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Sample records for puberal nellore heifers

  1. Neither plasma progesterone concentrations nor exogenous eCG affects rates of ovulation or pregnancy in fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) protocols for puberal Nellore heifers.

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    Pegorer, M Figueira; Ereno, R L; Satrapa, R A; Pinheiro, V G; Trinca, L A; Barros, C M

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effects of plasma progesterone (P4) concentrations and exogenous eCG on ovulation and pregnancy rates of pubertal Nellore heifers in fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) protocols. In Experiment 1 (Exp. 1), on Day 0 (7 d after ovulation), heifers (n = 15) were given 2 mg of estradiol benzoate (EB) im and randomly allocated to receive: an intravaginal progesterone-releasing device containing 0.558 g of P4 (group 0.5G, n = 4); an intravaginal device containing 1 g of P4 (group 1G, n = 4); 0.558 g of P4 and PGF(2α) (PGF; 150 μg d-cloprostenol, group 0.5G/PGF, n = 4); or 1 g of P4 and PGF (group 1G/PGF, n = 3). On Day 8, PGF was given to all heifers and intravaginal devices removed; 24 h later (Day 9), all heifers were given 1 mg EB im. In Exp. 2, pubertal Nellore heifers (n = 292) were treated as in Exp. 1, with FTAI on Day 10 (30 to 36 h after EB). In Exp. 3, pubertal heifers (n = 459) received the treatments described for groups 0.5G/PGF and 1G/PGF and were also given 300 IU of eCG im (groups 0.5G/PGF/eCG and 1G/PGF/eCG) at device removal (Day 8). In Exp. 1, plasma P4 concentrations were significantly higher in heifers that received 1.0 vs 0.588 g P4, and were significantly lower in heifers that received PGF on Day 0. In Exp. 2 and 3, there were no significant differences among groups in rates of ovulation (65-77%) or pregnancy (Exp. 2: 26-33%; Exp. 3: 39-43%). In Exp. 3, diameter of the dominant ovarian follicle on Day 9 was larger in heifers given 0.558 g vs 1.0 g P4 (10.3 ± 0.2 vs 9.3 ± 0.2 mm; P decreased plasma P4 from Days 1 to 8 and increased diameter of the dominant follicle on Day 9. However, neither of these nor 300 IU of eCG on Day 8 significantly increased rates of ovulation or pregnancy.

  2. Immunological parameters and residual feed intake of Nellore heifers

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    Cleisy Ferreira Nascimento

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The residual feed intake (RFI is a parameter used in the identification of animals with respect to more efficient feed utilization. However, physiological basis are still unknown, however, the interrelationships between nutrition an immunity of the animal can contribute to the investigation of biological phenomena relevant to the RFI, since the defense system to oxidative effects caused by free radicals, is formed by acid polyunsaturated fatty acids, water soluble substances and enzymes, which derive mainly from the use of nutrients in the diet. The objective of this study was to evaluate the immunological parameters of Nellore heifers classified according to RFI. It were evaluated 176 heifers (born between 2008 and 2010, Traditional Nellore herd from Instituto de Zootecnia - Sertãozinho/SP, forming three groups of evaluation, submitted to test post weaning feed efficiency and classified into high (> mean + 0.5 SD, n= 55, medium (± 0.5 SD, n= 65 and low RFI (< mean – 0.5 SD, n= 56. The diet was formulated based on Brachiaria decumbens hay, corn, cottonseed meal and mineral mixture (45:55, forage: concentrate. The weight of the animals were performed in fasting blood samples collected by venipuncture vein, using tubes of 10 ml type vacuntainer with EDTA anticoagulant. In the clinical laboratory, we measured the values of leukocytes (LEU; Targeted (SEG and lymphocytes (LIN. The experimental design was a randomized block design using PROC GLM of SAS, considering the fixed effects of year and the age covariate in the statistical model and the averages compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. There was no significant difference (P>0,005 between variables leukocyte (LEU, SEG and LIN and class of RFI (table 1, indicating that there is no distinction between animals more efficient (low RFI and less efficient (high RFI, for inflammatory and immune responses to oxidative effects. Therefore the variables measured leukocytes not explain the differences

  3. Digestibility of diets with glycerin for Nellore heifers in feedlot

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    Marisa Xavier Manço

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research for not pollutants and renewable sources of energy, made the biodiesel is reused. But, its production generates the “Glycerin” (10% of biodiesel volume. This production is increasing and accumulating year by year, like other industrious by-products. With no law about discarding, scientists started to feed animals in different species with it. Rich in glycerol, it gives energy for animals and doesn't have other nutrients. It improves the alimentary conversion and does not change ruminal ambient or carcass production. For ruminants is used glycerin originated just from vegetables. This experiment aimed to discover what glycerin’s level can be used on diet. Made at the Unesp University of Campus of Jaboticabal, were used 24 heifers of Nellore in feedlot, weight of ± 265 kg in individuals stalls for 112 days. Were used three crossbreed cattle (Angus x Nellore castrated and cannulated, with ± 400 kg of weight for incubation. The “blond glycerin” used has 83% of glycerol. The proportion of Forage: Concentrate was 30:70. Corn silage was the forage. The concentrate was composed of: soy hulls, sunflower meal, urea and corn or corn more glycerin. All treatments had same percentages of protein and energy and were identified as “without glycerin” (G0, “with 10% of glycerin” (G10 and “20% of glycerin inclusion” (G20 in the dry matter of diet. Samples of food, leavings and excrements were collected. The collections of excrements were made at the superior part of them, without contact with the floor, at the moment of defecation for three consecutive days. Leavings and food were collected just before feeding. Bromatologics analyses were made according AOAC (1995, VAN SOEST and WINE (1967, HENDRIX (1993 and the digestion was made in autoclave (0,5 Kgf/cm2, 111ºC for 50 minutes, proceeding adapted of PELL and SCHOFIELD (1992. ADFi was used as indicator. Incubation was made according to CASALI et al. (2008 for 240 hours and

  4. Ultrasonographic evaluation of reproductive tract measures and fat thickness traits in pre-pubertal Nellore heifers

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    Fabio Morato Monteiro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between reproductive tract and fat thickness measures obtained by ultrasound in prepubertal Nellore heifers. A total of 128 Nellore heifers born in 2006 and 2007 were submitted to ultrasound evaluations (13, 16, 19 and 22 months of age of reproductive tract measures and fat thickness traits. These animals were from a selection experiment (NeC: control line, and NeS: selection line for yearling weight started in 1981. Mean values of ovary area, height of the right uterine horn (HU, maximum follicular diameter (FOL, backfat thickness (BF, rump fat thickness (RF, and body condition score were analyzed. Repeated records were modeled using the PROC MIXED procedure (SAS, fitting a model that included the selection line, year of birth, measurement as fixed effects, and interactions. Body weight differed between the selected (281.48 kg and control (210.51 kg lines. Only the least square means of FOL were lower in the NeC line compared to the NeS line (P < 0.05, although the difference in mean HU between the two lines was of only borderline significance (P = 0.06. The rate of growth for the three reproductive traits was similar in the two lines. Simple and residual correlations between the reproductive and subcutaneous fat traits ranged from low to medium. The highest correlations were observed between HU and RF (Pearson correlation = 0.71 and residual correlation = 0.34. The current results are consistent with the literature, indicating that fat thickness traits are not good predictors of prepubertal reproductive traits in heifers. Further studies are necessary to clarify the relationship between reproduction and body fat in Nellore heifers.

  5. Relationship among residual feed intake, digestibility and ingestive behavior in Nellore heifers

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    Elaine Magnani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate digestibility and feeding behavior of Nellore heifers belonging to different classes of residual feed intake (RFI. Thirty-two heifers ranked high in RFI (0.491± 0.51 kg/d; n=15 and RFI low (- 0.447 ± 0.51 kg/d; n=17 with a mean age of 502 ± 23.61 days and average weight 364 ± 27.96 kg were kept in confinement for 48 days, with formulated diet based on Tifton 85 hay, corn, cottonseed meal and urea, and ratio of forage: concentrate ratio of 45:55%. The parameters analyzed were digestibility, ingestive behavior and their correlation. Animals low RFI showed higher digestibility of dry matter (DMD, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and cellulose that high RFI animals (49.14% versus 45.38%, 56.65% versus 49.88%, 49.96% versus 45.08%, 61.61% versus 56.40% for DMD, NDFD, ADFD, CELD, respectively. These results indicate that more efficient animals have better food utilization. No differences were found in the variables of ingestive behavior among classes of RFI. Changes in the RFI can be partly explained by the digestibility of nutrients, which is related to ingestive behavior of animals.

  6. Expression of androgen-producing enzyme genes and testosterone concentration in Angus and Nellore heifers with high and low ovarian follicle count.

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    Loureiro, Bárbara; Ereno, Ronaldo L; Favoreto, Mauricio G; Barros, Ciro M

    2016-07-15

    Follicle population is important when animals are used in assisted reproductive programs. Bos indicus animals have more follicles per follicular wave than Bos taurus animals. On the other hand, B taurus animals present better fertility when compared with B indicus animals. Androgens are positively related with the number of antral follicles; moreover, they increase growth factor expression in granulose cells and oocytes. Experimentation was designed to compare testosterone concentration in plasma, and follicular fluid and androgen enzymes mRNA expression (CYP11A1, CYP17A1, 3BHSD, and 17BHSD) in follicles from Angus and Nellore heifers. Heifers were assigned into two groups according to the number of follicles: low and high follicle count groups. Increased testosterone concentration was measured in both plasma and follicular fluid of Angus heifers. However, there was no difference within groups. Expression of CYP11A1 gene was higher in follicles from Angus heifers; however, there was no difference within groups. Expression of CYP17A1, 3BHSD, and 17BHSD genes was higher in follicles from Nellore heifers, and expression of CYP17A1 and 3BHSD genes was also higher in HFC groups from both breeds. It was found that Nellore heifers have more antral follicles than Angus heifers. Testosterone concentration was higher in Angus heifers; this increase could be associated with the increased mRNA expression of CYP11A1. Increased expression of androgen-producing enzyme genes (CYP17A1, 3BHSD, and 17BHSD) was detected in Nellore heifers. It can be suggested that testosterone is acting through different mechanisms to increase follicle development in Nellore and improve fertility in Angus heifers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Economic viability of production of Nellore heifers on Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu pastures deferred and fertilized with nitrogen

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    Poliana Batista de Aguilar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different levels of nitrogen on deferred pastures of Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu, and the implications on the economic viability of production of Nellore heifers. This was a completely randomized design with four treatments (T1 = deferred pasture without nitrogen fertilization; T2 = deferred pasture fertilized with 50 kg N ha-1, T3 = deferred pasture with 100 kg N ha-1, T4 = deferred pasture with 150 kg N ha-1 and four replications (16 fertilized paddocks. First, there were used 48 Nellore heifers, average eight months of age and initial body weight of 178.69 ± 26.67 kg, with three heifers in each paddock, in all treatments, in a continuous grazing system, with variable stocking rate. Only the treatment the without nitrogen fertilization showed negative monetary values of R$ -181.96, R$ ha-1 -72.79 and R$ @-1 -32.11. The treatment with 50 kg N ha-1 achieved the highest positive monetary values of R$ 756.02, R$ ha-1 302.40 and R$ @-1 50.52. Economic viability data in beef heifer production demonstrate that the treatment with 50 kg N ha-1 is the most financially viable under the conditions of this study.

  8. PONDERAL AND REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE DURING RAIN SEASON OF NELLORE PRIMIPAROUS HEIFERS PREVIOUSLY SUPPLEMENTED WITH PROTEIN IN DRY SEASON

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    Ana Paula Carneiro Nogueira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate, in rainy season, the effect of protein complementation during dry season on Nellore primiparous heifers. We used 39 primiparous heifers, with an average age of 24-36 months, reared on Brachiaria decumbens and Brachiaria Brizantha pasture, for 205 days. The animals were weighed every 28 days, after fasting for 12 hours. The experimental design was a split plot, the two treatments were distributed in two installments, the six periods in subplots and the animals were the replications. The following variables were analyzed: weight, hip height, body condition score, average daily weight gain and average monthly growth, presenting the respective values of 318.5 kg, 142 cm, 3.24, 0.580 kg and 2.55 cm respectively for previously supplemented animals, and 309.6 kg, 141 cm, 3.23, 0.584 and 2.29 kg cm for non-supplemented animals. There were no significant differences between the two experimental groups. Pregnancy rate of supplemented animals was 57% and it did not differ from non-supplemented animals’ rate (45%. Calving rate was 100% for both groups. In the rainy season, after supplementation, heifers that did not receive supplementation during the dry period of the previous year had similar reproductive and weight performance as the supplemented ones.

  9. Ingestive behavior of Nellore heifers grazing receiving the supplement based on propolis or monensin

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    Luiz Juliano Valério Geron

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of additives the basis of propolis and monensin on ingestive behavior (grazing – GRA, rumination lying – RLY, rumination in foot – RFO, rumination – RUM; idleness lying – ILY, idleness in standing – IDS, idleness – IDL, walking – WAL, posture standing – POS, posture lying – PLY, intake of supplement and water – ISW of heifers in Tifton 85 grazing. The treatments were: no additive (NAD; propolis – PRO (33.24 mg animal-1 of total flavonoid in apigenin, and monensin – MON (100 mg animal-1. Were used five heifers treatment-1 for evaluation of ingestive behavior during 12 hours of total valuation, which was divided into three periods. Used a factorial design into 3 x 3 for evaluation of ingestive behavior as a function of the evaluation periods. Were utilized three paddocks of 2.9 acres of grass Tifton 85. The additives and mineral supplement (50 g animal-1 were provided with 200 g of corn meal to 17 hours. For all activities of the ingestive behaviors observed the effect of period on the time spent on of different activities. The activities of GRA and ISW were higher in the third period (15hours to 19hours compared to the first period (7hours at 11hours. For IDL and PLY, there was a higher time in minutes for heifers treatment with PRO in the period of 7hours at 11hours, compared to other treatments (NAD and MON. Thus, it is concluded that the use of the additive based on propolis enables sodium monensin replacement, to heifers maintained on pasture without changing eating behavior as well as providing greater idleness during the day the without affecting animal performance.

  10. Efficiency of fixed-time artificial insemination using a progesterone device combined with GnRH or estradiol benzoate in Nellore heifers

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    Vinícius Antônio Pelissari Poncio

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available he use of estrogens in artificial insemination protocols for cattle is the least expensive and most efficient method currently available. However, the trend to prohibit the use of estrogens for this purpose has made it necessary to find alternatives that replace estrogens without compromising the reproductive performance of the animals. The objective of this study was to evaluate conception rates in Bos indicus beef heifers treated with a progesterone device (P4 combined with GnRH or an estradiol ester. On day 0, pubertal Nellore heifers (n = 100 received an intravaginal device containing 1 g P4 and were randomly divided into two groups. The GnRH group (n = 49 received an intramuscular injection of 100 µg GnRH, while the E2 group (n = 51 received 2 mg estradiol benzoate (EB. The P4 device was removed after 5 (GnRH group or 8 days (E2 group, followed by an injection of 125 µg of the PGF2α, analog cloprostenol. On that occasion, the E2 group received an additional injection of 300 IU eCG. Twenty-four hours later, the GnRH group received a second injection of 125 µg cloprostenol, while the E2 group received 1 mg EB. The heifers were inseminated 72 (GnRH group or 54 hours (E2 group after removal of the P4 device. At the time of insemination, the GnRH group received additionally an injection of 100 µg GnRH. Estrus was monitored during the period of cloprostenol injection until the time of artificial insemination and pregnancy was diagnosed 40 days after insemination by transrectal ultrasonography. The data were analyzed by Fisher’s exact test. The pregnancy rate was 38.8% and 31.4% in the GnRH and E2 groups, respectively (P>0.05. The ovarian condition of the heifers (estrus or anestrus tended to influence (P=0.07 pregnancy rates in the GnRH group, but not in the E2 group. At the time of artificial insemination, 33.3% of heifers in the GnRH group showed signs of estrus versus 88.2% in the E2 group (P<0.05. However, the time of estrus

  11. Riskant verkeersgedrag onder pubers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    De adolescentie is de periode tussen kindertijd en volwassenheid. Vergeleken met oudere adolescenten (18-24 jaar) gedragen jonge adolescenten (pubers van 10-17 jaar) zich riskanter. Door hun lichamelijke en geestelijke ontwikkeling zijn pubers meer aangetrokken tot gevaarlijke uit-dagingen, gevoelig

  12. Herbage allowance effects on the characteristics of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pastures and the production and economic viability of Nellore heifers

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    Alexandre Menezes Dias

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of three herbage allowances (5, 10, and 15 kg dry matter [DM] 100-1 of body weight [BW] for Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pastures in a continuous grazing system on the morphological and nutritional characteristics of forage, animal performance, and economic viability in Nellore heifers. The total experimental area was 60 ha, divided into 12 paddocks of 5 ha each, with 4 paddocks per treatment. The experimental animals were Nellore heifers (260 in total, with average BW of 301.16 ± 9.12 kg, receiving 0.4 % BW in multiple supplements. We evaluated the production, structural characteristics, and nutritional value of the forage, productive performance, carcass characteristics, and economic viability of each allowance. There were significant effects for the production, st uctural characteristics, and nutritional value of the forage treatment. The proportions of leaves were 42.40, 38.20, and 30.88 % and the leaf:stem ratios were 1.22, 1.03, and 0.83 for the 5, 10, and 15 kg DM 100-1 BW herbage allowances, respectively. The average daily weight gain (mean 0.42, 0.75, and 0.63 kg daily-1 and stocking rate (3.35, 1.87, and 1.26 animal unit ha-1 had a significant effect for the 5, 10, and 15 kg DM 100-1 BW forage allowance, respectively. The herbage allowances were evaluated as being economically viable with a profit margin of 10.37, 23.65, and 14.43 % for the 5, 10, and 15 kg DM 100-1 BW allowances, respectively. The greatest pasture response was found in the 5 kg DM 100-1 BW allowance and was related to better nutritional values and morphological characteristics of the pasture and greater stoking rate and weight gain per area. The herbage allowance of 10 kg DM 100-1 BW be applied to obtain higher animal performance and better economic viability of heifers in B. brizantha cv. Marandu pastures in a continuous grazing method that are receiving protein-energy supplementation.

  13. Effect of progesterone concentrations, follicle diameter, timing of artificial insemination, and ovulatory stimulus on pregnancy rate to synchronized artificial insemination in postpubertal Nellore heifers.

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    Martins, T; Peres, R F G; Rodrigues, A D P; Pohler, K G; Pereira, M H C; Day, M L; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2014-02-01

    Two experiments were designed to evaluate the effects of treatments with low versus high serum progesterone (P4) concentrations on factors associated with pregnancy success in postpubertal Nellore heifers submitted to either conventional or fixed timed artificial insemination (FTAI). Heifers were synchronized with a new controlled internal drug release device (CIDR; 1.9 g of P4 [CIDR1]) or a CIDR previously used for 18 days (CIDR3) plus 2 mg of estradiol (E2) benzoate on Day 0 and 12.5 mg of prostaglandin F2α on Day 7. In experiment 1 (n = 723), CIDR were removed on Day 7 or 9 and heifers were inseminated after estrus detection. In experiment 2 (n = 1083), CIDR were all removed on Day 9 and FTAI was performed either 48 hours later in heifers that received E2 cypionate (ECP) on Day 9 (0.5 mg; E48) or 54 or 72 hours later in conjunction with administration of GnRH (100 μg; G54 or G72). Synchronization with CIDR1 resulted in greater serum P4 concentrations and smaller follicle diameters on Days 7 and 9 in both experiments. In experiment 1, treatment with CIDR for 9 days decreased the interval from CIDR removal to estrus (Day 7, 3.76 ± 0.08 days vs. Day 9, 2.90 ± 0.07; P < 0.01) and improved conception (Day 7, 57.1% vs. Day 9, 65.8%; P = 0.05) and pregnancy rates (Day 7, 37.6% vs. Day 9, 45.3%; P = 0.04). In experiment 2, treatment with ECP improved (P < 0.01) the proportion of heifers in estrus (E48, 40.9%(a); G54, 17.1%(c); and G72, 32.0%(b)), but the pregnancy rate was not affected (P = 0.64) by treatments (E48, 38.8%; G54, 35.5%; G72, 37.5%). Synchronization with CIDR3 increased follicle diameter at FTAI (CIDR1, 11.07 ± 0.10 vs. CIDR3, 11.61 ± 0.10 mm; P < 0.01), ovulation rate (CIDR1, 82.8% vs. CIDR3, 88.0%; P < 0.01) and did not affect conception (CIDR1, 42.2 vs. CIDR3, 45.1%; P = 0.38) or pregnancy rates (CIDR1, 34.7 vs. CIDR3, 39.4%; P = 0.11). In conclusion, length of treatment with P4 affected the fertility of heifers bred based on estrus detection

  14. Estudo genético da precocidade sexual de novilhas em um rebanho Nelore Genetic studies of sexual precocity of heifers in a Nellore herd

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    Josineudson Augusto II de Vasconcelos Silva

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, estimar a herdabilidade (h² para prenhez de novilhas e sua correlação genética (rg com idade ao primeiro parto (IPP, em animais da raça Nelore. A prenhez de novilhas foi definida de três formas: prenhez aos 16 meses (Pr16 - para as novilhas que pariram com menos de 31 meses, atribuiu-se 1 (sucesso e, para aquelas que pariram após 30,99 meses ou que não pariram, atribuiu-se 0 (fracasso; prenhez aos 24 meses (Pr24 - para as novilhas que pariram até 46 meses (incluindo as Pr16, foi atribuído 1 e, para aquelas que não pariram 0; e prenhez da novilha (PrN - atribuiu-se classificação 2 para as que pariram com menos de 31 meses, 1 para as que pariram entre 31 e 46 meses e 0 para as que não pariram. Os arquivos, analisados pelo Método R e Inferência Bayesiana, continham registros de 30.802 novilhas desmamadas. As análises forneceram médias de estimativas de h² de 0,52, 0,12 e 0,16 para Pr16, Pr24 e PrN, respectivamente, pelo Método R. O valor médio obtido por Inferência Bayesiana foi de 0,45 para Pr16. A rg estimada entre Pr16 e IPP foi -0,32. Os resultados indicam que, para selecionar para precocidade sexual, é necessário expor todas as fêmeas em idades jovens e que a mensuração da taxa de prenhez por meio da Pr16 é pertinente, uma vez que esta característica apresenta variabilidade genética alta e deve responder eficientemente à seleção com possibilidades de rápido ganho genético. A análise indicou também que Pr16 e IPP são determinadas em grande parte por genes diferentes.The objectives of this research were to estimate heritability (h2 of heifer pregnancy and its genetic correlation (rg with age at first calving (AFC in a Nellore herd. Heifer pregnancy evaluated as three different definitions: pregnancy at 16 months (Pr16 - heifers calving before 31 months received 1 (success and those calving after 30.99 months or that failed received 0 (failure; pregnancy at 24 months (Pr24

  15. Nonpuberal estrus in beef heifers.

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    Rutter, L M; Randel, R D

    1986-10-01

    The frequency of occurrence of behavioral estrus without subsequent development of functional luteal tissue (termed nonpuberal estrus, NPE), was determined in 43 Simmental X Hereford-Brahman heifers. Blood samples were collected weekly from the start of the study to first behavioral estrus and then daily from d 1 (d 0 = estrus) through d 14 following first and subsequently observed estrous behaviors. All blood samples were analyzed for serum progesterone (P4) concentrations by radioimmunoassay. More heifers (62.8%) exhibited NPE than had luteal development after their first behavioral estrus (37.2%). There was a tendency for fewer light-weight heifers (less than or equal to 240 kg at the start of the experiment) to exhibit a puberal first estrus compared with the heavy-weight (greater than 240 kg at the start of the experiment) heifers (31.2% vs 68.8%, respectively; P = .12). Heifers that had a puberal first estrus were older (376 +/- 12 d vs 334 +/- 9 d, P less than .05) compared with heifers that had NPE. Weight at first behavioral estrus was similar between heifers that had a puberal first estrus and those that had NPE (298 +/- 8 kg and 289 +/- 6 kg, respectively). More heifers that had a puberal first estrus also had an elevation in serum P4 concentrations before that first estrus (64.3% vs 20.0%, P less than .05), and the serum P4 elevation was greater (2.5 +/- .4 ng vs 1.2 +/- .1 ng, P less than .05) than heifers that had NPE. We have concluded from these results that NPE is a common occurrence in heifers approaching puberty.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Performance and carcass quality of feedlot- or pasture-finished Nellore heifers according to feeding managements in the postweaning phase

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    Daniel Rume Casagrande

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the postweaning history of heifers kept on marandu grass pastures with three canopy heights, in a continuous-grazing system, during the rainy period, on feedlot- or pasture finishing. The effects of three canopy heights (15, 25 and 35 cm associated with two supplements (mineral salt and protein-energy supplement and two finishing systems in the dry period (feedlot and open pasture were studied in the postweaning period during the rainy season. The adopted design was completely randomized, with seven replications (animals in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. The animals which received protein-energy supplement reached the finishing period with greater body weight in relation to those fed mineral salt. In both feedlot and pasture finishing systems, compensatory gain effect was observed in the animals that remained on the low pastures during postweaning compared with the high pastures. This compensatory gain was not verified in the animals that received protein-energy supplement in relation to the mineral salt, and thus the animals were slaughtered beforehand. The heifers on pastures with 25 or 35 cm in height were slaughtered in the same period, and those kept on the low pastures were slaughtered afterwards. The studied factors in the postweaning phase did not affect the carcass characteristics. Animals finished in feedlot slaughtered with the same body weight as those finished on pasture show greater carcass yield, subcutaneous fat deposition and renal pelvic and inguinal fat and greater losses with trimmings for cleaning the main hindquarter meat cuts; however, they provide cuts with the same weight but greater fat cover.

  17. Corpo e novidade puberal

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    Olivier Ouvry

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available As transformações corporais na adolescência causam efração na criança, além de suas simples manifestações formais. A novidade puberal se impõe, de fato, como real puberal (real no sentido lacaniano, qualificada de Feminino ou de advento do Outro sexo. Esta perspectiva teórica se inscreve na pura continuidade dos textos de Freud, como é revelado por uma releitura permitida pelas contribuições do estruturalismo e de Lacan. Duas situações clínicas (de fato, dois personagens de filme ilustram este relato.Body and pubertal novelty. Body transformations in adolescence break in the child besides their simple formal disclosures. The pubertal novelty imposes itself as the real pubertal (real in the Lacanian sense, qualified as Feminine or coming from the other gender. This theoretical perspective inscribes itself in the pure continuity of the Freudian texts, as it is revealed by a new reading permitted by Lacan's and structuralism contributions. Two clinical situations (in fact two movie characters will illustrate this report.

  18. Reproductive activity and performance of ½ Nellore and heifers fed with supplementation with organic chromium Atividade reprodutiva e desempenho produtivo de novilhas nelore taurino submetidas a suplementação com cromo orgânico

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    Joilmaro Rodrigo Pereira Rosa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This experimental evaluated the start of reproductive activity, body weight gain and carcass finishing of two genetic groups of heifers submitted to mineral supplementation with organic chromium. 90 heifers with 12 months of age were divided into four groups: 30 Nellore with chromium, 30 Nellore without chromium, 15 ½ Taurine with chromium, 15 ½ Taurine without chromium. For 12 months the animals were weighed every 28 days and ultrasound exams performed with 15 months of age for reproductive evaluation and 18 months for carcass evaluation. There was interaction between genetic groups and organic chromium supplementation for body weight at slaughter and body weight gain. The ½ Taurine heifers supplemented with chromium showed greater body weight at slaughter (330.1kg and body weight gain (0,563kg/day than Nellore heifers with chromium (304.8kg; 0,414kg/day, Nellore without chromium (304.7kg; 0,401kg/day and ½ Taurine without chromium (298.6kg; 0,408kg/day. However there was no effect of interaction between genetic groups and chromium organic supplementation, of genetic groups and of chromium organic supplementation on carcass characteristic. The use of organic chromium supplementation showed improvements on body growth and on the start of reproductive activity in heifers, without changing the finishing carcass characteristic.O presente experimento avaliou o início da atividade reprodutiva, ganho de peso corporal e acabamento de carcaça de dois grupos genéticos de novilhas submetidas à suplementação mineral com cromo orgânico em pastejo sob lotação intermitente. Noventa novilhas (60 Nelore e 30 ½ taurino de 12 meses de idade foram separadas em quatro grupos: Trinta fêmeas Nelore com cromo, 30 fêmeas Nelore sem cromo, 15 fêmeas ½ sangue taurino com cromo e 15 fêmeas ½ sangue taurino sem cromo. Durante 12 meses os animais foram pesados a cada 28 dias e os exames ultrassonográficos realizados aos 15 meses de idade para avalia

  19. Efeito de sistemas de alimentação no ganho de peso e desempenho reprodutivo de novilhas Nelore acasaladas aos 17/18 meses Effect of feeding systems on weight gain and reproductive performance of Nellore heifers bred at the age of 17/18 months

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    Cláudio Eduard Neves Semmelmann

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados, por intermédio do modelo estatístico linear (GLM/SAS, o crescimento e o desempenho reprodutivo de 480 bezerras Nelore dos 7,5 meses até o acasalamento aos 17/18 meses de idade em quatro sistemas alimentares no período seco (05 a 10/96: Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu (B, Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu + Anipro (BA, milheto (Pennisetum americanum cv. (L. Leeke (M e Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu + Sal Ouro (BS. A partir de 10/96, em lote único, pastejaram em Panicum maximum cv. Mombaça, 1 UA/ha, até o fim do acasalamento (03/97 a 05/97. Foram avaliados o peso vivo (PV, condição corporal (CC, ganho médio diário (GMD, idade ao acasalamento (IAC, taxa de prenhez (TP e idade da mãe (IM, além de escores de conformação (Cs, precocidade (Ps e musculosidade (Ms. Os sistemas BA e M apresentaram diferença significativa com maior PV, GMD e CC após o período da estação seca em relação aos sistemas B e BS. No início do acasalamento, o PV dos sistemas B, BA e M diferiram do grupo BS. Ao final do acasalamento, não foram detectadas diferenças em GMD, CC, IAC e IM entre os sistemas. Os tratamentos B, BA, M e BS utilizados durante a estação seca não afetaram, respectivamente, a TP média de 22,2; 24,2; 20,7; e 13,8%. Houve diferença significativa entre novilhas prenhas e falhadas em relação a PV, CC, IAC, GMD, Cs, Ps e Ms.Using a linear statistical model (GLM/SAS the reproductive performance and growth of 480 Nellore heifers were evaluated from the age of 7.5 to 17/18 months under four feeding systems during the dry period (96/05 to 96/10: Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pasture (B; Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pasture + Anipro (BA; Pennisetum americanum cv. (L. Leeke (Pearlmillet (M and Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pasture + Sal Ouro (BS. At the end of supplementation all heifers were moved to a paddock of Panicum maximum cv. Mombaça pasture, 1 AU/ha, from 96/10 until the end of the mating season (97

  20. Características de carcaça e da carne de novilhas Charolês e 3/4 Charolês 1/4 Nelore, terminadas em confinamento Carcass and meat characteristics of Charolais and 3/4 Charolais 1/4 Nellore cull heifers, finished in feedlot

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    João Restle

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar os aspectos quantitativos e qualitativos da carcaça e da carne de novilhas de descarte dos genótipos Charolês (C e 3/4 C 1/4 Nelore (N. Foram usadas 25 novilhas de três anos, terminadas em confinamento por 80 dias. Não se verificou diferença para peso de abate (473,6 vs. 468,8 kg, peso de carcaça fria (241,8 vs. 241,8 kg, rendimento de carcaça fria (51,09 vs. 51,61%, espessura de gordura (4,13 vs. 4,78 mm, porcentagem de dianteiro (35,52 vs. 36,01% e de costilhar (15,03 vs. 15,42%, conformação (10,75 vs. 10,56 pontos e comprimento de carcaça (127,4 vs. 129,9 cm. As novilhas C apresentaram maior porcentagem do corte serrote (49,95 vs. 48,57% e perímetro de braço (36,73 vs. 35,00 cm que as ¾ C ¼ N. Não houve diferença significativa para a composição física da carcaça, cor (3,46 vs. 3,11 pontos, textura (3,67 vs. 3,33 pontos, marmoreio (6,40 vs. 5,00 pontos, maciez (6,48 vs. 6,19 pontos, palatabilidade (6,33 vs. 6,33 pontos e força para corte das fibras da carne, por meio do aparelho WB-Shear (5,99 vs. 6,24 pontos. A suculência da carne foi melhor nas novilhas C (6,18 vs. 5,67 pontos. A partir desses resultados, pode-se concluir que, para novilhas abatidas aos três anos, não existem diferenças expressivas nos aspectos quantitativos e qualitativos da carcaça e da carne entre os dois genótipos.The objective of this work was to study the quantitative and qualitative carcass and meat characteristics of Charolais (C and 3/4 C 1/4 Nellore (N cull heifers. Twenty-five culled heifers, three years old, were feedlot finished per 80 days period. No significant difference was observed for slaughter weight (473.6 vs. 468.8 kg, cold carcass weight (241.8 vs. 241.8 kg, dressing percentage (51.09 vs. 51.61%, fat thickness (4.13 vs. 4.78 mm, forequarter percentage (35.52 vs. 36.01%, sidecut percentage (15.03 vs. 15.42%, conformation (10.75 vs. 10.56 points and carcass length (127.4 vs. 129.9 cm. The

  1. Desenvolvimento puberal em meninas tratadas de LLA

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    Monteiro I.M.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Com o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento puberal após o tratamento de leucemia linfóide aguda (LLA na infância, foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo, em meninas tratadas de janeiro de 1980 a janeiro de 1991, no Centro de Investigações Hematológicas "Dr. Domingos A. Boldrini", em Campinas-SP. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODO: Foram selecionadas 42 meninas, tratadas antes da puberdade com quimioterapia sistêmica e intratecal e radioterapia cranial, utilizando doses de 18 ou 24 Grays (Gy. RESULTADOS: As idades médias da telarca, pubarca e menarca foram inferiores às do grupo-controle, embora com significância estatística apenas para a idade da telarca. Não houve diferenças entre os grupos tratados com 18 ou 24Gy. As meninas tratadas antes dos cinco anos de idade apresentaram idade média da menarca estatisticamente inferior àquelas tratadas após cinco anos e em relação ao grupo-controle. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados mostraram que o desenvolvimento puberal em meninas tratadas de LLA na infância foi mais precoce que o de meninas saudáveis.

  2. Níveis de triticale em substituição ao milho no desempenho zootécnico e digestibilidade aparente de novilhas Nelore confinadas Levels of triticale in replacement of corn on the performance and apparent digestibility of feedlot Nellore heifers

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    Ivanor Nunes do Prado

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar níveis de substituição do milho pelo triticale em novilhas nelore confinadas. Foram utilizadas 56 novilhas da raça Nelore, com 18 meses de idade e peso vivo médio inicial de 212 kg, distribuídas em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos (0, 33, 66 e 100% de substituição do milho pelo triticale e sete repetições. Não houve efeito dos níveis de substituição do milho pelo triticale sobre o peso vivo final, o ganho médio diário, a ingestão de matéria seca, proteína bruta, fibra em detergente neutro, fibra em detergente ácido e hemicelulose, a conversão alimentar e o rendimento de carcaça. Embora não tenha sido observada diferença em valores absolutos, a ingestão de matéria seca (em 100 kg de peso vivo foi crescente entre os níveis 0 e 100% de triticale. O mesmo comportamento foi observado para a ingestão de energia bruta (Mcal/kg de MS/dia. O ensaio do coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente, com o uso de indicador interno (cinza insolúvel em ácido e coleta parcial de fezes, demonstrou que não houve diferença na digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, matéria orgânica, proteína bruta, energia bruta, fibra em detergente neutro, fibra em detergente ácido e hemicelulose. Em função destes resultados, para novilhas confinadas, o triticale poderia ser fonte alternativa viável para substituição ao milho.This work was carried out to study the replacement levels of corn by triticale in feedlot Nellore heifers. Fifty-six Nellore heifers, 18 months of age and with an initial LW 212 kg were allotted to a completely randomized experimental design, with four corn replacement levels (0, 33, 66 and 100% by triticale and seven replications. There were no effects of corn replacement levels on the final live weight, average daily gain, intakes of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, hemicellulose (kg/day, feed: gain and

  3. Ginecomastia fisiológica puberal

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    Orlando Araujo Herrera

    Full Text Available La ginecomastia puede ser una variante normal del desarrollo puberal observado en varones adolescentes, y aunque no existen abundantes reportes estadísticos sobre su prevalencia, se ha evaluado un número significativo de pacientes en consultas médicas. Puede presentarse de forma unilateral o bilateral, y usualmente es idiopática. Las concentraciones plasmáticas de hormona luteinizante, testosterona y estradiol se observan dentro de límites normales. Por lo general, involuciona espontáneamente en 1 o 2 años, aunque constituye motivo serio de preocupación en los adolescentes afectados porque altera significativamente su calidad de vida con problemas físicos y emocionales. El tratamiento debe limitarse a aliviar la ansiedad de los pacientes y familiares, y es aconsejable la evaluación periódica. En algunos casos se ha recomendado el uso de medicamentos o la corrección quirúrgica.

  4. Infestation by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus in heifers from different genetics groups

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    Adilson Marini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of the infestation of ticks Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus in 59 heifers of three genetic groups was run: Nellore, Guzerá and ½ Angus x ½ Nellore, belonging to the roster APTA Regional Andradina / SP. Every 28 days held the count of ticks, where the left side of the animal, with evaluation of only engorged females with more than 4.5 mm in the period from June 2007 to May 2008. The genetic group (P 0.05. The count of ticks was higher in the rainy season (4.32 ± 5.20 in comparison with the dry season (3.74 ± 5.54. Despite the higher counts of ticks during the experimental period, in heifers ½ Angus x ½ Nellore, this genetic group obtained the highest average daily weight gain (0.57 kg/day. Heifers and bulls Nellore and Guzerá were not statistically different in relation to daily weight gain, with averages of 0.37 and 0.40kg/day, respectively. ½ Angus heifers genetic group cattle have a higher infestation by ticks.

  5. Somatotropina bovina recombinante (rBST nos aspectos hematológicos e metabólitos do sangue de novilhas (½ Nelore x ½ Red Angus em confinamento Recombinant bovine somatotropin (rBST on hematologic aspects and metabolites of heifersNellore x ½ Red Angus blood, in feedlot

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    Ivanor Nunes do Prado

    2003-04-01

    , lymphocyte and monocyte and metabolites (glucose, insulin, IGF-I, triglycerides, total cholesterol and urea in heifers blood. Twenty-four crossbred heifers were used (½ Nellore x ½ Red Angus, they were approximately 18 months old and 225 kg of average body weight. All animals were fed with corn silage, citrus pulp and soybean meal during 84 days. 250 mg of rBST were administered subcutaneously, by intradermic way in the ischiorectal fossa. Treatments were: 1 control (administration of two mL of saline solution; 2 Single dose and 3 one dose each 14 days. The animals were used in a completely randomized design, with three treatments and eight replicates. The blood collect was realized in the beginning of the experiment and in the days 28, 56 and 84 of the experiment to determine the hematological aspects and metabolites. There was no influence of the rBST treatment on hematological aspects in the beginning and at the end of the experiment. However, the collect day had a positive linear effect on the hematocrit levels, negative linear on the glucose and triglycerides levels and positive quadratic on the IGF-I and urea levels. Also, the collect day effect was not observed on the insulin and total cholesterol levels.

  6. Multiple supplements for beef heifers on pasture in dry season

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    Renata Pereira da Silva-Marques

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate levels of multiple supplement for beef heifers in restricted grazing on average daily gain (ADG, economic analysis and intakes of total dry matter (TDMI, forage dry matter (FDMI, crude protein (CPI and total digestible nutrients (TDNI. For evaluation of performance and economic analysis, twenty Nellore heifers (328.45 kg were used. The following supplements were evaluated as fed to the animals: control (mineral supplement and supplementation levels of 2, 4 and 6 kg/animal/day, composing the following percentages of average body weight (ABW: 0.55, 1.11 and 1.66%, respectively. To evaluate the nutrient intake, additional five Nellore heifers with 344 kg, were used, which were submitted to same supplements previously mentioned, in addition to the level of 2.22% of ABW (8 kg/animal/day. Average daily gain showed quadratic behavior; TDMI, CPI and TDNI had increasing linear behavior; and FDMI showed decreasing linear behavior in function of the supplementation levels. The strategy of supplying 0.55, 1.11 and 1.66% of the ABW to heifers on restricted grazing provides additional weight gains of 608, 762 and 943 g/day, respectively, which are effective in promoting similar productive and economic performance to those obtained in grazing systems in the rainy period.

  7. GRÃOS DE LINHAÇA E DE CANOLA SOBRE O DESEMPENHO, DIGESTIBILIDADE APARENTE E CARACTERÍSTICAS DE CARCAÇA DE NOVILHAS NELORE TERMINADAS EM CONFINAMENTO WHOLE LINSEED AND CANOLA SEED ON PERFORMANCE APPARENT DIGESTIBILITY AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF NELLORE HEIFERS FINISHED IN FEEDLOT

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    Jesuí Virgílio Visentainer

    2008-12-01

    áveis, pois os óleos extraídos deles são muito valorizados na alimentação humana, tornando-os raros e de valor econômico elevado.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Canola, casca de caroço de algodão, CIA, digestibilidade aparente, linhaça, novilhas. This work was carried out to study three rations (CON – control ration, LIN – whole linseed ration, and WCS – whole canola seed ration on performance, apparent digestibility coefficient of dry matter (DMDC, organic matter (OMDC, crude protein (CPDC, neutral detergent fiber (NDFDC, acid detergent fiber (ADFDC, gross energy (GEDC, ether extract (EEDC and carcass characteristics in Nellore heifers finished in feedlot. The acid insoluble ash (AIA was used as internal maker to calculate apparent digestibility. The collecting was done during a five-day-period. Corn silage and cottonseed hulls were used as roughage source. The concentrates consisted of soybean meal, ground corn grain, cassava starch by-products, mineral salt, urea, and limestone (CRO differing or not, by inclusion, from linseed (LIN or whole canola seed (WCS. Twenty-four heifers with average age of 18 months and initial weight of 277.67 + 32.12 kg were used. A completely randomized design with three treatments and nine repetitions was used. The experiment was taken during an eighty-seven-day-period. No differences (P>0.05 were observed among the treatments for intake of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, feed:gain ratio, average daily gain, hot carcass yield, fat thickness, and Longissimus dorsi area. The gross energy and ether extract intake were higher (P<0.01 in the LIN and WCS treatments as compared to CON treatment. No differences (P>0.05 were detected between the CPDC, NDFDC, and ADFDC treatments. The CON treatment presented higher values (P<0.05 of DMDC, OMDC, and GEDC as compared to the LIN treatment. The EEDC was higher (P<0.05 in the CON treatment as compared to the CAN treatment. These feed could

  8. EVALUATION OF ZEBU NELLORE CATTLE BLOOD SAMPLES USING THE CELL-DYN 3500 HEMATOLOGY ANALYZER

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    Alexandre Secorun Borges

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cell-dyn 3500 is a multiparameter flow cytometer, which may analyze samples from several species performing several simultaneous analyses. It is able to perform white blood cells, red blood cells and platelet counts, besides differential leukocyte counts, packed cell volume and hemoglobin determination. Cell-Dyn 3500 performs total leukocyte count both optically and by impedance. The equipment may choose one or other method, based on the reliability of the results. Erythrocyte and platelet counts are determined by impedance. Leukocyte differentiation is based on an optical principle, using separation in multiangular polarized light. The objective of this study was to compare the results of complete blood count of Zebu Nellore heifers from Celldyn 3500, with those obtained from a semi-automated cell counter (Celm CC 510 and the manual technique. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein in 5 mL EDTA vacuum tubes from 58 Nellore heifers, at 24 months of age. Samples were processed in parallel in the three different techniques. Results were analyzed using paired t test, Pearson’s correlation and the Bland-Altmann method. There was a strong correlation for all parameters analyzed by Cell-Dyn 3500, manual method and semiautomated cell counter, except for basophils and monocytes counts. These results confirm that this analyzer is reliable for blood samples analysis of zebu cattle.

  9. Reproductive efficiency of Nellore cows nursing Nellore or crossbred Simmental × Nellore calves

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    Fernando Miranda de Vargas Junior

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of genetic group (GG of the calf during gestation, mobilization of body reserves and period of postpartum anestrus in Nellore cows. Thirty-seven primiparous and multiparous cows were used: 24 gave birth to Nellore (NEL, and 13 gave birth to ½ Simmental × ½ Nellore (SIM calves. According to the date of calving, cows were divided into three blocks, with intervals of 20 days between blocks. The body condition (BC of the cows was estimated subjectively on a scale from 0 to 5 points, with intermediate grading of 0.5 points. We measured the thickness of subcutaneous fat (SF between the 12th and 13th ribs and rump by ultrasound. Blood samples from each cow were collected weekly from the third week after birth until weaning, to analyze the level of progesterone; in the samples collected until 16 weeks postpartum, we analyzed the concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA. The gestation period of mothers of NEL calves was eight days longer, on average. The variables relating to the mobilization of body reserves (NEFA, BC and SF were not influenced by calf GG, with the only significant effects being the number of days postpartum, with a peak in the concentration of NEFA between the sixth and eighth weeks and linear decrease in BC and NF. Mothers of NEL calves remained in anestrus for 4.6 weeks longer than the mothers of crossbred calves.

  10. Thermal balance of Nellore cattle

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    de Melo Costa, Cíntia Carol; Maia, Alex Sandro Campos; Nascimento, Sheila Tavares; Nascimento, Carolina Cardoso Nagib; Neto, Marcos Chiquitelli; de França Carvalho Fonsêca, Vinícius

    2017-04-01

    This work aimed at characterizing the thermal balance of Nellore cattle from the system of indirect calorimetry using a facial mask. The study was conducted at the Animal Biometeorology Laboratory of the São Paulo State University, Jaboticabal, Brazil. Five male Nellore weighing 750 ± 62 kg, at similar ages and body conditions were distributed in four 5 × 5 Latin squares (5 days of records and five schedules) during 20 days. Physiological and environmental measurements were obtained from the indirect calorimetry system using a facial mask. Respiratory parameters, hair coat, skin, and rectal temperature were continuously recorded. From this, metabolic heat production, sensible and latent ways of heat transfer were calculated. Metabolic heat production had an average value of 146.7 ± 0.49 W m-2 and did not change (P > 0.05) over the range of air temperature (24 to 35 °C). Sensible heat flow reached 60.08 ± 0.81 W m-2 when air temperature ranged from 24 to 25 °C, being negligible in conditions of temperature above 33 °C. Most of the heat produced by metabolism was dissipated by cutaneous evaporation when air temperature was greater than 30 °C. Respiratory parameters like respiratory rate and ventilation remained stable (P > 0.05) in the range of temperature studied. Under shade conditions and air temperature range from 24 to 35 °C, metabolic heat production, respiratory rate, and ventilation of mature Nellore cattle remain stable, which is indicative of low energetic cost to the thermoregulation.

  11. Medidas orofaciais em nipobrasileiros após crescimento puberal

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    Tassiana Barbeiro Fragoso de Sá

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: descrever medidas orofaciais em nipobrasileiros após crescimento puberal e verificar diferenças entre medidas de mulheres negras, brancas e nipobrasileiras. MÉTODO: a casuística foi composta de 90 sujeitos japoneses ou descendentes de japoneses, sem histórico de miscigenação, ambos os sexos, entre 20 e 50 anos, sem queixas ou atendimentos fonoaudiológicos atuais ou prévios em motricidade orofacial, sem tratamento ortodôntico atual e sem alteração cognitiva. As medidas avaliadas foram: lábio superior, lábio inferior, filtro, terço superior da face, terço médio da face, terço inferior da face, lados da face, abertura máxima de boca e abertura máxima de boca com a língua na papila. O instrumento utilizado foi o paquímetro eletrônico digital da marca Jomarca. Os dados foram comparados com os achados na literatura referentes às mulheres negras e brancas. RESULTADOS: os dados coletados mostraram homogeneidade entre as medidas; os valores para todas as medidas foram maiores nos homens, com relevância estatística positiva. As diferenças mais significantes entre as negras, brancas e nipobrasileiras foram: terço superior e filtro das nipobrasileiras menor do que de negras e brancas. Para o terço médio não houve diferença estatística significante. O lábio superior das nipobrasileiras é maior do que das brancas e o lábio inferior das nipobrasileiras menor do que das negras. Lados da face sem diferenças estatísticas. CONCLUSÃO: foi possível verificar que as médias das medidas foram sempre maiores nos homens, que houve relações significantes entre algumas medidas orofaciais e que houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre as estruturas das brancas, negras e nipobrasileiras.

  12. Dopamine action in prepubertal Nelore heifers growth hormone secretion

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    Emiliana Oliveira Santana Batista

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of dopamine in the growth hormone secretion (GH during Nellore heifer’s sexual maturation. The animals were randomly assigned into two experimental groups: Sulpiride group (dopamine D2 antagonist, 0.59 mg/kg, S.C. and control group (saline solution S.C. at 8, 12 and 16 months of age. Blood samples were collected every 15 min for 10h after drug injection. Growth hormone was quantified by RIA, sensitivity (0.25 ng/mL and intra and inter-assay variation coefficients were 15% and 17%, respectively. GH concentration was higher in sulpiride group than control group at 8 mo (10.1 ± 0.38 ng/mL vs 4.3 ± 0.34 ng/mL; P 0.05 in total GH secretion area, total peak area and maximum peak amplitude. These results suggested an inhibitory dopamine effect on GH secretion in pre-pubertal Nellore heifers that decreases according to age.

  13. Effects of age on histological parameters of the sweat glands of Nellore cattle

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    Mara Regina Bueno de Mattos Nascimento

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The sweat glands are important in thermoregulation of cattle in a warm environment as they help dissipate heat through evaporation. Studies on gland histology are important to define its secretion potential and the capacity of perspiration and heat removal. The objective of this study was to determine, by histomorphometry, glandular epithelium height, the depth of the gland, length of the glandular portion and number of glands per cm2 of the sweat glands of the three age groups of Nellore cattle. Thirty females were used in this study. They were equally divided into calves, heifers and cows. Histological sections were obtained and analyzed by digital images in Trinocular BX40 Olympus microscope coupled to an Oly - 200 camera, connected to a computer. The images were obtained with microscope with 2x, 4x, 10x and 40x magnification objectives. The measurements were performed using HL Image 97 program. The height of glandular epithelium, depth of the glands, length and density of the glandular portion per cm2 , were all analyzed. The calves showed greater height of the glandular epithelium than heifers (P = 0.0024, and cows (P = 0.0191. The depth of the gland was not influenced by age. Cows had higher length of secretory portion than heifers (P = 0.0379 and calves (P = 0.0077. Heifers had a greater number of sweat glands per cm2 of skin than cows (P = 0.023. In cattle, the height of glandular epithelium and the density decreases as animals get older. On the other hand, the length of the secretor portion increases but with no changes in the depth of the sweat glands

  14. Performance, growth, and maturity of Nellore bulls.

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    Costa e Silva, Luiz Fernando; Valadares Filho, Sebastião de Campos; Detmann, Edenio; Rotta, Polyana Pizzi; Zanetti, Diego; Villadiego, Faider Alberto Castaño; Pellizzoni, Samantha Gusmão; Pereira, Rafael Moura Guimarães

    2013-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the dry matter intake (DMI), digestibility, average daily gain (ADG), microbial efficiency, empty body weight (EBW) gain, and body composition of Nellore bulls. Additionally, Nellore bull maturity was estimated, and the prediction equation for DMI, suggested by the Brazilian nutrient requirements system (BR CORTE; Azevêdo et al. 2010), was evaluated. Thirty-three Nellore bulls, with a mean initial weight of 259 ± 25 kg and age of 14 ± 1 months, were used in this study. Five animals were slaughtered at the beginning of the experiment (control group), and the remaining 28 were divided into 4 groups, each slaughtered at 42-day intervals. Their diet was composed of corn silage and concentrate (55:45). The power model was used to estimate muscle tissue, bone tissue, crude protein (CP), mineral matter (MM), and water present in the empty body, while the exponential model was used to estimate adipose tissue and ether extract (EE) present in the empty body. When expressed in kilograms per day, differences were observed (P  0.05) digestibility, with the exception of EE digestibility. The equation suggested by BR CORTE correctly estimates the DMI of Nellore bulls. ADG was not affected (P > 0.05) by time spent in the feedlot. No differences were observed (P > 0.05) for microbial efficiency; a mean value of 142 g microbial crude protein/kg total digestible nutrients was achieved. The muscle and bone tissues, CP, MM, and water present in the empty body increased as the animal grew, although at a lower rate. The adipose tissue and EE present in the empty body increased their deposition rate when the animal reached its mature weight. Maturity is defined as when an animal reaches 22 % EE in the empty body, which corresponds to 456 kg of EBW in Nellore bulls. Therefore, this study can conclude that the feedlot time period does not affect DMI, nutrient intake, ADG, or microbial efficiency. The equation

  15. Effects of varying ruminally undegradable protein supplementation on forage digestion, nitrogen metabolism, and urea kinetics in Nellore cattle fed low-quality tropical forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, E D; Detmann, E; Titgemeyer, E C; Valadares Filho, S C; Valadares, R F D; Prates, L L; Rennó, L N; Paulino, M F

    2016-01-01

    Effects of supplemental RDP and RUP on nutrient digestion, N metabolism, urea kinetics, and muscle protein degradation were evaluated in Nellore heifers () consuming low-quality signal grass hay (5% CP and 80% NDF, DM basis). Five ruminally and abomasally cannulated Nellore heifers (248 ± 9 kg) were used in a 5 × 5 Latin square. Treatments were the control (no supplement) and RDP supplementation to meet 100% of the RDP requirement plus RUP provision to supply 0, 50, 100, or 150% of the RUP requirement. Supplemental RDP (casein plus NPN) was ruminally dosed twice daily, and RUP supply (casein) was continuously infused abomasally. Jugular infusion of [NN]-urea with measurement of enrichment in urine was used to evaluate urea kinetics. The ratio of urinary 3-methylhistidine to creatinine was used to estimate skeletal muscle protein degradation. Forage NDF intake (2.48 kg/d) was not affected ( ≥ 0.37) by supplementation, but supplementation did increase ruminal NDF digestion ( Urea entry rate and gastrointestinal entry rate of urea were increased by supplementation ( urea entry rate and tended ( = 0.07) to linearly increase gastrointestinal entry rate of urea. Urea use for anabolic purposes tended ( = 0.07) to be increased by supplementation, and RUP provision also tended ( = 0.08) to linearly increase the amount of urea used for anabolism. The fraction of recycled urea N incorporated into microbial N was greater ( urea from the renal tubule than did supplemented heifers. Overall, unsupplemented heifers had greater mobilization of AA from myofibrillar protein, which provided N for urea synthesis and subsequent recycling. Supplemental RUP, when RDP was supplied, not only increased N retention but also supported increased urea N recycling and increased ruminal microbial protein synthesis.

  16. Evaluación del estado nutricional durante el estirón puberal

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Manjón, Rebeca

    2017-01-01

    La adolescencia va a consistir en una fase de la vida en la que se da la confluencia entre los cambios fisiológicos y aquellos que dan lugar a una maduración emocional y social, tan esenciales que marcarán un punto de inflexión en el desarrollo del individuo hacia la vida adulta. Durante esta etapa se va a producir un hecho de notable trascendencia: el crecimiento. Estudiar los cambios morfológicos que se producen en la etapa conocida como el estirón puberal, junto con los propios cambios ana...

  17. Evaluación del estado nutricional durante el estirón puberal

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Manjón, Rebeca

    2015-01-01

    La adolescencia va a consistir en una fase de la vida en la que se da la confluencia entre los cambios fisiológicos y aquellos que dan lugar a una maduración emocional y social, tan esenciales que marcarán un punto de inflexión en el desarrollo del individuo hacia la vida adulta. Durante esta etapa se va a producir un hecho de notable trascendencia: el crecimiento. Estudiar los cambios morfológicos que se producen en la etapa conocida como el estirón puberal, junto con los propios cambios ana...

  18. Introducing heifers to freestall housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Keyserlingk, M A G; Cunha, G E; Fregonesi, J A; Weary, D M

    2011-04-01

    Little work to date has assessed how dairy cattle respond when first introduced to freestall housing. In this study we carried out 2 experiments. The aim of experiment 1 was to assess the behavioral responses of naïve heifers to pens fitted with freestalls. Holstein heifers (n=7 groups, each containing 3 heifers, 3 mo of age), with no previous experience with freestalls, were initially housed on a sawdust bedded pack and fed through a fixed feed barrier for at least 6 wk and then moved to a freestall pen fitted with a head-locking feed barrier. When kept on the bedded pack, the heifers' lying time averaged 14.2 h/d. On the day heifers were moved to the freestall pen, lying times declined by 2.9 h, but recovered on the following days. The time spent lying down on the barn floor (i.e., outside the lying area) increased by 2.5 h on the day heifers were introduced to freestalls and remained higher during subsequent days. Heifers spent 46 min/d less time feeding on the day they were switched to the head-locking barrier, but recovered on the following days. In experiment 2 we assessed the behavioral responses of naïve heifers introduced to pens fitted with freestalls with or without a neck rail. Holstein heifers (n=12 groups, each containing 2 heifers, 3 mo of age), with no previous experience with freestalls, were initially housed on a sawdust bedded pack and then moved to a freestall pen with or without neck rails. Heifers spent 4.2 h/d less time lying down in the 24 h following introduction into the freestall pen; the neck rail treatment had no effect on lying time but heifers spent more time standing with just their front 2 hooves in the stall when a neck rail was in the stall. In summary, lying and feeding behavior of naïve heifers is altered following introduction to new housing. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Carcass and meat quality traits in Nellore and F1 Nellore-Araguaia crosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, N V; Aboujaoude, C; Vieira, G S; Paiva, V V; Moraes Neto, R A; Gondim, V S; Alves, L R; Torres, M C L; Antunes, R C

    2015-05-22

    We evaluated and compared carcass traits and meat quality in Nellore cattle and F1 crosses between Nellore and Araguaia, where 17 individuals were from the Nellore group and 19 were ½ Nellore and ½ Araguaia crosses. All animals belonged to the same birth season and were raised in pasture systems under the same nutritional, environmental, and management conditions. When the animals reached slaughter weight, they were taken to an industrial slaughterhouse where food was not provided for 24 h (free access to water); they were then stunned, bled, the leather was removed, and they were eviscerated. The carcasses were weighed (hot weight), kept in chilled storage for approximately 24 h at 4°C, and weighed again to obtain the chilled carcass weight. Carcass yield, carcass length, carcass width, leg length, thigh perimeter, loin eye area (LEA), retail cuts, cooling loss, pH, fat depth, marbling rate, intramuscular fat, color, and shear force were analyzed and sensory analysis of the meat was conducted. Significant differences (P meat's sensory characteristics, but contributed to an improvement in carcass traits, providing an alternative for farmers that aim for good meat quality, with a higher meat percentage.

  20. Evaluation of TFAM and FABP4 gene polymorphisms in three lines of Nellore cattle selected for growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, D R; Souza, F R P; Mercadante, M E Z; Fonseca, L F S; Tonhati, H; Cyrillo, J N S G; Bonilha, S F M; Albuquerque, L G

    2010-10-19

    We analyzed the polymorphisms TFAM HaeIII, TFAM MboI and FABP4 MspA1I in three Nellore lines selected for growth in order to evaluate how selection affects the frequencies of these polymorphisms and evaluate their association with growth and carcass traits in Zebu cattle. Birth, weaning and yearling weights, rump height, longissimus muscle area, backfat thickness, and rump fat thickness were analyzed. The sample was constituted of animals from two lines selected for yearling weight (NeS and NeT), and a control line (NeC), established in 1980, at the São Paulo Instituto de Zootecnia. Two hundred and seventy-two heifers were genotyped for TFAM gene SNPs, and 325 heifers were genotyped for the FABP4 SNP. High frequencies were observed for the alleles A (TFAM HaeIII), C (TFAM MboI) and C (FABP4 MspA1I). Significant differences in allele frequencies between NeS and NeT were observed for the TFAM HaeIII, and between the line NeT and lines NeC and NeS for the FABP4 MspA1I SNP. Five haplotypes were observed for the two polymorphisms in the TFAM gene, haplotype AACC being the most frequent. None of the markers separately or according to haplotype was significantly associated with the growth and carcass traits. The low frequencies of alleles that are associated with high marbling scores and thick subcutaneous fat in taurine breeds might explain the low means for these traits in Nellore cattle.

  1. Crude glycerin in diets for Nelore heifers on pasture in dry season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalo Mesquita da Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the inclusion of crude glycerin (CG in the diet of Nellore heifers grazing Brachiaria brizantha during the dry season, on nutrients intake and digestibility, performance, reproductive efficiency and economic viability. Sixty Nelore heifers with initial average weight of 285.89 ± 18.74 kg and approximately 19 ± 2 months of age, were distributed in a completely randomized design with five diets containing 0.0; 4.0; 8.0; 12.0 and 16.0% of CG inclusion in the diet. The average dry matter (DM daily intake showed decreasing linear effect (P 0.05, with a mean value of 50.93%. The average daily gain (ADG of heifers showed decreasing linear effect (P0.05 by dietary inclusion of GB, with average values of 75% and 1.29 doses pregnant-¹, respectively. The economic viability indicators were not positive in the short and medium term. Supplements for over 0.7% of the PC in animals maintained in Brachiaria brizantha with low nutritional quality, it is not recommended to include GB, since its inclusion in any level reduced around 15% weight gain. However, depending on the cost of coproduct, it can be includes up to 16% in the diet, even considering this drop in performance.

  2. LUTEINIZING HORMONE SECRETION IN NELLORE HEIFER’S AFTER WEANING TO FIRST OVULATION CONCENTRAÇÃO DE LH EM NOVILHAS DA RAÇA NELORE DA DESMAMA À PRIMEIRA OVULAÇÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cardoso

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The aim was to evaluate the LH secretion in B. indicus heifers, on the presence or absence of gonadal steroid, generating information about the mechanisms evolved on sexual maturation in Nellore heifers. LH and progesterone concentration were quantified by RIA. First ovulation was determined by plasma progesterone concentration (>1 ng/ml. Greater mean LH concentrations was observed in ovariectomized (OVX; P?0.05 compared to intact heifers (INT. Mean LH concentration increased (P?0.05 during the sexual maturation, in both intact and ovariectomized heifers. The number of peaks was higher (P?0.05 in ovariectomized heifer. The results suggest decrease in estradiol hypothalamus negative feedback during Nellore heifer’s sexual maturation. It was possible to conclude that in pre-pubertal Nellore heifers the increase on positive gonadal steroids feedback was necessary to increase LH secretion before first ovulation.

    KEY WORDS: Cattle, endocrinology, hypothalamus, puberty, steroids.
    O presente trabalho teve por objetivo investigar a variação na secreção de LH na presença ou não de esteroides gonadais e, dessa forma, gerar informações sobre os mecanismos envolvidos na maturação sexual de novilhas da raça Nelore. Quantificou-se a concentração de LH e progesterona por radioimunoensaio. A primeira ovulação foi determinada pela concentração plasmática de progesterona (>1 ng/ml. As novilhas ovariectomizadas (OVX apresentaram maior concentração basal de LH (P?0,05 que as novilhas inteiras (INT. Houve uma concentração de LH durante a maturação sexual, tanto nas novilhas INT quanto nas OVX. O número de picos de secreção de LH foi maior (P?0,05 nas novilhas OVX. Os resultados indicam uma diminuição da sensibilidade do hipotálamo aos esteroides gonadais durante o processo de maturação sexual nas novilhas da raça Nelore. Conclui-se que, em novilhas pré-púberes da raça Nelore, o

  3. Características produtivas e reprodutivas de fêmeas da raça Nelore e cruzadas 1/2 Canchim + 1/2 Nelore Productive and reproductive traits of straightbred Nellore and crossbred 1/2 Canchim + 1/2 Nellore Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alencar

    1999-01-01

    and Charolais breed bulls, respectively, and also on the gestation length (GL of their calves, and the weights (W and ages (A at first insemination (FI, conception (FCo, and calving (FC of 1/2 Canchim + 1/2 Nellore heifers. The least squares method was used, with models that included the effects of year and month of calving, age of cow and origin of cow (for the Nellore cows only for the analyses of CWC, breeding season, age of cow, origin of cow and sire of calf (random for the analyses of GL, and year and season of birth and the interaction year x season for the analyses of the traits of the heifers. Year of calving and origin of cow affected CWC. The cows calving from August to November were lighter than the cows calving in December and from May to July. Cow weight linearly increased with age of cow. For the crossbred Canchim x Nellore calves, gestation length was longer for males than for females. The CWC least square means were 450±2 kg (Nellore cows and 502±2 kg (1/2 Canchim + 1/2 Nellore cows and the GL least square means were 291.0±.4 days (1/2 Canchim + 1/2 Nellore calves and 285.7 ± .2 days (1/2 Charolais + 1/4 Canchim + 1/4 Nellore calves. The least square means were 372±2 kg (WFI, 376±2 kg (WFCo, 442±3 kg (WFC, 810±5 days (AFI, 831±6 days (AFCo, and 1116±6 days (AFC for the 1/2 Canchim + 1/2 Nellore heifers. The heritabilities of GL, as a trait of the calf, were equal to .17±.14 (1/2 Canchim + 1/2 Nellore and .69±.31 (1/2 Charolais + 1/4 Canchim + 1/4 Nellore.

  4. Suspected ergotism in two heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, D M; Dorling, P R

    1983-10-01

    A syndrome similar to gangrenous ergotism was seen in 2 Friesian heifers grazing meadow hay containing perennial rye grass seed heads parasited by an ergot presumed to be Claviceps purpurea. Clinical signs were bilateral hind limb lameness and gangrene. There was angiographic evidence of vasoconstriction in the lower hind limbs with necrosis of all tissues in the distal region of both hind limbs.

  5. Behavior pattern of beef heifers supplemented with different energy sources on oat and ryegrass pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Angelo Damian Pizzuti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate behavior patterns of heifers grazing on black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb. and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., fed supplementation with brown rice meal and/or protected fat. A total of 28 Charolais × Nellore crossbred heifers at average initial age of 18 months and with initial live weight of 274.9±4.97 kg were used in the experiment. Animals were kept in oat + ryegrass pastures and distributed in the following treatments: no supplementation; Megalac (MEG: protected fat supplementation; supplementation with brown rice meal (BRM; and supplementation with BRM + MEG. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF intake of pasture either in kg or in percentage of live weight was not changed by supply of supplement, but increased linearly (0.045 kg per day over grazing periods. Supplementation with BRM and BRM + MEG reduced grazing time, 49.63%, in relation to non-supplemented animals and animals supplemented with MEG, 63.13%. Feeding seasons per minute increased over the experimental period with reduction in time spent in each feeding station. The number of bites per feeding station decreased linearly, with a variation of 34.48% in the late grazing period. Heifers supplemented with BRM and BRM + MEG require less time for grazing and increase their idle time, with no modification in displacement patterns within the paddocks and pasture ingestion. Grazing and idle time does not change in the distinct periods of pasture use, but rumination time increases with days of pasture use and with increase in NDF intake.

  6. Production parameters and forage loss of oat and rye grass pastures managed with beef heifers fed diets with energy supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Angelo Damian Pizzuti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Production parameters of intercropped pastures of oat and rye grass managed with beef heifers supplemented with brown rice meal and/or protected fat were evaluated. Twenty-eight Charolais × Nellore crossbred heifers at initial average age of 18 months and initial average live weight of 274.9 kg were utilized in the experiment. Animals were kept on oat + rye grass pastures and distributed in the following treatments: no-supplementation (NS: heifers kept only in pastures; Megalac (MEG: supplementation with protected fat; brown rice meal (BRM: supplementation with BRM; BRM + MEG: supplementation with BRM plus protected fat. The greater participation of oat leaf was from July 5th to August 10th, 2009 and of rye grass, from August 30th to September 26th, 2009. The crude protein content increased until the 55th day (225.1 g/kg. Pasture total digestible nutrients presented a cubic behavior, with an average of 722.0 g/kg. The highest supply of leaf blades, 5.17 kg of dry matter/100 kg of live weight, was found in the second period. Pasture intake increased throughout the periods. Forage mass and support capacity of the animal did not differ between treatments, presenting means of 1245.02 kg of dry matter/ha and 882 kg of live weight/ha, respectively. Stoking rate, forage loss and pasture intake were not affected by the treatments. Supplementation of beef heifers with rice meal and/or protected fat did not change production parameters of oat + rye grass pastures or pasture intake. Increase in daily accumulation rate of dry matter and supporting capacity of the animals increases forage losses.

  7. Can rapeseed lower methane emission from heifers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2013-01-01

    Twelve heifers were assigned to either a control diet (CON) with 26 g fat per kg dry matter (DM) or a supplemented diet (FAT) with crushed rapeseed with 53 g fat per kg DM. Methane (CH4) emission was measured by open-circuit indirect calorimetry for four days when the heifers weighed approximately...

  8. Enterprise level implications of heifer development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research emphasis has been placed on heifer development strategies in recent years, comparing traditional, more intensive systems to more extensive systems using less feed and relying on compensatory gain to reach a target BW. Recent research has suggested that developing heifers to a lighter target...

  9. Potential for sorghum forages for dairy heifers in the midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairy heifers have lower dietary energy needs than lactating cows (63-65% TDN for 6-12 month old heifers; 58-60% TDN for >12 month old heifers), but forage-based diets containing significant amounts of corn silage often exceed the needs of pregnant heifers. Use of low-energy forages to decrease ener...

  10. Pattern of tissue deposition, gain and body composition of Nellore, F1 Simmental × Nellore and F1 Angus × Nellore steers fed at maintenance or ad libitum with two levels of concentrate in the diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanna Moraes de Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sixty 18-month-old steers (20 Nellore, 20 F1 Simmental × Nellore and 20 F1 Angus × Nellore with average body weight of 265.6±6.4 kg; 325.3±4.7 kg and 324.6±6.0 kg, respectively were used. The effects of feeding regime and genetic group on physical carcass composition, empty body composition, composition of the gain, as well as the pattern of tissue deposition were evaluated in this trial. The interaction between genetic group and feeding regime was not significant for any variable evaluated. Animals fed at the maintenance level produced carcass with larger proportions of bones and muscle than the animals fed ad libitum and Nellore animals had larger muscle portion and smaller adipose tissue portion on the carcass than the crossbred animals. Nellore animals and those fed at maintenance had smaller amount of total fat in the carcass than the crossbred animals and those fed ad libitum, respectively. Fat was deposited more pronouncedly in the intermuscular depot, followed by the visceral depot. The rate of deposition of the carcass tissues was smaller in the Nellore animals and in the animals fed the diet with concentrate allowance equivalent to 1% body weight (except for subcutaneous fat tissue, when compared with the crossbred animals and those fed the diet with 2% BW on concentrate, respectively. The rate of fat deposition on the visceral depot was larger in the F1 Angus × Nellore animals and on those fed the 2% of BW of concentrate diet when compared with F1 Simmental × Nellore animals and those fed the diet with the lowest concentrate allowance (1% BW.

  11. Medidas orofaciais em nipobrasileiros após crescimento puberal Nipobrazilians orofacial measurements after pubertal growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tassiana Barbeiro Fragoso de Sá

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: descrever medidas orofaciais em nipobrasileiros após crescimento puberal e verificar diferenças entre medidas de mulheres negras, brancas e nipobrasileiras. MÉTODO: a casuística foi composta de 90 sujeitos japoneses ou descendentes de japoneses, sem histórico de miscigenação, ambos os sexos, entre 20 e 50 anos, sem queixas ou atendimentos fonoaudiológicos atuais ou prévios em motricidade orofacial, sem tratamento ortodôntico atual e sem alteração cognitiva. As medidas avaliadas foram: lábio superior, lábio inferior, filtro, terço superior da face, terço médio da face, terço inferior da face, lados da face, abertura máxima de boca e abertura máxima de boca com a língua na papila. O instrumento utilizado foi o paquímetro eletrônico digital da marca Jomarca. Os dados foram comparados com os achados na literatura referentes às mulheres negras e brancas. RESULTADOS: os dados coletados mostraram homogeneidade entre as medidas; os valores para todas as medidas foram maiores nos homens, com relevância estatística positiva. As diferenças mais significantes entre as negras, brancas e nipobrasileiras foram: terço superior e filtro das nipobrasileiras menor do que de negras e brancas. Para o terço médio não houve diferença estatística significante. O lábio superior das nipobrasileiras é maior do que das brancas e o lábio inferior das nipobrasileiras menor do que das negras. Lados da face sem diferenças estatísticas. CONCLUSÃO: foi possível verificar que as médias das medidas foram sempre maiores nos homens, que houve relações significantes entre algumas medidas orofaciais e que houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre as estruturas das brancas, negras e nipobrasileiras.PURPOSE: to describe orofacial measurements in nipobrazilians individuals after pubertal growth and to verify the differences among black, white and nipobrazilians women measures. METHOD: the sample was composed by 90 Asian

  12. Medidas orofaciais em nipobrasileiros após crescimento puberal Nipobrazilians orofacial measurements after pubertal growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tassiana Barbeiro Fragoso de Sá

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: descrever medidas orofaciais em nipobrasileiros após crescimento puberal e verificar diferenças entre medidas de mulheres negras, brancas e nipobrasileiras. MÉTODO: a casuística foi composta de 90 sujeitos japoneses ou descendentes de japoneses, sem histórico de miscigenação, ambos os sexos, entre 20 e 50 anos, sem queixas ou atendimentos fonoaudiológicos atuais ou prévios em motricidade orofacial, sem tratamento ortodôntico atual e sem alteração cognitiva. As medidas avaliadas foram: lábio superior, lábio inferior, filtro, terço superior da face, terço médio da face, terço inferior da face, lados da face, abertura máxima de boca e abertura máxima de boca com a língua na papila. O instrumento utilizado foi o paquímetro eletrônico digital da marca Jomarca. Os dados foram comparados com os achados na literatura referentes às mulheres negras e brancas. RESULTADOS: os dados coletados mostraram homogeneidade entre as medidas; os valores para todas as medidas foram maiores nos homens, com relevância estatística positiva. As diferenças mais significantes entre as negras, brancas e nipobrasileiras foram: terço superior e filtro das nipobrasileiras menor do que de negras e brancas. Para o terço médio não houve diferença estatística significante. O lábio superior das nipobrasileiras é maior do que das brancas e o lábio inferior das nipobrasileiras menor do que das negras. Lados da face sem diferenças estatísticas. CONCLUSÃO: foi possível verificar que as médias das medidas foram sempre maiores nos homens, que houve relações significantes entre algumas medidas orofaciais e que houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre as estruturas das brancas, negras e nipobrasileiras.PURPOSE: to describe orofacial measurements in nipobrazilians individuals after pubertal growth and to verify the differences among black, white and nipobrazilians women measures. METHOD: the sample was composed by 90 Asian

  13. Haematological studies of Gaolao Heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M.Kapale,D.G.Jagtap

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Hematological study of 15 healthy Gaolao heifers has been carried out. The mean ±S.E. values of total erythrocyte (10.3 ±0.34 million/cu mm, Hb (11.92 ±0.33 gm%, PCV (34.07±1.11%, MCV (33.14±0.75cuμ, MCH (11.63±0.32 μμgm, MCHC (35.07 ±0.70%,TLC (9.51±0.92 thousand/cmm, Lymphocytes (64.93 ±1.74%,Neutrophil (28.93 ±1.8%, Monocyte (2.2 ±0.34%, Basophil (0.2±0.11 and Eosinophil (3.7 ± 0.44% have been reported. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(1.000: 16-16

  14. Substitution of soybean meal for cottonseed meal in multiple supplements for grazing beef heifers in the dry season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Román Maza Ortega

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of substituting soybean meal for cottonseed meal in multiple supplements on the nutritional characteristics and performance of beef heifers in their postweaning phase on Brachiaria decumbens pastures during the dry season. Twenty-four Nellore beef heifers (average initial age and weight of 8 mo and 210±6 kg, respectively were used. The design was completely randomized, with four treatments and six replicates. Supplements contained approximately 30% crude protein (CP and a progressive substitution of soybean meal for cottonseed meal (0, 50 and 100%. The control animals received only a mineral mixture ad libitum, and those on the other treatments received supplementation at 1.0 kg/animal/day. No differences were found in ADG between supplemented and control animals (P>0.10. Supplementation increased crude protein (CP intake only (P<0.10. The level of substitution of soybean meal for cottonseed meal did not affect (P>0.10 the intake of supplemented animals. Supplementation elevated the apparent digestibility coefficients (P<0.10 of OM, CP, NFC and TDN, but not EE or NDFap (P>0.10. A positive linear effect (P<0.10 of the level of substitution of soybean meal for cottonseed cake was observed on the digestibility of OM, NFC and TDN. Supplementation and the level of substitution had an effect (P<0.10 on the serum urea nitrogen and urine urea nitrogen contents. Supplementation or substitution level had no effect on the flow of microbial nitrogen to the intestine (MICN or efficiency of microbial protein synthesis (EMPS (P>0.10. Substitution caused a decreasing linear effect (P<0.10 on microbial nitrogen/nitrogen intake ratio (MICNR. In conclusion, substitution of soybean meal for cottonseed meal in multiple supplements during the dry season does not impair the productive performance of beef heifers.

