WorldWideScience

Sample records for pube pub puf

  1. Sandia PUF Analysis Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-06-11

    This program is a graphical user interface for measuring and performing inter-active analysis of physical unclonable functions (PUFs). It is intended for demonstration and education purposes. See license.txt for license details. The program features a PUF visualization that demonstrates how signatures differ between PUFs and how they exhibit noise over repeated measurements. A similarity scoreboard shows the user how close the current measurement is to the closest chip signatures in the database. Other metrics such as average noise and inter-chip Hamming distances are presented to the user. Randomness tests published in NIST SP 800-22 can be computed and displayed. Noise and inter-chip histograms for the sample of PUFs and repeated PUF measurements can be drawn.

  2. Pioneer ACO PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Pioneer ACO PUF - To address the increasing number of requests for Pioneer ACO data, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has created a standard...

  3. Prescription Drug Profiles PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Prescription Drug Profiles Public Use Files (PUFs) drawn from Medicare prescription drug claims for the year of the date on which the...

  4. Chronic Conditions PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Chronic Conditions PUFs are aggregated files in which each record is a profile or cell defined by the characteristics of Medicare beneficiaries. A profile is...

  5. Bulk media assay using backscattered Pu-Be neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Csikai, J

    1999-01-01

    Spectral yields of elastically backscattered Pu-Be neutrons measured for graphite, water, polyethylene, liquid nitrogen, paraffin oil, SiO sub 2 , Al, Fe, and Pb slabs show a definite correlation with the energy dependence of the elastic scattering cross sections, sigma sub E sub L (E sub n). The C, N and O can be identified by the different structures in their sigma sub E sub L (E sub n) functions. The integrated spectral yields versus thickness exhibit saturation for each sample. The interrogated volume is limited by the presence of hydrogen in the sample. (author)

  6. In vivo determination of nitrogen using Pu-Be sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mernagh, J R; Harrison, J E; McNeill, K G

    1977-09-01

    A mehtod of measuring body nitrogen by neutron capture gamma analysis is described. The neutron flux is provided by four collimated 5 Ci Pu-Be sources, placed to give a bilateral irradiation of the subject. The 10-83 MeV thermal neutron capture gamma rays from 14N are detected by two heavily shielded 5 in X 4 in NaI(Tl) detectors. Results indicate a reproducibility +/-3% (1 SD) for a 10 min irradiation of the chest area, while giving a radiation dose equivalent of 50 mREM.

  7. Converse PUF-based authentication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocabas, U.; Peter, A.; Katzenbeisser, S.; Sadeghi, A.

    2012-01-01

    Physically Unclonable Functions (PUFs) are key tools in the construction of lightweight authentication and key exchange protocols. So far, all existing PUF-based authentication protocols follow the same paradigm: A resource-constrained prover, holding a PUF, wants to authenticate to a resource-rich

  8. Propagação in vitro de Baptistonia pubes (Lindl. Chiron & V.P. Castro (Oncidium pubes Lindl. (Orchidaceae Propagation in vitro of Baptistonia pubes (Lindl. Chiron & V.P. Castro (Oncidium pubes Lindl. - Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Wagner Coelho Ferreira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Baptistonia pubes é uma epífita que ocorre na Floresta Atlântica do Brasil, no Paraguai e norte da Argentina. É considerada espécie vulnerável e ameaçada de extinção. Nossos objetivos foram avaliar a eficácia da germinação de suas sementes e o crescimento em dois pHs utilizando-se dois meios de cultura: Murashige-Skoog (modificado - (MS e meio nutritivo à base de banana nanica acrescido de NPK 20-20-20 (Plant Prood® (BAN variando-se as concentrações de nutrientes e pH para a germinação e para o crescimento inicial das plântulas. As sementes germinaram em média 15 dias após a inoculação, em todas as condições. A porcentagem de germinação variou entre 2,6 a 11,6%, sendo que a maior porcentagem ocorreu no pH=5,2 BAN e a menor no pH=6,2 MS/2. O meio BAN foi mais eficiente na germinação. Os pHs, em cada meio, alteraram significativamente as médias das sementes germinadas. As plântulas cresceram mais no meio nutritivo à base de banana nanica no pH = 5,2.Baptistonia pubes is an epiphyte that grows in Brazilian Atlantic Forest, in Paraguay and northern Argentina. It is considered vulnerable and threatened with extinction. Our aim was to verify seed germination efficiency and growth at two pHs, using two culture mediums: Murashige-Skoog (modified - (MS and banana pulp with added NPK 20-20-20 (Plant Prood® (BAN, with varied nutrient and pH concentrations for germination and for growth. The seeds germinated on average 15 days after the inoculation, at all conditions. The percentage of germination varied between 2.6 and 11.6 %. The highest percentage was at pH=5.2 BAN and the lowest at pH=6.2 MS/2. The banana pulp was most efficient for germination. The pHs, in each environment, altered significantly the averages of the germinated seeds. Seedling growth showed better results in the banana medium, pH = 5.2

  9. On the Amount of Entropy in PUFs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyls, Pim; Skoric, Boris

    The aim of this chapter is to provide an information-theoretic framework for the analysis of physical unclonable function (PUF) security. We set up this framework and then apply it to optical PUFs and coating PUFs. From the description of PUFs in Chapter 1 some obvious questions arise in the context of the security primitives discussed in Part I.

  10. Clubs, Pubs, and Models of Mantle Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advocate, Dev L.

    2008-08-01

    Next time you enter a pub, take a moment to ponder your pint and your place and their role in the history of the fluid sciences. Pint by pint, the fluid sciences, the precursors to geodynamics, were developed in the taprooms and clubs of the great nineteenth-century thinkers. They puffed their pipes, sipped their wine and ale, feasted on pies and porridge, satiating and saturating themselves in rising plumes of smoke and steam.

  11. MCBS Access to Care PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The MCBS 2013 Access to Care public use file (MCBS PUF) provides the first publically available MCBS file for researchers interested in the health, health care use,...

  12. The trypanosome Pumilio domain protein PUF5.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaskar Anand Jha

    Full Text Available PUF proteins are a conserved family of RNA binding proteins found in all eukaryotes examined so far. This study focussed on PUF5, one of 11 PUF family members encoded in the Trypanosoma brucei genome. Native PUF5 is present at less than 50000 molecules per cell in both bloodstream and procyclic form trypanosomes. C-terminally myc-tagged PUF5 was mainly found in the cytoplasm and could be cross-linked to RNA. PUF5 knockdown by RNA interference had no effect on the growth of bloodstream forms. Procyclic forms lacking PUF5 grew normally, but expression of PUF5 bearing a 21 kDa tandem affinity purification tag inhibited growth. Knockdown of PUF5 did not have any effect on the ability of trypanosomes to differentiate from the mammalian to the insect form of the parasite.

  13. Chronic Condition Public Use File (PUF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Chronic Conditions Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare claims. The CMS Chronic Conditions PUF is an aggregated file in...

  14. Basic Stand Alone Medicare Inpatient Claims PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Inpatient Public Use Files (PUF) named CMS 2008 BSA Inpatient Claims PUF with information from 2008 Medicare...

  15. Isotopic characterization and thermal neutron flux determination of a PuBe neutron source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purty, Ravi Ankit; Akanchha; Prasad, Shikha

    2017-07-01

    The Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (IIT Kanpur) possesses a PuBe neutron source facility with an initial activity of 5 Ci, dated September 1966 (nearly 50 years ago). An understanding of the present activity and the rate of its change will allow implementation of proper radiological safety procedures and future radiological safety planning. Knowing the absolute neutron flux will help us in future neutron activation studies. These details are also important to ensure proper security precautions. In our work, we attempt to identify the isotopic composition to determine the rate of change of the source and the absolute thermal neutron flux of plutonium beryllium (PuBe) sample at IIT Kanpur. We have used gamma-ray spectroscopy for determining the isotopic composition of the PuBe neutron source. After utilizing gamma-ray spectroscopy it is found that the source is composed of (239)Pu and a small amount of (241)Am is present as an impurity. The mass ratio of (241)Am to (239)Pu is found to be approximately 18.1µg/g with an uncertainty of 1.39%. Delayed gamma neutron activation analysis (DGNAA) is used to determine the thermal neutron flux of the same PuBe neutron source using copper, cobalt, nickel and cadmium samples. The average thermal neutron flux as calculated from DGNAA is approximately 1.27×10(3)n/(cm(2)-s) at 1cm above the PuBe neutron source. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Translational repression by PUF proteins in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chritton, Jacqueline J; Wickens, Marvin

    2010-06-01

    PUF (Pumilio and FBF) proteins provide a paradigm for mRNA regulatory proteins. They interact with specific sequences in the 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) of target mRNAs and cause changes in RNA stability or translational activity. Here we describe an in vitro translation assay that reconstitutes the translational repression activity of canonical PUF proteins. In this system, recombinant PUF proteins were added to yeast cell lysates to repress reporter mRNAs bearing the 3'UTRs of specific target mRNAs. PUF proteins from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Caenorhabditis elegans were active in the assay and were specific by multiple criteria. Puf5p, a yeast PUF protein, repressed translation of four target RNAs. Repression mediated by the HO 3'UTR was particularly efficient, due to a specific sequence in that 3'UTR. The sequence lies downstream from the PUF binding site and does not affect PUF protein binding. PUF-mediated repression was sensitive to the distance between the ORF and the regulatory elements in the 3'UTR: excessive distance decreased repression activity. Our data demonstrate that PUF proteins function in vitro across species, that different mRNA targets are regulated differentially, and that specific ancillary sequences distinguish one yeast mRNA target from another. We suggest a model in which PUF proteins can control translation termination or elongation.

  17. Characterization of a neutron source of {sup 239}PuBe; Caracterizacion de una fuente de neutrones de {sup 239}PuBe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez V, R.; Chacon R, A.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Mercado, G. A.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Ramirez G, J. [Instituto Nacional de Estadistica Geografia e Informatica, Direccion General de Innovacion y Tecnologia de Informacion, Av. Heroes de Nacozari Sur 2301, Fracc. Jardines del Parque, 20276 Aguascalientes (Mexico)], e-mail: ruben_zac@yahoo.com

    2009-10-15

    The spectrum equivalent dose and environmental equivalent dose f a {sup 239}PuBe source have been determined. The appropriate handling of a neutron source depends on the knowledge of its characteristics, such as its energy distribution, total rate of flowing and dosimetric magnitudes. In many facilities have not spectrometer that allows to determine the spectrum and then area monitors are used that give a dosimetric magnitude starting from measuring the flowing rate and the use of conversion factors, however this procedure has many limitations and it is preferable to measure the spectra and starting from this information the interest dosimetric magnitudes are calculated. In this work a Bonner sphere spectrometer has been used with a {sup 6}LiI(Eu) scintillator obtaining the count rates that produce, to a distance of 100 cm, a {sup 239}PuBe source of 1.85E(11) Bq. The spectrum was reconstructed starting from the count rates using BUNKIUT code and response matrix UTA4. With the spectrum information was calculated the source intensity, total flow, energy average, equivalent dose rate, environmental equivalent dose rate, equivalent dose coefficient and environmental equivalent dose coefficient. By means of two area monitors for neutrons, Eberline ASP-1 and LB 6411 of Berthold the equivalent dose and environmental equivalent dose were measured. The determinate values were compared with those reported in literature and it found that are coincident inside 17%. (Author)

  18. A Survey on Silicon PUFs and Recent Advances in Ring Oscillator PUFs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张吉良; 屈钢; 吕勇强; 周强

    2014-01-01

    Silicon physical unclonable function (PUF) is a popular hardware security primitive that exploits the intrinsic variation of IC manufacturing process to generate chip-unique information for various security related applications. For example, the PUF information can be used as a chip identifier, a secret key, the seed for a random number generator, or the response to a given challenge. Due to the unpredictability and irreplicability of IC manufacturing variation, silicon PUF has emerged as a promising hardware security primitive and gained a lot of attention over the past few years. In this article, we first give a survey on the current state-of-the-art of silicon PUFs, then analyze known attacks to PUFs and the countermeasures. After that we discuss PUF-based applications, highlight some recent research advances in ring oscillator PUFs, and conclude with some challenges and opportunities in PUF research and applications.

  19. Authenticated communication from quantum readout of PUFs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skoric, Boris; Pinkse, Pepijn W.H.; Mosk, Allard P.

    2016-01-01

    Quantum Readout of Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) is a recently introduced method for remote authentication of objects. We present an extension of the protocol to enable the authentication of data: a verifier can check if received classical data was sent by the PUF holder. We call this modific

  20. Advancing PubMed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildgaard, Lorna Elizabeth; Lund, Haakon

    2016-01-01

    the efficiency of biomedical literature searches. PubMed remains the primary resource for biomedical literature, and as PubMed makes the Medline data and Entrez PubMed Programming utilities freely available, any developer can produce alternative tools to search the database. The authors question if PubMed still...... provides the superior search interface for systematic searches or if the innovativeness of third-party tools provide alternatives worth considering. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach In all, 76 third-party tools that build on PubMed content were identified in a Pub...

  1. PubChem

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — PubChem contains the chemical structures of small organic molecules and information on their biological activities. PubChem includes substance information, compound...

  2. Authenticated communication from quantum readout of PUFs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škorić, Boris; Pinkse, Pepijn W. H.; Mosk, Allard P.

    2017-08-01

    Quantum readout of physical unclonable functions (PUFs) is a recently introduced method for remote authentication of objects. We present an extension of the protocol to enable the authentication of data: A verifier can check if received classical data were sent by the PUF holder. We call this modification QR-d or, in the case of the optical-PUF implementation, QSA-d. We discuss how QSA-d can be operated in a parallel way. We also present a protocol for authenticating quantum states.

  3. Medicare FFS 30 Day Readmission Rate PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The hospital readmission rate PUF presents nation-wide information about inpatient hospital stays that occurred within 30 days of a previous inpatient hospital stay...

  4. Basic Stand Alone Medicare Hospice Beneficiary PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Hospice Beneficiary Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare hospice claims. The CMS BSA Hospice...

  5. Shared Savings Program Accountable Care Organizations PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — SSP ACO PUF - To address the increasing number of requests for SSP ACO data, the Centers for Medicare (CM) has created a standard analytical file that CMS can use to...

  6. Institutional Provider and Beneficiary Summary PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS IPBS PUFs are aggregated files in which each record summarizes information for a particular institutional provider. An institutional provider refers to a...

  7. Basic Stand Alone Carrier Line Items PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Carrier Line Items Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare Carrier claims. The CMS BSA Carrier Line...

  8. Basic Stand Alone Medicare Outpatient Procedures PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Outpatient Procedures Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare outpatient claims. The CMS BSA...

  9. Validation of neutron data libraries by backscattered spectra of Pu-Be Neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    El-Agib, I

    1999-01-01

    Elastically backscattered spectra of Pu-Be neutrons have been measured for SiO sub 2 , water, graphite, paraffin oil and Al slabs using a proton recoil spectrometer. The results were compared with the calculated spectra obtained by the three-dimensional Monte-Carlo transport code MCNP-4B and point-wise cross sections from the ENDF/B-V, ENDF/B-VI, JENDL-3.1 and BROND-2 data libraries. The good agreement between the measured and calculated results indicates that this procedure can be used for validation of different data libraries. This simple method renders possible the detection of oxygen, carbon and hydrogen in bulk samples. (author)

  10. Characterization of a {sup 239}PuBe isotopic neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H. R.; Hernandez D, V. M. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Rivera M, T. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Calz. Legaria No. 694, Col. Irrigacion, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Sanchez, A., E-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    A Bonner sphere spectrometer was used to determine the features of a {sup 239}PuBe neutron source used to operate the ESFM-Ipn Subcritical Reactor. The spectrometer is a {sup 6}Lil(Eu) scintillator and 2, 3, 5, 8, 10 and 12 inches-diameter polyethylene spheres, that was located 100 cm from the neutron source. The count rates obtained with the spectrometer were unfolded using the NSDUAZ code and neutron spectrum, total fluence, and ambient dose equivalent were determined. A Monte Carlo calculation, using the MCNP5 code, was carried out to estimate the spectrum and integral features being less that values obtained experimentally due to the presence of {sup 241}Pu in the Pu used to fabricate the source. Using the experimental information the actual neutron yield and the mass fraction of {sup 241}Pu was estimated. (Author)

  11. Advancing PubMed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildgaard, Lorna Elizabeth; Lund, Haakon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Systematic reviews of biomedical literature are used to inform patient treatment. Yet the acquisition of relevant literature is proving increasingly challenging due to the large volume of information that needs to be searched, filtered and collocated. There is a need to improve...... provides the superior search interface for systematic searches or if the innovativeness of third-party tools provide alternatives worth considering. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach In all, 76 third-party tools that build on PubMed content were identified in a Pub...... the efficiency of biomedical literature searches. PubMed remains the primary resource for biomedical literature, and as PubMed makes the Medline data and Entrez PubMed Programming utilities freely available, any developer can produce alternative tools to search the database. The authors question if PubMed still...

  12. PubMed

    CERN Document Server

    PubMed is the National Library of Medicine's search service that provides access to over 10 million citations in MEDLINE, PreMEDLINE, and other related databases, with links to participating online journals.

  13. PubMed

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — PubMed comprises more than 26 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to...

  14. Stacking interactions in PUF-RNA complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yiling Koh, Yvonne; Wang, Yeming; Qiu, Chen; Opperman, Laura; Gross, Leah; Tanaka Hall, Traci M; Wickens, Marvin [NIH; (UW)

    2012-07-02

    Stacking interactions between amino acids and bases are common in RNA-protein interactions. Many proteins that regulate mRNAs interact with single-stranded RNA elements in the 3' UTR (3'-untranslated region) of their targets. PUF proteins are exemplary. Here we focus on complexes formed between a Caenorhabditis elegans PUF protein, FBF, and its cognate RNAs. Stacking interactions are particularly prominent and involve every RNA base in the recognition element. To assess the contribution of stacking interactions to formation of the RNA-protein complex, we combine in vivo selection experiments with site-directed mutagenesis, biochemistry, and structural analysis. Our results reveal that the identities of stacking amino acids in FBF affect both the affinity and specificity of the RNA-protein interaction. Substitutions in amino acid side chains can restrict or broaden RNA specificity. We conclude that the identities of stacking residues are important in achieving the natural specificities of PUF proteins. Similarly, in PUF proteins engineered to bind new RNA sequences, the identity of stacking residues may contribute to 'target' versus 'off-target' interactions, and thus be an important consideration in the design of proteins with new specificities.

  15. A New Arbiter PUF for Enhancing Unpredictability on FPGA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Takanori; Yamamoto, Dai; Iwamoto, Mitsugu; Sakiyama, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    In general, conventional Arbiter-based Physically Unclonable Functions (PUFs) generate responses with low unpredictability. The N-XOR Arbiter PUF, proposed in 2007, is a well-known technique for improving this unpredictability. In this paper, we propose a novel design for Arbiter PUF, called Double Arbiter PUF, to enhance the unpredictability on field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), and we compare our design to conventional N-XOR Arbiter PUFs. One metric for judging the unpredictability of responses is to measure their tolerance to machine-learning attacks. Although our previous work showed the superiority of Double Arbiter PUFs regarding unpredictability, its details were not clarified. We evaluate the dependency on the number of training samples for machine learning, and we discuss the reason why Double Arbiter PUFs are more tolerant than the N-XOR Arbiter PUFs by evaluating intrachip variation. Further, the conventional Arbiter PUFs and proposed Double Arbiter PUFs are evaluated according to other metrics, namely, their uniqueness, randomness, and steadiness. We demonstrate that 3-1 Double Arbiter PUF archives the best performance overall.

  16. Target selection by natural and redesigned PUF proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Douglas F; Koh, Yvonne Y; VanVeller, Brett; Raines, Ronald T; Wickens, Marvin

    2015-12-29

    Pumilio/fem-3 mRNA binding factor (PUF) proteins bind RNA with sequence specificity and modularity, and have become exemplary scaffolds in the reengineering of new RNA specificities. Here, we report the in vivo RNA binding sites of wild-type (WT) and reengineered forms of the PUF protein Saccharomyces cerevisiae Puf2p across the transcriptome. Puf2p defines an ancient protein family present throughout fungi, with divergent and distinctive PUF RNA binding domains, RNA-recognition motifs (RRMs), and prion regions. We identify sites in RNA bound to Puf2p in vivo by using two forms of UV cross-linking followed by immunopurification. The protein specifically binds more than 1,000 mRNAs, which contain multiple iterations of UAAU-binding elements. Regions outside the PUF domain, including the RRM, enhance discrimination among targets. Compensatory mutants reveal that one Puf2p molecule binds one UAAU sequence, and align the protein with the RNA site. Based on this architecture, we redesign Puf2p to bind UAAG and identify the targets of this reengineered PUF in vivo. The mutant protein finds its target site in 1,800 RNAs and yields a novel RNA network with a dramatic redistribution of binding elements. The mutant protein exhibits even greater RNA specificity than wild type. The redesigned protein decreases the abundance of RNAs in its redesigned network. These results suggest that reengineering using the PUF scaffold redirects and can even enhance specificity in vivo.

  17. A New Arbiter PUF for Enhancing Unpredictability on FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takanori Machida

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In general, conventional Arbiter-based Physically Unclonable Functions (PUFs generate responses with low unpredictability. The N-XOR Arbiter PUF, proposed in 2007, is a well-known technique for improving this unpredictability. In this paper, we propose a novel design for Arbiter PUF, called Double Arbiter PUF, to enhance the unpredictability on field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs, and we compare our design to conventional N-XOR Arbiter PUFs. One metric for judging the unpredictability of responses is to measure their tolerance to machine-learning attacks. Although our previous work showed the superiority of Double Arbiter PUFs regarding unpredictability, its details were not clarified. We evaluate the dependency on the number of training samples for machine learning, and we discuss the reason why Double Arbiter PUFs are more tolerant than the N-XOR Arbiter PUFs by evaluating intrachip variation. Further, the conventional Arbiter PUFs and proposed Double Arbiter PUFs are evaluated according to other metrics, namely, their uniqueness, randomness, and steadiness. We demonstrate that 3-1 Double Arbiter PUF archives the best performance overall.

  18. PubSCIENCE

    CERN Document Server

    United States. Department of Energy. Office of Scientific and Technical Information

    PubSCIENCE, a component of EnergyFiles, indexes 1,000 scientific and technical journals. It contains over one million multi-source journal citations dating back over 25 years from DOE's Energy Science and Technology Database. The focus of PubSCIENCE is on those journals where DOE researchers report their scientific discoveries. Frequency of contributions by DOE-sponsored researchers to scientific journals has been analyzed to prioritize data collection efforts. OSTI partners with participating publishers to provide information that is both relevant and useful to the DOE scientific community as well as information that was developed as the result of government sponsored R&D.

  19. The yeast PUF protein Puf5 has Pop2-independent roles in response to DNA replication stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Traven

    Full Text Available PUFs are RNA binding proteins that promote mRNA deadenylation and decay and inhibit translation. Yeast Puf5 is the prototype for studying PUF-dependent gene repression. Puf5 binds to the Pop2 subunit of the Ccr4-Pop2-NOT mRNA deadenylase, recruiting the deadenylase and associated translational repressors to mRNAs. Here we used yeast genetics to show that Puf5 has additional roles in vivo that do not require Pop2. Deletion of PUF5 caused increased sensitivity to DNA replication stress in cells lacking Pop2, as well as in cells mutated for two activities recruited to mRNAs by the Puf5-Pop2 interaction, the deadenylase Ccr4 and the translational repressor Dhh1. A functional Puf5 RNA binding domain was required, and Puf5 cytoplasmic localisation was sufficient for resistance to replication stress, indicating posttranscriptional gene expression control is involved. In contrast to DNA replication stress, in response to the cell wall integrity pathway activator caffeine, PUF5 and POP2 acted in the same genetic pathway, indicating that functions of Puf5 in the caffeine response are mediated by Pop2-dependent gene repression. Our results support a model in which Puf5 uses multiple, Pop2-dependent and Pop2-independent mechanisms to control mRNA expression. The Pop2-independent roles for Puf5 could involve spatial control of gene expression, a proposition supported by our data indicating that the active form of Puf5 is localised to cytoplasmic foci.

  20. Pengeringan Puffing Sayuran dengan Gas Karbon Dioksida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Saputra

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine if CO2 puffing process could be applied to indonesian vegetables which resulted in the largest increase in bulk specific volume (BSV and rehydration ratio (RR. This reseach also was intended to reduce the residence time and CO2 pressure needed to puff the product. Several vegetables wich were common in the indonesian’s instant food were puffed dried using CO2 gas at the pressure of 3.72, 5.10 and 6.48 Mpa and residence time of 4 and 8 minutes and were then dried using a fluidized bed drier.this technology had successfully dried the carrot, potato, andSiamese squash cube with the size of 6x6x6 mm3, and green bean chunk in the length of 6 mm. The bulk specific volume and rehydration ratio of the sample tried were significantly higher than the hot air dried one (1.3 to 5 times for BSV and 1.2 to 5 for RR and were 0.6 to 0.95times the freeze dried product. The residence time, and pressure used for puffing with CO2 could be reduced by soaking the semple into 2% Na2HPO4, moisture content of 40 to 50%, residence time of 4 to 8 minutes, and CO2 pressure of 5.10 to 6.48 Mpa.

  1. Role of PUF-8/PUF protein in stem cell control, sperm-oocyte decision and cell fate reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datla, Udaya Sree; Scovill, Natasha Carol; Brokamp, Austin J; Kim, Eunsuk; Asch, Adam S; Lee, Myon-Hee

    2014-10-01

    Pumilio and FBF (PUF) proteins are conserved stem cell regulators that maintain germline stem cells (GSCs) in worms and flies. Moreover, they are also present in vertebrate stem cells. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has multiple PUF proteins with specialized roles. Among them, PUF-8 protein controls multiple cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, sperm-oocyte decision, and cell fate reprogramming, depending on the genetic context in the C. elegans germline. In this review, we describe the possible mechanisms of how PUF-8 protein systematically controls multiple cellular processes in the C. elegans germline. Since PUF proteins are evolutionarily conserved, we suggest that a similar mechanism may be involved in controlling stem cell regulation and differentiation in other organisms, including humans.

  2. 3D computational and experimental radiation transport assessments of Pu-Be sources and graded moderators for parcel screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghita, Gabriel; Sjoden, Glenn; Baciak, James; Huang, Nancy

    2006-05-01

    The Florida Institute for Nuclear Detection and Security (FINDS) is currently working on the design and evaluation of a prototype neutron detector array that may be used for parcel screening systems and homeland security applications. In order to maximize neutron detector response over a wide spectrum of energies, moderator materials of different compositions and amounts are required, and can be optimized through 3-D discrete ordinates and Monte Carlo model simulations verified through measurement. Pu-Be sources can be used as didactic source materials to augment the design, optimization, and construction of detector arrays with proper characterization via transport analysis. To perform the assessments of the Pu-Be Source Capsule, 3-D radiation transport computations are used, including Monte Carlo (MCNP5) and deterministic (PENTRAN) methodologies. In establishing source geometry, we based our model on available source schematic data. Because both the MCNP5 and PENTRAN codes begin with source neutrons, exothermic (α,n) reactions are modeled using the SCALE5 code from ORNL to define the energy spectrum and the decay of the source. We combined our computational results with experimental data to fully validate our computational schemes, tools and models. Results from our computational models will then be used with experiment to generate a mosaic of the radiation spectrum. Finally, we discuss follow-up studies that highlight response optimization efforts in designing, building, and testing an array of detectors with varying moderators/thicknesses tagged to specific responses predicted using 3-D radiation transport models to augment special nuclear materials detection.

  3. Complementation of a reaction center-deficient Rhodobacter sphaeroides pufLMX deletion strain in trans with pufBALM does not restore the photosynthesis-positive phenotype.

    OpenAIRE

    Farchaus, J W; Gruenberg, H.; Oesterhelt, D.

    1990-01-01

    The puf operon in Rhodobacter sphaeroides is composed of the genes for the photosynthetic reaction center L and M subunits, light-harvesting antenna complex I, and one other open reading frame termed pufX. Complementation of a reaction center-deficient, photosynthetically incompetent pufLMX deletion strain in trans with a fragment containing the entire puf operon, including pufX and an additional 1,100 base pairs of DNA downstream of pufX, restored the reaction center and the photosynthesis-p...

  4. Investigation of thermal properties of PUF/clay nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğar, Çetin; Gürses, Ahmet; Karaca, Semra; Köktepe, Sevda; Mindivan, Ferda; Güneş, Kübra

    2014-11-01

    This study aims to investigate the thermal properties of phenol-urea-formaldehyde (PUF)/organoclay nanocomposites synthesized at various organoclay ratios by using their DSC thermograms, FT-IR spectra, and HRTEM images. From these analyses, it has been concluded that at low organoclay ratios, the platelets exfoliated of organoclay, which dispersed homogenously in the polymer matrix, created a positive effect in conformational arrangement as suitable to crystallization of PUF chains. DSC analyses revealed that two endotherms in all thermograms imply the presence of linear UF, PF, and PUF chains together. Low organoclay content may also lead to a cross-linked lattice, being more predominant than the linear chain arrangement.

  5. The Puf-family RNA-binding protein Puf2 controls sporozoite conversion to liver stages in the malaria parasite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Müller

    Full Text Available Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by unicellular, obligate intracellular parasites of the genus Plasmodium. During host switch the malaria parasite employs specialized latent stages that colonize the new host environment. Previous work has established that gametocytes, sexually differentiated stages that are taken up by the mosquito vector, control expression of genes required for mosquito colonization by translational repression. Sexual parasite development is controlled by a DEAD-box RNA helicase of the DDX6 family, termed DOZI. Latency of sporozoites, the transmission stage injected during an infectious blood meal, is controlled by the eIF2alpha kinase IK2, a general inhibitor of protein synthesis. Whether RNA-binding proteins participate in translational regulation in sporozoites remains to be studied. Here, we investigated the roles of two RNA-binding proteins of the Puf-family, Plasmodium Puf1 and Puf2, during sporozoite stage conversion. Our data reveal that, in the rodent malaria parasite P. berghei, Puf2 participates in the regulation of IK2 and inhibits premature sporozoite transformation. Inside mosquito salivary glands puf2⁻ sporozoites transform over time to round forms resembling early intra-hepatic stages. As a result, mutant parasites display strong defects in initiating a malaria infection. In contrast, Puf1 is dispensable in vivo throughout the entire Plasmodium life cycle. Our findings support the notion of a central role for Puf2 in parasite latency during switch between the insect and mammalian hosts.

  6. A Caenorhabditis elegans PUF protein family with distinct RNA binding specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, Craig R; Kimble, Judith; Wickens, Marvin

    2008-08-01

    PUF proteins comprise a highly conserved family of sequence-specific RNA binding proteins that regulate target mRNAs via binding directly to their 3'UTRs. The Caenorhabditis elegans genome encodes several PUF proteins, which cluster into four groups based on sequence similarity; all share amino acids that interact with the RNA in the cocrystal of human Pumilio with RNA. Members of the FBF and the PUF-8/9 groups bind different but related RNA sequences. We focus here on the binding specificity of representatives of a third cluster, comprising PUF-5, -6, and -7. We performed in vivo selection experiments using the yeast three-hybrid system to identify RNA sequences that bind PUF-5 and PUF-6, and we confirmed binding to optimal sites in vitro. The consensus sequences derived from the screens are similar for PUF-5 and PUF-6 but differ from those of the FBF or PUF-8/-9 groups. Similarly, neither PUF-5 nor PUF-6 bind the recognition sites preferred by the other clusters. Mutagenesis studies confirmed the unique RNA specificity of PUF-5/-6. Using the PUF-5 consensus derived from our experiments, we searched a database of C. elegans 3'UTRs to identify potential targets of PUF-5, several of which indeed bind PUF-5. Therefore the consensus has predictive value and provides a route to finding genuine targets of these proteins.

  7. Franquicia GastroPub Torino

    OpenAIRE

    Schuler Falla, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    Es la construcción de un modelo de franquicia de restaurantes con la temática GastroPub que es una nueva tendencia originaria de europa. Es un restaurante que sirve comida colombiana gourmet, típica pero no común, en un ambiente de pub.

  8. Basic Stand Alone Skilled Nursing Facility Beneficiary PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Skilled Nursing Facility (SNF) Beneficiary Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare SNF claims. The...

  9. Basic Stand Alone Medicare Home Health Beneficiary PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Home Health Agency (HHA) Beneficiary Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare HHA claims. The CMS BSA...

  10. Basic Stand Alone Medicare DME Line Items PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Durable Medical Equipment (DME) Line Items Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare DME claims. The...

  11. Quantum cloning attacks against PUF-based quantum authentication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yao; Gao, Ming; Li, Mo; Zhang, Jian

    2016-08-01

    With the advent of physical unclonable functions (PUFs), PUF-based quantum authentication systems have been proposed for security purposes, and recently, proof-of-principle experiment has been demonstrated. As a further step toward completing the security analysis, we investigate quantum cloning attacks against PUF-based quantum authentication systems and prove that quantum cloning attacks outperform the so-called challenge-estimation attacks. We present the analytical expression of the false-accept probability by use of the corresponding optimal quantum cloning machines and extend the previous results in the literature. In light of these findings, an explicit comparison is made between PUF-based quantum authentication systems and quantum key distribution protocols in the context of cloning attacks. Moreover, from an experimental perspective, a trade-off between the average photon number and the detection efficiency is discussed in detail.

  12. Polyurethane foam (PUF) passive samplers for monitoring phenanthrene in stormwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Yueqin; Zhang, Tian C; Zeng, Jing; Stansbury, John; Moussavi, Massoum; Richter-Egger, Dana L; Klein, Mitchell R

    2016-04-01

    Pollution from highway stormwater runoff has been an increasing area of concern. Many structural Best Management Practices (BMPs) have been implemented for stormwater treatment and management. One challenge for these BMPs is to sample stormwater and monitor BMP performance. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using polyurethane foam (PUF) passive samplers (PSs) for sampling phenanthrene (PHE) in highway stormwater runoff and BMPs. Tests were conducted using batch reactors, glass-tube columns, and laboratory-scale BMPs (bioretention cells). Results indicate that sorption for PHE by PUF is mainly linearly relative to time, and the high sorption capacity allows the PUF passive sampler to monitor stormwater events for months or years. The PUF passive samplers could be embedded in BMPs for monitoring influent and effluent PHE concentrations. Models developed to link the results of batch and column tests proved to be useful for determining removal or sorption parameters and performance of the PUF-PSs. The predicted removal efficiencies of BMPs were close to the real values obtained from the control columns with errors ranging between -8.46 and 1.52%. This research showed that it is possible to use PUF passive samplers for sampling stormwater and monitoring the performance of stormwater BMPs, which warrants the field-scale feasibility studies in the future.

  13. PUF-NLHB:a Lightweight Authentication Protocol Based on PUF%PUF-NLHB:基于PUF的轻量级认证协议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳; 周清雷

    2014-01-01

    基于GRS攻击模型设计了针对PUF-HB类协议的攻击方法,证明了该类协议不具备抵御中间人攻击的能力.在此基础上,针对PUF-HB协议的漏洞,通过加入非线性函数的方法设计了PUF-NLHB协议并给出具体的硬件实现结构,在随机ora-cle模型下通过向LPN问题的规约严格证明了新协议的安全性,增强了协议应对中间人攻击的能力.

  14. Pub: Grid 2004, 2 signalement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    2. signalement er en af flere manifesteringer omkring det at skabe en tale omkring udfordringer. Pub: Grid 2004 indeholder en række arbejder, der afspejler et fagligt udviklingsarbejde på afdeling 6....

  15. Relationship of starch changes to puffing expansion of parboiled rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanta, Charu Lata; Bhattacharya, K R

    2010-03-01

    'Intan' variety of paddy (Oryza sativa) was tested for puffing. It was parboiled under a wide range of paddy moisture content, steaming pressure and time, as also temperature and time of sand heating. The resulting milled rices were studied for their diverse properties including puffing. Indices of starch changes in the samples were calculated as: (1) gelatinisation index from the solubility of amylose in 0.2 N KOH; (2) amylopectin retrogradation from the post-production drop in room-temperature hydration power of the parboiled paddy during air-drying, (3) thermal breakdown of starch from the drop in gel permeation chromatographic fraction I of starch; lipid-amylose complexation indirectly from (4) drop in rate of water uptake during cooking and (5) cooked-rice firmness. It was found that the puffing expansion was very highly correlated with the combined above 5 indices of starch changes, as much as 90% of the variation in puffing being explainable on that basis. Puffing was promoted by gelatinisation as well as lipid-amylose complexation, but was retarded by amylopectin retrogradation and probably starch breakdown.

  16. Identification of a conserved interface between PUF and CPEB proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Zachary T; Menichelli, Elena; Friend, Kyle; Wu, Joann; Kimble, Judith; Williamson, James R; Wickens, Marvin

    2012-05-25

    Members of the PUF (Pumilio and FBF) and CPEB (cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding) protein families collaborate to regulate mRNA expression throughout eukaryotes. Here, we focus on the physical interactions between members of these two families, concentrating on Caenorhabditis elegans FBF-2 and CPB-1. To localize the site of interaction on FBF-2, we identified conserved amino acids within C. elegans PUF proteins. Deletion of an extended loop containing several conserved residues abolished binding to CPB-1. We analyzed alanine substitutions at 13 individual amino acids in FBF-2, each identified via its conservation. Multiple single point mutations disrupted binding to CPB-1 but not to RNA. Position Tyr-479 was particularly critical as multiple substitutions to other amino acids at this position did not restore binding. The complex of FBF-2 and CPB-1 repressed translation of an mRNA containing an FBF binding element. Repression required both proteins and was disrupted by FBF-2 alleles that failed to bind CPB-1 or RNA. The equivalent loop in human PUM2 is required for binding to human CPEB3 in vitro, although the primary sequences of the human and C. elegans PUF proteins have diverged in that region. Our findings define a key region in PUF/CPEB interactions and imply a conserved platform through which PUF proteins interact with their protein partners.

  17. Pumilio Puf domain RNA-binding proteins in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Nazia; Park, Youn-Il; Choi, Sang-Bong

    2011-03-01

    Pumilio proteins are a class of RNA-binding proteins harboring Puf domains (or PUM-HD; Pumilio-Homology Domain), named after the founding members, Pumilio (from Drosophila melanogaster) and FBF (Fem-3 mRNA-Binding Factor from Caenorhabditis elegans). The domains contain multiple tandem repeats each of which recognizes one RNA base and is comprised of 35-39 amino acids. Puf domain proteins have been reported in organisms ranging from single-celled yeast to higher multicellular eukaryotes, such as humans and plants. In yeast and animals, they are involved in a variety of posttranscriptional RNA metabolism including RNA decay, RNA transport, rRNA processing and translational repression. However, their roles in plants are largely unknown. Recently, we have characterized the first member of the Puf family of RNA-binding proteins, APUM23, in Arabidopsis. Here, we discuss and summarize the diverse roles and targets of Puf proteins previously reported in other organisms and then highlight the potential regulatory roles of Puf proteins in Arabidopsis, using our recent study as an example.

  18. Selective Ring Oscillator PUF with Statistics Correction Technique and its Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Masaya; Asai, Toshiya; Shiozaki, Mitsuru; Fujino, Takeshi

    The physical unclonable function (PUF) is a method to derive ID information peculiar to a device by detecting random physical features that cannot be controlled during the device’s manufacture. Because information such as the ID information is difficult to replicate, PUF is used as a technique to prevent forgery. PUF has two major application fields: an authentication scheme, and protection of intellectual property of the semiconductor industry. Several circuit systems to compose PUF have been reported. This study proposes a new PUF based on ring oscillator PUF. By incorporating a mechanism to correct the oscillation frequency dispersion that results from the layout, the proposed PUF can generate ID accurately. We verified the proposed PUF’s validity by conducting experiments using an FPGA that incorporates the proposed PUF.

  19. Science in the (CERN) Pub!

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    The 6th Public Communication of Science and Technology network conference will end on Saturday 3 February with special performances. At 14:30 in the coffee area of restaurant no. 1 (Main Building) all participants and interested CERN members are invited to two events that will address science in an unorthodox and amusing way. Australian scientists will start with Science in the Pub, a fun discussion of topical science in an Australian pub ambiance (free Foster's beer served). Cabaret Pasteur, a French sample of entertainment with a scientific touch will follow.

  20. Synthesis, characterization and anti-microbial activity of phenylurea-formaldehyde resin (PUF) and its polymer metal complexes (PUF-Mn(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamad, Tansir; Alshehri, Saad M

    2012-10-01

    Phenylurea-formaldehyde polymer (PUF) was synthesized via polycondensation of phenylurea and formaldehyde in basic medium, its polymer-metal complexes [PUF-M(II)] were prepared with Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II) ions. PUF and PUF-M(II) were characterized with magnetic moment measurements, elemental and spectral (UV-visible, FTIR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and ESR) analysis. The thermal behaviors of all the synthesized polymers were carried out using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The thermal data revealed that all of the PUF-M(II) showed higher thermal stabilities than the PUF and also ascribed that the PUF-Cu(II) showed better thermal stability than the other PUF-M(II). The kinetic parameters such as activation energy, pre-exponential factor etc., were evaluated for these polymer metal complexes using Coats-Redfern equation. In addition, the antimicrobial activity of the synthesized polymers was tested against several microorganisms using agar well diffusion methods. Among all of the PUF-M(II), the antimicrobial activity of the PUF-Cu(II) showed the highest zone of inhibition because of its higher stability constant and may be used in biomedical applications.

  1. Synthesis, characterization and anti-microbial activity of phenylurea-formaldehyde resin (PUF) and its polymer metal complexes (PUF-Mn(II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamad, Tansir; Alshehri, Saad M.

    2012-10-01

    Phenylurea-formaldehyde polymer (PUF) was synthesized via polycondensation of phenylurea and formaldehyde in basic medium, its polymer-metal complexes [PUF-M(II)] were prepared with Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II) ions. PUF and PUF-M(II) were characterized with magnetic moment measurements, elemental and spectral (UV-visible, FTIR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and ESR) analysis. The thermal behaviors of all the synthesized polymers were carried out using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The thermal data revealed that all of the PUF-M(II) showed higher thermal stabilities than the PUF and also ascribed that the PUF-Cu(II) showed better thermal stability than the other PUF-M(II). The kinetic parameters such as activation energy, pre-exponential factor etc., were evaluated for these polymer metal complexes using Coats-Redfern equation. In addition, the antimicrobial activity of the synthesized polymers was tested against several microorganisms using agar well diffusion methods. Among all of the PUF-M(II), the antimicrobial activity of the PUF-Cu(II) showed the highest zone of inhibition because of its higher stability constant and may be used in biomedical applications.

  2. Physical Unclonable Function (PUF) Based Random Number Generator

    CERN Document Server

    Sadr, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) are widely used to generate random Numbers. In this paper we propose a new architecture in which an Arbiter Based PUF has been employed as a nonlinear function in Nonlinear Feedback Shift Register (NFSR) to generate true random numbers. The rate of producing the output bit streams is 10 million bits per second. The proposed RNG is able to pass all NIST tests and the entropy of the output stream is 7.999837 bits per byte. The proposed circuit has very low resource usage of 193 Slices that makes it suitable for lightweight applications.

  3. Laughing, grooming, and pub science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provine, Robert R

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of naturalistic observations of people conversing and laughing in pubs, a new study suggests that the 'grooming-at-a-distance' of laughter provides a three-fold increase in grooming group size, potentially explaining how hominins evolved social groups that are considerably larger than those of other primates.

  4. Evolutionary Conservation and Diversification of Puf RNA Binding Proteins and Their mRNA Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Gregory J; Brown, Patrick O; Herschlag, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Reprogramming of a gene's expression pattern by acquisition and loss of sequences recognized by specific regulatory RNA binding proteins may be a major mechanism in the evolution of biological regulatory programs. We identified that RNA targets of Puf3 orthologs have been conserved over 100-500 million years of evolution in five eukaryotic lineages. Focusing on Puf proteins and their targets across 80 fungi, we constructed a parsimonious model for their evolutionary history. This model entails extensive and coordinated changes in the Puf targets as well as changes in the number of Puf genes and alterations of RNA binding specificity including that: 1) Binding of Puf3 to more than 200 RNAs whose protein products are predominantly involved in the production and organization of mitochondrial complexes predates the origin of budding yeasts and filamentous fungi and was maintained for 500 million years, throughout the evolution of budding yeast. 2) In filamentous fungi, remarkably, more than 150 of the ancestral Puf3 targets were gained by Puf4, with one lineage maintaining both Puf3 and Puf4 as regulators and a sister lineage losing Puf3 as a regulator of these RNAs. The decrease in gene expression of these mRNAs upon deletion of Puf4 in filamentous fungi (N. crassa) in contrast to the increase upon Puf3 deletion in budding yeast (S. cerevisiae) suggests that the output of the RNA regulatory network is different with Puf4 in filamentous fungi than with Puf3 in budding yeast. 3) The coregulated Puf4 target set in filamentous fungi expanded to include mitochondrial genes involved in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and other nuclear-encoded RNAs with mitochondrial function not bound by Puf3 in budding yeast, observations that provide additional evidence for substantial rewiring of post-transcriptional regulation. 4) Puf3 also expanded and diversified its targets in filamentous fungi, gaining interactions with the mRNAs encoding the mitochondrial electron transport

  5. Evolutionary Conservation and Diversification of Puf RNA Binding Proteins and Their mRNA Targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J Hogan

    Full Text Available Reprogramming of a gene's expression pattern by acquisition and loss of sequences recognized by specific regulatory RNA binding proteins may be a major mechanism in the evolution of biological regulatory programs. We identified that RNA targets of Puf3 orthologs have been conserved over 100-500 million years of evolution in five eukaryotic lineages. Focusing on Puf proteins and their targets across 80 fungi, we constructed a parsimonious model for their evolutionary history. This model entails extensive and coordinated changes in the Puf targets as well as changes in the number of Puf genes and alterations of RNA binding specificity including that: 1 Binding of Puf3 to more than 200 RNAs whose protein products are predominantly involved in the production and organization of mitochondrial complexes predates the origin of budding yeasts and filamentous fungi and was maintained for 500 million years, throughout the evolution of budding yeast. 2 In filamentous fungi, remarkably, more than 150 of the ancestral Puf3 targets were gained by Puf4, with one lineage maintaining both Puf3 and Puf4 as regulators and a sister lineage losing Puf3 as a regulator of these RNAs. The decrease in gene expression of these mRNAs upon deletion of Puf4 in filamentous fungi (N. crassa in contrast to the increase upon Puf3 deletion in budding yeast (S. cerevisiae suggests that the output of the RNA regulatory network is different with Puf4 in filamentous fungi than with Puf3 in budding yeast. 3 The coregulated Puf4 target set in filamentous fungi expanded to include mitochondrial genes involved in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle and other nuclear-encoded RNAs with mitochondrial function not bound by Puf3 in budding yeast, observations that provide additional evidence for substantial rewiring of post-transcriptional regulation. 4 Puf3 also expanded and diversified its targets in filamentous fungi, gaining interactions with the mRNAs encoding the mitochondrial electron

  6. Targeted translational regulation using the PUF protein family scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Amy; Prigge, Andrew; Opperman, Laura; Wickens, Marvin

    2011-09-20

    Regulatory complexes formed on mRNAs control translation, stability, and localization. These complexes possess two activities: one that binds RNA and another--the effector--that elicits a biological function. The Pumilio and FBF (PUF) protein family of RNA binding proteins provides a versatile scaffold to design and select proteins with new specificities. Here, the PUF scaffold is used to target translational activation and repression of specific mRNAs, and to induce specific poly(A) addition and removal. To do so, we linked PUF scaffold proteins to a translational activator, GLD2, or a translational repressor, CAF1. The chimeric proteins activate or repress the targeted mRNAs in Xenopus oocytes, and elicit poly(A) addition or removal. The magnitude of translational control relates directly to the affinity of the RNA-protein complex over a 100-fold range of K(d). The chimeric proteins act on both reporter and endogenous mRNAs: an mRNA that normally is deadenylated during oocyte maturation instead receives poly(A) in the presence of an appropriate chimera. The PUF-effector strategy enables the design of proteins that affect translation and stability of specific mRNAs in vivo.

  7. Overview: Permanent University Fund (PUF)/Higher Education Fund (HEF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2009

    2009-01-01

    All public institutions of higher education except community colleges and the Texas A&M University System College of Dentistry receive funding for construction and other capital purposes from the Permanent University Fund (PUF) or the Higher Education Fund (HEF) (sometimes referred to as the Higher Education Assistance Fund or HEAF). The…

  8. Physicochemical properties and antioxidant capacity of raw, roasted and puffed cacao beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, SuJung; Kim, Byung-Yong; Baik, Moo-Yeol

    2016-03-01

    The antioxidant capacity and attributable bioactive compounds of puffed cacao beans were investigated. Roasting was carried out at 190°C for 15min and puffing was performed at 4-7kgf/cm(2). Cacao beans puffed at 4kgf/cm(2) showed the highest total polyphenols (23.16mgGAE/gsample) and total flavonoids (10.65mgCE/gsample) (pcacao beans reflected the total polyphenols and flavonoids measured. The quantities of theobromine, catechin, epicatechin, and procyanidin B2 were higher in cacao beans puffed at 4kgf/cm(2) than in roasted cacao beans. Puffed cacao beans received a good sensory score in flavor, but sourness increased as puffing pressure increased. Thus, these results suggest that, in cacao bean processing, puffing could be an alternative to roasting, which provide a rich taste and high antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Leishmania infantum PUF proteins are targets of the humoral response during visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Requena Jose M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA-binding proteins of the PUF family share a conserved domain consisting of tandemly repeated 36-40 amino acid motifs (typically eight known as Puf repeats. Proteins containing tandem repeats are often dominant targets of humoral responses during infectious diseases. Thus, we considered of interest to analyze whether Leishmania PUF proteins result antigenic during visceral leishmaniasis (VL. Findings Here, employing whole-genome databases, we report the composition, and structural features, of the PUF family in Leishmania infantum. Additionally, the 10 genes of the L. infantum PUF family were cloned and used to express the Leishmania PUFs in bacteria as recombinant proteins. Finally, the antigenicity of these PUF proteins was evaluated by determining levels of specific antibodies in sera from experimentally infected hamsters. The Leishmania PUFs were all recognized by the sera, even though with different degree of reactivity and/or frequency of recognition. The reactivity of hamster sera against recombinant LiPUF1 and LiPUF2 was particularly prominent, and these proteins were subsequently assayed against sera from human patients. High antibody responses against rLiPUF1 and rLiPUF2 were found in sera from VL patients, but these proteins resulted also recognized by sera from Chagas' disease patients. Conclusion Our results suggest that Leishmania PUFs are targets of the humoral response during L. infantum infection and may represent candidates for serodiagnosis and/or vaccine reagents; however, it should be kept in mind the cross-reactivity of LiPUFs with antibodies induced against other trypanosomatids such as Trypanosoma cruzi.

  10. Yeast mitochondrial biogenesis: a role for the PUF RNA-binding protein Puf3p in mRNA localization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Saint-Georges

    Full Text Available The asymmetric localization of mRNA plays an important role in coordinating posttranscriptional events in eukaryotic cells. We investigated the peripheral mitochondrial localization of nuclear-encoded mRNAs (MLR in various conditions in which the mRNA binding protein context and the translation efficiency were altered. We identified Puf3p, a Pumilio family RNA-binding protein, as the first trans-acting factor controlling the MLR phenomenon. This allowed the characterization of two classes of genes whose mRNAs are translated to the vicinity of mitochondria. Class I mRNAs (256 genes have a Puf3p binding motif in their 3'UTR region and many of them have their MLR properties deeply affected by PUF3 deletion. Conversely, mutations in the Puf3p binding motif alter the mitochondrial localization of BCS1 mRNA. Class II mRNAs (224 genes have no Puf3p binding site and their asymmetric localization is not affected by the absence of PUF3. In agreement with a co-translational import process, we observed that the presence of puromycin loosens the interactions between most of the MLR-mRNAs and mitochondria. Unexpectedly, cycloheximide, supposed to solidify translational complexes, turned out to destabilize a class of mRNA-mitochondria interactions. Classes I and II mRNAs, which are therefore transported to the mitochondria through different pathways, correlated with different functional modules. Indeed, Class I genes code principally for the assembly factors of respiratory chain complexes and the mitochondrial translation machinery (ribosomes and translation regulators. Class II genes encode proteins of the respiratory chain or proteins involved in metabolic pathways. Thus, MLR, which is intimately linked to translation control, and the activity of mRNA-binding proteins like Puf3p, may provide the conditions for a fine spatiotemporal control of mitochondrial protein import and mitochondrial protein complex assembly. This work therefore provides new openings

  11. A comparison of untagged gamma-ray and tagged-neutron yields from 241AmBe and 238PuBe sources

    CERN Document Server

    Scherzinger, Julius; Annand, John; Fissum, Kevin; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Koufigar, Sharareh; Mauritzson, Nicholai; Messi, Francesco; Perrey, Hanno; Rofors, Emil

    2016-01-01

    Untagged gamma-ray and tagged-neutron yields from 241AmBe and 238PuBe mixed-field sources have been measured. Gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements from 1 - 5 MeV were performed in an open environment using a CeBr3 detector and the same experimental conditions for both sources. The shapes of the distributions are very similar and agree well with previous data. Tagged-neutron measurements from 2 - 6 MeV were performed in a shielded environment using a NE-213 liquid-scintillator detector for the neutrons and a YAP(Ce) detector to tag the 4.44 MeV gamma-rays associated with the de-excitation of the first excited state of 12C. Again, the same experimental conditions were used for both sources. The shapes of these distributions are also very similar and agree well with previous data, each other, and the ISO recommendation. Our $^{238}$PuBe source provides approximately 2.4 times more tagged neutrons over the tagged-neutron energy range, in reasonable agreement with the original full-spectrum source-calibration measu...

  12. Low energy neutrons from a sup 2 sup 3 sup 9 PuBe isotopic neutron source inserting in moderating media

    CERN Document Server

    Vega, H R

    2002-01-01

    Several neutron applications share a common problem: the neutron source design. In this work MCNP computer code has been used to design a moderated sup 2 sup 3 sup 9 PuBe neutron source to produce low energy neutrons. The design involves the source located at the center of a spherical moderator. Moderator media studied were light water, heavy water and a heterogeneous combination of light water and heavy water. Similar moderating features were found between the 24.5 cm-radius container filled with heavy water (23.0-cm-thick) and that made with light water (3.5-cm-thick) plus heavy water (19.5-cm-thick). A sup 2 sup 3 sup 9 PuBe neutron source inserted in this moderator produces, at 27 cm, a neutron fluence of 1.8 x 10 sup - sup 4 n-cm sup - sup 2 per source neutron, with an average neutron energy of 0.34 MeV, where 47.8 % have an energy <= 0.4 eV. A further study of this moderator was carried out using a reflector medium made of graphite. Thus, 15-cm-thickness reflector improves the neutron field producing...

  13. Effect of double false pulses in calibrated neutron coincidence collar during measuring time-correlated neutrons from PuBe neutron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Tam Cong, E-mail: tam.nguyen.cong@energia.mta.hu; Huszti, Jozsef; Nguyen, Quan Van

    2015-09-01

    Effect of double false pulses of preamplifiers in neutron coincidence collar was investigated to explain non-parallel shape of calibrated D/S–M{sub Pu} curves of two commercial neutron coincidence collars, JCC-31 and JCC-13. Two curves, which were constructed from D/S ratio (doubles and singles count rate), and Pu content M{sub Pu}, of the same set of secondary standard PuBe neutron sources, should be parallel. Non-parallelism rises doubt about usability of the method based on this curve for determination of Pu content in PuBe neutron sources. We have shown in three steps that the problem originates from double false pulses of preamplifiers in JCC-13. First we used a pulse train diagram for analyzing the non-parallel shape, second we used Rossi-Alpha distribution measured by pulse train recorder developed in our institute and finally, we investigated the effect of inserted noise pulses. This implies a new type of QA test option in traditional multiplicity shift registers for excluding presence of double false pulses.

  14. Roles of Puf proteins in mRNA degradation and translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Melanie A; Olivas, Wendy M

    2011-01-01

    Puf proteins are regulators of diverse eukaryotic processes including stem cell maintenance, organelle biogenesis, oogenesis, neuron function, and memory formation. At the molecular level, Puf proteins promote translational repression and/or degradation of target mRNAs by first interacting with conserved cis-elements in the 3' untranslated region (UTR). Once bound to an mRNA, Puf proteins elicit RNA repression by complex interactions with protein cofactors and regulatory machinery involved in translation and degradation. Recent work has dramatically increased our understanding of the targets of Puf protein regulation, as well as the mechanisms by which Puf proteins recognize and regulate those mRNA targets. Crystal structure analysis of several Puf-RNA complexes has demonstrated that while Puf proteins are extremely conserved in their RNA-binding domains, Pufs attain target specificity by utilizing different structural conformations to recognize 8-10 nt sequences. Puf proteins have also evolved modes of protein interactions that are organism and transcript-specific, yet two common mechanisms of repression have emerged: inhibition of cap-binding events to block translation initiation, and recruitment of the CCR4-POP2-NOT deadenylase complex for poly(A) tail removal. Finally, multiple schemes to regulate Puf protein activity have been identified, including post-translational mechanisms that allow rapid changes in the repression of mRNA targets.

  15. Pub Culture in the U.K.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙鑫

    2015-01-01

    In the U.K., pubs can be seen everywhere. They play an important role in the British society. How pubs came into being in the U.K.? Why is pub culture formed and what makes it prosperous? What effects does pub culture make on British society both in the past and in the present? Does any British character be shown in pub culture in the U.K.? In this paper, I will give a brief in-troduction of pub culture's history and development in the U.K.. Besides, the above questions will be explored and analyzed one by one.

  16. PubChem atom environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hähnke, Volker D; Bolton, Evan E; Bryant, Stephen H

    2015-01-01

    Atom environments and fragments find wide-spread use in chemical information and cheminformatics. They are the basis of prediction models, an integral part in similarity searching, and employed in structure search techniques. Most of these methods were developed and evaluated on the relatively small sets of chemical structures available at the time. An analysis of fragment distributions representative of most known chemical structures was published in the 1970s using the Chemical Abstracts Service data system. More recently, advances in automated synthesis of chemicals allow millions of chemicals to be synthesized by a single organization. In addition, open chemical databases are readily available containing tens of millions of chemical structures from a multitude of data sources, including chemical vendors, patents, and the scientific literature, making it possible for scientists to readily access most known chemical structures. With this availability of information, one can now address interesting questions, such as: what chemical fragments are known today? How do these fragments compare to earlier studies? How unique are chemical fragments found in chemical structures? For our analysis, after hydrogen suppression, atoms were characterized by atomic number, formal charge, implicit hydrogen count, explicit degree (number of neighbors), valence (bond order sum), and aromaticity. Bonds were differentiated as single, double, triple or aromatic bonds. Atom environments were created in a circular manner focused on a central atom with radii from 0 (atom types) up to 3 (representative of ECFP_6 fragments). In total, combining atom types and atom environments that include up to three spheres of nearest neighbors, our investigation identified 28,462,319 unique fragments in the 46 million structures found in the PubChem Compound database as of January 2013. We could identify several factors inflating the number of environments involving transition metals, with many

  17. Puffed rice and the molecular changes that determine its structure

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The Rice Krispies™ process consists essentially of the cooking of short or medium rice grains, followed by a mechanical compression between two rolls (bumping), a tempering step and a toasting operation (puffing) which expands the grains into the finished product. The objectives of this project were to clarify which molecular phenomena take place inside the rice grains during the process and to facilitate the improvement and optimisation of the process parameters. The composition and gelatini...

