development is specifically delayed by experimental hypothyroidism. The simultaneous recovery from the hypothyroid and ovary-inducing effects of methimazole by 60 dpf (27 days post-treatment) suggests that the ovary-skewing effect of goitrogens is reversible when thyroid conditions return to basal levels before developmental commitment of gonadal sex. Conversely, the masculinizing effect of hyperthyroidism seems to be stable and perhaps permanent. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Regulation of gonadal sex ratios and pubertal development by the thyroid endocrine system in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Prakash; Patino, Reynaldo

    2013-01-01

    We examined associations between thyroid condition, gonadal sex and pubertal development in zebrafish. Seventy-two-hour postfertilization larvae were reared in untreated medium or in the presence of goitrogens (sodium perchlorate, 0.82 mM; methimazole, 0.15 and 0.3 mM) or thyroxine (1 and 10 nM) for 30 days. Thyrocyte height, gonadal sex and gonadal development were histologically determined at 45 and 60 days postfertilization (dpf). Thyrocyte hypertrophy, an index of hypothyroidism, was observed at 45 and 60 dpf in perchlorate-treated but only at 45 dpf in methimazole-treated fish. Similarly, gonadal sex ratios were biased toward ovaries relative to control animals at 45 and 60 dpf in perchlorate-treated fish but only at 45 dpf in methimazole-treated fish. Gonadal sex ratios were biased toward testes at 45 and 60 dpf in thyroxine-treated fish. Spermatogenesis was delayed in testes from goitrogen-treated fish at 60 dpf relative to control values, but was unaffected in testes from thyroxine-treated individuals. Oogenesis seemed to be nonspecifically delayed in all treatments relative to control at 60 dpf. This study confirmed the previously reported association between hypothyroid condition and ovarian-skewed ratios, and hyperthyroid condition and testicular-skewed ratios, and also showed that male pubertal development is specifically delayed by experimental hypothyroidism. The simultaneous recovery from the hypothyroid and ovary-inducing effects of methimazole by 60 dpf (27 days post-treatment) suggests that the ovary-skewing effect of goitrogens is reversible when thyroid conditions return to basal levels before developmental commitment of gonadal sex. Conversely, the masculinizing effect of hyperthyroidism seems to be stable and perhaps permanent.

  9. Insulin resistance in obese pre-pubertal children: Relation to body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Secondary outcome is to determine the frequency of the metabolic syndrome components. Subjects and methods: Twenty-three pre-pubertal obese children were ... oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) and DXA scan for body composition.

  10. Sex variations in youth anxiety symptoms: effects of pubertal development and gender role orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Rona; Silverman, Wendy K; Jaccard, James

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated whether pubertal development and gender role orientation (i.e., masculinity and femininity) can partially explain sex variations in youth anxiety symptoms among clinic-referred anxious youth (N = 175; ages 9-13 years; 74% Hispanic; 48% female). Using youth and parent ratings of youth anxiety symptoms, structural equation modeling results indicated that youth who reported being more advanced in their pubertal development reported high levels of femininity and anxiety symptoms. Youth who reported high levels of masculinity had low levels of anxiety symptoms as reported by both youths and parents. The estimated effects of pubertal development, femininity, and masculinity on youth and parent ratings of youth anxiety symptoms were not significantly moderated by biological sex. Pubertal development and gender role orientation appear to be important in explaining levels of youth anxiety symptoms among clinic-referred anxious youth.

  11. Urinary phthalate excretion in 555 healthy Danish boys with and without pubertal gynaecomastia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mieritz, Mikkel G; Frederiksen, Hanne; Sørensen, Kaspar

    2012-01-01

    Pubertal gynaecomastia is a clinical sign of an oestrogen-androgen imbalance, which occurs in 40-60% of adolescent Caucasian boys. In most cases no underlying endocrinopathy can be identified. A recent study reports higher plasma phthalate levels in Turkish boys with pubertal gynaecomastia....... Therefore, we asked whether there was an association between concurrent measures of urinary phthalate metabolites and pubertal timing as well as the presence of gynaecomastia in otherwise healthy boys. We studied a total of 555 healthy boys (age 6.07-19.83 years) as part of the COPENHAGEN Puberty Study....... Anthropometry and pubertal stages (PH1-6 and G1-5) were evaluated, and the presence of gynaecomastia was assessed. Non-fasting blood samples were analysed for serum testosterone and morning urine samples were analysed for the total content of 12 phthalate metabolites (MEP, MnBP, MiBP, MBzP, MEHP, MEHHP, MEOHP...

  12. A pre-pubertal girl with giant juvenile fibroadenoma: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Gaurav

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Through this case we want to emphasize that these giant benign neoplasms should be suspected in any pre-pubertal girl with breast lump and should always be treated with breast conserving surgery.

  13. Pubertal development in healthy children is mirrored by DNA methylation patterns in peripheral blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almstrup, Kristian; Johansen, Marie Lindhardt; Busch, Alexander S.

    2016-01-01

    Puberty marks numerous physiological processes which are initiated by central activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis, followed by development of secondary sexual characteristics. To a large extent, pubertal timing is heritable, but current knowledge of genetic polymorphismsonly...... explains few months in the large inter-individual variation in the timing of puberty. We have analysed longitudinal genome-wide changes in DNA methylation in peripheral blood samples (n = 102) obtained from 51 healthy children before and after pubertal onset. We show that changes in single methylation...... sites are tightly associated with physiological pubertal transition and altered reproductive hormone levels. These methylation sites cluster in and around genes enriched for biological functions related to pubertal development. Importantly, we identified that methylation of the genomic region containing...

  14. Pubertal testosterone influences threat-related amygdala-orbitofrontal cortex coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Forbes, Erika E; Ladouceur, Cecile D; Worthman, Carol M; Olino, Thomas M; Ryan, Neal D; Dahl, Ronald E

    2015-03-01

    Growing evidence indicates that normative pubertal maturation is associated with increased threat reactivity, and this developmental shift has been implicated in the increased rates of adolescent affective disorders. However, the neural mechanisms involved in this pubertal increase in threat reactivity remain unknown. Research in adults indicates that testosterone transiently decreases amygdala-orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) coupling. Consequently, we hypothesized that increased pubertal testosterone disrupts amygdala-OFC coupling, which may contribute to developmental increases in threat reactivity in some adolescents. Hypotheses were tested in a longitudinal study by examining the impact of testosterone on functional connectivity. Findings were consistent with hypotheses and advance our understanding of normative pubertal changes in neural systems instantiating affect/motivation. Finally, potential novel insights into the neurodevelopmental pathways that may contribute to adolescent vulnerability to behavioral and emotional problems are discussed. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Putative effects of endocrine disrupters on pubertal development in the human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Grete; Juul, Anders; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2002-01-01

    developing countries to industrialized countries often develop precocious puberty. Not only precocious puberty, but also delayed puberty can, theoretically, be associated with exposure to endocrine disrupters. While it is very plausible that endocrine disrupters may disturb pubertal development...

  16. APTCARE - Lucas Heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    This plan details command co-ordination and support responses of Commonwealth and State Authorities in the event of an accident with offsite consequences at the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories. The plan has been prepared by the AAEC Local Liaison Working Party, comprising representatives of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission, NSW Police Department, NSW Board of Fire Commissioners, NSW State Emergency Services and Civil Defence Organisation, NSW Department of Health, NSW Department of Environment and Planning and Sutherland Shire Council

  17. Recent changes in pubertal timing in healthy Danish boys: associations with body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Aksglaede, Lise; Petersen, Jørgen Holm

    2010-01-01

    In the 1990s, the American population-based study NHANES III renewed the focus on possible secular trends in male puberty. However, no conclusions could be made on pubertal onset due to the lack of compatible data.......In the 1990s, the American population-based study NHANES III renewed the focus on possible secular trends in male puberty. However, no conclusions could be made on pubertal onset due to the lack of compatible data....

  18. Childhood height, adult height, and the risk of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lise Geisler; Aarestrup, Julie; Gamborg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: We previously showed that childhood height is positively associated with prostate cancer risk. It is, however, unknown whether childhood height exerts its effects independently of or through adult height. We investigated whether and to what extent childhood height has a direct effect...... on the risk of prostate cancer apart from adult height. METHODS: We included 5,871 men with height measured at ages 7 and 13 years in the Copenhagen School Health Records Register who also had adult (50-65 years) height measured in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study. Prostate cancer status was obtained...... through linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry. Direct and total effects of childhood height on prostate cancer risk were estimated from Cox regressions. RESULTS: From 1996 to 2012, 429 prostate cancers occurred. Child and adult heights were positively and significantly associated with prostate cancer risk...

  19. Ethnic differences in body fat distribution among Asian pre-pubertal children: A cross-sectional multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koon Poh Bee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnic differences in body fat distribution contribute to ethnic differences in cardiovascular morbidities and diabetes. However few data are available on differences in fat distribution in Asian children from various backgrounds. Therefore, the current study aimed to explore ethnic differences in body fat distribution among Asian children from four countries. Methods A total of 758 children aged 8-10 y from China, Lebanon, Malaysia and Thailand were recruited using a non-random purposive sampling approach to enrol children encompassing a wide BMI range. Height, weight, waist circumference (WC, fat mass (FM, derived from total body water [TBW] estimation using the deuterium dilution technique and skinfold thickness (SFT at biceps, triceps, subscapular, supraspinale and medial calf were collected. Results After controlling for height and weight, Chinese and Thai children had a significantly higher WC than their Lebanese and Malay counterparts. Chinese and Thais tended to have higher trunk fat deposits than Lebanese and Malays reflected in trunk SFT, trunk/upper extremity ratio or supraspinale/upper extremity ratio after adjustment for age and total body fat. The subscapular/supraspinale skinfold ratio was lower in Chinese and Thais compared with Lebanese and Malays after correcting for trunk SFT. Conclusions Asian pre-pubertal children from different origins vary in body fat distribution. These results indicate the importance of population-specific WC cut-off points or other fat distribution indices to identify the population at risk of obesity-related health problems.

  20. Continuous elemental enteral alimentation in children with Crohn's disease and growth failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, C L; Roulet, M; Roy, C C; Weber, A

    1980-12-01

    Four children aged (11.7-13.5 yr) with protracted growth retardation related to Crohn's disease, received a 6-wk period of continuous elemental enteral alimentation with no other form of treatment. Despite drug therapy the yearly height and weight gain velocities of these children (1.7 +/- 0.3 cm and -0.8 +/- 1.4 kg, respectively) had been abnormal during the previous 2 yr. All patients experienced a complete remission of symptoms, improved nutritional status, and significant height (1.8 +/- 0.3 cm) and weight (3.8 +/- 0.5 kg) gains during the 67 wk of treatment. After cessation of elemental enteral alimentation, 3 of the 4 patients continued to grow, and over a period of 4.5 mo from the beginning of this form of nutritional therapy, they gained an average of 5.0 +/- 1.6 kg and 3.5 +/- 0.3 cm. The disease became active thereafter, and the 3 children resumed their previously abnormal growth patterns during the ensuing year. The 4th patient had surgery 2 mo after elemental enteral alimentation and experienced a subsequent second spurt of growth and pubertal changes. This study suggests that a relatively short course of elemental enteral alimentation leads to a temporary resumption of growth in children with severe growth failure and Crohn's disease. The possibility that repeated courses of elemental enteral alimentation might be beneficial needs to be explored.

  1. Beta Palmitate Improves Bone Length and Quality during Catch-Up Growth in Young Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meytal Bar-Maisels

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Palmitic acid (PA is the most abundant saturated fatty acid in human milk, where it is heavily concentrated in the sn-2-position (termed beta palmitate, BPA and as such is conserved in all women, regardless of their diet or ethnicity, indicating its physiological and metabolic importance. We hypothesized that BPA improves the efficiency of nutrition-induced catch up growth as compared to sn-1,3 PA, which is present in vegetable oil. Pre-pubertal male rats were subjected to a 17 days food restriction followed by re-feeding for nine days with 1,3 PA or BPA-containing diets. We measured bone length, epiphyseal growth plate height (EGP, histology, bone quality (micro-CT and 3-point bending assay, and gene expression (Affymetrix. The BPA-containing diet improved most growth parameters: humeri length and EGP height were greater in the BPA-fed animals. Further analysis of the EGP revealed that the hypertrophic zone was significantly higher in the BPA group. In addition, Affymetrix analysis revealed that the diet affected the expression of several genes in the liver and EGP. Despite the very subtle difference between the diets and the short re-feeding period, we found a small but significant improvement in most growth parameters in the BPA-fed rats. This pre-clinical study may have important implications, especially for children with growth disorders and children with special nutritional needs.

  2. Gene-Environment Interplay in the Association between Pubertal Timing and Delinquency in Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, K. Paige; Mendle, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Early pubertal timing places girls at elevated risk for a breadth of negative outcomes, including involvement in delinquent behavior. While previous developmental research has emphasized the unique social challenges faced by early maturing girls, this relation is complicated by genetic influences for both delinquent behavior and pubertal timing, which are seldom controlled for in existing research. The current study uses genetically informed data on 924 female-female twin and sibling pairs drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to (1) disentangle biological versus environmental mechanisms for the effects of early pubertal timing and (2) test for gene-environment interactions. Results indicate that early pubertal timing influences girls’ delinquency through a complex interplay between biological risk and environmental experiences. Genes related to earlier age at menarche and higher perceived development significantly predict increased involvement in both non-violent and violent delinquency. Moreover, after accounting for this genetic association between pubertal timing and delinquency, the impact of non-shared environmental influences on delinquency are significantly moderated by pubertal timing, such that the non-shared environment is most important among early maturing girls. This interaction effect is particularly evident for non-violent delinquency. Overall, results suggest early maturing girls are vulnerable to an interaction between genetic and environmental risks for delinquent behavior. PMID:21668078

  3. Accuracy of recumbent height measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, D S; Crider, J B; Kelley, C; Dickinson, L C

    1985-01-01

    Since many patients requiring specialized nutritional support are bedridden, measurement of height for purposes of nutritional assessment or prescription must often be done with the patient in bed. This study examined the accuracy of measuring body height in bed in the supine position. Two measurements were performed on 108 ambulatory inpatients: (1) standing height using a standard height-weight scale, and (2) bed height using a flexible tape. Patients were divided into four groups based on which of two researchers performed each of the two measurements. Each patient was also weighed and self-reported height, weight, sex, and age were recorded. Bed height was significantly longer than standing height by 3.68 cm, but the two measurements were equally precise. It was believed, however, that this 2% difference was probably not clinically significant in most circumstances. Bed height correlated highly with standing height (r = 0.95), and the regression equation was standing height = 13.82 +/- 0.09 bed height. Patients overestimated their heights. Heights recorded by nurses were more accurate when patients were measured than when asked about their heights, but the patients were more often asked than measured.

  4. Effects of octreotide infusion, surgery and estrogen on suppression of height increase and 20K growth hormone ratio in a girl with gigantism due to a growth hormone-secreting macroadenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minagawa, M; Yasuda, T; Someya, T; Kohno, Y; Saeki, N; Hashimoto, Y

    2000-01-01

    We treated an extremely tall 13-year-old girl with a growth hormone (GH)-secreting macroadenoma and GH levels of 120-495 ng/ml with a combination of preoperative octreotide infusion, surgery and postoperative octreotide infusion plus estrogen, which resulted in reduced tumor size prior to surgery, reduced GH levels and completely suppressed growth after surgery. 20K GH is produced by alternative splicing of 22K GH mRNA and the ratio of 20K GH to 22K GH is within a small range in the normal population and high in a GH-secreting tumor. The 20K/22K GH ratio in this patient was persistently elevated during each phase of the treatment and may serve as a sensitive index of tumor-derived GH secretion. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Motives for choosing growth-enhancing hormone treatment in adolescents with idiopathic short stature: a questionnaire and structured interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser-van Balen, Hanneke; Geenen, Rinie; Kamp, Gerdine A; Huisman, Jaap; Wit, Jan M; Sinnema, Gerben

    2005-06-08

    Growth-enhancing hormone treatment is considered a possible intervention in short but otherwise healthy adolescents. Although height gain is an obvious measure for evaluating hormone treatment, this may not be the ultimate goal for the person, but rather a means to reach other goals such as the amelioration of current height-related psychosocial problems or the enhancement of future prospects in life and society. The aim of our study was to clarify the motives of adolescents and their parents when choosing to participate in a growth-enhancing trial combining growth hormone and puberty-delaying hormone treatment. Participants were early pubertal adolescents (25 girls, 13 boys) aged from 11 to 13 years (mean age 11.5 years) with a height standard deviation score (SDS) ranging from -1.03 to -3.43. All had been classified as idiopathic short stature or persistent short stature born small for the gestational age (intrauterine growth retardation) on the basis of a height SDS below -2, or had a height SDS between -1 and -2 and a predicted adult height SDS below -2. The adolescents and their parents completed questionnaires and a structured interview on the presence of height-related stressors, parental worries about their child's behavior and future prospects, problems in psychosocial functioning, and treatment expectations. Questionnaire scores were compared to norms of the general Dutch population. The adolescents reported normal psychosocial functioning and highly positive expectations of the treatment in terms of height gain, whereas the parents reported that their children encountered some behavioral problems (being anxious/depressed, and social and attention problems) and height-related stressors (being teased and juvenilized). About 40% of the parents were worried about their children's future prospects for finding a spouse or job. The motives of the adolescents and their parents exhibited rather different profiles. The most prevalent parental worries related to

  6. Memory for target height is scaled to observer height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, Elyssa; Crawford, L Elizabeth; Proffitt, Dennis R

    2012-04-01

    According to the embodied approach to visual perception, individuals scale the environment to their bodies. This approach highlights the central role of the body for immediate, situated action. The present experiments addressed whether body scaling--specifically, eye-height scaling--occurs in memory when action is not immediate. Participants viewed standard targets that were either the same height as, taller than, or shorter than themselves. Participants then viewed a comparison target and judged whether the comparison was taller or shorter than the standard target. Participants were most accurate when the standard target height matched their own heights, taking into account postural changes. Participants were biased to underestimate standard target height, in general, and to push standard target height away from their own heights. These results are consistent with the literature on eye-height scaling in visual perception and suggest that body scaling is not only a useful metric for perception and action, but is also preserved in memory.

  7. Growth curves for Laron syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Laron, Z; Lilos, P; Klinger, B

    1993-01-01

    Growth curves for children with Laron syndrome were constructed on the basis of repeated measurements made throughout infancy, childhood, and puberty in 24 (10 boys, 14 girls) of the 41 patients with this syndrome investigated in our clinic. Growth retardation was already noted at birth, the birth length ranging from 42 to 46 cm in the 12/20 available measurements. The postnatal growth curves deviated sharply from the normal from infancy on. Both sexes showed no clear pubertal spurt. Girls co...

  8. Impact of a nutrition intervention program on the growth and nutritional status of Nicaraguan adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawloski, Lisa Renee; Moore, Jean Burley

    2007-06-01

    This research examines the impact of a nutrition education intervention program on the nutritional status and knowledge of Nicaraguan adolescent girls. Anthropometric measurements, hemoglobin values, and data concerning nutritional knowledge were collected from adolescent girls living in Managua, Nicaragua. Using a pre-test/post-test design, data are compared prior to and after the nutrition intervention program. When using Mexican American reference data, statistically significant differences in height-for-age z-scores and weight-for-age z-scores were found when comparing the entire sample of baseline data with data collected after three years of the nutrition intervention program (p nutritional knowledge (p hemoglobin data revealed a significant decrease which may be due to specific environmental factors and pubertal changes. This research has implications concerning the development of successful adolescent focused nutrition intervention programs in Nicaragua, and examines the possibility that catch-up growth occurs during adolescence.

  9. A clinical study evaluating bone mineral mass in the radius during skeletal growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagino, Hiroshi

    1989-01-01

    Using 125-I single photon absorptiometry, bone mineral measurements were performed on 206 healthy Japanese children (2 to 19 years of age). Bone mineral content (BMC), bone width (BW) and BMC/BW values were determined for the radius at distal 1/6 site (metaphysis) and distal 1/3 site (diaphysis). BMC/BW values at both sites correlated well with body height and weight. Bone mass in the diaphysis (distal 1/3 site) increased linearly during the 2-19 years of skeletal growth, but bone mass in the metaphysis (1/6 site) increased steeply during the pubertal period. In children receiving glucocorticoid therapy, bone mass was reduced in proportion to the duration of drug administration. In children under anticonvulsant therapy, the yearly increse in bone mass was significantly low especially in those patients with poor physical activity levels. Bone mineral decrease in the radius occurred in the children with hypopituitalism, hypothyroidism (cretinism), hyperthyroidism and Turner's syndrome. (author)

  10. Concordant preferences for actual height and facial cues to height

    OpenAIRE

    Re, Daniel Edward; Perrett, David I.

    2012-01-01

    Physical height has a well-documented effect on human mate preferences. In general, both sexes prefer opposite-sex romantic relationships in which the man is taller than the woman, while individual preferences for height are affected by a person’s own height. Research in human mate choice has demonstrated that attraction to facial characteristics, such as facial adiposity, may reflect references for body characteristics. Here, we tested preferences for facial cues to height. In general, incre...

  11. Attachment, parenting styles and bullying during pubertal years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Watt, Ronél

    2014-01-01

    Research that focuses on combining attachment, parenting styles, bullying and the reciprocal nature thereof in the parent-adolescent and peer relationships is limited. The bio-psychosocial changes that adolescents experience open up broader social realities and are perceived differently by parents and adolescents. Attachment processes and parenting styles may elicit dissimilar perceptions. These processes are also associated with the multifaceted dynamics of bullying. The aim of the article is to advocate for research on the possible link between the implications of attachment, parenting styles and bullying. Exploring the association between attachment, parenting styles and bullying can deepen the understanding of the developmental challenges within the parent-adolescent relationship, add insight to the different perceptions of adolescents and parents, and complement intervention programmes accordingly. Firstly, this article outlines bio-psychosocial changes in the pubertal years as related to the social realities of the adolescent. Secondly, a discussion on the concepts 'attachment', 'parenting styles', 'bullying', and the potential link between these concepts will follow. Thirdly, an outline of the clinical implications of the apparent association between these concepts is given. The article concludes with recommendations that researchers can consider while exploring the relationship between attachment, parenting styles, and bullying and the delineation thereof in the parent-adolescent relationship.

  12. Pubertal induction in hypogonadism: Current approaches including use of gonadotrophins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharin, Margaret

    2015-06-01

    Primary disorders of the gonad or those secondary to abnormalities of the hypothalamic pituitary axis result in hypogonadism. The range of health problems of childhood and adolescence that affect this axis has increased, as most children now survive chronic illness, but many have persisting deficits in gonadal function as a result of their underlying condition or its treatment. An integrated approach to hormone replacement is needed to optimize adult hormonal and bone health, and to offer opportunities for fertility induction and preservation that were not considered possible in the past. Timing of presentation ranges from birth, with disorders of sexual development, through adolescent pubertal failure, to adult fertility problems. This review addresses diagnosis and management of hypogonadism and focuses on new management strategies to address current concerns with fertility preservation. These include Turner syndrome, and fertility presevation prior to childhood cancer treatment. New strategies for male hormone replacement therapy that may impinge upon future fertility are emphasized. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sexual Orientation, Objective Height, and Self-Reported Height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorska, Malvina N; Bogaert, Anthony F

    2017-01-01

    Studies that have used mostly self-reported height have found that androphilic men and women are shorter than gynephilic men and women, respectively. This study examined whether an objective height difference exists or whether a psychosocial account (e.g., distortion of self-reports) may explain these putative height differences. A total of 863 participants, recruited at a Canadian university, the surrounding region, and through lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) events across Canada, self-reported their height and had their height measured. Androphilic men were shorter, on average, than gynephilic men. There was no objective height difference between gynephilic, ambiphilic, and androphilic women. Self-reported height, statistically controlling for objective height, was not related to sexual orientation. These findings are the first to show an objective height difference between androphilic and gynephilic men. Also, the findings suggest that previous studies using self-reported height found part of a true objective height difference between androphilic and gynephilic men. These findings have implications for existing biological theories of men's sexual orientation development.

  14. Pubertal Timing and Youth Internalizing Psychopathology: The Role of Relational Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Hayley; Parent, Justin; Forehand, Rex; Breslend, Nicole Lafko; Winer, Jeffrey P

    2017-02-01

    The current study examined relational aggression as a potential mechanism that explains the association between off-time pubertal development and internalizing problems in youth. Youth gender was also examined as a moderator for the association between these variables. It was hypothesized that early pubertal maturation would be associated with higher levels of relationally aggressive behavior which, in turn, would be associated with elevated levels of internalizing problems. Parents of 372 children between the ages of 8 and 17 were recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk. Parents responded to demographic information about themselves, as well as information about their child's pubertal timing, relationally aggressive behavior, and anxiety and depressive symptoms. Findings indicated that early pubertal timing was associated with higher levels of anxiety directly, and higher levels of both anxiety and depressive symptoms indirectly through higher levels of relational aggression. In all but one of the pathways examined, gender was not found to moderate the associations between the study variables of interest. This study is the first to examine relational aggression as a mechanism by which early pubertal timing leads to internalizing problems. The findings suggest that relational aggression could be a target for intervention among early developing youth who are at risk for internalizing problems.

  15. The influence of pubertal timing and stressful life events on depression and delinquency among Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Yu, Jing; Wu, Yun; Zhang, Jianxin

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influences of pubertal timing and stressful life events on Chinese adolescents' depression and delinquency. Sex differences in these influences were also examined. A large sample with 4,228 participants aged 12-15 years (53% girls) was recruited in Beijing, China. Participants' pubertal development, stressful life events, depressive symptoms, and delinquency were measured using self-reported questionnaires. Both early maturing girls and boys displayed more delinquency than their same-sex on-time and late maturing peers. Early maturing girls displayed more depressive symptoms than on-time and late maturing girls, but boys in the three maturation groups showed similar levels of depressive symptoms. The interactive effects between early pubertal timing and stressful life events were significant in predicting depression and delinquency, particularly for girls. Early pubertal maturation is an important risk factor for Chinese adolescents' depression and delinquency. Stressful life events intensified the detrimental effects of early pubertal maturation on adolescents' depression and delinquency, particularly for girls. © 2015 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Birth order progressively affects childhood height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Tim; Derraik, José G B; Miles, Harriet L; Mouat, Fran; Cutfield, Wayne S; Hofman, Paul L

    2013-09-01

    There is evidence suggesting that first-born children and adults are anthropometrically different to later-borns. Thus, we aimed to assess whether birth order was associated with changes in growth and metabolism in childhood. We studied 312 healthy prepubertal children: 157 first-borns and 155 later-borns. Children were aged 3-10 years, born 37-41 weeks gestation, and of birth weight appropriate-for-gestational-age. Clinical assessments included measurement of children's height, weight, fasting lipid and hormonal profiles and DEXA-derived body composition. First-borns were taller than later-borns (P < 0·0001), even when adjusted for parents' heights (0·31 vs 0·03 SDS; P = 0·001). There was an incremental height decrease with increasing birth order, so that first-borns were taller than second-borns (P < 0·001), who were in turn taller than third-borns (P = 0·007). Further, among sibling pairs both height SDS (P = 0·009) and adjusted height SDS (P < 0·0001) were lower in second- vs first-born children. Consistent with differences in stature, first- (P = 0·043) and second-borns (P = 0·003) had higher IGF-I concentrations than third-borns. Both first- (P < 0·001) and second-borns (P = 0·004) also had reduced abdominal adiposity (lower android fat to gynoid fat ratio) when compared with third-borns. Other parameters of adiposity and blood lipids were unaffected by birth order. First-borns were taller than later-born children, with an incremental height reduction from first to third birth order. These differences were present after correction for genetic height, and associated to some extent with alterations in plasma IGF-I. Our findings strengthen the evidence that birth order is associated with phenotypic changes in childhood. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Sri Lanka, Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The topography of the island nation of Sri Lanka is well shown in this color-coded shaded relief map generated with digital elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. For this special view heights below 10 meters (33 feet) above sea level have been colored red. These low coastal elevations extend 5 to 10 km (3.1 to 6.2 mi) inland on Sri Lanka and are especially vulnerable to flooding associated with storm surges, rising sea level, or, as in the aftermath of the earthquake of December 26, 2004, tsunami. These so-called tidal waves have occurred numerous times in history and can be especially destructive, but with the advent of the near-global SRTM elevation data planners can better predict which areas are in the most danger and help develop mitigation plans in the event of particular flood events. Sri Lanka is shaped like a giant teardrop falling from the southern tip of the vast Indian subcontinent. It is separated from India by the 50km (31mi) wide Palk Strait, although there is a series of stepping-stone coral islets known as Adam's Bridge that almost form a land bridge between the two countries. The island is just 350km (217mi) long and only 180km (112mi) wide at its broadest, and is about the same size as Ireland, West Virginia or Tasmania. The southern half of the island is dominated by beautiful and rugged hill country, and includes Mt Pidurutalagala, the islandaE(TM)s highest point at 2524 meters (8281 ft). The entire northern half comprises a large plain extending from the edge of the hill country to the

  18. Growth impairment after TBI of leukemia survivors children: a model- based investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galletto, Chiara; Gliozzi, Antonio; Nucera, Daniele; Bertorello, Nicoletta; Biasin, Eleonora; Corrias, Andrea; Chiabotto, Patrizia; Fagioli, Franca; Guiot, Caterina

    2014-10-13

    Children receiving Total Body Irradiation (TBI) in preparation for Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) are at risk for Growth Hormone Deficiency (GHD), which sometimes severely compromises their Final Height (FH). To better represent the impact of such therapies on growth we apply a mathematical model, which accounts both for the gompertzian-like growth trend and the hormone-related 'spurts', and evaluate how the parameter values estimated on the children undergoing TBI differ from those of the matched normal population. 25 patients long-term childhood lymphoblastic and myeloid acute leukaemia survivors followed at Pediatric Onco-Hematology, Stem Cell Transplantation and Cellular Therapy Division, Regina Margherita Children's Hospital (Turin, Italy) were retrospectively analysed for assessing the influence of TBI on their longitudinal growth and for validating a new method to estimate the GH therapy effects. Six were treated with GH therapy after a GHD diagnosis. We show that when TBI was performed before puberty overall growth and pubertal duration were significantly impaired, but such growth limitations were completely reverted in the small sample (6 over 25) of children who underwent GH replacement therapies. Since in principle the model could account for any additional growth 'spurt' induced by therapy, it may become a useful 'simulation' tool for paediatricians for comparing the predicted therapy effectiveness depending on its timing and dosage.

  19. Overnight Levels of Luteinizing Hormone, Follicle-Stimulating Hormone and Growth Hormone before and during Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Analogue Treatment in Short Boys Born Small for Gestational Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kaay, Danielle C. M.; de Jong, Frank H.; Rose, Susan R.; Odink, Roelof J. H.; Bakker-van Waarde, Willie M.; Sulkers, Eric J.; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C. S.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate if 3 months of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa) treatment results in sufficient suppression of pubertal luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) profile patterns in short pubertal small for gestational age (SGA) boys. To compare growth hormone

  20. Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones; George A. Schier

    1985-01-01

    This chapter considers aspen growth as a process, and discusses some characteristics of the growth and development of trees and stands. For the most part, factors affecting growth are discussed elsewhere, particularly in the GENETICS AND VARIATION chapter and in chapters in PART 11. ECOLOGY. Aspen growth as it relates to wood production is examined in the WOOD RESOURCE...

  1. Pubertal status, interaction with significant others, and self-esteem of adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacković-Grgin, K; Dekovíc, M; Opacić, G

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between pubertal status, the quality of interactions with significant others, and the self-esteem of adolescent girls. The model which was tested, hypothesized that pubertal status affects self-esteem through girls' interactions with their parents and friends. Pubertal status was operationalized as the number of months between occurrence of the first menstrual periods and time of the investigation. The measure of self-esteem was the shortened form of the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Analyses revealed that girls who begun menstruating six months before the investigation obtained higher scores on the measure of self-esteem than did girls who had been menstruating 13 months or more. The best predictor of self-esteem, however, was the quality of interaction with their mothers. The results support the theoretical view that stresses the importance of interaction with significant others for the development of self-esteem.

  2. Pubertal timing and early sexual intercourse in the offspring of teenage mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Genna, Natacha M; Larkby, Cynthia; Cornelius, Marie D

    2011-10-01

    Early puberty is associated with stressful family environments, early sexual intercourse, and teenage pregnancy. We examined pubertal timing and sexual debut among the 14-year-old offspring of teenage mothers. Mothers (71% Black, 29% White) were recruited as pregnant teenagers (12-18 years old). Data were collected during pregnancy and when offspring were 6, 10 and 14 years old (n = 318). Adolescents (50% male) compared the timing of their pubertal maturation to same-sex peers. There was a significant 3-way interaction effect of race, sex, and pubertal timing on sexual debut (n = 305). This effect remained significant in a model controlling for maternal age at first intercourse, substance use, exposure to trauma, authoritative parenting, and peer sexual activity (n = 255). Early maturation was associated with early sex in daughters, and may be one pathway for the inter-generational transfer of risk for teenage pregnancy among daughters of teenage mothers.

  3. Serum AMH levels are lower in healthy boys who develop pubertal gynaecomastia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mieritz, Mikkel G.; Hagen, Casper P.; Almstrup, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pubertal gynaecomastia is thought to be a clinical sign of an oestrogen-androgen imbalance, affecting up to 60% of boys. In most cases no underlying endocrinopathy can be identified. In boys, Anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) is produced by immature Sertoli cells and circulating level...... decreases as testosterone increases during pubertal maturation. In a previous cross sectional study we found significant lower levels of AMH in boys with pubertal gynaecomastia (Mieritz et al., Clin Endocrinol, 2013). Objective and hypotheses: To investigate serum AMH levels and genetic polymorphisms...... in boys with or without gynaecomastia. Method: 99 healthy Danish boys (aged 5.8-16.4 years) were followed in a prospective cohort over 8 years with semi-annual examinations (total examinations, n=951), including breast palpations and blood samples. Serum AMH concentrations were analysed by immunoassay...