  15. 9 CFR 78.6 - Steers and spayed heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Steers and spayed heifers. 78.6... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.6 Steers and spayed heifers. Steers and spayed heifers may be moved interstate without restriction under this subpart....

  16. 9 CFR 78.21 - Bison steers and spayed heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bison steers and spayed heifers. 78.21... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.21 Bison steers and spayed heifers. Bison steers and spayed heifers may be moved interstate without restriction under this subpart....

  17. Growth parameters of Holstein-Friesland heifers reared on complete ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    balanced complete diets were formulated for heifers of different age groups, i.e. ... had higher (P < 0.01) condition scores than heifers fed diets containing other roughages. .... The effect of roughage source on DM intake is presented in Table 2. ..... heifers at calving are not desired because such animals have poor appetites, ...

  18. Unravelling polar lipids dynamics during embryonic development of two sympatric brachyuran crabs (Carcinus maenas and Necora puber) using lipidomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Felisa; Alves, Eliana; Melo, Tânia; Domingues, Pedro; Queiroga, Henrique; Rosa, Rui; Domingues, M Rosário M; Calado, Ricardo

    2015-09-30

    Embryogenesis is an important stage of marine invertebrates with bi-phasic life cycles, as it conditions their larval and adult life. Throughout embryogenesis, phospholipids (PL) play a key role as an energy source, as well as constituents of biological membranes. However, the dynamics of PL during embryogenesis in marine invertebrates is still poorly studied. The present work used a lipidomic approach to determine how polar lipid profiles shift during embryogenesis in two sympatric estuarine crabs, Carcinus maenas and Necora puber. The combination of thin layer chromatography, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry allowed us to achieve an unprecedented resolution on PL classes and molecular species present on newly extruded embryos (stage 1) and those near hatching (stage 3). Embryogenesis proved to be a dynamic process, with four PL classes being recorded in stage 1 embryos (68 molecular species in total) and seven PL classes at stage 3 embryos (98 molecular species in total). The low interspecific difference recorded in the lipidomic profiles of stage 1 embryos appears to indicate the existence of similar maternal investment. The same pattern was recorded for stage 3 embryos revealing a similar catabolism of embryonic resources during incubation for both crab species.

  19. Gonadectomia pré-puberal em cães e gatos Prepubertal gonadectomy in dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Azevedo Voorwald

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A população de cães e gatos errantes é um problema grave de saúde pública e bem estar animal e a gonadectomia pré-puberal a partir de seis semanas de idade é a base para controle populacional efetivo. Os efeitos benéficos e maléficos são discutidos nesta revisão, auxiliando o médico veterinário a obter conhecimento e fundamentação científica para análise crítica do tema, propagação dessa prática e conscientização de proprietários.Stray dogs and cats is a serious problem to public health and animal welfare. Prepubertal gonadectomy from six weeks of age is a solution to effective pet overpopulation control. The benefits and adverse effects of this procedure are discussed in this paper, allowing the veterinarians to obtain knowledge and scientific basis to critical analysis to the topic, practice spread and owner awareness.

  20. Crude glycerin in diets for feedlot Nellore cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Haydt Castello Branco van Cleef

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of crude glycerin on feed intake, performance, carcass characteristics, and total digestibility of Nellore bulls. In experiment 1, cattle (n = 30 were fed a control diet without crude glycerin and diets containing 7.5, 15, 22.5, and 30% crude glycerin, for 103 d. Animals were harvested and data of carcass characteristics were collected. In experiment 2, a digestibility trial was performed using indigestible acid detergent fiber (iADF as internal marker, and five rumen-cannulated steers. Both experiments were conducted as a randomized complete block design and data were analyzed using mixed procedures. In experiment 1 no differences were observed among treatments on dry matter intake, and performance variables. Regarding carcass characteristics, no effect was observed, except for carcass fat estimates, which were greater in treatments with crude glycerin. In experiment 2, crude glycerin promoted a decrease in digestibility of fibrous fractions NDF and HEM, and increased digestibility of crude protein by 6%. Although it caused negative effect on digestibility of fibrous fraction of diets, crude glycerin can be a good energy source for Nellore bulls, since no losses are observed on performance and carcass characteristics when animals are fed up to 30% of this by-product.

  1. Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium: Nutritional aspects of developing replacement heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funston, R N; Martin, J L; Larson, D M; Roberts, A J

    2012-04-01

    Studies in numerous species provide evidence that diet during development can mediate physiological changes necessary for puberty. In cattle, several studies have reported inverse correlations between postweaning growth rate and age at puberty and heifer pregnancy rates. Thus, postweaning growth rate was determined to be an important factor affecting age of puberty, which in turn influences pregnancy rates. This and other research conducted during the late 1960s through the early 1980s indicated puberty occurs at a genetically predetermined size, and only when heifers reach their target BW can increased pregnancy rates be obtained. Guidelines were established indicating replacement heifers should achieve 60 to 65% of their expected mature BW by breeding. Traditional approaches for postweaning development of replacement heifers used during the last several decades have primarily focused on feeding heifers to achieve or exceed an appropriate target BW and thereby maximize heifer pregnancy rates. Intensive heifer development systems may maximize pregnancy rates, but not necessarily optimize profit or sustainability. Since inception of target BW guidelines, subsequent research demonstrated that the growth pattern heifers experience before achieving a critical target BW could be varied. Altering rate and timing of BW gain can result in compensatory growth periods, providing an opportunity to decrease feed costs. Recent research has demonstrated that feeding replacement heifers to traditional target BW increased development costs without improving reproduction or subsequent calf production relative to development systems in which heifers were developed to lighter target BW ranging from 50 to 57% of mature BW.

  2. Effect of heifer frame score on growth, fertility, and economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şentürklü, S; Landblom, D G; Perry, G A; Petry, T

    2015-01-01

    A non-traditional forage-based protocol was employed to evaluate replacement heifer growth, fertility, and economics between small frame (SF, 3.50; n = 50) and large frame (LF, 5.56; n = 50) heifers using three increasing gain growth phases. Preceding an 85 d growing-breeding period (Phase 3; P3) the heifers were managed as a common group for Phases 1 and 2 (P1 and P2). During P1, heifers grazed common fields of unharvested corn and corn residue (total digestible nutrients [TDN] 56%) with supplemental hay. For P2, heifers grazed early spring crested wheatgrass pasture (CWG; TDN 62%) that was followed by the final P3 drylot growing and breeding period (TDN 68%). Small frame heifers were lighter at the end of P1 in May and at the start of P3 breeding in August (p = 0.0002). Percent of mature body weight (BW) at the end of P1 (209 d) was 48.7% and 46.8%, respectively, for the SF and LF heifers and the percent pubertal was lower for SF than for LF heifers (18.0% vs 40.0%; p = 0.02). At breeding initiation (P3), the percentage of mature BW was 57.8 and 57.2 and the percentage pubertal was 90.0 and 96.0 (p = 0.07) for the SF and LF heifers, respectively; a 5-fold increase for SF heifers. Breeding cycle pregnancy on days 21, 42, and 63, and total percent pregnant did not differ (p>0.10). In drylot, SF heifer dry matter intake (DMI) was 20.1% less (p = 0.001) and feed cost/d was 20.3% lower (p = 0.001), but feed cost/kg of gain did not differ between SF and LF heifers (p = 0.41). Economically important live animal measurements for muscling were measured in May and at the end of the study in October. SF heifers had greater L. dorsi muscle area per unit of BW than LF heifers (p = 0.03). Small frame heifer value was lower at weaning (p = 0.005) and the non-pregnant ending heifer value was lower for SF heifers than for the LF heifers (p = 0.005). However, the total development cost was lower for SF heifers (p = 0.001) and the net cost per pregnant heifer, after accounting for

  3. Effect of Heifer Frame Score on Growth, Fertility, and Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şentürklü, S.; Landblom, D. G.; Perry, G. A.; Petry, T.

    2015-01-01

    A non-traditional forage-based protocol was employed to evaluate replacement heifer growth, fertility, and economics between small frame (SF, 3.50; n = 50) and large frame (LF, 5.56; n = 50) heifers using three increasing gain growth phases. Preceding an 85 d growing-breeding period (Phase 3; P3) the heifers were managed as a common group for Phases 1 and 2 (P1 and P2). During P1, heifers grazed common fields of unharvested corn and corn residue (total digestible nutrients [TDN] 56%) with supplemental hay. For P2, heifers grazed early spring crested wheatgrass pasture (CWG; TDN 62%) that was followed by the final P3 drylot growing and breeding period (TDN 68%). Small frame heifers were lighter at the end of P1 in May and at the start of P3 breeding in August (p = 0.0002). Percent of mature body weight (BW) at the end of P1 (209 d) was 48.7% and 46.8%, respectively, for the SF and LF heifers and the percent pubertal was lower for SF than for LF heifers (18.0% vs 40.0%; p = 0.02). At breeding initiation (P3), the percentage of mature BW was 57.8 and 57.2 and the percentage pubertal was 90.0 and 96.0 (p = 0.07) for the SF and LF heifers, respectively; a 5-fold increase for SF heifers. Breeding cycle pregnancy on days 21, 42, and 63, and total percent pregnant did not differ (p>0.10). In drylot, SF heifer dry matter intake (DMI) was 20.1% less (p = 0.001) and feed cost/d was 20.3% lower (p = 0.001), but feed cost/kg of gain did not differ between SF and LF heifers (p = 0.41). Economically important live animal measurements for muscling were measured in May and at the end of the study in October. SF heifers had greater L. dorsi muscle area per unit of BW than LF heifers (p = 0.03). Small frame heifer value was lower at weaning (p = 0.005) and the non-pregnant ending heifer value was lower for SF heifers than for the LF heifers (p = 0.005). However, the total development cost was lower for SF heifers (p = 0.001) and the net cost per pregnant heifer, after accounting for

  4. Dinámica del proceso de desarrollo y crecimiento a edades de inicio puberal normales, temprana en niñas y tardía en niños.

    OpenAIRE

    Llop Viñolas, Maria Dolors

    2006-01-01

    Objetivos: 1) Describir las características del crecimiento y desarrollo puberal en niñas yniños con diferentes edades de inicio puberal, incluyendo dos situaciones clínicasfrecuentes: la pubertad avanzada en niñas y la pubertad diferida en niños. 2) Describir losefectos del tratamiento farmacológico con análogos de la GnRH de la pubertad avanzada enrelación con un grupo control. 3) Describir los efectos del tratamiento farmacológico contestosterona de la pubertad diferida en relación con un ...

  5. Differential methylation at the RELN gene promoter in temporal cortex from autistic and typically developing post-puberal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintas, Carla; Sacco, Roberto; Persico, Antonio M

    2016-01-01

    Reelin plays a pivotal role in neurodevelopment and in post-natal synaptic plasticity and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The reelin (RELN) gene expression is significantly decreased in ASD, both in the brain and peripherally. Methylation at the RELN gene promoter is largely triggered at puberty, and hypermethylation has been found in post-mortem brains of schizophrenic and bipolar patients. In this study, we assessed RELN gene methylation status in post-mortem temporocortical tissue samples (BA41/42 or 22) of six pairs of post-puberal individuals with ASD and typically developing subjects, matched for sex (male:female, M:F = 5:1), age, and post-mortem interval. ASD patients display a significantly higher number of methylated CpG islands and heavier methylation in the 5' region of the RELN gene promoter, spanning from -458 to -223 bp, whereas controls have more methylated CpG positions and greater extent of methylation at the 3' promoter region, spanning from -222 to +1 bp. The most upstream promoter region (-458 to -364 bp) is methylated only in ASD brains, while the most downstream region (-131 to +1 bp) is methylated exclusively in control brains. Within this general framework, three different methylation patterns are discernible, each correlated with different extents of reduction in reelin gene expression among ASD individuals compared to controls. The methylation pattern is different in ASD and control post-mortem brains. ASD-specific CpG positions, located in the most upstream gene promoter region, may exert a functional role potentially conferring ASD risk by blunting RELN gene expression.

  6. Malignant catarrhal fever infection in a heifer in Jordan

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    Sameeh M. Abutarbush

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A 14-month-old Holstein Friesian heifer was presented for decreased appetite, ocular discharge, and diarrhea. The heifer was raised at the farm since she was 3 days old. On presentation, the heifer had bilateral mucopurulent ocular discharge and corneal opacity, ulcerative and necrotic skin, and enlarged superficial lymph nodes. Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF infection was diagnosed based on clinical signs and PCR. MCF infection has never been reported in Jordan.

  7. Desenvolvimento de novilhas de corte submetidas a diferentes sistemas alimentares Performance of beef heifers submitted at different feeding systems

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    Marta Gomes da Rocha

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o efeito de sistemas alimentares sobre o desenvolvimento de fêmeas de corte, dos oito aos 18/20 meses de idade. Foram avaliadas novilhas da raça Charolês e suas cruzas com Nelore. Os sistemas de alimentação foram: 'aveia + azevém + milheto' - pastagem de aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb e azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam, seguida de pastagem de milheto (Pennisetum americanum (L. Leeke; 'aveia + azevém + campo' - pastagem de aveia e azevém mais campo nativo ocupado por capim Annoni (Eragrostis planna Nees; 'aveia + azevém + suplementação + milheto' - pastagem de aveia preta e azevém com suplementação energética mais pastagem de milheto; 'aveia + azevém + suplementação + campo'- pastagem de aveia preta e azevém com suplementação mais campo nativo ocupado por capim Annoni. O suplemento foi grão de sorgo moído, 0,7% do peso vivo (PV/dia. Foram tomados registros de PV, escore de condição corporal (ECC, atividade ovariana e manifestação de estro no período dos 18 aos 20 meses de idade das novilhas. Novilhas exclusivamente em pastagem natural durante o verão/outono não atingiram o peso recomendado para acasalamento aos 18/20 meses de idade. Novilhas que apresentaram estro foram mais pesadas e realizaram maior ganho diário médio durante o inverno. Novilhas mantidas em aveia + azevém + milheto apresentaram maior porcentagem de ovários funcionais aos 18/20 meses de idade.The effect of feeding systems on performance of beef heifers, on period of eight to 18/20 months of age. Charolais heifers and their crosses with Nellore were evaluated. The feeding systems were: 'Oat + Annual ryegrass + Pearl millet'- Black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb and Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam and Pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum (L. Leeke pasture; 'Oat + Annual ryegrass + natural pasture'- Black oat and annual ryegrass and natural pasture with Annoni grass (Eragrostis planna Nees; 'Oat + Annual ryegrass

  8. Record keeping and economics of dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Alex; Ahedo, José

    2008-03-01

    Calves represent the future of the dairy enterprise. Like in any other business, a careful allocation of resources and planning is needed to ensure the production of a new line, new products, and so forth. This article describes the most important objectives while rearing heifers, reviews the main aspects of implementing a record system, and provides examples of some of the decisions that can be taken by analyzing records.

  9. Efeito da duração do tratamento com progestágeno e da maturidade sexual na taxa de prenhez em novilhas de corte: avaliação econômica e biológica Effect of the duration of progestagen exposure and sexual maturity on the pregnancy rate of beef heifers: economic and biological evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Francisco Machado Pfeifer

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos neste experimento foram avaliar o efeito do tempo de exposição a um progestágeno (P4 na taxa de prenhez de novilhas púberes e pré-púberes inseminadas em tempo-fixo (IATF e estudar o retorno econômico dos protocolos utilizados, por meio da comparação desses protocolos ao sistema tradicional de acasalamento natural aos 26 meses de idade. Foram utilizadas 114 novilhas da raça Bradford com 16 meses de idade, classificadas em quatro grupos de acordo com o tratamento e a maturidade sexual: GPPLP - pré-puberes, longo tratamento com P4 (n=21; e GPPCP - pré-puberes, curto tratamento com (n=19; GPLP - púberes, longo tratamento com P4 (n=34; e GPCP - púberes, curto tratamento com P4 (n=40. As novilhas do GPPLP e GPLP receberam no dia -8 um pessário intravaginal impregnado com acetato de medroxiprogesterona. No dia 0, o pessário foi removido e outro foi inserido, juntamente com uma injeção de 2,5 mg de benzoato de estradiol (BE. No dia 8, o pessário foi retirado e as novilhas receberam 0,5 mg de BE e 250 µg de cloprostenol sódico. A inseminação artificial em tempo fixo (IATF foi realizada 54 horas depois. As novilhas do GPPCP e GPCP receberam o mesmo tratamento de sincronização dos grupos GPPLP e GPLP, com exceção do AMP do dia -8 ao dia 0. A taxa de prenhez foi maior nas novilhas púberes (60,3% que nas pré-puberes (35,0%. No entanto, não foi detectado efeito do tempo de tratamento na taxa de prenhez nas novilhas púberes e pré-puberes. A resposta econômica na utilização de protocolos com P4 foi maior em novilhas aos 16 meses que no sistema de acasalamento aos 26 meses. A exposição prolongada a um P4 não foi eficiente para aumentar a taxa de prenhez de novilhas submetidas a IATF.The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of the duration of progestagen (P4 exposure and sexual maturity of prepubertal and pubertal heifers submitted to timed artificial insemination (TAI. A hundred and fourteen 16

  10. Pathogen group specific risk factors at herd, heifer and quarter levels for intramammary infections in early lactating dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piepers, S; Peeters, K; Opsomer, G; Barkema, H W; Frankena, K; De Vliegher, S

    2011-05-01

    Risk factors for intramammary infections caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci, contagious major pathogens and environmental major pathogens in early lactating heifers were evaluated at the herd, heifer and quarter levels. In total, 764 quarters of 191 dairy heifers in 20 randomly selected farms in Flanders (Belgium) were sampled. Quarter milk samples were collected between 1 and 4 days in milk and between 5 and 8 days in milk for bacteriological culture. Data were analyzed using multivariable, multilevel logistic regression analysis. Higher average herd milk somatic cell count (>200,000 cells/mL), not having an effective fly control strategy, contact with lactating cows prior to calving and moderate to severe udder edema prior to calving increased the odds of intramammary infections caused by contagious major pathogens. Poor heifer hygiene and lack of mineral/vitamin supplementation prior to calving were risk factors for intramammary infection caused by environmental major pathogens. Teat apex colonization with coagulase-negative staphylococci prior to calving seemed to protect quarters against intramammary infections caused by major pathogens. Poor heifer hygiene before calving, a non-clipped udder and not practicing of teat dipping prior to calving increased the odds of intramammary infection with coagulase-negative staphylococci. Although management is important in the prevention and control of intramammary infections in early lactating heifers, most variation in the prevalence of intramammary infections resided at the heifer and quarter levels, indicating that the susceptibility for intramammary infections around calving is mainly determined by heifer and quarter characteristics.

  11. Breeding objectives for a Nellore cattle rearing system

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    Caio Victor Damasceno Carvalho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:The objective of this work was to define the traits that should be included as breeding objectives for Nellore cattle, according to simulations with a bio-economic model for rearing systems. The economic values (EVs of the traits were calculated as the differences between the profits due to an increased performance of 1% in each trait, with the others traits remaining constant. To determine the impact of each selection on the revenue system, two scenarios were simulated based on the traits being selected. In the first scenario, the adopted selection criteria were: weaning weight (WW, weaning rate (WR, yearling weight (YW, and mature cow weight (MCW. In the second scenario, the cumulative productivity (CP of dams was used as an indirect evaluation of the performance of calves, with all the other traits included, except WW. In the first scenario, an EV of R$ 1.44 kg-1 was obtained for WW. In the second scenario, an EV of R$ 2.91 kg-1 was obtained for CP. The trait with the highest EV in both scenarios was WR, which enhanced the profits by R$ 3.21 for each 1% increased performance. The meat price paid to the producer is the factor with the greatest impact on the EVs of all examined traits.

  12. Reducing supplementation frequency for Nellore beef steers grazing tropical pastures

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    Roberta Carrilho Canesin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Reduced supplementation frequency is a broadly applied management practice. Ruminants consuming low quality forages/pastures, supplemented less than once daily are able to maintain body weight gain (BWG, efficiency of use of dry matter, nitrogen and other nutrients, as compared with animals supplemented once daily. We evaluated the feeding behavior, dry matter intake (DMI, dry matter and organic matter digestibility (DMD and OMD, BWG, Longissimus muscle area and backfat depth of Nellore steers raised on Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pastures during the dry season, with different supplementation patterns. Thirty six animals (338 ± 40.7 kg were distributed over nine paddocks according to a completely randomized design. Treatments were based on supplementation frequency: once daily (OD, once daily except Saturdays and Sundays (SS, or on alternate days (AD, at 1.0 %, 1.4 % and 2.0 % BW, respectively. Average total DMI accounted for 1.6 % BW day-1, with no effect of supplementation frequency. Supplementation frequency had no effect on BWG or grazing time during the day. There was no difference in Longissimus muscle area animals supplemented daily, SS and AD. The backfat depth was thinner in animals supplemented AD, but even in this case, it was within the standards considered satisfactory for a finishing steer. Reducing supplementation frequency seems a good option to lower labor costs without affecting feed efficiency or carcass quality in beef cattle grazing tropical pastures.

  13. Methane emission by Nellore cattle subjected to different nutritional plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cota, Olinta Leone; de Figueiredo, Darcilene Maria; Branco, Renata Helena; Magnani, Elaine; do Nascimento, Cleisy Ferreira; de Oliveira, Luiza Freitas; Mercadante, Maria Eugênia Zerlotti

    2014-10-01

    The objective was to evaluate the emission of enteric methane by Nellore cattle subjected to different nutritional plans, as well as the intake and digestibility of nutrients from the diets supplied. Forty-seven animals in a confinement system (feedlot) were fed a corn silage-based diet for 35 days. Afterwards, these animals were evaluated in a grazing system during the rainy periods, in Urochloa brizantha cv Marandu paddocks, for 44 days. Chromic oxide was used as external marker to estimate the fecal production of animals. Samples of feces, ingredients, and pasture were collected and sampled for subsequent chemical analyses. The SF6 tracer gas technique was adopted to quantify the methane gas emitted by the animals. The experimental design was completely randomized, using procedure GLM of software SAS (9.2), including the fixed effects of sex and nutritional plan and the linear effect of the co-variable weights. Means were analyzed by Tukey's test at 5 % probability. The intakes of total dry matter and organic matter were greater for the animals subjected to the feedlot diet (P Emission of CH4/day (104.01 g) by the animals fed the feedlot diet (P methane production (CH4/CEB) and methane emission per dry matter consumed were lower in relation to the grazing treatment (3.75 vs 4.23 % and 11.67 vs 15.71 g/kg). The better quality of the diet in the feedlot promoted lower energy losses as methane.

  14. Improved grazing activity of dairy heifers in shaded tropical grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Cristina Tavares de Mello

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Trees in the production systems can effectively reduce hot weather-induced stress in the Brazilian Midwest. High temperatures cause changes in animals daily routine, and trees into pastures can promote benefits. The aim of this research was to evaluate the behavior of dairy heifers in silvopastoral systems in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. A herd of 24 crossbreed heifers (3/4 and 7/8 Holstein/Zebu, 350kg average weight, was evaluated over three seasons. Piatã grass was managed under three shade levels: full-sun, moderate-shade, and intensive-shade provided by 10 to 12m high Eucalyptus trees. Behavior data were collected every 15 minutes from 8:30h to 16h. Shade availability significantly impacted heifer behavior, mainly affecting grazing frequency and time during the hottest hours. Grazing behavior was affected by shade levels during the different seasons. Heifers showed preferred grazing times. Heifers in the intensive-shade system visited shady areas during the hottest hours throughout the seasons. Heifers in the full sun-system avoided grazing during the warmer times, ceasing feeding activities. Our results from the Brazilian Midwest showed that shade availability causes breed heifers to change their daily routine.

  15. Intervalo de partos de fêmeas bovinas Nelore, Guzerá x Nelore, Red Angus x Nelore, Marchigiana x Nelore e Simental x Nelore Calving interval of Nellore, Guzerath x Nellore, Red Angus x Nellore, Marchigiana x Nellore and Simental x Nellore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Perotto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram analisadas 286 observações de intervalo do primeiro ao segundo parto (IEP1 e 1.106 observações de intervalo de partos, considerando-se todos os partos (IEP2, de 89 fêmeas Nelore (NN, 47 F1 Guzerá x Nelore (GN, 76 F1 Red Angus x Nelore (RN, 35 F1 Marchigiana x Nelore (MN e 39 F1 Simental x Nelore (SN. As médias dos quadrados mínimos para IEP1 foram: 492 ± 22 d, 505 ± 25 d, 433 ± 22 d, 453 ± 27 d e 450 ± 24 d, respectivamente, para os grupos NN, GN, RN, MN e SN, revelando-se altamente significativos os contrastes dos grupos RN - NN e RN - GN e significativos os contrastes SN - GN, MN - GN e SN - NN. Na mesma ordem, as médias dos cinco grupos para o IEP2 foram: 466 ± 20 d, 485 ± 22 d, 385 ± 29 d, 432 ± 30 d e 446 ± 29 d, sendo altamente significativos os contrastes RN - NN e RN - GN, enquanto as diferenças RN - SN e MN - GN aproximaram-se do nível de significância estatística de 5%. As análises revelaram também a importância de efeitos ambientais de ordem de parto, ano de início e mês de início e de fim do intervalo em foco sobre IEP2. O uso de fêmeas cruzadas RN constitui-se na melhor opção genética para melhorar a eficiência reprodutiva dos rebanhos da região. A combinação criteriosa do cruzamento com a fixação da época de reprodução também contribui para maximizar o desempenho reprodutivo dos rebanhos.Two hundred and eighty-six observations on interval between first and second parturition (IEP1 and 1,106 observations on interval between parturitions considering all parturitions (IEP2 of 89 Nellore (NN, 47 F1 Guzerat x Nellore (GN, 76 F1 Red Angus x Nellore (RN, 35 F1 Marchigiana x Nellore (MN and 39 F1 Simental x Nellore (SN cows were analyzed in this study. Least squares means for IEP1 were: 492 ± 22 d, 505 ± 25 d, 433 ± 22 d, 453 ± 27 d e 450 ± 24 d, respectively for NN, GN, RN, MN and SN. The contrasts RN - NN and RN - GN were highly significant whereas the contrasts SN - GN

  16. Effect of heifer-raising practices on E. coli antimicrobial resistance and Salmonella prevalence in heifer raisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, R V; Siler, J D; Cummings, K J; Davis, M A; Warnick, L D

    2015-11-01

    Although cattle movement and commingling play an important role in the inter-herd transmission of pathogens, little is known about the effect of commingling of heifers at raising operations. The objective of this study was to compare the resistance of E. coli and prevalence of Salmonella from pooled faecal pats of heifers raised off-farm at multi-source raisers (MULTI) that raised heifers from at least two farms compared with on-farm raisers (HOME), with heifers from only that farm. MULTI faecal pat samples were collected from pens with animals that had arrived at the farm within the previous 2 months (AP) and from animals that would be departing the heifer raiser in 2-3 months (DP). Corresponding age sampling was conducted at HOME raisers. Odds of ampicillin resistance were 3·0 times greater in E. coli collected from MULTI compared to HOME raisers. E. coli from AP pens had significantly (P Salmonella recovery was not significantly different between heifer-raising systems (P = 0·3). Heifer-raising system did not have a major overall impact on selection of resistant E. coli, which was strongly affected by the age of the animals sampled.

  17. A genome-wide scan for selection signatures in Nellore cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somavilla, A L; Sonstegard, T S; Higa, R H; Rosa, A N; Siqueira, F; Silva, L O C; Torres Júnior, R A A; Coutinho, L L; Mudadu, M A; Alencar, M M; Regitano, L C A

    2014-12-01

    Brazilian Nellore cattle (Bos indicus) have been selected for growth traits for over more than four decades. In recent years, reproductive and meat quality traits have become more important because of increasing consumption, exports and consumer demand. The identification of genome regions altered by artificial selection can potentially permit a better understanding of the biology of specific phenotypes that are useful for the development of tools designed to increase selection efficiency. Therefore, the aims of this study were to detect evidence of recent selection signatures in Nellore cattle using extended haplotype homozygosity methodology and BovineHD marker genotypes (>777,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms) as well as to identify corresponding genes underlying these signals. Thirty-one significant regions (P meat quality, fatty acid profiles and immunity. In addition, 545 genes were identified in regions harboring selection signatures. Within this group, 58 genes were associated with growth, muscle and adipose tissue metabolism, reproductive traits or the immune system. Using relative extended haplotype homozygosity to analyze high-density single nucleotide polymorphism marker data allowed for the identification of regions potentially under artificial selection pressure in the Nellore genome, which might be used to better understand autozygosity and the effects of selection on the Nellore genome.

  18. [Pneumothorax during right-sided nephrectomy in a heifer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, K; Muggli, E; Gerspach, C; Schramm, S; Dettwiler, M; Bach, F; Ringer, S

    2016-01-01

    A 250-kg heifer had signs of colic attributable to urolithiasis of the right kidney. Medical treatment did not result in resolution of clinical signs, and nephrectomy was carried out. The surgery was started with the heifer standing, and the 13th rib was resected. However, during blunt dissection of the kidney, air suddenly entered the pleural space and the heifer had acute severe dyspnoea. The hole in the pleural cavity was sutured and a chest drain was placed. Inhalation anaesthesia was then induced and nephrectomy could be completed without further complications. The heifer was discharged 11 days postoperatively, and was healthy and had been integrated into the herd 12 months after surgery. Pneumothorax must be considered a possible complication of rib resection in right-sided nephrectomy in cattle.

  19. A note on the early calving of beef heifers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    production in the early calving group due to reduced udder development. The results ..... adipose tissue is different to that of a lean heifer and that this storage adipose, perhaps ... Technical Services, South Africa. AMIR, S. & KALI, J.,1975.

  20. Molecular Factors Underlying the Deposition of Intramuscular Fat and Collagen in Skeletal Muscle of Nellore and Angus Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Taiane S; Sanglard, Letícia M P; Silva, Walmir; Chizzotti, Mário L; Rennó, Luciana N; Serão, Nick V L; Silva, Fabyano F; Guimarães, Simone E F; Ladeira, Márcio M; Dodson, Michael V; Du, Min; Duarte, Marcio S

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that intramuscular adipogenesis and fibrogenesis may concomitantly occur in skeletal muscle of beef cattle. Thus, we hypothesized that the discrepancy of intramuscular fat content in beef from Nellore and Angus was associated with differences in intramuscular adipogenesis and fibrogenesis during the finishing phase. To test our hypothesis, longissimus muscle samples of Nellore (n = 6; BW = 372.5 ± 37.3 kg) and Angus (n = 6; BW = 382.8 ± 23.9 kg) cattle were collected for analysis of gene and protein expression, and quantification of intramuscular fat and collagen. Least-squares means were estimated for the effect of Breed and differences were considered at P ≤ 0.05. A greater intramuscular fat content was observed in skeletal muscle of Angus compared to Nellore cattle (P≤0.05). No differences were observed for mRNA expression of lipogenic and lipolytic markers ACC, FAS, FABP4, SERBP-1, CPT-2, LPL, and ACOX (P > 0.05) in skeletal muscle of Nellore and Angus cattle. Similarly, no differences were observed in mRNA expression of adipogenic markers Zfp423, PPARγ, and C/EBPα (P>0.05) However, a greater PPARγ protein content was observed in skeletal muscle of Angus compared to Nellore cattle (P≤0.05). A greater abundance of adipo/fibrogenic cells, evaluated by the PDGFRα content, was observed in skeletal muscle of Angus than Nellore cattle (P≤0.05). No differences in fibrogenesis were observed in skeletal muscle of Angus and Nellore cattle, which is in accordance with the lack of differences in intramuscular collagen content in beef from both breeds (P>0.05). These findings demonstrate that difference in intramuscular fat content is associated with a slightly enhanced adipogenesis in skeletal muscle of Angus compared to Nellore cattle, while no difference in fibrogenesis.

  1. Molecular Factors Underlying the Deposition of Intramuscular Fat and Collagen in Skeletal Muscle of Nellore and Angus Cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiane S Martins

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that intramuscular adipogenesis and fibrogenesis may concomitantly occur in skeletal muscle of beef cattle. Thus, we hypothesized that the discrepancy of intramuscular fat content in beef from Nellore and Angus was associated with differences in intramuscular adipogenesis and fibrogenesis during the finishing phase. To test our hypothesis, longissimus muscle samples of Nellore (n = 6; BW = 372.5 ± 37.3 kg and Angus (n = 6; BW = 382.8 ± 23.9 kg cattle were collected for analysis of gene and protein expression, and quantification of intramuscular fat and collagen. Least-squares means were estimated for the effect of Breed and differences were considered at P ≤ 0.05. A greater intramuscular fat content was observed in skeletal muscle of Angus compared to Nellore cattle (P≤0.05. No differences were observed for mRNA expression of lipogenic and lipolytic markers ACC, FAS, FABP4, SERBP-1, CPT-2, LPL, and ACOX (P > 0.05 in skeletal muscle of Nellore and Angus cattle. Similarly, no differences were observed in mRNA expression of adipogenic markers Zfp423, PPARγ, and C/EBPα (P>0.05 However, a greater PPARγ protein content was observed in skeletal muscle of Angus compared to Nellore cattle (P≤0.05. A greater abundance of adipo/fibrogenic cells, evaluated by the PDGFRα content, was observed in skeletal muscle of Angus than Nellore cattle (P≤0.05. No differences in fibrogenesis were observed in skeletal muscle of Angus and Nellore cattle, which is in accordance with the lack of differences in intramuscular collagen content in beef from both breeds (P>0.05. These findings demonstrate that difference in intramuscular fat content is associated with a slightly enhanced adipogenesis in skeletal muscle of Angus compared to Nellore cattle, while no difference in fibrogenesis.

  2. Monensin sodium and functional oil as additive in protein-energy supplement for pasture-fed heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Mano

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of functional oil as an additive is a potential alternative to replace inorganic antimicrobial agents. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding functional oil consisting of cashew and castor oil or monensin sodium to protein-energy supplement on the performance of 14-month-old Nellore x Red Angus heifers (initial mean body weight [BW] of 246 kg raised on Tifton 85 pasture. The animals were randomly assigned to four treatments: 1 control (no supplementation; 2 addition of 2 g functional oil/animal/day, composed of 70% cashew oil and 30% castor oil; 3 addition of 4 g functional oil/animal/day, composed of 70% cashew oil and 30% castor oil, and 4 addition of 0.2 g monensin sodium/animal/day. The biomass availability and forage on offer were 5,940 kg dry matter/ha and 7.0 kg dry matter/100 kg BW/day, respectively. The average proportion of leaf blade, sheath plus stem and senescent material was 17.6%, 55.0% and 27.4%, respectively. The mean whole-plant contents of crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and in vitro dry matter digestibility were 8.5%, 72.3% and 42.7%, respectively. A significant effect was observed for average daily gain of heifers receiving monensin (0.576 g/day compared to those that did not receive the protein-energy supplement (0.290 g/day. In contrast, the supplement containing the functional oil composed of cashew and castor oil provided weight gains (0.426 g/day similar (P>0.05 to that of the supplement with monensin (0.576 g/days. Under the conditions of this experiment, only the supplement with monensin resulted in a higher average daily gain than that observed for unsupplemented animals (control, while animals fed the supplement with functional oil composed of cashew and castor oil (2 or 4 g/animal/day did not exhibit differences in daily gain when compared to the other supplements.

  3. Effect of high and low antral follicle count in pubertal beef heifers on IVF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pubertal heifers can be classified between those with high (n = 25) or low (n = 15) antral follicle counts (AFC). The objective of this study was to determine oocyte development and maturation (e.g. fertility) in an IVF system for high- and low-AFC heifers. From a pool of 120 heifers, 10 high- and 1...

  4. Yeast cell wall supplementation alters the metabolic responses of crossbred heifers to an endotoxin challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined the effect of feeding yeast cell wall (YCW) products on the metabolic responses of newly-received heifers to endotoxin challenge. Heifers (n = 24; 219 ± 2.4 kg) were separated into treatment groups receiving a Control diet (n = 8), YCW-A (2.5 grams/heifer/d; n = 8) or YCW-C (2.5 ...

  5. Genetic aspects of feed intake and efficiency in lactating dairy heifers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Nieuwhof, G.J.; Vos, H.; Korver, S.

    1991-01-01

    In 1982, an experiment was initiated to study the relationships between feed intake and feed efficiency of young AI bulls, growing heifers and lactating heifers. This paper focuses on the genetic parameters for feed intake, production, and efficiency of lactating heifers. Measurements of feed

  6. Classifying of Nellore cattle beef on Normal and DFD applying a non conventional technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nubiato, Keni Eduardo Zanoni; Mazon, Madeline Rezende; Antonelo, Daniel Silva; da Luz e Silva, Saulo

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy in the Normal and DFD classification in Nellore beef using a bench-top hyperspectral imaging system. A hyperspectral imaging system (λ = 928-2524 nm) was used to collect hyperspectral images of the Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (n = 78) of Nellore cattle. The images were processed, being selected region of interest and extracted spectra image and were selected the wavelengths considered most important for the treats evaluated. Six linear discriminant models were developed to classify beef samples on Normal and DFD. The model using all wavelengths associated with the reflectance and absorbance spectrum transformed with the pretreatment 2nd derivative resulted in an overall accuracy of 93.6% for both pretreatments. In this configuration, the model was able to classify correctly 73 samples from a total of 78 samples. The results demonstrate that the hyperspectral imaging system may be considered a viable technology for beef classification on Normal and DFD.

  7. Fatores que influenciam a textura da carne de novilhos Nelore e cruzados Limousin-Nelore Factors affecting meat texture from Nellore and crossbreed Limousin-Nellore steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riana Jordão Barrozo Heinemann

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar fatores que influenciam a textura da carne de novilhos Nelore e cruzados Limousin-Nelore. Cinqüenta novilhos, 25 Nelore e 25 Limousin-Nelore, foram aleatoriamente divididos em cinco grupos de 10 animais (cinco de cada grupo genético, para o abate seriado, até 204 dias. Os valores de temperatura e pH muscular foram monitorados durante 24 horas após o abate. Em seguida, foram medidas a espessura de cobertura de gordura e a área de olho de lombo. O músculo longissimus dorsi retirado foi dividido para avaliação qualitativa do músculo sem maturação e submetido à maturação por 14 dias. A área de olho de lombo foi maior em animais cruzados. Os valores de cobertura de gordura e gordura intramuscular foram semelhantes entre os grupos genéticos. Peso ao abate e teor de gordura afetaram as quedas de pH e temperatura, mas não resultaram em diferenças na força de cisalhamento. Os animais cruzados apresentaram carne mais macia que os animais Nelore. A maturação causou redução de 30% na força de cisalhamento e foi, com o fator genético, o parâmetro que mais influenciou a textura da carne.The objective of this work was to evaluate factors affecting meat texture from Nellore and crossbreed Limousin-Nellore steers. Fifty steers, 25 Nellore and 25 Limousin-Nellore, were randomly divided in five groups of 10 animals (five from each genetic group and serially slaughtered during 204 days. Meat temperature and pH data were monitored during 24 hours post mortem. After this, fat thickness and rib area were measured. Longissimus dorsi muscle was removed to quality evaluation before and after 14 days ageing period. Crossbreed animals rib areas were higher. Fat thickness and marbling values from both genetic groups were similar. Live slaughter weight and fat content affected decrease of pH and temperature, but didn't result in difference in shear force. Crossbreed animals the most tender meat. Ageing process

  8. Nutritionally directed compensatory growth enhances heifer development and lactation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, J A; Park, C S

    2001-07-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to examine the interactive influence of a compensatory nutrition regimen and lasalocid supplementation on dairy heifer growth performance and 2) to document the extent to which compensatory growth sustains lactation potential over the first two lactation cycles. Twelve Holstein heifers, weighing an average of 160 kg (about 6 mo of age) were randomly assigned to treatments arranged in a 2 x 2 factorial design. Treatment variables were two dietary regimens (control and stair-step compensatory nutrition) and two levels of lasalocid (0 and 200 mg/d). The control heifers were fed a diet containing 12% crude protein (CP) and 2.35 Mcal of metabolizable energy (ME) per kilogram of dry matter. The stair-step compensatory nutrition heifers were subjected to a phased nutrition regimen and reared according to an alternating 3-2-4-3-4-2-mo schedule. The first stair-step (prepubertal phase) consisted of energy restriction [17% CP and 2.35 Mcal/kg of ME] for 3 mo followed by realimentation (12% CP and 3.05 Mcal/kg of ME) for 2 mo. The second step (puberty and breeding) consisted of energy restriction for 4 mo followed by realimentation for 3 mo. The third step (gestation period) was energy restriction for 4 mo concluding with realimentation for 2 mo. Dry matter intake of heifers during the restriction phase was limited to 70% of the control intake. Heifers were given ad libitum access to a high energy density diet during realimentation to allow compensatory development. Stair-step heifers supplemented with lasalocid had the highest efficiency of growth (body weight gain/dry matter intake), suggesting synergistic metabolism of lasalocid with compensatory growth action. Compensatory growth induced during the last trimester enhanced metabolic status by increasing circulating insulin and decreasing triglyceride levels. Heifers on the stair-step regimen had a significant increase in milk yield during the first (21%) and second (15%) lactation

  9. Relationship between residual feed intake and enteric methane emission in Nellore cattle.

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Feed intake and average daily gain (ADG) in Nellore cattle were determined to calculate residual feed intake in two performance tests: first during the growth phase (RFIgrowth) and then during a measurement of the methane emission phase (RFImet). During the RFIgrowth test, 62 males and 56 females were classified as low-, medium-, and high-RFI. Enteric methane emission was measured in 46 animals; 23 males used for RFImet measurement plus 23 females (22 low-RFIgrowth and 24 high-RFIgrowth). Die...

  10. Dietary melatonin alters uterine artery hemodynamics in pregnant Holstein heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockus, K E; Hart, C G; Gilfeather, C L; Fleming, B O; Lemley, C O

    2016-04-01

    The objective was to examine uterine artery hemodynamics and maternal serum profiles in pregnant heifers supplemented with dietary melatonin (MEL) or no supplementation (CON). In addition, melatonin receptor-mediated responses in steroid metabolism were examined using a bovine endometrial epithelial culture system. Twenty singleton pregnant Holstein heifers were supplemented with 20 mg of melatonin (n = 10) or no melatonin supplementation (control; n = 10) from days 190 to 262 of gestation. Maternal measurements were recorded on days 180 (baseline), 210, 240, and 262 of gestation. Total uterine blood flow was increased by 25% in the MEL-treated heifers compared with the CON. Concentrations of progesterone were decreased in MEL vs CON heifers. Total serum antioxidant capacity was increased by 43% in MEL-treated heifers when compared with CON. Activity of cytochrome P450 1A, 2C, and superoxide dismutase was increased in bovine endometrial epithelial cells treated with melatonin, whereas the melatonin receptor antagonist, luzindole, negated the increase in cytochrome P450 2C activity. Moreover, estradiol or progesterone treatment altered bovine uterine melatonin receptor expression, which could potentiate the melatonin-mediated responses during late gestation. The observed increase in total uterine blood flow during melatonin supplementation could be related to its antioxidant properties. Compromised pregnancies are typically accompanied by increased oxidative stress; therefore, melatonin could serve as a therapeutic supplementation strategy. This could lead to further fetal programming implications in conjunction with offspring growth and development postnatally.

  11. Desempenho produtivo de bovinos Nelore de diferentes classes sexuais alimentados com dietas contendo dois níveis de oferta de concentrado Productive performance of Nellore cattle of different gender fed diets containing two levels of concentrate allowance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Veiga Rodrigues Paulino

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos de classe sexual e nível de oferta de concentrado sobre o desempenho, o consumo e a digestibilidade dos nutrientes em bovinos Nelore. Trinta e cinco animais, 12 machos inteiros, 11 machos castrados e 12 fêmeas, provenientes de um mesmo grupo contemporâneo, foram distribuídos aleatoriamente a dois tratamentos, correspondentes aos níveis de oferta de concentrado, 0,6 e 1,2% do peso corporal, respectivamente. Os animais foram alimentados individualmente durante 112 dias, sendo abatidos ao final do experimento, com um grupo referência abatido ao início. Os machos inteiros foram mais eficientes, pois apresentaram maior peso final e de corpo vazio, como resultado da maior taxa de crescimento em relação às fêmeas, ficando os machos castrados em posição intermediária. Os consumos relativos de matéria seca e de todos os demais nutrientes foram superiores nas fêmeas em relação aos machos inteiros, de modo que os castrados apresentaram valores intermediários. As digestibilidades, à exceção do extrato etéreo, não foram afetadas pela classe sexual. As digestibilidades da matéria seca e matéria orgânica foram superiores para a dieta com nível de oferta de concentrado de 1,2% do PV. Classe sexual afetou o crescimento e a capacidade de consumo dos animais, porém não teve efeito sobre a digestibilidade dos nutrientes da dieta. Níveis de oferta de concentrado de 0,6 e 1,2% do PV não foram suficientes para promover diferenças no desempenho de bovinos Nelore, independentemente de classe sexual.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of sex class and concentrate allowance level on performance and digestibility of the nutrients in Nellore cattle. Thirty five animals were used, 12 young bulls, 11 steers and 12 heifers, from the same contemporary group, were randomly allotted into two treatments: concentrate allowance levels of 0.6 and 1.2% BW, respectively. The animals were individually

  12. The involvement of dopaminergic system on LH secretion Nelore heifers Sistema dopaminérgico na secreção de LH de novilhas Nelore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Helena Venturoli Perri

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of sulpiride administration (dopamine D2 antagonist, 0.59 m/kg body weight, s.c. and blood collected every 15 min for 10 h thereafter on Luteinizing Hormone (LH secretion in B. indicus pre-pubertal heifers at 8, 12 and 16 month of age. LH was quantified by RIA, sensitivity (0.039 ng/ml and CV (15.51%. In heifers given sulpiride treatment didn’t differ (P≥0.05 in LH concentration, total secretion area, peak total area, number of peaks, area of highest secretion peak and time to highest peak occurrence and maximum LH secretion, from control group. The results suggest absence of dopamine D2 antagonist effect on LH secretion in pre-pubertal Nellore heifers, didn’t neurotransmitter participating on sexual maturation.O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de investigar a variação na secreção do Hormônio Luteinizante (LH em resposta ao tratamento com sulpiride, antagonista de receptor (D2 dopaminérgico, com administração de 0,59mg/kg, s.c. e colheita de amostras de sangue a cada 15min, por 10h. Foram utilizadas 10 novilhas da raça Nelore pré-púberes, aos 8, 12 e 16 meses de idade. A concentração de LH foi quantificada por radioimunoensaio, e o coeficiente de variação intra, o interensaio e a sensibilidade dos ensaios de LH foram respectivamente de: 11,86%; 15,51%; 0,039ng/mL. O tratamento com sulpiride não diferiu na concentração média de LH, área total de secreção de LH e picos, número de picos, área do maior pico, tempo necessário ao aparecimento do maior pico de secreção de LH e amplitude máxima de LH, em comparação ao grupo controle. Os resultados indicam ausência de efeito da dopamina, através de receptores D2, durante a fase pré-púbere, em novilhas da raça Nelore, o que sinaliza a não participação como neurotransmissora na secreção de LH durante o processo de maturação sexual.

  13. In vitro fertilization (IVF) using semi-defined culture conditions from low or high antral follicle count pubertal beef heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    To compare the in vitro fertilization (IVF) and production (IVP) of embryos from low and high antral follicle count (AFC) heifers, AFC were determined on 106 heifers using transrectal ultrasonography. Ten heifers with the lowest AFC (avg. 13.2) and 10 heifers with the highest AFC (avg. 27.4) with ev...

  14. Genome-Wide Association Study of Meat Quality Traits in Nellore Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Ana F. B.; de Camargo, Gregório M. F.; Fernandes, Gerardo A.; Gordo, Daniel G. M.; Tonussi, Rafael L.; Costa, Raphael B.; Espigolan, Rafael; Silva, Rafael M. de O.; Bresolin, Tiago; de Andrade, Willian B. F.; Takada, Luciana; Feitosa, Fabieli L. B.; Baldi, Fernando; Carvalheiro, Roberto; Chardulo, Luis A. L.; de Albuquerque, Lucia G.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify genomic regions that are associated with meat quality traits in the Nellore breed. Nellore steers were finished in feedlots and slaughtered at a commercial slaughterhouse. This analysis included 1,822 phenotypic records of tenderness and 1,873 marbling records. After quality control, 1,630 animals genotyped for tenderness, 1,633 animals genotyped for marbling, and 369,722 SNPs remained. The results are reported as the proportion of variance explained by windows of 150 adjacent SNPs. Only windows with largest effects were considered. The genomic regions were located on chromosomes 5, 15, 16 and 25 for marbling and on chromosomes 5, 7, 10, 14 and 21 for tenderness. These windows explained 3,89% and 3,80% of the additive genetic variance for marbling and tenderness, respectively. The genes associated with the traits are related to growth, muscle development and lipid metabolism. The study of these genes in Nellore cattle is the first step in the identification of causal mutations that will contribute to the genetic evaluation of the breed. PMID:27359122

  15. Feed efficiency, blood parameters, and ingestive behavior of young Nellore males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilha, Sarah Figueiredo Martins; Cyrillo, Joslaine Noely dos Santos Gonçalves; dos Santos, Guilherme Pinheiro; Branco, Renata Helena; Ribeiro, Enilson Geraldo; Mercadante, Maria Eugênia Zerlotti

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate differences in efficiency of feed utilization between young Nellore males and females by comparing growth traits, feed intake, blood parameters, and ingestive behavior of the animals. Data from 768 Nellore males and females that participated in eight performance tests for individual feed intake evaluation were used. Performance and feed efficiency measures, efficiency-related hematological, metabolic and hormonal variables, and data regarding ingestive behavior were collected. Feed efficiency measures were defined by the relationship between performance and feed intake. Data were analyzed using mixed models that included the fixed effects of sex, herd, and the covariate age within sex and the random effects of facility within year, year, and residual. Significant differences between males and females were observed for traits related to weight gain and feed intake. Although individual dynamics of feed efficiency measures differed between males and females, no significant differences in residual feed intake, feed efficiency, or relative growth rate were observed between sexes. Significant differences between sexes were found for platelets, red blood cells, hemoglobin, creatinine, glucose, urea, triglycerides, insulin, cortisol, and IGF-I. Females spent more time feeding and less time ruminating when compared to males. However, males exhibited higher feeding efficiency and lower rumination efficiency than females. Growing Nellore males and females are efficient in feed utilization, and the differences in blood variables observed are probably due to differences in body size and feed intake. Males spend less time eating, consume more food, and spend more time ruminating than females.

  16. Assessment of autozygosity in Nellore cows (Bos indicus) through high-density SNP genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavarez, Ludmilla B.; Utsunomiya, Yuri T.; Carmo, Adriana S.; Neves, Haroldo H. R.; Carvalheiro, Roberto; Ferenčaković, Maja; Pérez O'Brien, Ana M.; Curik, Ino; Cole, John B.; Van Tassell, Curtis P.; da Silva, Marcos V. G. B.; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Sölkner, Johann; Garcia, José F.

    2015-01-01

    The use of relatively low numbers of sires in cattle breeding programs, particularly on those for carcass and weight traits in Nellore beef cattle (Bos indicus) in Brazil, has always raised concerns about inbreeding, which affects conservation of genetic resources and sustainability of this breed. Here, we investigated the distribution of autozygosity levels based on runs of homozygosity (ROH) in a sample of 1,278 Nellore cows, genotyped for over 777,000 SNPs. We found ROH segments larger than 10 Mb in over 70% of the samples, representing signatures most likely related to the recent massive use of few sires. However, the average genome coverage by ROH (>1 Mb) was lower than previously reported for other cattle breeds (4.58%). In spite of 99.98% of the SNPs being included within a ROH in at least one individual, only 19.37% of the markers were encompassed by common ROH, suggesting that the ongoing selection for weight, carcass and reproductive traits in this population is too recent to have produced selection signatures in the form of ROH. Three short-range highly prevalent ROH autosomal hotspots (occurring in over 50% of the samples) were observed, indicating candidate regions most likely under selection since before the foundation of Brazilian Nellore cattle. The putative signatures of selection on chromosomes 4, 7, and 12 may be involved in resistance to infectious diseases and fertility, and should be subject of future investigation. PMID:25688258

  17. Carcass and meat traits of feedlot Nellore bulls fed different dietary energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Helber Batista Maia Filho

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this experimental study was to evaluate the effects of different dietary energy sources on the carcass and meat traits of feedlot Nellore bulls. A total of 48 Nellore bulls at 32 months of age with 354.35±19.56 kg body weight were studied for 85 days. The bulls were allotted to four groups of 12 individuals: Whole corn grain - diet based on whole corn grain; Ground corn - diet based on ground corn grain; Citrus pulp - diet based on citrus pulp; and Steam-flaked corn - diet based on steam-flaked corn. Diets did not influence carcass quality or meat quality. Average values for fat depth, rib eye area, shear force, total cooking losses, and carcass yield were 4.97 mm, 74.71 cm2, 5.85 kgf, 26.82%, and 52.0%, respectively. Based on the quantitative and qualitative analysis of this study, there is no restriction for the adoption of any of the tested diets in feedlots with Nellore bulls and the evaluated energy sources may be used to replace ground corn grain.

  18. Mitochondrial DNA of Nellore and European x Nellore crossing cattle of high performance DNA mitocondrial de bovinos Nelore e cruzados Europeu x Nelore de alto desempenho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Abdallah Curi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate, through a polymorphism in the ND5 gene of the bovine mitochondrial DNA, the frequency of Bos taurus indicus mtDNA individuals in a sample of Nellore purebred origin animals (n = 69 and crossbred animals originated from crosses of European sires and Nellore purebred origin females (n = 275. Only 2.26% (8/354 of the animals presented Bos taurus indicus mtDNA. The high frequency of Bos taurus taurus mtDNA in these animals can be a consequence of selection, once the animals studied are originated from selected lineages of high performance for meat production.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, por meio de um polimorfismo no gene ND5 do DNA mitocondrial de bovinos, a porcentagem de indivíduos portadores de mtDNA Bos taurus indicus em animais Nelore PO (n = 69 e em animais provenientes do cruzamento entre machos europeus e fêmeas Nelore PO (n = 275. Apenas 2,26% (8/354 dos animais apresentaram mtDNA Bos taurus indicus. A alta freqüência de mtDNA Bos taurus taurus nesses animais pode ser reflexo de seleção, uma vez que os animais estudados se originam de linhagens selecionadas para alto desempenho de produção de carne.

  19. Glycerin levels for crossbred heifers supplemented in pasture: intake behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Farias,Mariana de Souza; Silva,Robério Rodrigues; Zawadzki,Fernando; Eiras, Carlos Emanuel; Lima,Beatriz Silva; Prado,Ivanor Nunes do

    2012-01-01

    The effect of glycerin inclusion on the intake behavior of heifers was analyzed. During the 102-day experimental period, thirty-six 13-month old heifers, average initial weight 226±12 kg, were distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments and nine replications: G0.0 = control, G2.8 = 2.8%, G6.1 = 6.1%, and G9.1 = 9.1% glycerin in DM intake. Intake behavior was undertaken by monitoring animal activities for 24 hours every five minutes. The inclusion of glycerin in the diet...

  20. Heifer ovariectomy using the Willis spay instrument: Technique, morbidity and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermehl, N L

    1993-11-01

    Two field trials were conducted to determine the morbidity and mortality rates in heifers ovariectomized with a Willis spay instrument.Trial A used 384 Hereford and Hereford cross, auction source, heifers, weighing an average of 230 kg. In trial B, 138 auction and ranch source heifers of mixed breeding and weighing an average of 285 kg were used. All heifers were ovariectomized per vaginam, with the ovaries left in the abdomen. Prophylactic antibiotics were administered and heifers were observed at pasture for the next 150 days.The morbidity and mortality rates for heifers in trial A were 0.5% and 0.26%, respectively. In trial B, there was no morbidity or mortality.These trials indicate that the technique described is a low risk, expedient method of ovariectomizing heifers.

  1. Creep-feeding to stimulate metabolic imprinting in nursing beef heifers: impacts on heifer growth, reproductive and physiological variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, M M; Cooke, R F; Cappellozza, B I; Marques, R S; Guarnieri Filho, T A; Rodrigues, M C; Bradley, J S; Mueller, C J; Keisler, D H; Johnson, S E; Bohnert, D W

    2015-09-01

    This experiment compared growth, physiological, and reproductive responses of beef heifers with (MI) or without (CON) access to a creep-feeder, as a manner to stimulate metabolic imprinting while nursing their dams. On day 0, 60 Angus × Hereford heifers were ranked by BW and age (140 ± 3 kg and 68±3 days), and assigned to pairs so all ranking criteria were similar between heifers within each pair. On day 1, pairs were randomly assigned to MI (n=15) or CON (n=15). From day 1 to 51, MI pairs and their dams were allocated to 15 drylot pens where heifers had ad libitum access to a corn-based supplement through a creep-feeder. The CON pairs and their dams were maintained in an adjacent single drylot pen. From day 52 to 111, treatments were managed as a single group on a semiarid range pasture. On day 111, heifers were weaned and allocated to two pastures (one pasture/treatment), receiving hay and a corn-based concentrate until day 326. Heifer BW was recorded before and at the end of the creep-feeding period (day 1 to 51), and on days 112 and 326. On days 0, 51, 111, 187, 261, and 325, jugular blood was collected and real-time ultrasonography for longissimus muscle depth and backfat thickness assessment was performed. Blood was also collected every 10 days from days 113 to 323 for puberty evaluation via plasma progesterone. Liver and subcutaneous fat biopsies were performed on days 51, 111, 261 and 325. Average daily gain was greater (Pimprinting effect, but did not hasten their puberty attainment.

  2. Performance, carcass characteristics, and ruminal pH of Nellore and Angus young bulls fed a whole shelled corn diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, J R R; Chizzotti, M L; Schoonmaker, J P; Teixeira, P D; Lopes, R C; Oliveira, C V R; Ladeira, M M

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to test the interaction of breed (Nellore or Angus) and diet (whole shelled corn [WSC] or ground corn [GC] with silage) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and ruminal pH of young bulls. Thirty-six bulls (18 Nellore and 18 Angus) with the range in age of 18 to 22 mo and BW of 381 ± 12 kg were used in a completely randomized design experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments (2 breeds and 2 diets). Experimental diets (DM basis) included 1) a GC diet containing 30% corn silage and 70% GC- and soybean meal-based concentrate and 2) a WSC diet containing 85% WSC and 15% of a soybean meal- and mineral-based pelleted supplement. An additional 8 bulls were slaughtered at the beginning of the experimental period for determination of initial carcass weight. The treatments were Nellore fed the GC diet, Nellore fed the WSC diet, Angus fed the GC diet, and Angus fed the WSC diet. Greater DMI ( Angus bulls compared with Nellore bulls, regardless of diet. Lower average ruminal pH ( = 0.04), maximum ruminal pH (P = 0.02), and DMI ( Angus breed ( < 0.02) and were greater when bulls were fed the GC diet. The WSC diet without forage may be useful for feedlots because this diet promoted greater G:F than the GC diet, regardless of breed. However, special care must be exercised in feed management during adaptation and throughout the feeding of Nellore animals to avoid digestive disorders and fluctuations in DMI.

  3. Utility of alfalfa stemlage for feeding dairy heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairy heifers are typically offered high-forage diets to control weight gains; however, these forage-based diets often contain significant portions of corn silage or other high-quality forages with low fiber concentrations. Inadequate concentrations of dietary fiber can lead to greater feed and ener...

  4. Event-time analysis of reproductive traits in dairy heifers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vargas, B.; Lende, van der T.; Baaijen, M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Data on the reproductive traits of dairy heifers were analyzed using event-time techniques. Traits analyzed were age at first calving (n = 4631), days to first breeding, and days open (n = 1992) during the first lactation. A proportional hazard model was used that included fixed effects of herd-year

  5. Correlación entre estadíos de calcificación de caninos y segundas premolares mandibulares con la curva de crecimiento puberal maxilar y mandibular

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Montalva, Renzo; Facultad de Estomatología, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima,; Adriazola Pando, Manuel; Facultad de Estomatología, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima,; Meneses López, Abraham; Facultad de Estomatología, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima,

    2014-01-01

    El propósito del presente estudio fue determinar el grado de correlación entre los estadios decalcificación dentaria según Demirjian para caninos y segundas premolares mandibulares, y lacurva de crecimiento puberal maxilar y mandibular según Fishman. La muestra consistió en 183pares de radiografías, panorámicas y carpales, 100 de mujeres (54.64%) y 83 de hombres,(45.36%), tomadas el mismo día. La muestra, se subagrupó según sexo y lado a que pertenecíacada diente analizado. Se utilizaron la p...

  6. Effects of acclimation to handling on performance, reproductive, and physiological responses of Brahman-crossbred heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, R F; Arthington, J D; Austin, B R; Yelich, J V

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of acclimation to handling on growth, plasma concentrations of progesterone (P4) and cortisol, temperament, and reproductive performance of Brahman-crossbred heifers. Over 2 consecutive years, 37 Braford and 43 Brahman x Angus heifers were initially evaluated, within 30 d after weaning, for BW and puberty status via transrectal ultrasonography and plasma P4 concentrations (d 0 and 10), and for temperament by measurements of chute score, pen score, and exit velocity (d 10 only). On d 11, heifers were stratified by breed, puberty status, temperament score, BW, and age and randomly assigned to receive or not (control) the acclimation treatment. Acclimated heifers were exposed to a handling process 3 times weekly (Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays) for 4 wk (d 11 to 39 of the experiment). The acclimation treatment was applied individually to heifers by processing them through a handling facility, whereas control heifers remained undisturbed on pasture. Heifer puberty status, evaluated via plasma P4 concentrations and transrectal ultrasonography, and BW were assessed again on d 40 and 50, d 80 and 90, and d 120 and 130. Blood samples collected before (d 10) and at the end of the acclimation period (d 40) were also analyzed for plasma concentrations of cortisol. Heifer temperament was assessed again on d 40 of the study. No interactions containing the effects of treatment, breed, and year were detected. Acclimated heifers had reduced (P Brahman-crossbred heifers.

  7. A deterministic simulation study of embryo marker-assisted selection for age at first calving in Nellore (Bos indicus beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur J.M. Rosa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We used deterministic simulation of four alternative multiple ovulation and embryo manipulation (MOET closed nucleus schemes to investigate the benefits of using marker-assisted selection (MAS of Nellore (Bos indicus beef cattle embryos prior to transplantation to reduce the age at first calving (AFC. We found that MAS resulted in increased genetic gain as compared to selection without AFC quantitative trait loci (AFC-QTL information. With single-stage selection the genetic response (GR increased as follows: GR = 0.68% when the AFC-QTL explained 0.02 of the AFC additive genetic variance (sigma2A; GR = 1.76% for AFC-QTL explaining 0.05 sigma2A; GR = 3.7% for AFC-QTL explaining 0.1 sigma2A; and GR = 55.76% for AFC-QTL explaining 0.95 sigma2A. At the same total selected proportion, two-stage selection resulted in less genetic gain than single stage MAS at two-years of age. A single stage selection responses of > 95% occurred with pre-selected proportions of 0.4 (0.1 sigma2A explained by AFC-QTL, 0.2 (0.3 sigma2A explained by AFC-QTL and 0.1 (0.5 sigma2A explained by AFC-QTL, indicating that the combined use of MAS and pre-selection can substantially reduce the cost of keeping recipient heifers in MOET breeding schemes. When the number of recipients was kept constant, the benefit of increasing embryo production was greater for the QTL explaining a higher proportion of the additive genetic variance. However this advantage had a diminishing return especially for QTL explaining a small proportion of the additive genetic variance. Thus, marker assisted selection of embryos can be used to achieve increased genetic gain or a similar genetic response at reduced expense by decreasing the number of recipient cows and number of offspring raised to two-years of age.

  8. Performance of Nellore males under different artificial shading levels in the feedlot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Alves da Costa Ferro

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of artificial shading on weight gain and meat quality of male Nellore cattle in an intensive production system. The experiment was conducted in the experimental feedlot of the Course of Animal Science at Universidade Estadual de Goiás, from July to October 2014. Forty-eight male Nellore cattle with an average initial weight of 310 kg were kept in double 24-m2 stalls, in a total of 24 stalls. Of these, six were in the open air; six were covered with black shade netting of 30% light interception; six with black shade netting 50%; and six with black shade netting 80%, providing 6 m2 of shade per stall. The ration supplied to the animals and the orts left in the trough were weighed daily to determine intake, and the temperature-humidity index (THI was measured twice weekly. Animals were weighed for the first time at the start of the experiment, and then another three times until the end, which was followed by the slaughter and assessments of performance and meat quality. A difference (p 0.05 was observed for feed intake, initial weight, final weight, total weight gain, average daily weight gain, carcass yield, marbling, texture, fatness, backfat thickness, loin-eye area, color, thigh length and circumference, leg length and circumference, or carcass length between the animals on the different treatments. The use of artificial shading does not have a significant effect on performance or meat quality of feedlot Nellore cattle when the ambient temperature is within the thermal comfort zone.

  9. Genetic analysis of resistance to ticks, gastrointestinal nematodes and Eimeria spp. in Nellore cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passafaro, Tiago Luciano; Carrera, Juan Pablo Botero; dos Santos, Livia Loiola; Raidan, Fernanda Santos Silva; dos Santos, Dalinne Chrystian Carvalho; Cardoso, Eduardo Penteado; Leite, Romário Cerqueira; Toral, Fabio Luiz Buranelo

    2015-06-15

    The aim of the present study was to obtain genetic parameters for resistance to ticks, gastrointestinal nematodes (worms) and Eimeria spp. in Nellore cattle, analyze the inclusion of resistance traits in Nellore breeding programs and evaluate genetic selection as a complementary tool in parasite control programs. Counting of ticks, gastrointestinal nematode eggs and Eimeria spp. oocysts per gram of feces totaling 4270; 3872 and 3872 records from 1188; 1142 and 1142 animals, respectively, aged 146 to 597 days were used. The animals were classified as resistant (counts equal to zero) or susceptible (counts above zero) to each parasite. The statistical models included systematics effects of contemporary groups and the mean trajectory. The random effects included additive genetic effects, direct permanent environmental effects and residual. The mean trajectory and random effects were modeled with linear Legendre polynomials for all traits except for the mean trajectory of resistance to Eimeria spp., which employed the cubic polynomial. Heritability estimates were of low to moderate magnitude and ranged from 0.06 to 0.30, 0.06 to 0.33 and 0.04 to 0.33 for resistance to ticks, gastrointestinal nematodes and Eimeria spp., respectively. The posterior mean of genetic and environmental correlations for the same trait at different ages (205, 365, 450 and 550 days) were favorable at adjacent ages and unfavorable at distant ages. In general, the posterior mean of the genetic and environmental correlations between traits of resistance were low and high-density intervals were large and included zero in many cases. The heritability estimates support the inclusion of resistance to ticks, gastrointestinal nematodes and Eimeria spp. in Nellore breeding programs. Genetic selection can increase the frequency of resistant animals and be used as a complementary tool in parasite control programs.

  10. Effect of selenium supplementation on performance, cost economics, and biochemical profile of Nellore ram lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushma, K; Reddy, Y Ramana; Kumari, N Nalini; Reddy, P Baswa; Raghunandan, T; Sridhar, K

    2015-09-01

    Present experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of selenium (Se) supplementation on performance, carcass characteristics, meat composition, shelflife of meat and biochemical profile in Nellore ram lambs. 24 male Nellore ram lambs (15.75±0.47 kg) were randomly divided into four dietary groups with six lambs in each and reared under uniform management conditions for 120 days. Basal diet was not supplemented with Se and consisted of green fodder (Se 0.09 mg/kg dry matter [DM]), dry roughage (Se 0.11 mg/kg DM) and concentrate mixture (Se 0.019 mg/kg DM) and fed individually. Dietary treatments were prepared by adding graded levels Se (0, 0.45, 0.9, and 1.8 ppm) to concentrate mixture (1% body weight [BW]) from sodium selenite. Feed offered and refusal measured daily; and BWs were measured at fortnight interval to find out average daily gain (g), feed conversion ratio (FCR), cost economics and plane of nutrition. Serum biochemical profile (concentration of glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, and hemoglobin) was assessed on 0, 60(th), and 120(th) day. At the end of experiment, the carcass characteristics (dressing percentage, cut-up parts, meat to bone ratio) and meat chemical composition were evaluated. Meat keeping (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) quality from different groups was evaluated on day 0, 3, and 6 post-slaughter. Dietary Se supplementation did not show any effect on weight gain, FCR, cost economics, plane of nutrition, and serum biochemical profile in Nellore ram lambs. However, Se supplemented lambs had numerically higher weight gain than the unsupplemented lambs. Similarly, carcass characteristics and keeping quality were comparable among the four treatments. However, numerical increase in post-slaughter keeping quality with increasing Se supplementation was observed. It can be concluded that supplementation of Se in the form of sodium selenite (inorganic source) at different levels did not influence animal

  11. Interaction of genotype-environment Nellore cattle using models of reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wéverton José Lima Fonseca

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review was to discuss the importance of bovine genotype-environment iteration Nellore using models of reaction norms. The beef cattle has been outstanding with one of the main activities of Brazilian agribusiness, including in the international arena. One way to assess the genotype-environment interaction for various traits in beef cattle as milk is the use of models of reaction norms. Thus, the conduct of research involving the effect of genotype-environment interaction allows for an assessment of the animals in the production environment and management of genetically superior animals.

  12. Effects of road transportation on metabolic and immunological responses in Holstein heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyeok-Joong; Lee, In Kyu; Piao, Min-Yu; Kwak, Chae-Won; Gu, Min Jeong; Yun, Cheol Heui; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Ahn, Hyeon-Ju; Kim, Hee-Bal; Kim, Gyeom-Heon; Kim, Soo-Ki; Ko, Jong-Youl; Ha, Jong K; Baik, Myunggi

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of road transportation on metabolic and immunological responses in dairy heifers. Twenty Holstein heifers in early pregnancy were divided into non-transported (NT; n = 7) and transported (T; n = 13) groups. Blood was collected before transportation (BT), immediately after transportation for 100 km (T1) and 200 km (T2), and 24 h after transportation (AT). The T heifers had higher (P  0.05) to the BT concentrations at 24 h AT in the T heifers. The granulocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio and the percentage of monocytes were higher (P transportation stress increased the numbers of innate immune cells. T heifers had higher (P transportation increased cortisol secretion and was correlated with increased metabolic responses and up-regulation of peripheral innate immune cells in dairy heifers.

  13. Sistemas de Alimentação Pós-Desmama de Bezerras de Corte para Acasalamento com 14/15 Meses de Idade Post Weaning Feeding Systems for Beef Heifers to be Bred at 14/15 Months of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gomes da Rocha

    2002-07-01

    (NNP. After this period, all heifers grazed together on improved natural pastures with annual ryegrass, white clover (Trifolium repens and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus. These data were collected in a farm located in Dom Pedrito, RS, from 395 beef heifers from three genetic groups: Hereford; 3/4 Hereford -1/4 Nellore; 5/8 Hereford- 3/8 Nellore. Live weight (LW, body conditions score (BCS and live weight daily gains (LDG were recorded. No differences could be detected among systems for LW and LDG. Feedlot heifers had greater BCS. At the beginning and end of the mating season, heifers from pasture group were heavier and had greater BCS than heifers from feedlot and supplementation.

  14. Effects of bovine somatotropin administration on growth, physiological, and reproductive responses of replacement beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, R F; Bohnert, D W; Francisco, C L; Marques, R S; Mueller, C J; Keisler, D H

    2013-06-01

    This experiment compared growth, body composition, plasma IGF-I and leptin, and reproductive development of beef heifers receiving or not recombinant bovine ST (BST) beginning after weaning until the first breeding season. Fifty Angus × Hereford heifers (initial BW = 219 ± 2 kg; initial age = 208 ± 2 d), weaned at approximately 6 mo of age, were assigned to the experiment (d 0 to 210). On d 0, heifers were ranked by initial BW and age and assigned to 1) treatment with BST or 2) saline control. Heifers assigned to the BST treatment received subcutaneous (s.c.) injections containing 250 mg of sometribove zinc whereas control heifers received a 5-mL s.c. injection of 0.9% saline every 14 d. Treatments were initiated on d 14 and last administered on d 196. Heifers were maintained on separate pastures harvested for hay the previous summer according to treatment and received grass and alfalfa hay at a rate to provide a daily amount of 7.0 and 1.0 kg of DM per heifer, respectively. Heifer shrunk BW was collected on d 1 and 211 for heifer ADG calculation. Blood samples were collected weekly from d 0 to 210 for determination of plasma progesterone to estimate puberty attainment as well as plasma concentrations of IGF-I and leptin in selected samples. On d 0, 63, 133, and 189, heifers were evaluated for intramuscular marbling, LM depth, and backfat thickness via real-time ultrasonography. No treatment effects were detected (P = 0.27) for heifer ADG (0.49 vs. 0.51 kg/d for control and BST heifers, respectively; SEM = 0.02). Mean backfat thickness was lesser (P plasma IGF-I concentrations compared with control cohorts 7 d after treatment administration (treatment × day interaction; P plasma leptin concentrations were lesser (P = 0.05) in BST heifers compared with control cohorts (1.82 vs. 2.03 ng/mL, respectively; SEM = 0.07). Onset of puberty was hastened in BST heifers compared with control cohorts (treatment × day interaction; P = 0.04). In summary, a greater

  15. Milk yield and reproductive performance of dairy heifers and cows supplemented with polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Gonzalez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine productive and fertility responses of Holstein-Friesian heifers and cows to supplementation with extruded linseed and soybean as sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. Supplementation had a positive effect on profitability, with significant increases in milk yield in supplemented cows, but not in heifers. Treatments had no effect on milk fat content, but higher milk protein contents were observed with supplementation. A higher conception rate was found for supplemented heifers, but not for cows. Fat sources containing PUFAs are recommended for dairy cattle supplementation, since they improve fertility in heifers and milk yield in cows.

  16. Genetic parameters for gestation length and pre- and postweaning growth traits in Nellore cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heverton Luis Moreira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate heritabilities and genetic and phenotypic correlations for gestation length as calf trait (GLcalf and preweaning [birth weight (BW and weights at 120 (W120 and 210 (W210 days] and postweaning performance traits [weights at 365 (W365 and 450 (W450 days] in Nellore cattle participating in the Nellore Brazil Program coordinated by the National Association of Breeders and Researchers (Associação Nacional de Criadores e Pesquisadores - ANCP. The parameters were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method under an animal model using the WOMBAT software. The genetic correlation between GLcalf and BW was 0.15, indicating a favorable association between the two traits which, however, was of small magnitude. GLcalf showed low positive genetic correlations (0.06 to 0.10 with the other weights, indicating that selection to reduce gestation length would not result in significant losses in weights at older ages. Furthermore, it is possible to infer that selection for higher W365 will not expressively increase gestation length.

  17. Reaction norms in weights at 365 days old in nellore bulls in northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luís Ferreira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Genotype by environment interaction (GxE studies are of particular interest in Brazil because of the regional diversity of environmental effects and the wide variety of management systems. The present study evaluates GxE effects on 365 d weight (365W of Nellore cattle raised on pasture in northern Brazil. The analysis utilized random regression techniques to model the reaction norm. Fixed effects consisted of sex, contemporary group, and the covariate of age of cow at calving. The environmental gradient, defined by the concatenation of a bull and the state in which the calf was born, was modeled by second order Legendre polynomials. Direct additive genetic and residual effects were fit as random. Results showed differences in the magnitude of expression of genotype in proportion to decreasing favorability of the environment. As the environment became more unfavorable, the correlation of breeding value to different environments decreased. The correlations between the intercept and the level slope for 365W feature were of moderate magnitude, predominantly indicating the reclassification of sires in different environments. Reaction standard model was coherent from a technical and biological view point and enabled the perception of GxE in the genetic evaluation of Nellore cattle in the states of Maranhão, Pará and Tocantins. 

  18. Feeding behavior of Nellore cattle fed high concentrations of crude glycerin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Haydt Castello Branco Van Cleef

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the inclusion of up to 30% crude glycerin in Nellore cattle diets and its effects on feeding behavior parameters. It were used 30 animals with 277.7kg BW and 18 months old, which were kept in feedlot in individual pens during 103 days (21 adaptation and 82 data collection. The animals were assigned (initial weight in blocks and submitted to the following treatments: G0; G7.5; G15; G22.5; and G30, corresponding to control group, 7.5, 15, 22.5, and 30% crude glycerin in the diet dry matter, respectively. The feeding behavior (feeding, idle, ruminating, number of chews, feeding efficiency and ruminating efficiency were evaluated for three days. Data were analyzed as a completely randomized block design, analyzing contrasts and observing the significance of linear, quadratic and control treatment × glycerin treatments effects. The inclusion up to 30% crude glycerin in diets of Nellore cattle altered the feeding efficiency, expressed in g NDF h-1, the ruminating efficiency relative to NDF, the time and number of chews per ruminal bolus, facilitating the feed ingestion and directly influencing the time spent on feeding.