  18. Application of PUF-Enabled RFID Tags in Electronic Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Mehmandoust

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Radio Frequency Identification (RFID tags have a variety of applications in e-banking. For effectiveutilization of the technology, this should be reinforced toward security holes and attacks. One of thecommon attacks on RFID systems is RFID tags cloning. In this paper we review cloning attacks in ebanking.We propose solutions based on physical unclonable functions (PUF and provide a suitablesecurity protocol for tag authentication in off-line environments.

  19. The PUF binding landscape in metazoan germ cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Aman; Porter, Douglas F; Kroll-Conner, Peggy L; Mohanty, Ipsita; Ryan, Anne R; Crittenden, Sarah L; Wickens, Marvin; Kimble, Judith

    2016-07-01

    PUF (Pumilio/FBF) proteins are RNA-binding proteins and conserved stem cell regulators. The Caenorhabditis elegans PUF proteins FBF-1 and FBF-2 (collectively FBF) regulate mRNAs in germ cells. Without FBF, adult germlines lose all stem cells. A major gap in our understanding of PUF proteins, including FBF, is a global view of their binding sites in their native context (i.e., their "binding landscape"). To understand the interactions underlying FBF function, we used iCLIP (individual-nucleotide resolution UV crosslinking and immunoprecipitation) to determine binding landscapes of C. elegans FBF-1 and FBF-2 in the germline tissue of intact animals. Multiple iCLIP peak-calling methods were compared to maximize identification of both established FBF binding sites and positive control target mRNAs in our iCLIP data. We discovered that FBF-1 and FBF-2 bind to RNAs through canonical as well as alternate motifs. We also analyzed crosslinking-induced mutations to map binding sites precisely and to identify key nucleotides that may be critical for FBF-RNA interactions. FBF-1 and FBF-2 can bind sites in the 5'UTR, coding region, or 3'UTR, but have a strong bias for the 3' end of transcripts. FBF-1 and FBF-2 have strongly overlapping target profiles, including mRNAs and noncoding RNAs. From a statistically robust list of 1404 common FBF targets, 847 were previously unknown, 154 were related to cell cycle regulation, three were lincRNAs, and 335 were shared with the human PUF protein PUM2.

  20. A Nucleolar PUF RNA-binding Protein with Specificity for a Unique RNA Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Muench, Douglas G

    2015-12-11

    PUF proteins are a conserved group of sequence specific RNA-binding proteins that bind to RNA in a modular fashion. The RNA-binding domain of PUF proteins typically consists of eight clustered Puf repeats. Plant genomes code for large families of PUF proteins that show significant variability in their predicted Puf repeat number, organization, and amino acid sequence. Here we sought to determine whether the observed variability in the RNA-binding domains of four plant PUFs results in a preference for nonclassical PUF RNA target sequences. We report the identification of a novel RNA binding sequence for a nucleolar Arabidopsis PUF protein that contains an atypical RNA-binding domain. The Arabidopsis PUM23 (APUM23) binding sequence was 10 nucleotides in length, contained a centrally located UUGA core element, and had a preferred cytosine at nucleotide position 8. These RNA sequence characteristics differ from those of other PUF proteins, because all natural PUFs studied to date bind to RNAs that contain a conserved UGU sequence at their 5' end and lack specificity for cytosine. Gel mobility shift assays validated the identity of the APUM23 binding sequence and supported the location of 3 of the 10 predicted Puf repeats in APUM23, including the cytosine-binding repeat. The preferred 10-nucleotide sequence bound by APUM23 is present within the 18S rRNA sequence, supporting the known role of APUM23 in 18S rRNA maturation. This work also reveals that APUM23, an ortholog of yeast Nop9, could provide an advanced structural backbone for Puf repeat engineering and target-specific regulation of cellular RNAs.

  1. Characteristics and evolution of the PUF gene family in Bombyx mori and 27 other species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-Dong; Pan, Min-Hui; Tan, Juan; Li, Fang-Fang; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Ting-Ting; Lu, Cheng

    2012-01-01

    The Pumilio protein is the founding member of the PUF family of RNA-binding proteins, which contains 8 repeat Puf domains and plays important roles during embryogenesis and post-embryogenesis by binding the Nanos response element (NRE) of specific target genes in eukaryotes. In addition, many other proteins containing the Puf domain were identified but with different functions from the Pumilio protein in various species. Taking advantage of the newly assembled genome sequences, in this study we performed a genome-wide analysis of PUF genes in silkworm and other 27 species. In the silkworm, three PUF genes were identified, named Bmpumilio, Bmpenguin and Bmnop by homology analysis. In fungi and animals, four evolutionarily conservational PUF gene families were identified, Group-A, -B, -C and -D. While Group-A, -C, and -D are present in all fungi and animals, Group-B was only identified in fungi. Interestingly, the number and features of the Puf domains are distinct in each group, suggesting different roles for these proteins in every group. The EST and microarray data showed that the mRNA of the three PUF genes can be widely detected in all tissues of the silkworm. Our results provide some new insights into the functions and evolutionary characteristics of PUF proteins.

  2. Glucose-Regulated Phosphorylation of the PUF Protein Puf3 Regulates the Translational Fate of Its Bound mRNAs and Association with RNA Granules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Der Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available PUF proteins are post-transcriptional regulators that bind to the 3′ UTRs of mRNA transcripts. Herein, we show how a yeast PUF protein, Puf3p, responds to glucose availability to switch the fate of its bound transcripts that encode proteins required for mitochondrial biogenesis. Upon glucose depletion, Puf3p becomes heavily phosphorylated within its N-terminal region of low complexity, associates with polysomes, and promotes translation of its target mRNAs. Such nutrient-responsive phosphorylation toggles the activity of Puf3p to promote either degradation or translation of these mRNAs according to the needs of the cell. Moreover, activation of translation of pre-existing mRNAs might enable rapid adjustment to environmental changes without the need for de novo transcription. Strikingly, a Puf3p phosphomutant no longer promotes translation but becomes trapped in intracellular foci in an mRNA-dependent manner. Our findings suggest that the inability to properly resolve Puf3p-containing RNA-protein granules via a phosphorylation-based mechanism might be toxic to a cell.

  3. 38 CFR 3.953 - Pub. L. 85-56 and Pub. L. 85-857.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pub. L. 85-56 and Pub. L... ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Protection § 3.953 Pub. L. 85-56 and Pub. L. 85-857. (a) In receipt of or entitled to receive benefits on December 31, 1958. Any person...

  4. Ginsenoside composition and antiproliferative activities of explosively puffed ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sung-Ran; Lee, Gee-Dong; Park, Jung-Hyun; Lee, In-Seon; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2010-05-01

    The puffing process was evaluated as an alternative to the steaming process for producing a biologically more active ginseng product, like red ginseng, from raw ginseng. A puffing treatment of dried raw ginseng roots induced an overall increase in crude saponin content. As puffing pressure increased, the content of ginsenoside Re, Rg1, Rb1, Rc, and Rb2 decreased, while ginsenoside Rg3 increased significantly as compared to raw ginseng. The content of ginsenoside Rg3 in puffed ginseng at a pressure of 490 kPa was similar to that of red ginseng. Cancer cell lines (HeLa, MCF-7, and HepG2) showed that antiproliferative effects of saponin extract of puffed ginseng increased with an increase in puffing pressure. Ginseng explosively puffed at 490 kPa had similar saponin constituents and antiproliferative effects as those of red ginseng. The puffing process could provide an alternative mean to produce functional ginseng products, along with a reduction in processing time as compared to traditional red ginseng processing by steam.

  5. Security of Quantum-Readout PUFs against quadrature based challenge estimation attacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skoric, B.; Mosk, A.P.; Pinkse, P.W.H.

    2013-01-01

    The concept of quantum-secure readout of Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) has recently been realized experimentally in an optical PUF system. We analyze the security of this system under the strongest type of classical attack: the challenge estimation attack. The adversary performs a measurement

  6. PUF-8 suppresses the somatic transcription factor PAL-1 expression in C. elegans germline stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainpal, Rana; Priti, Agarwal; Subramaniam, Kuppuswamy

    2011-12-01

    RNA-binding proteins of the PUF family are well conserved post-transcriptional regulators that control a variety of developmental processes. The C. elegans protein PUF-8 is essential for several aspects of germ cell development including the maintenance of germline stem cells (GSCs). To explore the molecular mechanisms underlying its function, we have identified 160 germline-expressed mRNAs as potential targets of PUF-8. We generated GFP::H2B-3' UTR fusions for 17 mRNAs to assay their post-transcriptional regulation in germ cells. Twelve transgenes were not expressed in the mitotic germ cells, and depletion of PUF-8 led to misexpression of six of them in these cells. In contrast, the expression of 3' UTR fusion of hip-1, which encodes the HSP-70 interacting protein, was dependent on PUF-8. These results indicate that PUF-8 may regulate the expression of its targets both negatively as well as positively. We investigated the PUF-8-mediated post-transcriptional control of one mRNA, namely pal-1, which encodes a homeodomain transcription factor responsible for muscle development. Our results show that PUF-8 binds in vitro to specific sequences within pal-1 3' UTR that are critical for post-transcriptional suppression in GSCs. Removal of PUF-8 resulted in PAL-1 misexpression, and PAL-1-dependent misexpression of the myogenic promoter HLH-1 in germ cells. We propose that PUF-8 protects GSCs from the influence of somatic differentiation factors such as PAL-1, which are produced in the maternal germline but meant for embryogenesis.

  7. Characterization of polyurethane foam (PUF) and sorbent impregnated PUF (SIP) disk passive air samplers for measuring organophosphate flame retardants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Atousa; Eng, Anita; Jantunen, Liisa M; Ahrens, Lutz; Shoeib, Mahiba; Parnis, J Mark; Harner, Tom

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize the uptake of organophosphate esters (OPEs) by polyurethane foam (PUF) and sorbent-impregnated polyurethane foam (SIP) disk passive air samplers (PAS). Atmospheric OPE concentrations were monitored with high-volume active air samplers (HV-AAS) that were co-deployed with passive air samplers. Samples were analyzed for tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP), tri(phenyl) phosphate (TPhP), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), and tris(2,3-dichloropropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP). The mean concentration of ∑OPEs in air was 2650 pg/m(3) for the HV-AAS. Sampling rates and the passive sampler medium (PSM)-air partition coefficient (KPSM-Air) were calculated for individual OPEs. The average calculated sampling rates (R) for the four OPEs were 3.6 ± 1.2 and 4.2 ± 2.0 m(3)/day for the PUF and SIP disks, respectively, and within the range of the recommended default value of 4 ± 2 m(3)/day. Since most of the OPEs remained in the linear uptake phase during the study, COSMO-RS solvation theory and an oligomer-based model were used to estimate KPUF-Air for the OPEs. The estimated values of log KPUF-Air were 7.45 (TCIPP), 9.35 (TPhP), 8.44 (TCEP), and 9.67 (TDCIPP). Finally, four configurations of the PUF and SIP disks were tested by adjusting the distance of the gap opening between the upper and lower domes of the sampler housing: i.e. 2 cm, 1 cm, no gap and 1 cm overlap. The sampling rate did not differ significantly between these four configurations (p < 0.05).

  8. Formula optimization for garlic and pepper-flavoured puffed snacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian H. Wilkinson

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Herbs show high potential as functional ingredients in Thai snacks. Garlic was the most preferred herb in snacks, followed by holy basil, and pepper. This study was to determine the amount of spices such as garlic and pepper to be added to the products to beneficially improve the health status of the consumer without detrimental effect on the flavour and taste. The Box-Behnken (k = 3, nc = 3 response surface design was used to create a model to determine the optimum garlic and pepper flavour for puffed snacks. Specified quantities of salt (1-2 %(w/w, garlic (0-4 %(w/w, and pepper (0-4 %(w/w were used in the design. Fifteen spiced snacks were evaluated by 30 Thai panelists. The model showed the optimum pepper quantity of 0.7 % (w/w and salt and garlic of no more than 1.10 and 2.80 %(w/w, respectively. If 25 g of the puffed snacks were eaten daily the consumer would get enough garlic to satisfy its daily requirements, but not enough pepper to get its purported health benefits. However, as the Thais use copious quantities of pepper in most other dishes, it is likely that eating 25 g of the proposed functional snack with their other dishes would more than likely provide enough pepper to give them the health benefits from this herb.

  9. A network of PUF proteins and Ras signaling promote mRNA repression and oogenesis in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubstenberger, Arnaud; Cameron, Cristiana; Shtofman, Rebecca; Gutman, Shiri; Evans, Thomas C

    2012-06-15

    Cell differentiation requires integration of gene expression controls with dynamic changes in cell morphology, function, and control. Post-transcriptional mRNA regulation and signaling systems are important to this process but their mechanisms and connections are unclear. During C. elegans oogenesis, we find that two groups of PUF RNA binding proteins (RNABPs), PUF-3/11 and PUF-5/6/7, control different specific aspects of oocyte formation. PUF-3/11 limits oocyte growth, while PUF-5/6/7 promotes oocyte organization and formation. These two PUF groups repress mRNA translation through overlapping but distinct sets of 3' untranslated regions (3'UTRs). Several PUF-dependent mRNAs encode other mRNA regulators suggesting both PUF groups control developmental patterning of mRNA regulation circuits. Furthermore, we find that the Ras-MapKinase/ERK pathway functions with PUF-5/6/7 to repress specific mRNAs and control oocyte organization and growth. These results suggest that diversification of PUF proteins and their integration with Ras-MAPK signaling modulates oocyte differentiation. Together with other studies, these findings suggest positive and negative interactions between the Ras-MAPK system and PUF RNA-binding proteins likely occur at multiple levels. Changes in these interactions over time can influence spatiotemporal patterning of tissue development.

  10. RNA regulatory networks diversified through curvature of the PUF protein scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilinski, Daniel; Qiu, Chen; Lapointe, Christopher P; Nevil, Markus; Campbell, Zachary T; Tanaka Hall, Traci M; Wickens, Marvin

    2015-09-14

    Proteins bind and control mRNAs, directing their localization, translation and stability. Members of the PUF family of RNA-binding proteins control multiple mRNAs in a single cell, and play key roles in development, stem cell maintenance and memory formation. Here we identified the mRNA targets of a S. cerevisiae PUF protein, Puf5p, by ultraviolet-crosslinking-affinity purification and high-throughput sequencing (HITS-CLIP). The binding sites recognized by Puf5p are diverse, with variable spacer lengths between two specific sequences. Each length of site correlates with a distinct biological function. Crystal structures of Puf5p-RNA complexes reveal that the protein scaffold presents an exceptionally flat and extended interaction surface relative to other PUF proteins. In complexes with RNAs of different lengths, the protein is unchanged. A single PUF protein repeat is sufficient to induce broadening of specificity. Changes in protein architecture, such as alterations in curvature, may lead to evolution of mRNA regulatory networks.

  11. Probing the Pu4 + magnetic moment in PuF4 with 19F NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capan, Cigdem; Dempsey, Richard J.; Sinkov, Sergey; McNamara, Bruce K.; Cho, Herman

    2016-06-01

    The magnetic fields produced by Pu4 + centers have been measured by 19F NMR spectroscopy to elucidate the Pu-F electronic interactions in polycrystalline PuF4. Spectra acquired at applied fields of 2.35 and 7.05 T reveal a linear scaling of the 19F line shape. A model is presented that treats the line broadening and shifts as due to dipolar fields produced by Pu valence electrons in localized noninteracting orbitals. Alternative explanations for the observed line shape involving covalent Pu-F bonding, superexchange interactions, and electronic configurations with enhanced magnetic moments are considered.

  12. De-coding and re-coding RNA recognition by PUF and PPR repeat proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Traci M Tanaka

    2016-02-01

    PUF and PPR proteins are two families of α-helical repeat proteins that recognize single-stranded RNA sequences. Both protein families hold promise as scaffolds for designed RNA-binding domains. A modular protein RNA recognition code was apparent from the first crystal structures of a PUF protein in complex with RNA, and recent studies continue to advance our understanding of natural PUF protein recognition (de-coding) and our ability to engineer specificity (re-coding). Degenerate recognition motifs make de-coding specificity of individual PPR proteins challenging. Nevertheless, re-coding PPR protein specificity using a consensus recognition code has been successful.

  13. PubChem Power User Gateway (PUG)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — PUG provides access to PubChem services via a programmatic interface. Users may download data, initiate chemical structure searches, standardize chemical structures...

  14. Exploiting PubChem for Virtual Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiang-Qun

    2011-01-01

    Importance of the field PubChem is a public molecular information repository, a scientific showcase of the NIH Roadmap Initiative. The PubChem database holds over 27 million records of unique chemical structures of compounds (CID) derived from nearly 70 million substance depositions (SID), and contains more than 449,000 bioassay records with over thousands of in vitro biochemical and cell-based screening bioassays established, with targeting more than 7000 proteins and genes linking to over 1.8 million of substances. Areas covered in this review This review builds on recent PubChem-related computational chemistry research reported by other authors while providing readers with an overview of the PubChem database, focusing on its increasing role in cheminformatics, virtual screening and toxicity prediction modeling. What the reader will gain These publicly available datasets in PubChem provide great opportunities for scientists to perform cheminformatics and virtual screening research for computer-aided drug design. However, the high volume and complexity of the datasets, in particular the bioassay-associated false positives/negatives and highly imbalanced datasets in PubChem, also creates major challenges. Several approaches regarding the modeling of PubChem datasets and development of virtual screening models for bioactivity and toxicity predictions are also reviewed. Take home message Novel data-mining cheminformatics tools and virtual screening algorithms are being developed and used to retrieve, annotate and analyze the large-scale and highly complex PubChem biological screening data for drug design. PMID:21691435

  15. A trustworthy key generation prototype based on DDR3 PUF for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenchao; Zhang, Zhenhua; Li, Miaoxin; Liu, Zhenglin

    2014-06-30

    Secret key leakage in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is a high security risk especially when sensor nodes are deployed in hostile environment and physically accessible to attackers. With nowadays semi/fully-invasive attack techniques attackers can directly derive the cryptographic key from non-volatile memory (NVM) storage. Physically Unclonable Function (PUF) is a promising technology to resist node capture attacks, and it also provides a low cost and tamper-resistant key provisioning solution. In this paper, we designed a PUF based on double-data-rate SDRAM Type 3 (DDR3) memory by exploring its memory decay characteristics. We also described a prototype of 128-bit key generation based on DDR3 PUF with integrated fuzzy extractor. Due to the wide adoption of DDR3 memory in WSN, our proposed DDR3 PUF technology with high security levels and no required hardware changes is suitable for a wide range of WSN applications.

  16. Security of Quantum-Readout PUFs against Quadrature-Based Challenge-Estimation Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škorić, Boris; Mosk, Allard P.; Pinkse, Pepijn W. H.

    2013-08-01

    The concept of quantum-secure readout of Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) has recently been realized experimentally in an optical PUF system. We analyze the security of this system under the strongest type of classical attack: the challenge estimation attack. The adversary performs a measurement on the challenge quantum state in order to learn as much about it as he can. Using this knowledge, he then tries to reconstruct the challenge and to emulate the PUF. We consider quadrature measurements, which are the most informative practical measurements known to us. We prove that even under this attack the expected number of photons detected in the verification mechanism is approximately a factor S + 1 too low; here S is the Quantum Security Parameter, defined as the number of modes in the optical system divided by the number of photons in the challenge. The photon count allows for a reliable distinction between an authentic PUF and a challenge estimation attack.

  17. PUF-8, a Pumilio homolog, inhibits the proliferative fate in the Caenorhabditis elegans germline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racher, Hilary; Hansen, Dave

    2012-10-01

    Stem cell populations are maintained by keeping a balance between self-renewal (proliferation) and differentiation of dividing stem cells. Within the Caenorhabditis elegans germline, the key regulator maintaining this balance is the canonical Notch signaling pathway, with GLP-1/Notch activity promoting the proliferative fate. We identified the Pumilio homolog, PUF-8, as an inhibitor of the proliferative fate of stem cells in the C. elegans germline. puf-8(0) strongly enhances overproliferation of glp-1(gf) mutants and partially suppresses underproliferation of a weak glp-1(lf) mutant. The germline tumor that is formed in a puf-8(0); glp-1(gf) double mutant is due to a failure of germ cells to enter meiotic prophase. puf-8 likely inhibits the proliferative fate through negatively regulating GLP-1/Notch signaling or by functioning parallel to it.

  18. A Trustworthy Key Generation Prototype Based on DDR3 PUF for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchao Liu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Secret key leakage in wireless sensor networks (WSNs is a high security risk especially when sensor nodes are deployed in hostile environment and physically accessible to attackers. With nowadays semi/fully-invasive attack techniques attackers can directly derive the cryptographic key from non-volatile memory (NVM storage. Physically Unclonable Function (PUF is a promising technology to resist node capture attacks, and it also provides a low cost and tamper-resistant key provisioning solution. In this paper, we designed a PUF based on double-data-rate SDRAM Type 3 (DDR3 memory by exploring its memory decay characteristics. We also described a prototype of 128-bit key generation based on DDR3 PUF with integrated fuzzy extractor. Due to the wide adoption of DDR3 memory in WSN, our proposed DDR3 PUF technology with high security levels and no required hardware changes is suitable for a wide range of WSN applications.

  19. PUF-8 negatively regulates RAS/MAPK signalling to promote differentiation of C. elegans germ cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaid, Samir; Ariz, Mohd; Chaturbedi, Amaresh; Kumar, Ganga Anil; Subramaniam, Kuppuswamy

    2013-04-01

    Signals that promote germ cell self-renewal by preventing premature meiotic entry are well understood. However, signals that control mitotic proliferation to promote meiotic differentiation have not been well characterized. In Caenorhabditis elegans, GLP-1 Notch signalling promotes the proliferative fate by preventing premature meiotic entry. The germline niche cell, which is the source of the ligand for GLP-1, spatially restricts GLP-1 signalling and thus enables the germ cells that have moved away from the niche to enter meiosis. Here, we show that the suppression of RAS/MAP kinase signalling in the mitotic and meiotic-entry regions is essential for the regulation of the mitosis-meiosis switch by niche signalling. We provide evidence that the conserved PUF family RNA-binding protein PUF-8 and the RAS GAP protein GAP-3 function redundantly to suppress the LET-60 RAS in the mitotic and meiotic entry regions. Germ cells missing both PUF-8 and GAP-3 proliferate in an uncontrolled fashion and fail to undergo meiotic development. MPK-1, the MAP kinase downstream of the LET-60 RAS, is prematurely activated in these cells; downregulation of MPK-1 activation eliminates tumours and restores differentiation. Our results further reveal that PUF-8 negatively regulates LET-60 expression at a post-transcriptional step. LET-60 is misexpressed in the puf-8(-) mutant germlines and PUF-8 physically interacts with the let-60 3' UTR. Furthermore, PUF-8 suppresses let-60 3' UTR-mediated expression in the germ cells that are transitioning from the mitotic to meiotic fate. These results reveal that PUF-8-mediated inhibition of the RAS/MAPK pathway is essential for mitotic-to-meiotic fate transition.

  20. Puf mediates translation repression of transmission-blocking vaccine candidates in malaria parasites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Miao

    Full Text Available Translational control of gene expression plays an essential role in development. In malaria parasites, translational regulation is critical during the development of specialized transition stages between the vertebrate host and mosquito vector. Here we show that a Pumilio/FBF (Puf family RNA-binding protein, PfPuf2, is required for the translation repression of a number of transcripts in gametocytes including two genes encoding the transmission-blocking vaccine candidates Pfs25 and Pfs28. Whereas studies to date support a paradigm of Puf-mediated translation regulation through 3' untranslated regions (UTRs of target mRNAs, this study, for the first time, identifies a functional Puf-binding element (PBE in the 5'UTR of pfs25. We provide both in vitro and in vivo evidence to demonstrate that PfPuf2 binds to the PBEs in pfs25 and pfs28 to mediate translation repression. This finding provides a renewed view of Pufs as versatile translation regulators and sheds light on their functions in the development of lower branches of eukaryotes.

  1. PubMedAlertMe--standalone Windows-based PubMed SDI software application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma'ayan, Avi

    2008-05-01

    PubMedAlertMe is a Windows-based software system for automatically receiving e-mail alert messages about recent publications listed on PubMed. The e-mail messages contain links to newly available abstracts listed on PubMed describing publications that were selectively returned from a specified list of queries. Links are also provided to directly export citations to EndNote, and links are provided to directly forward articles to colleagues. The program is standalone. Thus, it does not require a remote mail server or user registration. PubMedAlertMe is free software, and can be downloaded from: http://amp.pharm.mssm.edu/PubMedAlertMe/PubMedAlertMe_setup.zip.

  2. PubMedAlertMe - Standalone Windows-based PubMed SDI Software Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma’ayan, Avi

    2008-01-01

    PubMedAlertMe is a Windows-based software system for automatically receiving e-mail alert messages about recent publications listed on PubMed. The e-mail messages contain links to newly available abstracts listed on PubMed describing publications that were selectively returned from a specified list of queries. Links are also provided to directly export citations to EndNote, and links are provided to directly forward articles to colleagues. The program is standalone. Thus, it does not require a remote mail server or user registration. PubMedAlertMe is free software, and can be downloaded from: http://amp.pharm.mssm.edu/PubMedAlertMe/PubMedAlertMe_setup.zip PMID:18402930

  3. Predicting clicks of PubMed articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yuqing; Lu, Zhiyong

    2013-01-01

    Predicting the popularity or access usage of an article has the potential to improve the quality of PubMed searches. We can model the click trend of each article as its access changes over time by mining the PubMed query logs, which contain the previous access history for all articles. In this article, we examine the access patterns produced by PubMed users in two years (July 2009 to July 2011). We explore the time series of accesses for each article in the query logs, model the trends with regression approaches, and subsequently use the models for prediction. We show that the click trends of PubMed articles are best fitted with a log-normal regression model. This model allows the number of accesses an article receives and the time since it first becomes available in PubMed to be related via quadratic and logistic functions, with the model parameters to be estimated via maximum likelihood. Our experiments predicting the number of accesses for an article based on its past usage demonstrate that the mean absolute error and mean absolute percentage error of our model are 4.0% and 8.1% lower than the power-law regression model, respectively. The log-normal distribution is also shown to perform significantly better than a previous prediction method based on a human memory theory in cognitive science. This work warrants further investigation on the utility of such a log-normal regression approach towards improving information access in PubMed.

  4. PUF-8 and TCER-1 are essential for normal levels of multiple mRNAs in the C. elegans germline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushpa, Kumari; Kumar, Ganga Anil; Subramaniam, Kuppuswamy

    2013-03-01

    PUF family proteins are well-conserved regulators of cell proliferation in different developmental processes. They regulate target mRNAs by promoting degradation or by influencing translation through interaction with the translation initiation machinery. Here we show that Caenorhabditis elegans PUF-8 functions redundantly with the nuclear protein TCER-1 in the post-transcriptional maintenance of at least six germline mRNAs. The levels of spliced mRNAs in the puf-8(-) tcer-1(-) double mutant are only 10-30% of the wild type, whereas the unspliced forms increase by ∼2- to 3-fold compared with the wild type. These two proteins colocalise at the inner nuclear periphery, and their absence leads to reduced germ cell proliferation and to sterility. A yeast two-hybrid screen of 31 components of the nuclear pore complex and mRNA processing machineries identified seven proteins involved in mRNA export as potential partners of PUF-8. One of these, the nuclear cap-binding protein NCBP-2, colocalises with PUF-8 in the nucleus. A 50 amino acid N-terminal domain of PUF-8 is essential for interaction with NCBP-2 and for PUF-8 to function redundantly with TCER-1. These results reveal two important unexpected aspects of PUF proteins: that, in addition to the C-terminal PUF domain, the N-terminal domain is crucial for PUF function, and that PUF proteins have a novel role in mRNA maintenance. We propose that PUF proteins, in addition to their known cytoplasmic roles, participate in nuclear processing and/or export of mRNAs.

  5. An Approach to Function Annotation for Proteins of Unknown Function (PUFs in the Transcriptome of Indian Mulberry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K H Dhanyalakshmi

    Full Text Available The modern sequencing technologies are generating large volumes of information at the transcriptome and genome level. Translation of this information into a biological meaning is far behind the race due to which a significant portion of proteins discovered remain as proteins of unknown function (PUFs. Attempts to uncover the functional significance of PUFs are limited due to lack of easy and high throughput functional annotation tools. Here, we report an approach to assign putative functions to PUFs, identified in the transcriptome of mulberry, a perennial tree commonly cultivated as host of silkworm. We utilized the mulberry PUFs generated from leaf tissues exposed to drought stress at whole plant level. A sequence and structure based computational analysis predicted the probable function of the PUFs. For rapid and easy annotation of PUFs, we developed an automated pipeline by integrating diverse bioinformatics tools, designated as PUFs Annotation Server (PUFAS, which also provides a web service API (Application Programming Interface for a large-scale analysis up to a genome. The expression analysis of three selected PUFs annotated by the pipeline revealed abiotic stress responsiveness of the genes, and hence their potential role in stress acclimation pathways. The automated pipeline developed here could be extended to assign functions to PUFs from any organism in general. PUFAS web server is available at http://caps.ncbs.res.in/pufas/ and the web service is accessible at http://capservices.ncbs.res.in/help/pufas.

  6. Biological treatment of dialysis wastewater by PUF fluidized-bed; PUF ryudoshoho ni yoru toseki haisui no seibutsugakuteki shori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyoda, A. [Envisys Ltd., Hyogo (Japan); Kanki, T.; Momoda, S.; Marukami, M.; Maeda, Y. [Himeji Institute of Technology, Hyogo (Japan)

    1994-09-15

    For the purpose of high-efficiency microorganism treatment in bicarbonate type saccharated dialysis wastewater, a study has been made on a fluidized-bed method using porous polyurethane foam (PUF) as a carrier. Discussions have been given especially on the effects of substrate load, carrier size, and the number of carrier cells on the treatment characteristics from the initial stage of cultivation to the steady-state operation. The carried and suspended microorganisms grew while showing oscillatory variation. The larger the number of carrier cell becomes, the more the carried microorganism quantity becomes, and the less the suspended microorganism quantity becomes. A carrier with a size of 10 mm forms more stable living organism phase than that with a carrier with a size of 5 mm. While the carried and suspended microorganism quantity increases with the load, the lower the load, the carried microorganism ratio increases. With regard to the microbial phase immediately after the substrates having flown in, the dispersive bacteria and the Colpidum group grow preferentially. In the steady-state region, the flock-forming bacteria and the Vorticella group grow preferentially. The carried microorganisms disperse over the whole carrier during the initial stage, form flock-formed lumps thereafter, and grow concentratedly in the vicinity of the carrier surface in the steady-state region. 10 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Trypanosoma brucei PUF9 regulates mRNAs for proteins involved in replicative processes over the cell cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart K Archer

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Many genes that are required at specific points in the cell cycle exhibit cell cycle-dependent expression. In the early-diverging model eukaryote and important human pathogen Trypanosoma brucei, regulation of gene expression in the cell cycle and other processes is almost entirely post-transcriptional. Here, we show that the T. brucei RNA-binding protein PUF9 stabilizes certain transcripts during S-phase. Target transcripts of PUF9--LIGKA, PNT1 and PNT2--were identified by affinity purification with TAP-tagged PUF9. RNAi against PUF9 caused an accumulation of cells in G2/M phase and unexpectedly destabilized the PUF9 target mRNAs, despite the fact that most known Puf-domain proteins promote degradation of their target mRNAs. The levels of the PUF9-regulated transcripts were cell cycle dependent, peaking in mid- to late- S-phase, and this effect was abolished when PUF9 was targeted by RNAi. The sequence UUGUACC was over-represented in the 3' UTRs of PUF9 targets; a point mutation in this motif abolished PUF9-dependent stabilization of a reporter transcript carrying the PNT1 3' UTR. LIGKA is involved in replication of the kinetoplast, and here we show that PNT1 is also kinetoplast-associated and its over-expression causes kinetoplast-related defects, while PNT2 is localized to the nucleus in G1 phase and redistributes to the mitotic spindle during mitosis. PUF9 targets may constitute a post-transcriptional regulon, encoding proteins involved in temporally coordinated replicative processes in early G2 phase.

  8. PubChemSR: A search and retrieval tool for PubChem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wild David J

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent years have seen an explosion in the amount of publicly available chemical and related biological information. A significant step has been the emergence of PubChem, which contains property information for millions of chemical structures, and acts as a repository of compounds and bioassay screening data for the NIH Roadmap. There is a strong need for tools designed for scientists that permit easy download and use of these data. We present one such tool, PubChemSR. Implementation PubChemSR (Search and Retrieve is a freely available desktop application written for Windows using Microsoft .NET that is designed to assist scientists in search, retrieval and organization of chemical and biological data from the PubChem database. It employs SOAP web services made available by NCBI for extraction of information from PubChem. Results and Discussion The program supports a wide range of searching techniques, including queries based on assay or compound keywords and chemical substructures. Results can be examined individually or downloaded and exported in batch for use in other programs such as Microsoft Excel. We believe that PubChemSR makes it straightforward for researchers to utilize the chemical, biological and screening data available in PubChem. We present several examples of how it can be used.

  9. Literature Mapping with PubAtlas - extending PubMed with a 'BLASTing interface'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, D S; Chu, W W; Sabb, F W; Toga, A W; Bilder, R M

    2009-03-01

    PubAtlas (www.pubatlas.org) is a web service and standalone program providing literature maps for the biomedical research literature. It accepts user-defined sets of terms (PubMed queries) as input, and permits 'BLASTing' of one set against another: for all terms x and y in these sets, deriving the results of the pairwise intersections x AND y. This all vs. all capability extends PubMed with a literature analysis interface. Correspondingly, the basic form of literature map that PubAtlas provides for exploring associations among sets of terms is an interactive tabular display, in heatmap/microarray format.PubAtlas supports development of specialized lexica -- hierarchies of controlled terminology that can represent sets of related concepts or a 'user-defined query language'. PubAtlas also provides historical perspectives on the literature, with temporal query features that highlight historical patterns. Generally, it is a framework for extending the PubMed interface, and an extensible platform for producing interactive literature maps.

  10. Development, validation and application of a device to measure e-cigarette users’ puffing topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Anthony; Slayford, Sandra; Vas, Carl; Gee, Jodie; Costigan, Sandra; Prasad, Krishna

    2016-01-01

    With the rapidly rising popularity and substantial evolution of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in the past 5–6 years, how these devices are used by vapers and consumers’ exposure to aerosol emissions need to be understood. We used puffing topography to measure directly product use. We adapted a cigarette puffing topography device for use with e-cigarettes. We performed validation using air and e-cigarette aerosol under multiple regimes. Consumer puffing topography was measured for 60 vapers provided with rechargeable “cig-a-like” or larger button-activated e-cigarettes, to use ad-libitum in two sessions. Under all regimes, air puff volumes were within 1 mL of the target and aerosol volumes within 5 mL for all device types, serving to validate the device. Vapers’ mean puff durations (2.0 s and 2.2 s) were similar with both types of e-cigarette, but mean puff volumes (52.2 mL and 83.0 mL) and mean inter-puff intervals (23.2 s and 29.3 s) differed significantly. The differing data show that product characteristics influence puffing topography and, therefore, the results obtained from a given e-cigarette might not read across to other products. Understanding the factors that affect puffing topography will be important for standardising testing protocols for e-cigarette emissions. PMID:27721496

  11. Osmosis-Puffing sebagai Suatu Alternatif Proses Pengeringan Buah dan Sayuran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Saputra

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A new method of drying fruits and vegetables, a combination of the osmotic drying with the CO2 puffing process, was carried out in this study. the fruits were soaked in an osmotic media, continued by puffing the product with CO2 gas and then dried using the fluidized bed dryer wich resulted in a product that resembled the volume and shape of a fresh product. The type of osmotic media and concentration, and the soild gain. Also the sample’s tichness had a significant effect on the water loss and solid gain. The best concentration was 50%, and the best media was sucrose. Osmotic-puffing using sugar solution had no significant effect to the ratio of bulk specific volume (BSV between the osmotic puffing compare to without osmotic. The product treated with the solution of KCI combined with sugar had a lower BSV of puff product compared to the product soaked only with KCI. The concentration of KCI 5% gave the best BSV. The NaCI solution of 5% was also tested for osmotic-puffing dehydration of carrot which resulted in the BSV of 6.8 cm3/g.

  12. A PUFs-based hardware authentication BLAKE algorithm in 65 nm CMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuejun; Wang, Pengjun; Zhang, Xuelong; Weng, Xinqian; Yu, Zhiyi

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a hardware authentication BLAKE algorithm based on physical unclonable functions (PUFs) in Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company low-power 65 nm CMOS. To support hardware authentication feature, PUFs have been organised in BLAKE algorithm as the salt value. The trials table method is used to improve the robust of PUFs, resulting in approximately 100% stability against supply voltage variations form 0.7 V to 1.6 V. By discussing the G-function of BLAKE algorithm, the hardware implementation is considered for acceleration, resulting in significant performance improvements. The die occupies 2.62 mm2 and operates maximum frequency 1.0 GHz at 1.6 V. Measured results show that PUFs have great random characteristic and the authentication chip dissipates an average power of 91 mW under typical condition at 1.2 V and 780 MHz. In comparison with other works, the PUFs-based BLAKE algorithm has hardware authentication feature and improves throughput about 45%.

  13. Bidirectional regulation of mRNA translation in mammalian cells by using PUF domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jicong; Arha, Manish; Sudrik, Chaitanya; Schaffer, David V; Kane, Ravi S

    2014-05-05

    The regulation of gene expression is crucial in diverse areas of biological science, engineering, and medicine. A genetically encoded system based on the RNA binding domain of the Pumilio and FBF (PUF) proteins was developed for the bidirectional regulation (i.e., either upregulation or downregulation) of the translation of a target mRNA. PUF domains serve as designable scaffolds for the recognition of specific RNA elements and the specificity can be easily altered to target any 8-nucleotide RNA sequence. The expression of a reporter could be varied by over 17-fold when using PUF-based activators and repressors. The specificity of the method was established by using wild-type and mutant PUF domains. Furthermore, this method could be used to activate the translation of target mRNA downstream of PUF binding sites in a light-dependent manner. Such specific bidirectional control of mRNA translation could be particularly useful in the fields of synthetic biology, developmental biology, and metabolic engineering.

  14. A conserved PUF-Ago-eEF1A complex attenuates translation elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Kyle; Campbell, Zachary T; Cooke, Amy; Kroll-Conner, Peggy; Wickens, Marvin P; Kimble, Judith

    2012-01-08

    PUF (Pumilio/FBF) RNA-binding proteins and Argonaute (Ago) miRNA-binding proteins regulate mRNAs post-transcriptionally, each acting through similar, yet distinct, mechanisms. Here, we report that PUF and Ago proteins can also function together in a complex with a core translation elongation factor, eEF1A, to repress translation elongation. Both nematode (Caenorhabditis elegans) and mammalian PUF-Ago-eEF1A complexes were identified, using coimmunoprecipitation and recombinant protein assays. Nematode CSR-1 (Ago) promoted repression of FBF (PUF) target mRNAs in in vivo assays, and the FBF-1-CSR-1 heterodimer inhibited EFT-3 (eEF1A) GTPase activity in vitro. Mammalian PUM2-Ago-eEF1A inhibited translation of nonadenylated and polyadenylated reporter mRNAs in vitro. This repression occurred after translation initiation and led to ribosome accumulation within the open reading frame, roughly at the site where the nascent polypeptide emerged from the ribosomal exit tunnel. Together, these data suggest that a conserved PUF-Ago-eEF1A complex attenuates translation elongation.

  15. PubChem3D: Similar conformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolton Evan E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PubChem is a free and open public resource for the biological activities of small molecules. With many tens of millions of both chemical structures and biological test results, PubChem is a sizeable system with an uneven degree of available information. Some chemical structures in PubChem include a great deal of biological annotation, while others have little to none. To help users, PubChem pre-computes "neighboring" relationships to relate similar chemical structures, which may have similar biological function. In this work, we introduce a "Similar Conformers" neighboring relationship to identify compounds with similar 3-D shape and similar 3-D orientation of functional groups typically used to define pharmacophore features. Results The first two diverse 3-D conformers of 26.1 million PubChem Compound records were compared to each other, using a shape Tanimoto (ST of 0.8 or greater and a color Tanimoto (CT of 0.5 or greater, yielding 8.16 billion conformer neighbor pairs and 6.62 billion compound neighbor pairs, with an average of 253 "Similar Conformers" compound neighbors per compound. Comparing the 3-D neighboring relationship to the corresponding 2-D neighboring relationship ("Similar Compounds" for molecules such as caffeine, aspirin, and morphine, one finds unique sets of related chemical structures, providing additional significant biological annotation. The PubChem 3-D neighboring relationship is also shown to be able to group a set of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, despite limited PubChem 2-D similarity. In a study of 4,218 chemical structures of biomedical interest, consisting of many known drugs, using more diverse conformers per compound results in more 3-D compound neighbors per compound; however, the overlap of the compound neighbor lists per conformer also increasingly resemble each other, being 38% identical at three conformers and 68% at ten conformers. Perhaps surprising is that the average

  16. PubMed数据库检索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蓓

    2007-01-01

    PubMed(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=pubmed)是由美国国立医学图书馆国家生物技术信息中心开发的生命科学书目网络检索系统。该系统具有非常强大的检索和链接功能,是目前世界上查找医学文献利用率最高的网上免费数据库,学会利用PubMed,也可以触类旁通,掌握其他医学数据库的检索方法。

  17. The use of PubMed/Medline in psychiatry. 3: Searching PubMed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theander, Sten S

    2006-01-01

    This paper is the third in a series of three, intended as a tutorial in the use of PubMed/Medline for an inexperienced user. The papers have the following contents: I--a description of NLM, Medline, PubMed and the system of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), which form the basis for the indexing of scientific articles, books and other items at NLM. II--A description and a tutorial of the PubMed search window. III--The present article deals mainly with the searching for references in PubMed. Ways of restricting and concentrating the search are presented, and exercises are proposed. A reader may also find guidance for a search for medical books in the NLM Catalog, and in the use of tools like Related Articles, Bookshelf, and Index. With eating disorders as an example, more information is presented on the use of MeSH terms.

  18. PubMed查询技巧探析%Skills in Searching PubMed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾萍

    2005-01-01

    PubMed是国内外医学研究人员网上免费获取生物医学信息、查找循证医学证据的重要文献数据库系统.为帮助用户熟练使用PubMed,对其查询特点进行了分析研究.

  19. Conserved regulation of MAP kinase expression by PUF RNA-binding proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myon-Hee Lee

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK and PUF (for Pumilio and FBF [fem-3 binding factor] RNA-binding proteins control many cellular processes critical for animal development and tissue homeostasis. In the present work, we report that PUF proteins act directly on MAPK/ERK-encoding mRNAs to downregulate their expression in both the Caenorhabditis elegans germline and human embryonic stem cells. In C. elegans, FBF/PUF binds regulatory elements in the mpk-1 3' untranslated region (3' UTR and coprecipitates with mpk-1 mRNA; moreover, mpk-1 expression increases dramatically in FBF mutants. In human embryonic stem cells, PUM2/PUF binds 3'UTR elements in both Erk2 and p38alpha mRNAs, and PUM2 represses reporter constructs carrying either Erk2 or p38alpha 3' UTRs. Therefore, the PUF control of MAPK expression is conserved. Its biological function was explored in nematodes, where FBF promotes the self-renewal of germline stem cells, and MPK-1 promotes oocyte maturation and germ cell apoptosis. We found that FBF acts redundantly with LIP-1, the C. elegans homolog of MAPK phosphatase (MKP, to restrict MAPK activity and prevent apoptosis. In mammals, activated MAPK can promote apoptosis of cancer cells and restrict stem cell self-renewal, and MKP is upregulated in cancer cells. We propose that the dual negative regulation of MAPK by both PUF repression and MKP inhibition may be a conserved mechanism that influences both stem cell maintenance and tumor progression.

  20. Extensive association of functionally and cytotopically related mRNAs with Puf family RNA-binding proteins in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André P Gerber

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Genes encoding RNA-binding proteins are diverse and abundant in eukaryotic genomes. Although some have been shown to have roles in post-transcriptional regulation of the expression of specific genes, few of these proteins have been studied systematically. We have used an affinity tag to isolate each of the five members of the Puf family of RNA-binding proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and DNA microarrays to comprehensively identify the associated mRNAs. Distinct groups of 40-220 different mRNAs with striking common themes in the functions and subcellular localization of the proteins they encode are associated with each of the five Puf proteins: Puf3p binds nearly exclusively to cytoplasmic mRNAs that encode mitochondrial proteins; Puf1p and Puf2p interact preferentially with mRNAs encoding membrane-associated proteins; Puf4p preferentially binds mRNAs encoding nucleolar ribosomal RNA-processing factors; and Puf5p is associated with mRNAs encoding chromatin modifiers and components of the spindle pole body. We identified distinct sequence motifs in the 3'-untranslated regions of the mRNAs bound by Puf3p, Puf4p, and Puf5p. Three-hybrid assays confirmed the role of these motifs in specific RNA-protein interactions in vivo. The results suggest that combinatorial tagging of transcripts by specific RNA-binding proteins may be a general mechanism for coordinated control of the localization, translation, and decay of mRNAs and thus an integral part of the global gene expression program.

  1. High Uniqueness Arbiter-Based PUF Circuit Utilizing RG-DTM Scheme for Identification and Authentication Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiozaki, Mitsuru; Furuhashi, Kota; Murayama, Takahiko; Fukushima, Akitaka; Yoshikawa, Masaya; Fujino, Takeshi

    Silicon Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) have been proposed to exploit inherent characteristics caused by process variations, such as transistor size, threshold voltage and so on, and to produce an inexpensive and tamper-resistant device such as IC identification, authentication and key generation. We have focused on the arbiter-PUF utilizing the relative delay-time difference between the equivalent paths. The conventional arbiter-PUF has a technical issue, which is low uniqueness caused by the ununiformity on response-generation. To enhance the uniqueness, a novel arbiter-based PUF utilizing the Response Generation according to the Delay Time Measurement (RG-DTM) scheme, has been proposed. In the conventional arbiter-PUF, the response 0 or 1 is assigned according to the single threshold of relative delay-time difference. On the contrary, the response 0 or 1 is assigned according to the multiple threshold of relative delay-time difference in the RG-DTM PUF. The conventional and RG-DTM PUF were designed and fabricated with 0.18µm CMOS technology. The Hamming distances (HDs) between different chips, which indicate the uniqueness, were calculated by 256-bit responses from the identical challenges on each chip. The ideal distribution of HDs, which indicates high uniqueness, is achieved in the RG-DTM PUF using 16 thresholds of relative delay-time differences. The generative stability, which is the fluctuation of responses in the same environment, and the environmental stability, which is the changes of responses in the different environment were also evaluated. There is a trade-off between high uniqueness and high stability, however, the experimental data shows that the RG-DTM PUF has extremely smaller false matching probability in the identification compared to the conventional PUF.

  2. Technical development of PubMed Interact: an improved interface for MEDLINE/PubMed searches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontelo Paul

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The project aims to create an alternative search interface for MEDLINE/PubMed that may provide assistance to the novice user and added convenience to the advanced user. An earlier version of the project was the 'Slider Interface for MEDLINE/PubMed searches' (SLIM which provided JavaScript slider bars to control search parameters. In this new version, recent developments in Web-based technologies were implemented. These changes may prove to be even more valuable in enhancing user interactivity through client-side manipulation and management of results. Results PubMed Interact is a Web-based MEDLINE/PubMed search application built with HTML, JavaScript and PHP. It is implemented on a Windows Server 2003 with Apache 2.0.52, PHP 4.4.1 and MySQL 4.1.18. PHP scripts provide the backend engine that connects with E-Utilities and parses XML files. JavaScript manages client-side functionalities and converts Web pages into interactive platforms using dynamic HTML (DHTML, Document Object Model (DOM tree manipulation and Ajax methods. With PubMed Interact, users can limit searches with JavaScript slider bars, preview result counts, delete citations from the list, display and add related articles and create relevance lists. Many interactive features occur at client-side, which allow instant feedback without reloading or refreshing the page resulting in a more efficient user experience. Conclusion PubMed Interact is a highly interactive Web-based search application for MEDLINE/PubMed that explores recent trends in Web technologies like DOM tree manipulation and Ajax. It may become a valuable technical development for online medical search applications.

  3. 炭素制品在石墨化过程中的"Puffing"%PUFFING OF CARBN PRODUCTS DURING GRAPHITIZATION PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张松威; 张云峰

    2008-01-01

    炭素制品在石墨化过程中时常会出现导致大量裂纹废品的"Puffing"现象,严重影响了产品的质量,本文旨在探讨引起"Puffing"现象的因素、产生机理以及介绍几种在石墨制品生产过程中已经被广泛采用的抑制、减少该现象产生的有效措施,以提高石墨制品的质量及成品率指标.

  4. Characterizing PUF disk passive air samplers for alkyl-substituted PAHs: Measured and modelled PUF-AIR partition coefficients with COSMO-RS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnis, J Mark; Eng, Anita; Mackay, Donald; Harner, Tom

    2016-02-01

    Isomers of alkyl-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dibenzothiophenes are modelled with COSMO-RS theory to determine the effectiveness and accuracy of this approach for estimation of isomer-specific partition coefficients between air and polyurethane foam (PUF), i.e., KPUF-AIR. Isomer-specific equilibrium partitioning coefficients for a series of 23 unsubstituted and isomeric alkyl-substituted PAHs and dibenzothiophenes were measured at 22 °C. This data was used to determine the accuracy of estimated values using COSMO-RS, which is isomer specific, and the Global Atmospheric Passive Sampling (GAPS) template approach, which treats all alkyl-substitutions as a single species of a given side-chain carbon number. A recently developed oligomer-based model for PUF was employed, which consisted of a 1:1 condensed pair of 2,4-toluene-diisocyanide and glycerol. The COSMO-RS approach resulted in a significant reduction in the RMS error associated with simple PAHs and dibenzothiophene compared with the GAPS template approach. When used with alkylated PAHs and dibenzothiophenes grouped into carbon-number categories, the GAPS template approach gave lower RMS error (0.72) compared to the COSMO-RS result (0.87) when the latter estimates were averaged within the carbon-number-based categories. When the isomer-specific experimental results were used, the COSMO-RS approach resulted in a 21% reduction in RMS error with respect to the GAPS template approach, with a 0.57 RMS error for all alkylated PAHs and dibenzothiophenes studied. The results demonstrate that COSMO-RS theory is effective in generating isomer-specific PUF-air partition coefficients, supporting the application of PUF-based passive samplers for monitoring and research studies of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in air.

  5. The PubChem chemical structure sketcher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihlenfeldt Wolf D

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract PubChem is an important public, Web-based information source for chemical and bioactivity information. In order to provide convenient structure search methods on compounds stored in this database, one mandatory component is a Web-based drawing tool for interactive sketching of chemical query structures. Web-enabled chemical structure sketchers are not new, being in existence for years; however, solutions available rely on complex technology like Java applets or platform-dependent plug-ins. Due to general policy and support incident rate considerations, Java-based or platform-specific sketchers cannot be deployed as a part of public NCBI Web services. Our solution: a chemical structure sketching tool based exclusively on CGI server processing, client-side JavaScript functions, and image sequence streaming. The PubChem structure editor does not require the presence of any specific runtime support libraries or browser configurations on the client. It is completely platform-independent and verified to work on all major Web browsers, including older ones without support for Web2.0 JavaScript objects.

  6. Calibration and application of PUF disk passive air samplers for tracking polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harner, Tom; Su, Ky; Genualdi, Susie; Karpowicz, Jessica; Ahrens, Lutz; Mihele, Cristian; Schuster, Jasmin; Charland, Jean-Pierre; Narayan, Julie

    2013-08-01

    Results are reported from a field calibration of the polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive air sampler for measuring polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in the atmosphere of the Alberta oil sands region of Canada. Passive samplers were co-deployed alongside conventional high volume samplers at three sites. The results demonstrate the ability of the PUF disk sampler to capture PACs, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkylated PAHs and parent and alkylated dibenzothiophenes. Both gas- and particle-phase PACs were captured with an average sampling rate of approximately 5 m3 day-1, similar to what has been previously observed for other semivolatile compounds. This is the first application of the PUF disk sampler for alkylated PAHs and dibenzothiophenes in air. The derived sampling rates are combined with estimates of the equilibrium partitioning of the PACs in the PUF disk samplers to estimate effective sample air volumes for all targeted PACs. This information is then applied to the passive sampling results from two deployments across 17 sites in the region to generate spatial maps of PACs. The successful calibration of the sampler and development of the methodology for deriving air concentrations lends support to the application of this cost-effective and simple sampler in longer term studies of PACs in the oil sands region.

  7. Thermodynamic assessment of the LiF-ThF4-PuF3-UF4 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelli, E.; Beneš, O.; Konings, R. J. M.

    2015-07-01

    The LiF-ThF4-PuF3-UF4 system is the reference salt mixture considered for the Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR) concept started with PuF3. In order to obtain the complete thermodynamic description of this quaternary system, two binary systems (ThF4-PuF3 and UF4-PuF3) and two ternary systems (LiF-ThF4-PuF3 and LiF-UF4-PuF3) have been assessed for the first time. The similarities between CeF3/PuF3 and ThF4/UF4 compounds have been taken into account for the presented optimization as well as in the experimental measurements performed, which have confirmed the temperatures predicted by the model. Moreover, the experimental results and the thermodynamic database developed have been used to identify potential compositions for the MSFR fuel and to evaluate the influence of partial substitution of ThF4 by UF4 in the salt.

  8. Evolutionarily dynamic roles of a PUF RNA-binding protein in the somatic development of Caenorhabditis briggsae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qinwen; Haag, Eric S

    2014-05-01

    Gene duplication and divergence has emerged as an important aspect of developmental evolution. The genomes of Caenorhabditis nematodes encode an ancient family of PUF RNA-binding proteins. Most have been implicated in germline development, and are often redundant with paralogs of the same sub-family. An exception is Cbr-puf-2 (one of three Caenorhabditis briggsae PUF-2 sub-family paralogs), which is required for development past the second larval stage. Here, we provide a detailed functional characterization of Cbr-puf-2. The larval arrest of Cbr-puf-2 mutant animals is caused by inefficient breakdown of bacterial food, which leads to starvation. Cbr-puf-2 is required for the normal grinding cycle of the muscular terminal bulb during early larval stages, and is transiently expressed in this tissue. In addition, rescue of larval arrest reveals that Cbr-puf-2 also promotes normal vulval development. It is expressed in the anchor cell (which induces vulval fate) and vulval muscles, but not in the vulva precursor cells (VPCs) themselves. This contrasts with the VPC-autonomous repression of vulval development described for the Caenorhabditis elegans homologs fbf-1/2. These different roles for PUF proteins occur even as the vulva and pharynx maintain highly conserved anatomies across Caenorhabditis, indicating pervasive developmental system drift (DSD). Because Cbr-PUF-2 shares RNA-binding specificity with its paralogs and with C. elegans FBF, we suggest that functional novelty of RNA-binding proteins evolves through changes in the site of their expression, perhaps in concert with cis-regulatory evolution in target mRNAs.

  9. Effect of explosion-puffed coffee on locomotor activity and behavioral patterns in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Bong Soo; Ahn, So Hyun; Noh, Dong Ouk; Hong, Ki-Bae; Han, Sung Hee; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2017-10-01

    We hypothesized that the administration of explosion-puffed coffee, containing γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), would be associated with a reduction of the caffeine effect on sleep behavior and behavioral patterns, which was investigated in a Drosophila model. The effects of feeding roasted coffee beans (RB), explosion-puffed coffee beans puffed at 0.75MPa and 0.9MPa (PB 7.5 and PB 9.0, respectively), or decaffeinated coffee beans (DeRB) on locomotor activity and behavioral patterns of Drosophila was analyzed. In the decreasing order, the total chlorogenic acid (caffeoylquinic acids, CQA) content was PB 7.5>PB 9.0>RB. PB content analysis showed high levels of GABA and 5-HTP, compared with that of RB, which corresponded with the sleep-wake behavior of Drosophila. The RB and PB (PB 7.5 and PB 9.0) groups were not significantly different with respect to an activity count during the subjective night and day period compared with the normal controls. Sleep bout numbers of the normal, PB, and DeRB groups showed significant differences as compared with the caffeine and RB groups (ptest; the average distance covered by the normal, PB 7.5, and DeRB groups was HTP with explosive puffing process carried out at 0.75MPa. Results of the underlying mechanism of the behavioral change patterns of explosive puffed with or without caffeine in Drosophila models, transcript level for the Dop1-R1 receptor in caffeine group was significantly higher than normal, PB, and DePB groups. Flies exposed to the caffeine had significantly decreased transcript levels for the GABA receptors. PB 7.5 and DePB showed higher level of GABA content than RB. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of puffed ginseng-rice snack from ginseng powder and map rice flour using steam and compression process

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Mohammad Alamgir; Shin, Cha-Gyun

    2012-01-01

    A new manufacturing method for producing a puffed ginseng-rice snack (PGRS) was developed using ginseng powder and map rice flour through a steam and compression process (SCP). The physical and sensory properties of the PGRS were characterized. The pellets for puffing were prepared from ginseng powder and map rice flour. The pellets were subjected to 16, 18, and 20% moisture contents and were puffed at 225, 235, and 245° C. The specific volumes of the PGRSs increased with heating temperature ...

  11. PubMed Medline 7: Gestionar els resultats. Gener 2011

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    També podeu consultar altres tutorials sobre el PubMed: 1. PubMed Medline: Accés, http://hdl.handle.net/2445/15122; 2. PubMed Medline: Cerca bàsica, http://hdl.handle.net/2445/15123; 3. PubMed Medline: Elements de cerca i límits, http://hdl.handle.net/2445/15124; 4. PubMed Medline: Matèries MeSH, http://hdl.handle.net/2445/15125; 5. PubMed Medline: Cerca avançada, http://hdl.handle.net/2445/15126; 6. PubMed Medline: Exemple de cerca avançada, http://hdl.handle.net/2445/15127; 8. PubMed Medli...