  4. Elevated serum IGF-I, but unaltered sex steroid levels, in healthy boys with pubertal gynaecomastia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mieritz, Mikkel G; Sorensen, Kaspar; Aksglaede, Lise

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Pubertal gynaecomastia is a very common condition. Although the underlying aetiology is poorly understood, it is generally accepted that excess of oestrogens and deficit of androgens are involved in the pathogenesis. Furthermore, adiposity as well as the GH/IGF-I axis may play a role....... In this study, we elucidate the association of adiposity and levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), testosterone, oestrogen, IGF-I and IGFBP-3 with the presence of pubertal gynaecomastia in a large cohort of healthy boys. PATIENTS: A total...... of 501 healthy Danish school boys (aged 6·1-19·8 year) from the COPENHAGEN Puberty Study. MEASUREMENTS: Anthropometry and pubertal stages (PH1-6 and G1-5) were evaluated, and the presence of gynaecomastia was assessed. Body fat percentage was calculated by means of four skin folds and impedance...

  5. Maths performance as a function of sex, laterality, and age of pubertal onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sappington, John; Topolski, Richard

    2005-07-01

    Sex differences in math/spatial performance demand explanations. Within the biological view, the complexity and number of variables make the explanation difficult at best. Laterality and age of pubertal onset have been investigated prominently in this context but rarely considered as interactions in the same study. Some 468 college subjects with SAT MATH (SAT M) scores were divided into 12 groups defined by sex, laterality, and age (early, middle, and late) of pubertal onset. Significant main effects for sex and age of onset emerged, as did an interaction between lateral preference and pubertal onset. Generally males outperformed females. The combination of maleness, sinistrality, and early maturation was associated with high SAT M scores. Sinistrality and late maturation among females predicted very poor math performance.

  6. Pubertal timing and substance use: associations between and within families across late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, D M; Rose, R J; Viken, R J; Kaprio, J

    2000-03-01

    In the present study, between-family analyses of data from adolescent twin girls offer new evidence that early menarche is associated with earlier initiation and greater frequency of smoking and drinking. The role of personality factors and peer relationships in that association was investigated, and little support was found for their involvement. Novel within-family analyses replicating associations of substance use with pubertal timing in contrasts of twin sisters selected for extreme discordance for age at menarche are reported. Within-family replications demonstrated that the association of pubertal timing with substance use cannot be explained solely by between-family confounds. Within-family analyses demonstrated contextual modulation of the influence of pubertal timing: Its impact on drinking frequency is apparent only among girls in urban settings. Sibling comparisons illustrate a promising analytic tool for studying diverse developmental outcomes.

  7. Height premium for job performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Han, Euna

    2017-08-01

    This study assessed the relationship of height with wages, using the 1998 and 2012 Korean Labor and Income Panel Study data. The key independent variable was height measured in centimeters, which was included as a series of dummy indicators of height per 5cm span (wages to assess the heterogeneity in the height-wage relationship, across the conditional distribution of monthly wages. We found a non-linear relationship of height with monthly wages. For men, the magnitude of the height wage premium was overall larger at the upper quantile of the conditional distribution of log monthly wages than at the median to low quantile, particularly in professional and semi-professional occupations. The height-wage premium was also larger at the 90th quantile for self-employed women and salaried men. Our findings add a global dimension to the existing evidence on height-wage premium, demonstrating non-linearity in the association between height and wages and heterogeneous changes in the dispersion and direction of the association between height and wages, by wage level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of Pubertal Development and Physical Activity on Heart Rate Variability in Overweight and Obese Children in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Su-Ru; Chiu, Hung-Wen; Lee, Yann-Jinn; Sheen, Tzong-Chi; Jeng, Chii

    2012-01-01

    Child obesity is frequently associated with dysfunction of autonomic nervous system. Children in pubertal development were suggested to be vulnerable to autonomic nervous system problems such as decrease of heart rate variability from dysregulation of metabolic control. This study explored the influence of pubertal development on autonomic nervous…

  9. A Short-Term Longitudinal Study of Pubertal Change, Gender, and Psychological Well-Being of Mexican Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjet, Corina; Hernandez-Guzman, Laura

    2002-01-01

    Studied the role of pubertal development on depression, externalizing behavior problems, self-esteem, and body-image of 951 Mexican early adolescents. Findings show that the acute experience of menarche adversely affected the psychological well-being of girls, specifically in terms of depressive symptomatology. Pubertal change in boys did not…

  10. Adolescents' Increasing Stress Response to Social Evaluation: Pubertal Effects on Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase during Public Speaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bos, Esther; de Rooij, Mark; Miers, Anne C.; Bokhorst, Caroline L.; Westenberg, P. Michiel

    2014-01-01

    Stress responses to social evaluation are thought to increase during adolescence, which may be due to pubertal maturation. However, empirical evidence is scarce. This study is the first to investigate the relation between pubertal development and biological responses to a social-evaluative stressor longitudinally. Participants performed the Leiden…

  11. Transitions in body and behavior: a meta-analytic study on the relationship between pubertal development and adolescent sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baams, Laura; Dubas, Judith Semon; Overbeek, Geertjan; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2015-06-01

    The present meta-analysis studies the relations of pubertal timing and status with sexual behavior and sexual risk behavior among youth aged 10.5-22.4 years. We included biological sex, age, and ethnicity as potential moderators. Four databases were searched for studies (published between 1980 and 2012) on the relation between pubertal timing or status and sexual behavior. The outcomes were (1) sexual intercourse; (2) combined sexual behavior; and (3) risky sexual behavior. Earlier pubertal timing or more advanced pubertal status was related to earlier and more sexual behavior, and earlier pubertal timing was related to more risky sexual behavior. Further, the links between (1) pubertal status and combined sexual behavior and (2) pubertal timing and sexual intercourse status, combined sexual behavior, and risky sexual behavior were stronger for girls than boys. Most links between pubertal status, timing, and sexual behavior and sexual risk behavior were stronger for younger adolescents. Moderation by ethnicity did not yield consistent results. There was significant variation in results among studies that was not fully explained by differences in biological sex, age, and ethnicity. Future research is needed to identify moderators that explain the variation in effects and to design sexual health interventions for young adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of Di-(2-ethylhexyl Phthalate on the Hypothalamus–Uterus in Pubertal Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The pollution of endocrine disruptors and its impact on human reproductive system have attracted much attention. Di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP, an environmental endocrine disruptor, is widely used in food packages, containers, medical supplies and children’s toys. It can cause diseases such as infertility, sexual precocity and uterine bleeding and thus arouse concerns from the society and scholars. The effect of DEHP on pubertal female reproductive system is still not well-studied. This study was to investigate the effects of DEHP on the hypothalamus–uterus in pubertal female rats, reveal the reproductive toxicity of DEHP on pubertal female rats and its mechanism, and provide scientific evidence for the evaluation of toxicity and toxic mechanism of DEHP on reproductive system. Forty-eight pubertal female rats were randomly divided into four groups and respectively administered via oral gavage 0, 250, 500, or 1000 mg/kg/d DEHP in 0.1 mL corn oil/20 g body weight for up to four weeks. Compared with control rats, the DEHP-treated rats showed: (1 higher gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH level in the hypothalamus; (2 higher protein levels of GnRH in the hypothalamus; and (3 higher mRNA and protein levels of GnRH receptor (GnRHR in the uterus. Our data reveal that DEHP exposure may lead to a disruption in pubertal female rats and an imbalance of hypothalamus–uterus. Meanwhile, DEHP may, through the GnRH in the hypothalamus and its receptor on the uterus, lead to diseases of the uterus. DEHP may impose a negative influence on the development and functioning of the reproductive system in pubertal female rats.

  13. Effects of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate on the Hypothalamus–Uterus in Pubertal Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Te; Jia, Yiyang; Zhou, Liting; Wang, Qi; Sun, Di; Xu, Jin; Wu, Juan; Chen, Huaiji; Xu, Feng; Ye, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The pollution of endocrine disruptors and its impact on human reproductive system have attracted much attention. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), an environmental endocrine disruptor, is widely used in food packages, containers, medical supplies and children’s toys. It can cause diseases such as infertility, sexual precocity and uterine bleeding and thus arouse concerns from the society and scholars. The effect of DEHP on pubertal female reproductive system is still not well-studied. This study was to investigate the effects of DEHP on the hypothalamus–uterus in pubertal female rats, reveal the reproductive toxicity of DEHP on pubertal female rats and its mechanism, and provide scientific evidence for the evaluation of toxicity and toxic mechanism of DEHP on reproductive system. Forty-eight pubertal female rats were randomly divided into four groups and respectively administered via oral gavage 0, 250, 500, or 1000 mg/kg/d DEHP in 0.1 mL corn oil/20 g body weight for up to four weeks. Compared with control rats, the DEHP-treated rats showed: (1) higher gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) level in the hypothalamus; (2) higher protein levels of GnRH in the hypothalamus; and (3) higher mRNA and protein levels of GnRH receptor (GnRHR) in the uterus. Our data reveal that DEHP exposure may lead to a disruption in pubertal female rats and an imbalance of hypothalamus–uterus. Meanwhile, DEHP may, through the GnRH in the hypothalamus and its receptor on the uterus, lead to diseases of the uterus. DEHP may impose a negative influence on the development and functioning of the reproductive system in pubertal female rats. PMID:27845755

  14. Pubertal stage and the prevalence of violence and social/relational aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A; Kotevski, Aneta; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Toumbourou, John W; Carlin, John B; Catalano, Richard F; Patton, George C

    2010-08-01

    We examined associations between pubertal stage and violent adolescent behavior and social/relational aggression. The International Youth Development Study comprises statewide representative student samples in grades 5, 7, and 9 (N = 5769) in Washington State and Victoria, Australia, drawn as a 2-stage cluster sample in each state. We used a school-administered, self-report student survey to measure previous-year violent behavior (ie, attacking or beating up another person) and social/relational aggression (excluding peers from the group, threatening to spread lies or rumors), as well as risk and protective factors and pubertal development. Cross-sectional data were analyzed. Compared with early puberty, the odds of violent behavior were approximately threefold higher in midpuberty (odds ratio [OR]: 2.87 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.81-4.55]) and late puberty (OR: 3.79 [95% CI: 2.25-6.39]) after adjustment for demographic factors. For social/relational aggression, there were weaker overall associations after adjustment, but these associations included an interaction between pubertal stage and age, and stronger associations with pubertal stage at younger age were shown (P = .003; midpuberty OR: 1.78 [95% CI: 1.20-2.63]; late puberty OR: 3.00 [95% CI: 1.95-4.63]). Associations between pubertal stage and violent behavior and social/relational aggression remained after the inclusion of social contextual mediators in the analyses. Pubertal stage was associated with higher rates of violent behavior and social/relational aggression, with the latter association seen only at younger ages. Puberty is an important phase at which to implement prevention programs to reduce adolescent violent and antisocial behaviors.

  15. Endothelial function in pre-pubertal children at risk of developing cardiomyopathy: a new frontier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Cristina Tavares

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although it is known that obesity, diabetes, and Kawasaki's disease play important roles in systemic inflammation and in the development of both endothelial dysfunction and cardiomyopathy, there is a lack of data regarding the endothelial function of pre-pubertal children suffering from cardiomyopathy. In this study, we performed a systematic review of the literature on pre-pubertal children at risk of developing cardiomyopathy to assess the endothelial function of pre-pubertal children at risk of developing cardiomyopathy. We searched the published literature indexed in PubMed, Bireme and SciELO using the keywords 'endothelial', 'children', 'pediatric' and 'infant' and then compiled a systematic review. The end points were age, the pubertal stage, sex differences, the method used for the endothelial evaluation and the endothelial values themselves. No studies on children with cardiomyopathy were found. Only 11 papers were selected for our complete analysis, where these included reports on the flow-mediated percentage dilatation, the values of which were 9.80±1.80, 5.90±1.29, 4.50±0.70, and 7.10±1.27 for healthy, obese, diabetic and pre-pubertal children with Kawasaki's disease, respectively. There was no significant difference in the dilatation, independent of the endothelium, either among the groups or between the genders for both of the measurements in children; similar results have been found in adolescents and adults. The endothelial function in cardiomyopathic children remains unclear because of the lack of data; nevertheless, the known dysfunctions in children with obesity, type 1 diabetes and Kawasaki's disease may influence the severity of the cardiovascular symptoms, the prognosis, and the mortality rate. The results of this study encourage future research into the consequences of endothelial dysfunction in pre-pubertal children.

  16. Rope skipping increases bone mineral density at calcanei of pubertal girls in Hong Kong: A quasi-experimental investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy S Ha

    Full Text Available Bone mineral accrual during puberty is important, especially in girls, because it is related to reduced risks of osteoporosis in adulthood. Previous research has shown that jumping or plyometric exercises may be effective in increasing bone mineral density in adolescents. Rope skipping is a form of activity that involves jumping, thus regular skipping may also increase bone mineral density in pubertal girls. To this end, we conducted a quasi-experimental to examine the effects of rope skipping on girls' bone mineral density and cardiovascular fitness. 176 Hong Kong girls (age = 12.23 ± 1.80 years at baseline were recruited to take part in the study. Bone density at their forearms and calcanei were measured twice over two academic years (mean time between visits was 10.3 months. Using multilevel modeling analyses and adjusting for participants' height and physical activity, we found that girls who participated in weekly rope skipping activities, compared to those who did not, had higher levels of bone density at the calcanei (B = 0.023, p < .01. However, no differences were found for bone density at forearms or participants' cardiovascular fitness. The rates of change of these variables across time were also not significantly different. Results suggest that regular rope skipping may increase girls' bone density at the lower extremities, irrespective of the amount of self-report physical activity. However, further research is required to examine the potential dose-response relation between skipping behaviors and the measured outcomes.

  17. Electro convulsive therapy in a pre-pubertal child with severe depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell P

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Electro Convulsive Therapy (ECT in pre-pubertal children is a controversial and underreported treatment. Even though the effectiveness and side effects of ECT in adolescents are comparable with those in adults, there is a pervasive reluctance to use ECT in children and adolescents. We report the case of a pre-pubertal child in an episode of severe depression with catatonic features, where a protracted course of ECT proved life-saving in spite of prolonged duration of seizures and delayed response to treatment. The case illustrates the safety and efficacy of ECT in children. Relevant literature is also reviewed along with the case report.

  18. More practical critical height sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas B. Lynch; Jeffrey H. Gove

    2015-01-01

    Critical Height Sampling (CHS) (Kitamura 1964) can be used to predict cubic volumes per acre without using volume tables or equations. The critical height is defined as the height at which the tree stem appears to be in borderline condition using the point-sampling angle gauge (e.g. prism). An estimate of cubic volume per acre can be obtained from multiplication of the...

  19. Height-Deterministic Pushdown Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nowotka, Dirk; Srba, Jiri

    2007-01-01

    We define the notion of height-deterministic pushdown automata, a model where for any given input string the stack heights during any (nondeterministic) computation on the input are a priori fixed. Different subclasses of height-deterministic pushdown automata, strictly containing the class...... of regular languages and still closed under boolean language operations, are considered. Several of such language classes have been described in the literature. Here, we suggest a natural and intuitive model that subsumes all the formalisms proposed so far by employing height-deterministic pushdown automata...

  20. Unified height systems after GOCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, Reiner; Gruber, Thomas; Sideris, Michael; Rangelova, Elena; Woodworth, Phil; Hughes, Chris; Ihde, Johannes; Liebsch, Gunter; Rülke, Axel; Gerlach, Christian; Haagmans, Roger

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of global height unification are twofold, (1) the realization of accurate geopotential numbers C together with their standard deviation σ(C) at a selected set of stations (datum points of national height systems, geodetic fundamental stations (IERS), primary tide gauges (PSMSL) and primary reference clocks (IERS)) and (2) the determination of height off-sets between all existing regional/national height systems and one global height reference. In the future the primary method of height determination will be GPS-levelling with very stringent requirements concerning the consistency of the positioning and the gravity potential difference part. Consistency is required in terms of the applied standards (ITRF, zero tide system, geodetic reference system). Geopotential differences will be based on a next generation geopotential model combining GOCE and GRACE and a best possible collection of global terrestrial and altimetric gravity and topographic data. Ultimately, the envisaged accuracy of height unification is about 10 cm2/s2 (or 1cm). At the moment, in well surveyed regions, an accuracy of about 40 to 60 cm2/s2 (or 4 to 6cm) is attainable. Objective One can be realized by straight forward computation of geopotential numbers C, i.e. geopotential differences relative to an adopted height reference. No adjustment is required for this. Objective Two, the unification of existing height systems is achieved by employing a least-squares adjustment based on the GBVP-approach. In order to attain a non-singular solution, this requires for each included datum zone at least one geo-referenced station per zone, i.e. its ellipsoidal height h and, in addition, the corresponding physical height H (geopotential number, normal height, orthometric height, etc.). Changes in geopotential numbers of consecutive realizations reflect (1) temporal changes of station heights, (2) improvements or changes of the applied geopotential (or geoid) model and (3) improvements of the

  1. Timing of puberty and physical growth in obese children: a longitudinal study in boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leonibus, C; Marcovecchio, M L; Chiavaroli, V; de Giorgis, T; Chiarelli, F; Mohn, A

    2014-08-01

    To assess whether puberty and physical growth vary in obese when compared to normal-weight children. One hundred obese pre-pubertal children (44 boys; mean age (±SD): 9.01 ± 0.62 years; 56 girls; 8.70 ± 0.57 years) were compared to 55 normal-weight controls (27 boys; 9.17 ± 0.26 years; 28 girls; 8.71 ± 0.62 years). All study participants were followed prospectively with 6-monthly follow-up visits. At each study visit, height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and pubertal stage were assessed. Obese children entered puberty and achieved later stages of puberty earlier than controls (onset of puberty: boys: 11.66 ± 1.00 vs. 12.12 ± 0.91 years, P = 0.049; girls: 9.90 ± 0.78 vs. 10.32 ± 1.70, P = 0.016; late puberty: boys: 13.33 ± 0.71 vs. 14.47 ± 1.00 years, P puberty (β = -0.506, P puberty (β = -0.514, P puberty and completion of puberty and an impaired height gain during puberty. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  2. Clinical longitudinal standards for height, weight, height velocity, weight velocity, and stages of puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, J M; Whitehouse, R H

    1976-01-01

    New charts for height, weight, height velocity, and weight velocity are presented for clinical (as opposed to population survey) use. They are based on longitudinal-type growth curves, using the same data as in the British 1965 growth standards. In the velocity standards centiles are given for children who are early- and late-maturing as well as for those who mature at the average age (thus extending the use of the previous charts). Limits of normality for the age of occurrence of the adolescent growth spurt are given and also for the successive stages of penis, testes, and pubic hair development in boys, and for stages of breast and pubic hair development in girls. PMID:952550

  3. Height and Tilt Geometric Texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vedrana; Desbrun, Mathieu; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2009-01-01

    compromise between functionality and simplicity: it can efficiently handle and process geometric texture too complex to be represented as a height field, without having recourse to full blown mesh editing algorithms. The height-and-tilt representation proposed here is fully intrinsic to the mesh, making...

  4. Fluctuations in Schottky barrier heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahan, G.D.

    1984-01-01

    A double Schottky barrier is often formed at the grain boundary in polycrystalline semiconductors. The barrier height is shown to fluctuate in value due to the random nature of the impurity positions. The magnitude of the fluctuations is 0.1 eV, and the fluctuations cause the barrier height measured by capacitance to differ from the one measured by electrical conductivity

  5. Pubertal Timing and Early Sexual Intercourse in the Offspring of Teenage Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Genna, Natacha M.; Larkby, Cynthia; Cornelius, Marie D.

    2011-01-01

    Early puberty is associated with stressful family environments, early sexual intercourse, and teenage pregnancy. We examined pubertal timing and sexual debut among the 14-year-old offspring of teenage mothers. Mothers (71% Black, 29% White) were recruited as pregnant teenagers (12-18 years old). Data were collected during pregnancy and when…

  6. Pubertal development and fertility in survivors of childhood acute myeloid leukemia treated with chemotherapy only

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molgaard-Hansen, Lene; Skou, Anne-Sofie; Juul, Anders

    2013-01-01

    More than 60% of children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) become long-term survivors. Most are cured using chemotherapy without hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We report on pubertal development and compare self-reported parenthood among AML survivors and their siblings....

  7. Repeatability and accuracy of reproductive tract scoring to determine pubertal status in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkrans, Kelly S; Hardin, David K

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the repeatability and accuracy of palpation per rectum to transrectal ultrasonography and serum progesterone concentrations for determining pubertal status in beef heifers. One hundred and seventy-four rectal examinations were performed on 29 predominantly Angus heifers by two veterinarians (A and B) and assigned individual reproductive tract scores (RTS) during monthly examinations over a 3-month period. Heifers were examined in the morning by both veterinarians, randomized, and re-examined in the afternoon. The size and location of ovarian structures of each heifer were determined by ultrasonography. Heifers with follicles >10mm in diameter or corpora lutea were classified as pubertal. Serum progesterone concentrations at the time of the examination and 10 days later were determined by radioimmunoassay and used to classify heifers as prepubertal (or=1 ng/ml). Kappa, which describes degree of agreement beyond chance, was used to determine repeatability of the RTS system. Multicategory Kappa for agreement was 0.64 within veterinarian, 0.46 between veterinarian, and 0.35 between palpation per rectum and transrectal ultrasonography. Sensitivity and specificity of palpation per rectum for diagnosis of pubertal status compared to serum progesterone levels were higher (82 and 69%, respectively) than sensitivity and specificity of ultrasonography (79 and 59%, respectively). This study validates the RTS system as a repeatable and accurate screening test to evaluate pubertal status in groups of heifers prior to the onset of the breeding season.

  8. BMI percentile-for-age overestimates adiposity in early compared with late maturing pubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Juul, Anders

    2015-01-01

    and bioelectric impedance analyses (BIA) were used to estimate adiposity. Clinical pubertal markers (Tanner stages and testicular volume) were evaluated. LH, FSH, estradiol, testosterone, SHBG and IGF1 levels were determined by immunoassays. RESULTS: In all age groups, higher BMI (all 1 year age-groups, P ≤ 0...

  9. The Interplay between Gaze Following, Emotion Recognition, and Empathy across Adolescence; a Pubertal Dip in Performance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooijen, R.; Junge, C.M.M.; Kemner, C.

    2018-01-01

    During puberty a dip in face recognition is often observed, possibly caused by heightened levels of gonadal hormones which in turn affects the re-organization of relevant cortical circuitry. In the current study we investigated whether a pubertal dip could be observed in three other abilities

  10. The Relationship among Pubertal Stage, Age, and Drinking in Adolescent Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faden, Vivian B.; Ruffin, Beverly; Newes-Adeyi, Gabriella; Chen, Chiung

    2010-01-01

    This study used data from the Third National Household and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to examine the association between pubertal status (Tanner staging for boys and girls and menarche for girls) and alcohol use in a nationally representative sample of youths ages 12 to 17. Logistic regression was used to model the relationship. In…

  11. Insulin resistance in obese pre-pubertal children: Relation to body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heba Elsedfy

    2014-04-16

    Apr 16, 2014 ... of pre-pubertal obese children, and to investigate the relation- .... children P 10 years, HDL-Cholesterol <35 mg/dl) [18]. .... HDL: high density lipoprotein, TG: triglycerides, IFG: impaired fasting glucose, IGT: impaired glucose ...

  12. Pubertal maturation and sex steroids are related to alcohol use in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Water, E. de; Braams, B.R.; Crone, E.A.; Peper, J.S.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents often show risk-taking behavior, including experimentation with alcohol. Previous studies have shown that advanced pubertal maturation is related to increased alcohol use in adolescents, even when controlling for age. Little is known about the underlying mechanisms of this relation

  13. Sex Variations in Youth Anxiety Symptoms: Effects of Pubertal Development and Gender Role Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Rona; Silverman, Wendy K.; Jaccard, James

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated whether pubertal development and gender role orientation (i.e., masculinity and femininity) can partially explain sex variations in youth anxiety symptoms among clinic-referred anxious youth (N = 175; ages 9-13 years; 74% Hispanic; 48% female). Using youth and parent ratings of youth anxiety symptoms, structural equation…

  14. Early Adolescent Boys' Exposure to Internet Pornography: Relationships to Pubertal Timing, Sensation Seeking, and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyens, Ine; Vandenbosch, Laura; Eggermont, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that adolescents regularly use Internet pornography. This two-wave panel study aimed to test an integrative model in early adolescent boys (M[subscript age] = 14.10; N = 325) that (a) explains their exposure to Internet pornography by looking at relationships with pubertal timing and sensation seeking, and (b) explores…

  15. Early adolescent boys’ exposure to Internet pornography: relationships to pubertal timing, sensation seeking, and academic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beyens, I.; Vandenbosch, L.; Eggermont, S.

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that adolescents regularly use Internet pornography. This two-wave panel study aimed to test an integrative model in early adolescent boys (Mage = 14.10; N = 325) that (a) explains their exposure to Internet pornography by looking at relationships with pubertal timing and

  16. Subjective Age in Early Adolescence: Relationships with Chronological Age, Pubertal Timing, Desired Age, and Problem Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubley, Anita M.; Arim, Rubab G.

    2012-01-01

    Subjective age generally refers to the age that one feels. In a cross-sectional questionnaire study of 245 adolescents ages 10-14 years, we examined (a) whether, and when, a cross-over in subjective age occurs, (b) differences in subjective age among pubertal timing groups, (c) correlations between subjective age and each of desired age and five…

  17. Salivary testosterone concentrations in pubertal ICSI boys compared with spontaneously conceived boys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belva, F.; Bonduelle, M.; Schiettecatte, J.; Tournaye, H.; Painter, R. C.; Devroey, P.; de Schepper, J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To date, no data exist about Leydig cell function of pubertal boys born after ICSI. To evaluate a potential risk of gonadal dysfunction in children born from fathers with compromised fertility, testicular function was assessed by the measurement of salivary testosterone. METHODS: Morning

  18. Tamoxifen therapy for the management of pubertal gynecomastia: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lapid, Oren; van Wingerden, Jan J.; Perlemuter, Leon

    2013-01-01

    Objective: A systematic review to assess the efficacy of tamoxifen in the management of idiopathic pubertal gynecomastia. Data sources: Searches were conducted using the databases of Medline (search engine PubMed) and Web of Science (R). Study selection: Studies reporting the use of Tamoxifen for

  19. Tamoxifen treatment for pubertal gynecomastia in two siblings with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Reiko; Yamamoto, Yukiyo; Goto, Motohide; Araki, Shunsuke; Kubo, Kazuyasu; Kawagoe, Rinko; Kawada, Yasusada; Kusuhara, Koichi; Igarashi, Maki; Fukami, Maki

    2014-01-01

    Although tamoxifen has been shown to be fairly safe and effective for idiopathic pubertal gynecomastia, it remains unknown whether it is also beneficial for gynecomastia associated with endocrine disorders. Here, we report the effect of tamoxifen on pubertal gynecomastia in 2 siblings with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS). Cases 1 and 2 presented with persistent pubertal gynecomastia at 13 and 16 years of age, respectively. Physical examinations revealed breast of Tanner stage 3 and normal male-type external genitalia in both cases. Clinical features such as female-type pubic hair and borderline small testis indicated mildly impaired masculinization. Molecular analysis identified a previously reported p.Arg789Ser mutation in the androgen receptor gene (AR) in the 2 cases. Two months of oral administration of tamoxifen ameliorated gynecomastia to Tanner stage 2 with no adverse events. Additional treatment with testosterone enanthate showed negligible effects on body hair and penile length. Hormone values of the 2 cases during tamoxifen treatment remained similar to those in previously reported untreated patients with PAIS. The results indicate that tamoxifen was effective in treating pubertal gynecomastia in these 2 patients with PAIS and may be considered as a therapeutic option in this situation pending further studies.

  20. Pubertal Timing and Mexican-Origin Girls' Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms: The Influence of Harsh Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deardorff, Julianna; Cham, Heining; Gonzales, Nancy A.; White, Rebecca M. B.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Wong, Jessie J.; Roosa, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    Early-maturing girls are at risk for internalizing and externalizing problems. Research concerning pubertal timing and mental health among Mexican Americans or the influence of parenting behaviors on these relations has been scarce. This study addressed these gaps. This was a prospective examination of 362 Mexican-origin girls and their mothers in…

  1. Off-Time Pubertal Timing Predicts Physiological Reactivity to Postpuberty Interpersonal Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Anne Emilie; Powers, Sally I.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated associations between retrospectively assessed timing of pubertal development, interpersonal interactions, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity to an interpersonal stress task in 110 young adult women. Participants provided salivary cortisol samples at points prior and subsequent to a video-taped conflict discussion…

  2. Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis supplementation affects folliculogenesis, progesterone and ghrelin levels in fattening pre-pubertal gilts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abadjieva, Desislava; Nedeva, Radka; Marchev, Yordan; Jordanova, Gergana; Chervenkov, Mihail; Dineva, Julieta; Shimkus, Almantas; Shimkiene, Aldona; Teerds, Katja; Kistanova, Elena

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis supplemented diet on follicular development and related endocrine parameters, such as estradiol and progesterone levels as well as ghrelin levels in pre-pubertal gilts. Twenty-one 60-day-old Danube

  3. IPRODIONE DELAYS MALE RAT PUBERTAL DEVELOPMENT, REDUCING SERUM TESTOSTERONE AND EX VIVO TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iprodione (IPRO) is a dichlorophenyl dicarboximide fungicide similar to the androgen receptor (AR) antagonist vinclozolin. The current studies were designed to determine if IPRO would delay male rat pubertal development like vinclozolin and to identify the mechanism(s) of action...

  4. EFFECTS OF DIBUTYL PHTHALATE IN MALE RABBITS FOLLOWING IN UTERO, ADOLESCENT OR POST-PUBERTAL EXPOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of dibutyl phthalate in male rabbits following in utero, adolescent, or post-pubertal exposureTy T. Higuchi1, Jennifer S. Palmer1, L. Earl Gray Jr2., and D. N. Rao Veeramachaneni11Animal Reproduction and Biotechnology Laboratory, Colorado State University, Fort

  5. Adult height after long-term, continuous growth hormone (GH) treatment in short children born small for gestational age: results of a randomized, double-blind, dose-response GH trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. van Pareren; M. Houdijk; M. Jansen (Maarten); M. Reeser; P.G.H. Mulder (Paul); A.C.S. Hokken-Koelega (Anita)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe GH dose-response effect of long-term continuous GH treatment on adult height (AH) was evaluated in 54 short children born small for gestational age (SGA) who were participating in a randomized, double-blind, dose-response trial. Patients were randomly and blindly

  6. Relationships between anthropometric features, body composition, and anaerobic alactic power in elite post-pubertal and mature male taekwondo athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boraczyński Michał

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper describes the relationships between anthropometric features, body composition, and anaerobic alactic power (AAP in elite post-pubertal and mature male taekwondo athletes. Methods. The sample of 41 taekwondo athletes was divided into two groups: post-pubertal (P-P, n = 19, Mage = 15.6 ± 1.1 years and mature (M, n = 22, Mage = 20.7 ± 2.8 years. Anthropometric features (WB-150, ZPU Tryb-Wag, Poland, body composition (BC-418 MA, Tanita, Japan, maturational status (Pubertal Maturational Observational Scale, and AAP (10-s version of the Wingate Anaerobic Test were assessed. Results. Post-hoc testing revealed significant between-group differences (3.2-20.4%, p < 0.01 in all anthropometric and body composition measures, with effect sizes (ES between −0.79 and −1.25 (p < 0.001, except for fat content and percentage of skeletal muscle mass (SMM (p ≥ 0.05. In group M, the maximal power output (Pmax was greater (ES = −1.15, p < 0.001 and the time of its attainment shorter (ES = 0.59, p < 0.001 than in group P-P. Correlation analyses indicated notably strong associations between body mass (BM and Pmax in group P-P (r = 0.950 [95% CI, 0.85-0.98], p < 0.001 and M (r = 0.926 [95% CI, 0.81-0.97], p < 0.001, and similar-sized strong correlations between fat-free mass (FFM and Pmax in group P-P (r = 0.955 [95% CI, 0.86-0.99], p < 0.001 and M (r = 0.924 [95% CI, 0.82-0.96], p < 0.001. Additionally, a strong correlation was found between body height and Pmax in groups P-P and M (r = 0.805 [95% CI, 0.54-0.92], p < 0.001 and r = 0.819 [95% CI, 0.58-0.93], p < 0.001, respectively. Linear regression analyses demonstrated that FFM, BM, and absolute SMM best explained the variance in Pmax in both groups (r, 0.939-0.951; r2, 0.882-0.909. Conclusions. The strong correlations observed in both groups between BM, FFM, SMM, and Pmax demonstrate the significant effects of body size and composition on AAP. By determining the current levels of these

  7. Conservation reaches new heights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepall, J; Khanal, P

    1992-10-01

    The conservation program with the management assistance of the Woodlands Mountain Institute in 2 contiguous parks, the Mount Everest National Park in Nepal and the Qomolangma Nature Reserve in China, in 2 countries is described. The focus is on conservation of the complex ecosystem with sustainable development by showing local people how to benefit from the park without environmental damage. Cultural diversity is as important as biological diversity. The area has been designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site with the "last pure ecological seed" of the Himalayas. The regional geography and culture are presented. Population growth has impacted natural resources through overgrazing, cultivation of marginal land, and deforestation; future plans to build a dam and road bordering the nature reserve pose other threats. Proposed management plans for the Makalu-Barun Nature Park (established in November 1991) and Conservation Area include a division of the park into nature reserve areas free of human activity, protected areas which permit traditional land use, and special sites and trail for tourists and religious pilgrims. The conservation area will act as a buffer for the park and provide economic opportunities; further subdivisions include land use for biodiversity protection, community forest and pasture, agroforestry, and agriculture and settlement. Efforts will be made to increase the welfare of women and local people; proposed projects include the introduction of higher milk-producing animals for stall feeding. Also proposed is a cultural and natural history museum. 70% of the project's resources will be directed to local community participation in consultation and park maintenance. The project is a model of how conservation and protection of natural resources can coexist with local economic development and participation; an integration of preservation of biological diversity, mountain wisdom, and the value of local people as resources for conservation.