  19. Ractopamine hydrochloride on performance and carcass traits of confined Nellores cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luis Kill

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of four levels of inclusion (0; 450; 900 and 1,350g T-1 of Ractopamine hydrochloride was assessed concerning weight gain, feed conversion, dry matter intake, carcass traits and quality of castrated male cattle meat in confinement. Forty Nellore steers were used, with an average age of 26 months and initial average weight of 423.4±2.7kg, in a randomized block experimental design with four treatments and ten replications. The diet was fixed with the ratio of forage to concentrate dry matter of 75.3:24.7. A Linear positive effect observed was the inclusion of Ractopamine on daily weight gain and linear negative effect on feed conversion, highlighting the improvements with the increasing inclusion of Ractopamine hydrochloride. In relation to carcass traits, the linear effect was negative for fat thickness and no differences were found regarding the hot carcass weight ; carcass yield; area, width and depth of rib eye area of the Longissimus dorsi muscle, and noble courts. In relation to dry matter intake, the comparison of the treatments demonstrated that Ractopamine didn't influence negatively, which highlights its positive effect on the animal performance. The use of Ractopamine improves performance and decreases de amount of superficial fat in male nellore carcass in confinement.

  20. Malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs among adolescents in Nellore District of Andhra pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhakar Kaipa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malocclusion is misalignment of teeth and /or incorrect relation between the teeth of the dental arches. It leads to various unfavorable psychological and social sequelae. The concept of early diagnosis of malocclusion plays a very important role in identifying the disease and performing the treatment. Objectives: To assess the prevalence and severity of malocclusion and to determine orthodontic treatment needs among 13-15 year old school children inNellore district of Andhra Pradesh. Materials & Method: A descriptive cross sectional study was undertaken among a total of 2126 school children aged 13-15 years. Dental Aesthetic Index was used to assess malocclusion. Results: About 50.8% of them had dental appearance for whom orthodontic treatment need was ′slight′ or ′not indicated and one third of them (31% needed elective treatment. The rest of the children had dental appearance varying from severe to handicapping malocclusion for whom treatment was highly desirable (10.2% or mandatory (8%. Conclusions: Forty nine percent of adolescents from Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh were in need of orthodontic treatment for dental health reasons. Among the components of Dental Aesthetic Index, incisal segment crowding was mainly responsible for allocating subjects into the group of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need. The importance in having this data is in influencing policy makers and government officials to design health education programs and preventive orthodontic treatment programs.

  1. Dominant follicle removal by ultrasound guided transvaginal aspiration and superovulatory response in Nellore cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gradela A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study analyzed the physiological significance of the dominant follicle (DF and its removal on the superovulatory response of 42 Nellore cows and tested the hypothesis that the number of subordinate small follicles (3-8mm could be used as a single criterion for the evaluation of the presence or absence of a DF in the ovaries. Ultrasonographic examinations were performed two days before the beginning of superovulatory treatment (D0 and the cows divided into three groups: group without DF (NDF, group with a DF (DF and group with an aspirated DF (ADF. The superovulatory response of the donors did not differ between groups, but the rate of embryonic viability was higher in NDF (69.40% and ADF (68.99% groups compared to DF (48.54%. The number of unfertilized structures did not differ between NDF and DF or between NDF and ADF groups, but was higher in DF compared to ADF. It is concluded that, in Nellore cows, the number of subordinate follicles is a safe criterion for the evaluation of the presence of a DF in the ovaries, but errors could be avoided if only 4-8mm follicles were considered, and that the presence of a DF at the beginning of superovulation reduced the embryonic viability rate and its removal by transvaginal aspiration guided by ultrasound induced embryonic viability rates similar to that observed in the absence of a DF.

  2. Genotypic and allelic frequencies of gene polymorphisms associated with meat tenderness in Nellore beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, M E; Eler, J P; Bonin, M N; Rezende, F M; Biase, F H; Meirelles, F V; Regitano, L C A; Coutinho, L L; Balieiro, J C C; Ferraz, J B S

    2017-02-16

    The objectives of this study were to characterize the allelic and genotypic frequencies of polymorphisms in the µ-calpain and calpastatin genes, and to assess their association with meat tenderness and animal growth in Nellore cattle. We evaluated 605 Nellore animals at 24 months of age, on average, at slaughter. The polymorphisms were determined for the molecular markers CAPN316, CAPN530, CAPN4751, CAPN4753, and UOGACAST1. Analyses of meat tenderness at 7, 14, and 21 days of maturation were performed in samples of longissimus thoracis obtained between the 12th and 13th rib and sheared using a Warner Bratzler Shear Force. Significant effects were observed for meat tenderness at days 7, 14, and 21 of maturation for the marker CAPN4751, at day 21 for the marker CAPN4753, and at days 14 and 21 for the marker UOGCAST1. For genotypic combinations of markers, the results were significant for the combination CAPN4751/UOGCAST1 in the three maturation periods and CAPN4753/UOGCAST1 at days 14 and 21 of maturation.

  3. Heritability of predicted daily enteric methane emissions from growing Nellore cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrinho, T L P; Mercadante, M E Z; Canesin, R C; Cyrillo, J N S G; Albuquerque, L G; Branco, R H

    2015-10-30

    The objective of this study was to estimate the heritability of predicted daily enteric methane emissions (PME) from growing Nellore cattle. Dry matter intake (DMI) records of 955 Nellore animals that were born between 2004 and 2013, which were obtained in a postweaning performance test lasting 83 ± 15 days, were used. The PME of each animal, obtained as MJ/day and converted to g/day, was estimated using three equations: PME1 (MJ/day) = 2.29 + 0.647 x DMI (kg/day), PME2 (MJ/day) = 3.96 + 0.561 x DMI (kg/day), and PME3 (MJ/day) = 4.41 + 0.50 x DMI (kg/day). The heritability (h2) of PME obtained using the three equations was identical to the h2 of DMI, regardless of whether the model included the effect of mid-test weight (h2 = 0.32 ± 0.069) or not (h2 = 0.48 ± 0.069). The equations were based exclusively on variations in DMI, and detected variations in this trait without taking into consideration individual differences in enteric methane emission caused by differences in fermentation and digestion capacity. Therefore, prediction equations of enteric methane emission from DMI are not adequate to estimate differences between animals.

  4. Residual feed intake, carcass traits and meat quality in Nellore cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidelis, H A; Bonilha, S F M; Tedeschi, L O; Branco, R H; Cyrillo, J N S G; Mercadante, M E Z

    2017-06-01

    A total of 127 Nellore bulls classified as low and high residual feed intake (RFI), from three selection lines, were evaluated in five experiments aiming to identify associations between RFI, carcass, and meat quality traits. Feedlot performance, carcass traits, and meat quality of Longissimus muscle were evaluated. A mixed model including the fixed effects of RFI class, selection line, interaction between RFI class and selection line, and age at slaughter as a covariate, and the random effects of diet within experiment and experiment was used, with means compared by the t-test. Feed intake average difference was 0.962kg/day; low RFI animals consumed 0.479kg/day less feed and high RFI animals consumed 0.483kg/day more feed than expected. No differences between RFI classes were detected for most of studied variables, demonstrating the absence of unfavorable associations between RFI and carcass and meat quality traits. Low RFI Nellore animals use feed efficiently and produce good quality carcasses and meat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Correlations of visual scores, carcass traits, feed efficiency and retail product yield in Nellore cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Cancian

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing use of visual scores (VS and ultrasound (US for carcass evaluation in breeding programs, calls for a knowledge of the relationships between these traits and other relevant characteristics, such as feed efficiency and production of commercial cuts. The objective of this study was to evaluate correlations between body visual scores and carcass traits identified by ultrasound (US and feed efficiency (FE, carcass weight (HCW, dressing percentage (DP and retail product yield (RPY in beef cattle. Nellore cattle (male, 42 non-castrated [NCAST] and 44 castrated [CAST] were evaluated by both VS and US, at the postweaning (15-month old and finishing phases (21-month old. Visual scores of conformation (C, precocity (P and muscling (M were assessed and the backfat thickness (UBFT, rump fat thickness (URFT and ribeye area (UREA were measured by ultrasound. Gain-to-feed (G:F ratio and residual feed intake (RFI were measured in feedlot. Hot carcass weight, DP and RPY were determined at harvest. Non-castrated cattle had greater HCW and RPY but lower UBFT and URFT than CAST. Postweaning VS and US were poorly correlated with FE in both sexual conditions. Finishing VS were negatively correlated with G:F in CAST and finishing URFT was negatively correlated with RPY in NCAST. The relationship of VS and US with feed efficiency and meat yield is affected by age at the date of evaluation and by castration. Feed efficiency is not related to the yield of meat cuts in Nellore cattle

  6. Feedlot performance, feed efficiency and carcass traits in Nellore cattle selected for postweaning weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Lucila Sobrinho

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlated responses to selection for growth in feed efficiency and carcass traits of Nellore animals. A total of 121 animals of the Nellore control (NeC and selection herds were subjected to performance testing and classified regarding residual feed intake (RFI. Sixty-seven of these animals were selected and finished until reaching 4 mm of subcutaneous fat thickness between the 12th and 13th ribs. The animals were slaughtered at a mean age of 541 days and mean live weight of 423 kg for NeS and of 363 kg for NeC, and carcass traits were measured. Animals in NeS presented higher initial and slaughter weights, dry matter intake, hot and cold carcass weight, weight of retail cuts, and carcass yield than NeC animals for the same slaughter age and feedlot time. No significant differences in RFI were observed between herds, showing that the weight gain from selection for growth did not cause changes in the energy efficiency of the animals.

  7. Expression of genes related to mitochondrial function in Nellore cattle divergently ranked on residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Larissa Fernanda Simielli; Gimenez, Daniele Fernanda Jovino; Mercadante, Maria Eugênia Zerlotti; Bonilha, Sarah Figueiredo Martins; Ferro, Jesus Aparecido; Baldi, Fernando; de Souza, Fábio Ricardo Pablos; de Albuquerque, Lucia Galvão

    2015-02-01

    Several measures have been proposed to investigate and improve feed efficiency in cattle. One of the most commonly used measure of feed efficiency is residual feed intake (RFI), which is estimated as the difference between actual feed intake and expected feed intake based on the animal's average live weight. This measure permits to identify and select the most efficient animals without selecting for higher mature weight. Mitochondrial function has been indicated as a major factor that influences RFI. The analysis of genes involved in mitochondrial function is therefore an alternative to identify molecular markers associated with higher feed efficiency. This study analyzed the expression of PGC1α, TFAM, UCP2 and UCP3 genes by quantitative real-time PCR in liver and muscle tissues of two groups of Nellore cattle divergently ranked on RFI values in order to evaluate the relationship of these genes with RFI. In liver tissue, higher expression of TFAM and UCP2 genes was observed in the negative RFI group. Expression of PGC1α gene did not differ significantly between the two groups, whereas UCP3 gene was not expressed in liver tissue. In muscle tissue, higher expression of TFAM gene was observed in the positive RFI group. Expression of PGC1α, UCP2 and UCP3 genes did not differ significantly between the two groups. These results suggest the use of TFAM and UCP2 as possible candidate gene markers in breeding programs designed to increase the feed efficiency of Nellore cattle.

  8. Genome-wide association analysis of feed intake and residual feed intake in Nellore cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Miguel H A; Utsunomiya, Yuri T; Neves, Haroldo H R; Gomes, Rodrigo C; Garcia, José F; Fukumasu, Heidge; Silva, Saulo L; Oliveira Junior, Gerson A; Alexandre, Pâmela A; Leme, Paulo R; Brassaloti, Ricardo A; Coutinho, Luiz L; Lopes, Thiago G; Meirelles, Flávio V; Eler, Joanir P; Ferraz, José B S

    2014-02-11

    Feed intake plays an important economic role in beef cattle, and is related with feed efficiency, weight gain and carcass traits. However, the phenotypes collected for dry matter intake and feed efficiency are scarce when compared with other measures such as weight gain and carcass traits. The use of genomic information can improve the power of inference of studies on these measures, identifying genomic regions that affect these phenotypes. This work performed the genome-wide association study (GWAS) for dry matter intake (DMI) and residual feed intake (RFI) of 720 Nellore cattle (Bos taurus indicus). In general, no genomic region extremely associated with both phenotypic traits was observed, as expected for the variables that have their regulation controlled by many genes. Three SNPs surpassed the threshold for the Bonferroni multiple test for DMI and two SNPs for RFI. These markers are located on chromosomes 4, 8, 14 and 21 in regions near genes regulating appetite and ion transport and close to important QTL as previously reported to RFI and DMI, thus corroborating the literature that points these two processes as important in the physiological regulation of intake and feed efficiency. This study showed the first GWAS of DMI to identify genomic regions associated with feed intake and efficiency in Nellore cattle. Some genes and QTLs previously described for DMI and RFI, in other subspecies (Bos taurus taurus), that influences these phenotypes are confirmed in this study.

  9. Intake, performance and estimated methane production of Nellore steers fed soybean grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Duarte Messana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate nutrient intake, performance, estimated methane production and carcass characteristics of steers fed diets containing three different levels of soybean grain: 0, 120 and 230 g/kg on the dry matter (DM. The study was conducted on eighteen castrated Nellore males with an average initial body weight (BW of 370±12 kg in a completely randomized design, with three treatments and six repetitions. Intake of dry matter (DMI, kg/day and crude protein tended to decrease linearly, and the intake of ether extract increased linearly in response to the soybean grain levels in the diet. Levels of soybean grain in the diet did not affect DMI (g/kg of BW, final average weight, average daily weight gain, feed efficiency and estimated methane production. Animals fed diets with different levels of soybean grain were not different with respect to carcass yield, loin eye area, subcutaneous fat thickness, or bone, muscle and fat ratios. Carcass characteristics and meat quality were also not significantly different. Replacement of soybean meal by soybean grain in the diet alters the intake of crude protein and ether extract but does not affect performance, estimates of methane production, or carcass characteristics of feedlot Nellore.

  10. Efeito da idade de exposição de novilhas à reprodução sobre estimativas de herdabilidade da idade ao primeiro parto em bovinos Nelore Effect of age of exposure of heifers to reproduction on heritability estimates for age at first calving in Nelore cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.T. Dias

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Estimou-se a herdabilidade da idade ao primeiro parto (IPP a partir de quatro conjuntos com diferentes tipos de informação. A primeira estimativa (IPP1 foi realizada com as novilhas (n= 6.222 expostas apenas na estação "normal", ou seja, aos 24 meses de idade. No segundo conjunto (IPP2, fizeram parte do arquivo todas as fêmeas (n= 15.746 com informação da IPP. No terceiro (IPP3, estimou-se a herdabilidade de um grupo mais restrito de novilhas (n= 9.524, as quais tiveram manejo diferenciado na fazenda; todas as fêmeas pertencentes a este grupo foram expostas mais cedo à reprodução, aproximadamente 18 meses de idade (estação de monta "antecipada". Para o quarto grupo (IPP4, usou-se o arquivo completo de dados, ou seja, os registros de todas as fêmeas nascidas no rebanho (n= 40.954. Foram considerados no modelo o efeito aleatório de animal e os efeitos fixos de grupo contemporâneo e os efeitos linear e quadrático de idade da mãe ao parto. As herdabilidades estimadas para IPP1, IPP2, IPP3 e IPP4 foram, respectivamente, 0,00; 0,11; 0,20 e 0,36.Heritability estimates of age at first calving (AFC were obtained from four different data sets from Nellore heifers. The first set (AFCI had information about heifers (n= 6,222 which were exposed only at 24 months of age. The second (AFC2 data set used all heifers (n= 15,746 with information about AFC. The third set (AFC3 included a restricted number of heifers (n= 9,524, which were exposed earlier to reproduction at 18 months of age. The fourth set (AFC4 had information about all heifers born on herd (n= 40,954. Analyses included as fixed effects the contemporary group and linear and quadratic effects of age of dam. Estimates of heritability for AFC1, AFC2, AFC3 and AFC4 were, respectively, 0.00, 0.11, 0.20 and 0.36. Age at first calving was affected by reproductive management.

  11. Characterization of transfer of passive immunity in dairy heifer calves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Elizondo-Salazar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the transfer of passive immunity in dairy heifer calves in Costa Rica. The data presented correspond to total serum protein (TSP measurements obtained in the period between 2010 and 2013, between August and November in 50 dairy farms. A total of 2500 heifer calves were sampled. Dams breed were classified into Holstein, Jersey, Holstein.Jersey crosses and others. For the purpose of this study, failure of passive immunity was considered when TSP concentration was less than 5.5 g/dl. TSP concentration ranged from 2.0 to 10.0, with an overall mean of 5.9 g/dl. Of all the calves evaluated, 38.8% presented failure of passive transfer of immunity. Calves born to Jersey and Holstein×Jersey crosses had significantly higher TSP concentrations than calves born to Holstein and other breeds. When considering calving of the dam, there were no significant differences on TSP concentration; however, offsprings born to first lactation heifers showed the lowest percentage of animals with failure of passive transfer of immunity. There were significant differences on TSP concentrations (P<0,05 between calves that were allowed to suckle their dams and calves that were given colostrum by bottle. Failure of passive transfer of immunity was higher when calves stayed with their dams (44% vs. 33%.

  12. Eficiência bionutricional de animais Nelore e seus mestiços com Simental e Aberdeen Angus, em duas dietas Bio-nutritional efficiency of Nellore and Nellore crosses with Angus and Simmental under two diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kepler Euclides Filho

    2001-02-01

    different genetic potentials for growth, such as Nellore (N, ½ Angus - ½ Nellore (AN and ½ Simmental - ½ Nellore (SN.This study is part of an ample project, which has as principal goal, to evaluate the efficiency of production of systems composed by animals with different mature sizes (Projeto cruzamento Embrapa 1. Using a bivariate analysis involving the variables average daily gain and dry matter intake, it was determined the first discriminant canonical function which was used for estimating performance indexes that were denominated bio-nutritional efficiency. The data were obtained from 72 animals under two diets, one composed by Tanzânia hay plus 600 g of ground soybean (diet A, provided ad libitum, and other where this hay was combined with a concentrate ration (diet B. The bio-nutritional efficiency was significantly affected by the interaction between genetic group (GG and diet (D. Thus, the least square means were compared by four different contrasts. These contrasts were, on diet B: C1 Nellore versus average of crossbreds and, C2 ½ Angus - ½ Nellore versus ½ Simmental - ½ Nellore. And on diet A: C3 Nellore versus crossbreds and, C4 ½ Angus - ½ Nellore versus ½ Simmental - ½ Nellore. The analyses of these contrasts revealed that, independently on diet, Nellore animals had a worst performance than the average observed for the F1s. The average of bio-nutritional efficiencies were equal to 429.74 and 490.46 for Nellore and crossbred animals, respectively, on diet B and, in the same sequence, 299.70 and 376.10 on diet A. Relatively to the F1 animals, their performances were dependent on diet. On diet A, the ½ Angus - ½ Nellore and ½ Simmental - ½ Nellore presented the same bio-nutritional efficiency (376.10 while on diet B, the ½ Angus - ½ Nellore were superiors (529.84 versus 451.09.

  13. Cost estimation of heifer mastitis in early lactation by stochastic modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijps, K.; Vliegher, de S.; Lam, C.; Hogeveen, H.

    2009-01-01

    Heifer mastitis, reflected by an elevated somatic cell count (SCC) in early lactation (SCCel), results in a decreased milk production, a higher risk for subclinical and clinical mastitis during lactation, and an elevated culling hazard. The aims of this study were to calculate the costs of heifer ma

  14. 7 CFR 59.103 - Mandatory weekly reporting for steers and heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mandatory weekly reporting for steers and heifers. 59... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Cattle Reporting § 59.103 Mandatory weekly reporting for steers and heifers. (a) In general. The corporate officers or officially designated representatives of each steer...

  15. Endocrine profiles during attainment of puberty may predict reproductive longevity in heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    We hypothesized that attainment of puberty through initiation and continuation of cyclic activity may be a predictor of reproductive longevity in heifers. Blood plasma was collected from 379 spring born heifers over four years from weaning to prior to breeding (October-June) in 2012-2015. Four pube...

  16. Uterine environment and pregnancy rate of heifers with elevated plasma urea nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diets high in protein are associated with lower reproductive performance and changes in the uterine environment. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of elevated systemic concentrations of urea nitrogen on the uterine environment and pregnancy success in beef heifers. Heifers (n...

  17. Hair coat characteristics in Friesian heifers in the Netherlands and Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Udo, H.M.J.

    1978-01-01

    The export of about 2600 Friesian heifers to Kenya between 1971-1973 provided an opportunity of studying the adaptation problems experienced by these heifers. Within the framework of the NUFFIC (Netherlands Universities Foundation for International Cooperation) a research project entitled 'Adaptatio

  18. Effect of diet energy level and genomic residual feed intake on dairy heifer performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the growth, feed intake, and feed efficiency of dairy heifers with different genomically predicted residual feed intakes (RFI), and offered diets differing in energy density. Post-bred Holstein heifers (N=128; ages 14-20 months) were blocked by initial we...

  19. Effect of limit feeding and genomic residual feed intake on bred dairy heifer performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate growth, intake, and feed efficiency of dairy heifers with different predicted genomic residual feed intakes as lactating cows (RFI) offered diets for ad-libitum intake or limit-fed. Post-bred Holstein heifers (128, ages 14-20 months), were blocked by initi...

  20. Heritability estimate of yearling and post-yearling muscle index in Nellore cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Cesarino Coutinho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate heritability of carcass muscle index (MI in yearling (MIy and post-yearling (MIp Nellore cattle. MI is the measure of longissimus muscle area (LMA expressed in relation to body weight (MI=100×LMA/BW, being an indicative of animal muscularity. The records of LMA, obtained by ultrasound, and body weight (BW were from the three Nellore herds reared at Centro APTA Bovinos de Corte, Instituto de Zootecnia, Sertãozinho-SP, born between 1999 to 2011, excepting 1998, 2000 and 2003. The measures were collected when the animals were on average 372 ± 26 days (yearling and 562 ± 33 days (post-yearling of age. The animals are progeny of 163 bulls and relationship matrix included 3436 animals. Variance components were estimated by REML in two single-trait analyses. The model included the fixed effects of contemporary group (herd-year-sex, i=1, …, 48, month of birth (j=1, …, 3 and dam age (linear and quadratic effects and animal age at measurement (linear effect, and random effects of animal and residual. The average of LMA and BW were: 48.4 ± 10.7 cm² and 287±59 kg; 50.5 ± 9.2 cm² and 339 ± 64 kg, respectively for yearling and post-yearling. Despite the differences between yearling and post-yearling LMA and BW (plus 2.2 cm ² and 52 kg at post-yearling than yearling, the same was not observed for MI. BW has increased from yearling to post-yearling, LMA has not increased proportionally, and MIps was smaller than MIy. The heritability estimates for IMy and IMp were medium to high magnitude indicating that part of the variation in these traits are attributable to genes of additive effects. In previous studies, the heritability of LMA at yearling was also higher than heritability of LMA at post-yearling, however, heritability of yearling weight was lower than heritability of post-yearling weight. More studies are required to estimate genetic correlations of MIy and MIp and weight and percentage of retail

  1. Sex effect on growing and feeding efficiency in young Nellore bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Pinheiro dos Santos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have reported differences between male and female cattle in growing and body composition. The differences occur mainly by hormonal factors, however, there is little information about the relationship between sex and feed efficiency traits in beef cattle. The residual feeding intake (RFI is a feed efficiency measurement and has been an alternative to improve the profit in beef production system. It is defined as the difference between dry matter intake observed and estimated by regression in function of weight gain and metabolic body weight. More efficient animals have the intake observed smaller than the predicted (low RFI, unlike the less efficient ones have the intake bigger than predicted (high RFI. This study aimed to evaluate the sex effect (male and female on growing and feeding efficiency traits in young Nellore bulls selected for post weaning weight. Data from males and females Nellore animals obtained during RFI evaluation tests were utilized. The tests were performed at Centro APTA Bovinos de Corte – Instituto de Zootecnia - Sertãozinho-SP, between 2005 and 2011. The tests duration ranged from 56 to 112 days, with the adaption period raging from 28 to 56 days, depending of the year. At the tests beginning the animals had, on average, 286 ± 42 days of age. The traits analyzed were initial body weight (IBW, final body weight (FBW, average daily gain (ADG, dry matter intake (DMI and RFI. Data were analyzed using de GLM procedure of the SAS program. The model of analyses included the fixed effects of contemporary group (year and selection line, sex (male and female and age at the beginning of test as linear covariate. Means of growing traits were different between sex (Table 1, being males heavier than females at the begging (35.28% and at the end (29.17% of the test . Males gained 29% more weight than females. Considering DMI, males consumed 21% more food than females. These results showed that males had greater feed

  2. Camelina meal and crude glycerin as feed supplements for developing replacement beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriel, P; Nayigihugu, V; Cappellozza, B I; Gonçalves, E P; Krall, J M; Foulke, T; Cammack, K M; Hess, B W

    2011-12-01

    Angus × Gelbvieh rotationally crossbred yearling heifers (n = 99, yr 1; n = 105, yr 2) were used in a 2-yr randomized complete block design experiment with repeated measures to determine the effect of feeding camelina biodiesel coproducts (meal and crude glycerin) on serum concentrations of triiodothyronine, thyroxine, insulin, β-hydroxybutyrate, and glucose, as well as on growth and reproductive performance. Heifers were assigned to 1 of 15 pens, and pens were assigned initially to receive 7.03 k·•heifer(-1)·d(-1) of bromegrass hay plus 0.95 kg·heifer(-1)·d(-1) of 1 of 3 supplements for 60 d before breeding: 1) control (50% ground corn and 50% soybean meal, as-fed basis); 2) mechanically extracted camelina meal; or 3) crude glycerin (50% soybean meal, 33% ground corn, 15% crude glycerin, 2% corn gluten meal; as-fed basis). Preprandial blood samples were collected via the jugular vein on d 0, 30, and 60 of the feeding period. A 2-injection PGF(2α) protocol (d 60 and 70 of the study) was used to synchronize estrus. Heifers were artificially inseminated 12 h after estrus was first detected. Heifers not detected in estrus within 66 h received a GnRH injection and were artificially inseminated. Dietary treatment × sampling period interactions were not detected (P = 0.17 to 0.87). Dietary treatment did not affect BW (P = 0.44 to 0.59) or serum concentrations of thyroxine (P = 0.96), β-hydroxybutyrate (P = 0.46), glucose (P = 0.59), or insulin (P = 0.44). Serum concentrations of triiodothyronine were greater (P = 0.05) in heifers fed camelina meal. Additionally, dietary treatment did not affect the percentage of heifers detected in estrus before timed AI (P = 0.83), first-service pregnancy rates of those heifers detected in estrus (P = 0.97), or overall first-service pregnancy rates (P = 0.58). Heifers fed camelina meal, however, had greater (P = 0.05) first-service pregnancy rates to timed AI than did heifers fed the control and crude glycerin supplements

  3. Effect of monensin on the estrogen-induced LH surge in prepuberal heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randel, R D; Rutter, L M; Rhodes, R D

    1982-04-01

    The effect of dietary monensin on the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge following estradiol-17 beta (E2) injection was investigated in prepuberal Simmental X Brahman-Hereford heifers. Ten heifers, weighing approximately 260 kg and approximately 10 mo of age, were equally divided by age and weight into two groups: control (C) heifers each received 1.8 kg/d of a concentrate diet plus Coastal bermudagrass hay ad libitum; monensin (M) heifers each received the same diet plus 200 mg monensin/d. All heifers were maintained in dry lots on their respective diets for 14 d before the E2 challenge. On d 15, all heifers were injected in with 5 mg of E2 in corn oil. Blood samples were collected via tail vessel puncture immediately before E2 injection and at 2-h intervals until 48 h after the E2 injection. The samples were processed for serum and stored at -20 degrees C until LH concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. Mean concentrations of LH in serum differed (P less than .005) between C and M heifers and with time after E2 injection. A treatment X sampling period interaction (P less than .10) indicated that maximum serum concentrations of LH (LH surge) were detected earlier (P less than .001) for M (17.2 +/- 1.8 h) than C (27.0 +/- 6.0 h) heifers after the E2 injection. When the data were arrayed relative to the time of the LH surge, treatment (P less than .05) and sampling period (P less than .001) effects were significant, but a treatment X sampling period interaction was not detected. Peak LH concentration was 23.1 +/- 3.0 ng/ml for M heifers and 21.6+/- 4.2 ng/ml for controls (P greater than .10). Duration of the LH surge was 8.0 +/- .9 h in M heifers and 4.8 +/- 1.6 h in C heifers (P less than .001). Area under the LH surge was greater (P less than .001) in M heifers than in control heifers. We conclude that dietary monensin altered the estrogen-induced LH surge in prepuberal heifers.

  4. Nutrition, metabolic profiles and puberty in Brahman (Bos indicus) beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi, F; Blache, D; Martin, G B; D'Occhio, M J

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to gain an improved understanding of the relationships between body weight (BW), body condition (BCS), and metabolic homeostasis, and the attainment of puberty in Brahman heifers in a subtropical environment. Brahman heifers (200±3kg BW; 2.00±0.0 BCS) were assigned to a moderate nutrition (MN, n=11) or improved nutrition (IN, n=11) treatment from 11 to 23 months-of-age. The heifers were monitored at regular intervals for circulating concentrations of GH, IGF-1, insulin, glucose and leptin, and ovarian follicular activity was recorded until the first ovulation. From approximately 16 months of age, heifers on IN had a greater (PBrahman heifers on IN had a metabolic homeostasis that was supportive of reproductive maturation and puberty. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of the administration of flunixin meglumine on pregnancy rates in Holstein heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzeloglu, A; Erdem, H; Saribay, M K; Thatcher, W W; Tekeli, T

    2007-03-24

    Fifty-two 15-month-old Holstein heifers were synchronised with single or double injections of prostaglandin F(2alpha), followed by an injection of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (gnrh) 48 hours later, and inseminated 12 to 14 hours after the injection of gnrh (day 0). Half of them were then injected twice intramuscularly with 1.1 mg/kg flunixin meglumine 12 hours apart, on the evening of day 15 and the morning of day 16, and the other 26 were not treated. Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasound 29 and 65 days after they were inseminated. On day 29, 20 of the treated heifers were pregnant compared with 13 of the control heifers (P<0.05); on day 65, 18 of the treated heifers were still pregnant compared with 12 of the control heifers (P<0.10).

  6. Ability of heifers to discriminate between familiar herdmates and members of an unfamiliar group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koba, Yuki; Munksgaard, Lene; Tanida, Hajime

    2009-01-01

    Using a preference test and operant conditioning in a Y-maze, this experiment examined the ability of heifers to discriminate between their own familiar herdmates and member(s) of an unfamiliar group. Sixteen Danish Friesian heifers, eight older animals (360.6 ± 24.2 days of age) and eight younger...... individual in the Y-maze. The test was repeated 12 times, with a different unfamiliar subject for each test. In experiment 2, eight heifers were individually tested in a conditioning experiment to examine whether they could learn to discriminate between a group of their three herdmates and a group of three......, heifers did not show a preference toward familiar or unfamiliar individuals; but after conditioning, some heifers could learn to discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar groups....

  7. Effects of Rumen Protozoa of Brahman Heifers and Nitrate on Fermentation and In vitro Methane Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, S H; Li, L; Hegarty, R S

    2016-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted assessing the effects of presence or absence of rumen protozoa and dietary nitrate addition on rumen fermentation characteristics and in vitro methane production in Brahman heifers. The first experiment assessed changes in rumen fermentation pattern and in vitro methane production post-refaunation and the second experiment investigated whether addition of nitrate to the incubation would give rise to methane mitigation additional to that contributed by defaunation. Ten Brahman heifers were progressively adapted to a diet containing 4.5% coconut oil distillate for 18 d and then all heifers were defaunated using sodium 1-(2-sulfonatooxyethoxy) dodecane (Empicol). After 15 d, the heifers were given a second dose of Empicol. Fifteen days after the second dosing, all heifers were allocated to defaunated or refaunated groups by stratified randomisation, and the experiment commenced (d 0). On d 0, an oral dose of rumen fluid collected from unrelated faunated cattle was used to inoculate 5 heifers and form a refaunated group so that the effects of re-establishment of protozoa on fermentation characteristics could be investigated. Samples of rumen fluid collected from each animal using oesophageal intubation before feeding on d 0, 7, 14, and 21 were incubated for in vitro methane production. On d 35, 2% nitrate (as NaNO3) was included in in vitro incubations to test for additivity of nitrate and absence of protozoa effects on fermentation and methane production. It was concluded that increasing protozoal numbers were associated with increased methane production in refaunated heifers 7, 14, and 21 d after refaunation. Methane production rate was significantly higher from refaunated heifers than from defaunated heifers 35 d after refaunation. Concentration and proportions of major volatile fatty acids, however, were not affected by protozoal treatments. There is scope for further reducing methane output through combining defaunation and dietary

  8. Effects of Rumen Protozoa of Brahman Heifers and Nitrate on Fermentation and Methane Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Nguyen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted assessing the effects of presence or absence of rumen protozoa and dietary nitrate addition on rumen fermentation characteristics and in vitro methane production in Brahman heifers. The first experiment assessed changes in rumen fermentation pattern and in vitro methane production post-refaunation and the second experiment investigated whether addition of nitrate to the incubation would give rise to methane mitigation additional to that contributed by defaunation. Ten Brahman heifers were progressively adapted to a diet containing 4.5% coconut oil distillate for 18 d and then all heifers were defaunated using sodium 1-(2-sulfonatooxyethoxy dodecane (Empicol. After 15 d, the heifers were given a second dose of Empicol. Fifteen days after the second dosing, all heifers were allocated to defaunated or refaunated groups by stratified randomisation, and the experiment commenced (d 0. On d 0, an oral dose of rumen fluid collected from unrelated faunated cattle was used to inoculate 5 heifers and form a refaunated group so that the effects of re-establishment of protozoa on fermentation characteristics could be investigated. Samples of rumen fluid collected from each animal using oesophageal intubation before feeding on d 0, 7, 14, and 21 were incubated for in vitro methane production. On d 35, 2% nitrate (as NaNO3 was included in in vitro incubations to test for additivity of nitrate and absence of protozoa effects on fermentation and methane production. It was concluded that increasing protozoal numbers were associated with increased methane production in refaunated heifers 7, 14, and 21 d after refaunation. Methane production rate was significantly higher from refaunated heifers than from defaunated heifers 35 d after refaunation. Concentration and proportions of major volatile fatty acids, however, were not affected by protozoal treatments. There is scope for further reducing methane output through combining

  9. Genetic parameters and alternatives for evaluation and ranking of Nellore young bulls in pasture performance tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno de Oliveira Fragomeni

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate (covariance components for weight at 550 days, average daily gain and an index with both traits, and to compare alternatives for evaluation and ranking of Nellore young bulls in pasture performance tests. The heritability estimates were 0.73, 0.31 and 0.44 for weight at 550 days, average daily gain and index, respectively. Animals were ranked according to their predicted breeding values or the phenotypic deviations in relation to the mean of the test. Although the correlations between breeding values and phenotypic deviations were high, there were differences in the number of animals selected in common when the selection criteria were the predicted breeding values or the phenotypic deviations. Mixed models are more appropriate than the least squares method and should be utilized in the evaluation of young bulls in performance tests.

  10. Genome-Wide Association Study for Indicator Traits of Sexual Precocity in Nellore Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irano, Natalia; de Camargo, Gregório Miguel Ferreira; Costa, Raphael Bermal; Terakado, Ana Paula Nascimento; Magalhães, Ana Fabrícia Braga; Silva, Rafael Medeiros de Oliveira; Dias, Marina Mortati; Bignardi, Annaiza Braga; Baldi, Fernando; Carvalheiro, Roberto; de Oliveira, Henrique Nunes; de Albuquerque, Lucia Galvão

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to detect chromosome regions associated with indicator traits of sexual precocity in Nellore cattle. Data from Nellore animals belonging to farms which participate in the DeltaGen® and Paint® animal breeding programs, were used. The traits used in this study were the occurrence of early pregnancy (EP) and scrotal circumference (SC). Data from 72,675 females and 83,911 males with phenotypes were used; of these, 1,770 females and 1,680 males were genotyped. The SNP effects were estimated with a single-step procedure (WssGBLUP) and the observed phenotypes were used as dependent variables. All animals with available genotypes and phenotypes, in addition to those with only phenotypic information, were used. A single-trait animal model was applied to predict breeding values and the solutions of SNP effects were obtained from these breeding values. The results of GWAS are reported as the proportion of variance explained by windows with 150 adjacent SNPs. The 10 windows that explained the highest proportion of variance were identified. The results of this study indicate the polygenic nature of EP and SC, demonstrating that the indicator traits of sexual precocity studied here are probably controlled by many genes, including some of moderate effect. The 10 windows with large effects obtained for EP are located on chromosomes 5, 6, 7, 14, 18, 21 and 27, and together explained 7.91% of the total genetic variance. For SC, these windows are located on chromosomes 4, 8, 11, 13, 14, 19, 22 and 23, explaining 6.78% of total variance. GWAS permitted to identify chromosome regions associated with EP and SC. The identification of these regions contributes to a better understanding and evaluation of these traits, and permits to indicate candidate genes for future investigation of causal mutations. PMID:27494397

  11. Physiological and behavioral responses of Nellore steers to artificial shading in an intensive production system

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    Diogo Alves da Costa Ferro

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of artificial shading on environmental variables and on behavioral responses of Nellore steers in an intensive production system was evaluated in this study. The experiment was conducted in the experimental feedlot of the Department of Animal Science at Universidade Estadual de Goiás, from July to October 2014. Forty-eight male Nellore cattle with an average initial weight of 310 kg were kept in double 24-m2 stalls, in a total of 24 stalls. Of these, six were in the open air; six were covered with black shade netting of 30% light interception; six with black shade netting 50%; and six with black shade netting 80%, providing 6 m2 of shade per stall. Temperature-humidity index (THI and respiratory frequency (RF were assessed twice weekly and behavior was evaluated fortnightly during 12 h, between 06:00 h and 18.00 h. Feeding behavior, rumination, rest, and social activities such as body care and playful and abnormal activities were observed. A significant increase was found in THI and RF as the shading levels decreased, while a significant difference was recorded in rest and in other activities, water intake, and play behavior. Rest time and playful behavior increased significantly, and other activities and water intake decreased with the increase in shading levels. Shading does not change the time spent on feeding behaviors and rumination, or the frequencies of urination, defecation, cleaning other animals, self-cleaning, and social and abnormal types of behavior. The use of black shade netting of 80% light interception provides greater comfort to animals, promoting welfare and quality of life to them.

  12. Histopathological and histomorphometric testicular characteristics associated to reproductive condition in Bos indicus (Nellore bulls

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    Kethleen Mesquita da Silva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate morphological, morphometric and functional aspects of spermatogenesis based on reproductive conditions of Nellore bulls. The study used 25 bulls Bos indicus (Nellore, which were classified as satisfactory (n=10 and unsatisfactory (n=15 for reproduction. After orchiectomy, fragments of the right testis of each animal were processed routinely and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS. The slides were analyzed in bright field microscopy at different magnifications. The tubular segments were classified into four levels (normal, mild and moderate degeneration, severe degeneration, and tubular hypoplasia based on the organization and architecture of the tubular tissue. The average height of the seminiferous epithelium, the average thickness of propria tunic and the average tubular diameter were obtained and the proportion of seminiferous tubules, interstitial tissue, lymphatic vessel and blood vessel of each bull testicle were recorded. Furthermore, the frequency of the three classifications of the spermatogenic cycle A, B and C (A = group of stages I, II, and III which comprise the initial phases of the cycle and mitotic proliferation, B = group of stages IV and V, which comprise intermediate phases and intensive mitosis, C = group stages VI, VII and VIII which comprise the final phases and post-meiosis was compared. The results showed that the degenerative changes in germ cells are associated with histomorphometric variations, including those in the density of the structures that comprise the testicular parenchyma, and are more representative in bulls with poor semen quality. In addition, the unsatisfactory bulls for reproduction showed reduced meiotic potential compared to that of satisfactory reproductive bulls.

  13. Use of calcareous algae and monensin in Nellore cattle subjected to an abrupt change in diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Ferreira Carvalho

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Additives are used in high concentrate diets to prevent metabolic disorders in cattle. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of calcium sources and monensin on the control of ruminal acidosis in Nellore cattle that were abruptly shifted to a high (92.3% concentrate diet. Eight cannulated steers were randomly assigned to two contemporary 4x4 Latin square. Treatments involved the addition of a calcium source, either limestone (LI or a product derived from calcareous algae (CA, to the basic diet with or without the presence of monensin. Calcareous alga (Lithothamnium calcareum is a natural and renewable product and a source of calcium carbonate. The quantity of added limestone, calcareous algae and monensin was 7.1g kg-1, 7.4g kg-1 and 30mg kg-1 DM, respectively. There was no effect of calcium source (P=0.607 or monensin (P=0.294 on feed intake or on the concentration of short chain fatty acids. Treatments with calcareous algae resulted in a higher mean ruminal pH (P=0.039, a shorter amount of time with the ruminal pH under 5.2 (P<0.001 and a better control of blood pH (P=0.006. Treatments with monensin also resulted in a shorter amount of time with the ruminal pH below 5.2 (P=0.023. Calcareous algae were shown to be effective in controlling adverse changes in the rumen and in blood variables for Nellore cattle that were subjected to an abrupt change to a high concentrate diet.

  14. Genetic control of residual variance of yearling weight in Nellore beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iung, L H S; Neves, H H R; Mulder, H A; Carvalheiro, R

    2017-04-01

    There is evidence for genetic variability in residual variance of livestock traits, which offers the potential for selection for increased uniformity of production. Different statistical approaches have been employed to study this topic; however, little is known about the concordance between them. The aim of our study was to investigate the genetic heterogeneity of residual variance on yearling weight (YW; 291.15 ± 46.67) in a Nellore beef cattle population; to compare the results of the statistical approaches, the two-step approach and the double hierarchical generalized linear model (DHGLM); and to evaluate the effectiveness of power transformation to accommodate scale differences. The comparison was based on genetic parameters, accuracy of EBV for residual variance, and cross-validation to assess predictive performance of both approaches. A total of 194,628 yearling weight records from 625 sires were used in the analysis. The results supported the hypothesis of genetic heterogeneity of residual variance on YW in Nellore beef cattle and the opportunity of selection, measured through the genetic coefficient of variation of residual variance (0.10 to 0.12 for the two-step approach and 0.17 for DHGLM, using an untransformed data set). However, low estimates of genetic variance associated with positive genetic correlations between mean and residual variance (about 0.20 for two-step and 0.76 for DHGLM for an untransformed data set) limit the genetic response to selection for uniformity of production while simultaneously increasing YW itself. Moreover, large sire families are needed to obtain accurate estimates of genetic merit for residual variance, as indicated by the low heritability estimates (variance on the mean and decreased the estimates of genetic parameters for residual variance. The transformation reduced but did not eliminate all the genetic heterogeneity of residual variance, highlighting its presence beyond the scale effect. The DHGLM showed higher

  15. Influence of immunocastration (Bopriva® in weight gain, carcass characteristics and meat quality of Nellore

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    Nayara Andreo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was evaluate the effects of immunocastration on body weight gain, carcass characteristics and meat quality of Nellore beef cattle. Eighty Nellore beef cattle, with initial body weight of 357±8.63 kg, were placed in feedlots and distributed in two treatments (40 animals per treatments as follow: one - non-vaccinated bulls and two - immunocastrated bulls (Bopriva®, Pfizer Animal Health. The animals placed on treatment two were vaccinated in two doses, first application 30 days before they arrive on the feedlots and second on the day they arrive on feedlots. After 67 days of experimental period, was calculated the daily gain of live weight in kg/day of the 80 animals and selected 20 animals from each treatment for the slaughter and carcass evaluations, and ten from each group for the meat analyzes. The data were submitted to analysis of variance. Immunocastrated animals showed lower daily weight gain, hot carcass weight, carcass yield, pH, leg thickness, muscle depth, loin muscle area, carcass muscle percentage, shear force and moisture. However, this animals had higher concentration of lactate and cortisol blood, chest depth, fat thickness, finishing degree, a *, b * and c*, liquid loss in thawing process, myofibrillar fragmentation index and ether extract of meat when compared to non-vaccinated bulss. The immunocastration (Bopriva® is an alternative for improving the quality of meat by the higher fat deposition and by the reduction of the shear force of the meat when compared to non-vaccinated bulls.

  16. Digestion and metabolism of low and high residual feed intake Nellore bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilha, Sarah Figueiredo Martins; Branco, Renata Helena; Mercadante, Maria Eugênia Zerlotti; Dos Santos Gonçalves Cyrillo, Joslaine Noely; Monteiro, Fábio Morato; Ribeiro, Enilson Geraldo

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the reasons why animals of similar performances have different feed requirements is important to increase profits for cattle producers and to decrease the environmental footprint of beef cattle production. This study was carried out aiming to identify the associations between residual feed intake (RFI) and animal performance, nutrient digestibility, and blood metabolites related to energy balance of young Nellore bulls during the finishing period. Animals previously classified as low (n = 13) and high RFI (n = 12), with average initial body weight of 398 kg and age of 503 days were used. Cattle were fed a high energy diet and were slaughtered when rib fat thickness measured by ultrasound between the 12th and 13th ribs reached the minimum of 4 mm. A completely randomized design was adopted, being data analyzed with a mixed model that included the random effect of slaughter group, the fixed effect of RFI class, and linear effect of the covariate feedlot time. No differences were found (p > 0.10) between RFI classes for performance, dry matter, and nutrients intake. However, dry (p = 0.0911) and organic matter (p = 0.0876) digestibility tended to be lower, and digestibility of neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (p = 0.0017), and total digestible nutrients (p = 0.0657) were lower for high RFI animals, indicating lesser capacity of food utilization. Difference between low and high RFI animals was also found for blood cortisol at the end of the trial (p = 0.0044), having low RFI animals lower cortisol concentrations. Differences in the ability to digest food can affect the efficiency of transforming feed into meat by Nellore cattle.

  17. Avaliação psicológica de meninas com puberdade precoce central idiopática antes e durante o bloqueio puberal com análogos de GnRH

    OpenAIRE

    Tais Alencar Santos Menk

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: A puberdade é considerada precoce quando ocorre antes dos 8 anos nas meninas. É classificada como puberdade precoce central (PPC) quando decorre da ativação prematura do eixo gonadotrófico e é considerada idiopática quando não há alteração no sistema nervoso central. O bloqueio puberal com análogos de GnRH é o tratamento de escolha da PPC e visa a regressão ou estabilização dos caracteres sexuais secundários, desaceleração da velocidade de crescimento e da maturação óssea com melh...

  18. La urgencia del despertar puberal

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez, Pablo Nicolás

    2015-01-01

    En el marco del proyecto promocional de investigación de la Facultad de Psicología de la UNLP, denominado “Adolescencia: Elproblema del diagnóstico diferencial en las presentaciones enloquecidas”, este trabajo pretende dar cuenta de la urgencia subjetiva como forma habitual en la que se presentan clínicamente los sufrimientos subjetivos de los jóvenes en la actualidad. Tal objetivo se abordará teniendo como referencia la práctica del psicoanálisis en el marco de la asistencia pública en salud...

  19. Pubertad precoz y retraso puberal

    OpenAIRE

    Pozo Román, J.; Muñoz Calvo, M.T.

    2011-01-01

    La edad en que la pubertad se inicia es muy variable y, en condiciones normales, está infl uenciada, además de por el sexo, por factores genéticos y ambientales. Su presentación precoz o tardía puede ser una simple variación extrema de la normalidad o el refl ejo de alguna de las múltiples patologías que pueden infl uir o condicionar el momento de su aparición. En cualquier caso, aun en ausencia de patología, el desarrollo de los caracteres sexuales secundarios a una e...

  20. Protein metabolism, feed energy partitioning, behavior patterns and plasma cortisol in Nellore steers with high and low residual feed intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo da Costa Gomes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate protein turnover, nitrogen balance, feed energy partitioning, behavior patterns and plasma cortisol in Nellore (B. indicus cattle with high and low residual feed intake (RFI = actual minus expected dry matter intake. Seventy-two Nellore steers (16 to 21 months-old, 334±19 kg initial body weight were fed a feedlot diet for 70 days ad libitum. Daily dry matter intake (DMI and average daily gain (ADG were recorded individually and RFI was calculated. The 12 steers of lowest (Low-RFI, most efficient RFI and the 12 ones of highest RFI (High-RFI, least efficient were evaluated with respect to their behavior patterns and plasma cortisol concentration. Urine was collected for determination of daily 3-methylhistidine excretion (3MH and myofibrillar protein breakdown rates. Urinary, gaseous and fecal energy losses were determined as well as the N retention and excretion. High-RFI steers tended to have shorter lying and idle periods and greater feeding time and plasma cortisol levels than low-RFI cattle. No RFI effects were seen for urine 3MH excretion and for rates of protein degradation and synthesis. No effects of efficiency class were observed for N excretion or N retention. No RFI effects were observed for dry matter digestibility, digestible energy (DE and metabolizable energy (ME content and DE/ME ratio. Methane energy losses were lower for low-compared with high-RFI steers. Protein turnover seems not to affect feed efficiency in Nellore steers. Improved RFI in Nellore steers is probably associated with lower degrees of activity and responsiveness to stress and lower losses of dietary energy as methane.

  1. Calf form bovine leukosis with lameness in a Holstein heifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfeeq, Mohammad Monir; Miura, Saori; Nakanishi, Yuuki; Sugimoto, Kazuya; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu; Furuoka, Hidefumi; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2012-09-01

    A 12-month-old Holstein heifer with anorexia, lameness, and enlargement of peripheral lymph nodes was suspected of having bovine leukosis. Although lymphocytosis was not observed, cytology of fine needle aspirate from a superficial cervical node, and increased serum lactate dehydrogenase and thymidine kinase activities, strongly suggested lymphosarcoma. Increased numbers of mononuclear cells as well as mitotic cells were observed in synovial fluid collected from swollen joints. Pathological examination confirmed B-cell calf form bovine leukosis and joint swelling related to neoplastic cell infiltration. Both interleukin-2 receptor and thymidine kinase 1 genes were highly expressed in cells from superficial cervical lymph node aspirate.

  2. Efficiency and rumen responses in younger and older Holstein heifers limit-fed diets of differing energy density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanton, G I; Heinrichs, A J

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of limit feeding diets of different predicted energy density on the efficiency of utilization of feed and nitrogen and rumen responses in younger and older Holstein heifers. Eight rumen-cannulated Holstein heifers (4 heifers beginning at 257 ± 7 d, hereafter "young," and 4 heifers beginning at 610 ± 16 d, hereafter "old") were limit-fed high [HED; 2.64 Mcal/kg of dry matter (DM), 15.31% crude protein (CP)] or low (LED; 2.42 Mcal/kg of DM, 14.15% CP) energy density diets according to a 4-period, split-plot Latin square design with 28-d periods. Diets were limit-fed to provide isonitrogenous and isoenergetic intake on a rumen empty body weight (BW) basis at a level predicted to support approximately 800 g/d of average daily gain. During the last 7d of each period, rumen contents were subsampled over a 24-h period, rumen contents were completely evacuated, and total collection of feces and urine was made over 4d. Intakes of DM and water were greater for heifers fed LED, although, by design, calculated intake of metabolizable energy did not differ between age groups or diets when expressed relative to rumen empty BW. Rumen pH was lower, ammonia (NH3-N) concentration tended to be higher, and volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration was not different for HED compared with LED and was unaffected by age group. Rumen content mass was greater for heifers fed LED and for old heifers, so when expressing rumen fermentation responses corrected for this difference in pool size, NH3-N pool size was not different between diets and total moles of VFA in the rumen were greater for heifers fed LED, whereas these pool sizes were greater for old heifers. Total-tract digestibility of potentially digestible neutral detergent fiber (NDF) was greater in heifers fed LED and for young heifers, whereas the fractional rate of ruminal passage and digestion of NDF were both greater in heifers fed LED. Digestibility of N was greater for

  3. EFFECT OF SEVERAL STRUCTURES OF CONTEMPORARY GROUPS ON ESTIMATES OF (COVARIANCE AND GENETIC PARAMETERS FOR WEANING WEIGHT IN NELLORE CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lillian Pascoa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We used actual and adjusted weights to 120 d and 210 d of age of 72,731 male and female Nellore calves born in 40 PMGRN - Nellore Brazil herds from 1985 to 2005 aiming to compare the effect of different definitions of contemporary groups on estimates of (covariance and genetic parameters. Four models, each one with a different structure of contemporary group (CG, were compared using the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC, the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC, and the Consistent Akaike Information Criterion (CAIC. (Covariance estimates were obtained using a derivative-free restricted maximum likelihood procedure. Estimates of (covariances and genetic parameters were similar for the four models considered. However, the BIC and CAIC indicated that the most appropriate model for this Nellore population was the one that considered CG to be random, and sex of calf to be fixed and separate from CG, in which CG was defined as the group of calves born in the same herd, year, season of birth (trimester, and undergone the same management.

  4. Efeitos ambientais que afetam o ganho de peso pré-desmama em animais Angus, Hereford, Nelore e mestiços Angus-Nelore e Hereford-Nelore Enviromental effects on preweaning daily gain in Angus, Hereford, Nellore and Angus X Nellore and Hereford X Nellore crosses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo de Almeida Teixeira

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados dados de 66.035 animais das raças Nelore, Hereford, Angus e mestiços Nelore x Angus e Nelore x Hereford, para avaliar a influência da idade da vaca, idade do bezerro e data juliana de nascimento sobre o ganho médio diário dos bezerros no período pré-desmama (GMD. A análise estatística revelou que estas três covariáveis tiveram efeito significativo sobre o GMD. Observou-se também que o ajuste linear para idade à desmama não foi suficiente para retirar o seu efeito sobre o GMD. Estes resultados mostram que tais fatores ambientais podem ser importantes fontes de variação para esta característica nos programas de melhoramento genético.66.035 records from Nellore, Hereford, Angus and Nellore x Angus and Nellore x Hereford crossbred calves were analyzed to estimate the influence of cow age, age at weaning and the julian birth date on average daily gain from birth to weaning. The statistical analysis indicated that these three covariates had significant effects on this trait. Furthermore, the linear adjustment for age at weaning was not enough to remove this effect on the average daily gain. These results show that these environmental effects can be an important variation source for this trait in animal improvement programs.

  5. Differences in Beef Quality between Angus (Bos taurus taurus) and Nellore (Bos taurus indicus) Cattle through a Proteomic and Phosphoproteomic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Rafael Torres de Souza; Chizzotti, Mario Luiz; Vital, Camilo Elber; Baracat-Pereira, Maria Cristina; Barros, Edvaldo; Busato, Karina Costa; Gomes, Rafael Aparecido; Ladeira, Márcio Machado; Martins, Taiane da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Proteins are the major constituents of muscle and are key molecules regulating the metabolic changes during conversion of muscle to meat. Brazil is one of the largest exporters of beef and most Brazilian cattle are composed by zebu (Nellore) genotype. Bos indicus beef is generally leaner and tougher than Bos taurus such as Angus. The aim of this study was to compare the muscle proteomic and phosphoproteomic profile of Angus and Nellore. Seven animals of each breed previously subjected the same growth management were confined for 84 days. Proteins were extracted from Longissimus lumborum samples collected immediately after slaughter and separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Pro-Q Diamond stain was used in phosphoproteomics. Proteins identification was performed using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Tropomyosin alpha-1 chain, troponin-T, myosin light chain-1 fragment, cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase, alpha-enolase and 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein were more abundant in Nellore, while myosin light chain 3, prohibitin, mitochondrial stress-70 protein and heat shock 70 kDa protein 6 were more abundant in Angus (Pbeef quality between Angus and Nellore. Furthermore, prohibitin appears to be a potential biomarker of intramuscular fat in cattle. Additionally, differences in phosphorylation of myofilaments and glycolytic enzymes could be involved with differences in muscle contraction force, susceptibility to calpain, apoptosis and postmortem glycolysis, which might also be related to differences in beef quality among Angus and Nellore.

  6. A genetic Study of Mortality in Danish Jersey Heifer Calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norberg, Elise; Pryce, Jennie; Pedersen, Jørn

    2013-01-01

    . The mortality traits included in the analysis were defined as mortality in 8 different periods from 24h after birth to age 180d (d 1–14, d 15–30, d 31–60, d 61–90, d 91–120, d 121–150, and d 151–180) and mortality over the entire period. A linear model was used for estimation of genetic parameters, breeding......The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for mortality of Jersey heifer calves during the first 6mo after birth, calculate the genetic trend of the trait, and estimate breeding values of widely used Jersey sires. More than 260,000 heifer calves were included in the study...... values of sires, and genetic trend. Fixed effects included in the model were herd-year class, month of birth, parity of mother, and whether the calf was sold to another farm in the first 6mo. Both direct and maternal genetic effects were included in the model; however, the maternal genetic effect...

  7. Detection of bias in animal model pedigree indices of heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. LIDAUER

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to test whether the pedigree indices (PI of heifers are biased, and if so, whether the magnitude of the bias varies in different groups of heifers. Therefore, two animal model evaluations with two different data sets were computed. Data with all the records from the national evaluation in December 1994 was used to obtain estimated breeding values (EBV for 305-days' milk yield and protein yield. In the second evaluation, the PIs were estimated for cows calving the first time in 1993 by excluding all their production records from the data. Three different statistics, a simple t-test, the linear regression of EBV on PI, and the polynomial regression of the difference in the predictions (EBV-PI on PI, were computed for three groups of first parity Ayrshire cows: daughters of proven sires, daughters of young sires, and daughters of bull dam candidates. A practically relevant bias was found only in the PIs for the daughters of young sires. On average their PIs were biased upwards by 0.20 standard deviations (78.8 kg for the milk yield and by 0.21 standard deviations (2.2 kg for the protein yield. The polynomial regression analysis showed that the magnitude of the bias in the PIs changed somewhat with the size of the PIs.;

  8. Production performance of beef cows raised on three different nutritionally controlled heifer development programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freetly, H C; Ferrell, C L; Jenkins, T G

    2001-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine primiparous heifer performance following three different heifer development strategies that were the result of timed nutrient limitation. Two hundred eighty-two spring-born MARC III heifers were weaned at 203+/-1 d of age and 205+/-1 kg BW. The experiment was conducted on two calf crops with 120 heifers born in 1996 and 162 heifers born in 1997. Treatments consisted of different quantities of the same diet being offered for a 205-d period. Heifers in the HIGH treatment were offered 263 kcal ME/(BWkg)0.75 daily. Heifers in the MEDIUM treatment were offered 238 kcal ME/(BWkg)0.75 daily. Heifers in the LOW-HIGH treatment were offered 157 kcal ME/(BWkg)0.75 daily the first 83 d and 277 kcal ME/(BWkg)0.75 daily for the remainder of the 205 d. Treatments differed in total ME intake (P calved expressed as a fraction of the cows exposed did not differ among treatments (89.7%; P = 0.83). The age of heifer at parturition (P = 0.74) and the time from first bull exposure to calving (P = 0.38) did not differ among treatments. Birth weight of calves (P = 0.80) and the calves' weaning weight (P = 0.60) did not differ among the treatments. Calf survival rate on the LOW-HIGH treatment (73%) was lower than that on the moderate treatment (89%; P = 0.007) but did not differ from that on the HIGH treatment (81%; P = 0.26). The second-calf pregnancy rate (92.8%) for cows with a nursing calf at the start of breeding did not differ between treatments (P = 0.83). These findings suggest that as long as heifers are growing and meet a minimal BW before mating, patterns of growth may be altered in the post-weaning period without a decrease in the ability of the heifer to conceive or a decrease in calf growth potential. However, limit-feeding heifers may decrease first-calf survival. These alterations in postweaning gain through monitoring the amount of feed offered can be used to optimize feed resources.

  9. Social behavior and kin discrimination in a mixed group of cloned and non cloned heifers (Bos taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulon, M; Baudoin, C; Abdi, H; Heyman, Y; Deputte, B L

    2010-12-01

    For more than ten years, reproductive biotechnologies using somatic cell nuclear transfer have made possible the production of cloned animals in various domestic and laboratory species. The influence of the cloning process on offspring characteristics has been studied in various developmental aspects, however, it has not yet been documented in detail for behavioral traits. Behavioral studies of cloned animals have failed to show clear inter-individual differences associated with the cloning process. Preliminary results showed that clones favor each other's company. Preferential social interactions were observed among cloned heifers from the same donor in a mixed herd that also included cloned heifers and control heifers produced by artificial insemination (AI). These results suggest behavioral differences between cloned and non-cloned animals and similarities between clones from the same donor. The aim of the present study was to replicate and to extend these previous results and to study behavioral and cognitive mechanisms of this preferential grouping. We studied a group composed of five cloned heifers derived from the same donor cow, two cloned heifers derived from another donor cow, and AI heifers. Cloned heifers from the same donor were more spatially associated and interacted more between themselves than with heifers derived from another donor or with the AI individuals. This pattern indicates a possible kin discrimination in clones. To study this process, we performed an experiment (using an instrumental conditioning procedure with food reward) of visual discrimination between images of heads of familiar heifers, either related to the subjects or not. The results showed that all subjects (AI and cloned heifers) discriminated between images of familiar cloned heifers produced from the same donor and images of familiar unrelated heifers. Cattle discriminated well between images and used morphological similarities characteristic of cloned related heifers. Our

  10. Impact of supplemental protein source offered to primiparous heifers during gestation on I. Average daily gain, feed intake, calf birth body weight, and rebreeding in pregnant beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, A F; Meyer, T L; Funston, R N

    2015-04-01

    A 3-yr study was conducted to determine the effect of supplemental protein source on ADG, feed intake, calf birth BW, and subsequent pregnancy rate in pregnant beef heifers. Crossbred, Angus-based, AI-pregnant heifers (yr 1, n = 38; yr 2, n = 40; and yr 3, n = 36) were stratified by BW (450 ± 10 kg) and placed in a Calan Broadbent individual feeding system at approximately d 142 of gestation. Following a 25-d adaptation period, an 84-d feeding trial was conducted. Heifers were offered ad libitum grass hay (8 to 11% CP, DM basis) and no supplement (CON), 0.83 kg/d distillers-based supplement (HI), or 0.83 kg/d dried corn gluten-based supplement (LO). Supplements were formulated to be isocaloric, isonitrogenous (28% CP, DM basis), and equal in lipid content but differed in RUP, with HI (59% RUP) having greater levels of RUP than LO (34% RUP). Dry matter intake was also calculated based on feed NE values to account for different energy levels of the supplement compared with the control diet. Control heifers tended (P = 0.09) to consume less total DM than either supplement treatment. However, forage-only DMI was greater (P feeding period. Calf birth BW was similar (P = 0.99) among treatments. At prebreeding, CON heifers weighed less (P calf birth BW and subsequent pregnancy rates were similar.

  11. Genome-Wide Association Study between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Flight Speed in Nellore Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Tiago Silva; Baldi, Fernando; Sant’Anna, Aline Cristina; Albuquerque, Lucia Galvão; Paranhos da Costa, Mateus José Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cattle temperament is an important factor that affects the profitability of beef cattle enterprises, due to its relationship with productivity traits, animal welfare and labor safety. Temperament is a complex phenotype often assessed by measuring a series of behavioral traits, which result from the effects of multiple environmental and genetic factors, and their interactions. The aims of this study were to perform a genome-wide association study and detect genomic regions, potential candidate genes and their biological mechanisms underlying temperament, measured by flight speed (FS) test in Nellore cattle. Materials and Methods The genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed using a single-step procedure (ssGBLUP) which combined simultaneously all 16,600 phenotypes from genotyped and non-genotyped animals, full pedigree information of 162,645 animals and 1,384 genotyped animals in one step. The animals were genotyped with High Density Bovine SNP BeadChip which contains 777,962 SNP markers. After quality control (QC) a total of 455,374 SNPs remained. Results Heritability estimated for FS was 0.21 ± 0.02. Consecutive SNPs explaining 1% or more of the total additive genetic variance were considered as windows associated with FS. Nine candidate regions located on eight different Bos taurus chromosomes (BTA) (1 at 73 Mb, 2 at 65 Mb, 5 at 22 Mb and 119 Mb, 9 at 98 Mb, 11 at 67 Mb, 15 at 16 Mb, 17 at 63 Kb, and 26 at 47 Mb) were identified. The candidate genes identified in these regions were NCKAP5 (BTA2), PARK2 (BTA9), ANTXR1 (BTA11), GUCY1A2 (BTA15), CPE (BTA17) and DOCK1 (BTA26). Among these genes PARK2, GUCY1A2, CPE and DOCK1 are related to dopaminergic system, memory formation, biosynthesis of peptide hormone and neurotransmitter and brain development, respectively. Conclusions Our findings allowed us to identify nine genomic regions (SNP windows) associated with beef cattle temperament, measured by FS test. Within these windows, six promising

  12. Comparison of models for the genetic evaluation of reproductive traits with censored data in Nellore cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, D A; Rosa, G J M; Valente, B D; Carvalheiro, R; Albuquerque, L G

    2016-06-01

    In typical genetic evaluation, often some females have missing records due to reproductive failure and due to voluntary and involuntary culling before the breeding season. These partially or unobserved phenotypes are known as censored records and their inclusion into genetic evaluations might lead to better inferences and breeding value predictions. Then, the objective was to compare prediction ability of models in which the phenotypic expression of age at the first calving (AFC) and days to calving (DC) were considered to be censored and uncensored in a Nellore cattle population. Age at first calving and days to calving were analyzed as following: uncensored animals (LM); penalization of 21 d (PLM); censored records simulated from truncated normal distributions (CLM); threshold-linear model in which censored records were handled as missing (TLM) or coded as the upper AFC/DC value within contemporary group (PTLM); and Weibull frailty hazard model (WM). Pearson correlations (PC), the percentage of the 10% best bulls in common (pTOP10%), accuracy of estimated breeding values (), and a cross-validation scheme were performed. Heritability estimates for AFC were 0.18, 0.12, 0.12, 0.17, 0.14, and 0.07 for LM, PLM, CLM, TLM, PTLM, and WM, respectively. PC and pTOP10% were higher among linear models and smaller between these models and WM. The models provided similar r of sire breeding values. Heritability estimates for DC were 0.03, 0.08, 0.06, 0.02, 0.07, and 0.10 for LM, PLM, CLM, TLM, PTLM, and WM, respectively. Strongly associated predictions were observed in CLM, PLM, PTLM, and WM. The highest coincidence levels of sires in the TOP10% were between CLM, PLM, and PTLM. The r of sire breeding values obtained applying CLM, PLM, PTLM, and WM were similar and higher than those obtained with LM and TLM. In terms of prediction ability, WM, PLM, TLM, and PTLM showed similar prediction performance for AFC. On the other hand, CLM, PLM, PTLM, and WM showed the similar prediction

  13. Different supplents for finishing of Nellore cattle on deferred Brachiaria decumbens pasture during the dry season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Tadeu de Andrade

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of four types of supplement on the finishing of Nellore cattle on deferred Brachiaria decumbens pasture during the dry season. Sixty-four castrated Nellore males with an age of approximately 34 months and initial body weight (BW ranging from 360 to 380 kg were divided into 16 animals per treatment in a completely randomized design. The treatments consisted of four types of pasture supplement: deferred Brachiaria decumbens pasture + energy protein mineral salt (SuEPM used as control; deferred Brachiaria decumbens pasture + urea + cottonseed meal (28% CP + ground corn grain (SuCo; deferred Brachiaria decumbens pasture + urea + cottonseed meal (28% CP + citrus pulp (SuCPu; deferred Brachiaria decumbens pasture + urea + cottonseed meal (28% CP + soy hull (SuSH. The pasture was deferred for 170 days and provided 3,482 kg DM/ha of forage, permitting a stocking rate of 1.56 AU/ha (DM intake of 2.25% BW and 50% pasture efficiency. The animals received the supplement ad libitum in the SuEPM treatment and as % BW in the other treatments from July to October. The animals were slaughtered at a minimum BW of 457 kg. The following variables were evaluated: final weight, weight gain during the period (WG, average daily gain (ADG, hot carcass weight (HCW, and hot carcass yield (HCY. With respect to final weight, the supplement in the SuCo, SuCPu and SuSH treatments permitted a greater supply of nutrients and the animals therefore exhibited better performance (P<0.05 compared to the SuEPM treatment (mean of 478.68 vs 412.62 kg. The same effect was observed for the other parameters studied. Analysis of WG and ADG showed that SuSH was superior to the SuCo and SuCPu treatments (P<0.05 due to the increased offer of concentrate and SuEPM was inferior to the other treatments. Higher HCW (260.05 kg and HCY (53.92% were obtained with treatment SuSH as a result of greater performance. Supplementation of cattle during the dry period on

  14. Genomic Regions Associated with Feed Efficiency Indicator Traits in an Experimental Nellore Cattle Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivieri, Bianca Ferreira; Mercadante, Maria Eugênia Zerlotti; Cyrillo, Joslaine Noely dos Santos Gonçalves; Branco, Renata Helena; Bonilha, Sarah Figueiredo Martins; de Albuquerque, Lucia Galvão; Silva, Rafael Medeiros de Oliveira; Baldi, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify genomic regions and metabolic pathways associated with dry matter intake, average daily gain, feed efficiency and residual feed intake in an experimental Nellore cattle population. The high-density SNP chip (Illumina High-Density Bovine BeadChip, 777k) was used to genotype the animals. The SNP markers effects and their variances were estimated using the single-step genome wide association method. The (co)variance components were estimated by Bayesian inference. The chromosome segments that are responsible for more than 1.0% of additive genetic variance were selected to explore and determine possible quantitative trait loci. The bovine genome Map Viewer was used to identify genes. In total, 51 genomic regions were identified for all analyzed traits. The heritability estimated for feed efficiency was low magnitude (0.13±0.06). For average daily gain, dry matter intake and residual feed intake, heritability was moderate to high (0.43±0.05; 0.47±0.05, 0.18±0.05, respectively). A total of 8, 17, 14 and 12 windows that are responsible for more than 1% of the additive genetic variance for dry matter intake, average daily gain, feed efficiency and residual feed intake, respectively, were identified. Candidate genes GOLIM4, RFX6, CACNG7, CACNG6, CAPN8, CAPN2, AKT2, GPRC6A, and GPR45 were associated with feed efficiency traits. It was expected that the response to selection would be higher for residual feed intake than for feed efficiency. Genomic regions harboring possible QTL for feed efficiency indicator traits were identified. Candidate genes identified are involved in energy use, metabolism protein, ion transport, transmembrane transport, the olfactory system, the immune system, secretion and cellular activity. The identification of these regions and their respective candidate genes should contribute to the formation of a genetic basis in Nellore cattle for feed efficiency indicator traits, and these results would support

  15. Impacts of temperament on Nellore cattle: physiological responses, feedlot performance, and carcass characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, C L; Resende, F D; Benatti, J M B; Castilhos, A M; Cooke, R F; Jorge, A M

    2015-11-01

    Forty-four feedlot-finished Nellore cattle were used to evaluate the impacts of temperament on performance, meat and carcass traits, and serum concentrations of hormones, proteins, enzymes, and immunoglobulins. Individual temperament was assessed at feedlot entry (d 0), 67 d, and 109 d, utilizing chute score (CS; 5-point scale) and exit velocity (EV). Temperament scores were calculated averaging CS and EV scores, and cattle were subsequently classified according to their temperament (an average of ≤3 = adequate temperament [ADQ], or an average of >3 = excitable temperament [EXC]). At the end of the experiment (d 109), all 44 animals were slaughtered, and 16 were randomly selected for final empty body weight (EBW) estimation. Blood samples were collected at 0, 67, and 109 d and analyzed for serum variables (cortisol, insulin, haptoglobin, total protein, lactate, creatinine kinase [CK], lactate dehydrogenase [LDH], and IgA). The incidence of carcass bruises was verified immediately after the hide was removed. Carcass pH was obtained at 0 and 24 h postmortem. Samples of the LM were collected for meat quality analyses. Cattle classified as ADQ had greater final BW ( = 0.03), final EBW ( = 0.02), metabolic weight ( = 0.03), ADG ( = 0.02), feed efficiency ( = 0.03), HCW ( = 0.02), cold carcass weight ( = 0.02), and LM area ( Cattle classified as ADQ tended to have a lower percentage of cooler shrink ( = 0.06) compared to that of EXC cattle. No temperament effects were detected for initial BW ( = 0.70), DMI ( = 0.14), cold dressing percentage ( = 0.98), or backfat thickness ( = 0.29). Cattle classified as ADQ had greater marbling ( = 0.02) and meat fat content ( = 0.05) compared with that of EXC cattle. No temperament effects ( > 0.05) were detected for unsaturated fatty acid (UFA), SFA, MUFA, PUFA, and n-6:n-3 ratio. For blood parameters, EXC cattle had greater values of cortisol ( = 0.04) and haptoglobin ( = 0.05) and tended ( = 0.06) to have reduced serum insulin

  16. Stress effect on conception rate in Nellore cows submmited to fixed time artificial insemination. Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Luis Nogueira Natal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In beef cattle, fixed time artificial insemination (FTAI provides a method to inseminate large numbers of females in a specific time, which result in economical gains due, among others, to a more uniform calf crop. However, FTAI requires frequent manipulation of animals in order to inject hormones and for clinical examination. Consequently, animals seemed stressed in less or higher extent at the time of insemination. This can be a problem because it has been demonstrated that application of an acute stress treatment (electric shock, confinement, restraint and rotation twice a day during the follicular phase of the oestrous cycle prevents the pre-ovulatory LH surge. This study aimed to evaluate if FTAI efficiency of Nellore cows is affected by the degree of stress observed at time of AI. Nellore cows (n=92 were treated (Day 0 with a progesterone intravaginal devise (Primer®, Tecnopec, São Paulo, Brazil containing 1 g of progesterone and injected with estradiol benzoate (2mg EB, Estrogin, AUSA, Brazil. Primer was removed on Day 8 (08:00 AM and administered one injection of cloprostenol (125 mcg, Prolise®, Tecnopec, São Paulo, Brazil. Twenty-four hours later, cows received 2 mg EB and insemination (semen from one sire was done on the afternoon (14:00 to 16:00 PM of day 10. At time of FTAI, the stress condition was classified as 1 (low, 2 (moderate or 3 (high according the reactivity of cows to enter in the squeeze chute and apparent nervous behavior. Pregnancy status was evaluated by transrectal ultrasound on day 40 after FTAI. Data were analyzed by Chi-square test. Cows with moderate or high degree of stress had lower conception rate than low stressed cows (P<0.01. These results suggest that cow temperament must be considered in the planning of FTAI programs. Studies are in progress in order to measure hormonal parameters (cortisol and Alpha amylase that better reflects the “fight-or-flight” response to immediate stressors in order to

  17. Efficiency of feed utilization in young Nellore animals of different genders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Pinheiro dos Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In study of more efficient animals for food utilization, it is of great importance to know differences between genders. There are differences between male and female cattle in growing and body composition, mainly those related to the action of sex hormones. This study aimed to evaluate the sex effect on feed efficiency traits in young Nellore animals. Individual feed intake data from eight tests, performed from 2005 to 2012 at Centro APTA Bovinos de Corte-Instituto de Zootecnia-Sertãozinho-SP were utilized. The tests began after weaning, when the animals had, on average, 286 days of age and 229 kg of body weight. The tests duration ranged from 56 to 112 days, depending on the year. Traits analyzed were final body weight (FBW, dry matter intake (DMI, average daily gain (ADG, feed conversion ratio (FCR, feed efficiency ratio (FER, residual feed intake (RFI and Kleiber ratio (KR. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. The model included the fixed effect age at the test beginning as linear covariate and the random effects: sex, facilities and year. Least square means were calculated and compared by t test. Males had greater FBW than females, what was expected, due to the action of male hormones which benefits the muscle deposition. Greater means of ADG and DMI were also detected for males, when compared to females, because heavier animals have higher gains and consume food according to their body sizes. Among all the feed efficiency measures studied, significant differences between males and females were detected in FCR and KR. Analyzing FCR, females used more food than males for 1 kg of body weight gain, being less efficient. The same was found when KR was analyzed, having males higher KR and being more efficient. No significant differences were detected between males and females for FER and RFI. Young Nellore females are less efficient than males in this growth stage, because of the differences in growth curves due to the sex

  18. Genome-Wide Association Study between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Flight Speed in Nellore Cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Silva Valente

    Full Text Available Cattle temperament is an important factor that affects the profitability of beef cattle enterprises, due to its relationship with productivity traits, animal welfare and labor safety. Temperament is a complex phenotype often assessed by measuring a series of behavioral traits, which result from the effects of multiple environmental and genetic factors, and their interactions. The aims of this study were to perform a genome-wide association study and detect genomic regions, potential candidate genes and their biological mechanisms underlying temperament, measured by flight speed (FS test in Nellore cattle.The genome-wide association study (GWAS was performed using a single-step procedure (ssGBLUP which combined simultaneously all 16,600 phenotypes from genotyped and non-genotyped animals, full pedigree information of 162,645 animals and 1,384 genotyped animals in one step. The animals were genotyped with High Density Bovine SNP BeadChip which contains 777,962 SNP markers. After quality control (QC a total of 455,374 SNPs remained.Heritability estimated for FS was 0.21 ± 0.02. Consecutive SNPs explaining 1% or more of the total additive genetic variance were considered as windows associated with FS. Nine candidate regions located on eight different Bos taurus chromosomes (BTA (1 at 73 Mb, 2 at 65 Mb, 5 at 22 Mb and 119 Mb, 9 at 98 Mb, 11 at 67 Mb, 15 at 16 Mb, 17 at 63 Kb, and 26 at 47 Mb were identified. The candidate genes identified in these regions were NCKAP5 (BTA2, PARK2 (BTA9, ANTXR1 (BTA11, GUCY1A2 (BTA15, CPE (BTA17 and DOCK1 (BTA26. Among these genes PARK2, GUCY1A2, CPE and DOCK1 are related to dopaminergic system, memory formation, biosynthesis of peptide hormone and neurotransmitter and brain development, respectively.Our findings allowed us to identify nine genomic regions (SNP windows associated with beef cattle temperament, measured by FS test. Within these windows, six promising candidate genes and their biological functions were

  19. Effect of forage:concentrate ratio on digestion and reproduction in primiparous beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, B K; Hunt, C W; Sasser, R G; Momont, P A; Rode, L M; Kastelic, J P

    1997-07-01

    We evaluated the effects of high- (HF) and moderate- (MF) forage diets on digestive and reproductive characteristics in beef heifers. Thirty primiparous beef heifers were allotted by weight and backfat thickness to receive either 80:20 (HF) or 50: 50 (MF) forage:concentrate ratio diets from parturition to at least 90 d postpartum. Alfalfa hay and wheat straw were the forage sources and barley was the concentrate source. Equal daily amounts of ME were provided to all heifers by restricting intake of the MF diet. Digestibility of DM was greater (P wave dynamics and the intervals from parturition to first and second ovulation, first estrus, first service, and conception were not different between treatments. Shifts in energy supply from forage to concentrate had minimal effect on digestion and reproduction in first-calf beef heifers in this study.