  12. Searching PubMed during a pandemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Norgaard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The 2009 influenza A(H1N1 pandemic has generated thousands of articles and news items. However, finding relevant scientific articles in such rapidly developing health crises is a major challenge which, in turn, can affect decision-makers' ability to utilise up-to-date findings and ultimately shape public health interventions. This study set out to show the impact that the inconsistent naming of the pandemic can have on retrieving relevant scientific articles in PubMed/MEDLINE. METHODOLOGY: We first formulated a PubMed search algorithm covering different names of the influenza pandemic and simulated the results that it would have retrieved from weekly searches for relevant new records during the first 10 weeks of the pandemic. To assess the impact of failing to include every term in this search, we then conducted the same searches but omitted in turn "h1n1," "swine," "influenza" and "flu" from the search string, and compared the results to those for the full string. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: On average, our core search string identified 44.3 potentially relevant new records at the end of each week. Of these, we determined that an average of 27.8 records were relevant. When we excluded one term from the string, the percentage of records missed out of the total number of relevant records averaged 18.7% for omitting "h1n1," 13.6% for "swine," 17.5% for "influenza," and 20.6% for "flu." CONCLUSIONS: Due to inconsistent naming, while searching for scientific material about rapidly evolving situations such as the influenza A(H1N1 pandemic, there is a risk that one will miss relevant articles. To address this problem, the international scientific community should agree on nomenclature and the specific name to be used earlier, and the National Library of Medicine in the US could index potentially relevant materials faster and allow publishers to add alert tags to such materials.

  13. Development of puffed ginseng-rice snack from ginseng powder and map rice flour using steam and compression process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad Alamgir; Shin, Cha-Gyun

    2013-04-01

    A new manufacturing method for producing a puffed ginseng-rice snack (PGRS) was developed using ginseng powder and map rice flour through a steam and compression process (SCP). The physical and sensory properties of the PGRS were characterized. The pellets for puffing were prepared from ginseng powder and map rice flour. The pellets were subjected to 16, 18, and 20% moisture contents and were puffed at 225, 235, and 245° C. The specific volumes of the PGRSs increased with heating temperature and moisture content. However, the breaking strength of the PGRSs decreased. In addition, the SCP imposed special features in the PGRSs that made them more acceptable. The Hunter L-value increased with heating temperature and moisture content. These results indicate that a PGRS with functional additives could be effectively developed into a functional food with the use of a puffing machine, and that the PGRS shows potential as a new snack product.

  14. Design of a reliable PUF circuit based on R-2R ladder digital-to-analog convertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengjun, Wang; Xuelong, Zhang; Yuejun, Zhang; Jianrui, Li

    2015-07-01

    A novel physical unclonable functions (PUF) circuit is proposed, which relies on non-linear characteristic of analog voltage generated by R-2R ladder DAC. After amplifying the deviation signal, the robustness of the DAC-PUF circuit has increased significantly. The DAC-PUF circuit is designed in TSMC 65 nm CMOS technology and the layout occupies 86.06 × 63.56 μm2. Monte Carlo simulation results show that the reliability of the DAC-PUF circuit is above 98% over a comprehensive range of environmental variation, such as temperature and supply voltage. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61474068, 61404076, 61274132), the Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (No. LQ14F040001), and the K. C. Wong Magna Fund in Ningbo University, China.

  15. Optimization of the PubMed Automatic Term Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirion, Benoit; Robu, Ioana; Darmoni, Stéfan J

    2009-01-01

    PubMed, freely available on the internet, is the best known database for medical information. We propose a method of optimization of the PubMed Automatic Term Mapping (ATM) that includes MeSH terms. This method is evaluated using two queries constructed to emphasize the differences between the PubMed queries as they are at present and also between these queries and the optimized one. The proposed query is significantly more precise than the current PubMed query (54.5% vs. 27%). The optimized query proposed would be easy to implement into PubMed.

  16. PubMed新增功能评析%The New Fetures of PubMed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李朝葵; 游强华

    2009-01-01

    2008年以来,PubMed系统不仅改进了其自动词语匹配功能(ATM),还新推出了高级检索模式(Advanced Search),强化了个性化服务功能(My NCBI),本文就这些新功能进行了简要的介绍与分析.

  17. The Puf family of RNA-binding proteins in plants: phylogeny, structural modeling, activity and subcellular localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tam Michael WC

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Puf proteins have important roles in controlling gene expression at the post-transcriptional level by promoting RNA decay and repressing translation. The Pumilio homology domain (PUM-HD is a conserved region within Puf proteins that binds to RNA with sequence specificity. Although Puf proteins have been well characterized in animal and fungal systems, little is known about the structural and functional characteristics of Puf-like proteins in plants. Results The Arabidopsis and rice genomes code for 26 and 19 Puf-like proteins, respectively, each possessing eight or fewer Puf repeats in their PUM-HD. Key amino acids in the PUM-HD of several of these proteins are conserved with those of animal and fungal homologs, whereas other plant Puf proteins demonstrate extensive variability in these amino acids. Three-dimensional modeling revealed that the predicted structure of this domain in plant Puf proteins provides a suitable surface for binding RNA. Electrophoretic gel mobility shift experiments showed that the Arabidopsis AtPum2 PUM-HD binds with high affinity to BoxB of the Drosophila Nanos Response Element I (NRE1 RNA, whereas a point mutation in the core of the NRE1 resulted in a significant reduction in binding affinity. Transient expression of several of the Arabidopsis Puf proteins as fluorescent protein fusions revealed a dynamic, punctate cytoplasmic pattern of localization for most of these proteins. The presence of predicted nuclear export signals and accumulation of AtPuf proteins in the nucleus after treatment of cells with leptomycin B demonstrated that shuttling of these proteins between the cytosol and nucleus is common among these proteins. In addition to the cytoplasmically enriched AtPum proteins, two AtPum proteins showed nuclear targeting with enrichment in the nucleolus. Conclusions The Puf family of RNA-binding proteins in plants consists of a greater number of members than any other model species studied to

  18. Recent research developments of phenol-urea-formaldehyde (PUF)resin%苯酚/尿素/甲醛(PUF)树脂的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵伟刚; 杜官本

    2009-01-01

    苯酚/尿素/甲醛(PUF)共缩聚树脂是一种新型的木材用胶粘剂,其固化特性和耐热特性与酚醛树脂(PF)十分相似,但生产成本明显降低.对PUF共缩聚树脂的合成方法、反应机理、固化特性和影响因素等研究进展进行了综述.

  19. Optimization for Dwarf Banana with Microwave Low Temperature Carbon Dioxide Flash Puffing Process by Response Surface Methodology and Factor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Bao-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A three factors quadratic regression rotation combination design was adopted to optimize the technical conditions of microwave low temperature carbon dioxide flash puffing (MLTCDFP process for dwarf banana in the single factor’s foundation. This paper analyzed the effect of puffing temperature, puffing pressure, vacuum drying temperature and the interaction of the three factors on color, crispness, and the effect of hardness and water content. Based on the experimental data, the quadratic regression model of four indexes was deduced, then variables were analyzed with response surface methodology (RSM. The weights of four evaluation indexes was determined by factor analysis. The regression square was obtained by the comprehensive score as follow: Y=0.955+0.109X1+0.16X3−0.09X12+0.015X22 −0.15X32−0.018X1X2−0.056X1X3+0.016X2X3(R2=0.837.Through factor analysis, the range of the optimal technical conditions of MLTCDFP for dwarf banana obtained. The result indicated the four indexes were affected significantly by the puffing temperature and vacuum drying temperature, and the interactions of the three factors did not affect the product obviously. The optimal technical parameters were as follows: puffing temperature 91~95°C, puffing pressure 0.11~0.19MPa, vacuum temperature 81~85°C.

  20. Specific and Modular Binding Code for Cytosine Recognition in Pumilio/FBF (PUF) RNA-binding Domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Shuyun; Wang, Yang; Cassidy-Amstutz, Caleb; Lu, Gang; Bigler, Rebecca; Jezyk, Mark R.; Li, Chunhua; Tanaka Hall, Traci M.; Wang, Zefeng (NIH); (Beijing U); (UNC)

    2011-10-28

    Pumilio/fem-3 mRNA-binding factor (PUF) proteins possess a recognition code for bases A, U, and G, allowing designed RNA sequence specificity of their modular Pumilio (PUM) repeats. However, recognition side chains in a PUM repeat for cytosine are unknown. Here we report identification of a cytosine-recognition code by screening random amino acid combinations at conserved RNA recognition positions using a yeast three-hybrid system. This C-recognition code is specific and modular as specificity can be transferred to different positions in the RNA recognition sequence. A crystal structure of a modified PUF domain reveals specific contacts between an arginine side chain and the cytosine base. We applied the C-recognition code to design PUF domains that recognize targets with multiple cytosines and to generate engineered splicing factors that modulate alternative splicing. Finally, we identified a divergent yeast PUF protein, Nop9p, that may recognize natural target RNAs with cytosine. This work deepens our understanding of natural PUF protein target recognition and expands the ability to engineer PUF domains to recognize any RNA sequence.

  1. Specific and modular binding code for cytosine recognition in Pumilio/FBF (PUF) RNA-binding domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shuyun; Wang, Yang; Cassidy-Amstutz, Caleb; Lu, Gang; Bigler, Rebecca; Jezyk, Mark R; Li, Chunhua; Hall, Traci M Tanaka; Wang, Zefeng

    2011-07-29

    Pumilio/fem-3 mRNA-binding factor (PUF) proteins possess a recognition code for bases A, U, and G, allowing designed RNA sequence specificity of their modular Pumilio (PUM) repeats. However, recognition side chains in a PUM repeat for cytosine are unknown. Here we report identification of a cytosine-recognition code by screening random amino acid combinations at conserved RNA recognition positions using a yeast three-hybrid system. This C-recognition code is specific and modular as specificity can be transferred to different positions in the RNA recognition sequence. A crystal structure of a modified PUF domain reveals specific contacts between an arginine side chain and the cytosine base. We applied the C-recognition code to design PUF domains that recognize targets with multiple cytosines and to generate engineered splicing factors that modulate alternative splicing. Finally, we identified a divergent yeast PUF protein, Nop9p, that may recognize natural target RNAs with cytosine. This work deepens our understanding of natural PUF protein target recognition and expands the ability to engineer PUF domains to recognize any RNA sequence.

  2. PUF-8 Functions Redundantly with GLD-1 to Promote the Meiotic Progression of Spermatocytes in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priti, Agarwal; Subramaniam, Kuppuswamy

    2015-06-10

    Successful meiotic progression of germ cells is crucial for gametogenesis. Defects in this process affect proper genetic transmission and sometimes lead to tumor formation in the germline. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the RNA-binding protein GLD-1 is essential for the meiotic development of oocytes. However, its role during spermatogenesis has not been understood. Here, we show that GLD-1 functions redundantly with the PUF family protein PUF-8 to ensure proper meiotic development of spermatocytes. When grown at 20°-the standard laboratory temperature for C. elegans growth-primary spermatocytes in both gld-1 and puf-8 single-mutant males and hermaphrodites complete the meiotic divisions normally. By contrast, some of the gld-1; puf-8 double-mutant spermatocytes exit meiosis and form germ cell tumors in both sexes. During larval development, gld-1; puf-8 double-mutant germ cells begin to express the meiotic marker HIM-3, lose P granules, and form the sperm-specific membranous organelle, which are characteristics of developing spermatocytes. However, some of these cells quickly lose HIM-3 and form germ cell tumors that lack membranous organelle but contain P granules. Mutations that block meiotic progression at late pachytene or diakinetic stage fail to arrest the tumorigenesis, suggesting that the gld-1; puf-8 double-mutant spermatocytes exit meiosis prior to the completion of pachytene. Together, results presented here uncover a novel function for gld-1 in the meiotic development of spermatocytes in both hermaphrodites and males.

  3. C. elegans RNA-binding proteins PUF-8 and MEX-3 function redundantly to promote germline stem cell mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariz, Mohd; Mainpal, Rana; Subramaniam, Kuppuswamy

    2009-02-15

    Maintenance of mitotically cycling germline stem cells (GSCs) is vital for continuous production of gametes. In worms and insects, signaling from surrounding somatic cells play an essential role in the maintenance of GSCs by preventing premature differentiation. In addition, germ cell proteins such as the Drosophila Pumilio and Caenorhabditis elegans FBF, both members of the PUF family translational regulators, contribute to GSC maintenance. FBF functions by suppressing GLD-1, which promotes meiotic entry. However, factors that directly promote GSC proliferation, rather than prevent differentiation, are not known. Here we show that PUF-8, another C. elegans member of the PUF family and MEX-3, a KH domain translational regulator, function redundantly to promote GSC mitosis. We find that PUF-8 protein is highly enriched in mitotic germ cells, which is similar to the expression pattern of MEX-3 described earlier. The puf-8(-) mex-3(-) double mutant gonads contain far fewer germ cells than both single mutants and wild-type. While these cells lack mitotic, meiotic and sperm markers, they retain the germ cell-specific P granules, and are capable of gametogenesis if GLP-1, which normally blocks meiotic entry, is removed. Significantly, we find that at least one of these two proteins is essential for germ cell proliferation even in meiotic entry-defective mutants, which otherwise produce germ cell tumors. We conclude PUF-8 and MEX-3 contribute to GSC maintenance by promoting mitotic proliferation rather than by blocking meiotic entry.

  4. Revolution of peer review-PubMed Commons%同行评议的革命-PubMed Commons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈莹

    2014-01-01

    介绍了加入PubMed Commons的3种途径以及使用PubMed Commons添加、回复和分享评论的方法,为用户更快地掌握PubMed Commons的使用方法提供帮助,指出了PubMed开放评论的意义。%Three methods to become a member of PubMed Commons and the ways to add, reply and share reviews using PubMed Commons were described in order to help its users to master how to use it, and the significance of PubMed open reviews was pointed out.

  5. Dietary exposure to aluminium from wheat flour and puffed products of residents in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Junfei; Peng, Shaojie; Tian, Mingsheng; Wang, Liwei; Chen, Bo; Wu, Min; He, Gengsheng

    2015-01-01

    A dietary survey of 3431 residents was conducted by a 24-h dietary recall method in Shanghai, China, quarterly from September 2013 to September 2014. A total of 400 food samples were tested for aluminium concentration, including wheat flour and puffed products from 2011 to 2013. Probabilistic analysis was used to estimate the dietary exposure to aluminium from wheat and puffed products. The means of dietary aluminium exposure for children (2-6 years old), juveniles (7-17 years old), adults (18-65 years old) and seniors (over 65 years old) were 1.88, 0.94, 0.44 and 0.42 mg kg(-1) body weight (bw) week(-1) respectively, with a population average of 0.51 mg kg(-1) bw week(-1). The proportions of those who had aluminium exposure from wheat and puffed products lower than the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) were 77%, 90%, 97%, and 97% respectively from children to seniors. We estimated that the proportions of people at risk would decrease by 13%, 6%, 2% and 2% respectively under the new China National Standards - GB 2760-2014 National Food Safety for Standards for using food additives. The results indicated that aluminium from wheat flour and puffed products is unlikely to cause adverse health effects in the general population in Shanghai; however, children were at a higher risk of excess aluminium exposure. Significant improvements in reducing the dietary exposure to aluminium are expected in the population, especially for children after the implementation of GB 2760-2014.

  6. Effects of instant controlled pressure drop process on physical and sensory properties of puffed wheat snack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yağcı, Sibel

    2017-04-01

    In this study, research on the development of a puffed wheat snack using the instant controlled pressure drop (DIC) process was carried out. Snack products were produced by expanding moistened wheat under various DIC processing conditions in order to obtain adequate puffing, followed by drying in a hot air dryer. The effects of operational variables such as wheat initial moisture content (11-23% w/w, wet basis), processing pressure (3-5 × 10(2) kPa) and processing time (3-11 min) on the physical (density, color and textural characteristics) and sensory properties of the product were investigated. The physical properties of the wheat snack were most affected by changes in processing pressure, followed by processing time and wheat moisture content. Increasing processing pressure and time often improved expansion and textural properties but led to darkening of the raw wheat color. The most acceptable snack in terms of physical properties was obtained at the lowest wheat moisture content. Sensory analysis suggested that consumer acceptability was optimal for wheat snacks produced at higher processing pressure, medium processing time and lower moisture content. The most desirable conditions for puffed wheat snack production using the DIC process were determined as 11% (w/w) of wheat moisture content, 5 × 10(2) kPa of processing pressure and 7 min of processing time. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Structural basis for specific recognition of multiple mRNA targets by a PUF regulatory protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yeming; Opperman, Laura; Wickens, Marvin; Tanaka Hall, Traci M. (NIH); (UW)

    2011-11-02

    Caenorhabditis elegans fem-3 binding factor (FBF) is a founding member of the PUMILIO/FBF (PUF) family of mRNA regulatory proteins. It regulates multiple mRNAs critical for stem cell maintenance and germline development. Here, we report crystal structures of FBF in complex with 6 different 9-nt RNA sequences, including elements from 4 natural mRNAs. These structures reveal that FBF binds to conserved bases at positions 1-3 and 7-8. The key specificity determinant of FBF vs. other PUF proteins lies in positions 4-6. In FBF/RNA complexes, these bases stack directly with one another and turn away from the RNA-binding surface. A short region of FBF is sufficient to impart its unique specificity and lies directly opposite the flipped bases. We suggest that this region imposes a flattened curvature on the protein; hence, the requirement for the additional nucleotide. The principles of FBF/RNA recognition suggest a general mechanism by which PUF proteins recognize distinct families of RNAs yet exploit very nearly identical atomic contacts in doing so.

  8. Structural basis for specific recognition of multiple mRNA targets by a PUF regulatory protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yeming; Opperman, Laura; Wickens, Marvin; Tanaka Hall, Traci M.; (NIH); (UW)

    2010-08-19

    Caenorhabditis elegans fem-3 binding factor (FBF) is a founding member of the PUMILIO/FBF (PUF) family of mRNA regulatory proteins. It regulates multiple mRNAs critical for stem cell maintenance and germline development. Here, we report crystal structures of FBF in complex with 6 different 9-nt RNA sequences, including elements from 4 natural mRNAs. These structures reveal that FBF binds to conserved bases at positions 1-3 and 7-8. The key specificity determinant of FBF vs. other PUF proteins lies in positions 4-6. In FBF/RNA complexes, these bases stack directly with one another and turn away from the RNA-binding surface. A short region of FBF is sufficient to impart its unique specificity and lies directly opposite the flipped bases. We suggest that this region imposes a flattened curvature on the protein; hence, the requirement for the additional nucleotide. The principles of FBF/RNA recognition suggest a general mechanism by which PUF proteins recognize distinct families of RNAs yet exploit very nearly identical atomic contacts in doing so.

  9. Simulation of tokamak SOL and divertor region including heat flux mitigation by gas puffing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Woo; Na, Yong-Su; Hong, Sang Hee; Ahn, Joon-Wook; Kim, Deok-Kyu; Han, Hyunsun; Shim, Seong Bo; Lee, Hae June

    2012-08-01

    Two-dimensional (2D), scrape-off layer (SOL)-divertor transport simulations are performed using the integrated plasma-neutral-impurity code KTRAN developed at Seoul National University. Firstly, the code is applied to reproduce a National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX) discharge by using the prescribed transport coefficients and the boundary conditions obtained from the experiment. The plasma density, the heat flux on the divertor plate, and the D α emission rate profiles from the numerical simulation are found to follow experimental trends qualitatively. Secondly, predictive simulations are carried out for the baseline operation mode in Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) to predict the heat flux on the divertor target plates. The stationary peak heat flux in the KSTAR baseline operation mode is expected to be 6.5 MW/m2 in the case of an orthogonal divertor. To study the mitigation of the heat flux, we investigated the puffing effects of deuterium and argon gases. The puffing position is assumed to be in front of the strike point at the outer lower divertor plate. In the simulations, mitigation of the peak heat flux at the divertor target plates is found to occur when the gas puffing rate exceeds certain values, ˜1.0 × 1020 /s and ˜5.0 × 1018 /s for deuterium and argon, respectively. Multi-charged impurity transport is also investigated for both NSTX and KSTAR SOL and divertor regions.

  10. APUM23, a PUF family protein, functions in leaf development and organ polarity in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tengbo; Kerstetter, Randall A; Irish, Vivian F

    2014-03-01

    The normal biological function of leaves, such as intercepting light and exchanging gases, relies on proper differentiation of adaxial and abaxial polarity. KANADI (KAN) genes, members of the GARP family, are key regulators of abaxial identity in leaf morphogenesis. This study identified a mutant allele (apum23-3) of APUM23, which encodes a Pumilio/PUF domain protein and acts as an enhancer of the kan mutant. Arabidopsis APUM23 has been shown to function in pre-rRNA processing and play pleiotropic roles in plant development. The apum23-3 mutant also synergistically interacts with other leaf polarity mutants, affects proliferation of division-competent cells, and alters the expression of important leaf polarity genes. These phenotypes show that APUM23 has critical functions in plant development, particularly in polarity formation. The PUF gene family is conserved across kingdoms yet it has not been well characterized in plants. These results illuminating the functions of APUM23 suggest a novel role for PUF genes in Arabidopsis leaf development.

  11. Study of PCBs and PBDEs in King George Island, Antarctica, using PUF passive air sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingming; Geng, Dawei; Liu, Fubin; Wang, Thanh; Wang, Pu; Zhang, Qinghua; Jiang, Guibin

    2012-05-01

    Polyurethane foam (PUF)-disk based passive air samplers were deployed in King George Island, Antarctica, during the austral summer of 2009-2010, to investigate levels, distributions and potential sources of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Antarctic air. The atmospheric levels of ∑ indicator PCBs and ∑14 PBDEs ranged from 1.66 to 6.50 pg m-3 and from 0.67 to 2.98 pg m-3, respectively. PCBs homologue profiles were dominated by di-PCBs, tri-PCBs and tetra-PCBs, whereas BDE-17 and BDE-28 were the predominant congeners of PBDEs, which could be explained by long-range atmospheric transport processes. However, the sampling sites close to the Antarctic research stations showed higher atmospheric concentrations of PCBs and PBDEs than the other sites, reflecting potential local sources from the Antarctic research stations. The non-Aroclor congener PCB-11 was found in all the air samples, with air concentrations of 3.60-31.4 pg m-3 (average 15.2 pg m-3). Comparison between the results derived from PUF-disk passive air sampling and high-volume air sampling validates the feasibility of using the passive air samplers in Antarctic air. To our knowledge, this study is the first employment of PUF-disk based passive air samplers in Antarctic atmosphere.

  12. Improvement of PubMed Literature Searching using Biomedical Ontology

    OpenAIRE

    Zuoshuang Xiang; Yongqun He

    2009-01-01

    PubMed articles are annotated using the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) to increase search efficiency. However, MeSH contains limited information on many biomedical domains (e.g., vaccine). Biomedical ontologies may be used to improve PubMed searching capability. This study demonstrates that Vaccine Ontology (VO) can be used to significantly improve PubMed searching efficacy in the vaccine domain. The recall and precision of the ontology-based literature mining approach are analyzed and discu...

  13. PubMed QUEST: The PubMed Query Search Tool. An informatics tool to aid cancer centers and cancer investigators in searching the PubMed databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Hanauer

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Searching PubMed for citations related to a specific cancer center or group of authors can be labor-intensive. We have created a tool, PubMed QUEST, to aid in the rapid searching of PubMed for publications of interest. It was designed by taking into account the needs of entire cancer centers as well as individual investigators. The experience of using the tool by our institution’s cancer center administration and investigators has been favorable and we believe it could easily be adapted to other institutions. Use of the tool has identified limitations of automated searches for publications based on an author’s name, especially for common names. These limitations could likely be solved if the PubMed database assigned a unique identifier to each author

  14. Expanding methods of PubMed subsets%扩充PubMed子集种类的方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙风梅

    2012-01-01

    针对目前PubMed数据库子集种类有限和部分读者在检索PubMed时没有适合本学科的子集进行限定的问题,提出了扩充PubMed子集种类的方法,帮助不同专业的读者快速准确地检索到本学科的文献.

  15. PubFocus: semantic MEDLINE/PubMed citations analytics through integration of controlled biomedical dictionaries and ranking algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuong Cheng-Ming

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding research activity within any given biomedical field is important. Search outputs generated by MEDLINE/PubMed are not well classified and require lengthy manual citation analysis. Automation of citation analytics can be very useful and timesaving for both novices and experts. Results PubFocus web server automates analysis of MEDLINE/PubMed search queries by enriching them with two widely used human factor-based bibliometric indicators of publication quality: journal impact factor and volume of forward references. In addition to providing basic volumetric statistics, PubFocus also prioritizes citations and evaluates authors' impact on the field of search. PubFocus also analyses presence and occurrence of biomedical key terms within citations by utilizing controlled vocabularies. Conclusion We have developed citations' prioritisation algorithm based on journal impact factor, forward referencing volume, referencing dynamics, and author's contribution level. It can be applied either to the primary set of PubMed search results or to the subsets of these results identified through key terms from controlled biomedical vocabularies and ontologies. NCI (National Cancer Institute thesaurus and MGD (Mouse Genome Database mammalian gene orthology have been implemented for key terms analytics. PubFocus provides a scalable platform for the integration of multiple available ontology databases. PubFocus analytics can be adapted for input sources of biomedical citations other than PubMed.

  16. Bosnian and Herzegovinian medical scientists in PubMed database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet

    2013-01-01

    In this paper it is shortly presented PubMed as one of the most important on-line databases of the scientific biomedical literature. Also, the author has analyzed the most cited authors, professors of the medical faculties in Bosnia and Herzegovina, from the published papers in the biomedical journals abstracted and indexed in PubMed.

  17. Divergence of Pumilio/fem-3 mRNA binding factor (PUF) protein specificity through variations in an RNA-binding pocket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Chen; Kershner, Aaron; Wang, Yeming; Holley, Cynthia P; Wilinski, Daniel; Keles, Sunduz; Kimble, Judith; Wickens, Marvin; Hall, Traci M Tanaka

    2012-02-24

    mRNA control networks depend on recognition of specific RNA sequences. Pumilio-fem-3 mRNA binding factor (PUF) RNA-binding proteins achieve that specificity through variations on a conserved scaffold. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Puf3p achieves specificity through an additional binding pocket for a cytosine base upstream of the core RNA recognition site. Here we demonstrate that this chemically simple adaptation is prevalent and contributes to the diversity of RNA specificities among PUF proteins. Bioinformatics analysis shows that mRNAs associated with Caenorhabditis elegans fem-3 mRNA binding factor (FBF)-2 in vivo contain an upstream cytosine required for biological regulation. Crystal structures of FBF-2 and C. elegans PUF-6 reveal binding pockets structurally similar to that of Puf3p, whereas sequence alignments predict a pocket in PUF-11. For Puf3p, FBF-2, PUF-6, and PUF-11, the upstream pockets and a cytosine are required for maximal binding to RNA, but the quantitative impact on binding affinity varies. Furthermore, the position of the upstream cytosine relative to the core PUF recognition site can differ, which in the case of FBF-2 originally masked the identification of this consensus sequence feature. Importantly, other PUF proteins lack the pocket and so do not discriminate upstream bases. A structure-based alignment reveals that these proteins lack key residues that would contact the cytosine, and in some instances, they also present amino acid side chains that interfere with binding. Loss of the pocket requires only substitution of one serine, as appears to have occurred during the evolution of certain fungal species.

  18. PubChem BioAssay: 2017 update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanli; Bryant, Stephen H.; Cheng, Tiejun; Wang, Jiyao; Gindulyte, Asta; Shoemaker, Benjamin A.; Thiessen, Paul A.; He, Siqian; Zhang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    PubChem's BioAssay database (https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) has served as a public repository for small-molecule and RNAi screening data since 2004 providing open access of its data content to the community. PubChem accepts data submission from worldwide researchers at academia, industry and government agencies. PubChem also collaborates with other chemical biology database stakeholders with data exchange. With over a decade's development effort, it becomes an important information resource supporting drug discovery and chemical biology research. To facilitate data discovery, PubChem is integrated with all other databases at NCBI. In this work, we provide an update for the PubChem BioAssay database describing several recent development including added sources of research data, redesigned BioAssay record page, new BioAssay classification browser and new features in the Upload system facilitating data sharing. PMID:27899599

  19. APM杂志被PubMed/MEDLINE收录

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟清华

    2015-01-01

    Annals of Palliative Medicine(《姑息医学年鉴》,简称APM杂志),于2015年3月11日被PubMed/MEDLINE收录。目前,AME旗下12本杂志被PubMed收录(10本被PubMed Central(PMC)全文收录,2本被MEDLINE收录)。MEDLINE始于1960年,是PubMed最重要的组成部分。PubMed由美国健康研究院(NIH)提供支持,已成为写作者最常使用的索引工具,而其拥有的2300万条索引中,

  20. Pleiotropic effects of puf interposon mutagenesis on carotenoid biosynthesis in Rubrivivax gelatinosus. A new gene organization in purple bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouchane, S; Picaud, M; Vernotte, C; Reiss-Husson, F; Astier, C

    1997-01-17

    Rubrivivax gelatinosus mutants affected in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathways were created by interposon mutagenesis within the puf operon. Genetic and biochemical analysis of several constructed mutants suggest that at least crtC is localized downstream of the puf operon and that it is cotranscribed with this operon. Sequence analysis confirmed the genetic data and showed the presence of crtD and crtC genes downstream of the puf operon, a localization different from that known for other purple bacteria. Inactivation of the crtD gene indicated that the two crt genes are cotranscribed and that they are involved not only in the hydroxyspheroidene biosynthesis pathway as in Rhodobacter sphaeroides and R. capsulatus, but also in the spirilloxanthin biosynthesis pathway. Carotenoid genes implicated in the spirilloxanthin biosynthesis pathway were thus identified for the first time. Furthermore, analysis of carotenoid synthesis in the mutants gave genetic evidence that crtD and crtC genes are cotranscribed with the puf operon using the oxygen-regulated puf promoter.

  1. Adsorption behaviour of PuF6 on UO2F2 by the use of 236Pu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Nobuaki; Matsuda, Minoru; Mitsugashira, Toshiaki; Kirishima, Akira

    2010-03-01

    To know the behavior of plutonium in the fluoride volatility process (FLUOREX PROCESS) for the spent nuclear fuel, both UO2 and PuO2 are fluorinated by fluorine forming volatile UF6 and PuF6, respectively. Then PuF6 is separated and recovered from UF6 by using adsorption materials such as uranyl fluoride UO2F2. In this paper, adsorption behavior of PuF6on UO2F2 was examined by the use of 236Pu tracer. First, the stability of UO2F2 in F2atmosphere was analyzed by TG-DTA method showing that uranium volatilized completely over 350 °C by the formation of UF6 and the adsorption of plutonium by UO2F2 should be done at temperatures lower than 250 °C. The behavior of PtF6 as a chemical analogue of PuF6 was also conducted for comparison and it showed that the deposition of PtF4 on UO2F2 at 200 °C. When the 236Pu doped U3O8 was reacted with 10%F2-He gas, the PuF6 vaporized at ca. 600 °C. Then adsorption of 236Pu on UO2F2 was observed by α ray measurement. The adsorption mechanism of Pu on UO2F2 was discussed with experimental data and thermodynamic consideration.

  2. Puffed and bothered: Personality, performance, and the effects of stress on checkered pufferfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleizier, Naomi; Wilson, Alexander D M; Shultz, Aaron D; Cooke, Steven J

    2015-12-01

    Although consistent individual-level differences in behaviour are widespread and potentially important in evolutionary and ecological processes, relatively few studies focus on the physiological mechanisms that might underlie and regulate these individual-level differences in wild populations. We conducted experiments to determine whether checkered pufferfish (Sphoeroides testudineus), which were collected from a dynamic (in terms of depth and water temperature) tidal mangrove creek environment in The Bahamas, have consistent individual-level differences in locomotor activity and the response to a simulated predator threat, as well as swimming performance and puffing in response to stressors. The relationships between personality and performance traits were evaluated to determine whether they represented stress-coping styles or syndromes. Subsequently, a displacement study was conducted to determine how personality and performance in the laboratory compared to movements in the field. In addition, we tested whether a physiological dose of the stress hormone cortisol would alter individual consistency in behavioural and performance traits. We found that pufferfish exhibited consistent individual differences in personality traits over time (e.g., activity and the duration of a response to a threat) and that performance was consistent between the lab and the natural enclosure. Locomotor activity and the duration of startled behaviour were not associated with swimming and puffing performance. Locomotor activity, puffing performance, and swimming performance were not related to whether fish returned to the tidal creek of capture after displacement. Similarly, a cortisol treatment did not modify behaviour or performance in the laboratory. The results reveal that consistent individual-level differences in behaviour and performance were present in a population from a fluctuating and physiologically challenging environment but that such traits are not necessarily correlated

  3. Puffed cereals with added chamomile - quantitative analysis of polyphenols and optimization of their extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blicharski, Tomasz; Oniszczuk, Anna; Olech, Marta; Oniszczuk, Tomasz; Wójtowicz, Agnieszka; Krawczyk, Wojciech; Nowak, Renata

    2017-05-11

    [b]Abstract Introduction[/b]. Functional food plays an important role in the prevention, management and treatment of chronic diseases. One of the most interesting techniques of functional food production is extrusion-cooking. Functional foods may include such items as puffed cereals, breads and beverages that are fortified with vitamins, some nutraceuticals and herbs. Due to its pharmacological activity, chamomile flowers are the most popular components added to functional food. Quantitative analysis of polyphenolic antioxidants, as well as comparison of various methods for the extraction of phenolic compounds from corn puffed cereals, puffed cereals with an addition of chamomile (3, 5, 10 and 20%) and from [i]Chamomillae anthodium. [/i] [b]Materials and Methods[/b]. Two modern extraction methods - ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) at 40 °C and 60 °C, as well as accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) at 100 °C and 120 °C were used for the isolation of polyphenols from functional food. Analysis of flavonoids and phenolic acids was carried out using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). [b]Results and Conclusions[/b]. For most of the analyzed compounds, the highest yields were obtained by ultrasound assisted extraction. The highest temperature during the ultrasonification process (60 °C) increased the efficiency of extraction, without degradation of polyphenols. UAE easily arrives at extraction equilibrium and therefore permits shorter periods of time, reducing the energy input. Furthermore, UAE meets the requirements of 'Green Chemistry'.

  4. 基于Arbiter的PUF的改进%Improvement of arbiter-based PUF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李若绪

    2011-01-01

    Cipher chip is an important way to protect the information security. Therefore, to protect the cipher chip security isbecoming more and more important. Physical unclonable function (PUF) is a new effective method for the physical security of cipher chip. We first recount the arbiter-based PUF which was proposed by Lim et al. and uses the deviation for the PUF production mechanism because of the chip manufacturing technology. We also propose an improvement method for the physical structure of arbiter-based PUF by adding delay module in the path, and prove the superiority of this method in security protection by experiment with field programmable gate array (FPGA).%物理不可克隆函数的提出为保护密码芯片的物理安全提供了一种新的有效方法。针对Lim等提出的基于Arbiter的物理不可克隆函数(PUF),利用芯片生产过程中因工艺等原因造成延时偏差作为PUF的产生机制,对基于Arbiter的PUF的物理结构提出了改进,在路径中加入了延时模块,并通过实验在现场可编程逻辑器件(FPGA)上验证了改进方案在安全性能方面的优越性。

  5. A Gene Expressed during Sexual and Asexual Sporulation in Phytophthora infestans is a Member of the Puf Family of Translational Regulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cvitanich, Cristina; Judelson, Howard S.

    2003-01-01

    of the Puf family of translational regulators. The protein showed up to 51% amino acid identity to other Puf proteins within its 353-amino-acid RNA-binding domain. Little similarity extended beyond this region, as noted for other members of the family. Expression of M90 was measured by using RNA blots...

  6. Studies of PuF6 and transplutonic materials' critical properties for space high power nuclear pumped lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Albert G.; Miller, Mark S.

    1991-01-01

    All space missions require a reliable, compact source of energy. This paper describes preliminary neutronics studies of ``pocket'' reactor concepts employing PuF6 and transplutonic materials as fuels for space high power/energy Nuclear Pumped Lasers (NPLs). Previous research has studied NPL reactor concepts with thin fuel layers, aerosol fuels and gaseous UF6. The total reactor volumes for compact reactors with these types of fuels typically range from 3 m3 to 50 m3. By employing PuF6 and transplutonic fuels at the same low densities, a calculated value for Keff of 1.2 has been achieved for conditions of 900 K and 5 atm, with total reactor volumes of 1.5 m3 for PuF6, 0.51 m3 for Am-242m, 0.58 m3 for Cm-245 and 0.63 m3 for Cf-249.

  7. Characteristics of puffing activity revealed by ground-based, thermal infrared imaging: the example of Stromboli Volcano (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin, Damien; Taddeucci, Jacopo; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Harris, Andrew; Bombrun, Maxime; Del Bello, Elisabetta; Ricci, Tullio

    2017-03-01

    Puffing, i.e., the frequent (1 s ca.) release of small (0.1-10 m3), over-pressurized pockets of magmatic gases, is a typical feature of open-conduit basaltic volcanoes worldwide. Despite its non-trivial contribution to the degassing budget of these volcanoes and its recognized role in volcano monitoring, detection and metering tools for puffing are still limited. Taking advantage of the recent developments in high-speed thermal infrared imaging, we developed a specific processing algorithm to detect the emission of individual puffs and measure their duration, size, volume, and apparent temperature at the vent. As a test case, we applied our method at Stromboli Volcano (Italy), studying "snapshots" of 1 min collected in the years 2012, 2013, and 2014 at several vents. In all 3 years, puffing occurred simultaneously at three or more vents with variable features. At the scale of the single vent, a direct relationship links puff temperature and radius, suggesting that the apparent temperature is mostly a function of puff thickness, while the real gas temperature is constant for all puffs. Once released in the atmosphere, puffs dissipate in less than 20 m. On a broader scale, puffing activity is highly variable from vent to vent and year to year, with a link between average frequency, temperature, and volume from 136 puffs per minute, 600 K above ambient temperature, 0.1 m3, and the occasional ejection of pyroclasts to 20 puffs per minute, 3 K above ambient, 20 m3, and no pyroclasts. Frequent, small, hot puffs occur at random intervals, while as the frequency decreases and size increases, an increasingly longer minimum interval between puffs, up to 0.5 s, appears. These less frequent and smaller puffs also display a positive correlation between puff volume and the delay from the previous puff. Our results suggest an important role of shallow bubble coalescence in controlling puffing activity. The smaller and more frequent puffing at "hotter" vents is in agreement with

  8. 改进的仲裁器PUF设计与分析%Design and Analysis of Improved Arbiter PUF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊钦; 谷大武; 侯方勇

    2010-01-01

    介绍Daihyun等设计的仲裁器物理不可克隆函数(PUF)方案,指出其不足之处.在此基础上提出一种改进方案,设计并分析基于D触发器的仲裁器PUF,在FPGA平台上实现并测试该方案的性能.实验结果表明,改进方案在输出的0,1平衡性方面优于Daihyun的PUF方案.

  9. Using PubMed effectively to access the orthopaedic literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, J F Myles; Hitchcock, Kristin; Nelson, David L

    2011-01-01

    PubMed is the free public Internet interface to the US National Library of Medicine's MEDLINE database of citations to medical scientific articles. Many orthopaedic surgeons use PubMed on a regular basis, but most orthopaedic surgeons have received little or no training in how to use PubMed effectively and express frustration with the experience. Typical problems encountered are data overload with very large numbers of returns to look through, failure to find a specific article, and a concern that a search has missed important papers. It is helpful to understand the system used to enter journal articles into the database and the classification of the common types of searches and to review suggestions for the best ways to use the PubMed interface and find sources for search teaching and assistance.

  10. AliBaba: PubMed as a graph

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Plake, Conrad; Schiemann, Torsten; Pankalla, Marcus; Hakenberg, Jörg; Leser, Ulf

    2006-01-01

    .... AliBaba is an interactive tool for graphical summarization of search results. It parses the set of abstracts that fit a PubMed query and presents extracted information on biomedical objects and their relationships as a graphical network...

  11. PubMed检索方法与技巧

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱亨范

    2007-01-01

    目前,PubMed已经成为国内医药卫生工作者使用的主要外文文献检索数据库。本文对PubMed的结构及检索方法与技巧作了介绍,旨在帮助读者更好地加以利用。

  12. Comparison of PubMed and Google Scholar literature searches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Michael E; Evans, Dennis P

    2010-05-01

    Literature searches are essential to evidence-based respiratory care. To conduct literature searches, respiratory therapists rely on search engines to retrieve information, but there is a dearth of literature on the comparative efficiencies of search engines for researching clinical questions in respiratory care. To compare PubMed and Google Scholar search results for clinical topics in respiratory care to that of a benchmark. We performed literature searches with PubMed and Google Scholar, on 3 clinical topics. In PubMed we used the Clinical Queries search filter. In Google Scholar we used the search filters in the Advanced Scholar Search option. We used the reference list of a related Cochrane Collaboration evidence-based systematic review as the benchmark for each of the search results. We calculated recall (sensitivity) and precision (positive predictive value) with 2 x 2 contingency tables. We compared the results with the chi-square test of independence and Fisher's exact test. PubMed and Google Scholar had similar recall for both overall search results (71% vs 69%) and full-text results (43% vs 51%). PubMed had better precision than Google Scholar for both overall search results (13% vs 0.07%, P Advanced Scholar Search in Google Scholar for respiratory care topics. PubMed appears to be more practical to conduct efficient, valid searches for informing evidence-based patient-care protocols, for guiding the care of individual patients, and for educational purposes.

  13. PubMed searches: overview and strategies for clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Wesley T; Olin, Bernie R

    2013-04-01

    PubMed is a biomedical and life sciences database maintained by a division of the National Library of Medicine known as the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). It is a large resource with more than 5600 journals indexed and greater than 22 million total citations. Searches conducted in PubMed provide references that are more specific for the intended topic compared with other popular search engines. Effective PubMed searches allow the clinician to remain current on the latest clinical trials, systematic reviews, and practice guidelines. PubMed continues to evolve by allowing users to create a customized experience through the My NCBI portal, new arrangements and options in search filters, and supporting scholarly projects through exportation of citations to reference managing software. Prepackaged search options available in the Clinical Queries feature also allow users to efficiently search for clinical literature. PubMed also provides information regarding the source journals themselves through the Journals in NCBI Databases link. This article provides an overview of the PubMed database's structure and features as well as strategies for conducting an effective search.

  14. Sizing of SRAM Cell with Voltage Biasing Techniques for Reliability Enhancement of Memory and PUF Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chip-Hong Chang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Static Random Access Memory (SRAM has recently been developed into a physical unclonable function (PUF for generating chip-unique signatures for hardware cryptography. The most compelling issue in designing a good SRAM-based PUF (SPUF is that while maximizing the mismatches between the transistors in the cross-coupled inverters improves the quality of the SPUF, this ironically also gives rise to increased memory read/write failures. For this reason, the memory cells of existing SPUFs cannot be reused as storage elements, which increases the overheads of cryptographic system where long signatures and high-density storage are both required. This paper presents a novel design methodology for dual-mode SRAM cell optimization. The design conflicts are resolved by using word-line voltage modulation, dynamic voltage scaling, negative bit-line and adaptive body bias techniques to compensate for reliability degradation due to transistor downsizing. The augmented circuit-level techniques expand the design space to achieve a good solution to fulfill several otherwise contradicting key design qualities for both modes of operation, as evinced by our statistical analysis and simulation results based on complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS 45 nm bulk Predictive Technology Model.

  15. FK Comae Berenices, King of Spin: The COCOA-PUFS Project

    CERN Document Server

    Ayres, Thomas R; Saar, S; Huenemoerder, D; Korhonen, H; Drake, J J; Testa, P; Cohen, O; Garraffo, C; Granzer, T; Strassmeier, K

    2016-01-01

    COCOA-PUFS is an energy-diverse, time-domain study of the ultra-fast spinning, heavily spotted, yellow giant FK Com (HD117555; G4 III). This single star is thought to be a recent binary merger, and is exceptionally active by measure of its intense ultraviolet and X-ray emissions, and proclivity to flare. COCOA-PUFS was carried out with Hubble Space Telescope in the UV (120-300 nm), using mainly its high-performance Cosmic Origins Spectrograph, but also high-precision Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph; Chandra X-ray Observatory in the soft X-rays (0.5-10 keV), utilizing its High-Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer; together with supporting photometry and spectropolarimetry in the visible from the ground. This is an introductory report on the project. FK Com displayed variability on a wide range of time scales, over all wavelengths, during the week-long main campaign, including a large X-ray flare; "super-rotational broadening" of the far-ultraviolet "hot-lines" (e.g., Si IV 139 nm (T~80,000 K) together...

  16. Evaluation of the polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive air sampler: Computational modeling and experimental measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Andrew A.; Ashman, Paul; Huang, Jiaoyan; Dhaniyala, Suresh; Holsen, Thomas M.

    2011-08-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations coupled with wind tunnel-experiments were used to determine the sampling rate (SR) of the widely used polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive sampler. In the wind-tunnel experiments, water evaporation rates from a water saturated PUF disk installed in the sampler housing were determined by measuring weight loss over time. In addition, a modified passive sampler designed to collect elemental mercury (Hg 0) with gold-coated filters was used. Experiments were carried out at different wind speeds and various sampler angles. The SRs obtained from wind-tunnel experiments were compared to those obtained from the field by scaling the values by the ratios of air diffusivities. Three-dimensional (3D) CFD simulations were also used to generate SRs for both polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and Hg 0. Overall, the modeled and measured SRs agree well and are consistent with the values obtained from field studies. As previously observed, the SRs increased linearly with increasing wind speed. In addition, it was determined that the SR was strongly dependent on the angle of the ambient wind. The SRs increased when the base was tilted up pointing into the wind and when the base was tilted down (i.e., such that the top of the sampler was facing the wind) the SR decreased initially and then increased. The results suggest that there may be significant uncertainty in concentrations obtained from passive sampler measurements without knowledge of wind speed and wind angle relative to the sampler.

  17. An Analysis of Database Construction on PubMed%PubMed数据库建设探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛红梅; 徐晶晶; 董鹏; 周琴; 任慧玲

    2015-01-01

    PubMed数据库是世界公认的最有影响力的医学专业数据库.本文从数据库建设的角度,分析PubMed数据库的收录标准、数据处理流程、基础数据整合、深度标引等,以期对国内数据库建设有一定的借鉴意义.%PubMed database is recognized as the world's most influential medical database. This paper focuses on the analysis of NLM's PubMed database from the perspective of database construction, concerning its inclusion criteria, data processing procedures, data sources, data submission, metadata standards, and deep indexing, with the purpose of using its experience for the reference of domestic database construction.

  18. 基于65 nm 工艺的多端口可配置 PUF 电路设计%Design of Multi-port Configurable PUF Circuit Based on 65 nm Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李刚; 汪鹏君; 张跃军; 钱浩宇

    2016-01-01

    Physical Unclonable Functions (PUF) exploits process variation across the same structure circuits during the manufacturing processes to generate numerous unique, random and unclonable security keys. In this paper, a multi-port configurable PUF scheme is proposed, which is based on random deviation of current mirrors. It consists of input register, deviation-voltage source, multiplexing-net, arbiter array and obfuscation circuit. After configuring deviation-voltage source by applying different input challenges, the PUF circuit updates keys without physically replacement, and it can generate multi-bit keys in a clock cycle. In SMIC 65 nm CMOS technology, the layout of 36 ports configurable PUF occupies 24.8 μm×77.4 μm with custom designing. Experimental results show that the PUF circuit possesses better statistical characteristic of uniqueness and randomness, and it has a high reliability of 97.4% with respect to temperature variation from −40 °C to 125 °C, and supply voltage variation from 1.08 V to 1.32 V. It can be effectively used in information security field.%物理不可克隆函数(Physical Unclonable Function, PUF)电路利用结构完全相同的电路在制造过程中存在的随机工艺偏差,产生具有唯一性、随机性和不可克隆性的密钥。该文通过对共源共栅电流镜的研究,提出一种基于电流镜工艺偏差的多端口可配置 PUF 电路。该 PUF 电路由输入寄存器、偏差电压源、复用网络、判决器阵列和扰乱模块构成,通过激励信号配置偏差电压源,无需更换硬件便可实现输出密钥的变化,且可在一个时钟周期内输出多位密钥。在 SMIC 65 nm CMOS 工艺下,采用全定制方式设计具有36个输出端口的 PUF 电路,版图面积为24.8μm×77.4μm。实验结果表明,该 PUF 电路具有良好的唯一性和随机性,且工作在不同温度(-40~125°C)和电压(1.08~1.32 V)下的可靠性均大于97.4%,可应用于信息安全领域。

  19. Dynein light chain DLC-1 promotes localization and function of the PUF protein FBF-2 in germline progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaobo; Olson, Jenessa R; Rasoloson, Dominique; Ellenbecker, Mary; Bailey, Jessica; Voronina, Ekaterina

    2016-12-15

    PUF family translational repressors are conserved developmental regulators, but the molecular function provided by the regions flanking the PUF RNA-binding domain is unknown. In C. elegans, the PUF proteins FBF-1 and FBF-2 support germline progenitor maintenance by repressing production of meiotic proteins and use distinct mechanisms to repress their target mRNAs. We identify dynein light chain DLC-1 as an important regulator of FBF-2 function. DLC-1 directly binds to FBF-2 outside of the RNA-binding domain and promotes FBF-2 localization and function. By contrast, DLC-1 does not interact with FBF-1 and does not contribute to FBF-1 activity. Surprisingly, we find that the contribution of DLC-1 to FBF-2 activity is independent of the dynein motor. Our findings suggest that PUF protein localization and activity are mediated by sequences flanking the RNA-binding domain that bind specific molecular partners. Furthermore, these results identify a new role for DLC-1 in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression.

  20. The Effects of Self-Shadowing by a Puffed up Inner Rim in Scattered Light Images of Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Ruobing

    2015-01-01

    We explore whether protoplanetary disks with self-shadowing from puffed up inner rims exhibit observable features in scattered light images. We use both self-consistent hydrostatic equilibrium calculations and parameterized models to produce the vertically puffed up inner rims. We find that, in general, the transition between the shadowed and flared regions occurs in a smooth manner over a broad radius range, and no sudden jump exists at the outer edge of the shadow in either the disk temperature or density structures. As a result, a puffed up rim cannot create sharp ring/arc/spiral-arm-like features in the outer disk as have been detected in recent direct NIR imaging of disks. On the other hand, if the puffed up rim has a sharp edge in the vertical direction, the shadowing effect can produce a distinct 3-stage broken power law in the radial intensity profile of the scattered light, with 2 steep surface brightness radial profiles in the inner and outer disk joined by a shallow transition region around the sha...

  1. The Caenorhabditis elegans pumilio homolog, puf-9, is required for the 3'UTR-mediated repression of the let-7 microRNA target gene, hbl-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolde, Mona J; Saka, Nazli; Reinert, Kristy L; Slack, Frank J

    2007-05-15

    The Puf family of RNA-binding proteins directs cell fates by regulating gene expression at the level of translation and RNA stability. Here, we report that the Caenorhabditis elegans pumilio homolog, puf-9, controls the differentiation of epidermal stem cells at the larval-to-adult transition. Genetic analysis reveals that loss-of-function mutations in puf-9 enhance the lethality and heterochronic phenotypes caused by mutations in the let-7 microRNA (miRNA), while suppressing the heterochronic phenotypes of lin-41, a let-7 target and homolog of Drosophila Brat. puf-9 interacts with another known temporal regulator hbl-1, the Caenorhabditis elegans ortholog of hunchback. We present evidence demonstrating that puf-9 is required for the 3'UTR-mediated regulation of hbl-1, in both the hypodermis and the ventral nerve cord. Finally, we show that this regulation is dependent on a region of the hbl-1 3'UTR that contains putative Puf family binding sites as well as binding sites for the let-7 miRNA family, suggesting that puf-9 and let-7 may mediate hypodermal seam cell differentiation by regulating common targets.

  2. The Effect of Moisture Content of Maize Grits on Physicochemical Properties of Its Puffed Food Products Properties of Its Puffed Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sharifi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effect of different levels of moisture content of maize grits (10, 13, 16 and 19% as an attribute of physicochemical properties of extruder-derived puffed products, was investigated. The results showed that with increasing maize grits' moisture content, water absorption index (WAI and water solubility index (WSI were decreased. Moreover, with changing in feed moisture content from 10 to 16%, the volume and sectional expansion index (SEI increased but further increase of moisture content to 19% caused a reduction in these parameters. The textural tests also revealed that with increase in moisture content, the compression energy (Nmm, maximum force (N and time to achieve the first major peak (s were increased but the number of peaks was decreased. With increase in the moisture content, specific mechanical energy (SME was decreased, due probably to the reduction in the viscosity of melt. With increase in the moisture content the L and b values were increased but the value of the samples were decreased due to the reduction of Maillard reaction rate. Our data confirms that the moisture content of maize grits may play an important role in the quality of produced extruded snacks and a high quality product can be achieved by optimizing this parameter. In this research, the maximum volume of the extruder product was obtained in 16% of moisture level.

  3. Gaps in affiliation indexing in Scopus and PubMed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Cynthia M; Cox, Roxanne; Fial, Alissa V; Hartman, Teresa L; Magee, Martha L

    2016-04-01

    The authors sought to determine whether unexpected gaps existed in Scopus's author affiliation indexing of publications written by the University of Nebraska Medical Center or Nebraska Medicine (UNMC/NM) authors during 2014. First, we compared Scopus affiliation identifier search results to PubMed affiliation keyword search results. Then, we searched Scopus using affiliation keywords (UNMC, etc.) and compared the results to PubMed affiliation keyword and Scopus affiliation identifier searches. We found that Scopus's records for approximately 7% of UNMC/NM authors' publications lacked appropriate UNMC/NM author affiliation identifiers, and many journals' publishers were supplying incomplete author affiliation information to PubMed. Institutions relying on Scopus to track their impact should determine whether Scopus's affiliation identifiers will, in fact, identify all articles published by their authors and investigators.

  4. A novel puf-A gene predicted from evolutionary analysis is involved in the development of eyes and primordial germ-cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Wei Kuo

    Full Text Available Although the human genome project has been completed for some time, the issue of the number of transcribed genes with identifiable biological functions remains unresolved. We used zebrafish as a model organism to study the functions of Ka/Ks-predicted novel human exons, which were identified from a comparative evolutionary genomics analysis.In this study, a novel gene, designated as puf-A, was cloned and functionally characterized, and its homologs in zebrafish, mouse, and human were identified as one of the three homolog clusters which were consisted of 14 related proteins with Puf repeats. Computer modeling of human Puf-A structure and a pull-down assay for interactions with RNA targets predicted that it was a RNA-binding protein. Specifically, Puf-A contained a special six Puf-repeat domain, which constituted a unique superhelix half doughnut-shaped Puf domain with a topology similar to, but different from the conventional eight-repeat Pumilio domain. Puf-A transcripts were uniformly distributed in early embryos, but became restricted primarily to eyes and ovaries at a later stage of development. In mice, puf-A expression was detected primarily in retinal ganglion and pigmented cells. Knockdown of puf-A in zebrafish embryos resulted in microphthalmia, a small head, and abnormal primordial germ-cell (PGC migration. The latter was confirmed by microinjecting into embryos puf-A siRNA containing nanos 3' UTR that expressed in PGC only. The importance of Puf-A in the maturation of germline stem cells was also implicated by its unique expression in the most primitive follicles (stage I in adult ovaries, followed by a sharp decline of expression in later stages of folliculogenesis. Taken together, our study shows that puf-A plays an important role not only in eye development, but also in PGC migration and the specification of germ cell lineage. These studies represent an exemplary implementation of a unique platform to uncover unknown function(s of

  5. A novel puf-A gene predicted from evolutionary analysis is involved in the development of eyes and primordial germ-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ming-Wei; Wang, Sheng-Hung; Chang, Jui-Chin; Chang, Chien-Huei; Huang, Ling-Jyun; Lin, Hsin-Hung; Yu, Alice Lin-Tsing; Li, Wen-Hsiung; Yu, John

    2009-01-01

    Although the human genome project has been completed for some time, the issue of the number of transcribed genes with identifiable biological functions remains unresolved. We used zebrafish as a model organism to study the functions of Ka/Ks-predicted novel human exons, which were identified from a comparative evolutionary genomics analysis.In this study, a novel gene, designated as puf-A, was cloned and functionally characterized, and its homologs in zebrafish, mouse, and human were identified as one of the three homolog clusters which were consisted of 14 related proteins with Puf repeats. Computer modeling of human Puf-A structure and a pull-down assay for interactions with RNA targets predicted that it was a RNA-binding protein. Specifically, Puf-A contained a special six Puf-repeat domain, which constituted a unique superhelix half doughnut-shaped Puf domain with a topology similar to, but different from the conventional eight-repeat Pumilio domain. Puf-A transcripts were uniformly distributed in early embryos, but became restricted primarily to eyes and ovaries at a later stage of development. In mice, puf-A expression was detected primarily in retinal ganglion and pigmented cells. Knockdown of puf-A in zebrafish embryos resulted in microphthalmia, a small head, and abnormal primordial germ-cell (PGC) migration. The latter was confirmed by microinjecting into embryos puf-A siRNA containing nanos 3' UTR that expressed in PGC only. The importance of Puf-A in the maturation of germline stem cells was also implicated by its unique expression in the most primitive follicles (stage I) in adult ovaries, followed by a sharp decline of expression in later stages of folliculogenesis. Taken together, our study shows that puf-A plays an important role not only in eye development, but also in PGC migration and the specification of germ cell lineage. These studies represent an exemplary implementation of a unique platform to uncover unknown function(s) of human genes and

  6. 利用PubMed的E-Utilities工具构建PubMed拟投稿期刊选择模型%Constructing Proposed PubMed Journal Submission Choice Model with E-Utilities Tools in PubMed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琳

    2011-01-01

    随着国际科技交流的日益广泛及研究评价中对学术出版要求的不断提高,我国有越来越多的科研人员期望能在国际性学术期刊上发表论文,为了提高向国外期刊投稿命中率,笔者利用PubMed的E-Utilities工具构建了PubMed拟投稿期刊选择模型,以供读者参考使用.

  7. 英国PubMed entral启动

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李忠霞(编译)

    2007-01-01

    2007年1月8日,英国PubMed Central启动。以后科研人员可以获取到大量生命医学的研究资源,并能提交自己的出版作品。基于美国卫生部目前使用的模型,英国PubMed Central(UKPMC)将提供对医学和生命科学领域、经同行评议的研究成果的永久在线存档的免费获取。

  8. Comparative Heat Conduction Model of a Cold Storage with Puf & Eps Insulation Using Taguchi Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. N. Mukhopadhyay

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this project work a mathematical heat conduction model of a cold storage (with the help of computer program; and multiple regression analysis has been proposed which can be used for further development of cold storages in the upcoming future. In cold storage refrigeration system brings down the temperature initially during start up but thermal insulation maintains the temperature later on continuously. In this view, the simple methodology is presented to calculate heat transfer by analytical method also attempt has been made to minimize the energy consumption by replacing 150 mm Expanded polystyrene (EPS by 100 mm Poly Urethane foam (PUF insulation. The methodology is validated against actual data obtained from Penguin cold storage situated in Pune, India. Insulation thickness of the side walls (TW, area of the wall (AW, and insulation thickness of the roof (TR have been chosen as predictor variables of the study.