  8. Brain Maturation, Cognition and Voice Pattern in a Gender Dysphoria Case under Pubertal Suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Maiko A; Spritzer, Poli M; Soll, Bianca Machado Borba; Fontanari, Anna M V; Carneiro, Marina; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Costa, Angelo B; da Silva, Dhiordan C; Schwarz, Karine; Anes, Maurício; Tramontina, Silza; Lobato, Maria I R

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Gender dysphoria (GD) (DMS-5) is a condition marked by increasing psychological suffering that accompanies the incongruence between one's experienced or expressed gender and one's assigned gender. Manifestation of GD can be seen early on during childhood and adolescence. During this period, the development of undesirable sexual characteristics marks an acute suffering of being opposite to the sex of birth. Pubertal suppression with gonadotropin releasing hormone analogs (GnRHa) has been proposed for these individuals as a reversible treatment for postponing the pubertal development and attenuating psychological suffering. Recently, increased interest has been observed on the impact of this treatment on brain maturation, cognition and psychological performance. Objectives: The aim of this clinical report is to review the effects of puberty suppression on the brain white matter (WM) during adolescence. WM Fractional anisotropy, voice and cognitive functions were assessed before and during the treatment. MRI scans were acquired before, and after 22 and 28 months of hormonal suppression. Methods: We performed a longitudinal evaluation of a pubertal transgender girl undergoing hormonal treatment with GnRH analog. Three longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were performed for diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), regarding Fractional Anisotropy (FA) for regions of interest analysis. In parallel, voice samples for acoustic analysis as well as executive functioning with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale (WISC-IV) were performed. Results: During the follow-up, white matter fractional anisotropy did not increase, compared to normal male puberty effects on the brain. After 22 months of pubertal suppression, operational memory dropped 9 points and remained stable after 28 months of follow-up. The fundamental frequency of voice varied during the first year; however, it remained in the female range. Conclusion: Brain white matter fractional anisotropy

  9. [A survey of pubertal development in children born with assisted reproductive technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zi-Yuan; Wang, Xin-Li; Han, Tong-Yan; Cui, Yun-Pu; Wang, Xue-Mei; Tong, Xiao-Mei; Song, Yi; Wang, Hai-Jun; Li, Song

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the status of pubertal development in children born with assisted reproductive technology (ART). A retrospective analysis was performed on the pubertal development data of children born with ART in Peking University Third Hospital from 1994 to 2003 (ART group). The data in the cross-sectional study "Reports on the Physical Fitness and Health Research of Chinese School Students in 2010" were used as a control. The age at menarche and the age at spermarche were compared between the two groups. The status of pubertal development in the overweight and obese children in the ART group was evaluated to investigate the correlation between pubertal development and body mass index (BMI). A total of 200 children born with ART were enrolled in this study, and 72 of them (41 males and 31 females) completed the survey (response rate=36.0%). In the ART group, the mean age at spermarche and the mean age at menarche were 13.9 years (95%CI: 13.7-14.3 years) and 12.2 years (95%CI: 11.8-12.6 years), respectively. There were no significant differences in the age at spermarche and the age at menarche between the ART and control groups (P>0.05). In the ART group, there were no significant differences in the age at spermarche and the age at menarche between the overweight and obese children and the normal weight children (P>0.05). There were also no significant differences in overweight rate and obesity rate between the children in the ART group and the adolescents in Beijing (P>0.05). In the ART group, there was no significant correlation between the age at spermarche or menarche and BMI (P>0.05). No delayed or precocious puberty is observed in children born with ART. This is consistent with the normal control data. And there is no significant correlation between pubertal development and BMI in children born with ART.

  10. Mexico Geoid Heights (MEXICO97)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for Mexico, and North-Central America, is the MEXICO97 geoid model. The computation used about one million terrestrial and marine gravity...

  11. Alaska Geoid Heights (GEOID96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' x 4' geoid height grid for Alaska is distributed as a GEOID96 model. The computation used 1.1 million terrestrial and marine gravity data held in the...

  12. The effects of oestrogens on linear bone growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A

    2001-01-01

    Regulation of linear bone growth in children and adolescents comprises a complex interaction of hormones and growth factors. Growth hormone (GH) is considered to be the key hormone regulator of linear growth in childhood. The pubertal increase in growth velocity associated with GH has traditionally...... been attributed to testicular androgen secretion in boys, and to oestrogens or adrenal androgen secretion in girls. Research data indicating that oestrogen may be the principal hormone stimulating the pubertal growth spurt in boys as well as girls is reviewed. Such an action is mediated by oestrogen...... female growth spurt despite lack of androgen action. Oestrogens may also influence linear bone growth indirectly via modulation of the GH-insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) axis. Thus, ER blockade diminishes endogenous GH secretion, androgen receptor (AR) blockade increases GH secretion in peripubertal...

  13. Height, selected genetic markers and prostate cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia

    2017-01-01

    Background:Evidence on height and prostate cancer risk is mixed, however, recent studies with large data sets support a possible role for its association with the risk of aggressive prostate cancer.Methods:We analysed data from the PRACTICAL consortium consisting of 6207 prostate cancer cases...... and 6016 controls and a subset of high grade cases (2480 cases). We explored height, polymorphisms in genes related to growth processes as main effects and their possible interactions.Results:The results suggest that height is associated with high-grade prostate cancer risk. Men with height >180 cm...... are at a 22% increased risk as compared to men with height prostate cancer risk. The aggregate scores of the selected variants identified a significantly increased risk of overall prostate cancer...

  14. Growth and Puberty in Obese Children and Implications of Body Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sochung Chung

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is a major public health concern throughout the world. Nutrition, energy balance and hormones interplay in growth and pubertal development regulation. Frequently overweight and obese children are taller for their age and sex and tend to mature earlier than lean children. The increased leptin and sex hormone levels seen in obese children with excessive adiposity may be implicated in accelerated pubertal growth and accelerated epiphyseal growth plate maturation. Efforts to detect the impact of obesity in children are needed to prevent metabolic and cardiovascular disease in later life. This review aims to cover the process of growth in obese children and implications of body composition on growth and pubertal development and introduce the use of body composition charts in clinical practice.

  15. Pubertal stage and the prevalence of violence and social relational aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Kotevski, Aneta; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Toumbourou, John W.; Carlin, John B.; Catalano, Richard F.; Patton, George C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Violence and social relational aggression are global problems that become prominent in early adolescence. This study examines associations between pubertal stage and adolescent violent behavior and social relational aggression. Methods This paper draws on cross-sectional data from the International Youth Development Study (IYDS), which comprised two state-wide representative samples of students in grades 5, 7 and 9 (N = 5,769) in Washington State in the United States and Victoria, Australia, drawn as a 2-stage cluster sample in each state. The study used carefully matched methods to conduct a school-administered, self-report student survey measuring behavioral outcomes including past year violent behavior (measured as attacking or beating up another person) and social relational aggression (excluding peers from the group, threatening to spread lies or rumors), as well as a comprehensive range of risk and protective factors and pubertal development. Results Compared with early puberty, the odds of violent behavior were approximately three-fold higher in mid-puberty (odds ratio [OR]: 2.87; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.81,4.55) and late puberty (OR: 3.79; 95% CI: 2.25,6.39), after adjustment for age, gender, state, and state by gender interaction. For social relational aggression, there were weaker overall associations after adjustment but these included an interaction between pubertal stage and age, showing stronger associations with pubertal stage at younger age (p = .003; mid-puberty OR 1.78; 95% CI 1.20,2.63; late puberty OR 3.00; 95% CI 1.95,4.63. Associations between pubertal stage and violent behavior and social relational aggression remained (although the magnitude of effects was reduced), after the inclusion of social contextual mediators in the analyses. Conclusions Pubertal stage was associated with higher rates of violent behavior and social relational aggression, with the latter association seen only at younger ages. Puberty may be an

  16. Diversity of activity participation determines bone mineral content in the lower limbs of pre-pubertal children with developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, S S M; Vackova, D; Choi, A W M; Cheng, Y T Y; Yam, T T T; Guo, X

    2018-04-01

    This study examined the relationships between activity participation and bone mineralization in children with developmental coordination disorder. Limited participation in physical, recreational, social, and skill-based and self-improvement activities contributed to lower bone mineral content. For improved bone health, these children should participate in a variety of activities, not only physical activities. Limited activity participation in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) may have a negative impact on bone mineral accrual. The objectives of this study were to compare bone mineralization and activity participation patterns of pre-pubertal children with DCD and those with typical development, and to determine the association between activity participation patterns and bone mineralization in children with DCD. Fifty-two children with DCD (mean age = 7.51 years) and 61 children with typical development (mean age = 7.22 years) participated in the study. Appendicular and total body (less head) bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) were evaluated by a whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. Activity participation patterns were assessed using the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE) questionnaire. Children with DCD had lower appendicular and total body BMCs and BMDs than children with typical development overall (p accounting for the effects of age, sex, height, lean mass, and fat mass, the total activity diversity score remained independently associated with leg BMC in children with DCD, explaining 5.1% of the variance (p = 0.030). However, the physical activity diversity score was no longer associated with leg BMC (p = 0.090). Diversity of activity participation and bone mineralization were lower in pre-pubertal children with DCD. Decreased total activity participation diversity was a contributing factor to lower BMC in the legs of children with DCD.

  17. Understanding the Link Between Pubertal Timing in Girls and the Development of Depressive Symptoms: The Role of Sexual Harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Therése; Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi; Stattin, Håkan

    2016-02-01

    The link between sexual maturation, or pubertal timing, in girls and adolescent depressive symptoms is well-documented, but the underlying processes remain unclear. We examined whether sexual harassment, which has previously been linked to both pubertal timing and depressive symptoms, mediates this link, using a two-wave longitudinal study including 454 girls in 7th (M age  = 13.42, SD = .53) and 8th grade (M age  = 14.42, SD = .55). Pubertal timing was linked to depressive symptoms in both age groups, and predicted an increase in depressive symptoms among the 7th graders. Sexual harassment significantly mediated the link between pubertal timing and depressive symptoms among the 7th, but not the 8th grade girls. Together, our findings suggest that one way to prevent depressive symptoms among early-maturing girls could be to address sexual harassment in preventive intervention in early adolescence.

  18. Sex steroids and brain structure in pubertal boys and girls: a mini-review of neuroimaging studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peper, J.S.; Hulshoff Pol, H.E.; Crone, E.A.; van Honk, J.

    2011-01-01

    Puberty is an important period during development hallmarked by increases in sex steroid levels. Human neuroimaging studies have consistently reported that in typically developing pubertal children, cortical and subcortical gray matter is decreasing, whereas white matter increases well into

  19. The Few, the Changing, the Different: Pubertal Onset, Perceived School Climate and Body Image in Ethnically Diverse Sixth Grade Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Morales, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of pubertal onset, race/ethnicity, and school racial/ethnic composition on girls' body image and perceived school climate (school safety, school liking, and loneliness in school) during the middle school transition. The sample (N = 1,626) included 6th grade Black, Mexican American, White, and Asian girls from 20 diverse middle schools. Hierarchical analyses supported both the early-timing and stressful change hypothesis. That is, experiencing pubertal ons...

  20. Variability of the Mixed-Layer Height Over Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Franco, J. L.; Stremme, W.; Bezanilla, A.; Ruiz-Angulo, A.; Grutter, M.

    2018-02-01

    The diurnal and seasonal variability of the mixed-layer height in urban areas has implications for ground-level air pollution and the meteorological conditions. Measurements of the backscatter of light pulses with a commercial lidar system were performed for a continuous period of almost six years between 2011 and 2016 in the southern part of Mexico City. The profiles were temporally and vertically smoothed, clouds were filtered out, and the mixed-layer height was determined with an ad hoc treatment of both the filtered and unfiltered profiles. The results are in agreement when compared with values of mixed-layer height reconstructed from, (i) radiosonde data, and (ii) surface and vertical column densities of a trace gas. The daily maxima of the mean mixed-layer height reach values > 3 km above ground level in the months of March-April, and are clearly lower (pollution episodes and the height of the mixed layer. The growth rate of the convective mixed-layer height has a seasonal behaviour, which is characterized together with the mixed-layer-height anomalies. A clear residual layer is evident from the backscattered signals recorded in days with specific atmospheric conditions, but also from the cloud-filtered mean diurnal profiles. The occasional presence of a residual layer results in an overestimation of the reported mixed-layer height during the night and early morning hours.

  1. Encounter Probability of Significant Wave Height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Z.; Burcharth, H. F.

    The determination of the design wave height (often given as the significant wave height) is usually based on statistical analysis of long-term extreme wave height measurement or hindcast. The result of such extreme wave height analysis is often given as the design wave height corresponding to a c...

  2. Fertility of the Small East African goat following pre-pubertal infection with Trypanosoma congolense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, H.B.; Gombe, S.

    1991-01-01

    Pre-pubertal male and female Small East African goats were infected with Trypanosoma congolense at 4-5 months of age. Changes in body weight and haemogram were monitored weekly. Progesterone and testosterone measurements were made three times weekly until the goats either reached puberty or 18 months of age. Onset of puberty was determined from observation of oestrus behaviour, mating or increase in libidio; this was confirmed by elevation in plasma progesterone or testosterone levels. Trypanosomiasis affected pre-pubertal goats by reducing body weight gain and delaying onset of puberty. Histological examination of the gonads showed pronounced pathological changes. These effects were reversed by treatment with isometamidium chloride (Samorin, May and Baker). It was concluded that early treatment of infected goats before serious gonadal damage could occur allowed full restoration of reproductive function. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  3. A Twin Study of Objective and Subjective Pubertal Timing and Peer Influence on Risk-Taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretsch, Natalie; Mendle, Jane; Harden, K Paige

    2016-03-01

    The current study used a behavioral genetic design to test whether three measures of pubertal timing moderated peer influence on risk-taking in a sample of 248 female adolescent twin pairs ( M age =16.0, SD =1.5) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Peer influence was operationalized as the quasi-causal association between girls' self-reported risk-taking and the risk-taking reported by their friends. Girls with earlier ages at menarche and who perceived themselves as more developed than peers were more susceptible to peer influence on risk-taking. However, age-standardized ratings of body changes did not moderate peer influence. This study highlights distinctions between multiple measures of pubertal timing, using an innovative synthesis of genetically informative data and peer nomination data.

  4. Serum levels of INSL3, AMH, Inhibin B and Testosterone during pubertal transition in healthy boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt Johansen, Marie; Anand-Ivell, Ravinder; Mouritsen, Annette

    2014-01-01

    to luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone, inhibin B, and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) during puberty in healthy boys.MethodsTen boys were included from the longitudinal part of the COPENHAGEN Puberty Study. Pubertal evaluation, including testicular volume, was performed...... and blood samples drawn every 6 months for 5 years. Serum concentrations of testosterone were determined by a newly developed LC-MS/MS method, and serum concentrations of INSL3, AMH, inhibin B, FSH and LH, respectively, were determined by validated immunoassays.ResultsSerum INSL3 levels increased...... progressively with increasing age, pubertal onset and testicular volume. In six of ten boys, LH increased prior to the first observed increase in INSL3. In the remaining four boys, the increase in LH and INSL3 was observed at the same examination. The increases in serum concentrations of LH, testosterone...

  5. The association of pain and depression in preadolescent girls: moderation by race and pubertal stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alison E; Hinze, Amanda E; Babinski, Dara E

    2009-08-01

    To test whether an association between pain response and depression in females is present during preadolescence using a controlled pain stimulus and a clinically relevant assessment of depressive symptoms. In a sample of 232 girls, pain threshold and tolerance were assessed at age 10 years using the cold pressor task, and a diagnostic interview was used to assess depression symptoms at 10 and 11 years of age. Response to pain at age 10 was associated with depressive symptoms at ages 10 and 11; race and pubertal stage moderated the association. Pain response and depression were more strongly associated among girls who had reached advanced stages of pubertal development and among European American girls. The results add to the existing literature on the co-occurrence of depression and pain by demonstrating modest but consistent concurrent and prospective associations between response to pain and depression among girls during preadolescence.

  6. Giant fibroadenoma of the breast in a pre-pubertal girl: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunder Goyal

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile fibroadenoma comprises about 4% of the total fibroadenomas. The incidence of giant juvenile fibroadenomas is merely 0.5% of all the fibroadenomas. Bilateral giant juvenile fibroadenomas are extremely rare. We are presenting a case of giant juvenile fibroadenomas in an 11-year-old pre-pubertal girl. The diagnosis was made on fine-needle aspiration cytology which was confirmed on histopathology. As these tumors are mostly benign, breast-conserving surgery is done so that patient can lead a normal life without psychological trauma.-----------------------------------Cite this article as: Goyal S, Garg G, Narang S. Giant fibroadenoma of the breast in a pre-pubertal girl: a case report. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2014; 2(1:020113.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14319/ijcto.0201.13

  7. Height and Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ben; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Delahanty, Ryan J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have linked adult height with breast cancer risk in women. However, the magnitude of the association, particularly by subtypes of breast cancer, has not been established. Furthermore, the mechanisms of the association remain unclear. METHODS: We performed a meta......-analysis to investigate associations between height and breast cancer risk using data from 159 prospective cohorts totaling 5216302 women, including 113178 events. In a consortium with individual-level data from 46325 case patients and 42482 control patients, we conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis using...... a genetic score that comprised 168 height-associated variants as an instrument. This association was further evaluated in a second consortium using summary statistics data from 16003 case patients and 41335 control patients. RESULTS: The pooled relative risk of breast cancer was 1.17 (95% confidence...

  8. Pubertal development of penile Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The number of NADPH-positive fibers increases with age; however similar tumescence was recorded following electrostimulation in all age groups. NOS-nerve growth correlates with serum testosterone level. The increase of NADPH-positive fibers was accompanied by a decrease in the delay of onset of penile ...

  9. Ovarian function following pelvic irradiation in prepubertal and pubertal girls and young adult women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuck, A.; Hamelmann, V.; Braemswig, J.H.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the effect of pelvic radiotherapy on ovarian function in prepubertal and pubertal girls and young adult women. Patients and methods: In a retrospective monoinstitutional analysis, patients 15 Gy to the ovaries developed hormone failure. In one case of a patient receiving an ovarian dose of 15 Gy, hormone failure was not found. In case of pelvic irradiation excluding at least one ovary, approximately half of the patients developed ovarian dysfunction, probably also due to the effects of polychemotherapy. (orig.)

  10. Pubertal development among girls with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia initiated on treatment at different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Kulshreshtha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH provide us an opportunity to study the clinical effects of androgen excess in humans. We studied the sequence of pubertal development in girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia initiated on treatment at different ages, to assess the effects of androgen exposure on the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Ovarian (HPO axis. Materials and Methods: Girls more than 18 years of age, with CAH, on follow-up at this hospital were the subjects for this study. Details of history, physical findings, laboratory evaluation, and medication were noted from their case records and verified from the patients and their / parents, in addition to assessment of their present health status. Result: We studied 24 patients of classical CAH (SW-2, SV-22, average age - 24.5 ± 6.6 years. All had varying degrees of genital ambiguity (Prader stage 3 (n = 13, Prader stage 2 (n = 10, Prader stage 1 (n = 1. Among them were13 girls, who were started on steroids after eight years of age. Girls who received treatment from infancy and early childhood had normal pubertal development (mean age at menarche 11.4 ± 1.7 years. Hirsutism was not a problem among them. Untreated children had progressive clitoral enlargement throughout childhood, developed pubic hair at around three to six years of age, and facial hair between nine and eleven years. Plasma testosterone ranged from 3 to 6 ng / ml prior to treatment. Six of the 13 untreated CAH girls had subtle breast development starting at ages 11 - 16 years and three had spontaneous infrequent vaginal bleeding starting at ages 11 - 17. Steroid supplementation initiated pubertal changes in older girls in two-to-six months′ time. Conclusion: There was a delay in HPO axis maturation (as evidenced by delayed pubertal development in the absence of treatment in girls with CAH. This could be corrected with steroid supplementation.

  11. Putative effects of endocrine disrupters on pubertal development in the human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Grete; Juul, Anders; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2002-01-01

    -called endocrine disrupters. Precocious puberty has been described in several case reports of accidental exposure to oestrogenic compounds in cosmetic products, food and pharmaceuticals. Local epidemics of premature thelarche have also been suggested to be linked to endocrine disrupters. Children adopted from...... developing countries to industrialized countries often develop precocious puberty. Not only precocious puberty, but also delayed puberty can, theoretically, be associated with exposure to endocrine disrupters. While it is very plausible that endocrine disrupters may disturb pubertal development...

  12. Effects of Stimulants on Height and Weight: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph; Morley, Christopher P.; Spencer, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    The article reviews existing literature on the effects of stimulant medications on the growth of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. It concludes that treatment with stimulants in childhood results in moderate growth deficit in height and weight.

  13. [Craniopharyngioma and Klinefelter syndrome during the pubertal transition: A diagnostic challenge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocarbel, Yamile; Arébalo de Cross, Graciela; Lebrethon, Marie C; Thiry, Albert; Beckersd, Albert; Valdes-Socin, Hernan

    2017-04-01

    Craniopharyngioma is the most common pituitary tumor in childhood. It can compromise the pubertal development because of its evolution or treatment. Syndrome of Klinefelter is the most common cause of hipergonadotrophic hypogonadism in males. The concomitant presentation of both entities is extremely low (1/109) and the pathophysiological association is questionned. We present the case of a 18-year-old Belgian patient. He had a diagnosis of craniopharyngioma in childhood and he presented with panhypopituitarism after radiotherapy and surgical treatment. At the age of 14, he started pubertal induction with gonadotropin therapy without clinical response. Asociación de craneofaringioma y síndrome de Klinefelter en la transición puberal: un desafío diagnóstico Craniopharyngioma and Klinefelter syndrome during the pubertal transition: A diagnostic challenge A genetic evaluation confirmed a homogeneous 47, XXY karyotype. Failure of exogenous gonadotropin therapy revealed the hidden association of primary and secondary hypogonadism, demonstrating the importance of the followup and a multidisciplinary approach in these patients. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  14. The relationship between pubertal gynecomastia, prostate specific antigen, free androgen index, SHBG and sex steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Mustafa; Kanbur, Nuray; Derman, Orhan; Akgül, Sinem; Kutluk, Tezer

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the relationships between pubertal gynecomastia, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), free androgen index (FAI), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and sex steroids. A total of 61 male adolescents (10-17 years old; mean: 13.67 +/- 1.08) with gynecomastia were enrolled into the study group. A total of 65 healthy age-matched adolescents were included in the control group. Body mass index (BMI), Tanner staging, testis volume, stretched penis length (SPL) and bone age were evaluated. Serum follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol (E2), testosterone, free testosterone, SHBG, PSA levels were determined and FAI was calculated. In the study group, free testosterone (p = 0.012) and FAI (p = 0.05) were significantly lower than the control group. In the control group, SHBG levels decreased (p 0.05). High FAI was found to decrease the risk of gynecomastia (odds ratio: 0.211, 95% confidence interval: 0.064-0.694, p = 0.01). PSA showed a positive correlation with FAI, free testosterone, Tanner staging, testosterone, E2 and LH levels. PSA is a good indicator of androgen activity during puberty. However, owing to FAI remaining as the single significant variable for pubertal gynecomastia, we suggest that it is still the best parameter to elucidate the etiopathogenesis of gynecomastia as well as other pubertal developmental abnormalities in male adolescents, and further longitudinal studies are needed to investigate the relationships between PSA and FAI in puberty.

  15. Sexual differentiation of human behavior: effects of prenatal and pubertal organizational hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenbaum, Sheri A; Beltz, Adriene M

    2011-04-01

    A key question concerns the extent to which sexual differentiation of human behavior is influenced by sex hormones present during sensitive periods of development (organizational effects), as occurs in other mammalian species. The most important sensitive period has been considered to be prenatal, but there is increasing attention to puberty as another organizational period, with the possibility of decreasing sensitivity to sex hormones across the pubertal transition. In this paper, we review evidence that sex hormones present during the prenatal and pubertal periods produce permanent changes to behavior. There is good evidence that exposure to high levels of androgens during prenatal development results in masculinization of activity and occupational interests, sexual orientation, and some spatial abilities; prenatal androgens have a smaller effect on gender identity, and there is insufficient information about androgen effects on sex-linked behavior problems. There is little good evidence regarding long-lasting behavioral effects of pubertal hormones, but there is some suggestion that they influence gender identity and perhaps some sex-linked forms of psychopathology, and there are many opportunities to study this issue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Pubertal maturation, physical self-esteem and sexuality in a sample of French adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potard, C; Courtois, R; Clarisse, R; Le Floc'h, N; Thomine, M; Réveillère, C

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the links between pubertal maturation, physical self-esteem and sexuality in adolescence, differentiating between boys and girls. The sample was comprised of 312 French secondary school children (seventh and ninth grades); 52.6 % (n=164) of whom were girls. Participants answered three self-evaluation questionnaires: the scale of sexuality (interests, emotions, relationships: IERS) in prime adolescence (12 to 15 years); (b) the self-administered rating scale for pubertal development and (c) the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ). Pubertal maturation was associated with higher scores on "Flirting with the aim of having sexual relations" and "Going out with someone", and a drop in overall and physical self-esteem, mainly in socially valued domains, namely "Body fat" for girls, and "Strength" and "Health" for boys. Overall physical self-esteem was associated with "Going out with someone" and "Flirting with the aim of having sexual relations" in boys. Physical changes at puberty induce two distinct trends in adolescents: sexual exploration and discovery (genitalized body), and self-depreciation (social body). Copyright © 2015 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. NON LINEAR GROWTH CURVES FOR WEIGHT AND HEIGHT IN FOUR GENETIC GROUPS OF HORSES CURVAS DE CRESCIMENTO NÃO-LINEARES PARA PESO E ALTURA EM QUATRO GRUPOS GENÉTICOS DE CAVALOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepta Margaret McManus

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Hanoverian, Brazilian Showjumper, English Thoroughbred and Crossbred horses reared by the Brazilian Army were weighed and measured from six months of age to adult. In total 4,860 measurements on 1,445 horses were available. General curves were estimated as a function of time by the Gompertz, Brody, Logistic, Weibull and Richards curves, using PROC NLIN procedures of SAS ®. The Richards Curve did not converge for weight or height of any of the genetic groups or sexes. The logistic curve did not converge for any of the weight traits while the Gompertz also did not converge for height in several groups. R2 varied between 0.55 for weight in females of the crossbred group to 0.92 for males of the same group. For the height traits the highest R2 (0.66 was found for female Hanovarian horses and lowest for males of the same breed (0.12. In general the curves estimated similar values for asymptotic height and weight, except for Logistic curve, which also showed lowest R2 and highest error. Results for the Weibull and Brody curves were similar in all cases so where possible the Brody curve was selected as the best curve as it had less parameters. The Gompertz curve tended to underestimate mature weights and height. Estimates for both weight and height were in general higher in males than for females. In most cases the b parameter was shown to account for < 0.0001% of the variation in the curve shape. The k parameters, which indicate maturity, were of similar magnitude for the Brody, Gompertz and Weibull curves, for both height and weight within breed. This parameter indicated that there is little difference in maturation rates between males and females.

    KEY WORDS: Brody, Gompertz, Logistic, Richards, Weibull.

    Cavalos das raças Hanoveriana (HA, Brasileiro de Hipismo (BH, Puro Sangue Inglês (PSI e mestiços (PSIxBH criados pelo Exército brasileiro foram pesados e medidos de seis meses de idade até adulto. Realizaram-se 4.860 medidas em

  18. Sensitivity of the urban airshed model to mixing height profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, S.T.; Sistla, G.; Ku, J.Y.; Zhou, N.; Hao, W. [New York State Dept. of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has recommended the use of the Urban Airshed Model (UAM), a grid-based photochemical model, for regulatory applications. One of the important parameters in applications of the UAM is the height of the mixed layer or the diffusion break. In this study, we examine the sensitivity of the UAM-predicted ozone concentrations to (a) a spatially invariant diurnal mixing height profile, and (b) a spatially varying diurnal mixing height profile for a high ozone episode of July 1988 for the New York Airshed. The 1985/88 emissions inventory used in the EPA`s Regional Oxidant Modeling simulations has been regridded for this study. Preliminary results suggest that the spatially varying case yields a higher peak ozone concentrations compared to the spatially invariant mixing height simulation, with differences in the peak ozone ranging from a few ppb to about 40 ppb for the days simulated. These differences are attributed to the differences in the shape of the mixing height profiles and its rate of growth during the morning hours when peak emissions are injected into the atmosphere. Examination of the impact of emissions reductions associated with these two mixing height profiles indicates that NO{sub x}-focussed controls provide a greater change in the predicted ozone peak under spatially invariant mixing heights than under the spatially varying mixing height profile. On the other hand, VOC-focussed controls provide a greater change in the predicted peak ozone levels under spatially varying mixing heights than under the spatially invariant mixing height profile.

  19. Height development of shade-tolerant conifer saplings in multiaged Acadian forest stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew R. Moores; Robert S. Seymour; Laura S. Kenefic

    2007-01-01

    Understory growth dynamics of northern conifer species were studied in four stands managed under multiaged silvicultural systems in eastern Maine. Height growth of Picea rubens Sarg., Abies balsamea (L.) Mill., and Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. saplings between 0.5 and 6.0 m in height was related to the proportion...

  20. growth development in pre-pubertal female rabbits fed crude oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OMA

    . (1986) was also given as supplement feed while clean-cool water was provided ad-libitum. All the animals were housed in conventional single-tier wire hutches. On commencement of the crude oil treatment, the forty rabbits were randomly.

  1. A novel variant of growth hormone (GH) insufficiency following low dose cranial irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowne, E.C.; Moore, C.; Wallace, W.H.B.; Ogilvy-Stuart, A.L.; Addison, G.M.; Morris-Jones, P.H.; Shalet, S.M. (Christie Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom) Royal Manchester Children' s Hospital (United Kingdom))

    1992-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of low dose (1800 cGy) prophylactic cranial irradiation on physiological growth hormone secretion. Forty-four children were studied, of whom 21 were long-term survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and 23 were normal children. In the normal children, there was a significant increase in the median (range) area under the curve (AUC) of the GH profile between the prepubertal and pubertal groups. There was also a change in the spectral analysis through puberty. The dominant frequencies were spread widely in the prepubertal and post-pubertal groups but sharply focused in the pubertal group. In the cranially irradiated children there was no significant increase in AUC between the prepubertal and pubertal groups. The wide range of dominant frequencies persisted in the pubertal cranially irradiated group due to the presence of additional high frequency pulses. The impression of a disturbance of the periodicity of GH secretion in the cranially irradiated pubertal group was further supported by the finding that the autocorrelation function in this group alone was not significantly different from that which would arise from random data. A novel form of GH insufficiency has been observed after low dose irradiation in childhood in which an abnormality of periodicity and a quantitative reduction in GH secretion appears restricted to puberty. (author).

  2. Thin-plate spline analysis of mandibular growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, L; Baccetti, T; McNamara, J A

    2001-04-01

    The analysis of mandibular growth changes around the pubertal spurt in humans has several important implications for the diagnosis and orthopedic correction of skeletal disharmonies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate mandibular shape and size growth changes around the pubertal spurt in a longitudinal sample of subjects with normal occlusion by means of an appropriate morphometric technique (thin-plate spline analysis). Ten mandibular landmarks were identified on lateral cephalograms of 29 subjects at 6 different developmental phases. The 6 phases corresponded to 6 different maturational stages in cervical vertebrae during accelerative and decelerative phases of the pubertal growth curve of the mandible. Differences in shape between average mandibular configurations at the 6 developmental stages were visualized by means of thin-plate spline analysis and subjected to permutation test. Centroid size was used as the measure of the geometric size of each mandibular specimen. Differences in size at the 6 developmental phases were tested statistically. The results of graphical analysis indicated a statistically significant change in mandibular shape only for the growth interval from stage 3 to stage 4 in cervical vertebral maturation. Significant increases in centroid size were found at all developmental phases, with evidence of a prepubertal minimum and of a pubertal maximum. The existence of a pubertal peak in human mandibular growth, therefore, is confirmed by thin-plate spline analysis. Significant morphological changes in the mandible during the growth interval from stage 3 to stage 4 in cervical vertebral maturation may be described as an upward-forward direction of condylar growth determining an overall "shrinkage" of the mandibular configuration along the measurement of total mandibular length. This biological mechanism is particularly efficient in compensating for major increments in mandibular size at the adolescent spurt.

  3. Childhood height increases the risk of prostate cancer mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, J; Gamborg, M; Cook, M B

    2015-01-01

    cancers. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed. RESULTS: 630 men had prostate cancer recorded as the underlying cause of death. Childhood height at age 13years was positively associated with prostate cancer-specific mortality (hazard ratio [HR]per z-score=1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-1.3......). Associations were significant at all other childhood ages. Growth analyses showed that height at age 13years had a stronger association with prostate cancer-specific mortality than height at age 7, suggesting the association at age 7 is largely mediated through later childhood height. The tallest boys at age...... 13years had a significantly worse survival, but only when restricted to a diagnosis at years of age (HRz-score of 1=1.7, 95% CI: 1.3-2.4). These associations were significant at all other childhood ages. Childhood BMI was not associated with prostate cancer mortality or survival. CONCLUSION...

  4. Height, zinc and soil-transmitted helminth infections in schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Gier, Brechje; Mpabanzi, Liliane; Vereecken, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and zinc deficiency are often found in low- and middle-income countries and are both known to affect child growth. However, studies combining data on zinc and STH are lacking. In two studies in schoolchildren in Cuba and Cambodia, we collected data...... on height, STH infection and zinc concentration in either plasma (Cambodia) or hair (Cuba). We analyzed whether STH and/or zinc were associated with height for age z-scores and whether STH and zinc were associated. In Cuba, STH prevalence was 8.4%; these were mainly Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris...... trichiura infections. In Cambodia, STH prevalence was 16.8%, mostly caused by hookworm. In Cuban children, STH infection had a strong association with height for age (aB-0.438, p = 0.001), while hair zinc was significantly associated with height for age only in STH uninfected children. In Cambodian children...