  20. Whole rice bran for beef heifers raised on alexander grass pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Salvador

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the development of beef heifers exclusively fed alexander grass (Urochloa plantaginea (Link Hitch or alexander grass and whole rice meal as supplement offered from Monday to Friday. The experimental design was completely randomized, with repeated measures over time, and consisted of two treatments and three replications of area. Heifers receiving whole rice meal exhibited higher average daily gain after day 42 of pasture use and a 21% higher body weight at the end of the grazing period. The stocking rate, weight gain per area, hip height, weight-height ratio, and body condition score were similar for heifers exclusively fed alexander grass and alexander grass plus rice bran. Beef heifers raised exclusively on alexander grass from 15 to 18 months of age reached adequate body development, reproductive tract score (4.22 points and pelvic area (206.3 cm² to be bred at 18-20 months of age.

  1. Grazed grass herbage intake and performance of beef heifers with predetermined phenotypic residual feed intake classification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lawrence, P; Kenny, D A; Earley, B; McGee, M

    2012-01-01

    ... behaviour were measured for all heifers. Phenotypic residual feed intake (RFI) was calculated for each animal as the difference between actual DMI and expected DMI during the indoor winter period...

  2. Differences in Beef Quality between Angus (Bos taurus taurus) and Nellore (Bos taurus indicus) Cattle through a Proteomic and Phosphoproteomic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizzotti, Mario Luiz; Vital, Camilo Elber; Baracat-Pereira, Maria Cristina; Barros, Edvaldo; Busato, Karina Costa; Gomes, Rafael Aparecido; Ladeira, Márcio Machado; Martins, Taiane da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Proteins are the major constituents of muscle and are key molecules regulating the metabolic changes during conversion of muscle to meat. Brazil is one of the largest exporters of beef and most Brazilian cattle are composed by zebu (Nellore) genotype. Bos indicus beef is generally leaner and tougher than Bos taurus such as Angus. The aim of this study was to compare the muscle proteomic and phosphoproteomic profile of Angus and Nellore. Seven animals of each breed previously subjected the same growth management were confined for 84 days. Proteins were extracted from Longissimus lumborum samples collected immediately after slaughter and separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Pro-Q Diamond stain was used in phosphoproteomics. Proteins identification was performed using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Tropomyosin alpha-1 chain, troponin-T, myosin light chain-1 fragment, cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase, alpha-enolase and 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein were more abundant in Nellore, while myosin light chain 3, prohibitin, mitochondrial stress-70 protein and heat shock 70 kDa protein 6 were more abundant in Angus (P<0.05). Nellore had higher phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain-2, alpha actin-1, triosephosphate isomerase and 14-3-3 protein epsilon. However, Angus had greater phosphorylation of phosphoglucomutase-1 and troponin-T (P<0.05). Therefore, proteins involved in contraction and muscle organization, myofilaments expressed in fast or slow-twitch fibers and heat shock proteins localized in mitochondria or sarcoplasmic reticulum and involved in cell flux of calcium and apoptosis might be associated with differences in beef quality between Angus and Nellore. Furthermore, prohibitin appears to be a potential biomarker of intramuscular fat in cattle. Additionally, differences in phosphorylation of myofilaments and glycolytic enzymes could be involved with differences in muscle contraction force

  3. Risk Factors Influencing Conception Rate in Holstein Heifers before Artificial Insemination or Embryo Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to show the risk factors affecting the conception rate in Holstein heifers after synchronization of estrus. A total of 275 Holstein heifers housed in a free barn were used for the experiment. The herd was visited regularly at four week intervals for synchronization of estrus using Heatsynch and CIDR-Heatsynch protocols. A group of four to 14 animals, depending on the availability, were referred to the experiment at each visit. Estrus induction rates in the two ...

  4. Effect of progesterone supplementation in the first week post conception on embryo survival in beef heifers

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Progesterone is essential for establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in mammals. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of elevating progesterone during the different physiological stages of early embryo development on embryo survival. Estrus was synchronized in cross-bred beef heifers (n = 197, ∼2-years old) and they were inseminated 12–18 h after estrus onset (=Day 0). Inseminated heifers were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: (1) Control, n = 69; (2) progesterone s...

  5. Efficacy of actaplanin fed on a twice-weekly basis to grazing stocker heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, C C; Randel, R D; Carroll, L H

    1987-02-01

    Brahman (16), Brangus (32) and Simmental X Brahman (16) open heifers were assigned to four treatment levels and two body weight categories. The weight categories were light (250 kg) and heavy (306 kg). Treatment groups were 0, 600, 900 and 1,200 mg actaplanin.head-1.feeding-1 with feeding only on Monday and Friday. Heifers were group-fed .91 kg/head of supplement (95% soybean meal: 5% molasses) containing actaplanin. Heifers grazed eight Coastal bermudagrass pastures throughout the experiment (July 29 to November 15, 1982). After 75 d on experiment, an additional 1.36 kg of a commercial 14% crude protein supplement was fed on the days that actaplanin was not fed. All heifers were weighted and rotated among pastures at 14-d intervals (last weight period was 11 d) as an attempt to equalize forage availability among groups. Over the entire experiment (109 d), light-weight heifers that were fed actaplanin responded (P less than .01) with greater average daily gain (ADG; .37, .35, .21 kg/d; 600, 900, 1,200) compared with controls (0 mg; .18 kg/d). A trend in response (P less than .10) to actaplanin feeding occurred for heavy-weight heifers (.23, .38, .34 kg/d; 600, 900, 1,200 mg vs controls (.22 kg/d). For light-weight heifers, ADG decreased lineraly (P less than .01) as actaplanin increased from 600 to 1,200 mg, while ADG for heavy-weight heifers increased linearly (P less than .10).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Increased Fecal Ethanol and Methanol Concentration in Dairy Heifers after Grazing

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, H.; Kurosawa, T.

    2011-01-01

    To clarify fermentative alterations in the large intestine (hindgut) during grazing, fecal alcohol and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentrations were evaluated in 30 dairy heifers. The heifers were kept in pasture growing mixed grass herbage from spring (mid May) until October, and their rectal feces were collected periodically. Concentrations of ethanol, methanol and isopropanol were increased in runny feces at early stage of grazing, but gradually decreased thereafter, despite the fact tha...

  7. Efeito de diferentes níveis de ingestão de energia sobre a produção e viabilidade de embriões em novilhas e vacas Effect of different levels of energy intake on production and viability of embryos in heifers and cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Paulo Rigolon

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar o efeito do nível de ingestão de matéria seca (IMS/% do PV sobre ganho de peso, produção e viabilidade de embriões em novilhas mestiças e vacas Nelore. No primeiro experimento foram utilizadas 27 novilhas cruzadas ( ½ Nelore x ½ Simental distribuídas em três tratamentos e nove repetições: 1,2; 1,6 e 2,6% de IMS/dia em relação ao peso vivo, respectivamente. Os animais foram submetidas à superovulação com FSH e a coleta dos embriões realizada sete dias após a inseminação artificial, através de lavagem uterina. Este procedimento foi repetido por mais duas vezes com intervalos de 45 dias. No segundo experimento foram usadas 21 vacas Nelore de três anos, distribuídas em três tratamentos: 1,0; 1,8 e 2,6% de IMS em relação ao peso vivo. Após 30 dias os animais foram sincronizados com implante auricular de norgestomet e superovulados com FSH, sendo a coleta dos embriões realizada sete dias após a inseminação artificial, através de lavagem uterina. O peso vivo final, ganho médio diário e peso de carcaça foram maiores para os animais alimentados com 2,6% de IMS. O nível de IMS e o período de coleta não tiveram influência sobre o número de corpos lúteos, número de estruturas totais transferíveis e degeneradas e ovócitos, tanto para novilhas como para vacas.This work was carried out to study the effect of dry matter feed intake level (DMI/% BW, weight gain, production and viability of embryos in cross-breed heifers so does production and viability of embryonic structures in Nellore cows. During the first trial, 27 cross-breed (½ Nelore x ½ Simental heifers were used divided in 3 treatments and 9 replications: 1.2%; 1.6% and 2.6% of DMI/day in relation to body weight, respectively. The heifers were synchronized and after nine days these animals were superovulated using FSH. The embryos were collected seven days after the artificial insemination by uterus flushing. This

  8. Effect of freezing prior to aging on myoglobin redox forms and CIE color of beef from Nellore and Aberdeen Angus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroeira, Carolina Naves; de Almeida Torres Filho, Robledo; Fontes, Paulo Rogério; de Lemos Souza Ramos, Alcinéia; de Miranda Gomide, Lúcio Alberto; Ladeira, Márcio Machado; Ramos, Eduardo Mendes

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of freezing prior to wet aging on the color of Nellore and Aberdeen Angus cattle meat. Samples of the Longissimus thoracis muscle were subjected to two treatments: conventional aging (0, 7, 14 and 21days); and freezing (-20°C for 40days) followed by thawing and aging. Freezing promoted (Pcolor of the Nellore meat was less (Pcolor stability in vacuum-packed beef is reduced by freezing prior to aging and that reduction depends on the animal breed.

  9. Effect of feed intake restriction on reproductive performance and pregnancy rate in Egyptian buffalo heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Hassan Ali; Abdel-Raheem, Sherief Mohamed

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the present experiment is to study the effect of feed intake restriction on the reproductive performance and pregnancy rate in Egyptian buffalo heifers. Thirty anestrus buffalo heifers were randomly divided into two equal groups. The low feed intake (LFI, n=15, 50 % restriction) group was fed a diet that consists of 3 kg concentrate, 1 kg wheat straw, and 3 kg fresh alfalfa, while the high feed intake (HFI, n=15) group was fed double the amount given to the LFI group for 4 months. All animals were weighed, transrectally examined, and visually checked for the signs of estrus, and blood samples were collected. Heifers in heat were mated with one fertile bull. The number of heifers showing estrus activity was 93.3 % in HFI vs. 20 % in LFI (Prate, and overall mean of progesterone and estrogen concentrations were significantly higher (Pglucose, total cholesterol, and calcium were significantly higher (Pfeed intake to 50 % from NRC recommendations impair reproductive performance in terms of increasing the age at first service and reducing the pregnancy rate in buffalo heifers. In conclusion, feed intake could be effective in improvement of reproductive performance in buffalo heifers and further studies should be done on large scale of buffaloes in this point.

  10. Effect of meloxicam on pregnancy rate of recipient heifers following transfer of in vitro produced embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, T S; Araújo, C V; Tirloni, R R; Martins, L R

    2013-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine if administration of meloxicam, a cyclooxygenase (COX) two inhibitor, to heifers in which embryo transfer (ET) is more difficult and requires a greater manipulation of the tract, would be beneficial. Nulliparous recipient heifers were divided in two groups: CON (n = 102), in which animals received 10 ml of saline IM (the same volume of meloxicam) and MEL (n = 105) animals that were treated with meloxicam. According to the degree in passing the catheter, recipients from both groups were classified as Grade I, easy (meloxicam (10 ml).There was no difference in the pregnancy rates on Day 35 considering animals which presented Grade I cervix independently whether the treatment was performed or not (p = 0.22). There was a statistical difference in the pregnancy rates (p meloxicam had a positive influence on general pregnancy rate of treated heifers in comparison to non-treated heifers. It was also observed that pregnancy rate was not influenced by meloxicam administration in Grade I heifers. Treatment increased the pregnancy rate of Grade II heifers.

  11. Duration of estrus induced after GnRH-PGF2alpha protocol in dairy heifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Chikako; Yusuf, Muhammad; Nakao, Toshihiko

    2009-12-01

    Estrous expressions in dairy cows have been shortened and weakened. Dairy heifers, on the other hand, may not have had such changes in estrous signs as observed in cows, since they have less stresses than cows. The aim of this study was to describe the duration of estrus in a herd of dairy heifers. A total of 56 Holstein Friesian heifers estrus was synchronized using two different hormonal protocols. They were checked for primary and secondary estrous signs with the help of heat detection devices for 48 h at an interval of 4 h starting at 16.00 hour, one day after PGF(2alpha) treatment. Onset and end of standing estrus during 48 h observation period was recorded in 35 of the 44 heifers coming into estrus within 5 days after PGF(2alpha) treatment during the observation period. The duration of standing estrus on the average (+/-SD) was 9.7 +/- 5.3 h. Percentage of heifers with standing estrus longer than 12 h was 40%, and 53% showed standing estrus only for 4-8 h. It is indicated that duration of estrus in dairy heifers has been shortened recently.

  12. Herpetiform genital lesions in a heifer with mucosal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabis, J J; Szkudlarek, L; Risatti, G R; Sura, R; Garmendia, A E; Van Kruiningen, H J

    2008-03-01

    A 14-month-old heifer with a 17-day history of unresponsive bloody diarrhea was necropsied. There were focal, pink-red erosions of the nares and hard palate; ulcers and fissures of the tongue; and multiple ulcerative lesions of the alimentary canal. Interdigital skin of both rear limbs was ulcerated and bleeding; and the margins of the vulva contained punctiform red ulcers. The gross lesions were consistent with mucosal disease. Histopathology and laboratory testing ruled out rinderpest, foot-and-mouth disease, and vesicular stomatitis, and identified bovine virus diarrhea virus to be the cause of this disease. Lesions of the vulva similar to those seen in some stages of infectious pustular vulvovaginitis were negative for bovine herpesvirus-1 and tested positive for bovine viral diarrhea virus antigen by immunohistochemistry.

  13. Aging time of five muscles from carcass of Nellore young bulls

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    Laís Regina Simonetti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This trial aimed to assess the qualitative traits of five muscles of 14 Nellore bulls with 450 kg ± 30.7 kg BW, feedlot fed for 60 days. After slaughter and carcass chilling, samples of the Biceps femoris (BF, Longissimus (LD, Gluteus medius (GM, Semitendinosus (ST and Trapezius thoracis (TT muscles were collected, vacuum-packed and aged at 0 to 2 ºC for 1, 7 and 14 days and subsequently stored at –20ºC for chemical and quality analysis. The pH, shear force, water holding capacity, cooking losses, meat color and ether extract were evaluated in all aging times. Data were analyzed in a split-plot design using the PROC MIXED procedure of SAS. Aging affected quality traits and chemical properties of the meat, improving aspects, such as tenderness (p < 0.01 and lightness (p < 0.01. The Trapezius thoracis muscle has a higher color stability compared with the Longissimus muscle. Aging is not recommended for the ST muscle because the tenderness is not improved. The GM and BF muscles are tender on the first day, and the aging process is indicated for these cuts for adding value to the beef.

  14. Pleiotropic Genes Affecting Carcass Traits in Bos indicus (Nellore) Cattle Are Modulators of Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanesi, Marco; Torrecilha, Rafaela B. P.; Carmo, Adriana S.; Neves, Haroldo H. R.; Carvalheiro, Roberto; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Sölkner, Johann; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J.; Garcia, José F.

    2016-01-01

    Two complementary methods, namely Multi-Trait Meta-Analysis and Versatile Gene-Based Test for Genome-wide Association Studies (VEGAS), were used to identify putative pleiotropic genes affecting carcass traits in Bos indicus (Nellore) cattle. The genotypic data comprised over 777,000 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 995 bulls, and the phenotypic data included deregressed breeding values (dEBV) for weight measurements at birth, weaning and yearling, as well visual scores taken at weaning and yearling for carcass finishing precocity, conformation and muscling. Both analyses pointed to the pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1) as a major pleiotropic gene. VEGAS analysis revealed 224 additional candidates. From these, 57 participated, together with PLAG1, in a network involved in the modulation of the function and expression of IGF1 (insulin like growth factor 1), IGF2 (insulin like growth factor 2), GH1 (growth hormone 1), IGF1R (insulin like growth factor 1 receptor) and GHR (growth hormone receptor), suggesting that those pleiotropic genes operate as satellite regulators of the growth pathway. PMID:27410030

  15. Testicular shape and andrological aspects of young Nellore bulls under extensive farming

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    Jeanne Broch Siqueira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to determine the relationship between the frequency of testicular shape and the andrological aspects in young Nellore bulls, 18,676 animals were assessed. All andrological examinations were performed between the years 2000 and 2008. Animals were classified as able for breeding, able for breeding in natural mating system, unable for breeding and discarded. The testicular shape was classified as long, fairly long, oval-long, spherical-oval, and spherical. The analysis of Pearson correlations was performed for testicular shape with scrotal circumference, testicular volume, progressive motility, sperm vigor, major defects, minor defects and total defects. Testicles with oval shape prevailed (99.61%. It was obseved that 76.34; 66.34; 64.34; 58.33 and 50.00% of the animals were classified as sound for breeding for shapes long, fairly long, oval-long, spherical-oval, and spherical, respectively. Correlations between testicular shape with scrotal circumference, testicular volume, progressive motility, sperm vigor, major, minor and total defects were 0.26; 0.08; 0.00; 0.11; -0.02; 0.02 and -0.01, respectively. Testicular shape had no influence upon the andrological examination results. Testicles of long shape were prevalent within the population.

  16. Effect of rib fat thickness on the quality of aged meat from Nellore young bulls

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    Erick Escobar Dallantonia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This trial aimed to evaluate the quality of aged beef from Nellore young bulls under two yield grade (YG. Fourteen animals with approximately 450 ± 30 kg body weight were evaluated for backfat thickness (BFT at the beginning of the experimental period. Seven animals had BFT of 0-3 mm and seven animals, 3.1-6 mm. Two groups were formed at the end of the experiment: animals finished with 3-6 mm BFT (seven animals and animals finished with 6.1 to 10 mm BFT (seven animals. Every 28 days, we evaluated by ultrasound the BFT between the 12nd 13rd ribs. There was no interaction between YG and aging for beef color, pH, cooking losses and shear force (p > 0.05. There was no effect of YG on sarcomere length (p = 0.11. However, there was interaction between YG and aging on water holding capacity (p < 0.01. The yield grades evaluated did not interfere with meat quality, but carcasses with 6.1 - 10 mm of backfat thickness showed highest water holding capacity. The aging of the longissimus muscle for up to 14 days improves beef tenderness.

  17. Pleiotropic Genes Affecting Carcass Traits in Bos indicus (Nellore Cattle Are Modulators of Growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirene G T Pereira

    Full Text Available Two complementary methods, namely Multi-Trait Meta-Analysis and Versatile Gene-Based Test for Genome-wide Association Studies (VEGAS, were used to identify putative pleiotropic genes affecting carcass traits in Bos indicus (Nellore cattle. The genotypic data comprised over 777,000 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 995 bulls, and the phenotypic data included deregressed breeding values (dEBV for weight measurements at birth, weaning and yearling, as well visual scores taken at weaning and yearling for carcass finishing precocity, conformation and muscling. Both analyses pointed to the pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1 as a major pleiotropic gene. VEGAS analysis revealed 224 additional candidates. From these, 57 participated, together with PLAG1, in a network involved in the modulation of the function and expression of IGF1 (insulin like growth factor 1, IGF2 (insulin like growth factor 2, GH1 (growth hormone 1, IGF1R (insulin like growth factor 1 receptor and GHR (growth hormone receptor, suggesting that those pleiotropic genes operate as satellite regulators of the growth pathway.

  18. Genome-Wide Mapping of Loci Explaining Variance in Scrotal Circumference in Nellore Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsunomiya, Yuri T.; Carmo, Adriana S.; Neves, Haroldo H. R.; Carvalheiro, Roberto; Matos, Márcia C.; Zavarez, Ludmilla B.; Ito, Pier K. R. K.; Pérez O'Brien, Ana M.; Sölkner, Johann; Porto-Neto, Laercio R.; Schenkel, Flávio S.; McEwan, John; Cole, John B.; da Silva, Marcos V. G. B.; Van Tassell, Curtis P.; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Garcia, José Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The reproductive performance of bulls has a high impact on the beef cattle industry. Scrotal circumference (SC) is the most recorded reproductive trait in beef herds, and is used as a major selection criterion to improve precocity and fertility. The characterization of genomic regions affecting SC can contribute to the identification of diagnostic markers for reproductive performance and uncover molecular mechanisms underlying complex aspects of bovine reproductive biology. In this paper, we report a genome-wide scan for chromosome segments explaining differences in SC, using data of 861 Nellore bulls (Bos indicus) genotyped for over 777,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Loci that excel from the genome background were identified on chromosomes 4, 6, 7, 10, 14, 18 and 21. The majority of these regions were previously found to be associated with reproductive and body size traits in cattle. The signal on chromosome 14 replicates the pleiotropic quantitative trait locus encompassing PLAG1 that affects male fertility in cattle and stature in several species. Based on intensive literature mining, SP4, MAGEL2, SH3RF2, PDE5A and SNAI2 are proposed as novel candidate genes for SC, as they affect growth and testicular size in other animal models. These findings contribute to linking reproductive phenotypes to gene functions, and may offer new insights on the molecular biology of male fertility. PMID:24558400

  19. Polymorphism analysis in genes of the somatotropic axis in Nellore cattle selected for growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Diercles Francisco; de Souza, Fábio Ricardo Pablos; de Camargo, Gregório Miguel Ferreira; Fonseca, Patrícia Dias da Silva; Fonseca, Larissa Fernanda Simielli; Braz, Camila Urbano; Boligon, Arione Augusti; Mercadante, Maria Eugênia Zerlotti; de Albuquerque, Lucia Galvão; Tonhati, Humberto

    2014-07-25

    The somatotropic axis consists of genes that are involved in muscular development. These genes are potential regions of study to identify possible QTL for economically important traits in beef cattle. The aim of this study was to verify the existence of GH1, POU1F1, and GHR polymorphisms in Nellore cattle to verify the influence of selection in these mutations and to analyse the association between molecular markers and body weight at different ages, yearling hip height, carcass fat thickness and loin eye area. Six hundred forty-five animals from the Centro APTA Bovinos de Corte, were genotyped by PCR-RFLP techniques. The association analyses were performed with general mixed models taking into consideration the effect of one marker, and other model taking into consideration interactions between two molecular markers. Only the molecular markers rs81109601 on GH1 and rs109136815 on GHR were polymorphic; however, they were not found to be under selection. The association of the GHR rs109136815 marker and loin eye area was observed (p<0.05), as well as the effect of interaction between the markers and the female body weight at 550 days of age (p<0.04). The interaction effect should be considered in situations where the interactivity between two genes is known.

  20. Combined use of ionophore and virginiamycin for finishing Nellore steers fed high concentrate diets

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    Amoracyr José Costa Nuñez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Zebu cattle fed high concentrate diets may present inconsistent performance due to the occurrence of metabolic disorders, like acidosis. The isolated use of ionophores and virginiamycin in high grain diets can improve animal performance and reduce the incidence of such disorders, but recent studies suggested that their combination may have an additive effect. Thus, 72 Nellore steers, 389 ± 15 kg initial body weight (BW, were confined and fed for 79 days to evaluate the combination of virginiamycin and salinomycin on performance and carcass traits. Animals were allocated to a randomized complete block design by BW, in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments, with two concentrate levels (73 and 91 % and two virginiamycin levels (0 and 15 mg kg-1, and salinomycin (13 mg kg-1 included in all diets. The interaction was not significant (p > 0.05. Dry matter intake (DMI, average daily gain (ADG, gain-to-feed ratio (G:F, starch consumed, and fecal starch content were higher (p 0.05 between treatments. Starch consumed and estimated dietary net energy for maintenance (NEm and gain (NEg were higher (p < 0.05 for virginiamycin-treated animals, with no substantial effects on carcass traits. The inclusion of virginiamycin in finishing diets containing salinomycin reduced DMI while maintaining ADG and improving NEm and NEg, suggesting an additive effect of virginiamycin and ionophores, but without affecting carcass quality.

  1. Supplementation of Nellore young bulls on Marandu grass pastures in the dry period of the year

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    Marcella de Toledo Piza Roth

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate performance and daytime ingestive behavior of 84 Nellore young bulls in the post-weaning phase kept on Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pastures during the dry season. Treatments were protein mineral supplementation (1 g/kg body weight and protein+energy mineral supplementation (3 g/kg body weight. The experimental area comprised 12 paddocks in a total area of 27.36 ha, divided in two blocks of six paddocks each, having three replications per treatment in each block, with 42 animals/treatment. The data were subjected to variance analysis with repeated measures over time via procedure PROCMIXED of SAS (Statistical Analysis System, version 9.0 and means were compared by the Tukey test at 5% probability. The initial average weight of animals was 204.8 kg; final weights were 260.9 and 276.9 kg for animals that received protein and protein+energy supplement, respectively. The forage availability, sward height and stocking rate values did not differ with supplementation, but they showed difference between the experimental periods. The average time spent grazing during daylight of animals fed protein+energy supplement was shorter as compared with those which consumed protein supplement. Animals kept under the same pasture conditions during the dry season show better performance when they receive protein+energy supplement than protein supplement.

  2. Color attributes and oxidative stability of longissimus lumborum and psoas major muscles from Nellore bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canto, Anna C V C S; Costa-Lima, Bruno R C; Suman, Surendranath P; Monteiro, Maria Lucia G; Viana, Fernanda M; Salim, Ana Paula A A; Nair, Mahesh N; Silva, Teofilo J P; Conte-Junior, Carlos A

    2016-11-01

    The influence of muscle source on color stability of fresh beef from purebred Bos indicus cattle was investigated. Longissimus lumborum (LL) and psoas major (PM) muscles obtained from twelve (n=12) Nellore bull carcasses (24h post-mortem) were fabricated into 2.54-cm steaks, aerobically packaged, and stored at 4°C for nine days. Steaks were analyzed on day 0 for proximate composition and myoglobin concentration, whereas pH, instrumental color, metmyoglobin reducing activity (MRA), lipid oxidation, and protein oxidation were evaluated on days 0, 3, 6, and 9. LL steaks exhibited greater (P<0.05) redness, color stability, and MRA than PM counterparts. On the other hand, PM steaks demonstrated greater (P<0.05) myoglobin content, lipid oxidation, and protein oxidation than LL steaks. These results indicated the critical influence of muscle source on discoloration of fresh beef from Bos indicus animals and suggested the necessity to engineer muscle-specific strategies to improve color stability and marketability of beef from Bos indicus cattle.

  3. Bayesian inference in genetic parameter estimation of visual scores in Nellore beef-cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the components of variance and genetic parameters for the visual scores which constitute the Morphological Evaluation System (MES), such as body structure (S), precocity (P) and musculature (M) in Nellore beef-cattle at the weaning and yearling stages, by using threshold Bayesian models. The information used for this was gleaned from visual scores of 5,407 animals evaluated at the weaning and 2,649 at the yearling stages. The genetic parameters for visual score traits were estimated through two-trait analysis, using the threshold animal model, with Bayesian statistics methodology and MTGSAM (Multiple Trait Gibbs Sampler for Animal Models) threshold software. Heritability estimates for S, P and M were 0.68, 0.65 and 0.62 (at weaning) and 0.44, 0.38 and 0.32 (at the yearling stage), respectively. Heritability estimates for S, P and M were found to be high, and so it is expected that these traits should respond favorably to direct selection. The visual scores evaluated at the weaning and yearling stages might be used in the composition of new selection indexes, as they presented sufficient genetic variability to promote genetic progress in such morphological traits. PMID:21637450

  4. Multivariate approach of inter-relationships among growth, consumption and carcass traits in Nellore cattle

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    Cláudio Ulhôa Magnabosco

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to analyze the phenotypic inter-relationships between growth, feed intake and carcass traits in polled Nellore cattle, as well as to determine which bulls produced the most efficient progeny. The experiment was conducted in the feedlot of the Guaporé Pecuária (Livestock Company, OB Brand. The following traits were analyzed: initial live weight (ILW; final live weight (FLW; average daily gain (ADG; dry matter intake (DMI; gain:feed (G:F; residual feed intake (RFI; rib-eye area (REA; rump fat thickness (RF; backfat thickness at the 12th-13th rib (BF; weighted fat score (WF; and intramuscular fat percentage (IMF. Both univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to analyze the inter-relationships between the studied traits. No significant phenotypic associations were observed between growth, carcass traits and residual feed intake, while the correlation between RFI and G:F was negative. Therefore, RFI may be used to select more nutritionally efficient animals without compromising growth or adult size. The selection of bulls with progeny showing low residual feed intake is recommended, as selection for low RFI tends to improve feed efficiency without compromising growth and development.

  5. Associations of acute stress and overnight heart rate with feed efficiency in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, J C; Schenkel, F S; Physick-Sheard, P W; Fontoura, A B P; Miller, S P; Tennessen, T; Montanholi, Y R

    2017-03-01

    Proxies have the potential to accelerate feed efficiency (residual feed intake (RFI); kg dry matter/day) improvement, assisting with the reduction of beef cattle feed costs and environmental impact. Heart rate (HR) (beats per minute (BPM)) is associated with feed efficiency and influenced by autonomic activity and peripheral metabolism, suggesting HR could be used as a proxy for feed efficiency. Objectives were to assess associations between overnight HR, lying patterns and RFI, and between acute stress HR and RFI. Heifer calves (n=107; 408±28 days of age, 341±42.2 kg) and yearling heifers (n=36; 604±92 days of age, 539±52.2 kg) were exposed to a performance test to determine productive performance. Overnight HR (electrode based) and lying patterns (accelerometer based) were monitored on a subgroup of heifer calves (n=40; 20 lowest RFI; 20 highest RFI). In the 10-min acute stress assessment, all heifers were individually exposed to the opening and closing of an umbrella and HR before (HRBEF), in response to (HRMAX), after (HRAFT) and change (HRCHG; HRAFT-HRBEF) as a result of exposure were determined. Using polynomial regression, rate of HR decrease pre-exposure (β 1) and rates of HR increase (β 2) and decrease (β 3, β 4) post-exposure were determined. Heifer calves in the overnight assessment were classified into equal RFI groups (low RFI; high RFI) and HR means were treated as repeated measures and compared using multiple regression. In the acute stress assessment, heifers were classified within cattle category into equal RFI groups (low RFI; high RFI) and means and polynomial regression parameters were compared using multiple regression. Low-RFI heifer calves had a lower overnight HR (69.2 v. 72.6 BPM), similar HR change from lying to standing intervals (8.9 v. 9.2 BPM) and similar time lying (61.1% v. 64.5%) compared with high-RFI heifer calves. Low-RFI heifer calves had a higher absolute HRMAX (162.9 v. 145.7 BPM) and β 2 (-0.34 v. -0.20) than high

  6. Bovine NR1I3 gene polymorphisms and its association with feed efficiency traits in Nellore cattle

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    Pâmela A. Alexandre

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Nuclear receptor 1 family I member 3 (NR1I3, also known as the Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR, was initially characterized as a key regulator of xenobiotic metabolism. However, recent biochemical and structural data suggest that NR1I3 is activated in response to metabolic and nutritional stress in a ligand-independent manner. Thus, we prospected the Bovine NR1I3 gene for polymorphisms and studied their association with feed efficiency traits in Nellore cattle. First, 155 purebred Nellore bulls were individually measured for Residual Feed Intake (RFI and the 25 best (High Feed Efficiency group, HFE and the 25 worst animals (Low Feed Efficiency group, LFE were selected for DNA extraction. The entire Bovine NR1I3 gene was amplified and polymorphisms were identified by sequencing. Then, one SNP different between HFE and LFE groups was genotyped in all the 155 animals and in another 288 animals totalizing 443 Nellore bulls genotyped for association of NR1I3 SNPs with feed efficiency traits. We found 24 SNPs in the NR1I3 gene and choose a statistically different SNP between HFE and LFE groups for further analysis. Genotyping of the 155 animals showed a significant association within SNP and RFI (p = 0.04, Residual Intake and BW Gain (p = 0.04 and Dry Matter Intake (p = 0.01. This SNP is located in the 5′flanking promoter region of NR1I3 gene and different alleles alter the binding site for predicted transcriptional factors as HNF4alpha, CREM and c-MYB, leading us to conclude that NR1I3 expression and regulation might be important to feed efficiency.

  7. Lipid Sources with Different Fatty Acid Profile Alters the Fatty Acid Profile and Quality of Beef from Confined Nellore Steers

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    Giovani Fiorentini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the effects of lipid sources with different fatty acids profile on meat fatty acids profile and beef quality traits of Nellore. A total of 45 Nellore animals with an average initial body weight of 419±11 kg (at 15±2 mo were distributed in a completely randomized design consisting of 5 treatments and 9 replicates. The roughage feed was maize silage (600 g/kg on a dry matter [DM] basis plus concentrate (400 g/kg on a DM basis. The dietary treatments were as follows: without fat (WF, palm oil (PO, linseed oil (LO, protected fat (PF, and soybean grains (SG. No effects of lipid sources were observed (p>0.05 on beef color, pH, water-holding capacity, and sarcomere length. Beef from cattle fed PO had greater shear-force values (p<0.05 compared to beef from cattle fed WF. Deposition of main unsaturated fatty acids (oleic, linoleic, and linolenic was greater in treatments WF, SG, and LO, respectively, while the values of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA were greater when animals were fed LO. The inclusion of LO in the diet enhances the concentration of CLA in longissimus muscle and subcutaneous fat besides improving the atherogenicity index and elongase activity. As such, LO can be used with the aim to improve the quality of beef from confined Nellore cattle. Conversely, the use of PO is not recommended since it may increase the concentration of undesirable unsaturated fatty acids in muscle and subcutaneous fat, shear-force and the atherogenicity index.

  8. Evaluation of the California Mastitis Test as a precalving treatment selection tool for Holstein heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Jean-Philippe; Du Tremblay, Denis; Descôteaux, Luc; Messier, Serge; Scholl, Daniel; Bouchard, Emile

    2009-02-16

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the California Mastitis Test (CMT) and a portable electrical conductivity meter for diagnosing precalving intramammary infection (IMI) in Holstein heifers. A total of 428 dairy heifers from 23 dairy herds were enrolled between 6 and 12 days before the expected calving date from June 2002 to June 2003. Mammary secretions were tested by both diagnostic methods and by bacterial culture for evidence of IMI. California Mastitis Test was considered negative if the score was negative, trace or 1 and was considered positive otherwise. Two cut-off points were evaluated for milk electrical conductivity (>5 and >6.5 mS/cm). From this study, an overall proportion of 69% of heifers had precalving IMI and the overall heifer prevalence of major pathogen IMI was 16.8%. At the quarter level, sensitivity and specificity of CMT (68.9% and 68.4%, respectively) and milk conductivity >5 mS/cm (41.0% and 65.2%, respectively) or >6.5 mS/cm (25.2% and 83.3%, respectively) to identify all IMI were low. However, the heifer level sensitivity and specificity of CMT for major pathogens were 91.0% (81.5-96.6) and 27.5% (22.8-32.6), respectively. Using a cut-off point of 5 mS/cm, the heifer level sensitivity and specificity for major pathogens was 68.7% (56.2-79.4) and 44.1% (38.7-49.6), respectively. A conductivity cut-off value of 6.5 mS/cm decreased the sensitivity and increased the specificity to 53.7% (41.1-66.0) and 59.5% (54.0-64.8), respectively. California Mastitis Test and milk electrical conductivity are not good predictors of major pathogen IMI in heifers during the last 2 weeks before calving. However, the negative predictive values at quarter or heifer level were high and the heifer false negative rate was 6-14% using CMT or conductivity, respectively. Therefore, these measures could be useful for screening out heifers or quarters that are unlikely to have a major pathogen IMI.

  9. Feed delivery method affects the learning of feeding and competitive behavior in dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greter, A M; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; McBride, B W; DeVries, T J

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine how different feeding methods may affect the learning of feeding, sorting, and competitive behavior of growing dairy heifers. We hypothesized that heifers previously fed a total mixed ration (TMR) would distribute their feeding time more evenly throughout the day, sort the new ration less, compete less for feed, maintain a more solid fecal consistency, and continue to grow rapidly compared with heifers previously fed a top-dressed ration (TDR). Thirty-two Holstein heifers (237.2+/-21.9 d of age) were divided into 8 groups of 4 and exposed to 1 of 2 treatments for 13 wk: 1) TMR or 2) TDR, with each containing 65% grass/alfalfa haylage and 35% textured concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis. Following this feeding period, all heifers were switched to an unfamiliar TMR containing 56.1% grass/alfalfa haylage, 21.0% corn silage, 21.0% high-moisture corn, and 1.9% mineral supplement (DM basis) for 7 wk. Group DM intakes were recorded daily throughout the experiment. Feeding behavior, recorded using time-lapse video, and sorting behavior were measured for 7 d during wk 1, 4, and 7 after the dietary change. Feeding competition was measured on d 2, 4, and 6 of each recording week. Sorting activity was determined through particle size analysis of the fresh feed and orts. The particle size separator separated feed into 4 fractions (long, medium, short, and fine). Sorting of each fraction was calculated as actual intake expressed as a percentage of predicted intake. Animals were scored for fecal consistency twice weekly, using a scale from 1 (liquid) to 4 (solid). Heifers were weighed every 2 wk. Neither DM intake (9.0 kg/d) nor average daily gain (1.2 kg/d) differed between treatments. Sorting also did not differ between treatments. Heifers tended to spend more time feeding if they had previously been fed a TDR (198.8 vs. 186.8 min/d). As they had done before the dietary change, heifers previously fed the TDR spent more time at the

  10. Artificial infestation of Boophilus microplus in beef cattle heifers of four genetic groups

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    Ana Mary da Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance of beef cattle heifers to the cattle tick Boophilus microplus was evaluated by artificial infestation of 66 beef cattle heifers of the following genetic groups: 16 Nelore (NE, 18 Canchim x Nelore (CN, 16 Angus x Nelore (AN and 16 Simmental x Nelore (SN. The animals, with a mean age of 16.5 months, were maintained with no chemical tick control in a Brachiaria decumbens pasture. Four artificial infestations with 20,000 B. microplus larvae were carried out 14 days apart and from day 18 to day 22 of each infestation the number of engorged female ticks (> 4.5 mm was counted on the left side of each heifer. Data were analyzed as the percentage of return (PR = percentage of ticks counted relative to the number infested, transformed to (PR¼, and as log10 (Cij + 1, in which Cij is the number of ticks in each infestation, using the least squares method with a model that included the effects of genetic group (GG, animal within GG (error a, infestation number (I, GG x I and the residual (error b. Results indicated a significant GG x I interaction, because AN and SN heifers had a higher percentage of return than CN and NE heifers, while CN heifers showed a higher percentage of return than the NE heifers only in infestations 3 and 4. Transformed percentages of return were NE = 0.35 ± 0.06, AN = 0.89 ± 0.06, CN = 0.54 ± 0.05 and SN = 0.85 ± 0.06.

  11. Impact of puberty status and melengestrol acetate supplementation before the breeding period on reproductive efficiency of Bos indicus beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, J H; Santos, C S; Silva, M A V; Aguiar, H M V S B; França, I G; Pereira, H G; Ribeiro, D L; Chaves, R M; Souza, J A T; Monteiro, B M; Sá Filho, M F; Torres-Júnior, J R S

    2015-06-01

    Two experiments were designed to evaluate the impact of puberty status and the administration of melengestrol acetate (MGA) before onset of the breeding period on ovulatory responses (Exp. 1) and conception rate after AI performed on estrus detection during 10 d and the pregnancy rate through 80 d of breeding period (Exp. 2) of pasture-grazed beef heifers. In Exp. 1, heifers (15 pubertal and 15 prepubertal) received 0.5 mg per heifer/d -1 of MGA over 14 d. No differences in the ovulatory responses were found 10 d after the MGA administration (pubertal = 46.7% vs. prepubertal P = 53.3%; P = 0.72). In Exp. 2, 368 heifers were randomly assigned to groups according to pubertal status and the MGA treatment. All heifers were inseminated on estrus detection for up 10 d after MGA administration and following exposure to bulls between 20 and 80 d. The MGA-treated heifers exhibited a greater AI service rate than control heifers (72.1 vs. 41.6%;P breeding period (95.3 vs. 87.5%;P breeding period. At onset of the breeding period, pubertal heifers presented a greater pregnancy rate following AI (pubertal P = 42.2% vs. prepubertal P = 24.9%; P = 0.01). Therefore, pubertal heifers seem to have greater overall reproductive efficiency than prepubertal heifers, particularly at the beginning of the breeding period. Interestingly, administration of MGA before the onset of the breeding period increased AI service rate but did not alter the rate of pregnancy throughout the breeding period of pasture-grazed beef heifers.

  12. Guias clínicos e radiográficos utilizados para a predição do surto de crescimento puberal Clinical and radiographic guidelines to predict pubertal growth spurt

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    Monica Tirre de Souza Araujo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o objetivo desse artigo é chamar a atenção para a organização das informações disponíveis nos exames e durante o tratamento ortodôntico de indivíduos em crescimento, as quais servem como guias para a predição do estágio do surto de crescimento puberal. CONCLUSÃO: tais informações fornecem oportunidades de acréscimos no diagnóstico e prognóstico dos casos e na tomada de decisões do planejamento, evolução do tratamento e da fase de contenção, principalmente daqueles pacientes que apresentam más oclusões associadas a desarmonias esqueléticas.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to draw attention to the organization of information available on exams and during orthodontic treatment in growing patients, which serve as guides for predicting the stage of pubertal growth spurt. CONCLUSION: these data provide opportunities for increments in diagnosis and prognosis of cases and decisions in the planning, evolution of treatment and contention phase, especially those patients with malocclusion associated with skeletal disharmonies.

  13. Pesos e relações de peso de bezerros filhos de vacas nelore e cruzadas canchim x nelore Weight and weight ratios of calves out of straightbred nellore and crossbred canchim x nellore cows

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    Maurício Mello de Alencar

    1999-01-01

    of this work was to study birth (BW and weaning (WW weights, and birth weight/cow weight at calving (BWR and weaning weight/cow weight at calving (WWR ratios of 1/2 Canchim + 1/2 Nellore and 1/2 Charolais + 1/4 Canchim + 1/4 Nellore calves out of straightbred Nellore and crossbred 1/2 Canchim + 1/2 Nellore cows, and sired by Canchim (5/8 Charolais + 3/8 Zebu and Charolais bulls, respectively. Analyses of variance were carried out separately for each genetic group, by the least square method, with models that included the effects of year and month of birth of calf, sex of calf, age of cow and origin of cow (for the Nellore cows only. Year of birth affected all studied traits, except BW and BWR of the 1/2 Charolais calves, while month of birth had no effect on BW of those calves only. The heaviest calves at weaning were those born during the dry period (from July to September. The highest weight ratios were for the calves born from July to November. Sex of calf affected only the traits measured at weaning; male calves were heavier and showed higher weight ratio than the females. There was a tendency for increasing weights and decreasing weight ratios as the cows aged. Origin of the Nellore cow affected the traits of the 1/2 Canchim calves. The least square means obtained were equal to 31.6 ± .2 kg (BW, 195 ± 1 kg (WW, 71.0 ± .5 g/kg (BWR and 437 ± 3 g/kg (WWR, for the 1/2 Canchim calves, and 36.1±.2 kg (BW, 246 ± 1 kg (WW, 72.4 ± .4 g/kg (BWR and 492 ± 2 g/kg (WWR, for the 1/2 Charolais calves. These results suggest that straightbred Nellore and crossbred 1/2 Canchim + 1/2 Nellore cows may be considered of good productive efficiency, measured by the ratio weight of calf/weight of cow, when mated to Canchim and Charolais bulls, respectively.

  14. Postweaning and feedlot growth and carcass characteristics of Angus-, gray Brahman-, Gir-, Indu-Brazil-, Nellore-, and red Brahman-sired F1 calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschal, J C; Sanders, J O; Kerr, J L; Lunt, D K; Herring, A D

    1995-02-01

    Postweaning, feedlot, and carcass data from crossbred calves sired by five Bos indicus breeds and one Bos taurus breed were evaluated. Data included records from F1 calves out of multiparous Hereford cows sired by Angus, Gray Brahman, Gir, Indu-Brazil, Nellore, and Red Brahman bulls. The Zebu crosses grew faster postweaning and were heavier and taller as yearlings than the Angus crosses (P Brahman crosses were faster gaining and were heavier at a year of age than the Gir, Indu-Brazil, and Nellore. The Nellore crosses were significantly taller than the Gray Brahman- and Gir-sired crosses; the Indu-Brazil and Red Brahman were intermediate. Angus crosses were lightest on and off feed but were not significantly different from Gir, and Red and Gray Brahman were heaviest (P Brahman for final weight. The Angus cross was more desirable (P Brahman, Indu-Brazil, and Angus crosses; Red Brahman crosses were intermediate Angus crosses had the lightest carcasses but not significantly lighter than the Indu-Brazil, Gir, or Nellore. Red Brahman-cross carcasses were heaviest and Gray Brahman-cross carcasses were intermediate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. A deterministic simulation study of embryo marker-assisted selection for age at first calving in Nellore ( Bos indicus) beef cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosa, A.J.M.; Bijma, P.; Oliveira, H.N.; Lobo, R.B.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    We used deterministic simulation of four alternative multiple ovulation and embryo manipulation (MOET) closed nucleus schemes to investigate the benefits of using marker-assisted selection (MAS) of Nellore (Bos indicus) beef cattle embryos prior to transplantation to reduce the age at first calving

  16. Crossbreeding heifers performance in different reproductive stage / Desempenho de novilhas mestiças em diferentes estádios reprodutivos Crossbreeding heifers performance in different reproductive stage

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    Fernando Zawadzki

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-one crossbreeding heifers (½ Nelore vs ½ Aberdeen Angus with about 307.90 kg of live weight and eighteen months of age were used in a complete randomized design with three treatments and seven repetitions. The treatments were: control heifers, ovariectomized animals and with fifty gunshot spheres in uterine corn. The heifers were fed with 50% of corn silage and 50% concentrated. The feed intake was about 2,5% weight live in dry matter. The heifers gunshot treatments showed was bigger weight gain than the heifers ovariectomized treatments and this more weight gains what control heifers treatments. There was not difference in carcass yield and fat covering amongst treatments. The hematocrito increased in three heifers groups in the first collection (before for the second collection (after treatments. However, the increase was superior (P Foram utilizadas vinte e uma novilhas mestiças ½ Nelore vs ½ Aberdeen Angus, com idade aproximada de dezoito meses e peso médio de 307,90 kg. Os animais foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos e sete repetições. Os tratamentos foram compostos por: novilhas vazias, novilhas ovariectomizadas e novilhas com implante de cinqüenta esferas de chumbo esterilizadas no interior do corno uterino. As novilhas foram alimentadas com ração composta de 50% silagem de milho (MS e 50% concentrado (MS, fornecida na base de 2,5% (MS do peso vivo dos animais. As novilhas com implante de chumbo apresentaram ganho médio diário superior (P < 0,05 aos das novilhas ovariectomizadas e das vazias. Ainda, as novilhas ovariectomizadas apresentam ganho superior (P < 0,05 aos das novilhas vazias. Todavia, não houve diferença no que se refere ao rendimento de carcaça e cobertura de gordura. O valor do hematócrito aumentou nos três grupos de animais da primeira coleta (antes para a segunda coleta (depois dos tratamentos. Todavia, este aumento foi maior (P < 0,05 nas novilhas

  17. Effect of feeding sweet sorghum stover based complete ration on nutrient utilization in Nellore lambs

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    Jagannatham Babu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was carried out to evaluate the nutrient digestibility of sweet sorghum stover, an unconventional roughage source in ram lambs in comparison to conventional sorghum and maize stovers. Materials and Methods: 18 Nellore ram lambs aged about 3 months (average body weight 15.65±0.10 kg were randomly allotted to three complete rations formulated with roughage to concentrate ratio of 60:40 using sorghum stover (D1, maize stover (D2 and sweet sorghum stover (D3 as roughage source for a period of 120 days. At the end of the growth trial, a metabolism trial was conducted to evaluate the nutrient utilization of the complete diets. Results: There was no significant difference in nutrient digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein (CP, crude fibre, ether extract and nitrogen free extract in ram lambs fed D1, D2 and D3 diets, respectively. The digestibilities of acid detergent fibre and neutral detergent fibre did not differ significantly among the ram lambs fed various experimental diets. All the lambs were on positive nitrogen balance. Nitrogen balance was comparable among the various groups. The digestible CP and total digestible nutrients, digestible energy and metabolisable energy content of D1, D2 and D3 diets did not show any significant difference. Conclusion: It can be concluded that, sweet sorghum stover can be incorporated in the complete diets of sheep at 60% level by replacing conventional roughages such as sorghum stover and maize stover, processed as mash form without affecting the voluntary intake and digestibility of nutrients.

  18. Relationship between residual feed intake and enteric methane emission in Nellore cattle

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    Maria Eugênia Zerlotti Mercadante

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Feed intake and average daily gain (ADG in Nellore cattle were determined to calculate residual feed intake in two performance tests: first during the growth phase (RFIgrowth and then during a measurement of the methane emission phase (RFImet. During the RFIgrowth test, 62 males and 56 females were classified as low-, medium-, and high-RFI. Enteric methane emission was measured in 46 animals; 23 males used for RFImet measurement plus 23 females (22 low-RFIgrowth and 24 high-RFIgrowth. Diet consisted of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu hay (445 g/kg DM and concentrate (555 g/kg DM. During the RFIgrowth and RFImet phases, DMI was lower in the animals with low RFI, with no difference in ADG. Residual feed intake was -0.359 and 0.367 kg DM/d for low- and high-RFI animals. Enteric methane emission (g/d, g/kg BW0.75 and g/kg ADG did not differ between RFIgrowth classes. Enteric methane emission (g/d was higher in high RFImet and lower in low RFImet males. Spearman correlations among traits obtained during both tests, which were high between metabolic BW (r = 0.959 and between DMI (r = 0.718, and zero between ADG (r = -0.062, resulted in moderate correlation between RFIgrowth and RFImet (r = 0.412. However, it is not possible to confirm that high-efficiency animals release less enteric methane, since different results were obtained when enteric methane was compared between the RFIgrowth and RFImet classes.

  19. Embryo production in heifers with low or high dry matter intake submitted to superovulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollo, Marcos R; Monteiro, Pedro L J; Surjus, Ricardo S; Martins, Aline C; Ramos, Alexandre F; Mourão, Gerson B; Carrijo, Luiz H D; Lopes, Gláucio; Rumpf, Rodolfo; Wiltbank, Milo C; Sartori, Roberto

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the influence of feed intake on superovulatory response and embryo production of Nelore heifers. Pubertal heifers were kept in a feedlot and were submitted to the same diets, but with different levels of feed consumption: High (1.7 M; n = 20) or Low (0.7 M; n = 19) feed intake. Heifers in the 1.7 M treatment consumed 170% (2.6% of body weight [BW] in dry matter) and the 0.7 M heifers ate 70% (1.1% of BW in dry matter) of a maintenance diet. After 7 wk on these diets, heifers were treated with eight decreasing doses of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) given every 12 h, totaling 133 mg Folltropin (Folltropin-V; Bioniche Animal Health, Canada) per heifer. Seven d after AI, heifers had their uteri flushed and embryos were recovered and graded according to the International Embryo Technology Society standards. Data were analyzed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS and results are presented as least-squares means ± SEM (P < 0.05). At the onset of the FSH treatment (Day 0 of the protocol), 1.7 M heifers had greater body condition score (BCS), BW and serum insulin concentrations than 0.7 M heifers (4.1 ± 0.1 vs. 3.0 ± 0.1; 462.5 ± 10.1 vs. 382.7 ± 10.4 kg; and 14.3 ± 1.7 vs. 3.5 ± 0.8 μIU/mL, respectively). The 0.7 M heifers had more follicles ≥6 mm at the time of the last FSH (Day 7; 47.9 ± 6.4 vs. 23.5 ± 4.3 follicles), related to a better follicle superstimulatory response to FSH. Similarly, 0.7 M heifers had more corpora lutea at the time of embryo collection (33.6 ± 1.4 vs. 15.7 ± 0.9) than the 1.7 M heifers, which resulted in greater number of recovered embryos and ova (9.9 ± 0.7 vs. 6.7 ± 0.6) and viable embryos (5.3 ± 0.5 vs. 3.8 ± 0.4), despite having similar proportions of viable embryos (∼62%). A negative correlation between circulating insulin and follicle superstimulatory response to FSH was observed (r = -0.68). Therefore, we conclude that high feed intake, for a

  20. Performance and carcass traits of finishing heifers fed crude glycerin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, G L; Shelor, M K; Drouillard, J S

    2009-02-01

    Crossbred heifers (n = 373; 421.6 kg +/- 28.9) were fed finishing diets containing 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, or 16% crude glycerin (DM basis). Diets consisted of steam-flaked corn with 6% alfalfa hay and 1.2% urea and provided 300 mg of monensin, 90 mg of tylosin, and 0.5 mg of melengestrol acetate per animal daily. Cattle were stratified by BW and allocated randomly, within strata, to concrete-surfaced feedlot pens each containing 6 to 7 heifers, with 9 pens per dietary treatment. Cattle were transitioned from the control diet to diets containing increasing proportions of glycerin over a period of 10 d. Cattle had ad libitum access to feed, and diets were delivered once daily throughout the 85-d trial period. As the concentration of glycerin increased, DMI decreased linearly (P glycerin had ADG of 1.19, 1.34, 1.29, 1.25, 1.17, and 1.03 kg, respectively (linear, P = 0.013; quadratic, P = 0.010). Feeding glycerin had a quadratic effect on G:F, and G:F was optimal when glycerin was fed at 2% of the diet (quadratic, P = 0.046). Glycerin increased the final BW by 12.7, 8.1, and 5.3 kg when fed at 2, 4, and 8% of the diet, respectively, but reduced the final BW by 1.9 and 14.3 kg when included at 12 and 16% of the diet (linear, P = 0.009; quadratic, P = 0.006). Similarly, HCW increased by 8.1, 5.1, and 3.3 kg when glycerin was fed at 2, 4, and 8% of the diet, respectively, but were 1.2 and 9.1 kg less than controls when glycerin was fed at 12 and 16%, respectively (linear, P = 0.009; quadratic, P = 0.006). Longissimus muscle area decreased linearly as glycerin concentrations increased (P glycerin resulted in linear decreases in subcutaneous fat over the 12th rib and marbling scores (P = 0.045). Glycerin tended to decrease the percentage of cattle grading USDA Choice (P = 0.084) and increase the percentage of cattle grading USDA Select. Adding glycerin to cattle-finishing diets improved BW gain and feed efficiency, particularly when added at concentrations of 8% or less on a DM

  1. Tactile stimulation of dairy heifers: effects on behavior and milk production after calving

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    N. R. M. Néri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The positive management of primiparous heifers before calving through tactile stimulation may have beneficial effects on behavior during routine milking. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of tactile stimulation in dairy heifers and its effects on behavior and milk production after calving. Ten primiparous Holstein heifers were used. Half the group received training with tactile stimulation of all body regions, while the other group did not receive stimulation (control group. The training period was divided into three phases: early, days 1 to 6 of training; intermediate: days 7 to 12, and final, days 13 to 23. During training, movement and displacement scores were obtained over a period of 5 minutes. Physiological parameters were also recorded [respiratory rate (FR and minimum eye temperature (ETmin measured with a thermal imaging camera]. After calving, the heifers were submitted to first milking when the evaluations were started for the first 10 days of milking (20 consecutive milkings. The behavior of the animals was evaluated by attributing a reactivity score of 1 (desirable behaviors or 2 (undesirable behaviors: entry into the pen, teat disinfection, milking one or two jets of milk for mastitis testing, attachment of teat cups, and removal of milk, as well as the amount of milk produced. Mean ETmin and FR decreased over the training period. A significant difference was observed for displacement score (P=0.019, with a reduction in displacement from the early to the final period (from 60.0% to 25.7%. During the attachment of teat cups, stimulated heifers were less reactive (P=0.002, characterized by a lower frequency of undesirable behaviors (12.0%, than unstimulated heifers (30.2%. The average milk yield during the first 60 days of lactation was higher for the group of stimulated heifers (Ln y=2.20–0.0102t+0.331lnt, R2=0.76 compared to unstimulated heifers (Ln y=1.54–0.0191x+0.578lnx, R2=0.79, with this difference being

  2. Fall-grown oat to extend the fall grazing season for replacement dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coblentz, W K; Brink, G E; Hoffman, P C; Esser, N M; Bertram, M G

    2014-03-01

    Our objective was to assess the pasture productivity and forage characteristics of 2 fall-grown oat (Avena sativa L.) cultivars, specifically for extending the grazing season and reducing reliance on harvested forages by replacement dairy heifers. A total of 160 gravid Holstein heifers (80 heifers/yr) were stratified by weight, and assigned to 1 of 10 identical research pens (8 heifers/pen). Initial body weights were 480 ± 43.5 kg in 2011 and 509 ± 39.4 kg in 2012. During both years of the trial, four 1.0-ha pasture replicates were seeded in August with Ogle oat (Schumitsch Seed Inc., Antigo, WI), and 4 separate, but similarly configured, pasture replicates were seeded with Forage Plus oat (Kratz Farms, Slinger, WI). Heifer groups were maintained as units, assigned to specific pastures, and then allowed to graze fall-oat pastures for 6h daily before returning to the barn, where they were offered a forage-based basal total mixed ration. Two heifer groups were retained in confinement (without grazing) as controls and offered the identical total mixed ration as pasture groups. During 2011, available forage mass increased with strong linear and quadratic effects for both cultivars, peaking at almost 9 Mg/ha on October 31. In contrast, forage mass was not affected by evaluation date in 2012, remaining ≤ 2,639 kg/ha across all dates because of droughty climatic conditions. During 2012, Ogle exhibited greater forage mass than Forage Plus across all sampling dates (2,678 vs. 1,856 kg/ha), largely because of its more rapid maturation rate and greater canopy height. Estimates of energy density for oat forage ranged from 59.6 to 69.1% during 2011, and ranged narrowly from 68.4 to 70.4% during 2012. For 2011, responses for both cultivars had strong quadratic character, in which the most energy-dense forages occurred in mid November, largely due to accumulation of water-soluble carbohydrates that reached maximum concentrations of 18.2 and 15.1% for Forage Plus and Ogle

  3. Technical note: A new surgical technique for ovariohysterectomy during early pregnancy in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, K J; Dahlen, C R; Borowicz, P P; Reynolds, L P; Crosswhite, M R; Neville, B W; Walden, S D; Caton, J S

    2016-12-01

    We hypothesized that a standing flank ovariohysterectomy procedure could be developed in beef heifers that would provide high quality tissues for addressing critical questions during early pregnancy, while concomitantly keeping livestock stewardship a high priority. To test the hypothesis, we: 1) developed a standing flank ovariohysterectomy procedure for use in beef heifers, and 2) implemented this procedure in a cohort of heifers up to d 50 of pregnancy for tissue collections, documentation of post-surgical recovery, and assessment of feedlot finishing performance. Ovariectomy and cesarean section protocols are well established in research and veterinary medicine and were used as starting points for procedural development. Crossbred Angus heifers ( = 46; ∼ 15 mo of age; BW = 362.3 ± 34.7 kg) were used to develop this new surgical tissue collection technique. Heifers were subjected to the 5-d CO-Synch + CIDR estrous synchronization protocol so ovariohysterectomy occurred at d 16, 22, 28, 34, 40, and 50 of gestation. Key aspects of the standing flank ovariohysterectomy technique included 1) use of local anesthetic for a standing flank incision, 2) locate the uterine and ovarian arteries via blind palpation and ligate them through the broad ligament via an improved clinch knot, 3) cut the ovaries and uterus free from the broad ligament, 4) ligate the cervix and uterine branch of the vaginal artery, and 5) cut through the cervix and remove the reproductive tract. Surgical times, from skin incision to placement of the last suture, were influenced ( = 0.04) by stage of gestation. In pregnant heifers, time decreased from d 22 (120.0 ± 12.0 min) of gestation to d 40 (79.5 ± 12.0 min) of gestation; then increased at d 50 (90.5 ± 14.7 min) of gestation. Using this procedure, we obtained uterine, placental, and embryo/fetal tissues that had experienced limited hypoxia, little or no trauma, and thus were excellent quality for scientific study. All heifers recovered

  4. Body condition score of Nellore beef cows: a heritable measure to improve the selection of reproductive and maternal traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, A F A; Neves, H H R; Carvalheiro, R; Oliveira, J A; Queiroz, S A

    2015-08-01

    Despite the economic importance of beef cattle production in Brazil, female reproductive performance, which is strongly associated with production efficiency, is not included in the selection index of most breeding programmes due to low heritability and difficulty in measure. The body condition score (BCS) could be used as an indicator of these traits. However, so far little is known about the feasibility of using BCS as a selection tool for reproductive performance in beef cattle. In this study, we investigated the sources of variation in the BCS of Nellore beef cows, quantified its association with reproductive and maternal traits and estimated its heritability. BCS was analysed using a logistic model that included the following effects: contemporary group at weaning, cow weight and hip height, calving order, reconception together with the weight and scores of conformation and early finishing assigned to calves at weaning. In the genetic analysis, variance components of BCS were estimated through Bayesian inference by fitting an animal model that also included the aforementioned effects. The results showed that BCS was significantly associated with all of the reproductive and maternal variables analysed. The estimated posterior mean of heritability of BCS was 0.24 (highest posterior density interval at 95%: 0.093 to 0.385), indicating an involvement of additive gene action in its determination. The present findings show that BCS can be used as a selection criterion for Nellore females.

  5. Effects of ambient air temperature, humidity, and wind speed on seminal traits in Braford and Nellore bulls at the Brazilian Pantanal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegassi, Silvio Renato Oliveira; Pereira, Gabriel Ribas; Bremm, Carolina; Koetz, Celso; Lopes, Flávio Guiselli; Fiorentini, Eduardo Custódio; McManus, Concepta; Dias, Eduardo Antunes; da Rocha, Marcela Kuczynski; Lopes, Rubia Branco; Barcellos, Júlio Otávio Jardim

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioclimatic thermal stress assessed by Equivalent Temperature Index (ETI) and Temperature Humidity Index (THI) on Braford and Nellore bulls sperm quality during the reproductive seasons at the tropical region in the Brazilian Pantanal. We used 20 bulls aged approximately 24 months at the beginning of the study. Five ejaculates per animal were collected using an electroejaculator. Temperature, air humidity, and wind speed data were collected every hour from the automatic weather station at the National Institute of Meteorology. Infrared thermography images data were collected to assess the testicular temperature gradient in each animal. Data were analyzed with ANOVA using MIXED procedure of SAS and means were compared using Tukey's HSD test. The THI and ETI at 12 days (epididymal transit) were higher in January (89.7 and 28.5, respectively) and February (90.0 and 29.0, respectively) compared to other months (P < 0.01). Total seminal defects differ only in Bradford bulls between the months of November and February. Nellore bulls had lower major defects (MaD) and total defects (TD) compared to Braford. Nellore bulls showed correlation between minor defects (MiD) and THI for 30 days (0.90) and 18 days (0.88; P < 0.05). Braford bulls showed correlation for MaD (0.89) in ETI for 12 days (P < 0.05). Infrared thermography showed no difference between animals. Reproductive response to environmental changes is a consequence of Nellore and Braford adaptation to climate stress conditions. Both THI and ETI environmental indexes can be used to evaluate the morphological changes in the seminal parameters in Nellore or Braford bulls; however, more experiments should be performed focusing on larger sample numbers and also in reproductive assessment during the consecutive years to assess fertility potential.

  6. Plasma Nesfatin-1 and Leptin in pubertal and non-pubertal Murrah buffalo heifers (Bubalus bubalis

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    Gorakh Nath Prajapati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Buffaloes mostly suffer from delayed puberty, anestrus, sub–estrus, summer infertility, prolonged inter-calving interval and postpartum uterine disorders. Nesfatin-1 and Leptin are directly or indirectly related with body weight (BW, feed parameters and regulation of puberty. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of Nesfatin-1 and Leptin in pubertal and non-pubertal Murrah buffalo heifers. The Murrah buffalo heifers (n=13 were randomly selected and divided into two groups; pubertal group (PG and non-pubertal group (NG. Heifers with plasma progesterone (P4 level of ≥1 ng/mL were classified as PG. Blood samples were collected at fortnight intervals for analysis of plasma Nesfatin-1, Leptin, P4, glucose and non-esterified fatty acids. Body weight, dry matter intake and feed conversion efficiency were recorded at fortnight intervals. The mean (±SEM plasma Nesfatin-1, Leptin, P4, BW and feed conversion efficiency (% were significantly (P<0.01 higher in PG as compared to NG. Dry matter intake by the heifers was also significantly (P<0.001 higher in PG than NG. Plasma metabolites (glucose and NEFA did not differ significantly between the groups. The findings of this study suggest that Nesfatin-1 and Leptin have indispensable role in the onset of puberty in buffalo heifers by affecting BW and feed parameters.

  7. Effect of diet with different energy content in growing Murrah buffalo heifers

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    G. Campanile

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between variations of weight and BCS was evaluated using growing buffalo heifers, fed diets with different energy level. 12 Murrah bred heifers (age: 790 days, LW: 400 kg, raised in Saint Paul (Brazil were equally divided in group H and L fed diets with 5.8 UFL/day and 3.6 UFL/day, respectively. At the end of treatment, groups showed significant differences in weight and values of BCS. In this trial each point of BCS, in Murrah heifers, seems to be equivalent to an increase and/or a loss of about 50 kg of live weight. During this trial the mean value of daily weight gain (DWG was significantly higher in group H (310 g. vs 0 g.; P<0.01. The heifers of group H required 5.4 UFL to increase the live weight, while group L showed a constant live weight in spite of the assumption of energy level of diet not sufficient to satisfy the requirements of weight maintenance. As it is known, buffalo heifers improves the efficiency of the diet utilization in case of deficiency and wastes energy when receiving diet with high energy content.

  8. Molecular Typing of Mastitis-Causing Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Heifers and Cows

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    Juliana Rodrigues Pozzi Arcaro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is among the main etiologic agents of bovine mastitis. A total of 83 isolates of S. aureus from mammary glands of primiparous heifers were collected in the prepartum, calving and during lactation. For lactating cows, a total of 27 isolates of S. aureus from mammary glands were collected during lactation. The samples were taken in two dairy farms located in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The highest frequency of S. aureus isolation in heifers was at the end of lactation. Strains were typified through Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and grouped according to patterns of restriction enzyme SmaI. PFGE generated seven clonal profiles that were grouped into three different lineages, with the LA lineage being predominant and identified in heifers, as well as in the cows from the two regions studied. It was concluded that the cows showed a significant source of dispersion of S. aureus. At the first lactation the heifers were infected by the same clonal profiles of S. aureus which were isolated from multiparous lactating cows. The heifers were infected during milking over the months of lactation.

  9. Effect of intensive or extensive systems on buffalo heifers performances: onset of puberty and ovarian size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Borghese

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the effect of intensive feeding (IF group or pasture system (PS group on the onset of puberty and on the ovarian size in buffaloes. The trial was carried out on 26 prepubertal 8-months old buffalo heifers weighing a mean of 134 kg (n =13 per group. The heifers were weighed monthly and, starting from the 13th month of age, blood samples were collected every 10 days to determine the concentration of plasma progesterone by RIA. Heifers were considered to have achieved puberty and cyclic ovarian activity when plasma progesterone levels exceeded 1 ng/ml for two samples with a lower intermediate value. After two cycles, the heifers were naturally mated. Transrectal ultrasonography was performed every twenty days to follow changes in size of ovaries and in follicles number. Significantly higher (P<0.001 gains were obtained by IF system (870 g/d than PS one (620 g/d but the mean age at puberty was the same in both groups ( 599d vs 610d, respectively. Within 21 months 8 (IF group and 10 heifers (PS group showed cyclic ovarian activity. Ovarian size increased with age in both groups; however, the length of the right ovary and the number of follicles tended to be higher in IF vs PS group.

  10. Effects of grazing system on production and parasitism of dairy breed heifers and steers grazing wet marginal grasslands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Troels; Thamsborg, S.M.; Andersen, Refsgaard;

    2006-01-01

    Production and endoparasitism of first grazing season Holstein heifers and steers were investigated over two grazing seasons. Studies were conducted on low-lying peaty soil. In year 2000, 40 animals were included in a 2x2 factorial, replicated experiment with two sexes (steers v. heifers) and two...

  11. Modulation of the metabolic response to an endotoxin challenge in Brahman heifers through OmniGen-AF supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined the effect of feeding OmniGen-AF (OG; Prince Agri Products) on the metabolic response of newly-weaned heifers to an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Brahman heifers (n=24; 183±5 kilograms) from the Texas AgriLife Research Center in Overton, TX, were separated into 2...

  12. OmniGen-AF supplementation modulated the physiological and acute phase responses of Brahman heifers to an endotoxin challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined the effect of feeding OmniGen-AF (OG; Prince Agri Products) on the physiological and acute phase responses (APR) of newly-weaned heifers to an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Brahman heifers (n=24; 183±5 kilograms) from the Texas AgriLife Research Center in Overton...

  13. Ultrasound body composition traits response to an endotoxin challenge in Brahman heifers supplemented with Omnigen-AF

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined the effect of feeding OmniGen-AF (OG; Prince Agri Products) on the body composition traits response of newly-weaned heifers to an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Brahman heifers (n=24; 183 ± 5 kg) from the Texas AgriLife Research Center in Overton, TX, were separat...

  14. Zinc source and concentration altered physiological responses of beef heifers during a combined viral-bacterial respiratory challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three treatments were evaluated in feedlot heifers to determine the effects of zinc supplementation on the immune response to a combined viral-bacterial respiratory disease challenge. Thirty-two beef heifers (255+/-15 kg) were subjected to a 30d period of Zn depletion, then randomly assigned to one ...

  15. Effect of high and low antral follicle count in pubertal beef heifers on in vitro fertilization (IVF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pubertal heifers can be classified between those with high (= 25) and low (= 15) antral follicle counts (AFC). The objective of this study was to determine oocyte development and maturation (e.g., fertility) in an in vitro fertilization (IVF) system for high and low AFC heifers. From a pool of 120...

  16. In vitro fertilization (IVF) from low or high antral follicle count pubertal beef heifers using semi-defined culture conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antral follicle counts (AFC) vary among pubertal beef heifers. Our objective was to compare the in vitro maturation and fertilization of oocytes collected from low and high AFC heifers. Previously we reported results using serum-based IVF media and in this study report results using semi-defined m...

  17. Hair coat characteristics in Friesian heifers in the Netherlands and Kenya : experimental data and a review of literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Udo, H.M.J.

    1978-01-01

    The export of about 2600 Friesian heifers to Kenya between 1971-1973 provided an opportunity of studying the adaptation problems experienced by these heifers. Within the framework of the NUFFIC (Netherlands Universities Foundation for International Cooperation) a research project entitled

  18. Effects of straw processing and pen stocking density on holstein dairy heifers: i) growth and sorting characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objectives were to evaluate effects of pen-stocking density (freestall housing) and straw processing on heifer growth performance and feedbunk sorting behaviors by Holstein dairy heifers. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of straw-processing (GOOD or POOR) and pen-stocking-density [100 (CONTROL), 12...

  19. The effect of yeast cell wall supplementation on the physiological and acute phase responses of crossbred heifers to endotoxin challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding yeast cell wall (YCW) products on the physiological and acute phase responses of crossbred newly-received heifers to endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Heifers (n=24; 218.9+/-2.4 kg) were obtained from commercial sale barns and tra...

  20. The effect of yeast cell wall supplementation on the metabolic responses of crossbred heifers to endotoxin challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined the effect of feeding yeast cell wall (YCW) products on the metabolic responses of newly-received heifers to endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Heifers (n=24; 218.9±2.4 kg) were obtained from commercial sale barns and transported to the Texas Tech University Beef Cent...

  1. Yeast cell wall supplementation alters the physiological and acute phase responses of crossbred heifers to an endotoxin challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding yeast cell wall (YCW) products on the physiological and acute phase responses of crossbred newly-received heifers to an endotoxin challenge. Heifers (n = 24; 219 ± 2.4 kg) were separated into treatment groups receiving a Control diet (n = 8), ...

  2. Dried citrus pulp modulates the physiological and acute phase responses of crossbred heifers to an endotoxin challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined the effect of feeding dried citrus pulp (CP) pellets on the physiological and acute phase responses (APR) of newly-received crossbred heifers to an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Heifers (n=24; 218.3±2.4 kg) were obtained from commercial sale barns and transported...

  3. Relationship of feed efficiency of replacement beef heifers to subsequent feed efficiency as 3-year old suckled beef cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    We determined the correlaton between Residual Feed Intake (RFI) measured as post-weaned growing heifers (phase 1) and RFI measured as lactating beef cows (phase 2) in the same cohort. Individual performance and daily DMI were evaluated in 74 yearling heifers, and were subsequently reevaluated upon t...

  4. Effect of diet energy level and genomic residual feed intake on pre-bred dairy heifer feed intake and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the growth, feed intake, and feed efficiency of pre-bred dairy heifers with different predicted genomic residual feed intakes as lactating cows (RFI), and offered diets with different energy levels. Pre-bred heifers (128, ages 4-9 months) were blocked by ...

  5. [The effect of Fenbion, an anthelmintic, on blood in heifers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pjescak, M; Kovác, S; Cernek, J

    1991-02-01

    The complex effects of the anthelminthic Fenbion (prepared on the basis of fenbendazole, Bioveta Nitra) were investigated; its effects on the blood picture were studied in heifers with the liveweight of 400 kg, until the sixth day after its single application at doses of 15 and 30 mg per kg liveweight. The haemoglobin (Hb) content decreased in keeping with the physiological standard. The haematocrit (Hk) value decreased below the reference standard from 0.31 and 0.32 l per l on days five and six to 0.28-0.29 l per l. The total leucocyte counts increased from 8.60-9.64 G per l to 10.54-11.0 G per 1. This means that on the first days after administration Fenbion has negative effects on erythropoiesis, and as a stressor it evokes defense reactions of the organism. Differential blood counting: leucocyte counts increased to 0.71-0.73 arb. u. on days three to four. The increase in lymphocyte counts in the blood after Fenbion administration is likely to be related to the cellular immunobiological defense reaction of the organism. The counts of segmented leucocytes decreased, the counts of eosinophils increased irregularly, those of basophils and monocytes were highly variable, and the counts of monocytes increased irregularly in a large span, or they decreased.

  6. Relationship between phenotype, carcass characteristics and the incidence of dark cutting in heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, S; Basarab, J A; Dixon, W T; Bruce, H L

    2016-11-01

    Previous research has suggested that cattle predisposed to dark cutting can be identified from live animal or carcass characteristics. This hypothesis was tested using production and phenotype data from an existing data set collected from heifers (n=467) on study at three farms. Carcasses in the data set graded Canada AAA (n=136), AA (n=296), A (n=14), and B4 (dark cutting, n=21). Farm was identified as significant (P=0.0268) by CATMOD analysis and slaughter weight and carcass weight accounted for the variation in dark cutting frequency across the farms. Analysis of variance indicated that dark cutting heifers had reduced weight at weaning (Pcutting was decreased in heifers slaughtered at live weight greater than 550kg and in carcasses weighing greater than 325kg.