  9. Hardware Activation by Means of PUFs and Elliptic Curve Cryptography in Field-Programmable Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Parrilla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reusable design using IP cores requires of efficient methods for protecting the Intellectual Property of the designer and the corresponding license agreements. In this work, a new protection procedure establishing an activation protocol in a similar way to the activation process in the software world is presented. The procedure, named SEHAS (Secure Hardware Activation System allows the distribution of cores in either Blocked (not functioning or Demo (functioning with limited features modes, while ensuring the license agreements by identifying not only the IP core but also the implementation device, using Physically Unclonable Functions (PUF. Moreover, SEHAS secures the exchange of information between the core and the core vendor using an Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem (ECC. This secure channel allows the IP core vendor to send a unique Activation Code to the core in order to switch it to the Activated Mode, thus enabling all its features.

  10. Micronutrient and protein-fortified whole grain puffed rice made by supercritical fluid extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraman, Ilankovan; Wagner, Michael E; Rizvi, Syed S H

    2012-11-07

    Supercritical fluid extrusion (SCFX) was used to produce shelf-stable puffed rice fortified with protein, dietary fiber, and micronutrients. Product ingredients and process parameters were evaluated for end-product nutritional and textural qualities. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) served as a viscosity-lowering plasticizer and blowing agent during the process, which has been shown to produce expanded products with good textural qualities at lower temperatures (~100 °C) than conventional steam-based extrusion (130-180 °C). The fortified puffed rice contained 8% dietary fiber, 21.5% protein, and iron, zinc, and vitamins A and C at their recommended daily values in 100 g of product. The SCFX process allowed for the complete retention of all added minerals, 55-58% retention of vitamin A, and 64-76% retention of vitamin C. All essential amino acids including lysine were retained at exceptionally high levels (98.6%), and no losses were observed due to Maillard reaction or oxidation. All of the essential amino acid contents were equal to the reference protein recommended by FAO/WHO. Soy protein fortification improved the total amount of protein in the final rice products and provided a complementary amino acid profile to that of rice; the lysine content improved from 35 to 60 mg/protein, making the end product an excellent source of complete protein. Thus, SC-CO(2)-assisted extrusion is an effective process-based approach to produce cereal grain-based, low-moisture (5-8%) expanded products fortified with protein and any cocktail of micronutrients, without compromising the end-product sensory or nutritional qualities. These products are ideally suited for consumption as breakfast cereals, snack foods, and as part of nutrition bars for school lunch programs. The balanced nutritional profile and use of staple crop byproducts such as broken rice makes these expanded crisps unique to the marketplace.

  11. FK Comae Berenices, King of Spin: The COCOA-PUFS Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Thomas R.; Kashyap, V.; Saar, S.; Huenemoerder, D.; Korhonen, H.; Drake, J. J.; Testa, P.; Cohen, O.; Garraffo, C.; Granzer, T.; Strassmeier, K.

    2016-03-01

    COCOA-PUFS is an energy-diverse, time-domain study of the ultra-fast spinning, heavily spotted, yellow giant FK Comae Berenices (FK Com: HD117555; G4 III). This single star is thought to be a recent binary merger, and is exceptionally active by measure of its intense ultraviolet (UV) and X-ray emissions, and proclivity to flare. COCOA-PUFS was carried out with the Hubble Space Telescope in the UV (1200-3000 Å), using mainly its high-performance Cosmic Origins Spectrograph, but also high precision Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph; Chandra X-ray Observatory in the soft X-rays (0.5-10 keV), utilizing its High-Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer; together with supporting photometry and spectropolarimetry in the visible from the ground. This is an introductory report on the project. FK Com displayed variability on a wide range of timescales over all wavelengths during the week-long main campaign, including a large X-ray flare; “super-rotational broadening” of the far-ultraviolet “hot lines” (e.g., Si iv 1393 Å 8 × 104 K) together with chromospheric Mg ii 2800 Å and C ii 1335 Å (1-3 × 104 K); large Doppler swings suggestive of bright regions alternately on advancing and retreating limbs of the star; and substantial redshifts of the epoch-average emission profiles. These behaviors paint a picture of a highly extended, dynamic, hot (˜10 MK) coronal magnetosphere around the star, threaded by cooler structures perhaps analogous to solar prominences and replenished continually by surface activity and flares. Suppression of angular momentum loss by the confining magnetosphere could temporarily postpone the inevitable stellar spindown, thereby lengthening this highly volatile stage of coronal evolution. COordinated Campaign of Observations and Analysis, Photosphere to Upper Atmosphere, of a Fast-rotating Star.

  12. FK COMAE BERENICES, KING OF SPIN: THE COCOA-PUFS PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayres, Thomas R. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, 389 UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Kashyap, V.; Saar, S.; Drake, J. J.; Testa, P.; Cohen, O.; Garraffo, C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Huenemoerder, D. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Korhonen, H. [Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO (FINCA), University of Turku, Väisäläntie 20, FI-21500 Piikkiö (Finland); Granzer, T.; Strassmeier, K., E-mail: Thomas.Ayres@Colorado.edu [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    COCOA-PUFS is an energy-diverse, time-domain study of the ultra-fast spinning, heavily spotted, yellow giant FK Comae Berenices (FK Com: HD117555; G4 III). This single star is thought to be a recent binary merger, and is exceptionally active by measure of its intense ultraviolet (UV) and X-ray emissions, and proclivity to flare. COCOA-PUFS was carried out with the Hubble Space Telescope in the UV (1200–3000 Å), using mainly its high-performance Cosmic Origins Spectrograph, but also high precision Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph; Chandra X-ray Observatory in the soft X-rays (0.5–10 keV), utilizing its High-Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer; together with supporting photometry and spectropolarimetry in the visible from the ground. This is an introductory report on the project. FK Com displayed variability on a wide range of timescales over all wavelengths during the week-long main campaign, including a large X-ray flare; “super-rotational broadening” of the far-ultraviolet “hot lines” (e.g., Si iv 1393 Å; 8 × 10{sup 4} K) together with chromospheric Mg ii 2800 Å and C ii 1335 Å (1–3 × 10{sup 4} K); large Doppler swings suggestive of bright regions alternately on advancing and retreating limbs of the star; and substantial redshifts of the epoch-average emission profiles. These behaviors paint a picture of a highly extended, dynamic, hot (∼10 MK) coronal magnetosphere around the star, threaded by cooler structures perhaps analogous to solar prominences and replenished continually by surface activity and flares. Suppression of angular momentum loss by the confining magnetosphere could temporarily postpone the inevitable stellar spindown, thereby lengthening this highly volatile stage of coronal evolution.

  13. Design of Highly Robust PUF Based on the Optimal Gate Voltage%基于最优控制电压的高鲁棒性 PUF 电路设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪鹏君; 张学龙; 张跃军

    2015-01-01

    Physical Unclonable Functions (PUF) ,as a kind of innovative secure circuits ,extract key relying upon the intrin-sic process variations in silicon devices .This paper proposes a scheme of highly robust PUF .First ,we analyze the properties of the MOSFET working at the point of Zero Temperature Coefficient .And then we determine the structure and the optimal gate voltage of PUF by combining the approaches that improve the robustness of PUF circuits .All of which lead to the goal of making the keys sta-ble and reliable at last .This design is implemented in TSMC 65nm CMOS technology and the layout area occupies 14.89μm × 12.14μm .The simulation results show that the reliability of PUF is not less than 96% ,which is better than other PUF circuits .%物理不可克隆函数(Physical Unclonable Functions ,PUF)电路作为一种新型的信息安全电路,依赖集成电路制造过程中硅器件的固有工艺偏差产生密钥.本文提出一种高鲁棒性PUF电路设计方案,首先分析MOSFET在零温度系数点(Zero Temperature Coefficient ,ZTC )的工作特性,然后结合提高PUF电路鲁棒性的途径,确定PUF电路的结构及最优控制电压,最终达到密钥稳定可靠的目的.在TSMC 65nm CMOS工艺下对所设计的PUF电路进行版图设计,面积为14.89μm ×12.14μm .实验结果显示在最优控制电压下PUF电路的鲁棒性最低为96%.

  14. Concern noted: A descriptive study of editorial expressions of concern in PubMed and PubMed Central.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaught, Melissa; Jordan, Diana C; Bastian, Hilda

    2017-01-01

    An editorial expression of concern (EEoC) is issued by editors or publishers to draw attention to potential problems in a publication, without itself constituting a retraction or correction. We searched PubMed, PubMed Central (PMC), and Google Scholar to identify EEoCs issued for publications in PubMed and PMC up to 22 August 2016. We also searched the archives of the Retraction Watch blog, some journal and publisher websites, and studies of EEoCs. In addition, we searched for retractions of EEoCs and affected articles in PubMed up to 8 December 2016. We analyzed overall historical trends, as well as reported reasons and subsequent editorial actions related to EEoCs issued between August 2014 and August 2016. After screening 5,076 records, we identified 230 EEoCs that affect 300 publications indexed in PubMed, the earliest issued in 1985. Half of the primary EEoCs were issued between 2014 and 2016 (52%). We found evidence of some EEoCs that had been removed by the publisher without leaving a record and some were not submitted for PubMed or PMC indexing. A minority of publications affected by EEoCs had been retracted by early December 2016 (25%). For the subset of 92 EEoCs issued between August 2014 and August 2016, affecting 99 publications, the rate of retraction was similar (29%). The majority of EEoCs were issued because of concerns with validity of data, methods, or interpretation of the publication (68%), and 31% of cases remained open. Issues with images were raised in 40% of affected publications. Ongoing monitoring after the study identified another 17 EEoCs to year's end in 2016, increasing the number of EEoCs to 247 and publications in PubMed known to be affected by EEoCs to 320 at the end of 2016. EEoCs have been rare publishing events in the biomedical literature, but their use has been increasing. Most have not led to retractions, and many remain unresolved. Lack of prominence and inconsistencies in management of EEoCs reduce the ability of these

  15. Biomedical information form PubMed%PubMed检索网上的生物医学信息

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卫

    2002-01-01

    PubMed是美国国立医学图书馆附属国立生物技术信息中心研制的免费生物医学数据库.本文介绍了PubMed的收录范围,检索方法、功能和特点.并就基本检索,期刊浏览,医学主题词浏览,引文匹配,临床问题等检索方式作了较详细的阐述.

  16. PubMed Central Canada: Beyond an Open Access Repository?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nariani, Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) represents a partnership between the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), the National Research Council's Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (NRC-CISTI), and the National Library of Medicine of the US. The present study was done to gauge faculty awareness about the CIHR Policy on…

  17. PubMatrix: a tool for multiplex literature mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bright Tiffani J

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular experiments using multiplex strategies such as cDNA microarrays or proteomic approaches generate large datasets requiring biological interpretation. Text based data mining tools have recently been developed to query large biological datasets of this type of data. PubMatrix is a web-based tool that allows simple text based mining of the NCBI literature search service PubMed using any two lists of keywords terms, resulting in a frequency matrix of term co-occurrence. Results For example, a simple term selection procedure allows automatic pair-wise comparisons of approximately 1–100 search terms versus approximately 1–10 modifier terms, resulting in up to 1,000 pair wise comparisons. The matrix table of pair-wise comparisons can then be surveyed, queried individually, and archived. Lists of keywords can include any terms currently capable of being searched in PubMed. In the context of cDNA microarray studies, this may be used for the annotation of gene lists from clusters of genes that are expressed coordinately. An associated PubMatrix public archive provides previous searches using common useful lists of keyword terms. Conclusions In this way, lists of terms, such as gene names, or functional assignments can be assigned genetic, biological, or clinical relevance in a rapid flexible systematic fashion. http://pubmatrix.grc.nia.nih.gov/

  18. PubMed Central Canada: Beyond an Open Access Repository?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nariani, Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) represents a partnership between the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), the National Research Council's Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (NRC-CISTI), and the National Library of Medicine of the US. The present study was done to gauge faculty awareness about the CIHR Policy on…

  19. Influence of water biscuit processing and kernel puffing on the phenolic acid content and the antioxidant activity of einkorn and bread wheat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hidalgo, Alyssa; Yilmaz, Volkan A; Brandolini, Andrea

    .... Aim of this research was to assess the influence of processing on phenolic acid content and antioxidant activity of whole meal flour water biscuits and puffed kernels of einkorn and bread wheat...

  20. Comparison of the retrieval of EBSCO- MEDLINE and PubMed%EBSCO-MEDLINE与PubMed检索之比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红梅; 王桂清

    2006-01-01

    通过对EBSCO-MEDLINE与PubMed进行限定子集、检索界面、检索过程以及多个检索实例的比较,分析其异同以及各自的特点,为用户进行正确选择及有效检索提供参考.

  1. The PufX quinone channel enables the light-harvesting 1 antenna to bind more carotenoids for light collection and photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, John D; Martin, Elizabeth C; Hunter, C Neil

    2017-02-01

    Photosynthesis in some phototrophic bacteria requires the PufX component of the reaction centre-light-harvesting 1-PufX (RC-LH1-PufX) complex, which creates a pore for quinone/quinol (Q/QH2 ) exchange across the LH1 barrier surrounding the RC. However, photosynthetic bacteria such as Thermochromatium (T.) tepidum do not require PufX because there are fewer carotenoid binding sites, which creates multiple pores in the LH1 ring for Q/QH2 exchange. We show that an αTrp-24 →Phe alteration of the Rhodobacter (Rba.) sphaeroides LH1 antenna impairs carotenoid binding and allows photosynthetic growth in the absence of PufX. We propose that acquisition of PufX and confining Q/QH2 traffic to a pore adjacent to the RC QB site is an evolutionary upgrade that allows increased LH1 carotenoid content for enhanced light absorption and photoprotection. © 2017 The Authors. FEBS Letters published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  2. AliBaba: PubMed as a graph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plake, Conrad; Schiemann, Torsten; Pankalla, Marcus; Hakenberg, Jörg; Leser, Ulf

    2006-10-01

    The biomedical literature contains a wealth of information on associations between many different types of objects, such as protein-protein interactions, gene-disease associations and subcellular locations of proteins. When searching such information using conventional search engines, e.g. PubMed, users see the data only one-abstract at a time and 'hidden' in natural language text. AliBaba is an interactive tool for graphical summarization of search results. It parses the set of abstracts that fit a PubMed query and presents extracted information on biomedical objects and their relationships as a graphical network. AliBaba extracts associations between cells, diseases, drugs, proteins, species and tissues. Several filter options allow for a more focused search. Thus, researchers can grasp complex networks described in various articles at a glance. http://alibaba.informatik.hu-berlin.de/

  3. New ATPase regulators-p97 goes to the PUB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Louise; Seeger, Michael; Semple, Colin A;

    2009-01-01

    The conserved eukaryotic AAA-type ATPase complex, known as p97 or VCP in mammals and Cdc48 in yeast, is involved in a number of cellular pathways, including fusion of homotypic membranes, protein degradation, and activation of membrane-bound transcription factors. Most likely, p97 is directed to ...... of the currently known PUB-domain proteins and other p97-interacting proteins....

  4. Contribution of the Global Soil Wetness Project 2 for PUB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, T.; Dirmeyer, P. A.

    2003-04-01

    The Second Global Soil Wetness Project (GSWP-2) is the principal element of the large-scale uncoupled land surface modeling action in the Global Land-Atmosphere System Study (GLASS; Polcher et al. 2000) and a major element of the International Satellite Land-Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP), both contributing projects of GEWEX. The overarching goal of GSWP is to produce as a community effort the best model estimates of the global land-surface water and energy cycles. This will entail an evaluation of the uncertainties linked to the land surface schemes (LSSs), their parameters, the forcing variables which drive them, and the spatial and temporal scales to run the numerical simulations. The original pilot phase of GSWP covered the two-year period of the ISLSCP initiative I data set (1987-1988), and proved the utility of model comparison and sensitivity studies of the land surface at the global scale (Dirmeyer et al. 1999). GSWP-2 will take advantage of the 10-year (1986-1995) ISLSCP Initiative II data set (http://islscp2.sesda.com/) and LSS simulations will be conducted at a spatial resolution of 1o, sans Antarctica. LSSs calculate runoff and it can be compared with river discharge with applying runoff routing models. Therefore GSWP can be considered as PUB on global scales. Regional scales should be more focused in PUB as hydrological science, nevertheless studies on global scale is also relevant since there are many places in the world where global datasets of precipitation, landuse, soil types, etc., are the only sources available for simulation and prediction of river runoff. Numerical experiments under GSWP2 is well designed to examine the uncertainties associated with the global offline simulations, and the outcomes should contribute for PUB studies very much. GSWP2 in PUB is also expected to identify to what extent of temporal and spatial resolution predicting river runoff can be estimated from global approach.

  5. BMN上的Medline与PubMed的比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周瑛

    2003-01-01

    通过实例研究,比较了PubMed与BMN上的Medline数据库的不同特点在使用上的差异,分析了这些差异对检索结果的影响。提出熟悉的掌握不同站的Medline的异同点。将有利于更好地开展医学信息服务。

  6. PUB22 and PUB23 U-BOX E3 ligases directly ubiquitinate RPN6, a 26S proteasome lid subunit, for subsequent degradation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cho, Seok Keun; Bae, Hansol; Ryu, Moonyoung

    2015-01-01

    and PUB23, two U-box E3 ligase homologs, tether ubiquitins to 19S proteasome regulatory particle (RP) subunit RPN6, leading to its degradation. RPN6 was identified as an interacting substrate of PUB22 by yeast two-hybrid screening, and in vitro pull-down assay confirmed that RPN6 interacts not only......, these results solidify a notion that PUB22 and PUB23 can alter the activity of 26S proteasome in response to drought stress....

  7. Searches Comparing between Google Scholar and PubMed%Google Scholar与PubMed搜索比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛俊峰; 张梅; 牛晓芳

    2008-01-01

    Google Scholar是综合性的搜索引擎,PubMed是专业性的检索数据库,两个系统的共同点是都能搜索学术文章,但由于两者拥有不相同的搜索数据及搜索方式的极不相同,返回的结果往往不同.通过对GoogleScholar和PubMed做各种不同的搜索试验,对搜索结果进行比较和对比,得出两个系统之间的不同之处,发现造成这些不同的原因,以更清晰地了解GoogleScholar和PubMed各自的搜索能力.

  8. [Cereal bars with peanut and puffed amaranthus: chemical composition and stability in accelerated storage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, B; Estévez, A M; Vásquez, M; Castillo, E; Yañez, E

    1994-03-01

    Three different cereal bars, CM3A-CM3B and CM3C were prepared following the flow sheat of Escobar et al: different amount of oat, wheat germ, and puffed amaranthus were used: to stick them together, natural sweeteners and fats were added. Proximate analysis, were run on raw materials and snack bars. They were evaluated organoleptically to know their quality and acceptability. Bars were kept in accelerated storage at 37 degrees C during 15 days to know their stability. Every 5 days were measured the water activity (Aw), moisture, and peroxides development; also appearance of organoleptic randicity. Acceptability of bar CM3B was 91.67% with 0.0% of rejection; CM3A and CM3C got the same acceptability (66.67%) and 8.33% of rejection. In accelerate storage, Aw and moisture content decreased until reaching a value of 0.48 and 5.9 in the CM3B bar, respectively. Peroxide content of CM3B and CM3C increased gradually up to 12 and 17 meq/kg respectively at 15 days. Rancyd aroma appearance was not the same in the bars, CM3A and CM3B had a decreasing at 15 days, while CM3C showed an increasing at the same time. In brief, CM3B showed the best sensory quality, the higher acceptability and the greater stability in accelerated storage.

  9. Puffing up early-type galaxies by baryonic mass loss: numerical experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Ragone-Figueroa, Cinthia

    2011-01-01

    We present numerical simulations of the effect of baryonic mass loss on the structure of a spheroidal stellar system, embedded in a dark matter halo. This process could be caused either by QSO/starburst driven galactic winds, promptly ejecting from Early Type Galaxies (ETGs) the residual gas (galactic winds), or by stellar mass returned to the ISM in the final stages of stellar evolution. We find that a conceivable loss of about 50% of the baryonic mass can produce a significant size increase, which could contribute to the claimed size evolution of ETGs since z about 2. However, most (all in the case of QSO driven winds) of the puffing up occurs when the stellar population are much younger than the estimated ages of compact high-z ETGs. We conclude that the putative expansion caused by galactic winds is still not observed, while that due to stellar evolution could contribute to, but not dominate, the evolution of the mass-size relationship of ETGs observed so far.

  10. Model and physical implementation of multi-port PUF in 65 nm CMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuejun; Wang, Pengjun; Li, Yi; Zhang, Xingxing; Yu, Zhiyi; Fan, Yibo

    2013-01-01

    In modern cryptographic systems, multi-port physically unclonable function (MPUF) is an efficient mechanism for many security applications, which extracts secret information inherently embedded in the unclonable physical variations and generates multiple secret keys. In this article, we propose an explicit analytic MPUF model, which is useful in predicting the effect of parameter changes on the state as well as in optimizing the design of PUF. Then, a novel MPUF based on register file is designed and fabricated in TSMC low-power 65 nm CMOS technology. There are four ports in the MPUF, and each port produces a 256-bit key. The chip has an area of 0.045 mm2, and has a peak clock frequency of 1.25 GHz at 1.2 V. The average power consumption is 13.8 mW at 27°C. Being multi-ports technology and high operation frequency, the throughput of MPUF improves about 50 times compared to the other works. We carry out a robust test by varying the operational conditions such as supply voltage, temperature and noise. The measured results show that the reliability achieves 98.1% at worse case and has a certain improvement compared with the proposed works. The reliability operates at an acceptable range in integrated circuit identification (ICID).

  11. Comparative analysis of mRNA targets for human PUF-family proteins suggests extensive interaction with the miRNA regulatory system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Galgano

    Full Text Available Genome-wide identification of mRNAs regulated by RNA-binding proteins is crucial to uncover post-transcriptional gene regulatory systems. The conserved PUF family RNA-binding proteins repress gene expression post-transcriptionally by binding to sequence elements in 3'-UTRs of mRNAs. Despite their well-studied implications for development and neurogenesis in metazoa, the mammalian PUF family members are only poorly characterized and mRNA targets are largely unknown. We have systematically identified the mRNAs associated with the two human PUF proteins, PUM1 and PUM2, by the recovery of endogenously formed ribonucleoprotein complexes and the analysis of associated RNAs with DNA microarrays. A largely overlapping set comprised of hundreds of mRNAs were reproducibly associated with the paralogous PUM proteins, many of them encoding functionally related proteins. A characteristic PUF-binding motif was highly enriched among PUM bound messages and validated with RNA pull-down experiments. Moreover, PUF motifs as well as surrounding sequences exhibit higher conservation in PUM bound messages as opposed to transcripts that were not found to be associated, suggesting that PUM function may be modulated by other factors that bind conserved elements. Strikingly, we found that PUF motifs are enriched around predicted miRNA binding sites and that high-confidence miRNA binding sites are significantly enriched in the 3'-UTRs of experimentally determined PUM1 and PUM2 targets, strongly suggesting an interaction of human PUM proteins with the miRNA regulatory system. Our work suggests extensive connections between the RBP and miRNA post-transcriptional regulatory systems and provides a framework for deciphering the molecular mechanism by which PUF proteins regulate their target mRNAs.

  12. Comparative analysis of mRNA targets for human PUF-family proteins suggests extensive interaction with the miRNA regulatory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgano, Alessia; Forrer, Michael; Jaskiewicz, Lukasz; Kanitz, Alexander; Zavolan, Mihaela; Gerber, André P

    2008-09-08

    Genome-wide identification of mRNAs regulated by RNA-binding proteins is crucial to uncover post-transcriptional gene regulatory systems. The conserved PUF family RNA-binding proteins repress gene expression post-transcriptionally by binding to sequence elements in 3'-UTRs of mRNAs. Despite their well-studied implications for development and neurogenesis in metazoa, the mammalian PUF family members are only poorly characterized and mRNA targets are largely unknown. We have systematically identified the mRNAs associated with the two human PUF proteins, PUM1 and PUM2, by the recovery of endogenously formed ribonucleoprotein complexes and the analysis of associated RNAs with DNA microarrays. A largely overlapping set comprised of hundreds of mRNAs were reproducibly associated with the paralogous PUM proteins, many of them encoding functionally related proteins. A characteristic PUF-binding motif was highly enriched among PUM bound messages and validated with RNA pull-down experiments. Moreover, PUF motifs as well as surrounding sequences exhibit higher conservation in PUM bound messages as opposed to transcripts that were not found to be associated, suggesting that PUM function may be modulated by other factors that bind conserved elements. Strikingly, we found that PUF motifs are enriched around predicted miRNA binding sites and that high-confidence miRNA binding sites are significantly enriched in the 3'-UTRs of experimentally determined PUM1 and PUM2 targets, strongly suggesting an interaction of human PUM proteins with the miRNA regulatory system. Our work suggests extensive connections between the RBP and miRNA post-transcriptional regulatory systems and provides a framework for deciphering the molecular mechanism by which PUF proteins regulate their target mRNAs.

  13. A preliminary investigation of sorbent-impregnated filters (SIFs) as an alternative to polyurethane foam (PUF) for sampling gas-phase semivolatile organic compounds in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galarneau, Elisabeth; Harner, Tom; Shoeib, Mahiba; Kozma, Melissa; Lane, Douglas

    Filters impregnated with XAD-4™ resin were used in a small series of high-volume air samples to compare their collection of gas-phase semivolatile toxic substances (organochlorine pesticides, OCs, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs) with that achieved by polyurethane foam (PUF). The advantages of the use of such sorbent-impregnated filters (SIFs) include a reduction in size which leads to numerous benefits. The latter include simplified sample handling, shipping and storage, and the potential for a decrease in solvent requirements for pre-cleaning and extraction. Furthermore, such SIFs could be used to measure combined particle/gas concentrations of target compounds. Gas concentrations derived from the SIFs in a filter-SIF-SIF-PUF configuration agreed well with values derived from the PUF plugs in a comparison filter-PUF configuration. The collection efficiency of a single SIF was ˜80% on average. As such, these SIFs are viewed as a promising alternative to PUF and further, more extensive study of their performance characteristics appears to be warranted.

  14. Astronomy on Tap: science engagement in the pub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livermore, Rachael C.; Silverman, Jeffrey Michael

    2015-08-01

    Astronomy on Tap is a series of free lectures by astronomers in the pub, aimed at disseminating the latest research to the public in an informal setting. Started in New York City in 2013, Astronomy on Tap has now expanded to seven cities across North and South America. Organized by local astronomers, each event features talks by astronomers from local institutions or visitors, or others whose professions or hobbies intersect with astronomy, along with games and opportunities for the public to interact with professional astronomers. The largest Astronomy on Tap events are in Austin, Texas, attracting over 150 people each month, which consists of populations outside of the self-selected groups that might be reached by more formal EPO activities. The organisers of Astronomy on Tap in Austin (AoTATX) will discuss the impact of and feedback from all of the locations, and present information on setting up new satellite locations.

  15. PubChem3D: Biologically relevant 3-D similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Sunghwan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of 3-D similarity techniques in the analysis of biological data and virtual screening is pervasive, but what is a biologically meaningful 3-D similarity value? Can one find statistically significant separation between "active/active" and "active/inactive" spaces? These questions are explored using 734,486 biologically tested chemical structures, 1,389 biological assay data sets, and six different 3-D similarity types utilized by PubChem analysis tools. Results The similarity value distributions of 269.7 billion unique conformer pairs from 734,486 biologically tested compounds (all-against-all from PubChem were utilized to help work towards an answer to the question: what is a biologically meaningful 3-D similarity score? The average and standard deviation for the six similarity measures STST-opt, CTST-opt, ComboTST-opt, STCT-opt, CTCT-opt, and ComboTCT-opt were 0.54 ± 0.10, 0.07 ± 0.05, 0.62 ± 0.13, 0.41 ± 0.11, 0.18 ± 0.06, and 0.59 ± 0.14, respectively. Considering that this random distribution of biologically tested compounds was constructed using a single theoretical conformer per compound (the "default" conformer provided by PubChem, further study may be necessary using multiple diverse conformers per compound; however, given the breadth of the compound set, the single conformer per compound results may still apply to the case of multi-conformer per compound 3-D similarity value distributions. As such, this work is a critical step, covering a very wide corpus of chemical structures and biological assays, creating a statistical framework to build upon. The second part of this study explored the question of whether it was possible to realize a statistically meaningful 3-D similarity value separation between reputed biological assay "inactives" and "actives". Using the terminology of noninactive-noninactive (NN pairs and the noninactive-inactive (NI pairs to represent comparison of the "active/active" and

  16. Assessing levels and seasonal variations of current-use pesticides (CUPs) in the Tuscan atmosphere, Italy, using polyurethane foam disks (PUF) passive air samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estellano, Victor H; Pozo, Karla; Efstathiou, Christos; Pozo, Katerine; Corsolini, Simonetta; Focardi, Silvano

    2015-10-01

    Polyurethane foam disks (PUF) passive air samplers (PAS) were deployed over 4 sampling periods of 3-5-months (≥ 1 year) at ten urban and rural locations throughout the Tuscany Region. The purpose was to assess the occurrence and seasonal variations of ten current-use pesticides (CUPs). PUF disk extracts were analyzed using GC-MS. The organophosphates insecticides; chlorpyrifos (3-580 pg m(-3)) and chlorpyrifos-methyl (below detection limit - to 570 pg m(-3)) presented the highest levels in air, and showed seasonal fluctuation coinciding with the growing seasons. The relative proportion urban/(urban + rural) ranged from 0.4 to 0.7 showing no differences between urban and rural concentrations. Air back trajectories analysis showed air masses passing over agricultural fields and potentially enhancing the drift of pesticides into the urban sites. This study represents the first information regarding CUPs in the atmosphere of Tuscany region using PAS-PUF disk.

  17. MedlinePlus FAQ: MedlinePlus and MEDLINE/PubMed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What is the difference between MedlinePlus and MEDLINE/PubMed? To use the sharing features on this page, ... latest health professional articles on your topic. MEDLINE/PubMed: Is a database of professional biomedical literature Is ...

  18. PubMed - Medline. Exportació de registres a RefWorks. Maig 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Universitat de Barcelona. CRAI

    2012-01-01

    També podeu consultar altres tutorials sobre el PubMed: 1. PubMed Medline: Accés, http://hdl.handle.net/2445/15122; 2. PubMed Medline: Cerca bàsica, http://hdl.handle.net/2445/15123; 3. PubMed Medline: Elements de cerca i límits, http://hdl.handle.net/2445/15124; 4. PubMed Medline: Matèries MeSH, http://hdl.handle.net/2445/15125; 5. PubMed Medline: Cerca avançada, http://hdl.handle.net/2445/15126; 6. PubMed Medline: Exemple de cerca avançada, http://hdl.handle.net/2445/15127; 7. PubMed Medli...

  19. 膨化食品及其丙烯酰股的研究进展%Research Progress in Studies on Puffing Food and its Acrylamide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨波

    2011-01-01

    Research progress in studies on puffing food and analytical methods of its acrylamide were re- viewed. The debate on potential toxicity of acrylamide was summarized. The prospect of puffing food and the strategy for reducing its acrylamide content were suggested.%综述了膨化食品的研究进展以及丙烯酰胺的检测方法,介绍了关于丙烯酰胺潜在毒性存在的争议。提出了膨化食品的发展方向和减少丙烯酰胺的策略。

  20. 48 CFR 33.205 - Relationship of the Act to Pub. L. 85-804.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Pub. L. 85-804. 33.205 Section 33.205 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Relationship of the Act to Pub. L. 85-804. (a) Requests for relief under Pub. L. 85-804 (50 U.S.C. 1431-1435... available only under Pub. L. 85-804; i.e., legal entitlement to rescission or reformation for mutual mistake...

  1. The Arabidopsis paralogs, PUB46 and PUB48, encoding U-box E3 ubiquitin ligases, are essential for plant response to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Guy; Konrad, Zvia; Zamir, Lyad; Mishra, Amit Kumar; Raveh, Dina; Bar-Zvi, Dudy

    2017-01-11

    Plants respond to abiotic stress on physiological, biochemical and molecular levels. This includes a global change in their cellular proteome achieved by changes in the pattern of their protein synthesis and degradation. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is a key player in protein degradation in eukaryotes. Proteins are marked for degradation by the proteasome by coupling short chains of ubiquitin polypeptides in a three-step pathway. The last and regulatory stage is catalyzed by a member of a large family of substrate-specific ubiquitin ligases. We have identified AtPUB46 and AtPUB48-two paralogous genes that encode ubiquitin ligases (E3s)-to have a role in the plant environmental response. The AtPUB46, -47, and -48 appear as tandem gene copies on chromosome 5, and we present a phylogenetic analysis that traces their evolution from an ancestral PUB-ARM gene. Single homozygous T-DNA insertion mutants of AtPUB46 and AtPUB48 displayed hypersensitivity to water stress; this was not observed for similar mutants of AtPUB47. Although the three genes show a similar spatial expression pattern, the steady state levels of their transcripts are differentially affected by abiotic stresses and plant hormones. AtPUB46 and AtPUB48 encode plant U-Box E3s and are involved in the response to water stress. Our data suggest that despite encoding highly homologous proteins, AtPUB46 and AtPUB48 biological activity does not fully overlap.

  2. 38 CFR 12.20 - Posting of notice provisions of Pub. L. 382.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... provisions of Pub. L. 382. 12.20 Section 12.20 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS DISPOSITION OF VETERAN'S PERSONAL FUNDS AND EFFECTS Under Pub. L. 382, 77th Congress, December 26, 1941, Amending the Act of June 25, 1910 (24 U.s.c. 136) § 12.20 Posting of notice provisions of Pub. L...

  3. 25 CFR 32.5 - Evaluation of implementation of Pub. L. 95-561.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evaluation of implementation of Pub. L. 95-561. 32.5... POLICIES § 32.5 Evaluation of implementation of Pub. L. 95-561. The Director, Office Indian Education... with title XI of the Education Amendments of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-561), and in the January 1, 1981...

  4. Assessing seasonal and spatial trends of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Indian agricultural regions using PUF disk passive air samplers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozo, Karla [Atmospheric Science and Technology Directorate, Environment Canada, 4905 Dufferin Street, Toronto, Ontario M3H 5T4 (Canada); Environmental Science Department, University of Siena, Via Mattioli 4, 53100 Siena (Italy); Harner, Tom, E-mail: tom.harner@ec.gc.c [Atmospheric Science and Technology Directorate, Environment Canada, 4905 Dufferin Street, Toronto, Ontario M3H 5T4 (Canada); Lee, Sum Chi [Atmospheric Science and Technology Directorate, Environment Canada, 4905 Dufferin Street, Toronto, Ontario M3H 5T4 (Canada); Sinha, Ravindra K. [Centre for Environmental Science, School of Earth Biological and Environmental Sciences, Central University of Bihar, Patna (India); Sengupta, B. [Central Pollution Control Board, Parivesh Bhavan, East Arjun Nagar, Delhi (India); Loewen, Mark [Freshwater Institute, Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); Geethalakshmi, V. [Department of Agricultural Meteorology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu (India); Kannan, Kurunthachalam [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, State University of New York at Albany, New York (United States); Volpi, Valerio [Environmental Science Department, University of Siena, Via Mattioli 4, 53100 Siena (Italy)

    2011-02-15

    The first survey of persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations in air across several Indian agricultural regions was conducted in 2006-2007. Passive samplers comprising polyurethane foam (PUF) disks were deployed on a quarterly basis at seven stations in agricultural regions, one urban site and one background site. The project was conducted as a sub-project of the Global Atmospheric Passive Sampling (GAPS) Network. In addition to revealing new information on air concentrations of several organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), the study has demonstrated the feasibility of conducting regional-scale monitoring for POPs in India using PUF disk samplers. The following analytes were detected with relatively high concentrations in air (mean for 2006 and 2007, pg/m{sup 3}): {alpha}- and {gamma}-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) (292 and 812, respectively); endosulfan I and II (2770 and 902, respectively); p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT (247 and 931, respectively); and for the sum of 48 PCBs, 12,100 (including a site with extremely high air concentrations in 2007) and 972 (when excluding data for this site). - New data on air concentrations of POPs across Indian agricultural regions is generated using cost-effective passive air samplers.

  5. Analysis and Improvement of RFID Protocol Based on PUF%基于PUF的RFID协议分析与改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马昌社; 王涛; 王立斌

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses a low-cost RFID protocol based on Physical Unclonable Function(PUF). The protocol cannot guarantee the claimed privacy and is not scalable. Concretely, any adversary is able to trace the same tag by replaying the protocol messages and its computational complexity and communication overhead of identifying a tag are both linear to the number of tags. Furthermore, a new PUF based RFID protocol is proposed which beats down the protocol from both security and efficiency.%对一个基于PUF构造的低成本RFID安全协议进行分析,发现该协议不能保护标签的隐私性,即任何一个攻击者通过重放协议消息就可以跟踪同一个标签.并且由于识别标签的时间复杂度和通信复杂度都与标签个数呈线性关系,因此协议不具有扩展性.为此,提出一个改进的RFID协议,使得协议在效率和安全性两方面得到改善.

  6. PubMed与 Embase.com 检索效果对比分析%Comparative analysis of retrieval results from PubMed and Embase.com

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙艳

    2014-01-01

    目的:对比分析Embase .com和PubMed的检索结果,为科研人员推荐最适合的检索工具和提高检索效率。方法:选取8个不同学科的检索词,在PubMed和Embase.com中分别采用主题词检索和带有自动转换功能的基本检索两种途径检索。结果:8个检索词在检索中出现6种不同情况。结论:通过主题词检索,总体来说Embase.com检全率要高于PubMed;带有自动转换功能的基本检索,两个数据库都会出现错误转换,但从转换的原理上看,PubMed的查准率更高。%Objective To recommend the appropriate retrieval tools for scientific researchers and improve their re-trieval efficiency by comparatively analyzing the retrieval results from PubMed and Embase .com.Methods Eight retrieval terms from different subjects were used to retrieve PubMed and Embase .com by subject headings and basic retrieval methods than can automatically transfer their function .Results Six different results were retrieved from PubMed and Embase.com with 8 retrieval terms.Conclusion The recall ratio is higher in Embase.com than in PubMed when they are retrieved by subject headings while the accuracy ratio is higher in PubMed than in Embase . com when they are retrieved by basic retrieval methods than can automatically transfer their function although error transformation occurs in both PubMed and Embase.com.

  7. PubMed Medline 1: Accés. Gener 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Universitat de Barcelona. CRAI

    2011-01-01

    També podeu consultar altres tutorials sobre el PubMed: 2. PubMed Medline: Cerca bàsica, http://hdl.handle.net/2445/15123; 3. PubMed Medline: Elements de cerca i límits, http://hdl.handle.net/2445/15124; 4. PubMed Medline: Matèries MeSH, http://hdl.handle.net/2445/15125; 5. PubMed Medline: Cerca avançada, http://hdl.handle.net/2445/15126; 6. PubMed Medline: Exemple de cerca avançada, http://hdl.handle.net/2445/15127; 7. PubMed Medline: Gestionar els resultats, http://hdl.handle.net/2445/1512...

  8. PubMed Medline 1: Accés. Gener 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Universitat de Barcelona. CRAI

    2011-01-01

    També podeu consultar altres tutorials sobre el PubMed: 2. PubMed Medline: Cerca bàsica, http://hdl.handle.net/2445/15123; 3. PubMed Medline: Elements de cerca i límits, http://hdl.handle.net/2445/15124; 4. PubMed Medline: Matèries MeSH, http://hdl.handle.net/2445/15125; 5. PubMed Medline: Cerca avançada, http://hdl.handle.net/2445/15126; 6. PubMed Medline: Exemple de cerca avançada, http://hdl.handle.net/2445/15127; 7. PubMed Medline: Gestionar els resultats, http://hdl.handle.net/2445/1512...

  9. 基于电流镜的电流型PUF电路设计%Design of current type PUF based on current mirror

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张学龙; 汪鹏君; 张跃军

    2013-01-01

    By researching the Physical Unclonable Functions (PUF) and the current mirror,a current type PUF based on current mirror is proposed.Firstly,multipath currents are generated from multiple current mirrors.Then,two path currents are chosen as the input of the current type sense amplifier.After comparing the two currents,it outputs a random state.Following the fully custom flow,PUF is designed in SMIC 65nm technology and the minimum layout area of the PUF cell is 2.59μm×l.51μm.The outputs of the PUF are analyzed via Monte Carlo simulations under various supply voltages and temperatures by the tool of Spectre.Randomness and robustness of the PUF are observed from the experiment results.It can be effectively used for secret key generation and device authentication.%通过对物理不可克隆函数(Physical Unclonable Functions,PUF)电路和电流镜的研究,提出一种基于电流镜的电流型PUF电路设计方案.该方案首先利用多路电流镜产生随机电流,然后使用电流型敏感放大器比较两路电流的大小,最后产生随机的输出响应.在SMIC 65nm工艺下,利用全定制方法设计PUF电路,在最小尺寸下PUF单元的版图面积为2.59μm× 1.51 μm.通过Spectre软件,在不同电压、温度等工作环境下进行Monte Carlo仿真验证,分析PUF电路的识别能力.实验结果表明所设计的PUF电路逻辑功能正确,且具有良好的随机性和稳定性,可广泛应用于密钥产生和设备认证等领域.

  10. Repression of mitochondrial translation, respiration and a metabolic cycle-regulated gene, SLF1, by the yeast Pumilio-family protein Puf3p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Chatenay-Lapointe

    Full Text Available Synthesis and assembly of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS system requires genes located both in the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, but how gene expression is coordinated between these two compartments is not fully understood. One level of control is through regulated expression mitochondrial ribosomal proteins and other factors required for mitochondrial translation and OXPHOS assembly, which are all products of nuclear genes that are subsequently imported into mitochondria. Interestingly, this cadre of genes in budding yeast has in common a 3'-UTR element that is bound by the Pumilio family protein, Puf3p, and is coordinately regulated under many conditions, including during the yeast metabolic cycle. Multiple functions have been assigned to Puf3p, including promoting mRNA degradation, localizing nucleus-encoded mitochondrial transcripts to the outer mitochondrial membrane, and facilitating mitochondria-cytoskeletal interactions and motility. Here we show that Puf3p has a general repressive effect on mitochondrial OXPHOS abundance, translation, and respiration that does not involve changes in overall mitochondrial biogenesis and largely independent of TORC1-mitochondrial signaling. We also identified the cytoplasmic translation factor Slf1p as yeast metabolic cycle-regulated gene that is repressed by Puf3p at the post-transcriptional level and promotes respiration and extension of yeast chronological life span when over-expressed. Altogether, these results should facilitate future studies on which of the many functions of Puf3p is most relevant for regulating mitochondrial gene expression and the role of nuclear-mitochondrial communication in aging and longevity.

  11. Pubmed Assistant-a Helper Toolkit for Pubmed Searching%PubMed助手——提高PubMed检索效果的好帮手

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关中玉; 谢奇; 李立立; 高桐

    2007-01-01

    介绍一种PubMed辅助软件-PubMed助手,在具备PubMed已有的检索功能基础上,它还增加可视化检索策略编辑器,可以非常容易的编辑复杂的布尔逻辑检索策略,甚至可以根据已有几篇相关文献,自动制定高级检索策略.PubMed助手还提供专门的浏览器,可以直接在主界面中浏览所有检索结果的题录信息,而不用每次都打开新页面.可以突出显示关键字,输出检索结果,点击进入google或Google学术搜索等.

  12. Research on Evidence-based Traditional Chinese Medicine Literature Retrieval in PubMed%PubMed的循证中医药文献检索研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周满英

    2016-01-01

    文章介绍了利用PubMed数据库检索循证中医药证据时的检索技巧和四种有效而快捷的检索方式,并结合实例分析各方式的检索特点,以期为循证中医药研究人员检索PubMed时提供参考。%This paper introduces the search tips and foureffective andefficientways to usePubMedto retrieveevidenceof evidence -based traditionalChinese medicine, use retrieval case to analyzethe characteristic ofeachway,in order toprovide references to evidence-basedtraditional Chinesemedicineresearchersretrieve inPubMed.

  13. 如何利用PubMed检索医学文献%Method on How to Retrieve Medical Literature from PubMed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁继红; 甄连花

    2009-01-01

    目的:为便于医药工作者更好地利用PubMed检索外文文献提供参考.方法:结合实例,从检索方法、特殊服务功能、特征栏使用、检索结果的存盘与打印等方面对PubMed进行详细介绍.结果与结论:PubMed是世界公认的最重要、最具权威性且使用率最高的生物医学文献数据库之一,其内客涉及生物医学的各个领域.掌握PubMed的检索方法和技巧将有助于广大医务工作者快速、准确地检索外文文献.

  14. The Application of Individual Service Functions of PubMed System%PubMed系统个性化服务功能应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁淑华

    2008-01-01

    美国国家医学图书馆开发的PubMed是我国医学科技人员最常使用的一个生物医学文献检索系统,针对PubMed实际应用中的个性化服务功能予以探索,旨在为读者提供一些有益的帮助.

  15. Materia Socio Medica is Indexed in Pubmed and Archived in PubMed Central.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet

    2013-01-01

    Materia Socio Medica Journal has been accepted for archiving in PubMed Central from 2011. The journal started in 1993 as offi cial journal of Social Medicine Association of B&H. During last 3 years Mat Soc Med has included in almost all femous on-line databases (except WoS). All issues of Mat Soc Med published in 2012 are now visible on PubMed/PubMed Central.

  16. Towards an Ontology of ElPub/SciX: A Proposal

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    A proposal is presented for a standard ontology language defined as ElPub/SciX Ontology, based on the content of a web digital library of conference proceedings. This content, i.e., ElPub/SciX documents, aims to provide access to papers presented at the total editions of the International Conference in Electronic Publishing (ElPub). After completing its 10th years in 2006, ElPub/SciX is now a comprehensive repository with over 400 papers. Previous work has been used as a basis to build up the...

  17. PubMed快速检索功能的实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李波

    2009-01-01

    介绍了三部分内容:第一先将PubMed添加到带Goosle工具栏的Firefox浏览器,获得符合IE7要求的URL,然后添加到IE7的搜索工具栏;第二介绍了利用NCBI Search ToolKit工具将PubMed和NCBI添加到IE浏览器的右键;最后介绍了基于Mozilla内核浏览器的PubMed search plugin,它们都可以实现快速检索PubMed数据库的功能.

  18. PubMed与MEDLINE光盘检索不同之处的特点探讨%What's the difference between PubMed and CD-ROM MEDLINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国琪

    2004-01-01

    目的:探讨PubMed检索的主要特点以提高文献的查准率.方法:分别举例介绍PubMed数据时限、超级主题词表、查询词自动转换、主题词检索、临床课题查询、Entrez-PubMed、PubMed Central(PMC).结果:PubMed检索,除MEDLINE外,还包括PREMEDLINE和OLDMEDLINE,其最早的文献可追溯到1951年.通过查询词转换和匹配及其临床课题研究范围的灵敏度和专指度的选择,使检出的文献更加切题.PubMed 还通过与全球NCBI搜索引擎Entrez链接,可互查PMC、核酸序列、蛋白质序列、大分子结构、全基因组、生物体分类学、人类孟德尔遗传及MEDLINE数据库等.检出的记录包括文献条目和摘要,链接后可获取出版商网址上的全文及其在PMC中的免费期刊(160种)原文.结论:PubMed为一般的医学工作者检索文献提供的服务比MEDLINE光盘要多.

  19. Health informatics research in Australia: retrospective analysis using PubMed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumara Mendis

    2007-01-01

    Discussion Australian HI publications in PubMed increased consistently throughout the period 1970-2005, which is on a par with world trends in HI publications. In Australia, most HI publications are in general medical journals. Lack of consistency in author names and failure to include the country name and even the state are the main obstacles to PubMed bibliometric analysis.

  20. 75 FR 39273 - Energy Independence and Security Act (Pub. L. 110-140)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ....S. Geological Survey Energy Independence and Security Act (Pub. L. 110-140) AGENCY: U.S. Geological.... SUMMARY: In 2007, the Energy Independence and Security Act (Pub. L. 110-140) directed the United States... 711 of Public Law 110-140. Dated: June 28, 2010. Brenda Pierce, Chief Scientist (acting) and...

  1. Three PubMed skills to support evidence-based dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deahl, S Thomas

    2011-02-01

    The National Library of Medicine's PubMed database can powerfully assist dentists in evidence-based practice. Three useful PubMed skills can improve the efficiency of the clinician's search: (1) Use of MeSH terms; (2) Use of Limits; (3) Use of Clinical Queries.

  2. Searching PubMed for molecular epidemiology studies: the case of chromosome aberrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugolini, Donatella; Neri, Monica; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2006-01-01

    to environmental pollutants. The search, done on the PubMed/MedLine database, was based on a strategy combining descriptors listed in the PubMed Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Thesaurus and other available tools (free text or phrase search tools). 178 articles were retrieved by searching the period from January 1...

  3. How to improve your PubMed/MEDLINE searches: 1. background and basic searching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatehi, Farhad; Gray, Leonard C; Wootton, Richard

    2013-12-01

    PubMed provides free access via the Internet to more than 23 million records, of which over 19 million are from the MEDLINE database of journal articles. PubMed also provides access to other databases, such as the NCBI Bookshelf. To perform a basic search, you can simply enter the search terms or the concept that you are looking for in the search box. However, taking care to clarify your key concepts may save much time later on, because a non-specific search is likely to produce an overwhelming number of result hits. One way to make your search more specific is to specify which field you want to search using field tags. By default, the results of a search are sorted by the date added to PubMed and displayed in summary format with 20 result hits (records) on each page. In summary format, the title of the article, list of authors, source of information (e.g., journal name followed by date of publication, volume, issue, pages) and the unique PubMed record number called the PubMed identifier (PMID) are shown. Although information is stored about the articles, PubMed/MEDLINE does not store the full text of the papers themselves. However, PubMedCentral (PMC) stores more than 2.8 million articles (roughly 10% of the articles in PubMed) and provides access to them for free to the users.

  4. 7 CFR 22.101 - The Rural Development Act of 1972 (Pub. L. 92-419).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The Rural Development Act of 1972 (Pub. L. 92-419). 22.101 Section 22.101 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL DEVELOPMENT COORDINATION General § 22.101 The Rural Development Act of 1972 (Pub. L. 92-419). The Rural Development Act of...

  5. 一种基于社会学行为的Pub/Sub系统路由%Routing strategy based on sociology in Pub/Sub system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛小平; 谭韵天; 王泽洪; 毕玉蓉; 闵妍妮

    2011-01-01

    为减少Pub/Sub系统中遍历广播的负载,基于社会学行为的小世界架构,提出了一种基于朋友圈的路由,给出了朋友圈划分算法以及基于朋友圈的Pub/Sub系统遍历算法,以限制消息在确定范围内传播,降低消息遍历的时间和广播开销.仿真实验表明,所提出的方法与Pub/Sub系统中传统的Gossip及洪泛法相比,可加快消息的传播速度,降低网络开销.%In order to reduce the overhead on the networks by traverse broadcast in the Pub/Sub systems, this paper proposed a routing strategy of friends circle based on a small world structure of sociology behavior. Proposed a partitioning algorithm and a traversing algorithm in the Pub / Sub systems based on friends circle, to realize the directional propagation of information,which reduced the time to traverse the whole network and lowered the broadcast overhead. Simulation results show that this routing algorithm can speed up spread efficiency and reduce overhead compared to the flooding and Gossip algorithm.

  6. 微波真空膨化浆果脆片工艺优化研究%Study of Process Parameters Optimizing for Microwave Puffing Berry Snack Based on Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林甄; 刘海军; 郑先哲

    2014-01-01

    In order to optimize the process parameters of microwave vacuum puffing berries snack , the influencing factors of puffing ratio was studied by center combination experiments , getting the most optimal puffing process parameters .Tak-ing processing amount , initial moisture content , puffing time and vacuum pressure as influencing factor , taking puffing rate as response indicators , ensure the best bulking condition at last .Through verified experiment , error is in reasonable range using response surface analysis to explain berry microwave vacuum puffing process parameters viably .%为了优化微波真空膨化浆果脆片工艺参数,采用中心组合试验设计对影响膨化率的因素水平进行了综合研究,优化膨化工艺参数。以加工量、初始含水率、膨化时间和真空压强为影响因素,以膨化率为响应指标,确定了最佳膨化条件。经实验验证,误差在合理范围内,应用响应面分析法优化浆果微波真空膨化工艺参数是可行的。

  7. Using PubMed in radiology: Ten useful tips for radiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriganesh, Vasumathi

    2011-07-01

    PubMed contains a bibliography of articles published in around 4800 journals. It combines MEDLINE and OLDMEDLINE (articles from 1960, going back till the 1940s). PubMed is updated on a daily basis; to include both published and ahead of print references. As a radiologist, one can use PubMed to track several journals, track topics, search for specific topics, verify incomplete or incorrect references, store one's own publications, and save selected references; one can also create filters depending on one's own search needs for some regular topics. This article provides some key background knowledge on searching PubMed and also describes some features that are often left unexplored. The PubMed site has undergone many changes in the last few years and this article will update users on the current features.

  8. CoPub: a literature-based keyword enrichment tool for microarray data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frijters, Raoul; Heupers, Bart; van Beek, Pieter; Bouwhuis, Maurice; van Schaik, René; de Vlieg, Jacob; Polman, Jan; Alkema, Wynand

    2008-01-01

    Medline is a rich information source, from which links between genes and keywords describing biological processes, pathways, drugs, pathologies and diseases can be extracted. We developed a publicly available tool called CoPub that uses the information in the Medline database for the biological interpretation of microarray data. CoPub allows batch input of multiple human, mouse or rat genes and produces lists of keywords from several biomedical thesauri that are significantly correlated with the set of input genes. These lists link to Medline abstracts in which the co-occurring input genes and correlated keywords are highlighted. Furthermore, CoPub can graphically visualize differentially expressed genes and over-represented keywords in a network, providing detailed insight in the relationships between genes and keywords, and revealing the most influential genes as highly connected hubs. CoPub is freely accessible at http://services.nbic.nl/cgi-bin/copub/CoPub.pl. PMID:18442992

  9. Retrieving Clinical Evidence: A Comparison of PubMed and Google Scholar for Quick Clinical Searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejaimal, Shayna AD; Sontrop, Jessica M; Iansavichus, Arthur V; Haynes, R Brian; Weir, Matthew A; Garg, Amit X

    2013-01-01

    Background Physicians frequently search PubMed for information to guide patient care. More recently, Google Scholar has gained popularity as another freely accessible bibliographic database. Objective To compare the performance of searches in PubMed and Google Scholar. Methods We surveyed nephrologists (kidney specialists) and provided each with a unique clinical question derived from 100 renal therapy systematic reviews. Each physician provided the search terms they would type into a bibliographic database to locate evidence to answer the clinical question. We executed each of these searches in PubMed and Google Scholar and compared results for the first 40 records retrieved (equivalent to 2 default search pages in PubMed). We evaluated the recall (proportion of relevant articles found) and precision (ratio of relevant to nonrelevant articles) of the searches performed in PubMed and Google Scholar. Primary studies included in the systematic reviews served as the reference standard for relevant articles. We further documented whether relevant articles were available as free full-texts. Results Compared with PubMed, the average search in Google Scholar retrieved twice as many relevant articles (PubMed: 11%; Google Scholar: 22%; P<.001). Precision was similar in both databases (PubMed: 6%; Google Scholar: 8%; P=.07). Google Scholar provided significantly greater access to free full-text publications (PubMed: 5%; Google Scholar: 14%; P<.001). Conclusions For quick clinical searches, Google Scholar returns twice as many relevant articles as PubMed and provides greater access to free full-text articles. PMID:23948488

  10. A Gene Expressed during Sexual and Asexual Sporulation in Phytophthora infestans is a Member of the Puf Family of Translational Regulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cvitanich, Cristina; Judelson, Howard S.

    2003-01-01

    A gene from Phytophthora infestans that was previously identified as being induced during the development of sexual spores was also found to be active during asexual sporulation. The gene, M90, was expressed as a 3.1-kb primary transcript containing two introns and was predicted to encode a member...... of the Puf family of translational regulators. The protein showed up to 51% amino acid identity to other Puf proteins within its 353-amino-acid RNA-binding domain. Little similarity extended beyond this region, as noted for other members of the family. Expression of M90 was measured by using RNA blots....... Potential roles for a translational regulator during both sexual development and asexual sporulation are discussed....

  11. Calibration of Polyurethane Foam (PUF Disk Passive Air Samplers for Quantitative Sampling of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs in Indoor Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Hazrati

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to employ PUF disk passive air sampler (140 mm diameter, 12 mm thickness as a quantitative sampling device a set of calibration experiments were carried out. Time integrated indoor air concentrations of PCBs and PBDEs were obtained from a low volume air sampler. The low volume active sampler was run alongside the passive samplers throughout the calibration period in an office microenvironment. Sampling rates of routinely employed passive sampler design were determined for 51 PCB and 6 PBDE congeners detected in all calibration samples. PUF disk R-values varied from 0.63 to 1.54 m3 day-1 for individual PCBs and from 1.1 to 1.9 m3 day-1 for PBDE congeners. The theory of passive sampling is also discussed and mass transfer coefficients (kA of PCB and PBDE congeners provided.

  12. PubMed 2008新增检索功能探析%Analysis on New Retrieval Functions in PubMed 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李朝葵; 陶卫国

    2009-01-01

    介绍PubMed系统2008年新增检索功能,包括高级检索模式、引文检测功能以及经改进的自动词语匹配功能,同时对其进行分析与评论,指出各项新增功能的优势、局限性以及适用的情况,为用户更好地利用PubMed进行检索提供帮助.%The paper introduces new retrieval functions in PubMed 2008, including advanced search pattern, citation sensor and improved automatic term mapping, meanwhile the analysis and assessment on those new functions are originally revealed, it points out the advantages, limitations as well as applicable situations, so as to provide help for users.

  13. Research on PUF resin for E0 grade extertior plywood%E0级室外型胶合板用PUF树脂胶的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵临五; 王春鹏; 庄晓伟; 穆有炳; 施娟娟; 张伟; 石建军; 俞阳; 储富祥

    2011-01-01

    按酚醛(PF)树脂的制备工艺,采用CaO和NaOH为复合催化剂,在碱性条件下制备了U/P质量比13.2%~79.2%的系列尿素改性酚醛(PUF)树脂.该胶制备工艺简单,反应平稳,操作易控制,再现性好,成本较低,贮存期达30 d以上.该系列PUF树脂压制的杨木三合板,胶合强度符合Ⅰ类胶合板要求,甲醛释放量<0.5 mg/L,符合E0级标准.%The phenol-urea-formaldehyde(PUF) resins for E0 degree exterior plywood were synthesized by alkali traditional process using CaO and NaOH as the compound catalyst with 13.2%~79.2% urea (based on phenol weight) and F/(P+U) mol ratio 1.30~1.83.The adhesive production has many characteristics of simple manufacture process,smooth reacting,easy operation and good reproducibility. The resulted PUF resins showed superior properties such as low free formaldehyde,low free phenol,low cost and long reserving time(> 30 days).The formaldyhyde emission of the PUF resin bonded plywood was less than 0.5 mg/L (E0 degree) and the bond strength can meet the requirement of type Ⅰ plywood.