  5. Effects of harsh parenting and positive parenting practices on youth aggressive behavior: The moderating role of early pubertal timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Frances R; Raine, Adrian

    2018-01-01

    Prior research indicates that early pubertal timing is associated with aggressive behavior, particularly in the context of adversity as postulated in the contextual amplification hypothesis. However, few studies have examined harsh parenting as the context for the effect of early pubertal timing. Even fewer studies have tested the interactive effect of early pubertal timing and positive parenting on aggressive behavior. In this study, we tested the proposition that early pubertal timing, contrary to the general conception of it as a vulnerability, indexed susceptibility, and thus early maturing individuals were affected more by their environment in a "for better and for worse" manner. The sample consisted of 411 community-recruited youth aged 11-12 years (51% boys, 80% African Americans). Participants reported Tanner Stages of pubertal development, aggressive behavior and harsh parenting practice of their parents. Puberty scores were standardized with groups of the same age, sex, and ethnicity, and those that scored the top one-third were defined as early maturing individuals. Parents reported youth's aggressive behavior and their parenting practices towards the youth, including harsh parenting and positive parenting. Early pubertal timing significantly moderated the relationship between harsh/positive parenting and aggressive behavior. Specifically, harsh parenting was positively associated with aggressive behavior to a larger degree among early maturing individuals than among on-time/late-maturing individuals. Positive parenting was inversely associated with aggressive behavior but only among early maturing individuals. This study is the first to document support for early pubertal timing as susceptibility to the environmental influences in relation to aggressive behavior. Theoretical and intervention implications are discussed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Short Adolescents Born Small for Gestational Age : Gonadal and thyroid function, bone mineral density, quality of life and adult height: The effects of growth hormone and additional postponement of puberty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Lem (Annemieke)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractFrom 1991, our research group and others have been investigating children with short stature who were born small for gestational age (SGA), both before and during treatment with biosynthetic growth hormone (GH). In 2005, GH treatment was licensed for short SGA children in the

  7. Modulation of mammary gland development in pre-pubertal mice as affected by soya and milk protein supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston-Mills, Brenda; Lepri, J J; Martin, C A

    2011-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of soya and whey milk protein, α-lactalbumin (α-LA), on mammary gland morphology and the structural support of the gland, in pre-pubertal mice after 7 d of treatment. In Expt 1, weaned (day 21) CD1 mice were given one of the four treatments, three included dietary supplements: (1) control diet, casein, (2) soya, (3) α-LA and (4) subcutaneous injection of 2·5 μg oestradiol benzoate in 20 μl maize oil and fed the control diet. All diets were isoenergetic with equal protein concentrations. All groups that were not treated with oestradiol received the vehicle. Whole-mount analyses were performed to determine longitudinal ductal growth and terminal end bud development. DNA was extracted from the gland and assessed by spectrophotometry (260/280 nm). Tissue extracts for extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP(2)), tissue inhibitor of MMP(2) (TIMP(2)), and serum oestradiol and mammary tissue epidermal growth factors (EGF) were measured by immunoassays. Expt 2 utilised the Her2/neu transgenic strain, with the same protocols. Statistical significance was determined by one-way ANOVA. From Expt 1 and 2, soya and α-LA significantly increased ductal elongation when compared with the oestrogen and control groups. These results were corroborated by data on total DNA and the ratio of MMP(2):TIMP(2). The ratio of MMP(2):TIMP(2) was affected by α-LA. Serum oestradiol was decreased only in the oestradiol-treated groups in both experiments. Soya is known to be oestrogenic and can act on epithelia directly. The mechanism by which α-LA affects glandular development is by modulating the ECM or by promoting the synthesis/activity of EGF.

  8. Heritability of adult body height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Sammalisto, Sampo; Perola, Markus

    2003-01-01

    /unique environment (AE) model. Among women the heritability estimates were generally lower than among men with greater variation between countries, ranging from 0.68 to 0.84 when an additive genes/shared environment/unique environment (ACE) model was used. In four populations where an AE model fit equally well...... countries; body height was least in Italy (177 cm in men and 163 cm in women) and greatest in the Netherlands (184 cm and 171 cm, respectively). In men there was no corresponding variation in heritability of body height, heritability estimates ranging from 0.87 to 0.93 in populations under an additive genes...... or better, heritability ranged from 0.89 to 0.93. This difference between the sexes was mainly due to the effect of the shared environmental component of variance, which appears to be more important among women than among men in our study populations. Our results indicate that, in general, there are only...

  9. Growth in individuals with Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II caused by pericentrin mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bober, Michael B; Niiler, Tim; Duker, Angela L; Murray, Jennie E; Ketterer, Tara; Harley, Margaret E; Alvi, Sabah; Flora, Christina; Rustad, Cecilie; Bongers, Ernie M H F; Bicknell, Louise S; Wise, Carol; Jackson, Andrew P

    2012-11-01

    Microcephalic primordial dwarfism (MPD) is a class of disorders characterized by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), impaired postnatal growth and microcephaly. Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II) is one of the more common conditions within this group. MOPD II is caused by truncating mutations in pericentrin (PCNT) and is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Detailed growth curves for length, weight, and OFC are presented here and derived from retrospective data from 26 individuals with MOPD II confirmed by molecular or functional studies. Severe pre- and postnatal growth failure is evident in MOPD II patients. The length, weight, and OFC at term (when corrected for gestational age) were -7.0, -3.9, and -4.6 standard deviation (SD) below the population mean and equivalent to the 50th centile of a 28-29-, 31-32-, and 30-31-week neonate, respectively. While at skeletal maturity, the height, weight, and OFC were -10.3, -14.3, and -8.5 SD below the population mean and equivalent to the size of 3-year 10- to 11-month-old, a 5-year 2- to 3-month-old, and 5- to 6-month-old, respectively. During childhood, MOPD II patients grow with slowed, but fairly constant growth velocities and show no evidence of any pubertal growth spurt. Treatment with human growth hormone (n = 11) did not lead to any significant improvement in final stature. The growth charts presented here will be of assistance with diagnosis and management of MOPD II, and should have particular utility in nutritional management of MOPD II during infancy. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Height suppression of tomato plug seedlings by an environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were conducted to investigate appropriate concentrations of plant growth retardants (PGRs) and duration of seed soaking in order to suppress hypocotyl length and plug seedling height of 2 tomato cultivars ( Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. cv. Seogeon and Seokwang). Daminozide (B-9), uniconazole ...

  11. On the Extreme Wave Height Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Zhou

    1994-01-01

    The determination of the design wave height is usually based on the statistical analysis of long-term extreme wave height measurements. After an introduction to the procedure of the extreme wave height analysis, the paper presents new development concerning various aspects of the extreme wave...... height analysis. Finally, the paper gives a practical example based on a data set of the hindcasted wave heights for a deep water location in the Mediterranean Sea....

  12. Role Of Serum Lectin In Derangement Of PUBERTAL Timing In Thalassaemic Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MOAWAD, A.T.; NASSAR, E.M.; EL-NASHAR, N.A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between serum leptin and pubertal derangement in β-thalassemia major (TM) patients. This study was conducted on forty TM patients (25 males and 15 females) with mean age 15.6 ±1.47 and twenty healthy children with normal pubertal development served as control (10 males and 10 females). Clinical, anthropometric and pubertal assessment using tanner classification were done for all patients and controls in addition to estimation of serum ferritin, leptin, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone (T) in boys and estradiol (E 2 ) in girls. Thalassaemic patients were subdivided into 27 patients with normal puberty and 13 delayed puberty patients. The results showed that failure of puberty was confirmed in 70% of boys and in 67% of girls. Body mass index (BMI) was significantly decreased in both patient groups as compared to controls. Mean serum ferritin levels were significantly increased in TM patients with delayed puberty (male: 2865.5±274.7 and female: 2704.5±477.1 ng/ml) than the levels in euogonadal patients (male: 1594.1±408.8 and female: 1524.1±349.6 ng/ml). However, a significant difference in serum ferritin was also detected between euogonadal patients and controls. Although the mean serum leptin levels were significantly higher in normal pubertal patients (male: 3.7± 0.4 and female: 7.6±1.2 ng/ml) comparing to the levels in delayed puberty patients (male: 0.9± 0.4 and female: 2.6±0.9 ng/ml), it was still lower than levels in control group (male: 8.4±2.8 and female: 12.3±1.9 ng/ml). The mean serum levels of FSH and LH were significantly decreased in delayed puberty patients when compared to each of normal puberty patients and controls. However, the comparison between normal patients and controls was non-significant. A close positive correlation was observed between serum leptin and BMI in normal pubertal patients, but such correlation was not obtained in

  13. Sex-specific mouse liver gene expression: genome-wide analysis of developmental changes from pre-pubertal period to young adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conforto Tara L

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early liver development and the transcriptional transitions during hepatogenesis are well characterized. However, gene expression changes during the late postnatal/pre-pubertal to young adulthood period are less well understood, especially with regards to sex-specific gene expression. Methods Microarray analysis of male and female mouse liver was carried out at 3, 4, and 8 wk of age to elucidate developmental changes in gene expression from the late postnatal/pre-pubertal period to young adulthood. Results A large number of sex-biased and sex-independent genes showed significant changes during this developmental period. Notably, sex-independent genes involved in cell cycle, chromosome condensation, and DNA replication were down regulated from 3 wk to 8 wk, while genes associated with metal ion binding, ion transport and kinase activity were up regulated. A majority of genes showing sex differential expression in adult liver did not display sex differences prior to puberty, at which time extensive changes in sex-specific gene expression were seen, primarily in males. Thus, in male liver, 76% of male-specific genes were up regulated and 47% of female-specific genes were down regulated from 3 to 8 wk of age, whereas in female liver 67% of sex-specific genes showed no significant change in expression. In both sexes, genes up regulated from 3 to 8 wk were significantly enriched (p p Ihh; female-specific Cdx4, Cux2, Tox, and Trim24 and may contribute to the developmental changes that lead to global acquisition of liver sex-specificity by 8 wk of age. Conclusions Overall, the observed changes in gene expression during postnatal liver development reflect the deceleration of liver growth and the induction of specialized liver functions, with widespread changes in sex-specific gene expression primarily occurring in male liver.

  14. Perception regarding pubertal changes among rural adolescent boys of Haryana: A school based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Chayal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescence is a transition phase through which a child matures into an adult. The physical changes in the human body are from infant to child to adolescence to adult to old age.  All phases of life behave like a coin with both good and bad facets attached to each phase of life. Aims & Objectives:  1. To study perception and awareness regarding pubertal changes among school going adolescent boys. 2. To study the association between education and perceived pubertal problems among study subjects. Material & Methods: The study was conducted among male students of senior secondary schools of community development block Beri in one year. The study universe comprised of students in middle and late adolescence (aged 14-18 years studying in 9th to 12th classes of the senior secondary schools in the area. A total of 1000 male students were selected from these schools which were more than the required sample size of 891. Results: The study found that 42.66% students and a half (50% of students of class 9th & 10th and class 11th & 12th respectively considered that pubertal changes as a normal phenomenon. The majority of students admitted practicing masturbation and felt shy and guilty for practicing masturbation, also students felt fatigued after night emission. Conclusions: The study concludes that adolescent’s sexuality which often causes controversy and concern among adults is least discussed with them during adolescence. The reasons for this may be many, including moral grounds or because of concomitant health risks and threats to wellbeing.

  15. Perception regarding pubertal changes among rural adolescent boys of Haryana: A school based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Chayal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescence is a transition phase through which a child matures into an adult. The physical changes in the human body are from infant to child to adolescence to adult to old age.  All phases of life behave like a coin with both good and bad facets attached to each phase of life. Aims & Objectives:  1. To study perception and awareness regarding pubertal changes among school going adolescent boys. 2. To study the association between education and perceived pubertal problems among study subjects. Material & Methods: The study was conducted among male students of senior secondary schools of community development block Beri in one year. The study universe comprised of students in middle and late adolescence (aged 14-18 years studying in 9th to 12th classes of the senior secondary schools in the area. A total of 1000 male students were selected from these schools which were more than the required sample size of 891. Results: The study found that 42.66% students and a half (50% of students of class 9th & 10th and class 11th & 12th respectively considered that pubertal changes as a normal phenomenon. The majority of students admitted practicing masturbation and felt shy and guilty for practicing masturbation, also students felt fatigued after night emission. Conclusions: The study concludes that adolescent’s sexuality which often causes controversy and concern among adults is least discussed with them during adolescence. The reasons for this may be many, including moral grounds or because of concomitant health risks and threats to wellbeing.

  16. Sex 'n' drugs 'n' rock 'n' roll: the meaning and social consequences of pubertal timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waylen, Andrea; Wolke, Dieter

    2004-11-01

    This is a brief review of the normal changes in adolescent behaviour and the interplay between biology and social factors that occur at and around puberty, in an attempt to explain when this transition may become problematic The onset of puberty is a biological marker for an individual's transition from a non-reproductive to a reproductive state. Adolescence is a normal developmental transition associated with clearly visible physical changes, reorganization and pruning of neuronal circuits in the brain and the occurrence of new behaviours and interests. It is a time when new life tasks (orientation towards peers of the other sex, romantic and sexual involvement and mastering an educational career) need to be mastered. Parent-child conflict increases and becomes more intense as the adolescent struggles for more independence while still requiring support. These normal changes can become problematic if biological and social expectations diverge e.g. entering puberty very early or very late. While early pubertal onset in boys is likely to have beneficial effects, in girls precocious pubertal timing may have a negative impact on body-image, affect (or emotional well-being) and sex-role expectations. Other individual biological predispositions and genetic endowment may interact with social factors (e.g. peers, parenting style, neighbourhood) making adolescence either an adaptive or a challenging transition. There is a lack of sufficiently large longitudinal studies that have been able to study this interaction between genetics, biology and social environment on adolescent development. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort provides a unique opportunity to investigate the impact of pubertal timing on social behaviour. Planned assessments and concepts are outlined.

  17. Encounter Probability of Individual Wave Height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Z.; Burcharth, H. F.

    1998-01-01

    wave height corresponding to a certain exceedence probability within a structure lifetime (encounter probability), based on the statistical analysis of long-term extreme significant wave height. Then the design individual wave height is calculated as the expected maximum individual wave height...... associated with the design significant wave height, with the assumption that the individual wave heights follow the Rayleigh distribution. However, the exceedence probability of such a design individual wave height within the structure lifetime is unknown. The paper presents a method for the determination...... of the design individual wave height corresponding to an exceedence probability within the structure lifetime, given the long-term extreme significant wave height. The method can also be applied for estimation of the number of relatively large waves for fatigue analysis of constructions....

  18. Genital Involvement In Pre-Pubertal Pediatric Population: A Rare Aspect of Crohn’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qurratul Ann Warsi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Crohn’s disease is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, characterized by chronic intestinal inflammation that causes the loss of immune tolerance leading to bizarre inflammatory signals and disruption of mucosal barriers. Environmental triggers and interaction of genetic determinants also play an indispensible role. In this case report, we present a pre-pubertal girl with intermittent and refractory genital swelling. We emphasize that Crohn’s disease must be considered in the differential diagnosis of recurrent, non-tender, erythematous and edematous lesions of the genital area. We conclude with future directions for diagnosing and managing vulvar Crohn’s disease in pediatric population.

  19. Adolescents' increasing stress response to social evaluation: pubertal effects on cortisol and alpha-amylase during public speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bos, Esther; de Rooij, Mark; Miers, Anne C; Bokhorst, Caroline L; Westenberg, P Michiel

    2014-01-01

    Stress responses to social evaluation are thought to increase during adolescence, which may be due to pubertal maturation. However, empirical evidence is scarce. This study is the first to investigate the relation between pubertal development and biological responses to a social-evaluative stressor longitudinally. Participants performed the Leiden Public Speaking Task twice, with a 2-year interval (N = 217; age at Time 1: 8-17 years). The results support an increase in sensitivity to social evaluation during adolescence. The overall cortisol and alpha-amylase responses increased-both between and within participants-and were more strongly related to self-reported pubertal development than to age. The cortisol response shifted from speech delivery toward anticipation. The alpha-amylase response increased in both phases. © 2013 The Authors. Child Development © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  20. Development and Lability in the Parent-Child Relationship During Adolescence: Associations With Pubertal Timing and Tempo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Kristine; Ram, Nilam; Susman, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents' and parents' reactions to pubertal development are hypothesized to contribute to changes in family dynamics. Using 7-year longitudinal data from the NICHD-SECCYD (488 boys, 475 girls) we examined relations between pubertal development (timing, tempo) and trajectories (developmental change and year-to-year lability) of parent-child conflict and closeness from age 8.5 to 15.5 years. Changes were mostly characterized by year-to-year fluctuations – lability. Parent-child conflict increased and closeness decreased some with age. Pubertal timing and tempo were more consistently associated with lability in parent-child relationships than with long-term trends, although faster tempo was associated with steeper decreases in parent-child closeness. Findings provide a platform for examining how puberty contributes to both long-term and transient changes in adolescents' relationships and adjustment. PMID:26321856

  1. Polymorphisms in JMJD1C are associated with pubertal onset in boys and reproductive function in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Nina; Busch, Alexander Siegfried; Bang, Anne Kirstine

    2017-01-01

    single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) nearby JMJD1C are associated with pubertal onset in boys and with male reproduction. 671 peri-pubertal boys, 1,027 young men, 315 fertile men, and 252 infertile men were genotyped for two JMJD1C SNPs (rs7910927 and rs10822184). rs7910927 and rs10822184 showed high...... linkage. Boys with the rs7910927 TT genotype entered puberty 3.6 months earlier than their peers (p = 2.5 × 10-2). In young men, the number of T alleles was associated with decreased levels of SHBG, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone, and testosterone x luteinizing hormone, as well...... on the age at pubertal onset in boys as well as levels of reproductive hormones and testis size in men, emphasizing the relationship between JMJD1C and reproductive functions....

  2. Final height in survivors of childhood cancer compared with Height Standard Deviation Scores at diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knijnenburg, S. L.; Raemaekers, S.; van den Berg, H.; van Dijk, I. W. E. M.; Lieverst, J. A.; van der Pal, H. J.; Jaspers, M. W. M.; Caron, H. N.; Kremer, L. C.; van Santen, H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Our study aimed to evaluate final height in a cohort of Dutch childhood cancer survivors (CCS) and assess possible determinants of final height, including height at diagnosis. We calculated standard deviation scores (SDS) for height at initial cancer diagnosis and height in adulthood in a cohort of

  3. Effects of rumen-undegradable protein on intake, performance, and mammary gland development in prepubertal and pubertal dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A L; Detmann, E; Dijkstra, J; Pedroso, A M; Silva, L H P; Machado, A F; Sousa, F C; Dos Santos, G B; Marcondes, M I

    2018-04-04

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different amounts of rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) on intake, N balance, performance, mammary gland development, carcass traits, and hormonal status of Holstein heifers at different physiological stages (PS). Sixteen prepubertal (PRE) heifers (initial BW = 106 ± 7.6 kg; age = 4.3 ± 0.46 mo) and 16 pubertal (PUB) heifers (initial BW = 224 ± 7.9 kg; age = 12.6 ± 0.45 mo) were used in an experiment over a period of 84 d. Four diets with increasing RUP contents (38, 44, 51, and 57% of dietary crude protein) and heifers at 2 PS (PRE or PUB) were used in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments in a completely randomized design. Throughout the experiment, 2 digestibility trials were performed over 5 consecutive days (starting at d 36 and 78) involving feed and ort sampling and spot collections of feces and urine. At d 0 and 83, body ultrasound images were obtained for real-time carcass trait evaluation. The mammary gland was ultrasonically scanned at d 0 and every 3 wk during the experiment. Blood samples were taken at d 0 and 84 to determine serum concentrations of progesterone, estrogen, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), and insulin. No interaction between PS and the level of RUP was found for any trait. Apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein was not affected by RUP level but was lower for PRE compared with PUB heifers. Sorting against neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (tendency only) and for crude protein was greater for PUB than PRE heifers. Pubertal heifers had greater average daily gain (905 vs. 505 g/d) and N retention (25.9 vs. 12.5 g/d) than PRE heifers. In addition, average daily gain and N retention were greatest at 51% RUP of dietary protein. Mammary ultrasonography indicated no effects of RUP amounts on mammary gland composition, whereas PRE heifers had greater pixel values than PUB

  4. Pubertal timing and health-related behaviours in adolescence - socio- economic outcomes in a follow-up study from Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena K Koivusilta

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background. Pubertal timing is connected with health-related lifestyle in adulthood. We studied whether early or late pubertal timing is predictive of socio-economic outcomes in early adulthood and whether the associations are mediated by health behaviours.

    Methods. Survey data (1981, 1983, 1985, 1987 from samples of 14-year-old Finns (N=4246, response rate 85% were linked with respondents’ attained educational level, socio-economic and labour market position in 2001 (ages 28-34. Ages of menarche and first ejaculation indicated pubertal timing.

    Results. As compared to adolescents with average age pubertal timing, boys and girls maturing at an early age more often participated in health-compromising behaviours, while those maturing at a later age participated less frequently. Pubertal timing was not associated with attained educational level or socioeconomic position in girls and not with labour market position at the time of follow-up in either sex. In boys, independently of health behaviours, early or late onset of puberty predicted low educational level, while late onset predicted low socio-economic position.

    Conclusion. Timing of puberty has a stronger connection with socio-economic outcomes in boys than in girls. Deviance from the normative pace of physical development, especially late maturation, is among boys slightly depicted in the hierarchy of socio-economic positions of the society. As pubertal timing is connected with health-related behaviours – especially with smoking – the pacing of developmental transitions should be considered in planning programmes preventing unhealthy behavioural patterns often linked with negative attitudes towards schooling.

  5. Pubertally born neurons and glia are functionally integrated into limbic and hypothalamic circuits of the male Syrian hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Margaret A; Sisk, Cheryl L

    2013-03-19

    During puberty, the brain goes through extensive remodeling, involving the addition of new neurons and glia to brain regions beyond the canonical neurogenic regions (i.e., dentate gyrus and olfactory bulb), including limbic and hypothalamic cell groups associated with sex-typical behavior. Whether these pubertally born cells become functionally integrated into neural circuits remains unknown. To address this question, we gave male Syrian hamsters daily injections of the cell birthdate marker bromodeoxyuridine throughout puberty (postnatal day 28-49). Half of the animals were housed in enriched environments with access to a running wheel to determine whether enrichment increased the survival of pubertally born cells compared with the control environment. At 4 wk after the last BrdU injection, animals were allowed to interact with a receptive female and were then killed 1 h later. Triple-label immunofluorescence for BrdU, the mature neuron marker neuronal nuclear antigen, and the astrocytic marker glial fibrillary acidic protein revealed that a proportion of pubertally born cells in the medial preoptic area, arcuate nucleus, and medial amygdala differentiate into either mature neurons or astrocytes. Double-label immunofluorescence for BrdU and the protein Fos revealed that a subset of pubertally born cells in these regions is activated during sociosexual behavior, indicative of their functional incorporation into neural circuits. Enrichment affected the survival and activation of pubertally born cells in a brain region-specific manner. These results demonstrate that pubertally born cells located outside of the traditional neurogenic regions differentiate into neurons and glia and become functionally incorporated into neural circuits that subserve sex-typical behaviors.

  6. Insulin resistance in obese children and adolescents: HOMA-IR cut-off levels in the prepubertal and pubertal periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtoğlu, Selim; Hatipoğlu, Nihal; Mazıcıoğlu, Mümtaz; Kendirici, Mustafa; Keskin, Mehmet; Kondolot, Meda

    2010-01-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with an increased risk for insulin resistance. The underlying mechanism for the physiological increase in insulin levels in puberty is not clearly understood. The aim of the present study was to determine the cut-off values for homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in obese children and adolescents according to gender and pubertal status. Two hundred and eight obese children and adolescents (141 girls, 127 boys) aged between 5 and 18 years were included in the study. The children were divided into prepubertal and pubertal groups. A standard oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was carried out in all children. A total insulin level exceeding 300 μU/mL in the blood samples, collected during the test period, was taken as the insulin resistance criterion. Cut-off values for HOMA-IR were calculated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. In the prepubertal period, the rate of insulin resistance was found to be 37% in boys and 27.8% in girls,while in the pubertal period, this rate was 61.7% in boys and 66.7% in girls. HOMA-IR cut-off values for insulin resistance in the prepubertal period were calculated to be 2.67 (sensitivity 88.2%, specificity 65.5%) in boys and 2.22 (sensitivity 100%, specificity 42.3%) in girls, and in the pubertal period, they were 5.22 (sensitivity 56%, specificity 93.3%) in boys and 3.82 (sensitivity 77.1%, specificity 71.4%) in girls. Since gender, obesity and pubertal status are factors affecting insulin resistance, cut-off values which depend on gender and pubertal status, should be used in evaluation of insulin resistance.

  7. As tall as my peers - similarity in body height between migrants and hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogin, Barry; Hermanussen, Michael; Scheffler, Christiane

    2018-01-12

    Background: We define migrants as people who move from their place of birth to a new place of residence. Migration usually is directed by "Push-Pull" factors, for example to escape from poor living conditions or to find more prosperous socio-economic conditions. Migrant children tend to assimilate quickly, and soon perceive themselves as peers within their new social networks. Differences exist between growth of first generation and second generation migrants. Methods: We review body heights and height distributions of historic and modern migrant populations to test two hypotheses: 1) that migrant and adopted children coming from lower social status localities to higher status localities adjust their height growth toward the mean of the dominant recipient social network, and 2) social dominant colonial and military migrants display growth that significantly surpasses the median height of both the conquered population and the population of origin. Our analytical framework also considered social networks. Recent publications indicate that spatial connectedness (community effects) and social competitiveness can affect human growth. Results: Migrant children and adolescents of lower social status rapidly adjust in height towards average height of their hosts, but tend to mature earlier, and are prone to overweight. The mean height of colonial/military migrants does surpass that of the conquered and origin population. Conclusion: Observations on human social networks, non-human animal strategic growth adjustments, and competitive growth processes strengthen the concept of social connectedness being involved in the regulation of human migrant growth.

  8. Nutrition and growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbes, G.B.

    1977-07-01

    Longitudinal growth data on children who developed obesity during childhood reveal a distinct tendency for height gain to accelerate coincident with or after the onset of excessive weight gain. The magnitude of the relative height increment is related to the degree of overweight. Overnutrition accelerates growth, just as undernutrition retards it.

  9. Gender specific effect of major dietary patterns on the metabolic syndrome risk in Korean pre-pubertal children

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Soo Jin; Lee, Seung Min; Kim, Seon Mee; Lee, Myoungsook

    2013-01-01

    There is a lack of data on metabolic risk factors during pre-puberty, which is important for identifying the subgroups of youth, at whom early interventions should be targeted. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of metabolic risk factors and its subsequent relations with dietary patterns in Korean pre-pubertal children through a cross-sectional sample (n = 1,008; boys = 513) of pre-pubertal children (aged 8-9 years) from a sub-study of the Korea Metabolic Syndrome Research Initiatives...

  10. Effects of dietary exposure to brominated flame retardant BDE-47 on thyroid condition, gonadal development and growth of zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Leticia; Orazio, Carl E.; Peterman, Paul H.; Patino, Reynaldo

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of brominated flame retardants in teleosts and some of the information currently available is inconsistent. This study examined effects of dietary exposure to 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) on thyroid condition, body mass and size, and gonadal development of zebrafish. Pubertal, 49-day-old (posthatch) fish were fed diets without BDE-47 (control) or with 1, 5 or 25 μg/g BDE-47/diet. Treatments were conducted in triplicate 30-L tanks each containing 50 zebrafish, and 15 fish per treatment (5 per tank) were sampled at days 40, 80 and 120 of exposure. Measurements were taken of body mass, standard length, head depth and head length. Sex (at 40–120 days of exposure), germ cell stage (at 40 days) and thyroid condition (at 120 days; follicular cell height, colloid depletion, angiogenesis) were histologically determined. Whole-body BDE-47 levels at study completion were within the high end of levels reported in environmentally exposed (wild) fishes. Analysis of variance was used to determine differences among treatments at each sampling time. No effects were observed on thyroid condition or germ cell stage in either sex. Reduced head length was observed in females exposed to BDE-47 at 80 days but not at 40 or 120 days. In males, no apparent effects of BDE-47 were observed at 40 and 80 days, but fish exposed to 25 μg/g had lower body mass at 120 days compared to control fish. These observations suggest that BDE-47 at environmentally relevant whole-body concentrations does not affect thyroid condition or pubertal development of zebrafish but does affect growth during the juvenile-to-adult transition, especially in males.

  11. Impact of socio-emotional context, brain development, and pubertal maturation on adolescent risk-taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ashley R; Chein, Jason; Steinberg, Laurence

    2013-07-01

    While there is little doubt that risk-taking is generally more prevalent during adolescence than before or after, the underlying causes of this pattern of age differences have long been investigated and debated. One longstanding popular notion is the belief that risky and reckless behavior in adolescence is tied to the hormonal changes of puberty. However, the interactions between pubertal maturation and adolescent decision making remain largely understudied. In the current review, we discuss changes in decision making during adolescence, focusing on the asynchronous development of the affective, reward-focused processing system and the deliberative, reasoned processing system. As discussed, differential maturation in the structure and function of brain systems associated with these systems leaves adolescents particularly vulnerable to socio-emotional influences and risk-taking behaviors. We argue that this asynchrony may be partially linked to pubertal influences on development and specifically on the maturation of the affective, reward-focused processing system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of programmed physical activity on body composition in post-pubertal schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson dos Santos Farias

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess body composition modifications in post-pubertal schoolchildren after practice of a physical activity program during one school year. METHODS: The sample consisted of 386 students aged between 15 and 17 years and divided into two groups: the study group (SG comprised 195 students and the control group (CG, 191. The SG was submitted to a physical activity program and the CG attended conventional physical education classes. Body composition was assessed using body mass index (BMI, percentage of body fat (%BF, fat mass (FM, and lean mass (LM. RESULTS: A positive effect of the physical activity program on body composition in the SG (p < 0.001 was observed, as well as on the interaction time x group in all the variables analyzed in both genders. A reduction in %BF (mean of differences = -5.58% and waist circumference (-2.33 cm, as well as an increase in LM (+2.05 kg were observed in the SG for both genders, whereas the opposite was observed in the CG. CONCLUSION: The practice of programmed physical activity promotes significant reduction of body fat in post-pubertal schoolchildren.

  13. Effects of programmed physical activity on body composition in post-pubertal schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Edson Dos Santos; Gonçalves, Ezequiel Moreira; Morcillo, André Moreno; Guerra-Júnior, Gil; Amancio, Olga Maria Silverio

    2015-01-01

    To assess body composition modifications in post-pubertal schoolchildren after practice of a physical activity program during one school year. The sample consisted of 386 students aged between 15 and 17 years and divided into two groups: the study group (SG) comprised 195 students and the control group (CG), 191. The SG was submitted to a physical activity program and the CG attended conventional physical education classes. Body composition was assessed using body mass index (BMI), percentage of body fat (%BF), fat mass (FM), and lean mass (LM). A positive effect of the physical activity program on body composition in the SG (pgenders. A reduction in %BF (mean of differences = -5.58%) and waist circumference (-2.33 cm), as well as an increase in LM (+2.05 kg) were observed in the SG for both genders, whereas the opposite was observed in the CG. The practice of programmed physical activity promotes significant reduction of body fat in post-pubertal schoolchildren. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of clinical and microbiological features of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal and pubertal girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ayse E; Celik, Nurullah; Soylu, Gul; Donmez, Ahsen; Yuksel, Cigdem

    2012-07-01

    Vulvovaginitisis the most common gynecological problem of childhood. The aim of the study was to determine and compare clinical and microbiological features of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal and adolescent girls. In this retrospective study, the records of patients who were diagnosed with vulvovaginitis between January 2005 and December 2010 in the pediatric outpatient clinic at Fatih University Hospital were retrieved. Information regarding age, symptoms, history of antibiotic use within 1 month prior to presentation, findings on urinalysis, serum antistreptolysin-O levels, and results of urine/vaginal cultures was collected. The records of 112 patients were evaluated, 72 of which were prepubertal (64.2%) and 40 were pubertal (35.7%) at the time of diagnosis. Thirty-eight prepubertal patients (52.7%) had a positive result on vaginal culture, the most commonly encountered microorganism being group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus (15.2%). Culture positivity rate in the pubertal group was 47.5% (19 patients), with Candida albicans being the most frequently isolated microorganism (27.5%). The etiopathogenesis and culture results differ between prepubertal and adolescent girls with vulvovaginitis, which should be taken into consideration in the treatment approach of this disorder. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Vegetable and Fruit Intakes Are Associated with hs-CRP Levels in Pre-Pubertal Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Navarro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of diet on inflammation in children remains unclear. We aimed to analyze the influence of diet on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP levels in a pre-pubertal population free of other influences that may affect hs-CRP levels. We determined hs-CRP levels in 571 six- to eight-year-old children using an hs-CRP ELISA kit. Information on food and nutrient intake was obtained through a food-frequency questionnaire. Overall dietary quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI. We found that girls in the highest tertile of hs-CRP levels had a higher intake of saturated fatty acid, and lower intakes of fiber and vitamin E and a lower HEI score when compared to those in tertiles 1 and 2. We also observed a significant decrease in fruit and vegetable intakes by hs-CRP tertile. Factor analysis showed that a dietary pattern that was loaded most strongly with vegetable, fruit, fiber and vitamin A and E intakes correlated negatively (−0.132, p < 0.05 with hs-CRP. No such association was found in boys. In conclusion, our data show that girls with a poorer quality diet show higher hs-CRP levels already at a pre-pubertal age.

  16. Mobile phone radiation during pubertal development has no effect on testicular histology in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumkaya, Levent; Kalkan, Yildiray; Bas, Orhan; Yilmaz, Adnan

    2016-02-01

    Mobile phones are extensively used throughout the world. There is a growing concern about the possible public health hazards posed by electromagnetic radiation emitted from mobile phones. Potential health risk applies particularly to the most intensive mobile phone users-typically, young people. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mobile phone exposure to the testes, by assessing the histopathological and biochemical changes in the testicular germ cells of rats during pubertal development. A total of 12 male Sprague Dawley rats were used. The study group (n = 6) was exposed to a mobile phone for 1 h a day for 45 days, while the control group (n = 6) remained unexposed. The testes were processed with routine paraffin histology and sectioned. They were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, caspase 3, and Ki-67 and then photographed. No changes were observed between the groups (p > 0.05). The interstitial connective tissue and cells of the exposed group were of normal morphology. No abnormalities in the histological appearance of the seminiferous tubules, including the spermatogenic cycle stage, were observed. Our study demonstrated that mobile phones with a low specific absorption rate have no harmful effects on pubertal rat testicles. © The Author(s) 2013.

  17. Pubertal development, physical self-perception, and motivation toward physical activity in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbrozzi, Dina; Robazza, Claudio; Bertollo, Maurizio; Bucci, Ines; Bortoli, Laura

    2013-08-01

    We examined the differences in physical self-perception and motivation toward physical activity in early- and mid-adolescent girls. Body Mass Index (BMI) and pubertal status, assessed by means of the Tanner scale, were collected in 11-year-old (n=74) and 13-year-old girls (n=60). The assessment included six scales from the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire, the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale, and the Situational Intrinsic Motivation Scale. Age differences emerged, with older girls showing a poorer physical perception and lower scores in intrinsic motivation and enjoyment of physical activity. In the subsample of 11-year-olds, findings showed that more developed girls reported a poorer physical perception on the scales of body fat, global physical self-concept, and appearance, and a lower score in the PACES positive scale. Results underscore the need to promote interventions aimed at encouraging active lifestyles among children and adolescent girls, in order to prevent overweight prior to pubertal onset. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The taking of Lucas Heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandilands, B.