  7. The effect of pregnancy on visceral growth and energy use in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheaffer, A N; Caton, J S; Bauer, M L; Redmer, D A; Reynolds, L P

    2003-07-01

    Beef heifers (24 mo; 378 +/- 32 kg of BW; 22 pregnant, PR; 17 nonpregnant, NP) were grouped in common pens and fed corn silage- and hay-based diets formulated to provide an ADG of 0.45 kg in NP heifers. Both PR and NP heifers were slaughtered on d 40, 120, 200, and 270 of the study. Intestinal and hepatic tissues were analyzed for protein, DNA, RNA (mg/g of fresh tissue), and in vitro oxygen use. Jejunal samples were analyzed for cellular proliferation via immunohistochemical analysis. For ileum, DNA, which provides an estimate of cell number per unit of tissue, revealed an interaction (P = 0.06) between pregnancy and slaughter day; both PR and NP decreased with time, but NP increased on d 270 (P = 0.09). Cell number in the ileum was reduced at d 200 and 270 in the PR heifers (P 0.10) by pregnancy or day. Energy use (kcal/d) of duodenum and jejunum, calculated from in vitro oxygen consumption, increased linearly (P < 0.02) with time for both PR and NP. Pregnant and NP ileal energy use increased linearly (P < 0.01), but ileal energy use by PR was less throughout gestation (P = 0.07) than ileal energy use by NP. Cellular proliferation in the crypt region of the jejunum was decreased on d 120 and 200 (P < 0.02). These data indicate that the small intestine and liver of PR heifers may conserve energy expenditure compared with NP heifers. Energy conservation can partially be explained by differences in growth and cell proliferation and by energy use of the liver and small intestine.

  8. Luteolytic effectiveness of Preloban® or Croniben® products in holstein heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo José Ferreira Melo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the effect of intramuscular injection of two different commercial products of cloprostenol (Preloban® or Croniprest® on luteal regression of Holstein heifers. On a random day of the estrous cycle, 36 heifers were synchronized with an estradiol-progestin-PG-estradiol treatment. Twelve days after withdrawal of progestin, heifers were randomly divided into 3 groups of 12 animals. Groups 1 and 2 received the equivalent of 150 µg of d-cloprostenol of Croniben® or Preloban® products, while group 3 received 2 ml of saline. Estrus was detected with the aid of the dispositive Estrotec® on the following five days, and heifers that expressed estrus were inseminated. Blood samples were collected daily during the periods of 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours after the injection of d-cloprostenol for measurement of plasma progesterone by radioimmunoassay. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed by ultrasonography 40 days after insemination. The interval between the manifestation of estrus and the Croniben® or Preloban® injection was 68.4 ± 4.4 and 63.3 ± 4.6 hours, respectively (P>0.05. The distribution of estrus occurred in the period of 36 to 108 hours. With the exception of two heifers with incomplete luteolysis, all animals treated with d-cloprostenol showed complete luteolysis. The conception rate was 50.0% and 54.5% for Preloban® and Croniben® treatments, respectively (P > 0.05. We conclude that Preloban® and Croniben® products have similar effectiveness to induce luteolysis and and to synchronize the estrus of Holstein heifers. Thus, producer may choose any one of them without risk of compromising reproductive performance.

  9. Candidate Gene Expression in Bos indicus Ovarian Tissues: Prepubertal and Postpubertal Heifers in Diestrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Mayara Morena Del Cambre Amaral; Fortes, Marina Rufino S.; Porto-Neto, Laercio R.; Kelly, Matthew; Venus, Bronwyn; Kidd, Lisa; do Rego, João Paulo Arcelino; Edwards, Sophia; Boe-Hansen, Gry B.; Piper, Emily; Lehnert, Sigrid A.; Guimarães, Simone Eliza Facioni; Moore, Stephen Stewart

    2016-01-01

    Growth factors such as bone morphogenetic proteins 6, 7, 15, and two isoforms of transforming growth factor-beta (BMP6, BMP7, BMP15, TGFB1, and TGFB2), and insulin-like growth factor system act as local regulators of ovarian follicular development. To elucidate if these factors as well as others candidate genes, such as estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1), growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9), follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR), bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type 2 (BMPR2), type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR1), and key steroidogenic enzymes cytochrome P450 aromatase and 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (CYP19A1 and HSD3B1) could modulate or influence diestrus on the onset of puberty in Brahman heifers, their ovarian mRNA expression was measured before and after puberty (luteal phase). Six postpubertal (POST) heifers were euthanized on the luteal phase of their second cycle, confirmed by corpus luteum observation, and six prepubertal (PRE) heifers were euthanized in the same day. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression of FSHR, BMP7, CYP19A1, IGF1, and IGFR1 mRNA was greater in PRE heifers, when contrasted to POST heifers. The expression of LHR and HSD3B1 was lower in PRE heifers. Differential expression of ovarian genes could be associated with changes in follicular dynamics and different cell populations that have emerged as consequence of puberty and the luteal phase. The emerging hypothesis is that BMP7 and IGF1 are co-expressed and may modulate the expression of FSHR, LHR and IGFR1, and CYP19A1. BMP7 could influence the downregulation of LHR and upregulation of FSHR and CYP19A1, which mediates the follicular dynamics in heifer ovaries. Upregulation of IGF1 expression prepuberty, compared to postpuberty diestrus, correlates with increased levels FSHR and CYP19A1. Thus, BMP7 and IGF1 may play synergic roles and were predicted to interact, from the expression data (P = 0.07, r

  10. GROWTH AND REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF BEEF HEIFERS WEANED AT DIFFERENT AGES DESENVOLVIMENTO E DESEMPENHO REPRODUTIVO DE NOVILHAS DE CORTE SUBMETIDAS A DIFERENTES IDADES DE DESMAME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Restle

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the growth until twenty-eight months of age and the reproductive performance during the first mating at twenty- five months of beef females from two breeding systems, straightbreds (Charolais – C and Nellore – N and crossbreds (1/2 CN, ½ NC, submitted to two ages of weaning: T3 – weaning at three months; T7 – weaning at seven months. After the weaning management heifers were kept only on pasture. The data collected were weights taken at three, four, seven, twelve, eighteen, twenty-four and twenty-eight months of age, average daily weight gain (ADG between the different ages, body conditions at twenty-four and twenty-eight months, pelvic area and pregnancy rate. No significant interaction was observed for, the variables studied, between age at weaning and breeding system. ADG was lower for T3 calves from three to seven months (296 vs 434 g and higher from seven to twelve months (541 vs 417 g, afterward no significant difference was observed between the two treatments. The only significant difference for weight was at seven months, when T7 calves showed higher weight (144 vs 128 kg. Weights at twenty-four months were 333 and 331 kg, respectively, for T3 and T7. Crossbred females showed higher weight gain from three to eighteen months and were heavier at twelve (11.73%, eighteen (17.10%, twenty-four (14.89% and twenty-eight  months (19.03%. No significant differences, between weaning ages, were observed for body condition and pelvic area. Pregnancy rate was similar between T7 (66.7% and T3 (63.0%. Crossbred females showed higher body condition at twenty-four (3.8 vs 3.3 points and twenty-eight months (3.66 vs 3.07 points had larger pelvic area (158.29 vs 166.28 cm2 and higher pregnancy rate (79.1 vs 38.7% than the straightbreds. When nutrition conditions are adequate the weaning at three months does not affect the weight nor the reproductive performance of heifers during the first breeding

  11. Comparative analysis of pubertal growth spurt predictors: Martins and Sakima method and Grave and Brown method Análise comparativa dos estimadores do surto de crescimento puberal: métodos de Martins e Sakima e Grave e Brown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Emy Iguma

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate whether Martins and Sakima and Grave and Brown methods are useful for the study of pubertal growth spurt in children with cleft lip and palate. A total of 132 hand-wrist radiographs of patients from HRAC/USP aged 7 to 17 years old were analyzed, including girls and boys. Six radiographs of each age and gender were employed. These methods were applied to evaluating the stages of the hand-wrist ossification and epiphyseal formation, by graphic representation. The Martins and Sakima and the Grave and Brown methods revealed that the initial, peak and final stages of pubertal growth spurt occurred between 9 to 10, 12 and 15 years old, respectively, in the female gender. Similarly, in the male gender, both Martins and Sakima and Grave and Brown methods showed similar mean ages: 12, 14 and 16 years old for initial, peak and final stages of pubertal growth spurt, respectively. The Pearson's correlation test showed high and significant correlation (r = 0.99 and p O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar se os métodos de Martins e Sakima e Grave e Brown são aplicáveis para o estudo do surto de crescimento puberal (SCP de crianças com fissuras lábio-palatais. Foram analisadas 132 radiografias carpais de pacientes do HRAC-USP, dos gêneros masculino e feminino, com a faixa etária de 7 a 17 anos, utilizando 6 radiografias de cada idade e gênero. Ambos os métodos estudam os estágios de ossificação dos ossos da mão e punho e os estágios que se encontram as epífises, através de gráficos. Com relação a este estudo, no gênero feminino, tanto para Martins e Sakima quanto para Grave e Brown, o início, pico e final do SCP ocorreram entre 9 e 10 anos, 12 anos e 15 anos, respectivamente. Da mesma forma, para o gênero masculino, Martins e Sakima e Grave e Brown mostraram médias de idade similares: 12, 14 e 16 anos para início, pico e final do SCP, respectivamente. O teste de correlação de Pearson mostrou uma

  12. APPLICATION OF RANDOM REGRESSION MODELS FOR GROWTH TRAITS OF NELLORE CATTLE IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wéverton José Lima fONSECA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Thepurpose of thisreview isto show the increase in number of researches on covariance components and genetic evaluation using random regression models (RRM for growth traits of Nellore cattle. Random regression models (RRM, also known as infinite-dimension models have been used to estimate variance components and genetic parameters for weight of beef cattle. In addition, those models are a standard alternative for genetic analyses of longitudinal data, however, the availibility of computational resources for performing genetic evaluations widely is an obstacle. Traits related to animal growth are adopted as selection criteria in beef cattle breeding programs, because the remuneration of cattle breeders is made based on the weight of carcasses. In recent years, RRM have been adopted as standard procedure in relation to the analysis of longitudinal data in animal breeding. Objetivou-se com esta revisão de literatura compilar informações sob a avaliação genética utilizando modelos de regressão aleatória (MRA para características de crescimento em bovinos da raça Nelore. Os modelos de regressão aleatória (MRA, denominados modelos de dimensão infinita, estão sendo utilizados para estimar os componentes de variância e parâmetros genéticos de pesos de bovinos de corte. Os MRA têm se tornado uma alternativa padrão para análises genéticas de dados longitudinais, onde um dos entraves destes modelos está relacionado à disponibilidade de memória e tempo computacional para a realização de avaliações genéticas em larga escala. Características relacionadas ao crescimento animal são adotadas em programas de melhoramento genético de bovinos de corte como critérios de seleção, pelo fato da remuneração, dos produtores, ser feita com base no peso das carcaças. Nos últimos anos, os MRA têm sido adotados como procedimento padrão para análise de dados longitudinais em melhoramento genético animal.

  13. Assessment of groundwater salinity in Nellore district using multi-electrode resistivity imaging technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E Chandrasekhar; Deshmukh Ramesh; Trupti Gurav; T K Biswal

    2014-12-01

    Multi-electrode resistivity imaging survey with 48 electrodes was carried out to assess the extent of salinity inland, in the shallow subsurface in Nellore district, Andhra Pradesh, in the Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt (EGMB) region. Resistivity data were recorded using Wenner–Schlumberger configuration at nine sites along a profile of about 55 km in length, laid perpendicular to the coast. An average spacing of 6 km is maintained between each site. Assessment of groundwater salinity in the study area was made by joint interpretation of the two-dimensional (2D) geoelectrical models of all the sites together with the geochemical analysis results of water samples and geology. At sites closer to the coast, 2D geoelectrical models of the subsurface indicate low resistivities (2–50 m) in the depth range from surface up to 15 m. Such low resistivities are due to the high salinity of the groundwater. Geochemical analysis results of water samples at six locations close to the electrical resistivity survey sites also suggest high salinity and high concentrations of total dissolved solids and other chemicals at sites closer to the coast. Away from the coast, the resistivities in the depth range from surface up to 15 m vary in the range of 50–150 m. Accordingly, the chemical analysis of water samples collected at these sites also showed relatively low levels of salinity and salt concentrations in them. However, away from the coast, the resistivities vary in the range of 150–1500 m in the depth range from 20–40 m. While the aquaculture and agriculture activities may contribute to high salinity at the sites closer to the coast, the presence of deep-seated paleochannels aiding in transporting seawater inland, and water–rock interactions are suspected to be the chief causes for notable salinity at places away from the coast at shallow depths. We opine that the high salinity at shallow depths, coupled with the deep-seated paleochannels transporting seawater, could pose

  14. Ingestive behavior of Nellore and Bonsmara cattle during the feed efficiency test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Marchi Maiorano

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have reported relationship between eating behavior and performance in feedlot cattle. The evaluation of behavior traits demands high degree of work and trained manpower, therefore, in recent years has been used an automated feed intake measurement system (GrowSafe System ®, that identify and record individual feeding patterns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between feeding behavior traits and average daily gain in Nellore calves undergoing feed efficiency test. Date from 85 Nelore males was recorded during the feed efficiency test performed in 2012, at Centro APTA Bovinos de Corte, Instituto de Zootecnia, São Paulo State. Were analyzed the behavioral traits: time at feeder (TF, head down duration (HD, representing the time when the animal is actually eating, frequency of visits (FV and feed rate (FR calculated as the amount of dry matter (DM consumed by time at feeder (g.min-1. The ADG was calculated by linear regression of individual weights on days in test. ADG classes were obtained considering the average ADG and standard deviation (SD being: high ADG (>mean + 1.0 SD, medium ADG (± 1.0 SD from the mean and low ADG (0.05 among ADG classes for FV, indicating that these traits are not related to each other. These results shows that the ADG is related to the agility in eat food and not to the time spent in the bunk or to the number of visits in a range of 24 hours.

  15. Invited review: Mastitis in dairy heifers: nature of the disease, potential impact, prevention, and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vliegher, S; Fox, L K; Piepers, S; McDougall, S; Barkema, H W

    2012-03-01

    Heifer mastitis is a disease that potentially threatens production and udder health in the first and subsequent lactations. In general, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the predominant cause of intramammary infection and subclinical mastitis in heifers around parturition, whereas Staphylococcus aureus and environmental pathogens cause a minority of the cases. Clinical heifer mastitis is typically caused by the major pathogens. The variation in proportions of causative pathogens between studies, herds, and countries is considerable. The magnitude of the effect of heifer mastitis on an individual animal is influenced by the form of mastitis (clinical versus subclinical), the virulence of the causative pathogen(s) (major versus minor pathogens), the time of onset of infection relative to calving, cure or persistence of the infection when milk production has started, and the host's immunity. Intramammary infection in early lactation caused by CNS does not generally have a negative effect on subsequent productivity. At the herd level, the impact will depend on the prevalence and incidence of the disease, the nature of the problem (clinical, subclinical, nonfunctional quarters), the causative pathogens involved (major versus minor pathogens), the ability of the animals to cope with the disease, and the response of the dairy manager to control the disease through management changes. Specific recommendations to prevent and control mastitis in late gestation in periparturient heifers are not part of the current National Mastitis Council mastitis and prevention program. Control and prevention is currently based on avoidance of inter-sucking among young stock, fly control, optimal nutrition, and implementation of hygiene control and comfort measures, especially around calving. More risk factors for subclinical and clinical heifer mastitis have been identified (e.g., season, location of herd, stage of pregnancy) although they do not lend themselves to the development

  16. 转基因奶牛与普通奶牛超数排卵效果的比较分析%Comparative Analysis of Superovulation Responses in Transgenic Dairy Heifers and Ordinary Dairy Heifers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱玉林; 薛建华; 吕小青; 李艳华; 孙凤俊; 杨超; 戴蕴平; 王彦平; 赵凤茹; 丁方荣

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we compared the superovulation responses between transgenic dairy heifers and ordinary dairy heifers. Of the transgenic dairy heifers, 16 out of 20 responded to superovulation treatment. On average, the total number of embryos/ova and transferable embryos, unfertilized ova, degenerated embryos produced in transgenic dairy heifers were 6.15±4.43(mean±SEM) and 3.94±2.62, 1.50±2.19, 0.69±0.78, respectively. Of the ordinary dairy heifers, 17 out of 20 responded to superovulation treatment. On average, the total number of embryos/ova and transferable embryos, unfertilized ova, degenerated embryos produced in transgenic dairy heifers were 8.65±5.70 and 4.18±3.11, 1.47±1.12, 3.00±4.24, respectively. There was no signiifcant difference between transgenic dairy heifers and ordinary dairy heifers in the total number of embryos/ova and transferable embryos, unfertilized ova(P>0.05).There was a decrease in the number of degenerated embryos in transgenic dairy heifers(P0.05),转基因奶牛的退化胚胎数显著低于普通奶牛(P<0.05)。本试验结果说明转入改变乳成分的外源基因不影响奶牛的超数排卵效果。

  17. Methods for early prediction of lactation flow in Holstein heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Gantner

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to define methods for early prediction (based on I. milk control record of lactation flow in Holstein heifers as well as to choose optimal one in terms of prediction fit and application simplicity. Total of 304,569 daily yield records automatically recorded on a 1,136 first lactation Holstein cows, from March 2003 till August 2008., were included in analysis. According to the test date, calving date, the age at first calving, lactation stage when I. milk control occurred and to the average milk yield in first 25th, T1 (and 25th-45th, T2 lactation days, measuring monthcalving month-age-production-time-period subgroups were formed. The parameters of analysed nonlinear and linear methods were estimated for each defined subgroup. As models evaluation measures,adjusted coefficient of determination, and average and standard deviation of error were used. Considering obtained results, in terms of total variance explanation (R2 adj, the nonlinear Wood’s method showed superiority above the linear ones (Wilmink’s, Ali-Schaeffer’s and Guo-Swalve’s method in both time-period subgroups (T1 - 97.5 % of explained variability; T2 - 98.1 % of explained variability. Regarding the evaluation measures based on prediction error amount (eavg±eSD, the lowest average error of daily milk yield prediction (less than 0.005 kg/day, as well as of lactation milk yield prediction (less than 50 kg/lactation (T1 time-period subgroup and less than 30 kg/lactation (T2 time-period subgroup; were determined when Wood’s nonlinear prediction method were applied. Obtained results indicate that estimated Wood’s regression parameters could be used in routine work for early prediction of Holstein heifer’s lactation flow.

  18. Effects of residual feed intake and dam body weight on replacement heifer intake, efficiency, performance, and metabolic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R S; Martin, R M; Buttrey, B

    2015-07-01

    Thirty-eight Angus-based, crossbred, nulliparous beef heifers (BW = 280 ± 26.3 kg) sired by 2 Angus sires were used to determine if dam BW affected heifer performance, DMI, residual feed intake (RFI), and endocrine markers. Heifers were housed in individual pens (2.2 by 9.1 m) equipped with 2.2 m of bunk space and fed a diet (90.4% DM, 13.7% CP, 67.2% NDF, and 56.2% TDN) consisting of 87.2% bermudagrass hay and 12.8% liquid protein supplement for a 14-d adaption period and a 70-d feeding period. Individual daily feed intake was used to calculate RFI for each heifer, and heifer was the experimental unit. Two-day beginning and end BW were recorded and hip height was used to calculate frame score (FS). Heifer dams were assigned to a light (LIT; 544 ± 21.3 kg) or heavy (HEV; 621 ± 34.8 kg) BW group on the basis of mean BW at the beginning of their lactation period the previous year to determine differences in heifer offspring DMI and RFI. Based on heifer RFI ranking, heifers were classified as positive (POS; 0.34) or negative (NEG; –0.31) RFI and low (LOW; –0.45), medium (MED; 0.00), or high (HI; 0.49) RFI for analysis of BW, FS, BW gain, and DMI. There were no dam BW group × sire interactions (P > 0.10) for all independent variables. Beginning and end BW was greater (P 0.10) for heifers out of HEV compared with LIT BW dams; however, a sire effect existed (P 0.10) whereas DMI was greater (P = 0.03) among heifers in the POS compared with the NEG RFI group and greater (P = 0.01) among heifers in the MED and HI compared with LOW RFI group, respectively. Plasma insulin levels were greater (P = 0.03) in the NEG compared with the POS RFI heifers, and thyroxine (T4) levels were greater (P = 0.02) in the POS compared with the NEG RFI heifers. A positive relationship existed (P ≤ 0.05) between dam BW and heifer DMI (r = 0.42), beginning and end BW (r = 0.45 and 54), and FS (r = 0.58) and between RFI and d 70 triiodothyronine (r = 0.34), d 70 T4 (r = 0.35), and d 0 and

  19. Exigências nutricionais de bezerros nelores lactentes Nutritional requirements of nursing Nellore calves

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    Mozart Alves Fonseca

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar as exigências de proteína, energia e macrominerais de bezerros nelores do nascimento aos 180 dias. Foram utilizados 20 bezerros (10 machos e 10 fêmeas com peso corporal médio de 30±3 kg. Imediatamente após o nascimento, quatro bezerros, dois machos e duas fêmeas, foram abatidos para estimar a composição corporal inicial dos animais restantes no experimento. Aos 90 dias, foram abatidos oito bezerros (quatro machos e quatro fêmeas, o restante dos animais abatidos aos 180 dias. Além do leite, os bezerros foram alimentados com silagem de milho à vontade e concentrado comercial fixado em no máximo 0,5 kg/animal/dia. Foram conduzidos dois ensaios de digestibilidade, aos 30 e 90 dias para estimar os consumos de energia dos bezerros. Após o abate, todos os bezerros tiveram suas meias-carcaças direitas dissecadas. Os conteúdos corporais de proteína, energia e minerais foram estimados pela equação Y = a . PCVZb, sendo PCVZ o peso de corpo vazio. A relação PCVZ/PC dos bezerros foi de 0,9622 e a de ganho (G de PCVZ/GPC foi de 0,958. As exigências líquidas de proteína e energia aumentaram com o aumento do peso corporal, enquanto as de cálcio diminuíram. As exigências de proteína metabolizável para ganho de 1 kg de PC foram de 216,96 e 261,98 g para bezerros de 100 e 200 kg, respectivamente. Recomenda-se utilizar as seguintes equações para estimar os conteúdos corporais de bezerros Nelore lactentes: proteína (g/dia = 0,135 × PCVZ1,0351; energia (Mcal/dia = 1,1798 × PCVZ1,1805; cálcio (g/dia = 0,091 × PCVZ0,6019; fósforo (g/dia = 0,00894 × PCVZ0,9629; sódio (g/dia = 0,00126 × PCVZ0,9791; magnésio (g/dia = 0,000405 × PCVZ0,9827; potássio (g/dia = 0,00165 × PCVZ0,9364.This experiment was carried out to evaluate the nutritional requirements of protein, energy and macro minerals for Nellore calves from birth to 180 days. A total of 20 calves, 10 males (M and 10

  20. Influence of prepartum pirlimycin hydrochloride or penicillin-novobiocin therapy on mastitis in heifers during early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, S P; Gillespie, B E; Ivey, S J; Lewis, M J; Johnson, D L; Lamar, K C; Moorehead, H; Dowlen, H H; Chester, S T; Hallberg, J W

    2004-06-01

    A study was conducted in 2 dairy research herds to determine whether prepartum therapy of heifer mammary glands with penicillin-novobiocin or pirlimycin hydrochloride was effective for reducing the percentage of heifers and mammary quarters infected with mastitis pathogens during early lactation. Almost 96% of Jersey heifers (67 of 70) and 71.3% of quarters (199 of 279) were infected 14 d before expected calving. Of the quarters infected at 14 d before expected parturition, 75% (54 of 72) were uninfected following treatment with penicillin-novobiocin; 87% (61 of 70) were uninfected following treatment with pirlimycin, and 56% (32 of 57) were uninfected in the untreated negative control group. The majority of intramammary infections in Jersey heifers were due to coagulase-negative staphylococci (61%), Streptococcus species, primarily Streptococcus uberis (19%), and Staphylococcus aureus (8%). Almost 73% of Holstein heifers (40 of 55) and 34.3% of mammary quarters (73 of 213) were infected 14 d before expected calving. Of the quarters infected at 14 d before expected parturition, 76% (19 of 25) were uninfected following treatment with penicillin-novobiocin; 59% (17 of 29) were uninfected following treatment with pirlimycin, and 26% (5 of 19) were uninfected in the untreated negative control group. The majority of intramammary infections in Holstein heifers were due to coagulase-negative staphylococci (44%) and Staph. aureus (30%). In both herds, the bacteriological cure rate was significantly higher in heifer mammary glands treated with penicillin-novobiocin or pirlimycin hydrochloride than in untreated controls. Prepartum therapy of heifer mammary glands with penicillin-novobiocin or pirlimycin hydrochloride significantly reduced the percentage of heifers and quarters infected with mastitis pathogens during early lactation.

  1. Effect of Lipid Sources with Different Fatty Acid Profiles on Intake, Nutrient Digestion and Ruminal Fermentation of Feedlot Nellore Steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentini, Giovani; Carvalho, Isabela P C; Messana, Juliana D; Canesin, Roberta C; Castagnino, Pablo S; Lage, Josiane F; Arcuri, Pedro B; Berchielli, Telma T

    2015-11-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the effect of lipid sources with different fatty acid profiles on nutrient digestion and ruminal fermentation. Ten rumen and duodenal fistulated Nellore steers (268 body weight±27 kg) were distributed in a duplicated 5×5 Latin square. Dietary treatments were as follows: without fat (WF), palm oil (PO), linseed oil (LO), protected fat (PF; Lactoplus), and whole soybeans (WS). The roughage feed was corn silage (600 g/kg on a dry matter [DM] basis) plus concentrate (400 g/kg on a DM basis). The higher intake of DM and organic matter (OM) (p0.05), such as the molar percentage of acetate, propionate, butyrate and the acetate:propionate ratio. Treatments PO, LO and with WS decreased by around 50% the concentration of protozoa (ptype of protection (PF and WS) decreased the effects of lipid on ruminal fermentation and presented similar outflow of benefit UFA as LO.

  2. COMPONENTS OF (COVARIANCE FOR AGE AT FIRST AND SECOND CALVING OF NELLORE FEMALES RAISED IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionéia Magda Everling

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the heritability, genetic correlation and estimated breeding values for age at first (AFC and second calving (ASC for Nellore females raised in Southern Brazil. The (covariance and estimated breeding values were obtained using Bayesian inference in a bivariate analysis, adopting an animal model. The average ages were 49.30 and 69.85 months, and the heritabilities were 0.25 and 0.26, respectively for AFC and ASC. The genetic correlation between AFC and ASC was 0.88. The correlation between the classifications of sires according to their estimated breeding values was 0.93. The heritability estimates for AFC and ASC suggest the possibility of obtaining genetic gain by selection. The correlation between these traits close to one indicates that they are controlled by virtually the same genes and when selected for one will advance correlated gain for the other.

  3. Behavior patterns of cows with Charolais or Nellore breed predominance fed diets with plant extract or monensin sodium

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    Luciane Rumpel Segabinazzi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the ingestive behavior of feedlot cows fed additives based on plant extracts or monensin sodium. Twenty-four Charolais and Nellore crossbred cows with age and average initial weight of 7 years and 423 kg, respectively, were used. The experimental diets were plant extracts: basal diet + 5 g/animal/day of a natural additive composed of 750 mg of essential oil of thyme (Thymus vulgaris, 150 mg of garlic (Allium sativum, 250 mg of rosemary extract (Rosmarimus officinalis, 250 mg of canola oil (Brassica napus, 250 mg extract of quillaja (Quillaja saponaria, and 3350 mg of corn starch; sodium monensin: basal diet + 300 mg/monensin/animal/day; and control: basal diet without additive. The basal diet contained sorghum silage and concentrate in a 62:38 ratio. The experimental design was completely randomized with a 3 × 2 (3 diets and 2 breed predominances factorial arrangement, and means were compared using DMS test at 5% of significance. The type of additive consumed did not alter animal feeding behavior. Cows with Charolais predominance consumed more dry matter (13.78 vs. 12.38 kg/day and neutral detergent fiber (7.81 vs. 6.89 kg/day, ruminated for longer (8.47 vs. 7.82 h, spent more time chewing (13.05 vs 12.01 h, had a greater number of chews per minute (58.88 vs 53.21 and a greater number of ruminal bolus (541.43 vs. 464.09 boluses/day; however, cows with Nellore predominance had greater idling time (11.82 vs. 10.74 h.

  4. Evidences of inclined transpression at the contact between Vinjamuru group and Udayagiri group of Nellore Schist Belt, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sankha; Shukla, Devasheesh; Mitra, S. K.

    2016-07-01

    The Nellore Schist Belt (NSB) is a curvilinear Archaean schist belt, approximately 350 km long and 8-50 km wide. The Nellore Schist Belt is considered to be Neoarchean in age and stratigraphically NSB is classified as the western Udayagiri group (dominated by metasediments) and underlying eastern Vinjamuru group (dominated by metabasalts). There is a long controversy regarding the contact relationship between Udayagiri and Vinjamuru groups. Earlier researchers regarded the contact between two groups as tectonic on the basis of metamorphism. A shear zone and a possible thrust contact between the two groups have also been reported. On the basis of present study, an NNW-SSE trending, westerly dipping inclined transpressional zone is found at the contact between Udayagiri and Vinjamuru groups in the central western part of the NSB. Kinematic analysis of both the hanging wall and foot wall of the westerly dipping thrust zone shows presence of strong S1 schistosity, shear bands and S-C fabric in both strike and dip section along with east-verging overturned fold, westerly dipping inverted beds, suggesting partitioning of non-coaxial deformation in strike-slip and dip-slip component along with a pure shear component. Strike-slip is more prominent in the northern part of the contact than the southern part. The presence of steep to moderate northerly plunging non-orthogonal stretching/mineral elongation lineation all along the contact and clockwise shift of plot of the same in stereo net from its orthogonal position and presence of other kinematic indicators in plan suggests a right lateral strike-slip component. As a whole, it is suggested that Udayagiri group is thrusted over Vinjamuru group along a westerly dipping thrust plane with a right lateral strike-slip motion and simultaneous E-W contraction.

  5. Evidences of inclined transpression at the contact between Vinjamuru group and Udayagiri group of Nellore Schist Belt, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sankha Das; Devasheesh Shukla; S K Mitra

    2016-07-01

    The Nellore Schist Belt (NSB) is a curvilinear Archaean schist belt, approximately 350 km long and 8–50 km wide. The Nellore Schist Belt is considered to be Neoarchean in age and stratigraphically NSB is classified as the western Udayagiri group (dominated by metasediments) and underlying eastern Vinjamuru group (dominated by metabasalts). There is a long controversy regarding the contact relationship between Udayagiri and Vinjamuru groups. Earlier researchers regarded the contact between two groups as tectonic on the basis of metamorphism. A shear zone and a possible thrust contact between the two groups have also been reported. On the basis of present study, an NNW–SSE trending, westerly dipping inclined transpressional zone is found at the contact between Udayagiri and Vinjamuru groups in the central western part of the NSB. Kinematic analysis of both the hanging wall and foot wall of the westerly dipping thrust zone shows presence of strong S1 schistosity, shear bands and S-C fabric in both strike and dip section along with east-verging overturned fold, westerly dipping inverted beds, suggesting partitioning of non-coaxial deformation in strike-slip and dip-slip component along with a pure shear component. Strike-slip is more prominent in the northern part of the contact than the southern part. The presence of steep to moderate northerly plunging non-orthogonal stretching/mineral elongation lineation all along the contact and clockwise shift of plot of the same in stereo net from its orthogonal position and presence of other kinematic indicators in plan suggests a right lateral strike-slip component. As a whole, it is suggested that Udayagiri group is thrusted over Vinjamuru group along a westerly dipping thrust plane with a right lateral strike-slip motion and simultaneous E–W contraction.

  6. Timed artificial insemination should be performed early when used norgestomet ear implants are applied for synchronizing ovulation in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá Filho, M F; Penteado, L; Siqueira, G R; Soares, J G; Mendanha, M F; Macedo, G G; Baruselli, P S

    2013-10-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of the type of norgestomet ear implant (new vs. used) on the ovarian follicular response (experiment 1) and pregnancy per artificial insemination (AI) (P/AI; experiment 2) of beef heifers subjected to an estradiol plus progestin timed artificial insemination (TAI) program. In experiment 1, 57 cyclic beef heifers were randomly assigned to one of two groups according to the type (new or previously used for 9 days) of norgestomet ear (NORG) implant. At the time of NORG implant insertion, the heifers were treated with 2 mg of intramuscular estradiol benzoate. Eight days later, the NORG implants were removed, and the heifers received an intramuscular administration of 150 μg of d-cloprostenol, 300 IU of equine chorionic gonadotropin, and 0.5 mg of estradiol cypionate. The heifers had their ovaries scanned every 12 hours from the time of NORG implant removal to 96 hours after verifying the occurrence and timing of ovulation. No difference (P = 0.89) was observed in the ovulation rates between the two treatments (new = 80.0%; 24/30 vs. used = 81.5%; 22/27). However, the heifers treated with a used NORG implant had (P = 0.04) higher proportion (36.4%; 8/22) of early ovulation (between 36 and 48 hours after NORG implant removal) compared with the heifers treated with a new NORG implant (8.3%; 2/24). In experiment 2, at the beginning of the synchronization protocol, 416 beef heifers were randomly assigned into two groups, as described in the experiment 1. Two days after the NORG implant removal, the heifers were reassigned to be inseminated at 48 or 54 hours after NORG implant removal. There was an interaction (P = 0.03) between the type of NORG implant and the timing of TAI on P/AI. The timing of insemination only had an effect (P = 0.02) on the P/AI when the heifers were treated with a used NORG implant [(TAI 54 hours = 41.9% (44/105) vs. TAI 48 hours = 58.6% (58/99)]. In conclusion, beef heifers synchronized with a used NORG implant

  7. Forage and breed effects on behavior and temperament of pregnant beef heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integration of behavioral observations with traditional selection schemes may lead to enhanced animal well-being and more profitable forage-based cattle production systems. Brahman-influenced (BR; n=64) and Gelbvieh x Angus (GA; n=64) heifers consumed either toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue (E+)...

  8. Risk Factors Influencing Conception Rate in Holstein Heifers before Artificial Insemination or Embryo Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yusuf

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to show the risk factors affecting the conception rate in Holstein heifers after synchronization of estrus. A total of 275 Holstein heifers housed in a free barn were used for the experiment. The herd was visited regularly at four week intervals for synchronization of estrus using Heatsynch and CIDR-Heatsynch protocols. A group of four to 14 animals, depending on the availability, were referred to the experiment at each visit. Estrus induction rates in the two protocols were 93.9% and 94.9%, respectively. There was no difference in the conception rate between the two protocols. Conception rate after artificial insemination (AI or embryo transfer (ET were 46.3% and 51.4%, respectively. The risk factors affecting conception rate in heifers were daily weight gain (odds ratio [OR]= 4.673; P= 0.036 and body condition score (BCS (OR= 3.642; P= 0.018. Furthermore, estrus synchronization protocol (OR= 1.774; P= 0.083 and the absence of corpus luteum (CL at the initiation of treatment (OR= 0.512; P= 0.061 had a tendency to affect the conception rate, while age (OR= 0.715; P= 0.008 was a protective factor to conception rate.  In conclusion, positive daily weight gain before AI or ET, higher BCS, younger age, and the presence of CL at the initiation of estrus synchronization in dairy heifers increased the likelihood to conceive.

  9. Altered endometrial immune gene expression in beef heifers with retarded embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltman, M E; Forde, N; Lonergan, P; Crowe, M A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare endometrial gene expression profiles in a group of beef heifers yielding viable or retarded embryos on Day 7 after oestrus as a means of potentially explaining differences in embryo survival rates. Heifers were classified as either: (1) viable, when the embryo collected on Day 7 after oestrus was at the correct developmental stage (i.e. morula/early blastocyst); or (2) retarded, when the embryo was arrested at the 2-16-cell stage. The focus of the present study was on genes that were associated with either the pro- or anti-inflammatory immune response. Endometrial gene expression was determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Expression of the β-defensin (DEFB1), interferon (IFN)-α (IFNA), IFN-γ (IFNG), interleukin (IL)-6 (IL6), IL-10 (IL10), forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) and natural cytotoxicity triggering receptor 1 (NCR1) genes was lower in endometria from viable than retarded heifers. Expression of the nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B cells 1 (NKFB1), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β (TGFB), IFN-γ-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) and IL-21 (IL21) genes was higher in viable than retarded heifers. We propose that small disturbances in the expression of immune genes in the endometrium on Day 7 after oestrus can have detrimental effects on embryo survival.

  10. Qualitative characteristics of meat from confined crossbred heifers fed with lipid sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Fiorentini

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lipids have been used in ruminant feed to replace high amounts of grain for increasing the diet energy density, performance and meat quality. This study evaluated the qualitative characteristics of meat from feedlot heifers fed with sources of lipid supplements. Twenty-one crossbred heifers (1/4Nelore × 1/4Santa Gertrudis × 1/2Braunvieh were used. Each heifer received 60 % forage with a base of corn silage and 40 % concentrate, resulting in 5.8 % lipid content in the total diet. The following sources of lipids were used: soybeans, protected fat and soybean oil. There were no differences on physical characteristics of meat samples from heifers fed with the lipid sources. Soybeans increased the concentration of linoleic acid, content of polyunsaturated fatty acid and activity of the Δ9-desaturase C16 enzyme in the Longissimus muscle. The use of soybean oil in the diet increased the oleic acid, monounsaturated fatty acid, total cis- and trans-fatty acids (C18:0 and the activity of the Δ9-desaturase C16 enzyme in the subcutaneous fat. Diets with soybean grain had greater deposition of linoleic and linolenic acids than diets with fat protected and greater presence of these essential fatty acids are associated to a better composition and meat quality.

  11. In Utero Exposure to Lipopolysaccharide Alters the Postnatal Acute Phase Response in Beef Heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to determine the potential effect of prenatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure on the postnatal acute phase response (APR) to an LPS challenge in heifers. Pregnant crossbred cows (n = 50) were separated into prenatal immune stimulation (PIS; n = 25; administered 0.1 microgr...

  12. Effect of increased systemic concentrations of urea nitrogen in crossbred heifers on in vitro fertilization (IVF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated levels of dietary N and hence systemic concentrations of urea-N have been shown to have a deleterious effect on reproductive processes. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding pubertal crossbred heifers diets with moderate (M-N; 64.8% corn silage, 30.0% alfalfa h...

  13. The Reference Intervals of Hair Trace Element Content in Hereford Cows and Heifers (Bos taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroshnikov, Sergey A; Zavyalov, Oleg A; Frolov, Alexey N; Bolodurina, Irina P; Kalashnikov, Valery V; Grabeklis, Andrei R; Tinkov, Alexey A; Skalny, Anatoly V

    2017-03-17

    The objective of the present study was to assess hair trace element content in Hereford heifers and cows (Bos taurus) living in South Ural region and calculate the site-specific reference intervals. Hair trace element content in 150 cows and heifers farmed in the Southern Urals of Russia was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry. Dietary trace element content corresponded to the adequate values as estimated by recommendations of USSR State Agriculture Committee and U.S. National Research Council. Comparative analysis demonstrated that heifers are characterized by significantly higher hair Se (3-fold), Hg (4-fold), and Sn (46%) content, whereas cows had significantly higher levels of hair Co (56%), I (33%), Si (2-fold), V (27%), B (55%), Cd (19%), Pb (47%), and Sr (23%). At the same time, no significant group difference in hair Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Zn, As, and Ni was detected between Hereford cows and heifers. The reference intervals and 90% confidence intervals for the lower and upper limits were calculated in agreement with the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology Quality Assurance and Laboratory Standard Guidelines.

  14. Effects of straw processing and pen stocking density on holstein dairy heifers: ii) behavior and hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of pen-stocking density and straw processing on the daily behavior traits and hygiene of Holstein dairy heifers housed in a freestall system are not understood. Our objective was to evaluate these factors in a trial with a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of straw-processing (GOOD or POOR) an...

  15. Uterine environment and pregnancy rate of heifers with elevated plasma urea nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundson, Olivia L; Larimore, Erin L; McNeel, Anthony K; Chase, Chad C; Cushman, Robert A; Freetly, Harvey C; Perry, George A

    2016-10-01

    Diets high in protein are associated with lower reproductive performance and changes in the uterine environment. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of elevated systemic concentrations of urea nitrogen on the uterine environment and pregnancy success in beef heifers. Heifers (n=150) were matched by breed, age, and body weight then randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments: 1) Control (10% CP) or 2) High protein (14% CP) over three replicates (n=40/replicate). Estrus was synchronized with an injection of PGF2α. Uterine pH, plasma urea nitrogen (PUN), ammonia, and glucose concentrations were determined on d 7 of the estrous cycle. Pregnancy status was determined by ultrasonography 30 d following the breeding season. In vitro fertilization was performed on heifers precluded from uterine analysis (n=15/diet) to determine the effect of a High Protein diet on oocyte quality. Plasma urea concentrations were greater in the High Protein diet compared to Control (P0.40) on the number of oocytes collected, number of oocytes cleaved, amount of blastocysts, percentage of oocytes cleaved and percentage of blastocysts present. In summary, high nitrogen diets increased PUN concentrations in heifers; however, there were no deleterious effects on reproduction.

  16. Zilpaterol hydrochloride affects cellular muscle metabolism and lipid components of ten different muscles in feedlot heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study determined if zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) altered muscle metabolism and lipid components of ten muscles. Crossbred heifers were either supplemented with ZH (n = 9) or not (Control; n = 10). Muscle tissue was collected (adductor femoris, biceps femoris, gluteus medius, infraspinatus, lat...

  17. Influence of pregnancy on body weight, ruminal characteristics, and visceral organ mass in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheaffer, A N; Caton, J S; Bauer, M L; Reynolds, L P

    2001-09-01

    Crossbred heifers (initially 24 mo, approximate age and 378 +/- 32.1 kg BW) were used to evaluate the influence of pregnancy and advancing gestation on DMI, BW, carcass weight, ruminal characteristics, and visceral organ mass. Heifers (naturally serviced (n = 22; nonpregnant controls, n = 17), were grouped in common pens. Heifers were provided corn silage and hay-based diets formulated to provide 0.45 kg of ADG. Treatments were pregnancy and nonpregnancy; pregnant and nonpregnant heifers were slaughtered on d 40, 120, 200, and 270. Live weight at slaughter and BW change throughout the trial were not influenced by pregnancy (P > 0.1). Carcass weight per unit of BW was decreased due to pregnancy (P 0.1) at any of the slaughter periods. Heart mass responded differently when nonpregnant and pregnant were analyzed over time and an interaction was detected as slaughter period advanced (P 0.1). Data indicate that ruminal fill is altered by pregnancy but visceral organ mass is not greatly changed by treatment.

  18. Age at puberty in beef heifers: Criollo cattle versus british crossbred cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Age at puberty is an important factor in estimating the potential productivity of the bovine female. A study was conducted at the ARS-USDA Jornada Experimental Range in 2006 and 2007 to compare onset of puberty, BW, and serum insulin in Criollo and Angus-Hereford crossbred heifers. In 2006, 7 Crioll...

  19. Effects of flooring and restricted freestall access on behavior and claw health of dairy heifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouweltjes, W.; Werf, van der J.T.N.; Frankena, K.; Leeuwen, van J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Claw health, locomotion, feed intake, milk yield, body weight, activity, and lying and standing behavior of dairy heifers were monitored in a single dairy herd during the first 3 mo after calving. During the first 8 wk after calving, 2 treatments were applied: restricted freestall access by closing

  20. Effect of antral follicle count in beef heifers on in vitro fertilization/production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective has been to compare the in vitro fertilization (IVF) and production (IVP) of embryos from low and high antral follicle count (AFC) heifers. This is the 4th year of the study with years 1 to 3 reported individually. For this report, we add data for the 4th year and present a combined an...

  1. Puberdade em touros Nelore criados em pasto no Brasil: características corporais, testiculares e seminais e de índice de capacidade andrológica por pontos Puberty in Nellore bulls raised at pasture in Brazil: body, testicular and seminal characteristics and breeding soundness evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.E. Freneau

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 23 touros da raça Nelore entre os 10 e 20 meses de idade, para caracterizar o desenvolvimento puberal. Os animais foram criados em condições extensivas com alimentação em pasto e suplementação mineral. A cada duas ou quatro semanas foram realizadas colheitas de dados que incluíram medidas de peso corporal, circunferência torácica, comprimento e largura testicular e circunferência escrotal. Foram, também, colhidos ejaculados pela eletroejaculação e avaliados os aspectos físicos e morfológicos. No momento da colheita de sêmen foram aferidas as porcentagens de desprendimento entre pênis e prepúcio e determinadas as idades médias ao desprendimento total (IDPPRE. Foram determinadas as idades médias ao aparecimento dos primeiros espermatozóides (ISEM1 e dos primeiros espermatozóides móveis (ISEM2 no ejaculado, e a puberdade seminal (IDPUB. Estabeleceram-se os índices de capacidade andrológica por pontos (ICAP. Os touros Nelore apresentaram idades médias ISEM1, ISEM2 e IDPUB de 13,1±2,2, 13,6±2,3 e 14,8±1,8 meses, respectivamente, e IDPPRE de 18,1±1,9. Aos 16 meses de idade, o grupo apresentou 91,4%, 82,6% e 73,9% dos animais com ISEM1, ISEM2 e IDPUB manifestada, respectivamente. Observou-se correlação positiva entre idade dos touros e as características de crescimento corporal, testicular, aspectos físicos dos ejaculados e correlação negativa entre a idade dos touros e os defeitos espermáticos. Observou-se correlação negativa entre a idade dos touros e a pontuação para circunferência escrotal no ICAP à puberdade (-0,77; PTwenty three 10-months-old Nellore bulls, raised under pasture conditions in Brazil, were used to study puberty. Monthly measurement of scrotal circumference and testicular width and length were recorded. Semen was collected by eletroejaculation and evaluated according to physical and morphological aspects. Penile and prepuce detachment percentages were also evaluated. The

  2. Effect of Aegle marmelos and Murraya koenigii in treatment of delayed pubertal buffaloes heifers

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    Mohan M. Baitule

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aims to study the estrus induction, ovulation, and conception rate of delayed puberty in buffaloes heifers by feeding a herbal plants Aegle marmelos (bael/bili/bhel leaf and Murraya koenigii (Curry leaf. Materials and Methods: Totally, 24 buffalo heifers with delayed puberty were selected for the present study and divided randomly in four equal groups (n=6. Before experiment, all animals were dewormed with albendazole at 10 mg/kg body weight to prevent them from the stress of parasitism. In the present experiment, four group taken and Group I (n=6 treated with A. marmelos, Group II (n=6 treated with M. koenigii, Group III (n=6 treated with mixture of A. marmelos and M. koenigii and fed for 9 days. Group IV (n=6 considered as control and fed with concentrate only. The blood samples were collected from all the animals on day 0 (before treatment, 4, 9 (during treatment, on the day of estrus and day 8 after the onset of estrus. The 10 ml blood was collected from the jugular vein of all the experimental animals for estimation of serum calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and progesterone (P4. The estrus response, ovulation, conception rate along with serum calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and progesterone level were determined by the standard protocol. Results: From Group III 4 heifers, from Group II 3 heifers, and from Group I and IV (Control 2 heifers each, exhibited the estrus. The estrus response was recorded as 33.33%, 50.00%, 75.00%, and 33.33% in Group I, Group II, Group III, and Group IV, respectively. In treatment Group III, serum calcium found significantly more (p<0.05 on day 8 post-estrus as compared to other groups at a similar interval. Inorganic phosphorus and progesterone show no significant difference between groups. The ovulation and conception rates are comparatively better in Group III (75% buffalo heifers than other groups. Conclusion: Herbal supplementation of A. marmelos and M. koenigii in combination, as well as M

  3. Cell mediated immune responses in the placenta following challenge of vaccinated pregnant heifers with Neospora caninum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Y P; Cantón, G; Regidor-Cerrillo, J; Chianini, F; Morrell, E; Lischinsky, L; Ortega-Mora, L M; Innes, E A; Odeón, A; Campero, C M; Moore, D P

    2015-12-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate and correlate the cell-mediated immune response and pathological changes at the maternal-fetal interface of Neospora-challenged pregnant cattle previously immunized with live and inactivated experimental vaccines. Pregnant heifers naïve to Neospora caninum were divided in 5 groups of 4 animals, each one immunized before mating: Group A heifers were intravenously (iv) immunized with 6.25 × 10(7) live tachyzoites of the NC-6 strain; group B heifers were immunized twice subcutaneously (sc) 3 weeks apart with native antigen extract of the NC-6 strain formulated with ISCOMs; group C heifers were sc immunized twice 3 weeks apart with three recombinant proteins (rNcSAG1, rNcHSP20, rNcGRA7) of the NC-1 strain formulated with ISCOMs; group D heifers were sc injected with sterile phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and group E heifers received sc ISCOM-matrix (ISCOMs without antigen). All groups were iv-challenged with 4.7 × 10(7) NC-1 tachyzoites at 70 days of gestation. Heifers were culled at day 104 of gestation and placentomes were examined to evaluate lesions and local cellular immune responses using histopathology, immunohistochemistry and real time-PCR. Immunohistochemistry was performed using bovine leucocyte specific antibodies. Cytokine expression and levels (IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12 and TNF-α) were measured using real-time reverse transcription-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Minimal inflammation was observed in group A placentomes; while placentomes from group B, C, D and E had moderate to severe infiltration with CD3(+), CD4(+), γδ-T cells, CD8(+) cells and macrophages being more numerous in groups B and E placentomes, when compared with groups C and D (P<0.001). Cytokine levels were significantly increased in the caruncles of animals of groups B and C in comparison with the other animal groups (P < 0.001). The results from this study showed that the strongest cellular immune responses were observed in the

  4. Artificial insemination field data on the use of sexed and conventional semen in nulliparous Holstein heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, A A; House, J K; Thomson, P C

    2013-03-01

    This study investigated conception rates and other reproductive outcomes achieved with artificial insemination (AI) of nulliparous Holstein heifers using sexed and conventional semen in a commercial Australian dairy herd in central western New South Wales from January 2004 to April 2009. Retrospective data from on-farm records of 9,870 inseminations of 4,456 heifers were analyzed using several mixed models to assess the effect of temperature and humidity surrounding breeding, insemination sire, artificial insemination technician, service number, and heifer weight and age at breeding on reproductive traits (conception rates, sex ratios, gestation length, and abortion and stillbirth rates). Semen was used from 15 sexed sires and 41 unsexed sires. Sexed semen was primarily used at first and second service. Empirical conception rates of 31.6 and 39.6% were achieved for sexed and unsexed semen respectively, whereas model-based predictions were lower, at 21.3 and 32.1%. Conception rates were significantly affected by insemination sire, sex-sorting, heifer age at breeding, temperature and humidity surrounding breeding, service number, and AI technician. Sexed semen yielded 86% heifers, compared with 48% for conventional semen. Significant predictors of calf sex included semen sexing, gestation length, and insemination sire. Twinning rate was high, at 3.6% for both semen types, and gestation length and heifer weight at breeding were significant predictors of twinning. Abortion rates for sexed and unsexed conceptions were similar at 6.1 and 6.5%, respectively, and were affected by heifer age at breeding. Stillbirth rate was affected by calf sex, twinning, gestation length, and AI technician; semen sorting, age at breeding, and temperature and humidity were marginally significant predictors. No abnormalities were observed in the development of offspring, except for a marginally higher stillbirth rate for sexed calves, a finding that needs further investigation. Many

  5. Expected net present value of pure and mixed sexed semen artificial insemination strategies in dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olynk, N J; Wolf, C A

    2007-05-01

    Sexed semen has been a long-anticipated tool for dairy farmers to obtain more heifer calves, but challenges exist for integrating sexed semen into commercial dairy farm reproduction programs. The decreased conception rates (CR) experienced with sexed semen make virgin heifers better suited for insemination with sexed semen than lactating dairy cows. This research sought to identify when various sexed semen breeding strategies provided higher expected net present value (NPV) than conventional artificial insemination (AI) breeding schemes, indicating which breeding scheme is advisable under various scenarios. Budgets were developed to calculate the expected NPV of various AI breeding strategies incorporating conventional (non-sexed) and sexed semen. In the base budgets, heifer and bull calf values were held constant at $500 and $110, respectively. The percentage of heifers expected to be born after breeding with conventional and sexed semen used was 49.2 and 90%, respectively. Breeding costs per AI were held constant at $15.00 per AI for conventional semen and $45.00 per AI for sexed semen of approximately the same genetic value. Conventional semen CR of 58 and 65% were used, and an AI submission rate was set at 100%. Breeding strategies with sexed semen were assessed for breakeven heifer calf values and sexed semen costs to obtain a NPV equal to that achieved with conventional semen. Breakeven heifer calf values for pure sexed semen strategies with a constant 58 and 65% base CR in which sexed semen achieved 53% of the base CR are $732.11 and $664.26, respectively. Breakeven sexed semen costs per AI of $17.16 and $22.39, compared with $45.00 per AI, were obtained to obtain a NPV equal to that obtained with pure conventional semen for base CR of 58 and 65%, respectively. The strategy employing purely sexed semen, with base CR of both 58 and 65%, yielded a lower NPV than purely conventional semen in all but the best-case scenario in which sexed semen provides 90% of

  6. Nutritional requirements of energy, protein and macrominerals for maintenance and weight gain of young crossbred Nellore × Holstein bulls on pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlos Oliveira Porto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate requirements of energy, protein and macrominerals of young Nellore/Holstein crossbreds bulls supplemented on pastures of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. Thirty-five young bulls, at 8.53±0.18 months of age and with initial body weight of 230.6±6.1 kg were used. Ten animals were slaughtered as reference, in different weight range, and the other animals were slaughtered at the end of the experimental period. For estimate of net energy requirements for weight, a regression equation between log of retained energy (RE and log of empty body weight gain (EBWG was constructed. Net requirements of Ca, P, Mg, Na and K were determined by the equation Y' = a.b.Xb-1, in which a and b represent the intercept and the coefficient of equation of prediction of macrominerals in body content, respectively. Requirements of metabolizable energy for maintenance (MEm were obtained from retained energy in function of metabolizable energy intake (MEI. The requirements of MEm of Nellore/Holstein crossbreds young bulls on pasture was 125 kcal/EBW0.75/day. The efficiency of ME utilization for maintenance (k of grazing Nellore/Holstein crossbred young mbulls was 0.58 and 0.24 for gain. The total metabolizable protein requirements for an animal with 400 kg and with average daily gain of 1.0 kg, were 638.36 g/day. The dietetic requirements of Ca and P for an animal with 400 kg BW were 0.49 and 0.21% of DM, respectively. Daily metabolizable energy requirement for maintenance of grazing Nellore/Holstein crossbred young bulls was 11.6% greater than the values found for cattle in feedlot in Brazil (112 kcal/kg EBW0.75.

  7. EFFECT OF GnRH AND PHOSPHORUS IN DELAYED PUBERTAL SURTI BUFFALO HEIFERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.B. Dhamsaniya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on eighteen delayed pubertal Surti buffalo heifers, divided into three equal groups (6 in each to evaluate the efficacy of GnRH alone and in combination of phosphorus. The buffalo heifers in Group-I and Group-II were treated with Buserelin acetate (5 ml, IM. Buffalo heifers in Group-II also received additional injection of Toldimphos sodium (10 ml, IM at 3 day interval for 4 times, while buffalo heifers in Group-III served as control. The percentage of induced estrus was highest (83.33% in each treated groups as compared to control group (50%. The mean estrus induction intervals were significantly (P<0.05 shorter in Group-I (20.20 ± 2.18 days and Group-II (18.80 ± 2.32 days as compared to control group (30.24 ± 0.81 days. The conception rate at induced estrus was highest in Group-II (50% followed by Group-I (33.33%. The plasma progesterone levels being significantly lowest on the day of estrus (less than 0.5 ng/ml as compared to pre-treatment days in all groups. The mean total protein and triglycerides levels were differed significantly between the groups on the day of estrus and being significantly higher in Group-II as compared to Group-I and III on that day. A significantly higher level of cholesterol in both treatment groups as compared to the control group during different intervals and also being higher on the day of estrus as compared to pre-treatment days. The mean plasma glucose levels were differed nonsignificantly between and within the treatment and control groups. It is concluded that estrus can be successfully induced in delayed pubertal heifers with the use of GnRH alone and in combination with phosphorus.

  8. Effects of creep feeding and monensin on reproductive performance and lactation of beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hixon, D L; Fahey, G C; Kesler, D J; Neumann, A L

    1982-09-01

    A 23 factorial arrangement of treatments was utilized to determine the effect of breed, creep feeding and monensin on subsequent reproductive performance and lactation of 32 primiparous heifers. One-half of each breed (Angus and Hereford) group had access to creep feed (2.67 Mcal metabolizable energy/kg) while nursing their dams. Approximately 40 d before breeding through 120 d of lactation, all heifers were fed a suboptimal energy diet and 50% of each breed and creep group received 200 mg monensin/head daily. Estrus was synchronized with a progestogen. Volatile fatty acids (VFA) were determined periodically throughout the monensin-feeding portion of the experiment. Twenty-four hour milk production, percentage butterfat and percentage solids-not-fat were determined at 60 and 120 d postpartum. Weaning weights (adjusted to 205 d and for age of dam) of the original heifers were heavier (P less than .05) for those that were creep fed compared with those not creep fed (219 vs 202 kg). Monensin-supplemented females gained significantly more weight from the initiation of treatment to immediately postcalving and gave birth to heavier calves (P less than .05) even though they received comparable amounts of dietary energy as those that did not receive monensin. The energy stressed, monensin-supplemented first-calf heifers exhibited a shorter postpartum interval (P less than .05) to first estrus than did those that did not receive monensin (55.7 vs 69.1 d, respectively). First-calf heifers that had been creep fed while nursing their dams had a lower (P less than .05) daily milk yield at 120 d post-partum than those that did not have access to creep feed. No detrimental effects were observed due to long-term monensin supplementation.

  9. Pharmacokinetics of flunixin in mature heifers following multiple intravenous administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaroszewski, J; Jedziniak, P; Markiewicz, W; Grabowski, T; Chrostowska, M; Szprengier-Juszkiewicz, T

    2008-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of flunixin meglumine was determined after its multiple (altogether 4 doses at 24-hours intervals) intravenous administration at a dose of 2.2 mg/kg body weight in six mature clinically healthy heifers. Plasma flunixin and its metabolite 5-hydroxyflunixin concentrations were analyzed with high-pressure liquid chromatography using an assay with a lower limit detection of 0.03 microg/ml for both substances. Plasma concentrations versus time curves were described by a two compartment open model. Mean plasma flunixin concentrations were similar on day 1 and 4, and than rapidly decreased (within 2 hours) from initial concentrations higher than 10 microg/ml to the concentrations lower than 1 microg/ml. The distribution phase of flunixin was short (t0.5 alpha = 0.29 +/- 0.16 and 0.18 +/- 0.04 on day 1 and 4, respectively) and the elimination phase was more prolonged (t0.5 beta = 3.30 +/- 0.60 and 3.26 +/- 0.22 on day 1 and 4, respectively). The mean residence time of flunixin was similar on day 1 (1.83 +/- 0.83) and 4 (1.88 +/- 0.46), and for 5-hydroxyflunixin this parameter was insignificantly (P > 0.05) higher on day 1 (5.49 +/- 2.22) as compared to that found on day 4 (3.99 +/- 2.17). The clearance of flunixin was similar on both examined days (0.23 +/- 0.12 on day 1 and 0.31 +/- 0.15 on day 4), and for 5-hydroxyflunixin was insignificantly (P > 0.05) lower on day 1 (2.37 +/- 1.21) as compared to that determined on day 4 (3.23 +/- 1.06). Our data indicate that multiple administration of flunixin did not alter significantly the parent drug and its metabolite concentrations in plasma, however may cause some small changes in pharmacokinetic parameters.

  10. Effect of induced ruminal acidosis on blood variables in heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Ruminal acidosis is responsible for the onset of different pathologies in dairy and feedlot cattle, but there are major difficulties in the diagnosis. This study modelled the data obtained from various blood variables to identify those that could indicate the severity of ruminal acidosis. Six heifers were fed three experimental rations throughout three periods. The diets were characterised by different starch levels: high starch (HS), medium starch (MS) and low starch, as the control diet (CT). Ruminal pH values were continuously measured using wireless sensors and compared with pH measurements obtained by rumenocentesis. Blood samples were analysed for complete blood count, biochemical profile, venous blood gas, blood lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding proteins (LBP). Results The regression coefficient comparing the ruminal pH values, obtained using the two methods, was 0.56 (P = 0.040). Feeding the CT, MS and HS led to differences in the time spent below the 5.8, 5.5 and 5.0 pH thresholds and in several variables, including dry matter intake (7.7 vs. 6.9 vs. 5.1 kg/d; P = 0.002), ruminal nadir pH (5.69 vs. 5.47 vs. 5.44; P = 0.042), mean ruminal pH (6.50 vs. 6.34 vs. 6.31; P = 0.012), haemoglobin level (11.1 vs. 10.9 vs. 11.4 g/dL; P = 0.010), platelet count (506 vs. 481 vs. 601; P = 0.008), HCO3- (31.8 vs. 31.3 vs. 30.6 mmol/L; P = 0.071) and LBP (5.9 vs. 9.5 vs. 10.5 μg/mL; P acidosis, subacute ruminal acidosis and acute ruminal acidosis) using haemoglobin, mean platelet volume, β-hydroxybutyrate, glucose and reduced haemoglobin. Conclusions Although additional studies are necessary to confirm the reliability of these discriminant functions, the use of plasma variables in a multifactorial model appeared to be useful for the evaluation of ruminal acidosis severity. PMID:23647881

  11. Effects of ambient air temperature, humidity, and wind speed on seminal traits in Braford and Nellore bulls at the Brazilian Pantanal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegassi, Silvio Renato Oliveira; Pereira, Gabriel Ribas; Bremm, Carolina; Koetz, Celso; Lopes, Flávio Guiselli; Fiorentini, Eduardo Custódio; McManus, Concepta; Dias, Eduardo Antunes; da Rocha, Marcela Kuczynski; Lopes, Rubia Branco; Barcellos, Júlio Otávio Jardim

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioclimatic thermal stress assessed by Equivalent Temperature Index (ETI) and Temperature Humidity Index (THI) on Braford and Nellore bulls sperm quality during the reproductive seasons at the tropical region in the Brazilian Pantanal. We used 20 bulls aged approximately 24 months at the beginning of the study. Five ejaculates per animal were collected using an electroejaculator. Temperature, air humidity, and wind speed data were collected every hour from the automatic weather station at the National Institute of Meteorology. Infrared thermography images data were collected to assess the testicular temperature gradient in each animal. Data were analyzed with ANOVA using MIXED procedure of SAS and means were compared using Tukey's HSD test. The THI and ETI at 12 days (epididymal transit) were higher in January (89.7 and 28.5, respectively) and February (90.0 and 29.0, respectively) compared to other months ( P animals. Reproductive response to environmental changes is a consequence of Nellore and Braford adaptation to climate stress conditions. Both THI and ETI environmental indexes can be used to evaluate the morphological changes in the seminal parameters in Nellore or Braford bulls; however, more experiments should be performed focusing on larger sample numbers and also in reproductive assessment during the consecutive years to assess fertility potential.

  12. Ingestive behavior of Nellore steers in feedlot fed with diets containing different corn hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivone Yurika Mizubuti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the feeding behavior of Nellore beef cattle in feedlot fed with diets containing different corn hybrids. Twenty-seven animals averaging 350 ± 24 kg of body weight and 24 months of age, were used. The animals were distributed in a completely randomized design with three treatments (T, where, T1-TDFC: total diet containing flint corn, T2-TDSFC: total diet containing semi-flint corn and T3-TDSDC: total diet containing semi-dent corn, with 9 replicates per treatment. The animals were fed ad libitum twice a day (at 8:00am and 4:00pm with a isocaloric and isonitrogenous diet, with 30% of sugar cane bagasse and 70% concentrate (88% maize, 8% soybean meal, 3% mineral and vitamin supplement and 1% urea for 95 days (14 days of adaptation and 3 experimental periods of 27 days each. The animals were weighed at the beginning of the experiment and after each period of 27 days, always in a fasting period of 16 hours. The evaluation of animals feeding behavior occurred at the last day of each period by visual observation every five minutes for full periods of 24 hours. Observations were made in four shifts: morning (06:00 to 12:00, afternoon (12:00 to 18:00, evening (18:00 to 00:00 and early morning (00:00 06:00 to determine the number of ruminal bolus, chewing time, total feeding time, total ruminating standing time, total ruminating lying time, total standing idle time and total lying idle time. During the night’s observations, the stalls received artificial illumination to facilitate the data collection and the animals were adapted with light at night for three days before observations. Animals fed with diets containing semi-dent corn had longer chew time and more ruminal bolus than those fed with flint corn, but did not differ from those that received semi-flint corn in the diet. The chewing time and number of ruminal bolus varied with the observation periods, being higher in the morning and decreasing in the

  13. Transcriptome analyses identify five transcription factors differentially expressed in the hypothalamus of post- versus prepubertal Brahman heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, M R S; Nguyen, L T; Weller, M M D C A; Cánovas, A; Islas-Trejo, A; Porto-Neto, L R; Reverter, A; Lehnert, S A; Boe-Hansen, G B; Thomas, M G; Medrano, J F; Moore, S S

    2016-09-01

    Puberty onset is a developmental process influenced by genetic determinants, environment, and nutrition. Mutations and regulatory gene networks constitute the molecular basis for the genetic determinants of puberty onset. The emerging knowledge of these genetic determinants presents opportunities for innovation in the breeding of early pubertal cattle. This paper presents new data on hypothalamic gene expression related to puberty in (Brahman) in age- and weight-matched heifers. Six postpubertal heifers were compared with 6 prepubertal heifers using whole-genome RNA sequencing methodology for quantification of global gene expression in the hypothalamus. Five transcription factors (TF) with potential regulatory roles in the hypothalamus were identified in this experiment: , , , , and . These TF genes were significantly differentially expressed in the hypothalamus of postpubertal versus prepubertal heifers and were also identified as significant according to the applied regulatory impact factor metric ( Brahman). Knowledge of key mutations involved in genetic traits is an advantage for genomic prediction because it can increase its accuracy.

  14. Radionuclides in milk of dairy heifers raised on forages harvested from phosphatic clay soils on reclaimed mined land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staples, C.R.; Umana, R.; Hayen, M.J. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)] [and others

    1994-07-01

    Alfalfa (AR; Medicago sativa L.) and corn (CSR; Zea mays L.) were grown in phosphatic clay soils on phosphate-mined reclaimed land in central Florida. Corn (CSC) also was grown on unmined land and served as a control forage. Upon harvesting, plants were chopped and ensiled. Concentrations of {sup 226}Ra averaged 2.44, 0.26 and 0.15; {sup 210}Pb averaged 1.04, 0.63, and 0.52; and {sup 210}Po averaged 1.59, 0.59, and 1.26 Bq kg{sup -1} DM for AR, CSR, and CSC, respectively. These forages were fed separately to Holstein dairy replacement heifers (Bos taurus) (n=15 per forage) from approximately 9 to 25 mo of age. Heifers gave birth to calves at approximately 24 mo of age. Samples of milk were collected on d 1, 15, and 30 of lactation and analyzed for radionuclides. Averaged across sampling days, heifers fed AR had greater milk concentrations of {sup 226}Ra compared with those fed CSR (0.27 vs. 0.22 Bq kg{sup -1} DM; P < 0.10), which, in turn, had greater milk concentrations compared with heifers fed CSC (0.22 vs. 0.13 Bq kg{sup -1} DM; P < 0.05). Heifers fed AR also had greater milk concentrations of {sup 210}Po compared with heifers fed CSR (0.58 vs. 0.30 Bq kg{sup -1} DM; P < 0.10), but values of CSR-fed heifers were not different from CSC-fed heifers (0.45 Bq kg{sup -1} DM). Lead-210 was greater in milk from heifers fed CSR compared with those fed AR or CSC (1.38 vs. 0.94 and 0.92 Bq kg{sup -1} DM; P < 0.13), respectively. Plasma S and Cu concentrations suggested subclinical molybdenosis in heifers fed AR. However, all heifers grew at an acceptable rate, conceived normally, had normal gestation periods, gave high quality colostrum at calving, and produced similar amounts of milk. 17 refs., 9 tabs.

  15. A new application of pelvis area data as culling tool to aid in the management of dystocia in heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, D E; Webb, E C; Thompson, P N

    2014-05-01

    Although fetomaternal disproportion is the major cause of dystocia in heifers, pelvis area (PA) is not recommended as a culling tool due to its relatively low importance and genetic correlation with calf birth weight (BWT), the most important factor associated with dystocia. The objective of this observational study of 484 limited bred yearling beef heifers was to compare the effects of different methods of adjustment of PA data for culling to select against dystocia. Multivariable analyses were used to determine predictors of PA, calf BWT, and dystocia. Hypothetical culling rates of 10 and 20% were then applied after ranking heifers by each of the following: unadjusted PA, PA adjusted to 365 d of age by subtracting 0.27 cm(2) per day of age difference between each heifer's age and 365 d (APA), PA:prebreeding BW ratio (PA:BW), PA adjusted to the median BW of the group using the regression coefficient of PA on BW within age group (BWPA), and PA similarly adjusted to the median lean BW (LBWPA). Dam parity, sire, prebreeding age, prebreeding BW, and prebreeding BCS were associated with PA whereas dam parity, sire, own BWT, PA, AI bull, and calf gender were associated with calf BWT (P dystocia (P dystocia. After hypothetical culling by PA, retained heifers were heavier and had a higher calving rate and calves tended to be heavier at birth compared to culled heifers, but dystocia rates were not different. Culling by APA resulted in similar effects, except that dystocia rate tended to be lower in retained heifers. Culling by PA:BW resulted in lower dystocia rate in retained than in culled heifers, but retained heifers had lower prebreeding BW than culls. Culling by BWPA and LBWPA resulted in lower proportions with dystocia and a tendency towards higher calving rates in the retained heifers, without affecting the prebreeding BW or calf BWT. It is concluded that pelvimetry is a useful culling tool to aid in the management of dystocia in yearling heifers and that adjustment

  16. Consumo e desempenho de animais alimentados individualmente ou em grupo e características de carcaça de animais Nelore de três classes sexuais Performance of animals fed individually or in groups and carcass traits of Nellore cattle from three sexual classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Inácio Marcondes

    2008-12-01

    , concentrated and forage for animals feed in group. Evaluate also, dry matter intake, average daily gain and feed conversion ratio by animals from one of three genders (bulls, steers or heifers fed individually or in groups, with two levels of concentrate offer (1.00 or 1.25% of BW, and carcass traits of confined Nellore cattle. Forty five Nellore cattle - 15 bulls, 15 steers and 15 heifers were used. Nine animals (three from each gender were slaughtered at beginning of the trial performing reference group. The remaining 36 animals were fed either 1.0 or 1.25% of concentrate under two feeding schemes (individually or in groups, in a 2 × 2 × 3 factorial arrangement. In order to estimate the individual DMI of animals fed in group, LIPE® was used to estimate the fecal dry matter production, Cr2O3 and TiO2 were used to estimate the individual concentrate intake and NDFi and ADFi were used to estimate the individual forage intake. At the end of the experiment all animals individually fed were slaughtered to evaluate carcass traits and yield of commercial cuts. The feed scheme had no influence upon DMI and DWG of Nellore cattle from different gender. There were no effect of 1.00 or 1.25% of concentrate on carcass traits and carcass yield. Bulls grow 24% more than steers and steers grow 22% more than females and bulls tend to be more efficient in meat deposition and had higher yield in some commercial cuts.

  17. Effect of protein supplementation and forage allowance on the growth and reproduction of beef heifers grazing stockpiled tall fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, S E; Shaeffer, A D; Drewnoski, M E; Poore, M H; Poole, D H

    2016-04-01

    Stockpiled tall fescue can provide adequate winter forage for beef cattle, although unsupplemented replacement heifers may display marginal performance before breeding. The objective of this study was to determine if protein supplementation and/or additional forage improves growth and reproductive performance of replacement heifers grazing stockpiled fescue. Cattle averaging 272 ± 1.59 kg were stratified by BW and then randomly assigned to 1 of 4 plots within a pasture replication. Treatment combinations were assigned in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement and included 1) a conservative forage allocation ("normal," targeting 85% forage use) and mineral supplement (normal forage allocation with mineral supplement [FM]), 2) normal forage allocation with protein tub (FT), 3) more liberal forage allocation ("extra," targeting 70% forage use) and mineral supplement (extra forage allocation with mineral supplement [EM]), and 4) "extra forage allocation with protein tub (ET). Treatments were administered for 8 wk from early November to early January. Heifers were fed fescue hay for 1 wk before breeding in late January. Heifers were synchronized with the 7-d CO-Synch + controlled internal drug release device protocol and inseminated in late January. Heifers were checked for pregnancy by ultrasonography at 35 and 90 d after AI. Main and interaction effects between the 2 treatments were determined. Total supplement intake was greater for protein tub than mineral supplement (0.36 vs. 0.11 kg·heifer·d, respectively; Reproductive tract scores, pelvic area, and AI pregnancy rates were not different between treatments ( > 0.05). Overall, feeding a protein supplement or providing extra forage increased gain and interacted to increase BCS but did not have an effect on reproductive performance. Supplementing with protein and providing extra forage are strategies that can increase gain in heifers, which could aid heifers in reaching puberty before estrous synchronization.

  18. A fenbendazole oral drench in addition to an ivermectin pour-on reduces parasite burden and improves feedlot and carcass performance of finishing heifers compared with endectocides alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, C D; Hutcheson, J P; Nichols, W T

    2006-08-01

    Two studies utilizing 1,862 yearling heifers were conducted to determine the effects of a fenbendazole oral drench in addition to an ivermectin pour-on (SG+IVPO), compared with an ivermectin pour-on (IVPO) or a doramectin injectable (DMX) alone, on parasite burden, feedlot performance, and carcass merit of feedlot cattle. In the first study, heifers receiving the SG+IVPO had fewer (P = 0.02) cattle retreated for disease and 73% fewer (P = 0.06) worm eggs per fecal sample 98 d after treatment than heifers treated with IVPO. Heifers treated with SG+IVPO consumed more DM, had greater ADG, were heavier at slaughter, and had heavier carcasses than IVPO-treated heifers (P fenbendazole oral drench and an ivermectin pour-on reduced parasite burden and increased feed intake, ADG, and carcass weight in feedlot heifers compared with treatment with an endectocide alone.

  19. Genome-wide association for the outcome of fixed-time artificial insemination of Brahman heifers in northern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto-Neto, L R; Edwards, S; Fortes, M R S; Lehnert, S A; Reverter, A; McGowan, M

    2015-11-01

    Fixed-time AI (FTAI) is a powerful tool for genetic improvement of extensively managed beef cattle. A genomewide association study (GWAS) was conducted to investigate genes and genetic markers associated with the outcome (pregnant or not pregnant) of FTAI in 614 commercial Brahman heifers genotyped for 18,895 SNP and imputed to 51,588 SNP. The likelihood of Brahman heifers becoming pregnant after hormonal treatment to synchronize ovulation followed by FTAI was influenced by the content of their genomes, as determined by a principal component analysis. The principal component analysis involved comparisons between the studied heifers and populations of known and ancestry. The heritability of FTAI outcome was = 0.18, which is higher than for most other reproductive outcome traits. The number of SNP associated with FTAI outcome was 101 ( Brahman heifer puberty and postpartum anestrus interval, 3 genomic regions emerge as important for overall Brahman heifer fertility, which mapped to chromosomes 1, 7, and 9. Further analyses, including improved genome annotation, are required to elucidate the link between these regions and heifer fertility. Additional studies are needed to confirm SNP and gene associations reported herein and further elucidate the genetics of FTAI outcome. Future GWAS should target other Braham populations and additional cattle breeds with FTAI records, including breeds with higher ancestry.