  14. The Best Formula Research on Hohenbuehelia serotina Cereal Puffed Food%元蘑谷物膨化食品的最佳配方研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔祥辉; 张秋雪; 王笑庸; 韩冰; 张介驰

    2015-01-01

    元蘑谷物休闲膨化食品是以元蘑、大米和小米为主要原料制得的休闲膨化食品.本试验通过单因素试验、正交试验和感官鉴定,确定了元蘑谷物休闲膨化食品的最佳配方为:元蘑20 g,大米150 g,小米40 g,水分11%,盐1.5%,鲜味剂0.18%.制得的元蘑谷物休闲膨化食品产品呈浅棕色,质地均匀,有元蘑的自然气味和谷物香气,口感酥脆,味道鲜美,市场前景良好.%Hohenbuehelia serotina Cereal Puffed Food refers to a kind of leisure puffed food made from H. Serotina, rice and millet which can be taken as principle raw materials. The study determined the best formula of H. serotina Cereal Puffed Food by single-factor experiment , orthogonal test and sensory identification , whose formula includes H. Serotina 20 g, rice 150 g, millet 40 g, moisture 11%, salt 1.5%and flavor agent 0.18%. Its color is light brown, with uniform texture and natural fragrance smell of H. Serotina and the aroma of cereal. This kind of puffed food tastes crisp and delicious that has a good prospect in the market.

  15. PubMed Included a Bibliometric Analysis of the Gastrectomy%PubMed收录胃切除术相关文献的计量学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麻立民; 王文亮

    2015-01-01

    On PubMed indexed nearly 10 years gastrectomy literature year, country, journal source, prolific author, main keyword statistics, and analyze the data in order to identify relevant literature gastrectomy distribution characteristics and research status.%对PubMed收录的近10年胃切除术相关文献的年份、国别、期刊来源、多产作者、主要主题词进行统计,并对有关数据进行分析,以明确胃切除术相关文献分布特点和研究现状。

  16. 利用PubMed的E-Utilities工具构建PubMed拟投稿期刊选择模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琳

    2011-01-01

    随着国际科技交流的日益广泛及研究评价中对学术出版要求的不断提高,我国有越来越多的科研人员期望能在国际性学术期刊上发表论文。为了提高向国外期刊投稿命中率,笔者利用PubMed的E—Utilities工具构建了PubMed拟投稿期刊选择模型,以供读者参考使用。

  17. Outdoor passive air monitoring of semi volatile organic compounds (SVOCs): a critical evaluation of performance and limitations of polyurethane foam (PUF) disks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlin, P; Audy, O; Škrdlíková, L; Kukučka, P; Přibylová, P; Prokeš, R; Vojta, Š; Klánová, J

    2014-03-01

    The most commonly used passive air sampler (PAS) (i.e. polyurethane foam (PUF) disk) is cheap, versatile, and capable of accumulating compounds present both in gas and particle phases. Its performance for particle associated compounds is however disputable. In this study, twelve sets of triplicate PUF-PAS were deployed outdoors for exposure periods of 1-12 weeks together with continuously operated active samplers, to characterize sampling efficiency and derive sampling rates (RS) for compounds belonging to 7 SVOC classes (including particle associated compounds). PUF-PAS efficiently and consistently sampled polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and eight novel brominated flame retardant (nBFR) compounds. Low accuracy and lack of sensitivity was observed for most polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans PCDD/Fs and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) (under the conditions of this study), with the exception of some congeners which may be used as qualitative markers for their respective classes. Application of compound specific RS was found crucial for all compounds except PCBs. Sampling efficiency of the particle associated compounds was often low.

  18. Puffing and micro-explosion behavior in combustion of butanol/Jet A-1 and acetone-butanol-ethanol (A-B-E)/Jet A-1 fuel droplets

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, D Chaitanya Kumar; Som, S K

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation deals with the puffing and micro-explosion characteristics in the combustion of a single droplet comprising butanol/Jet A-1, acetone-butanol-ethanol (A-B-E)/Jet A-1 blends, and A-B-E. The onset of nucleation, growth of vapor bubble and subsequent breakup of droplet for various fuel blends have been analyzed from the high-speed images. Puffing was observed to be the dominant phenomenon in 30% butanol blend, while micro-explosion was found to be the dominant one in other fuel blends (blend with 50% butanol or 30% A-B-E or 50% A-B-E). It was observed that puffing always preceded the micro-explosion. The probability of micro-explosion in droplets with A-B-E blends was found to be higher than that of butanol blends. Although the rate of bubble growth was almost similar for all butanol and A-B-E blends, the final bubble diameter before the droplet breakup was found to be higher for 50/50 blends than that of 30/70 blends. The occurrence of micro-explosion shortened the droplet lifetime, and...

  19. An overview of the PubChem BioAssay resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanli; Bolton, Evan; Dracheva, Svetlana; Karapetyan, Karen; Shoemaker, Benjamin A; Suzek, Tugba O; Wang, Jiyao; Xiao, Jewen; Zhang, Jian; Bryant, Stephen H

    2010-01-01

    The PubChem BioAssay database (http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) is a public repository for biological activities of small molecules and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) hosted by the US National Institutes of Health (NIH). It archives experimental descriptions of assays and biological test results and makes the information freely accessible to the public. A PubChem BioAssay data entry includes an assay description, a summary and detailed test results. Each assay record is linked to the molecular target, whenever possible, and is cross-referenced to other National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database records. 'Related BioAssays' are identified by examining the assay target relationship and activity profile of commonly tested compounds. A key goal of PubChem BioAssay is to make the biological activity information easily accessible through the NCBI information retrieval system-Entrez, and various web-based PubChem services. An integrated suite of data analysis tools are available to optimize the utility of the chemical structure and biological activity information within PubChem, enabling researchers to aggregate, compare and analyze biological test results contributed by multiple organizations. In this work, we describe the PubChem BioAssay database, including data model, bioassay deposition and utilities that PubChem provides for searching, downloading and analyzing the biological activity information contained therein.

  20. Automatic Export of PubMed Citations to EndNote.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Sue; Gurdal, Osman; Gall, Carole

    2010-04-01

    The export of MEDLINE references to EndNote can be accomplished in various ways. Unlike Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed does not have a direct export feature to EndNote. Until recently, PubMed references had to be saved as a text file to import into EndNote. Now, the automatic export of PubMed references can be done using Internet Explorer (IE) or Mozilla Firefox Web browsers. The development and teaching of seamless citation management is a value-added service to health professionals.

  1. Quertle and KNALIJ: searching PubMed has never been so easy and effective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglia, E

    2011-12-01

    Quertle and KNALIJ are two innovative tools created to search PubMed in a easier and more effective way. They dramatically reduce time to discover meaningful results. Quertle allows a semantic search in multiple biomedical databases (PubMed included) and runs a query via relationships between concepts, so that you retrieve at ease more pertinent results and can navigate them by "key concepts". KNALIJ is a visualization tool which searches PubMed and presents the results in the form of visual, interactive maps you can zoom, scale, and explore according to new paths.

  2. 新版PubMed引文检索功能及全文获取

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜永莉; 张晓燕

    2008-01-01

    本文介绍因特网上免费生物医学检索系统PubMed新版提供的引文查询功能.告知广大信息用户,可以利用这一检索途径检索部分被PubMed收录的著者或论文被引用情况,扩大引文查询的检索范围.此外,还介绍了如何快速检索和获取PubMed收录的期刊全文.

  3. Comparative Research on Retrieval Function of Google Scholar, Scirus and PubMed%Google Scholar、Scirus及PubMed检索功能对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯跃芳; 赵玉虹; 龚黛琛

    2009-01-01

    The paper gives a comparative analysis of retrieval function among PubMed, Google Scholar and Scims mainly form the following aspects: retrieval methods, retrieval results and output formats. Effects of retrieval are compared through 10 retrieval tests, and respective characteristics of three retrieval tools are analyzed. Google Scholar has the largest scope;PubMed has better retrieval function than the other two;in the aspect of result output, three retrieval tools have their own characteristics.%对比权威数据库PubMed及权威学术搜索工具Google Scholar、Scirus的检索功能,主要比较检索方法、检索结果、结果输出格式等方面的功能,利用10个题目的检索试验比较检索效果,并分析3种工具的各自特点.Google Scholar的收录范围最广;PubMed检索功能优于其它两种工具;在输出结果的格式方面,3种检索工具各具特色.

  4. 新版PubMed查找医学文献方法简介%INTRODUCTION OF NEW EDITION OF PubMed FOR MEDICAL REFERENCES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙明玉

    2002-01-01

    @@ 新版PubMed系统是由美国国立生物技术中心(NCBI)开发的、于2000年4月开始用于检索MEDLINE、PreMEDLINE数据库(免费)的网上系统.其网址是: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed [1

  5. 过热蒸汽膨化干燥番茄及其理化品质%Physicochemical characteristics of superheated steam puffing dried tomato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐将; 安凤平; 赖彩如; 仇东朝; 宋洪波

    2013-01-01

    利用过热蒸汽膨化干燥技术,对热风干燥与过热蒸汽膨化干燥的干燥特性、处理前后番茄的理化品质进行比较和分析,结果表明:番茄经过热蒸汽膨化后干燥,干燥速度快,比单纯采用热风干燥所需的干燥时间缩短34.4%;过热蒸汽膨化干燥的番茄体积饱满,色泽较好,营养保存率高,微观组织呈现明显的蜂窝状结构,复水比高,复水温度较高时的复水比明显高于热风干燥的番茄;过热蒸汽膨化干燥的番茄在85℃的水中复水6 min,其硬度和粘性适中,弹性和咀嚼性值最大,感官评价最好.%superheated steam puffing drying technique was used to process tomato, the drying property between hot air dried tomato and superheated steam puffing dried tomato was compared, the physicochemical characteristics of tomato before and after the treatment of superheated steam puffing drying were also compared. The results showed that tomato after the treatment of superheated steam puffing drying had full volume bulk, better color and high nutrients preserving rate; the porous microstructure was significantly enlarged; the drying velocity was speeded up, the drying time was curtailed 34.4% than hot air drying. Meanwhile, the puffing dried tomato also had higher rehydration rate. After 6 min rehydration at the temperature of 85 ℃, the tomato had moderate hardness and mucosity, maximal elasticity and chewiness, as well as the highest sensory evaluation score. Temperature of 85 ℃, time of 6 min was chosen to be rehydration condition.

  6. UHM WPE-PUF复合材料结构设计与隔爆实验%Structural Design and Anti-Explosion Experiment of UHMWPE-PUF Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡军锋; 易建政; 赵然

    2012-01-01

    采用层状复合工艺,制备了超高分子量聚乙烯(UHMWPE)-聚氨酯泡沫材料(PUF)复合材料;设计了复合材料隔爆实验,运用定制的聚偏氟乙烯(PVDF)压电传感器,直接测量了隔爆实验中材料内部冲击波压力,研究了UHMWPE-PUF复合材料对爆炸冲击波的衰减性能。研究表明,所制备的UHMWPE-PUF复合材料隔爆能力与同厚度的纯聚氨酯材料相比提高了近50%。将UHMWPE材料与PUF材料进行复合,可以充分发挥UHMWPE材料的高强、高模以及PUF材料较高的吸能特点,同时又弥补了PUF材料强度低的缺陷,且材料对爆炸冲击波的衰减性能得到极大提升,在爆炸防护领域有着很好的应用前景。%Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE)- polyurethane foam (PUF) composite was synthesized by laminated composite technology and the anti-explosion experiment of composite was designed. The pressure in material under explosion load was measured directly by custom-built polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) piezoelectric sensor. Shock wave attenuation properties of UHMWPE-PUF composite were studied by experimental method. The results show that UHMWPE-PUF composite can give full play to the high-strength high-model feature of UI-IMWPE material and the energy absorbing property of polyurethane foam material, and the low strength imperfection of polyurethane foam plastics was offset by UHMWPE material. The experiment shows shock wave attenuation ability of UHMWPE-PUF composite can improve by 50 % than of pure PUF material. The strength and shock wave attenuation properties of UHMWPE-PUF composites were maximally improved. The materials have a good applied outlook in the realm of anti-expbsion.

  7. [Use of PubMed to improve evidence-based medicine in routine urological practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rink, M; Kluth, L A; Shariat, S F; Chun, F K; Fisch, M; Dahm, P

    2013-03-01

    Applying evidence-based medicine in daily clinical practice is the basis of patient-centered medicine and knowledge of accurate literature acquisition skills is necessary for informed clinical decision-making. PubMed is an easy accessible, free bibliographic database comprising over 21 million citations from the medical field, life-science journals and online books. The article summarizes the effective use of PubMed in routine urological clinical practice based on a common case scenario. This article explains the simple use of PubMed to obtain the best search results with the highest evidence. Accurate knowledge about the use of PubMed in routine clinical practice can improve evidence-based medicine and also patient treatment.

  8. PubMedPortable: A Framework for Supporting the Development of Text Mining Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döring, Kersten; Grüning, Björn A.; Telukunta, Kiran K.; Thomas, Philippe; Günther, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Information extraction from biomedical literature is continuously growing in scope and importance. Many tools exist that perform named entity recognition, e.g. of proteins, chemical compounds, and diseases. Furthermore, several approaches deal with the extraction of relations between identified entities. The BioCreative community supports these developments with yearly open challenges, which led to a standardised XML text annotation format called BioC. PubMed provides access to the largest open biomedical literature repository, but there is no unified way of connecting its data to natural language processing tools. Therefore, an appropriate data environment is needed as a basis to combine different software solutions and to develop customised text mining applications. PubMedPortable builds a relational database and a full text index on PubMed citations. It can be applied either to the complete PubMed data set or an arbitrary subset of downloaded PubMed XML files. The software provides the infrastructure to combine stand-alone applications by exporting different data formats, e.g. BioC. The presented workflows show how to use PubMedPortable to retrieve, store, and analyse a disease-specific data set. The provided use cases are well documented in the PubMedPortable wiki. The open-source software library is small, easy to use, and scalable to the user’s system requirements. It is freely available for Linux on the web at https://github.com/KerstenDoering/PubMedPortable and for other operating systems as a virtual container. The approach was tested extensively and applied successfully in several projects. PMID:27706202

  9. Costruzione ed uso di filtri per la valutazione delle tecnologie sanitarie in PubMed

    OpenAIRE

    Vidale, C; Guarrera, GM

    2013-01-01

    The staff of health services involved in the multidisciplinary assessment of health technologies is required to know its specific literature references, in addition to research reports and assessments produced by HTA agencies. Through PubMed can be identified citations of articles with the aim of multidisciplinary assessment of the technologies. Any interested person may obtain, by exploiting the potential of PubMed My NCBI and using sophisticated techniques for creating filters, a custom use...

  10. PubMed收录的医学信息学英文期刊分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冀玉静; 苏连花

    2005-01-01

    通过检索PubMed期刊数据库得到PubMed收录的医学信息学英文期刊,并利用Google 搜索引擎查询这些期刊的网址,从中总结整理出部分有代表性期刊的基本信息进行分析,以期对相关科研人员有所裨益.

  11. GOClonto: an ontological clustering approach for conceptualizing PubMed abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hai-Tao; Borchert, Charles; Kim, Hong-Gee

    2010-02-01

    Concurrent with progress in biomedical sciences, an overwhelming of textual knowledge is accumulating in the biomedical literature. PubMed is the most comprehensive database collecting and managing biomedical literature. To help researchers easily understand collections of PubMed abstracts, numerous clustering methods have been proposed to group similar abstracts based on their shared features. However, most of these methods do not explore the semantic relationships among groupings of documents, which could help better illuminate the groupings of PubMed abstracts. To address this issue, we proposed an ontological clustering method called GOClonto for conceptualizing PubMed abstracts. GOClonto uses latent semantic analysis (LSA) and gene ontology (GO) to identify key gene-related concepts and their relationships as well as allocate PubMed abstracts based on these key gene-related concepts. Based on two PubMed abstract collections, the experimental results show that GOClonto is able to identify key gene-related concepts and outperforms the STC (suffix tree clustering) algorithm, the Lingo algorithm, the Fuzzy Ants algorithm, and the clustering based TRS (tolerance rough set) algorithm. Moreover, the two ontologies generated by GOClonto show significant informative conceptual structures.

  12. Best, Useful and Objective Precisions for Information Retrieval of Three Search Methods in PubMed and iPubMed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayyeh Nadi Ravandi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available MEDLINE is one of the valuable sources of medical information on the Internet. Among the different open access sites of MEDLINE, PubMed is the best-known site. In 2010, iPubMed was established with an interaction-fuzzy search method for MEDLINE access. In the present work, we aimed to compare the precision of the retrieved sources (Best, Useful and Objective precision in the PubMed and iPubMed using two search methods (simple and MeSH search in PubMed and interaction-fuzzy method in iPubmed. During our semi-empirical study period, we held training workshops for 61 students of higher education to teach them Simple Search, MeSH Search, and Fuzzy-Interaction Search methods. Then, the precision of 305 searches for each method prepared by the students was calculated on the basis of Best precision, Useful precision, and Objective precision formulas. Analyses were done in SPSS version 11.5 using the Friedman and Wilcoxon Test, and three precisions obtained with the three precision formulas were studied for the three search methods. The mean precision of the interaction-fuzzy Search method was higher than that of the simple search and MeSH search for all three types of precision, i.e., Best precision, Useful precision, and Objective precision, and the Simple search method was in the next rank, and their mean precisions were significantly different (P < 0.001. The precision of the interaction-fuzzy search method in iPubmed was investigated for the first time. Also for the first time, three types of precision were evaluated in PubMed and iPubmed. The results showed that the Interaction-Fuzzy search method is more precise than using the natural language search (simple search and MeSH search, and users of this method found papers that were more related to their queries; even though search in Pubmed is useful, it is important that users apply new search methods to obtain the best results.

  13. Adei .pub

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    an activity characterized by a very wide range of operations of livelihood ... packaging and merchandising or retailing. (Carmen and ..... required temperature needed by the chicks and also to protect them .... Veterinary Doctor. 1. 1. Motorbike. 1.

  14. Yebaoh .pub

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    and Tilden, 1983; Oakley, 1990; Williamson and Leferve, 1992). ... stress (Cohen and Wills,1985) . Stress here ... 1988). Social support, therefore, promotes good health, irrespective of the level of stress. Both ..... tween social support and health in S. Cohen and L.S Syme (eds). ... Durkheim, E. and Simpson, G. (eds). (1951).

  15. An automatic method to generate domain-specific investigator networks using PubMed abstracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwinn Marta

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Collaboration among investigators has become critical to scientific research. This includes ad hoc collaboration established through personal contacts as well as formal consortia established by funding agencies. Continued growth in online resources for scientific research and communication has promoted the development of highly networked research communities. Extending these networks globally requires identifying additional investigators in a given domain, profiling their research interests, and collecting current contact information. We present a novel strategy for building investigator networks dynamically and producing detailed investigator profiles using data available in PubMed abstracts. Results We developed a novel strategy to obtain detailed investigator information by automatically parsing the affiliation string in PubMed records. We illustrated the results by using a published literature database in human genome epidemiology (HuGE Pub Lit as a test case. Our parsing strategy extracted country information from 92.1% of the affiliation strings in a random sample of PubMed records and in 97.0% of HuGE records, with accuracies of 94.0% and 91.0%, respectively. Institution information was parsed from 91.3% of the general PubMed records (accuracy 86.8% and from 94.2% of HuGE PubMed records (accuracy 87.0. We demonstrated the application of our approach to dynamic creation of investigator networks by creating a prototype information system containing a large database of PubMed abstracts relevant to human genome epidemiology (HuGE Pub Lit, indexed using PubMed medical subject headings converted to Unified Medical Language System concepts. Our method was able to identify 70–90% of the investigators/collaborators in three different human genetics fields; it also successfully identified 9 of 10 genetics investigators within the PREBIC network, an existing preterm birth research network. Conclusion We successfully created a

  16. PubMed系统特殊服务功能应用概述%Summaries on the Application of Special Service Functions of the PubMed System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶协杰; 王泽武

    2006-01-01

    美国医学图书馆(NLM)开发的PubMed是我国医学科技人员最常使用的一个生物医学文献检索系统,本文针对PubMed实际应用中的问题,主要介绍了该系统几项特殊服务功能的应用方法,包括期刊数据库、医学主题词数据库、单引文匹配器、批引文匹配器、临床咨询、外部链接和存储器等,旨在为需求者提供一些有益的帮助.

  17. Bibliometrics Analysis of Documents of AIDS Collected by PubMed%PubMed收录艾滋病相关文献的计量学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹世君

    2008-01-01

    通过对1998~2007年PubMed所收录的艾滋病相关文献的年代、国别、期刊来源、作者、主题词及副主题词进行统计分析,从而了解近10年来艾滋病的研究现状,揭示对其研究的发展规律.

  18. Pub/Sub系统中基于免疫的新型路由算法%A New Immunity-Based Routing Strategy in Pub/Sub System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王泽洪; 闵妍妮; 刘名扬; 谭韵天

    2012-01-01

    In order to reduce the overhead on the networks by traverse broadcast in the Pub/Sub systems, introduced a new routing algorithm based on immunity. The first stage,select the initial immunity nodes based on the degree threshold 8. The second stage,select core agent nodes and immunity nodes by voting mechanism further. Simulation shows that the immunity routing can reduce the network load and increase the system' s scalability compared with flooding and epidemic and enhance network expansibility. The new immunity-based routing strategy can speed up the message transform, and reduce load.%为减少Pub/Sub系统中因遍历节点而产生的广播负载,在无标度网络的Pub/Sub系统遍历路由的基础上,提出了基于免疫思想的新型路由算法.第一阶段,通过设置阈值δ,选择初始免疫节点;第二阶段,通过投票机制进一步甄选核心代理节点和免疫节点.仿真实验表明所提出的方法与Pub/Sub系统中传统的Gossip算法及洪泛算法相比较,能够限制消息在确定的范围内传播并且降低消息遍历的时间和广播开销的负载.基于免疫的新型路由算法可加快消息的传播速度、降低网络开销.

  19. Adaptação à cultura brasileira dos questionários The O'Leary-Sant e PUF, usados para cistite intersticial Adaptación a la cultura brasileña de los cuestionarios The O'Leary-Sant y Puf, usados para cistitis intersticial Adaptation of the O'Leary-Sant and the PUF for the diagnosis of interstitial cystitis for the Brazilian culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Lima Victal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi traduzir e adaptar à cultura brasileira os instrumentos The O'Leary-Sant e PUF, utilizados no diagnóstico de cistite intersticial. Foram realizadas as etapas metodológicas recomendadas pela literatura internacional para a adaptação cultural. As etapas de tradução, síntese das traduções e retrotradução foram realizadas satisfatoriamente, e a avaliação das versões sintéticas pelo comitê de especialistas resultou em algumas alterações, assegurando as equivalências entre as versões originais e traduzidas. O PUF foi pré-testado entre 40 sujeitos e The O'Leary-Sant em uma amostra de 50 indivíduos, devido à necessidade de ajustes em decorrência da baixa escolaridade da população. O processo de tradução e adaptação foi realizado com sucesso e os instrumentos, após as modificações, demonstraram ser de fácil compreensão e rápido preenchimento. Entretanto, este é um estudo que antecede o processo de validação e será premente o emprego do instrumento em novas pesquisas para que sejam avaliadas suas propriedades psicométricas.Se objetivó traducir y adaptar a la cultura brasileña los instrumentos The O'Leary-Sant y PUF, utilizados para diagnosticar cistitis intersticial. Fueron efectuadas las etapas metodológicas recomendadas por la literatura internacional para adaptación cultural. Las etapas de traducción, síntesis de traducciones y retrotraducción se realizaron satisfactoriamente, la evaluación de las versiones sintetizadas por parte del comité de especialistas derivó en algunas alteraciones, asegurando las equivalencias entre versiones originales y traducidas. El PUF fue pre-testeado con 40 sujetos y The O'Leary-Sant en muestra de 50 individuos, por la necesidad de ajustes derivados de la baja escolarización de la población. El proceso de traducción y adaptación se efectuó con suceso y los instrumentos luego de las modificaciones demostraron ser de sencilla comprensión y

  20. 48 CFR 1519.705-70 - Synopsis of contracts containing Pub. L. 95-507 subcontracting plans and goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... containing Pub. L. 95-507 subcontracting plans and goals. 1519.705-70 Section 1519.705-70 Federal Acquisition... containing Pub. L. 95-507 subcontracting plans and goals. The synopsis of contract award, where applicable... and goals....

  1. Improving accuracy for identifying related PubMed queries by an integrated approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhiyong; Wilbur, W John

    2009-10-01

    PubMed is the most widely used tool for searching biomedical literature online. As with many other online search tools, a user often types a series of multiple related queries before retrieving satisfactory results to fulfill a single information need. Meanwhile, it is also a common phenomenon to see a user type queries on unrelated topics in a single session. In order to study PubMed users' search strategies, it is necessary to be able to automatically separate unrelated queries and group together related queries. Here, we report a novel approach combining both lexical and contextual analyses for segmenting PubMed query sessions and identifying related queries and compare its performance with the previous approach based solely on concept mapping. We experimented with our integrated approach on sample data consisting of 1539 pairs of consecutive user queries in 351 user sessions. The prediction results of 1396 pairs agreed with the gold-standard annotations, achieving an overall accuracy of 90.7%. This demonstrates that our approach is significantly better than the previously published method. By applying this approach to a one day query log of PubMed, we found that a significant proportion of information needs involved more than one PubMed query, and that most of the consecutive queries for the same information need are lexically related. Finally, the proposed PubMed distance is shown to be an accurate and meaningful measure for determining the contextual similarity between biological terms. The integrated approach can play a critical role in handling real-world PubMed query log data as is demonstrated in our experiments.

  2. Science outreach on tap: insights and practices from three years ofDartmouth Science Pubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, R. L.; Serrell, N.; Tobery, C. E.; Riordan, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    The "Cafe Scientifique" (or "Science Cafe") has existed around theworld for decades. In an informal setting, one or more scientistsengage with a lay audience, typically over refreshments of some kind.These Science Cafes have taken many formats and taken place in manyvenues. Some feature a single presenter, some multiple; somecongregate in large venues, some small; some restrict the use of thepowerpoint slides, some do not.Our team at Dartmouth has hosted "Science Pubs" for three years. OurScience Pub takes place in a local pub, from 5-7pm on a weekday once amonth. We choose a theme for a pub and select three presenters. Thecomposition of our panel varies, but we generally have at least onefaculty member and one "less-academic" member, such as a town plannerwhen discussing hurricanes or an organic farmer when discussingpesticides. Often we include a graduate student in the panel. ThePub takes place in three "acts": 1) the presenters each give a briefintroduction to thier take on the topic, usually 10-15 minutes,extemporaneous with no slides, 2) the "wedding reception" phase, whichis a break during which the presenters circulate to the pub tables,answering questions and chatting with the attendees informally, and 3)reconvening for a more 'formal' question and answer period duringwhich the presenters answer questions from the audience.Here, we outline the format that makes up a Dartmouth Science Pub andshare insignts and lessons learned. Among many findings, we havelearned: 1) a group of three presenters makes for a lively discussion,as often presenters 'riff' off one another's points, 2) it is cruicalto have a facilitator, to 'run the show', freeing the sciencepresenters to concentrate on thier audience engagement, and 3) a shortmeeting ahead of time with the presenters is simple and very importantin creating a smooth event, and serves to help the presenters 'codeswitch' and adapt language, in lieu of a formal 'training'.

  3. Half Pint/Puf68 is required for negative regulation of splicing by the SR factor Transformer2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shanzhi; Wagner, Eric J; Mattox, William

    2013-01-01

    The SR family of proteins plays important regulatory roles in the control of alternative splicing in a wide range of organisms. These factors affect splicing through both positive and negative controls of splice site recognition by pre-spliceosomal factors. Recent studies indicate that the Drosophila SR factor Transformer 2 (Tra2) activates and represses splicing through distinct and separable effector regions of the protein. While the interactions of its Arg-Ser-rich activator region have been well studied, cofactors involved in splicing repression have yet to be found. Here we use a luciferase-based splicing reporter assay to screen for novel proteins necessary for Tra2-dependent repression of splicing. This approach identified Half pint, also known as Puf68, as a co-repressor required for Tra2-mediated autoregulation of the M1 intron. In vivo, Half pint is required for Tra2-dependent repression of M1 splicing but is not necessary for Tra2-dependent activation of doublesex splicing. Further experiments indicate that the effect of Hfp is sequence-specific and that it associates with these target transcripts in cells. Importantly, known M1 splicing regulatory elements are sufficient to sensitize a heterologous intron to Hfp regulation. Two alternative proteins deriving from Hfp transcripts, Hfp68, and Hfp58, were found to be expressed in vivo but differed dramatically in their effect on M1 splicing. Comparison of the cellular localization of these forms in S2 cells revealed that Hfp68 is predominantly localized to the nucleus while Hfp58 is distributed across both the nucleus and cytoplasm. This accords with their observed effects on splicing and suggests that differential compartmentalization may contribute to the specificity of these isoforms. Together, these studies reveal a function for Half pint in splicing repression and demonstrate it to be specifically required for Tra2-dependent intron inclusion. PMID:23880637

  4. Half pint/Puf68 is required for negative regulation of splicing by the SR splicing factor Transformer2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shanzhi; Wagner, Eric J; Mattox, William

    2013-08-01

    The SR family of proteins plays important regulatory roles in the control of alternative splicing in a wide range of organisms. These factors affect splicing through both positive and negative controls of splice site recognition by pre-spliceosomal factors. Recent studies indicate that the Drosophila SR factor Transformer 2 (Tra2) activates and represses splicing through distinct and separable effector regions of the protein. While the interactions of its Arg-Ser-rich activator region have been well studied, cofactors involved in splicing repression have yet to be found. Here we use a luciferase-based splicing reporter assay to screen for novel proteins necessary for Tra2-dependent repression of splicing. This approach identified Half pint, also known as Puf68, as a co-repressor required for Tra2-mediated autoregulation of the M1 intron. In vivo, Half pint is required for Tra2-dependent repression of M1 splicing but is not necessary for Tra2-dependent activation of doublesex splicing. Further experiments indicate that the effect of Hfp is sequence-specific and that it associates with these target transcripts in cells. Importantly, known M1 splicing regulatory elements are sufficient to sensitize a heterologous intron to Hfp regulation. Two alternative proteins deriving from Hfp transcripts, Hfp68, and Hfp58, were found to be expressed in vivo but differed dramatically in their effect on M1 splicing. Comparison of the cellular localization of these forms in S2 cells revealed that Hfp68 is predominantly localized to the nucleus while Hfp58 is distributed across both the nucleus and cytoplasm. This accords with their observed effects on splicing and suggests that differential compartmentalization may contribute to the specificity of these isoforms. Together, these studies reveal a function for Half pint in splicing repression and demonstrate it to be specifically required for Tra2-dependent intron inclusion.

  5. MET network in PubMed: a text-mined network visualization and curation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Hong-Jie; Su, Chu-Hsien; Lai, Po-Ting; Huang, Ming-Siang; Jonnagaddala, Jitendra; Rose Jue, Toni; Rao, Shruti; Chou, Hui-Jou; Milacic, Marija; Singh, Onkar; Syed-Abdul, Shabbir; Hsu, Wen-Lian

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis is the dissemination of a cancer/tumor from one organ to another, and it is the most dangerous stage during cancer progression, causing more than 90% of cancer deaths. Improving the understanding of the complicated cellular mechanisms underlying metastasis requires investigations of the signaling pathways. To this end, we developed a METastasis (MET) network visualization and curation tool to assist metastasis researchers retrieve network information of interest while browsing through the large volume of studies in PubMed. MET can recognize relations among genes, cancers, tissues and organs of metastasis mentioned in the literature through text-mining techniques, and then produce a visualization of all mined relations in a metastasis network. To facilitate the curation process, MET is developed as a browser extension that allows curators to review and edit concepts and relations related to metastasis directly in PubMed. PubMed users can also view the metastatic networks integrated from the large collection of research papers directly through MET. For the BioCreative 2015 interactive track (IAT), a curation task was proposed to curate metastatic networks among PubMed abstracts. Six curators participated in the proposed task and a post-IAT task, curating 963 unique metastatic relations from 174 PubMed abstracts using MET. Database URL: http://btm.tmu.edu.tw/metastasisway PMID:27242035

  6. Do smoke-free laws affect revenues in pubs and restaurants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melberg, Hans Olav; Lund, Karl E

    2012-02-01

    In the debate about laws regulating smoking in restaurants and pubs, there has been some controversy as to whether smoke-free laws would reduce revenues in the hospitality industry. Norway presents an interesting case for three reasons. First, it was among the first countries to implement smoke-free laws, so it is possible to assess the long-term effects. Second, it has a cold climate so if there is a negative effect on revenue one would expect to find it in Norway. Third, the data from Norway are detailed enough to distinguish between revenue from pubs and restaurants. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) intervention analysis of bi-monthly observations of revenues in restaurants and pubs show that the law did not have a statistically significant long-term effect on revenue in restaurants or on restaurant revenue as a share of personal consumption. Similar analysis for pubs shows that there was no significant long-run effect on pub revenue.

  7. MET network in PubMed: a text-mined network visualization and curation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Hong-Jie; Su, Chu-Hsien; Lai, Po-Ting; Huang, Ming-Siang; Jonnagaddala, Jitendra; Rose Jue, Toni; Rao, Shruti; Chou, Hui-Jou; Milacic, Marija; Singh, Onkar; Syed-Abdul, Shabbir; Hsu, Wen-Lian

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis is the dissemination of a cancer/tumor from one organ to another, and it is the most dangerous stage during cancer progression, causing more than 90% of cancer deaths. Improving the understanding of the complicated cellular mechanisms underlying metastasis requires investigations of the signaling pathways. To this end, we developed a METastasis (MET) network visualization and curation tool to assist metastasis researchers retrieve network information of interest while browsing through the large volume of studies in PubMed. MET can recognize relations among genes, cancers, tissues and organs of metastasis mentioned in the literature through text-mining techniques, and then produce a visualization of all mined relations in a metastasis network. To facilitate the curation process, MET is developed as a browser extension that allows curators to review and edit concepts and relations related to metastasis directly in PubMed. PubMed users can also view the metastatic networks integrated from the large collection of research papers directly through MET. For the BioCreative 2015 interactive track (IAT), a curation task was proposed to curate metastatic networks among PubMed abstracts. Six curators participated in the proposed task and a post-IAT task, curating 963 unique metastatic relations from 174 PubMed abstracts using MET.Database URL: http://btm.tmu.edu.tw/metastasisway. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. Study on Puffed Food Seasoning with Black Pepper Steak Flavor%黑椒牛排风味膨化食品调味料的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李昌文; 荆晓艳; 纵伟

    2014-01-01

    黑椒牛排风味调味料是近年来产生的一种新型的膨化食品外撒调味料,产品风味独特,口味浓厚。研究了黑胡椒粉、牛肉精粉、食盐、I+G的添加量对膨化食品风味的影响,并利用正交实验对黑椒牛排风味膨化食品调味料的配方进行优化,确定了最佳配比为黑胡椒粉0.3%,食盐1.2%,牛肉精粉0.3%, I+G 0.15%,白砂糖粉1.0%,辣椒粉0.2%。%Black pepper steak flavor seasoning is a new puffed food seasoning with unique flavor and strong taste.Mainly study the effects of addition amount of black pepper powder,beef extract pow-der,salt and I+G on the flavor of puffed food,and optimize the formula of puffed food seasoning with black pepper steak flavor by orthogonal experiment.The results show that the best ratio is black pepper powder 0.3%,salt 1.2%,beef extract powder 0.3%,I+G 0.15%,sugar 1.0%,chili pow-der 0 .2%.

  9. Modeling the effects of biomass accumulation on the performance of a biotrickling filter packed with PUF support for the alkaline biotreatment of dimethyl disulfide vapors in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-García, Luis; Dorado, Antonio D; Morales-Guadarrama, Axayacatl; Sacristan, Emilio; Gamisans, Xavier; Revah, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Excess biomass buildup in biotrickling filters leads to low performance. The effect of biomass accumulation in a biotrickling filter (BTF) packed with polyurethane foam (PUF) was assessed in terms of hydrodynamics and void space availability in a system treating dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) vapors with an alkaliphilic consortium. A sample of colonized support from a BTF having been operating for over a year was analyzed, and it was found that the BTF void bed fraction was reduced to almost half of that calculated initially without biomass. Liquid flow through the examined BTF yielded dispersion coefficient values of 0.30 and 0.72 m(2) h(-1), for clean or colonized PUF, respectively. 3D images of attached biomass obtained with magnetic resonance imaging allowed to calculate the superficial area and the biofilm volume percentage and depth as 650 m(2) m(-3), 35%, and 0.6 mm respectively. A simplified geometric approximation of the complex PUF structure was proposed using an orthogonal 3D mesh that predicted 600 m(2) m(-3) for the same biomass content. With this simplified model, it is suggested that the optimum biomass content would be around 20% of bed volume. The activity of the microorganisms was evaluated by respirometry and the kinetics represented with a Haldane equation type. Experimentally determined parameters were used in a mathematical model to simulate the DMDS elimination capacity (EC), and better description was found when the removal experimental data were matched with a model including liquid axial dispersion in contrast to an ideal plug flow model.

  10. Comparison of two different passive air samplers (PUF-PAS versus SIP-PAS) to determine time-integrated average air concentration of volatile hydrophobic organic pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Kyu; Park, Jong-Eun

    2014-06-01

    Despite remarkable achievements with r some chemicals, a field-measurement technique has not been advanced for volatile hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) that are the subjects of international concern. This study assesses the applicability of passive air sampling (PAS) by comparing PUF-PAS and its modified SIP-PAS which was made by impregnating XAD-4 powder into PUF, overviewing the principles of PAS, screening sensitive parameters, and determining the uncertainty range of PAS-derived concentration. The PAS air sampling rate determined in this study, corrected by a co-deployed low-volume active air sampler (LAS) for neutral PFCs as model chemicals, was ˜1.2 m3 day-1. Our assessment shows that the improved sorption capacity in a SIP lengthens PAS deployment duration by expanding the linear uptake range and then enlarges the effective air sampling volume and detection frequency of chemicals at trace level. Consequently, volatile chemicals can be collected during sufficiently long times without reaching equilibrium when using SIP, while this is not possible for PUF. The most sensitive parameter to influence PAS-derived CA was an air-side mass transfer coefficient (kA), implying the necessity of spiking depuration chemicals (DCs) because this parameter is strongly related with meteorological conditions. Uncertainty in partition coefficients (KPSM-A or KOA) influences PAS-derived CA to a greater extent with regard to lower KPSM-A chemicals. Also, the PAS-derived CA has an uncertainty range of a half level to a 3-fold higher level of the calculated one. This work is expected to establish solid grounds for the improvement of field measurement technique of HOCs.

  11. 改性水溶性PUF木材胶粘剂合成与研究%Synthesis and study of modified water-soluble PUF wood Adhesive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭本辉; 邹向菲; 田端正; 王敏

    2013-01-01

    研究了强碱性条件下以苯酚、尿素和甲醛为原料,三元共缩聚的方法,制得综合性能优于同类产品的混合型水溶性酚醛-脲醛(PUF)树脂.产品胶合强度达到2.17 MPa,经8h水煮和63(±3)℃烘干处理后平均胶合强度达2.99 MPa.

  12. Crawling PubMed with web agents for literature search and alerting services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos CARVALHAL

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present ASAP - Automated Search with Agents in PubMed, a web-based service aiming to manage and automate scientific literature search in the PubMed database. The system allows the creation and management of web agents, parameterized thematically and functionally, that crawl the PubMed database autonomously and periodically, aiming to search and retrieve relevant results according the requirements provided by the user. The results, containing the publications list retrieved, are emailed to the agent owner on a weekly basis, during the activity period defined for the web agent. The ASAP service is devoted to help researchers, especially from the field of biomedicine and bioinformatics, in order to increase their productivity, and can be accessed at: http://esa.ipb.pt/~agentes.

  13. 从MEDLINE到PubMed检索过渡中的主要问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何柏涛; 方习国

    2005-01-01

    MEDLINE是美国国立医学图书馆编辑的期刊索引与文摘数据库,收录了从1966开始、世界上70多个国家、近4500种期刊。PubMed是美国国立医学图书馆在INTERNET上提供的检索数据库,其中MEDLINE是PubMed的主要部分。PubMed比MEDLINE收录的文献更广(包括某些MEDLINE收录的期刊中非医学文献)、更新速度更快;

  14. PubMed Medline 3: Elements de cerca i límits. Gener 2011

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Tutorial sobre els elements de cerca i límits a la base de dades PubMed Medline,produïda per la National Library of Medicine. Conté articles de revistes relacionats amb la literatura biomèdica, la investigació i la pràctica clínica. La base de dades Medline conté les subbases: AIDS (abans Aidsline), Bioethics (abans Bioethicsline), Cancer (abans Cancerlit), Complementary Medicine, Core Clinical Journals, Dental Journals, History of Medicine, Nursing Journals, PubMed Central, OldMedline for Pr...

  15. PubMed Medline 4: La cerca pel tesaurus MeSH. Novembre 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Universitat de Barcelona. CRAI

    2011-01-01

    Tutorial sobre Matèries MeSH de la base de dades PubMed Medline,produïda per la National Library of Medicine. Conté articles de revistes relacionats amb la literatura biomèdica, la investigació i la pràctica clínica. La base de dades Medline conté les subbases: AIDS (abans Aidsline), Bioethics (abans Bioethicsline), Cancer (abans Cancerlit), Complementary Medicine, Core Clinical Journals, Dental Journals, History of Medicine, Nursing Journals, PubMed Central, OldMedline for Pre 1966, Space Li...

  16. Bibliometrics analysis of dentin papers from PubMed%PubMed收录牙本质相关文献的计量学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚丽芸

    2015-01-01

    Objective:Through the analysis of the bibliometrics,the author researched status of the dentin. Method:By the method of bibliometrics,the dentine related papers from PubMed database of the U.S. national medicine library were analyzed. Result:The year,country,source of periodicals,prolific writer and the Major Topic MeSH of dentin papers were an-alyzed,in order to make distribution characteristics and research status of dentine papers clear. Conclusion:Through the analysis of the bibliometrics,it is clear to distribution characteristics and research status of dentine papers.%目的:运用计量学分析方法分析牙本质的相关研究现状。方法:采用文献计量学方法对美国国立医学图书馆提供的PubMed数据库收录的牙本质相关文献进行分析。结果:对PubMed收录的牙本质相关文献的年份、国籍、期刊来源、多产作者、主题词进行统计,并对有关数据进行分析,以明确牙本质相关文献分布特点和研究现状。结论:通过计量学分析,明确牙本质文献分布特点和研究现状。

  17. Analysis of Rehabilitation Medicine Journals Included in JCR and PubMed%JCR和PubMed收录的康复医学期刊分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林晓华; 钟伶; 林丹红

    2013-01-01

    基于SCI的康复医学款目描述及《医学主题词表》(MeSH)对康复的定义,对JCR(期刊引证报告)与PubMed收录的康复医学期刊进行整理与分析;介绍其中影响力较高的期刊,并与引文分析法所获取的该领域重要期刊进行对比分析,为康复医学领域的科研人员与康复临床人员提供参考.

  18. The Relation between Iranian Medical Science Research in PubMed and Burden of Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroughi, Zahra; Siamian, Hasan; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza; Davodi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Scientific productions have been accelerated in Iran in past decades but its association with health problems and disease burden is doubtful. The aim of this study is assessment of the relationship between scientific productions with disease burden in Iran in PubMed dataset during 2010 to 2014. Method: The study was performed with the library method. Data Gathered using Scientometrics indicators and direct observation. The current research includes all articles written by Iranian researchers during 2010 to 2014 which were published in PubMed–indexed journals. The search was performed using keywords included road accident, ischaemic heart diseases, major depression disorders and cerebral vascular diseases. Results: In total 910 articles had been published PubMed -indexed journals. Among them Substance-Related Disorders and Accidents, Traffic had the highest (263 records) and lowest (94 records) records respectively. There was not a direct correlation between Years of Life Lost, Years Lost due to Disability and mortality rate with scientific productions. Conclusions: our results showed Iranian scientific productions in PubMed data set are not related to disease burden however they are not related to high mortality diseases. PMID:27708491

  19. Comparison of PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar: strengths and weaknesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falagas, Matthew E; Pitsouni, Eleni I; Malietzis, George A; Pappas, Georgios

    2008-02-01

    The evolution of the electronic age has led to the development of numerous medical databases on the World Wide Web, offering search facilities on a particular subject and the ability to perform citation analysis. We compared the content coverage and practical utility of PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. The official Web pages of the databases were used to extract information on the range of journals covered, search facilities and restrictions, and update frequency. We used the example of a keyword search to evaluate the usefulness of these databases in biomedical information retrieval and a specific published article to evaluate their utility in performing citation analysis. All databases were practical in use and offered numerous search facilities. PubMed and Google Scholar are accessed for free. The keyword search with PubMed offers optimal update frequency and includes online early articles; other databases can rate articles by number of citations, as an index of importance. For citation analysis, Scopus offers about 20% more coverage than Web of Science, whereas Google Scholar offers results of inconsistent accuracy. PubMed remains an optimal tool in biomedical electronic research. Scopus covers a wider journal range, of help both in keyword searching and citation analysis, but it is currently limited to recent articles (published after 1995) compared with Web of Science. Google Scholar, as for the Web in general, can help in the retrieval of even the most obscure information but its use is marred by inadequate, less often updated, citation information.

  20. Information architecture: study and analysis of data Public Medical base (PubMed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odete Máyra Mesquita Sales

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Based on principles proposed by Rosenfeld and Morville (2006, the present study examined the PubMed database interface, since a well-structured information architecture contributes to good usability in any digital environment. Method. The research development occurred through the use of literature techniques and empirical study on the analysis of information architecture based on organization, navigation, recommended labeling and search for Rosenfeld and Morville (2006 for the sake of usability base PubMed. For better understanding and description of these principles, we used the technique of content analysis. Results. The results showed that the database interface meets the criteria established by the elements of Information Architecture, such as organization based on hypertext structure, horizontal menu and local content divided into categories, identifying active links, global navigation , breadcrumb, textual labeling and iconographic and highlight the search engine. Conclusions. This research showed that the PubMed database interface is well structured, friendly and objective, with numerous possibilities of search and information retrieval. However, there is a need to adopt accessibility standards on this website, so that it reaches more efficiently its purpose of facilitating access to information organized and stored in the PubMed database.

  1. Web search and data mining of natural products and their bioactivities in PubChem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Hao; Tiejun, Cheng; Yanli, Wang; Stephen, Bryant H

    2013-10-01

    Natural products, as major resources for drug discovery historically, are gaining more attentions recently due to the advancement in genomic sequencing and other technologies, which makes them attractive and amenable to drug candidate screening. Collecting and mining the bioactivity information of natural products are extremely important for accelerating drug development process by reducing cost. Lately, a number of publicly accessible databases have been established to facilitate the access to the chemical biology data for small molecules including natural products. Thus, it is imperative for scientists in related fields to exploit these resources in order to expedite their researches on natural products as drug leads/candidates for disease treatment. PubChem, as a public database, contains large amounts of natural products associated with bioactivity data. In this review, we introduce the information system provided at PubChem, and systematically describe the applications for a set of PubChem web services for rapid data retrieval, analysis, and downloading of natural products. We hope this work can serve as a starting point for the researchers to perform data mining on natural products using PubChem.

  2. Evaluation of PubMed filters used for evidence-based searching: validation using relative recall.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendam, A.; Vries Robbe, P.F. de; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.; Overbeke, A.J.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The research sought to determine the value of PubMed filters and combinations of filters in literature selected for systematic reviews on therapy-related clinical questions. METHODS: References to 35,281 included and 48,514 excluded articles were extracted from 2,629 reviews published

  3. The Relation between Iranian Medical Science Research in PubMed and Burden of Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroughi, Zahra; Siamian, Hasan; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza; Davodi, Ali

    2016-07-16

    Scientific productions have been accelerated in Iran in past decades but its association with health problems and disease burden is doubtful. The aim of this study is assessment of the relationship between scientific productions with disease burden in Iran in PubMed dataset during 2010 to 2014. The study was performed with the library method. Data Gathered using Scientometrics indicators and direct observation. The current research includes all articles written by Iranian researchers during 2010 to 2014 which were published in PubMed-indexed journals. The search was performed using keywords included road accident, ischaemic heart diseases, major depression disorders and cerebral vascular diseases. In total 910 articles had been published PubMed -indexed journals. Among them Substance-Related Disorders and Accidents, Traffic had the highest (263 records) and lowest (94 records) records respectively. There was not a direct correlation between Years of Life Lost, Years Lost due to Disability and mortality rate with scientific productions. our results showed Iranian scientific productions in PubMed data set are not related to disease burden however they are not related to high mortality diseases.

  4. A Window on the (Changing) Neighbourhood : The Role of Pubs in the Contested Spaces of Gentrification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ernst, O.; Doucet, B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of gentrification through the lens of the interactions and perceptions which can be found in local, neighbourhood pubs. By interviewing predominantly Dutch, non-gentrifying customers in the rapidly gentrifying Indische Buurt neighbourhood in Amsterdam, we uncovered di

  5. Matching Medline/PubMed data with Web of Science: a routine in R language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rotolo, D.; Leydesdorff, L.

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel routine, namely medlineR, based on the R language, that allows the user to match data from Medline/PubMed with records indexed in the ISI Web of Science (WoS) database. The matching allows exploiting the rich and controlled vocabulary of medical subject headings (MeSH) of Medline/

  6. Risk factors for bladder cancer: challenges of conducting a literature search using PubMed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Ashish; Preslan, Elicia

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the risk factors for bladder cancer using PubMed articles from January 2000 to December 2009. The study also aimed to describe the challenges encountered in the methodology of a literature search for bladder cancer risk factors using PubMed. Twenty-six categories of risk factors for bladder cancer were identified using the National Cancer Institute Web site and the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Web site. A total of 1,338 PubMed searches were run using the term "urinary bladder cancer" and a risk factor term (e.g., "cigarette smoking") and were screened to identify 260 articles for final analysis. The search strategy had an overall precision of 3.42 percent, relative recall of 12.64 percent, and an F-measure of 5.39 percent. Although search terms derived from MeSH had the highest overall precision and recall, the differences did not reach significance, which indicates that for generalized, free-text searches of the PubMed database, the searchers' own terms are generally as effective as MeSH terms.

  7. Multi-lingual search engine to access PubMed monolingual subsets: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmoni, Stéfan J; Soualmia, Lina F; Griffon, Nicolas; Grosjean, Julien; Kerdelhué, Gaétan; Kergourlay, Ivan; Dahamna, Badisse

    2013-01-01

    PubMed contains many articles in languages other than English but it is difficult to find them using the English version of the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Thesaurus. The aim of this work is to propose a tool allowing access to a PubMed subset in one language, and to evaluate its performance. Translations of MeSH were enriched and gathered in the information system. PubMed subsets in main European languages were also added in our database, using a dedicated parser. The CISMeF generic semantic search engine was evaluated on the response time for simple queries. MeSH descriptors are currently available in 11 languages in the information system. All the 654,000 PubMed citations in French were integrated into CISMeF database. None of the response times exceed the threshold defined for usability (2 seconds). It is now possible to freely access biomedical literature in French using a tool in French; health professionals and lay people with a low English language may find it useful. It will be expended to several European languages: German, Spanish, Norwegian and Portuguese.

  8. Finding translational science publications in MEDLINE/PubMed with translational science filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontelo, Paul; Liu, Fang

    2011-12-01

    Translational Science Search (TSS; http://tscience.nlm.nih.gov) is a web application for finding MEDLINE/PubMed journal articles that are regarded by their authors as novel, promising, or may have potential clinical application. A set of "translational" filters and related terms was created by reviewing journal articles published in clinical and translational science (TS) journals. Through E-Utilities, a user's query and TS filters are submitted to PubMed, and then, the retrieved PubMed citations are matched with a database of MeSH terms (for disease conditions) and RxNorm (for interventions) to locate the search term, translational filters found, and associated interventions in the title and abstract. An algorithm ranks the interventions and conditions, and then highlights them in the results page for quick reading and evaluation. Using previously searched terms and standard formulas, the precision and recall of TSS were 0.99 and 0.47, compared to 0.58 and 1.0 for PubMed Entrez, respectively.

  9. 基于PUF的高效低成本RFID认证协议%Low-cost RFID authentication protocol based on PUF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺章擎; 郑朝霞; 戴葵; 邹雪城

    2012-01-01

    The available security mechanisms for the low-cost Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems are either defective or high-cost. Therefore, this paper proposed an efficient security authentication protocol for low-cost RFID system based on Physical Unclonable Function (PUF) and Linear Feedback Shift Register ( LFSR). The protocol provides strong security and can resist physical attack and tag clone with strong privacy.%已提出的针对低成本RFID系统的安全机制,要么存在安全缺陷,要么硬件成本太高.为此设计了一个基于物理不可克隆功能(PUF)的RFID安全认证协议,利用PUF和线性反馈移位寄存器(LFSR)实现了阅读器和标签之间强的安全认证,解决了已有安全协议存在的问题.安全性分析表明:该协议成本低、安全性高,能够抵抗物理攻击和标签克隆,并有极强的隐私性.

  10. Adaptação à cultura brasileira dos questionários The O'Leary-Sant e PUF, usados para cistite intersticial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Lima Victal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi traduzir e adaptar à cultura brasileira os instrumentos The O'Leary-Sant e PUF, utilizados no diagnóstico de cistite intersticial. Foram realizadas as etapas metodológicas recomendadas pela literatura internacional para a adaptação cultural. As etapas de tradução, síntese das traduções e retrotradução foram realizadas satisfatoriamente, e a avaliação das versões sintéticas pelo comitê de especialistas resultou em algumas alterações, assegurando as equivalências entre as versões originais e traduzidas. O PUF foi pré-testado entre 40 sujeitos e The O'Leary-Sant em uma amostra de 50 indivíduos, devido à necessidade de ajustes em decorrência da baixa escolaridade da população. O processo de tradução e adaptação foi realizado com sucesso e os instrumentos, após as modificações, demonstraram ser de fácil compreensão e rápido preenchimento. Entretanto, este é um estudo que antecede o processo de validação e será premente o emprego do instrumento em novas pesquisas para que sejam avaliadas suas propriedades psicométricas.

  11. Data mining a small molecule drug screening representative subset from NIH PubChem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiang-Qun; Chen, Jian-Zhong

    2008-03-01

    PubChem is a scientific showcase of the NIH Roadmap Initiatives. It is a compound repository created to facilitate information exchange and data sharing among the NIH Roadmap-funded Molecular Library Screening Center Network (MLSCN) and the scientific community. However, PubChem has more than 10 million records of compound information. It will be challenging to conduct a drug screening of the whole database of millions of compounds. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to develop a data mining cheminformatics approach in order to construct a representative and structure-diverse sublibrary from the large PubChem database. In this study, a new chemical diverse representative subset, rePubChem, was selected by whole-molecule chemistry-space matrix calculation using the cell-based partition algorithm. The representative subset was generated and was then subjected to evaluations by compound property analyses based on 1D and 2D molecular descriptors. The new subset was also examined and assessed for self-similarity analysis based on 2D molecular fingerprints in comparing with the source compound library. The new subset has a much smaller library size (540K compounds) with minimum similarity and redundancy without loss of the structural diversity and basic molecular properties of its parent library (5.3 million compounds). The new representative subset library generated could be a valuable structure-diverse compound resource for in silico virtual screening and in vitro HTS drug screening. In addition, the established subset generation method of using the combined cell-based chemistry-space partition metrics with pairwised 2D fingerprint-based similarity search approaches will also be important to a broad scientific community interested in acquiring structurally diverse compounds for efficient drug screening, building representative virtual combinatorial chemistry libraries for syntheses, and data mining large compound databases like the PubChem library in general.

  12. Impact of PubMed search filters on the retrieval of evidence by physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Salimah Z; Sontrop, Jessica M; Haynes, R Brian; Iansavichus, Arthur V; McKibbon, K Ann; Wilczynski, Nancy L; Weir, Matthew A; Speechley, Mark R; Thind, Amardeep; Garg, Amit X

    2012-02-21

    Physicians face challenges when searching PubMed for research evidence, and they may miss relevant articles while retrieving too many nonrelevant articles. We investigated whether the use of search filters in PubMed improves searching by physicians. We asked a random sample of Canadian nephrologists to answer unique clinical questions derived from 100 systematic reviews of renal therapy. Physicians provided the search terms that they would type into PubMed to locate articles to answer these questions. We entered the physician-provided search terms into PubMed and applied two types of search filters alone or in combination: a methods-based filter designed to identify high-quality studies about treatment (clinical queries "therapy") and a topic-based filter designed to identify studies with renal content. We evaluated the comprehensiveness (proportion of relevant articles found) and efficiency (ratio of relevant to nonrelevant articles) of the filtered and nonfiltered searches. Primary studies included in the systematic reviews served as the reference standard for relevant articles. The average physician-provided search terms retrieved 46% of the relevant articles, while 6% of the retrieved articles were relevant (corrected) (the ratio of relevant to nonrelevant articles was 1:16). The use of both filters together produced a marked improvement in efficiency, resulting in a ratio of relevant to nonrelevant articles of 1:5 (16 percentage point improvement; 99% confidence interval 9% to 22%; p articles found; p = 0.55). The use of PubMed search filters improves the efficiency of physician searches. Improved search performance may enhance the transfer of research into practice and improve patient care.