    1993-01-01

    Plans for a new research reactor at Lucas Heights have sparked a 'civil war' in New South Wales. The author considers the arguments. The leading antagonists are the local government body - The Sutherland Shire Council, Greenpeace, and the Sutherland Shire Environment Centre. Many of the economic benefits claimed for the existing and proposed replacement reactor have been tagged with question marks. However, ANSTO is confident of refuting claims that the money could be better spent on alternative methods of producing medical isotopes and neutron streams for industry or research, such as particle accelerators. If ANSTO's critics have their way, non-reactor-dependent work like the laser enrichment project could continue without the alleged hazards of sustained nuclear fission. If ANSTO wins the day, a far more efficient reactor will be built which is capable of keeping pace with the emerging nuclear industries of Asia. ills

  19. Genetically Determined Height and Coronary Artery Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelson, Christopher P.; Hamby, Stephen E.; Saleheen, Danish; Hopewell, Jenna C.; Zeng, Lingyao; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Willenborg, Christina; Burgess, Stephen; Amouyel, Phillipe; Anand, Sonia; Blankenberg, Stefan; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Clarke, Robert J.; Collins, Rory; Dedoussis, George; Farrall, Martin; Franks, Paul W.; Groop, Leif; Hall, Alistair S.; Hamsten, Anders; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hovingh, G. Kees; Ingelsson, Erik; Kathiresan, Sekar; Kee, Frank; König, Inke R.; Kooner, Jaspal; Lehtimäki, Terho; März, Winifred; McPherson, Ruth; Metspalu, Andres; Nieminen, Markku S.; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Peters, Annette; Perola, Markus; Reilly, Muredach P.; Ripatti, Samuli; Roberts, Robert; Salomaa, Veikko; Shah, Svati H.; Schreiber, Stefan; Siegbahn, Agneta; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Veronesi, Giovani; Wareham, Nicholas; Willer, Cristen J.; Zalloua, Pierre A.; Erdmann, Jeanette

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The nature and underlying mechanisms of an inverse association between adult height and the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) are unclear. METHODS We used a genetic approach to investigate the association between height and CAD, using 180 height-associated genetic variants. We tested

  20. Climatology and evolution of the mixing height over water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sempreviva, A.M. [Istituto di Fisica dell`Atmosfera, CNR, Rome (Italy); Grynig, S.E. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1997-10-01

    In this paper we present results from an experimental investigation on the height of the mixed layer h, using a meteorological station located on the Danish island of Anholt. The station was operational for two years from September 1990 to October 1992. We present the analysis of two years of radio-sounding showing the average daily evolution of h. Furthermore observations of the mixed layer growth under near-neutral and unstable atmospheric conditions during six consecutive days has been modelled using a simple zero-order mixed-layer height model. Finally we have compared the evolution of the mixing height from the model with the evolution of the correlation coefficient between temperature and humidity to study the influence of the deepness of the convective layer on the mechanism of the correlation between temperature and humidity in the surface layer. (au)

  1. Motives for choosing growth-enhancing hormone treatment in adolescents with idiopathic short stature: a questionnaire and structured interview study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huisman Jaap

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growth-enhancing hormone treatment is considered a possible intervention in short but otherwise healthy adolescents. Although height gain is an obvious measure for evaluating hormone treatment, this may not be the ultimate goal for the person, but rather a means to reach other goals such as the amelioration of current height-related psychosocial problems or the enhancement of future prospects in life and society. The aim of our study was to clarify the motives of adolescents and their parents when choosing to participate in a growth-enhancing trial combining growth hormone and puberty-delaying hormone treatment. Methods Participants were early pubertal adolescents (25 girls, 13 boys aged from 11 to 13 years (mean age 11.5 years with a height standard deviation score (SDS ranging from -1.03 to -3.43. All had been classified as idiopathic short stature or persistent short stature born small for the gestational age (intrauterine growth retardation on the basis of a height SDS below -2, or had a height SDS between -1 and -2 and a predicted adult height SDS below -2. The adolescents and their parents completed questionnaires and a structured interview on the presence of height-related stressors, parental worries about their child's behavior and future prospects, problems in psychosocial functioning, and treatment expectations. Questionnaire scores were compared to norms of the general Dutch population. Results The adolescents reported normal psychosocial functioning and highly positive expectations of the treatment in terms of height gain, whereas the parents reported that their children encountered some behavioral problems (being anxious/depressed, and social and attention problems and height-related stressors (being teased and juvenilized. About 40% of the parents were worried about their children's future prospects for finding a spouse or job. The motives of the adolescents and their parents exhibited rather different profiles

  2. Spatio-temporal evaluation of plant height in corn via unmanned aerial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Sebastian; Assefa, Yared; Vara Prasad, P. V.; Peralta, Nahuel R.; Griffin, Terry W.; Sharda, Ajay; Ferguson, Allison; Ciampitti, Ignacio A.

    2017-07-01

    Detailed spatial and temporal data on plant growth are critical to guide crop management. Conventional methods to determine field plant traits are intensive, time-consuming, expensive, and limited to small areas. The objective of this study was to examine the integration of data collected via unmanned aerial systems (UAS) at critical corn (Zea mays L.) developmental stages for plant height and its relation to plant biomass. The main steps followed in this research were (1) workflow development for an ultrahigh resolution crop surface model (CSM) with the goal of determining plant height (CSM-estimated plant height) using data gathered from the UAS missions; (2) validation of CSM-estimated plant height with ground-truthing plant height (measured plant height); and (3) final estimation of plant biomass via integration of CSM-estimated plant height with ground-truthing stem diameter data. Results indicated a correlation between CSM-estimated plant height and ground-truthing plant height data at two weeks prior to flowering and at flowering stage, but high predictability at the later growth stage. Log-log analysis on the temporal data confirmed that these relationships are stable, presenting equal slopes for both crop stages evaluated. Concluding, data collected from low-altitude and with a low-cost sensor could be useful in estimating plant height.

  3. In defense of the classical height system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroughi, Ismael; Vaníček, Petr; Sheng, Michael; Kingdon, Robert William; Santos, Marcelo C.

    2017-11-01

    In many European countries, normal heights referred to the quasi-geoid as introduced by Molodenskij in the mid-20th century are preferred to the classical height system that consists of orthometric heights and the geoid as a reference surface for these heights. The rationale for this choice is supposed to be that in the classical height system, neither the geoid, nor the orthometric height can be ever known with centimetre level accuracy because one would need to know the topographical mass density to a level that can never be achieved. The aim of this paper is to question the validity of this rationale. The common way of assessing the congruency of a local geoid model and the orthometric heights is to compare the geoid heights with the difference between orthometric heights provided by leveling and geodetic heights provided by GNSS. On the other hand, testing the congruency of a quasi-geoidal model with normal height a similar procedure is used, except that instead of orthometric heights, normal heights are employed. For the area of Auvergne, France, which is now a more or less standard choice for precise geoid or quasi-geoid testing, only the normal heights are supplied by the Institute Geographic National, the provider of the data. This is clearly the consequence of the European preference for the Molodenskij system. The quality of the height system is to be judged by the congruency of the difference of the geoid/quasi-geoid heights subtracted from the geodetic heights and orthometric/normal heights. To assess the congruency of the classical height system, the Helmert approximation of orthometric heights is typically used as the transformation between normal and Helmert's heights is easily done. However, the evaluation of the differences between Helmert's and the rigorous orthometric heights is somewhat more involved as will be seen from the review in this paper. For the area of interest, the differences between normal and Helmert's heights at the control

  4. Prospective study of growth and development in older girls and risk of benign breast disease in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkey, Catherine S; Willett, Walter C; Frazier, A Lindsay; Rosner, Bernard; Tamimi, Rulla M; Colditz, Graham A

    2011-04-15

    In adult women with retrospective data, childhood adiposity, pubertal growth and development were associated with benign breast disease (BBD) and/or breast cancer. The authors prospectively evaluated these childhood/adolescent characteristics and BBD risk. The Growing Up Today Study (GUTS) included females, aged 9-15 years in 1996, who completed annual questionnaires through 2001, then 2003, 2005, and 2007. Participants annually/biennially provided information on menarche, height, and weight, from which the authors derived body mass index (BMI in kg/m(2) ). Peak height growth velocity (PHV in cm/year) was estimated from longitudinal data. On 2005-2007 surveys, 6899 females (18-27 years of age) reported whether a healthcare provider ever diagnosed BBD (n = 147), and whether it was confirmed by biopsy (n = 67). Logistic models investigated risk factors adjusted for age, alcohol, pregnancy, and maternal history. More childhood adiposity (odds ratio [OR], 0.91/[kg/m(2) ]; P = .04) and shorter adult height (OR, 0.93/inch shorter; P = .07) were associated with lower risk of biopsy-confirmed BBD. Girls with most rapid height growth were at increased risk (OR, 2.12; P = .09) relative to those with the slowest growth. Age at menarche was not associated (OR, 1.11/year; P = .32) nor was adult BMI (adjusted for childhood BMI: OR, 1.01/[kg/m(2) ]; P = .98); larger BMI increases (childhood to adulthood) were not protective (OR + 1.04/[kg/m(2) ]; P = .37). Among girls with maternal breast cancer, those with more rapid growth had higher risk (OR, 1.47/[cm/year]; P = .02). All estimates were age-adjusted. Increased BBD risk (likely evolving to elevated breast cancer risk) was observed in thinner girls, girls with the most rapid growth, and taller women. Contrary to expectations, later menarche age was not protective against BBD, consistent with studies that found BBD patients are not protected against breast cancer by later menarche. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  5. Estrogen-mediated Height Control in Girls with Marfan Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Yun; Hyun, Hye Sun; Huh, Rimm; Jin, Dong-Kyu; Kim, Duk-Kyung; Yoon, Byung-Koo; Choi, DooSeok

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a stepwise regimen of estradiol valerate for height control in girls with Marfan syndrome. Eight girls with Marfan syndrome who had completed estrogen treatment for height control were included. Estradiol valerate was started at a dose of 2 mg/day, and then was increased. The projected final height was estimated using the initial height percentile (on a disease-specific growth curve for Korean Marfan syndrome [gcPFHt]), and the initial bone age (baPFHt). After the estrogen treatment, the projected final height was compared to the actual final height (FHt). The median baseline chronological and bone age were 10.0 and 10.5 years, respectively. After a median of 36.5 months of treatment, the median FHt (172.6 cm) was shorter than the median gcPFHt (181.0 cm) and baPFHt (175.9 cm). In the six patients who started treatment before the age of 11 years, the median FHt (171.8 cm) was shorter than the median gcPFHt (181.5 cm) and baPFHt (177.4 cm) after treatment. The median differences between the FHt and gcPFHt and baPFHt were 9.2 and 8.3 cm, respectively. In two patients started treatment after the age of 11, the differences between FHt and gcPFHt, and baPFHt after treatment were -4 and 1.4 cm, and -1.2 and 0 cm for each case, respectively. A stepwise increasing regimen of estradiol valerate may be an effective treatment for height control in girls with Marfan syndrome, especially when started under 11 years old.

  6. Childhood Height and Birth Weight in Relation to Future Prostate Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cook, Michael B; Gamborg, Michael; Aarestrup, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Adult height has been positively associated with prostate cancer risk. However, the exposure window of importance is currently unknown and assessments of height during earlier growth periods are scarce. In addition, the association between birth weight and prostate cancer remains undetermined. We...

  7. Grandparental education, parental education and child height: evidence from Hong Kong's "Children of 1997" birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Man Ki; Leung, Gabriel M; Lam, Tai Hing; Leung, Shirley S L; Schooling, C Mary

    2013-08-01

    Adult height is the sum of growth during fetal, infancy, childhood, and puberty, controlled by different biological factors. In long-term developed Western populations, height is positively associated with socioeconomic position, but less clearly so in recently developing populations. We aimed to elucidate socioeconomic influences on height at different growth phases. We examined the associations of parents' education and grandparents' education with birth weight and height gain z-scores during infancy (birth to education, but not grandparents', was positively associated with birth weight (z-score, 0.07; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.01-0.12 for grade ≥12 compared with grade ≤9) and height gain during infancy (0.11; 95% CI, 0.05-0.18), adjusted for gender, gestational age, initial size, parity, parents' age, parents' birthplace, and parents' height. Conversely, similarly adjusted, grandparents' education, but not parents', was associated with height gain during childhood (0.11; 95% CI, 0.04-0.18). Parental education was associated with fetal and infant, but not childhood, linear growth, suggesting the mechanism underlying socioeconomic influences on height at different growth phases may be contextually specific. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Moderating Effects of Pubertal Timing on the Longitudinal Associations between Parent-Child Relationship Quality and Adolescent Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Katherine H.; Van Den Bree, Marianne B. M.

    2010-01-01

    This prospective, longitudinal study investigated the moderating role of pubertal timing on reciprocal links between adolescent appraisals of parent-child relationship quality and girls' (N = 1,335) and boys' (N = 1,203) cigarette and alcohol use across a 12-month period. Reciprocal effects were found between parent-child relations and on-time…

  9. Early Pubertal Maturation and Internalizing Problems in Adolescence: Sex Differences in the Role of Cortisol Reactivity to Interpersonal Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Ge, Xiaojia; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Hastings, Paul D.; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    An accumulating body of literature has shown a link between early pubertal maturation and internalizing problems, particularly among girls. Our knowledge is, however, limited with regard to what accounts for this association. Based on a hypothesis that early maturing girls have heightened stress sensitivity that increases the risk of internalizing…

  10. Early Adolescent Friendship Selection Based on Externalizing Behavior: the Moderating Role of Pubertal Development. The SNARE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Aart; Prinstein, Mitchell J; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Steglich, Christian E G; Harakeh, Zeena; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2016-11-01

    This study examined friendship (de-)selection processes in early adolescence. Pubertal development was examined as a potential moderator. It was expected that pubertal development would be associated with an increased tendency for adolescents to select their friends based on their similarities in externalizing behavior engagement (i.e., delinquency, alcohol use, and tobacco use). Data were used from the first three waves of the SNARE (Social Network Analysis of Risk behavior in Early adolescence) study (N = 1144; 50 % boys; M age  = 12.7; SD = 0.47), including students who entered the first year of secondary school. The hypothesis was tested using Stochastic Actor-Based Modeling in SIENA. While taking the network structure into account, and controlling for peer influence effects, the results supported this hypothesis. Early adolescents with higher pubertal development were as likely as their peers to select friends based on similarity in externalizing behavior and especially likely to remain friends with peers who had a similar level of externalizing behavior, and thus break friendship ties with dissimilar friends in this respect. As early adolescents are actively engaged in reorganizing their social context, adolescents with a higher pubertal development are especially likely to lose friendships with peers who do not engage in externalizing behavior, thus losing an important source of adaptive social control (i.e., friends who do not engage in externalizing behavior).

  11. Relationships of Pubertal Development among Early Adolescents to Sexual and Nonsexual Risk Behaviors and Caregivers' Parenting Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Helen P.; Rose, Allison; Bhaskar, Brinda; Walker, Leslie R.

    2012-01-01

    Using a school-based sample of fifth graders (mean age = 10.38, SD = 0.66) and their parents (N = 408) from Washington, D.C., the authors examine associations of pubertal development with early adolescents' sexual and nonsexual risk behaviors and their caregivers' parenting behaviors and of these risk behaviors with parenting behaviors. Results…

  12. A macroecological analysis of SERA derived forest heights and implications for forest volume remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brolly, Matthew; Woodhouse, Iain H; Niklas, Karl J; Hammond, Sean T

    2012-01-01

    Individual trees have been shown to exhibit strong relationships between DBH, height and volume. Often such studies are cited as justification for forest volume or standing biomass estimation through remote sensing. With resolution of common satellite remote sensing systems generally too low to resolve individuals, and a need for larger coverage, these systems rely on descriptive heights, which account for tree collections in forests. For remote sensing and allometric applications, this height is not entirely understood in terms of its location. Here, a forest growth model (SERA) analyzes forest canopy height relationships with forest wood volume. Maximum height, mean, H₁₀₀, and Lorey's height are examined for variability under plant number density, resource and species. Our findings, shown to be allometrically consistent with empirical measurements for forested communities world-wide, are analyzed for implications to forest remote sensing techniques such as LiDAR and RADAR. Traditional forestry measures of maximum height, and to a lesser extent H₁₀₀ and Lorey's, exhibit little consistent correlation with forest volume across modeled conditions. The implication is that using forest height to infer volume or biomass from remote sensing requires species and community behavioral information to infer accurate estimates using height alone. SERA predicts mean height to provide the most consistent relationship with volume of the height classifications studied and overall across forest variations. This prediction agrees with empirical data collected from conifer and angiosperm forests with plant densities ranging between 10²-10⁶ plants/hectare and heights 6-49 m. Height classifications investigated are potentially linked to radar scattering centers with implications for allometry. These findings may be used to advance forest biomass estimation accuracy through remote sensing. Furthermore, Lorey's height with its specific relationship to remote sensing

  13. Estimation of Height from Arm Span in 6-11 Years Children in Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snigdha Prava Mishra

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Standing height is an important anthropometric parameter to track longitudinal growth, to estimate body fatness and to calculate energy requirement. Measurement of height may be difficult in children who cannot stand. Aim: To establish regression equation for estimation of height from arm span in children. To check comparative relevancy of this equation with fixed height-to-arm span ratio (HAR for estimation of height. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 6-11 years school children (n=1465, Boys=774, Girls=691 in state of Odisha, India. Height was measured by portable stadiometer and arm span was measured by fiberglass measuring tape to nearest 0.1 cm. Pearson correlation and regression analysis was carried out between height and arm span data. p<0.05 (two tail was considered statistically significant. Results: Mean height and arm span in boys (124.16±8.74 cm and 125.57±10.43 cm respectively was significantly more (p<0.001 than height and arm span in girls (121.18±10.37 cm and 121.50±11.68 cm respectively. Mean HAR was 0.9942±0.0279. Correlation between height and arm span in boys was r = 0.94 (p<0.001 and in girls was r = 0.96 (p<0.001. Overall correlation coefficient was r = 0.95 (p<0.001. Regression equation for estimation of height from arm span was established: Height (cm = 0.8192 * arm span (cm + 21.46. Conclusion: Height in children of 6-11 years showed strong positive correlation with arm span. Regression equation established from this study can be used to estimate height from arm span. This estimation is more reliable than estimation of height from HAR.

  14. The organizational effects of pubertal testosterone on sexual proficiency in adult male Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorme, Kayla C; Sisk, Cheryl L

    2016-10-15

    Social proficiency requires making appropriate behavioral adaptations as a result of social experience. For example, male rodents become sexually proficient with experience as demonstrated by a reduction in ectopic (misdirected) mounts, mount-to-intromission ratio, and latency to ejaculation. We previously found that over a series of timed tests with a receptive female, male hamsters deprived of testosterone specifically during puberty (NoT@P) have overall lower levels of sexual behavior and continue to display high levels of ectopic mounts, compared with males that experienced endogenous testosterone during puberty (T@P). These results suggested that pubertal testosterone programs sexual proficiency in adulthood, but because NoT@P males engaged in less sexual behavior than T@P males in these tests, the amount of sexual experience may have been insufficient to improve sexual proficiency. To more rigorously test the hypothesis that pubertal testosterone is necessary for social proficiency in adulthood, the present study compared the behavior of NoT@P and T@P males in a series of 4 trials with a 48-h interval between each trial. Sexual experience was equated by limiting each trial to 5 intromissions. Sexually-naïve males were either gonadectomized prepubertally (NoT@P) or in adulthood (T@P) and received subcutaneous testosterone capsules four weeks later. Two weeks after testosterone replacement, these groups and a group of adult gonad-intact controls began sexual behavior testing. We found that NoT@P males had more ectopic mounts/min across all four tests compared to gonad-intact and T@P males. Moreover, both gonad-intact and T@P males, but not NoT@P males, showed an increase in the number of mounts and intromissions/min between trials 1 and 3. Unexpectedly, both gonad-intact and T@P, but not NoT@P, males showed a decrease in sexual behaviors during trial 4. Thus, T@P males display multiple behavioral adaptations to sexual experience that are not observed in No

  15. Height at Ages 7-13 Years in Relation to Developing Type 2 Diabetes Throughout Adult Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lise G; Jensen, Britt W; Baker, Jennifer L

    2017-01-01

    measured at ages 7-13 years. Hazard ratios (HR) of type 2 diabetes (age ≥30 years) were estimated without and with adjustment for birthweight and BMI. RESULTS: In men, associations between height and type 2 diabetes changed from inverse for below-average heights at age 7 years to positive for above...... for BMI, short childhood height at all ages and greater growth during childhood are associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, suggesting that this period of life warrants mechanistic investigations.......BACKGROUND: Short adults have an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Although adult height results from childhood growth, the effects of height and growth trajectories during childhood are sparsely investigated. We investigated sex-specific associations between childhood height, growth and adult...

  16. LBA-ECO ND-02 Secondary Forest Tree Heights and Diameters, Para, Brazil: 1999-2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides tree diameters and heights measured from 1999 to 2005 in plots of a secondary-growth forest fertilization experiment located 6.5-km...

  17. LBA-ECO ND-02 Secondary Forest Tree Heights and Diameters, Para, Brazil: 1999-2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides tree diameters and heights measured from 1999 to 2005 in plots of a secondary-growth forest fertilization experiment located 6.5-km northwest...

  18. Prediction of basal metabolic rate in obese children and adolescents considering pubertal stages and anthropometric characteristics or body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzer, S; Patrizi, A; De Col, A; Saezza, A; Sartorio, A

    2014-06-01

    To develop and crossvalidate new equations for predicting basal metabolic rate (BMR) in obese children and adolescents in relation to pubertal stages, anthropometric characteristics or body composition. A total of 1696 obese Caucasian children and adolescents (mean body mass index z-score: 3.5±0.8) participated in this study. BMR was determined by indirect calorimetry and fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Equations were derived by stepwise multiple regression analysis using a calibration cohort of 848 subjects, and the equations were crossvalidated with a Bland and Altman method in the remaining 848 subjects. Two new specific equations based on gender (1: males; 0: females), pubertal stages (from 1 to 5, assessed according Marshall & Tanner methods) and body weight (BW, kg), stature (m) or body composition (kg) were generated as follows: (1) BMR=(BW × 0.044)+(stature × 2.836)-(pubertal stage × 0.148)+(gender × 0.781)-0.551 (adjusted coefficient of determination (R(2)adj)= 0.69 and root mean squared error (RMSE)=0.954 MJ); (2) BMR=(FFM × 0.082)+(FM × 0.037)-(pubertal stage × 0.125)+(gender × 0.706)+2.528 (R(2)adj= 0.70 and RMSE=0.943 MJ). In the crossvalidation group, mean-predicted BMR was not significantly different from the mean-measured BMR (MBMR) for all children and adolescents, as well as for boys and girls (differenceBMR was predicted accurately (90-110% of MBMR) in 67% of subjects. The new prediction equations considering the pubertal stages allow an accurate and more appropriate (vs equations using chronological age) estimation of BMR in obese children and adolescents.

  19. [Study on the pathogens correlated to sexually transmitted diseases in 285 pre-pubertal girls with vulvovaginitis in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Hong-Mei; Feng, Yan-Ling; Hu, Jin; Zhao, Han-Qing; Zhang, Li-Ya

    2007-08-01

    To study the relationship between vulvovaginitis in pre-pubertal girls and pathogens as Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct), N. gonorrhoeae (Ng), Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma urealyticum (Uu), Mycoplasma hominis (Mh), M. genitalium (Mg), M. fermentans (Mf) and M. penetrans (Mpe), as well as to find out the proportion of mycoplasma which is correlated to sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and AIDS. METHODS Vulvae swab specimens from 285 pre-pubertal girls with vulvovaginitis (case group) and 128 healthy girls (control group) were collected and detected by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) to identify the existence of pathogens as Ct, Ng, Uu, Mh, Mg, Mf and Mpe. nPCR with both high specificity and sensitivity, would not be influenced by the amount of pathogens in specimens or inactivated during the process of storage or transportation. The rate of detection on pathogens was 59.65% in the 285 specimens from case group including 'one kind of pathogen in one specimen' as 37.54% and 'two kinds' as 16.84% and 'three kinds' as 5.26%. However, in the 128 specimens from control group, the detectable rate of pathogen was 6.25%. Relationships were found between Ng (P vulvovaginitis in pre-pubertal girls. In control group the pathogens were detected from 7 specimens including 5 Uu and 2 Mh. Some of the pathogens were correlated to STD and were important in causing vulvovaginitis in pre-pubertal girls. Vulvovaginitis might have been caused by more than one kind of pathogen in pre-pubertal girls. The locations of Mg, Mf and Ng in outer genital tracts were correlated to seasonal change. Macrolide seemed to be quite effective clinically in treating urogenital tract infection caused by mycoplasma and Ct.

  20. Associations between adiposity, hormones, and gains in height, whole-body height-adjusted bone size, and size-adjusted bone mineral content in 8- to 11-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Ritz, Christian; Larnkjær, Anni

    2016-01-01

    We examined fat-independent associations of hormones with height and whole-body bone size and mineral content in 633 school children. IGF-1 and osteocalcin predict growth in height, while fat, osteocalcin, and in girls also, IGF-1 predict growth in bone size. Leptin and ghrelin are inversely asso...

  1. Physiological pattern of lumbar disc height

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggemann, M.; Frobin, W.; Brinckmann, P.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose of this study is to present a new method of quantifying objectively the height of all discs in lateral radiographs of the lumbar spine and of analysing the normal craniocaudal sequence pattern of lumbar disc heights. Methods: The new parameter is the ventrally measured disc height corrected for the dependence on the angle of lordosis by normalisation to mean angles observed in the erect posture of healthy persons. To eliminate radiographic magnification, the corrected ventral height is related to the mean depth of the cranially adjoining vertebra. In this manner lumbar disc heights were objectively measured in young, mature and healthy persons (146 males and 65 females). The craniocaudal sequence pattern was analysed by mean values from all persons and by height differences of adjoining discs in each individual lumbar spine. Results: Mean normative values demonstrated an increase in disc height between L1/L2 and L4/L5 and a constant or decreasing disc height between L4/L5 and L5/S1. However, this 'physiological sequence of disc height in the statistical mean' was observed in only 36% of normal males and 55% of normal females. Conclusion: The radiological pattern of the 'physiological sequence of lumbar disc height' leads to a relevant portion of false positive pathological results especially at L4/L5. An increase of disc height from L4/L5 to L5/S1 may be normal. The recognition of decreased disc height should be based on an abrupt change in the heights of adjoining discs and not on a deviation from a craniocaudal sequence pattern. (orig.) [de

  2. Child Height and Maternal Health Care Knowledge in Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Broeck, Katleen

    Stunting prevalence rates in Mozambique are very high (41 percent), especially in rural areas (46 percent). Recent research shows that consumption growth alone will not be sufficient to solve the problem of malnutrition. To investigate the role of additional determinants I use a two-stage quantil...... of education and community health care facilities in rural areas and positively affect the height of the most severely stunted children...

  3. GH treatment to final height produces similar height gains in patients with SHOX deficiency and turner syndrome: Results of a multicenter trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.F. Blum (Werner); J.L. Ross (J.); A.G. Zimmermann (Alan); C.A. Quigley (Charmian); C.J. Child (Christopher); G. Kalifa (Gabriel); C.L. Deal (Cheri Lynn); S.L.S. Drop (Stenvert); G. Rappold (G.); G. Cutler (Gordon)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractContext: Growth impairment in short stature homeobox-containing gene (SHOX) deficiency and Turner syndrome share a similar etiology. Because of the established effect of GH treatment on height in patients with Turner syndrome, we hypothesized that GH therapy would also stimulate growth

  4. An Unexpected Cause of Pelvic Pain in a Pubertal Case: Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Kayadibi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Uterovaginal duplication with imperforated hemivagina is a rare type of Mullerian anomaly. If ipsilateral renal agenesis is associated with this complex genital malformation, it is called Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome. Clinical presentations of this syndrome include pelvic pain and mass effect due to obstructed hemivagina in pubertal adolescents and adults. Hematocolpos, even after menstruation period, leads to misdiagnosis. Laparotomy is the gold standard for the diagnosis, however, magnetic resonance imaging has an accuracy upto 100% in evaluating uterovajinal anatomy. In this article, we aimed to present ultrasonographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings in a patient with Herlyn-Werner-Wun derlich syndrome who presented with cyclic pelvic pain. (The Me­di­cal Bul­le­tin of Ha­se­ki 2014; 52: 60-3

  5. The Effects of Microgravity on Seated Height (Spinal Elongation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, K. S.; Rajulu, S.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many physiological factors, such as spinal elongation, fluid shifts, bone atrophy, and muscle loss, occur during an exposure to a microgravity environment. Spinal elongation is just one of the factors that can also affect the safety and performance of a crewmember while in space. Spinal elongation occurs due to the lack of gravity/compression on the spinal column. This allows for the straightening of the natural spinal curve. There is a possible fluid shift in the inter-vertebral disks that may also result in changes in height. This study aims at collecting the overall change in seated height for crewmembers exposed to a microgravity environment. During previous Programs, Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) and Skylab, spinal elongation data was collected from a small number of subjects in a standing posture but were limited in scope. Data from these studies indicated a quick increase in stature during the first few days of weightlessness, after which stature growth reached a plateau resulting in up to a 3% increase of the original measurement [1-5]. However, this data was collected only for crewmembers in standing posture and not in a seated posture. Seated height may have a different effect than standing height due to a change in posture as well as due to a compounded effect of wearing restraints and a potential compression of the gluteal area. Seated height was deemed as a critical measurement in the design of the Constellation Program s (CxP) Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), called Orion which is now the point-of-departure vehicle for the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program; therefore a better understanding of the effects of microgravity on seated height is necessary. Potential changes in seated height that may not have impacted crew accommodation in previous Programs will have significant effects on crew accommodation due to the layout of seats in the Orion.. The current and existing configuration is such that the four crewmembers are stacked two by

  6. Subexponential estimates in Shirshov's theorem on height

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belov, Aleksei Ya; Kharitonov, Mikhail I

    2012-01-01

    Suppose that F 2,m is a free 2-generated associative ring with the identity x m =0. In 1993 Zelmanov put the following question: is it true that the nilpotency degree of F 2,m has exponential growth? We give the definitive answer to Zelmanov's question by showing that the nilpotency class of an l-generated associative algebra with the identity x d =0 is smaller than Ψ(d,d,l), where Ψ(n,d,l)=2 18 l(nd) 3log 3 (nd)+13 d 2 . This result is a consequence of the following fact based on combinatorics of words. Let l, n and d≥n be positive integers. Then all words over an alphabet of cardinality l whose length is not less than Ψ(n,d,l) are either n-divisible or contain x d ; a word W is n-divisible if it can be represented in the form W=W 0 W 1 …W n so that W 1 ,...,W n are placed in lexicographically decreasing order. Our proof uses Dilworth's theorem (according to V.N. Latyshev's idea). We show that the set of not n-divisible words over an alphabet of cardinality l has height h 87 l·n 12log 3 n+48 . Bibliography: 40 titles.

  7. Androgenetic Alopecia: A Chronic or Pubertal Onset Disease Retarded by Blood Donation

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    Mohammad Reza Dayer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Androgenetic alopecia is the main cause of hair loss and common baldness that affects psychological more than physiological aspects of people’s lives. Studies have shown that this multi factorial disorder is initiated by androgens secretion in pubertal period, minerals limitations, autoimmunity, mental stress, genetic predisposition and some alterations in hematological factors. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the involvement of hematologic parameters in this disease using a case control study design. Methods In this case-controlled study, two groups each of 80 individuals with androgenetic alopecia were voluntarily included in the study based on their medical histories and clinical examinations and subjected to blood tests for routine hematological parameters. The results were then compared and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Results Our findings indicated that all the parameters for both groups fall in normal ranges (Mean ± SD but the values for RBC, HGB, MCH, MCHC, WBC, LYM and TIBC were significantly higher in patients than in normal group. The average counts of PLT was significantly lower in patients compared with the normal group. Otherwise, Person’s tests for statistical correlations between two groups indicated that the pattern of correlations were abnormal in patients. Conclusions Our findings indicated the presence of a chronic, immunologic and slowly progressing disorder that causes hair loss, the disease which is in turn triggered in pubertal period upon androgen secretion. We suggest, therefore, that the conditions may be ameliorated by prescription of iron tablet, platelet transfusion and anti-inflammation therapy.

  8. Mental Health Problems of Iranian Female Adolescents and Its Association with Pubertal Development: A Nationwide Study

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    Aria Sotoudeh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mental health problems including emotional and behavioral problems during puberty may be under influence of different risk factors including cultures, living in urban or rural areas and ethnic factors which may vary between different countries. The main aim of this study is to investigate the profile of emotional and behavioral problems and the role of factors such as age, stage of puberty, ethnicity, rurality and living in urban area, as risk factors in Iranian girls. As a part of a large national study we evaluated the emotional and behavioral problems in different stages of puberty in a community sample of Iranian adolescent girls from public schools that were selected by clustered random sampling method. In all subjects, demographic characteristics, and pubertal stages were measured. Emotional and behavioral problems were evaluated using Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. The associations of age, pubertal development indices, socioeconomic and demographic factors with the behavioral problems were assessed. A total number of 4576 students enrolled the study and responded to the questions. The mean age of participants was 13.83 2.19 years. The mean total score of difficulties in participants was 14.34 5.81. According to these results 813 (17.8% adolescents had total problem scores higher than Goodmans cutoff points and the most frequent problem domain was conduct problems (20.5%. According to the results the most related variable with the total difficulty score of SDQ were ethnicity, residency in urban areas and development of menstrual cycle respectively. The results of this study showed that the most correlated factors with mental health problems in Iranian girls during puberty are ethnicity, urbanity and development of menstrual cycle.