  20. Relationship between back and rump fat thickness and residual feed intake of young Nellore cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Eimar de Oliveira Lara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Residual feed intake (RFI is a feed efficiency trait defined as the difference between actual feed intake and the one predicted on the basis of requirements for production and maintenance of body weight. Evidence exists of a positive correlation between RFI and fat thickness in Bos taurus, suggesting that low RFI cattle (feed efficient ones are leaner. The objective of this study was to access the relationship between fat thickness and RFI by partial correlation including all animals (n=603, 300 bulls and 303 heifers, and by means comparison including only animals divergently classified by RFI (low RFI, n=192 and high RFI, n=186. The animals were born from 2004 to 2010, and were performance tested after weaning for 56 to 112 days, depending of test year and sex. The average age and body weight at the beginning of performance test were 286±42 days and 225±51kg. At the end of performance test images of backfat thickness (BF were obtained by ultrasound (Pie Medical-Aquila-3.5 MHz linear probe between the 12th and 13th ribs, transversely over the longissimus muscle. Images of rump fat thickness (RF were obtained at the junction of the gluteus medius and biceps femoris muscles between the hook and pin bones. The images were saved and subsequently analyzed using Echo Image Viewer 1.0. For partial correlations (MANOVA, SAS 9.3, the model included fixed effect of contemporary group (GC=year, sex and installation and age of the beginning of performance test and age of ultrasound fat measurement (average of 373±42 days as covariates (linear effect. For means comparison (GLM, SAS 9.3, the model included fixed effects of GC, RFI classes (only low RFI and high RFI, excluding medium RFI and age of beginning of performance test. Partial correlations between fat thickness and RFI were close to zero (-0.006 for BF and 0.010 for RF. Reinforcing these results, there were no significant differences of BF and RF from feed efficient (low RFI class and feed

  1. Antral follicles population in heifers and cows of Nelore and Girolando breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Sábio de Oliveira Junior

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate ovarian antral follicle populations (OAFP of Nelore and Girolando breed heifers (12–18 months old and cows (24–60 months old. Animals were assigned to four groups: (1 Nelore cows (n = 18, (2 Girolando cows (n = 20, (3 Nelore heifers (n = 7, and (4 Girolando heifers (n = 7. Cows were treated to synchronize follicular wave emergence by implantation of an intravaginal device containing 1.9 g of progesterone, as well as intramuscular administration of 2 mg of estradiol benzoate and 25 mg of dinoprost. This synchronization treatment was administered at a random day of the estrous cycle of each cow, designated D0. Intravaginal devices were removed on D7, and on D11, OAFP counts were performed by transvaginal ovarian ultrasound. For each cow, all follicles ?3 mm in diameter were counted in both ovaries and counts were performed three times at 35-day intervals. Counts were also obtained from heifers, but these animals were not treated for synchronization of follicular wave emergence. Analysis of variance (ANOVA with Tukey’s test and Pearson’s correlation test were used to compare mean OAFPs between counts as well as mean OAFPs between breed and age groups. No differences were observed in mean OAFPs between Nelore and Girolando cows (30.9 vs. 26.7, respectively; P > 0.05 or heifers (16.2 vs. 18.1, respectively; P > 0.05. However, within each breed, there were differences in mean OAFPs between heifers and cows (for Nelore cattle: 16.2 and 30.9, respectively; for Girolando cattle: 18.1 and 26.7, respectively; both P < 0.05. In conclusion, OAFPs were similar between Nelore and Girolando breeds and were influenced by age. Furthermore, we observed a high correlation for individual animals between the mean numbers of follicles counted in both ovaries and total number of follicles counted in either the right or left ovary, indicating that the evaluation of a single ovary is sufficient to estimate the OAFP of an

  2. Variability in residual feed intake and nutrient utilization in Murrah buffalo heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negesse, Tegene; Datt, Chander; Kundu, S S

    2016-12-01

    A feeding trial with 18 Murrah buffalo heifers (238 ± 63 kg; 1.7 ± 0.4 years old) was conducted for 57 days, and feed intake and body weight were recorded followed by 7 days of urine and feces collection. Heifers were grouped into low (RFI-I) and high (RFI-II) feed efficiency groups by regressing DMI (g head(-1) day(-1)) on BWG (g head(-1) day(-1)) and mid-test MBW (kg). RFI-II heifers had slightly higher DMI (g head(-1) day(-1) and expressed per unit of BW, %BW, MBW, mid-test BW, and mid-test MBW) and all associated nutrient intakes, BWG, feed efficiency traits (FCR, CPCR), digestibility of nutrients, and retentions of crude protein and fat over RFI-I heifers. The corresponding intake values (kg head(-1) day(-1)) for RFI-I versus RFI-II were the following: DMI (6.73 ± 0.56 vs 6.51 ± 0.50), CPI (0.99 ± 0.008 vs 0.97 ± 0.07), DOMI (5.06 ± 0.47 vs 5.11 ± 0.42), and TDNI (4.95 ± 0.47 vs 5.00 ± 0.42). BWG (669 ± 52 vs 776 ± 47 g head(-1) day(-1)), feed efficiency traits (FCR: 10.32 ± 1.16 vs 8.77 ± 1.04 and CPCR: 1.52 ± 0.17 vs 1.30 ± 0.16), N balance (38 ± 9 vs 45 ± 8 g N head(-1) day(-1)), and protein and fat retentions (239 ± 57 vs 282 ± 51 g CP head(-1) day(-1) and 430 ± 6 vs 494 ± 59 g fat head(-1) day(-1)) of RFI-I were less than RFI-II heifers, respectively. Based on the predicted RFI values, RFI-II buffalo heifers could be selected for feed efficiency.

  3. Function of the corpus luteum in beef heifers is affected by acute submaintenance feeding but is not correlated with residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lents, C A; Randel, R D; Stelzleni, A M; Caldwell, L C; Welsh, T H

    2011-12-01

    Seventy-four Angus and Angus × Hereford heifers were used in 2 successive years (yr 1, n = 43; yr 2, n = 31) to determine if luteal function of heifers during acute submaintenance feeding is related to variation in utilization of feed as determined by residual feed intake (RFI). Residual feed intake was determined for heifers beginning at 12.3 ± 0.1 mo of age in yr 1 and at 9.1 ± 0.1 mo of age in yr 2. Heifers were assigned to dry-lot pens (n = 6 to 9 heifers/pen) with electronic gates to measure individual feed intake of a total mixed ration for 70 and 72 d in yr 1 and 2, respectively. Residual feed intake was calculated as the difference between actual DMI and expected DMI from linear regression of DMI on mid-test BW(0.75) and ADG. At 14.4 ± 0.1 mo of age, all heifers were provided a restricted amount of feed to supply 40% of their maintenance energy requirements for 21 d. Estrous cycles of heifers were synchronized with PGF(2α) on d -10, 0, and 11 relative to start of restriction. Concentrations of progesterone in plasma on d 14 to 21 of restriction were used to determine if heifers ovulated. Overall ADG and ADFI were 0.83 ± 0.02 and 7.37 ± 0.67 kg/d, respectively, for yr 1; and 0.50 ± 0.02 and 5.66 ± 0.09 kg/d, respectively, for yr 2. There was no correlation between RFI and BW, ADG, ADFI, or ultrasound measure of backfat, nor was RFI related to concentrations of IGF-I in plasma. All heifers lost BW and had reduced backfat (P feeding. All heifers had reproductive cycles before dietary restriction started. During acute nutritional restriction, 4 heifers became anovulatory. Sixteen heifers had concentrations of progesterone in plasma during restricted feeding that were atypical of normal luteal function. There was no relationship between luteal function during nutrient restriction and RFI of heifers. Circulating IGF-1 was greater at weaning and after restricted feeding in heifers with a smaller RFI (>0.5 SD below the mean) than heifers with a greater RFI

  4. New factors of cardiometabolic risk in severely obese children: influence of pubertal status Nuevos factores de riesgo cardiometabólico en niños con obesidad severa: influencia del estado puberal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Codoñer-Franch

    2010-10-01

    porcentaje de masa grasa mediante bioimpedancia. De ellos, 44 presentaban un peso normal para su edad y género y 63 estaban gravemente obesos (puntuación Z del índice de masa corporal > 2,5, los cuales fueron estratificados por estadios de Tanner. Para valorar el riesgo metabólico se consideraron las siguientes variables: Circunferencia cintura/altura> 0,5, glucosa en ayunas >100 mg/dL, triglicéridos >110 mg/dL, HDL-C percentil 95 para edad y género. Se determinaron la insulinemia en ayunas, apoproteinas A1 y B, proteína C reactiva ultrasensible, alaninaminotransferasa, homocisteína y ácidos fólico y úrico. En los niños obesos severos, la presencia de factores de riesgo metabólico se producía con más frecuencia en la pubertad. Los parámetros antropométricos normalizados con respecto al percentil 50 para la edad y género no se diferenciaban según existiera o no mayor riego metabólico. La resistencia a la insulina fue un factor independiente de riesgo metabólico, ajustado por etapas de Tanner. La proteína C reactiva ultrasensible estaba elevada, sin relación con la mayor presencia de factores de riesgo del síndrome metabólico o la etapa puberal. La homocisteína, apoproteína B, y la alaninaminotransferasa se incrementaron con el riesgo metabólico y no fueron influidos por la pubertad. Aunque la resistencia a la insulina sigue siendo el principal factor que influye en el riesgo metabólico, los marcadores bioquímicos como la homocisteína, apoproteína B, y la alaninaminotransferasa, pueden ser útiles para identificar individuos con obesidad grave en etapa puberal predispuestos a padecer enfermedades relacionadas.

  5. Genetic correlation estimates between beef fatty acid profile with meat and carcass traits in Nellore cattle finished in feedlot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Fabieli Loise Braga; Olivieri, Bianca Ferreira; Aboujaoude, Carolyn; Pereira, Angélica Simone Cravo; de Lemos, Marcos Vinicius Antunes; Chiaia, Hermenegildo Lucas Justino; Berton, Mariana Piatto; Peripolli, Elisa; Ferrinho, Adrielle Matias; Mueller, Lenise Freitas; Mazalli, Mônica Roberta; de Albuquerque, Lucia Galvão; de Oliveira, Henrique Nunes; Tonhati, Humberto; Espigolan, Rafael; Tonussi, Rafael Lara; de Oliveira Silva, Rafael Medeiros; Gordo, Daniel Gustavo Mansan; Magalhães, Ana Fabrícia Braga; Aguilar, Ignacio; Baldi, Fernando

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the genetic-quantitative relationships between the beef fatty acid profile with the carcass and meat traits of Nellore cattle. A total of 1826 bulls finished in feedlot conditions and slaughtered at 24 months of age on average were used. The following carcass and meat traits were analysed: subcutaneous fat thickness (BF), shear force (SF) and total intramuscular fat (IMF). The fatty acid (FA) profile of the Longissimus thoracis samples was determined. Twenty-five FAs (18 individuals and seven groups of FAs) were selected due to their importance for human health. The animals were genotyped with the BovineHD BeadChip and, after quality control for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), only 470,007 SNPs from 1556 samples remained. The model included the random genetic additive direct effect, the fixed effect of the contemporary group and the animal's slaughter age as a covariable. The (co)variances and genetic parameters were estimated using the REML method, considering an animal model (single-step GBLUP). A total of 25 multi-trait analyses, with four traits, were performed considering SF, BF and IMF plus each individual FA. The heritability estimates for individual saturated fatty acids (SFA) varied from 0.06 to 0.65, for monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) it varied from 0.02 to 0.14 and for polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) it ranged from 0.05 to 0.68. The heritability estimates for Omega 3, Omega 6, SFA, MUFA and PUFA sum were low to moderate, varying from 0.09 to 0.20. The carcass and meat traits, SF (0.06) and IMF (0.07), had low heritability estimates, while BF (0.17) was moderate. The genetic correlation estimates between SFA sum, MUFA sum and PUFA sum with BF were 0.04, 0.64 and -0.41, respectively. The genetic correlation estimates between SFA sum, MUFA sum and PUFA sum with SF were 0.29, -0.06 and -0.04, respectively. The genetic correlation estimates between SFA sum, MUFA sum and PUFA sum with IMF were 0.24, 0

  6. Genetic analysis of growth traits in Polled Nellore cattle raised on pasture in tropical region using Bayesian approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Brito Lopes

    Full Text Available Components of (covariance and genetic parameters were estimated for adjusted weights at ages 120 (W120, 240 (W240, 365 (W365 and 450 (W450 days of Polled Nellore cattle raised on pasture and born between 1987 and 2010. Analyses were performed using an animal model, considering fixed effects: herd-year-season of birth and calf sex as contemporary groups and the age of cow as a covariate. Gibbs Samplers were used to estimate (covariance components, genetic parameters and additive genetic effects, which accounted for great proportion of total variation in these traits. High direct heritability estimates for the growth traits were revealed and presented mean 0.43, 0.61, 0.72 and 0.67 for W120, W240, W365 and W450, respectively. Maternal heritabilities were 0.07 and 0.08 for W120 and W240, respectively. Direct additive genetic correlations between the weight at 120, 240, 365 and 450 days old were strong and positive. These estimates ranged from 0.68 to 0.98. Direct-maternal genetic correlations were negative for W120 and W240. The estimates ranged from -0.31 to -0.54. Estimates of maternal heritability ranged from 0.056 to 0.092 for W120 and from 0.064 to 0.096 for W240. This study showed that genetic progress is possible for the growth traits we studied, which is a novel and favorable indicator for an upcoming and promising Polled Zebu breed in Tropical regions. Maternal effects influenced the performance of weight at 120 and 240 days old. These effects should be taken into account in genetic analyses of growth traits by fitting them as a genetic or a permanent environmental effect, or even both. In general, due to a medium-high estimate of environmental (covariance components, management and feeding conditions for Polled Nellore raised at pasture in tropical regions of Brazil needs improvement and growth performance can be enhanced.

  7. The effect of Bovine Growth Hormone on Growth, Carcass Composition and Meat Quality of Dairy Heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mogens; Sejrsen, Kristen; Foldager, John

    1993-01-01

    Our objective was to examine the effects of bovine growth hormone (bGH) on growth, carcass composition and meat quality of dairy heifers. Nine monozygotic twin pairs of Friesian or Red Danish cattle were used, and pair-fed diet consisting of grass silage, barley and soybean meal. Within each pair......, one animal was given daily subcutaneous injections of 20 IU of pituitary-derived bGH (15-20 mg), while the other animal was injected with saline (excipient). Treatments started at 179±2 kg body weight and lasted for 15.6 weeks. At slaughter, carcass composition and meat quality were analyzed. b...... fat by 13% (P meat quality assessed by objective as well as subjective methods was unaffected by bGH treatment. In summary, bGH treatment of dairy heifers around puberty stimulated growth and reduced carcass fattening...

  8. Behavioral responses of dairy heifers confined to the evaporative cooling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Aguiar da Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to evaluate the influence of evaporative cooling system (AECS on the behavioral variables of Holstein dairy heifers kept in confinement. Twelve heifers were used, divided into three treatments: 1 ventilation and fogging by AECS when the temperature reached 25°C at any humidity, 2 ventilation and fogging by AECS when the temperature reached 25°C with relative humidity less than or equal to 70% and, 3 without cooling system. The experimental design consisted of a latin rectangle repeated twice. The environmental variables (dry bulb temperature, black globe temperature and relative humidity were collected daily through dataloggers throughout the experiment. In behavioral analysis were observed postures (standing and lying, the activities of the animals and the places where they were in the pen, in 15 minute intervals. However, there was no difference in the behavioral variables of animals between treatments.

  9. Effect of intensive or extensive systems on buffalo heifers performances: blood metabolite values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Borghese

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Blood nutritional indicators were measured on twenty-six prepubertal 8- mo-old buffalo heifers, weighing a mean of 134 kg to determine the effect of different feeding and management systems. Animals were randomly assigned to an intensive feeding (n=13; IF group or to a pasture system plus hay (n=13; PS group, according to weight and age. Measurements of live weight and blood collection began on day 0 (=date of onset of trial.The heifers were weighed monthly, up to puberty, to evaluate the growth rate and blood samples were withdrawn every three months to assay the concentrations of blood metabolites. Significantly higher (P0.05.

  10. Embryo production with sex-sorted semen in superovulated dairy heifers and cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaimio, I; Mikkola, M; Lindeberg, H; Heikkinen, J; Hasler, J F; Taponen, J

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of sex-sorted semen on the number and quality of embryos recovered from superovulated heifers and cows on commercial dairy farm conditions in Finland. The data consist of 1487 commercial embryo collections performed on 633 and 854 animals of Holstein and Finnish Ayrshire breeds, respectively. Superovulation was induced by eight intramuscular injections of follicle-stimulating hormone, at 12-hour intervals over 4 days, involving declining doses beginning on 9 to 12 days after the onset of standing estrus. The donors were inseminated at 9 to 15-hour intervals beginning 12 hours after the onset of estrus with 2 + 2 (+1) doses of sex-sorted frozen-thawed semen (N = 218) into the uterine horns or with 1 + 1 (+1) doses of conventional frozen-thawed semen (N = 1269) into the uterine corpus. Most conventional semen (222 bulls) straws contained 15 million sperm (total number 30-45 million per donor). Sex-sorted semen (61 bulls) straws contained 2 million sperm (total number 8-14 million per donor). Mean number of transferable embryos in recoveries from cows bred with sex-sorted semen was 4.9, which is significantly lower than 9.1 transferable embryos recovered when using conventional semen (P ≤ 0.001). In heifers, no significant difference was detected between mean number of transferable embryos in recoveries using sex-sorted semen and conventional semen (6.1 and 7.2, respectively). The number of unfertilized ova was higher when using sex-sorted semen than when using conventional semen in heifers (P cows (P cows (P protocol used seemed to be adequate for heifers. In superovulated cows, an optimal protocol for using sex-sorted semen remains to be found.

  11. First results from insemination with sex-sorted semen in dairy heifers in Macedonia

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    Ljupche Kochoski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Science has been searching for a long time for a reliable method for controlling the sex of mammalian offspring. Recently, the application of specific modern cellular methodologies has led to the development of a flow cytometric system capable of differentiating and separating living X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm cells in amounts suitable for AI and therefore, commercialization of this sexing technology. The aim of this work was to present the first results of heifers that introduce bovine AI with sex sorted semen, for the first time in Macedonia. Insemination with sex sorted cryopreserved semen (2x106 spermatozoa per dose imported from the USA was done at two dairy farms in ZK Pelagonija. In total, 74 heifers (Holstein Friesian were inseminated. Inseminations were carried out in a timely manner following a modified OvSynch protocol. During the insemination, the sperm was deposited into the uterine horn ipsi lateral to the ovary where a follicle larger than 1.6 cm was detected by means of transrectal ultrasound examination. Pregnancy was checked by ultrasound on day 30 after the insemination. Overall, the average pregnancy rate in both farms was 43,24% (40,54% and 45,95%, for farm 1 and farm 2, respectively. All pregnant heifers delivered their calves following a normal gestation length (274,3 days in average and of the 32 born calves, 30 (93,75% were female. In conclusion, since the first results from inseminations with sex-sorted semen in dairy heifers in Macedonia are very promising, the introduction of this technique may bring much benefit to the local dairy sector. Average pregnancy rate seems similar with results obtained following ‘regular’ inseminations, notwithstanding the relatively low number of spermatozoa per insemination dose. Due to the latter, we however recommend inseminations only to be carried out by experienced technicians followinga TAI protocol and ultrasound examinations of the ovaries prior to insemination.

  12. Estrus induction and fertility response in delayed pubertal Kankrej heifers treated with norgestomet ear implant

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    C. F. Chaudhari

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was undertaken to find out the estrus induction and fertility response in delayed pubertal Kankrej heifers treated with norgestomet ear implant. Materials and methods: Total eighteen anoestrus Kankrej heifers of delayed puberty weighed above 250 kg and attained between 30 to 36 months of age were selected and divided in to three groups of six animals each at random to conduct the experiment. Animals in group 1 were implanted Crestar ear implant for 9 days. In addition to this, group 2 received 500 IU of PMSG on the day of implant removal. In group 3, treatment protocol remained same as in group 2, but Inj. Receptal @ 2 ml was given additionally at the time of breeding. Results: All the animals exhibited estrus with average duration of 25.41+ 0.94, 21.95+ 0.20 and 22.68 + 1.46 hours between implant withdrawal and estrus induction in group 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The duration of estrus was significantly (P<0.05 longer (25.61+ 2.95 hours in group 2, followed by group 1 (18.88 + 1.45 hours and group 3 (13.48 + 1.92 hours. The pregnancy rate at induced estrus was 33.33 percent in group 2. In group 1 and group 3 none of the heifers found pregnant at induced estrus. The overall conception rate was maximum in group 2 (66.67 percent followed by group 3 (50 percent and group 1 (33.33 percent after the 3rd service. Conclusion: Although the conception rate at induced estrus was lower, norgestomet ear implant could be utilized to induced estrus in delayed pubertal cow heifers. [Vet. World 2012; 5(8.000: 453-458

  13. Successful management of mummified fetus in a heifer by prostaglandin therapy and episiotomy

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    Gopal Krishan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fetal mummification is one of the gestation- al accidents that occur due to intra-uterine death of fetus commonly at fourth, fifth and six months of gestation. This report describes the successful management of the mummified fetus in a five year old graded Holstein Friesian heifer cow using single dose of prostaglandin F2α analogue and by performing episiotomy. Antibiotic therapy was given to avoid any uterine infection.

  14. Genome-wide association for heifer reproduction and calf performance traits in beef cattle.

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    Akanno, Everestus C; Plastow, Graham; Fitzsimmons, Carolyn; Miller, Stephen P; Baron, Vern; Ominski, Kimberly; Basarab, John A

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify SNP markers that associate with variation in beef heifer reproduction and performance of their calves. A genome-wide association study was performed by means of the generalized quasi-likelihood score (GQLS) method using heifer genotypes from the BovineSNP50 BeadChip and estimated breeding values for pre-breeding body weight (PBW), pregnancy rate (PR), calving difficulty (CD), age at first calving (AFC), calf birth weight (BWT), calf weaning weight (WWT), and calf pre-weaning average daily gain (ADG). Data consisted of 785 replacement heifers from three Canadian research herds, namely Brandon Research Centre, Brandon, Manitoba, University of Alberta Roy Berg Kinsella Ranch, Kinsella, Alberta, and Lacombe Research Centre, Lacombe, Alberta. After applying a false discovery rate correction at a 5% significance level, a total of 4, 3, 3, 9, 6, 2, and 1 SNPs were significantly associated with PBW, PR, CD, AFC, BWT, WWT, and ADG, respectively. These SNPs were located on chromosomes 1, 5-7, 9, 13-16, 19-21, 24, 25, and 27-29. Chromosomes 1, 5, and 24 had SNPs with pleiotropic effects. New significant SNPs that impact functional traits were detected, many of which have not been previously reported. The results of this study support quantitative genetic studies related to the inheritance of these traits, and provides new knowledge regarding beef cattle quantitative trait loci effects. The identification of these SNPs provides a starting point to identify genes affecting heifer reproduction traits and performance of their calves (BWT, WWT, and ADG). They also contribute to a better understanding of the biology underlying these traits and will be potentially useful in marker- and genome-assisted selection and management.

  15. The effect of rearing system on behavioural and immune responses of buffalo heifers

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    A. Bordi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available From November 2005 to October 2006 thirty-two buffalo heifers from the same commercial farm were used to evaluate the effect of rearing system on a range of behavioural and immune variables. Sixteen heifers were group-housed in indoor slatted floor pen (3.0 m2/animal with an outdoor paddock (3.0 m2/animal at ~5m above sea level (group IR. Sixteen others were kept at ~600m above sea level. They grazed a fenced Mediterranean maquis of ~40ha (group ER. At the end of the experimental period the animals were subjected to a novel object test. Each animal was exposed to a novel environment (a 6x6-m paddock, where in the middle a traffic cone was present. Avoidance distance at manger was evaluated by an assessor who walked slowly (1 step per second toward each animal with one hand slightly forward until signs of withdrawal. Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA, 1mg/animal was used to perform a skin test based on specific delayed type hypersensitivity. During the novel object test, IR animals touched more and devoted more time to the traffic cone than ER animals (P =0.003 and P=0.008, respectively. Avoidance distance at manger was lower in ER animals than IR (P=0.004. Skin thickness after PHA injection was higher in ER heifers than in IR (P=0.003. The results indicated that an extensive rearing system based on pasture seems to be a valid method to promote welfare and sustainability of buffalo heifer.

  16. Lipid mobilisation and oxidative stress as metabolic adaptation processes in dairy heifers during transition period.

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    Turk, R; Podpečan, O; Mrkun, J; Kosec, M; Flegar-Meštrić, Z; Perkov, S; Starič, J; Robić, M; Belić, M; Zrimšek, P

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate metabolic disorders and oxidative stress in dairy heifers during the transition period. Possible relationships between lipid mobilisation indicators and oxidative stress markers were investigated as well. Nineteen dairy heifers were included in the study. Blood samples were collected at the time of estrus synchronisation in heifers, at insemination, three weeks after insemination, one week before calving, at calving and 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks postpartum. Common metabolic parameters, beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), free fatty acids (FFA), paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity and total antioxidative status (TAS) were analysed. Around insemination, no significant difference was observed in the majority of tested parameters (P>0.05). However, the transition period markedly affected the concentration of triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-C, BHB, FFA, TAS and PON1activity. Positive correlations between PON1 activity and total cholesterol, HDL-C and triglycerides were noted but inverse correlations with FFA, BHB and bilirubin were found indicating that PON1 activity changed with lipid metabolism and was influenced by negative energy balance. These findings suggest that lipid mobilisation and oxidative stress are part of a complex metabolic adaptation to low energy balance which reaches equilibrium later in advanced lactation.

  17. Oregano Extract Added into the Diet of Dairy Heifers Changes Feeding Behavior and Concentrate Intake

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    Giovani Jacob Kolling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed to describe the effects of Oregano extract (OE inclusion into the concentrate fed to dairy heifers on physiological parameters, feeding behavior, intake, and performance. Thirty-two Holstein heifers were randomly distributed into four treatments: C = control, without addition of OE; OE2.5 = 2.5 g; OE5.0 = 5.0 g and OE7.5 = 7.5 g of Oregano extract per heifer/day. Feeding behavior and concentrate intake were assessed individually every day and total dry matter intake (DMI was determined on the last week of the trial. Compared to control group, OE7.5 reduced by 32% the latency time to approach the feed bunk but increased by 6% the time spent eating the concentrate. Each inclusion of 2.5 grams of OE into the concentrate increased the occurrence of postingestive licking the feed bunk with abundant saliva production 1.2 times (P<0.01 and tended to increase the occurrence of sneeze events 1.2 times (P<0.10. No statistical difference was detected between treatments for total DMI, but concentrate DMI was 9% lower for OE7.5 when compared to control and OE2.5. The inclusion of 7.5 grams/day of OE causes small but negative effects in feeding behavior and concentrate intake, without change on total dry matter intake.

  18. Oregano Extract Added into the Diet of Dairy Heifers Changes Feeding Behavior and Concentrate Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolling, Giovani Jacob; Stumpf, Marcelo Tempel; da Cruz, Eduardo Augusto

    2016-01-01

    This experiment aimed to describe the effects of Oregano extract (OE) inclusion into the concentrate fed to dairy heifers on physiological parameters, feeding behavior, intake, and performance. Thirty-two Holstein heifers were randomly distributed into four treatments: C = control, without addition of OE; OE2.5 = 2.5 g; OE5.0 = 5.0 g and OE7.5 = 7.5 g of Oregano extract per heifer/day. Feeding behavior and concentrate intake were assessed individually every day and total dry matter intake (DMI) was determined on the last week of the trial. Compared to control group, OE7.5 reduced by 32% the latency time to approach the feed bunk but increased by 6% the time spent eating the concentrate. Each inclusion of 2.5 grams of OE into the concentrate increased the occurrence of postingestive licking the feed bunk with abundant saliva production 1.2 times (P < 0.01) and tended to increase the occurrence of sneeze events 1.2 times (P < 0.10). No statistical difference was detected between treatments for total DMI, but concentrate DMI was 9% lower for OE7.5 when compared to control and OE2.5. The inclusion of 7.5 grams/day of OE causes small but negative effects in feeding behavior and concentrate intake, without change on total dry matter intake. PMID:28116344

  19. Impact of hard vs. soft wheat and monensin level on rumen acidosis in feedlot heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, W Z; Xu, L; Zhao, Y L; Chen, L Y; McAllister, T A

    2014-11-01

    Many feedlot finishing diets include wheat when the relative wheat prices are low. This study was conducted to examine the responses in ruminal pH and fermentation as well as site and extent of digestion from substituting soft or hard wheat for barley grain and to determine whether an elevated monensin concentration might decrease indicators of ruminal acidosis in feedlot heifers. Five ruminally cannulated beef heifers were used in a 5 × 5 Latin square with 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement. Treatments included barley (10% barley silage, 86% barley, 4% supplement, with 28 mg monensin/kg DM) and diets where barley was substituted by either soft or hard wheat with either 28 or 44 mg monensin/kg diet DM. Intake of DM was not affected by grain source, whereas increasing monensin with wheat diets reduced (P type or monensin level. Total VFA concentrations were greater (P type. The molar proportion of propionate was greater (P Feeding soft vs. hard wheat delivered a greater (P feed use by heifers fed wheat-based finishing diets.

  20. The Effects of Dietary Phosphorus on the Growth Performance and Phosphorus Excretion of Dairy Heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B; Wang, C; Wei, Z H; Sun, H Z; Xu, G Z; Liu, J X; Liu, H Y

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of reducing dietary phosphorus (P) on the frame size, udder traits, blood parameters and nutrient digestibility coefficient in 8- to 10-month-old Holstein heifers. Forty-five heifers were divided into 15 blocks according to the mo of age and were randomly assigned one of three dietary treatments: 0.26% (low P [LP]), 0.36% (medium P [MP]), or 0.42% (high P [HP]) (dry matter basis). Samples were collected at the wk 1, 4, 8. The results show that low dietary P had no effect on body measurement. The blood P concentration decreased with decreasing dietary P (p<0.05), while the blood calcium content of LP was higher than that of the MP and HP groups (p<0.05), though still in the normal range. The serum contents of alkalinephosphatase, potassium, and magnesium were similar among the treatments. No differences were found in all nutrients' apparent digestibility coefficients with varied dietary P. However, with P diet decreased from HP to LP, the total fecal P and urine P concentration declined significantly, as did fecal water soluble P (p<0.05). In conclusion, reducing the dietary P from 0.42% to 0.26% did not negatively affect the heifers' growth performance but did significantly lessen manure P excretion into the environment.

  1. Housing, Feeding and Management of Calves and Replacement Heifers in Swedish Dairy Herds

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    Liberg P

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A questionnaire was sent to 1500 randomly selected dairy herds in Sweden, asking for general information about the herds, including routines from birth to first calving and also routines at breeding, calving and during the grazing period. Fifty-eight percent of the questionnaires were returned. The preweaned calves were kept in individual calf pens in 68% and in group housing systems in 28% of the herds. Pens with slatted floors were the main housing system for replacement heifers from weaning to breeding, and tie stalls from breeding to first calving. Whole milk was used in 44% and milk replacements in 42% of the herds. The calves received, as a median, 2.5 litres of milk per meal and 2 meals per day. The median age at weaning was 8 weeks. Age was the single most common criteria used for deciding both weaning and breeding time. The median age when the heifers were first turned out to pasture was 6 months. Prophylactic anthelmintic treatment was used by 65% of the herds. The most common diet for replacement heifers before calving was a combination of grain, hay and silage.

  2. Seasonal foraging patterns of forest-grazing Japanese Black heifers with increased plasma total antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haga, Satoshi; Nakano, Miwa; Nakao, Seiji; Hirano, Kiyoshi; Yamamoto, Yoshito; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Ishizaki, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    Forest-grazing enables the intake of high total antioxidant capacity (TAC) plants that might be beneficial for the TAC status of cattle. This study evaluated the relation between the seasonal foraging patterns of forest-grazing Japanese Black (JB) heifers or the TAC levels in shrubs and trees and the changes of plasma TAC. We examined 12 JB heifers, four each of which were allocated to forest-grazing (F), pasture-grazing, and pen-housed groups. The plasma TAC level in F heifers on July 26, August 13, 30 and September 17 were significantly higher than those on April 27 and June 4 (P < 0.05). In F group, the mean rates of foraging frequency (FF) of shrubs and trees during July 5-8 and September 13-16 were much higher than that during May 31-June 3 (P < 0.05). The rate of FF of grass significantly decreased later in the season (P < 0.05). The mean TAC levels in these shrubs and trees were higher than those in grasses, concentrates, and timothy hay. Results suggest that an important factor in the increase of plasma TAC in forest-grazing cattle might be the increased foraging of TAC-rich shrubs and trees during summer-fall.

  3. Carcass characteristics, meat quality, feeding behavior of Nelore heifers fed diets containing sunflower pie

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    Karine Regina Alves

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to evaluate the feeding behavior, carcass characteristics and meat quality of Nelore heifers fed sunflower pie replacing cottonseed meal. They were used 30 heifers with average initial weight of 274 kg ± 28 kg and average age of 24 months, confined for 76 days. The design was completely randomized with five treatments (0, 150, 300, 450 and 600 g kg-1 DM and six replicates per treatment. By completing 24 hours after slaughter, it evaluated muscle conformation and degree of finish made the longissimus dorsi at the 13th rib. A representative sample between the 10th and 12th ribs was collected for evaluation of the physical components of carcasses. As well as the other variables, the hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, carcass length and rib eye area were not influenced by different pie levels in feed. The mean percentage of muscle, bone and fat from the carcass were 53.45; 16.14 and 29.46%, respectively, similar among treatments. Therefore, the use of up to 600 g kg-1 of sunflower pie replacing cottonseed meal as the main protein source, did not affect the carcass characteristics and meat quality of Nelore heifers.

  4. A field investigation of a modified intravaginal progesterone releasing device and oestradiol benzoate based ovulation synchronisation protocol designed for fixed-time artificial insemination of Brahman heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, S A A; Boe-Hansen, G B; Satake, N; Chandra, K; McGowan, M R

    2015-09-01

    Pregnancy rates (PR) to fixed-time AI (FTAI) in Brahman heifers were compared after treatment with a traditional oestradiol-based protocol (OPO-8) or a modified protocol (OPO-6) where the duration of intravaginal progesterone releasing device (IPRD) was reduced from 8 to 6 days, and the interval from IPRD removal to oestradiol benzoate (ODB) was increased from 24 to 36 h. Rising 2 yo heifers on Farm A: (n = 238 and n = 215; two consecutive days AI); B (n = 271); and C (n = 393) were allocated to OPO-8 or OPO-6. An IPRD was inserted and 1mg ODB i.m. on Day 0 for OPO-8 heifers and Day 2 for OPO-6 heifers. On Day 8, the IPRD was removed and 500 μg cloprostenol i.m. At 24h, for OPO-8 heifers, and 36 h, for OPO-6 heifers, post IPRD removal all heifers received 1mg ODB i.m. FTAI was conducted at 54 and 72 h post IPRD removal for OPO-8 and OPO-6 heifers. At Farm A, OPO-6 heifers, AI on the second day, the PR was 52.4% to FTAI (P = 0.024) compared to 36.8% for OPO-8 heifers. However, no differences were found between OPO-8 and OPO-6 protocols at Farm A (first day of AI) (39.9 vs. 35.7%), or Farms B (26.2 vs. 35.4%) and C (43.2% vs. 40.3%). Presence of a corpus luteum at IPRD insertion affected PR to FTAI (43.9% vs. 28.8%; P < 0.001). This study has shown that the modified ovulation synchronisation protocol OPO-6 may be a viable alternative to the OPO-8 protocol for FTAI in B. indicus heifers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of Exposure to Various Durations of Light on Serum Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I in Prepubertal Holstein Heifers

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    L. J. Spicer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to determine if prolonged exposure to various durations of light (i.e., photoperiod would affect serum IGF-I concentrations in heifers. Thus, 16 Holstein heifers, 2 to 4 mo of age, were exposed during a 5-wk pretreatment period to 12 h of cool-white fluorescent light (L at an intensity of 1200 lux and 12 h of dark (D. At 5 wk, photoperiods were adjusted to 24 L: 0 D (24 L, 20 L: 4 d (20 L, 16 L: 8 D (16 L or 8 L: 16 D (8 L per 24 h (n=4 heifers per photoperiod treatment. Blood was sampled at 5 wk and monthly for 4 mo. During each sampling period, blood was collected at 16-h intervals for 48 h and serum IGF-I was determined by RIA. Photoperiod treatment, month of experiment and their interactions affected serum IGF-I concentrations. Averaged over months, concentrations of serum IGF-I was greatest in heifers on 16 L; heifers on 20 L had IGF-I concentrations similar to 8 L, 16 L and 24 L and heifers on 24 L had concentrations similar to that of heifers on 8 L. Heifers in all treatment groups exhibited an increase in serum IGF-I concentration during the 4 mo of treatment. Heifers on 16 L and 20 L exhibited the greatest difference in serum IGF-I concentrations compared with 8L heifers after 3 mo of treatment. In conclusion, 16 L increases concentrations of serum IGF-I above that seen for heifers treated with

  6. Analysis of Water Quality Index for Groundwater in Gudur Mandal, SPSR Nellore District - Integrated With RS And GIS

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    Nambi Harish

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater has become a necessary resource over the past decades due to the increase in its usage for drinking, water supply, irrigation and industrial uses etc. Groundwater resources are now facing threats due to anthropogenic activities. The groundwater quality is equally important as that of quantity. Mapping of spatial variability of groundwater quality is of vital importance and it is particularly significant where groundwater is primary source of potable water. The present study has been undertaken to analyze the spatial variability of groundwater quality for Gudur Mandal, SPSR Nellore District located in the Andhra Pradesh State. MS ExcelAnalysis ToolPak is used for mathematical analysis of the parameters and ArcGIS Version 10.1 is used for the spatial analysis and it is a powerful tool for representation and analysis of spatial information related to water resources. A total of 280 bore well water samples are collected. The major water quality parameters such as pH, Total dissolved solids, Total alkalinity as calcium carbonate, Total hardness, Chloride, Sulphate, Nitrate, Fluoride, Iron have been analysed as per BIS 10500-2012. The spatial variation maps of these groundwater quality parameters were derived and integrated through GIS. The final integrated map shows five priority classes such as Excellent, Good, Poor, Very poor, Unsuitable for zones of the study area and provides a guideline for the suitability of groundwater for domestic purposes

  7. Glycerin and essential oils in the diet of Nellore bulls finished in feedlot: animal performance and apparent digestibility

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    Lorrayny Galoro da Silva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Current research studied the effect of partial replacing corn by glycerin and essential oils addition in the diet of Nellore bulls finished in feedlot on feed intake, animal performance and three markers were assessed to estimate apparent digestibility. Thirty bulls with average weight 400 ± 34.1 kg and 22 ± 2 months old were housed in collective pens (10 x 20 m2 for 63 days. The bulls were randomly assigned to 3 diets (10 bulls per treatment: CON – Control (without glycerin or Essential® oils; GLY – Glycerin (15% on dry matter - DM; and GEO – Glycerin (15% on DM and Essential® oils (3 g animal day-1. Three different markers were used to estimate apparent digestibility in the diets: indigestible dry matter –iDM; indigestible neutral detergent fiber – iNDF; and purified lignin – LIPE®. Feed efficiency and animal performance were not affected by the corn partial replacing by glycerin. No effects were found in partial corn replacing by glycerin and Essential® oils addition in the diets on the fecal output, crude protein and ether extract digestibility among the diets. The DM and OM apparent digestibility were higher for bulls fed with glycerin and Essential® oils. The CHO digestibility was higher for CON diet. The markers iDM, iNDF and LIPE® were similarly to estimate apparent digestibility to all nutrients in the diets.

  8. Carcass traits and meat quality of Nellore cattle fed different non-fiber carbohydrates sources associated with crude glycerin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, V R; Ezequiel, J M B; Almeida, M T C; D'Aurea, A P; Paschoaloto, J R; van Cleef, E H C B; Carvalho, V B; Junqueira, N B

    2016-08-01

    Crude glycerin, a potential energy source for ruminant animals, has been evaluated, mainly, in diets with high starch content. However, a limit number of studies have evaluated the inclusion of crude glycerin in low starch diets. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the association of crude glycerin with corn grain or citrus pulp on carcass traits and meat quality of Nellore bulls (n=30, 402±31 kg initial weight). The treatment consisted of: CON=control, without crude glycerin; CG10=10% of crude glycerin and corn grain; CG15=15% of crude glycerin and corn grain; CP10=10% of crude glycerin and citrus pulp; CP15=15% of crude glycerin and citrus pulp. The performance parameters and carcass traits were not affected by treatments (P>0.05). The inclusion of crude glycerin decreased yellow color intensity and increased fatty acids pentadecanoic and heptadecenoic in meat (Pglycerin with corn or citrus pulp has no adverse effects on carcass characteristics and meat quality.

  9. Fatty acid profile, carcass and quality traits of meat from Nellore young bulls on pasture supplemented with crude glycerin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Vito, E; Lage, J F; Ribeiro, A F; Silva, R A; Berchielli, T T

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the carcass traits and meat quality of Nellore bulls (279.5±16.3 initial body weight) raised on pasture supplemented with crude glycerin at 0%, 7%, 14%, 21% or 28% (DM basis). The diets were similar in energy and protein levels, and the glycerin replaced corn in the supplement. After slaughter, the carcass characteristics were measured, and the longissimus muscle was collected to determine the meat quality. The inclusion of crude glycerin in the supplement did not change (P>0.05) any of the carcass characteristics and meat quality assessed; however, the pH decreased linearly (P=0.03), and margaric acid (17:0) increased (P=0.02) in the longissimus muscle with the addition of glycerin in the diet. Our conclusion is that the inclusion of crude glycerin up to the level of 28% of dry matter in the supplement does not alter the carcass characteristics or the meat quality from animals raised on pasture.

  10. Comparison of breeding value prediction for two traits in a Nellore-Angus crossbred population using different Bayesian modeling methodologies

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    Lauren L. Hulsman Hanna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to 1 compare four models for breeding value prediction using genomic or pedigree information and 2 evaluate the impact of fixed effects that account for family structure. Comparisons were made in a Nellore-Angus population comprising F2, F3 and half-siblings to embryo transfer F2 calves with records for overall temperament at weaning (TEMP; n = 769 and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF; n = 387. After quality control, there were 34,913 whole genome SNP markers remaining. Bayesian methods employed were BayesB ( π = 0.995 or 0.997 for WBSF or TEMP, respectively and BayesC (π = 0 and π, where π is the ideal proportion of markers not included. Direct genomic values (DGV from single trait Bayesian analyses were compared to conventional pedigree-based animal model breeding values. Numerically, BayesC procedures (using π had the highest accuracy of all models for WBSF and TEMP ( ρgg = 0.843 and 0.923, respectively, but BayesB had the least bias (regression of performance on prediction closest to 1, βy,x = 2.886 and 1.755, respectively. Accounting for family structure decreased accuracy and increased bias in prediction of DGV indicating a detrimental impact when used in these prediction methods that simultaneously fit many markers.

  11. Heat shock and structural proteins associated with meat tenderness in Nellore beef cattle, a Bos indicus breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Minos Esperândio; Gasparin, Gustavo; Poleti, Mirele Daiana; Rosa, Alessandra Fernandes; Balieiro, Júlio Cesar Carvalho; Labate, Carlos Alberto; Nassu, Renata Tieko; Tullio, Rymer Ramiz; Regitano, Luciana Correia de Almeida; Mourão, Gerson Barreto; Coutinho, Luiz Lehmann

    2014-03-01

    Nellore beef cattle, a Bos indicus (Zebu) breed, is well adapted to tropical conditions and has allowed Brazil to become one of the largest producers of red meat. Nevertheless, B. indicus breeds are reported to have less tender meat than Bos taurus. This study was designed to identify genes associated with meat tenderness and thus provides important information for breeding programs. A group of 138 animals was evaluated for longissimus thoracis muscle shear force (SF). Animals with the highest and lowest SF values (six animals each) were then selected for protein abundance studies. Samples were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by peptide sequencing through mass spectrometry (MS) to identify differentially expressed proteins associated with SF values. Seventeen differentially expressed spots were observed (p<0.05) between the two groups. The 13 proteins identified included structural proteins (alpha actin-1, MLC1, MLC3, MLC2F and tropomyosin), related to cell organization (HSPB1 and HSP70), metabolism (beta-LG, ACBD6 and Complex III subunit I) and some uncharacterized proteins. Results confirm the existence of differentially expressed proteins associated with SF, which can lead to a better understanding of mechanisms involved in meat tenderness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Molecular detection of bovine coronavirus in a diarrhea outbreak in pasture-feeding Nellore steers in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Juliane; Lorenzetti, Elis; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo

    2016-03-01

    Worldwide diarrhea outbreaks in cattle herds are more frequently detected in calves being that diarrhea outbreaks in adult cattle are not common. Winter dysentery (WD) is a bovine coronavirus (BCoV) enteric infection that is more reported in Northern hemisphere. Seasonal outbreaks of WD in adult cattle occur mainly in dairy cows. WD has not been described in beef cattle herds of tropical countries. This study describes the molecular detection of BCoV in a diarrhea outbreak in beef cattle steers (Nellore) raised on pasture in Parana, southern Brazil. During the outbreak, the farm had about 600 fattening steers. Watery and bloody diarrhea unresponsive to systemic broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy reveals a morbidity rate of approximately 15 %. The BCoV N gene was identified in 42.9 % (6/14) of the diarrheic fecal samples evaluated by semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (SN-PCR) technique. Other enteric microorganisms occasionally identified in adult cattle and evaluated in this study such as bovine groups A, B, and C rotavirus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine torovirus, aichivirus B, and Eimeria sp. were not identified in the fecal samples. To the best knowledge of the authors, this is the first description of the BCoV diagnosis in fecal samples collected in a diarrhea outbreak in adult beef cattle grazing in the grass in a tropical country.

  13. Genetic analysis of residual feed intake adjusted for fat and carcass and performance traits in a Nellore herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Faria de Moraes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The study of the genetic evaluation of residual feed intake adjusted for fat (RFIFat is important for the appropriate use of feed efficiency in selection programs. The objective was to analyze the influence of selection for RFIF at on carcass and performance traits by estimating various genetic parameters. Data were analyzed from five tests of feed efficiency, which were conducted with 677 Nellore males. Genetic evaluation was performed by Bayesian inference using an animal model via single- and two-trait analyses. Variables analyzed were dry matter intake, average daily gain, RFIFat, rib eye area, back fat thickness, rump fat thickness, marbling score, and subcutaneous fat thickness. The posterior mean distributions estimated at each analysis were used to estimate heritability of the traits and to perform various correlations. The studied traits showed high heritability estimates, and they should respond well to selection. The RFIFat presented a phenotypic correlation with carcass traits (which was next to zero, and there was also a negative genetic correlation. Additive genetic variability for RFIFat showed that selection for this trait can promote genetic gains in future generations, resulting in animals that are efficient in terms of nutrient use, and according to the genetic and phenotypic correlations, with no significant negative changes to carcass traits.

  14. Effects of circulating progesterone and insulin on early embryo development in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, G E; Green, M P; Sinclair, K D; Demmers, K J; Fray, M D; Gutierrez, C G; Garnsworthy, P C; Webb, R

    2003-11-20

    The aims of this study were to determine the effect on early embryo development of feeding a diet formulated to enhance circulating insulin concentrations and secondly to investigate the association between early embryo development and maternal progesterone concentrations in beef heifers. The study was carried out in 32 Simmental x Holstein Friesian heifers 22-25 months of age weighing 506+/-7kg and in condition score 3.1+/-0.1. Animals were fed two diets that were isoenergetic and isonitrogenous, but that would encourage either propionate (diet A) or acetate (diet B) production in the rumen. The rationale was that propionate would induce a greater insulin release in response to feeding. Animals were fed a 50:50 mix of the two diets for 14 days at 0.8x maintenance, with straw provided ad libitum. Animals were then fed one of the experimental diets for 3 weeks prior to synchronisation of oestrus and insemination and for a further 16 days following mating. All heifers were blood sampled daily from oestrus synchronisation and eight animals on each diet underwent daily transrectal real-time ultrasonography to determine the day of ovulation. All heifers were slaughtered at Day 16 after mating. While feeding of diet A (propionic) caused a significant (Pbody condition making further increases in insulin difficult to achieve. Diet did not affect size of ovulatory follicle (DIET A: 15.1+/-0.7mm; diet B: 14.6+/-0.7mm), day of ovulation (diet A: 3.5+/-0.2 days; diet B: 3.4+/-0.2 days), mean plasma progesterone concentration (diet A: 4.7+/-0.4ng/ml; diet B: 5.2+/-0.3ng/ml), corpus luteum weight (diet A: 6.0+/-0.2g; diet B: 6.0+/-0.2g) or pregnancy rate (diet A: 81.3%; diet B: 81.3%). However, the proportion of well-elongated (>10cm) embryos on Day 16 was higher in animals fed diet A than in those fed diet B (84.6% versus 38.5%; P10cm) embryos with levels in these animals significantly higher on Days 4 and 5 than in heifers with small (embryos at slaughter. This study

  15. Effect of progesterone supplementation in the first week post conception on embryo survival in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltman, M E; Lonergan, P; Diskin, M G; Roche, J F; Crowe, M A

    2009-04-15

    Progesterone is essential for establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in mammals. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of elevating progesterone during the different physiological stages of early embryo development on embryo survival. Estrus was synchronized in cross-bred beef heifers (n=197, approximately 2-years old) and they were inseminated 12-18h after estrus onset (=Day 0). Inseminated heifers were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: (1) Control, n=69; (2) progesterone supplementation using a Controlled Internal Drug Release Device (CIDR) from Day 3 to 6.5, n=64; or (3) progesterone supplementation using a CIDR from Day 4.5 to 8, n=64. Body condition (BCS) and locomotion scores (scale of 1-5) were recorded for all animals. Animals with a locomotion score >/=4 (very lame) were excluded. Embryo survival rate was determined at slaughter on Day 25. Conceptus length and weight were recorded and the corpus luteum (CL) of all pregnant animals was dissected and weighed. Supplementation with exogenous progesterone increased (P<0.05) peripheral progesterone concentrations, but did not affect embryo survival rate compared with controls. Mean CL weight, conceptus length and conceptus weight were not different between treatments. There was a positive relationship (P<0.04) between the increase in progesterone concentrations from Days 3 to 6.5 and embryo survival rate in treated heifers and a similar trend existed between the increase from Days 4.5 to 8 (P<0.06). There was also a positive relationship (P<0.05) between the progesterone concentration on Day 6.5 and the embryo survival rate in treated heifers. A direct correlation was seen between locomotion score and embryo survival rate, with higher (P<0.05) early embryo survival rates in heifers with a lower locomotion score. In conclusion, supplementation with progesterone at different stages of early embryo development increased peripheral progesterone concentration and resulted in a positive

  16. Enteric methane emission, diet digestibility, and nitrogen excretion from beef heifers fed sainfoin or alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Y-H; Mc Geough, E J; Acharya, S; McAllister, T A; McGinn, S M; Harstad, O M; Beauchemin, K A

    2013-10-01

    Effects of plant-bound condensed tannin (CT)-containing sainfoin vs. CT-free alfalfa (or low-CT alfalfa-sainfoin mixture), plant stage of maturity, and their interaction on enteric methane (CH4) emissions, diet digestibility, and N excretion were studied, using 8 ruminally cannulated beef heifers in 2 sequential short-term experiments (Exp. 1 and 2). In Exp. 1, first growth legumes were harvested daily and offered fresh to heifers. Heifers were assigned to 100% sainfoin or 80% alfalfa:20% sainfoin (as-fed basis). Responses were measured at early (late vegetative to early bud; stage 2 to 3) and late (early flower; stage 5) stage of maturity. In Exp. 2, the same legumes were harvested from second growth (late bud; stage 4) and offered to heifers as hay; 100% sainfoin or 100% alfalfa. In both experiments, heifers were fed once daily at 1× maintenance. When fed as fresh forage (Exp. 1), sainfoin, compared with the alfalfa-sainfoin blend, had greater digestibility of OM (74.7 vs. 70.9%; P = 0.02), yet tended to have lower CP digestibility (73.2 vs. 77.1%; P = 0.059). There was no difference between fresh legumes for CH4 emissions [25.9 g/kg DMI ± 4.02 SE; 8.5% of gross energy intake (GEI) ± 1.26 SE; or 36.8 g/kg digested OM ± 1.75 SE]. The fresh legumes were more digestible at early, rather than at late, maturity and, consequently, enteric CH4 (27.4 vs. 24.4 g/kg DMI; P emissions (22.4 g/kg DMI ± 1.29 SD and 7.1% GEI ± 0.40 SD). However, on the basis of OM digested, CH4 emissions were lower for sainfoin than alfalfa hay (44.3 vs. 59.0 g/kg; P = 0.008). Percentage of total N excretion in urine was less for sainfoin compared with alfalfa, both for fresh legumes in Exp. 1 (74 vs. 78%; P = 0.017) or hay in Exp. 2 (64 vs. 72%; P emissions from beef cattle fed at maintenance as compared with feeding either 80% alfalfa:20% sainfoin (fresh forages) or 100% alfalfa (hay). Feeding fresh legumes harvested between the late vegetative to early bud stage, compared with

  17. An advisory tool to improve management practices affecting calf and heifer welfare on dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasseur, E; Rushen, J; de Passillé, A M; Lefebvre, D; Pellerin, D

    2010-09-01

    We developed an advisory tool addressing 10 critical areas of calf and heifer management, including calving management, care to newborn calves and painful procedures, colostrum management, cow-calf separation, calf feeding, weaning, calf housing, heifer feeding, heifer housing, and general monitoring. Targets and indicators for each critical area were validated by a panel of experts and maximum scores were assigned based on experts' opinions and reviews of scientific literature. The tool was tested on 28 Quebec dairy farms for feasibility and repeatability between 2 observers. Farmers were asked to test colostrum quality, measure blood IgG concentrations, and record health events. The on-farm evaluation included an interview on management practices and an evaluation of conditions in the barn. Scorings and recommendations were discussed with producers. The usefulness of our on-farm welfare tool was evaluated by the producers themselves during a final debriefing. We reached the main goals of a successful advisory tool of calf and heifer management to improve welfare on dairy farms. We respected the targeted time limit of a 3-h visit covering all aspects of our tool including data collection on management and environment, scoring, practical demonstration with producers, and debriefing. We had no problems collecting management- and environment-based data and had high repeatability of qualitative environment-based measures (kappa value>0.6). Our tool helped to detect problems and to discuss these problems with the producers; producers scored below 50% for some targets in calving management, care to newborn calves and painful procedures, colostrum management, and calf feeding. The targets were realistic so producers were not discouraged. All producers were convinced of the usefulness of our tool for identifying areas of calf and heifer management in need of improvement. They were also convinced of the usefulness of our tool as an advisory tool for technical advisors and

  18. Evaluation of steroidogenic capacity after follicle stimulating hormone stimulation in bovine granulosa cells of Revalor 200® implanted heifers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrea DStapp; Craig AGifford; Dennis MHallford; Jennifer AHernandez Gifford

    2014-01-01

    Background:Heifers not used as breeding stock are often implanted with steroids to increase growth efficiency thereby altering hormone profiles and potentially changing the environment in which ovarian follicles develop. Because bovine granulosa cell culture is a commonly used technique and often bovine ovaries are collected from abattoirs with no record of implant status, the objective of this study was to determine if the presence of an implant during bovine granulosa cell development impacts follicle stimulating hormone-regulated steroidogenic enzyme expression. Paired ovaries were collected from 16 feedlot heifers subjected to 1 of 3 treatments:non-implanted (n=5), Revalor 200 for 28 d (n=5), or Revalor 200 for 84 d (n=6). Small follicle (1 to 5 mm) granulosa cells were isolated from each pair and incubated with phosphate buffered saline (n=16) or 100 ng/mL follicle stimulating hormone (n=16) for 24 h. Results:Granulosa cells of implanted heifers treated with follicle stimulating hormone produced medium concentrations of progesterone similar (P=0.22) to non-implanted heifers, while medium estradiol concentrations were increased (P<0.10) at 28 and 84 d compared to non-implanted heifers indicating efficacy of treatment. Additionally, real-time PCR analysis in response to follicle stimulating hormone treatment demonstrated a decrease in steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (P=0.05) mRNA expression in heifers implanted for 84 d and an increase in P450 side chain cleavage mRNA in granulosa cells of heifers implanted for 28 (P<0.10) or 84 d (P<0.05) compared to non-implanted females. However, no difference in expression of 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (P=0.57) and aromatase (P=0.23) were demonstrated in implanted or non-implanted heifers. Conclusions:These results indicate follicles which develop in the presence of high concentrations of androgenic and estrogenic steroids via an implant tend to demonstrate an altered capacity to respond to follicle

  19. Effects of defaunation and dietary coconut oil distillate on fermentation, digesta kinetics and methane production of Brahman heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, S H; Hegarty, R S

    2016-07-06

    A 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted to assess the effects of presence or absence of rumen protozoa and of dietary coconut oil distillate (COD) supplementation on rumen fermentation characteristics, digesta kinetics and methane production in Brahman heifers. Twelve Brahman heifers were selected to defaunate, with 6 being subsequently refaunated. After defaunation and refaunation, heifers were randomly allocated to COD supplement or no supplement treatments while fed an oaten chaff-based diet. Methane production (MP; 94.17 v 104.72 g CH4 /d) and methane yield [MY; 19.45 v 21.64 g CH4 /kg dry matter intake (DMI)] were reduced in defaunated heifers compared with refaunated heifers when measured at 5 weeks after refaunation treatment (p  0.05). The results confirmed that defaunation and COD independently reduced enteric MP even though the reduced emissions were achieved without altering rumen fermentation VFA levels or gut digesta kinetics. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Effect of feeding rumen-protected rice bran on mineral status of non-lactating dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Tereso, J; Distefano, C; van Laar, H; Mulder, K; den Hartog, L A; Verstegen, M W A

    2011-02-01

    Adapting Ca homeostasis of dairy cows before calving can prevent milk fever. Rice bran, treated with formaldehyde to prevent ruminal degradation of phytic acid, was fed to heifers to study its effect on Ca homeostasis. For 3 weeks 18 heifers were supplemented 3 kg of two feeds: placebo (PF) and rice bran (RBF), defining three treatments: control (CRT), low dose (LD) and high dose (HD). In weeks 1 and 3, all animals received 3 kg of PF and in week 2: CRT received 3 kg of PF, LD received 1.5 kg of PF and 1.5 kg of RBF and HD received 3 kg of RBF. Treatments did not affect dry matter intake (DMI). Feed intakes and growth rates indicated that all heifers had nutritional requirements that exceeded their Ca intakes. Serum Ca, urinary Ca, calcitriol or hydroxyproline remained unaffected. Urinary Ca was consistently low indicating high renal Ca reabsorption, which is indicative of insufficient Ca supply. Rice bran feed influenced P, Mg and Zn intakes and serum and urine presence of these minerals. Most heifers already presented an upregulated Ca metabolism, being inadequate to study adaptive changes in Ca homeostasis of multiparous dry cows. This metabolic difference can be explanatory to the very low susceptibility of heifers to milk fever, further supporting the induction of homeostatic adaptation before calving to prevent milk fever. Rice bran feed did not reduce DMI, and was not detrimental to P, Mg or Zn status.

  1. EFFECT OF LEVEL OF CONCENTRATE SUPPLEMENTATION ON GROWTH RATE AND AGE AT MATURITY IN GROWING BUFFALO HEIFERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. RAFIQ, M. A. CHAUDHRY AND M. A. JABBAR

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to observe the effect of supplementation of concentrate mixture alongwith green fodder on growth rate and age of maturity in growing buffalo heifers. Twenty seven heifers of Nili-Ravi buffalo, with 18-21 months of age and on an average 280.0 Kg body weight, were randomly divided into three groups A, B and C, with 9 animals in each group. All the groups were given chaffed green fodder ad lib. on group feeding basis. In addition, heifers of groups A and B were given 2.0 and 4.0 kg of concentrate mixture per head per day, while the group C received no concentrate and was kept as control. Daily green fodder consumption was 32.5, 30.00 and 37.50 Kg, with a growth rate of 0.558, 0.659 and 0.354 Kg in groups A, B and C, respectively. The age at maturity averaged 774, 728 and 993 days, while body weights were 411, 431 and 388 Kg in respective groups. The results revealed that the maturity age was significantly reduced (P<0.01 by concentrate supplementation compared with fodder alone. Cost of rearing of buffalo heifers up to age of maturity was 5829.00, 6862.00 and 8747.00 rupees in respective groups. Rearing of buffalo heifers on green fodder ad lib. alongwith supplementation of 2 Kg of concentrate mixture was economical.

  2. Laminitis and dermatitis in heifers associated with excessive carbohydrate intake : skin lesions and biochemical findings : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Yeruham

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of a sudden addition of a large quantity of readily fermentable carbohydrate to the feed ration of pregnant heifers are described. Clinical and pathological changes caused by the resulting disease were confined to the digits and skin. The 4 acutely affected heifers were reluctant to get up or move (group II. They tended to lie down or stand with feet bunched together and the back arched, often shifting weight from limb to limb. They walked stiffly with great tenderness and pain in the digits. Extreme pain was noticed when the digits were examined. In 4 of 8 heifers, separation of the sole at the heel, with leakage of exudate, and under-running of the sole were observed. Necrotic dermatitis of the legs, alopecia and hyperkeratosis of the tail were noticed in all 8 heifers. Skin lesions appeared simultaneously. Four of the heifers (group I recovered, and the other 4 (group II were sent to slaughter. No post mortem examination was performed. The biochemical findings revealed a significantly higher concentration of total serum globulins and sodium, and increased activity, in CK, LDH and AST. A significantly decreasing pattern was noted in blood urea concentration, cholesterol, triglycerides, albumin and calcium. No significant differences among the various groups were found in the activities of amylase, GGT, and concentration of creatinine, total bilirubin, inorganic phosphorus, magnesium and potassium.

  3. Effect of early lactation foot trimming in lame and non-lame dairy heifers: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, O J R; Hudson, C D; Huxley, J N

    2015-07-25

    Foot trimming is a common management intervention in prevention of lameness in dairy cattle. Despite this, there is surprisingly limited experimental evidence on its efficacy, especially in regard to primiparous heifers. A randomised, negatively controlled trial was conducted to investigate the association between an early lactation foot trim on primiparous animals and production outcomes. 282 heifers were enrolled from eight farms in the UK, and randomly assigned to treatment or control groups. Milk yield (305-day-adjusted whole-milk yield) was not significantly different between groups (trimmed 7727 litres, untrimmed 7646 litres). However, multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that this relationship was confounded by lameness state. Animals that were lame at the time of trimming gave significantly more milk (734 litres, P=0.02) than those that were non-lame and untrimmed. The present results suggest that, based on milk production alone, it would not have been cost beneficial to trim all heifers; however, a targeted intervention aimed at lame animals would have delivered a substantial return on investment. As a very minimum, the authors recommend heifers should be regularly assessed in early lactation, and treated as soon as they are identifiably lame. The high prevalence of lesions identified suggests routine trimming for all heifers may be justifiable on welfare grounds even if the milk-yield benefits are marginal.

  4. Function of the corpus luteum in beef heifers is affected by acute submaintenance feeding but is not correlated with residual feed intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seventy-four Angus and Angus x Hereford heifers were used in two successive years (yr 1, n = 43; yr 2, n = 31) to determine if ovarian function of heifers during acute submaintenance feeding is related to variation in utilization of feed as determined by residual feed intake (RFI). Residual feed in...

  5. Gene network analyses of first service conception in Brangus heifers: Use of genome and trait associations, hypothalamic-transcriptome information, and transcription factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measures of heifer fertility are economically relevant traits for beef production systems and knowledge of candidate genes could be incorporated into future genomic selection strategies. Ten traits related to growth and fertility were measured in 890 Brangus heifers (3/8 Brahman × 5/8 Angus, from 6...

  6. Relationships between milking frequency, lactation persistency and milk yield in Sweish Red heifers and cows milked in a voluntary attendance automatic milking system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettersson, Gunnar; Svvenersten-Sjaunja, Kerstin; Knight, Christopher Harold

    2011-01-01

    and lactation persistency and total lactation yield were determined. Cows had higher peak and total milk yields than heifers, but heifers had higher persistency (defined as the rate of decline in milk yield between days 100 and 300 post calving). Milking frequency did not differ significantly between cows...

  7. Evaluation of the innate immune response of Angus heifers with genetic marker variation for intramuscular fat deposition following a lipopolysaccharide challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated the effect of genetic selection for markers related to marbling deposition in Angus heifers on the immune response following a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Fall-born heifers (n = 19; ~7 months of age, 274 +/- 24 kg) with genetic variation for marbling were utilized inclu...

  8. Serological response to administration of Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine in beef and dairy heifers, using needle-free and standard needle-based injection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to compare immunologic responses of heifers vaccinated with 10**10 colony-forming units (CFU) of Brucella abortus strain RB51 (SRB51) by standard needle-and-syringe system or a needle-free injection system. Heifers were randomly assigned to control and vaccination gro...

  9. Growth performance and total tract nutrient digestion for Holstein heifers limit-fed diets high in distillers grains with different forage particle size

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated dairy heifer growth performance and total tract nutrient digestion when fed diets high in dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) with different forage particle size. An 8-wk randomized complete block design study was conducted utilizing twenty-two Holstein heifers (123 ±...

  10. Genetic covariance functioners for live weight, condition score, and dry-matter intake measured at different lactations stages of Holstein-Friesian heifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenen, E.P.C.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    1998-01-01

    Genetic parameters for live weight, body condition score and dry-matter intake of dairy heifers were estimated using covariance function methodology. Data were from 469 heifers of the Langhill Dairy Cattle Research Centre and included observations during the first 25 weeks in lactation. Genetic

  11. Effects of feeding alfalfa stemlage or wheat straw for dietary energy dilution on growth performance and sorting behaviors of holstein dairy heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeding high-quality forage diets may lead to excessive weight gains and over-conditioning for pregnant Holstein heifers. Restriction of energy density and dry matter intake (DMI) by heifers by using low-energy forages, such as straw, is a good approach for controlling this problem. Alfalfa stems co...

  12. Dehydrated citrus pulp alters feedlot performance of crossbred heifers during the receiving period and modulates serum metabolite concentrations pre- and post-endotoxin challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    English x Continental heifers (n=180) were sourced in two loads (188.7 ± 18.0 kilograms and 225.2 ± 22.2 kilograms body weight, respectively) from commercial auction barns to study the effects of feeding dehydrated citrus pulp (DCP) on feedlot performance of newly received heifers. A completely ran...

  13. Relationships among performance, residual feed intake, and temperament assessed in growing beef heifers and subsequently as 3-year-old, lactating beef cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seventy-four beef heifers were used to evaluate the relationships among performance, residual feed intake (RFI), and temperament measured as growing heifers (Phase 1) and subsequently as 3-year-old lactating beef cows (Phase 2) in the same cohort. In both phases, females were housed in a covered fac...

  14. Expression of genes related to quality of Longissimus dorsi muscle meat in Nellore (Bos indicus) and Canchim (5/8 Bos taurus × 3/8 Bos indicus) cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Juliana; Castan, Eduardo; Dal Pai, Maeli; Arrigoni, Mário De Beni; Rodrigues Baldin, Samira; De Oliveira, Henrique Nunes

    2013-06-01

    This study was performed to compare CAPN1, CAPN2, CAST, TG, DGAT1 and LEP gene expressions and correlate them with meat quality traits in two genetic groups (Nellore and Canchim) in order to assess their expression profile and use their expression profile as genetic markers. We analyzed 30 young bulls (1year old), 15 of each genetic group. Samples of the Longissimus dorsi muscle were collected for analysis of: total lipids (TL) and meat tenderness measured as Warner-Bratzler shear force (SF) and myofibrillar fragmentation (MFI) at day of slaughter and 7days of aging. Gene expression profiles were obtained via RT-qPCR. TL and MFI showed differences between breeds, higher MFI in Canchim and higher TL in Nellore. Calpains showed no differential expression between groups, as did DGAT1, TG, and LEP. CAST was expressed more in the Nellore cattle. The only significant within-breed correlation (0.79) between gene expression and meat traits was found for DGAT1 and MFI in Canchim breed. Although the number of animals used in this study was small, the results indicate that the increased expression of CAST in Nellore may reflect tougher meat, but the lack of correlations with the meat traits indicates it is not a promising genetic marker.

  15. Effect of feeding urea-molasses blocks with incorporated fenbendazole on grazing dairy heifers naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waruiru, R M; Onyando, C O; Machuka, R O

    2003-06-01

    Between June 1999 and August 2000, the effects of feeding medicated urea-molasses supplement blocks on the growth of dairy heifers in a marginal area of central Kenya were assessed by comparing the live-weight gain of supplemented and unsupplemented heifers grazing the same pasture. Thirty-nine heifers with an average age of 9.6 months were initially treated orally with albendazole (10 mg/kg body weight) and assigned to 3 groups: group I was fed urea-molasses blocks with incorporated fenbendazole (MUMB), group II was fed urea-molasses blocks (UMB) and group III heifers (control) received no block supplementation (NBS). Body weights of the heifers and faecal egg counts (FECs) were measured monthly and larval cultures were made of positive faecal samples of each group. The mean cumulative live-weight responses of the MUMB and UMB groups were significantly greater than the NBS group (P 0.05). The FECs were moderate to low in all groups and decreased progressively with increasing age of the animals; FECs for the urea-molasses-supplemented groups remained significantly lower than those of the NBS group throughout the experimental period (P < 0.05). Haemonchus and Trichostrongylus were the predominant nematode genera found in the heifers, but Cooperia, Bunostomum and Oesophagostomum were also present. These results indicate that feeding of urea-molasses blocks substantially reduced production losses attributable to nematode infection of young grazing cattle, and confirms previous observations that well-fed animals are better able to overcome the effects of helminth infections.

  16. Effect of feeding urea-molasses blocks with incorporated fenbendazole on grazing dairy heifers naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Waruiru

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Between June 1999 and August 2000, the effects of feeding medicated urea-molasses supplement blocks on the growth of dairy heifers in a marginal area of central Kenya were assessed by comparing the live-weight gain of supplemented and unsupplemented heifers grazing the same pasture. Thirty-nine heifers with an average age of 9.6 months were initially treated orally with albendazole (10 mg / kg body weight and assigned to 3 groups : group I was fed urea-molasses blocks with incorporated fenbendazole (MUMB, group II was fed urea-molasses blocks (UMB and group III heifers (control received no block supplementation (NBS. Body weights of the heifers and faecal egg counts (FECs were measured monthly and larval cultures were made of positive faecal samples of each group. The mean cumulative live-weight responses of the MUMB and UMB groups were significantly greater than the NBS group (P < 0.05. However, at the end of the experimental period, the mean weight gain of the MUMB group did not differ from that of the UMB group (P >0.05. The FECs were moderate to low in all groups and decreased progressively with increasing age of the animals; FECs for the urea-molasses-supplemented groups remained significantly lower than those of the NBS group throughout the experimental period (P <0.05. Haemonchus and Trichostrongylus were the predominant nematode genera found in the heifers, but Cooperia, Bunostomum and Oesophagostomum were also present. These results indicate that feeding of urea-molasses blocks substantially reduced production losses attributable to nematode infection of young grazing cattle, and confirms previous observations that well-fed animals are better able to overcome the effects of helminth infections.

  17. Performance and carcass characteristics of Nellore young bulls fed different sources of oils, protected or not from rumen degradation

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    Bruna Laurindo Rosa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the addition of vegetable oils protected or not from rumen degradation in the diet of feedlot-finished young bulls and their effects on performance and carcass characteristics. Thirty-five Nellore males of 402.69±14.90 kg initial weight and 18±2 months of age were utilized. The animals were confined for 96 days, after 28 days of adaptation, and slaughtered at 532.17±30.25 kg. Experimental diets were: control (715 g total digestible nutrients - TDN/kg of dry matter - DM, with addition of soybean oil or fresh linseed oil, and with the addition of the same oils protected from rumen degradation (765 g TDN/kg DM. All diets were formulated with the same amount of protein and with a roughage:concentrate ratio of 40:60, with sugarcane as the only roughage. The addition of oil, regardless of the type and processing, resulted in greater body weight gain (1.17 and 1.41 kg/animal/day, better feed (0.11 and 0.14 kg weight gain/kg DM ingested and protein efficiency (0.86 and 1.09 kg weight gain/kg crude protein ingested, heavier carcasses (280.3 and 298.0 kg, with better yield (54.5 and 55.5% and thicker subcutaneous fat (5.1 and 7.5 mm backfat thickness and with heavier prime cuts, for control diet and the other treatments, respectively. The use of soybean or linseed oil protected or not from rumen degradation only changed the intake of a few nutrients and carcass yield and depth. Thus the addition of energy sources in the diet is beneficial for finishing feedlot bulls. For this addition, either soybean or linseed oils can be used, and the processing of these oils is only useful to facilitate the mixing with the other ingredients of the diet.

  18. Effectiveness of oral health education among primary health care workers at the primary health center in Nellore district, Andhra Pradesh

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    Muthyala Pavana Sandhya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary dental care can be a way of achieving good oral health for the community. This can be achieved by integration of oral health care with the existing primary health care activities through training of primary health care workers on aspects of oral health. Objective: To assess the effectiveness of oral health education among primary health care workers at the primary health center (PHC in Nellore district, Andhra Pradesh. Materials and Methods: Descriptive longitudinal study was conducted from June 2010 to August 2010 at a PHC. Knowledge about oral health among primary health care workers was pretested using a self-administered questionnaire prepared in local language (Telugu. Later after a month health education was provided to the health workers, and pamphlets with information on oral health were distributed. Posttest assessment was done 1-month after providing health education using the same questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS 12.0 software, Student′s t-test was used to compare knowledge scores between pre and posttests. Results: A total of 118 Primary Health Care Workers with the majority in the 20-30 years age group participated in the study. Posttest assessment showed a change in knowledge level with an overall increase in knowledge level of primary health care workers with a mean difference of 12.56 ± 3.23, which was highly significant (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The knowledge about oral health was poor, and it improved after providing health education to primary health care workers. Change in knowledge was appreciable and may play a key role in oral health promotion of the vast majority of the rural population.

  19. Animal performance and carcass characteristics of Nellore young bulls fed coated or uncoated urea slaughtered at different weights

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    Raul Dirceu Pazdiora

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate animal performance and carcass characteristics of 64 Nellore young bulls at 22 months of age finished in a feedlot and slaughtered at five body weights (350; 455; 485; 555 and 580 kg fed diets containing coated or uncoated urea. The experimental design adopted was completely randomized, set in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement, and for the variables assessed in the control animals, it was 5 × 2. No effect of interaction between slaughter weights and diets were observed, so the variables were analyzed separately, compared by polynomial contrasts and by the F test, respectively. The time animals remained in the feedlot to reach slaughter weights was 66, 88, 145 and 194 days. Average daily gain (ADG showed quadratic behavior, with a maximum of 1.44 kg/day with animals of 491.7 kg. Dry matter intake (DMI (kg/day was similar in all the treatments, but it decreased linearly as body weight increased. The bionutritional efficiency worsened linearly as body weight rose. The elevation in slaughter weight resulted in linear decrease in the percentage of beef round and increase in forequarter. Backfat thickness and rib eye area of the longissimus increased linearly and the percentages of muscle and protein in the carcass reduced and those of fat and ether extract increased linearly as body weight increased. Average daily gain, DMI, feed efficiency and carcass characteristics were not affected by diets containing coated or uncoated urea. However, animals fed coated urea presenter better crude fiber and neutral detergent fiber intake.

  20. Relationship of efficiency indices with performance, heart rate, oxygen consumption, blood parameters, and estimated heat production in Nellore steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, A S; Nascimento, M L; Tullio, R R; Rosa, A N; Alencar, M M; Lanna, D P

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship of efficiency indices with performance, heart rate, oxygen consumption, blood parameters, and estimated heat production (EHP) in Nellore steers. Eighteen steers were individually lot-fed diets of 2.7 Mcal ME/kg DM for 84 d. Estimated heat production was determined using oxygen pulse (OP) methodology, in which heart rate (HR) was monitored for 4 consecutive days. Oxygen pulse was obtained by simultaneously measuring HR and oxygen consumption during a 10- to 15-min period. Efficiency traits studied were feed efficiency (G:F) and residual feed intake (RFI) obtained by regression of DMI in relation to ADG and midtest metabolic BW (RFI). Alternatively, RFI was also obtained based on equations reported by the NRC's to estimate individual requirement and DMI (RFI calculated by the NRC [1996] equation [RFI]). The slope of the regression equation and its significance was used to evaluate the effect of efficiency indices (RFI, RFI, or G:F) on the traits studied. A mixed model was used considering RFI, RFI, or G:F and pen type as fixed effects and initial age as a covariate. For HR and EHP variables, day was included as a random effect. There was no relationship between efficiency indices and back fat depth measured by ultrasound or daily HR and EHP ( > 0.05). Because G:F is obtained in relation to BW, the slope of G:F was positive and significant ( consumption per beat was not related to G:F; however, it was lower for RFI- and RFI-efficient steers, and consequently, oxygen volume (mL·min·kg) and OP (μL O·beat·kg) were also lower ( 0.05); however, G:F-efficient steers showed lower hematocrit and hemoglobin concentrations ( consumption and OP were detected, indicating that the OP methodology may be useful to predict growth efficiency.