  13. Impact of PubMed search filters on the retrieval of evidence by physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Salimah Z.; Sontrop, Jessica M.; Haynes, R. Brian; Iansavichus, Arthur V.; McKibbon, K. Ann; Wilczynski, Nancy L.; Weir, Matthew A.; Speechley, Mark R.; Thind, Amardeep; Garg, Amit X.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Physicians face challenges when searching PubMed for research evidence, and they may miss relevant articles while retrieving too many nonrelevant articles. We investigated whether the use of search filters in PubMed improves searching by physicians. Methods: We asked a random sample of Canadian nephrologists to answer unique clinical questions derived from 100 systematic reviews of renal therapy. Physicians provided the search terms that they would type into PubMed to locate articles to answer these questions. We entered the physician-provided search terms into PubMed and applied two types of search filters alone or in combination: a methods-based filter designed to identify high-quality studies about treatment (clinical queries “therapy”) and a topic-based filter designed to identify studies with renal content. We evaluated the comprehensiveness (proportion of relevant articles found) and efficiency (ratio of relevant to nonrelevant articles) of the filtered and nonfiltered searches. Primary studies included in the systematic reviews served as the reference standard for relevant articles. Results: The average physician-provided search terms retrieved 46% of the relevant articles, while 6% of the retrieved articles were nonrelevant (the ratio of relevant to nonrelevant articles was 1:16). The use of both filters together produced a marked improvement in efficiency, resulting in a ratio of relevant to nonrelevant articles of 1:5 (16 percentage point improvement; 99% confidence interval 9% to 22%; p < 0.003) with no substantive change in comprehensiveness (44% of relevant articles found; p = 0.55). Interpretation: The use of PubMed search filters improves the efficiency of physician searches. Improved search performance may enhance the transfer of research into practice and improve patient care. PMID:22249990

  14. Volatile Flavor Compounds of Chestnuts and Puffed Chestnut Products%板栗及其膨化制品的挥发性香气成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文艳; 刘凌; 吴娜; 张晓磊

    2012-01-01

    采用顶空固相微萃取结合气相色谱-质谱联用技术对生板栗粉、煮板栗和3种膨化板栗制品的挥发性香气成分进行分离鉴定。共鉴定出68种挥发性物质,初步认定吡嗪类物质中的甲基吡嗪、2,3-二甲基吡嗪、2.乙基-6-甲基吡嗪、2,6-二-甲基吡嗪;呋喃类物质中的2-戊基呋喃、γ-丁内酯、2-糠醇、2,5-二氢-3,5-二甲基-2-呋喃酮和1-辛内酯及芳香族类物质中的苯甲醛是板栗的特征风味物质。煮制可提升板栗的香气。膨化板栗片的膨化加工方式对其香气成分影响显著,挤压膨化板栗片的香气物质组成和煮板栗比较相似,微波膨化板栗片中易产生具有枯焦气息的2,4-二叔丁基苯酚,油炸膨化板栗片的挥发性成分最复杂,醛类物质较多。%The volatile flavor compounds of chestnut powder, boiled chestnut and three puffed chestnut products were determined by HS-SPME-GC/MS. Sixty eight kinds of volatile flavor compounds were identified. Four kinds of pyrazine (methylpyrazine, 2,3-dimethyl pyrazine, 2-ethyl-6-methyl pyrazine, 2,6 - dimethyl pyrazine) , five kinds of furans (2-pentyl furan, γ-Butyrolactone, 2-furfuryl alcohol, 2,5-dihydro-3,5-dimethyl-2-furanone, 2 ( 3 H )-Fura-none, 5-butyldihydro-) as well as one kind of aromatic substances ( Benzaldehyde ) were initially identified as impor-tant aroma impact compounds. Chestnut aroma enhanced after cooking. Different puffing significantly influence aroma compositions of puffed chestnuts crisps. The aroma substance composition of extruded chestnut crisps and boiled chestnut are quite similar. A lot of 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, which has paste flavor was generated in microwave puffing chestnut crisps. Volatile components of fried puffed chestnut crisps were the most complex which contained more alde-hydes substances.

  15. PubMed收录国内5种大学医学学报论文计量分析%Bibliometric analysis of 5 journals indexed PubMed from Chinese medical universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄开颜; 陈清

    2011-01-01

    By GoPubMed as retrieval tool, 5 journals indexed PubMed in Chinese medical universities from 2003 to2010 are objective. Some bibliometric indexes from the 5 journals were collected, compared and analyzed as following: the number of articles, the percentage of articles indexed by PubMed, the city distribution of articles and high-frequency words of articles by PubMed.%应用GoPubMed检索工具,对PubMed收录的国内5种大学医学学报2003-2010年论文进行文献计量学研究,比较各刊发文数、PubMed收摘率、城市分布、高频词等。结果发现《南方医科大学学报》发文数及PubMed收录篇数最多,且城市分布较广,《中南大学学报(医学版)》PubMed收摘率最高,《南方医科大学学报》《北京大学学报(医学版)》《中南大学学报(医学版)》3种学报以人类和患者为研究对象的临床医学方面的论文比例较大。

  16. PUB13, a U-box/ARM E3 ligase, regulates plant defense, cell death, and flowering time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Dai, Liangying; Wang, Guo-Liang

    2012-08-01

    The ubiquitination pathway is involved in a variety of cellular processes in plant growth, development, and immune responses. However, the function of this pathway in connecting plant development and innate immunity is still largely unknown. Recently, we characterized the U-box/ARM E3 ubiquitin ligase PUB13, which regulates both immune responses and flowering time in Arabidopsis. Here, we show that the rice Spl11 gene can complement the cell death and flowering functions of PUB13 in the pub13 mutant. In addition, HFR1, which functions mainly in photomorphogenesis, was identified as one of the PUB13-interacting proteins through yeast two-hybrid screening and pull-down assays. Because the flowering phenotype of pub13 depends on photoperiod, we propose that PUB13 may regulate HFR1 to fine-tune photomorphogenesis and flowering time in Arabidopsis.

  17. Effects of the Varieties and Properties of Starch on Puffing under Microwave Irradiation%淀粉的种类及性质对微波膨化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立彦; 芮汉明; 李作为

    2001-01-01

    研究了5种淀粉物料的微波膨化效果,以及淀粉的性质对微波膨化的影响。结果表明:糯米及马铃薯淀粉等含支链淀粉较多的混合物料的微波膨化产品组织结构好,膨化率较高;淀粉糊化度大于95%后,产品的膨化率将下降;淀粉的老化不利于微波膨化,并随着老化程度的增加,产品的膨化率不断下降。%The effects of varieties and properties of starch on puffing under microwave irradiation were researched. The results showed that glutinous rice, potato starch and the materials that have more amylopectin were suited for microwave puffing. And if the gelatinization degree was more than 95 %, the puffing ratio of the corresponding products was decreased. It found that the retrogradation was not advantageous to puffing with the increasing degree or retrogradation, this disadvantageous effect was enhanced.

  18. Design of High Randomness PUF Circuit Based on Bridge Unbalance Effect%基于电桥失衡效应的高随机性PUF电路设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱浩宇; 汪鹏君; 李刚

    2016-01-01

    通过对物理不可克隆函数(Physical Unclonable Functions, PUF)电路和电桥失衡效应的研究,提出一种高随机性 PUF 电路设计方案.该方案首先利用工艺偏差导致电桥失衡产生随机偏差电压,然后结合电压型灵敏放大器产生随机的、不可克隆的响应信号.在TSMC 65nm CMOS工艺下,采用全定制方法设计PUF电路, PUF单元电路的版图面积为2.23µm×2.43µm.通过Spectre软件,在不同电压下对所设计PUF电路进行Monte Carlo仿真验证,分析其逻辑功能、随机性等特性.实验结果表明:所设计的PUF电路在电源电压1.2 V和温度25℃下随机性可达51.8%.%Through researching on the physical unclonable function (PUF) circuit and bridge unbalance effect, a high randomness PUF circuit is proposed in this paper. In this scheme, random deviation voltages are generated from bridge unbalance caused by process deviation. Then, random deviation voltages are inputted into sense amplifier to obtain response which is random and unclonable. Under TSMC 65nm CMOS process, the full custom design method is adopted. The layout area of PUF circuit is 2.23µm×2.43µm. Using Spectre software, Monte Carlo simulation results verify the designed PUF circuit under different voltage conditions. And also, the logical function and random characteristics are analyzed based on the simulation results. At 1.2V & 25℃, the randomness of the proposed PUF circuit achieves 51.8%.

  19. Links to Other DBs (based on PubChem) - NBDC NikkajiRDF | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available imple search URL - Data acquisition method The data was created from the mapping ...List Contact us NBDC NikkajiRDF Links to Other DBs (based on PubChem) Data detail Data name Links to Other D...ckathon ). Data file File name: NBDC_NikkajiRDF_link2OtherDBs_basedOnPubChem.tar.gz File URL: ftp://ftp.bios...ciencedbc.jp/archive/nikkaji/LATEST/NBDC_NikkajiRDF_link2OtherDBs_basedOnPubChem.tar.gz File size: 46.1 MB S... Policy | Contact Us Links to Other DBs (based on PubChem) - NBDC NikkajiRDF | LSDB Archive ...

  20. Characteristics of biodegradable puffed slow-release fertilizers%生物降解型膨化缓释化肥的特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙有光; 孙喆

    2008-01-01

    目的:采用不造成二次污染的变质玉米、油脚等工农业废弃物为缓释材料,利用形成的三维骨架结构包裹尿素等化肥微粒,制备可生物降解的膨化缓释肥料.方法:缓释材料经过调质、膨化、粉碎、挤压造粒处理,使其具有三维骨架结构,通过改变工艺条件和原料种类、比例,调整三维骨架结构及尺寸,达到控制肥料释放速率的目的.结果:利用该方法制备膨化缓释肥料样品,其中三维骨架结构在化肥微粒表面形成致密的保护层(尿素包裹率>85%,三维骨架表面大于20 nm的针孔数量<20%,骨架网膜厚度>30 nm),样品在土壤中随保护层受微生物作用降解脱落,化肥微粒逐渐露出并溶入土壤.膨化缓释化肥的释放过程是由颗粒外部向芯部连续发生降解-脱落-溶入现象,整个释放过程不会产生污染环境的残留物.纯尿素(100%)浸泡在水中经过10 min即全部溶解,而尿素含量81.50%的样品120 min后仅释放8.2%;纯尿素(100%)在土壤中经过20 h溶解85%,而含尿素81.5%,40.9%的膨化缓释肥料经过相同时间释放1.3%,0.8%,释放速率仅为纯尿素的1/65.38,1/106.25.结论:膨化缓释化肥在水、土壤中的释放速率明显降低(以纯尿素为参照物);生物降解性好(生物降解率>95%),可增加土壤中有机肥含量,有利于改善土壤结构.%AIM: Agricultural and industrial wastes, such as deteriorated corns and oil foots, were used as slow-release materials to prepare biodegradable puffed fertilizers, with urea was encapsulated in fertilizer particles with three-dimensional (3D) skeleton construction.METHODS: Slow-release materials formed 3D skeleton construction through modified treatments, swelling, comminution,extrusion and pelleting. Also 3D skeleton construction and its scales were modified by alternating technical conditions,species and ratio of materials in order to realize the controlled-release of fertilizers.RESULTS: Puffed slow

  1. Optimization of response surface methodology for microwave puffing of apple chips%微波膨化苹果脆片的响应曲面法优化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢晓会; 黄午阳; 李春阳

    2011-01-01

    [目的]对微波膨化苹果脆片进行响应曲面法优化分析,以获得其优质、高效生产技术.[方法]以红富士苹果为试材,对预干燥后的苹果片进行微波膨化,探讨切片厚度、含水量、膨化时间和微波功率4因素及其交互作用对苹果脆片膨化率的影响,并采用响应曲面法对各影响因素进行优化分析.[结果]切片厚度、膨化时间和微波功率对苹果脆片膨化率影响显著,膨化时间和微波功率的交互作用对膨化率影响显著;微波膨化苹果脆片的最佳工艺条件为:切片厚度6 mm,含水量18%,微波功率中档,膨化时间30.0 s.[结论]采用响应曲面法可以优化微波膨化苹果脆片生产工艺,只要掌握适宜的切片厚度、微波功率及膨化时间,就能获得质地和风味俱佳的苹果脆片.%[Objective]In order to develop a high quality and efficient apple chips production technology, the response surface methodology of microwave puffing was optimized. [Method ]The experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of various slice thickness (A), moisture content of pre-dried apple chips (B), puffing time (C), microwave power (D) and their interaction on the expansion rate of microwave puffing apple chips by using response surface analysis with the pre-dried red Fuji apple slices. [Results]The results showed that slice thickness, puffing time and microwave power significantly affected the expansion rate of microwave puffed apple chips. In addition, the interaction of puffing time and microwave power were found to be significant. According to response surface analysis, the optimum puffing conditions were as follows: 6 mm slice thickness, 18% moisture content of apple slices, mid-range microwave power, and 30.0s puffing time. [Conclusion]The response surface methodology for microwave puffing apple chips was developed for obtaining high quality and good flavor crispy apple chips by optimizing the appropriate slice thickness, microwave

  2. Puffed Noncommutative Nonabelian Vortices

    CERN Document Server

    Bouatta, N; MacCaferri, C; Bouatta, Nazim; Evslin, Jarah; Maccaferri, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    We present new solutions of noncommutative gauge theories in which coincident unstable vortices expand into unstable circular shells. As the theories are noncommutative, the naive definition of the locations of the vortices and shells is gauge-dependent, and so we define and calculate the profiles of these solutions using the gauge-invariant noncommutative Wilson lines introduced by Gross and Nekrasov. We find that charge 2 vortex solutions are characterized by two positions and a single nonnegative real number, which we demonstrate is the radius of the shell. We find that the radius is identically zero in all 2-dimensional solutions. If one considers solutions that depend on an additional commutative direction, then there are time-dependent solutions in which the radius oscillates, resembling a braneworld description of a cyclic universe. There are also smooth BIon-like space-dependent solutions in which the shell expands to infinity, describing a vortex ending on a domain wall.

  3. Aging and social networks in Spain: the importance of pubs and churches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buz, José; Sanchez, Marta; Levenson, Michael R; Aldwin, Carolyn M

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether the social convoy model and socioemotional selectivity theory apply in collectivistic cultures by examining the contextual factors which are hypothesized to mediate age-related differences in social support in a collectivist European country. Five hundred Spanish community-dwelling older adults (Mean age = 74.78, SD = 7.76, range = 60-93) were interviewed to examine structural aspects of their social networks. We found that age showed highly complex relationships with network size and frequency of interaction, depending on the network circle and the mediation of cultural factors. Family structure was important for social relations in the inner circle, while pubs and churches were important for peripheral relations. Surprisingly, pub attendance was the most important variable for maintenance of social support of peripheral network members. In general, the results support the applicability of the social convoy and socioemotional selectivity constructs to social support among Spanish older adults.

  4. Number of monthly hits to WJG articles linked to PubMed surpasses 70000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The latest data from LinkOut Team NCBI/US NLM show that the number of hits to World Journal of Gastroenterology (WJG) articles linked to LinkOut of PubMed reached 2 254327 during the period of April, 2004, to September,2007; further, the number was 72532 for the month of September, 2007, which was 7344 hits higher than that of the same period in 2006.

  5. Explosion Puffing Drying of Pear at Low Temperature and Air Current%梨低温气流膨化干燥工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志勇; 吴茂玉; 葛邦国; 刘林林; 马超

    2012-01-01

    Single factor experiment and three factors quadratic regression rotation combination design were adopted to optimize the technology for explosion puffing drying of pear. Effects of variable that were maltodextrin concentration, residence time, pressure difference, puffing temperature, vacuum drying temperature and vacuum drying time on three indexes that were water content of product, crispness, and color were studied. Based on the experimental data, the best maltodextrin concentration, residence time and pressure difference were identified as 15 %, 5 min and 0.2 MPa; the quadratic regression model of three indexes was deduced, then variables were analyzed with response surface methodology (RSM). The optimal technical conditions were obtained as follows: puffing temperature is 89.68 ℃, vacuum drying temperature is 58 ℃ and vacuum drying time is 78.65 min.%采用单因素和三因素二次回归正交旋转组合设计,对梨低温气流膨化干燥工艺进行了研究。分析浸泡所用麦芽糊精浓度、停滞时间、压力差、膨化温度、抽空温度和抽空时间因素对梨脆片产品的含水率、脆度和色泽的影响。在此基础上由试验数据确定出最适麦芽糊精浓度为15%,停滞时间为5min,压力差为0.2MPa;推导出描述3个指标的二次回归模型,并对膨化温度、抽空温度和抽空时间进行响应面分析,得出梨膨化干燥工艺条件为:膨化温度为89.68℃、抽空温度为58℃、抽空时间为78.65min。

  6. An analysis of gene/protein associations at PubMed scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyysalo Sampo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Event extraction following the GENIA Event corpus and BioNLP shared task models has been a considerable focus of recent work in biomedical information extraction. This work includes efforts applying event extraction methods to the entire PubMed literature database, far beyond the narrow subdomains of biomedicine for which annotated resources for extraction method development are available. Results In the present study, our aim is to estimate the coverage of all statements of gene/protein associations in PubMed that existing resources for event extraction can provide. We base our analysis on a recently released corpus automatically annotated for gene/protein entities and syntactic analyses covering the entire PubMed, and use named entity co-occurrence, shortest dependency paths and an unlexicalized classifier to identify likely statements of gene/protein associations. A set of high-frequency/high-likelihood association statements are then manually analyzed with reference to the GENIA ontology. Conclusions We present a first estimate of the overall coverage of gene/protein associations provided by existing resources for event extraction. Our results suggest that for event-type associations this coverage may be over 90%. We also identify several biologically significant associations of genes and proteins that are not addressed by these resources, suggesting directions for further extension of extraction coverage.

  7. Dialysis search filters for PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, and Embase databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iansavichus, Arthur V; Haynes, R Brian; Lee, Christopher W C; Wilczynski, Nancy L; McKibbon, Ann; Shariff, Salimah Z; Blake, Peter G; Lindsay, Robert M; Garg, Amit X

    2012-10-01

    Physicians frequently search bibliographic databases, such as MEDLINE via PubMed, for best evidence for patient care. The objective of this study was to develop and test search filters to help physicians efficiently retrieve literature related to dialysis (hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis) from all other articles indexed in PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, and Embase. A diagnostic test assessment framework was used to develop and test robust dialysis filters. The reference standard was a manual review of the full texts of 22,992 articles from 39 journals to determine whether each article contained dialysis information. Next, 1,623,728 unique search filters were developed, and their ability to retrieve relevant articles was evaluated. The high-performance dialysis filters consisted of up to 65 search terms in combination. These terms included the words "dialy" (truncated), "uremic," "catheters," and "renal transplant wait list." These filters reached peak sensitivities of 98.6% and specificities of 98.5%. The filters' performance remained robust in an independent validation subset of articles. These empirically derived and validated high-performance search filters should enable physicians to effectively retrieve dialysis information from PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, and Embase.

  8. Dialysis Search Filters for PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, and Embase Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iansavichus, Arthur V.; Haynes, R. Brian; Lee, Christopher W.C.; Wilczynski, Nancy L.; McKibbon, Ann; Shariff, Salimah Z.; Blake, Peter G.; Lindsay, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Physicians frequently search bibliographic databases, such as MEDLINE via PubMed, for best evidence for patient care. The objective of this study was to develop and test search filters to help physicians efficiently retrieve literature related to dialysis (hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis) from all other articles indexed in PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, and Embase. Design, setting, participants, & measurements A diagnostic test assessment framework was used to develop and test robust dialysis filters. The reference standard was a manual review of the full texts of 22,992 articles from 39 journals to determine whether each article contained dialysis information. Next, 1,623,728 unique search filters were developed, and their ability to retrieve relevant articles was evaluated. Results The high-performance dialysis filters consisted of up to 65 search terms in combination. These terms included the words “dialy” (truncated), “uremic,” “catheters,” and “renal transplant wait list.” These filters reached peak sensitivities of 98.6% and specificities of 98.5%. The filters’ performance remained robust in an independent validation subset of articles. Conclusions These empirically derived and validated high-performance search filters should enable physicians to effectively retrieve dialysis information from PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, and Embase. PMID:22917701

  9. PubMed医学信息资源及其检索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨凝清

    2003-01-01

    @@ 由美国国家生物技术信息中心(National Center for Biotechnology Information,NCBI)所开发的网上MEDLINE系统--PubMed,以其界面友好及检索灵活、方便、准确,备受用户青睐.值得一提的是,PubMed作为循证医学的重要检索工具,在数据库建设和检索软件的开发过程中,提供比MEDLINE光盘检索更为方便、简捷的检索循证医学信息方式.作为医疗科研人员,应该熟悉和掌握其使用方法.本文对PubMed的信息资源状况、检索方法以及界面功能作一简单介绍.

  10. Precision and negative predictive value of links between ClinicalTrials.gov and PubMed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huser, Vojtech; Cimino, James J

    2012-01-01

    One of the goals of translational science is to shorten the time from discovery to clinical use. Clinical trial registries were established to increase transparency in completed and ongoing clinical trials, and they support linking trials with resulting publications. We set out to investigate precision and negative predictive value (NPV) of links between ClinicalTrials.gov (CT.gov) and PubMed. CT.gov has been established to increase transparency in clinical trials and the link to PubMed is crucial for supporting a number of important functions, including ascertaining publication bias. We drew a random sample of trials downloaded from CT.gov and performed manual review of retrieved publications. We characterize two types of links between trials and publications (NCT-link originating from MEDLINE and PMID-link originating from CT.gov).The link precision is different based on type (NCT-link: 100%; PMID-link: 63% to 96%). In trials with no linked publication, we were able to find publications 44% of the time (NPV=56%) by searching PubMed. This low NPV shows that there are potentially numerous publications that should have been formally linked with the trials. Our results indicate that existing trial registry and publisher policies may not be fully enforced. We suggest some automated methods for improving link quality.

  11. Discovering biomedical semantic relations in PubMed queries for information retrieval and database curation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chung-Chi; Lu, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Identifying relevant papers from the literature is a common task in biocuration. Most current biomedical literature search systems primarily rely on matching user keywords. Semantic search, on the other hand, seeks to improve search accuracy by understanding the entities and contextual relations in user keywords. However, past research has mostly focused on semantically identifying biological entities (e.g. chemicals, diseases and genes) with little effort on discovering semantic relations. In this work, we aim to discover biomedical semantic relations in PubMed queries in an automated and unsupervised fashion. Specifically, we focus on extracting and understanding the contextual information (or context patterns) that is used by PubMed users to represent semantic relations between entities such as 'CHEMICAL-1 compared to CHEMICAL-2' With the advances in automatic named entity recognition, we first tag entities in PubMed queries and then use tagged entities as knowledge to recognize pattern semantics. More specifically, we transform PubMed queries into context patterns involving participating entities, which are subsequently projected to latent topics via latent semantic analysis (LSA) to avoid the data sparseness and specificity issues. Finally, we mine semantically similar contextual patterns or semantic relations based on LSA topic distributions. Our two separate evaluation experiments of chemical-chemical (CC) and chemical-disease (CD) relations show that the proposed approach significantly outperforms a baseline method, which simply measures pattern semantics by similarity in participating entities. The highest performance achieved by our approach is nearly 0.9 and 0.85 respectively for the CC and CD task when compared against the ground truth in terms of normalized discounted cumulative gain (nDCG), a standard measure of ranking quality. These results suggest that our approach can effectively identify and return related semantic patterns in a ranked order

  12. Key steps in developing a cognitive vaccine against traumatic flashbacks: visuospatial Tetris versus verbal Pub Quiz.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A Holmes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Flashbacks (intrusive memories of a traumatic event are the hallmark feature of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, however preventative interventions are lacking. Tetris may offer a 'cognitive vaccine' [1] against flashback development after trauma exposure. We previously reported that playing the computer game Tetris soon after viewing traumatic material reduced flashbacks compared to no-task [1]. However, two criticisms need to be addressed for clinical translation: (1 Would all games have this effect via distraction/enjoyment, or might some games even be harmful? (2 Would effects be found if administered several hours post-trauma? Accordingly, we tested Tetris versus an alternative computer game--Pub Quiz--which we hypothesized not to be helpful (Experiments 1 and 2, and extended the intervention interval to 4 hours (Experiment 2. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The trauma film paradigm was used as an experimental analog for flashback development in healthy volunteers. In both experiments, participants viewed traumatic film footage of death and injury before completing one of the following: (1 no-task control condition (2 Tetris or (3 Pub Quiz. Flashbacks were monitored for 1 week. Experiment 1: 30 min after the traumatic film, playing Tetris led to a significant reduction in flashbacks compared to no-task control, whereas Pub Quiz led to a significant increase in flashbacks. Experiment 2: 4 hours post-film, playing Tetris led to a significant reduction in flashbacks compared to no-task control, whereas Pub Quiz did not. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: First, computer games can have differential effects post-trauma, as predicted by a cognitive science formulation of trauma memory. In both Experiments, playing Tetris post-trauma film reduced flashbacks. Pub Quiz did not have this effect, even increasing flashbacks in Experiment 1. Thus not all computer games are beneficial or merely distracting post-trauma - some may be harmful. Second, the

  13. Comparison on effect for searching medical references by PubMed and Google%PubMed与Google检索特定医学期刊文献的效果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国栋

    2005-01-01

    目的比较评价PubMed与Google以不同检索入口查找特定英文医学期刊文献的效果.方法随机选取10篇英文参考文献作为源数据,分别在PubMed、Google中使用5种检索项及其组合进行检索测试,根据结果出现位置打分.结果无论PubMed与Google,输入前3位作者姓名命中位置最靠前,5种入口有4种PubMed的得分高于Google.结论查找特定期刊文献应首先选择PubMed,输入前3位作者进行检索.

  14. 基于PubMed的Takotsubo心肌病研究热点分析%Bibliometric analysis of PubMed-based literature on research focus of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王占胜; 杨学成; 吴涛; 胡健

    2012-01-01

    目的:调查心尖球形综合征( takotsubo cardiomyopathy,TTC)研究文献,分析当前该主题的研究热点.方法:对PubMed数据库中2009~2011年发表的有关TTC的文献进行调查分析,统计主要主题词出现的频次,截取频次大于6次的主题词作为高频次主题词.两两统计高频次主题词在同一篇文献中出现的频率,形成主题词词篇矩阵,利用SPSS统计软件对矩阵进行聚类分析,通过分析各类的文献内容得到该主题的研究热点.结果:共检出近3年发表的有关TTC论文646篇,出现频次超过6次的主题词为34个,其中出现频次最高的主题词为TIC的诊断(为228次),通过对这34个高频次主题词聚类分析得到10个研究热点.结论:肾上腺肿瘤与TTC发病的关系、药物诱导的TTC、TTC发病与基因、TTC胸痛及冠脉病理、TTC的MRI诊断与药物治疗、TTC并发症、TTC与长QT间期综合征的关系及与心肌梗死的鉴别诊断、超声及放射性核素成像对TTC心功能的评价、TCC的放射诊断、治疗及蛛网膜下腔出血并发症与TCC,均为近3年TTC的研究热点.%AIM; To examine "hot" topics on Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) research by analyzing the related literature. METHODS: Articles related to TTC published in the PubMed database during the years 2009 to 2011 were selected. Subject heading (MeSH) terms of the articles were downloaded and the frequency of the major MeSH terms was statistically calculated. High-frequency MeSH terms in the literature formed the co-word matrix by the appearance frequency of a pair of MeSH terms in the same literature. The co-word analysis was used to cluster these medical MeSHs. The research focus was obtained after statistically analyzing the contents of each cluster. RESULTS: A total of 646 articles associated with TTC were found in the PubMed database and 34 MeSH terms appeared more than six times. The MeSH term " Takotsubo cardiomyopathy/diagnosis" was found with the highest

  15. Maréchal Brigitte, Les Frères Musulmans en Europe : Racines et discours, PUF, coll. Proche Orient, 2009, 310 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderrahmane Moussaoui

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Successeurs des réformistes, les Frères Musulmans (FM, objet central de l’ouvrage de Brigitte Maréchal paru en 2009 aux Éditions PUF, sont les acteurs d’un processus politique à référence religieuse qui a sans doute contribué à l’avènement et au développement de l’islam politique tel qu’il s’exprime aujourd’hui dans différents contextes. L’ouvrage, fruit d’une enquête menée auprès des sympathisants et des leaders, est donc une contribution importante à la connaissance d’un mouvement embléma...

  16. Design of Configurable Resistance Divider Type DAC-PUF Circuit%可配置电阻分压型DAC-PUF电路设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪鹏君; 李刚; 钱浩宇

    2016-01-01

    Physical Unclonable Functions (PUF)exploits process variation across same structure and design parameter unit circuits during the manufacturing processes to generate numerous unique,random and unclonable security keys.In this pa-per,a configurable resistance divider type DAC-PUF scheme is proposed,which consists of input register,resistor-string based DAC,voltage comparator and timing control module.After configuring the DAC cell by applying input challenges,the PUF circuit updates keys without physically replacement.In TSMC-LP 65 nm CMOS technology,the layout occupies 72. 4μm × 87. 8μm with custom designing.Experimental results show that the PUF circuit possesses nice statistical characteristic of u-niqueness,high randomness of 99. 1%and high stability of 97. 8%,both with respect to supply voltage variation from 1. 08V to 1. 32V,and temperature variation from -40℃to 125℃.It can be effectively used in information security field.%物理不可克隆函数(Physical Unclonable Function,PUF)电路利用结构和设计参数相同的单元电路在制造过程中存在的随机工艺偏差,产生具有唯一性、随机性和不可克隆性的密钥.通过对电阻失配和数模转换器(Digital to Analogue Conversion,DAC)的研究,提出一种可配置电阻分压型DAC-PUF电路设计方案.该PUF电路由输入寄存器、电阻分压型DAC、电压比较器和时序控制模块构成.通过激励信号配置DAC单元,使该PUF电路无需更换硬件便可实现输出密钥的变化.在TSMC-LP 65 nm CMOS工艺下采用全定制方式进行版图设计,面积为72.4μm ×87.8μm.实验结果表明该PUF电路唯一性高,且在不同温度(-40~125℃)和电压(1.08~1.32V)下随机性和可靠性分别大于99.1%和97.8%,可广泛应用于信息安全领域.

  17. Thermodynamic assessment of the LiF-CeF3-ThF4 system: Prediction of PuF3 concentration in a molten salt reactor fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneš, O.; Konings, R. J. M.

    2013-04-01

    A thermodynamic description of the LiF-CeF3-ThF4 system is made in this study using a two-sublattice model for the description of the solid solution and a quasi-chemical model based on quadruplet approximation for the liquid phase. New calorimetric experimental data of the binary LiF-CeF3, CeF3-ThF4 and ternary LiF-CeF3-ThF4 systems have been obtained in this work justifying the calculated phase diagrams. Using the obtained thermodynamic assessment the concentration of PuF3 in the LiF-ThF4 melt was estimated based on the similarities with CeF3 and the melting behaviour of the initial molten salt fast reactor fuel was discussed.

  18. Study on processing technique of thermal spray puffing edible bone meal%热喷膨化食用骨粉加工工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高鹤; 邓宇; 许岩

    2012-01-01

    对热喷膨化食用骨粉加工工艺进行了研究,确定骨粉热喷膨化的最佳工艺参数为:热喷膨化前物料的水分含量为25%、热喷膨化时的压力为0.7MPa、保温时间为7min。%The processing technique of thermal spray puffing edible bone meal was studied in this articte. The optimum process parameter was as follows: the moisture content of material before thermal spray was 25%, thermal spray pressure 0.7 MPa, and incubated for 7 min.

  19. 75 FR 55393 - Determination Under Section 1010(a) of the Supplemental Appropriations Act, 2010 (Pub. L. 111-212)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Determination Under Section 1010(a) of the Supplemental Appropriations Act, 2010 (Pub. L. 111-212) Pursuant to section 1010(a) of the Supplemental Appropriations Act, 2010 (Pub. L. 111-212) and the authority vested...

  20. [Limiting a Medline/PubMed query to the "best" articles using the JCR relative impact factor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avillach, P; Kerdelhué, G; Devos, P; Maisonneuve, H; Darmoni, S J

    2014-12-01

    Medline/PubMed is the most frequently used medical bibliographic research database. The aim of this study was to propose a new generic method to limit any Medline/PubMed query based on the relative impact factor and the A & B categories of the SIGAPS score. The entire PubMed corpus was used for the feasibility study, then ten frequent diseases in terms of PubMed indexing and the citations of four Nobel prize winners. The relative impact factor (RIF) was calculated by medical specialty defined in Journal Citation Reports. The two queries, which included all the journals in category A (or A OR B), were added to any Medline/PubMed query as a central point of the feasibility study. Limitation using the SIGAPS category A was larger than the when using the Core Clinical Journals (CCJ): 15.65% of PubMed corpus vs 8.64% for CCJ. The response time of this limit applied to the entire PubMed corpus was less than two seconds. For five diseases out of ten, limiting the citations with the RIF was more effective than with the CCJ. For the four Nobel prize winners, limiting the citations with the RIF was more effective than the CCJ. The feasibility study to apply a new filter based on the relative impact factor on any Medline/PubMed query was positive. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. A Device to Measure a Smoker’s Puffing Topography and Real-Time Puff-By-Puff “Tar” Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slayford Sandra J.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A device for measuring the flow, duration and volume characteristics of human puffing behaviour when smoking cigarettes is described. Cigarettes are smoked through a holder comprising a measured pressure drop across a critical orifice. The holder also contains a Light Emitting Diode (LED and photodetector that measures light obscuration in order to estimate nicotine-free dry particulate matter (NFDPM, “tar” delivery. All data are recorded on a puff-by-puff basis and displayed in real time. These NFDPM estimates are known as optical “tar” (OT, and are derived from the calibration of the OT measurement versus gravimetric NFDPM yields of cigarettes under a range of smoking regimes. In a test study, puff volumes from 20-80 mL were recorded to ± 6.0% of a pre-set volume, with an absolute error of 4.7 mL for an 80 mL volume drawn on a lit cigarette, and an average error of less than 2.0 mL across the range 20-80 mL. The relationship between NFDPM and OT was linear (R2 = 0.99 and accurate to ± 1.3 mg per cigarette over the range 1-23 mg per cigarette. The device provides an alternative to the widely used part filter methodology for estimating mouth level exposure with an added benefit that no further laboratory smoking replication or analysis is required. When used in conjunction with the part filter methodology, the puffing behaviour recorded can explain anomalies in the data while providing a second independent estimate.

  2. Field-measured uptake rates of PCDDs/Fs and dl-PCBs using PUF-disk passive air samplers in Gyeonggi-do, South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jongwon; Lee, Gangwoong

    2014-09-01

    The collection of 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-ρ-dioxins and dibenzo furans (PCDDs/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) using a polyurethane form (PUF)-disk passive air sampler (PAS) was investigated in urban-residential and industrial areas. This was performed to assess the feasibility of using this method as an alternative to an active air sampler (AAS). The PUF-disk PAS was exposed to ambient air over a period of 37-370 and 57-173 days in urban and industrial areas, respectively, together with AASs. The sum of total toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) ΣPCDDs/Fs and Σdl-PCB was typically high in the industrial area, with values within the range 0.171-0.635 pg-TEQ/m(3), and 0.037-0.300 pg-TEQ/m(3) in the urban-residential area. To derive the time-weighted average (TWA) concentration from the PAS data accurately, it was estimated that the PAS deployed for less than 80 days was adequate to maintain linear accumulation conditions. PCDDs/Fs are mainly particle bound and showed low average uptake rates of 1.4m(3)d(-1), while dl-PCBs were slightly higher with 2.0m(3)d(-1) because of its high vapor pressure. Most of the congener concentrations measured using the PAS and AAS were within a factor of two, indicating that PASs can be used to monitor spatial and temporal variations in the concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the atmosphere.

  3. 基于NCBI开放接口的学科信息平台PubMed检索服务功能实现%Realization of subject plaform in PubMed based on NCBI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏叶; 黄文

    2014-01-01

    As the world's largest network of biomedical bibliographic databases , PubMed plays an irreplaceable role in the field of biomedical research .The majority of biomedical researchers have accustomarily to used PubMed to find the lit-erature they need .Therefore , how to take advantage PubMed ,build and improve biomedical platforms is assuming new im-portance .NCBI provides open Application Programming Inteface ( API) of Web Service ,which is an effective combination of the two.%作为全球最大的网络生物医学文献数据库,美国PubMed在生物医学研究领域有着不可替代的作用。生物医学领域的科研人员已经习惯于利用PubMed查找所需要的信息资源。该文简要介绍了NCBI提供的Web Serv-ice接口功能,以及如何利用该接口在将PubMed检索服务内嵌到学科服务平台中,并将PubMed服务与图书馆的文献传递服务进行了尝试性的集成。

  4. The development of PubMed search strategies for patient preferences for treatment outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph van Hoorn

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of respecting patients’ preferences when making treatment decisions is increasingly recognized. Efficiently retrieving papers from the scientific literature reporting on the presence and nature of such preferences can help to achieve this goal. The objective of this study was to create a search filter for PubMed to help retrieve evidence on patient preferences for treatment outcomes. Methods A total of 27 journals were hand-searched for articles on patient preferences for treatment outcomes published in 2011. Selected articles served as a reference set. To develop optimal search strategies to retrieve this set, all articles in the reference set were randomly split into a development and a validation set. MeSH-terms and keywords retrieved using PubReMiner were tested individually and as combinations in PubMed and evaluated for retrieval performance (e.g. sensitivity (Se and specificity (Sp. Results Of 8238 articles, 22 were considered to report empirical evidence on patient preferences for specific treatment outcomes. The best search filters reached Se of 100 % [95 % CI 100-100] with Sp of 95 % [94–95 %] and Sp of 97 % [97–98 %] with 75 % Se [74–76 %]. In the validation set these queries reached values of Se of 90 % [89–91 %] with Sp 94 % [93–95 %] and Se of 80 % [79–81 %] with Sp of 97 % [96–96 %], respectively. Conclusions Narrow and broad search queries were developed which can help in retrieving literature on patient preferences for treatment outcomes. Identifying such evidence may in turn enhance the incorporation of patient preferences in clinical decision making and health technology assessment.

  5. SLIM: an alternative Web interface for MEDLINE/PubMed searches – a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ackerman Michael

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the rapid growth of medical information and the pervasiveness of the Internet, online search and retrieval systems have become indispensable tools in medicine. The progress of Web technologies can provide expert searching capabilities to non-expert information seekers. The objective of the project is to create an alternative search interface for MEDLINE/PubMed searches using JavaScript slider bars. SLIM, or Slider Interface for MEDLINE/PubMed searches, was developed with PHP and JavaScript. Interactive slider bars in the search form controlled search parameters such as limits, filters and MeSH terminologies. Connections to PubMed were done using the Entrez Programming Utilities (E-Utilities. Custom scripts were created to mimic the automatic term mapping process of Entrez. Page generation times for both local and remote connections were recorded. Results Alpha testing by developers showed SLIM to be functionally stable. Page generation times to simulate loading times were recorded the first week of alpha and beta testing. Average page generation times for the index page, previews and searches were 2.94 milliseconds, 0.63 seconds and 3.84 seconds, respectively. Eighteen physicians from the US, Australia and the Philippines participated in the beta testing and provided feedback through an online survey. Most users found the search interface user-friendly and easy to use. Information on MeSH terms and the ability to instantly hide and display abstracts were identified as distinctive features. Conclusion SLIM can be an interactive time-saving tool for online medical literature research that improves user control and capability to instantly refine and refocus search strategies. With continued development and by integrating search limits, methodology filters, MeSH terms and levels of evidence, SLIM may be useful in the practice of evidence-based medicine.

  6. The trend of indexed papers in PubMed covering different aspects of self-immolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Self-immolation is a fatal and devastating method of committing suicide used around the world. The chief aim of the present article is to look at the trend of indexed papers in PubMed covering different aspects of self-immolation. PubMed search engine (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) was searched by using six keywords i.e. "self-immolation", "self-inflicted burn", "self-burning", "self-incineration", "suicidal burns" and "suicide by burning". These keywords should appear either in the title or the abstract of the articles. The time frame was set as to retrieve papers expanding from early indexing time up to end of the year 2011. Based on the search strategy 132 papers were retrieved from these total numbers; 12 (9%) were categorized as review papers; 24 (18%) as case reports and the rest 96 (73%) were original studies. It seems that the number of papers increased during the years of investigations and the highest indexed papers i.e. 14 (10.6%) belonged to the year 2011. While most journals, published only one article the highest indexed papers i.e. 35 (26.5%) belonged to Burns. There was an increasing trend in the number of self-immolation articles indexed in PubMed since 1965. Three journals i.e. Burns, Journal of Burn Care and Rehabilitation and Journal of Forensic Sciences hosted for more than 37% of all those indexed articles. However, given the increasing trend of self-immolation still more studies are needed to shed light on the diverse aspects of this appalling human behavior.

  7. Proyecto de industria de cerveza artesanal con Brew Pub en Valladolid

    OpenAIRE

    Granado Sanz, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo del proyecto es la construcción y puesta en marcha de una industria para la producción de cerveza artesanal en Valladolid. Además de la producción se incentivarán las ventas y publicidad de la marca mediante la instalación de un Brew Pub dentro de la misma, ofreciendo la cerveza producida en las mejores condiciones de calidad. La capacidad productiva para la que está diseñada la industria es de 225.000 litros de cerveza anuales. El envasado de la misma será en latas de aluminio...

  8. Proyecto de industria de cerveza artesanal con Brew Pub en Valladolid

    OpenAIRE

    Granado Sanz, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo del proyecto es la construcción y puesta en marcha de una industria para la producción de cerveza artesanal en Valladolid. Además de la producción se incentivarán las ventas y publicidad de la marca mediante la instalación de un Brew Pub dentro de la misma, ofreciendo la cerveza producida en las mejores condiciones de calidad. La capacidad productiva para la que está diseñada la industria es de 225.000 litros de cerveza anuales. El envasado de la misma será en latas de aluminio...

  9. [Google and PubMed for physicians: how to find information without getting lost].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Núñez, C F; Sendra Portero, F

    2013-06-01

    Searching on Internet looking for clinically relevant medical information, used as a clinical decision aid tool, for self-learning or for research, is currently a common practice in Radiology. This task has been strengthened by the technological environment where radiologists work with direct access to information sources from the Workstation. The aim of this paper is to review the basic features of information searching tools in order to understand their functions and to optimize medical information searching on Internet. Google, Google Scholar and PubMed are reviewed as models for that purpose.

  10. Utilization of the PICO framework to improve searching PubMed for clinical questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keitz Sheri

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Supporting 21st century health care and the practice of evidence-based medicine (EBM requires ubiquitous access to clinical information and to knowledge-based resources to answer clinical questions. Many questions go unanswered, however, due to lack of skills in formulating questions, crafting effective search strategies, and accessing databases to identify best levels of evidence. Methods This randomized trial was designed as a pilot study to measure the relevancy of search results using three different interfaces for the PubMed search system. Two of the search interfaces utilized a specific framework called PICO, which was designed to focus clinical questions and to prompt for publication type or type of question asked. The third interface was the standard PubMed interface readily available on the Web. Study subjects were recruited from interns and residents on an inpatient general medicine rotation at an academic medical center in the US. Thirty-one subjects were randomized to one of the three interfaces, given 3 clinical questions, and asked to search PubMed for a set of relevant articles that would provide an answer for each question. The success of the search results was determined by a precision score, which compared the number of relevant or gold standard articles retrieved in a result set to the total number of articles retrieved in that set. Results Participants using the PICO templates (Protocol A or Protocol B had higher precision scores for each question than the participants who used Protocol C, the standard PubMed Web interface. (Question 1: A = 35%, B = 28%, C = 20%; Question 2: A = 5%, B = 6%, C = 4%; Question 3: A = 1%, B = 0%, C = 0% 95% confidence intervals were calculated for the precision for each question using a lower boundary of zero. However, the 95% confidence limits were overlapping, suggesting no statistical difference between the groups. Conclusion Due to the small number of searches for each arm

  11. The interest of Romanian consumers in using QR codes in restaurants and pubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius BĂLĂŞESCU

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The fast development of smartphone technology has created an opportunity to use QR code, considered a popular way of mobile tagging due to its ease of use. Various types of hospitality units, such as accommodations or restaurants and bars have found in QR codes an excellent marketing tool. This paper presents the results of a marketing research study conducted in Brasov city from Romania regarding the consumers’ interest in using QR codes in restaurants and pubs. The results show that mostly the young generation of consumers is aware of QR codes existence because they have smartphones and they are always interested in testing the latest technologies.

  12. Beyond PubMed: Searching the "Grey Literature" for Clinical Trial Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrome, Leslie

    2014-07-01

    Clinical trial results have been traditionally communicated through the publication of scholarly reports and reviews in biomedical journals. However, this dissemination of information can be delayed or incomplete, making it difficult to appraise new treatments, or in the case of missing data, evaluate older interventions. Going beyond the routine search of PubMed, it is possible to discover additional information in the "grey literature." Examples of the grey literature include clinical trial registries, patent databases, company and industrywide repositories, regulatory agency digital archives, abstracts of paper and poster presentations on meeting/congress websites, industry investor reports and press releases, and institutional and personal websites.

  13. Qatar biomedical and cancer publications in PubMed between 2000 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeneldin, Ahmed A; Taha, Fatma Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to analyse the past trends of biomedical and cancer publications from Qatar listed on PubMed for the years 2000-2012. These findings were then compared with the corresponding global number of publications. PubMed was searched for cancer publications, clinical trials, publications on humans or other species. Searching for "Qatar*" in the "Affiliation" field yielded the lowest number of publications; searching for "Qatar*" in the "Affiliation" or in "Title/Abstract" yielded a moderate number of results and searching for "Qatar*" in the "Affiliation" or "Title/Abstract" or "Text Word" fields yielded the highest number of publications. The annual percentage change (APC) from one year to the next was calculated for the population and each type of publication. Information on the population of Qatar was gathered from the website of Qatar Statistics Authority to determine the correlation of papers published per 1000 population. The number of publications retrieved from PubMed was not particularly different for each variation of search carried out. However, the most representative number of publications was retrieved upon searching for "Qatar*" in the "Affiliation" or in "Title/Abstract" fields. Between the years 2000 and 2012, the total number of biomedical publications from Qatar increased 24 times with an average APC of 33.4%, which was found to be more than the APC of the population in Qatar which averaged at 9%. The number of biomedical publications per 1000 population increased from 0.02 in 2000 to 0.15% in 2012. Most publications retrieved were humans studies and occasionally were for other animal species. Cancer publications in Qatar represented 16.9% of the total publications and the number of cancer publications per 1000 population increased from 0% in 2000 to 0.02% in 2012. Publications classified as clinical trials represented 4.6% of Qatar biomedical publications. Publication of cancer clinical trials were very rare (0.4%). Despite the

  14. Study on the Process of Peanut Coated Foodstuff with Explosion Puffing Drying Technology%变温压差膨化技术制取花生裹衣食品的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾玉洁; 马和庆; 孙晓东; 宋伟; 秦丽丽

    2012-01-01

    以糖、面粉、米粉和变性淀粉为复配料,采用变温压差膨化技术制备花生休闲食品。通过改变膨化温度、抽空时间、抽空温度、膨化压力和停滞时间等因素,考察各因素对花生休闲食品质量品质的影响,确定了变温压差膨化的最佳工艺条件:膨化温度为100℃;膨化压力差为0.2 Mpa;停滞时间为10min;抽空温度为80℃;抽空时间为150min。结果表明,采用以上工艺条件生产的花生膨化产品的硬度比超市花生豆明显降低了69.04%,脆度增加了52.21%,酥脆可口,营养味美。%The peanut leisure food was prepared based on complex ingredients of soft sugar, flour, rice powder and modified starch by using the technology of explosion puffing drying technology with modified temperature and pressure. The effects of various factors such as puffing temperature, vacuum drying temperature and time, dwell time and pressure on peanut leisure food quality were in- vestigated. Finally, the optimum technological condition of explosion puffing drying process with modified temperature and pressure was determined. That was puffing temperature of 100℃, dwell pressure of 0.2Mpa, dwell time of 10min, vacuum drying temperature of 80℃, vacuum drying time of 150min. The results showed that the hardness of puffed peanut was markedly lower than that of pea- nut product from supermarket by 69.04%, and the crispness was increased by 52.21%. The explo- sion puffed drying peanut was crisp, delicious and nutritious.

  15. Effects of microwave puffing on nutrients and microstructure of pumpkin crisp%微波膨化对南瓜片营养成分和微观结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐圣兰; 李春阳; 石彦国

    2011-01-01

    [Objective ]The present experiment was conducted to study the changes in nutrient concentration and microstructure of pumpkin crisps after microwave puffing. [ Method]Response surface methodology was used to optimize the technical parameters of pumpkin crisp processing. The pumpkin crisps made by using optimized protocol were analyzed for changes in nutrients , and microstructure of puffed pumpkin crisp was determined. [Result]Changes in nutrient concentration have been ohserved in microwave puffed pumpkin crisps. the reducing sugar content increased hy 3.36% , while the protein, starch, crude fiber, fat, and organic acid content decreased by 0.13 , 3.50, 3.61 , 0.17, and 0.04% . respectively.The results of SDS-PAGE and scanning electronic microscope showed that the weight of protein in pumpkin crisp decreased after microwave puffing, while the surface area crisps increased. [Conclustion]The results revealed heneficial effects of microwave puffing in balancing the nutrients in pumpkin crisps from the health point of view. The microwave puffing was also found useful to enhance the quality and flavor of pumpkin crisp.%[目的]掌握微波膨化后南瓜片营养成分和微观结构的变化,为深化南瓜片微波膨化理论研究与应用提供依据.[方法]采用响应曲面法对微波膨化南瓜片的工艺参数进行优化,并测定该优化条件下微波膨化南瓜片营养成分和微观结构的变化.[结果]微波膨化后南瓜片各营养成分均发生变化,其中还原糖含量增加3.36%、蛋白质含量降低0.13%、淀粉含量降低3.50%、粗纤维含量降低3.61%、脂肪含量降低0.17%、有机酸含量降低0.04%.SDS-PAGE测定和扫描电镜图均显示,微波膨化后南瓜片蛋白质分子量降低,细胞表面积明显增大.[结论]微波膨化能够改善南瓜片的营养成分和微观结构,有利于产品质量和风味的提升.

  16. PuF, an antimetastatic and developmental signaling protein, interacts with the Alzheimer’s amyloid-β precursor protein via a tissue-specific proximal regulatory element (PRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahiri Debomoy K

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer’s disease (AD is intimately tied to amyloid-β (Aβ peptide. Extraneuronal brain plaques consisting primarily of Aβ aggregates are a hallmark of AD. Intraneuronal Aβ subunits are strongly implicated in disease progression. Protein sequence mutations of the Aβ precursor protein (APP account for a small proportion of AD cases, suggesting that regulation of the associated gene (APP may play a more important role in AD etiology. The APP promoter possesses a novel 30 nucleotide sequence, or “proximal regulatory element” (PRE, at −76/−47, from the +1 transcription start site that confers cell type specificity. This PRE contains sequences that make it vulnerable to epigenetic modification and may present a viable target for drug studies. We examined PRE-nuclear protein interaction by gel electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA and PRE mutant EMSA. This was followed by functional studies of PRE mutant/reporter gene fusion clones. Results EMSA probed with the PRE showed DNA-protein interaction in multiple nuclear extracts and in human brain tissue nuclear extract in a tissue-type specific manner. We identified transcription factors that are likely to bind the PRE, using competition gel shift and gel supershift: Activator protein 2 (AP2, nm23 nucleoside diphosphate kinase/metastatic inhibitory protein (PuF, and specificity protein 1 (SP1. These sites crossed a known single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP. EMSA with PRE mutants and promoter/reporter clone transfection analysis further implicated PuF in cells and extracts. Functional assays of mutant/reporter clone transfections were evaluated by ELISA of reporter protein levels. EMSA and ELISA results correlated by meta-analysis. Conclusions We propose that PuF may regulate the APP gene promoter and that AD risk may be increased by interference with PuF regulation at the PRE. PuF is targeted by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitor 1, which also

  17. The U-Box/ARM E3 ligase PUB13 regulates cell death, defense, and flowering time in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Ahn, Il-Pyung; Ning, Yuese; Park, Chan-Ho; Zeng, Lirong; Whitehill, Justin G A; Lu, Haibin; Zhao, Qingzhen; Ding, Bo; Xie, Qi; Zhou, Jian-Min; Dai, Liangying; Wang, Guo-Liang

    2012-05-01

    The components in plant signal transduction pathways are intertwined and affect each other to coordinate plant growth, development, and defenses to stresses. The role of ubiquitination in connecting these pathways, particularly plant innate immunity and flowering, is largely unknown. Here, we report the dual roles for the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Plant U-box protein13 (PUB13) in defense and flowering time control. In vitro ubiquitination assays indicated that PUB13 is an active E3 ubiquitin ligase and that the intact U-box domain is required for the E3 ligase activity. Disruption of the PUB13 gene by T-DNA insertion results in spontaneous cell death, the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and salicylic acid (SA), and elevated resistance to biotrophic pathogens but increased susceptibility to necrotrophic pathogens. The cell death, hydrogen peroxide accumulation, and resistance to necrotrophic pathogens in pub13 are enhanced when plants are pretreated with high humidity. Importantly, pub13 also shows early flowering under middle- and long-day conditions, in which the expression of SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1 and FLOWERING LOCUS T is induced while FLOWERING LOCUS C expression is suppressed. Finally, we found that two components involved in the SA-mediated signaling pathway, SID2 and PAD4, are required for the defense and flowering-time phenotypes caused by the loss of function of PUB13. Taken together, our data demonstrate that PUB13 acts as an important node connecting SA-dependent defense signaling and flowering time regulation in Arabidopsis.

  18. Benchmarking Ligand-Based Virtual High-Throughput Screening with the PubChem Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Butkiewicz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapidly increasing availability of High-Throughput Screening (HTS data in the public domain, such as the PubChem database, methods for ligand-based computer-aided drug discovery (LB-CADD have the potential to accelerate and reduce the cost of probe development and drug discovery efforts in academia. We assemble nine data sets from realistic HTS campaigns representing major families of drug target proteins for benchmarking LB-CADD methods. Each data set is public domain through PubChem and carefully collated through confirmation screens validating active compounds. These data sets provide the foundation for benchmarking a new cheminformatics framework BCL::ChemInfo, which is freely available for non-commercial use. Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR models are built using Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs, Support Vector Machines (SVMs, Decision Trees (DTs, and Kohonen networks (KNs. Problem-specific descriptor optimization protocols are assessed including Sequential Feature Forward Selection (SFFS and various information content measures. Measures of predictive power and confidence are evaluated through cross-validation, and a consensus prediction scheme is tested that combines orthogonal machine learning algorithms into a single predictor. Enrichments ranging from 15 to 101 for a TPR cutoff of 25% are observed.

  19. Geography of Africa biomedical publications: An analysis of 1996–2005 PubMed papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uthman Mubashir B

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scientific publications play an important role in scientific process providing a key linkage between knowledge production and use. Scientific publishing activity worldwide over the past decades shows that most countries in Africa have low levels of publication. We sought to examine trends and contribution of different Africa subregions and individual countries as represented by the articles indexed by PubMed between 1996 and 2005. Results Research production in Africa is highly skewed; South Africa, Egypt, and Nigeria make up a striking 60% of the total number of articles indexed by PubMed between 1996 and 2005. When adjusted for population size smaller countries, such as The Gambia, Gabon and Botswana, were more productive than Nigeria and Kenya. The Gambia and Eritrea had better records when total production was adjusted for gross domestic product. The contribution of Africa to global research production was persistently low through the period studied. Conclusion In this study, we found that most populous and rich countries (such as South Africa, Egypt, and Nigeria have correspondingly higher research production; but smaller countries can be productive. We noted continuous increases and reassuring trends in the production of research articles from all African subregions during the period 1996 – 2005. However, contribution of Africa to global research production was limited.

  20. Medical literature searches: a comparison of PubMed and Google Scholar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourbakhsh, Eva; Nugent, Rebecca; Wang, Helen; Cevik, Cihan; Nugent, Kenneth

    2012-09-01

    Medical literature searches provide critical information for clinicians. However, the best strategy for identifying relevant high-quality literature is unknown. We compared search results using PubMed and Google Scholar on four clinical questions and analysed these results with respect to article relevance and quality. Abstracts from the first 20 citations for each search were classified into three relevance categories. We used the weighted kappa statistic to analyse reviewer agreement and nonparametric rank tests to compare the number of citations for each article and the corresponding journals' impact factors. Reviewers ranked 67.6% of PubMed articles and 80% of Google Scholar articles as at least possibly relevant (P = 0.116) with high agreement (all kappa P-values Google Scholar articles had a higher median number of citations (34 vs. 1.5, P Google Scholar searches often identify different articles. In this study, Google Scholar articles were more likely to be classified as relevant, had higher numbers of citations and were published in higher impact factor journals. The identification of frequently cited articles using Google Scholar for searches probably has value for initial literature searches. © 2012 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2012 Health Libraries Group.

  1. PubAngioGen: a database and knowledge for angiogenesis and related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Liu, Yongrui; Wang, Huan; He, Yuan; Wang, Xue; He, Yundong; Lv, Fang; Chen, Huaqing; Pang, Xiufeng; Liu, Mingyao; Shi, Tieliu; Yi, Zhengfang

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis is the process of generating new blood vessels based on existing ones, which is involved in many diseases including cancers, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus. Recently, great efforts have been made to explore the mechanisms of angiogenesis in various diseases and many angiogenic factors have been discovered as therapeutic targets in anti- or pro-angiogenic drug development. However, the resulted information is sparsely distributed and no systematical summarization has been made. In order to integrate these related results and facilitate the researches for the community, we conducted manual text-mining from published literature and built a database named as PubAngioGen (http://www.megabionet.org/aspd/). Our online application displays a comprehensive network for exploring the connection between angiogenesis and diseases at multilevels including protein-protein interaction, drug-target, disease-gene and signaling pathways among various cells and animal models recorded through text-mining. To enlarge the scope of the PubAngioGen application, our database also links to other common resources including STRING, DrugBank and OMIM databases, which will facilitate understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms of angiogenesis and drug development in clinical therapy.

  2. GeneView: a comprehensive semantic search engine for PubMed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Philippe; Starlinger, Johannes; Vowinkel, Alexander; Arzt, Sebastian; Leser, Ulf

    2012-07-01

    Research results are primarily published in scientific literature and curation efforts cannot keep up with the rapid growth of published literature. The plethora of knowledge remains hidden in large text repositories like MEDLINE. Consequently, life scientists have to spend a great amount of time searching for specific information. The enormous ambiguity among most names of biomedical objects such as genes, chemicals and diseases often produces too large and unspecific search results. We present GeneView, a semantic search engine for biomedical knowledge. GeneView is built upon a comprehensively annotated version of PubMed abstracts and openly available PubMed Central full texts. This semi-structured representation of biomedical texts enables a number of features extending classical search engines. For instance, users may search for entities using unique database identifiers or they may rank documents by the number of specific mentions they contain. Annotation is performed by a multitude of state-of-the-art text-mining tools for recognizing mentions from 10 entity classes and for identifying protein-protein interactions. GeneView currently contains annotations for >194 million entities from 10 classes for ∼21 million citations with 271,000 full text bodies. GeneView can be searched at http://bc3.informatik.hu-berlin.de/.

  3. PubMed及其衍生数据库在医药领域的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕霖

    2014-01-01

    本文对PubMed在医药领域的特色功能进行了介绍,对比了PubMed与其衍生数据库在功能方面的异同,探索了使用PubMed进行检索的基本策略,并通过案例分析了上述数据库在医药领域专利审查和研发查新中的特点和优势.

  4. 借助 PubMed 实现医学期刊数字化推广的技术方法%Technologies and methods for digital marketing of medical journals on PubMed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万明; 许媛媛; 申学颖; 张莹; 张群

    2014-01-01

    分析PubMed对生物医学期刊发展的积极影响,特别是其Linkout功能在扩大期刊影响力方面的作用。以《生物医学与环境科学(英文版)》为例,介绍了利用Linkout功能实现从PubMed网站到期刊网站全文“无缝链接”的技术方法。%The effect of PubMed on the development of biomedical journals and the role of its Linkout function in extending the effect of journals were analyzed , followed by a description of the technologies and methods for the full-text seamless link of journal Websites and PubMed using its Linkout function with Biomedical and Environmental Sciences as an example .

  5. GenBank数据库和PubMed数据库中序列数据信息检索比较%Comparison of sequential data retrieval results from GenBank and PubMed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李轶

    2009-01-01

    通过对GenBank数据库和PubMed数据库的数据来源、检索界面和检索结果等的对比分析,发现2个检索库检索的序列数据信息存在差别,GenBank数据库检索结果和检准率均高于PubMed数据库.

  6. 76 FR 39905 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541), as amended by the Antarctic Science, Tourism and Conservation Act of 1996, has... Wisconsin-Madison, 1525 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1299. Activity for Which Permit Is...