  9. EFFECT OF GnRH AND PHOSPHORUS IN DELAYED PUBERTAL SURTI BUFFALO HEIFERS

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    H.B. Dhamsaniya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on eighteen delayed pubertal Surti buffalo heifers, divided into three equal groups (6 in each to evaluate the efficacy of GnRH alone and in combination of phosphorus. The buffalo heifers in Group-I and Group-II were treated with Buserelin acetate (5 ml, IM. Buffalo heifers in Group-II also received additional injection of Toldimphos sodium (10 ml, IM at 3 day interval for 4 times, while buffalo heifers in Group-III served as control. The percentage of induced estrus was highest (83.33% in each treated groups as compared to control group (50%. The mean estrus induction intervals were significantly (P<0.05 shorter in Group-I (20.20 ± 2.18 days and Group-II (18.80 ± 2.32 days as compared to control group (30.24 ± 0.81 days. The conception rate at induced estrus was highest in Group-II (50% followed by Group-I (33.33%. The plasma progesterone levels being significantly lowest on the day of estrus (less than 0.5 ng/ml as compared to pre-treatment days in all groups. The mean total protein and triglycerides levels were differed significantly between the groups on the day of estrus and being significantly higher in Group-II as compared to Group-I and III on that day. A significantly higher level of cholesterol in both treatment groups as compared to the control group during different intervals and also being higher on the day of estrus as compared to pre-treatment days. The mean plasma glucose levels were differed nonsignificantly between and within the treatment and control groups. It is concluded that estrus can be successfully induced in delayed pubertal heifers with the use of GnRH alone and in combination with phosphorus.

  10. Prenatal androgen excess enhances stimulation of the GNRH pulse in pubertal female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaonan; Yuan, Chun; Zhao, Nannan; Cui, Yugui; Liu, Jiayin

    2014-07-01

    In adolescent girls with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), neuroendocrine derangements manifest after the onset of puberty, characterized by rapid LH pulse frequency. The early mechanism underlying the pubertal regulation of the GNRH/LH pulsatile release in adolescents with PCOS remains uncertain. To determine the effects of prenatal androgen exposure on the activation of GNRH neurons and generation of LH pulse at puberty, we administrated 5α-dihydrotestosterone to pregnant rats and observed serum LH levels and expression of hypothalamic genes in female offspring from postnatal 4 to 8 weeks. The 6-week-old prenatally androgenized (PNA) female rats exhibited an increase in LH pulse frequency. The hypothalamic expression of neurokinin B (Nkb (Tac2)) and Lepr mRNA levels in PNA rats increased remarkably before puberty and remained high during puberty, whereas elevated Kiss1 mRNA levels were detected only after the onset of puberty. Exogenous kisspeptin, NK3R agonist, and leptin triggered tonic stimulation of GNRH neurons and increased LH secretion in 6-week-old PNA rats. Leptin upregulated Kiss1 mRNA levels in the hypothalamus of pubertal PNA rats; however, pretreatment with a kisspeptin antagonist failed to suppress the elevated serum LH stimulated by leptin, indicating that the stimulatory effects of leptin may be conveyed indirectly to GNRH neurons via other neural components within the GNRH neuronal network, rather than through the kisspeptin-GPR54 pathway. These findings validate the hypotheses that NKB and leptin play an essential role in the activation of GNRH neurons and initiation of increased LH pulse frequency in PNA female rats at puberty and that kisspeptin may coordinate their stimulatory effects on LH release. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology.

  11. The height of the atmospheric boundary layer during unstable conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gryning, S.E.

    2005-11-01

    The height of the convective atmospheric boundary layer, also called the mixed-layer, is one of the fundamental parameters that characterise the structure of the atmosphere near the ground. It has many theoretical and practical applications such as the prediction of air pollution concentrations, surface temperature and the scaling of turbulence. However, as pointed out by Builtjes (2001) in a review paper on Major Twentieth Century Milestones in Air Pollution Modelling and Its Application, the weakest point in meteorology data is still the determination of the height of the mixed-layer, the so-called mixing height. A simple applied model for the height of the mixed-layer over homogeneous terrain is suggested in chapter 2. It is based on a parameterised budget for the turbulent kinetic energy. In the model basically three terms - the spin-up term and the production of mechanical and convective turbulent kinetic energy - control the growth of the mixed layer. The interplay between the three terms is related to the meteorological conditions and the height of the mixed layer. A stable layer, the so-called entrainment zone, which is confined between the mixed layer and the free air above, caps the mixed layer. A parameterisation of the depth of the entrainment zone is also suggested, and used to devise a combined model for the height of the mixed layer and the entrainment zone. Another important aspect of the mixed layer development exists in coastal areas where an internal boundary layer forms downwind from the coastline. A model for the growth of the internal boundary layer is developed in analogy with the model for mixed layer development over homogeneous terrain. The strength of this model is that it can operate on a very fine spatial resolution with minor computer resources. Chapter 3 deals with the validation of the models. It is based in parts on data from the literature, and on own measurements. For the validation of the formation of the internal boundary layer

  12. Imagery and fear influence height perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerkin, Elise M; Cody, Meghan W; Stefanucci, Jeanine K; Proffitt, Dennis R; Teachman, Bethany A

    2009-04-01

    The current study tested whether height overestimation is related to height fear and influenced by images of falling. To assess perceptual biases, participants high (n=65) versus low (n=64) in height fear estimated the vertical extents of two balconies using a visual matching task. On one of the balconies, participants engaged in an imagery exercise designed to enhance the subjective sense that they were acting in a dangerous environment by picturing themselves falling. As expected, we found that individuals overestimated the balcony's height more after they imagined themselves falling, particularly if they were already afraid of heights. These findings suggest that height fear may serve as a vulnerability factor that leads to perceptual biases when triggered by a stressor (in this case, images of falling).

  13. Development and evaluation of height diameter at breast models for native Chinese Metasequoia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mu; Feng, Zhongke; Zhang, Zhixiang; Ma, Chenghui; Wang, Mingming; Lian, Bo-Ling; Sun, Renjie; Zhang, Li

    2017-01-01

    Accurate tree height and diameter at breast height (dbh) are important input variables for growth and yield models. A total of 5503 Chinese Metasequoia trees were used in this study. We studied 53 fitted models, of which 7 were linear models and 46 were non-linear models. These models were divided into two groups of single models and multivariate models according to the number of independent variables. The results show that the allometry equation of tree height which has diameter at breast height as independent variable can better reflect the change of tree height; in addition the prediction accuracy of the multivariate composite models is higher than that of the single variable models. Although tree age is not the most important variable in the study of the relationship between tree height and dbh, the consideration of tree age when choosing models and parameters in model selection can make the prediction of tree height more accurate. The amount of data is also an important parameter what can improve the reliability of models. Other variables such as tree height, main dbh and altitude, etc can also affect models. In this study, the method of developing the recommended models for predicting the tree height of native Metasequoias aged 50-485 years is statistically reliable and can be used for reference in predicting the growth and production of mature native Metasequoia.

  14. Development and evaluation of height diameter at breast models for native Chinese Metasequoia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu Liu

    Full Text Available Accurate tree height and diameter at breast height (dbh are important input variables for growth and yield models. A total of 5503 Chinese Metasequoia trees were used in this study. We studied 53 fitted models, of which 7 were linear models and 46 were non-linear models. These models were divided into two groups of single models and multivariate models according to the number of independent variables. The results show that the allometry equation of tree height which has diameter at breast height as independent variable can better reflect the change of tree height; in addition the prediction accuracy of the multivariate composite models is higher than that of the single variable models. Although tree age is not the most important variable in the study of the relationship between tree height and dbh, the consideration of tree age when choosing models and parameters in model selection can make the prediction of tree height more accurate. The amount of data is also an important parameter what can improve the reliability of models. Other variables such as tree height, main dbh and altitude, etc can also affect models. In this study, the method of developing the recommended models for predicting the tree height of native Metasequoias aged 50-485 years is statistically reliable and can be used for reference in predicting the growth and production of mature native Metasequoia.

  15. Understanding Growth and Maturation in the Context of Ballet: A Biocultural Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Siobhan B.; Haase, Anne M.; Cumming, Sean P.; Malina, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    The pubertal transition can present an interesting paradox for the young dancer, with growth and maturation leading to improvements in some areas such as strength and power and detriment to others, such as flexibility and co-ordination. These challenges highlight the need to consider the interactions among biological, psychological and…

  16. Clinical study evaluating bone mineral mass in the radius during skeletal growth. Single photon absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagino, Hiroshi

    1989-01-01

    Using 125-I single photon absorptiometry, bone mineral measurements were performed on 206 healthy Japanese children (2 to 19 years of age). Bone mineral content (BMC), bone width (BW) and BMC/BW values were determined for the radius at distal 1/6 site (metaphysis) and distal 1/3 site (diaphysis). BMC/BW values at both sites correlated well with body height and weight. Bone mass in the diaphysis (distal 1/3 site) increased linearly during the 2-19 years of skeletal growth, but bone mass in the metaphysis (1/6 site) increased steeply during the pubertal period. In children receiving glucocorticoid therapy, bone mass was reduced in proportion to the duration of drug administration. In children under anticonvulsant therapy, the yearly increse in bone mass was significantly low especially in those patients with poor physical activity levels. Bone mineral decrease in the radius occurred in the children with hypopituitalism, hypothyroidism (cretinism), hyperthyroidism and Turner's syndrome.

  17. Growth-related changes of skeletal and upper-airway features in bilateral cleft lip and palate patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akarsu-Guven, Bengisu; Karakaya, Jale; Ozgur, Figen; Aksu, Muge

    2015-10-01

    The craniofacial morphology of subjects with cleft lip and palate differs from that of subjects without clefts. Subjects with bilateral cleft lip and palate tend to have maxillary retrognathism, a smaller mandible with an obtuse gonial angle, greater anterior upper and lower facial heights, and retroclined maxillary incisors. The purposes of this research were to compare the skeletal and upper-airway features of subjects with bilateral cleft lip and palate with the same features in control subjects without clefts and to determine the growth-related changes at different growth stages. The sample comprised 212 subjects divided into 2 groups: 68 with bilateral cleft lip and palate, and 144 controls without clefts; each group was further divided into 4 subgroups according to growth stage using the cervical vertebral maturation stage method. The subgroups were defined as early childhood (stage 1), prepubertal (stage 2), pubertal (stage 3), and postpubertal (stage 4). The cephalometric variables were evaluated with 2-way analysis of variance and the Bonferroni test. Maxillary position showed no significant differences between the male groups. The maxilla was more prognathic at stage 2 and became more retrognathic at stages 3 and 4 in the females. The mandible was more retrusive in the bilateral cleft lip and palate subjects at stage 1 in males and at stages 3 and 4 in females. ANB was larger at stages 1 and 2, and it became similar to the controls at stages 3 and 4 in male and female bilateral cleft lip and palate subjects. Vertical growth was seen in the bilateral cleft lip and palate subjects regardless of sex, and no change was observed with age. Posterior airway space was narrower in all stages (except for stage 1 in females). Middle airway space was wider after stage 1 in the male and female bilateral cleft lip and palate subjects. Inferior airway space was narrower in the male bilateral cleft lip and palate patients at the early childhood and pubertal stages. Age

  18. Indicadores de desempenho em rebanho da raça Holandesa: curvas de crescimento e altura, características reprodutivas, produtivas e parâmetros genéticos Productive indicator in a Holstein dairy herd: growth and height curves, reproductive and productive traits and genetic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E. Val

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisados dados de peso, altura e desempenho produtivo e reprodutivo de 1.272 novilhas da raça Holandesa, nascidas no período de 1990 a 1998. Estudaram-se o desenvolvimento em peso e altura do nascimento até o primeiro parto, as características peso ao primeiro parto (PP, idade ao primeiro parto (IP, produção de leite na primeira lactação (PL, primeiro intervalo de partos (IEP, e os parâmetros genéticos pertinentes. As equações para as curvas de peso e altura, estimadas pelo modelo proposto por von Bertalanffy, foram: Yi= 802,10 (1 - 0,630EXP (-0,0022t e Yi= 1,40 (1 - 0,208EXP (-0,0038t, respectivamente. As novilhas atingiram o primeiro parto com altura média de 140cm e peso de 602kg aos 27 meses de idade. A produção total de leite na primeira lactação foi de 8.026kg e o primeiro IEP 420 dias. Na obtenção dos componentes de (covariância utilizou-se o método da máxima verossimilhança restrita livre de derivada. As estimativas de herdabilidade foram 0,31, 0,35 e 0,34, respectivamente, para PP, IP e PL, e 0,10 para IEP, evidenciando variância genética aditiva média para as três primeiras características. As correlações genéticas apresentaram pequena magnitude para PP e PL, PL e IP, e IEP e PL. A correlação entre IEP e PP foi 0,49; entre IEP e IP o valor foi negativo, -0,69, indicando provável antagonismo entre as duas últimas características.Data on weight, height, productive and reproductive performance of 1,272 Holstein heifers, born from 1990 to 1998, were used to evaluate the growth and height patterns of these females from birth to first calving, and the following traits: weight at first calving (PP, age at first calving (IP, milk production in the first lactation (PL and first calving interval (IEP, and to estimate genetic parameters of these traits. The von Bertalanffy fitted models were: Yi=802.10 (1-0.630EXP (-0.0022t for weight, and Yi=1.40 (1-0.208EXP (-0.0038t for height. The average

  19. Two organizational effects of pubertal testosterone in male rats: transient social memory and a shift away from long-term potentiation following a tetanus in hippocampal CA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbard, Pamela C; King, Rebecca R; Malsbury, Charles W; Harley, Carolyn W

    2003-08-01

    The organizational role of pubertal androgen receptor (AR) activation in synaptic plasticity in hippocampal CA1 and in social memory was assessed. Earlier data suggest pubertal testosterone reduces adult hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Four groups were created following gonadectomy at the onset of puberty: rats given testosterone; rats given testosterone but with the AR antagonist flutamide, present during puberty; rats given testosterone at the end of puberty; and rats given cholesterol at the end of puberty. A tetanus normally inducing long-term potentiation (LTP) was used to stimulate CA1 in the urethane-anesthetized adults during the dark phase of their cycle. Social memory was assessed prior to electrophysiology. Social memory for a juvenile rat at 120 min was seen only in rats not exposed to AR activation during puberty. Pubertal AR activation may induce the reduced social memory of male rats. Early CA1 LTP occurred following tetanus in rats with no pubertal testosterone. Short-term potentiation occurred in rats exposed to pubertal testosterone. Unexpectedly, rats with pubertal AR activation developed long-term depression (LTD). The same pattern was seen in normal male rats. Lack of LTP during the dark phase is consistent with other data on circadian modulation of CA1 LTP. No correlations were seen among social memory scores and CA1 plasticity measures. These data argue for two organizational effects of pubertal testosterone: (1) CA1 synaptic plasticity shifts away from potentiation toward depression; (2) social memory is reduced. Enduring effects of pubertal androgen on limbic circuits may contribute to reorganized behaviors in the postpubertal period.

  20. Evolutionary perspectives on human height variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stulp, Gert; Barrett, Louise

    Human height is a highly variable trait, both within and between populations, has a high heritability, and influences the manner in which people behave and are treated in society. Although we know much about human height, this information has rarely been brought together in a comprehensive,

  1. Cohort profile: Pacific Islands Families (PIF) growth study, Auckland, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, E; Oliver, M; Plank, L D; Taylor, S; Iusitini, L; Jalili-Moghaddam, S; Savila, F; Paterson, J; Tautolo, E

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This article profiles a birth cohort of Pacific children participating in an observational prospective study and describes the study protocol used at ages 14–15 years to investigate how food and activity patterns, metabolic risk and family and built environment are related to rates of physical growth of Pacific children. Participants From 2000 to 2015, the Pacific Islands Families Study has followed, from birth, the growth and development of over 1000 Pacific children born in Auckland, New Zealand. In 2014, 931 (66%) of the original cohort had field measures of body composition, blood pressure and glycated haemoglobin. A nested subsample (n=204) was drawn by randomly selecting 10 males and 10 females from each decile of body weight. These participants had measurement of body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, food frequency, 6 min walk test and accelerometer-determined physical activity and sedentary behaviours, and blood biomarkers for metabolic disease such as diabetes. Built environment variables were generated from individual addresses. Findings to date Compared to the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reference population with mean SD scores (SDS) of 0, this cohort of 931 14-year-olds was taller, weighed more and had a higher body mass index (BMI) (mean SDS height >0.6, weight >1.6 and BMI >1.4). 7 of 10 youth were overweight or obese. The nested-sampling frame achieved an even distribution by body weight. Future plans Cross-sectional relationships between body size, fatness and growth rate, food patterns, activity patterns, pubertal development, risks for diabetes and hypertension and the family and wider environment will be examined. In addition, analyses will investigate relationships with data collected earlier in the life course and measures of the cohort in the future. Understanding past and present influences on child growth and health will inform timely interventions to optimise future health and reduce

  2. Early pubertal onset and its relationship with sexual risk taking, substance use and anti-social behaviour: a preliminary cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellis Mark A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many countries age at pubertal onset has declined substantially. Relatively little attention has been paid to how this decline may affect adolescent behaviours such as substance use, violence and unprotected sex and consequently impact on public health. Methods In the UK, two opportunistic samples (aged 16-45 years, paper-based (n = 976 and online (n = 1117, examined factors associated with earlier pubertal onset and whether earlier age of onset predicted sexual risk-taking, substance use and anti-social behaviours during early adolescence. Results Overall, 45.6% of females reported menarche ≤ 12 years and 53.3% of males were categorised as having pubertal onset ≤ 11 years. For both sexes earlier pubertal onset was associated with poorer parental socio-economic status. Other pre-pubertal predictors of early onset were being overweight, more childhood illnesses (females and younger age at time of survey (males. For both sexes earlier puberty predicted having drunk alcohol, been drunk, smoked and used drugs Conclusion Results provide sufficient evidence for changes in age of pubertal onset to be further explored as a potential influence on trends in adolescent risk behaviours. Further insight into the relationship between early puberty and both obesity and socio-economic status may help inform early interventions to tackle the development of risk behaviours and health inequalities during early adolescence.

  3. Effect of A 16 Week Combined Strength and Plyometric Training Program Followed by A Detraining Period on Athletic Performance in Pubertal Volleyball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Abed; Hammami, Raouf; Moran, Jason; Borji, Rihab; Sahli, Sonia; Rebai, Haithem

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 16 weeks of combined strength and plyometric training or plyometric training alone, and how a detraining program can modify adaptations in response to the training stimulus. Sixty male volleyball players (circa PHV:-1 to +1 years from PHV) were assigned to a Combined Training group (CTG) (n=20), a Plyometric Training group (PTG) (n=20) or a control group (CG) (n=20). The experimental groups (CTG and PTG) participated in training twice weekly for 16 weeks. Thigh muscle volume, body fat, flexibility, sprint, jump height and medicine ball throw were measured at pre-training, post-training and detraining. Respectively, the CTG and PTG showed increases in thigh muscle volume (Effect size: 0.71 and 0.42), and decreases in body fat (-0.42 and -0.34) as well as improvements in 5 m sprint (-0.69 and -0.46) 10 m sprint (-0.31 and -0.3), lower body muscle power (0.44 and 0.36) and upper body muscle power (1.32 and 0.7). After the detraining period, all groups maintained previously attained muscle power (6.79% to 9.87%; pplyometric training provided better improvements than plyometric training only. The combination of strength and plyometric training is a time-effective training modality that confers improvements in physical performance measures, muscle size and body fat. A temporary period of detraining may not undermine performance gains in pubertal volleyball players.

  4. [Evaluation of nutrition mode and nutritional status and pro health education of children during the period of pubertal spurt in the city of Szczecin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goluch-Koniuszy, Zuzanna; Friedrich, Mariola; Radziszewska, Magdalena

    2009-01-01

    This research was aimed at evaluation of the method of nutrition and the state of nutrition in the children aged 13 during the period of pubertal spurt who had their body mass, body height and waist measurement defined. These values led to calculation of BMI, WC, and WHtR indicators, which were related to centile distribution of children from Warszawa and Lódź. Only in 63.6% of girls and 68.9% of boys from Szczecin schools the value of BMI was proper. The problem of accumulation of fat tissue (WC > or = 90 c) around the waist refers to nearly 14% of girls and 9.4% of boys. The value of the indicator WHtR > or = 90 c was found in 11% of the children under research. Children with overweight (BMI 90-97 c) and obesity (BMI > or = 97 c) were selected based on the value of BMI indicator. Their menus of three chosen at random weekdays were obtained. Analysis of the nutrition method of children with overweight and obesity showed low energy value of the diet, general protein, complex carbohydrates, cellulose, mineral components (Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn), A, E (girls), C (boys), group B vitamins and also liquids deficiency. The children have undergone a special pro health education in the form of "live" workshops and 3 months after an evaluation inquiry was conducted to assess the effects of the workshops. The analysis of the evaluation inquiry showed that the children have included in their diet breakfasts and afternoon snacks and to their main meal menus whole wheat products, larger quantity of vegetables, fruit and water. It has been also established that sweets, meals of fast food types, chips, pizzy and energizing drinks have been limited.

  5. Exposure to peer delinquency as a mediator between self-report pubertal timing and delinquency: A longitudinal study of mediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negriff, Sonya; Ji, Juye; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined exposure to peer delinquency as a mediator between pubertal timing and self-reported delinquency longitudinally and whether this mediational model was moderated by either gender or maltreatment experience. Data were obtained from Time 1, 2, and 3 of a longitudinal study of maltreatment and development. At Time 1 the sample comprised 454 children aged 9–13 years. Analyses via structural equation modeling supported full mediation. Gender did not moderate this mediational relationship, but maltreatment experience did. The results show that early maturing males and females are both at risk for being exposed to peers that may draw them into delinquent behavior. Additionally, the mechanism linking early pubertal timing to delinquency differs depending on maltreatment experience. PMID:21262055

  6. The Examination of the Effectiveness of an Educational Intervention based on the Planned Behavior Theory on Improving Pubertal Health Behavior in Female High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Eslamimehr

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Puberty is a period of psychological, physical, mental, emotional and social growth that stability and development of personality occurs in this period. This study aimed to determine the effect of planned behavior theory on improving pubertal health behavior in female first grade high school students. Materials and Methods:  A quasi-experimental intervention was conducted in female high school in Khamir city, Iran in 2015. One of the schools were randomly assigned to the control group and other to the experimental group. Using the formula sample, 60 students were selected from each school. Samples were evaluated in two stages through pre-test and two months later via post-test by administered questionnaire including questions about demographic characteristics and structures of planned behavior theory. The content of training was presented through lecture group discussion with teaching aids such as booklet and pamphlet. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS version 22. Results: The intervention group mean age at first menstrual period was 12.30 ± 0.84 years old and for control group was 12.25 ± 0.79 years old. The results showed that two months after the intervention, health behaviors, subjective norms, behavioral intention, perceived behavioral control, and attitude, were significantly higher than pre- intervention (P

  7. A longitudinal study of self-control at the transition to secondary school: Considering the role of pubertal status and parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng-Knight, Terry; Shelton, Katherine H; Riglin, Lucy; McManus, I C; Frederickson, Norah; Rice, Frances

    2016-07-01

    Higher self-control in children and adolescents is associated with a range of positive outcomes in adulthood. However, little is known about the naturalistic development of self-control during early adolescence and the factors that affect this. We examined the role of puberty and parenting style as theoretically important influences on stability and change in self-control. A longitudinal (3 waves), multiple-informant dataset of children entering early adolescence (M = 11 years) was used to explore longitudinal change in self-control using latent growth curve modelling. Children's self-control declined during the one-year study period and declines were associated with children's behavioural and social functioning. Associations with self-control were found for pubertal status and parental warmth and hostility, but not for parental discipline. The findings suggest that during early adolescence, when children make the transition to secondary school, self-control declines. This is particularly the case for those experiencing puberty earlier than their peers. Parent warmth influences the trajectory of self-control during this period. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Investigation of pre-pubertal sex differences in wheel running and social behavior in three mouse strains

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, Elizabeth A.; Corbitt, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in social behaviors exist in mammals during adulthood, and further evidence suggests that sex differences in behavior are present before sexual maturity. In order to model behavioral disorders in animals, it is important to assess baseline sex-related behavioral differences, especially when studying disorders for which sex-related behavioral effects are expected. We investigated the effect of sex on behavior in 3 strains of pre-pubertal mice (C57BL/6, CFW, and CF1) using a whe...

  9. Peri-pubertal gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist treatment affects sex biased gene expression of amygdala in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuruddin, Syed; Krogenæs, Anette; Brynildsrud, Ola Brønstad; Verhaegen, Steven; Evans, Neil P; Robinson, Jane E; Haraldsen, Ira Ronit Hebold; Ropstad, Erik

    2013-12-01

    The nature of hormonal involvement in pubertal brain development has attracted wide interest. Structural changes within the brain that occur during pubertal development appear mainly in regions closely linked with emotion, motivation and cognitive functions. Using a sheep model, we have previously shown that peri-pubertal pharmacological blockade of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) receptors, results in exaggerated sex-differences in cognitive executive function and emotional control, as well as sex and hemisphere specific patterns of expression of hippocampal genes associated with synaptic plasticity and endocrine signaling. In this study, we explored effects of this treatment regime on the gene expression profile of the ovine amygdala. The study was conducted with 30 same-sex twin lambs (14 female and 16 male), half of which were treated with the GnRH agonist (GnRHa) goserelin acetate every 4th week, beginning before puberty, until approximately 50 weeks of age. Gene expression profiles of the left and right amygdala were measured using 8×15 K Agilent ovine microarrays. Differential expression of selected genes was confirmed by qRT-PCR (Quantitative real time PCR). Networking analyses and Gene Ontology (GO) Term analyses were performed with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA), version 7.5 and DAVID (Database for Annotation, Visualization and integrated Discovery) version 6.7 software packages, respectively. GnRHa treatment was associated with significant sex- and hemisphere-specific differential patterns of gene expression. GnRHa treatment was associated with differential expression of 432 (|logFC|>0.3, adj. p value expressed as a result of GnRHa treatment in the male animals. The results indicated that GnRH may, directly and/or indirectly, be involved in the regulation of sex- and hemisphere-specific differential expression of genes in the amygdala. This finding should be considered when long-term peri-pubertal GnRHa treatment is used in children. Copyright

  10. The longitudinal effects of physical activity and dietary calcium on bone mass accrual across stages of pubertal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappe, Joan M; Watson, Patrice; Gilsanz, Vicente; Hangartner, Thomas; Kalkwarf, Heidi J; Oberfield, Sharon; Shepherd, John; Winer, Karen K; Zemel, Babette

    2015-01-01

    Childhood and adolescence are critical periods of bone mineral content (BMC) accrual that may have long-term consequences for osteoporosis in adulthood. Adequate dietary calcium intake and weight-bearing physical activity are important for maximizing BMC accrual. However, the relative effects of physical activity and dietary calcium on BMC accrual throughout the continuum of pubertal development in childhood remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of self-reported dietary calcium intake and weight-bearing physical activity on bone mass accrual across the five stages of pubertal development in a large, diverse cohort of US children and adolescents. The Bone Mineral Density in Childhood study was a mixed longitudinal study with 7393 observations on 1743 subjects. Annually, we measured BMC by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), physical activity and calcium intake by questionnaire, and pubertal development (Tanner stage) by examination for up to 7 years. Mixed-effects regression models were used to assess physical activity and calcium intake effects on BMC accrual at each Tanner stage. We found that self-reported weight-bearing physical activity contributed to significantly greater BMC accrual in both sexes and racial subgroups (black and nonblack). In nonblack males, the magnitude of the activity effect on total body BMC accrual varied among Tanner stages after adjustment for calcium intake; the greatest difference between high- and low-activity boys was in Tanner stage 3. Calcium intake had a significant effect on bone accrual only in nonblack girls. This effect was not significantly different among Tanner stages. Our findings do not support differential effects of physical activity or calcium intake on bone mass accrual according to maturational stage. The study demonstrated significant longitudinal effects of weight-bearing physical activity on bone mass accrual through all stages of pubertal development. © 2014 American

  11. Ultrasonographic evaluation of reproductive tract measures and fat thickness traits in pre-pubertal Nellore heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Morato Monteiro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between reproductive tract and fat thickness measures obtained by ultrasound in prepubertal Nellore heifers. A total of 128 Nellore heifers born in 2006 and 2007 were submitted to ultrasound evaluations (13, 16, 19 and 22 months of age of reproductive tract measures and fat thickness traits. These animals were from a selection experiment (NeC: control line, and NeS: selection line for yearling weight started in 1981. Mean values of ovary area, height of the right uterine horn (HU, maximum follicular diameter (FOL, backfat thickness (BF, rump fat thickness (RF, and body condition score were analyzed. Repeated records were modeled using the PROC MIXED procedure (SAS, fitting a model that included the selection line, year of birth, measurement as fixed effects, and interactions. Body weight differed between the selected (281.48 kg and control (210.51 kg lines. Only the least square means of FOL were lower in the NeC line compared to the NeS line (P < 0.05, although the difference in mean HU between the two lines was of only borderline significance (P = 0.06. The rate of growth for the three reproductive traits was similar in the two lines. Simple and residual correlations between the reproductive and subcutaneous fat traits ranged from low to medium. The highest correlations were observed between HU and RF (Pearson correlation = 0.71 and residual correlation = 0.34. The current results are consistent with the literature, indicating that fat thickness traits are not good predictors of prepubertal reproductive traits in heifers. Further studies are necessary to clarify the relationship between reproduction and body fat in Nellore heifers.

  12. A boy with Prader-Willi syndrome: unmasking precocious puberty during growth hormone replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Natasha G; Radaeli, Rafael F; Silva, Mariana M X; Romero, Camila M; Carrilho, Alexandre J F; Bessa, Danielle; Macedo, Delanie B; Oliveira, Maria L; Latronico, Ana Claudia; Mazzuco, Tânia L

    2016-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder frequently characterized by obesity, growth hormone deficiency, genital abnormalities, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Incomplete or delayed pubertal development as well as premature adrenarche are usually found in PWS, whereas central precocious puberty (CPP) is very rare. This study aimed to report the clinical and biochemical follow-up of a PWS boy with CPP and to discuss the management of pubertal growth. By the age of 6, he had obesity, short stature, and many clinical criteria of PWS diagnosis, which was confirmed by DNA methylation test. Therapy with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) replacement (0.15 IU/kg/day) was started. Later, he presented psychomotor agitation, aggressive behavior, and increased testicular volume. Laboratory analyses were consistent with the diagnosis of CPP (gonadorelin-stimulated LH peak 15.8 IU/L, testosterone 54.7 ng/dL). The patient was then treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog (GnRHa). Hypothalamic dysfunctions have been implicated in hormonal disturbances related to pubertal development, but no morphologic abnormalities were detected in the present case. Additional methylation analysis (MS-MLPA) of the chromosome 15q11 locus confirmed PWS diagnosis. We presented the fifth case of CPP in a genetically-confirmed PWS male. Combined therapy with GnRHa and rhGH may be beneficial in this rare condition of precocious pubertal development in PWS.

  13. Height perception influenced by texture gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozawa, Junko

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments were carried out to examine whether a texture gradient influences perception of relative object height. Previous research implicated texture cues in judgments of object width, but similar influences have not been demonstrated for relative height. In this study, I evaluate a hypothesis that the projective ratio of the number of texture elements covered by the objects combined with the ratio of the retinal object heights determines percepts of relative object height. Density of texture background was varied: four density conditions ranged from no-texture to very dense texture. In experiments 1 and 2, participants judged the height of comparison bar compared to the standard bar positioned on no-texture or textured backgrounds. Results showed relative height judgments differed with texture manipulations, consistent with predictions from a hypothesised combination of the number of texture elements with retinal height (experiment 1), or partially consistent with this hypothesis (experiment 2). In experiment 2, variations in the position of a comparison object showed that comparisons located far from the horizon were judged more poorly than in other positions. In experiment 3 I examined distance perception; relative distance judgments were found to be also affected by textured backgrounds. Results are discussed in terms of Gibson's relational theory and distance calibration theory.

  14. Peer and Individual Risk Factors in Adolescence Explaining the Relationship between Girls' Pubertal Timing and Teenage Childbearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrick, C. Emily; Cance, Jessica Duncan; Maslowsky, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Girls with early pubertal timing are at elevated risk for teenage childbearing; however, the modifiable mechanisms driving this relationship are not well understood. The objective of the current study was to determine whether substance use, perceived peer substance use, and older first sexual partners mediate the relationships among girls' pubertal timing, sexual debut, and teenage childbearing. Data are from Waves 1 – 15 of the female cohort of the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth 1997 (NLSY97), a nationwide, ongoing cohort study of U.S. men and women born between 1980 and 1984. The analytic sample (N=2,066) was 12-14 years old in 1997 and ethnically diverse (51% white, 27% black, 22% Latina). Using structural equation modeling, we found substance use in early adolescence and perceived peer substance use each partially mediated the relationships among girls' pubertal timing, sexual debut, and teenage childbearing. Our findings suggest early substance use behavior as one modifiable mechanism to be targeted by interventions aimed at preventing teenage childbearing among early developing girls. PMID:26769576

  15. An unanswered question in pediatric urology: the post pubertal persistence of prepubertal congenital penile curvature correction by tunical plication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkuvanci, Ünsal; Ziylan, Orhan; Dönmez, M Irfan; Yucel, Omer Baris; Oktar, Tayfun; Ander, Haluk; Nane, Ismet

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze post pubertal results of pre pubertal tunica albuginea plication with non-absorbable sutures in the correction of CPC. The files of patients who underwent tunica albuginea plication without incision (dorsal/lateral) were retrospectively reviewed. Patients younger than 13 years of age at the time of operation and older than 14 years of age in November 2015 were included. Patients with a penile curvature of less than 30 degrees & more than 45 degrees and penile/urethral anomalies were excluded. All of the patients underwent surgery followed by circumcision. The mean age of patients at the time of the operation was 9.7 years (range, 6-13 years). The mean degree of ventral penile curvature measured during the operation was 39 degrees while it was 41 degrees in the lateral curvatures. All of the patients were curvature-free at the end of the operation. At the time of the follow-up examination, the mean age was 16.7 years (range, 14-25 years). Six patients had a straight (0-10 degrees) penis during erection and seven patients had recurrent penile curvatures ranging from 30 to 50 degrees. Pre pubertal tunica albuginea plication of congenital penile curvature (30-45 degrees) with non-absorbable sutures performed without incision is a minimal invasive method especially when performed during circumcision. However, recurrence might be observed in half of the patients after puberty. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  16. An unanswered question in pediatric urology: the post pubertal persistence of prepubertal congenital penile curvature correction by tunical plication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ünsal Ozkuvanci

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study is to analyze post pubertal results of pre pubertal tunica albuginea plication with non-absorbable sutures in the correction of CPC. Materials and Methods: The files of patients who underwent tunica albuginea plication without incision (dorsal/lateral were retrospectively reviewed. Patients younger than 13 years of age at the time of operation and older than 14 years of age in November 2015 were included. Patients with a penile curvature of less than 30 degrees & more than 45 degrees and penile/urethral anomalies were excluded. All of the patients underwent surgery followed by circumcision. Results: The mean age of patients at the time of the operation was 9.7 years (range, 6-13 years. The mean degree of ventral penile curvature measured during the operation was 39 degrees while it was 41 degrees in the lateral curvatures. All of the patients were curvature-free at the end of the operation. At the time of the follow-up examination, the mean age was 16.7 years (range, 14-25 years. Six patients had a straight (0-10 degrees penis during erection and seven patients had recurrent penile curvatures ranging from 30 to 50 degrees. Conclusion: Pre pubertal tunica albuginea plication of congenital penile curvature (30-45 degrees with non-absorbable sutures performed without incision is a minimal invasive method especially when performed during circumcision. However, recurrence might be observed in half of the patients after puberty.