  1. Effect of space allowance and floor type on performance, welfare and physiological measurements of finishing beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, M P; McGee, M; O'Riordan, E G; Kelly, A K; Earley, B

    2017-06-21

    Accommodating cattle indoors during the winter is widely practiced throughout Europe. There is currently no legislation surrounding the space allowance and floor type that should be provided to cattle during this time, however, concerns have been raised regarding the type of housing systems currently in use. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of space allowance and floor type on performance and welfare of finishing beef heifers. Continental crossbred heifers (n=240: mean initial live; weight, 504 (SD 35.8) kg) were blocked by breed, weight and age and randomly assigned to one of four treatments; (i) 3.0 m2, (ii) 4.5 m2 and (iii) 6.0 m2 space allowance per animal on a fully slatted concrete floor and (iv) 6.0 m2 space allowance per animal on a straw-bedded floor, for 105 days. Heifers were offered a total mixed ration ad libitum. Dry matter intake was recorded on a pen basis and refusals were weighed back twice weekly. Heifers were weighed, dirt scored and blood sampled every 3 weeks. Whole blood was analysed for complete cell counts and serum samples were assayed for metabolite concentrations. Behaviour was recorded continuously using IR cameras from days 70 to 87. Heifers' hooves were inspected for lesions at the start of the study and again after slaughter. Post-slaughter, carcass weight, conformation and fat scores and hide weight were recorded. Heifers housed at 4.5 m2 had a greater average daily live weight gain (ADG) than those on both of the other concrete slat treatments; however, space allowance had no effect on carcass weight. Heifers accommodated on straw had a greater ADG (0.15 kg) (Pfloor type had no effect on the number of hoof lesions gained or on any of the haematological or metabolic variables measured. It was concluded that increasing space allowance above 3.0 m2/animal on concrete slats was of no benefit to animal performance but it did improve animal cleanliness. Housing heifers on straw instead of concrete slats improved

  2. Candidate gene expression in Bos indicus ovarian tissues: pre-pubertal and post-pubertal heifers in diestrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Morena Del Cambre Amaral Weller

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Growth factors such as bone morphogenetic proteins 6, 7, 15 and two isoforms of transforming growth factor-beta (BMP6, BMP7, BMP15, TGFB1 and TGFB2 and insulin-like growth factor system act as local regulators of ovarian follicular development. To elucidate if these factors as well as others candidate genes such as estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1, growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9, follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR, luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR, bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type 2 (BMPR2, type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR1, and key steroidogenic enzymes cytochrome P450 aromatase and 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (CYP19A1 and HSD3B1 could modulate or influence diestrus on the onset of puberty in Brahman heifers, their ovarian mRNA expression was measured before and after puberty (luteal phase. Six post-pubertal (POST heifers were euthanized on the luteal phase of their second cycle, confirmed by corpus luteum observation, and six pre-pubertal (PRE heifers were euthanized in the same day. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression of FSHR, BMP7, CYP19A1, IGF1 and IGFR1 mRNA was greater in PRE heifers, when contrasted to POST heifers. The expression of LHR and HSD3B1 was lower in PRE heifers. Differential expression of ovarian genes could be associated with changes in follicular dynamics and different cell populations that have emerged as consequence of puberty and the luteal phase. The emerging hypothesis is that BMP7 and IGF1 are co-expressed and may modulate the expression of FSHR, LHR and IGFR1 and CYP19A1. BMP7 could influence the down-regulation of LHR and up-regulation of FSHR and CYP19A1, which mediates the follicular dynamics in heifer ovaries. Up-regulation of IGF1 expression pre-puberty, compared to post-puberty diestrus, correlates with increased levels FSHR and CYP19A1. Thus, BMP7 and IGF1 may play synergic roles and were predicted to interact, from the expression data (P = 0

  3. Exigências nutricionais de vacas nelores primíparas lactantes Nutritional requirements of primiparous lactating Nellore cows

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    Mozart Alves Fonseca

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar as exigências nutricionais de proteína e energia de vacas nelores em lactação no período de 0 a 180 dias. Foram utilizadas 20 vacas primíparas com peso corporal médio ao parto de 362±25 kg. Quatro vacas foram abatidas logo após o parto e foram consideradas grupo referência. Do parto aos 90 dias, quatro vacas receberam alimentação restrita na proporção de 1,5% do peso corporal (PC, em porcentagem da matéria seca (MS, e 12 foram alimentadas à vontade. Aos 90 dias do pós-parto, foram abatidas oito vacas (quatro de cada oferta alimentar. Dos 90 aos 180 dias, quatro vacas foram realocadas para mantença (1,8% PC em MS e quatro continuaram em consumo voluntário, sendo todas abatidas ao final do período. Os conteúdos corporais de proteína e energia foram estimados pelo equação Y = a . Xb, em que X é o peso de corpo vazio (PCVZ e a e b os parâmetros da equação. Foram obtidas relações médias de 0,894 para PCVZ/PC e de 0,936 para ganho de PCVZ (GPCVZ/ganho de PC (GPC. As exigências líquidas de energia para mantença (ELm foram de 97,84 kcal/PCVZ0,75 e as de energia metabolizável para mantença (EMm, 140,17 kcal/PCVZ0,75. As eficiências de utilização da energia para mantença e ganho de peso foram 0,70 e 0,44, respectivamente. Os conteúdos corporais de proteína diminuíram com o aumento do PC, enquanto os de energia aumentaram. No leite das vacas, foram determinados teores médios de 3,71; 3,88; e 4,74%, respectivamente, de proteína bruta, gordura e lactose. A exigência de ELm para lactação de vacas nelores é de 97,84 kcal/PCVZ0,75, enquanto a de EMm é de 140,17 kcal/PCVZ0,75 e a de proteína metabolizável, de 52,8 g. Para produzir 1 kg de leite com 4% de gordura, vacas nelores necessitam de 0,300 kg de NDT.This study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional requirements of protein and energy of primiparous lactating Nellore cows from 0 to 180 days after calving. A total of 20 lactating

  4. Characterization and polymorphism screening of IGF-I and prolactin genes in Nelore heifers

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    Janete Apparecida Desidério Sena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin growth factor I (IGF-I and prolactin (PRL are peptide hormones that exert complementary effects on reproductive traits by acting on folliculogenesis. In view of the lack of information about the IGF-I and PRL genes in Bos indicus, the objective of this study was to partially characterize the promoter regions of these genes and to screen animals of different ages at first pregnancy for the presence of polymorphisms in these regions. In addition, we determined whether polymorphisms influence the regulation of the two hormone genes, evaluating their association with sexual precocity. The animals were divided into three groups according to age at first pregnancy: 1 100 heifers considered to be sexually precocious that became pregnant at 15-16 months of age, 2 100 heifers that became pregnant during the normal breeding season at 24 months of age, and 3 100 heifers that did not become pregnant until 24 months of age. For the IGF-I gene, PCR-RFLP-SnaBI analysis showed the presence of genotypes AB and BB at frequencies of 0.02 and 0.98, respectively. Sequencing of the IGF-I gene fragment revealed a single nitrogen base change from cytosine to thymine, corresponding to the restriction site of SnaBI. The polymorphisms identified in the 5’-flanking region of the IGF-I gene may serve as a basis for future studies of molecular markers in cattle. For the PRL gene, PCR-RFLP-HaeIII analysis showed the presence of only one migration pattern, a finding characterizing the region studied as monomorphic. The study of other regions in the IGF-I and PRL genes might provide molecular data that can be used in the future for the selection of sexually precocious animals.

  5. Serum biochemical and haematological reference intervals for water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis heifers

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    Mahmoud R. Abd Ellah

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on a review of the literature, reference intervals for water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis serum biochemistry and haematology have not previously been published. The current study was done to establish reference intervals for water buffalo heifers. The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry stated that at least 120 values are necessary to obtain reliable estimates for reference intervals. A total number of 127 clinically healthy buffalo heifers (1–2 years old were included in the study. Animals were examined at buffalo farms that belong to Assiut Governorate, Egypt. Three types of samples were collected: serum samples for biochemical analysis, whole blood samples for haematological analysis and faecal samples for parasitological examination. Animals that fitted the inclusion criteria were included in the study. Biochemical analysis included serum total proteins, albumin, total globulins, alpha, beta and gamma globulin levels, and aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transferase, creatine phosphokinase and lactate dehydrogenase activity. In addition to the above, serum creatinine, urea, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, sodium, potassium, chloride, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, copper, zinc, iron, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, glucose levels and 20 haematological variables were measured. The 95.0% reference intervals were calculated by removing the upper and lower 2.5% of the interval for each serum biochemical constituent to give the 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles. Confidence intervals were calculated for each reference limit. Reference intervals from the current study were compared with established values for cows. The current study is as far as could be determined the first that establishes reference intervals for the serum biochemical and haematological parameters in water buffalo heifers.

  6. Effect of the g.98535683A>G SNP in the CAST gene on meat traits of Nellore beef cattle (Bos indicus) and their crosses with Bos taurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enriquez-Valencia, Cruz Elena; Pereira, Guilherme Luis; Malheiros, Jessica Moraes; de Vasconcelos Silva, Josineudson Augusto I I; Albuquerque, Lúcia Galvão; de Oliveira, Henrique Nunes; Chardulo, Luis Artur Loyola; Curi, Rogério Abdallah

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate allele frequencies of the g.98535683A>G:BTAU7 SNP in the CAST gene in different genetic groups of beef cattle produced in Brazil (Nellore and their crosses with Bos taurus), and to evaluate associations between this polymorphism and meat traits. Five hundred animals from six different genetic groups were genotyped and phenotyped for shear force (SF), myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI), rib eye area, backfat thickness, and total lipids. Alleles A and G of the SNP were detected in all genetic groups and the frequency of A was higher than G. Significant association (P<0.05) was observed between the polymorphism and meat tenderness (SF and MFI), in which genotype AA exhibited the best values. These results demonstrate for the first time the occurrence of the studied SNP in a Zebu breed and its potential application to the genetic improvement of meat tenderness in the Nellore breed (Bos indicus) and its crosses with Bos taurus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of feeding sorghum straw based complete rations with different roughage to concentrate ratio on dry matter intake, nutrient utilization, and nitrogen balance in Nellore ram lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisetty, Venkateswarlu; Yerradoddi, Ramana Reddy; Devanaboina, Nagalakshmi; Mallam, Mahender; Mitta, Pavani

    2014-06-01

    An experiment was conducted by feeding sorghum straw (Sorghum bicolor) based complete rations at roughage concentrate ratio 70:30 (CR-I), 60:40 (CR-II), 50:50 (CR-III), and 40:60 (CR-IV) for 180 days to find out suitable ratio of sorghum straw in the complete ration (mash form) on nutrient utilization and nitrogen balance in Nellore ram lambs. The DMI (g/day) increased significantly (P  0.05), CR-III (P > 0.05), and CR-IV (P  0.05) ration. The average CWC digestibility coefficients were comparable among four rations. The N intake (g/day) was significantly (P balance (g/day) was higher either significantly or nonsignificantly by 34.46 (P > 0.05), 133.46 (P < 0.01), and 198.87 % (P < 0.01) with CR-II, CR-III, and CR-IV rations, respectively, in comparison to CR-I ration. Based on results, it is inferred that the level of sorghum straw in complete ration had no effect on digestibility of nutrients barring crude protein in Nellore ram lambs.

  8. Fixation of metatarsal fracture with bone plate in a dromedary heifer

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    S. Hashmi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An oblique fracture of the distal third of the right metatarsus in a three-year-old dromedary heifer weighing about 300 kilograms was immobilized with a 4.5 mm broad-webbed 12-hole dynamic compression bone plate and two interfragmental compression screws. The animal showed slight lameness after 16 weeks of surgery that disappeared after removal of the plate. The result was quite encouraging and the fracture healed in 16 weeks without major complications. It is concluded that the fracture of this bone can be successfully handled with bone plating at least in young, light weight animals.

  9. Trainability of eliminative behaviour in dairy heifers using a secondary reinforcer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whistance, Lindsay Kay; Sinclair, Liam A.; Arney, David Richard

    2009-01-01

    Soiled bedding influences cleanliness and disease levels in dairy cows and there is no evidence of an inherent latrine behaviour in cattle. If cows were trained to use a concrete area of the housing system as a latrine, a cleaner bed could be maintained. Thirteen group-housed, 14-16-month-old...... (141) but four heifers with consistently longer lying bouts also showed more C → S before lying down (Mann-Whitney, P = 0.007). The present study is believed to be the first reported work to show that cattle can be trained to show an awareness of their own eliminative behaviour...

  10. Effect of trace minerals and starch on digestibility and rumen fermentation in diets for dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, F; Heinrichs, A J

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different forms of trace minerals (TM) and the use of different starch levels in dairy heifer diets on rumen fermentation and digestibility. Eight rumen cannulated dairy heifers (15.4 ± 0.8 mo of age and 438.31 ± 18.08 kg of body weight) were subjected to a split-plot, 4 × 4 Latin square design with 19-d periods: 15d of adaptation and 4d of sampling. The whole-plot factor was type of TM; organic as proteinates (OTM) or inorganic sulfates (ITM), and the subplot was starch level (3.54, 12.95, 22.25, and 31.73%). Total collection of feces and urine was completed on d 15 to 19 to determine digestibility and TM excretion. Rumen contents were sampled on d 18 to 19 at 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 22 h after feeding to measure pH and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations. Plasma samples were collected to evaluate TM concentrations and enzymatic activity for ceruloplasmin, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase. Starch level affected pH, individual VFA concentrations, and nutrient excretion. Trace mineral intake was lower for OTM compared with ITM. No effect of TM form on dry matter digestibility was detected, but as level of starch increased, diet dry matter digestibility increased. Rumen pH was lower for diets with OTM, which is consistent with higher total VFA production and butyrate proportion observed for heifers fed OTM diets. These variables may be explained by the higher bioavailability of OTM and faster utilization and fermentation by rumen microorganisms. Heifers that consumed ITM had higher moisture in feces and higher urine excretion, which increased total manure production. Total excretion of TM was not different by treatment. Blood plasma mineral concentration was not different between treatments except for Mn, which was higher for OTM. Enzymatic activity was not affected by treatments. Mineral intake was reduced and blood mineral levels were not different, suggesting enhanced

  11. Delayed insemination of non-estrous heifers and cows when using conventional semen in timed artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J M; Poock, S E; Ellersieck, M R; Smith, M F; Patterson, D J

    2014-09-01

    Two experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that pregnancy rates after fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) in beef heifers and cows may be improved by delaying insemination of females that have not expressed estrus before FTAI. In Exp. 1, estrus was synchronized for 931 heifers across 3 locations using the 14-d CIDR-PG protocol (controlled internal drug-release [CIDR] insert [1.38 gm progesterone] on d 0 with removal of CIDR insert on d 14; 25 mg PGF2α 16 d after CIDR insert removal on d 30; and 100 μg GnRH on d 33, 66 h after PGF2α). Estrous detection aids (Estrotect) were applied at PGF2α on d 30, and estrous expression was recorded at GnRH on d 33. Heifers within each location were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments based on weight and reproductive tract score (RTS): 1) FTAI (concurrent with GnRH, 66 h after PGF2α) regardless of estrous expression or 2) FTAI for heifers expressing estrus and delayed AI (20 h after GnRH) for heifers failing to express estrus. Heifers assigned to treatment 2 achieved a higher AI pregnancy rate than heifers assigned to treatment 1 (54 versus 46%; P = 0.01). The observed increase in AI pregnancy rate is attributed to the delayed AI of non-estrous heifers in treatment 2, as AI pregnancy rates for non-estrous heifers were significantly higher for treatment 2 (49 versus 34%; P = 0.02), while AI pregnancy rates of estrous heifers did not differ by treatment (P = 0.24). In Exp. 2, estrus was synchronized for 951 mature, suckled cows across 9 locations using the 7-d CO-Synch + CIDR protocol (100 μg GnRH + CIDR insert [1.38 gm progesterone] on d 0; 25 mg PGF2α at CIDR insert removal on d 7; and 100 μg GnRH on d 10, 66 h after CIDR insert removal). Estrus detection aids (Estrotect) were applied at PGF2α and CIDR insert removal on d 7, and estrous expression was recorded at GnRH on d 10. Cows within each location were assigned to 1 of 2 treatments based on age, days postpartum, and BCS: 1) FTAI (concurrent with Gn

  12. Corn steep liquor and fermented ammoniated condensed whey as protein sources for lactating cows and yearling heifers grazing winter native range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, J.J.; Lusby, K.S.; Horn, G.W.; Dvorak, M.J.

    1982-06-01

    Corn steep liquor (CSL) and fermented ammoniated condensed whey (FACW) were compared to cottonseed meal (CSM) as protein sources for wintering 61 lactating first-calf Hereford heifers and 32 yearling Hereford heifers on native range. Cattle were allotted by weight and individually fed 6 days per week for 12 weeks one of four protein treatments: negative control (NC), positive control (PC), CSL and FACW to provide .7, 1.5, .15 and 1.5 lb crude protein (CP) per day, respectively, to the lacating heifers and .2, .4, .4 and .4lb cP per day, respectively, to the yearling heifers. CMS was supplied in the CSL and FACW treatments at the same level as in the negative control. Lactating heifers fed the NC lost more (P less than .005) weight and body condition (120 lb and 1.6 units) than those fed the PC (45.8 lb and .9 units). Weight and condition losses were similar (P more than .05) for lactating heifers fed PC, CSL and FACW. Yearling heifers fed the NC lost more (P less than .005) weight than those fed the PC (49.4 vs 10.6 lb). Yearling heifers fed CSL and FACW gained more (P less than .005) weight than those fed the PC (17.6 and 9.3 vs - 10.6 lb). Feeding CSL resulted in signficantly lower rumen pH, lower ruminal acetate and higher ruminal butyrate, isovalerate and caproate levels than did feeding either control. Supplementing with FACW produced significantly lower rumen pH, higher rumen ammonia and soluble carbohydrate levels, lower ruminal acetate, and higher ruminal propionate and butyrate concentrations than did either control supplement. Corn steep liquor and FDCW appear to be effective protein sources for cows and heifers grazing winter native range.

  13. Decreasing the frequency and rate of wet brewers grains supplementation did not impact growth but reduced humoral immune response of preconditioning beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriel, P; Piccolo, M B; Artioli, L F A; Poore, M H; Marques, R S; Cooke, R F

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated growth and measurements of innate and humoral immunity of preconditioning beef heifers supplemented with wet brewers grains (WBG) at 2 supplementation rates and frequencies. At 14 d after weaning (d 0), Angus heifers ( = 36; 213 ± 2 kg BW and 254 ± 7 d of age) were stratified by BW and age and randomly assigned to 1 of 12 drylot pens (3 heifers/pen). Treatments were randomly assigned to pens, in a 2 × 2 factorial design, and consisted of heifers provided ground tall fescue hay ad libitum (55% TDN and 12% CP of DM) and supplemented with WBG (75% TDN and 36% CP of DM) either daily (7X) or 3 times weekly (3X; Monday, Wednesday, and Friday) at 0.5 or 1.0% of BW (DM basis) for 42 d. Heifers were vaccinated against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), Mannheimia haemolytica, and Clostridium on d 14 and 28. Individual BW was measured before feeding on d 0 and 42 following 12 h of feed and water withdrawal. Blood samples were collected via jugular venipuncture 4 h after WBG supplementation on d 14, 15, 16, 17, 21, 28, 29, 30, 31, 35, and 42. Heifers fed WBG 3X had less hay DMI (2.6 ± 0.16 vs. 3.2 ± 0.16 kg/d; against BVDV-2 and IBR were greater for heifers fed WBG at 1.0% of BW vs. heifers fed WBG at 0.5% of BW (7.6 vs. 6.7 and 3.3 vs. 2.8 ± 0.19 log, respectively). In summary, decreasing WBG supplementation frequency (7 vs. 3 times weekly) or rate (1.0 vs. 0.5% of BW) for recently weaned beef heifers did not affect growth but decreased vaccine-induced antibody production against pathogens associated with bovine respiratory disease during a 42-d preconditioning period.

  14. Randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effect of foot trimming before and after first calving on subsequent lameness episodes and productivity in dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendran, S A; Huxley, J N; Chang, Y-M; Burnell, M; Barrett, D C; Whay, H R; Blackmore, T; Mason, C S; Bell, N J

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess both independent and combined effects of routine foot trimming of heifers at 3 weeks pre-calving and 100 days post calving on the first lactation lameness and lactation productivity. A total of 419 pre-calving dairy heifers were recruited from one heifer rearing operation over a 10-month period. Heifers were randomly allocated into one of four foot trimming regimens; pre-calving foot trim and post-calving lameness score (Group TL), pre-calving lameness score and post-calving foot trim (Group LT), pre-calving foot trim and post-calving foot trim (Group TT), and pre-calving lameness score and post-calving lameness score (Group LL, control group). All heifers were scored for lameness at 24 biweekly time points for 1 year following calving, and first lactation milk production data were collected. Following calving, 172/419 (41.1%) of heifers became lame during the study (period prevalence), with lameness prevalence at each time-point following calving ranging from 48/392 (12.2%) at 29-42 days post-calving to 4/379 (1.1%) between 295 and 383 days after calving. The effects of the four treatment groups were not significantly different from each other for overall lameness period prevalence, biweekly lameness point prevalence, time to first lameness event, type of foot lesion identified at dry off claw trimming, or the 4% fat corrected 305-day milk yield. However, increased odds lameness was significantly associated with a pre-calving trim alone (P = 0.044) compared to the reference group LL. The odds of heifer lameness were highest between 0 and 6 weeks post-partum, and heifer farm destination was significantly associated with lameness (OR 2.24), suggesting that even at high standard facilities, environment and management systems have more effect on heifer foot health than trimming.

  15. Metabolic profile in growing buffalo heifers fed diet with different energy content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gasparrini

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to verify the relation among the mediators and indicators of nutritional status like insulin, glucagon, urea, cholesterol, triglycerides and total proteins in growing buffalo heifers, fed diets with different energy density. 12 Murrah heifers were randomly allocated into two dietary treatments (High, Group H; Low, Group L that differed in energetic levels (Group H: 5.8 UFL/d; Group L: 3.6 UFL/d. Every 30 days, for a total of five times, blood samples were collected at 08.00 h, before feeding, from the jugular vein in vacutainer tubes and analysed to determine metabolic profile. Data on haematic constants were analysed by ANOVA for repeated measures with treatment as the main factor. Low energy availability and low NSC reduced the glucose and insulin and increased glucagone and urea blood levels. The increase of NSC in the diet of group H during the experiment may caused a reduction of the fibre digestibility after the period of adaptation of the rumen microflora and, as a paradox effect, suffered for an energetic lack with a subsequent activation of lipolysis and mobilization of their body reserves. Liver and muscular synthesis increase in group with a high energy availability.

  16. Levels of multiple supplements or nitrogen salt for beef heifers in pasture during the dry season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ériton Egidio Lisboa Valente

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed performance, microbial protein synthesis, intake and digestibility of nutrients by beef heifers receiving levels of multiple supplements or nitrogen salt, in a self-controlled intake, on pasture, during the dry season. Thirty-five beef heifers, from 6 to 9 months of age and average initial body weight of 203.4 + 4.5 kg, were used. Study factors were: control - mineral mixture; nitrogen salt - 50% of urea + mineral mixture, at proportion of 1:1, and 50% of corn (75% of crude protein; levels of multiple supplementation - multiple supplements with different percentages of intake controller mixture (urea + mineral mixture, at the proportion of 1:1, corn and soybean meal (45% of crude protein. Supplement consumptions observed were: 115, 173, 572 and 1214 g/animal/day for animals fed on nitrogen salt, low, medium and high levels of multiple supplement, respectively. Supplemented animals had greater average daily gain, evidencing the positive linear effect of the levels of multiple supplementation on average daily gain. Overall, there were no significant differences between average daily gain of animals fed on multiple supplements or nitrogen salt. Supplementation increased the intake and digestibility of nutrients, except for digestibility of neutral detergent fiber, although the intake of digested neutral detergent fiber increased. Supplementation increased the production of microbial nitrogen as well as nitrogen losses in urine, although the quantity of nitrogen assimilated by bacteria, proportionally to intake, was higher. Supplementation improves nutritional parameters and weight gain.

  17. Effects of testosterone and 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone on luteal lifespan in dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvia, W J; Jacobs, A L; Hayes, S H

    1989-11-01

    Endogenous concentrations of testosterone increase approximately 7 d prior to estrus in cattle and goats. Inhibition of testosterone synthesis results in a delay of luteal regression in both species. The purpose of this experiment was to determine if treatment with testosterone or 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), 2 to 6 d prior to the endogenous rise in testosterone, would result in premature luteal regression. Sixteen heifers were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: 1) Control (n = 6); 2) testosterone (100 mug, n = 5); or 3) DHT (100 mug, n = 5). Each heifer received a single injection of the appropriate steriod on Day 8, 9, 10, 11 or 12 post estrus. Jugular venous blood samples were collected at frequent intervals for 24 h to quantify testosterone, and then daily for 14 d to quantify progesterone. Concentrations of testosterone increased within 15 min of injection of testosterone, and reached a maximum at 30 min. Concentrations were maintained at > 2 ng/ml throughout the first 24 h after injection. Based on concentrations of progesterone, neither androgen had any effect on the lifespan of the corpus luteum or the level of luteal function.

  18. Intake and digestion of whole-crop barley and wheat silages by dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustas, B-O; Bertilsson, J; Martinsson, K; Elverstedt, T; Nadeau, E

    2011-12-01

    The effect of maturity at harvest on the digestibility and intake of large bale silage made from whole-crop barley and wheat when fed to growing heifers was evaluated. Two crops of spring barley (Hordeum distichum cv. Filippa and Kinnan) and 1 of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Olevin) were harvested at the heading, milk, and dough stages of maturity. The silage was fed to 36 dairy heifers in a balanced crossover experiment with 3 periods and 9 treatments (diets based on 3 crops and 3 stages of maturity), organized into 6 pairs of 3 × 3 Latin squares. No clear relationship was observed between intake and stage of maturity of whole-crop cereal silage, but intake was positively correlated to silage DM content (P silage (P = 0.034). The NDF digestibility decreased between the heading and milk stages in all crops (P < 0.001), whereas it decreased in 1 barley crop (P < 0.001), increased in the other barley (P = 0.025), and was unchanged in the wheat between the milk and dough stages of maturity. Starch digestibility was less in the 2 barley crops compared with the wheat at the dough stage of maturity (P < 0.001). The feeding value of the whole-crop barley and wheat declined between the heading and milk stages of maturity, but thereafter the effect of maturity on the feeding value was minor.

  19. Effect of intensive or extensive systems on buffalo heifers performances: Body measurements and respective indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pacelli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-six buffalo heifers, reared in Roman area (42 latitude North were randomly assigned to two groups: intensive feeding (IF, n=13 or to pasture system (PS, n=13 and followed until the onset of puberty. The average age at the beginning of the experiment was 223 days and the average weight was 133 kg, without significant differences between groups. At the end of the trial, when heifers reached puberty (IF=599 days, 462 kg and BCS=7.65; PS= 610 days, 375 kg and BCS=6.15, live weight and 19 body linear measurements were recorded on all animals; afterwards 6 relative indices were calculated. Significant differences were found between IF and PS animals: in width chest (46.3 vs 37.7 cm, thoracic circumference (195.3 vs 176,5 cm ; width fore pelvis (50.8 vs 47.4 cm; withers height (126.4 vs 122.7 cm, sacrum (132.3 vs 127.4 cm , ileum (126.1 vs 121.7 cm and ischium height (118.6 vs 113.6 cm and in rump length (46.8 vs 44.2 cm . Rearing systems significantly affected also some relative zoometric indices. No significant differences were found in any of feet parameters. In conclusion, rearing systems significantly affected body linear measurements and relative indices which could play a significant role in evaluating the buffaloes performances.

  20. Baker's yeast effluent as a liquid feed for dairy cows and heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blauwiekel, R; Loney, K A; Riley, R E

    1995-02-01

    Liquid effluent from baker's yeast production was fed to dairy cows to determine whether effluent is an acceptable feed and whether it affects milk yield or composition. Effluent averaged 5.4% DM and 6.1% N (DM basis). In experiment 1, 20 Holstein cows were offered effluent free choice or no effluent for 8 wk. Milk yield, composition, and group feed intake were measured. In Experiment 2, 20 cows were fed effluent blended into the TMR (11.3 L/d per cow) or no effluent for 4 wk. In Experiment 3, six groups of 6 heifers were offered free choice or no effluent. Free choice intake of effluent peaked at 15 L/d per cow at wk 3 but declined to 5.3 L/d per cow by wk 6. Milk and 3.5% FCM yields were not affected by effluent regardless of feeding system. Milk protein and fat percentages were higher for cows offered effluent free choice. Milk protein percentage and yield were lower with effluent in the TMR. Intake of effluent by heifers was 1.05 L/d, and effluent did not affect DMI or weight gain. Acceptability of yeast effluent fed free choice is poor, but when yeast is blended into the TMR, cows consume effluent without adverse effects on milk yield or DMI.

  1. Hematological and serum biochemical profile of apparently healthy hariana cattle heifers in northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahima; Singh, Krishna Veer; Verma, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Vinod; Singh, Shanker Kumar; Roy, Debashis

    2013-11-01

    The 'Hariana' breed of cattle has been proved to be highly adaptable to harsh climatic conditions and resistant to common diseases prevalent in India. In this study, the normal reference values of hematological and serum proteins and other blood biochemical parameters were determined in the heifers of Hariana breed maintained at Instructional livestock farm complex, DUVASU, Mathura, India. A total of twenty four animals were used in this study. Blood was taken aseptically from all the animals and transported to laboratory for hematological and biochemical analysis. The hematological parameters (Hemoglobin, total erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count, packed cell volume) and biochemical parameters (Total protein, total albumin, albumin globulin ratio, urea, creatinine, calcium, phosphorous, calcium phosphorous ratio, AST, ALT) values were statistically analyzed, mean and standard deviations were calculated and set as reference values. This study reported hematological and serum biochemical values which could serve as baseline information for comparison in conditions of nutrient deficiency, physiological and health status of Hariana cattle heifers in India.

  2. Increasing levels of crude protein in multiple supplements for grazing beef heifers in rainy season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Vieira de Barros

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the effect of multiple supplements with differents levels of crude protein (CP or mineral supplements on the nutritional parameters and performance of beef heifers grazing Uruchloa decumbens in the rainy season. A complete random design was employed. The treatments were made up of increasing levels of CP in the multiple supplements and a control treatment (MM in which animals were offered only mineral mixture. Multiple supplements contained 17; 30; 43 and 56% of CP, for treatments CP17; CP30; CP43 and CP56, respectively. Average daily gain (ADG (g was 447.7; 554.6; 638.4; 587.9; 590.4, for treatments MM, CP17; CP30; CP43 and CP56, respectively. A quadratic effect of the levels of crude protein was found (p< 0.10 on ADG. A greater intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, CP, ether extract (EE, non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC, total digestible nutrients (TDN, and digested dry matter (p< 0.10 was found in animals supplemented with multiple supplements. Multiple supplements increased the apparent digestibility coefficient of DM, CP, EE and NFC. Supply of multiple multiple supplements for heifers grazing in medium to high quality pastures in the rainy season improves the performance of the animals.

  3. Does the amount of progesterone in intravaginal implants used to synchronise oestrus affect the reproductive performance of Brahman heifers artificially inseminated at a fixed time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, N J; Fordyce, G; Burns, B; Williams, P; Mayer, D; Bo, G A; McGowan, M R

    2010-12-01

    The study tested the hypothesis that reduced intravaginal implant progesterone (P(4)) concentration to synchronise oestrus would increase pregnancy rates to fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) in Bos indicus heifers. Brahman heifers (n = 294; 2 year) were body condition scored (BCS), weighed and scanned for presence of a corpus luteum (CL). Only cyclic heifers were selected and allocated randomly within BCS and 25 kg bodyweight category to one of three P(4) treatment groups. On day 10, heifers received a P(4) implant (CueMate-1-pod, 0.78 g P(4); CueMate-2-pod, 1.56 g P(4); or CIDR-B, 1.9 g P(4)), 2 mg oestradiol benzoate (ODB) intramuscularly (i.m.) and 250 ug cloprostenol i.m.. At day 2, the implant was removed, 250 ug cloprostenol was injected i.m. and tail paint applied. The heifers received 1 mg ODB 24 h later and were FTAI 48-54 h after implant removal (day 0). Ten randomly selected heifers per group were blood sampled and scanned at days 10, 2, 0 and 6 to define the P(4) profiles pre- and post-FTAI. Heifers were heat-detected 18-20 days post-FTAI and oestrous heifers AI'd by the AM/PM rule. Bulls joined the heifers on day 27 post-FTAI. Transrectal ultrasonography estimated conception date on day 72. Statistical analysis examined the effects of treatment, technician, semen, ovarian status, BCS and liveweight, on pregnancy rate (PR) to FTAI. There was no significant difference (p = 0.362) in PR between treatment groups (CueMate 1-pod, 36.4%; CueMate 2-pod, 39.6%: CIDR-B, 28.3%), but PR was higher in those heifers with increased BCS between FTAI and pregnancy diagnosis (p = 0.005). Thirty-three per cent of monitor heifers had plasma P(4) concentrations of Brahman heifers in northern Australia. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Comparison of the pregnancy rates and costs per calf born after fixed-time artificial insemination or artificial insemination after estrus detection in Bos indicus heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, S A A; Bo, G A; Chandra, K A; Atkinson, P C; McGowan, M R

    2015-01-01

    This study compared pregnancy rates (PRs) and costs per calf born after fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) or AI after estrus detection (i.e., estrus detection and AI, EDAI), before and after a single PGF2α treatment in Bos indicus (Brahman-cross) heifers. On Day 0, the body weight, body condition score, and presence of a CL (46% of heifers) were determined. The heifers were then alternately allocated to one of two FTAI groups (FTAI-1, n = 139) and (FTAI-2, n = 141) and an EDAI group (n = 273). Heifers in the FTAI groups received an intravaginal progesterone-releasing device (IPRD; 0.78 g of progesterone) and 1 mg of estradiol benzoate intramuscularly (im) on Day 0. Eight days later, the IPRD was removed and heifers received 500 μg of PGF2α and 300 IU of eCG im; 24 hours later, they received 1 mg estradiol benzoate im and were submitted to FTAI 30 to 34 hours later (54 and 58 hours after IPRD removal). Heifers in the FTAI-2 group started treatment 8 days after those in the FTAI-1 group. Heifers in the EDAI group were inseminated approximately 12 hours after the detection of estrus between Days 4 and 9 at which time the heifers that had not been detected in estrus received 500 μg of PGF2α im and EDAI continued until Day 13. Heifers in the FTAI groups had a higher overall PR (proportion pregnant as per the entire group) than the EDAI group (34.6% vs. 23.2%; P = 0.003), however, conception rate (PR of heifers submitted for AI) tended to favor the estrus detection group (34.6% vs. 44.1%; P = 0.059). The cost per AI calf born was estimated to be $267.67 and $291.37 for the FTAI and EDAI groups, respectively. It was concluded that in Brahman heifers typical of those annually mated in northern Australia FTAI compared with EDAI increases the number of heifers pregnant and reduces the cost per calf born.

  5. Comparison of methionine chelated versus sulfate trace minerals on rate and efficiency of gain and pregnancy rates in beef heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives of this experiment were to compare rate and efficiency of gain, and conception rates of yearling heifers supplemented with Cu, Zn, and Mn as either metal methionine hydroxy analogue chelated trace minerals (CTM; provided as MINTREX) or the same trace minerals in SO4 form. The experimental...

  6. Hair shedding score may affect body temperature more than hair coat color during heat stress in weaned beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of hair shedding score and hair coat color on the vaginal temperature (VT) of calves during heat stress. Weaned Bos taurus beef heifers (n = 32; BW = 282 ± 6.4 kg) were assigned to a hair coat color class (BLACK; RED; or LIGHT, where LIGHT = yel...

  7. Effects of propylene glycol drenching before and after luteolysis on blood glucose, ovarian steroids and follicular dynamics in heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeki, A; Tanaka, T; Kamomae, H

    2012-02-01

    The effect of propylene glycol drenching on ovarian and hormonal dynamics was studied in heifers. Five cycling heifers were used twice (as control and treatment) with crossover design. After the confirmation of ovulation (day 0), the heifers in the treatment group received propylene glycol on days 6, 7 and 8 as an oral drench (250 ml of 90% propylene glycol). On day 10, prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α), 15 mg per head of dinoprost, was administered intramuscularly to induce luteal regression followed by the follicular phase and then propylene glycol was again administered twice daily (500 ml/day) on days 10, 11 and 12. Palpation per rectum and ovarian ultrasonography were performed every other day from days 0 to 10, and daily after PGF2α administration until the subsequent ovulation (second ovulation) for analysis of follicular and luteal dynamics. Blood samples were also collected every other day from days 0 to 10, and then at 6 h intervals after PGF2α administration until the second ovulation. For the samples taken at 6-h intervals after PGF2α administration, the concentrations of glucose showed clear daily fluctuations in both groups. Changes in the plasma concentration of glucose in the treatment group were significantly (P propylene glycol drenching in heifers. However, no significant changes in ovarian and hormonal dynamics were found under such metabolic conditions.

  8. Ultrasonographic reproductive tract measures and pelvis measures as predictors of pregnancy failure and anestrus in restricted bred beef heifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holm, Dietmar E; Nielen, Mirjam; Jorritsma, Ruurd; Irons, Peter C; Thompson, Peter N

    2016-01-01

    Previous reports have shown that reproductive tract score (RTS) can predict reproduction outcomes in seasonally bred beef heifers, although the accuracy can vary. Some ultrasonographic measures of the female reproductive tract and pelvis area have also been associated with reproductive outcome in yo

  9. An Unusual Occurrence of Actinobacillosis in Heifers and Cows in A Dairy Herd in Tehran suburb-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atyabi, N.,

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available An unusual occurrence of actinobacillosis was diagnosed in 4 heifers aged 8-15 months and 2 cattle in a dairy herd with 190 Iranian Holstein breed. Anorexia, dysphagia, drooling of normal or foodtinged saliva and presence of warts-like lesions on the dorsal surface of tongue shaft were observed in a 15-month-old heifer without showing protrusion of tongue or presenting woody tongue and no involvement of either sulcus lingualis or tongue base. In addition to tongue, soft tissues of oral cavity and pharyngeal region including lymph nodes, salivary glands and tonsils were contained multiple whitish nodules. Histopathologically, typical pyogranulomas of actinobacillosis contained radiating eosinophilic clubs surrounded by many neutrophils were diagnosed. Actinobacillus lignieresii was isolated from the lesions in pure culture. Clinical examination of other animals revealed the presence of different degrees of granulomatous abscesses in soft tissues including skin around mandibles in at least 3 heifers aged 8-11 months and 2 cattle. Due to 4 recent droughty years feeding the heifers, dry cows and low milk producing cattle by cheap oat and wheat straw mixed with plant awns could be the cause of this event.

  10. Evaluations for service-sire conception rate for heifer and cow inseminations with conventional and sexed semen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Service-sire conception rate (SCR), a phenotypic fertility evaluation based on conventional (nonsexed) inseminations from parities 1 through 5, was implemented by USDA in August 2008. Using insemination data from 2005 through 2009, the SCR procedure was applied separately for nulliparous heifer inse...

  11. Fecal shedding of foodborne pathogens and other enterobacteriaceae by Florida heifers and steers in US beef production segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective in this study was to assess breed effects in fecal prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in heifers on a development program in Florida and in their half-sibling steers in stocker and feedlot phases in Oklahoma. A secondary objective was to characterize fecal shedding of Campylobacte...

  12. Effects of supplementing pregnant heifers with methionine or melatonin on the anatomy and other characteristics of their lateral hind claws

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galbraith, H; Rae, M; Omand, T

    2006-01-01

    Three groups of four primiparous Holstein-Friesian heifers were fed throughout pregnancy either a control diet or that diet supplemented with either 5 to 6 g per day of rumen-protected intestinally available methionine or 25 mg melatonin. They were euthanased three days after calving. The dietary...

  13. Potential gains in lifetime net merit from genomic testing of cows, heifers, and calves on commercial dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, K A; Hoffman, P C; Herring, W; Lawlor, T J

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the gains in genetic potential of replacement females that could be achieved by using genomic testing to facilitate selection and culling decisions on commercial dairy farms. Data were simulated for 100 commercial dairy herds, each with 1,850 cows, heifers, and calves. Parameters of the simulation were based on the US Holstein population, and assumed reliabilities of traditional and genomic predictions matched reliabilities of animals that have been genotyped to date. Selection of the top 10, 20, 30, …, 90% of animals within each age group was based on parent averages and predicted transmitting abilities with or without genomic testing of all animals or subsets of animals that had been presorted by traditional predictions. Average gains in lifetime net merit breeding value of selected females due to genomic testing, minus prorated costs of genotyping the animals and their unselected contemporaries, ranged from $28 (top 90% selected) to $259 (top 20% selected) for heifer calves with no pedigrees, $14 (top 90% selected) to $121 (top 10% selected) for heifer calves with known sires, and $7 (top 90% selected) to $87 (top 20% selected) for heifer calves with full pedigrees. In most cases, gains in genetic merit of selected heifer calves far exceeded prorated genotyping costs, and gains were greater for animals with missing or incomplete pedigree information. Gains in genetic merit due to genomic testing were smaller for lactating cows that had phenotypic records, and in many cases, these gains barely exceeded or failed to exceed genotyping costs. Strategies based on selective genotyping of the top, middle, or bottom 50% of animals after presorting by traditional parent averages or predicted transmitting abilities were cost effective, particularly when pedigrees or phenotypes were available and a relatively small proportion of animals were to be selected or culled. Based on these results, it appears that routine genotyping of

  14. Effects of label-dose permethrin administration in yearling beef cattle: I. Reproductive function and embryo quality of superovulated heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohlman, Tyler M; Jahnke, Marianna M; West, James K; Phillips, Patrick E; Gunn, Patrick J

    2016-06-01

    The objective was to study the effects of a commercial pyrethroid-based pour-on product, permethrin, on reproductive performance in superovulated beef heifers by assessing steroid biosynthesis and embryo quality. Nonpregnant, yearling beef heifers (n = 10; 418 ± 33 kg; 5.5 ± 0.2 body conditioning scores) were assigned by body weight and breed to either (1) saline control or (2) permethrin pour-on administered at label dose (PYR). Superovulation was achieved on all heifers using a timed, 17-day, CIDR-based protocol with GnRH and PGF2α and decreasing total dosage of 240-mg FSH administered twice daily for 4 days. Heifers were artificially inseminated twice (at onset of estrus and 12 hours later) by same technician with frozen semen from single bull collection. To determine short- and long-term effects of permethrin on embryo quality and steroid biosynthesis, superovulation was initiated twice with collection of embryos occurring at 17 and 51 days after treatment. Embryos were recovered 6.5 days after first artificial insemination via nonsurgical flush and were evaluated by International Embryo Transfer Society standards. Blood was collected at standing estrus and day of embryo recovery. Estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) concentrations were analyzed via RIA. MIXED and GLIMMIX procedures of SAS were used to analyze continuous and categorical data, respectively. Heifer per flush was the experimental unit. Total embryos recovered did not differ because of treatment (P = 0.30), but did decrease in flush 2 compared with flush 1 (P = 0.02). Quality grade, total transferable quality embryos, and overall flush success did not differ because of treatment (P ≥ 0.16). However, transferable quality embryos were decreased in flush 2 compared with flush 1 (P = 0.05). Total unfertilized oocytes were greater in saline control (P = 0.04). The PYR heifers tended to have less total P4 (P = 0.15) and P4 per CL (P = 0.06) at recovery. E2 per ovulated

  15. Lameness in dairy heifers; impacts of hoof lesions present around first calving on future lameness, milk yield and culling risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, L V; Green, M J; Chagunda, M G G; Mason, C; Green, L E; Huxley, J N

    2016-10-01

    The importance of lameness in primiparous dairy heifers is increasingly recognised. Although it is accepted that clinical lameness in any lactation increases the risk of future lameness, the impact of foot lesions during the first lactation on long-term lameness risk is less clear. This retrospective cohort study aimed to investigate the impacts of foot lesions occurring around the time of first calving in heifers on future lameness risk, daily milk yield and survival within a dairy herd. Records were obtained for 158 heifers from one UK dairy herd. Heifers were examined in 2 month blocks from 2 months pre-calving through to 4 months post-calving. Sole lesions and white line lesions were scored on a zero to 10 scale and digital dermatitis on a zero to 3 scale. Outcomes investigated were; lameness risk based on weekly locomotion scores, average daily milk yield and culling risk. Mixed effect models were used to investigate associations between maximum lesion scores and outcomes. Lesion scores in the highest score categories for claw horn lesions (sole lesions and white line lesions) in the 2 to 4 month post-calving period were associated with an increased risk of future lameness; heifers with white line lesion scores ≥3 compared with scores zero to 1 and heifers with sole lesion scores ≥4 compared with score 2, at this time point, had a predicted increased risk of future lameness of 1.6 and 2.6 respectively. Sole lesions ≥4 were also associated with a reduction in average daily milk yield of 2.68kg. Managing heifers to reduce claw horn lesions during this time period post-calving may provide health, welfare and production benefits for the long-term future of those animals. A novel finding from the study was that mild lesion scores compared with scores zero to 1, were associated with a reduced risk of future lameness for white line lesions and sole lesions occurring in the pre-calving or 2 to 4 months post-calving periods respectively. Mild sole lesions in the

  16. Hormonal manipulations in the 5-day timed artificial insemination protocol to optimize estrous cycle synchrony and fertility in dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, F S; Ribeiro, E S; Bisinotto, R S; Greco, L F; Martinez, N; Amstalden, M; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P

    2013-01-01

    Objectives were to determine the effects of GnRH at the initiation of the 5-d timed artificial insemination (AI) program combined with 2 injections of PGF2α on ovarian responses and pregnancy per AI (P/AI) in dairy heifers, and the role of progesterone concentrations on LH release and ovulation in response to GnRH. In study 1, heifers received a controlled internal drug release (CIDR) insert containing 1.38 g of progesterone on d 0, an injection of 25 mg of PGF2α and CIDR removal on d 5, and an injection of 100 μg GnRH concurrently with AI on d 8. Heifers were assigned to receive no additional treatment (control; n=559) or an injection of GnRH on d 0 and a second injection of PGF2α on d 6 (G2P; n=547). In study 2, all heifers were treated as described for the control in study 1, and were allocated to receive no additional treatment (control; n=723), an injection of PGF2α on d 6 (NG2P; n=703), or an injection of GnRH on d 0 and an injection of PGF2α on d 6 (G2P; n=718). In study 3, heifers received a CIDR on d 7 after ovulation and were assigned randomly to a low-progesterone (LP; n=6) treatment in which 2 injections of 25 mg of PGF2α each were administered 12h apart, on d 7 and 7.5 after ovulation, or to a high-progesterone (HP; n=12) treatment in which no PGF2α was administered. On d 8, heifers received 100 μg of GnRH and blood was sampled at every 15 min from -30 to 180 min relative to the GnRH for assessment of LH concentrations. Additionally, 94 heifers were assigned to LP or HP and ovulation in response to GnRH was evaluated. In study 1, P/AI was greater for G2P than for the control on d 32 (59.4 vs. 53.5%) and 60 after AI (56.6 vs. 51.3%). In study 2, administration of GnRH on d 0 increased the proportion of heifers with a new corpus luteum on d 5 (control=21.9 vs. NG2P=20.1 vs. G2P=34.4%). Administration of a second PGF2α increased the proportion of heifers with progesterone <0.5 ng/mL at AI (control=83.1 vs. NG2P=93.0 and G2P=87.2%). Pregnancy per

  17. Phenotypic and Genetic Correlations of Feed Efficiency Traits with Growth and Carcass Traits in Nellore Cattle Selected for Postweaning Weight

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    Ceacero, Thais Matos; Mercadante, Maria Eugênia Zerlotti; Cyrillo, Joslaine Noely dos Santos Gonçalves; Canesin, Roberta Carrilho; Bonilha, Sarah Figueiredo Martins; de Albuquerque, Lucia Galvão

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated phenotypic (rph) and genetic correlations (rg) between 8 feed efficiency traits and other traits of economic interest including weight at selection (WS), loin-eye area (LEA), backfat thickness (BF), and rump fat thickness (RF) in Nellore cattle. Feed efficiency traits were gain:feed, residual feed intake (RFI), residual feed intake adjusted for backfat thickness (RFIb) and for backfat and rump fat thickness (RFIsf), residual body weight gain (RG), residual intake and body weight gain (RIG), and residual intake and body weight gain using RFIb (RIGb) and RFIsf (RIGsf). The variance components were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method using a two-trait animal model. The heritability estimates (h2) were 0.14, 0.24, 0.20, 0.22, 0.19, 0.15, 0.11 and 0.11 for gain:feed, RFI, RFIb, RFIsf, RG, RIG, RIGb and RIGsf, respectively. All rph values between traits were close to zero, except for the correlation of feed efficiency traits with dry matter intake and average daily gain. High rg values were observed for the correlation of dry matter intake, average daily gain and metabolic weight with WS and hip height (>0.61) and low to medium values (0.15 to 0.48) with the carcass traits (LEA, BF, RF). Among the feed efficiency traits, RG showed the highest rg with WS and hip height (0.34 and 0.25) and the lowest rg with subcutaneous fat thickness (-0.17 to 0.18). The rg values of RFI, RFIb and RFIsf with WS (0.17, 0.23 and 0.22), BF (0.37, 0.33 and 0.33) and RF (0.30, 0.31 and 0.32) were unfavorable. The rg values of gain:feed, RIG, RIGb and RIGsf with WS were low and favorable (0.07 to 0.22), while medium and unfavorable (-0.22 to -0.45) correlations were observed with fat thickness. The inclusion of subcutaneous fat thickness in the models used to calculate RFI did not reduce the rg between these traits. Selecting animals for higher feed efficiency will result in little or no genetic change in growth and will decrease subcutaneous fat thickness

  18. Environmental and animal factors associated with gestation length in Holstein cows and heifers in two herds in the Czech Republic.

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    Tomasek, R; Rezac, P; Havlicek, Z

    2017-01-01

    The objective was to assess the effects of the month of conception, month of calving, sex of the calf, and twins on gestation length (GL) in Holstein cows and heifers in two dairy herds with different milk yields. The study was performed in northeast Czech Republic over a 6-year period on two commercial dairy herds with a mean annual milk production of 11,060 kg per cow in the higher milk-producing herd and 8854 kg per cow in the lower milk-producing herd. Gestation length in cows that conceived in different months of the year was longer in the higher milk-producing herd than that in the lower milk-producing herd throughout the year (P Gestation length in cows that conceived in different months of the year was longer than that in heifers through the whole year in both herds (P Gestation length in cows and heifers that conceived in the first months of the year was longer than in those that conceived in the last months of the year in both herds (P Gestation length in cows and heifers that calved in late fall and throughout winter was longer than in those that calved in spring and summer in both herds (P Gestation length in females carrying male calves was longer than in those carrying female calves (P Gestation length in cows (P < 0.0001) and heifers (P < 0.05) carrying singles was longer than in those carrying twins in both herds. In conclusion, results indicate that GL in Holstein cattle is associated with the month of conception, month of calving, herd, parity, sex of the calf, and twins.

  19. Pre-breeding blood urea nitrogen concentration and reproductive performance of Bonsmara heifers within different management systems.

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    Tshuma, Takula; Holm, Dietmar Erik; Fosgate, Geoffrey Theodore; Lourens, Dirk Cornelius

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the association between pre-breeding blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration and reproductive performance of beef heifers within different management systems in South Africa. Bonsmara heifers (n = 369) from five herds with different estimated levels of nitrogen intake during the month prior to the commencement of the breeding season were sampled in November and December 2010 to determine BUN concentrations. Body mass, age, body condition score (BCS) and reproductive tract score (RTS) were recorded at study enrolment. Trans-rectal ultrasound and/or palpation was performed 4-8 weeks after a 3-month breeding season to estimate the stage of pregnancy. Days to pregnancy (DTP) was defined as the number of days from the start of the breeding season until the estimated conception date. Logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards survival analysis were performed to estimate the association of pre-breeding BUN concentration with subsequent pregnancy and DTP, respectively. After stratifying for herd and adjusting for age, heifers with relatively higher pre-breeding BUN concentration took longer to become pregnant when compared to those with relatively lower BUN concentration (P = 0.011). In the herd with the highest estimated nitrogen intake (n = 143), heifers with relatively higher BUN were less likely to become pregnant (P = 0.013) and if they did, it was only later during the breeding season (P = 0.017), after adjusting for body mass. These associations were not present in the herd (n = 106) with the lowest estimated nitrogen intake (P > 0.500). It is concluded that Bonsmara heifers with relatively higher pre-breeding BUN concentration, might be at a disadvantage because of this negative impact on reproductive performance, particularly when the production system includes high levels of nitrogen intake.

  20. Nutrient digestion, microbial protein synthesis, and blood metabolites of Jersey heifers fed chitosan and whole raw soybeans

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    Jefferson Rodrigues Gandra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was undertaken to determine the effects of chitosan and whole raw soybean on nutrient intake and total tract digestion, nitrogen utilization, microbial protein synthesis, blood metabolites, and energy balance of dairy heifers. Twelve Jersey heifers (6±0.5 months of age and 139.50±25.56 kg of live weight; mean ± standard deviation were randomly assigned to a replicated Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. The experimental period consisted of 14 days of adaptation to diets, six days of sampling, and five days of washout. The experimental diets were: control (CO; chitosan (CHI, inclusion of 2.0 g kg−1 DM of chitosan; whole raw soybean (WS, 163.0 g kg−1 of WS on diet DM basis; and chitosan + whole raw soybean (CHI+WS. Chitosan decreased dry matter and neutral detergent fiber intakes; however, CHI increased DM total tract digestion. An interaction effect was observed on retained nitrogen, which increased when animals were fed CHI+WS compared with CO or CHI, but did not differ from that of animals fed WS. Chitosan decreased microbial nitrogen and crude protein flow of heifers. Energy balance was improved when heifers received diets containing WS. Efficiency of energy utilization was not affected by experimental diets. An interaction effect was observed for blood high-density lipoprotein (HDL concentration, which increased with both dietary inclusion of CHI and WS compared with the other diets, and CHI provided the lowest value of HDL cholesterol. Chitosan and whole raw soybean do not alter nutrient intake and total tract digestion; however, they decrease nitrogen urinary excretion and increase blood HDL cholesterol of heifers.

  1. Reproduction traits, growth traits and age at first calving in Holstein heifers

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    Bruna Silva Marestone

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the reproductive efficiency expressed by traits, interval from first to second calving (IDP, number of services per conception to the first calving (NSC1, number of services per conception for the second calving (NSC2, service period from the first to the second calving (PS and gestation lenght (PG of Holstein heifers. Data from 377 heifers from two herds, one in Santa Cruz do Rio Pardo, São Paulo and another in Rolândia, Paraná were analysed. The statistical model to analyze IDP, NSC1, NSC2, PS and PG included the fixed effect of Contemporary Group (CG. To analyze PG, it was also considered the effect of calf sex. To evaluate the growth performance and age at first calving (AFC, data from 360 Holstein heifers belonging to property in Rolândia were analysed. The model included the fixed effects of contemporary groups (CG and average daily gain from birth to 15 months (ADG. A similar model was used to analyze weigth at 458 dias (W458 and ADG, therefore considering only CG. The overall means of IDP, NSC1, NSC2, PS and PG, were 14.96 ± 3.94 months; 1.35 ± 0.71 services, 2.86 ± 2.37 services, 178.83 ± 118.73 days; 276.67± 5.65 days, respectively. Correlations were observed between the traits IDP and NSC2 of 72% (P<0.0001, between IDP and PS of 98% (P<0.0001 and between NCS2 and PS of 72% (P<0.0001. The gestation length of males and females showed estimated average of 277.53 ± 0.46 days and 276.33 ± 0.40 days, respectively, and the calf sex was source of variation on PG (P<0.05. Average daily gain was a significant source of variation on AFC and CG affected all traits studied. The estimated average for AFC was 24.18 ± 1.59 months, for W458 was 362.33 ± 36.24 kg and ADG was 0.704 ± 0.08 kg.

  2. Yeasts isolated from beef heifers with ringworm Levaduras aisladas de terneras de carne con dermatofitosis

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    ER Duarte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine dermatophytosis has a negative impact in cattle breeding and can cause zoonoses. The aim of this study was to report a ringworm outbreak in Brazil and to evaluate the presence of yeast in the lesions. After weaning, 88 hybrid beef heifers in feedlot were clinically investigated. Lesions suggestive of ringworm were observed in 95.5% of the animals. Hyaline hiphae were observed in 58.3% of the samples using direct microscopy with potassium hydroxide. Skin scrapings from 27 heifers with ringworm were inoculated Sabouraud dextrose agar and Mycosel Agar. Nineteen isolates of Trichophyton spp. were identified according to micromorphological characteristics observed with microculture technique. Yeasts were isolated from 24 heifers (88.8% and the most frequently identified species were Candida lusitaniae and C. glabrata. The meaning of these yeast species in the aetiology and pathogeny of bovine dermatophytosis may be evaluated in further epidemiological investigations.En los bovinos, los dermatofitos producen un impacto negativo en la cría de ganado y pueden causar zoonosis. El objetivo de este trabajo fue describir un brote de tiña en Brasil y evaluar la presencia de levaduras en las lesiones. Después del destete, 88 terneras de carne fueron investigadas clínicamente. Las lesiones típicas de tiña fueron constatadas en 95,5% de estos animales. En la microscopía directa con hidróxido de potasio se observaron hifas hialinas en 58,8% de las muestras. Raspados de piel de 27 terneras con tiña fueron inoculados en Agar Dextrosa Sabouraud y Agar Mycosel. Hubo diecinueve aislamientos de Trichophyton spp.. En 24 animales se aislaron levaduras (88,8% y las especies más frecuentes fueron Candida lusitaniae y C. glabrata. El significado de estas levaduras en la etiología y patogenia de la dermatofitosis bovina deben ser evaluadas en nuevos estudios epidemiológicos.

  3. The influence of oestrous substances on cyclicity and oestrous behaviour in dairy heifers

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    Nordéus Kristina

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Declining fertility is a major concern for dairy farmers today. One explanation is shorter and weaker expression of oestrus in dairy cows making it difficult to determine optimal time for artificial insemination (AI. Chemical communication is of interest in the search for tools to detect oestrus or to synchronise or enhance oestrous periods. Pheromones, used in chemical communication within species, can influence reproduction in different ways. The aim here was to investigate whether oestrous cycle length, and duration and intensity of oestrous expression in dairy heifers could be manipulated through exposure to pheromones in oestrual substances from other females. Methods Beginning on day 16 of two consecutive control oestrous cycles, ten heifers of the Swedish Red Breed (SRB were exposed to water. During the two following cycles the heifers were exposed to urine and vaginal mucus, obtained from cows in oestrus. Cyclicity parameters were monitored through hormone measurements, oestrus detection and ultrasonographic examination. Results We found no difference in cycle length or in duration of standing oestrus between control and treatment. We did, however, find a tendency of interaction between type of exposure (control or treatment and cycle number within type of exposure for cycle length (p = 0.068, with the length differing less between the treatment cycles. We also found a tendency of effect of type of exposure on maximal concentration (p = 0.073 and sum of concentrations (p = 0.063 of LH during the LH surge, with values being higher for the control cycles. There were also significant differences in when the different signs of oestrus occurred and in the intensity of oestrous expression. The score for oedema and hyperaemia of external genitalia was significantly higher (p = 0.004 for the control cycles and there was also a significant interaction between type of exposure and time period for restlessness (p = 0.011, with

  4. Relationships between residual feed intake, average daily gain, and feeding behavior in growing dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, T C; Jago, J G; Macdonald, K A; Waghorn, G C

    2013-05-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of an individual's efficiency in utilizing feed for maintenance and production during growth or lactation, and is defined as the difference between the actual and predicted feed intake of that individual. The objective of this study was to relate RFI to feeding behavior and to identify behavioral differences between animals with divergent RFI. The intakes and body weight (BW) of 1,049 growing dairy heifers (aged 5-9 mo; 195 ± 25.8 kg of BW) in 5 cohorts were measured for 42 to 49 d to ascertain individual RFI. Animals were housed in an outdoor feeding facility comprising 28 pens, each with 8 animals and 1 feeder per pen, and were fed a dried, cubed alfalfa diet. This forage diet was chosen because most dairy cows in New Zealand are grazed on ryegrass-dominant pastures, without grain or concentrates. An electronic feed monitoring system measured the intake and feeding behavior of individuals. Feeding behavior was summarized as daily intake, daily feeding duration, meal frequency, feeding rate, meal size, meal duration, and temporal feeding patterns. The RFI was moderately to strongly correlated with intake in all cohorts (r=0.54-0.74), indicating that efficient animals ate less than inefficient animals, but relationships with feeding behavior traits (meal frequency, feeding duration, and feeding rate) were weak (r=0.14-0.26), indicating that feeding behavior cannot reliably predict RFI in growing dairy heifers. Comparison of the extremes of RFI (10% most and 10% least efficient) demonstrated similar BW and average daily gain for both groups, but efficient animals ate less; had fewer, longer meals; shorter daily feeding duration; and ate more slowly than the least-efficient animals. These groups also differed in their feeding patterns over 24h, with the most efficient animals eating less and having fewer meals during daylight (0600 to 2100 h), especially during the afternoon (1200 to 1800 h), but ate for a longer time during

  5. Variation in residual feed intake in Holstein-Friesian dairy heifers in southern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Y J; Pryce, J E; Grainger, C; Wales, W J; Linden, N; Porker, M; Hayes, B J

    2011-09-01

    Feed conversion efficiency of dairy cattle is an important component of the profitability of dairying, given that the cost of feed accounts for much of total farm expenses. Residual feed intake (RFI) is a useful measure of feed conversion efficiency, as it can be used to compare individuals with the same or differing levels of production during the period of measurement. If genetic variation exists in RFI among dairy cattle, selection for lower RFI could improve profitability. In this experiment, RFI was defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected feed intake, which was determined by regression of dry matter (DM) intake against mean body weight (BW) and growth rate. Nine hundred and three Holstein-Friesian heifer calves, aged between 5 and 7 mo, were measured for RFI in 3 cohorts of approximately 300 animals. Calves were housed under feedlot style conditions in groups of 15 to 20 for 85 to 95 d and had ad libitum access to a cubed alfalfa hay. Intakes of individual animals were recorded via an electronic feed recording system and BW gain was determined by weighing animals once or twice weekly, over a period of 60 to 70 d. Calves had DM intake (mean ± SD) of 8.3±1.37 kg of DM/d over the measurement period with BW gains of 1.1±0.17 kg/d. In terms of converting feed energy for maintenance and growth, the 10% most efficient calves (lowest RFI) ate 1.7 kg of DM less each day than the 10% least efficient calves (highest RFI) for the same rate of growth. Low-RFI heifers also had a significantly lower rate of intake (g/min) than high-RFI heifers. The heritability estimate of RFI (mean ± SE) was 0.27 (±0.12). These results indicate that substantial genetic variation in RFI exists, and that the magnitude of this variation is large enough to enable this trait to be considered as a candidate trait for future dairy breeding goals. A primary focus of future research should be to ensure that calves that are efficient at converting feed

  6. Bioanalytical methods for the metalloproteomics study of bovine longissimus thoracis muscle tissue with different grades of meat tenderness in the Nellore breed (Bos indicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassini, Welder Angelo; Braga, Camila Pereira; Chardulo, Luis Artur Loyola; Vasconcelos Silva, Josineudson Augusto; Malheiros, Jessica Moraes; de Albuquerque, Lúcia Galvão; Fernandes, Talita Tanaka; Padilha, Pedro de Magalhães

    2015-02-15

    The work describes a metalloproteomics study of bovine muscle tissue with different grades of meat tenderness from animals of the Nellore breed (Bos indicus) based on protein separation by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the identification of calcium ions in protein spots by X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) and the characterisation of proteins by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. Forty (40) specimens were selected and divided into two experimental groups: animals with tough meat (TO) and animals with tender meat (TE). A third group (P) of Piedmontese breed animals (Bos taurus) was included to serve as a comparative model for the level of meat tenderness. The procedures were efficient and preserved the metal-protein structure, enabling calcium detection in protein spots by SR-XRF at a given molecular weight range of 14-97kDa. Two proteins (pyruvate kinase and albumin) were inferred to be related to the phenotypical differences in animals from the different groups.

  7. The effect of dietary monensin on th luteinizing hormone response of prepuberal heifers given a multiple gonadotropin-releasing hormone challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randel, R D; Rhodes, R C

    1980-10-01

    Ten prepuberal Simmental X Brahman-Hereford heifers (average weight 208 +/- 4 kg) were randomly assigned to receive either 2.7 kg/head/day of ground milo containing 0 mg monensin sodium (C) or 2.7 kg/head/day of ground milo containing 200 mg monensin sodium (M). Both groups of animals (n = 5) received Coastal bermudagrass hay ad libitum throughout the trial. On day 21 of the feeding period all heifers were fitted with jugular cannulas. Immediately after cannulation, the heifers were injected IM with 100 microgram of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and blood was collected every 10 min for 4 hours. Four hours after the first GnRH challenge, a second 100-microgram GnRH injection was administered, and blood samples were collected at 10-min intervals for an additional 5 hours. Serum was stored at -20 C until radioimmunoassayed for luteinizing hormone (LH). The amount of LH released after each GnRH injection was greater in the heifers fed M than in the controls (P less than .05). Peak LH after the first GnRH challenge was greater (P less than .05) in heifers fed M than in controls. The area under th first GnRH induced LH curve tended (P less than .20) to be greater for the M group than for the controls. Peak LH concentration was greater in heifers fed M than in control heifers, as the duration (P less than .05) and area under the second GnRH-induced LH curve. In prepuberal heifers, dietary monensin appears to increase hypophyseal capability of releasing LH after a first and second GnRH challenge.

  8. Long-term effects of human growth hormone-releasing hormone and photoperiod on hormone release and puberty in dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringuet, H; Pelletier, G; Brazeau, P; Gaudreau, P; Guilbault, L A; Morisset, J; Couture, Y; Petitclerc, D

    1994-10-01

    Forty-eight Holstein dairy heifers (98.9 kg BW; 3 mo old) were subjected for 246 d to twice-daily s.c. injections of saline (CTL) or human growth hormone-releasing hormone (GRH; 5 micrograms/kg BW) and to photoperiods of 8 h of light (L): 16 h of dark (D) or 16L:8D according to a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Jugular blood samples were collected from 16 heifers at 3, 4, 8, and 11 mo of age to monitor prolactin, growth hormone, and estradiol-17 beta. Plasma progesterone concentrations were monitored weekly in all heifers as an index of puberty (> 1 ng/mL). Growth hormone release was induced by GRH (P GRH heifers. However, GRH-induced GH response was less (P GRH, photoperiod, and days of treatment on GRH-induced GH response; AUC was greater in GRH-16L:8D than in GRH-8L:16D heifers at 3 mo but less at 8 mo of age. The PRL concentrations were similar for both photoperiods at 3 mo (36.4 vs 41.7 ng/mL) and 8 mo (16.2 vs 12.8 ng/mL) of age but were greater in 16L:8D vs 8L:16D heifers at 4 mo (18.4 vs 39.3 ng/mL) and 11 mo (26.3 vs 44.1 ng/mL) of age (photoperiod x day interaction, P GRH-treated heifers (271 vs 284 kg BW; GRH x photoperiod interaction, P = .10). In conclusion, GH response is maintained throughout 8 mo of GRH treatment, and a 16L:8D photoperiod will reduce age and weight at puberty in heifers. Furthermore, refractoriness to photoperiod-induced PRL changes was detected.

  9. Feeding microalgae meal (All-G Rich; CCAP 4067/2) to beef heifers. II: Effects on ground beef color and palatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, K J; Drouillard, J S; O'Quinn, T G; Burnett, D D; Blackmon, T L; Axman, J E; Van Bibber-Krueger, C L; Gonzalez, J M

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of feeding microalgae meal (All-G Rich, CCAP 4087/2; Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) to finishing heifers on 85% lean and 15% fat (85/15) ground beef PUFA content, palatability, and color stability. Crossbred heifers ( = 288; 452 ± 23 kg initial BW) were allocated to pens (36 pens and 8 heifers/pen), stratified by initial pen BW (3,612 ± 177 kg), and randomly assigned within strata to 1 of 4 treatments: 0, 50, 100, and 150 g·heifer·d of microalgae meal. After 89 d of feeding, a subset of heifers (3/pen) was harvested and the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and vastus intermedius were collected for processing into ground beef. At 42 d postmortem, 85/15 ground beef was formulated and formed into 112-g patties and fatty acid composition, subjective palatability, and 96-h retail color stability analyses were conducted. Increasing dietary microalgae meal concentration increased ground beef 20:5-3 and 22:6-3 fatty acids (quadratic, microalgae tended ( = 0.08) to decrease L*, but patties had similar L* values the remainder of display ( > 0.12). Feeding microalgae meal affected ( = 0.02) b* at 24 h and decreased (linear, = 0.08) b* at 48 h. From h 0 to 36 of display, microalgae affected redness of patties ( microalgae meal decreased a* value (linear, Microalgae meal did not impact sensory panel firmness, overall tenderness, or juiciness scores ( > 0.20) but tended to affect ( = 0.10) cohesiveness scores. As the amount of microalgae meal fed to heifers increased, beef flavor intensity decreased (linear, microalgae meal from 12 to 36 h of display ( microalgae meal to heifers decreased (linear, microalgae meal to heifers increases the PUFA content of 85/15 ground beef, there are undesirable effects on flavor and color stability.

  10. Effects of co-grazing dairy heifers with goats on animal performance, dry matter yield, and pasture forage composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, T S; Unruh-Snyder, L J; Neary, M K; Nennich, T D

    2012-12-01

    Mixed livestock grazing can offer an alternative management system for rearing dairy replacement heifers (Bos taurus). A 2-yr study was conducted during 2009 (yr 1) and 2010 (yr 2) to determine the effects of co-grazing Holstein heifers under rotational stocking with Boer × Kiko goats on animal performance, pasture DM yield, and botanical composition. Each year, 24 heifers (134 ± 6 d of age and 147.4 ± 31.2 kg BW in yr 1; 166 ± 11 d of age and 168.0 ± 27.6 kg BW in yr 2) and 6 goats (2 yr old and 39.7 ± 16.2 kg BW in yr 1; 1 yr old and 33.7 ± 7.4 kg BW in yr 2) were divided into 6 paddocks with 4 heifers and 2 goats, where applicable, per group. Low endophyte-infected tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and white clover (Trifolium repens L.) pastures were used to evaluate 2 grazing strategies (heifers grazed alone [HO] or heifers co-grazed with goats [HG]). In addition, 6 goats were assigned to 2 paddocks and grazed alone (GO) each year to estimate goat pasture forage intake and compare Haemonchus contortus infection to co-grazed goats. Forage samples were taken monthly to assess DM yield and botanical composition. Samples collected for botanical composition were manually sorted into grass, legume, and weed species. Forage DMI was estimated using a rising plate meter before and after grazing. Heifer BW at the conclusion of yr 1 and yr 2 did not differ between HO and HG (P = 0.40 and P = 0.12, respectively). Likewise, overall ADG did not differ between HO and HG, averaging 0.65 kg/d and 0.63 kg/d over both grazing seasons (P = 0.70). Grazing strategy did not affect forage or total DMI in yr 1; however, HO consumed 2.3 kg/d more forage DM than HG (P < 0.01), resulting in greater total DMI for HO in yr 2 (P < 0.01). Heights at the hip and withers were greater for HO than for HG during both grazing seasons (P < 0.05). Weed presence did not differ between grazing strategies over both grazing seasons as determined by manual harvesting, but visual estimation

  11. Influence of low-stress handling on reactivity score and pregnancy rate during fixed-time artificial insemination in Nellore cows

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    Rayf Roberto Tirloni

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of low-stress handling (LSH on reactivity score and pregnancy rate during fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI for extensively raised Nellore cows. Multiparous cows (n = 126 were randomly allocated into two groups: G1 (n = 66 and G2, the control group (n = 60. Group G1 was subjected to LSH, in which the animals were handled in a calm and quiet manner, without loud noises or physical aggression, using the point of balance, respecting the flight zone and using flags to supplement handling. Group G2 was handled following the typical procedure, with yelling, kicking and the use of electric prods and sticks. On D0, D8 and D10, FTAI was performed in both groups. Reactivity was scored on D0, D8 and D10 at the squeeze chute, based on the tension score, breathing score, and bellowing score. Using the three criteria above, the reactivity scores were defined as follows: R1 (calm; R2 (slightly reactive; R3 (moderately reactive; R4 (reactive; and R5 (highly reactive. Thirty-five days after artificial insemination, pregnancy was determined using ultrasonography. There was no significant correlation between reactivity score and pregnancy rate in each group or between the pregnancy rates in both groups. However, there was a statistically significant difference between the G1 and G2 groups with regard to reactivity score (1.62±0.05 vs. 2.12±0.07. Low-stress handling influenced reactivity but did not affect pregnancy rate in extensively raised Nellore cows subjected to FTAI.

  12. Utilization of dental health-care services and its barriers among the patients visiting community health centers in Nellore District, Andhra Pradesh: A cross-sectional, questionnaire study

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    P Nagarjuna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The primary health centers and community health centers (CHCs offer an opportunity for early diagnosis and treatment, dental health education, and institution of preventive measures in the remote areas. Aim: To assess the level of utilization of dental health care services and to determine barriers that prevent utilization of dental health-care services among the patients visiting CHCs in Nellore District, Andhra Pradesh. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 600 patients aged 20 years and above visiting the randomly selected 10 CHCs during May 2015 in Nellore District. A multistage sampling method was followed. The source of data was primary in nature and it was obtained through self-administered questionnaire. Data was entered and analyzed using a software program IBM SPSS Statistics version 22 (Armonk, NY: IBM Corp (P < 0.05. Results: Only 36% of patients had visited the dentist in the last 12 months. Males (54% visited dentist more frequently than females (46%. The most common reported reasons for the last dental visit were pain or a dental emergency (71%, followed by restorative treatment (17% and other reasons (12%. The most commonly reported reasons for not seeking dental care were “Not needed unless having pain” by 360 (60%, “I do not think dental diseases are very serious” by 304 (51%, “I have fear of dental procedures” by 290 (48.6%,“Lack of time” by 235 (45.6%, “Dental treatment is expensive” by 200 (33.3%, and “The dentist is at a long distance” by 158 (26.8%. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that only a small portion of population visited a dentist in previous year. Most of them believe that visiting dentist is necessary only for pain relief.

  13. High levels of whole raw soybean in diets for Nellore bulls in feedlot: effect on growth performance, carcass traits and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cônsolo, N R B; Gardinal, R; Gandra, J R; de Freitas Junior, J E; Rennó, F P; Santana, M H de A; Pflanzer Junior, S B; Pereira, A S C

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of whole raw soybean (WRS) in the finishing diet of Nellore cattle on productive performance, carcass traits, meat quality, fatty acid profile of meat, and blood parameters. In a completely randomized design, 52 Nellore bulls (mean body weight ± SD: 380 ± 34 kg) were allotted for 84 days. The animals received the following diets with a forage: concentrate ratio of 40/60: (i) WRS0: control diet without soybean grains; (ii) WRS8: diet containing 8% WRS in dry matter basis; (iii) WRS16: diet containing 16% WRS, and (iv) WRS24: diet containing 24% WRS. At intervals of 28 days, the animals were weighed, muscle and adipose tissue was analysed by ultrasound, and blood samples were collected. The animals were slaughtered on day 85 and liver weight and hot carcass weight were measured during slaughter. The pH and carcass dressing were calculated at 24 h after slaughter. Longissimus dorsi muscle samples were collected for the determination of fatty acid profile of meat, ether extract, tenderness and sensory analysis of meat aged for 14 days. Blood cholesterol content increased linearly with increasing proportion of whole raw soybean grains. The diet did not affect performance or carcass attributes. The WRS8 had the highest shear force values. In fatty acid profile, C14:0 decreased (p = 0.05), whereas 16:1, 20:0 and 20:1 fatty acids increased linearly with increasing proportion of WRS (p changes in fatty acid profile and tenderness, in animals fed diets containing 16 or 24% soybean.

  14. Heparin-binding proteins of seminal plasma in Nellore bulls Proteínas ligadoras à heparina do plasma seminal em touros Nelore

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    Carlos Eurico Fernandes

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify heparin-binding proteins (HBPs in seminal plasma of Nellore (Bos taurus indicus bulls. Bulls (n=4, 30-36 months old, 500-550kg with satisfactory seminal quality were selected. After the centrifugation, samples of the seminal plasma were pooled and the HBPs were isolated by heparin-affinity chromatography. The recovered HBPs fractions were pooled. One-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDSPAGE 12.5% was performed in vertical minigels. Eight bands with molecular weights ranging from 15 to 63kDa were observed. Two proteins were identified (22 and 25kDa, similar to those previously described in Bos taurus taurus bulls. Other bands identified in this study (39, 53, 58 and 63kDa have not been previously observed and possibly they are specific to Nellore semen.O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar proteínas ligadoras à heparina no plasma seminal de touros Nelore (Bos taurus indicus. Para tanto, foram selecionados quatro touros entre 30 e 36 meses de idade e peso aproximado de 500-550kg. Após centrifugação, amostras do plasma seminal foram misturadas e as proteínas ligadoras à heparina foram isoladas por meio da cromatografia por afinidade. As frações após a eluição foram agrupadas para caracterização das bandas protéicas (SDSPAGE, 12,5%. Foram identificadas oito bandas protéicas variando entre 15 e 63kDa. Duas proteínas com 22 e 25kDa foram similares às descritas em touros Bos taurus taurus. Outras proteínas identificadas com 39, 53, 58 e 63kDa ainda não foram descritas e possivelmente sejam específicas para Bos taurus indicus.