  7. 77 FR 37445 - Notice of Permit Modification Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541), as amended by the Antarctic Science, Tourism and Conservation Act of 1996, has... assess the change in foraging behavior upon the arrival of whales in the penguin's foraging area...

  8. 76 FR 49797 - Notice of Permit Modification Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541), as ] amended by the Antarctic Science, Tourism and Conservation Act of 1996, has... substantial penguin and seabird populations which are relevant to the analysis of population trends. The ASPA...

  9. PubMed vs. HighWire Press: a head-to-head comparison of two medical literature search engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhecke, Thomas E; Barnes, Michael A; Zimmerman, Janet; Shoichet, Sandor

    2007-09-01

    PubMed and HighWire Press are both useful medical literature search engines available for free to anyone on the internet. We measured retrieval accuracy, number of results generated, retrieval speed, features and search tools on HighWire Press and PubMed using the quick search features of each. We found that using HighWire Press resulted in a higher likelihood of retrieving the desired article and higher number of search results than the same search on PubMed. PubMed was faster than HighWire Press in delivering search results regardless of search settings. There are considerable differences in search features between these two search engines.

  10. 75 FR 62892 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub .L. 95-541)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541), as amended by the Antarctic Science, Tourism and Conservation Act of 1996, has... Modification Requested: The Foundation issued a permit (2009-015) to Ron Naveen on August 25,2008. The...

  11. 78 FR 76862 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ... the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541), as amended by the Antarctic Science, Tourism.... Likewise, the sex of individual whales can be determined from genetic markers from the skin samples...

  12. 低成本E0级实木复合地板用PUF树脂胶的研制%Research on Low Cost PUF Resin for Manufacturing E0 Grade Solid Composition Flooring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵临五; 王春鹏; 张伟; 石建军; 储富祥

    2012-01-01

    按酚醛树脂的制备工艺,用NaOH为催化剂,在碱性条件下制备了U/P质量比为150%~158%的苯酚改性脲醛树脂.该胶制备工艺简单,反应平稳,操作易控制,再现性好,成本较低,贮存期达30d.该PUF胶压制的杨木三合板,桉-杨实木复合地板,胶合强度符合Ⅱ类胶合板的要求,甲醛释放量<0.5mg/L,100℃沸水煮6h浸渍剥离为0.%The phenol-urea-formaldehyde (PUF) resin for Eo degree flooring board were synthesized by alkali traditional process and using NaOH as the catalyst, with a U/P mass ratio of 150% - 158% and a F/ (P+U) mole ratio of 0.97 or 0.99. The adhesive production had many advantages of simple manufacture process, smooth reacting, easy operation and good reproducibility. The resulted PUF resins had such as low free formaldehyde, low free phenol, low cost and long reserving time(>30 days). The bond strength of PUF resin bonded composition flooring could meet the requirements of type Ⅱ plywood, the formaldehyde emission was less than 0.5mg/L, and no peeling off occurred in immersion test (PUF bonded samples immersed in l00℃ boiling water for 6hr).

  13. 医学文献网上免费检索系统——PubMed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万丽娟; 万立野; 刘丹丹

    2009-01-01

    PubMed是由美国国立医学图书馆生物技术信息中心开发的一个数字化项目。本文就PubMed收录范围、检索方法、特征工具栏、检索常用按钮及其链接作如下介绍:

  14. Establishment of the Secure Channel between Broker Nodes in Pub/Sub System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Shuren

    2006-01-01

    The paper mainly discusses the integrity of the forwarded subscription message guaranteed by secure channel which encrypted in data communication by using data encryption standard (DES) algorithm and chaos code algorithm between broker nodes in the routing process of the content-based publish/subscribe system. It analyzes the security of the secure channel encrypted with data communication by DES algorithm and chaos code algorithm, and finds out the secure channel can be easily attacked by known plain text. Therefore, the paper proposes the improved algorithm of message encryption and authentication, combining encryption and the generation of the message authentication code together to finish scanning at one time, which enhances both the secure degree and running efficiency. This secure channel system has a certain reference value to the pub/sub system requiring highly communication security.

  15. Towards Automatic Extraction of Social Networks of Organizations in PubMed Abstracts

    CERN Document Server

    Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha; Gonzalez, Graciela

    2010-01-01

    Social Network Analysis (SNA) of organizations can attract great interest from government agencies and scientists for its ability to boost translational research and accelerate the process of converting research to care. For SNA of a particular disease area, we need to identify the key research groups in that area by mining the affiliation information from PubMed. This not only involves recognizing the organization names in the affiliation string, but also resolving ambiguities to identify the article with a unique organization. We present here a process of normalization that involves clustering based on local sequence alignment metrics and local learning based on finding connected components. We demonstrate the application of the method by analyzing organizations involved in angiogenensis treatment, and demonstrating the utility of the results for researchers in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries or national funding agencies.

  16. The PubChemQC project: A large chemical database from the first principle calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maho, Nakata

    2015-12-01

    In this research, we have been constructing a large database of molecules by ab initio calculations. Currently, we have over 1.53 million entries of 6-31G* B3LYP optimized geometries and ten excited states by 6-31+G* TDDFT calculations. To calculate molecules, we only refer the InChI (International Chemical Identifier) representation of chemical formula by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), thus, no reference to experimental data. These results are open to public at http://pubchemqc.riken.jp/. The molecular data have been taken from the PubChem Project (http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/) which is one of the largest in the world (approximately 63 million molecules are listed) and free (public domain) database. Our final goal is, using these data, to develop a molecular search engine or molecular expert system to find molecules which have desired properties.

  17. Structuring Chemical Space: Similarity-Based Characterization of the PubChem Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cincilla, Giovanni; Thormann, Michael; Pons, Miquel

    2010-01-12

    The ensemble of conceivable molecules is referred to as the Chemical Space. In this article we describe a hierarchical version of the Affinity Propagation (AP) clustering algorithm and apply it to analyze the LINGO-based similarity matrix of a 500 000-molecule subset of the PubChem database, which contains more than 19 million compounds. The combination of two highly efficient methods, namely the AP clustering algorithm and LINGO-based molecular similarity calculations, allows the unbiased analysis of large databases. Hierarchical clustering generates a numerical diagonalization of the similarity matrix. The target-independent, intrinsic structure of the database , derived without any previous information on the physical or biological properties of the compounds, maps together molecules experimentally shown to bind the same biological target or to have similar physical properties.

  18. ONER: Tool for Organization Named Entity Recognition from Affiliation Strings in PubMed Abstracts

    CERN Document Server

    Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha; Gonzalez, Graciela

    2010-01-01

    Automatically extracting organization names from the affiliation sentences of articles related to biomedicine is of great interest to the pharmaceutical marketing industry, health care funding agencies and public health officials. It will also be useful for other scientists in normalizing author names, automatically creating citations, indexing articles and identifying potential resources or collaborators. Today there are more than 18 million articles related to biomedical research indexed in PubMed, and information derived from them could be used effectively to save the great amount of time and resources spent by government agencies in understanding the scientific landscape, including key opinion leaders and centers of excellence. Our process for extracting organization names involves multi-layered rule matching with multiple dictionaries. The system achieves 99.6% f-measure in extracting organization names.

  19. The PubChemQC Project: a large chemical database from the first principle calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Nakata, Maho

    2015-01-01

    In this research, we have been constructing a large database of molecules by {\\it ab initio} calculations. Currently, we have over 1.53 million entries of 6-31G* B3LYP optimized geometries and ten excited states by 6-31+G* TDDFT calculations. To calculate molecules, we only refer the InChI (International Chemical Identifier) representation of chemical formula by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), thus, no reference to experimental data. These results are open to public at http://pubchemqc.riken.jp/. The molecular data have been taken from the PubChem Project (http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/) which is one of the largest in the world (approximately 63 million molecules are listed) and free (public domain) database. Our final goal is, using these data, to develop a molecular search engine or molecular expert system to find molecules which have desired properties.

  20. A Case Study on Sepsis Using PubMed and Deep Learning for Ontology Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arguello Casteleiro, Mercedes; Maseda Fernandez, Diego; Demetriou, George; Read, Warren; Fernandez Prieto, Maria Jesus; Des Diz, Julio; Nenadic, Goran; Keane, John; Stevens, Robert

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the application of distributional semantics models for facilitating unsupervised extraction of biomedical terms from unannotated corpora. Term extraction is used as the first step of an ontology learning process that aims to (semi-)automatic annotation of biomedical concepts and relations from more than 300K PubMed titles and abstracts. We experimented with both traditional distributional semantics methods such as Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) and Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) as well as the neural language models CBOW and Skip-gram from Deep Learning. The evaluation conducted concentrates on sepsis, a major life-threatening condition, and shows that Deep Learning models outperform LSA and LDA with much higher precision.

  1. Actinide burner fuel: Potential compositions based on the thermodynamic evaluation of MF-PuF 3 (M = Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs) and LaF 3-PuF 3 systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneš, O.; Konings, R. J. M.

    2008-07-01

    In previous studies a thermodynamic description of the LiF-NaF-KF-RbF-CsF-LaF 3 system was presented. In order to add PuF 3 to this system the assessments of LiF-PuF 3, NaF-PuF 3, KF-PuF 3, RbF-PuF 3, CsF-PuF 3 and LaF 3-PuF 3 binary phase diagrams have been made. In case of the LiF-PuF 3 and NaF-PuF 3 the assessments have been based on known experimental data. The other binary systems have not been measured yet and the thermodynamic description has been made using the excess parameters from the previously assessed binaries containing LaF 3, which is considered as a proxy compound for PuF 3. The main aim of this study is to analyze potential compositions for a molten salt fast burner fuel.

  2. Information management and complementary alternative medicine: the anatomy of information about CAMs through PubMed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrao, Salvatore; Argano, Christiano; Colomba, Daniela; Ippolito, Calogero; Gargano, Vincenzo; Arcoraci, Vincenzo; Licata, Giuseppe

    2013-10-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest about complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), and the use of CAM interventions has become more common among people. For these reasons, health professionals must be able to effectively manage information in this field of knowledge according to an evidence-based point of view. This study assessed the anatomy of the available information about CAMs using PubMed, to give practical instructions to manage information in this field. We also analyzed the anatomy of information according to each alternative medicine branch, narrow and broad search methods, subset filters for indexed-for-Medline and non-indexed citations, and different publication types including randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and meta-analyses. Our results demonstrated that the use of CAMs subset (supplied by PubMed search engine) leads to a great number of citations determining an information overload. Our data reveal that it would be more useful to search for the CAM separately, identifying specific items and study design. Moreover, we found the largest number of randomized clinical trials and meta-analyses related to herbal medicine and acupuncture, neither RCTs nor meta-analyses were available for bach and flower remedies, auriculoacupuncture, iridology, and pranotherapy. For the first time, our study gives a comprehensive view of the anatomy of information regarding CAMs and each branch of them. We suggest a methodological approach to face with searching information about this emerging issue from an evidence-based point of view. Finally, our data pointed out some "grey zones" since neither RCTs nor meta-analyses were available for some CAMs.

  3. PubMed search filters for the study of putative outdoor air pollution determinants of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curti, Stefania; Gori, Davide; Di Gregori, Valentina; Farioli, Andrea; Baldasseroni, Alberto; Fantini, Maria Pia; Christiani, David C; Violante, Francesco S; Mattioli, Stefano

    2016-12-21

    Several PubMed search filters have been developed in contexts other than environmental. We aimed at identifying efficient PubMed search filters for the study of environmental determinants of diseases related to outdoor air pollution. We compiled a list of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and non-MeSH terms seeming pertinent to outdoor air pollutants exposure as determinants of diseases in the general population. We estimated proportions of potentially pertinent articles to formulate two filters (one 'more specific', one 'more sensitive'). Their overall performance was evaluated as compared with our gold standard derived from systematic reviews on diseases potentially related to outdoor air pollution. We tested these filters in the study of three diseases potentially associated with outdoor air pollution and calculated the number of needed to read (NNR) abstracts to identify one potentially pertinent article in the context of these diseases. Last searches were run in January 2016. The 'more specific' filter was based on the combination of terms that yielded a threshold of potentially pertinent articles ≥40%. The 'more sensitive' filter was based on the combination of all search terms under study. When compared with the gold standard, the 'more specific' filter reported the highest specificity (67.4%; with a sensitivity of 82.5%), while the 'more sensitive' one reported the highest sensitivity (98.5%; with a specificity of 47.9%). The NNR to find one potentially pertinent article was 1.9 for the 'more specific' filter and 3.3 for the 'more sensitive' one. The proposed search filters could help healthcare professionals investigate environmental determinants of medical conditions that could be potentially related to outdoor air pollution. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. PubMed’s Native Interface Remains the Best Tool for Systematic Searching of its Biomedical Citations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Glusker

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Wildgaard, L. E., & Lund, H. (2016. Advancing PubMed? A comparison of third-party PubMed/Medline tools. Library Hi Tech, 34 (4, 669-684. http://dx.doi.org/doi: 10.1108/LHT-06-2016-0066 Abstract Objective – To compare the functionality of third-party PubMed tools for searching biomedical citations in PubMed, in the specific context of systematic searching. Design – Comparative analysis of software functionality. Setting – Online, freely accessible search software. Subjects – Sixteen third-party tools for searching and managing the full range of PubMed citations (tools which focused on specific disciplines were not included. Methods – Tools for analysis were identified in two ways; those discussed in two published articles were used, and a supplementary PubMed search was performed. The initial list of 76 possibilities was assessed for study inclusion on 4 criteria: covering the entire range of PubMed content; being freely available; not limiting to a particular bio-medical discipline; and incorporating online PubMed/MEDLINE content. After assessment, 16 tools were chosen for further analysis (the authors provide a list and description of the tools in their Table I. Each was examined in relation to 11 crucial operational aspects. Result sets were tested against a control (a literature search result set on a particular clinical question which was determined by physicians to yield relevant results, details of which are provided by the authors in an online appendix. Main Results – The 11 identified aspects related to tool functionality were examined for each tool selected, with results grouped into three sets of factors: 1 supporting the search (field codes, filters, limits and Boolean operators; 2 managing the search (output, related articles, links to articles, number of results, exporting; and 3 documenting the search (saving the search and search history. In some cases, the tests had to be adjusted to accommodate the tool

  5. The potential effect of differential ambient and deployment chamber temperatures on PRC derived sampling rates with polyurethane foam (PUF) passive air samplers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, Karen, E-mail: k.kennedy@uq.edu.a [University of Queensland, EnTox (National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology), 39 Kessels Rd., Coopers Plains QLD 4108 (Australia); Hawker, Darryl W. [Griffith University, School of Environment, Nathan QLD 4111 (Australia); Bartkow, Michael E. [University of Queensland, EnTox (National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology), 39 Kessels Rd., Coopers Plains QLD 4108 (Australia); Carter, Steve [Queensland Health Forensic and Scientific Services, Coopers Plains QLD 4108 (Australia); Ishikawa, Yukari; Mueller, Jochen F. [University of Queensland, EnTox (National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology), 39 Kessels Rd., Coopers Plains QLD 4108 (Australia)

    2010-01-15

    Performance reference compound (PRC) derived sampling rates were determined for polyurethane foam (PUF) passive air samplers in both sub-tropical and temperate locations across Australia. These estimates were on average a factor of 2.7 times higher in summer than winter. The known effects of wind speed and temperature on mass transfer coefficients could not account for this observation. Sampling rates are often derived using ambient temperatures, not the actual temperatures within deployment chambers. If deployment chamber temperatures are in fact higher than ambient temperatures, estimated sampler-air partition coefficients would be greater than actual partition coefficients resulting in an overestimation of PRC derived sampling rates. Sampling rates determined under measured ambient temperatures and estimated deployment chamber temperatures in summer ranged from 7.1 to 10 m{sup 3} day{sup -1} and 2.2-6.8 m{sup 3} day{sup -1} respectively. These results suggest that potential differences between ambient and deployment chamber temperatures should be considered when deriving PRC-based sampling rates. - Internal deployment chamber temperatures rather than ambient temperatures may be required to accurately estimate PRC-based sampling rates.

  6. A Puf RNA-binding protein encoding gene PlM90 regulates the sexual and asexual life stages of the litchi downy blight pathogen Peronophythora litchii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liqun; Ye, Wenwu; Situ, Junjian; Chen, Yubin; Yang, Xinyu; Kong, Guanghui; Liu, Yaya; Tinashe, Runyanga J; Xi, Pinggen; Wang, Yuanchao; Jiang, Zide

    2017-01-01

    Sexual and asexual reproduction are two key processes in the pathogenic cycle of many filamentous pathogens. However in Peronophythora litchii, the causal pathogen for the litchi downy blight disease, critical regulator(s) of sexual or asexual differentiation has not been elucidated. In this study, we cloned a gene named PlM90 from P. litchii, which encodes a putative Puf RNA-binding protein. We found that PlM90 was highly expressed during asexual development, and much higher than that during sexual development, while relatively lower during cyst germination and plant infection. By polyethylene glycol (PEG)-mediated protoplast transformation, we generated three PlM90-silenced transformants and found a severely impaired ability in sexual spore production and a delay in stages of zoospore release and encystment. However, the pathogenicity of P. litchii was not affected by PlM90-silencing. Therefore we conclude that PlM90 specifically regulates the sexual and asexual differentiation of P. litchii.

  7. Reduced exposure evaluation of an Electrically Heated Cigarette Smoking System. Part 2: Smoke chemistry and in vitro toxicological evaluation using smoking regimens reflecting human puffing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenzen, Volker; Diekmann, Joerg; Gerstenberg, Birgit; Weber, Susanne; Wittke, Sandra; Schorp, Matthias K

    2012-11-01

    Chemical analysis of up to 49 harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHC) in mainstream smoke, in vitro cytotoxicity of the particulate and gas/vapor phase of mainstream smoke determined in the Neutral Red Uptake assay, and in vitro bacterial mutagenicity of the particulate phase determined in the Salmonella typhimurium Reverse Mutation (Ames) assay are reported for three Electrically Heated Cigarette Smoking System (EHCSS) series-K cigarettes, the University of Kentucky Reference Cigarette 2R4F, and a number of comparator commercial conventional lit-end cigarettes (CC) under ISO machine-smoking conditions and a total of 25 additional smoking regimens reflecting 'human puffing behavior' (HPB). The smoking machines were set to deliver nicotine yields for the EHCSS and comparator CC derived from the 10th percentile to the 90th percentile of nicotine uptake distributions in smokers determined in two clinical studies. Duplication of the smoking intensity 'per cigarette' on a smoking machine may provide an insight into product performance that is directly relevant to obtaining scientific evidence for reduced exposure substantiation based on mainstream cigarette smoke HPHC-to-nicotine regressions. The reported data support an overall evaluation of reduced exposure to HPHC and biological activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Preliminary Study on LiF4-ThF4-PuF4 Utilization as Fuel Salt of miniFUJI Molten Salt Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waris, Abdul; Aji, Indarta K.; Pramuditya, Syeilendra; Widayani; Irwanto, Dwi

    2016-08-01

    miniFUJI reactor is molten salt reactor (MSR) which is one type of the Generation IV nuclear energy systems. The original miniFUJI reactor design uses LiF-BeF2-ThF4-233UF4 as a fuel salt. In the present study, the use of LiF4-ThF4-PuF4 as fuel salt instead of LiF-BeF2-ThF4-UF4 will be discussed. The neutronics cell calculation has been performed by using PIJ (collision probability method code) routine of SRAC 2006 code, with the nuclear data library is JENDL-4.0. The results reveal that the reactor can attain the criticality condition with the plutonium concentration in the fuel salt is equal to 9.16% or more. The conversion ratio diminishes with the enlarging of plutonium concentration in the fuel. The neutron spectrum of miniFUJI MSR with plutonium fuel becomes harder compared to that of the 233U fuel.

  9. Relationship of potassium sensitivity test and PUF in interstitial cystitis%钾离子敏感试验与间质性膀胱炎PUF评分的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文广; 张卫; 韩瑞发

    2009-01-01

    Objective To discuss whether potassium sensitivity test(PST) is correlated with PUF in Interstitial Cystitis (IC). Methods The data of 14 IC patients (female 13, male 1) were an-alyzed. The mean age was 48 years (range 35-67 years). The clinical symptoms included urinary fre-quency, urgency, pelvic and peritoneal region pain after bladder filling. All the patients met the diag-nostic criteria of NIDDK for IC. Dilatations by hyponome were performed, medicine including heparin-sodium, lidocaine, NaHCO3 were used by intravesical instillation. PST and the pelvic pain and urgen-cy/frequency patient symptom (PUF) were used for evaluation. The relationship of the PST and PUF was assessed by statistics. Results PST median decreased from 4.0 to 1.0 (P<0.01). PUF medi-an decreased from 27.5 to 13.5(P<0.01). PST was directly correlated with PUF (rs=0. 868, t= 4.418, P= 0.001 before treatment, rs = 0.779, t=4.300, P = 0.001 after treatment). Conclusions PST and PUF are correlated. Both can be used as index in diagnosis, differential diagno-sis, symptom severity and treatment effectiveness evaluation of IC.%目的 探讨钾离子敏感试验(PST)与间质性膀胱炎(IC)盆腔疼痛和尿频、尿急症状(PUF)评分的相关性及意义.方法 IC患者14例.女13例,男1例.平均年龄48岁.临床表现主要为尿频、尿急、膀胱克盈后耻骨上及会阴区疼痛.14例均依据美国糖尿病、消化及肾病协会(NIDDK)IC诊断标准确诊.采用膀胱水囊扩张后碳酸氢钠、利多卡因及肝素钠灌注治疗.治疗前后均行PST评分和PUF评分,并分析二者之间的关系.结果 14例患者治疗前后PST评分中位数分别为4.0、1.0,PUF评分中位数分别为27.5、13.5,治疗前后差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01).PST评分与PUF评分呈正相关(治疗前rs=0.868,t=4.418,P=0.001;治疗后rs=0.779,t=4.300,P=0.001).结论 PST和PUF评分在IC中表现出一致性,可单独作为IC诊断、鉴别诊断、病情严重程度及治疗效果判定的重要指标.

  10. The Application Characteristics of Biomedical Literature Retrieval Tools Based on PubMed Data Sources%基于PubMed数据源的生物医学文献检索工具应用特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫微; 张亚莉; 邓小茹

    2012-01-01

    The paper compares the application characteristics of 12 biomedical literature retrieval tools based on PubMed data sources in aspects of retrieval methods and retrieval results processing.The innovations are summarized from three aspects,namely,improving the retrieval interface,ranking results by relevance and results clustering.The improvement of Entrez/PubMed is also pointed out.%从检索方式和检索结果处理两个方面比较12种基于PubMed数据源的医学文献检索工具的应用特点,并从改变检索界面、相关性排序和检索结果聚类3个方面总结这类检索工具的创新之处,指出Entrez/PubMed自身新的改进。

  11. Enhancing search efficiency by means of a search filter for finding all studies on animal experimentation in PubMed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooijmans, Carlijn R; Tillema, Alice; Leenaars, Marlies; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel

    2010-07-01

    Collecting and analysing all available literature before starting an animal experiment is important and it is indispensable when writing a systematic review (SR) of animal research. Writing such review prevents unnecessary duplication of animal studies and thus unnecessary animal use (Reduction). One of the factors currently impeding the production of 'high-quality' SRs in laboratory animal science is the fact that searching for all available literature concerning animal experimentation is rather difficult. In order to diminish these difficulties, we developed a search filter for PubMed to detect all publications concerning animal studies. This filter was compared with the method most frequently used, the PubMed Limit: Animals, and validated further by performing two PubMed topic searches. Our filter performs much better than the PubMed limit: it retrieves, on average, 7% more records. Other important advantages of our filter are that it also finds the most recent records and that it is easy to use. All in all, by using our search filter in PubMed, all available literature concerning animal studies on a specific topic can easily be found and assessed, which will help in increasing the scientific quality and thereby the ethical validity of animal experiments.

  12. GoPubMed与Web of Knowledge分析工具Analyze Results的比较研究%Comparison of GoPubMed and Analyze Results, an analysis tool of Web of Knowledge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玢; 许培扬; 王敏; 马明; 栗文靖

    2009-01-01

    GoPubMed是基于本体论的生物医学文献分析工具,它可以对检索到的PubMed文献进行全方位的统计分析,Web of Knowlegde平台的Analyze Results分析功能也可对检索结果进行统计分析.对这2种文献分析工具特点进行对比分析.

  13. Predicting adverse drug reactions using publicly available PubChem BioAssay data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouliot, Y; Chiang, A P; Butte, A J

    2011-07-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) can have severe consequences, and therefore the ability to predict ADRs prior to market introduction of a drug is desirable. Computational approaches applied to preclinical data could be one way to inform drug labeling and marketing with respect to potential ADRs. Based on the premise that some of the molecular actors of ADRs involve interactions that are detectable in large, and increasingly public, compound screening campaigns, we generated logistic regression models that correlate postmarketing ADRs with screening data from the PubChem BioAssay database. These models analyze ADRs at the level of organ systems, using the system organ classes (SOCs). Of the 19 SOCs under consideration, nine were found to be significantly correlated with preclinical screening data. With regard to six of the eight established drugs for which we could retropredict SOC-specific ADRs, prior knowledge was found that supports these predictions. We conclude this paper by predicting that SOC-specific ADRs will be associated with three unapproved or recently introduced drugs.

  14. Sex Disparity in Food Allergy: Evidence from the PubMed Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caleb Kelly

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Food allergies are potentially fatal immune-mediated disorders that are growing globally. The relationship between sex and food allergy remains incompletely understood. Here we tested the hypothesis that, should sex influence the clinical response to food allergens, this would be reflected by a sex disparity in published studies of food allergy. We performed a systematic search of the PubMed literature for IgE-mediated allergy to 11 allergenic foods of international regulatory importance. No date restriction was used and only articles in English were considered. Of the 4744 articles retrieved, 591 met the inclusion criteria representing 17528 subjects with food allergies. Whereas among children with food allergies, 64.35% were males and 35.65% were females (male/female ratio, 1.80, among adults 34.82% were males and 65.18% were females (male/female ratio, 0.53. Consequently, these data argue that there is need for further investigation to define the role of sex in the pathogenesis of food allergy.

  15. Cupping Therapy May be Harmful for Eczema: A PubMed Search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Kam Lun E; Luk, David Chi Kong; Leong, Kin Fon; Leung, Alexander K C

    2013-01-01

    Eczema is a common childhood atopic condition and treatment is with emollients, topical corticosteroids, and avoidance of possible triggers. S. aureus colonization is a common complication. As there is no immediate cure, many parents seek alternative therapies that claim unproven therapeutic efficacy. We report a girl with long history of treatment noncompliance. After practicing a long period of dietary avoidance and supplementation, the grandparents took her to an alternative medicine practitioner. Following cupping therapy and acupuncture, the child developed blistering and oozing over her back the next day, which rapidly evolved to two large irregular-edge deep ulcers. She was treated with intravenous antibiotics and received multidisciplinary supportive intervention. Using search words of  "cupping," "eczema," and "atopic dermatitis," only two reports were found on PubMed. Therapeutic efficacy was claimed but not scientifically documented in these reports. Childhood eczema is an eminently treatable atopic disease. Extreme alternative therapy seems not to be efficacious and may even be associated with serious undesirable sequelae. Physicians should be aware of various alternative treatment modalities and be prepared to offer evidence-based advice to the patients with eczema and their families.

  16. Cupping Therapy May be Harmful for Eczema: A PubMed Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam Lun E. Hon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Eczema is a common childhood atopic condition and treatment is with emollients, topical corticosteroids, and avoidance of possible triggers. S. aureus colonization is a common complication. As there is no immediate cure, many parents seek alternative therapies that claim unproven therapeutic efficacy. We report a girl with long history of treatment noncompliance. After practicing a long period of dietary avoidance and supplementation, the grandparents took her to an alternative medicine practitioner. Following cupping therapy and acupuncture, the child developed blistering and oozing over her back the next day, which rapidly evolved to two large irregular-edge deep ulcers. She was treated with intravenous antibiotics and received multidisciplinary supportive intervention. Using search words of  “cupping,” “eczema,” and “atopic dermatitis,” only two reports were found on PubMed. Therapeutic efficacy was claimed but not scientifically documented in these reports. Childhood eczema is an eminently treatable atopic disease. Extreme alternative therapy seems not to be efficacious and may even be associated with serious undesirable sequelae. Physicians should be aware of various alternative treatment modalities and be prepared to offer evidence-based advice to the patients with eczema and their families.

  17. Kidney transplantation search filters for PubMed, Ovid Medline, and Embase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christopher W C; Iansavichus, Arthur V; Haynes, R Brian; Shariff, Salimah Z; Wilczynski, Nancy; McKibbon, Ann; Rehman, Faisal; Garg, Amit X

    2012-03-15

    Clinicians commonly search bibliographic databases such as Medline to find sound evidence to guide patient care. Unfortunately, this can be a frustrating experience because database searches often miss relevant articles. We addressed this problem for transplant professionals by developing kidney transplantation search filters for use in Medline through PubMed and Ovid Technologies, and Embase. We began by reading the full-text versions of 22,992 articles from 39 journals published across 5 years. These articles were labeled relevant to kidney transplantation or not forming our "gold standard." We then developed close to five million kidney transplantation filters using different terms and their combinations. Afterward, these filters were applied to development and validation subsets of the articles to determine their accuracy and reliability in identifying articles with kidney transplantation content. The final kidney transplantation filters used multiple terms in combination. The best performing filters achieved 97.5% sensitivity (95% confidence interval, 96.4%-98.5%), and 98.0% specificity (95% confidence interval, 97.8%-98.3%). Similar high performance was achieved for filters developed for Ovid Medline and Embase. Proof-of-concept searches confirmed more relevant articles are retrieved using these filters. These kidney transplantation filters can now be used in Medline and Embase databases to improve clinician searching.

  18. Stochastic Gradient Descent and the Prediction of MeSH for PubMed Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur, W John; Kim, Won

    2014-01-01

    Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD) has gained popularity for solving large scale supervised machine learning problems. It provides a rapid method for minimizing a number of loss functions and is applicable to Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Logistic optimizations. However SGD does not provide a convenient stopping criterion. Generally an optimal number of iterations over the data may be determined using held out data. Here we compare stopping predictions based on held out data with simply stopping at a fixed number of iterations and show that the latter works as well as the former for a number of commonly studied text classification problems. In particular fixed stopping works well for MeSH(®) predictions on PubMed(®) records. We also surveyed the published algorithms for SVM learning on large data sets, and chose three for comparison: PROBE, SVMperf, and Liblinear and compared them with SGD with a fixed number of iterations. We find SGD with a fixed number of iterations performs as well as these alternative methods and is much faster to compute. As an application we made SGD-SVM predictions for all MeSH terms and used the Pool Adjacent Violators (PAV) algorithm to convert these predictions to probabilities. Such probabilistic predictions lead to ranked MeSH term predictions superior to previously published results on two test sets.

  19. Retrieval comparison of EndNote to search MEDLINE (Ovid and PubMed) versus searching them directly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Carole; Brahmi, Frances A

    2004-01-01

    Using EndNote version 7.0, the authors tested the search capabilities of the EndNote search engine for retrieving citations from MEDLINE for importation into EndNote, a citation management software package. Ovid MEDLINE and PubMed were selected for the comparison. Several searches were performed on Ovid MEDLINE and PubMed using EndNote as the search engine, and the same searches were run on both Ovid and PubMed directly. Findings indicate that it is preferable to search MEDLINE directly rather than using EndNote. The publishers of EndNote do warn its users about the limitations of their product as a search engine when searching external databases. In this article, the limitations of EndNote as a search engine for searching MEDLINE were explored as related to MeSH, non-MeSH, citation verification, and author searching.

  20. How to improve your PubMed/MEDLINE searches: 2. display settings, complex search queries and topic searching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatehi, Farhad; Gray, Leonard C; Wootton, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The way that PubMed results are displayed can be changed using the Display Settings drop-down menu in the result screen. There are three groups of options: Format, Items per page and Sort by, which allow a good deal of control. The results from several searches can be temporarily stored on the Clipboard. Records of interest can be selected on the results page using check boxes and can then be combined, for example to form a reference list. The Related Citations is a valuable feature of PubMed that can provide a set of similar articles when you have identified a record of interest among the results. You can easily search for RCTs or reviews using the appropriate filters or field tags. If you are interested in clinical articles, rather than basic science or health service research, then the Clinical Queries tool on the PubMed home page can be used to retrieve them.

  1. 网上PubMed新检索系统介绍及与旧系统的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任效娥

    2000-01-01

    @@ PubMed自1997年6月在网上开通免费读者服务以来,(其网址为:http://www.ncbi.nim.gpv/PubMed),因用户界面友好、检索途径多样、功能齐全、链接点多而深受读者欢迎,已成为当前世界范围使用最广泛的免费MEDLINE网站,并于1999年又推出了新检索系统界面.

  2. U-box E3 ubiquitin ligase PUB17 acts in the nucleus to promote specific immune pathways triggered by Phytophthora infestans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qin; McLellan, Hazel; Boevink, Petra C; Sadanandom, Ari; Xie, Conghua; Birch, Paul R J; Tian, Zhendong

    2015-06-01

    Ubiquitination regulates many processes in plants, including immunity. The E3 ubiquitin ligase PUB17 is a positive regulator of programmed cell death (PCD) triggered by resistance proteins CF4/9 in tomato. Its role in immunity to the potato late blight pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, was investigated here. Silencing StPUB17 in potato by RNAi and NbPUB17 in Nicotiana benthamiana by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) each enhanced P. infestans leaf colonization. PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) transcriptional responses activated by flg22, and CF4/Avr4-mediated PCD were attenuated by silencing PUB17. However, silencing PUB17 did not compromise PCD triggered by P. infestans PAMP INF1, or co-expression of R3a/AVR3a, demonstrating that not all PTI- and PCD-associated responses require PUB17. PUB17 localizes to the plant nucleus and especially in the nucleolus. Transient over-expression of a dominant-negative StPUB17(V314I,V316I) mutant, which retained nucleolar localization, suppressed CF4-mediated cell death and enhanced P. infestans colonization. Exclusion of the StPUB17(V314I,V316I) mutant from the nucleus abolished its dominant-negative activity, demonstrating that StPUB17 functions in the nucleus. PUB17 is a positive regulator of immunity to late blight that acts in the nucleus to promote specific PTI and PCD pathways.

  3. Countries' Biomedical Publications and Attraction Scores. A PubMed-based assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qinyi; Boggio, Andrea; Ballabeni, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Studying publication volumes at the country level is key to understanding and improving a country's research system. PubMed is a public search engine of publications in all life sciences areas. Here, we show how this search engine can be used to assess the outputs of life science-related research by country. We have measured the numbers of publications during different time periods based on the country of affiliation of the first authors. Moreover, we have designed scores, which we have named Attraction Scores, to appraise the relative focus either toward particular types of studies, such as clinical trials or reviews, or toward specific research areas, such as public health and pharmacogenomics, or toward specific topics, for instance embryonic stem cells; we have also investigated a possible use of these Attraction Scores in connection with regulatory policies. We have weighed the statistics against general indicators such as country populations and gross domestic products (GDP). During the 5-year period 2008-2012, the United States was the country with the highest number of publications and Denmark the one with the highest number of publications per capita. Among the 40 countries with the highest GDPs, Israel had the highest publications-to-GDP ratio. Among the 20 countries with the most publications, Japan had the highest Attraction Score for induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells and Italy the highest proportion of review publications. More than 50% of publications in English were from countries in which English is not the primary language. We show an assorted and extensive collection of rankings and charts that will inform scholars and policymakers in studying and improving the research systems both at the national and international level.

  4. Microtask crowdsourcing for disease mention annotation in PubMed abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Benjamin M; Nanis, Max; Wu, Chunlei; Su, Andrew I

    2015-01-01

    Identifying concepts and relationships in biomedical text enables knowledge to be applied in computational analyses. Many biological natural language processing (BioNLP) projects attempt to address this challenge, but the state of the art still leaves much room for improvement. Progress in BioNLP research depends on large, annotated corpora for evaluating information extraction systems and training machine learning models. Traditionally, such corpora are created by small numbers of expert annotators often working over extended periods of time. Recent studies have shown that workers on microtask crowdsourcing platforms such as Amazon's Mechanical Turk (AMT) can, in aggregate, generate high-quality annotations of biomedical text. Here, we investigated the use of the AMT in capturing disease mentions in PubMed abstracts. We used the NCBI Disease corpus as a gold standard for refining and benchmarking our crowdsourcing protocol. After several iterations, we arrived at a protocol that reproduced the annotations of the 593 documents in the 'training set' of this gold standard with an overall F measure of 0.872 (precision 0.862, recall 0.883). The output can also be tuned to optimize for precision (max = 0.984 when recall = 0.269) or recall (max = 0.980 when precision = 0.436). Each document was completed by 15 workers, and their annotations were merged based on a simple voting method. In total 145 workers combined to complete all 593 documents in the span of 9 days at a cost of $.066 per abstract per worker. The quality of the annotations, as judged with the F measure, increases with the number of workers assigned to each task; however minimal performance gains were observed beyond 8 workers per task. These results add further evidence that microtask crowdsourcing can be a valuable tool for generating well-annotated corpora in BioNLP. Data produced for this analysis are available at http://figshare.com/articles/Disease_Mention_Annotation_with_Mechanical_Turk/1126402.

  5. Semi-automatic semantic annotation of PubMed queries: a study on quality, efficiency, satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Névéol, Aurélie; Islamaj Doğan, Rezarta; Lu, Zhiyong

    2011-04-01

    Information processing algorithms require significant amounts of annotated data for training and testing. The availability of such data is often hindered by the complexity and high cost of production. In this paper, we investigate the benefits of a state-of-the-art tool to help with the semantic annotation of a large set of biomedical queries. Seven annotators were recruited to annotate a set of 10,000 PubMed® queries with 16 biomedical and bibliographic categories. About half of the queries were annotated from scratch, while the other half were automatically pre-annotated and manually corrected. The impact of the automatic pre-annotations was assessed on several aspects of the task: time, number of actions, annotator satisfaction, inter-annotator agreement, quality and number of the resulting annotations. The analysis of annotation results showed that the number of required hand annotations is 28.9% less when using pre-annotated results from automatic tools. As a result, the overall annotation time was substantially lower when pre-annotations were used, while inter-annotator agreement was significantly higher. In addition, there was no statistically significant difference in the semantic distribution or number of annotations produced when pre-annotations were used. The annotated query corpus is freely available to the research community. This study shows that automatic pre-annotations are found helpful by most annotators. Our experience suggests using an automatic tool to assist large-scale manual annotation projects. This helps speed-up the annotation time and improve annotation consistency while maintaining high quality of the final annotations.

  6. The processing parameters of cassava leaf puffing food%木薯叶膨化食品加工参数的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高超; 吕飞杰; 台建祥; 陈晓明; 李开绵; 陆小静; 张国治

    2011-01-01

    The effects of varying water volume added in materials, feed quantity, screw speed and barrel temperature on the quality of cassava leaf puffing food of materials comprised of cassava leaf and grist were studied by using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder. According to the results of single factor experiment, the best process parameters were conducted by orthogonal experiment and analysis. The best process parameters were as follow: Added water was 8%, feed quantity was 15 L/min, screw speed was 120 r/min and barrel temperature(III zone) was 130℃. The experimental result played an important role in improving the comprehensive utilization degree of cassava leaves and promoting the healthy development of cassava industry.%通过实验研究了木薯叶和谷物类混合物料为原料时,物料加水量、物料进料量、双螺杆挤压机的螺杆转速和机筒温度4种加工参数对木薯叶膨化食品品质的影响。依据单因素实验结果,通过正交实验设计分析,得出了最优的加工参数为:加水量8%,进料量15L/min,螺杆转速120r/min,III区温度130℃。实验研究结果对于提高木薯的综合利用程度,促进木薯产业的健康发展有着重要的作用。

  7. Polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive samplers derived polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) concentrations in the ambient air of Bursa-Turkey: Spatial and temporal variations and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgül, Aşkın; Kurt-Karakus, Perihan Binnur; Alegria, Henry; Gungormus, Elif; Celik, Halil; Cicek, Tugba; Güven, Emine Can

    2017-02-01

    Polyurethane foam (PUF) passive samplers were employed to assess air concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in background, agricultural, semi-urban, urban and industrial sites in Bursa, Turkey. Samplers were deployed for approximately 2-month periods from February to December 2014 in five sampling campaign. Results showed a clear rural-agricultural-semi-urban-urban-industrial PCBs concentration gradient. Considering all sampling periods, ambient air concentrations of Σ43PCBs ranged from 9.6 to 1240 pg/m(3) at all sites with an average of 24.1 ± 8.2, 43.8 ± 24.4, 140 ± 190, 42.8 ± 24.6, 160 ± 280, 84.1 ± 105, 170 ± 150 and 280 ± 540 pg/m(3) for Mount Uludag, Uludag University Campus, Camlica, Bursa Technical University Osmangazi Campus, Hamitler, Agakoy, Kestel Organised Industrial District and Demirtas Organised Industrial District sampling sites, respectively. The ambient air PCB concentrations increased along a gradient from background to industrial areas by a factor of 1.7-11.4. 4-Cl PCBs (31.50-81.60%) was the most dominant homologue group at all sampling sites followed by 3-Cl, 7-Cl, 6-Cl and 5-Cl homologue groups. Sampling locations and potential sources grouped in principal component analysis. Results of PCA plots highlighted a large variability of the PCB mixture in air, hence possible related sources, in Bursa area. Calculated inhalation risk levels in this study indicated no serious adverse health effects. This study is one of few efforts to characterize PCB composition in ambient air seasonally and spatially for urban and industrial areas of Turkey by using passive samplers as an alternative sampling method for concurrent monitoring at multiple sites.

  8. Biodecolorization and Bioremediation of Denim Industrial Wastewater by Adapted Bacterial Consortium Immobilized on Inert Polyurethane Foam (PUF) Matrix: A First Approach with Biobarrier Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, R; Prabhavathi, P; Karthiksundaram, S; Pattab, S; Kumar, S Dinesh; Santhanam, P

    2015-01-01

    The present experiments were studied on bioremediation of denim industry wastewater by using polyurethane foam (PU foam) immobilized bacterial cells. About 30 indigenous adapted bacterial strains were isolated from denim textile effluent out of which only four isolates were found to be efficient against crude indigo carmine degradation using broth decolorization method. The selected bacterial strains were identified as Actinomyces sp., (PK07), Pseudomonas sp., (PK18), Stenotrophomonas sp., (PK23) and Staphylococcus sp., (PK28) based on microscopic and biochemical characteristics. The bacterial immobilized cells have the highest number of viable cells (PK07, PK18, PK23 and PK28 appeared to be 1 x 10(8), 1 x 10(9), 1 x 10(6) and 1 x 10(7) CFU/ml respectively) and maximum attachment efficiency of 92% on PU foam. The complete degradation using a consortium of PU foam immobilized cells was achieved at pH 6, 27 degrees C, 100% of substrate concentration and allowed to develop biofilm for one day (1.5% W/V). In SEM analysis, it was found that immobilization of bacterial cells using PUF stably maintained the production of various extracellular enzymes at levels higher than achieved with suspended forms. Finally, isatin and anthranilic acid were found to be degradation products by NMR and TLC. The decolorized dye was not toxic to monkey kidney cell (HBL 100) at a concentration of 50 μl and 95% of cell viability was retained. A mathematical model that describes bacterial transport with biodegradation involves a set of coupled reaction equations with non-standard numerical approach based on the time step scheme.

  9. Use of positive and negative words in scientific PubMed abstracts between 1974 and 2014 : retrospective analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinkers, Christiaan H; Tijdink, Joeri K; Otte, Willem M

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether language used in science abstracts can skew towards the use of strikingly positive and negative words over time. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of all scientific abstracts in PubMed between 1974 and 2014. METHODS: The yearly frequencies of positive, negative, and ne

  10. RNA binding protein Pub1p regulates glycerol production and stress tolerance by controlling Gpd1p activity during winemaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Helena; Sepúlveda, Ana; Picazo, Cecilia; Matallana, Emilia; Aranda, Agustín

    2016-06-01

    Glycerol is a key yeast metabolite in winemaking because it contributes to improve the organoleptic properties of wine. It is also a cellular protective molecule that enhances the tolerance of yeasts to osmotic stress and promotes longevity. Thus, its production increases by genetic manipulation, which is of biotechnological and basic interest. Glycerol is produced by diverting glycolytic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate through the action of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (coded by genes GPD1 and GPD2). Here, we demonstrate that RNA-binding protein Pub1p regulates glycerol production by controlling Gpd1p activity. Its deletion does not alter GPD1 mRNA levels, but protein levels and enzymatic activity increase, which explains the higher intracellular glycerol concentration and greater tolerance to osmotic stress of the pub1∆ mutant. PUB1 deletion also enhances the activity of nicotinamidase, a longevity-promoting enzyme. Both enzymatic activities are partially located in peroxisomes, and we detected peroxisome formation during wine fermentation. The role of Pub1p in life span control depends on nutrient conditions and is related with the TOR pathway, and a major connection between RNA metabolism and the nutrient signaling response is established.

  11. An Examination of Natural Language as a Query Formation Tool for Retrieving Information on E-Health from Pub Med.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Gabriel M.; Su, Kuichun; Ries, James E.; Sievert, Mary Ellen C.

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of Internet use for information searches on health-related topics focuses on a study that examined complexity and variability of natural language in using search terms that express the concept of electronic health (e-health). Highlights include precision of retrieved information; shift in terminology; and queries using the Pub Med…

  12. 78 FR 58568 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... requiring special protection. The regulations establish such a permit system to designate Antarctic... Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541) AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of Permit Applications Received under the...

  13. 75 FR 53723 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... requiring special protection. The regulations establish such a permit system to designate Antarctic... Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541) AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of Permit Applications Received under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, Public Law 95-541....

  14. 78 FR 53789 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... requiring special protection. The regulations establish such a permit system to designate Antarctic... Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541) AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ] ACTION: Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the...

  15. 76 FR 30397 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    ... requiring special protection. The regulations establish such a permit system to designate Antarctic... Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541) AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of Permit Modification Received under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, Public Law 95-541....

  16. 77 FR 31044 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... requiring special protection. The regulations establish such a permit system to designate Antarctic... Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541) AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, Public Law 95-541....

  17. 78 FR 52804 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    ... requiring special protection. The regulations establish such a permit system to designate Antarctic... Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541) AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of permit applications received under the...

  18. 78 FR 54492 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... special protection. The regulations establish such a permit system to designate Antarctic Specially... Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541) AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of Permit Applications Received under the...

  19. 78 FR 54685 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... requiring special protection. The regulations establish such a permit system to designate Antarctic... Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541) AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of Permit Applications Received under the...

  20. 78 FR 52218 - Notice of permit applications received under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ... requiring special protection. The regulations establish such a permit system to ] designate Antarctic... Notice of permit applications received under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541) AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of permit applications received under the...

  1. 77 FR 53236 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... the Antarctic Treaty System to ensure consistency with recently adopted plans, policies and guidelines... Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541) AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of Permit Applications Received under the...

  2. 78 FR 48201 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... sites at various sub-Antarctic (within geographic coverage area of the Antarctic Treaty) and Antarctic... Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541) AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of Permit Applications Received under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, Public Law 95-541....

  3. 78 FR 69709 - Notice of Permit Modification Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... Protection to the Antarctic Treaty and would be disposed of properly Now the applicant proposes a... Notice of Permit Modification Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541... Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, Public Law 95-541. SUMMARY: The National Science Foundation (NSF)...

  4. Identification of risk conditions for the development of adrenal disorders: how optimized PubMed search strategies makes the difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guaraldi, Federica; Parasiliti-Caprino, Mirko; Goggi, Riccardo; Beccuti, Guglielmo; Grottoli, Silvia; Arvat, Emanuela; Ghizzoni, Lucia; Ghigo, Ezio; Giordano, Roberta; Gori, Davide

    2014-12-01

    The exponential growth of scientific literature available through electronic databases (namely PubMed) has increased the chance of finding interesting articles. At the same time, search has become more complicated, time consuming, and at risk of missing important information. Therefore, optimized strategies have to be adopted to maximize searching impact. The aim of this study was to formulate efficient strings to search PubMed for etiologic associations between adrenal disorders (ADs) and other conditions. A comprehensive list of terms identifying endogenous conditions primarily affecting adrenals was compiled. An ad hoc analysis was performed to find the best way to express each term in order to find the highest number of potentially pertinent articles in PubMed. A predefined number of retrieved abstracts were read to assess their association with ADs' etiology. A more sensitive (providing the largest literature coverage) and a more specific (including only those terms retrieving >40 % of potentially pertinent articles) string were formulated. Various researches were performed to assess strings' ability to identify articles of interest in comparison with non-optimized literature searches. We formulated optimized, ready applicable tools for the identification of the literature assessing etiologic associations in the field of ADs using PubMed, and demonstrated the advantages deriving from their application. Detailed description of the methodological process is also provided, so that this work can easily be translated to other fields of practice.

  5. Shifting Sands: Science Researchers on Google Scholar, Web of Science, and PubMed, with Implications for Library Collections Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hightower, Christy; Caldwell, Christy

    2010-01-01

    Science researchers at the University of California Santa Cruz were surveyed about their article database use and preferences in order to inform collection budget choices. Web of Science was the single most used database, selected by 41.6%. Statistically there was no difference between PubMed (21.5%) and Google Scholar (18.7%) as the second most…

  6. How to improve your PubMed/MEDLINE searches: 3. advanced searching, MeSH and My NCBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatehi, Farhad; Gray, Leonard C; Wootton, Richard

    2014-03-01

    Although the basic PubMed search is often helpful, the results may sometimes be non-specific. For more control over the search process you can use the Advanced Search Builder interface. This allows a targeted search in specific fields, with the convenience of being able to select the intended search field from a list. It also provides a history of your previous searches. The search history is useful to develop a complex search query by combining several previous searches using Boolean operators. For indexing the articles in MEDLINE, the NLM uses a controlled vocabulary system called MeSH. This standardised vocabulary solves the problem of authors, researchers and librarians who may use different terms for the same concept. To be efficient in a PubMed search, you should start by identifying the most appropriate MeSH terms and use them in your search where possible. My NCBI is a personal workspace facility available through PubMed and makes it possible to customise the PubMed interface. It provides various capabilities that can enhance your search performance.

  7. Combining PubMed knowledge and EHR data to develop a weighted bayesian network for pancreatic cancer prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Di; Weng, Chunhua

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel method that combines PubMed knowledge and Electronic Health Records to develop a weighted Bayesian Network Inference (BNI) model for pancreatic cancer prediction. We selected 20 common risk factors associated with pancreatic cancer and used PubMed knowledge to weigh the risk factors. A keyword-based algorithm was developed to extract and classify PubMed abstracts into three categories that represented positive, negative, or neutral associations between each risk factor and pancreatic cancer. Then we designed a weighted BNI model by adding the normalized weights into a conventional BNI model. We used this model to extract the EHR values for patients with or without pancreatic cancer, which then enabled us to calculate the prior probabilities for the 20 risk factors in the BNI. The software iDiagnosis was designed to use this weighted BNI model for predicting pancreatic cancer. In an evaluation using a case-control dataset, the weighted BNI model significantly outperformed the conventional BNI and two other classifiers (k-Nearest Neighbor and Support Vector Machine). We conclude that the weighted BNI using PubMed knowledge and EHR data shows remarkable accuracy improvement over existing representative methods for pancreatic cancer prediction.

  8. 77 FR 56237 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... Conservation Act of 1978, Public Law 95-541. SUMMARY: The National Science Foundation (NSF) is required to... INFORMATION: The National Science Foundation, as directed by the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541), as amended by the Antarctic Science, Tourism and Conservation Act of 1996, has...

  9. Evaluation and guidelines for using polyurethane foam (PUF) passive air samplers in double-dome chambers to assess semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in non-industrial indoor environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlin, Pernilla; Audy, Ondřej; Škrdlíková, Lenka; Kukučka, Petr; Vojta, Šimon; Přibylová, Petra; Prokeš, Roman; Čupr, Pavel; Klánová, Jana

    2014-11-01

    Indoor air pollution has been recognized as an important risk factor for human health, especially in areas where people tend to spend most of their time indoors. Many semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) have primarily indoor sources and are present in orders of magnitude higher concentrations indoors than outdoors. Despite this, awareness of SVOCs in indoor air and assessment of the link between indoor concentrations and human health have lagged behind those of outdoor air. This is partially related to challenges associated with indoor sampling of SVOCs. Passive air samplers (PASs), which are widely accepted in established outdoor air monitoring networks, have been used to fill the knowledge gaps on indoor SVOCs distribution. However, their applicability for indoor environments and the assessment of human health risks lack sufficient experimental data. To address this issue, we performed an indoor calibration study of polyurethane foam (PUF) PAS deployed in a double-dome chamber, covering both legacy and new SVOC classes. PUF-PAS and a continuous low-volume active air sampler (AAS) were co-deployed for a calibration period of twelve weeks. Based on the results from this evaluation, PUF-PAS in a double-bowl chamber is recommended for indoor sampling and health risk assessment of gas phase SVOCs, including novel brominated flame retardants (nBFR) providing sufficient exposure time is applied. Data for particle associated SVOCs suffered from significant uncertainties caused by low level of detection and low precision in this study. A more open chamber design for indoor studies may allow for higher sampling rates (RS) and better performance for the particle associated SVOCs.

  10. Utilization of bar and izakaya-pub establishments among middle-aged and elderly Japanese men to mitigate stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohnishi Mayumi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Japanese suicide rate is one of the highest among industrialized nations, especially following the economic crisis of the 1990s, with more than 30000 suicides every year since 1998. Previous studies have pointed out to relationships between overwork and/or job stress, and death and other health risks, and suggested several possible avenues for releasing stress and emotional burden, including suicidal ideation, through talking with intimate friends, family, and specialists, such as counselors and physicians. The present study was performed to explore the potential role of owners and managers of bars and izakaya-pub establishments in mitigating stress of middle-aged and elderly Japanese men by having informal conversations with them. A self-administered questionnaire was posted to all bars and izakaya-pubs registered in Ohmura-city, Nagasaki prefecture, in December 2009. Among 260 bars and izakaya-pubs, a total of 103 owners and managers completed the questionnaire. More than half of the respondents experienced engaging in conversations with their customers regarding customers’ various personal and private issues. The most frequently talked about problem was that regarding work (56.3%. Regardless of sex and age of the respondents, those with longer working experience in bar and izakaya-pub establishments were more likely to have had customers confiding in them financial problems including debts/loans (adjusted odds ratio: 5.48, p = 0.033. Owners and managers of bars and izakaya-pubs may be in a position to act as “listeners”, to whom middle-aged and elderly men can talk about their personal problems casually and without having to worry about conflict of interests, and direct those in need to professional counseling.

  11. Utilization of bar and izakaya-pub establishments among middle-aged and elderly Japanese men to mitigate stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Mayumi; Nakao, Rieko; Kawasaki, Ryokko; Nitta, Akiko; Hamada, Yukari; Nakane, Hideyuki

    2012-06-18

    Japanese suicide rate is one of the highest among industrialized nations, especially following the economic crisis of the 1990s, with more than 30000 suicides every year since 1998. Previous studies have pointed out to relationships between overwork and/or job stress, and death and other health risks, and suggested several possible avenues for releasing stress and emotional burden, including suicidal ideation, through talking with intimate friends, family, and specialists, such as counselors and physicians. The present study was performed to explore the potential role of owners and managers of bars and izakaya-pub establishments in mitigating stress of middle-aged and elderly Japanese men by having informal conversations with them. A self-administered questionnaire was posted to all bars and izakaya-pubs registered in Ohmura-city, Nagasaki prefecture, in December 2009. Among 260 bars and izakaya-pubs, a total of 103 owners and managers completed the questionnaire. More than half of the respondents experienced engaging in conversations with their customers regarding customers' various personal and private issues. The most frequently talked about problem was that regarding work (56.3%). Regardless of sex and age of the respondents, those with longer working experience in bar and izakaya-pub establishments were more likely to have had customers confiding in them financial problems including debts/loans (adjusted odds ratio: 5.48, p = 0.033). Owners and managers of bars and izakaya-pubs may be in a position to act as "listeners", to whom middle-aged and elderly men can talk about their personal problems casually and without having to worry about conflict of interests, and direct those in need to professional counseling.

  12. GAPscreener: An automatic tool for screening human genetic association literature in PubMed using the support vector machine technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoury Muin J

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synthesis of data from published human genetic association studies is a critical step in the translation of human genome discoveries into health applications. Although genetic association studies account for a substantial proportion of the abstracts in PubMed, identifying them with standard queries is not always accurate or efficient. Further automating the literature-screening process can reduce the burden of a labor-intensive and time-consuming traditional literature search. The Support Vector Machine (SVM, a well-established machine learning technique, has been successful in classifying text, including biomedical literature. The GAPscreener, a free SVM-based software tool, can be used to assist in screening PubMed abstracts for human genetic association studies. Results The data source for this research was the HuGE Navigator, formerly known as the HuGE Pub Lit database. Weighted SVM feature selection based on a keyword list obtained by the two-way z score method demonstrated the best screening performance, achieving 97.5% recall, 98.3% specificity and 31.9% precision in performance testing. Compared with the traditional screening process based on a complex PubMed query, the SVM tool reduced by about 90% the number of abstracts requiring individual review by the database curator. The tool also ascertained 47 articles that were missed by the traditional literature screening process during the 4-week test period. We examined the literature on genetic associations with preterm birth as an example. Compared with the traditional, manual process, the GAPscreener both reduced effort and improved accuracy. Conclusion GAPscreener is the first free SVM-based application available for screening the human genetic association literature in PubMed with high recall and specificity. The user-friendly graphical user interface makes this a practical, stand-alone application. The software can be downloaded at no charge.