  17. Relationships between urinary biomarkers of phytoestrogens, phthalates, phenols, and pubertal stages in girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakraborty TR

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tandra R Chakraborty1, Eilliut Alicea1, Sanjoy Chakraborty21Department of Biology, Adelphi University, One South Avenue, Garden City; 2Department of Biological Sciences, New York City College of Technology, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Phytoestrogens, phthalates, and phenols are estrogen-disrupting chemicals that have a pronounced effect at puberty. They are exogenous chemicals that are either plant-derived or man-made, and can alter the functions of the endocrine system and cause various health defects by interfering with the synthesis, metabolism, binding, or cellular responses of natural estrogens. Phytoestrogens, phthalates, and phenols are some of the potent estrogens detectable in urine. Phytoestrogens are plant-derived xenestrogens found in a wide variety of food products, like soy-based food, beverages, several fruits, and vegetables. Exposure to phytoestrogens can delay breast development and further lead to precocious puberty. The effect of phytoestrogens is mediated through estrogen receptors α and β or by binding with early immediate genes, such as jun and fos. Phthalates are multifunctional synthetic chemicals used in plastics, polyvinyl chloride products, cosmetics, hair spray, and children's toys. Phthalates have been shown to cause defeminization, thelarche, precocious puberty, and an increase in breast and pubic hair in pubertal girls. However, reports are also available that show no association of phthalates with precocious puberty in girls. Phthalates can act through a receptor-mediated signaling pathway or affect the production of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone that has a direct effect on estrogen formation. Phenols like bisphenol A are industrial chemicals used mainly in the manufacture of polycarbonates and plastic materials. Bisphenol A has been shown to cause precocious puberty and earlier menarche in pubertal girls. Reports suggest that the neurotoxic effect of bisphenol A can be mediated either by

  18. Observing Crop-Height Dynamics Using a UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziliani, M. G.; Parkes, S. D.; McCabe, M.

    2017-12-01

    Retrieval of vegetation height during a growing season is a key indicator for monitoring crop status, offering insight to the forecast yield relative to previous planting cycles. Improvement in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technologies, supported by advances in computer vision and photogrammetry software, has enabled retrieval of crop heights with much higher spatial resolution and coverage. These methodologies retrieve a Digital Surface Map (DSM), which combine terrain and crop elements to obtain a Crop Surface Map (CSM). Here we describe an automated method for deriving high resolution CSMs from a DSM, using RGB imagery from a UAV platform. Importantly, the approach does not require the need for a digital terrain map (DTM). The method involves distinguishing between vegetation and bare-ground cover pixels, using vegetation index maps from the RGB orthomosaic derived from the same flight as the DSM. We show that the absolute crop height can be extracted to within several centimeters, exploiting the data captured from a single UAV flight. In addition, the method is applied across five surveys during a maize growing cycle and compared against a terrain map constructed from a baseline UAV survey undertaken prior to crop growth. Results show that the approach is able to reproduce the observed spatial variability of the crop height within the maize field throughout the duration of the growing season. This is particularly valuable since it may be employed to detect intra-field problems (i.e. fertilizer variability, inefficiency in the irrigation system, salinity etc.) at different stages of the season, from which remedial action can be initiated to mitigate against yield loss. The method also demonstrates that UAV imagery combined with commercial photogrammetry software can determine a CSM from a single flight without the requirement of a prior DTM. This, together with the dynamic crop height estimation, provide useful information with which to inform precision

  19. Height and bone age development in children with a malignant disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamminga, RYJ; Zweens, M; Drayer, NM; Kamps, WA

    2000-01-01

    Because controversy exists about the growth inhibiting effect of chemotherapy, we studied up to 4 years after diagnosis, height, growth and bone age de development in 28 children treated with cytostatic drugs for a solid tumor or Langerhans cell histiocytosis. The results were compared with those

  20. Reduction of adult height in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia survivors after prophylactic cranial irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, MEJ; Francken, AB; Rouwe, C; Kamps, WA; Postma, A

    Background. Impaired linear growth is a well-recognized complication in long-term childhood ALL survivors who received cranial irradiation. However, as many patients achieve a final height between the 5th and the 95th centile, the true incidence of linear growth impairment might be underestimated.

  1. Development and Evaluation of Models for the Relationship between Tree Height and Diameter at Breast Height for Chinese-Fir Plantations in Subtropical China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-qiong; Deng, Xiang-wen; Huang, Zhi-hong; Xiang, Wen-hua; Yan, Wen-de; Lei, Pi-feng; Zhou, Xiao-lu; Peng, Chang-hui

    2015-01-01

    Tree diameter at breast height (dbh) and height are the most important variables used in forest inventory and management as well as forest carbon-stock estimation. In order to identify the key stand variables that influence the tree height-dbh relationship and to develop and validate a suit of models for predicting tree height, data from 5961 tree samples aged from 6 years to 53 years and collected from 80 Chinese-fir plantation plots were used to fit 39 models, including 33 nonlinear models and 6 linear models, were developed and evaluated into two groups. The results showed that composite models performed better in height estimate than one-independent-variable models. Nonlinear composite Model 34 and linear composite Model 6 were recommended for predicting tree height in Chinese fir plantations with a dbh range between 4 cm and 40 cm when the dbh data for each tree and the quadratic mean dbh of the stand (Dq) and mean height of the stand (Hm) were available. Moreover, Hm could be estimated by using the formula Hm = 11.707 × l n(Dq)-18.032. Clearly, Dq was the primary stand variable that influenced the height-dbh relationship. The parameters of the models varied according to stand age and site. The inappropriate application of provincial or regional height-dbh models for predicting small tree height at local scale may result in larger uncertainties. The method and the recommended models developed in this study were statistically reliable for applications in growth and yield estimation for even-aged Chinese-fir plantation in Huitong and Changsha. The models could be extended to other regions and to other tree species only after verification in subtropical China.

  2. Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Infant and Young Child Nutrition: Protein and Amino Acid Needs and Relationship with Child Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uauy, Ricardo; Kurpad, Anura; Tano-Debrah, Kwaku; Otoo, Gloria E; Aaron, Grant A; Toride, Yasuhiko; Ghosh, Shibani

    2015-01-01

    Over a third of all deaths of children under the age of five are linked to undernutrition. At a 90% coverage level, a core group of ten interventions inclusive of infant and young child nutrition could save one million lives of children under 5 y of age (15% of all deaths) (Lancet 2013). The infant and young child nutrition package alone could save over 220,000 lives in children under 5 y of age. High quality proteins (e.g. milk) in complementary, supplementary and rehabilitation food products have been found to be effective for good growth. Individual amino acids such as lysine and arginine have been found to be factors linked to growth hormone release in young children via the somatotropic axis and high intakes are inversely associated with fat mass index in pre-pubertal lean girls. Protein intake in early life is positively associated with height and weight at 10 y of age. This paper will focus on examining the role of protein and amino acids in infant and young child nutrition by examining protein and amino acid needs in early life and the subsequent relationship with stunting.

  3. Forensic Physics 101: Falls from a height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2008-09-01

    The physics of falling from a height, a topic that could be included in a course on forensic physics or in an undergraduate class as an example of Newton's laws, is applied to a common forensic problem.

  4. Estimating Mixing Heights Using Microwave Temperature Profiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson-Gammon, John; Powell, Christina; Mahoney, Michael; Angevine, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    A paper describes the Microwave Temperature Profiler (MTP) for making measurements of the planetary boundary layer thermal structure data necessary for air quality forecasting as the Mixing Layer (ML) height determines the volume in which daytime pollution is primarily concentrated. This is the first time that an airborne temperature profiler has been used to measure the mixing layer height. Normally, this is done using a radar wind profiler, which is both noisy and large. The MTP was deployed during the Texas 2000 Air Quality Study (TexAQS-2000). An objective technique was developed and tested for estimating the ML height from the MTP vertical temperature profiles. In order to calibrate the technique and evaluate the usefulness of this approach, estimates from a variety of measurements during the TexAQS-2000 were compared. Estimates of ML height were used from radiosondes, radar wind profilers, an aerosol backscatter lidar, and in-situ aircraft measurements in addition to those from the MTP.

  5. Soft computing methods for geoidal height transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyilmaz, O.; Özlüdemir, M. T.; Ayan, T.; Çelik, R. N.

    2009-07-01

    Soft computing techniques, such as fuzzy logic and artificial neural network (ANN) approaches, have enabled researchers to create precise models for use in many scientific and engineering applications. Applications that can be employed in geodetic studies include the estimation of earth rotation parameters and the determination of mean sea level changes. Another important field of geodesy in which these computing techniques can be applied is geoidal height transformation. We report here our use of a conventional polynomial model, the Adaptive Network-based Fuzzy (or in some publications, Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy) Inference System (ANFIS), an ANN and a modified ANN approach to approximate geoid heights. These approximation models have been tested on a number of test points. The results obtained through the transformation processes from ellipsoidal heights into local levelling heights have also been compared.

  6. U.S. Geoid Heights (GEOID96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for the conterminous United States is the GEOID96 model. The computation used about 1.8 million terrestrial and marine gravity data held in...

  7. PR/VI Geoid Heights (GEOID96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands is distributed as a GEOID96 model. The computation used 26,000 terrestrial and marine gravity data...

  8. Principal Hawaiian Islands Geoid Heights (GEOID96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for the Principal Hawaiian Islands is distributed as a GEOID96 model. The computation used 61,000 terrestrial and marine gravity data held...

  9. The Interplay between Gaze Following, Emotion Recognition, and Empathy across Adolescence; a Pubertal Dip in Performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rianne van Rooijen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available During puberty a dip in face recognition is often observed, possibly caused by heightened levels of gonadal hormones which in turn affects the re-organization of relevant cortical circuitry. In the current study we investigated whether a pubertal dip could be observed in three other abilities related to social information processing: gaze following, emotion recognition from the eyes, and empathizing abilities. Across these abilities we further explored whether these measurements revealed sex differences as another way to understand how gonadal hormones affect processing of social information. Results show that across adolescence, there are improvements in emotion recognition from the eyes and in empathizing abilities. These improvements did not show a dip, but are more plateau-like. The gaze cueing effect did not change over adolescence. We only observed sex differences in empathizing abilities, with girls showing higher scores than boys. Based on these results it appears that gonadal hormones are not exerting a unified influence on higher levels of social information processing. Further research should also explore changes in (visual information processing around puberty onset to find a more fitted explanation for changes in social behavior across adolescence.

  10. Pubertal development in children diagnosed with diabetes mellitus type 1 before puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, K C X; Pugliese, B S; Guimarães, M M; Gama, M P

    2015-02-01

    To investigate an association between pubertal development and timing of menarche with glycemic control, disease duration, and body mass index (BMI) in patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1) before puberty. Retrospective study. The study was performed at the diabetes outpatient clinic of Instituto de Puericultura e Pediatria Martagão Gesteira--IPPMG of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro--UFRJ. A total of 131 children, 61 girls and 70 boys, diagnosed with DM1 before puberty participated in the study. The study investigated how age at puberty onset relates to mean glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) before puberty, BMI percentile, and disease duration; how puberty duration relates to mean HbA1c before and during puberty and to disease duration; and how timing of menarche relates to mean HbA1c before puberty, BMI percentile, and disease duration. Age at puberty onset was positively correlated with mean HbA1c before puberty (r = 0.204, R(2) = 0.042; P = .019) and disease duration (r = 0.451, R(2) = 0.203; P puberty later than those diagnosed more recently. Girls in higher BMI percentiles reached menarche sooner.

  11. Evaluation of GnRH analogue testing in diagnosis and management of children with pubertal disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemchand K Prasad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH stimulation test is pivotal in the assessment of children with pubertal disorders. However, lack of availability and high cost often result in the test falling into disfavor. We routinely use the GnRH analogue stimulation test as an alternative at our center. Aim: To present the data on children with endocrine disorders who underwent GnRH agonist stimulation test in pediatric endocrine clinic of a tertiary care referral hospital. Setting and Design: Pediatric endocrine clinic of a tertiary care referral hospital. Retrospective analysis of case records. Materials and Methods: The details pertaining to clinical and radiological parameters and hormonal tests were retrieved from case records of 15 children who underwent GnRH agonist stimulation test from May 2010 to April 2011. Results: Indications for testing with GnRH analogue were evaluation of delayed puberty, diagnosis of precocious puberty, assessment of hormonal suppression in treatment of precocious puberty and micropenis in two, nine, three and one cases, respectively. The results of the test and clinical and radiological parameters were in concordance. The test was also crucial in diagnosing the onset of central precocious puberty in two children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Conclusion: GnRH agonist test is a convenient, safe test that can be performed on an out-patient basis and can help the clinicians in the correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment of various puberty-related disorders.

  12. Pedometer assessed physical activity in urban pubertal children: first report from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contractor, Aashish; Bhanushali, Aparna; Changrani, Jyotsna; Angadia, Siddharth; Das, Bibhu R

    2014-11-01

    Inadequate physical activity is a risk factor for several lifestyle diseases. In the current study we have tried to evaluate the physical activity levels in urban Indian pubertal children as well as investigate the relationship between step counts and body composition. A total of 1032 children aged 12 to 15 years wore pedometers for 2 weekdays and 2 weekend days, the final cohort included 910 subjects with 467 boys and 443 girls. Mean weekday steps were 11,062 ± 4741 for boys and 9619 ± 4144 for girls; weekend steps were 10,842 ± 5034 for boys and 9146 ± 5159 for girls, which were both significantly different. The weekend steps were consistently lower in both genders. Analysis of children not meeting a cut-off of 10,000 steps indicated that 45% of the boys aged 12; 54% aged 13; 43% to 48% aged 14 and 50% in the aged 15 did not meet the cut-off. In girls higher levels of inactivity were seen with 58% to 65% aged 12; 69% to 73% aged 13; 49% to 58% aged 14 and 50% to 100% in age-group 15 did not meet the cut-off on weekdays and weekends respectively. The high level of physical inactivity in the representative urban Indian children is a cause of grave concern and necessitates urgent intervention strategies to be formulated.

  13. Peripheral markers of serotonergic and noradrenergic function in post-pubertal, caucasian males with autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croonenberghs, J; Delmeire, L; Verkerk, R; Lin, A H; Meskal, A; Neels, H; Van der Planken, M; Scharpe, S; Deboutte, D; Pison, G; Maes, M

    2000-03-01

    Some studies have suggested that disorders in the peripheral and central metabolism of serotonin (5-HT) and noradrenaline may play a role in the pathophysiology of autistic disorder. This study examines serotonergic and noradrenergic markers in a study group of 13 male, post-pubertal, caucasian autistic patients (age 12-18 y; I.Q. > 55) and 13 matched volunteers. [3H]-paroxetine binding Kd values were significantly higher in patients with autism than in healthy volunteers. Plasma concentrations of tryptophan, the precursor of 5-HT, were significantly lower in autistic patients than in healthy volunteers. There were no significant differences between autistic and normal children in the serum concentrations of 5-HT, or the 24-hr urinary excretion of 5-hydroxy-indoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), adrenaline, noradrenaline, and dopamine. There were no significant differences in [3H]-rauwolscine binding Bmax or Kd values, or in the serum concentrations of tyrosine, the precursor of noradrenaline, between both study groups. There were highly significant positive correlations between age and 24-hr urinary excretion of 5-HIAA and serum tryptophan. The results suggest that: 1) serotonergic disturbances, such as defects in the 5-HT transporter system and lowered plasma tryptophan, may play a role in the pathophysiology of autism; 2) autism is not associated with alterations in the noradrenergic system; and 3) the metabolism of serotonin in humans undergoes significant changes between the ages of 12 and 18 years.

  14. Association between Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Risk in Chinese Youth Independent of Age and Pubertal Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau Joseph TF

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood and adolescence are critical periods of habit formation with substantial tracking of lifestyle and cardiovascular risk into adulthood. There are various guidelines on recommended levels of physical activity in youth of school-age. Despite the epidemic of obesity and diabetes in China, there is a paucity of data in this regard in Chinese youth. We examined the association of self-reported level of physical activity and cardiovascular risk in Hong Kong Chinese youth of school-age. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 2007-8 in a school setting with 2119 Hong Kong Chinese youth aged 6-20 years. Physical activity level was assessed using a validated questionnaire, CUHK-PARCY (The Chinese University of Hong Kong: Physical Activity Rating for Children and Youth. A summary risk score comprising of waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose and lipids was constructed to quantify cardiovascular risk. Results In this cohort, 21.5% reported high level of physical activity with boys being more active than girls (32.1% versus 14.1%, p Conclusion Self-reported level of physical activity is associated with cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese youth after adjusting for sex and pubertal stage.

  15. Functional state of reproductive system in pubertal girls having autoimmune thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonova, T.A.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose of the present work is to study the condition of reproductive system in pubertal girls with autoimmune thyroiditis (AT), exposed to radiation as a result of the Chernobyl accident, and to study various clinical symptoms of AT in relation to peculiarities of natural course of the disease, age and absorbed thyroid dose. We performed complex clinical investigation of 225 girls from Belarus with AT aged 11-16. We revealed, that girls with AT irradiated at the age of 0-3 had significant changes in gonadotrophic hormones levels in blood serum in lutein phase at the age of 13-14 in comparison with control groups. In spite of the fact that mainly the meaning investigated hormones were in the range of age norm, at the age of 15-16 among girls being irradiated greater percent of increased meaning of factor LG/FSG is revealed. Girls with AT had symptoms of dysfunction in sensitivity of target organs (ovaries and uterus) receptors. At the age of 15-16 among girls with AT, exposed to radiation, direct dependencies are established between the level of absorbed thyroid doze and meaning of LG and prolactin

  16. Genetic factors modulate the impact of pubertal androgen excess on insulin sensitivity and fertility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail R Dowling

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder of reproductive age women. The syndrome is caused by a combination of environmental influences and genetic predisposition. Despite extensive efforts, the heritable factors contributing to PCOS development are not fully understood. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that genetic background contributes to the development of a PCOS-like reproductive and metabolic phenotype in mice exposed to excess DHEA during the pubertal transition. We tested whether the PCOS phenotype would be more pronounced on the diabetes-prone C57BL/6 background than the previously used strain, BALB/cByJ. In addition, we examined strain-dependent upregulation of the expression of ovarian and extra-ovarian candidate genes implicated in human PCOS, genes containing known strain variants, and genes involved with steroidogenesis or insulin sensitivity. These studies show that there are significant strain-related differences in metabolic response to excess androgen exposure during puberty. Additionally, our results suggest the C57BL/6J strain provides a more robust and uniform experimental platform for PCOS research than the BALB/cByJ strain.

  17. Genetic factors modulate the impact of pubertal androgen excess on insulin sensitivity and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Abigail R; Nedorezov, Laura B; Qiu, Xiaoliang; Marino, Joseph S; Hill, Jennifer W

    2013-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder of reproductive age women. The syndrome is caused by a combination of environmental influences and genetic predisposition. Despite extensive efforts, the heritable factors contributing to PCOS development are not fully understood. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that genetic background contributes to the development of a PCOS-like reproductive and metabolic phenotype in mice exposed to excess DHEA during the pubertal transition. We tested whether the PCOS phenotype would be more pronounced on the diabetes-prone C57BL/6 background than the previously used strain, BALB/cByJ. In addition, we examined strain-dependent upregulation of the expression of ovarian and extra-ovarian candidate genes implicated in human PCOS, genes containing known strain variants, and genes involved with steroidogenesis or insulin sensitivity. These studies show that there are significant strain-related differences in metabolic response to excess androgen exposure during puberty. Additionally, our results suggest the C57BL/6J strain provides a more robust and uniform experimental platform for PCOS research than the BALB/cByJ strain.

  18. Challenges in Defining Tsunami Wave Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroker, K. J.; Dunbar, P. K.; Mungov, G.; Sweeney, A.; Arcos, N. P.

    2017-12-01

    The NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) and co-located World Data Service for Geophysics maintain the global tsunami archive consisting of the historical tsunami database, imagery, and raw and processed water level data. The historical tsunami database incorporates, where available, maximum wave heights for each coastal tide gauge and deep-ocean buoy that recorded a tsunami signal. These data are important because they are used for tsunami hazard assessment, model calibration, validation, and forecast and warning. There have been ongoing discussions in the tsunami community about the correct way to measure and report these wave heights. It is important to understand how these measurements might vary depending on how the data were processed and the definition of maximum wave height. On September 16, 2015, an 8.3 Mw earthquake located 48 km west of Illapel, Chile generated a tsunami that was observed all over the Pacific region. We processed the time-series water level data for 57 tide gauges that recorded this tsunami and compared the maximum wave heights determined from different definitions. We also compared the maximum wave heights from the NCEI-processed data with the heights reported by the NOAA Tsunami Warning Centers. We found that in the near field different methods of determining the maximum tsunami wave heights could result in large differences due to possible instrumental clipping. We also found that the maximum peak is usually larger than the maximum amplitude (½ peak-to-trough), but the differences for the majority of the stations were Warning Centers. Since there is currently only one field in the NCEI historical tsunami database to store the maximum tsunami wave height, NCEI will consider adding an additional field for the maximum peak measurement.

  19. Height in eighteenth-century Chilean men: Evidence from military records, 1730-1800s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorca-Jaña, Manuel; Navarrete-Montalvo, Juan; Droller, Federico; Araya-Valenzuela, Roberto

    2018-03-26

    This article provides the first height estimates for the adult population for any period of Chilean history. Based on military records, it gives an analysis of the average heights of male soldiers in the last eight decades of the colonial period, c.1730-1800s. The average height of Chilean men was around 167 centimetres, making them on average taller than men from Mexico, Italy, Portugal, Spain and Venezuela, but of a similar height to men from Sweden. However, Chilean men were clearly shorter than men in neighbouring Argentina, the USA and the UK. Chilean height remained stable during the 1740-1770s, but it declined by some 2-3 centimetres between the 1780 s and the 1800s, in line with a fall in real wages due to increasing food prices and population growth. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor axis in glycogen storage disease type 1: evidence of different growth patterns and insulin-like growth factor levels in patients with glycogen storage disease type 1a and 1b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Daniela; Pivonello, Rosario; Parenti, Giancarlo; Della Casa, Roberto; Salerno, Mariacarolina; Balivo, Francesca; Piccolo, Pasquale; Di Somma, Carolina; Colao, Annamaria; Andria, Generoso

    2010-04-01

    To investigate the growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system in patients with glycogen storage disease type 1 (GSD1). This was a prospective, case-control study. Ten patients with GSD1a and 7 patients with GSD1b who were given dietary treatment and 34 sex-, age-, body mass index-, and pubertal stage-matched control subjects entered the study. Auxological parameters were correlated with circulating GH, either at basal or after growth hormone releasing hormone plus arginine test, insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I and IGF-II), and anti-pituitary antibodies (APA). Short stature was detected in 10.0% of patients with GSD1a, 42.9% of patients with GSD1b (P = .02), and none of the control subjects. Serum IGF-I levels were lower in patients with GSD1b (P = .0001). An impaired GH secretion was found in 40% of patients with GSD1a (P = .008), 57.1% of patients with GSD1b (P = .006), and none of the control subjects. Short stature was demonstrated in 3 of 4 patients with GSD1b and GH deficiency. The prevalence of APA was significantly higher in patients with GSD1b than in patients with GSD1a (P = .02) and control subjects (P = .03). The GH response to the provocative test inversely correlated with the presence of APA (P = .003). Compared with levels in control subjects, serum IGF-II and insulin levels were higher in both groups of patients, in whom IGF-II levels directly correlated with height SD scores (P = .003). Patients with GSD1a have an impaired GH secretion associated with reference range serum IGF-I levels and normal stature, whereas in patients with GSD1b, the impaired GH secretion, probably because of the presence of APA, was associated with reduced IGF-I levels and increased prevalence of short stature. The increased IGF-II levels, probably caused by increased insulin levels, in patients with GSD1 are presumably responsible for the improved growth pattern observed in patients receiving strict dietary treatment. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All

  1. Love and fear of heights: the pathophysiology and psychology of height imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salassa, John R; Zapala, David A

    2009-01-01

    Individual psychological responses to heights vary on a continuum from acrophobia to height intolerance, height tolerance, and height enjoyment. This paper reviews the English literature and summarizes the physiologic and psychological factors that generate different responses to heights while standing still in a static or motionless environment. Perceptual cues to height arise from vision. Normal postural sway of 2 cm for peripheral objects within 3 m increases as eye-object distance increases. Postural sway >10 cm can result in a fall. A minimum of 20 minutes of peripheral retinal arc is required to detect motion. Trigonometry dictates that a 20-minute peripheral retinal arch can no longer be achieved in a standing position at an eye-object distance of >20 m. At this distance, visual cues conflict with somatosensory and vestibular inputs, resulting in variable degrees of imbalance. Co-occurring deficits in the visual, vestibular, and somatosensory systems can significantly increase height imbalance. An individual's psychological makeup, influenced by learned and genetic factors, can influence reactions to height imbalance. Enhancing peripheral vision and vestibular, proprioceptive, and haptic functions may improve height imbalance. Psychotherapy may improve the troubling subjective sensations to heights.

  2. Trend in Height of Turkish and Moroccan Children Living in The Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönbeck, Yvonne; van Dommelen, Paula; HiraSing, Remy A.; van Buuren, Stef

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To study trends in height of Turkish and Moroccan immigrant children living in The Netherlands, to investigate the association between height and background characteristics in these children, and to calculate height-for-age-references data for these groups. Design Nationwide cross-sectional data collection from children aged 0 to 18 years by trained professionals in 1997 and 2009. The study population consisted of 2,822 Turkish 2,779 Moroccan, and 13,705 Dutch origin children in 1997and 2,548 Turkish, 2,594 Moroccan, and 11,255 Dutch origin children in 2009. Main outcome measures: Mean height in cm, and mean height standard deviation scores. Results In 2009, mean height at the age of 18y was similar for Turkish and Moroccan children: 177 cm for boys and 163 cm for girls, which was 2 to 3 cm taller than in 1997. Still, Turkish and Moroccan adolescents were 5.5 cm (boys) to 7 cm (girls) shorter than their Dutch peers. No significant differences were found in mean height standard deviation scores across the educational level of the parents, geographical region, primary language spoken at home, and immigrant generation. Conclusions While the secular height increase in Dutch children came to a halt, the trend in Turkish and Moroccan children living in The Netherlands continued. However, large differences in height between Turkish and Moroccan children and Dutch children remain. We found no association with the background characteristics. We recommend the use of the new growth charts for children of Turkish and Moroccan origin who have a height-for-age below -2SD on the growth chart for Dutch children. PMID:25938671

  3. Correlation among body height, intelligence, and brain gray matter volume in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Asano, Michiko; Asano, Kohei; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nouchi, Rui; Wu, Kai; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2012-01-16

    A significant positive correlation between height and intelligence has been demonstrated in children. Additionally, intelligence has been associated with the volume of gray matter in the brains of children. Based on these correlations, we analyzed the correlation among height, full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) and gray matter volume applying voxel-based morphometry using data from the brain magnetic resonance images of 160 healthy children aged 5-18 years of age. As a result, body height was significantly positively correlated with brain gray matter volume. Additionally, the regional gray matter volume of several regions such as the bilateral prefrontal cortices, temporoparietal region, and cerebellum was significantly positively correlated with body height and that the gray matter volume of several of these regions was also significantly positively correlated with full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) scores after adjusting for age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Our results demonstrate that gray and white matter volume may mediate the correlation between body height and intelligence in healthy children. Additionally, the correlations among gray and white matter volume, height, and intelligence may be at least partially explained by the effect of insulin-like growth factor-1 and growth hormones. Given the importance of the effect of environmental factors, especially nutrition, on height, IQ, and gray matter volume, the present results stress the importance of nutrition during childhood for the healthy maturation of body and brain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A modern Green Revolution gene for reduced height in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würschum, Tobias; Langer, Simon M; Longin, C Friedrich H; Tucker, Matthew R; Leiser, Willmar L

    2017-12-01

    Increases in the yield of wheat during the Green Revolution of the late 20 th century were achieved through the introduction of Reduced height (Rht) dwarfing genes. The Rht-B1 and Rht-D1 loci ensured short stature by limiting the response to the growth-promoting hormone gibberellin, and are now widespread through international breeding programs. Despite this advantage, interference with the plant's response to gibberellin also triggers adverse effects for a range of important agronomic traits, and consequently modern Green Revolution genes are urgently required. In this study, we revisited the genetic control of wheat height using an association mapping approach and a large panel of 1110 worldwide winter wheat cultivars. This led to the identification of a major Rht locus on chromosome 6A, Rht24, which substantially reduces plant height alone as well as in combination with Rht-1b alleles. Remarkably, behind Rht-D1, Rht24 was the second most important locus for reduced height, explaining 15.0% of the genotypic variance and exerting an allele substitution effect of -8.8 cm. Unlike the two Rht-1b alleles, plants carrying Rht24 remain sensitive to gibberellic acid treatment. Rht24 appears in breeding programs from all countries of origin investigated, with increased frequency over the last decades, indicating that wheat breeders have actively selected for this locus. Taken together, this study reveals Rht24 as an important Rht gene of commercial relevance in worldwide wheat breeding. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The height of watermelons with wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feierl, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We derive asymptotics for the moments as well as the weak limit of the height distribution of watermelons with p branches with wall. This generalizes a famous result of de Bruijn et al (1972 Graph Theory and Computing (New York: Academic) pp 15–22) on the average height of planted plane trees, and results by Fulmek (2007 Electron. J. Combin. 14 R64) and Katori et al (2008 J. Stat. Phys. 131 1067–83) on the expected value and higher moments, respectively, of the height distribution of watermelons with two branches. The asymptotics for the moments depend on the analytic behaviour of certain multidimensional Dirichlet series. In order to obtain this information, we prove a reciprocity relation satisfied by the derivatives of one of Jacobi’s theta functions, which generalizes the well-known reciprocity law for Jacobi’s theta functions. (paper)

  6. Experiences of ZAMG on mixing height determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piringer, M. [Zentralanstalt fuer Meteorologie und Geodynamik, ZAMG, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-10-01

    Temperature inversions in the boundary layer occur quite often, esp. in mountainous terrain by which Austria is covered to a large extent, and can lead to enhanced pollution at the surface because the air volume available for dilution is then vertically limited. The Department of Environmental Meteorology of ZAMG therefore set up several field programs in the past to study such conditions at a variety of sites in Austria, using tethersondes and Sodars. Early investigations aimed at comparing Sodar echo profiles to the tethersonde temperature profiles to derive mixing heights from the Sodar echo structure. More recently, evolving from KONGEX, the `convective boundary layer experiment`, mixing heights calculated for Vienna by the OML model were compared to those derived from radiosonde and tethersonde potential temperature profiles. Results of these investigations will be presented, focussing on the problems when using the different methods. New efforts to derive mixing heights from data were also undertaken and are discussed separately. (au)

  7. Height, Relationship Satisfaction, Jealousy, and Mate Retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayle Brewer

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Male height is associated with high mate value. In particular, tall men are perceived as more attractive, dominant and of a higher status than shorter rivals, resulting in a greater lifetime reproductive success. Female infidelity and relationship dissolution may therefore present a greater risk to short men. It was predicted that tall men would report greater relationship satisfaction and lower jealousy and mate retention behavior than short men. Ninety eight heterosexual men in a current romantic relationship completed a questionnaire. Both linear and quadratic relationships were found between male height and relationship satisfaction, cognitive and behavioral jealousy. Tall men reported greater relationship satisfaction and lower levels of cognitive or behavioral jealousy than short men. In addition, linear and quadratic relationships were found between male height and a number of mate retention behaviors. Tall and short men engaged in different mate retention behaviors. These findings are consistent with previous research conducted in this area detailing the greater attractiveness of tall men.

  8. Normal Pubertal Development in Daughters of Women With PCOS: A Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legro, Richard S; Kunselman, Allen R; Stetter, Christy M; Gnatuk, Carol L; Estes, Stephanie J; Brindle, Eleanor; Vesper, Hubert W; Botelho, Julianne C; Lee, Peter A; Dodson, William C

    2017-01-01

    Daughters of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are thought to be at increased risk for developing stigmata of the syndrome, but the ontogeny during puberty is uncertain. We phenotyped daughters (n = 76) of mothers with PCOS and daughters (n = 80) from control mothers for reproductive and metabolic parameters characteristic of PCOS. We performed a matched case/control study at Penn State Hershey Medical Center that included non-Hispanic, white girls 4 to 17 years old. We obtained birth history, biometric, ovarian ultrasounds, whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan for body composition, 2-hour glucose challenged salivary insulin levels, and two timed urinary collections (12 hours overnight and 3 hours in the morning) for gonadotropins and sex steroids. We measured integrated urinary levels of adrenal (dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate) and ovarian [testosterone (TT)] steroids. Other endpoints included integrated salivary insulin levels and urinary luteinizing hormone levels. There were no differences in detection rates or mean levels for gonadotropins and sex steroids in timed urinary collections between PCOS daughters and control daughters, nor were there differences in integrated salivary insulin levels. Results showed that 69% of Tanner 4/5 PCOS daughters vs 31% of control daughters had hirsutism defined as a Ferriman-Gallwey score >8 (P = 0.04). There were no differences in body composition as determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry between groups in the three major body contents (i.e., bone, lean body mass, and fat) or in ovarian volume between groups. Matched for pubertal stage, PCOS daughters have similar levels of urinary androgens and gonadotropins as well as glucose-challenged salivary insulin levels. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society

  9. Ovarian function following pelvic irradiation in prepubertal and pubertal girls and young adult women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuck, A.; Hamelmann, V. [University Hospital Muenster (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Braemswig, J.H. [University Hospital Muenster (DE). Dept. of Pediatrics] [and others

    2005-08-01

    Purpose: To analyze the effect of pelvic radiotherapy on ovarian function in prepubertal and pubertal girls and young adult women. Patients and methods: In a retrospective monoinstitutional analysis, patients <30 years of age at diagnosis were included who had been irradiated between 1979 and 1998. The main tumor types were Hodgkin's disease (38%), Erwing's sarcoma (20%) and nephroblastoma (11%). Patients were classified into three groups according to the position of the ovary in relation to the radiation portals. Group 1 was defined by direct irradiation of both ovaries. Group 2 patients were included with both ovaries potentially located in the radiation portals. In group 3, at least one ovary was not directly irradiated. The median follow-up was 128 months. Results: 16 of 55 analyzed patients were categorized in group 1. In ten of these patients, hormone status was evaluable. The ovarian doses were {>=}15 Gy. Except for one patient treated with 15 Gy all developed hormone failure. Eight of 14 patients of group 2 were evaluable. Seven of these patients developed ovarian failure. 19 of 24 patients in group 3 were evaluable. Nine of these patients developed ovarian failure. The observed difference in the rate of ovarian failure between the groups is statistifcally significant (p=0.045). Conclusion: All patients receiving >15 Gy to the ovaries developed hormone failure. In one case of a patient receiving an ovarian dose of 15 Gy, hormone failure was not found. In case of pelvic irradiation excluding at least one ovary, approximately half of the patients developed ovarian dysfunction, probably also due to the effects of polychemotherapy. (orig.)