  15. Impaired protamination and sperm DNA damage in a Nellore bull with high percentages of morphological sperm defects in comparison to normospermic bulls

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    J.T. Carreira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The routine semen evaluation assessing sperm concentration, motility and morphology, does not identify subtle defects in sperm chromatin architecture. Bulls appear to have stable chromatin, with low levels of DNA fragmentation. However, the nature of fragmentation and its impact on fertility remain unclear and there are no detailed reports characterizing the DNA organization and damage in this species. The intensive genetic selection, the use of artificial insemination and in vitro embryo production associated to the cryopreservation process can contribute to the chromatin damage and highlights the importance of sperm DNA integrity for the success of these technologies. Frozen-thawed semen samples from three ejaculates from a Nellore bull showed high levels of morphological sperm abnormalities (55.8±5.1%, and were selected for complementary tests. Damage of acrosomal (76.9±8.9% and plasma membranes (75.7±9.3% as well as sperm DNA strand breaks (13.8±9.5% and protamination deficiency (3.7±0.6% were significantly higher compared to the values measured in the semen of five Nellore bulls with normospermia (24.3±3.3%; 24.5±6.1%; 0.6±0.5%; 0.4±0.6% for acrosome, plasma membrane, DNA breaks and protamine deficiency, respectively (P<0.05. Motility and percentage of spermatozoa with low mitochondrial potential showed no differences between groups. This study shows how routine semen analyses (in this case morphology may point to the length and complexity of sperm cell damage emphasizing the importance of sperm function testing.

  16. Influence of category--heifers, primiparous and multiparous lactating cows--in a large-scale resynchronization fixed-time artificial insemination program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Márcio de Oliveira; Morotti, Fábio; da Silva, Camila Bizarro; Júnior, Mario Ribeiro; da Silva, Rubens César Pinto; Baruselli, Pietro Sampaio; Seneda, Marcelo Marcondes

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of category (heifers, primiparous or multiparous cows) on pregnancy rates in a large scale resynchronization ovulation program. Nelore heifers (n = 903), primiparous lactating cows (n = 338) and multiparous lactating cows (n = 1,223) were synchronized using a conventional protocol of estradiol/P4-based fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI). Thirty days after ultrasonography, females who failed the first FTAI were resynchronized with the same hormonal protocol prior to a second FTAI. The pregnancy status of each cohort was evaluated by ultrasonography 30 days after each FTAI. The average conception rate after the first FTAI and resynchronization was 80.5%. Heifers had a higher conception rate (85%) than primiparous (76%) or multiparous cows (78%; p = 0.0001). The conception rate after the first FTAI was similar among heifers (57%), primiparous cows (51%) and multiparous cows (56%; p = 0.193). After the second FTAI, heifers exhibited a higher conception rate (66%) than primiparous or multiparous cows (51%; p = 0.0001). These results demonstrate the feasibility of resynchronization in large beef herds for providing consistent pregnancy rates in a short period of time. We also demonstrated that ovulation resynchronization 30 days after FTAI is particularly effective for heifers, providing a conception rate of up to 66%.

  17. INGESTIVE BEHAVIOR IN HEIFERS FED DIETS CONTAINING SUGARCANE TREATED OR NOT WITH CALCIUM OXIDE

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    Carlos Giovani Pancoti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the ingestive behavior of 18 Holstein-Zebu heifers with average initial live weight of 250 kg, confined in Tie Stall system with individual feeders and drinkers, divided in blocks, fed with sugarcane treated or not with 1% in natural matter of calcium oxide (CaO after 24 hours of hydrolysis, at different times of administration of the mixture of urea and ammonium sulfate (zero and 24 hours. The animals were observed every ten minutes during 24 hours to determine the time (minutes spent on feeding, water drinking, ruminating and idle. Differences between means were evaluated by SNK test at 5% significance. There was increased (P

  18. Welfare of buffalo heifers in relation to feeding and space allowance

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    A. Bordi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Forty buffalo heifers of approximately 19 months of age were used. Subjects, with a mean live weight of 390 kg, were randomly and equally allocated for 12 weeks to 4 groups. Thus, the experimental design was a 2 x 2 factorial with two space allowances (2.3 indoor slatted floor and 2.3 indoor slatted floor + 15 outdoor yard m2/head and two dietary protein levels (8.9% and 13.4% of DM. All animals were weighed at group constitution and then at monthly intervals. Behaviour. Three sessions of behavioural observations were made every 10 minutes over a 6 hour period (10.00 to 16.00 h, recording posture (standing or, when lying, number of outstretched legs and activity such as feeding, ruminating, drinking, locomotion, idling. Rapid behaviours such as agonistic and non agonistic interactions were recorded continuously........

  19. Neospora caninum DNA detection by TaqMan real-time PCR assay in experimentally infected pregnant heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Gabriel Ribas; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flores; Bohrer, Rodrigo Camponogara; da Nóbrega, Janduí Escarião; Ilha, Gustavo Freitas; da Rosa, Paulo Roberto Antunes; Glanzner, Werner Giehl; Camillo, Giovana; Braunig, Patricia; de Oliveira, João Francisco Coelho; Gonçalves, Paulo Bayard Dias

    2014-01-31

    Neosporosis has been considered the main cause of abortion between the first and the second trimester of pregnancy in cattle. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify the presence of Neospora caninum DNA obtained from experimental models based on the evaluation of different areas of the fetal nervous system and organs from heifers previously inoculated with NC-1 after or before insemination. This study was performed with Hereford × Nelore (n=29) heifers and all animals were considered free of diseases at the beginning of the experiment. All animals were bred by fixed-time artificial insemination (TAI) and allocated as follows: (a) seronegative heifers subjected to TAI (TAI, n=9), (b) heifers infected with N. caninun 60 days prior to TAI (NC-1+TAI, n=9), and (c) heifers submitted to TAI and infected with N. caninum 60 days later (TAI+NC-1, n=11). The pregnancy was confirmed by transrectal ultrasonography 35 days after TAI and evaluated every 30 days until the end of gestation. Fetuses were collected surgically at 170 days of gestation, and immediately necropsied to remove tissues aseptically. Samples of the central nervous system (CNS), heart, kidney, lung, liver, skeletal muscle and caruncle were collected for DNA extraction. Days of gestation at abortion and interval from abortion to first insemination were examined by Student's t-test. At 35 days of gestation the pregnancy rates in the group NC-1+TAI (4/9, 44.4%) was lower than in the control group (8/9, 88.8%, P<0.05). At 60 days, the pregnancy rates in the NC-1+TAI group (0/4, 0%) was lower compared to TAI+NC-1 (5/7, 71.4%) and control (6/8, 75.0%) groups (P<0.05). Animals from the group NC-1+TAI were re-inseminated 60 days after the first TAI. After pregnancy losses throughout the study, 5 animals (TAI), 3 animals (NC-1+TAI) and 5 animals (TAI+NC-1) maintained pregnancy until 170 days of gestation. TaqMan RT-PCR demonstrated the presence of N. caninum DNA in the medulla and right posterior

  20. Effects of two different blends of naturally mycotoxin-contaminated maize meal on growth and metabolic profile in replacement heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeni, F; Migliorati, L; Terzano, G M; Capelletti, M; Gallo, A; Masoero, F; Pirlo, G

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this trial was to assess the effects of the administration of different combinations of mycotoxins in naturally contaminated maize grains on dairy heifer growth, blood measurements and puberty onset. A total of 35 Friesian female heifers were randomly allotted to three experimental groups from 18-21 to 42-45 weeks of age. During the 24-week experimental period (EP), heifers were fed the same diet, but with maize meal derived from three differently contaminated lots: very low contamination, as control (C); medium-low aflatoxin-contaminated (A); and mixed aflatoxin-fumonisin contaminated (A-F). At the end of the EP, they returned to a common diet without contaminated maize, and they were monitored for an additional period of 12 weeks (post-experimental period, PEP). BW, wither height, hip height, body length and heart girth were measured every 4 weeks from the beginning of EP to the end of PEP. At the same time, body condition score was evaluated and blood samples were taken from the jugular vein to be analysed for haematological, serum protein and metabolic profiles. Age at puberty was assessed by measuring weekly plasma progesterone levels from 40 to 52 weeks of age. Body growth measurements were processed both by ANOVA of average daily gain of EP and PEP separately, and by the analysis of growth curve parameters. Haematological, serum protein and metabolic profile were evaluated using a mixed model, taking into account the repeated measurements in time on each animal. Heifers' growth was delayed both in A and A-F groups during EP, as evidenced by the different linear coefficients of the BW growth curve in the three groups. Differently contaminated diets did not affect the haematological profile, so that it can be concluded that these levels of mycotoxin contamination do not determine any specific effect on haematopoiesis and immunity in growing heifers. The main blood marker of mycotoxin chronic toxicity was the γ-glutamyl transferase activity level in

  1. AVALIAÇÃO DAS VÍSCERAS DE NOVILHOS NELORE E F1 NELORE X SINDI AOS 36 E 48 MESES DE IDADE VISCERA EVALUATION OF NELLORE AND F1 NELLORE X SIND STEERS WITH 36 AND 48 MONTHS OLD AGE

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    Otavio Cabral Neto

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com esta pesquisa avaliar o peso das vísceras de novilhos de dois grupos genéticos. Utilizaramse dezesseis machos castrados, sendo oito bovinos Nelore e oito F1 Nelore x Sindi com 36 e 48 meses de idade, confinados em baias separadas. Os animais receberam a mesma dieta e foram abatidos com peso médio de 460,0 (±10,1 kg. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2 (dois grupos genéticos x 2 (duas idades. Não houve interação entre grupo genético e idade. O fator idade também não apresentou diferença para as características estudadas. Não houve influência do grupo genético para os pesos do trato digestivo, rins, fígado e pulmões. Animais Nelore apresentaram maior peso do coração (1,6 vs 1,2 Kg e do baço (1,1 vs 0,9 Kg do que bovinos F1 Nelore x Sindi. Conclui-se que o produto do cruzamento Nelore x Sindi promoveu redução no peso do coração e baço, mas as idades estudadas não exercem influência no peso das vísceras. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Baço, coração, fígado, pulmão, rim The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the viscera weight of steers from two genetic groups. Sixteen castrated males were utilized, being eight Nellore and eight F1 Nellore x Sind steers with 36 and 48 month of age, confined in separated boxes. Animals received the same diet and were slaughtered at average weight of 460,0 (±10,1 kg. The experimental design was completely randomized in factorial arrangement 2 (two genetic groups x 2 (two ages. There was no interaction between genetic group and age. The age factor didn’t present difference for the characteristics studied. There was no influence of the genetic group for the weight of the digestive tract, kidneys, liver and lungs. Nellore animals presented higher weight of hearth (1,6 vs 1,2 kg and spleen (1,1 vs 0,9 kg than F1 Nellore x Sind cattle. It was concluded that Nellore x Sind bred product promoted reduction on hearth and spleen weight

  2. Efeitos da raça e da heterozigose sobre características ponderais de bezerros Nelore e mestiços Red Angus x Nelore Breed and heterozygosity effects on body weight traits of Nellore and crossbred Red Angus x Nellore calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Perotto

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O efeito direto da raça Red Angus (, computado como desvio a partir do efeito direto Nelore (, e os efeitos das heterozigoses individual ( e materna (, resultantes do cruzamento entre essas duas raças, foram estimados. Foi usado o método da regressão múltipla para analisar os pesos ao nascimento (PNT, à desmama (PDS e aos 12 meses (P12M e os ganhos de peso médios diários do nascimento à desmama (GMD_ND e da desmama aos 12 meses (GMD_DA. Um total de 410 bezerros dos grupos Nelore, 1/2 Red Angus+1/2 Nelore, 3/4 Nelore+1/4 Red Angus e 3/4 Red Angus+1/4 Nelore, nascidos no período de 1985 a 1995, na Estação Experimental Paranavaí, no Noroeste do Estado do Paraná-Brasil, forneceu os dados para estudo. O PDS e o GMD_ND foram corrigidos para 205 dias de idade e o P12M e o GMD_DA, para 365 dias de idade. O efeito direto da raça Angus ( não mostrou significância para qualquer característica analisada. O efeito da heterozigose indivdual ( foi significativo para todas as características, exceto para o PNT. Os coeficientes de regressão parcial do PDS, GMD_ND, P12M e GMD_DA sobre a fração esperada de loci heterozigotos no genótipo do bezerro foram: 31±6 kg, 0,143±0,028 kg, 55±7 kg e 0,126±0,032 kg. O efeito da heterozigose materna ( mostrou significância para PNT, PDS, GMD_ND e P12M. Os correspondentes coeficientes de regressão parcial foram 2,8±0,7 kg, 27±4 kg, 0,117±0,019 kg e 19±5 kg.The direct effect of Red Angus (, computed as deviation from the direct effect of Nellore (, and the effects of individual ( and maternal ( heterozygosity, resulting from crossing these breeds were estimated. The multiple regression method was used to analyze birth weight (PNT, weaning weight (PDS, yearling weight (P12M, and for the daily weight gain from birth to weaning time (GMD_ND and from weaning to 12 months (GMD_DA. A total of 410 calves from the groups of Nellore, 1/2 Red Angus+1/2 Nellore, 3/4 Nellore+1/4 Red Angus and 3/4 Red Angus+1

  3. 2,6-Diaminopimelic acid (DAPA in microbial protein quantification of heifers fed different forage sources

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    Cristovão Colombo de Carvalho Couto Filho

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the flow of nitrogenous compounds, protein degradability, rumen degradation of total carbohydrate and organic matter and microbial efficiency in heifers subjected to diets containing corn silage, sugarcane or Tifton. For this purpose, the 2,6-diaminopimelic acid (DAPA technique was adopted and analytical procedures for amino acids by HPLC were adapted. Six rumen-fistulated Holstein-Zebu heifers with 480 kg of initial BW and at 24 months of age kept in individual tie stalls were assigned to two 3 × 3 Latin squares. Omasal digesta dry matter and microbial dry matter flows were determined using the isolated, purified and enriched lignin (LIPE® and DAPA markers, respectively. Isolated bacteria from rumen showed on average 5.84 g/100 g microbial N, 0.25 g/100 g DAPA in dry matter and 44.61 DAPA:N ratio. The forage sources did not influence the flows of nitrogen compounds, except for total omasal flow and non-ammonia N in relation to N intake for the corn silage diet, for which there was an upward trend compared with the other diets. The degradation of the organic matter and total carbohydrates did not differ, averaging 6.1 kg/day and 5.2 kg/day, respectively. The studied forage sources do not influence the flows of nitrogen compounds, except for total omasal flow and non-ammonia N in relation N intake for the corn silage diet, for which there is an upward trend compared with the other diets. Protein degradability and microbial efficiency are similar between evaluated diets.

  4. Dairy heifer manure management, dietary phosphorus, and soil test P effects on runoff phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, William E; Coblentz, Wayne K; Hoffman, Patrick C

    2012-01-01

    Manure application to cropland can contribute to runoff losses of P and eutrophication of surface waters. We conducted a series of three rainfall simulation experiments to assess the effects of dairy heifer dietary P, manure application method, application rate, and soil test P on runoff P losses from two successive simulated rainfall events. Bedded manure (18-21% solids) from dairy heifers fed diets with or without supplemental P was applied on a silt loam soil packed into 1- by 0.2-m sheet metal pans. Manure was either surface-applied or incorporated (Experiment 1) or surface-applied at two rates (Experiment 2) to supply 26 to 63 kg P ha. Experiment 3 evaluated runoff P from four similar nonmanured soils with average Bray P1-extractable P levels of 11, 29, 51, and 75 mg kg. We measured runoff quantity, total P (TP), dissolved reactive P (DRP), and total and volatile solids in runoff collected for 30 min after runoff initiation from two simulated rain events (70 mm h) 3 or 4 d apart. Manure incorporation reduced TP and DRP concentrations and load by 85 to 90% compared with surface application. Doubling the manure rate increased runoff DRP and TP concentrations an average of 36%. In the same experiment, P diet supplementation increased water-extractable P in manure by 100% and increased runoff DRP concentration threefold. Concentrations of solids, TP, and DRP in runoff from Rain 2 were 25 to 75% lower than from Rain 1 in Experiments 1 and 2. Runoff DRP from nonmanured soils increased quadratically with increasing soil test P. These results show that large reductions in P runoff losses can be achieved by incorporation of manure, avoiding unnecessary diet P supplementation, limiting manure application rate, and managing soils to prevent excessive soil test P levels.

  5. Clinical features and hormonal profiles of cloprostenol-induced early abortions in heifers monitored by ultrasonography

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    Beckers Jean-François

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study describes the clinical features and plasma profiles of bovine pregnancy-associated glycoprotein 1 (bPAG1, the main metabolite of prostaglandin F2α (PG metabolite and progesterone (P4 in heifers in which early abortions were induced. Methods Early abortions were induced in four heifers with cloprostenol and monitored by ultrasonography. Blood samples were collected and the plasma were analyzed for bPAG 1, P4 and PG metabolite. Results The foetal heartbeat rates varied from 170–186 beats per minute for all foetuses up to the date of cloprostenol treatment. Foetal death was confirmed within two days after cloprostenol treatment. Prior to cloprostenol injection, blood plasma concentrations of bPAG1, PG metabolite and P4 varied from 8.4 – 40.0 ng/mL, 158 – 275 pmol/L and 20.7 – 46.9 nmol/L, respectively. After the foetus expelled, the plasma level of bPAG1 began to decrease but the decrease was small and gradual. The estimated half-life of bPAG1 was 1.8 – 6.6 days. The plasma level of the PG metabolite started to have short lasting peaks (above 300 pmol/L within three hours after cloprostenol treatment. The plasma concentrations of P4 dropped sharply to less than 4 nmol/L after 24 hours of cloprostenol injection. Conclusion The current findings indicated that after early closprostenol-induced foetal death, the plasma concentration of bPAG1 decreased gradually and showed a tendency of variation with the stages of pregnancy.

  6. Balanço de compostos nitrogenados e estimativa das exigências de proteína de mantença de bovinos Nelore de três condições sexuais Effects of increasing dietary crude protein levels on nitrogen balance and metabolizable protein requirements for maintenance in Nellore cattle

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    Robson Magno Liberal Véras

    2007-08-01

    protein requirements for maintenance in Nellore heifers, bulls and steers averaging 16 months of age and body weight of 254.8, 285.1, and 265.6 kg, respectively. Animals were blocked by sexual category (heifers, bulls and steers and randomly assigned to treatments in three replicated 4 x 4 Latin squares. Diets contained the following CP levels: 7, 10, 13, and 15%. Estimation of fecal DM output and duodenal DM flow was done using the internal marker indigestible ADF. Total collection of urine was conducted from day 13 to day 14 on each period. Metabolic fecal nitrogen, urinary endogenous losses and total endogenous losses were all estimated using a regression approach. No significant effect of sexual category was observed for any of the studied variables, excepting for N intake that was greater on steers than heifers. N intake, urinary and fecal N excretions, and N balance increased linearly when the dietary CP level varied from 7 to 15%. Fecal metabolic N and urinary endogenous N averaged 6.69 gN/kg of DMI and 0.133 g N/kg0.75 across diets, respectively. The net protein requirement was estimated as 0.431 gN/kg0.75 or 2.69 g of protein/kg0.75. No effect of sexual category on metabolizable protein requirements for maintenance (approximately 4.0 g/kg0.75 was observed in this trial.

  7. Combined use of progesterone inserts, ultrasongraphy, and GnRH to identify and resynchronize nonpregnant cows and heifers 21 days after timed artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, D E; Ibarbia, L; Daetz, R; Bittar, J H; Risco, C A; Santos, J E P; Ribeiro, E S; Galvão, K N

    2016-01-15

    The objective was to decrease the reinsemination interval (RI) when dairy cows and heifers are inseminated using all timed artificial insemination (TAI) programs. Holstein cows (n = 211) and heifers (n = 153) were randomly assigned to a control or 21-day Resynch (21dRES) at 13 days after TAI. Animals in 21dRES (n = 109 cows and 77 heifers) had a progesterone device inserted on Day 13 and removed on Day 20 after TAI and ovaries scanned by ultrasonography. Animals found not to have an active CL (<15 mm) or a CL that decreased 10 mm or greater from Days 13 to 20, and to have a follicle of 12 mm or greater received GnRH and TAI on Day 21. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed on Day 32. Nonpregnant control cows (n = 102) were resynchronized immediately using Ovsynch-56, and control heifers (n = 76) were resynchronized using 5-day Cosynch starting on Day 34; therefore, cows and heifers were reinseminated on Day 42. Nonpregnant 21dRES animals that had not been reinseminated on Day 21 were resynchronized concurrently with the control animals. Pregnancy per AI (PAI) for the initial TAI was similar (P = 0.80) for 21dRES and control cows (30.3% vs. 29.4%) and heifers (49.4% vs. 51.3%). Of the nonpregnant 21dRES animals, 33 of 76 cows (43.4%) and 22 of 39 heifers (56.4%) had been reinseminated on Day 21. Therefore, the RI was decreased by 9.9 days (33.3 ± 1.0 vs. 43.2 ± 1.0 days; P < 0.001) in 21dRES cows and by 12.2 days in 21dRES heifers (30.1 ± 1.3 vs. 42.3 ± 1.3 days; P < 0.001) compared with controls. The overall resynchronized PAI was similar for 21dRES cows compared with controls (31.6% vs. 25.0%; P = 0.23). The PAI was 24.2% for 21dRES cows reinseminated on Day 21 and 37.2% for 21dRES cows reinseminated on Day 42. The overall resynchronized PAI was increased for 21dRES heifers compared with controls (57.5% vs. 32.4%; P = 0.03) because 21dRES heifers reinseminated on Day 21 had similar PAI compared with controls (43.5% vs. 32

  8. Evaluation of physical structure value in spring-harvested grass/clover silage and hay fed to heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, A.K.S.; Nørgaard, P.; Byskov, M.V.;

    2015-01-01

    The physical structure value of conserved grass/clover forages of spring harvest was evaluated by assessing effects of harvest time, conservation method, iNDF/NDF ratio and NDF intake (NDFI) per kg BW on chewing activity and fecal particle size in dairy heifers. A mixed sward consisting of ryegrass...... of 315, 436, 414 and 503 g/kg DM, respectively. Forages were fed as sole feed to four Jersey heifers of 435±30 kg BW in a 4×4 Latin square experiment. Feeding level was 90% of individual ad libitum intake, divided equally across two daily meals offered at 0800 and 1530 h. Chewing activity was estimated......, and suggests implementation of NDFI per kg BW in systems evaluating physical structure in diets....

  9. Características de Carcaça e da Carne de Novilhos Filhos de Vacas 1/2 Nelore 1/2 Charolês e 1/2 Charolês 1/2 Nelore Acasaladas com Touros Charolês ou Nelore Carcass and Meat Characteristics of Steers Produced by 1/2 Nellore 1/2 Charolais and 1/2 Charolais 1/2 Nellore Cows Mated with Charolais and Nellore Bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Nunes Vaz

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do cruzamento entre vacas 1/2 Nelore 1/2 Charolês com touros Charolês e 1/2 Charolês 1/2 Nelore com touros Nelore, sobre as características de carcaça e da carne de novilhos oriundos desses acasalamentos, abatidos aos dois anos de idade. Foram utilizados 80 novilhos 3/4 Nelore (N 1/4 Charolês (C e 136 novilhos 3/4 C 1/4 N. Os dados foram coletados de setembro de 1986 a dezembro de 1998. O modelo estatístico utilizado incluiu os efeitos classificatórios de grupo contemporâneo, idade da vaca e composição racial, bem como o efeito da idade do animal ao abate como covariável. Os novilhos 3/4 C 1/4 N foram superiores em peso de fazenda (468 contra 448 kg, conformação de carcaça (11,3 contra 10,4 pontos, porcentagem de músculo (66,9 contra 64,8%, área de Longissimus dorsi (69,5 contra 64,7 cm², área de Longissimus dorsi ajustada para o peso de carcaça fria (27,9 contra 26,6 cm², comprimento de carcaça (126 contra 123 cm, perímetro de braço (36,5 contra 35,4 cm e maciez da carne (6,50 contra 5,20 pontos, enquanto os 3/4 N 1/4 C apresentaram maiores rendimento de carcaça (54,6 contra 53,7%, comprimento de perna (74,0 contra 72,0 cm e de braço (41,5 contra 39,7 cm, espessura de gordura subcutânea (3,29 contra 2,70 mm e porcentagem de gordura na carcaça (19,5 contra 17,8%. Não foi verificada diferença significativa para peso de carcaça fria, cor, textura, marmoreio, palatabilidade e suculência da carne.The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the carcass and meat characteristics of two year old steers, produced by the mating of 1/2 Nellore 1/2 Charolais cows with Charolais bulls and by mating 1/2 Charolais 1/2 Nellore cows with Nellore bulls. Eighty 3/4 Nellore 1/4 Charolais (NC and 136 3/4 Charolais 1/4 Nellore steers were used. The data were collected from September 1986 to December 1998. In the statistical model were included the contemporary group

  10. Global proteomic characterization of uterine histotroph recovered from beef heifers yielding good quality and degenerate day 7 embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltman, M E; Mullen, M P; Elia, G; Hilliard, M; Diskin, M G; Evans, A C; Crowe, M A

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to analyze the proteomic composition of uterine flushes collected from beef heifers on day 7 after insemination. Estrus was synchronized in crossbred beef heifers by using a protocol with a controlled intravaginal drug releasing device. Heifers detected in standing estrus (within 24-48 h after removal of controlled intravaginal drug releasing device) were inseminated (estrus = day 0) with frozen-thawed semen from a single ejaculate of a bull with proven fertility. Heifers from which an embryo was recovered (after slaughter on day 7) were classified as either having a viable embryo (morula/blastocyst stage) or a degenerate embryo (arrested at the 2- to 16-cell stage). The overall recovery rate (viable and degenerate combined) was 64%. Global liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry proteomic analysis of the histotroph collected identified 40 high-confidence proteins present on day 7; 26 proteins in the viable group, 10 in the degenerate group, and 4 shared between both groups. Five proteins (platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase IB subunit γ [PAFAH1B3], tubulin α-1D chain, tubulin β-4A chain, cytochrome C, and dihydropyrimidinase-related protein-2) were unique or more abundant in the histotroph collected from animals with a viable embryo, and 1 protein (S100-A4) was more abundant in the histotroph collected from animals with a degenerate embryo. Of interest, PAFAH1B3, detected only in histotroph from the group yielding viable embryos, belongs to the group of platelet-activating factors that are known to be important for the development of the pre-implantation embryo in other species. To our knowledge this is the first report of PAFAH1B3 in relation to bovine early embryonic development.

  11. Unusual manifestation of a concurrent demodectic and sarcoptic mange in a Zebu-Friesian cross-bred heifer : clinical communication

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    M.E. Hamid

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe a rare case of a concurrent demodectic and sarcoptic mange in a 2-year-old heifer in Khartoum, Sudan. The lesions were massive lumps of granulomatous tumour-like dermatitis with thick, nodular folds mainly covering the head, neck and shoulders. Histopathological examination of the lesions revealed the presence of both Demodex bovis and Sarcoptes scabiei. The animal died regardless of the anti-parasitic treatment it received.

  12. Stress and immunological response of heifers divergently ranked for residual feed intake following an adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge.

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    Kelly, A K; Lawrence, P; Earley, B; Kenny, D A; McGee, M

    2017-01-01

    When an animal is exposed to a stressor, metabolic rate, energy consumption and utilisation increase primarily through activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Changes to partitioning of energy by an animal are likely to influence the efficiency with which it is utilised. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the physiological stress response to an exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge in beef heifers divergently ranked on phenotypic residual feed intake (RFI). Data were collected on 34 Simmental weaning beef heifers the progeny of a well characterized and divergently bred RFI suckler beef herd. Residual feed intake was determined on each animal during the post-weaning stage over a 91-day feed intake measurement period during which they were individually offered adlibitum grass silage and 2 kg of concentrate per head once daily. The 12 highest [0.34 kg DM/d] and 12 lowest [-0.48 kg DM/d] ranking animals on RFI were selected for use in this study. For the physiological stress challenge heifers (mean age 605 ± 13 d; mean BW 518 ± 31.4 kg) were fitted aseptically with indwelling jugular catheters to facilitate intensive blood collection. The response of the adrenal cortex to a standardised dose of ACTH (1.98 IU/kg metabolic BW(0.75)) was examined. Serial blood samples were analysed for plasma cortisol, ACTH and haematology variables. Heifers differing in RFI did not differ (P = 0.59) in ACTH concentrations. Concentration of ACTH peaked (P feed efficiency is associated with HPA axis function and susceptibility to stress, and responsiveness of the HPA axis is likely to contribute to appreciable variation in the efficiency feed utilisation of cattle.

  13. Effects of supplementation with protected polyunsaturated fatty acids on productive and hormonal parameters of embryo recipient heifers

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    Juan Camilo Angel Cardona

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Supplementation with protected polyunsaturated fatty acids (PPUFA has positive effects on cow reproduction. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding a source of PPUFA to energy supplements for embryo recipient heifers on productive performance and plasma concentrations of progesterone, cholesterol and insulin. For this purpose, 44 Angus x Hereford embryo recipient heifers (average body weight = 385 kg raised on pasture were studied in a completely randomized design. The effects of PPUFA added to isocaloric energy supplements for 60 days on production parameters and serum concentrations of cholesterol, progesterone and insulin were evaluated. The treatments consisted of individual supplementation with: 1 control (no supplement; 2 corn (corn, 70%; soybean meal, 30%; 3 PPUFA supplement (Megalac-E®, 30%; soybean meal, 20%; commercial ration, 50%. The treatments did not affect (P>0.05 dry matter intake, pregnancy rates, or serum insulin concentration. However, PPUFA supplement increased (P0.05 in dry matter intake between treatments, PPUFA supplement increased (P<0.05 average daily gain compared to the control and corn treatments. The inclusion of PPUFA in energy supplements offered to heifers used in an embryo transfer program increased average daily gain and serum concentrations of cholesterol and progesterone, but did not affect pregnancy rates.

  14. An influenza viral vector Brucella abortus vaccine induces good cross-protection against Brucella melitensis infection in pregnant heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabynov, Kaissar; Ryskeldinova, Sholpan; Sansyzbay, Abylai

    2015-07-17

    Brucella melitensis can be transmitted and cause disease in cattle herds as a result of inadequate management of mixed livestock farms. Ideally, vaccines against Brucella abortus for cattle should also provide cross-protection against B. melitensis. Previously we created a novel influenza viral vector B. abortus (Flu-BA) vaccine expressing the Brucella ribosomal proteins L7/L12 or Omp16. This study demonstrated Flu-BA vaccine with adjuvant Montanide Gel01 provided 100% protection against abortion in vaccinated pregnant heifers and good cross-protection of the heifers and their calves or fetuses (90-100%) after challenge with B. melitensis 16M; the level of protection provided by Flu-BA was comparable to the commercial vaccine B. abortus S19. In terms of the index of infection and colonization of Brucella in tissues, both vaccines demonstrated significant (P=0.02 to P<0.0001) protection against B. melitensis 16M infection compared to the negative control group (PBS+Montanide Gel01). Thus, we conclude the Flu-BA vaccine provides cross-protection against B. melitensis infection in pregnant heifers.

  15. Sexual polymorphisms of vomeronasal 1 receptor family gene expression in bulls, steers, and estrous and early luteal-phase heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Haruna; Otsuka, Midori; Kadokawa, Hiroya

    2016-02-01

    Vomeronasal 1 receptors (V1R) are a family of receptors for intraspecies chemosignals, including pheromones, and are expressed in the olfactory epithelium (OE) and vomeronasal organ (VO). Even in the well-studied rodents, it is unclear which members of the V1R family cause sexual polymorphisms, as there are numerous genes and it is difficult to quantify their expressions individually. Bovine species carry only 34 V1R homologs, and the OE and VOs are large enough to sample. Here, V1R expression was quantified in the OE and VOs of individual bovines. Based on the 34 gene sequences, we obtained a molecular dendrogram consisting of four clusters and six independent branches. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to obtain gene expression profiles in the VOs and OE of 5 Japanese Black bulls, 5 steers, 7 estrous heifers and 6 early luteal-phase heifers. Ten genes showed significant between-group differences, and 22 showed high expression in VOs than in OE. The bulls showed higher expression of one gene more in OE and another in VOs (both Pexpressed more abundantly in steers than in bulls. The estrous heifers showed higher expression of a gene of the second cluster in OE, and a gene of the third cluster in VOs (both Pexpression exhibits sexual polymorphisms in cattle.

  16. Effects of feeding frequency on intake, ruminal fermentation, and feeding behavior in heifers fed high-concentrate diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, V; González, L A; Ferret, A; Manteca, X; Calsamiglia, S

    2007-10-01

    Four ruminally fistulated Holstein heifers (BW = 385 +/- 6.2 kg) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square experiment to determine the effect of feeding frequency on intake, water consumption, ruminal fermentation, and feeding and animal behavior. The treatments consisted of different feeding frequencies: a) once daily (T1); b) twice daily (T2); c) 3 times daily (T3); and d) 4 times daily (T4). Heifers were offered ad libitum access to concentrate and barley straw. Feeding frequency did not affect DMI (P >0.10), but water consumption tended to increase linearly as feeding frequency increased (P = 0.08). Average ruminal pH was not affected (P >0.10) by feeding frequency, but at 12 h after feeding ruminal pH was greater for T2 than for the other treatments. Total VFA concentration and VFA proportions were not affected (P >0.10) by feeding frequency, except valerate proportion, which increased linearly (P = 0.05) as feeding frequency increased. The concentration of ammonia-N was affected (P 0.05), except for observational behavior, for which there was a linear decrease as feeding frequency increased (P = 0.02). Heifers spent the same time on chewing activities, independent of feeding frequency. However, meal criteria tended to be affected (P = 0.07) by feeding frequency, with T2 (39.4 min) showing the longest intermeal interval. Total daily meal time, meal frequency, and meal size were not affected by feeding frequency (P >0.10), whereas meal length and eating rate showed cubic tendencies (P = 0.10 and P = 0.06, respectively) as feeding frequency increased. These results suggest that in the present experimental conditions, with heifers fed high-concentrate diets and with noncompetitive feeding, a smaller range of ruminal pH values was observed when feed was offered twice daily. Although heifers spent the same time on chewing activities, more stable ruminal conditions were probably achieved by feeding twice daily due to the rumination pattern, which was more constant during

  17. Ultrasonographic reproductive tract measures and pelvis measures as predictors of pregnancy failure and anestrus in restricted bred beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Dietmar E; Nielen, Mirjam; Jorritsma, Ruurd; Irons, Peter C; Thompson, Peter N

    2016-02-01

    Previous reports have shown that reproductive tract score (RTS) can predict reproduction outcomes in seasonally bred beef heifers, although the accuracy can vary. Some ultrasonographic measures of the female reproductive tract and pelvis area have also been associated with reproductive outcome in young heifers. The objectives of this study were to determine which transrectal ultrasound or pelvis measures taken at a single examination are independent predictors of reproductive failure and whether the RTS system can be optimized with this information. In this observational study, year-old beef heifers (n = 488) in 2 birth cohorts were followed from just before the first breeding until confirmation of pregnancy. A single pre-breeding examination included body condition score, RTS, ultrasound measures of the reproductive tract (length and diameter of the left and right ovaries, presence and diameter of a CL, largest follicle diameter and left uterus horn diameter) and transverse and vertical diameters of the pelvis. Additional farm records including dam parity, sire, birth weight and birth date, weaning weight, weaning date, prebreeding body weight, AI dates, and semen used were available. Breeding consisted of 50 days of AI, followed 5 to 7 days later by a 42-day bull breeding period. Pregnancy failure was defined as the failure to become pregnant after the AI and bull breeding periods, while anestrus was defined as the failure to be detected in estrus during the 50-day AI period. From the prebreeding data and farm records, independent predictors of pregnancy failure and anestrus were identified using stepwise reduction in multiple logistic regression models. Age at the onset of breeding was the only consistent independent predictor of pregnancy failure and anestrus in both cohorts of this study (P pelvis area (PA) were the prebreeding examination variables that remained in prognostic models (P < 0.1). Combining either the model based on the 3 remaining ultrasound

  18. Ajustes de curvas de crescimento em bovinos Nelore da região Norte do Brasil Fitting of growth curves of Nellore cattle from Northern Brazil

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    Jorge Luis Ferreira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar o modelo mais adequado para descrever o crescimento de bovinos Nelore. Quatro modelos não-lineares (Brody, Von Bertalanffy, Gompertz e Logístico, foram ajustados pelo método de Gauss-Newton, mediante utilização do procedimento NLIN do SAS, a dados peso-idade do nascimento aos 750 dias de idade de bovinos nascidos entre 1987 e 2007 em rebanhos localizados no Norte do Brasil. A qualidade do ajuste dos modelos foi feita por meio do quadrado médio do resíduo, do coeficiente de determinação ajustado, do erro de predição, do desvio médio absoluto dos resíduos, da interpretação biológica dos parâmetros A e k, do gráfico de pesos observados e estimados, da taxa de crescimento instantânea e relativa, bem como da taxa de maturidade absoluta. Todos os modelos analisados convergiram. As estimativas médias para A e k foram 470,50kg e 0,002 dia-1; 357,80kg e 0,004 dia1; 337,60kg e 0,005dia1; e 309,60kg e 0,008 dia1, para os Modelo de Brody, Von Bertalanffy, Gompertz e Logístico respectivamente. Dentro do período analisado, o modelo Bertalanffy é o mais indicado para representar a curva de crescimento média e também para ser utilizado em estudos do crescimento de animais da raça Nelore da região Norte do Brasil.This study was carried out to determined the best nonlinear model to describe Nelore cattle growth. The models used (Brody, Von Bertalanffy, Gompertz and Logistic models were fitted by Gauss-Newton method to weight-age data of birth to 750 days old of Nellore cattle raised in Northern Brazil. The models adjustment quality was made by mean square error, adjusted determination coefficient, prediction error, absolute mean deviation residuals, A and k biological parameters, graphics of observed and estimated weights, of instantaneous and relative growth rate and absolute maturity. The convergence criteria were satisfied for all nonlinear models. Estimative mean for A and k was 470.50kg and 0.002 dia-1; 357

  19. Feed efficiency of Nellore cattle selected for postweaning weight Eficiência alimentar em bovinos Nelore selecionados para peso pós-desmame

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    André Michel de Castilhos

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Two Nellore herds were compared, one selected for greater postweaning weight and the other, control, selected for average postweaning weight, to evaluate the effects of 29 years of selection on feed efficiency. Sixty Nellore males (41 selected and 19 control averaging 205 kg and 267 days of age were evaluated in individual pens during performance test. Performance and dry matter intake were used to determine the following feed efficiency traits: feed conversion; residual feed intake; residual gain; partial growth efficiency; relative growth rate and Kleiber ratio. After the 112-day experimental period, control animals showed lower body weight when compared to selected animals, however, they did not differ for dry matter intake (% of body weight, rib-eye area and fat thickness at the 12th rib subcutaneous region and on the rump region. Dry matter intake (kg/day and average daily weight gain from selected animals were, respectively, 19.4% and 26.4% higher than the control ones. The highest average daily weight gain by selected animals promoted significant improvement, around 6%, on feed conversion; 70 g/day on residual gain; and 17% on Kleiber rate. The other feed efficiency traits (residual feed intake, partial growth efficiency and relative growth rate did not differ between herds. The 29-year selection for post-weaning weight did not affect feed efficiency of Nellore cattle.Foram comparados dois rebanhos Nelore, um selecionado para maior peso pós-desmame e outro controle, selecionado para a média de peso pós-desmame, para avaliar os efeitos de 29 anos de seleção sobre a eficiência alimentar. Sessenta machos Nelore com 205 kg e 267 dias de idade (41 selecionados e 19 controle, foram avaliados em baias individuais durante a prova de ganho de peso. O desempenho e o consumo de matéria seca foram utilizados para determinar as seguintes medidas de eficiência: conversão alimentar; consumo alimentar residual; ganho residual; efici

  20. Split-time artificial insemination in beef cattle: II. Comparing pregnancy rates among nonestrous heifers based on administration of GnRH at AI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, B E; Thomas, J M; Abel, J M; Poock, S E; Ellersieck, M R; Smith, M F; Patterson, D J

    2017-01-01

    This experiment was designed to evaluate split-time artificial insemination (AI) in beef heifers following administration of the 14-day controlled internal drug release (CIDR)-prostaglandin F2α (PG) protocol and to compare pregnancy rates among nonestrous heifers based on administration of GnRH at AI. Estrus was synchronized for 1138 heifers across six locations. Heifers received a CIDR insert (1.38 g progesterone) on Day 0 with removal on Day 14. Estrus detection aids (Estrotect) were applied at PG (25 mg), 16 days after CIDR removal on Day 30. Heifers were assigned to balanced treatments based on reproductive tract score and weight, and treatments were represented within each location. Split-time AI was performed at 66 and 90 hours after PG, and estrus was recorded at these times. Heifers in both treatments that exhibited estrus by 66 hours were inseminated and did not receive GnRH, whereas AI was delayed 24 hours until 90 hours after PG for heifers that failed to exhibit estrus by 66 hours. For heifers in treatment 1 that were inseminated at 90 hours, GnRH (100 μg) was administered concurrent with AI at 90 hours. Heifers in treatment 2 that were inseminated at 90 hours did not receive GnRH. Estrous response did not differ between treatments at 66 hours after PG (treatment 1 = 70%; treatment 2 = 71%; P = 0.58) or during the 24-hour delay period (treatment 1 = 59%; treatment 2 = 52%; P = 0.21). There was no effect of treatment on pregnancy rates resulting from AI for heifers inseminated at 66 hours (treatment 1 = 58%; treatment 2 = 62%; P = 0.86) or 90 hours (treatment 1 = 44%; treatment 2 = 39%; P = 0.47) after PG; and there was no difference between treatments when considering total AI pregnancy rate (treatment 1 = 54%; treatment 2 = 56%; P = 0.60). Ovulation was confirmed via ultrasonography for a subset of heifers that failed to exhibit estrus prior to 90 hours after PG. For heifers that failed to exhibit estrus by 90

  1. Effects of grain, fructose, and histidine feeding on endotoxin and oxidative stress measures in dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golder, H M; Lean, I J; Rabiee, A R; King, R; Celi, P

    2013-01-01

    Ruminal endotoxin and plasma oxidative stress biomarker concentrations were studied in dairy heifers challenged with grain, fructose, and histidine in a partial factorial study. Holstein-Friesian heifers [n=30; average body weight (BW) of 359.3±47.3 kg] were randomly allocated to 5 treatment groups: (1) control (no grain); (2) grain [crushed triticale at 1.2% of BW dry matter intake (DMI)]; (3) grain (0.8% of BW DMI) + fructose (0.4% of BW DMI); (4) grain (1.2% of BW DMI) + histidine (6g/head); and (5) grain (0.8% of BW DMI) + fructose (0.4% of BW DMI) + histidine (6 g/head). Rumen samples were collected by stomach tube 5, 65, 115, 165, and 215 min after diet consumption and blood samples at 5 and 215 min after consumption. Rumen fluid was analyzed for endotoxin concentrations. Plasma was analyzed for concentrations of the following oxidative stress biomarkers: reactive oxygen metabolites (dROM), biological antioxidant potential (BAP), advanced oxidation protein products, and ceruloplasmin, and activity of glutathione peroxidase. Dietary treatment had no effect on concentrations of endotoxin or oxidative stress biomarkers. We observed no interactions of treatment by time. Ruminal concentrations of endotoxin decreased during the sampling period from 1.12×10(5) ± 0.06 to 0.92×10(5) endotoxin units/mL ± 0.05 (5 and 215 min after diet consumption, respectively). Concentrations of dROM and the oxidative stress index (dROM/BAP × 100) increased over the sampling period, from 108.7 to 123.5 Carratelli units (Carr U), and from 4.1 to 4.8, respectively. Ceruloplasmin concentrations markedly declined 5 min after the consumption of diets, from 190 to 90 mg/L over the 215-min sampling period. Overall, a single feeding challenge for dairy cattle with grain, fructose, and histidine, and combinations thereof, may not be sufficient to induce marked changes in endotoxin or oxidative stress biomarker concentrations.

  2. Digestibility of whole-crop barley and oat silages in dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallsten, J; Bertilsson, J; Nadeau, E; Martinsson, K

    2010-03-01

    This study evaluated the digestibility of whole-crop cereal silage (WCCS) made from oats and six-rowed barley harvested at the heading, early milk and early dough stages, and two-rowed barley harvested at the early milk and early dough stages of maturity. The eight WCCSs were fed to 32 Swedish Red heifers in a changeover design over three periods of 28 days each. The heifers were first fed ad libitum for 17 days and then at 0.95 of ad libitum for 11 days of each period. During the last 5 days all faeces and orts were collected to determine the digestibility of the silages. Only the maturity stage effect was significant for the WCCS organic matter (OM) digestibility and the average OM digestibility was higher at the heading stage (698 g/kg) than at early milk (647 g/kg) and early dough (652 g/kg) stages of maturity. For neutral detergent fibre (NDF) digestibility the crop × maturity stage effect was significant. The NDF digestibility decreased from the heading to the early milk stage for both six-rowed barley (746 to 607 g/kg) and oats (698 to 596 g/kg). There was no further significant decrease in NDF digestibility for six-rowed barley at the early dough stage (577 g/kg), but for two-rowed barley it decreased from the early milk (682 g/kg) to the early dough (573 g/kg) stage, and also for oats the NDF digestibility was lowest at the early dough stage (507 g/kg). The decrease in NDF digestibility during maturation was to a large extent compensated by an increase in starch concentration in the crops. The starch digestibility was lower for six-rowed barley at early dough stage (948 g/kg) than at early milk stage (977 g/kg), and was also lower compared with oats (979 g/kg) at early dough stage. The average crude protein (CP) digestibility was higher at the heading (646 g/kg) and the early milk (642 g/kg) stages than at the early dough stage (599 g/kg), and oats had higher average CP digestibility (650 g/kg) than six-rowed (613 g/kg) and two-rowed (624 g/kg) barley

  3. Um programa para o planejamento da recria de fêmeas oriundas de rebanhos leiteiros A computer program for planning dairy heifer raising

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    Moisés de Andrade Resende Filho

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Alimentação e manejo inadequados das novilhas em recria constituem alguns dos entraves ao incremento da produtividade do rebanho leiteiro no Brasil. Nessa fase, o pecuarista deve decidir entre recriar os animais de reposição, adquiri-los ou terceirizar sua criação. Além disso, em se decidindo por recriar suas próprias novilhas, seria importante encontrar a melhor alternativa em termos econômicos. Visando auxiliar o pecuarista a resolver tal questão, apresenta-se um modelo matemático que permite estimar os custos decorrentes da recria de fêmeas de rebanhos leiteiros até atingir o peso recomendado à cobertura. Tal modelo foi inserido em um programa de computador de maneira a permitir a construção de diferentes cenários, considerando-se peso, raça e ganho de peso diário do lote de novilhas. Assim, após contrastar os cenários gerados com as opções de compra das novilhas ou terceirização da recria, o pecuarista aumenta as chances de tomar uma decisão mais lucrativa. Exemplos de utilização do modelo inserido em um programa de computador são apresentados e avaliados.Inadequate feeding and management when raising heifers are two factors that constrain dairy cattle productivity in Brazil. In order to build their heads, Brazilian dairy farmers must choose between three options: to raise their own heifers to breeding age, to purchase mature heifers from outside sources, or to employ a custom heifer raiser. If the dairy farmer chooses to raise his own heifers, he needs to determine the most economically rational production strategy. To aid the farmer in this determination, a mathematical model was developed to create a budget for raising a group of heifers to their recommended breeding weight. This model was embedded in a computer program making it possible to build different growth scenarios, which can be adjusted by breed, desired daily weight gain, and average weight for a given group of heifers. After contrasting the results

  4. Progesterone (CIDR)-based timed AI protocols using GnRH, porcine LH or estradiol cypionate for dairy heifers: ovarian and endocrine responses and pregnancy rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, J D; Kastelic, J P; Rajamahendran, R; Aali, M; Dinn, N

    2005-10-15

    The overall objective was to compare the efficacy of GnRH, porcine LH (pLH) and estradiol cypionate (ECP), in a modified Ovsynch/fixed-time AI (FTAI) protocol that included a controlled internal drug [progesterone] release (CIDR) device. In Experiment 1, heifers received a CIDR on Day -10, and PGF (25mg) on Day -3. At CIDR insertion, heifers received 100 microg of GnRH (n=6), 0.5mg of ECP (n=6), 5.0mg of pLH (n=6) or 2 mL of saline (n=7); these treatments were repeated on Day -1, except for ECP, that was repeated on Day -2, concurrent with CIDR-removal. The 5.0 mg pLH was the least effective with a longer interval to ovulation than the other groups combined (102 versus 64 h; PpLH compared to all other groups (4.5 versus 10.3 ng/mL; PpLH (n=6; pLH-low), 25.0 mg pLH (n=6, pLH-high), or 100 microg GnRH (n=5; control). Heifers in the pLH-high group had greater (PpLH treatments did not differ (P>0.10). Area under the curve for LH (ng/32 h) was at least 50% greater (PpLH-treated heifers compared to GnRH-treated heifers (mean, 41.3, 56.3 and 20.3 for pLH-low, pLH-high and GnRH, respectively). Ovulation occurred in 15 of 17 heifers. Progesterone concentrations were higher on Days 9 and 14 in heifers given 25mg of pLH, suggesting enhanced CL function. In Experiment 3, 240 heifers were assigned to CIDR-based Ovsynch/FTAI protocols. The first and second hormonal treatments (with an intervening PGF treatment on Day -3) were GnRH/GnRH (100 microg), ECP/ECP (0.5 mg), pLH/pLH (12.5 mg) or GnRH/ECP, respectively; pregnancy rates were 58.7, 66.1, 45.9 and 48.3%, respectively (ECP/ECP>both pLH/pLH and GnRH/ECP; Pheifers bred to Ovsynch/FTAI in the absence of a CIDR.

  5. Fertility after implementation of long- and short-term progesterone-based ovulation synchronization protocols for fixed-time artificial insemination in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimanickam, R; Schroeder, S; Hall, J B; Whittier, W D

    2015-04-15

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of long-term (LT; a 14-day controlled internal drug release insert [CIDR]-PGF2α [PGF]-GnRH) and short-term (ST; 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR) progesterone-based protocols on pregnancy rate to fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) in beef heifers. In experiment 1, Angus cross beef heifers (N = 1887) at nine locations received a body condition score and a reproductive tract score (RTS). Within the herd, heifers were randomly assigned to LT-72 and ST-56 protocol groups. Heifers in the LT-72 group received a CIDR from Days 0 to 14, followed by 25 mg of PGF 16 days later (Day 30). Heifers in the ST-56 group received a CIDR and 100 μg of gonadorelin hydrochloride (GnRH) on Day 25 followed by 25 mg of PGF at CIDR removal on Day 30 and a second dose of PGF 6 hours later (Day 30). Artificial insemination was performed at 56 hours (Day 32) after CIDR removal for the ST-56 group and at 72 hours (Day 33) after CIDR removal for the LT-72 group, and all heifers were given GnRH (100 μg, intramuscular) at the time of AI. In experiment 2, Angus cross beef heifers (N = 718) at four locations received a body condition score and an RTS. Within the herd, heifers were randomly assigned to LT-72 and ST-72 protocol groups. The protocol was similar to experiment 1 except that AI was performed at 72 hours after CIDR removal for both LT-72 and ST-72 groups. In experiment 1, no difference in AI pregnancy rates between the LT-72 and ST-56 groups was observed (54.5% [489 of 897] and 55.5% [549 of 990], respectively; P = 0.92) after accounting for the RTS. The AI pregnancy rates for heifers with RTS 3 or less, 4, and 5 were 52.6%, 53.6%, and 59.9%, respectively (P insemination in 33 days with the LT protocol compared with just 8 days with the ST protocol.

  6. Histomorfometria e histoquímica da tuba uterina e do útero de ratas púberes e pré-púberes induzidas ao hipertireoidismo Histomorphometry and histochemistry of the uterine tubes and uterus of puberal and prepuberal rats induced for hyperthyroidism

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    T.S. Oliveira

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas a histomorfometria e a atividade secretória das tubas uterinas e do útero de 38 ratas Wistar púberes, distribuídas em quatro grupos: (1 eutireóideo em proestro-estro, (2 hipertireóideo em proestro-estro, (3 eutireóideo em metaestro-diestro e (4 hipertireóideo em metaestro-diestro. Posteriormente, foram utilizadas outras 24 ratas Wistar pré-púberes, com 12 dias de idade, distribuídas em dois grupos: (1 hipertireóideo (n=12 e (2 eutireóideo (n=12. O útero e as tubas uterinas foram colhidos para avaliação histomorfométrica e histoquímica. A altura do epitélio da ampola, tanto no proestro-estro quanto no metaestro-diestro, elevou-se com a administração de tiroxina, tornando-se semelhante à do istmo. O hipertireoidismo aumentou a secreção PAS positiva e de mucossubstâncias ácidas do infundíbulo na fase estrogênica, igualando-a à do istmo. A parede uterina apresentou-se mais espessa na fase estrogênica, resultado da ação conjunta da tiroxina no endométrio e no miométrio. A atividade secretória e a composição do colágeno uterino não diferiram entre tratamentos. Nas ratas pré-púberes, o hipertireoidismo aumentou a espessura do miométrio e da parede uterina, mas não alterou a tuba uterina. O hipertireoidismo em ratas pré-púberes induz modificações significativas somente no útero; após a maturidade sexual, as modificações ocorrem no útero e na tuba uterina em intensidade variável e dependentes da fase do ciclo estral.The histomorphometry and the secretory activity of the uterine tubes and uterus of 38 puberal Wistar rats were studied. Rats were divided in four groups: (1 euthyroid in proestrus-estrus, (2 hyperthyroid in proestrus-estrus, (3 euthyroid in metestrus-diestrus and, (4 hyperthyroid in metestrus-diestrus. In other experiment, 24 prepuberal 12-day-old Wistar rats were divided in two groups: (1 hyperthyroid and (2 euthyroid. The uterus and the uterine tubes were collected for

  7. Effects of roof modifications on growth performance and physiological changes of crossbred beef heifers (Bos indicus

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    Titaporn Khongdee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to examine and evaluate growth performance and physiological changes of cattle raised under normal roof versus a modified roof. Ten Hindu Brazil x Brahman heifers were used in the experiment. The animals were divided randomly into two groups. They were used to evaluate the effects of modified roofing on the subjects’ physiological responses to heat stress and performance under hot humid conditions. It was found that the modified roof (MR offered a more efficient way to lower heat stress in the cattle than the normal roof (NR. The difference was sufficient to enable the NR at 14:00 p.m. to have a THI higher (P<0.001 than that of the MR. Roof temperature of the MR (35.67±4.28°C was found to be lower (P<0.01 than that of the NR (44.49±7.61°C. Rectal temperature (RT and average rate of gain (ADG of the cattle kept under MR (39.02°C; 0.632 kg/d was lower (P<0.01 and higher (P<0.01, respectively than the NR (40.05 °C; 0.350 kg/d cattle

  8. Autologous stem cell therapy to treat chronic ulcer in heifer- A case study

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    Jayakrushna Das

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was conducted to reveal the efficacy of Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs based therapy in healing of chronic non-healing and ulcerative wound in bovine species. Materials and Methods: One 2 years old Jersey heifer affected with chronic ulcerative wound involving full thickness skin and under lying muscle at dorsal side of lumbar region since four months at the time of presentation. Bone marrow was collected from tibia, cultured and grown and after achievement of optimum confluence it was applied at the site. Different parameters of clinical, physiological, haematological, biochemical, histochemical, histological, tensile strength and photographic evaluations were done during the study period. Results: The estimated values of above mentioned parameters on zero day and after healing (18 days showed significant difference (P<0.05 in relation to collagen content, tensile strength and physical characteristics of wound like extent of wound, size of wound, type of exudates and photography. But clinical, haematological and biochemical data showed no significant difference. Conclusion: The BM-MSCs were the main pioneers to bring the chronic ulcerative wound towards healing. The procedure is simple, safe and effective in bringing out healing without showing any adverse effect on host. [Vet World 2012; 5(12.000: 771-774

  9. Tech-Savvy Beef Cattle? How Heifers Respond to Moving Virtual Fence Lines

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    Dana L.M. Campbell

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Global Positioning System (GPS-based virtual fences offer the potential to improve the management of grazing animals. Prototype collar devices utilising patented virtual fencing algorithms were placed on six Angus heifers in a 6.15 hectare paddock. After a “no fence” period, sequential, shifting virtual fences restricted the animals to 40%, 60%, and 80% of the paddock area widthways and 50% lengthways across 22 days. Audio cues signaled the virtual boundary, and were paired with electrical stimuli if the animals continued forward into the boundary. Within approximately 48 h, the cattle learned the 40% fence and were henceforth restricted to the subsequent inclusion zones a minimum of 96.70% (±standard error 0.01% of the time. Over time, the animals increasingly stayed within the inclusion zones using audio cues alone, and on average, approached the new fence within 4.25 h. The animals were thus attentive to the audio cue, not the fence location. The time spent standing and lying and the number of steps were similar between inclusion zones (all p ≥ 0.42. More lying bouts occurred at the 80% and lengthways inclusion zones relative to “no fence” (p = 0.04. Further research should test different cattle groups in variable paddock settings and measure physiological welfare responses to the virtual fencing stimuli.

  10. Influence of primiparity on size at birth, growth, the somatotrophic axis and fertility in dairy heifers.

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    Swali, A; Wathes, D C

    2007-11-01

    Epidemiological studies in humans suggest that small size at birth is a predictor of some adult diseases. Nutritional constraint experienced in utero may result in fetal adaptations, which alter subsequent body structure and physiology. Size at birth is influenced by maternal age and parity. Most dairy cows are bred for the first time at about 60% of their mature body weight and therefore carry their first pregnancy whilst still growing. We hypothesized that this might alter the nutritional environment in utero and thus influence the development of the calf. This study compared birth size, growth rates and fertility in consecutively born heifer offspring of 45 primiparous (PP) and 71 multiparous (MP) dairy cows on one farm. Measures of the somatotrophic axis (GH, insulin, IGF-I and glucose) were compared in blood samples collected at the start of the first lactation. Offspring of PP cows were significantly smaller at birth (weight, length, height, girth, Pprimiparous dam resulted in a smaller size at birth and influenced the somatotrophic axis around calving. Fertility was generally better in offspring of PP than MP dams.

  11. Effect of sugarcane silage on productive parameters of replacement Holstein-Friesian heifers

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    José Reyes G.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Measure the productive parameters of Holstein-Friesian females from weaning to 470 days old, comparing feeding through sugarcane silage (SCS and corn silage (CS in a concentrated fodder ratio of 70:30. Materials and methods. Twenty-eight post-weaning calves were used, with an average age of 80±16 days old and an initial weight of 79.5±12.9 kg. The T-Student test was used for the comparison of means, where calves were divided into two groups of 14, one for each treatment. The body weight BW (kg, wither height WH (cm, body condition BC (1 to 5 scale, daily weight gain DWG (kg and feed conversion FC (kg was measured every 30 days. Results. Differences were found between treatments, where heifers fed with SCS showed better BC (3.12, FC (7.4 as compared to the CS treatment. No significant differences were found in terms of DWG (0.666 and 0.743 kg/d. Conclusions. Feeding based on sugarcane silage allows for an improved body condition and feed conversion of animals having with this an acceptable and cost-effective production performance in the raising of dairy replacements.

  12. Effects of BST and high energy diet on gene expression in mammary parenchyma of dairy heifers

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    Betina Joyce Lew

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary energy and recombinant bovine somatotropin (bST injection to identify genes that might control mammogenesis. Total RNA was extracted from the parenchymal tissue of 32 heifers randomly assigned to one of four treatments: two diets (a standard diet and a high energy, high protein diet, each with or without bST. To perform microarray experiments, RNA samples were pooled (2 animals/pool before reverse transcription and labeling with Cy3 or Cy5. A 4-node loop design was used to examine the differential gene expression among treatments using a bovine-specific cDNA microarray (National Bovine Functional Genomics Consortium Library, NBFGC containing 18,263 unique expressed sequence tags (EST. Significance levels of differential gene expression among treatments were assessed using a mixed model approach. Injection of bST altered the expression of 12 % of the genes on NBFGC slide related to tissue development, whereas 6% were altered by diet. Administration of bST increases the expression of genes positively related to cell proliferation and mammary parenchyma to a greater extent than a high energy diet.

  13. Effect of Yucca schidigera on ruminal fermentation and nutrient digestion in heifers.

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    Hristov, A N; McAllister, T A; Van Herk, F H; Cheng, K J; Newbold, C J; Cheeke, P R

    1999-09-01

    In a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square experiment, six heifers (443 +/- 6.1 kg) fed a 61% barley grain:39% alfalfa silage diet (DM basis) were given intraruminal doses of powdered Yucca schidigera (YS). Doses of 0 (control), 20, or 60 g/d were given at 0800 daily. Ruminal content was sampled 0, 2, 4, and 6 h after dosing. Acidity, concentrations of reducing sugars, free amino acids, and peptides in the rumen were not affected (P > .05) by YS. Relative to control, ruminal ammonia concentration was reduced (P Yucca did not affect (P > .05) rate or extent of in situ DM degradability. Fibrolytic, amylolytic, and proteolytic activities in ruminal contents were similar among treatments (P > .05). Dry matter intake, apparent digestibilities of DM, NDF, and CP, nitrogen balance, and microbial protein synthesis in the rumen were not affected (P > .05) by treatment. The effect of YS on ruminal ammonia concentration likely resulted from a decreased concentration of protozoa and, presumably, from ammonia binding by YS. The effect on ruminal propionate was probably a result of a selective inhibitory effect of YS on rumen microbial species.

  14. Abscess of the cervical spine secondary to injection site infection in a heifer.

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    Braun, Ueli; Gerspach, Christian; Kühn, Karolin; Bünter, Julia; Hilbe, Monika

    2017-01-31

    Abscesses in the neck region can result from infection associated with injection of drugs into the neck muscles. To our knowledge, there have been no reports of osteomyelitis of the cervical vertebra and spinal cord compression secondary to an abscess in the neck. This case report describes the findings in a 9.5-month-old heifer with an abscess of the cervical spine secondary to injection site infection. The main clinical findings were swelling on the left side of the neck, proprioceptive deficits in all limbs and generalised ataxia. The ultrasonographic examination of the swelling showed an abscess. Radiographs showed a well-defined lytic lesion in 5th cervical vertebra (C5). Postmortem examination revealed an intramuscular encapsulated abscess on the left side of the neck at the level of C5. The abscess had invaded the vertebral canal and caused marked compression of the spinal cord. Injection technique is critical for the prevention of problems such as those described in this report. Sterile hypodermic needles must be used, and the volume of drug per injection site limited to 10-15 ml in young cattle.

  15. Application of date palm trees mulch as a bedding material for dry heifers in Saudi Arabia

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    Sadik M.W

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the safety of using Saudi date palm trees mulch as a bedding material for dry heifers. Date palm trees mulch was used as bedding material for 10 days. Final Composite regulated elements (N, P, K, Na, Ca, and Mg, NDF, ADF, pH, moisture, and EC were improved by use of date palm trees mulch as a bedding material especially in concrete area (1.85%, 0.50%, 1.42%, 0.59%, 2.56%, 0.26%, 60.00%, 49.40%, 7.53, 30%, 16.88 for N, P, K, Na, Ca. Mg, NDF, ADF, pH, Moisture and Electrical conductivity, respectively. On a dry matter basis, highly enriched element fresh manure was collected from the concrete section bedded with date palm trees mulch. Both Concrete area bedded with date palm trees mulch and Sand area bedded with date palm trees mulch were free of salmonella after 10 days. Date palm trees mulch was unsuitable medium for pathogenic bacteria especially Escherichia coli O157:H7 .Total viable bacterial counts failed to increase with the incubation time (104. Date palm tree mulch was unsuitable medium for flies and minimizes density of house flies. Date palm trees mulch seemed to be a safe, comfortable and effective bedding material for cow’s feedlots.

  16. Effect of limit feeding high- and low-concentrate diets with Saccharomyces cerevisiae on digestibility and on dairy heifer growth and first-lactation performance.

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    Lascano, G J; Zanton, G I; Suarez-Mena, F X; Heinrichs, A J

    2009-10-01

    Growth and digestibility were examined for heifers limit fed high- (HC; 60%) and low-concentrate (LC; 20%) diets with or without yeast culture (YC) addition in 2 experiments. A third experiment was undertaken to monitor first-lactation production of heifers limit fed HC or LC diets. In experiment 1, 32 Holstein heifers were individually fed at controlled intakes for 133 d to maintain a targeted average daily gain of 0.80 kg/d for all 4 treatments [HC; LC with and without Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Yea-Sacc(1026) (Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY), 1 g/kg as fed]. Targeted average daily gain was achieved for all treatments during the individual feeding period (0.80 +/- 0.01 kg/d). Average dry matter intake needed to maintain constant gain was slightly reduced for HC and YC treatments. Reduced dry matter intake and similar targeted average daily gain resulted in a tendency for improved feed efficiency of HC-fed heifers. Skeletal measurements and targeted average daily gain were not affected by concentrate level or YC. The objective of experiment 2 was to elucidate effects of concentrate level and YC on nutrient digestibility. Four young (284.35 +/- 4.51 d) and 4 older (410.28 +/- 2.14 d) heifers were allocated to the 4 treatments used in experiment 1. Heifers fed the HC diet had increased dry matter digestibility (75.67 vs.72.96 +/- 0.72%), and YC addition increased dry matter digestibility (74.97 vs. 73.65 +/- 0.71%). Intake of N and apparent N digestibility were similar for all treatments. High-concentrate diets and YC addition decreased wet and dry matter output of feces. Urine excretion was not different; therefore, total manure output was lower for HC-fed heifers as compared with LC-fed heifers. Results suggest that HC diets can improve feed efficiency without affecting growth when limit fed to dairy heifers. Yeast culture increased dry matter digestibility in HC- and LC-fed heifers; HC diets were more digestible and reduced fecal output, with YC enhancing this

  17. Responses of dairy heifers to the visual cliff formed by a herringbone milking pit: evidence of fear of heights in cows (Bos taurus).

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    Arnold, Naomi Adele; Ng, Kim Tee; Jongman, Ellen Caroline; Hemsworth, Paul Hamilton

    2007-11-01

    The ability of cows (Bos taurus) to perceive depth has never been experimentally investigated. If cows can perceive depth, the milking pit in commercial milking facilities may be fear provoking for dairy cows, as past research has shown that most land-dwelling species possess an instinctive fear of heights. In the current study, 12 dairy heifers (1-year-old cows) were exposed to a milking pit (depth-exposed group) and 13 heifers (control group) were exposed to a standard change in the environment while they moved through a milking facility over a 5-day treatment period. Heifers in the depth-exposed group showed a higher heart rate (p fear of heights in cows. Copyright 2007 APA.

  18. Comparison of humoral immune responses in dairy heifers vaccinated with 3 different commercial vaccines against bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine herpesvirus-1.

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    DesCôteaux, Luc; Cécyre, Dominique; Elsener, Johanne; Beauchamp, Guy

    2003-10-01

    A randomized clinical trial was conducted to compare the humoral immune response to 3 different commercial vaccines in dairy heifers housed in 3 different dairy farms in Quebec. All heifers were seronegative to type 1 bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) (Singer strain), type 2 BVDV (NVSL 125c strain), and bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) at the beginning of the trial. In addition, control heifers in group 1 remained seronegative to the 2 viruses till the end of the trial. Significant differences in humoral immune responses occurred among the 3 commercial vaccines at 4 weeks and 6 months following vaccination. The vaccine in group 2 elicited higher mean antibody titers and seroconversion rates to both type 1 and type 2 BVDV than that in groups 3 or 4. Vaccines in groups 2 and 3 induced higher mean antibody titers to BHV-1 than did the vaccine in group 4.

  19. Digital infrared thermography of the scrotum, semen quality, serum testosterone levels in Nellore bulls (Bos taurus indicus and their correlation with climatic factors

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    Felipe Rydygier de Ruediger

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to study the relationship of climatic conditions with the temperature of the scrotum surface and sperm quality through digital infrared thermography in Nellore bulls, raised extensively. In six bulls held with scrotal thermography Flir E40® cameras, blood samples for serum testosterone and semen collection were taken by electroejaculation every 10 days, with six replications. Climatic factors: ambient temperature, relative humidity, dry globe temperature and temperature of the wet globe were recorded using a globe thermometer (InstruTemp®, ITWTG-2000. Thermal images of the scrotum were analyzed with the Flir Tools® software for the temperatures of scrotal surface, the right and left sides of the scrotum lap thirds: dorsal, middle and ventral testicles; and tails of the epididymis. The semen data and thermograms were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey’s test at 5%. Pearson correlation was used for the surface temperatures of the scrotum, rectal temperature, quantitative and qualitative characteristics of semen and climatic factors. There was a positive correlation (P<0.05 for sperm motility x scrotal temperatures; sperm concentration x scrotal temperatures; climatic factors x rectal temperature. There was a negative correlation (P<0.05 between ambient temperature x sperm concentration. It was concluded that the temperature of the scrotum surface and climatic factors, temperature and humidity, influence the quality of semen. Thermography is recommended as a supplementary examination for reproductive evaluation of bulls.

  20. Fatty acid profile, carcass and meat quality traits of young Nellore bulls fed crude glycerin replacing energy sources in the concentrate.

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    Lage, J F; Berchielli, T T; San Vito, E; Silva, R A; Ribeiro, A F; Reis, R A; Dallantonia, E E; Simonetti, L R; Delevatti, L M; Machado, M

    2014-03-01

    Carcass and meat quality traits of 60 Nellore young bulls fed diets without crude glycerin (CG); with CG replacing corn (CGc; 10% of dry matter - DM) in the concentrate; and with CG replacing soybean hull (CGsh; 10% of DM) in the concentrate were evaluated. Diets were evaluated at two concentrate levels (CLs). The CL did not affect cold carcass weight (CCW; P=0.6074), cold carcass dressing (CCD; P=0.9636), rib fat thickness (RFT; P=0.8696) and longissimus muscle area (LMA; P=0.7524). Animals fed diets with CGc or CGsh showed meat with greater deposition of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA; P=0.0022) and CLA (18:2 cis-9, trans-11) contents (P=0.0001) than animals fed diets without CG. The inclusion of 10% of CG in diets CGc or CGsh does not affect the carcass and meat quality traits; however, it increases the MUFA and CLA contents in beef, although these changes are very small in nutritional terms.

  1. Feeding microalgae meal (All-G Rich; CCAP 4087/2) to beef heifers. I: Effects on longissimus lumborum steak color and palatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, K J; Drouillard, J S; O'Quinn, T G; Burnett, D D; Blackmon, T L; Axman, J E; Van Bibber-Krueger, C L; Gonzalez, J M

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine effects of 4 levels of microalgae meal (All-G Rich, CCAP 4087/2; Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) supplementation to the diet of finishing heifers on longissimus lumborum (LL) steak PUFA content, beef palatability, and color stability. Crossbred heifers ( = 288; 452 ± 23 kg initial BW) were allocated to pens (36 pens and 8 heifers/pen), stratified by initial pen BW (3,612 ± 177 kg), and randomly assigned within strata to 1 of 4 treatments: 0, 50, 100, and 150 g·heifer·d of microalgae meal. After 89 d of feeding, cattle were harvested and LL were collected for determination of fatty acid composition and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), trained sensory panel evaluation, and 7-d retail color stability and lipid oxidation analyses. Feeding microalgae meal to heifers increased (quadratic, microalgae meal did not impact total SFA or MUFA ( > 0.25) but tended ( = 0.10) to increase total PUFA in a quadratic manner ( = 0.03). Total omega-6 PUFA decreased (linear, = 0.01) and total omega-3 PUFA increased (quadratic, microalgae meal level increased in the diet, which caused a decrease (quadratic, microalgae meal did not affect WBSF values or sensory panel evaluation of tenderness, juiciness, or beef flavor scores ( > 0.16); however, off-flavor intensity increased with increasing concentration of microalgae meal in the diet (quadratic, microalgae meal had a reduced a* value and oxymyoglobin surface percentage, with simultaneous increased surface metmyoglobin formation (quadratic, microalgae meal increased in the diet, the level of oxidation increased (quadratic, microalgae meal in diets ( > 0.19); therefore, the negative effects of microalgae on color stability were not due to fiber metabolism differences. Feeding microalgae meal to finishing heifers improves PUFA content of beef within the LL, but there are adverse effects on flavor and color stability.

  2. Evaluation of a strategic deworming program in dairy heifers in Quebec based on the use of moxidectin, an endectocide with a long persistency.

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    Elsener, J; Villeneuve, A; DesCôteaux, L

    2001-01-01

    Two different deworming strategies based on the use of moxidectin, a broad spectrum endectocide with persistency against Ostertagia ostertagi, were evaluated in grazing dairy heifers. Eighty-four heifers unexposed to parasitic infection were randomly allocated to 3 different groups: untreated (Group 1), treated at 3 and 10 weeks after turnout with 0.5 mg/kg/body weight (BW) of topical moxidectin (Group 2), or treated at turnout and 10 weeks later with 0.5 mg/kg/BW of topical moxidectin (Group 3). The heifers were turned out on June 6 (Day 0) to a naturally contaminated pasture divided into 3 sections by an electrical fence. Each group of heifers was put on a different section of pasture. The trial ended when they were housed on October 29 (Day 143). The results of this experiment confirmed the beneficial effect of 2 strategic treatments with moxidectin pour-on under field conditions in Quebec. The parasitological parameters showed a statistical difference in terms of mean fecal egg counts between treated and control groups (ANOVA, P < or = 0.006). After turnout, pasture larval counts were consistently higher for Group 1 compared with counts for Group 2 or 3. All heifer groups gained weight during the trial period, but the weight gain profile of both treated groups was significantly higher than that of the untreated controls (ANOVA, P < 0.03). During the trial period, Group 2 and Group 3 gained 77.7 kg BW and 73.2 kg BW, respectively, while Group 1 gained only 57.9 kg BW, despite the fact that heifers of Group 1 received a greater quantity of supplementary feed while on pasture.

  3. Dystocia in 3-year-old beef heifers; relationship to maternal nutrient intake during early- and mid-gestation, pelvic area and hormonal indicators of placental function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micke, G C; Sullivan, T M; Rolls, P J; Hasell, B; Greer, R M; Norman, S T; Perry, V E A

    2010-04-01

    The influence of nutrition during the first and second trimesters of gestation on the occurrence of dystocia was investigated in 3-year-old composite-breed beef heifers. Heifers were allocated according to stratification by weight and genotype to either a high (H/-=76 MJ metabolisable energy (ME) and 1.4 kg crude protein (CP)), or low (L/-=62 MJ ME and 0.4 kg CP daily) nutritional treatment on the day of artificial insemination (day 0) to the same Senepol bull. Half of each nutritional group changed to an opposite nutritional group on day 93 of gestation (-/H=82 MJ ME and 1.4 kg CP; -/L=63 MJ ME and 0.4 kg CP daily), resulting in four treatment groups: HH (n=16); HL (n=19); LH (n=17); LL (n=19). From 180 days until calving all heifers were fed the same diets. Pelvic area measures were taken at heifer selection (-72 days) and at 117 days. Maternal circulating concentrations of estrone sulphate (ES), bovine placental lactogen (bPL), bovine pregnancy associated glycoprotein and progesterone were monitored throughout gestation. Heifers were observed continuously over the calving period and delivery type classified as being either eutocic or dystocic. The occurrence of dystocia was 14.1%. Increased calf birth weight increased the odds of occurrence of dystocia (odds ratio (OR)=1.40; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.12-1.76; Pdystocia (OR=0.97; 95% CI 0.93-1.01; P=0.09). Longer gestation length was associated with an increased risk of dystocia (P=0.03). ES (P=0.04) and bPL (P=0.09) at calving were positively associated with the risk of dystocia. In conclusion, the current study demonstrates (a) that pelvic area measurement at selection in 3-year-old Bos indicusxBos taurus heifers may be useful for identifying heifers at an increased risk of dystocia and (b) increased ES and bPL concentrations at calving are associated with increased risk of dystocia. Pelvic area measurements obtained prior to conception remain valid in their assessment of the relationship between

  4. Effect of cassava bioethanol by-product and crude palm oil in Brahman x Thai native yearling heifer cattle diets: II. Carcass characteristics and meat quality.

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    Phoemchalard, Chirasak; Uriyapongson, Suthipong

    2015-12-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of cassava bioethanol by-product (CEP) and crude palm oil (CPO) on the carcass characteristics and meat quality of yearling heifer cattle. Eighteen crossbred Brahman × Thai heifers were randomly allotted to 2 × 3 factorial arrangement consisting of two levels of CEP (15 or 30 %, LCEP or HCEP) and 3 levels of CPO (0, 2, and 4 %). The results obtained showed that lean meat was greater (P Carcass fat (P carcass and 4 % CPO can improve the redness of the meat.