  13. Mentoring programs for medical students - a review of the PubMed literature 2000 - 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Although mentoring is acknowledged as a key to successful and satisfying careers in medicine, formal mentoring programs for medical students are lacking in most countries. Within the framework of planning a mentoring program for medical students at Zurich University, an investigation was carried out into what types of programs exist, what the objectives pursued by such programs are, and what effects are reported. Methods A PubMed literature search was conducted for 2000 - 2008 using the following keywords or their combinations: mentoring, mentoring program, medical student, mentor, mentee, protégé, mentorship. Although a total of 438 publications were identified, only 25 papers met the selection criteria for structured programs and student mentoring surveys. Results The mentoring programs reported in 14 papers aim to provide career counseling, develop professionalism, increase students' interest in research, and support them in their personal growth. There are both one-to-one and group mentorships, established in the first two years of medical school and continuing through graduation. The personal student-faculty relationship is important in that it helps students to feel that they are benefiting from individual advice and encourages them to give more thought to their career choices. Other benefits are an increase in research productivity and improved medical school performance in general. Mentored students also rate their overall well-being as higher. - The 11 surveys address the requirements for being an effective mentor as well as a successful mentee. A mentor should empower and encourage the mentee, be a role model, build a professional network, and assist in the mentee's personal development. A mentee should set agendas, follow through, accept criticism, and be able to assess performance and the benefits derived from the mentoring relationship. Conclusion Mentoring is obviously an important career advancement tool for medical students. In Europe

  14. Mentoring programs for medical students - a review of the PubMed literature 2000 - 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buddeberg-Fischer Barbara

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although mentoring is acknowledged as a key to successful and satisfying careers in medicine, formal mentoring programs for medical students are lacking in most countries. Within the framework of planning a mentoring program for medical students at Zurich University, an investigation was carried out into what types of programs exist, what the objectives pursued by such programs are, and what effects are reported. Methods A PubMed literature search was conducted for 2000 - 2008 using the following keywords or their combinations: mentoring, mentoring program, medical student, mentor, mentee, protégé, mentorship. Although a total of 438 publications were identified, only 25 papers met the selection criteria for structured programs and student mentoring surveys. Results The mentoring programs reported in 14 papers aim to provide career counseling, develop professionalism, increase students' interest in research, and support them in their personal growth. There are both one-to-one and group mentorships, established in the first two years of medical school and continuing through graduation. The personal student-faculty relationship is important in that it helps students to feel that they are benefiting from individual advice and encourages them to give more thought to their career choices. Other benefits are an increase in research productivity and improved medical school performance in general. Mentored students also rate their overall well-being as higher. - The 11 surveys address the requirements for being an effective mentor as well as a successful mentee. A mentor should empower and encourage the mentee, be a role model, build a professional network, and assist in the mentee's personal development. A mentee should set agendas, follow through, accept criticism, and be able to assess performance and the benefits derived from the mentoring relationship. Conclusion Mentoring is obviously an important career advancement tool for

  15. [Particulate matter in indoor environments--exposure situation in residences, schools, pubs, and related recreational spaces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, H

    2006-11-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies have been carried out during the last decades which have demonstrated an association between the pollution of outside air with toxic substances and the occurrence of health-related effects. Against the background of these findings, particularly in recent years, the focus of research has clearly shifted towards particulate matter (PM), notable fine and ultrafine particles. While diverse measurements of PM in the outside air have been conducted, only few data on indoor air pollution are available. The concentration of PM in the indoor environment is highly variable in time and space due to various influencing factors like type of the source, building and room characteristics, the activities of users and the airing behaviour. In this article we aim to summarise and discuss the exposure situation regarding PM in indoor environments. In residences, European studies have found mean PM (2.5) values between 10 and 87 microg/m (3). Especially in smokers' homes, a high background level was observed, reaching very high concentrations of some hundred microg/m (3) when active smoking took place. There are some studies on air quality in schools and similar public places which show that exposure to particulate matter in these environments is high. The main causes of this situation appear to be an insufficient ventilation routine as well as the low frequency and quality of cleaning. In combination with the high number of pupils in relation to room area and volume and their sometimes high physical activity, this leads to a continued resuspension of particles from the room's surfaces. A very high concentration of PM can be observed in those recreational places where smoking is not prohibited, such as discotheques, pubs and restaurants. Here, the mean PM values can reach some hundred microg/m (3). Specific strategies are necessary to especially protect the health of non-smokers in such places. Further investigations are needed to characterise the

  16. Rate of complications in scoliosis surgery – a systematic review of the Pub Med literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodall Deborah

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinal fusion surgery is currently recommended when curve magnitude exceeds 40–45 degrees. Early attempts at spinal fusion surgery which were aimed to leave the patients with a mild residual deformity, failed to meet such expectations. These aims have since been revised to the more modest goals of preventing progression, restoring 'acceptability' of the clinical deformity and reducing curvature. In view of the fact that there is no evidence that health related signs and symptoms of scoliosis can be altered by spinal fusion in the long-term, a clear medical indication for this treatment cannot be derived. Knowledge concerning the rate of complications of scoliosis surgery may enable us to establish a cost/benefit relation of this intervention and to improve the standard of the information and advice given to patients. It is also hoped that this study will help to answer questions in relation to the limiting choice between the risks of surgery and the "wait and see – observation only until surgery might be recommended", strategy widely used. The purpose of this review is to present the actual data available on the rate of complications in scoliosis surgery. Materials and methods Search strategy for identification of studies; Pub Med and the SOSORT scoliosis library, limited to English language and bibliographies of all reviewed articles. The search strategy included the terms; 'scoliosis'; 'rate of complications'; 'spine surgery'; 'scoliosis surgery'; 'spondylodesis'; 'spinal instrumentation' and 'spine fusion'. Results The electronic search carried out on the 1st February 2008 with the key words "scoliosis", "surgery", "complications" revealed 2590 titles, which not necessarily attributed to our quest for the term "rate of complications". 287 titles were found when the term "rate of complications" was used as a key word. Rates of complication varied between 0 and 89% depending on the aetiology of the entity investigated

  17. PubMed和CNKI收录炎症性肠病文献计量学分析%Metrological Analysis on Inflammatory Bowel Disease from PubMed and CNKI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔悦; 许昌泰

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze domestic and foreign literature growth regularity and main factors that affect future development of inflammatory bowel disease ( IBD )from PubMed and CNKI. Methods It respectively searched the literature quantity year by year in PubMed from 1945 to 2010 and CNKI from 1978 to 2010 by IBD and its hyponym;ulcerative colitis( UC )and Crohn's disease( CD ). Then it carried out linear regression analysis with the searching results in PubMed and CNKI. Meanwhile, it analyzed IBD papers published in domestic and foreign journals. Results The literature accumulation year by year of IBD, UC and CD increased in PubMed and CNKI. The scattered point diagram was in exponential growing trend( Y = aex ),which was slower in the early time but rapidly in the last few years. There were 63 824 IBD literatures in abroad,80. 54%( 49 284 of 61 195 )of which were in English version. The literatures in CNKI were 15 780,40.14% ( 6334 of 15 780 )of which were published in core journals. Conclusion The literature accumulation of IBD is increasing in PubMed and CNKI, indicating that IBD still remains a hotspot. The main factor affecting the growth of literature in IBD is discipline inherent regularity abroad,but discipline environment in China.%目的 分析PubMed和CNKI炎症性肠病(IBD)文献增长规律及影响其发展的主要因素.方法 用IBD及其下位词溃疡性结肠炎(UC)和克罗恩病(CD)分别逐年检索1945 ~2010年PubMed中收录的文献量和1978 ~2010年CNKI中收录的文献量,之后分别对PubMed和CNKI中收录的文献进行线性回归分析,同时分析国内外相关期刊刊载IBD的论文.结果 国内外IBD、UC和CD逐年累积文献量呈上升趋势,IBD、UC和CD散点图均呈指数增长趋势(Y=aeX),前期增长速度较为缓慢,近年来增长速度逐步加快.国外63 824篇IBD文献中,英文49 284篇,为80.54%(49 284/61 195).国内相关文献15 780篇,其中IBD文献主要刊载于核心期刊6334篇,达40.14%.

  18. 利用PubMed构建医药企业文献支持平台%The Construction of Literature Supporting Platform for Drug Enterprises Utilizing PubMed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡书明

    2012-01-01

    基于PubMed程序接口进行二次程序开发,从需求分析、基础架构、实现流程等方面介绍医药企业文献支持平台的构建,实现企业特色文献资源的积累、及时更新以及集约化使用。%The paper carries out secondary program development based on PubMed interfaces,introduces the construction of literature supporting platform for drug enterprises from the aspects of requirements analysis,basic framework,realization process and so on,so as to realize accumulation,timely update and intensive utilization of characteristic literature resources in enterprises.

  19. Publicaciones médicas procesadas en las bases de datos PubMed y CUMED: Cienfuegos 1998-2007Medical publications processed in CUMED and PubMed data bases: Cienfuegos, Cuba, 1998-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Luques Hernández

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: caracterizar la producción científica de las ciencias médicas de Cienfuegos.Material y Método: estudio descriptivo bibliométrico. Se realizó una búsqueda en las bases dedatos PubMed y CUMED durante el periodo 1998 – 2007. En la estrategia de búsqueda se utilizóla palabra “Cienfuegos” en PubMed y CUMED Habana, mientras en CUMED Cienfuegos “$”.Se analizaron el número de publicaciones, tipo e idioma, nombre de la revista, país editor,institución de procedencia entre otras variables. Fueron excluidos los registros fuera del periodo,repetidos, incongruentes, capturas erróneas, solapamiento, cd-rom, resúmenes, libros.Resultados: se estudiaron un total de 288 publicaciones. En general, el número de publicacionespor años se incrementó progresivamente con una tendencia al incremento, excepto en los dosúltimos años, 2006 y 2007. En PubMed el 51.3% de las publicaciones aparecieron en RevistaNeurología y British Medical Journal, en CUMED Habana el 48.6% aparecieron en Medisur,Revista Cubana de Medicina y Revista Cubana de Pediatría y en CUMED Cienfuegos el 92.2%en Medisur y Finlay. El Hospital Provincial Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima tuvo el mayor númerode publicaciones en PubMed (83.8% y CUMED Cienfuegos (47.9%. El original fue el tipo depublicación más frecuente con 56.6%. En general predominaron los temas de Medicina Interna(18.1% y Pediatría (16.3%.Conclusiones: se observó por primera vez, con algunos detalles, cuál ha sido la actividadinvestigadora de los profesionales de la salud en Cienfuegos.Objective: to characterize the scientific production of the medical science school in Cienfuegos,Cuba.Material and methods: a bibliometric descriptive study in the CUMED and PubMed data basesfrom 1998 to 2007. In the searching strategy the word “Cienfuegos” was used in PubMed andalso in Havana CUMED, meanwhile in Cienfuegos CUMED “$” was used. The number ofpublications, languages and types, name of the

  20. 玛珥湖好氧不产氧光合细菌pufM基因DNA和mRNA的定量及多样性分析%Genetic diversity and quantification of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria in Hugangyan Maar Lake based on pufM DNA and mRNA analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓洁; 曾永辉; 简纪常; 鲁义善; 吴灶和

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] Maar lake is a special type of Crater Lake.Huguangyan Maar Lake was formed about 140 k-160 k years ago, fully closed, and has not yet been affected by human activities, where abundant and novel microbial species might dwell as reported previously.Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (AAPB) is a functional bacterial group with long evolution history in Earth possessing unique physiological and ecological characteristics.To date, our knowledge about AAPB distribution in Maar Lake is still blank.[Methods] Here, by constructing and analyzing six clone libraries of the photosynthetic reaction center pufM gene from total DNA and RNA, respectively, with 1 m, 5 m, and 12 m water layers in Huguangyan Maar Lake, and combining quantitative Real-time PCR, we studied AAPB's distribution, phy-logenetic diversity and the proportion in the total bacteria in different water layers.The results of coverage value and rarefaction curves of six libraries showed that AAPB diversity was sampled well for the purpose of revealing the diversity of main AAPB groups in each water layer.[Results] BLAST analysis showed that pufM sequences in Maar Lake were 80%-93% similar to public sequences.Diversity index indicated that the AAPB diversity in surface and deep layers was similar, whereas diversity in the intermediate layer was lowest.In view of total RNA and DNA data, pufM RNA diversity was higher than that of DNA.Phylogenetic and statistical analysis revealed that 49.43% sequences are fell into the OTUs 21-24 which were closely related to P-proteobacteria and represent dominated AAPB groups.Quantitative PCR results showed that the percentage of AAPB in total bacteria in 1 m water layer reached a highest value of 38.06%, whereas only 0.85% and 9.54% in 5 m and 12 m, respectively.[Conclusion] Huguangyan Maar Lake is occupied by rich and diverse AAPB groups.%[目的]湖光岩玛珥湖是一类特殊的火山口湖,它完全封闭,地质年代久远,尚未受人类活动的剧烈

  1. 过热蒸汽膨化番茄的预干燥条件及干燥模型%Initial drying condition of super heated steam puffing tomato and drying model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐将; 安凤平; 赖彩如; 仇东朝; 宋洪波

    2012-01-01

    热风干燥温度对经甘油溶液处理的番茄的干燥特性、色泽以及过热蒸汽膨化后番茄的比容和复水性均有较大影响,过热蒸汽膨化的预干燥温度为70℃时,干燥速率较大,预干燥番茄色泽好,膨化充分,且复水性好.建立的基于Page方程的预干燥模型可以有效模拟和预测不同热风干燥温度条件下任意时刻番茄的干燥速率及含水率.%Results showed the temperature of hot air had great influence on the drying properties, color of tomato, and the bulk density and rehydration property of super heated steam puffing tomato. When the temperature of hot air was 70 癈 , the tomato had fast drying velocity, with good color, full puffing volume and excellent rehydration performance. The drying model based on Page equation could accurately estimate the drying speed and moisture content of tomato at any time under different temperatures of hot air.

  2. Investigation of the suppression of runaway electrons by puffing working gas in plasmas%等离子体中充入工作气体抑制电子逃逸行为分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    竹锦霞

    2012-01-01

    利用Nal闪烁体探测器组成的伽马射线探测系统和BF3正比计数管、3He正比计数管和ZnS闪烁体探测器组成的中子探测系统,研究了欧姆放电平稳阶段充入工作气体后对逃逸电子产生过程的影响.实验结果表明;在欧姆放电平稳阶段充入工作气体严重影响了逃逸电子行为,充入的工作气体能有效抑制逃逸电子的产生.%In terms of Nal scintillation detector consisting of gamma-ray detection system and BF3 proportional counter consisting of neutron detection system, the behavior of runaway electrons has been studied after puffing working gas during the current flat-top phase of ohmic discharge. The results show that during the current flat-top phase of ohmic discharge, the puffing working gas has seriously affected the behavior of runaway electrons. This method can effectively suppress the generation of runaway electrons.

  3. Initial research on the technology of the tartary buckwheat by the high temperature short time air puffing%苦荞麦高温短时气流膨化工艺初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚丽; 毛新; 蒋爱民; 刘欣; 刘清化

    2011-01-01

    The tartary buckwheat was researched in the initial technology of high temperature short time air puffing.The expansion rate, rehydration rate, difference of color of the tartary buckwheat products were researched in effect by the sample mass, expansion temperature,expansion time anti water content. The results showed that:the best puffing technology were that the sample mass was 100 ~ 150g, the expansion temperature was 260℃, the expansion time was 40s and the sample water content was 10%.%时高温短时气流膨化苦荞麦工艺进行初步探讨,主要研究进料量、膨化温度、膨化时间和水分含量对产品膨化率、复水率和色差值三种指标的影响,得出较佳膨化工艺条件为物料进料量100~150g、膨化温度260℃、膨化时间40s、物料水分含量10%.

  4. Demystifying the Search Button: A Comprehensive PubMed Search Strategy for Performing an Exhaustive Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeever, Liam; Nguyen, Van; Peterson, Sarah J; Gomez-Perez, Sandra; Braunschweig, Carol

    2015-08-01

    A thorough review of the literature is the basis of all research and evidence-based practice. A gold-standard efficient and exhaustive search strategy is needed to ensure all relevant citations have been captured and that the search performed is reproducible. The PubMed database comprises both the MEDLINE and non-MEDLINE databases. MEDLINE-based search strategies are robust but capture only 89% of the total available citations in PubMed. The remaining 11% include the most recent and possibly relevant citations but are only searchable through less efficient techniques. An effective search strategy must employ both the MEDLINE and the non-MEDLINE portion of PubMed to ensure all studies have been identified. The robust MEDLINE search strategies are used for the MEDLINE portion of the search. Usage of the less robust strategies is then efficiently confined to search only the remaining 11% of PubMed citations that have not been indexed for MEDLINE. The current article offers step-by-step instructions for building such a search exploring methods for the discovery of medical subject heading (MeSH) terms to search MEDLINE, text-based methods for exploring the non-MEDLINE database, information on the limitations of convenience algorithms such as the "related citations feature," the strengths and pitfalls associated with commonly used filters, the proper usage of Boolean operators to organize a master search strategy, and instructions for automating that search through "MyNCBI" to receive search query updates by email as new citations become available.

  5. PubMed收录产后出血相关文献的计量学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝金凤

    2015-01-01

    PubMed收最的产后出血相关文献的年份、国别、期刊来源、多产作者、主要主题词进行统计,并对有关数据进行分析,以明确产后出血相关文献分布特点和研究现状.

  6. PubMed收录葡萄胎相关文献的计量学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝金凤

    2015-01-01

    PubMed收录的葡萄胎相关文献的年份、国别、期刊来源、多产作者、主要主题词进行统计,并对有关数据进行分析,以明确葡萄胎相关文献分布特点和研究现状.

  7. PubMed收录羊水栓塞相关文献的计量学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽娟

    2015-01-01

    PubMed收录的羊水栓塞相关文献的年份、国别、期刊来源、多产作者、主要主题词进行统计,并对有关数据进行分析,以明确羊水栓塞相关文献分布特点和研究现状.

  8. PubMed收录胃溃疡手术相关文献的计量学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麻立民; 王文亮

    2015-01-01

    PubMed收录的胃溃疡手术相关文献的年份、国别、期刊来源、多产作者、主要主题词进行统计,并对有关数据进行分析,以明确胃溃疡手术相关文献分布特点和研究现状。

  9. PubMed收录脑室造瘘术相关文献的计量学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建锋

    2014-01-01

    PubMed收录的脑室造瘘术相关文献的年份、国别、期刊来源、多产作者、主要主题词进行统计,并对有关数据进行分析,以明确脑室造瘘术相关文献分布特点和研究现状。

  10. PubMed收录护患关系相关文献的计量学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤晓双

    2015-01-01

    PubMed收录的近5年护患关系相关文献的年份、国别、期刊来源、多产作者、主要主题词进行统计,并对有关数据进行分析,以明确护患关系相关文献分布特点和研究现状.

  11. PubMed收录循证护理相关文献的计量学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤晓双

    2015-01-01

    PubMed收录的循证护理相关文献的年份、国别、期刊来源、多产作者、主要主题词进行统计,并对有关数据进行分析,以明确循证护理相关文献分布特点和研究现状.

  12. PubMed收录前置胎盘相关文献的计量学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝金凤

    2015-01-01

    PubMed收录的前置胎盘相关文献的年份、国别、期刊来源、多产作者、主要主题词进行统计,并对有关数据进行分析,以明确前置胎盘相关文献分布特点和研究现状.

  13. PubMed收录胎盘早剥相关文献的计量学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽娟

    2015-01-01

    PubMed收录的胎盘早剥相关文献的年份、国别、期刊来源、多产作者、主要主题词进行统计,并对有关数据进行分析,以明确胎盘早剥相关文献分布特点和研究现状.

  14. PubMed收录烧伤护理相关文献的计量学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤晓双

    2015-01-01

    PubMed收录的烧伤护理相关文献的年份、国别、期刊来源、多产作者、主要主题词进行统计,并对有关数据进行分析,以明确烧伤护理相关文献分布特点和研究现状.

  15. PubMed收录围手术期护理相关文献的计量学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤晓双

    2015-01-01

    PubMed收录的围手术期护理相关文献的年份、国别、期刊来源、多产作者、主要主题词进行统计,并对有关数据进行分析,以明确围手术期护理相关文献分布特点和研究现状。

  16. PubMed收录肿瘤护理相关文献的计量学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹玲玲

    2014-01-01

    PubMed收录的肿瘤护理相关文献的年份、国别、期刊来源、多产作者、主要主题词进行统计,并对有关数据进行分析,以明确肿瘤护理相关文献分布特点和研究现状。

  17. PubMed收录蛋白尿相关文献的计量学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐雪阳

    2015-01-01

    PubMed收录的近10年蛋白尿相关文献的年份。国别,期刊来源.多产作者。主要主题词进行统计,并对有关数据进行分析,以明确蛋白尿相关文献分布特点和研究现状。

  18. PubMed收录整体护理相关文献的计量学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤晓双

    2015-01-01

    PubMed收录的整体护理相关文献的年份、国别、期刊来源、多产作者、主要主题词进行统计,并对有关数据进行分析,以明确整体护理相关文献分布特点和研究现状。

  19. PubMed收录胆石症相关文献的计量学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜常志

    2015-01-01

    PubMed收录的胆石症近10年相关文献的年份、国别、期刊来源、多产作者、主要主题词进行统计,并对有关数据进行分析,以明确胆石症相关文献分布特点和研究现状.

  20. PubMed收录血管紧张素Ⅱ相关文献的计量学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐雪阳

    2015-01-01

    PubMed收录的血管紧张素Ⅱ近10年相关文献的年份、国别、期刊来源、多产作者、主要主题词进行统计,并对有关数据进行分析,以明确血管紧张素Ⅱ相关文献分布特点和研究现状。

  1. PubMed收录疝修补术相关文献的计量学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜常志

    2015-01-01

    PubMed收录的疝修补术相关文献的年份、国别、期刊来源、多产作者、主要主题词进行统计,并对有关数据进行分析,以明确疝修补术相关文献分布特点和研究现状.

  2. PubMed收录肝硬化病理学相关文献的计量学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜

    2016-01-01

    PubMed收录的近10年肝硬化病理学相关文献的年份、国别、期刊来源、多产作者、主要主题词进行统计,并对有关数据进行分析,以明确肝硬化病理学相关文献分布特点和研究现状。

  3. PubChemQC Project: A Large-Scale First-Principles Electronic Structure Database for Data-Driven Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Maho; Shimazaki, Tomomi

    2017-06-26

    Large-scale molecular databases play an essential role in the investigation of various subjects such as the development of organic materials, in silico drug design, and data-driven studies with machine learning. We have developed a large-scale quantum chemistry database based on first-principles methods. Our database currently contains the ground-state electronic structures of 3 million molecules based on density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6-31G* level, and we successively calculated 10 low-lying excited states of over 2 million molecules via time-dependent DFT with the B3LYP functional and the 6-31+G* basis set. To select the molecules calculated in our project, we referred to the PubChem Project, which was used as the source of the molecular structures in short strings using the InChI and SMILES representations. Accordingly, we have named our quantum chemistry database project "PubChemQC" ( http://pubchemqc.riken.jp/ ) and placed it in the public domain. In this paper, we show the fundamental features of the PubChemQC database and discuss the techniques used to construct the data set for large-scale quantum chemistry calculations. We also present a machine learning approach to predict the electronic structure of molecules as an example to demonstrate the suitability of the large-scale quantum chemistry database.

  4. Mobile app versus Web app: a comparison using 2008-2012 "PubMed for Handhelds" server data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontelo, Paul; Liu, Fang

    2013-01-01

    Recent surveys show that mobile apps are more popular than Web apps. Apple's iTunes Store, now has about 800,000 apps and reported to have about 40 billion downloads. Android apps, although fewer, is available to the most number of smartphones today. About 40,000 apps are medical or health related. We developed a PubMed4Hh mobile app for iPhone/iPad users to search MEDLINE/PubMed with same features as our Web-based search tools, in use since 2002. Five-year (2008-2012) server data for PubMed4Hh and Web app were analyzed. Searches using the mobile app significantly increased compared to the same five-year time period. Month-by-month comparison showed a 3 to 5-fold increase in queries. The six-month total accesses comparison increased 280% from the previous four-year average. A review of 500 randomly selected queries revealed that the majority of queries were clinical questions ((97.8%) and 61% of these queries are searches related to therapy.

  5. Answers to questions posed during daily patient care are more likely to be answered by UpToDate than PubMed.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendam, A.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.; Robbe, P.F.; Overbeke, A.J.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: UpToDate and PubMed are popular sources for medical information. Data regarding the efficiency of PubMed and UpToDate in daily medical care are lacking. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this observational study was to describe the percentage of answers retrieved by these information sources, co

  6. 专业的语义智能搜索引擎Quertle——与GoPubMed的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施李丽

    2012-01-01

    GoPubMed是基于PubMed的语义智能搜索引擎,Quertle是以PubMed为主要数据源的语义智能搜索引擎,两者都是基于本体向未来语义检索发展的尝试。GoPubMed最大的检索特色是对检索结果的分类统计和可视化。Quertle在本体技术和自然语言处理技术的支撑下,形成了Power TermTM检索,能识别单词大写时的特定含义,将检索提问与关系网进行匹配查找获得高度相关的检索结果。%GoPubMed is an intelligent semantic search engine based on PubMed, and Quertle is an intelligent semantic search engine taking PubMed as the main data source. Both of them are the attempts for the future development of semantic search based on ontology. The search feature Of GoPubMed is the classification, statistics and visualization of retrieval results. The search features of Quertle include Power Terms, understanding capitalization, finding highly relevant results by comparing search queries with the database of relationships.

  7. Analysis of queries sent to PubMed at the point of care : observation of search behaviour in a medical teaching hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendam, A.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.; Robbe, P.F.; Overbeke, A.J.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of PubMed to answer daily medical care questions is limited because it is challenging to retrieve a small set of relevant articles and time is restricted. Knowing what aspects of queries are likely to retrieve relevant articles can increase the effectiveness of PubMed searches.

  8. Analysis of queries sent to PubMed at the point of care : observation of search behaviour in a medical teaching hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendam, A.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.; Robbe, P.F.; Overbeke, A.J.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of PubMed to answer daily medical care questions is limited because it is challenging to retrieve a small set of relevant articles and time is restricted. Knowing what aspects of queries are likely to retrieve relevant articles can increase the effectiveness of PubMed searches. T

  9. Secure Key Storage with PUFs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoric, Boris; Schrijen, Geert-Jan; Tuyls, Pim; Ignatenko, Tanya; Willems, Frans

    Nowadays, people carry around devices (cell phones, PDAs, bank passes, etc.) that have a high value. That value is often contained in the data stored in it or lies in the services the device can grant access to (by using secret identification information stored in it). These devices often operate in hostile environments and their protection level is not adequate to deal with that situation. Bank passes and credit cards contain a magnetic stripe where identification information is stored. In the case of bank passes, a PIN is additionally required to withdraw money from an ATM (Automated Teller Machine). At various occasions, it has been shown that by placing a small coil in the reader, the magnetic information stored in the stripe can easily be copied and used to produce a cloned card. Together with eavesdropping the PIN (by listening to the keypad or recording it with a camera), an attacker can easily impersonate the legitimate owner of the bank pass by using the cloned card in combination with the eavesdropped PIN.

  10. Puffing Their Best Feet Forward

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Foreign diplomats in Beijing hit the road in a solidarity fun run for the Olympics It was a day out of the office for Philippe le Gall.Clad in a baggy white T-shirt and black miming shorts,the Seychelles’ ambassador to China looked ready for action. Le Gall was running a 1-kin race in a villa complex in northeast Beijing,where the Slovenian Embassy is located.The race, hosted by the embassy on April 26,104 days before the opening of the Beijing Olympics, attracted diplomats from about 50 countries. Its theme was"diplomats running for peace and friendship."

  11. Medicare Referring Provider DMEPOS PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset, which is part of CMSs Medicare Provider Utilization and Payment Data, details information on Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetics, Orthotics and...

  12. The quality of the reported sample size calculations in randomized controlled trials indexed in PubMed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Paul H; Tse, Andy C Y

    2017-05-01

    There are limited data on the quality of reporting of information essential for replication of the calculation as well as the accuracy of the sample size calculation. We examine the current quality of reporting of the sample size calculation in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in PubMed and to examine the variation in reporting across study design, study characteristics, and journal impact factor. We also reviewed the targeted sample size reported in trial registries. We reviewed and analyzed all RCTs published in December 2014 with journals indexed in PubMed. The 2014 Impact Factors for the journals were used as proxies for their quality. Of the 451 analyzed papers, 58.1% reported an a priori sample size calculation. Nearly all papers provided the level of significance (97.7%) and desired power (96.6%), and most of the papers reported the minimum clinically important effect size (73.3%). The median (inter-quartile range) of the percentage difference of the reported and calculated sample size calculation was 0.0% (IQR -4.6%;3.0%). The accuracy of the reported sample size was better for studies published in journals that endorsed the CONSORT statement and journals with an impact factor. A total of 98 papers had provided targeted sample size on trial registries and about two-third of these papers (n=62) reported sample size calculation, but only 25 (40.3%) had no discrepancy with the reported number in the trial registries. The reporting of the sample size calculation in RCTs published in PubMed-indexed journals and trial registries were poor. The CONSORT statement should be more widely endorsed. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. High-performance information search filters for acute kidney injury content in PubMed, Ovid Medline and Embase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Ainslie M; Iansavichus, Arthur V; Haynes, R Brian; Wilczynski, Nancy L; Mehta, Ravindra L; Parikh, Chirag R; Garg, Amit X

    2014-04-01

    We frequently fail to identify articles relevant to the subject of acute kidney injury (AKI) when searching the large bibliographic databases such as PubMed, Ovid Medline or Embase. To address this issue, we used computer automation to create information search filters to better identify articles relevant to AKI in these databases. We first manually reviewed a sample of 22 992 full-text articles and used prespecified criteria to determine whether each article contained AKI content or not. In the development phase (two-thirds of the sample), we developed and tested the performance of >1.3-million unique filters. Filters with high sensitivity and high specificity for the identification of AKI articles were then retested in the validation phase (remaining third of the sample). We succeeded in developing and validating high-performance AKI search filters for each bibliographic database with sensitivities and specificities in excess of 90%. Filters optimized for sensitivity reached at least 97.2% sensitivity, and filters optimized for specificity reached at least 99.5% specificity. The filters were complex; for example one PubMed filter included >140 terms used in combination, including 'acute kidney injury', 'tubular necrosis', 'azotemia' and 'ischemic injury'. In proof-of-concept searches, physicians found more articles relevant to topics in AKI with the use of the filters. PubMed, Ovid Medline and Embase can be filtered for articles relevant to AKI in a reliable manner. These high-performance information filters are now available online and can be used to better identify AKI content in large bibliographic databases.

  14. Speed, accuracy, and confidence in Google, Ovid, PubMed, and UpToDate: results of a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Robert H; Poiro, Nathan C; Scalzo, David C; Nemergut, Edward C

    2010-08-01

    The explosion of biomedical information has led to an 'information paradox'-the volume of biomedical information available has made it increasingly difficult to find relevant information when needed. It is thus increasingly critical for physicians to acquire a working knowledge of biomedical informatics. To evaluate four search tools commonly used to answer clinical questions, in terms of accuracy, speed, and user confidence. From December 2008 to June 2009, medical students, resident physicians, and attending physicians at the authors' institution were asked to answer a set of four anaesthesia and/or critical care based clinical questions, within 5 min, using Google, Ovid, PubMed, or UpToDate (only one search tool per question). At the end of each search, participants rated their results on a four point confidence scale. One to 3 weeks after answering the initial four questions, users were randomised to one of the four search tools, and asked to answer eight questions, four of which were repeated. The primary outcome was defined as a correct answer with the highest level of confidence. Google was the most popular search tool. Users of Google and UpToDate were more likely than users of PubMed to answer questions correctly. Subjects had the most confidence in UpToDate. Searches with Google and UpToDate were faster than searches with PubMed or Ovid. Non-Medline based search tools are not inferior to Medline based search tools for purposes of answering evidence based anaesthesia and critical care questions.

  15. Automated Patent Categorization and Guided Patent Search using IPC as Inspired by MeSH and PubMed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisinger, Daniel; Tsatsaronis, George; Bundschus, Markus; Wieneke, Ulrich; Schroeder, Michael

    2013-04-15

    Document search on PubMed, the pre-eminent database for biomedical literature, relies on the annotation of its documents with relevant terms from the Medical Subject Headings ontology (MeSH) for improving recall through query expansion. Patent documents are another important information source, though they are considerably less accessible. One option to expand patent search beyond pure keywords is the inclusion of classification information: Since every patent is assigned at least one class code, it should be possible for these assignments to be automatically used in a similar way as the MeSH annotations in PubMed. In order to develop a system for this task, it is necessary to have a good understanding of the properties of both classification systems. This report describes our comparative analysis of MeSH and the main patent classification system, the International Patent Classification (IPC). We investigate the hierarchical structures as well as the properties of the terms/classes respectively, and we compare the assignment of IPC codes to patents with the annotation of PubMed documents with MeSH terms.Our analysis shows a strong structural similarity of the hierarchies, but significant differences of terms and annotations. The low number of IPC class assignments and the lack of occurrences of class labels in patent texts imply that current patent search is severely limited. To overcome these limits, we evaluate a method for the automated assignment of additional classes to patent documents, and we propose a system for guided patent search based on the use of class co-occurrence information and external resources.

  16. Automated Patent Categorization and Guided Patent Search using IPC as Inspired by MeSH and PubMed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Document search on PubMed, the pre-eminent database for biomedical literature, relies on the annotation of its documents with relevant terms from the Medical Subject Headings ontology (MeSH) for improving recall through query expansion. Patent documents are another important information source, though they are considerably less accessible. One option to expand patent search beyond pure keywords is the inclusion of classification information: Since every patent is assigned at least one class code, it should be possible for these assignments to be automatically used in a similar way as the MeSH annotations in PubMed. In order to develop a system for this task, it is necessary to have a good understanding of the properties of both classification systems. This report describes our comparative analysis of MeSH and the main patent classification system, the International Patent Classification (IPC). We investigate the hierarchical structures as well as the properties of the terms/classes respectively, and we compare the assignment of IPC codes to patents with the annotation of PubMed documents with MeSH terms. Our analysis shows a strong structural similarity of the hierarchies, but significant differences of terms and annotations. The low number of IPC class assignments and the lack of occurrences of class labels in patent texts imply that current patent search is severely limited. To overcome these limits, we evaluate a method for the automated assignment of additional classes to patent documents, and we propose a system for guided patent search based on the use of class co-occurrence information and external resources. PMID:23734562

  17. The effects of smoking status and ventilation on environmental tobacco smoke concentrations in public areas of UK pubs and bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, Joanna; Watson, Adrian F. R.; Gee, Ivan L.

    UK public houses generally allow smoking to occur and consequently customer ETS exposure can take place. To address this, in 1999 the UK Government and the hospitality industry initiated the Public Places Charter (PPC) to increase non-smoking facilities and provide better ventilation in public houses. A study involving 60 UK pubs, located in Greater Manchester, was conducted to investigate the effects of smoking area status and ventilation on ETS concentrations. ETS markers RSP, UVPM, FPM, SolPM and nicotine were sampled and analysed using established methodologies. ETS marker concentrations were significantly higher ( P avoid pubs with non-smoking areas thus reducing source strengths in the smoking areas of these pubs. Nicotine concentrations were not found to be significantly different in smoking areas of the two types of establishment indicating that nicotine is not as mobile in these environments and tends to remain in the smoking areas. This result, together with the much higher reductions in nicotine concentrations between smoking and non-smoking areas compared to other markers, suggests that nicotine is not the most suitable marker to use in these environments as an indicator of the effectiveness of tobacco control policies. The use of ventilation systems (sophisticated HVAC systems and extractor fans in either the on or off mode) did not have a significant effect ( P > 0.05) on ETS marker concentrations in either the smoking or non-smoking areas. The PPC aims to reduce non-smoking customers' exposure through segregation and ventilation and provide customer choice though appropriate signs. This study indicates that although ETS levels are lower in non-smoking sections and signs will assist customers in reducing their exposure, some exposure will still occur because ETS was detected in non-smoking areas. Existing ventilation provision was not effective in reducing exposure and signs advertising ventilated premises may be misleading to customers. Improvements

  18. Pharmacy journal abstracts published in PubMed that abide by the CONsolidated Standards Of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Daniel A; Hughes, Peter J; Woolley, Thomas W

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the proportion of abstracts in pharmacy journals that are prepared according to the CONsolidated Standards Of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) criteria for abstracts. Certain abstracts for randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) indexed in PubMed were eligible for inclusion, with the primary endpoint being median overall compliance to CONSORT recommendations for abstracts. A total of 63 RCT abstracts were included in the analysis, with only 56% of the recommended CONSORT items represented in the sample. It is recommended that pharmacy journals encourage authors to follow CONSORT recommendations for abstracts when submitting RCTs for publication.

  19. Application of GoPubMed in bibliometric analysis of literature on CRISPR%利用GoPubMed对CRISPR相关文献的计量学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边富宁; 李文革; 李先平; 卢金星

    2014-01-01

    为了解CRISPR(clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)相关研究现状,笔者采用GoPubMed数据库的在线分析软件,对CRISPR相关文献进行计量分析.共检索到文献758篇.CRISPR相关研究文献呈逐年上升趋势,其中美国在CRISPR的文献数量和影响力均居首位,中国以北京地区发表文献最多(30篇).PLoS One刊登相关文献47篇,占发表总量的6.20%,居首位.CRISPR研究主题词涉及基因、基因组学、免疫等.高产作者为Horvath,共发表CRISPR相关文章11篇.利用GoPubMed可较好反映CRISPR研究的现状和发展趋势.中国CRISPR研究文献在整体质量和数量上均有待进一步提高.

  20. 基于PubMed数据库国外慢性病管理研究的现状分析%Analysis of the status quo of foreign chronic disease management research based on PubMed database

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵娜; 崔文香

    2014-01-01

    This article selects chronic disease management research of academic literatures published in the national library in PubMed database from January 2000 to December 2013.Literature Bicomb co-occurrence analysis system was used for data extraction,analysis on the current international research achievements of chronic disease management,development situation and existing problems,reveal the research trend of chronic disease management and the status quo,which provided reference for the similar domestic research.%本文选取美国国立图书馆PubMed数据库中2000年1月至2013年12月公开发表的慢性病管理研究的学术文献,运用文献共现分析系统Bicomb进行数据提取,分析目前国际上慢性病管理的研究成果、发展状况及现存问题,揭示慢性病管理的研究趋势和现状,旨在为国内的同类研究提供参考.

  1. Virtuous suffering and the predicament of being handicapped. Towards a theology of the ‘disabled God puffing in a wheelchair’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Louw

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The reality of disablement, being handicapped and physical disfigurement, opens up anew the theological debate regarding God-images in human suffering. It is argued that the Hellenistic understanding of the power of God, God as a pantokrator [Almighty], presupposes the immutability of an apathetic God. In terms of the logic of a cause-effect paradigm, God becomes the deterministic principle behind human suffering. With reference to a theologia crucis [theology of the Cross], the paradigm of theopaschitic theology proposes a pathetic understanding of God. Weakness and vulnerability (astheneia describes an authentic identification of God with human suffering. Forsakenness (derelictio reframes power as compassionate weakness or vulnerability and divine disability. The disabled God is, in terms of the New Testament a connection between divine compassion and human predicament (ta splanchna, the passionate God. Bowel categories make it possible to speak of the ‘puffing God in the wheelchair’. A theology of the cross should be supplemented by a theology of ability (theologia resurrectionis. The resurrection introduces the spiritual ability parrhesia − the transformation of the weakness of suffering into the fortigenitics of hope.Lyding tussen lot en deug binne die dilemma van gestremdheid. Die onwikkeling van ’n teologie van die ‘gestremde God, hygend in ’n rolstoel’. Die gegewendheid en realiteit van verskillende vorme van gestremdheid onderstreep menslike weerloosheid en magteloosheid. Vir gelowiges wat worstel met die vraag na sin in lyding, roep dit onder andere die vraag op na die verband tussen lyding en die almag en krag van God. Die basiese argument is dat die Hellenistiese konsep en paradigma van die mag van God, God as pantokrator, die starre onbeweeglikheid van ’n apatiese God voorveronderstel. Met behulp van die oorsaak-gevolg skema van denke, word God, in terme van die menslike logika, ’n deterministiese

  2. AtPUB 19, a U-Box E3 Ubiquitin Ligase, Negatively Regulates Abscisic Acid and Drought Responses in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Chang Liu; Yao-Rong Wu; Xia-He Huang; Jie Sun; Qi Xie

    2011-01-01

    Ubiquitination is an important protein post-translational modification,which is involved in various cellular processes in higher plants,and U-box E3 ligases play important roles in diverse functions in eukaryotes.Here,we describe the functions of Arabidopsis thaliana PUB19 (AtPUB19),which we demonstrated in an in vitro assay to encode a U-box type E3 ubiquitin ligase.AtPUB19 was up-regulated by drought,salt,cold,and abscisic acid (ABA).Down-regulation of AtPUB19led to hypersensitivity to ABA,enhanced ABA-induced stomatal closing,and enhanced drought tolerance,while AtPUB 19overexpression resulted in the reverse phenotypes.Molecular analysis showed that the expression levels of a number of ABA and stress marker genes were altered in both AtPUB 19 overexpressing and atpub 19-1 mutant plants.In summary,our data show that AtPUB19 negatively regulates ABA and drought responses in A.thaliana.

  3. The Arabidopsis U-box E3 Ubiquitin ligase PUB30 Negatively Regulates Salt Tolerance by Facilitating BRI1 KINASE INHIBITOR 1 (BKI1) Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Zhao, Jinfeng; Li, Long; Gao, Yanan; Zhao, Linlin; Patil, Suyash Bhimgonda; Fang, Jingjing; Zhang, Wenhui; Yang, Yuhong; Li, Ming; Li, Xueyong

    2017-09-02

    The Arabidopsis U-box E3 ubiquitin (Ub) ligases play an important role in the ubiquitin/26S proteasome-mediated protein degradation pathway. Recently PUB30 has been reported to participate in the salt stress response during seed germination stage in ABA-independent manner, but the molecular mechanism remains to be elucidated. Here we displayed that the pub30 mutant was more tolerant to salt stress during seed germination, whereas the mutant of its closest homologue PUB31 showed mild sensitivity to salt stress. PUB30 exhibited E3 ubiquitin ligase activity in vitro. PUB30 specifically interacted with BRI1 KINASE INHIBITOR 1 (BKI1), a regulator playing dual roles in brassinosteroids (BRs) signaling, in vitro and in vivo. We found that BKI1 protein was ubiquitinated and degraded by the 26S proteasome. The degradation of BKI1 was slowed down in the pub30-1 mutant compared with that in the wild-type. The bki1 mutant was sensitive to salt whereas the transgenic plants overexpressing BKI1 showed salt tolerant phenotype. All these results indicate that PUB30 negatively regulates salt tolerance probably through regulating the degradation of BKI1 and BRs signaling in Arabidopsis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Answers to questions posed during daily patient care are more likely to be answered by UpToDate than PubMed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogendam, Arjen; Stalenhoef, Anton F H; Robbé, Pieter F de Vries; Overbeke, A John P M

    2008-10-03

    UpToDate and PubMed are popular sources for medical information. Data regarding the efficiency of PubMed and UpToDate in daily medical care are lacking. The purpose of this observational study was to describe the percentage of answers retrieved by these information sources, comparing search results with regard to different medical topics and the time spent searching for an answer. A total of 40 residents and 30 internists in internal medicine working in an academic medical center searched PubMed and UpToDate using an observation portal during daily medical care. The information source used for searching and the time needed to find an answer to the question were recorded by the portal. Information was provided by searchers regarding the topic of the question, the situation that triggered the question, and whether an answer was found. We analyzed 1305 patient-related questions sent to PubMed and/or UpToDate between October 1, 2005 and March 31, 2007 using our portal. A complete answer was found in 594/1125 (53%) questions sent to PubMed or UpToDate. A partial or full answer was obtained in 729/883 (83%) UpToDate searches and 152/242 (63%) PubMed searches (P UpToDate answered more questions than PubMed on all major medical topics, but a significant difference was detected only when the question was related to etiology (P UpToDate and 291 seconds (SD 7) for PubMed. Specialists and residents in internal medicine generally use less than 5 minutes to answer patient-related questions in daily care. More questions are answered using UpToDate than PubMed on all major medical topics.

  5. Performance evaluation of unified medical language system®'s synonyms expansion to query PubMed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffon Nicolas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PubMed is the main access to medical literature on the Internet. In order to enhance the performance of its information retrieval tools, primarily non-indexed citations, the authors propose a method: expanding users' queries using Unified Medical Language System' (UMLS synonyms i.e. all the terms gathered under one unique Concept Unique Identifier. Methods This method was evaluated using queries constructed to emphasize the differences between this new method and the current PubMed automatic term mapping. Four experts assessed citation relevance. Results Using UMLS, we were able to retrieve new citations in 45.5% of queries, which implies a small increase in recall. The new strategy led to a heterogeneous 23.7% mean increase in non-indexed citation retrieved. Of these, 82% have been published less than 4 months earlier. The overall mean precision was 48.4% but differed according to the evaluators, ranging from 36.7% to 88.1% (Inter rater agreement was poor: kappa = 0.34. Conclusions This study highlights the need for specific search tools for each type of user and use-cases. The proposed strategy may be useful to retrieve recent scientific advancement.

  6. Meshable: searching PubMed abstracts by utilizing MeSH and MeSH-derived topical terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun; Yeganova, Lana; Wilbur, W John

    2016-10-01

    Medical Subject Headings (MeSH(®)) is a controlled vocabulary for indexing and searching biomedical literature. MeSH terms and subheadings are organized in a hierarchical structure and are used to indicate the topics of an article. Biologists can use either MeSH terms as queries or the MeSH interface provided in PubMed(®) for searching PubMed abstracts. However, these are rarely used, and there is no convenient way to link standardized MeSH terms to user queries. Here, we introduce a web interface which allows users to enter queries to find MeSH terms closely related to the queries. Our method relies on co-occurrence of text words and MeSH terms to find keywords that are related to each MeSH term. A query is then matched with the keywords for MeSH terms, and candidate MeSH terms are ranked based on their relatedness to the query. The experimental results show that our method achieves the best performance among several term extraction approaches in terms of topic coherence. Moreover, the interface can be effectively used to find full names of abbreviations and to disambiguate user queries. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/IRET/MESHABLE/ CONTACT: sun.kim@nih.gov Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  7. Test-retest reliability and discriminant validity for the Brazilian version of “The Interstitial Cystitis Symptom Index and Problem Index” and “Pelvic Pain and Urgency/Frequency (PUF) Patient Symptom Scale” instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Ancona, Carlos Arturo Levi; Junqueira, Roberto Gomes; Carlos da Silva, Daniel; Oliveira, Henrique Ceretta; de Moraes Lopes, Maria Helena Baena

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose is to evaluate the psychometric properties of reliability and discriminant validity of the Brazilian Portuguese versions of two instruments used in the diagnosis of interstitial cystitis (IC): “The Interstitial Cystitis Symptom Index and Problem Index” (The O’Leary-Sant), and “Pelvic Pain and Urgency/Frequency (PUF) Patient Symptom Scale”. Methods Three groups of patients were examined: a study group (subjects with IC), control group 1 (individuals with at least one IC symptom), and control group 2 (subjects without IC symptoms). Test-retest stability was evaluated at intervals of 3 to 7 days in the study group. Discriminant validity was examined in all three groups. Results The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) [95% confidence interval (CI)] results were 0.56 (range, 0.21-0.78) for The O’Leary-Sant Symptom Index, 0.48 (range, 0.10-0.73) for The O’Leary-Sant Problem Index, and 0.49 (range, 0.12-0.74) for the PUF. To analyze discriminant validity between groups, we used Fisher’s exact test and odd ratio (OR) to identify differences. We obtained a P value<0.0001, which indicated that the null hypothesis was rejected; in other words, there was evidence that at least two different groups were compared to the proportion of patients with IC. Conclusions The analyzed instruments did not reach appropriate values for reliability. Future studies are needed to analyze the psychometric measures of these instruments on a larger sample of patients with IC. PMID:26813711

  8. PubMed,ISI-Medline,Google Scholar检索性能对比测评%The Evaluation on the Retrieval Performance of PubMed, ISI-Medline and Google Scholar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧荣

    2009-01-01

    PubMed,ISI-Medline,Google Scholar是科研人员查找生物医学文献使用较多的检索工具.从检索范围、检索字段、检索方式、检索结果处理、个性化服务等角度对3者进行比较分析,结果表明3者均具有不可替换的优势,同时也存在各自不足,科研人员需根据需求选择相应的检索工具,制定适宜的检索策略.

  9. Comparison of the Strengths and Weaknesses of PubMed,Scopus,Web of Science and Google Scholar%比较PubMed,Scopus,Web of Science和Google Scholar的优点和缺点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹

    2010-01-01

    PubMed,Scopus,Web of Science和Google Scholar是当代生物医学科学信息最流行的资源工具,本文旨在比较这四种数据库在特定生物医学主题中检索信息、更新引文分析的区别.用数据库的官方网页在期刊涵盖的范围、用于搜索的实用程序及其限制、更新频率、引文特征等进行比较.用实例对关键词搜索来评估这些数据库检索结果的特点,并检索特定的一篇文章查看其引文特征.

  10. A statistical analysis and perspective of headache-related papers covered in 2011 PubMed%2011年PubMed收录头痛相关文献统计分析与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明洁; 于生元; 初炳倩; 代维

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the distribution and hot spots of literatures on headache by bibliometric analysis in order to provide reference for further study.Methods Literatures that contained headache or migraine in text words published in 2011 in PubMed databases (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ Pubmed) were searched.Journals,countries and subjects were bibliometrically analysed.Results There were 3683 papers involved to headache published in PubMed in 2011,of which 1527 papers were on headache research.The number of papers on headache research published by USA was the most followed by Italy and Germany (USA 23.25%,Italy 10.74%,Germany 5.83%).The mainly studied subjects were therapy(29.60%),pathophysiology (18.66%) and etiology (16.31%).14.86% papers published in Cephalalgia,which is one of the most important journals,reported negative results.Conclusion The emphasis of headache research was on migraine.Therapy,pathophysiology and etiology were the hot spot.Literatures with negative result attracted authors to give the more attention.%目的 研究2011年PubMed收录头痛相关文献的分布和热点,为该领域进一步深入研究提供参考.方法 检索PubMed数据库2011年收录的头痛相关文献,应用文献计量学方法对论文发表的期刊、国家和主题进行统计分析.结果 2011年以头痛为研究主题的文献共1527篇,美国、意大利、德国发文量位居前三,研究热点主要集中于治疗(29.60%)、病理生理学(18.66%)、病因学(16.31%)等几个方面,其中偏头痛为研究重点(54.09%),Cephalalgia为重点期刊,其发表的阴性结果的文章占论著总数的14.86%.结论 当前头痛疾患的研究主要集中在偏头痛方面,研究热点主要集中于治疗、病理生理学、病因学等方面;较高比例的阴性结果文章发表值得广大作者重视.

  11. Unleashed numerical daemons in our pub: Is poor numerical implementation of hydrologic models hurting the Predictions in Ungauged Basins initiative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Martyn; Kavetski, Dmitri

    2010-05-01

    Much of the research in the PUB initiative is focused on the analysis and interpretation of model results in well instrumented watersheds, in order to inform appropriate model structures and parameter values for use in ungauged basins. However, many of the models used in PUB share a common characteristic: poor numerical implementation. It is likely that many published conclusions, including (i) parameter sensitivity, optima and uncertainty estimates, and, more disconcertingly, (ii) the interpretation of hydrologic model output to gain insights into internal catchment dynamics, including the relative significance and behavior of different processes, may be questionable due to numerical artifacts introduced by unreliable time stepping schemes. Such lack of attention to numerical schemes has almost certainly hindered progress in the PUB initiative. Here, we comprehensively evaluate several classes of time stepping schemes in terms of numerical fidelity, computational efficiency, and impact on model sensitivity analysis, calibration and prediction. Extensive numerical experiments are carried out using 8 distinct time stepping algorithms and 6 different conceptual hydrological models, applied in the densely gauged experimental Mahurangi catchment as well as in 12 MOPEX basins with diverse physical characteristics and hydroclimatic regimes. Results show that numerical errors of uncontrolled time stepping schemes, which remain widely used in hydrology, routinely dwarf the structural errors of the model conceptualization. This has serious implications for model analysis and predictive use, including inconsistent inferences of parameters and internal states even if the calibrated streamflow predictions are similar. Even when numerical errors allow "getting the right result for the wrong reason", they make the model unduly fragile in predictive mode, as evidenced in validation tests. The extensive analyses in this paper indicate that these deformations are not rare isolated

  12. 基于NCBI开放接口的学科信息平台PubMed检索服务功能实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏叶; 黄文

    2014-01-01

    作为全球最大的网络生物医学文献数据库,美国PubMed在生物医学研究领域有着不可替代的作用。生物医学领域的科研人员已经习惯于利用PubMed查找所需要的信息资源。该文简要介绍了NCBI提供的Web Serv-ice接口功能,以及如何利用该接口在将PubMed检索服务内嵌到学科服务平台中,并将PubMed服务与图书馆的文献传递服务进行了尝试性的集成。

  13. Using the PubMatrix literature-mining resource to accelerate student-centered learning in a veterinary problem-based learning curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, John; Irizarry, Kristopher J L

    2009-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) creates an atmosphere in which veterinary students must take responsibility for their own education. Unlike a traditional curriculum where students receive discipline-specific information by attending formal lectures, PBL is designed to elicit self-directed, student-centered learning such that each student determines (1) what he/she does not know (learning issues), (2) what he/she needs to learn, (3) how he/she will learn it, and (4) what resources he/she will use. One of the biggest challenges facing students in a PBL curriculum is efficient time management while pursuing learning issues. Bioinformatics resources, such as the PubMatrix literature-mining tool, allow access to tremendous amounts of information almost instantaneously. To accelerate student-centered learning it is necessary to include resources that enhance the rate at which students can process biomedical information. Unlike using the PubMed interface directly, the PubMatrix tool enables users to automate queries, allowing up to 1,000 distinct PubMed queries to be executed per single PubMatrix submission. Users may submit multiple PubMatrix queries per session, resulting in the ability to execute tens of thousands of PubMed queries in a single day. The intuitively organized results, which remain accessible from PubMatrix user accounts, enable students to rapidly assimilate and process hundreds of thousands of individual publication records as they relate to the student's specific learning issues and query terms. Subsequently, students can explore substantially more of the biomedical publication landscape per learning issue and spend a greater fraction of their time actively engaged in resolving their learning issues.

  14. Quantification of indoor and outdoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in pubs and cafés in Pamplona, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, M. A.; Elustondo, D.; Bermejo, R.; Santamaría, J. M.

    Indoor and outdoor concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured in 30 pubs and cafés (13 smoking, 13 non-smoking and 4 mixed atmospheres) in Pamplona city, Spain. The samples were obtained using a sampling pocket pump connected to stainless steel tubes filled with Tenax TA, and subsequently analysed by means of GC-MS coupled to a thermal desorption unit. The levels registered were found to be generally higher indoors. Smoking, cleaning products and the entrance of outdoor pollutants were identified as the main sources of these compounds, the later being especially relevant in non-smoking areas. BTEX concentrations were higher during the winter months and higher in smoking areas also.

  15. Bibliometric analysis of the Korean Journal of Parasitology: measured from SCI, PubMed, Scopus, and Synapse databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choon Shil

    2009-10-01

    The Korean Journal of Parasitology (KJP) is the official journal of the Korean Society for Parasitology which is celebrating its 50th anniversary in 2009. To assess the contributions and achievements of the KJP, bibliometric analysis was conducted based on the citation data retrieved from 4 major databases; SCI, PubMed, Synapse, and Scopus. It was found that the KJP articles were constantly cited by the articles published in major international journals represented in these databases. More than 60% of 1,370 articles published in the KJP from 1963 to June 2009 were cited at least once by SCI articles. The overall average times cited by SCI articles are 2.6. The rate is almost 3 times higher for the articles published in the last 10 years compared to 1.0 for the articles of the 1960s. The SCI journal impact factor for 2008 is calculated as 0.871. It is increasing and it is expected to increase further with the introduction of the KJP in the database in 2008. The more realistic h-indices were measured from the study data set covering all the citations to the KJP; 17 for SCI, 6 for PubMed, 19 for Synapse, and 17 for Scopus. Synapse extensively picked up the citations to the earlier papers not retrievable from the other 3 databases. It identified many papers published in the 1960s and in the 1980s which have been cited heavily, proving the central role of the KJP in the dissemination of the important research findings over the last 5 decades.

  16. PubMed search strategies for the identification of etiologic associations between hypothalamic-pituitary disorders and other medical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guaraldi, Federica; Grottoli, Silvia; Arvat, Emanuela; Mattioli, Stefano; Ghigo, Ezio; Gori, Davide

    2013-12-01

    Biomedical literature has enormously grown in the last decades and become broadly available through online databases. Ad-hoc search methods, created on the basis of research field and goals, are required to enhance the quality of searching. Aim of this study was to formulate efficient, evidence-based PubMed search strategies to retrieve articles assessing etiologic associations between a condition of interest and hypothalamic-pituitary disorders (HPD). Based on expert knowledge, 17 MeSH (Medical Subjects Headings) and 79 free terms related to HPD were identified to search PubMed. Using random samples of abstracts retrieved by each term, we estimated the proportion of articles containing pertinent information and formulated two strings (one more specific, one more sensitive) for the detection of articles focusing on the etiology of HPD, that were then applied to retrieve articles identifying possible etiologic associations between HPD and three diseases (malaria, LHON and celiac disease) considered not associated to HPD, and define the number of abstracts needed to read (NNR) to find one potentially pertinent article. We propose two strings: one sensitive string derived from the combination of articles providing the largest literature coverage in the field and one specific including combined terms retrieving ≥40% of potentially pertinent articles. NNR were 2.1 and 1.6 for malaria, 3.36 and 2.29 for celiac disease, 2.8 and 2.2 for LHON, respectively. For the first time, two reliable, readily applicable strings are proposed for the retrieval of medical literature assessing putative etiologic associations between HPD and other medical conditions of interest.

  17. MeSHy: Mining unanticipated PubMed information using frequencies of occurrences and concurrences of MeSH terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodosiou, T; Vizirianakis, I S; Angelis, L; Tsaftaris, A; Darzentas, N

    2011-12-01

    PubMed is the most widely used database of biomedical literature. To the detriment of the user though, the ranking of the documents retrieved for a query is not content-based, and important semantic information in the form of assigned Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms is not readily presented or productively utilized. The motivation behind this work was the discovery of unanticipated information through the appropriate ranking of MeSH term pairs and, indirectly, documents. Such information can be useful in guiding novel research and following promising trends. A web-based tool, called MeSHy, was developed implementing a mainly statistical algorithm. The algorithm takes into account the frequencies of occurrences, concurrences, and the semantic similarities of MeSH terms in retrieved PubMed documents to create MeSH term pairs. These are then scored and ranked, focusing on their unexpectedly frequent or infrequent occurrences. MeSHy presents results through an online interactive interface facilitating further manipulation through filtering and sorting. The results themselves include the MeSH term pairs, along with MeSH categories, the score, and document IDs, all of which are hyperlinked for convenience. To highlight the applicability of the tool, we report the findings of an expert in the pharmacology field on querying the molecularly-targeted drug imatinib and nutrition-related flavonoids. To the best of our knowledge, MeSHy is the first publicly available tool able to directly provide such a different perspective on the complex nature of published work. Implemented in Perl and served by Apache2 at http://bat.ina.certh.gr/tools/meshy/ with all major browsers supported. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. kola 2.pub

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    POLLUTION IMPACT OF CEMENT PRODUCTION ON AIR,. SOIL AND WATER IN ... tion to using the rivers for irrigation. Keywords: Cement ..... tics Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 11: 1030–1033 .... World Health Organization (1999). Public.

  19. Kwarteng Frimpong.pub

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    of the Asante Akyem South District Assembly (AASDA) in managing the implementation of its development plans. .... ity in mobilising, organising and managing resources at the ..... toring team also had no monitoring plan and timetable.

  20. osei boboie.1.pub

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    market in large quantities, with varied colour ranges to identify their suitability as effective col- ourants on ... This experiment was subdivided into three parts where various techniques for applying dyes were used. .... The prepared dye solution was poured into ... turbing their natural properties such as flexibil- ity, tensile ...