  10. Deleterious effects of obesity on physical fitness in pre-pubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceschia, Arianna; Giacomini, Stefano; Santarossa, Simone; Rugo, Miriam; Salvadego, Desy; Da Ponte, Alessandro; Driussi, Caterina; Mihaleje, Martina; Poser, Stefano; Lazzer, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in children has increased dramatically during the past decades in Europe and understanding physical fitness and its components in children is critical to design and implement effective interventions. The objective of the present study was to analyse the association between physical fitness (aerobic, speed, agility, power, flexibility and balance) and body mass index (BMI) in pre-pubertal children. A total of 2411 healthy schoolchildren (7-11 years) participated in this study. Anthropometric characteristics and body composition were assessed by skinfold thickness. Physical fitness was measured by nine physical fitness tests: endurance running, 20 m running speed, agility, handgrip strength, standing long jump and squat jump, sit and reach, medicine ball forward throw and static balance. No relevant differences were observed between boys and girls regarding anthropometric characteristics, body composition and physical fitness. However, overweight and obese children showed significantly lower physical fitness levels in endurance running, speed and agility (mean: +18.8, +5.5 and +14.5% of time to complete tasks, respectively), lower limb power normalised to body mass (-23.3%) and balance tests (number of falls: +165.5%) than their normal weight counterparts. On the other hand, obesity did not affect handgrip, throwing and flexibility. In conclusion, increased BMI was associated with lower performance capabilities limiting proper motor skill development, which directly affects the ability of children to take on sports skills. Actions undertaken to promote children's wellness and fitness should be prioritised and introduced early in life with the aim of enhancing physical fitness as well as preventing overweight and obesity.

  11. [Comparative study of height and age at menarche according to the socioeconomic level in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Contreras, M; Tovar Escobar, G; Farid Coupal, N; Landaeta Jiménez, M; Méndez Castellano, H

    1981-12-01

    This is a retrospective study based on growth and development data published in Venezuela by various authors in the period 1936-1978. The data on height for males of the middle and high socioeconomic strata show growth curves which are very similar to the standards for British children. Likewise, the girls of the same socioeconomic condition follow the British standards, but only up to about 10-12 years of age. After that age, the girls studied by the Venezuelan authors, show a pattern of early maturation with a corresponding lower adult height compared with their British counterparts. There were differences in the growth curves according to the socioeconomic strata. These differences were more marked in the girls data. A secular increase for height was discerned, from the published data, in all socioeconomic strata and in both sexes. The data on sexual maturation showed a tendency for progressively early menarche in Venezuelan girls. These changes in growth in height and age of menarche were more notorious and came about at an earlier age in the upper socioeconomic strata. They were less marked, not constant, and came about later in the lower socioeconomic groups. The secular changes in height and sexual maturation apparent from these data, could be explained by an improvement in the environmental conditions, especially nutrition and hygiene of the population, and also be genetic heterosis from European immigration and with improvement in communications.

  12. Equations of bark thickness and volume profiles at different heights with easy-measurement variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cellini, J. M.; Galarza, M.; Burns, S. L.; Martinez-Pastur, G. J.; Lencinas, M. V.

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this work was to develop equations of thickness profile and bark volume at different heights with easy-measurement variables, taking as a study case Nothofagus pumilio forests, growing in different site qualities and growth phases in Southern Patagonia. Data was collected from 717 harvested trees. Three models were fitted using multiple, non-lineal regression and generalized linear model, by stepwise methodology, iteratively reweighted least squares method for maximum likelihood estimation and Marquardt algorithm. The dependent variables were diameter at 1.30 m height (DBH), relative height (RH) and growth phase (GP). The statistic evaluation was made through the adjusted determinant coefficient (r2-adj), standard error of the estimation (SEE), mean absolute error and residual analysis. All models presented good fitness with a significant correlation with the growth phase. A decrease in the thickness was observed when the relative height increase. Moreover, a bark coefficient was made to calculate volume with and without bark of individual trees, where significant differences according to site quality of the stands and DBH class of the trees were observed. It can be concluded that the prediction of bark thickness and bark coefficient is possible using DBH, height, site quality and growth phase, common and easy measurement variables used in forest inventories. (Author) 23 refs.

  13. Evidence of inbreeding depression on human height.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth McQuillan

    Full Text Available Stature is a classical and highly heritable complex trait, with 80%-90% of variation explained by genetic factors. In recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS have successfully identified many common additive variants influencing human height; however, little attention has been given to the potential role of recessive genetic effects. Here, we investigated genome-wide recessive effects by an analysis of inbreeding depression on adult height in over 35,000 people from 21 different population samples. We found a highly significant inverse association between height and genome-wide homozygosity, equivalent to a height reduction of up to 3 cm in the offspring of first cousins compared with the offspring of unrelated individuals, an effect which remained after controlling for the effects of socio-economic status, an important confounder (χ(2 = 83.89, df = 1; p = 5.2 × 10(-20. There was, however, a high degree of heterogeneity among populations: whereas the direction of the effect was consistent across most population samples, the effect size differed significantly among populations. It is likely that this reflects true biological heterogeneity: whether or not an effect can be observed will depend on both the variance in homozygosity in the population and the chance inheritance of individual recessive genotypes. These results predict that multiple, rare, recessive variants influence human height. Although this exploratory work focuses on height alone, the methodology developed is generally applicable to heritable quantitative traits (QT, paving the way for an investigation into inbreeding effects, and therefore genetic architecture, on a range of QT of biomedical importance.

  14. Adult height, dietary patterns, and healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenjie; Hagan, Kaitlin A; Heianza, Yoriko; Sun, Qi; Rimm, Eric B; Qi, Lu

    2017-08-01

    Background: Adult height has shown directionally diverse associations with several age-related disorders, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, decline in cognitive function, and mortality. Objective: We investigated the associations of adult height with healthy aging measured by a full spectrum of health outcomes, including incidence of chronic diseases, memory, physical functioning, and mental health, among populations who have survived to older age, and whether lifestyle factors modified such relations. Design: We included 52,135 women (mean age: 44.2 y) from the Nurses' Health Study without chronic diseases in 1980 and whose health status was available in 2012. Healthy aging was defined as being free of 11 major chronic diseases and having no reported impairment of subjective memory, physical impairment, or mental health limitations. Results: Of all eligible study participants, 6877 (13.2%) were classified as healthy agers. After adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors, we observed an 8% (95% CI: 6%, 11%) decrease in the odds of healthy aging per SD (0.062 m) increase in height. Compared with the lowest category of height (≤1.57 m), the OR of achieving healthy aging in the highest category (≥1.70 m) was 0.80 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.87; P -trend healthy aging ( P -interaction = 0.005), and among the individual dietary factors characterizing the prudent dietary pattern, fruit and vegetable intake showed the strongest effect modification ( P -interaction = 0.01). The association of greater height with reduced odds of healthy aging appeared to be more evident among women with higher adherence to the prudent dietary pattern rich in vegetable and fruit intake. Conclusions: Greater height was associated with a modest decrease in the likelihood of healthy aging. A prudent diet rich in fruit and vegetables might modify the relation. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Pubertal-related changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity and cytokine secretion in response to an immunological stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, K H; Bain, Z A; Padow, V A; Lui, P; Klein, Z A; Romeo, R D

    2011-02-01

    Pubertal development is marked by profound changes in stress reactivity. For example, following a brief stressor, such as foot shock, ether inhalation or restraint, prepubertal rats display a prolonged adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone response that takes twice as long to return to baseline compared to adults. Pubertal-related differences in the recovery of the hormonal stress response following a more protracted systemic stressor, such as an immunological challenge, have not yet been investigated. Moreover, it is unclear whether an immunological stressor leads to a differential cytokine response in animals before and after pubertal maturation. To examine these issues, we used a single injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.1 mg/kg) to induce a hormonal stress and innate immune response and measured plasma ACTH, corticosterone, and the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in prepubertal and adult male rats 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 24 h after LPS exposure. In a follow-up experiment, we assessed neural activation, as indexed by FOS immunohistochemistry, in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) in prepubertal and adult males 0, 4, 8, or 24 h after a 0.1 mg/kg injection of LPS. By contrast to the prolonged response observed in prepubertal animals following a variety of acute stressors, we found that corticosterone and IL-6 responses induced by LPS recover toward baseline faster in prepubertal compared to adult rats. Along with these different peripheral responses, we also found that LPS-induced neural activation in the PVN of prepubertal animals showed a faster return to baseline compared to adults. Together, these data indicate that prepubertal and adult animals react in distinct ways, both peripherally and centrally, to an immunological stressor. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neuroendocrinology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. mtDNA copy number in oocytes of different sizes from individual pre- and post-pubertal pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hanne Skovsgaard; Løvendahl, Peter; Larsen, Knud Erik

    2014-01-01

    from ovaries of 10 pre- and 10 post-pubertal pigs. Cumulus cells were removed and the oocytes were measured (inside-ZP-diameter). Oocytes were transferred to DNAase-free tubes, snap-frozen, and stored at –80°C. The genes ND1 and COX1 were used to determine the mtDNA copy number. Plasmid preparations...... Reproduction 131, 233–245). However, the correlation between size and mtDNA copy number in single oocytes has not been determined. This study describes the relation between oocytes of defined diameters from individual pre- and postpubertal pigs and mtDNA copy number. Cumulus-oocyte complexes were aspirated...

  17. Isolated torsion of the fallopian tube in a menopausal woman and a pre-pubertal girl: two case reports

    OpenAIRE

    Toyoshima, Masafumi; Mori, Hikaru; Kudo, Kei; Yodogawa, Yuki; Sato, Kazuyo; Kudo, Takako; Igeta, Saori; Makino, Hiromitsu; Shima, Takashi; Matsuura, Rui; Ishigaki, Nobuko; Akagi, Kozo; Takeyama, Yoichi; Iwahashi, Hideki; Yoshinaga, Kosuke

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Isolated torsion of the fallopian tube without an ovarian abnormality is an uncommon event, with an incidence of approximately 1 in 1,500,000 females. Isolated torsion of the fallopian tube occurs mostly in reproductive-aged women, and is thus extremely rare in menopausal women and pre-pubertal girls. Case presentations In case 1, 63-year-old Japanese woman presented with a 2-day history of acute lower abdominal pain. Menopause occurred at 53?years of age. Pelvic ultrasonography ...

  18. Tree height and tropical forest biomass estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.O. Hunter; M. Keller; D. Vitoria; D.C. Morton

    2013-01-01

    Tropical forests account for approximately half of above-ground carbon stored in global vegetation. However, uncertainties in tropical forest carbon stocks remain high because it is costly and laborious to quantify standing carbon stocks. Carbon stocks of tropical forests are determined using allometric relations between tree stem diameter and height and biomass....

  19. Falls from height: A retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Kasim; Sarihan, Mehmet Ediz; Colak, Cemil; Güven, Taner; Gür, Ali; Gürbüz, Sükrü

    2018-01-01

    Emergency services manage trauma patients frequently and falls from height comprise the main cause of emergency service admissions. In this study, we aimed to analyse the demographic characteristics of falls from height and their relationship to the mortality. A total of 460 patients, who admitted to the Emergency Department of Inonu University between November 2011 and November 2014 with a history of fall from height, were examined retrospectively. Demographic parameters, fall characteristics and their effect to mortality were evaluated statistically. The study comprised of 292 (63.5%) men and 168 (36.5%) women patients. The mean age of all patients was 27±24.99 years. Twenty-six (5.6%) patients died and the majority of them were in ≥62 years old group. The highest percentage of falls was at 0-5 years age group (28.3%). People fell mainly from 1.1-4 metres(m) level (46.1%). The causes of falls were ordered as unintentional (92.2%), workplace (8.1%) and suicidal (1.7%). Skin and soft tissue injuries (37.4%) were the main traumatic lesions. Age, fall height, fall place, lineer skull fracture, subarachnoidal hemorrhage, cervical fracture, thoracic vertebra fracture and trauma scores had statistically significant effect on mortality. The casualties died because of subarachnoid hemorrhage mostly.

  20. Optimizing height presentation for aircraft cockpit displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Chris S.; Croft, D.; Selcon, Stephen J.; Markin, H.; Jackson, M.

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes an experiment conducted to investigate the type of display symbology that most effectively conveys height information to users of head-down plan-view radar displays. The experiment also investigated the use of multiple information sources (redundancy) in the design of such displays. Subjects were presented with eight different height display formats. These formats were constructed from a control, and/or one, two, or three sources of redundant information. The three formats were letter coding, analogue scaling, and toggling (spatially switching the position of the height information from above to below the aircraft symbol). Subjects were required to indicate altitude awareness via a four-key, forced-choice keyboard response. Error scores and response times were taken as performance measures. There were three main findings. First, there was a significant performance advantage when the altitude information was presented above and below the symbol to aid the representation of height information. Second, the analogue scale, a line whose length indicated altitude, proved significantly detrimental to performance. Finally, no relationship was found between the number of redundant information sources employed and performance. The implications for future aircraft and displays are discussed in relation to current aircraft tactical displays and in the context of perceptual psychological theory.

  1. Pulse height model for deuterated scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Haitang; Enqvist, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    An analytical model of light pulse height distribution for finite deuterated scintillation detectors is created using the impulse approximation. Particularly, the energy distribution of a scattered neutron is calculated based on an existing collision probability scheme for general cylindrical shaped detectors considering double differential cross-sections. The light pulse height distribution is analytically and numerically calculated by convoluting collision sequences with the light output function for an EJ-315 detector from our measurements completed at Ohio University. The model provides a good description of collision histories capturing transferred neutron energy in deuterium-based scintillation materials. The resulting light pulse height distribution details pulse compositions and their corresponding contributions. It shows that probabilities of neutron collision with carbon and deuterium nuclei are comparable, however the light pulse amplitude due to collisions with carbon nuclei is small and mainly located at the lower region of the light pulse distribution axis. The model can explore those neutron interaction events that generate pulses near or below a threshold that would be imposed in measurements. A comparison is made between the light pulse height distributions given by the analytical model and measurements. It reveals a significant probability of a neutron generating a small light pulse due to collisions with carbon nuclei when compared to larger light pulse generated by collisions involving deuterium nuclei. This model is beneficial to understand responses of scintillation materials and pulse compositions, as well as nuclei information extraction from recorded pulses.

  2. Aircraft height estimation using 2-D radar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hakl, H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A method to infer height information from an aircraft tracked with a single 2-D search radar is presented. The method assumes level flight in the target aircraft and a good estimate of the speed of the aircraft. The method yields good results...

  3. Evidence of inbreeding depression on human height

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. McQuillan (Ruth); N. Eklund (Niina); N. Pirastu (Nicola); M. Kuningas (Maris); B.P. McEvoy (Brian); T. Esko (Tõnu); T. Corre (Tanguy); G. Davies (Gail); M. Kaakinen (Marika); L.-P. Lyytikäinen (Leo-Pekka); K. Kristiansson (Kati); A.S. Havulinna (Aki); M. Gögele (Martin); V. Vitart (Veronique); A. Tenesa (Albert); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); C. Hayward (Caroline); A. Johansson (Åsa); M. Boban (Mladen); S. Ulivi (Shelia); A. Robino (Antonietta); V. Boraska (Vesna); W. Igl (Wilmar); S.H. Wild (Sarah); L. Zgaga (Lina); N. Amin (Najaf); E. Theodoratou (Evropi); O. Polasek (Ozren); S. Girotto; L.M. Lopez (Lorna); C. Sala (Cinzia); J. Lahti (Jari); T. Laatikainen (Tiina); I. Prokopenko (Inga); M. Kals (Mart); J. Viikari (Jorma); J. Yang (Joanna); A. Pouta (Anneli); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); A. Hofman (Albert); N.B. Freimer (Nelson); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); M. Kähönen (Mika); L. Milani (Lili); M. Heliovaara (Markku); E. Vartiainen (Erkki); K. Räikkönen (Katri); C. Masciullo (Corrado); J.M. Starr (John); A.A. Hicks (Andrew); L. Esposito (Laura); I. Kolcic (Ivana); S.M. Farrington (Susan); B.A. Oostra (Ben); T. Zemunik (Tatijana); H. Campbell (Harry); M. Kirin (Mirna); M. Pehlic (Marina); F. Faletra (Flavio); D.J. Porteous (David J.); G. Pistis (Giorgio); E. Widen (Elisabeth); V. Salomaa (Veikko); S. Koskinen (Seppo); K. Fischer (Krista); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); A.C. Heath (Andrew); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); A.L. Hartikainen; P.A.F. Madden (Pamela); P. d' Adamo (Pio); N. Hastie (Nick); U. Gyllensten (Ulf); A.F. Wright (Alan); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); M.G. Dunlop (Malcolm); I. Rudan (Igor); P. Gasparini (Paolo); P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); I.J. Deary (Ian); D. Toniolo (Daniela); K. Hagen (Knut); A. Jula (Antti); O. Raitakari (Olli); A. Metspalu (Andres); M. Perola (Markus); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); P.M. Visscher (Peter); J.F. Wilson (James)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractStature is a classical and highly heritable complex trait, with 80%-90% of variation explained by genetic factors. In recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified many common additive variants influencing human height; however, little attention has

  4. Predicting vertical jump height from bar velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos, Amador; Štirn, Igor; Padial, Paulino; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; De la Fuente, Blanca; Strojnik, Vojko; Feriche, Belén

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the use of maximum (Vmax) and final propulsive phase (FPV) bar velocity to predict jump height in the weighted jump squat. FPV was defined as the velocity reached just before bar acceleration was lower than gravity (-9.81 m·s(-2)). Vertical jump height was calculated from the take-off velocity (Vtake-off) provided by a force platform. Thirty swimmers belonging to the National Slovenian swimming team performed a jump squat incremental loading test, lifting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of body weight in a Smith machine. Jump performance was simultaneously monitored using an AMTI portable force platform and a linear velocity transducer attached to the barbell. Simple linear regression was used to estimate jump height from the Vmax and FPV recorded by the linear velocity transducer. Vmax (y = 16.577x - 16.384) was able to explain 93% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.47 cm. FPV (y = 12.828x - 6.504) was able to explain 91% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.66 cm. Despite that both variables resulted to be good predictors, heteroscedasticity in the differences between FPV and Vtake-off was observed (r(2) = 0.307), while the differences between Vmax and Vtake-off were homogenously distributed (r(2) = 0.071). These results suggest that Vmax is a valid tool for estimating vertical jump height in a loaded jump squat test performed in a Smith machine. Key pointsVertical jump height in the loaded jump squat can be estimated with acceptable precision from the maximum bar velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer.The relationship between the point at which bar acceleration is less than -9.81 m·s(-2) and the real take-off is affected by the velocity of movement.Mean propulsive velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer does not appear to be optimal to monitor ballistic exercise performance.

  5. A GEOMETRICAL HEIGHT SCALE FOR SUNSPOT PENUMBRAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puschmann, K. G.; Ruiz Cobo, B.; MartInez Pillet, V.

    2010-01-01

    Inversions of spectropolarimetric observations of penumbral filaments deliver the stratification of different physical quantities in an optical depth scale. However, without establishing a geometrical height scale, their three-dimensional geometrical structure cannot be derived. This is crucial in understanding the correct spatial variation of physical properties in the penumbral atmosphere and to provide insights into the mechanism capable of explaining the observed penumbral brightness. The aim of this work is to determine a global geometrical height scale in the penumbra by minimizing the divergence of the magnetic field vector and the deviations from static equilibrium as imposed by a force balance equation that includes pressure gradients, gravity, and the Lorentz force. Optical depth models are derived from the inversion of spectropolarimetric data of an active region observed with the Solar Optical Telescope on board the Hinode satellite. We use a genetic algorithm to determine the boundary condition for the inference of geometrical heights. The retrieved geometrical height scale permits the evaluation of the Wilson depression at each pixel and the correlation of physical quantities at each height. Our results fit into the uncombed penumbral scenario, i.e., a penumbra composed of flux tubes with channeled mass flow and with a weaker and more horizontal magnetic field as compared with the background field. The ascending material is hotter and denser than their surroundings. We do not find evidence of overturning convection or field-free regions in the inner penumbral area analyzed. The penumbral brightness can be explained by the energy transfer of the ascending mass carried by the Evershed flow, if the physical quantities below z = -75 km are extrapolated from the results of the inversion.

  6. Inverted Polarity Thunderstorms Linked with Elevated Cloud Base Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, K. L.; Williams, E.

    2016-12-01

    The great majority of thunderstorms worldwide exhibit gross positive dipole structure, produce intracloud lightning that reduces this positive dipole (positive intracloud flashes), and produce negative cloud-to-ground lightning from the lower negative end of this dipole. During the STEPS experiment in 2000 much new evidence for thunderstorms (or cells within multi-cellular storms) with inverted polarity came to light, both from balloon soundings of electric field and from LMA analysis. Many of the storms with inverted polarity cells developed in eastern Colorado. Fleenor et al. (2009) followed up after STEPS to document a dominance of positive polarity CG lightning in many of these cases. In the present study, surface thermodynamic observations (temperature and dew point temperature) have been used to estimate the cloud base heights and temperatures at the time of the Fleenor et al. lightning observations. It was found that when more than 90% of the observed CG lightning polarity within a storm is negative, the cloud base heights were low (2000 m AGL or lower, and warmer, with T>10 C), and when more than 90% of the observed CG lightning within a storm was positive, the cloud base heights were high (3000 m AGL or higher, and colder, with Tmixed polarity were generally associated with intermediate cloud base heights. These findings on inverted polarity thunderstorms are remarkably consistent with results in other parts of the world where strong instability prevails in the presence of high cloud base height: the plateau regions of China (Liu et al., 1989; Qie et al., 2005), and in pre-monsoon India (Pawar et al., 2016), particularly when mixed polarity cases are excluded. Calculations of adiabatic cloud water content for lifting from near 0 oC cast some doubt on earlier speculation (Williams et al., 2005) that the graupel particles in these inverted polarity storms attain a wet growth condition, and so exhibit positive charging following laboratory experiments. This

  7. Validity of Hip-worn Inertial Measurement Unit Compared to Jump Mat for Jump Height Measurement in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantalainen, T; Hesketh, K D; Rodda, C; Duckham, R L

    2018-06-16

    Jump tests assess lower body power production capacity, and can be used to evaluate athletic ability and development during growth. Wearable inertial measurement units (IMU) seem to offer a feasible alternative to laboratory-based equipment for jump height assessments. Concurrent validity of these devices for jump height assessments has only been established in adults. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the concurrent validity of IMU-based jump height estimate compared to contact mat-based jump height estimate in adolescents. Ninety-five adolescents (10-13 years-of-age; girls N=41, height = 154 (SD 9) cm, weight = 44 (11) kg; boys N=54, height=156 (10) cm, weight = 46 (13) kg) completed three counter-movement jumps for maximal jump height on a contact mat. Inertial recordings (accelerations, rotations) were concurrently recorded with a hip-worn IMU (sampling at 256 Hz). Jump height was evaluated based on flight time. The mean IMU-derived jump height was 27.1 (SD 3.8) cm, and the corresponding mean jump-mat-derived value was 21.5 (3.4) cm. While a significant 26% mean difference was observed between the methods (5.5 [95% limits of agreement 2.2 to 8.9] cm, p = 0.006), the correspondence between methods was excellent (ICC = 0.89). The difference between methods was weakly positively associated with jump height (r = 0.28, P = 0.007). Take-off velocity derived jump height was also explored but produced only fair congruence. In conclusion, IMU-derived jump height exhibited excellent congruence to contact mat-based jump height and therefore presents a feasible alternative for jump height assessments in adolescents. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Aegle marmelos and Murraya koenigii in treatment of delayed pubertal buffaloes heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan M. Baitule

    2016-12-01

    . koenigii alone, were found effective in fertility improvement in delayed pubertal buffalo heifers by increasing ovulation and conception rate.

  9. Investigation of pre-pubertal sex differences in wheel running and social behavior in three mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Elizabeth A; Corbitt, Cynthia

    2015-08-01

    Sex differences in social behaviors exist in mammals during adulthood, and further evidence suggests that sex differences in behavior are present before sexual maturity. In order to model behavioral disorders in animals, it is important to assess baseline sex-related behavioral differences, especially when studying disorders for which sex-related behavioral effects are expected. We investigated the effect of sex on behavior in 3 strains of pre-pubertal mice (C57BL/6, CFW, and CF1) using a wheel-running assay. We found no significant sex differences in latency to run on the wheel or total duration of wheel running within each strain. During the social interaction test, there were no differences between sexes in latency or total duration of contact or following between a subject and novel mouse. We also evaluated behavioral patterns of wheel running and stereotypical behaviors, such as burrowing and grooming. Both sexes showed characteristic wheel running behavior, spending the majority of each trial interacting with the wheel when it was free and more time performing other activities ( e.g. , stereotypical behaviors, general locomotion) when it was jammed. These results provide evidence that, among various strains of pre-pubertal mice, baseline sex-related behavioral differences are not strong enough to influence the measured behaviors.

  10. Longitudinal impacts of pubertal timing and weight status on adolescent Internet use: Analysis from a cohort study of Taiwanese youths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Che Tsai

    Full Text Available To investigate the longitudinal impacts of pubertal timing and weight status on Internet use in adolescents.Three waves of data on a longitudinal cohort of 7th grade students (N = 2430 were retrieved from the Taiwan Youth Project. Univariate and multivariate regression models were applied using crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CI to examine the concomitant impacts of pubertal timing and weight status on adolescent Internet use.The dataset identified 210 (8.7% students using the Internet for more than 20 hours/week, and 81 (3.3% were viewing pornographic material online. Early maturing and thin-weight adolescents were at 35% and 46% increased risks of spending long hours on Internet use, respectively. While early puberty was associated with online pornography viewing among males (adjusted OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.04-3.28, early puberty was contrarily a protective factor against online gaming in females (adjusted OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.36-0.96.Early puberty was found to be positively related to adolescent Internet use. Appropriate health education and guidance regarding Internet use should be provided to those with different developing needs.

  11. Longitudinal impacts of pubertal timing and weight status on adolescent Internet use: Analysis from a cohort study of Taiwanese youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Meng-Che; Strong, Carol; Chen, Wan-Ting; Lee, Chih-Ting; Lin, Chung-Ying

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the longitudinal impacts of pubertal timing and weight status on Internet use in adolescents. Three waves of data on a longitudinal cohort of 7th grade students (N = 2430) were retrieved from the Taiwan Youth Project. Univariate and multivariate regression models were applied using crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) to examine the concomitant impacts of pubertal timing and weight status on adolescent Internet use. The dataset identified 210 (8.7%) students using the Internet for more than 20 hours/week, and 81 (3.3%) were viewing pornographic material online. Early maturing and thin-weight adolescents were at 35% and 46% increased risks of spending long hours on Internet use, respectively. While early puberty was associated with online pornography viewing among males (adjusted OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.04-3.28), early puberty was contrarily a protective factor against online gaming in females (adjusted OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.36-0.96). Early puberty was found to be positively related to adolescent Internet use. Appropriate health education and guidance regarding Internet use should be provided to those with different developing needs.

  12. Sulforaphane attenuates di-N-butylphthalate-induced reproductive damage in pubertal mice: Involvement of the Nrf2-antioxidant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xu-Ping; Tang, Jing-Yuan; Xu, Zhen; Han, Peng; Qin, Zhi-Qiang; Yang, Cheng-di; Wang, Shang-Qian; Tang, Min; Wang, Wei; Qin, Chao; Xu, Yang; Shen, Bai-Xin; Zhou, Wei-Min; Zhang, Wei

    2017-07-01

    di-N-butylphthalate (DBP) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant used for plastic coating and in the cosmetics industry. It has toxic effects on body health, especially the male reproductive system. Here, we investigated the effects of DBP on the male reproductive system of pubertal mice and explored the protective role of sulforaphane (SFN). The results showed that DBP significantly reduced the anogenital distance, testicular weight, sperm count and motility, and plasma and testicular testosterone levels and significantly increased the oxidative stress, sperm abnormalities, and testicular cell apoptosis. SFN supplementation ameliorated these effects. After DBP stimulation, the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf2) was adaptively increased together with its target genes, such as HO-1 and NQO1. Upregulation of Nrf2 by SFN reduced the DBP-mediated intracellular oxidative toxicity and also increased testosterone secretion and spermatogenesis, which were decreased by DBP. These findings indicate that SFN can attenuate DBP-induced reproductive damage in pubertal mice via Nrf2-associated pathways. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. BOREAS AFM-6 Boundary Layer Height Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczak, James; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology (AFM)-6 team from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminsitration/Environment Technology Laboratory (NOAA/ETL) operated a 915-MHz wind/Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) profiler system in the Southern Study Area (SSA) near the Old Jack Pine (OJP) site. This data set provides boundary layer height information over the site. The data were collected from 21 May 1994 to 20 Sep 1994 and are stored in tabular ASCII files. The boundary layer height data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  14. Towards worldwide height unification using ocean information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Woodworth

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes how we are contributing to worldwide height system unification (WHSU by using ocean models together with sea level (tide gauge and altimeter information, geodetic (GPS and levelling data, and new geoid models based on information from the GRACE and GOCE gravity missions, to understand how mean sea level (MSL varies from place to place along the coast. For the last two centuries, MSL has been used to define datums for national levelling systems. However, there are many problems with this. One consequence of WHSU will be the substitution of conventional datums as a reference for heights with the use of geoid, as the only true "level" or datum. This work is within a number of GOCE-related activities funded by the European Space Agency. The study is focused on the coastlines of North America and Europe where the various datasets are most copious.

  15. Bringing satellite winds to hub-height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Bredesen, Rolv Erlend

    2012-01-01

    Satellite observations of the ocean surface can provide detailed information about the spatial wind variability over large areas. This is very valuable for the mapping of wind resources offshore where other measurements are costly and sparse. Satellite sensors operating at microwave frequencies...... measure the amount of radar backscatter from the sea surface, which is a function of the instant wind speed, wind direction, and satellite viewing geometry. A major limitation related to wind retrievals from satellite observations is that existing empirical model functions relate the radar backscatter...... to wind speed at the height 10 m only. The extrapolation of satellite wind fields to higher heights, which are more relevant for wind energy, remains a challenge which cannot be addressed by means of satellite data alone. As part of the EU-NORSEWInD project (2008-12), a hybrid method has been developed...

  16. Height predicts jealousy differently for men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham P.; Park, Justin H.; Zurriaga, Rosario; Klavina, Liga; Massar, Karlijn

    Because male height is associated with attractiveness, dominance, and reproductive success, taller men may be less jealous. And because female height has a curvilinear relationship with health and reproductive success (with average-height females having the advantages), female height may have a

  17. Lucas Heights buffer zone: plan of management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This plan is being used by the Commission as a guide for its management of the Lucas Heights buffer zone, which is essentially a circular area having a 1-6 km radius around the HIFAR reactor. Aspects covered by this plan include past uses, current use, objectives for buffer zone land management, emergency evacuation, resource conservation, archaeology, fire, access, rehabilitation of disturbed areas, resource management and plan implementation

  18. Weight and height prediction of immobilized patients

    OpenAIRE

    Rabito,Estela Iraci; Vannucchi,Gabriela Bergamini; Suen,Vivian Marques Miguel; Castilho Neto,Laércio Lopes; Marchini,Júlio Sérgio

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To confirm the adequacy of the formula suggested in the literature and/or to develop appropriate equations for the Brazilian population of immobilized patients based on simple anthropometric measurements. METHODS: Hospitalized patients were submitted to anthropometry and methods to estimate weight and height of bedridden patients were developed by multiple linear regression. RESULTS: Three hundred sixty eight persons were evaluated at two hospital centers and five weight-predicting...

  19. Facial growth and development in unilateral cleft lip and palate from the time of palatoplasty to the onset of puberty: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smahel, Z; Müllerová, Z

    1995-01-01

    X-ray cephalometry was used for the assessment of facial growth and development from the time of palate surgery to the onset of puberty (from 5 to 11 years) in 24 boys with unilateral cleft lip and palate treated with primary periosteoplasty (at 8 months) and palatal pushback supplemented by pharyngeal flap surgery (at 5 years). The lowest growth showed the depth of the maxilla and the height of the upper lip. An increasing protrusion of the mandible and in particular the increasing retrusion of the maxilla resulted in a flattening of the face and in an impairment of sagittal jaw relations. However, it was possible to attain an improvement of overjet produced by a substantial increase of the proclination of upper incisors and of the alveolar process. There was a deterioration of the prominence of the upper lip. Anterior growth rotation was absent during the development of the face, though a rotation in both directions was quite common in individual cases. The steepness of the mandibular body, vertical jaw relations, and facial vertical proportions remained unchanged. As compared to the pubertal period, the growth and development differed only by a more marked proclination of the dentoalveolar component of the maxilla and by an improvement of overjet. Facial convexity and sagittal jaw relations deteriorated in more than 90% of the patients, the overjet only in 20%, yet the prominence of the lip in 70%. Facial convexity and sagittal jaw relations were not correlated with mandibular rotation but they affected the overjet and the prominence of the upper lip.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Growth and development after hematopoietic cell transplant in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, J E